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Sample records for huon peninsula papua

  1. Convergent tectonics in the Huon Peninsula region, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, H. L.; Lock, J.; Tiffin, D. L.; Honza, E.; Okuda, Y.; Murakami, F.; Kisimoto, K.

    1987-09-01

    The anticlinal nappe which forms the Huon Peninsula and adjacent ranges extends offshore as the Huon Ridge. The frontal thrust of the nappe is the Ramu-Markham Fault (onshore) and a deformation front along the line of the Markham Canyon (offshore). The timing and geometry of the Finisterre arc-continent collision is controversial, and the origin of the Finsch Deep is unresolved.

  2. Comparative mtDNA analyses of three sympatric macropodids from a conservation area on the Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    McGreevy, Thomas J; Dabek, Lisa; Husband, Thomas P

    2016-07-01

    Matschie's tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus matschiei), New Guinea pademelon (Thylogale browni), and small dorcopsis (Dorcopsulus vanheurni) are sympatric macropodid taxa, of conservation concern, that inhabit the Yopno-Urawa-Som (YUS) Conservation Area on the Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea. We sequenced three partial mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes from the three taxa to (i) investigate network structure; and (ii) identify conservation units within the YUS Conservation Area. All three taxa displayed a similar pattern in the spatial distribution of their mtDNA haplotypes and the Urawa and Som rivers on the Huon may have acted as a barrier to maternal gene flow. Matschie's tree kangaroo and New Guinea pademelon within the YUS Conservation Area should be managed as single conservation units because mtDNA nucleotides were not fixed for a given geographic area. However, two distinct conservation units were identified for small dorcopsis from the two different mountain ranges within the YUS Conservation Area.

  3. Reconciliation of late Quaternary sea levels derived from coral terraces at Huon Peninsula with deep sea oxygen isotope records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chappell, John; Omura, Akio; Esat, Tezer; McCulloch, Malcolm; Pandolfi, John; Ota, Yoko; Pillans, Brad

    1996-06-01

    A major discrepancy between the Late Quaternary sea level changes derived from raised coral reef terraces at the Huon Peninsula in Papua New Guinea and from oxygen isotopes in deep sea cores is resolved. The two methods agree closely from 120 ka to 80 ka and from 20 ka to 0 ka (ka = 1000 yr before present), but between 70 and 30 ka the isotopic sea levels are 20-40 m lower than the Huon Peninsula sea levels derived in earlier studies. New, high precision U-series age measurements and revised stratigraphic data for Huon Peninsula terraces aged between 30 and 70 ka now give similar sea levels to those based on deep sea oxygen isotope data planktonic and benthic δ 18O data. Using the sea level and deep sea isotopic data, oxygen isotope ratios are calculated for the northern continental ice sheets through the last glacial cycle and are consistent with results from Greenland ice cores. The record of ice volume changes through the last glacial cycle now appears to be reasonably complete.

  4. Uranium uptake history, open-system behaviour and uranium-series ages of fossil Tridacna gigas from Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayling, Bridget F.; Eggins, Stephen; McCulloch, Malcolm T.; Chappell, John; Grün, Rainer; Mortimer, Graham

    2017-09-01

    Molluscs incorporate negligible uranium into their skeleton while they are living, with any uranium uptake occurring post-mortem. As such, closed-system U-series dating of molluscs is unlikely to provide reliable age constraints for marine deposits. Even the application of open-system U-series modelling is challenging, because uranium uptake and loss histories can affect time-integrated uranium distributions and are difficult to constrain. We investigate the chemical and isotopic distribution of uranium in fossil Tridacna gigas (giant clams) from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e (128-116 ka) and MIS 11 (424-374 ka) reefs at Huon Peninsula in Papua New Guinea. The large size of the clams enables detailed chemical and isotopic mapping of uranium using LA-ICPMS and LA-MC-ICPMS techniques. Within each fossil Tridacna specimen, marked differences in uranium concentrations are observed across the three Tridacna growth zones (outer, inner, hinge), with the outer and hinge zones being relatively enriched. In MIS 5e and MIS 11 Tridacna, the outer and hinge zones contain approximately 1 ppm and 5 ppm uranium respectively. In addition to uptake of uranium, loss of uranium appears prevalent, especially in the MIS 11 specimens. The effect of uranium loss is to elevate measured [230Th/238U] values with little effect on [234U/238U] values. Closed-system age estimates are on average 50% too young for the MIS 5e Tridacna, and 25% too young for the MIS 11 Tridacna. A complex, multi-stage uptake and loss history is interpreted for the fossil Tridacna and we demonstrate that they cannot provide independent, reliable geochronological controls on the timing of past reef growth at Huon Peninsula.

  5. High resolution windows into early Holocene climate: Sr/(Ca) coral records from the Huon Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCulloch, Malcolm; Mortimer, Graham; Esat, Tezer; Xianhua, Li; Pillans, Brad; Chappell, John

    1996-02-01

    High-precision measurements of Sr/Ca ratios are reported for Porites corals from the uplifted Holocene coral terraces at Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea. The early Holocene Porites have UTh mass spectrometric ages of 8920 ± 60 yr and 7370 ± 50 yr, and δ 234U(t) values of 145 ± 2, similar to modern seawater. The Sr/Ca coral records provide 5-6 year high resolution (near weekly) time windows into early Holocene sea surface temperatures. Seasonal temperature fluctuations are generally in the range of ± 1°C, with occasional excursions of ± 2°C, which may indicate the more frequent recurrence of very strong ENSO (El Niño-Southern Oscillation) events. Mean annual Sr/Ca temperatures of 24.2 ± 1.1°C and 22.9 ± 0.8°C have been obtained, which are ˜ 2-3°C cooler than that exhibited by a modern Porites. These results indicate that, during the early Holocene, the equatorial western Pacific ocean was at least several degrees cooler than present-day temperatures. This is consistent with late glacial coral records from the Caribbean that indicate lower (˜ 6°C) sea surface temperatures for the equatorial oceans. The Huon Peninsula corals also indicate that SSTs were several degrees cooler than those in the Caribbean during the early Holocene. Thus, although the northern hemisphere summer radiation maximum occurred at ˜ 10 ka, there appears to have been a significant lag in the response of the equatorial western Pacific ocean to this warming. Cooler early Holocene sea surface temperatures in the western Pacific may have been due to changing patterns of ocean-atmosphere circulation, resulting from the exposure of large areas of continental shelf in the southeast Asia region, a consequence of lower glacial sea levels. It is likely that ocean temperatures in the Huon Peninsula were influenced by the opening at ˜ 7 ka of the Torres Strait, that now separates New Guinea from the Australian mainland.

  6. Active arc-continent collision: Earthquakes, gravity anomalies, and fault kinematics in the Huon-Finisterre collision zone, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abers, Geoffrey A.; McCaffrey, Robert

    1994-04-01

    The Huon-Finisterre island arc terrane is actively colliding with the north edge of the Australian continent. The collision provides a rare opportunity to study continental accretion while it occurs. We examine the geometry and kinematics of the collision by comparing earthquake source parameters to surface fault geometries and plate motions, and we constrain the forces active in the collision by comparing topographic loads to gravity anomalies. Waveform inversion is used to constrain focal mechanisms for 21 shallow earthquakes that occurred between 1966 and 1992 (seismic moment 1017 to 3 × 1020 N m). Twelve earthquakes show thrust faulting at 22-37 km depth. The largest thrust events are on the north side of the Huon Peninsula and are consistent with slip on the Ramu-Markham thrust fault zone, the northeast dipping thrust fault system that bounds the Huon-Finisterre terrane. Thus much of the terrane's crust but little of its mantle is presently being added to the Australian continent. The large thrust earthquakes also reveal a plausible mechanism for the uplift of Pleistocene coral terraces on the north side of the Huon Peninsula. Bouguer gravity anomalies are too negative to allow simple regional compensation of topography and require large additional downward forces to depress the lower plate beneath the Huon Peninsula. With such forces, plate configurations are found that are consistent with observed gravity and basin geometry. Other earthquakes give evidence of deformation above and below the Ramu-Markham thrust system. Four thrust events, 22-27 km depth directly below the Ramu-Markham fault outcrop, are too deep to be part of a planar Ramu-Markham thrust system and may connect to the north dipping Highlands thrust system farther south. Two large strike-slip faulting earthquakes and their aftershocks, in 1970 and 1987, show faulting within the upper plate of the thrust system. The inferred fault planes show slip vectors parallel to those on nearby thrust

  7. Drowned carbonate platforms in the Huon Gulf, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Jody M.; Wallace, Laura; Silver, Eli; Applegate, Bruce; Potts, Donald; Braga, Juan Carlos; Riker-Coleman, Kristin; Gallup, Christina

    2004-11-01

    The western Huon Gulf, Papua New Guinea, is an actively subsiding foreland basin dominated by drowned carbonate platforms. We investigated these platforms using new high-resolution multibeam, side-scan sonar and seismic data, combined with submersible observations and previously published radiometric and sedimentary facies data. The data reveal 14 distinct drowned carbonate platforms and numerous pinnacles/banks that increase in age (˜20-450 kyr) and depth (0.1-2.5 km) NE toward the Ramu-Markham Trench. Superimposed on this overall downward flexing of the platforms toward the trench is a systematic tilting of the deep platforms 15 m/km toward the NW and the shallow platforms 2 m/km toward the SE. This may reflect the encroaching thrust load from the NW (Finisterre Range) and spatial variations in the flexural rigidity of the underlying basement. The drowned platforms form a complex system of promontories and reentrants, with abundant pinnacles and banks preserved at similar depths seaward of the main platforms. This configuration closely mimics the present-day Huon coastline and its seaward islands fringed by modern coral reefs. The platforms retain structural, morphologic, and sedimentary facies evidence of primary platform growth, drowning, and subsequent backstepping, despite some lateral erosion of the platform margins (<100 m slope defacement) by mass wasting. Both platforms and pinnacles are composite features containing multiple terrace levels and notches, corresponding to multiple phases of growth, emergence, and drowning in response to rapid climatic and sea level changes during the evolution of each structure. On the basis of all observational and numerical modeling data, we propose a chronology for the initiation, growth, and drowning of the 14 platforms. Over shorter timescales (≤100 kyr) the rate and amplitude of eustatic sea level changes are critical in controlling initiation, growth, drowning or subaerial exposure, subsequent reinitiation, and

  8. Shallow seismicity of arc-continent collision near Lae, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulig, Christopher; McCaffrey, Robert; Abers, Geoffrey A.; Letz, Horst

    1993-11-01

    In northeastern New Guinea, the narrow Ramu-Markham Valley (RMV) separates island arc rocks to the north from those of continental origin to the south and appears to be the western, onland extension of the New Britain trench. To explore the tectonic processes at the leading edge of the island arc during collision, we operated a portable seismic network for six weeks near the city of Lae at the eastern end of the RMV. We observed a narrow, near-vertical belt of seismicity between 10 and 30 km depth, that we call the Lae Seismic Zone (LSZ), starting at the RMV in the southwest and trending northeasterly cutting across surface geologic structure. The truncation of the LSZ along a steep plane by the Ramu-Markham Fault Zone (RMFZ) and earthquake first motions suggest that the earthquakes occur in the hanging wall of a steep, N-dipping fault that crops out at the RMFZ. We also consider that the LSZ is within the lower plate of a gently dipping thrust. Below 20 km depth the microearthquake zone is truncated by a gently, NE-dipping plane coinciding in depth and dip with nodal planes of recent large ( mb = 5.6 and 6.0) thrust earthquakes. We suggest that the Huon Peninsula is being emplaced onto the Australian plate along a gently (~ 25°) dipping thrust fault that is 20 km deep beneath Lae. The RMFZ may be a steeply dipping thrust fault that connects with this gently, N-dipping thrust but accommodates little convergence at present. The LSZ trends nearly perpendicular to an anticlinal range which appears to be sheared in a left-lateral sense. P-wave first motions for earthquakes in the LSZ with steep (70° to 90° dip) nodal planes that strike parallel to the LSZ suggest a component of south-side-up displacement also. Hence, the crustal block south of the LSZ may be rising relative to the Huon Peninsula and the rapid Quaternary uplift rates estimated for the Lae coastal region may be higher than the uplift rate of the Huon Peninsula as a whole. We suggest that the LSZ

  9. Estimation of current plate motions in Papua New Guinea from Global Positioning System observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tregoning, Paul; Lambeck, Kurt; Stolz, Art; Morgan, Peter; McClusky, Simon C.; van der Beek, Peter; McQueen, Herbert; Jackson, Russell J.; Little, Rodney P.; Laing, Alex; Murphy, Brian

    1998-06-01

    Plate tectonic motions have been estimated in Papua New Guinea from a 20 station network of Global Positioning System sites that has been observed over five campaigns from 1990 to 1996. The present velocities of the sites are consistent with geological models in which the South Bismarck, Woodlark, and Solomon Sea Plates form the principal tectonic elements between the Pacific and Australian Plates in this region. Active spreading is observed on the Woodlark Basin Spreading Centre but at a rate that is about half the rate determined from magnetic reversals. The other major motions observed are subduction on the New Britain Trench, seafloor spreading across the Bismarck Sea Seismic Lineation, convergence across the Ramu-Markham Fault and left-lateral strike slip across the Papuan Peninsula. These motions are consistent with a 8.2° Myr-1 clockwise rotation of the South Bismarck Plate about a pole in the Huon Gulf and a rotation of the Woodlark Plate away from the Australian Plate. Second order deformation may also be occurring; in particular, Manus Island and northern New Ireland may be moving northward relative to the Pacific Plate at ˜5-8 mm yr-1 (significant at the 95% but not at the 99% confidence level) which may suggest the existence of a North Bismarck Plate.

  10. TIMS U-series dating and stable isotopes of the last interglacial event in Papua New Guinea

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Stein, M.; Wasserburg, G.J.; Chen, J.H.

    1993-06-01

    The extensive flight of uplifted reef terraces which occurs along the Vitiaz strait on the northern flank of the Huon Peninsula in PNG (Papua New Guinea) contains a particularly good record of sea level changes in the last 250 ky. The Huon terraces were the target of an international expedition which took place in July--August 1988. In particular, the authors searched for suitable samples for U-series dating in a reef complex designated as VII, which is correlated with the last interglacial episode and high sea level stand. This complex is composed of a barrier reef (VIIb), a lagoon, and amore » fringing reef (VIIa). Twelve corals from these terraces and two corals from the older reef complex VIII were selected for analysis. The petrography, oxygen and carbon isotope compositions, and magnesium and strontium concentrations were determined along with the concentrations and isotopic compositions of uranium and thorium. The simplest model for sea level height for terrace VII is a continuous rise between 134 and 118 ky. Alternatively, there may have been two periods of rapid sea level rise. In contrast, in the Bahamas, there is evidence that sea level remained rather constant over the time interval 132 to 120 ky. The absence of ages between 132 and 120 ky in PNG could be the result of changes in the local tectonic uplift rates during that time, or erosion that disrupted the continuous record. In any event, the authors find no basis for accepting a single brief time for the age of the last interglacial and applying this age as a precise chronometer for worldwide correlation, or as a test of climatic models. The older ages reported here precede the Milankovitch solar insolation peak at 128 ky, and the younger ages are [approximately]10 ky after this peak. If the present high-precision data are correct, then it will be necessary to reassess the validity of the Milankovitch theory of climatic changes. 76 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.« less

  11. Neogene Basin Evolution Along the Northern Flank of the Papuan Peninsula, Goodenough Bay, Eastern Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, B. K.; Gillis, R. J.; Mann, P.

    2009-12-01

    Although large-magnitude extension in the Woodlark Rift of eastern Papua New Guinea (PNG) and the D’Entrecasteaux Islands has been addressed through previous research on the late Cenozoic structure and cooling history of metamorphic domes, few studies have evaluated the exhumational record contained within adjacent sedimentary basins. Onshore exposures of Neogene basin fill in PNG along the northern flank of the Papuan peninsula (east of the Dayman metamorphic dome and west-southwest of the domes of the D’Entrecasteaux Islands) provide a record of basin evolution prior to and during growth of the active spreading center that defines the boundary between the Australian plate and Woodlark microplate. Along the northern margin of the Papuan peninsula, a collection of lithofacies associations consisting of sandstone and subordinate conglomerate and mudstone represent deposition in bottomset, foreset, and topset subenvironments in a series of marine Gilbert-type deltas. Internal angular unconformities within the basin-fill succession indicate slope instability likely related to syndepositional deformation. This deformation is attributed to principally down-to-the north motion along extensional and strike-slip structures bordering the northern margin of Papuan peninsula, notably the ESE-striking Goodenough fault zone. Small-scale folding is interpreted as the product of late Miocene to Quaternary fault-related folding in an extensional setting, although we cannot rule out possible contraction coeval with significant collision-related shortening on the southern flank of the Papuan peninsula within the south-directed Papuan fold-thrust belt. Differences in sandstone petrographic results for the northern margin of the Papuan peninsula and the smaller Vogel peninsula suggest a multiphase history of basin evolution, with early Neogene subsidence of uncertain origin and late Neogene subsidence linked to regional extension. The timing of basin evolution will be assessed

  12. Cherax snowden, a new species of crayfish (Crustacea, Decapoda, Parastacidae) from the Kepala Burung (Vogelkop) Peninsula in Irian Jaya (West Papua), Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Lukhaup, Christian; Panteleit, Jörn; Schrimpf, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species, Cherax snowden sp. n., from the Oinsok River Drainage, Sawiat District in the central part of the Kepala Burung (Vogelkop) Peninsula, West Papua, Indonesia, is described, figured and compared with the closest related species, Cherax holthuisi Lukhaup & Pekny, 2006. This species is collected and exported for ornamental purposes and its commercial name in the pet trade is “orange tip” or “green orange tip”. Both species may be easily distinguished morphologically or by using sequence divergence, which is substantial, for considering Cherax snowden sp. n. to be a new species. PMID:26448698

  13. A reversal of fortunes: climate change 'winners' and 'losers' in Antarctic Peninsula penguins.

    PubMed

    Clucas, Gemma V; Dunn, Michael J; Dyke, Gareth; Emslie, Steven D; Naveen, Ron; Polito, Michael J; Pybus, Oliver G; Rogers, Alex D; Hart, Tom

    2014-06-12

    Climate change is a major threat to global biodiversity. Antarctic ecosystems are no exception. Investigating past species responses to climatic events can distinguish natural from anthropogenic impacts. Climate change produces 'winners', species that benefit from these events and 'losers', species that decline or become extinct. Using molecular techniques, we assess the demographic history and population structure of Pygoscelis penguins in the Scotia Arc related to climate warming after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). All three pygoscelid penguins responded positively to post-LGM warming by expanding from glacial refugia, with those breeding at higher latitudes expanding most. Northern (Pygoscelis papua papua) and Southern (Pygoscelis papua ellsworthii) gentoo sub-species likely diverged during the LGM. Comparing historical responses with the literature on current trends, we see Southern gentoo penguins are responding to current warming as they did during post-LGM warming, expanding their range southwards. Conversely, Adélie and chinstrap penguins are experiencing a 'reversal of fortunes' as they are now declining in the Antarctic Peninsula, the opposite of their response to post-LGM warming. This suggests current climate warming has decoupled historic population responses in the Antarctic Peninsula, favoring generalist gentoo penguins as climate change 'winners', while Adélie and chinstrap penguins have become climate change 'losers'.

  14. Have historical climate changes affected Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) populations in Antarctica?

    PubMed

    Peña M, Fabiola; Poulin, Elie; Dantas, Gisele P M; González-Acuña, Daniel; Petry, Maria Virginia; Vianna, Juliana A

    2014-01-01

    The West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) has been suffering an increase in its atmospheric temperature during the last 50 years, mainly associated with global warming. This increment of temperature trend associated with changes in sea-ice dynamics has an impact on organisms, affecting their phenology, physiology and distribution range. For instance, rapid demographic changes in Pygoscelis penguins have been reported over the last 50 years in WAP, resulting in population expansion of sub-Antarctic Gentoo penguin (P. papua) and retreat of Antarctic Adelie penguin (P. adeliae). Current global warming has been mainly associated with human activities; however these climate trends are framed in a historical context of climate changes, particularly during the Pleistocene, characterized by an alternation between glacial and interglacial periods. During the last maximal glacial (LGM∼21,000 BP) the ice sheet cover reached its maximum extension on the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP), causing local extinction of Antarctic taxa, migration to lower latitudes and/or survival in glacial refugia. We studied the HRVI of mtDNA and the nuclear intron βfibint7 of 150 individuals of the WAP to understand the demographic history and population structure of P. papua. We found high genetic diversity, reduced population genetic structure and a signature of population expansion estimated around 13,000 BP, much before the first paleocolony fossil records (∼1,100 BP). Our results suggest that the species may have survived in peri-Antarctic refugia such as South Georgia and North Sandwich islands and recolonized the Antarctic Peninsula and South Shetland Islands after the ice sheet retreat.

  15. Northern Papua New Guinea: Structure and sedimentation in a modern arc-continent collision

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Abbott, L.; Silver, E.

    Northern Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Sea are the site of a modern oblique, arc-continent collision, which is progressing from northwest to southeast. By combining offshore seismic data from the Solomon Sea with geologic mapping in the Markham Valley area of northern Papua New Guinea the authors are predicting the outcome of this collision. The Huon Gulf is the present site of initial collision. Seismic profiles show this area is dominated by thin thrust sheets. Onshore, the bulk of the uplifted accretionary wedge is a melange with exotic blocks of a variety of lithologies. Structurally below the melange liesmore » the Leron Formation composed of thick channelized sandstone and conglomerate. It dips north at approximately 40{degree} and is cut by several thrust fault with associated folds. Limestone blocks within the melange are reported to be 2 Ma, and Beryllium 10 anomalies from Bismarck arc volcanoes suggest that initial collision of the Finisterre block (375 km northwest of the present collision point) began no earlier than 3 Ma. This implies the collision is propagating laterally at about 125 km/m.y.. Large outcrops of basalt and gabbro within the melange suggest that segments of oceanic crust were incorporated into the accretionary wedge. Modern sedimentation within the collision zone grades from fluvial sediments in the Markham Valley to deep-water turbidites ponded behind a structural ridge near the point of incipient collision. The Markham submarine canyon occupies the collision front here, and efficiently erodes the accretionary wedge. This setting may serve as a modem analog for deposition of much of the Leron Formation which exhibits tremendous sediment reworking.« less

  16. A reversal of fortunes: climate change ‘winners’ and ‘losers’ in Antarctic Peninsula penguins

    PubMed Central

    Clucas, Gemma V.; Dunn, Michael J.; Dyke, Gareth; Emslie, Steven D.; Levy, Hila; Naveen, Ron; Polito, Michael J.; Pybus, Oliver G.; Rogers, Alex D.; Hart, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is a major threat to global biodiversity. Antarctic ecosystems are no exception. Investigating past species responses to climatic events can distinguish natural from anthropogenic impacts. Climate change produces ‘winners’, species that benefit from these events and ‘losers’, species that decline or become extinct. Using molecular techniques, we assess the demographic history and population structure of Pygoscelis penguins in the Scotia Arc related to climate warming after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). All three pygoscelid penguins responded positively to post-LGM warming by expanding from glacial refugia, with those breeding at higher latitudes expanding most. Northern (Pygoscelis papua papua) and Southern (Pygoscelis papua ellsworthii) gentoo sub-species likely diverged during the LGM. Comparing historical responses with the literature on current trends, we see Southern gentoo penguins are responding to current warming as they did during post-LGM warming, expanding their range southwards. Conversely, Adélie and chinstrap penguins are experiencing a ‘reversal of fortunes’ as they are now declining in the Antarctic Peninsula, the opposite of their response to post-LGM warming. This suggests current climate warming has decoupled historic population responses in the Antarctic Peninsula, favoring generalist gentoo penguins as climate change ‘winners’, while Adélie and chinstrap penguins have become climate change ‘losers’. PMID:24865774

  17. Heinrich events and sea level changes: records from uplifted coral terraces and marginal seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Y.; Esat, T. M.; Suga, H.; Obrochta, S.; Ohkouchi, N.

    2017-12-01

    Repeated major ice discharge events spaced every ca.7,000 years during the last ice age was first detected in deep sea sediments from North Atlantic. Characterized as lithic layers, these Heinrich Events (Heinrich, 1988 QR) correspond to rapid climate changes attributed to weakened ocean circulation (eg., Broecker, 1994 Nature; Alley, 1998 Nature) as shown by a number of different proxies. A better understanding of the overall picture of Heinrich events would benefit from determining the total amount of ice involved each event, which is still under debate. Sea level records are the most direct means for that, and uranium series dated corals can constrain the timing precisely. However, averaged global sea level during the time of interest was around -70m, hindering study from tectonically stable regions. Using uplifted coral terraces that extend 80 km along the Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea, the magnitude of sea level change during Heinrich Events was successfully reconstructed (Yokoyama et al., 2001 EPSL; Chappell et al., 1996 EPSL; Cutler et al., 2003). The H3 and H5 events are also well correlated with continuous sea level reconstructions using Red Sea oxygen isotope records (Siddall et al., 2003 Nature; Yokoyama and Esat, 2011Oceanography). Global ice sheet growth after 30 ka complicates interpretation of the Huon Peninsula record. However oxygen isotope data from the Japan Sea, a restricted margin sea with a shallow sill depth similar to the Red Sea, clearly captures the episode of H2 sea level change. The timing of these sea level excursions correlate well to the DSDP Site 609 detrital layers that are anchored in the latest Greenland ice core chronology (Obrochta et al., 2012 QSR). In the presentation, Antarctic ice sheet behavior during the H2 event will also be discussed using marginal seas oxygen records.

  18. Distance Education in Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avalos, Beatrice, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    The theme of this special double serial issue is "Distance Education in Papua New Guinea." The following articles are featured: (1) "Distance Education in Papua New Guinea" (John Lynch); (2) "Distance Education in Papua New Guinea: Context, Issues and Prospects" (Michael Crossley and Richard Guy); (3) "Distance…

  19. Using Folktales to Strengthen Literacy in Papua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yektiningtyas-Modouw, Wigati; Karna, Sri R. W.

    2013-01-01

    Rural and remote Papua and West Papua are among the most important regions for Indonesia to achieve the second MDG on primary education with equity. Both provinces have gross, net enrolment and literacy rates which barely touch the national averages. Given the distinct political, socio-cultural, and geographical aspects of Papua and West Papua…

  20. Neotectonic Geomorphology of the Owen Stanley Oblique-slip Fault System, Eastern Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, L.; Mann, P.; Taylor, F.

    2003-12-01

    Previous GPS studies have shown that the Australia-Woodlark plate boundary bisects the Papuan Peninsula of Papua New Guinea and that interplate motion along the boundary varies from about 19 mm/yr of orthogonal opening in the area of the western Woodlark spreading center and D'Entrecasteaux Islands, to about 12 mm/yr of highly oblique opening in the central part of the peninsula, to about 10 mm/yr of transpressional motion on the western part of the peninsula. We have compiled a GIS database for the peninsula that includes a digital elevation model, geologic map, LANDSAT and radar imagery, and earthquake focal mechanisms. This combined data set demonstrates the regional importance of the 600-km-long Owen Stanley fault system (OSFS) in accommodating interplate motion and controlling the geomorphology and geologic exposures of the peninsula. The OSFS originated as a NE-dipping, reactivated Oligocene-Early Miocene age ophiolitic suture zone between an Australian continental margin and the Melanesian arc system. Pliocene to recent motion on the plate boundary has reactivated motion on the former NE-dipping thrust fault either as a NE-dipping normal fault in the eastern area or as a more vertical strike-slip fault in the western area. The broadly arcuate shape of the OSFS is probably an inherited feature from the original thrust fault. Faults in the eastern area (east of 148° E) exhibit characteristics expected for normal and oblique slip faults including: discontinuous fault traces bounding an upthrown highland block and a downthrown coastal plain or submarine block, transfer faults parallel to the opening direction, scarps facing to both the northeast and southwest, and spatial association with recent volcanism. Faults in the western area (west of 148° E) exibit characteristics expected for left-lateral strike-slip faults including: linear and continuous fault trace commonly confined to a deep, intermontane valley and sinistral offsets and deflections of rivers and

  1. Isolation of Campylobacter spp. from Three Species of Antarctic Penguins in Different Geographic Locations.

    PubMed

    García-Peña, F J; Llorente, M T; Serrano, T; Ruano, M J; Belliure, J; Benzal, J; Herrera-León, S; Vidal, V; D'Amico, V; Pérez-Boto, D; Barbosa, A

    2017-03-01

    The presence of Campylobacter species was studied in three Antarctic penguin species, Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae), chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica) and gentoo (Pygoscelis papua). A total of 390 penguins were captured in 12 different rookeries along the Antarctic Peninsula with differences in the amount of human visitation: six colonies were highly visited [Stranger Point, King George Island (P. papua and P. adeliae); Hannah Point, Livingston Island (P. papua and P. antarctica); Deception Island (P. antarctica); and Paradise Bay, Antarctic Peninsula (P. papua)], and six colonies were rarely visited [Devil's Point, Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island (P. papua); Cierva Cove, Antarctic Peninsula (P. papua); Rongé Island (P. papua and P. antarctica); Yalour Island (P. adeliae); and Avian Island (P. adeliae)]. A total of 23 strains were isolated from penguins from nine different rookeries. Campylobacter lari subsp. lari was isolated from eight samples (seven from P. papua and one from P. adeliae); C. lari subsp. concheus from 13 (ten from P. adeliae and three from P. antarctica) and C. volucris from two samples (both from P. papua). We did not find any significant differences in the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. between the populations in highly and rarely visited areas. This is the first report of C. lari subsp. concheus and C. volucris isolation from penguins in the Antarctic region.

  2. A large drop in atmospheric [sup 14]C/[sup 12]C and reduced melting in the younger dryas, documented with [sup 230]Th ages of corals

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Edwards, R.L.; Beck, J.W.; Burr, G.S.

    1993-05-14

    Paired carbon-14 ([sup 14]C) and thorium-230 ([sup 230]Th) ages were determined on fossil corals from the Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea. The ages were used to calibrate part of the [sup 14]C time scale and to estimate rates of sea-level rise during the last deglaciation. An abrupt offset between the [sup 14]C and [sup 230]Th ages suggests that the atmospheric [sup 14]C/[sup 12]C ratio dropped by 15 percent during the latter part of and after the Younger Dryas (YD). This prominent drop coincides with greatly reduced rates of sea-level rise. Reduction of melting because of cooler conditions during the YDmore » may have caused an increase in the rate of ocean ventilation, which caused the atmospheric [sup 14]C/[sup 12]C ratio to fall. The record of sea-level rise also shows that globally averaged rates of melting were relatively high at the beginning of the YD. Thus, these measurements satisfy one of the conditions required by the hypothesis that the diversion of meltwater from the Mississippi to the St. Lawrence River triggered the YD event. 41 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.« less

  3. Byers Peninsula: A reference site for coastal, terrestrial and limnetic ecosystem studies in maritime Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quesada, A.; Camacho, A.; Rochera, C.; Velázquez, D.

    2009-11-01

    This article describes the development of an international and multidisciplinary project funded by the Spanish Polar Programme on Byers Peninsula (Livingston Island, South Shetlands). The project adopted Byers Peninsula as an international reference site for coastal and terrestrial (including inland waters) research within the framework of the International Polar Year initiative. Over 30 scientists from 12 countries and 26 institutions participated in the field work, and many others participated in the processing of the samples. The main themes investigated were: Holocene changes in climate, using both lacustrine sediment cores and palaeo-nests of penguins; limnology of the lakes, ponds, rivers and wetlands; microbiology of microbial mats, ecology of microbial food webs and viral effects on aquatic ecosystems; ornithology, with investigations on a Gentoo penguin rookery ( Pygoscelis papua) as well as the flying ornithofauna; biocomplexity and life cycles of species from different taxonomic groups; analysis of a complete watershed unit from a landscape perspective; and human impacts, specifically the effect of trampling on soil characteristics and biota. Byers Peninsula offers many features as an international reference site given it is one of the largest ice-free areas in the Antarctic Peninsula region, it has a variety of different landscape units, and it hosts diverse aquatic ecosystems. Moreover, the Byers Peninsula is a hotspot for Antarctic biodiversity, and because of its high level of environmental protection, it has been very little affected by human activities. Finally, the proximity to the Spanish polar installations on Livingston Island and the experience derived from previous expeditions to the site make it logistically feasible as a site for ongoing monitoring and research.

  4. Age accuracy and resolution of Quaternary corals used as proxies for sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edinger, E. N.; Burr, G. S.; Pandolfi, J. M.; Ortiz, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    The accuracy of global eustatic sea level curves measured from raised Quaternary reefs, using radiometric ages of corals at known heights, may be limited by time-averaging, which affects the variation in coral age at a given height. Time-averaging was assessed in uplifted Holocene reef sequences from the Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea, using radiocarbon dating of coral skeletons in both horizontal transects and vertical sequences. Calibrated 2σ age ranges varied from 800 to 1060 years along horizontal transects, but weighted mean ages calculated from 15-18 dates per horizon were accurate to a resolution within 154-214 yr. Approximately 40% of the variability in age estimate resulted from internal variability inherent to 14C estimates, and 60% was due to time-averaging. The accuracy of age estimates of sea level change in studies using single dated corals as proxies for sea level is probably within 1000 yr of actual age, but can be resolved to ≤ 250 yr if supported by dates from analysis of a statistical population of corals at each stratigraphic interval. The range of time-averaging among reef corals was much less than that for shelly benthos. Ecological time-averaging dominated over sedimentological time averaging for reef corals, opposite to patterns reported from shelly benthos in siliciclastic environments.

  5. Population structure and phylogeography of the Gentoo Penguin (Pygoscelis papua) across the Scotia Arc.

    PubMed

    Levy, Hila; Clucas, Gemma V; Rogers, Alex D; Leaché, Adam D; Ciborowski, Kate L; Polito, Michael J; Lynch, Heather J; Dunn, Michael J; Hart, Tom

    2016-03-01

    Climate change, fisheries' pressure on penguin prey, and direct human disturbance of wildlife have all been implicated in causing large shifts in the abundance and distribution of penguins in the Southern Ocean. Without mark-recapture studies, understanding how colonies form and, by extension, how ranges shift is challenging. Genetic studies, particularly focused on newly established colonies, provide a snapshot of colonization and can reveal the extent to which shifts in abundance and occupancy result from changes in demographic rates (e.g., reproduction and survival) or migration among suitable patches of habitat. Here, we describe the population structure of a colonial seabird breeding across a large latitudinal range in the Southern Ocean. Using multilocus microsatellite genotype data from 510 Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) individuals from 14 colonies along the Scotia Arc and Antarctic Peninsula, together with mitochondrial DNA data, we find strong genetic differentiation between colonies north and south of the Polar Front, that coincides geographically with the taxonomic boundary separating the subspecies P. p. papua and P. p. ellsworthii. Using a discrete Bayesian phylogeographic approach, we show that southern Gentoos expanded from a possible glacial refuge in the center of their current range, colonizing regions to the north and south through rare, long-distance dispersal. Our findings show that this dispersal is important for new colony foundation and range expansion in a seabird species that ordinarily exhibits high levels of natal philopatry, though persistent oceanographic features serve as barriers to movement.

  6. Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    1989-07-01

    The eastern half of the island of New Guinea (85% of total area); the Bismarck, Trobriand, Louisiade, and D'Entrecasteaux Archipelagos; and Bougainville, Buka, and Woodlark islands constitute the predominantly mountainous country of Papua New Guinea. It is located 160 km northeast of Australia in the South Pacific Ocean. This tropical country has 2 monsoon seasons with average annual rainfall ranging from 200-250 cm. It has 1 of the most heterogenous populations in the world with as many as several 1000 separate communities. Only 650 languages have yet been identified with 160 of them totally unrelated to each other or to any other language. At different times in its history, the country (or parts thereof) has been under the control of Germany, Australia (its largest bilateral aid donor), Japan, and Britain. After independence in 1975, Papua New Guinea established a veritable and strong parliamentary democracy. This democracy has an excellent human rights record and has a clear respect for these rights. 75% of the population live predominately at subsistence level. Gross domestic product (GDP) increased about 2%/year during the 1980s with agriculture making up 35% of GDP (40% of exports) and mining (copper and gold) 15%. In 1989, exports included 40% of GDP. Other than mining, the industrial sector made up 9% of GDP with little contributing to exports. Food processing was the fastest growing segment of the industrial segment. 45% of agricultural production consisted of subsistence cultivation. Coffee and cocoa were the 2 leading cash crops. Financially, the country was sound in 1989 with exports and imports almost equal from 1986. The United States relationship with Papua New Guinea is friendly and the 2 countries have a good trade relationship.

  7. Disrupting Assumptions about Vernacular Education in Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honan, Eileen

    2003-01-01

    Outlines the author's experience at the Papua New Guinea Education Institute delivering in-service professional development programs to teachers who were implementing the country's new curriculum. Explains the notion of the "bridging years," when children in Papua New Guinea develop skills and knowledge in two cultures and two languages.…

  8. An annotated checklist of the chondrichthyans of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    White, William T; Ko'ou, Alfred

    2018-04-19

    An annotated checklist of the chondrichthyan fishes (sharks, rays, and chimaeras) of Papua New Guinean waters is herein presented. The checklist is the result of a large biodiversity study on the chondrichthyan fauna of Papua New Guinea between 2013 and 2017. The chondrichthyan fauna of Papua New Guinea has historically been very poorly known due to a lack of baseline information and limited deepwater exploration. A total of 131 species, comprising 36 families and 68 genera, were recorded. The most speciose families are the Carcharhinidae with 29 species and the Dasyatidae with 23 species. Verified voucher material from various biological collections around the world are provided, with a total of 687 lots recorded comprising 574 whole specimens, 128 sets of jaws and 21 sawfish rostra. This represents the first detailed, verified checklist of chondrichthyans from Papua New Guinean waters.

  9. Mother Tongue-Based Bilingual Education in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Susan; Paraide, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Papua New Guinea (PNG), an independent state in the southwest Pacific, is the most linguistically diverse country in the world. Its roughly six million people speak over 800 distinct languages. In spite of this diversity, in 1995 the Papua New Guinean government established a mother tongue-based bilingual education programme in which community…

  10. Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    1986-10-01

    The situation of the island archipelago nation of Papua New Guinea is reviewed in terms of its geography, people, history, government, politics economy and foreign relations. Papua New Guinea consists of the eastern half of the main island of New Guinea (the western portion is Indonesia), and several island groups, all located northeast of Australia. The island has extreme geographical variations, ranging from precipitous mountains to extensive swamps and river valleys, all in a monsoon cimate. As a result, there are hundreds of small groups each with unique cultures and languages; over 650 languages, many unrelated to each other. The population is estimated at 3.5 million, growing at about 2.5% per year. Historically, the region has been occupied by Germany, Britain, Japan, and the U.S. The country came under the international trusteeship system in 1949, and now has a vigorous parliamentary government. The economy is based on subsistence agriculture, but is buttressed by resources such as gold, copper, and other metals, oil, timber, tropical agricultural products, fish. The only indusry is local production, since the minimum wage is too high to compete with Asian labor.

  11. The smokescreen of culture: AIDS and the indigenous in Papua, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Butt, Leslie; Numbery, Gerdha; Morin, Jake

    2002-09-01

    In health transition studies on AIDS, government activities typically have been accorded less importance than local cultural practices. Certain social and cultural values, theorists argue, prevent potentially at-risk individuals from taking effective precautions to prevent HIV infection during sexual intercourse. This paper shows how a focus on culture is inadequate to understanding the issue of risk when the AIDS epidemic occurs in a colonial context. A study conducted in 2001 in Papua (West Papua), eastern Indonesia, shows that ongoing colonial relationships between indigenous Papuans and in-migrant Indonesians create inequities in AIDS awareness. Rates of HIV infection in Papua are high, but indigenous Papuans have a low level of awareness. Drawing on a survey of condom use and the sex work industry, this paper shows that government values, and economic conditions, need to be scrutinized as closely as culture in order to provide effective AIDS prevention in Papua.

  12. Petroleum scene heating in fledgling crude exporter Papua New Guinea

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Not Available

    1994-04-18

    Operators, paced by a feisty independent based in Port Moresby, have drilled a string of discoveries near the infrastructure of the Kutubu development project that supports Papua New Guinea crude exports. All signs point to the increasing likelihood of good sized -- maybe world class -- oil discoveries that promise to sustain exploration and development interest beyond 2000. Also in the offing are world class gas strikes that eventually could support a liquefied natural gas export project. And integration is the newest concept in Papua New Guinea petroleum. Efforts are under way to build the country's first refineries. Most operatorsmore » in Papua New Guinea believe thy have merely scratched the surface of the country's oil and gas potential. Thy agree there still will be frustrations and setbacks -- political as well as technical -- but the prevailing opinion is that these problems are no greater than they are in a number of other countries with similar exploration/development potential. The paper discusses the development of Papua New Guinea's oil and gas industry, and exploratory drilling in areas other than Kutubu.« less

  13. Present-day Kinematics of Papua New Guinea from GPS campaign measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koulali Idrissi, A.; McClusky, S.; Tregoning, P.

    2013-12-01

    Papua New Guinea (PNG) is a complex tectonic region located in the convergence zone between the Australian and Pacific Plate. It occupies arguably one of the most tectonically complicated regions of the world, and its geodynamic evolution involves micro-plate rotation, lithospheric rupture forming ocean basins, arc-continent collision, subduction polarity reversal, collisional orogenesis, ophiolite obduction, and exhumation of high-pressure metamorphic (ultramafic) rocks. In this study we present a GPS derived velocity field based on 1993-2008 survey mode observations at 30 GPS sites. We combine our results with previously published GPS velocities to investigate the deformation in northern and northwestern Papua New Guinea. We use an elastic block model to invert the regional GPS velocities as well as earthquake slip vectors for poles of rotation of several micro-plates. The micro-plate block boundary fault geometry is based on geological mapping and regional seismicity. The results show that fault system north of the Highlands fold and thrust belt is the major boundary between the rigid Australian Plate and the north Highlands block, with convergence occurring at rates of between ~ 6 and 11.5 mm/yr. The relative motion across the northern Highlands block increases to the north to ~ 21-24 mm/yr, meaning that the New Guinea trench is likely accumulating elastic strain and confirming that the new Guinea Trench is an active inter-plate boundary. Our results also show, that the north New Guinea Highlands and the Papuan peninsula are best modelled as two blocks separated by a boundary through the Aure Fold belt Belt complex. This block boundary today is accommodating an estimated 4-5 mm/yr dextral motion. Our model also confirms previous results showing that the Ramu-Markham fault accommodates the deformation associated with the Finisterre arc-continent collision. This new GPS velocity field provides fresh insights into the details of the kinematics of the PNG present

  14. Education, employment and practice: Midwifery graduates in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Moores, Alison; Puawe, Paula; Buasi, Nancy; West, Florence; Samor, Mary K; Joseph, Nina; Rumsey, Michele; Dawson, Angela; Homer, Caroline S E

    2016-10-01

    Papua New Guinea has a very high maternal mortality rate (773/100,000), low rates of supervised births and a critical shortage of skilled midwives. A midwifery education initiative commenced in 2012, funded by the Australian Government and led by the National Department of Health. One specific objective of the initiative was to improve the standard of clinical teaching and practice in four schools of midwifery. There were 394 midwives educated over the 4 year period (2012-2015) representing half of all midwives in Papua New Guinea. A study was undertaken to describe the educational programme, employment, practices and experiences of graduates who studied midwifery in 2012 and 2013 as part of the initiative. the aim of this paper is to explore the education, employment and practice of newly graduated midwives in Papua New Guinea. a mixed methods descriptive study design was used. Surveys and focus groups were used to gather data. Ethical approval was granted by the relevant Human Research Ethics Committees. all midwifery graduates in 2012 and 2013 from the four midwifery schools in Papua New Guinea were included in the study and almost 80% were contacted. nearly 90% of graduates were working as midwives, with an additional 3% working as midwifery or nursing educators. This study discovered that graduates exhibited increased skills acquisition and confidence, leadership in maternal and newborn care services and a marked improvement in the provision of respectful care to women. The graduates faced challenges to implement evidence based care with barriers including the lack of appropriate resources and differences of opinion with senior staff. factors affecting the quality of midwifery education will need to be addressed if Papua New Guinea is to continue to improve the status of maternal and newborn health. Specifically, the length of the midwifery education, the quality of clinical practice and the exposure to rural and remote area practice need addressing in many

  15. The phylogenetic position of a new species of Plakobranchus from West Papua, Indonesia (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia, Sacoglossa)

    PubMed Central

    Meyers-Muñoz, María Angélica; van der Velde, Gerard; van der Meij, Sancia E.T.; Stoffels, Bart E.M.W.; van Alen, Theo; Tuti, Yosephine; Hoeksema, Bert W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Plakobranchus papua Meyers-Muñoz & van der Velde, sp. n. from West Papua (Papua Barat province, Indonesia), is described based on its external morphology, colour pattern, internal anatomy, radula and reproductive system. In a molecular phylogenetic study specimens of this new species were compared with those of ten candidate taxa under the name Plakobranchus ocellatus van Hasselt, 1824. DNA analyses of COI mtDNA showed a clear distinction between Plakobranchus papua sp. n. and “Plakobranchus ocellatus”. Plakobranchus papua, sp. n. also differed from all taxa that have been synonymised with Plakobranchus ocellatus. The genus is in dire need of taxonomic revision, preferably based on an integrative analysis involving morphology and DNA of all known Plakobranchus varieties. PMID:27408559

  16. The Yucatan Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This MODIS true-color image of the Yucatan Peninsula was acquired from data captured on October 6, 2001. The Peninsula is comprised of several Mexican states, including Yucatan in the north, Quintana Roo to the east, and Campeche to the west. Mexico also shares the Yucatan Peninsula with the countries of Belize and Guatamala, located to the south of these states. Phytoplankton show up as blue-green swirls off the western coast of Yucatan, in the center of the image, mixed in with sediment and other organic matter. Off the eastern coast of the Peninsula, running north and south along the right side of he image, the region's barrier reef is visible. Second only to Australia's Great Barrier Reef in size, the reef spans 180 miles from the northern tip of the Peninsula south into the Gulf of Honduras, and houses over 35 different species of reef-building corals.

  17. Opportunistic infection of HIV/AIDS patients in West Papua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witaningrum, A. M.; Khairunisa, S. Q.; Yunifiar, M. Q.; Bramanthi, R.; Rachman, B. E.; Nasronudin

    2018-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) had a major impact on health problemin Indonesia. HIV type 1 (HIV-1) epidemic is currently infected with HIV viruses developing rapidly in Indonesia.Papua provinces have the highest prevalence rate of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in Indonesia; however, data on opportunistic infection of HIV-1 are limited. The study using medical records as a research sample was conducted among HIV patients from January 2013 - December 2014 in Sele be Solu hospital among 49 patients. Opportunistic infections commonly occur in HIV-infected patients. The aim of the study was to know theprevalence of opportunistic infection among HIV positive patients in West Papua. Forty-nine HIV-1 patients were collected in Sele be Solu Hospital, West Papua.Opportunistic infection was identified such as tuberculosis, tuberculosis Pulmo, tuberculosis and candidiasis, candidiasis and diarrhea. The clinical sign appeared in HIV infected patients such as itchy, cough and loss weight. The prevalence of opportunistic infection indicated the necessity of monitoring the opportunistic infection of HIV/AIDS patients in Indonesia.

  18. Seroepidemiologic survey of cysticercosis-taeniasis in four central highland districts of Papua, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Salim, Lidwina; Ang, Agnes; Handali, Sukwan; Tsang, Victor C W

    2009-03-01

    Cysticercosis and taeniasis are known to be present in Papua, Indonesia. Several small studies have found a high prevalence of cysticercosis (23.5-56.9%) in the central highlands of Papua. A seroepidemiologic survey was carried out in four districts (Jayawijaya, Paniai, Pegunungan Bintang, and Puncak Jaya) of Papua. Anti-cysticercosis and anti-taeniasis antibodies were measured in 2,931 people using recombinant T24 and recombinant ES33 as a measure of cysticercosis and taeniasis exposures, respectively. Prevalence of cysticercosis-taeniasis is high in the Jayawijaya and Paniai districts (20.8% and 29.2% for cysticercosis and 7% and 9.6% for taeniasis, respectively) and lowest in the other two districts (Pegunungan Bintang and Puncak Jaya) (2% and 2% for cysticercosis and 1.7% and 10.7% for taeniasis, respectively). Our data show that the prevalence of cysticercosis and taeniasis are unchanged from that reported nearly 35 years ago at the beginning of cysticercosis-taeniasis epidemics in Papua, Indonesia.

  19. Seismicity of the Indo-Australian/Solomon Sea Plate boundary in the Southeast Papua region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripper, I. D.

    1982-08-01

    Seismicity and earthquake focal mechanism plots of the Southeast Papua and Woodlark Basin region for the period January 1960 to May 1979 show that: (a) the West Woodlark Basin spreading centre extends from the deep West Woodlark Basin, through Dawson Strait into Goodenough Bay, Southeast Papua; (b) a southeast seismic trend in the West Woodlark Basin is associated with a left-lateral transform fault, but a gap exists between this zone and the seismic East Woodlark Basin spreading centre; (c) Southeast Papua Seismicity divides into a shallow earthquake zone in which the earthquakes occur mainly in the northeast side of the Owen Stanley Range, and an intermediate depth southwest dipping Benioff zone which extends almost from Mt. Lamington to Goroka. The Benioff zone indicates the presence of a southwest dipping slab of Solomon Sea Plate beneath the Indo-Australian Plate in the Southeast Papua and Ramu-Markham Valley region. This subduction zone has collided with the New Britain subduction zone of the Solomon Sea Plate along the Ramu-Markham Valley. The Solomon Sea Plate is now hanging suspended in the form of an arch beneath Ramu-Markham Valley, inhibiting further subduction beneath Southeast Papua.

  20. Linguistic and Cultural Variations as Barriers to the TEFL Settings in Papua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yembise, Yohana Susana

    2011-01-01

    The article aims at presenting a description of languages and cultures and the effect on the teaching of English as a Foreign Language in schools in Papua. It starts with a general picture of the uniqueness of languages and cultures in Papua: its geography, the originality of the people, and the languages and cultures of both NAN and AN. The word…

  1. Five new species and one new genus of recent miliolid foraminifera from Raja Ampat (West Papua, Indonesia)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Raja Ampat is an archipelago of about 1,500 small islands located northwest off the Bird’s Head Peninsula of Indonesia’s West Papua province. It is part of the Coral Triangle, a region recognized as the “epicenter” of tropical marine biodiversity. In the course of a large-scale survey on shallow benthic foraminifera we have discovered one new genus and five new species of recent miliolid benthic foraminifera from the highly diverse reefal and nearshore environments. The new fischerinid genus Dentoplanispirinella is characterized by its planispiral coiling and by the presence of a simple tooth, that differentiate it from Planispirinella Wiesner. It is represented in our sample material by the new species Dentoplanispirinella occulta. The other four species described herein are Miliolinella moia, Miliolinella undina, Triloculina kawea and Siphonaperta hallocki. All new species are comparatively rare and occur sporadically in the sample material. Detailed morphological descriptions, scanning electron microscopy pictures of complete and dissected specimens as well as micro-computed tomography images are provided. PMID:27366652

  2. Remuneration disparities in Oceania: Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Marai, Leo; Kewibu, Vincent; Kinkin, Elly; Peter Peniop, John; Salini, Christian; Kofana, Genesis

    2010-10-01

    This paper explores the impact of remuneration differences on workers in the Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea. In these countries remunerative differences are linked to government policy (in Papua New Guinea) and job contracts (in the Solomon Islands), and have impacted on industrial relations in both settings (strike action). A total of N = 350 professionals (n = 60 expatriates) from 54 organizations in aid, government, higher education and industry (mean response rate = 36%) responded to an organizational survey form. Remuneration ratios between international and local respondents based on the World Bank's index of purchasing power parity approached 9:1. In both sites staff compared pay and benefits (remuneration) packages: Internationally remunerated staff rated their ability higher than their local counterparts did; locally remunerated groups reported more injustice in remuneration, were more demotivated by the gaps, and were more likely to be thinking about leaving the organization. In-country workshops of N = 40 largely local stakeholders from aid and community organizations plus government ministries considered the survey's findings and recommended: in Solomon Islands, (a) introducing a policy of localization, (b) establishing a remuneration commission (already existent in Papua New Guinea), and (c) reducing the remunerative gap; in Papua New Guinea, (d) reversing the post-Independence "dual pay system" (currently official policy), (e) instituting pay-for-performance, and (f) ensuring the existent localization policy is applied to recruitment, selection, and staff career planning and management.

  3. Recent change in the extent of mangroves in the northern Gulf of Papua, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Shearman, Philip L

    2010-03-01

    Existing at the interface of land and sea, in regions of low topographic relief, mangroves are likely to be some of the first ecosystems that undergo spatial modification due to sea-level rise. The mangrove ecosystems of the Gulf of Papua New Guinea are some of the largest and most pristine in the Asia-Pacific region; they have not been subject to clearance for crustacean farming nor suffered from land reclamation projects. This article establishes through analysis of a time series of aerial photography and satellite imagery from the period 1973-2007, that there have been substantial changes in the distribution of mangroves in this region. These changes include the seaward progradation of the Purari Delta and the regression of the Kikori Delta by an average of 43 m year(-1) at its most seaward point. While these findings are likely to be continuations of long-term trends, it is probable that they can be explained by a variety of interacting factors including climate change, sea-level rise, subsistence in the northern Gulf of Papua and changes in sediment dynamics.

  4. Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Temperate and green in the summer, the Kamchatka Peninsula in northeastern Russia freezes over completely in the winter. This true-color image of the Kamchatka Peninsula was acquired on December 12, 2001, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The peninsula is surrounded by the Sea of Okhotsk to the west and by the Bering Sea to the east. The ice and snow highlight the stunning valleys and tall peaks of the Sredinnyy Khrebet, which is the volcanic mountain range running down the center of the peninsula. The mountains along the range reach heights of over 3500 meters (11,484 feet). Many of the volcanoes are still active, and ash and volcanic rock has turned the snow a dark gray on the eastern side of the range. The light blue latticework of ridges, valleys, and alluvial fans extending from the center of the range were likely carved out by past and present glaciers and by run-off from spring snowmelt. The small island that extends off of the tip of the peninsula is Ostrov Paramushir (Paramushir Island). Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  5. Source-to-Sink constraints on tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the Central Range, Cenderawasih Bay (Indonesia) and Gulf of Papua (Papua New Guinea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babault, J.; Viaplana-Muzas, M.; Legrand, X.; Van Den Driessche, J.; González-Quijano, M.; Mudd, S. M.; Kergaravat, C.; Ringenbach, J. C.; Callot, J. P.; Vetel, W.; Dhont, D.

    2017-12-01

    The island of Papua New Guinea is the result of continent-arc collision that began building the island's Central Range during the late Miocene. The tectono-sedimentary evolution of the Cenderawasih Bay, in the northwestern part of the island of Papua New Guinea (Indonesia), which links the Kepala Burung block to the Central Range is still poorly understood. Previous studies have shown that this bay contains a thick (> 8 km) sequence of undated sediments. Hypothesis claim that the embayment resulted from a 3 Ma aperture created by anticlockwise rotation of the Kepala Burung block with respect to the northern rim of the Australian plate, or from the southwest drift of a slice of volcanics/oceanic crust between 8 and 6 Ma. Using a source-to-sink approach, based on i) a geomorphologic analysis of the drainage network dynamics, ii) a reassessment of available thermochronological data, and iii) seismic lines interpretation, we suggest that sediments started to accumulate in the Cenderawasih Bay and onshore in the Waipoga Basin in the late Miocene since the beginning of the Central Range building at 12 Ma, resulting in sediment accumulation of up to 12200 m. At first order, we predict that infilling is mainly composed of siliciclastics sourced in the graphite-bearing Ruffaer Metamorphic Belt and its equivalent in the Weyland Overthrust. From the unroofing paths in the Central Range we deduce two rates of solid phase accumulation (SPAR) since 12 Ma, the first one at a mean SPAR ranging between 0.12-0.25 mm/a with a maximum SPAR of 0.23-0.58 mm/a, and the second during the last 3 Ma, at a mean SPAR ranging between 0.93-1.62 mm/a and with a maximum SPAR between 2.13-3.17 mm/a, i.e., 6700-10000 m of Plio-Pleistocene sediment accumulation. Local transtensional tectonics may explain these unusually high rates of sedimentation in an overall sinistral oblique convergence setting. We further extended this approach to the Gulf of Papua (Papua New Guinea), a foreland basin developed

  6. Continuing upward trend in Mt Read Huon pine ring widths - Temperature or divergence?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, K. J.; Cook, E. R.; Buckley, B. M.; Larsen, S. H.; Drew, D. M.; Downes, G. M.; Francey, R. J.; Peterson, M. J.; Baker, P. J.

    2014-10-01

    To date, no attempt has been made to assess the presence or otherwise of the “Divergence Problem” (DP) in existing multi-millennial Southern Hemisphere tree-ring chronologies. We have updated the iconic Mt Read Huon pine chronology from Tasmania, southeastern Australia, to now include the warmest decade on record, AD 2000-2010, and used the Kalman Filter (KF) to examine it for signs of divergence against four different temperature series available for the region. Ring-width growth for the past two decades is statistically unprecedented for the past 1048 years. Although we have identified a decoupling between temperature and growth in the past two decades, the relationship between some of the temperature records and growth has varied over time since the start of instrumental records. Rather than the special case of ‘divergence', we have identified a more general time-dependence between growth and temperature over the last 100 years. This time-dependence appears particularly problematic at interdecadal time scales. Due to the time-dependent relationships, and uncertainties related to the climate data, the use of any of the individual temperature series examined here potentially complicates temperature reconstruction. Some of the uncertainty in the climate data may be associated with changing climatic conditions, such as the intensification of the sub-tropical ridge (STR) and its impact on the frequency of anticyclonic conditions over the Mt Read site. Increased growth at the site, particularly in the last decade, over and above what would be expected based on a linear temperature model alone, may be consistent with a number of hypotheses. Existing uncertainties in the climate data need to be resolved and independent physiological information obtained before a range of hypotheses for this increased growth can be effectively evaluated.

  7. The Work of Glendon Lean on the Counting Systems of Papua New Guinea and Oceania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Kay

    2001-01-01

    Introduces data collated by Glendon Lean on nearly 900 counting systems in Papua New Guinea, Oceania, and Irian Jaya (West Papua) which came from a questionnaire completed by students and talks with village elders. Lean's thesis on the spontaneous developments of these ancient cultures challenged traditional theories describing the spread of…

  8. The Changing Face of Librarianship in Papua New Guinea: Libraries for Life in the Papua New Guinea Information Society?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obi, Margaret J.

    "Libraries for life" in Papua New Guinea today is not an impossible goal to strive for to achieve with today's new and old information and communication technologies. However, in order for this to happen, a number of questions will need to be asked. There are three that need immediate attention: (1) What is an "information…

  9. Technology-Enhancement for Papua New Guinean Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bino, Vagi; Edmonds-Wathen, Cris

    2014-01-01

    Technology facilitated the implementation of teacher professional learning based on a design of principles to improve the teaching of "Cultural Mathematics" in elementary schools in Papua New Guinea. An offline "website", a set of interlinked resource materials was used in workshops to enhance the professional learning.…

  10. Three new species of Oreophryne (Anura, Microhylidae) from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Fred

    2013-01-01

    I describe three new species of the diverse microhylid frog genus Oreophryne from Papua New Guinea. Two of these occur in two isolated mountain ranges along the northern coast of Papua New Guinea; the third is from Rossel Island in the very southeasternmost part of the country. All three are the first Oreophryne known from these areas to have a cartilaginous connection between the procoracoid and scapula, a feature usually seen in species far to the west or from the central cordillera of New Guinea. Each of the new species also differs from the many other Papuan Oreophryne in a variety of other morphological, color-pattern, and call features. Advertisement-call data for Oreophryne species from the north-coast region suggest that they represent only two of the several call types seen in regions further south, consistent with the relatively recent derivation of these northern regions as accreted island-arc systems. The distinctively different, whinnying, call type of the new species from Rossel Island occurs among other Oreophryne from southeastern Papua New Guinea but has been unreported elsewhere, raising the possibility that it may characterize a clade endemic to that region.

  11. The probable role of cannibalism in spreading Trichinella papuae infection in a crocodile farm in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Owen, Ifor L; Awui, Columba; Langelet, Eric; Soctine, Wenda; Reid, Simon

    2014-07-14

    Between 2003 and 2007, 83 (50%) of 167 crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) purchased as juveniles by a crocodile farm 3 or 4 years earlier from Kikori, Gulf Province, were found to be infected with Trichinella papuae. Between 2005 and 2007 infection was detected in a number of crocodiles at the farm obtained from six localities other than Kikori, as well as in a few animals born on the farm. Up to 2004, all juveniles at the farm, whether wild- or farm-born, were penned together; the practice was then stopped to prevent possible infection through cannibalism. The last infected animal from Kikori was seen in 2007, 4 years after the purchase of crocodiles from there ceased. The last non-Kikori infected crocodile was seen, also, in 2007. None of the 1972 crocodiles (comprising wild- and farm-born animals) tested from 2008 to 2013, using the digestion method, was infected with T. papuae. This indicates that infection of non-Kikori crocodiles was the result of cannibalism within the farm during the years up to 2004 when juvenile crocodiles were kept together, and that the farm is now free of the infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Manam Volcano, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    NASA image acquired June 16, 2010. Papua New Guinea’s Manam Volcano released a thin, faint plume on June 16, 2010, as clouds clustered at the volcano’s summit. The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on NASA’s Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite took this picture the same day. Rivulets of brown rock interrupt the carpet of green vegetation on the volcano’s slopes. Opaque white clouds partially obscure the satellite’s view of Manam. The clouds may result from water vapor from the volcano, but may also have formed independent of volcanic activity. The volcanic plume appears as a thin, blue-gray veil extending toward the northwest over the Bismarck Sea. Located 13 kilometers (8 miles) off the coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, Manam forms an island 10 kilometers (6 miles) wide. It is a stratovolcano. The volcano has two summit craters, and although both are active, most historical eruptions have arisen from the southern crater. NASA Earth Observatory image created by Jesse Allen, using EO-1 ALI data provided courtesy of the NASA EO-1 team. Caption by Michon Scott. Instrument: EO-1 - ALI To view the full image go to: earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/view.php?id=4430... NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is home to the nation's largest organization of combined scientists, engineers and technologists that build spacecraft, instruments and new technology to study the Earth, the sun, our solar system, and the universe.

  13. Geologic framework of the Alaska Peninsula, southwest Alaska, and the Alaska Peninsula terrane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Detterman, Robert L.; DuBois, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    The boundaries separating the Alaska Peninsula terrane from other terranes are commonly indistinct or poorly defined. A few boundaries have been defined at major faults, although the extensions of these faults are speculative through some areas. The west side of the Alaska Peninsula terrane is overlapped by Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic rocks and Quaternary deposits.

  14. Biodiversity inventories and conservation of the marine fishes of Bootless Bay, Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The effective management and conservation of biodiversity is predicated on clearly defined conservation targets. Species number is frequently used as a metric for conservation prioritization and monitoring changes in ecosystem health. We conducted a series of synoptic surveys focusing on the fishes of the Bootless Bay region of Papua New Guinea to generate a checklist of fishes of the region. Bootless Bay lies directly south of Port Moresby, the capital of Papua New Guinea, and experiences the highest human population density of any marine area in the country. Our checklist will set a baseline against which future environmental changes can be tracked. Results We generated a checklist of 488 fish species in 72 families found in Bootless Bay during a two-week sampling effort. Using incident-based methods of species estimation, we extrapolate there to be approximately 940 fish species in Bootless Bay, one of the lowest reported numbers in Papua New Guinea. Conclusions Our data suggest that the Bootless Bay ecosystem of Papua New Guinea, while diverse in absolute terms, has lower fish biodiversity compared to other shallow marine areas within the country. These differences in faunal diversity are most likely a combination of unequal sampling effort as well as biophysical factors within Bootless Bay compounded by historical and/or contemporary anthropogenic disturbances. PMID:22849436

  15. Taeniasis/cysticercosis in Papua (Irian Jaya), Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Margono, Sri S; Wandra, Toni; Swasono, Meutia F; Murni, Sri; Craig, Philip S; Ito, Akira

    2006-01-01

    Reports showed that an important parasitic zoonotic disease caused by Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica is found endemic in several areas of Indonesia including Papua, Bali and North Sumatra. At present it is known that the highest prevalence of taeniasis/cysticercosis in Indonesia, caused by T. solium is among the indigenous communities in Papua (formerly Irian Jaya). In the early 1970s, 8-9% of stool samples from the Enarotali hospital, Paniai District (Irian Jaya) were found positive with Taenia eggs. The samples were from members of the Ekari (Kapauku) ethnic group. Stool samples from the Moni ethnic group, living east of surrounding lakes, were egg negative. Cysticerci of T. solium were discovered in pigs. During the years 1973-1976 cases of burns increased and were ultimately found to be primarily associated with epileptic seizures induced by neurocysticercosis cases. Among 257 cases of burns, 88 cases (62.8%) were suffering from epileptic seizures before or during hospitalization. In the year 1981 T. solium seropositive persons were mostly (16%) found in the endemic Obano village. In 1997 the parasite was discovered in Jayawijaya District, which is located approximately 250 km east of Paniai District. During 1991-1995, a local health center in Assologaima, Jayawijaya District reported 1120 new cases with burns and a further 293 new cases of epileptic seizures among 15,939 inhabitants. The histopathologic appearance and mitochondrial DNA analysis found the cysts to be similar to those of T. solium from other regions of the world. Sensitive and specific serological diagnostic methods were used and improved. Cysticerci were detected in dogs, as well as in pigs. A coproantigen test for detection of adult tapeworms in patients was carried out. Medical treatment with praziquantel for taeniasis and albendazole for cysticercosis (with prednisone and sodium phenytoin treatment in cases with neurocysticercosis) was undertaken. Lifestyle, religion, and

  16. Identity and Ethnomathematics Projects in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Indigenous students may find mathematics in schools difficult because there is discontinuity between cultural mathematics and school mathematics. One of the reasons for this is that their teacher's identity as a mathematical thinker may not link to their cultural ways of thinking. In Papua New Guinea, there is a subject to assist student teachers…

  17. A biomineralization study of the Indo-Pacific giant clam Tridacna gigas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gannon, M. E.; Pérez-Huerta, A.; Aharon, P.; Street, S. C.

    2017-06-01

    The giant clam, Tridacna gigas, is an important faunal component of reef ecosystems of the Indo-Pacific region. In addition to its ecological role, shells of this bivalve species are useful bioarchives for past climate and environmental reconstructions. However, the biomineralization processes involved in shell aragonite deposition are insufficiently understood. Here, we present a study of the shell microstructure of modern specimens from Palm Island, Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia, and Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea (PNG), using a combination of petrography, scanning electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and stable carbon isotope ratios. Daily growth increments were recognizable in all specimens through ontogeny, and counting these growth lines provides a robust specimen age estimate. For the internal layers, paired increments of organized aragonitic needles and compact, oblong crystals were recognized in a specimen from PNG, whereas specimens from GBR were composed of shield-like crystals that were not definable at the microscale. The combination of nutrient availability, rainfall and solar irradiance are likely to be the most significant factors controlling shell growth and may explain the observed differences in microstructure. The external layer, identical in all specimens, was composed of dendritic microstructure that is significantly enriched in 13C compared to the internal layer, suggesting different metabolic controls on layer deposition. We propose that the mineralization of the internal and external layers is independent from each other and associated with the activity of specific mantles. Future studies using T. gigas shells as bioarchives should consider the microstructure as it reflects the environment in which the individual lived and the differences in mineralization pathways of internal and external layers.

  18. Serological evidence for transmission of multiple dengue virus serotypes in Papua New Guinea and West Papua prior to 1963.

    PubMed

    Luang-Suarkia, Dagwin; Ernst, Timo; Alpers, Michael P; Garruto, Ralph; Smith, David; Imrie, Allison

    2017-04-01

    Little is known about the natural history of dengue in Papua New Guinea (PNG). We assessed dengue virus (DENV)-specific neutralizing antibody profiles in serum samples collected from northern and southern coastal areas and the highland region of New Guinea between 1959 and 1963. Neutralizing antibodies were demonstrated in sera from the northern coast of New Guinea: from Sabron in Dutch New Guinea (now known as West Papua) and from four villages in East Sepik in what is now PNG. Previous monotypic infection with DENV-1, DENV-2, and DENV-4 was identified, with a predominance of anti-DENV-2 neutralizing antibody. The majority of positive sera demonstrated evidence of multiple previous DENV infections and neutralizing activity against all four serotypes was detected, with anti-DENV-2 responses being most frequent and of greatest magnitude. No evidence of previous DENV infection was identified in the Asmat villages of the southern coast and a single anti-DENV-positive sample was identified in the Eastern Highlands of PNG. These findings indicate that multiple DENV serotypes circulated along the northern coast of New Guinea at different times in the decades prior to 1963 and support the notion that dengue has been a significant yet neglected tropical infection in PNG for many decades.

  19. Serological evidence for transmission of multiple dengue virus serotypes in Papua New Guinea and West Papua prior to 1963

    PubMed Central

    Luang-Suarkia, Dagwin; Ernst, Timo; Alpers, Michael P.; Garruto, Ralph; Smith, David

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the natural history of dengue in Papua New Guinea (PNG). We assessed dengue virus (DENV)-specific neutralizing antibody profiles in serum samples collected from northern and southern coastal areas and the highland region of New Guinea between 1959 and 1963. Neutralizing antibodies were demonstrated in sera from the northern coast of New Guinea: from Sabron in Dutch New Guinea (now known as West Papua) and from four villages in East Sepik in what is now PNG. Previous monotypic infection with DENV-1, DENV-2, and DENV-4 was identified, with a predominance of anti-DENV-2 neutralizing antibody. The majority of positive sera demonstrated evidence of multiple previous DENV infections and neutralizing activity against all four serotypes was detected, with anti-DENV-2 responses being most frequent and of greatest magnitude. No evidence of previous DENV infection was identified in the Asmat villages of the southern coast and a single anti-DENV-positive sample was identified in the Eastern Highlands of PNG. These findings indicate that multiple DENV serotypes circulated along the northern coast of New Guinea at different times in the decades prior to 1963 and support the notion that dengue has been a significant yet neglected tropical infection in PNG for many decades. PMID:28437465

  20. Behaviour and molecular identification of Anopheles malaria vectors in Jayapura district, Papua province, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    St Laurent, Brandy; Supratman, Sukowati; Asih, Puji Budi Setia; Bretz, David; Mueller, John; Miller, Helen Catherine; Baharuddin, Amirullah; Shinta; Surya, Asik; Ngai, Michelle; Laihad, Ferdinand; Syafruddin, Din; Hawley, William A; Collins, Frank H; Lobo, Neil F

    2016-04-08

    Members of the Anopheles punctulatus group dominate Papua, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea (PNG), with a geographic range that extends south through Vanuatu. An. farauti and An. punctulatus are the presumed major vectors in this region. Although this group of species has been extensively studied in PNG and the southern archipelagoes within their range, their distribution, ecology and vector behaviours have not been well characterized in eastern Indonesia. Mosquitoes were collected in five villages in Jayapura province, Papua, Indonesia using human-landing collections, animal-baited tents and backpack aspirators. Mosquitoes were morphologically typed and then molecularly distinguished based on ribosomal ITS2 sequences and tested for Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax infection using circumsporozoite ELISA and PCR. The presence and vector status of An. farauti 4 in Papua, Indonesia is confirmed here for the first time. The data indicate that this species is entering houses at a rate that increases its potential to come into contact with humans and act as a major malaria vector. An. farauti 4 was also abundant outdoors and biting humans during early evening hours. Other species collected in this area include An. farauti 1, An. hinesorum, An. koliensis, An. punctulatus, and An. tessellatus. Proboscis morphology was highly variable within each species, lending support to the notion that this characteristic is not a reliable indicator to distinguish species within the An. punctulatus group. The vector composition in Papua, Indonesia is consistent with certain northern areas of PNG, but the behaviours of anophelines sampled in this region, such as early and indoor human biting of An. farauti 4, may enable them to act as major vectors of malaria. Presumed major vectors An. farauti and An. punctulatus were not abundant among these samples. Morphological identification of anophelines in this sample was often inaccurate, highlighting the importance of using molecular analysis

  1. Informal Lifelong Learning for Development in Papua New Guinea: A Case Study from the Margins into the Mainstream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidu, Carol

    2018-01-01

    This article traces the impact of the Ginigoada Foundation on the educational development of thousands of children and adults in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Port Moresby, capital city of Papua New Guinea (PNG), had been noted for the lack of educational opportunities for the majority of the population who lived in urban villages and squatter…

  2. Country watch: Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Kisau, J

    1995-01-01

    Senior lecturers, students, the Dean of the Arts Faculty, university administrators, and a nongovernmental organization called PNG Trust are working together on an AIDS Awareness Committee at the University of Papua New Guinea. They dispense educational materials to staff and students to increase awareness and provide advice on safer sex practices. The orientation book for new and continuing students contains selections from the committee's materials. A social scientist on the committee has conducted a pre-intervention survey to determine the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices of students. The intervention consists of four weeks of video showings and discussions. The post-intervention survey will take place later in 1995. Committee members, the university clinic, the student services office, female dormitories, and the university staff bar distribute free condoms on request, especially to students, who are on limited scholarships. The committee has developed an HIV/AIDS policy for the university that has been sent to the University Council for approval. The policy contends that protective and preventive approaches to HIV/AIDS are restatements of existing health, safety, and human rights codes. Recommendations in the policy include prevention of discrimination, confidentiality of all records, rejection of mandatory HIV testing of staff and students, and provision of appropriate medical care for students who tell the university health services of a positive HIV status. Assuming it is approved, the policy will apply to all university campuses in Papua New Guinea. The committee would like the university, after policy adoption, to provide them with a room as a resource center and to incorporate social work students in a counseling service. Students can volunteer to operate a telephone helpline and photocopy educational materials.

  3. Genogeography and Immune Epitope Characteristics of Hepatitis B Virus Genotype C Reveals Two Distinct Types: Asian and Papua-Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Thedja, Meta Dewi; Muljono, David Handojo; Ie, Susan Irawati; Sidarta, Erick; Turyadi; Verhoef, Jan; Marzuki, Sangkot

    2015-01-01

    Distribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes/subgenotypes is geographically and ethnologically specific. In the Indonesian archipelago, HBV genotype C (HBV/C) is prevalent with high genome variability, reflected by the presence of 13 of currently existing 16 subgenotypes. We investigated the association between HBV/C molecular characteristics with host ethnicity and geographical distribution by examining various subgenotypes of HBV/C isolates from the Asia and Pacific region, with further analysis on the immune epitope characteristics of the core and surface proteins. Phylogenetic tree was constructed based on complete HBV/C genome sequences from Asia and Pacific region, and genetic distance between isolates was also examined. HBV/C surface and core immune epitopes were analyzed and grouped by comparing the amino acid residue characteristics and geographical origins. Based on phylogenetic tree and geographical origins of isolates, two major groups of HBV/C isolates—East-Southeast Asia and Papua-Pacific—were identified. Analysis of core and surface immune epitopes supported these findings with several amino acid substitutions distinguishing the East-Southeast Asia isolates from the Papua-Pacific isolates. A west-to-east gradient of HBsAg subtype distribution was observed with adrq+ prominent in the East and Southeast Asia and adrq- in the Pacific, with several adrq-indeterminate subtypes observed in Papua and Papua New Guinea (PNG). This study indicates that HBV/C isolates can be classified into two types, the Asian and the Papua-Pacific, based on the virus genome diversity, immune epitope characteristics, and geographical distribution, with Papua and PNG as the molecular evolutionary admixture region in the switching from adrq+ to adrq-. PMID:26162099

  4. Folk Opera: Stories Crossing Borders in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haseman, B.; Baldwin, A.; Linthwaite, H.

    2014-01-01

    The Life Drama project is a drama-based sexual health promotion project, developed by a cross-cultural research team in Papua New Guinea (PNG) over the past four years. Recognising the limitations of established theatre-in-education and theatre-for-development approaches when working across cultures, the research team explored ways of tapping into…

  5. Sea & See Experiences for Undergraduates: Educational Outreach in Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnstone, E. A.; Driscoll, N. W.; Hill, J. C.; Hogarth, L.

    2007-12-01

    As scientists involved in the NSF-MARGINS Source-to-Sink (S2S) initiative, we included education of undergraduates from the University of Papua New Guinea (UPNG) in our research mission. During a two-month cruise, many students participated in all aspects of scientific data collection, including acquiring sediment cores and geophysical data along the mid-shelf clinoform in the Gulf of Papua. Additionally, an educational website was created for web users around the globe to provide a daily journal and scientific background information relevant to the formation and evolution of the study area. As a follow-up two years later, researchers and graduate students funded by the grant hosted a three-day intensive course, as well as provided necessary hardware and software, allowing UPNG students to learn processing routines and examine pertinent data from their region. This experience not only offered instructive and enlightening opportunities to students from an underprivileged University to partake in a U.S. federally funded project, but we also donated state-of-the-art equipment for the Geology department at UPNG that will be utilized for years to come. Many of the students graduating from this program go on to work with the mining companies that are omnipresent in Papua New Guinea due to the abundant mineral resources in this region. Our goal was to provide an academic experience outside of the classroom demonstrating how non-commercial science fosters increased understanding and awareness through discovery of Earth's local geologic history.

  6. Comparison of Cocoa Beans from China, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Fenglin; Tan, Lehe; Wu, Huasong; Fang, Yiming; Xu, Fei; Chu, Zhong; Wang, Qinghuang

    2013-01-01

    A survey on five kinds of cocoa beans from new cocoa planting countries was conducted to analyze each kind’s basic quality. The average bean weight and butter content of Hainan cocoa beans were the lowest, at less than 1.1 g, and 39.24% to 43.44%, respectively. Cocoa beans from Indonesia where shown to be about 8.0% and 9.0% higher in average bean weight and butter content, respectively, than that of Papua New Guinea and about 20.0% and 25.0% higher in average bean weight and butter content than Chinese dried beans, respectively. The average total polyphenolic content ranged from 81.22 mg/10 g to 301.01 mg/10 g. The Hainan 2011 sample had the highest total polyphenolic content, followed by the unfermented sample from Indonesia and the Papua New Guinea sample. The polyphenolic levels found in the Hainan 2010 sample were 123.61 mg/10 g and lower than the other three samples, but the Indonesian fermented sample had the lowest total polyphenolic content of 81.22 mg/10 g. The average total amino acid content ranged from 11.58 g/100 g to 18.17 g/100 g. The total amino acid content was the highest in the Indonesian unfermented sample, followed by the Hainan 2011 sample and the Papua New Guinea sample. The levels found in the Hainan 2010 sample were lower; the Indonesian fermented sample had the lowest total amino acid content. PMID:28239108

  7. Beyond sexual desire and curiosity: sexuality among senior high school students in Papua and West Papua Provinces (Indonesia) and implications for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Diarsvitri, Wienta; Utomo, Iwu Dwisetyani; Neeman, Teresa; Oktavian, Antonius

    2011-10-01

    When it comes to sexuality and norms, young Indonesians are becoming more open. Concern about this is related to the rapid increase in HIV prevalence in Indonesia, especially in Papua and West Papua Provinces. While much research has been conducted among youth who have left school, little is known about senior high school students' sexuality and sexual practices in these provinces. Using qualitative and quantitative data, we explore perspectives on and experiences of sexuality, contraceptive use, unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion among 1082 Year 11 students from 16 senior high schools in both provinces. Findings suggest that around 38.3% of students reported having had sexual intercourse and 36.5% of these having had their first sexual encounter before they were 15 years old. Furthermore, contraceptive use among sexually active students was very low. Around 32% of female students who reported having had sexual intercourse also reported having an unintended pregnancy and the majority of them had had unsafe abortions. The paper points to the implications of students' high-risk sexual behaviours for HIV prevention.

  8. Social Work Education and Police in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovai, Betty

    2007-01-01

    The contribution of social work education to the professional capacity development of police officers commenced in 1974 when the Diploma in Police Studies was introduced at the University of Papua New Guinea under the Social Work Programme. In 2001, a study was conducted to assess the impact of social work education on police officers. The study…

  9. Gulf of Aqaba, Sinai Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Gulf of Aqaba separates the Sinai peninsula from Saudi Arabia in this scene of the Middle East (29.0N, 34.5E) showing the geomorphology and geology of this region including portions of Egypt, Israel, Jordon and Saudi Arabia. A small portion of the Gulf of Suez can be seen on the opposite side of the Sinai peninsula.

  10. Peninsula Academies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raby, Marilyn E.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the Peninsula Academies program developed by the Sequoia (California) Union High School District and 27 local high technology companies to help educationally disadvantaged students break the pattern of low academic achievement, lack of skills, and chronic unemployment. (FL)

  11. Predominance of modern Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains and active transmission of Beijing sublineage in Jayapura, Indonesia Papua.

    PubMed

    Chaidir, Lidya; Sengstake, Sarah; de Beer, Jessica; Oktavian, Antonius; Krismawati, Hana; Muhapril, Erfin; Kusumadewi, Inri; Annisa, Jessi; Anthony, Richard; van Soolingen, Dick; Achmad, Tri Hanggono; Marzuki, Sangkot; Alisjahbana, Bachti; van Crevel, Reinout

    2016-04-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotype distribution is different between West and Central Indonesia, but there are no data on the most Eastern part, Papua. We aimed to identify the predominant genotypes of M. tuberculosis responsible for tuberculosis in coastal Papua, their transmission, and the association with patient characteristics. A total of 199 M. tuberculosis isolates were collected. Spoligotyping was applied to describe the population structure of M. tuberculosis, lineage identification was performed using a combination of lineage-specific markers, and genotypic clusters were identified using a combination of 24-locus-MIRU-VNTR and spoligotyping. A high degree of genetic diversity was observed among isolates based on their spoligopatterns. Strains from modern lineage 4 made up almost half of strains (46.9%), being more abundant than the ancient lineage 1 (33.7%), and modern lineage 2 (19.4%). Thirty-five percent of strains belonged to genotypic clusters, especially strains in the Beijing genotype. Previous TB treatment and mutations associated with drug resistance were more common in patients infected with strains of the Beijing genotype. Papua shows a different distribution of M. tuberculosis genotypes compared to other parts of Indonesia. Clustering and drug resistance of modern strains recently introduced to Papua may contribute to the high tuberculosis burden in this region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Genotypic Characterization of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Derived from Antiretroviral Therapy-Naive Individuals Residing in Sorong, West Papua.

    PubMed

    Witaningrum, Adiana Mutamsari; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Khairunisa, Siti Qamariyah; Yunifiar M, Muhammad Qushai; Indriati, Dwi Wahyu; Bramanthi, Rendra; Nasronudin; Kameoka, Masanori

    2016-08-01

    Papua and West Papua provinces have the highest prevalence rate of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in Indonesia; however, data on the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 are limited. We conducted a genotypic study on HIV-1 genes derived from antiretroviral therapy-naive individuals residing in Sorong, West Papua. HIV-1 genomic fragments were amplified from 43 peripheral blood samples, and sequencing analysis of the genes was carried out. Of the 43 samples, 41 protease (PR), 31 reverse transcriptase (RT), 26 gag, and 25 env genes were sequenced. HIV-1 subtyping revealed that CRF01_AE (48.8%, 21/43) and subtype B (41.9%, 18/43) were the major subtypes prevalent in the region, whereas other recombinant forms were also detected. Major drug resistance-associated mutations for PR inhibitors were not detected; however, mutations for the RT inhibitors, A62V and E138A, appeared in a few samples, indicating the possible emergence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance in Sorong, West Papua.

  13. Persistent organic pollutants and porphyrins biomarkers in penguin faeces from Kopaitic Island and Antarctic Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Ignacio; Chiang, Gustavo; Galbán-Malagón, Cristóbal; Mendoza, Rafael; Martinez, Miguel; Gonzalez, Carlos; Becerra, José; Servos, Mark R; Munkittrick, Kelly R; Barra, Ricardo

    2016-12-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels were determined in the faeces of three Antarctic Peninsula penguin species to assess viability as a non-invasive approach for sampling PCBs in Antarctic biota. These determinations were complemented with stable isotope and porphyrins assessments, and together this methodology determined the role of diet and metabolic disruption in penguins. Up to 60% of the collected faecal samples evidenced low molecular weight PCBs, of which, the more volatile compounds were predominant, in agreement with previous results. The highest PCB levels were reported in the gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua; 35.3ngg -1 wet weight average), followed by the chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica; 6.4ngg -1 wet weight average) and Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae; 12.9ngg -1 wet weight average). Stable isotope analyses (δ 15 N and δ 13 C) demonstrated that gentoo feeding and foraging habits differed from those of Adélie and chinstrap penguins. A strong positive correlation was found between PCB concentrations and δ 15 N, indicating the role of diet on the observed pollutant levels. Porphyrins metabolite levels were also directly correlated with PCB concentrations. These results suggest that PCB levels impair the health of Antarctic penguins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Implementation of Curricular Reform: Tanzania and Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Murray; Vulliamy, Graham

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the origins and policy characteristics of the Education for Self Reliance project in Tanzania and the Secondary Schools Community Extension Project in Papua New Guinea. Compares the sociopolitical climate, the policy characteristics, the role of academic assessment, policy change, and examples of the existing policy in the two countries.…

  15. Antarctic Peninsula and Weddell Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Numerous icebergs are breaking out of the sea ice in the Southern Ocean surrounding the Antarctic Peninsula. This true-color MODIS image from November 13, 2001, shows several icebergs drifting out of the Weddell Sea. The Antarctic Peninsula (left) reaches out into the Drake Passage, which separates the southern tip of South America from Antarctica. Warmer temperatures have cleared a tiny patch of bare ground at the Peninsula's tip. The predominant ocean current in the area is the Antarctic Circumpolar Current ('circum' meaning 'around'), which is also the 'West Wind Drift.' The current is the largest permanent current in the world, and water is moved eastward by westerly winds. Icebergs leaving the Weddell Sea are likely to be moved north and east by the current. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  16. Bottle-feeding legislation in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Lambert, J

    1980-02-01

    Research in Papua New Guinea and elsewhere in the developing world has indicted the dangers of bottle feeding infants. Following a failure to obtain the voluntary agreement of shopkeepers to restrict sales of infant-feeding bottles and teats, legislation was passed which placed these items on prescription. In order to obtain a prescription certain conditions have to be satisfied. A follow-up survey which was carried out in Port Moresby two years after the introduction of legislation indicated a significant decline in the extent of bottle feeding.

  17. Why Huddle? Ecological Drivers of Chick Aggregations in Gentoo Penguins, Pygoscelis papua, across Latitudes.

    PubMed

    Black, Caitlin; Collen, Ben; Johnston, Daniel; Hart, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Aggregations of young animals are common in a range of endothermic and ectothermic species, yet the adaptive behavior may depend on social circumstance and local conditions. In penguins, many species form aggregations (aka. crèches) for a variety of purposes, whilst others have never been observed exhibiting this behavior. Those that do form aggregations do so for three known benefits: 1) reduced thermoregulatory requirements, 2) avoidance of unrelated-adult aggression, and 3) lower predation risk. In gentoo penguins, Pygoscelis papua, chick aggregations are known to form during the post-guard period, yet the cause of these aggregations is poorly understood. Here, for the first time, we study aggregation behavior in gentoo penguins, examining four study sites along a latitudinal gradient using time-lapse cameras to examine the adaptive benefit of aggregations to chicks. Our results support the idea that aggregations of gentoo chicks decrease an individual's energetic expenditure when wet, cold conditions are present. However, we found significant differences in aggregation behavior between the lowest latitude site, Maiviken, South Georgia, and two of the higher latitude sites on the Antarctic Peninsula, suggesting this behavior may be colony specific. We provide strong evidence that more chicks aggregate and a larger number of aggregations occur on South Georgia, while the opposite occurs at Petermann Island in Antarctica. Future studies should evaluate multiple seabird colonies within one species before generalizing behaviors based on one location, and past studies may need to be re-evaluated to determine whether chick aggregation and other behaviors are in fact exhibited species-wide.

  18. Why Huddle? Ecological Drivers of Chick Aggregations in Gentoo Penguins, Pygoscelis papua, across Latitudes

    PubMed Central

    Collen, Ben; Johnston, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Aggregations of young animals are common in a range of endothermic and ectothermic species, yet the adaptive behavior may depend on social circumstance and local conditions. In penguins, many species form aggregations (aka. crèches) for a variety of purposes, whilst others have never been observed exhibiting this behavior. Those that do form aggregations do so for three known benefits: 1) reduced thermoregulatory requirements, 2) avoidance of unrelated-adult aggression, and 3) lower predation risk. In gentoo penguins, Pygoscelis papua, chick aggregations are known to form during the post-guard period, yet the cause of these aggregations is poorly understood. Here, for the first time, we study aggregation behavior in gentoo penguins, examining four study sites along a latitudinal gradient using time-lapse cameras to examine the adaptive benefit of aggregations to chicks. Our results support the idea that aggregations of gentoo chicks decrease an individual’s energetic expenditure when wet, cold conditions are present. However, we found significant differences in aggregation behavior between the lowest latitude site, Maiviken, South Georgia, and two of the higher latitude sites on the Antarctic Peninsula, suggesting this behavior may be colony specific. We provide strong evidence that more chicks aggregate and a larger number of aggregations occur on South Georgia, while the opposite occurs at Petermann Island in Antarctica. Future studies should evaluate multiple seabird colonies within one species before generalizing behaviors based on one location, and past studies may need to be re-evaluated to determine whether chick aggregation and other behaviors are in fact exhibited species-wide. PMID:26840252

  19. "Training by Papua New Guinea Women, for Papua New Guinea Women": Lessons from the Development of a Co-Constructed Course for Women Smallholder Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pamphilon, Barbara; Mikhailovich, Katja; Chambers, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the lessons from a collaborative project that worked with women agricultural leaders in Papua New Guinea. The project sought to build the capacity of these leaders as trainers in a way that would enable the development of a sustainable community of practice and worked within a critical and place-based pedagogy underpinned by…

  20. SRTM Anaglyph: Sredinnyy Khrebet, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-07-05

    This anaglyph, from NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, shows the Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia. Sredinnyy Khrebet, the mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula. 3D glasses are necessary to view this image.

  1. Quality Assurance and Assessment in Education in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mel, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    Education in Papua New Guinea (PNG) has experienced major shifts and changes over the last decade or so under the National Education Reform. In that context there is recognition for schools to appreciate their local contexts and conditions regarding assessment. The National Educational Department is also aware of the fact that there is need for…

  2. Immunofluorescence assay method to detect dengue virus in Paniai-Papua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sucipto, Teguh Hari; Ahwanah, Nur Laila Fitriati; Churrotin, Siti; Matake, Norifumi; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Soegijanto, Soegeng

    2016-03-01

    The dengue viruses (DENV), which include in the family Flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus, was endemic in tropical areas and had been transmitted to humans by Aedes aegypti. An increasing number of immigrants from endemic areas to the non-endemic areas have emphasized the need for a simple and reliable test for the diagnosis of dengue virus infection. The purpose of this study was to detect the dengue virus by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) in the general population at Paniai-Papua. The results obtained from this study had showed a significantly better discrimination for DENV specific IgG antibodies. A total of 158 samples, 116 samples were IgG antibodies positive and 42 samples were negative. The conclusion of this study, Papua is not only a malaria endemic area, but also dengue virus infections were detected by IFA method. Therefore, the IFA can be used as an important diagnostic tool, which is a quick and an easy way to test samples from immigrants who come to the non-endemic areas.

  3. Gold--Its Extraction and the Environment: Experiences in Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Mike; Owens, Chris

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how the mining of gold has impacted the development of both Australia and Papua, New Guinea. Outlines the essential chemistry of small scale mining, the impact of gold on the economy, and the environmental effect of mercury on both the miners and the environment. (Author/CCM)

  4. Professional Learning for Cultural Mathematics in Papua New Guinea's Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Kay; Edmonds-Wathen, Cris; Kravia, Geori; Sakopa, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    A design of principles for teacher professional learning was developed to improve the teaching of "Cultural Mathematics" in elementary schools in Papua New Guinea. The design's appropriateness for PNG elementary schools is the focus of the research implemented through week-long workshops using technology enhancement. Implementation has…

  5. High Levels of Transmitted HIV Drug Resistance in a Study in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Lavu, Evelyn; Kave, Ellan; Mosoro, Euodia; Markby, Jessica; Aleksic, Eman; Gare, Janet; Elsum, Imogen A; Nano, Gideon; Kaima, Petronia; Dala, Nick; Gurung, Anup; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Crowe, Suzanne M; Myatt, Mark; Hearps, Anna C; Jordan, Michael R

    2017-01-01

    Papua New Guinea is a Pacific Island nation of 7.3 million people with an estimated HIV prevalence of 0.8%. ART initiation and monitoring are guided by clinical staging and CD4 cell counts, when available. Little is known about levels of transmitted HIV drug resistance in recently infected individuals in Papua New Guinea. Surveillance of transmitted HIV drug resistance in a total of 123 individuals recently infected with HIV and aged less than 30 years was implemented in Port Moresby (n = 62) and Mount Hagen (n = 61) during the period May 2013-April 2014. HIV drug resistance testing was performed using dried blood spots. Transmitted HIV drug resistance was defined by the presence of one or more drug resistance mutations as defined by the World Health Organization surveillance drug resistance mutations list. The prevalence of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor transmitted HIV drug resistance was 16.1% (95% CI 8.8%-27.4%) and 8.2% (95% CI 3.2%-18.2%) in Port Moresby and Mount Hagen, respectively. The prevalence of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor transmitted HIV drug resistance was 3.2% (95% CI 0.2%-11.7%) and 3.3% (95% CI 0.2%-11.8%) in Port Moresby and Mount Hagen, respectively. No protease inhibitor transmitted HIV drug resistance was observed. The level of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor drug resistance in antiretroviral drug naïve individuals recently infected with HIV in Port Moresby is amongst the highest reported globally. This alarming level of transmitted HIV drug resistance in a young sexually active population threatens to limit the on-going effective use of NNRTIs as a component of first-line ART in Papua New Guinea. To support the choice of nationally recommended first-line antiretroviral therapy, representative surveillance of HIV drug resistance among antiretroviral therapy initiators in Papua New Guinea should be urgently implemented.

  6. Spatio-temporal epidemiology of the cholera outbreak in Papua New Guinea, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Horwood, Paul F; Karl, Stephan; Mueller, Ivo; Jonduo, Marinjho H; Pavlin, Boris I; Dagina, Rosheila; Ropa, Berry; Bieb, Sibauk; Rosewell, Alexander; Umezaki, Masahiro; Siba, Peter M; Greenhill, Andrew R

    2014-08-20

    Cholera continues to be a devastating disease in many developing countries where inadequate safe water supply and poor sanitation facilitate spread. From July 2009 until late 2011 Papua New Guinea experienced the first outbreak of cholera recorded in the country, resulting in >15,500 cases and >500 deaths. Using the national cholera database, we analysed the spatio-temporal distribution and clustering of the Papua New Guinea cholera outbreak. The Kulldorff space-time permutation scan statistic, contained in the software package SatScan v9.2 was used to describe the first 8 weeks of the outbreak in Morobe Province before cholera cases spread throughout other regions of the country. Data were aggregated at the provincial level to describe the spread of the disease to other affected provinces. Spatio-temporal and cluster analyses revealed that the outbreak was characterized by three distinct phases punctuated by explosive propagation of cases when the outbreak spread to a new region. The lack of road networks across most of Papua New Guinea is likely to have had a major influence on the slow spread of the disease during this outbreak. Identification of high risk areas and the likely mode of spread can guide government health authorities to formulate public health strategies to mitigate the spread of the disease through education campaigns, vaccination, increased surveillance in targeted areas and interventions to improve water, sanitation and hygiene.

  7. The status of Sandalwood (S. macgregorii) in Papua New Guinea

    Treesearch

    John H. Paul

    1990-01-01

    S. macgregorii) grows between 100 and 1500 m and is not evenly distributed throughout the country. It grows only around the central province where savannahs are found. Most of this original S. macgregorii stand was harvested during 1890-1910 and again in 1933. The government of Papua New Guinea does not have a stand of sandalwood....

  8. An Assessment of Language Needs for Technical Communication in a Multilingual Speech Community: Implications for Teaching LSP in Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, James

    A survey of 98 Papua New Guinea technical university graduates in the applied sciences, engineering fields, and forestry investigated their language skill use and language needs in the workplace. Results indicate that, as in Papua New Guinea society in general, English and Tok Pisin are the two most important languages for technical communication…

  9. Failure of a massive earthquake-induced landslide dam in Papua New Guinea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, J. P.; Loveday, I. C.; Schuster, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    This article discusses the recent occurrence of a large earthquake-induced landslide that dammed the Bairaman River in the interior of hte island of New Britian, Papua New Guinea, and the subsequent overtopping and failure of this landslide dam. 

  10. Ethnochemistry and Ethnomedicine of Ancient Papua New Guineans and Their Use in Motivating Students in Secondary Schools and Universities in PNG

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marasinghe, Basil

    2016-01-01

    For more than 50,000 years of Papua New Guinea's human history, Papua New Guineans have been making significant contributions to Science, particularly in the fields of Chemistry and Medicine. However, because of the absence of any written language for over 800 dialects, the information has not been recorded and the contributions of ancient Papua…

  11. Where on Earth...? MISR Mystery Image Quiz #10:Pulau Kimaam, West Papua

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-09-04

    Pulau Kimaam, Pulau Dolok, Pulau Yos Sudarso, and Frederik Hendrik Island are all names used to refer to this island, which is part of the Indonesian province of West Papua. This image from NASA Terra satellite is MISR Mystery Image Quiz #10.

  12. The effectiveness of school educating program for betel quid chewing: A pilot study in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gene; Hsieh, Ming-Yu; Chen, Andy Wei-Ge; Kao, Nina Hsiao-Ling; Chen, Mu-Kuan

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of educating program among primary and secondary school students in Papua New Guinea, where has the highest incidence of oral cancer all over the world. A cross-sectional school based survey was arranged in primary and secondary school in Papua New Guinea in June, 2015. A self-administrated questionnaire was administered before and after education done by health experts from Taiwan. The subjects were chosen by random. The schools provided the students we educated and did the questionnaires on. Ninety five primary school students and 55 secondary school students in Papua New Guinea participated in the study. Before education, both groups lacked the knowledge that betel quid is harmful to health and had no motivation to quit betel quid consumption with the average score 4.580 out of the total score of 8 for primary school students, and the average score of 4.600 out of the total score of 8 for secondary school students. After education, improvements were noted in knowledge of betel quid among both groups, and reached the statistical significance for secondary school students (mean difference 0.700 ± 0.277, 95% CI 0.164-1.248, p-value = 0.018). A great achievement was gained by a short time of education. To prevent the incidence and mortality of oral cancer in Papua New Guinea, education programs should be arranged aggressively and effectively. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  13. Cholera risk factors, Papua New Guinea, 2010.

    PubMed

    Rosewell, Alexander; Addy, Benita; Komnapi, Lucas; Makanda, Freda; Ropa, Berry; Posanai, Enoch; Dutta, Samir; Mola, Glen; Man, W Y Nicola; Zwi, Anthony; MacIntyre, C Raina

    2012-11-05

    Cholera is newly emergent in Papua New Guinea but may soon become endemic. Identifying the risk factors for cholera provides evidence for targeted prevention and control measures. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study to identify cholera risk factors. Using stool culture as the standard, we evaluated a cholera point of care test in the field. 176 participants were recruited: 54 cases and 122 controls. Independent risk factors for cholera were: being over 20 years of age (aOR 2.5; 95%CI 1.1, 5.4), defecating in the open air (or river) (aOR 4.5; 95% CI 1.4, 14.4) and knowing someone who travelled to a cholera affected area (aOR 4.1; 95%CI 1.6, 10.7); while the availability of soap for handwashing at home was protective (aOR 0.41; 95%CI 0.19, 0.87). Those reporting access to a piped water distribution system in the home were twice as likely to report the availability of soap for handwashing. The sensitivity and specificity of the rapid test were 72% (95% CI 47-90) and 71% (95%CI 44-90%). Improving population access to the piped water distribution system and sanitation will likely reduce transmission by enabling enhanced hygiene and limiting the contamination of water sources. The One step V. cholerae O1/O139 Antigen Test is of limited utility for clinical decision making in a hospital setting with access to traditional laboratory methods. Settlement dwellers and mobile populations of all age groups should be targeted for interventions in Papua New Guinea.

  14. 76 FR 6117 - Kenai Peninsula-Anchorage Borough Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Kenai Peninsula-Anchorage Borough Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Kenai Peninsula-Anchorage... comments to Kenai Peninsula-Anchorage Borough Resource Advisory Committee, c/o USDA Forest Service, P.O...

  15. Four New Species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Emoia spp. Skinks (Sauria: Scincidae), from Papua New Guinea and the Insular Pacific.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Chris T; Duszynski, Donald W; Austin, Christopher C; Fisher, Robert N

    2017-02-01

    Between September and November 1991, 54 adult skinks from 15 species were collected by hand or blowpipe from several localities on Rarotonga, Cook Islands, Ovalau Island, Fiji, and Papua New Guinea (PNG), and their feces were examined for coccidians. Species included 5 seaside skinks (Emoia atrocostata), 1 Pacific blue-tailed skink (Emoia caeroleocauda), 2 Fiji slender treeskinks (Emoia concolor), 15 white-bellied copper-striped skinks (Emoia cyanura), 1 Bulolo River forest skink (Emoia guttata), 6 dark-bellied copper-striped skinks (Emoia impar), 5 Papua five-striped skinks (Emoia jakati), 2 Papua slender treeskinks (Emoia kordoana), 3 Papua robust treeskinks (Emoia longicauda), 1 brown-backed forest skink (Emoia loveridgei), 3 Papua black-sided skinks (Emoia pallidiceps), 2 Papua white-spotted skinks (Emoia physicae), 2 Papua yellow-head skinks (Emoia popei), 1 Papua brown forest skink (Emoia submetallica), and 5 Fiji barred treeskinks (Emoia trossula) Species of Eimeria (Ei.) were detected from these Emoia (Em.) spp. and are described here as new. Oocysts of Eimeria iovai n. sp. from Em. pallidiceps from PNG were ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall (L × W) 26.5 × 18.1 μm, with a length/width ratio (L/W) of 1.1. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a fragmented polar granule was present. This eimerian also was found in Em. atrocostata from PNG. Oocysts of Eimeria kirkpatricki n. sp. from Em. atrocostata from PNG were ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall, 18.6 × 13.5 μm, L/W 1.4. A micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a fragmented polar granule was present. This eimerian was also shared by Em. cyanura from the Cook Islands and Fiji, Em. impar from the Cook Islands, Em. loveridgei from PNG, Em. pallidiceps from PNG, Em. popei from PNG, and Em. submetallica from PNG. Oocysts of Eimeria stevejayuptoni n. sp. from Em. longicauda were subspheroidal to ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall, 18.7 × 16.6 μm, L/W 1.1. A micropyle and oocyst residuum

  16. Qualitative Research to Design Sustainable Community-Based Surveillance for Rabies in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Brookes, Victoria J; Kennedy, Emma; Dhagapan, Phillipa; Ward, Michael P

    2017-01-01

    Given the proximity and recent spread of rabies in Indonesia, effective rabies surveillance in dogs is a priority in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea (PNG). Reporting of potential cases requires community engagement; therefore, the value and acceptability of such a system is critical to ensure sustainable surveillance. We used qualitative research methods to identify factors that influence the acceptability and value of community-based rabies surveillance. Thirty-two semi-structured interviews were conducted with informants in 16 communities in East Arnhem, the Northern Peninsula Area, the Torres Strait in Australia, and in Western Province, PNG. Thematic analysis identified common themes including the importance of verbal communication, particularly via radio, community meetings, and direct conversation. We also found that dogs have high value to community members through connection to culture, economic (especially hunting), and companionship. The greatest barrier to the reporting of sick dogs was insufficient veterinary services and the subsequent lack of treatment response. In some regions, acceptance that sick dogs are a normal daily occurrence and lack of trust of authorities were also barriers to reporting. The findings from this study will be used to design sustainable rabies surveillance in Northern Australia and PNG by utilizing traditional communication channels and building on existing and valued animal-management services. The methods and findings of this study complement previous quantitative research, so as to target surveillance to high-risk areas within these regions.

  17. Optimization and Flight Schedules of Pioneer Routes in Papua Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronting, Y.; Adisasmita, S. A.; Hamid, S.; Hustim, M.

    2018-04-01

    The province of Papua has a very varied topography, ranging from swampy lowlands, hills, and plateaus up steep hills. The total area of land is 410,660 km2, which consists of 28 counties and one city, 389 districts and 5.420 villages. The population of Papua Province in 2017 was 3.265.202 people with an average growth of 4.21% per year. The transportation services is still low, especially in the mountainous region, which is isolated and could only be reached by an air transportation mode, causing a considerable price disparity between coastal and mountainous areas. The purpose of this paper is to develop the route optimization and pioneer flight schedules models as an airbridge. This research is conducted by collecting primary data and secondary data. Data is based on field surveys; interviews; discussions with airport authority, official government, etc; and also from various agencies. The analytical tools used to optimization flight schedule and route are analyzed by add-in solver in Microsoft Excel. The results of the analysis we can get a more optimal route so that it can save transportation costs by 7.26%.

  18. Panoramic Sinai Peninsula, Red Sea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-10-13

    An excellent panoramic view of the entire Sinai Peninsula (29.0N, 34.0E) and the nearby Nile River Delta and eastern Mediterranean coastal region. The Suez Canal, at the top of the scene just to the right of the Delta, connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Gulf of Suez on the west side of the Sinai Peninsula and the Gulf of Aqaba is on the west where they both flow into the Red Sea. At upper right, is the Dead Sea, Jordan River and Lake Tiberius.

  19. The gastrointestinal helminths of Rattus niobe (Rodentia: Muridae) with descriptions of two new genera and three new species (Nematoda) from Papua New Guinea and Papua Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Smales, L R

    2016-05-31

    Cestodes, to be identified elsewhere, the acanthocephalan Moniliformis moniliformis and 15 species of nematode including 2 new genera, a new species and 2 putative new species from the families Heligmonellidae and Oxyuridae, as well as juveniles and a putative heligmonellid that could not be fully identified, were collected from the digestive tracts of 34 Rattus niobe (Muridae: Murinae: Rattini) from Papua, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. The ascaridid, Toxocara mackerrasae, the chabertiid Cyclodontostomum purvisi, the heterakid Heterakis sp., the spirurids Protospirura kaindiensis and P. muricola the subulurid Subulura andersoni and the trichurids Eucoleus sp. and Trichuris muris have been reported previously from endemic Rattus spp. Syphacia (Syphacia) niobe n. sp. was distinguished from its congeners by a combination of characters including a round cephalic plate, the lack of cervical and lateral alae, a longer male tail and an attenuated female tail. Nugininema titokis n. gen., n. sp. differs from all other genera in the Heligmonellidae in the characters of the synlophe, 10-17 ridges orientated subfrontally at mid body and 2 right ventral ridges hypertrophied anteriorly. Rodentanema aenigma n. gen., n. sp. differs from all other genera in the Heligmonellidae in the characters of the synlophe 6-7 ridges at mid body not symmetrical in relation to frontal axis. Species richness of the nematode assemblage was similar to that reported for Rattus leucopus in Papua New Guinea, with about 90% of possible species found as indicated by bootstrap analysis. Species composition included 6 species unique to R. niobe and 7 species reported from at least one other species of Rattus indigenous to New Guinea, as well as juvenile worms, probably ascaridids.

  20. Situation Reports--Barbados, Canada, Papua and New Guinea, St. Vincent, Surinam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in six countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Barbados, Canada, Papua and New Guinea, St. Vincent, and Surinam. Information is provided in the following areas where appropriate and if it is available: (1) statistics on population, birth and death rates, G. N. P.,…

  1. Gastrointestinal helminths (Cestoda, Chabertiidae and Heligmonellidae) of Pogonomys loriae and Pogonomys macrourus (Rodentia: Muridae) from Papua Indonesia and Papua New Guinea with the description of a new genus and two new species.

    PubMed

    Smales, L R

    2014-11-28

    Pieces of cestode, not indentified further, and 12 species of nematode including 1 new genus, 3 new species and 7 putative new species from the Families Chabertiidae and Heligmonellidae were collected from the digestive tracts of 16 Pogonomys loriae and 19 P. macrurous (Murinae: Hydromyini) from Papua, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. The chabertiid Cyclodontostomum purvisi and the heligmonellid Odilia mackerrasae have been described previously from endemic murids. Hasanuddinia pogonomyos n. sp. can be distinguished from its congeners by the number of ridges in the synlophe, length of spicules and having a vagina with a dorsal diverticulum. Odilia dividua n. sp. is larger than its congeners, has a longer oesophagus, relatively shorter spicules and larger eggs. Pogonomystrongylus domaensis n. gen., n. sp. differs from all other genera in the Heligmonellidae in the characters of the synlophe, 7-10 ridges oriented sub frontally with a single left ventral ridge hypertrophied. Species richness of the nematode assemblages of P. loriae and P. macrourus are comparable to those of Abeomelomys sevia, Chiruromys vates and Coccymys rummleri when numbers of hosts examined are considered. Species composition was distinctive with 12, including the 7 putative species, of 14 species presently known only from species of Pogonomys. Similarities between the nematode fauna of endemic rodent hosts from Indonesia and Papua New Guinea were noted.

  2. Navigating Contested Terrain: Vernacular Education in a Papua New Guinean Village

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troolin, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a case study of language development in rural Papua New Guinea, in which parents felt the local school was not meeting the educational needs of their children. In this case study, the local, national and global narratives concerning use of the vernacular in education were apparent in the negotiation leading to an apparent…

  3. The Costs of Children: Perceptions of Australian and Papua New Guinean Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilks, Jeffrey; Callan, Victor J.

    1984-01-01

    Compared the perceptions of 281 Papua New Guinean students and 329 Australian students of the economic and psychological costs of having children. Australians gave high ratings to the importance of financial and emotional costs, while New Guinea students were more aware of overpopulation and restrictions on parents. (JAC)

  4. Cholera risk factors, Papua New Guinea, 2010

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cholera is newly emergent in Papua New Guinea but may soon become endemic. Identifying the risk factors for cholera provides evidence for targeted prevention and control measures. Methods We conducted a hospital-based case–control study to identify cholera risk factors. Using stool culture as the standard, we evaluated a cholera point of care test in the field. Results 176 participants were recruited: 54 cases and 122 controls. Independent risk factors for cholera were: being over 20 years of age (aOR 2.5; 95%CI 1.1, 5.4), defecating in the open air (or river) (aOR 4.5; 95% CI 1.4, 14.4) and knowing someone who travelled to a cholera affected area (aOR 4.1; 95%CI 1.6, 10.7); while the availability of soap for handwashing at home was protective (aOR 0.41; 95%CI 0.19, 0.87). Those reporting access to a piped water distribution system in the home were twice as likely to report the availability of soap for handwashing. The sensitivity and specificity of the rapid test were 72% (95% CI 47–90) and 71% (95%CI 44–90%). Conclusions Improving population access to the piped water distribution system and sanitation will likely reduce transmission by enabling enhanced hygiene and limiting the contamination of water sources. The One step V. cholerae O1/O139 Antigen Test is of limited utility for clinical decision making in a hospital setting with access to traditional laboratory methods. Settlement dwellers and mobile populations of all age groups should be targeted for interventions in Papua New Guinea. PMID:23126504

  5. Four new species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Emoia spp. Skinks (Sauria: Scincidae), from Papua New Guinea and the Insular Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Austin, Christopher C.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2017-01-01

    Between September and November 1991, 54 adult skinks from 15 species were collected by hand or blowpipe from several localities on Rarotonga, Cook Islands, Ovalau Island, Fiji, and Papua New Guinea (PNG), and their feces were examined for coccidians. Species included 5 seaside skinks (Emoia atrocostata), 1 Pacific blue-tailed skink (Emoia caeroleocauda), 2 Fiji slender treeskinks (Emoia concolor), 15 white-bellied copper-striped skinks (Emoia cyanura), 1 Bulolo River forest skink (Emoia guttata), 6 dark-bellied copper-striped skinks (Emoia impar), 5 Papua five-striped skinks (Emoia jakati), 2 Papua slender treeskinks (Emoia kordoana), 3 Papua robust treeskinks (Emoia longicauda), 1 brown-backed forest skink (Emoia loveridgei), 3 Papua black-sided skinks (Emoia pallidiceps), 2 Papua white-spotted skinks (Emoia physicae), 2 Papua yellow-head skinks (Emoia popei), 1 Papua brown forest skink (Emoia submetallica), and 5 Fiji barred treeskinks (Emoia trossula) Species of Eimeria (Ei.) were detected from these Emoia (Em.) spp. and are described here as new. Oocysts of Eimeria iovai n. sp. from Em. pallidiceps from PNG were ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall (L × W) 26.5 × 18.1 μm, with a length/width ratio (L/W) of 1.1. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a fragmented polar granule was present. This eimerian also was found in Em. atrocostata from PNG. Oocysts of Eimeria kirkpatricki n. sp. from Em. atrocostata from PNG were ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall, 18.6 × 13.5 μm, L/W 1.4. A micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a fragmented polar granule was present. This eimerian was also shared by Em. cyanura from the Cook Islands and Fiji, Em. imparfrom the Cook Islands, Em. loveridgei from PNG, Em. pallidicepsfrom PNG, Em. popei from PNG, and Em. submetallica from PNG. Oocysts of Eimeria stevejayuptoni n. sp. from Em. longicaudawere subspheroidal to ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall, 18.7 × 16.6 μm, L/W 1.1. A

  6. Leadership Styles of New Ireland High School Administrators: A Papua New Guinea Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tivinarlik, Alfred; Wanat, Carolyn L.

    2006-01-01

    This yearlong ethnographic study of principals' leadership in Papua New Guinea high schools describes influences of imposing a bureaucratic school organization on principals' decision making in a communal society. Communal values of kinship relationships, "wantok" system, and "big men" leadership challenged principals'…

  7. Presque Isle Peninsula, Erie, Pennsylvania. Volume I. Main Report. Revised.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    PRESQUE ISLE PENINSULA, ERIE , PENNSYLVANIA . Memorandum includimg~nviron- 1.6... Pennsylvania THE SECRETARY OF THE ARMY 1. I submit for transmission to Congress my report on Presque Isle Peninsula, Erie , Pennsylvania . It is...advanced engineering and design of the project for beach erosion control for Presque Isle Peninsula at Erie , Pennsylvania . 2. The District and

  8. A Collaborative Governance Approach to Improving Tertiary Education in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eldridge, Kaye; Larry, Lisa; Baird, Jeanette; Kavanamur, David

    2018-01-01

    Tertiary education in Papua New Guinea (PNG) is in a critical state, as the sector struggles to address increased demand for student places with severely curtailed capacity. Recent thinking about improving public services in PNG has emphasized "whole of sector" or collaborative governance. Such an approach in tertiary education has the…

  9. The history of Antarctic Peninsula glaciation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, Peter F.

    2007-01-01

    As Co-Chief Scientist on DSDP Leg 35 in 1974, Cam Craddock (1930-2006) produced the first useful information on Cenozoic Antarctic Peninsula glaciation - an early middle Miocene (15-17 Ma) apparent glacial onset. Subsequent work, onshore and offshore, has greatly extended our knowledge but that early conclusion stands today. Cenozoic Antarctic Peninsula palaeoclimate as presently known is broadly consistent with global palaeoclimate proxies. Initial glacial onset was within the Eocene-Oligocene boundary interval (although earlier, short-lived glaciations have been proposed, from indirect measurements) and the peninsula probably became deglaciated in the earliest Miocene (ca. 24 Ma). The renewed middle Miocene glaciation probably continued to the present and, for the last 9 Myr at least, has persisted through glacial (orbital) cycles, with grounded ice advance to the shelf edge during maxima. Although orbital cyclicity affected earlier AP palaeoclimate also, the level of glaciation through a complete cycle is uncertain.

  10. The work of Glendon Lean on the counting systems of Papua New Guinea and Oceania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Kay

    2001-04-01

    Glendon Lean collated data on nearly 900 counting systems of Papua New Guinea, Oceania, and Irian Jaya (West Papua). Lean's data came from a questionnaire completed by students and talks with village elders. He read old documents written in English, German, and Dutch. He made comparisons between older and new accounts of the counting systems and compared neighbouring counting systems from both Austronesian and non-Austronesian languages. His work drew attention to the rich diversity of the systems and suggested that systems based on body parts and cyclic systems developed spontaneously. Digit tally systems were also relatively common. Lean's thesis on spontaneous developments of these ancient cultures challenged traditional theories describing the spread of number systems from Middle East cultures.

  11. Management and utilization of forest resources in Papua New Guinea

    Treesearch

    P.B.L. Srivastava

    1992-01-01

    Papua New Guinea, with an area of about 46.7 million ha and population of 3.7 million, is blessed with a large natural forest resource. Over 80 percent of the land is covered with forests of various types, ranging from swamp and lowland rain forests in coastal plains to alpine vegetation and moss forests in the highlands, most of which are owned by the people. About 15...

  12. Relationship between markers of inflammation and anaemia in children of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Shinoda, Naomi; Sullivan, Kevin M; Tripp, Katie; Erhardt, Jürgen G; Haynes, Bridgette M H; Temple, Victor J; Woodruff, Bradley

    2013-02-01

    To assess the association of the acute-phase protein biomarkers, C-reactive protein (CRP) and α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), with anaemia in children aged 6-59·9 months in Papua New Guinea. A nationally representative household-based cross-sectional survey of children aged 6-59·9 months was used to assess the relationships between various combinations of elevated CRP (>5 mg/l) and AGP (>1·2 g/l) with anaemia. Logistic regression was used to determine if other factors, such as age, sex, measures of anthropometry, region, urban/rural residence and household size, modified or confounded the acute-phase protein-anaemia association. Papua New Guinea. A total of 870 children aged 6-59·9 months from the 2005 Papua New Guinea National Micronutrient Survey were assessed. The following prevalence estimates were found: anaemia 48 %; elevated CRP 32 %; and elevated AGP 33 %. Children with elevated CRP had a prevalence of anaemia of 66 % compared with children with normal CRP who had a prevalence of 40 %. Corresponding estimates for AGP were 61 % and 42 %, respectively. Similar results were found with combinations of elevated CRP and AGP. The higher prevalence of anaemia in children with elevated CRP and/or AGP was still present after controlling for confounders. Elevated levels of CRP and AGP were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of anaemia in the children surveyed. There are no expert group recommendations on whether to or how to account for markers of inflammation in presenting results on anaemia prevalence. Additional research would be helpful to clarify this issue.

  13. Educating Soldier-Citizens: Conscripted Teachers in Papua New Guinea 1966-1973

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dymock, Darryl

    2017-01-01

    Between 1965 and 1972, the Australian Government undertook a scheme of National Service, selecting 20-year-old men by ballot for 2-year terms in the Australian Army. Almost 64,000 men were called up, including some 300 school teachers who were posted to the Territory of Papua and New Guinea (TPNG) with the Royal Australian Army Educational Corps,…

  14. English and Tok Pisin (New Guinea Pidgin English) in Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romaine, Suzanne

    1989-01-01

    Tok Pisin, New Guinea Pidgin English, is becoming increasingly important as a "lingua franca" in Papua New Guinea, even though English is the country's official language. Urban versus rural and spoken versus written varieties of the pidgin are examined, and the influence of English on Tok Pisin is investigated. 73 references. (Author/CB)

  15. Revitalisation of Indigenous Languages in Education: Contextualising the Papua New Guinea Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove

    2003-01-01

    Situates two papers on Papua New Guinea in the context of discussion about maintenance and revitalization of endangered languages and about education through the medium of indigenous and minority languages. The articles are "What Is Our Culture? What Is Our Language? Dialogue Towards the Maintenance of Indigenous Culture and Language in Papua…

  16. Peninsula Academies Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sequoia Union High School District, Redwood City, CA.

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: The Peninsula Academies program helps educationally disadvantaged youth overcome the handicaps of low academic achievement, lack of skills, and chronic unemployment. This is accomplished by providing a high school curriculum that is clearly related to work, training in specific job skills, emphasis…

  17. Common themes in the literature on traditional medicine in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, Joan

    2009-01-01

    A review of the literature on traditional medical practices and beliefs in Papua New Guinea (PNG) was conducted in order to provide context and background information for the Department of Health's National Policy on Traditional Medicine for Papua New Guinea. The literature review examined accounts that refer to all 19 provinces and 50 different cultural groups. PNG is renowned for its cultural diversity and it was evident in the literature review that many beliefs and practices are specific to particular cultural groups. Many cultural groups adopt unique practices based on their own specific explanations of illness. At the same time, the review identified a number of commonalities in concepts of health and illness, treatment-seeking behaviour and reactions to the introduction of western medicine among Papua New Guineans from different geographic areas. Both the diversity and the commonalities provide context and background for the National Policy that was approved by the National Executive Committee in March 2007 and officially launched in April 2009. The commonalities are pertinent to the policy on a national level while the diversity must be considered when the policy is implemented at the local level. Summarizing the commonalities between different cultural groups illuminates central belief and behaviour constructs relating to health and illness. Ideas and similarities in practice or perceptions relating to traditional medicine in PNG that are common across a number of provinces are the subject of this paper. The most common features include a belief in the power of sorcery, which is universal, the importance of adherence to customary law and the healing power of herbs and incantation. These findings are a working draft of the expected norms of traditional medicine in PNG, which can be tested and refined during the process of implementing the National Policy, which, it should be noted, explicitly excludes the use of sorcery.

  18. Implementing a New Model for Teachers' Professional Learning in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honan, Eileen; Evans, Terry; Muspratt, Sandy; Paraide, Patricia; Reta, Medi; Baroutsis, Aspa

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a study that investigates the possibilities of developing a professional learning model based on action research that could lead to sustained improvements in teaching and learning in schools in remote areas of Papua New Guinea. The issues related to the implementation of this model are discussed using a critical lens that…

  19. Modernity, Prestige, and Self-Promotion: Literacy in a Papua New Guinean Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeown, Eamonn

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I examine patterns of literacy use in the daily life a rural community in the Papua New Guinea highlands. It is demonstrated that many of these practices do not correspond to the ways in which agencies responsible for imparting literacy, particularly the local school, intend. Instead, village concepts of prestige, chance, and…

  20. Lake Murray, Fly and Strickland River Basins, Papua, New Guinea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-12-01

    Lake Murray, a manmade reservoir, lies between the Fly and Strickland River Basins, Papua, New Guinea (7.0S, 141.5E). The region, photographed in sunglint, shows the water level in the reservoir and the full extent of the drainage basins of both river systems as the rivers meander through wide alluvial floodplains. Some forest clearing can be seen in places throughout the region, but most of the area remains in closed canopy forest.

  1. Anaglyph, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-03-06

    This anaglyph of Mexico Yucatan Peninsula was generated from NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission data, and shows a subtle but distinctive indication of the Chicxulub impact crater. 3D glasses are necessary to view this image.

  2. Prevalence of Henipavirus and Rubulavirus Antibodies in Pteropid Bats, Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Breed, Andrew C.; Yu, Meng; Barr, Jennifer A.; Crameri, Gary; Thalmann, Claudia M.

    2010-01-01

    To determine seroprevalence of viruses in bats in Papua New Guinea, we sampled 66 bats at 3 locations. We found a seroprevalence of 55% for henipavirus (Hendra or Nipah virus) and 56% for rubulavirus (Tioman or Menangle virus). Notably, 36% of bats surveyed contained antibodies to both types of viruses, indicating concurrent or consecutive infection. PMID:21122242

  3. Colonial Legacies and Neo-Colonial Practices in Papua New Guinean Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papoutsaki, Evangelia; Rooney, Dick

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the Westernization of academic quality within the Papua New Guinea higher education system and the hybridity of the university sector where different actors force knowledge to be created for the needs of a small, formal economy, rather than for the development needs of the country. The country has yet to find a system that best…

  4. Higher Education, the Universities and Secondary Teacher Training in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, W. P.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to trace the growth of secondary and higher education in Papua New Guinea from its beginnings through the United Nations mission led by Sir Hugh Foot in 1962. The mission was most disappointed in the rate of educational progress in the territory of New Guinea which remained under United Nations mandate in the…

  5. A High Burden of Asymptomatic Gastrointestinal Infections in Traditional Communities in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Horwood, Paul F; Soli, Kevin W; Maure, Tobias; Naito, Yuichi I; Morita, Ayako; Natsuhara, Kazumi; Tadokoro, Kiyoshi; Baba, Jun; Odani, Shingo; Tomitsuka, Eriko; Igai, Katsura; Larkins, Jo-Ann; Siba, Peter M; Pomat, William; McBryde, Emma S; Umezaki, Masahiro; Greenhill, Andrew R

    2017-12-01

    Stool samples were collected from 148 healthy adults living a traditional subsistence lifestyle in Papua New Guinea and screened for enteric pathogens using real-time RT-PCR/PCR assays. Enteric pathogens were detected in a high proportion (41%) of individuals. Clear differences were observed in the detection of pathogens between highland and lowland communities. In particular, there was a marked difference in detection rates of norovirus GII (20% and 0%, respectively) and Shigella sp. (15% and 0%, respectively). Analysis of the relationship between enteric pathogen carriage and microbial community composition of participants, using box plots to compare specific normal flora population numbers, did not suggest that gut microbial composition was directly associated with pathogen carriage. This study suggests that enteric pathogens are common in healthy individuals in Papua New Guinean highland communities, presumably acting as a reservoir of infection and thus contributing to a high burden of gastrointestinal illnesses.

  6. Crustal parameters in the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banda, E.

    1988-06-01

    The structure of the crust in the Iberian Peninsula has been investigated for the last 15 years by Spanish and Portuguese groups in close collaboration with other European institutions. The first experiments were carried out in Portugal (Mueller et al., 1973) with the aim of investigating the crustal structure of the Hercynian belt in the southwest corner of the Iberian peninsula. Other experiments have been subsequently realized to study different aspects of the crust in various regions of Portugal. In Spain the main effort has been focused in Alpine areas, with the first experiments in the Alboran Sea and the Betic Cordilleras (Working Group for Deep Seismic Sounding in Spain, 1974-1975, 1977; Working Group for Deep Seismic Sounding in the Alboran Sea, 1974-1975, 1978). Follow-up experiments until 1981 completed the work in the Betic Cordillera. Extensive experiments were carried out in the Pyrenees in 1978. Further surveys covered the Balearic Islands in 1976, the Valencia Trough in 1976 and 1983, and the Celtiberian Chain (or Iberic system) in 1981. The Hercynian belt has only been studied in detail in the northwest corner of Spain in 1982, with smaller studies in the central Iberian Massif in 1976 and 1986. Mostaanpour (1984) has compiled some crustal parameters (crustal thickness, average crustal velocity and Pn velocity) for western Europe. Meanwhile, more complete data are available for the Iberian Peninsula. The results presented here were derived from a large number of seismic refraction experiments which have been carried out mostly along or close to coastal areas of the Iberian Peninsula. Offshore explosions of various sizes were used as the energy source in most cases, in addition to some quarry blasts. Unfortunately this leaves most of the inner part of the Iberian Peninsula unsurveyed. Our purpose is to summarize some of the crustal parameters obtained so far and to detail the appropriate literature for the interested reader.

  7. 76 FR 24457 - Kenai Peninsula-Anchorage Borough Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... Peninsula--Anchorage Borough Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Kenai Peninsula--Anchorage Borough Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Portage...

  8. Three cases of neonatal tetanus in Papua New Guinea lead to development of national action plan for maternal and neonatal tetanus elimination

    PubMed Central

    Barnabas, Roland; Sitther, Adeline; Guarenti, Laura; Toikilik, Steven; Kariwiga, Grace; Sui, Gerard Pai

    2013-01-01

    Maternal or neonatal tetanus causes deaths primarily in Asia and Africa and is usually the result of poor hygiene during delivery. In 2011, three neonatal tetanus cases were investigated in Papua New Guinea, and all three cases were delivered at home by untrained assistants. The babies were normal at birth but subsequently developed spasms. A neonatal tetanus case must be viewed as a sentinel event indicating a failure of public health services including immunization, antenatal care and delivery care. The confirmation of these cases led to the drafting of the Papua New Guinea National Action Plan for Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination. This included three rounds of a tetanus toxoid supplementary immunization campaign targeting women of childbearing age (WBCA) and strengthening of other clean delivery practices. The first immunization round was conducted in April and May 2012, targeting 1.6 million WBCA and achieved coverage of 77%. The government of Papua New Guinea should ensure detailed investigation of all neonatal tetanus cases reported in the health information system and perform subprovincial analysis of tetanus toxoid coverage following completion of all three immunization rounds. Efforts also should be made to strengthen clean delivery practices to help eliminate maternal and neonatal tetanus in Papua New Guinea. PMID:24015370

  9. Cognitive Studies with Students in Papua New Guinea. E.R.U. Report 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John

    Students in Papua New Guinea experience considerable difficulty in dealing with much of their work--especially in science and mathematics. The ability to achieve some acknowledged level of excellence is dependent upon cognitive factors. During 1972 a series of pilot studies were carried out in various secondary and tertiary institutions to…

  10. Interdecadal variation of precipitation days in August in the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jae-Won; Cha, Yumi; Kim, Hae-Dong

    2017-03-01

    The present study examines a climate regime shift in the time series of the number of rainy days during August in the Korean Peninsula. The statistical change-point analysis indicates that a significant shift occurred in the time series around 1998, providing a rationale to divide it into two parts: 1975-1997 for the shorter rainy-day period and 1998-2012 for the longer rainy-day period. To examine the cause of recent rapid increases in the number of days with precipitation in August in the Korean Peninsula, differences in the averages of large-scale environments between the 1998-2012 period and the 1975-1997 period were analyzed. The differences in stream flows showed that anomalous cyclones were reinforced in the East Asian continent while anomalous anticyclones were reinforced in the western North Pacific at all layers of the troposphere. The anomalous anticyclones reinforced in the western North Pacific were associated with the western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH) developed a little more toward the Korean Peninsula recently. Consequently, the Korean Peninsula has been affected by anomalous south westerlies that supplied warm and humid airs from low tropical regions to the Korean Peninsula. The vertical thermal instability (warm anomaly at lower-level and cold anomaly at middle and upper-level) developed near the Korean Peninsula. In addition, upper tropospheric jets were reinforced further recently near the Korean Peninsula to provide good environments for development of upward flows. The frequency of TCs that affect the Korean Peninsula in August also increased rapidly since 1998.

  11. HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATION IN THE TAIMYR PENINSULA, SIBERIAN ARCTIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Taimyr Peninsula is directly north of the world's largest heavy metal smelting complex (Norilsk, Russia). Despite this proximity, there has been little research to examine the extent of contamination of the Taimyr Peninsula, primarily because of the remoteness of this area. W...

  12. The Inclusion of Inclusive Education in International Development: Lessons from Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Fanu, Guy

    2013-01-01

    A new "inclusive" curriculum has been introduced in Papua New Guinea, with significant levels of support from a bilateral development agency. The curriculum is inclusive in the sense that it is designed to meet the diverse, complex, and ever-changing needs of students. Research indicates the curriculum has been shaped by various…

  13. New Insights into the present-day kinematics of the central and western Papua New Guinea from GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koulali, A.; Tregoning, P.; McClusky, S.; Stanaway, R.; Wallace, L.; Lister, G.

    2015-08-01

    New Guinea is a region characterized by rapid oblique convergence between the Pacific and Australian tectonic plates. The detailed tectonics of the region, including the partitioning of relative block motions and fault slip rates within this complex boundary plate boundary zone are still not well understood. In this study, we quantify the distribution of the deformation throughout the central and western parts of Papua New Guinea (PNG) using 20 yr of GPS data (1993-2014). We use an elastic block model to invert the regional GPS velocities as well as earthquake slip vectors for the location and rotation rates of microplate Euler poles as well as fault slip parameters in the region. Convergence between the Pacific and the Australian plates is accommodated in northwestern PNG largely by the New Guinea Trench with rates exceeding 90 mm yr-1, indicating that this is the major active interplate boundary. However, some convergent deformation is partitioned into a shear component with ˜12 per cent accommodated by the Bewani-Torricelli fault zone and the southern Highlands Fold-and-Thrust Belt. New GPS velocities in the eastern New Guinea Highlands region have led to the identification of the New Guinea Highlands and the Papuan Peninsula being distinctly different blocks, separated by a boundary through the Aure Fold-and-Thrust Belt complex which accommodates an estimated 4-5 mm yr-1 of left-lateral and 2-3 mm yr-1 of convergent motion. This implies that the Highlands Block is rotating in a clockwise direction relative to the rigid Australian Plate, consistent with the observed transition to left-lateral strike-slip regime observed in western New Guinea Highlands. We find a better fit of our block model to the observed velocities when assigning the current active boundary between the Papuan Peninsula and the South Bismark Block to be to the north of the city of Lae on the Gain Thrust, rather than on the more southerly Ramu-Markham fault as previously thought. This may

  14. Interagency Pacific marten (Martes caurina) distribution study on the Olympic Peninsula, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moriarty, Katie; Howell, Betsy; Morozumi, Connor; Happe, Patti; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Aubry, Keith B.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the Pacific marten (Martes caurina) still occurs on the Olympic Peninsula in Washington State. We reviewed recent records of marten observations on the Olympic Peninsula since 1998, and conducted new surveys in undersampled regions of the Olympic Peninsula during summer, 2016. We reviewed evidence of fisher presence from 6 previously reported studies of carnivore distribution and presence on the Olympic Peninsula and conducted new surveys in previously undersampled areas of the Peninsula. We documented five highly reliable records of marten observations on the Pensula since 1988. Further, we established 197 camera stations in search of martens, amassing a total of 17,897 camera-nights of survey efforts in previously undersampled regions. We documented presence of one additional marten during summer 2016. This marten, however, was close to a marten detected in 2015, so it was not clear if it represented a different marten. We concluded that five to six martens have been verified present on the Olympic Peninsula since 1988. Pacific martens appear to be very limited in distribution and at critically low numbers throughout much of their former range on the Olympic Peninsula.

  15. The gut microbiota of rural papua new guineans: composition, diversity patterns, and ecological processes.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Inés; Stegen, James C; Maldonado-Gómez, Maria X; Eren, A Murat; Siba, Peter M; Greenhill, Andrew R; Walter, Jens

    2015-04-28

    Although recent research revealed an impact of westernization on diversity and composition of the human gut microbiota, the exact consequences on metacommunity characteristics are insufficiently understood, and the underlying ecological mechanisms have not been elucidated. Here, we have compared the fecal microbiota of adults from two non-industrialized regions in Papua New Guinea (PNG) with that of United States (US) residents. Papua New Guineans harbor communities with greater bacterial diversity, lower inter-individual variation, vastly different abundance profiles, and bacterial lineages undetectable in US residents. A quantification of the ecological processes that govern community assembly identified bacterial dispersal as the dominant process that shapes the microbiome in PNG but not in the US. These findings suggest that the microbiome alterations detected in industrialized societies might arise from modern lifestyle factors limiting bacterial dispersal, which has implications for human health and the development of strategies aimed to redress the impact of westernization. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fires in Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Numerous thermal anomalies were detected on the Kamchatka Peninsula in northeastern Russia in late June and early July by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Some of the anomalies (red dots) were fires, but at least one was the result of ongoing volcanic activity at one of the Peninsula's numerous active volcanoes. The erupting volcano, called Sheveluch, can be seen most clearly in the image from July 8, 2002. It is located in the upper right quadrant of the image, and appears as a grayish circular patch amid the surrounding green vegetation. In its center is a red dot indicating that MODIS detected a thermal signature coming from the restless volcano. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  17. Knowledge Flow and Capacity Development: A Case of Psychology in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marai, Leo; Haihuie, Samuel; Kavanamur, David

    2005-01-01

    Despite political rhetoric to the contrary, higher education (HE) in Papua New Guinea remains heavily Westernized, resulting in an alienation of HE, and its students, from the development needs of the country. Taking the discipline of psychology as an example, indigenization is not a complete solution to this alienation, since many of the issues…

  18. Evaluating the Professional Learning for "Cultural Mathematics" in Papua New Guinea's Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bino, Vagi; Sakopa, Priscilla; Tau, Kila; Kull, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative data are both being used to evaluate a large project in remote areas of Papua New Guinea. Results from teacher and student questionnaires are yet to be evaluated. The responses from teachers participating in the project workshops are reported here to be extremely positive towards the content and delivery of the…

  19. Tobacco excise and declining tobacco consumption: the case of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, S; Richardson, J

    1990-01-01

    Excise elasticities of demand for non-cigarette tobacco and cigarettes were calculated for Papua New Guinea for the 14 years 1973-86. Respectively, these were -0.50 and -0.71. This means that 10 percent increases in cigarette and non-cigarette tobacco excise are associated with an estimated 7.1 percent fall in demand for cigarettes and a 5 percent decrease in the demand for tobacco. As tax (excise) elasticities would normally be significantly smaller than price elasticities, these results imply that the consumption of cigarettes and tobacco in Papua New Guinea are more responsive to prices than in the United States and other Western countries. The level of excise is therefore an important and practical instrument for the control of consumption. These elasticities appear to be the first reported for a developing country. It is suggested that if they are indicative of consumer behavior in lower income countries then increasing tobacco and cigarette excise should be considered as an important strategy for the control of smoking in these countries which, because of their large populations, are huge markets for tobacco products and thus major targets for tobacco control measures. PMID:2327528

  20. Variable glacier response to atmospheric warming, northern Antarctic Peninsula, 1988-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, B. J.; Carrivick, J. L.; Glasser, N. F.; Hambrey, M. J.; Smellie, J. L.

    2012-09-01

    The northern Antarctic Peninsula has recently exhibited ice-shelf disintegration, glacier recession and acceleration. However, the dynamic response of land-terminating, ice-shelf tributary and tidewater glaciers has not yet been quantified or assessed for variability, and there are sparse data for glacier classification, morphology, area, length or altitude. This paper firstly classifies the area, length, altitude, slope, aspect, geomorphology, type and hypsometry of 194 glaciers on Trinity Peninsula, Vega Island and James Ross Island in 2009 AD. Secondly, this paper documents glacier change 1988-2009. In 2009, the glacierised area was 8140±262 km2. From 1988-2001, 90% of glaciers receded, and from 2001-2009, 79% receded. This equates to an area change of -4.4% for Trinity Peninsula eastern coast glaciers, -0.6% for western coast glaciers, and -35.0% for ice-shelf tributary glaciers from 1988-2001. Tidewater glaciers on the drier, cooler eastern Trinity Peninsula experienced fastest shrinkage from 1988-2001, with limited frontal change after 2001. Glaciers on the western Trinity Peninsula shrank less than those on the east. Land-terminating glaciers on James Ross Island shrank fastest in the period 1988-2001. This east-west difference is largely a result of orographic temperature and precipitation gradients across the Antarctic Peninsula, with warming temperatures affecting the precipitation-starved glaciers on the eastern coast more than on the western coast. Reduced shrinkage on the western Peninsula may be a result of higher snowfall, perhaps in conjunction with the fact that these glaciers are mostly grounded. Rates of area loss on the eastern side of Trinity Peninsula are slowing, which we attribute to the floating ice tongues receding into the fjords and reaching a new dynamic equilibrium. The rapid shrinkage of tidewater glaciers on James Ross Island is likely to continue because of their low elevations and flat profiles. In contrast, the higher and steeper

  1. Drought variability and change across the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coll, Joan Ramon; Aguilar, Enric

    2015-04-01

    Drought variability and change is assessed in this study across the Iberian Peninsula along the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century using state of the art drought indices: the Sc-PDSI, the SPI and the SPEI. Daily temperature and precipitation data from 24 time-series regularly spread over Iberian Peninsula are quality controlled and also homogenized in a monthly scale to create the Monthly Iberian Temperature and Precipitation Series (MITPS) for the period 1906-2010. The Sc-PDSI, the 12-month SPI and 12-month SPEI are computed on a monthly basis using the newly MITPS dataset to identify dry and wet conditions across time. Precipitation data is only required to compute SPI, but potential evapotranspiration (PET) is also needed to perform the Sc-PDSI and SPEI, which is estimated using the Tornthwaite's method. The analysis conducted in this study confirms that drought conditions are worsening for most of the Iberian Peninsula across time strongly induced by global warming especially during the last three decades. All drought indices have found a drying trend in the Pyrenees, Ebro basin, central Iberia and in the south and south-eastern area while a wetting trend is identified in the western and in the north-western region. Future projections also indicate a clear increase in hydrological drought conditions along the 21st century, thus, water saving and the application of effective water management strategies will be crucial to minimize the impact of hydrological droughts over the Iberian Peninsula into the near future. KEY WORDS: Drought, climate change, Iberian Peninsula, drought indices.

  2. Geology of Seward Peninsula and Saint Lawrence Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Till, Alison B.; Dumoulin, Julie A.

    1994-01-01

    Seward Peninsula (Fig. 1) may be divided into two geologic terranes (Fig. 2) on the basis of stratigraphy, structure, and metamorphic history. The Seward terrane, an area 150 by 150 km in the central and eastern peninsula, is dominated by Precambrian(?) and early Paleozoic blueschist-, greenschist-, and amphibolite-facies schist and marble, and intruded by three suites of granitic rocks. The York terrane, roughly 100 by 75 km, occupies western Seward Peninsula and the Bering Straits region; it is composed of Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Mississippian, and possibly older limestone, argillaceous limestone, dolostone, and phyllite, which are cut by a suite of Late Cretaceous tin-bearing granites. The boundary between the Seward and York terranes is poorly exposed but is thought to be a major thrust fault because of its sinuous map trace, a discontinuity in metamorphic grade, and differences in stratigraphy across the boundary (Travis Hudson, oral communication, 1984). The boundary between the Seward terrane and the Yukon-Koyukuk province to the east is complicated by vertical faults (the Kugruk fault Zone of Sainsbury, 1974) and obscured by Cretaceous and Tertiary cover.The Seward Peninsula heretofore was thought to consist largely of rocks of Precambrian age (Sainsbury, 1972, 1974, 1975; Hudson, 1977), Microfossil data, however, indicate that many of the rocks considered to be Precambrian are early Paleozoic in age (Till and others, 1986; Dumoulin and Harris, 1984; Dumoulin and Till, 1985; Till and others, 1983; Wandervoort, 1985). It is likely that Precambrian rocks are a minor part of the stratigraphy of the Seward Peninsula.

  3. Elementary Teacher Education in Papua New Guinea: Towards a Culturally Connected Perspective of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahambu, Casper; Brownlee, Joanne M.; Petriwskyj, E. Anne

    2012-01-01

    Global and national agendas for quality education have led to reforms in Papua New Guinea's (PNG) elementary education, but criticism of the learner-centred Western pedagogies has emerged. One key influence on quality teacher education relates to perspectives of teaching. Existing research shows teachers' beliefs and perceptions of teaching…

  4. Raman spectroscopy of detrital garnet from the (U)HP terrane of eastern Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andò, Sergio; Baldwin, Suzanne L.; Fitzgerald, Paul G.; Malusà, Marco G.; Aliatis, Irene; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Garzanti, Eduardo

    2013-04-01

    Garnet is one of the most widespread heavy minerals in sediments derived from orogenic systems. Its chemical composition varies systematically with temperature and pressure conditions, and thus provides information on the metamorphic evolution of source areas that is crucial in tectonic and geodynamic reconstructions. Garnet is easily identified in mineral grain mounts and is relatively stable during burial diagenesis. Raman spectroscopy allows rapid determination of garnet compositions in grain mounts or thin sections of sand and sandstone samples, and can be used to assess their density and chemical composition quite accurately ("MIRAGEM" method of Bersani et al., 2009; Andò et al., 2009). In the D'Entrecastreaux Islands of southeastern Papua New Guinea, the world's youngest (U)HP rocks are exposed. There, mafic rocks and their felsic host gneisses were metamorphosed under eclogite facies conditions from late Miocene to Pliocene, before being exhumed from depths of ~90 km (Baldwin et al., 2004, 2008). The eclogite preserves a peak assemblage of garnet, omphacite, rutile, phengite and Si02 (Hill and Baldwin, 1993). A coesite-eclogite has been found in one small island outcrop. In order to sample garnet populations representative of a larger geographical area, we sampled and studied a heavy-mineral-dominated placer sand (HMC 80) from a beach from SE Goodenough Island. Garnet grains in beach sand are associated with blue-green to subordinately green-brown amphibole and minor epidote, omphacitic clinopyroxene, titanite, apatite and rutile. The subordinate low-density fraction is feldspatho-quartzose with high-rank metamorphic rock fragments and biotite (Q62 F35 Lm2; MI 360). Detrital garnets are mostly classified as almandine with relatively high Mg and Ca and lacking Mn, typical of the eclogite facies (Win et al., 2007; type Ci garnets of Mange and Morton 2007; Andò et al., 2013). In well-described stratigraphic sequences within syn-and post-tectonic basins

  5. Designing Web-based GIS Application by CSF Method: A Case Study in Boven Digoel Papua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letsoin, Hendrykus Saritangdan; JSantoso, Albertus Joko; Suyoto

    2018-02-01

    Since Boven Digoel Regency was established in 2003, to this day its infrastructures are very limited, the region is still not developed, Human Resources (SDM) and Information and Communication Technology are still manual. The development of Geographic Information System was expected to contribute to ICT development in Papua, particularly Boven Digoel Regency, in displaying data of existing local potentials, e.g. tourism, plantation and forestry. Critical Success Factor Method was the right method in considering factors determining the success of the implementation of a strategy, in good information management and in providing data of local potentials of geographic information system for people in Boven Digoel Regency and the people of Indonesia in general to introduce Boven Digoel Regency, Papua. Framework Laravel with PHP programming language was expected to support Geographic Information System well to determine the distribution of local potentials in Boven Digoel Regency‥

  6. How molecular epidemiology studies can support the National Malaria Control Program in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Koepfli, Cristian; Barry, Alyssa; Javati, Sarah; Timinao, Lincoln; Nate, Elma; Mueller, Ivo; Barnadas, Celine

    2014-01-01

    Papua New Guinea (PNG) is undertaking intensified efforts to control malaria. The National Malaria Control Program aims to reduce the burden of disease by large-scale distribution of insecticide-treated bednets, improved diagnosis and implementation of new treatments. A scientific program monitoring the effect of these interventions, including molecular epidemiology studies, closely accompanies the program. Laboratory assays have been developed in (or transferred to) PNG to measure prevalence of infection and intensity of transmission as well as potential resistance to currently used drugs. These assays help to assess the impact of the National Malaria Control Program, and they reveal a much clearer picture of malaria epidemiology in PNG. In addition, analysis of the geographical clustering of parasites aids in selecting areas where intensified control will be most successful. This paper gives an overview of current research and recently completed studies in the molecular epidemiology of malaria conducted in Papua New Guinea.

  7. Language Choice in an Acutely Multilingual Society: Communication and Development in Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Geoff P.

    Acute intercultural communication problems posed by multilingualism in Papua New Guinea are discussed, and ways in which they are being addressed are examined. An introductory section outlines the language situation in Melanesia. It is noted that the area's language diversity and colonization and missionary activity have resulted in the emergence…

  8. The Spatial Coherence of Interannual Temperature Variations in the Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, John C.; Comiso, Josefino C.; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Over 50 years of observations from climate stations on the west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula show that this is a region of extreme interannual variability in near-surface temperatures. The region has also experienced more rapid warming than any other part of the Southern Hemisphere. In this paper we use a new dataset of satellite-derived surface temperatures to define the extent of the region of extreme variability more clearly than was possible using the sparse station data. The region in which satellite surface temperatures correlate strongly with west Peninsula station temperatures is found to be quite small and is largely confined to the seas just west of the Peninsula, with a northward and eastward extension into the Scotia Sea and a southward extension onto the western slopes of Palmer Land. Correlation of Peninsula surface temperatures with surface temperatures over the rest of continental Antarctica is poor confirming that the west Peninsula is in a different climate regime. The analysis has been used to identify sites where ice core proxy records might be representative of variations on the west coast of the Peninsula. Of the five existing core sites examined, only one is likely to provide a representative record for the west coast.

  9. Surgical capability and surgical pathology in Papua New Guinea in the year 2000.

    PubMed

    Watters, D A; Kapitgau, W M; Kaminiel, P; Liko, O; Kevau, I; Ollapallil, J; Ponifasio, P

    2001-05-01

    Papua New Guinea (PNG) is a country of 4.5 million people with an annual health budget of only 96 million Kina (1K = US$0.35). There are 19 hospitals in the country and national surgeons are now staffing most of these hospitals. This review aims to describe the surgical pathology in the year 2000 and the capability of PNG surgeons to manage it. A review of publications, reports and surgical audit data on surgery in PNG was conducted. Surgical audit has been computerized for over 5 years. The review also draws on personal experience and data from MMed theses submitted to the University of Papua New Guinea. Surgical pathology Surgical practice in PNG remains very general. Late presentation and advanced disease are common. Trauma, infection, malignancy and congenital anomalies dominate the surgical scene. The pattern of disease is different from what is found in the West. Western diseases are emerging with the incidence of appendicectomy rising from 5/100,000 to 75/100,000 in the past 30 years. The incidence of diabetes and gallstones has also risen. Osteoporosis, Colles' and neck of femur fractures are rare. Surgical capability The standard of surgical care is acceptable with a low wound infection rate for clean and clean-contaminated abdominal surgery of 0.9% and an anastomotic leak rate of 1.6%. Transurethral prostatectomy is also being performed to a satisfactory standard for head injuries admitted with a Glasgow Coma Score of 6-8 and a good outcome is achieved in over 70% of cases. Hospital mortality for surgical admissions is 3.7%. Subspecialties in orthopaedics, urology and head and neck surgery have been established. Neurosurgery, paediatric and cardiac surgery are being developed. Priorities for the next decade Papua New Guinea needs to continue to develop surgical subspecialties, particularly paediatric and neurosurgery, while maintaining a broad competence in general surgery. Services for burns, spinal injuries, rehabilitation and oncology need to be

  10. The Resurrection Peninsula ophiolite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Steven W.; Miller, M.L.; Dumoulin, Julie A.; Nelson, Steven W.; Hamilton, Thomas D.

    1989-01-01

    The Resurrection Peninsula forms the east side of Resurrection Bay (fig. 3). Relief ranges from 437 m (1,434 ft) at the southern end of the peninsula to more than 1,463 m (4,800 ft) opposite the head of the bay. All rock units composing the informally named Resurrection Peninsula ophiolite of Nelson and others (1987) are visible or accessible by boat."Ophiolite" has been a geologic term since 1827 (Coleman, 1977). The term "ophiolite" initially referred to the rock serpentinite; the Greek root "ophi" (meaning snake or serpent) alluded to the greenish, mottled, and shiny appearance of serpentinites. In 1927, Steinmann described a rock association in the Alps, sometimes known as the "Steinmann Trinity', consisting of serpentine, diabase and spilitic lavas, and chert. Recognition of this suite led to the idea that ophiolites represent submarine magmatism that took place early in the development of a eugeosyncline. In the early 1970s the Steinmann Trinity was reconsidered in light of the plate tectonic theory, new petrologic studies, and the recognition of abducted oceanic lithosphere in orogenic belts of the world. In 1972 at a Geological Society of America Penrose Conference (Anonymous, 1972) the term "ophiolite" was defined as a distinctive assemblage of mafic to ultramafic rocks, with no emphasis on their origin. A complete ophiolite should contain, from bottom to top:1) Tectonized ultramafic rocks (more or less serpentinized)2) Gabbro complex containing cumulus textures and commonly cumulus peridotites3) Mafic sheeted-dike complex, grading upward into;4) Submarine pillow lavas of basaltic composition. Common associated rock types include plagiogranite (Na-rich) and an overlying sedimentary section typically dominated by chert.

  11. League Bilong Laif: Rugby, Education and Sport-for-Development Partnerships in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherry, Emma; Schulenkorf, Nico

    2016-01-01

    League Bilong Laif (LBL) is a sport-for-development (SFD) programme that was established in 2013 as a three-way partnership between the Australian Government, the Papua New Guinea (PNG) Government (Department of Education) and the Australian Rugby League Commission (National Rugby League). As a contribution to addressing low rates of school…

  12. Recognizing spontaneous facial expressions of emotion in a small-scale society of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Crivelli, Carlos; Russell, James A; Jarillo, Sergio; Fernández-Dols, José-Miguel

    2017-03-01

    We report 2 studies on how residents of Papua New Guinea interpret facial expressions produced spontaneously by other residents of Papua New Guinea. Members of a small-scale indigenous society, Trobrianders (Milne Bay Province; N = 32, 14 to 17 years) were shown 5 facial expressions spontaneously produced by members of another small-scale indigenous society, Fore (Eastern Highlands Province) that Ekman had photographed, labeled, and published in The Face of Man (1980), each as an expression of a basic emotion: happiness, sadness, anger, surprise, and disgust. Trobrianders were asked to use any word they wanted to describe how each person shown felt and to provide valence and arousal ratings. Other Trobrianders (N = 24, 12 to 14 years) were shown the same photographs but asked to choose their response from a short list. In both studies, agreement with Ekman's predicted labels was low: 0% to 16% and 13% to 38% of observers, respectively. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Recent Antarctic Peninsula warming relative to Holocene climate and ice-shelf history.

    PubMed

    Mulvaney, Robert; Abram, Nerilie J; Hindmarsh, Richard C A; Arrowsmith, Carol; Fleet, Louise; Triest, Jack; Sime, Louise C; Alemany, Olivier; Foord, Susan

    2012-09-06

    Rapid warming over the past 50 years on the Antarctic Peninsula is associated with the collapse of a number of ice shelves and accelerating glacier mass loss. In contrast, warming has been comparatively modest over West Antarctica and significant changes have not been observed over most of East Antarctica, suggesting that the ice-core palaeoclimate records available from these areas may not be representative of the climate history of the Antarctic Peninsula. Here we show that the Antarctic Peninsula experienced an early-Holocene warm period followed by stable temperatures, from about 9,200 to 2,500 years ago, that were similar to modern-day levels. Our temperature estimates are based on an ice-core record of deuterium variations from James Ross Island, off the northeastern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula. We find that the late-Holocene development of ice shelves near James Ross Island was coincident with pronounced cooling from 2,500 to 600 years ago. This cooling was part of a millennial-scale climate excursion with opposing anomalies on the eastern and western sides of the Antarctic Peninsula. Although warming of the northeastern Antarctic Peninsula began around 600 years ago, the high rate of warming over the past century is unusual (but not unprecedented) in the context of natural climate variability over the past two millennia. The connection shown here between past temperature and ice-shelf stability suggests that warming for several centuries rendered ice shelves on the northeastern Antarctic Peninsula vulnerable to collapse. Continued warming to temperatures that now exceed the stable conditions of most of the Holocene epoch is likely to cause ice-shelf instability to encroach farther southward along the Antarctic Peninsula.

  14. Mid-crustal detachment and ramp faulting in the Markham Valley, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, C.; McCaffrey, R.; Silver, E. A.; Sombo, Z.; English, P.; van der Kevie, J.

    1998-09-01

    Earthquakes and geodetic evidence reveal the presence of a low-angle, mid-crustal detachment fault beneath the Finisterre Range that connects to a steep ramp surfacing near the Ramu-Markham Valley of Papua New Guinea. Waveforms of three large (Mw 6.3 to 6.9) thrust earthquakes that occurred in October 1993 beneath the Finisterre Range 10 to 30 km north of the valley reveal 15° north-dipping thrusts at about 20 km depth. Global Positioning System measurements show up to 20 cm of coseismic slip occurred across the valley, requiring that the active fault extend to within a few hundred meters of the Earth's surface beneath the Markham Valley. Together, these data imply that a gently north-dipping thrust fault in the middle or lower crust beneath the Finisterre Range steepens and shallows southward, forming a ramp fault beneath the north side of the Markham Valley. Waveforms indicate that both the ramp and detachment fault were active during at least one of the earthquakes. While the seismic potential of mid-crustal detachments elsewhere is debated, in Papua New Guinea the detachment fault shows the capability of producing large earthquakes.

  15. Understanding women's uptake and adherence in Option B+ for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in Papua, Indonesia: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Lumbantoruan, Christina; Kermode, Michelle; Giyai, Aloisius; Ang, Agnes; Kelaher, Margaret

    2018-01-01

    Despite a more proactive approach to reducing new HIV infections in infants through lifelong treatment (Option B+ policy) for infected pregnant women, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) has not been fully effective in Papua, Indonesia. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is the second greatest risk factor for HIV infection in the community, and an elimination target of <1% MTCT has not yet been achieved. The purpose of this study was to improve understanding of the implementation of Option B+ for PMTCT in Papua through investigation of facilitators and barriers to women's uptake and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the program. This information is vital for improving program outcomes and success of program scale up in similar settings in Papua. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 women and 20 PMTCT health workers at two main referral hospitals for PMTCT in Papua. Development of interview guides was informed by the socio-ecological framework. Qualitative data were managed with NVivo11 software and themes were analysed using template analysis. Factors influencing women's uptake and adherence in Option B+ for PMTCT were identified through final analysis of key themes. Factors that motivated PMTCT uptake and adherence were good quality post-test HIV counselling, belief in the efficacy of antiretroviral (ARV) attained through personal or peer experiences, and a partner who did not prevent women from seeking PMTCT care. Key barriers for PMTCT participation included doubts about ARV efficacy, particularly for asymptomatic women, unsupportive partners who actively prevented women from seeking treatment, and women's concerns about community stigma and discrimination. Results suggest that PMTCT program success is determined by facilitators and barriers from across the spectrum of the socio-ecological model. While roll out of Option B+ as current national policy for pregnant women in Papua has improved detection and enrolment of HIV

  16. 1-D seismic velocity model and hypocenter relocation using double difference method around West Papua region

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sabtaji, Agung, E-mail: sabtaji.agung@gmail.com, E-mail: agung.sabtaji@bmkg.go.id; Indonesia’s Agency for Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysics Region V, Jayapura 1572; Nugraha, Andri Dian, E-mail: nugraha@gf.itb.ac.id

    2015-04-24

    West Papua region has fairly high of seismicity activities due to tectonic setting and many inland faults. In addition, the region has a unique and complex tectonic conditions and this situation lead to high potency of seismic hazard in the region. The precise earthquake hypocenter location is very important, which could provide high quality of earthquake parameter information and the subsurface structure in this region to the society. We conducted 1-D P-wave velocity using earthquake data catalog from BMKG for April, 2009 up to March, 2014 around West Papua region. The obtained 1-D seismic velocity then was used as inputmore » for improving hypocenter location using double-difference method. The relocated hypocenter location shows fairly clearly the pattern of intraslab earthquake beneath New Guinea Trench (NGT). The relocated hypocenters related to the inland fault are also observed more focus in location around the fault.« less

  17. Clonal origins of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains, Papua New Guinea, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Horwood, Paul F; Collins, Deirdre; Jonduo, Marinjho H; Rosewell, Alexander; Dutta, Samir R; Dagina, Rosheila; Ropa, Berry; Siba, Peter M; Greenhill, Andrew R

    2011-11-01

    We used multilocus sequence typing and variable number tandem repeat analysis to determine the clonal origins of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains from an outbreak of cholera that began in 2009 in Papua New Guinea. The epidemic is ongoing, and transmission risk is elevated within the Pacific region.

  18. The Challenges in Developing a Mathematics Curriculum for Training Elementary Teachers in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vagi, Oneau; Green, Rosemary

    2004-01-01

    As Papua New Guinea undergoes a period of major education reform that includes the establishment of an elementary education programme, the development of an elementary teacher education curriculum is proving to be a challenging task. As a background this paper provides contextual information about the elementary education programme and highlights…

  19. Identification of MJO Signal on Various Elevation Station Rainfall in Southern Papua, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakya, A. E.; Permana, D.; Makmur, E. E. S.; Handayani, A. S.; Hanggoro, W.; Setyadi, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is the dominant mode of intraseasonal variability in tropical rainfall on the large scale, but its signal is often obscured in individual station data, where effects are most directly felt at the local level. The characteristic of the MJO during its propagation through the Maritime Continent has always been a challenge to comprehend despite decades of research attempts in that region. Unique topography over the Maritime Continent is believed to act as one of the vanguard of precipitation triggered by the MJO. Such condition leads to a maximize amplitude of the diurnal cycle of precipitation over land on phase 2 and 5, even before the arrival of the MJO. Papua in Indonesia is one of the wettest regions on Earth and is at the heart of the MJO envelope. Aiming to investigate the effect of topography and coastline distance on MJO in southern Papua, 14 years of rainfall data from 12 stations in PTFI AWS network at various elevations (9 meters to 4400 meters above sea level) have been utilized. The results show a strong MJO modulation in rainfall variability with variance of 30 - 100 days in the region. These results suggest a strong impact of MJO on rainfall at various elevations in southern Papua which confirm the previous studies. The peak rainfall rates were observed at phase 3 at lower elevation and coastline stations and phase 4 at middle and high elevation stations. The study also investigated the relationship between MJO phases and diurnal precipitation cycle at all stations. At low elevation and coastline stations, diurnal rainfall variation is more variable with high rainfall observed at afternoon to midnight and after midnight. This is due to the local effect of land-sea breeze system. While in middle and high elevation stations, rainfall peak was observed at afternoon to midnight. The results show the impact of MJO in diurnal rainfall variation at all stations.

  20. Negotiating Individualistic and Collectivist Futures: Emerging Subjectivities and Social Forms in Papua New Guinean High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demerath, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Suggests that Papua New Guinea high school students' academic disengagement results from emerging personal subjectivities and new social networks. Ethnographic research highlights the authority students attribute to their perceptions of limited opportunity structures facing them and the idealized village-based egalitarian student identity being…

  1. Late quaternary deltaic and carbonate sedimentation in the Gulf of Papua foreland basin: Response to sea-level change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, P.T.; Pattiaratchi, C.B.; Keene, J.B.; Dalrymple, R.W.; Gardner, J.V.; Baker, E.K.; Cole, A.R.; Mitchell, D.; Gibbs, P.; Schroeder, W.W.

    1996-01-01

    The rivers that drain the wet, mountainous island of New-Guinea discharge about 1.5 billion tonnes/yr of sediments into the adjacent seas, including the foreland basin between New Guinea and Australia. Despite this huge sediment input, there appears to have been only limited deposition in the Gulf of Papua during the (Holocene) postglacial rise in sea level. Seismic and core data indicate that the transgressive systems tract in the Gulf of Papua is thin and patchy. It is confined to regions within and north of an incised, east-west-trending shelf-valley system. Of the possible explanations for the absence of a significant transgressive systems tract, inland storage and along- and off-shelf transport of the sediment are of greatest significance. Reef growth up to the latitude of the east-west-trending incised-valley system in the southern Gulf of Papua is considered to have been facilitated by a northward-flowing coastal boundary current, the Coral Sea Coastal Current. This current now sweeps turbid, brackish waters and terrigenous sediments discharged by the rivers northwards away from the reefs. An observed northward offset in transgressive sediments in relation to the axis of the shelf valleys suggests that such a northward-flowing shelf current operated during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. The northern limit of the Great Barrier Reef could thus be controlled by the balance between fluvial sediment supply and northward advection of suspended sediment by the Coral Sea Coastal Current. This current may also be important in maintaining a supply of clear water to the eastern Gulf of Papua, thus enabling photosynthesis and the flourishing of calcareous-algae (Halimeda) bioherms or biostromes at depths of up to 100 m over much of the middle and outer shelf, directly offshore of the modern Fly Delta. These carbonate sediments represent the exposed maximum flooding surface and condensed section. Modern highstand delta deposits have begun to prograde over this

  2. A prospective survey of cases of complications of induced abortion presenting to Goroka Hospital, Papua New Guinea, 2011.

    PubMed

    Asa, Isaac; de Costa, Caroline; Mola, Glen

    2012-10-01

    Induced abortion on demand or for socio-economic indications is illegal in Papua New Guinea under the 1974 Criminal Code. Nevertheless, the procedure is known to be widely practised. This prospective study examines the demographic and medical features of women presenting with complications of induced abortion to Goroka Hospital in a 6-month period. It was noted that abortion was most commonly induced using the synthetic prostaglandin analogue misoprostol. Although illegal induced abortion cannot be condoned, it appears that misoprostol, much safer in this context than mechanical or traditional herbal methods, is now being widely used for the purpose of induced abortion in Papua New Guinea, as it is in other developing countries. © 2012 The Authors ANZJOG © 2012 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  3. Integrated package approach in delivering interventions during immunisation campaigns in a complex environment in Papua New Guinea: a case study.

    PubMed

    Vince, John David; Datta, Siddhartha Sankar; Toikilik, Steven; Lagani, William

    2014-08-06

    Papua New Guinea's difficult and varied topography, poor transport infrastructure, changing dynamics of population and economy in recent times and understaffed and poorly financed health service present major challenges for successful delivery of vaccination and other preventative health interventions to both the rural majority and urban populations, thereby posing risks for vaccine preventable disease outbreaks in the country. The country has struggled to meet the vaccination coverage targets required for the eradication of poliomyelitis and elimination of measles. Escalation of inter and intra country migration resulting from major industrial developments, particularly in extraction industries, has substantially increased the risk of infectious disease importation. This case study documents the evolution of immunisation programmes since the introduction of supplementary immunisation activities (SIAs). Single antigen SIAs have advantages and disadvantages. In situations in which the delivery of preventative health interventions is difficult, it is likely that the cost benefit is greater for multiple than for single intervention. The lessons learned from the conduct of single antigen SIAs can be effectively used for programmes delivering multiple SIA antigens, routine immunisations, and other health interventions. This paper describes a successful and cost effective multiple intervention programme in Papua New Guinea. The review of the last SIA in Papua New Guinea showed relatively high coverage of all the interventions and demonstrated the operational feasibility of delivering multiple interventions in resource constrained settings. Studies in other developing countries such as Lesotho and Ethiopia have also successfully integrated health interventions with SIA. In settings such as Papua New Guinea there is a strong case for integrating supplementary immunisation activity with routine immunisation and other health interventions through a comprehensive outreach

  4. Operation Shaddock--the Australian Defence Force response to the tsunami disaster in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Taylor, P R; Emonson, D L; Schlimmer, J E

    Operation Shaddock was the name given to the deployment of a major field medical unit of 58 Australian Defence Force medical and other personnel to Vanimo, in northwestern Papua New Guinea. Hundreds of victims of the tsunami disaster were treated and more than 200 surgical procedures performed in a 10-day mission.

  5. Careful Words: Nursing, Language, and Emotion in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Papua New Guinean nurses work in a sociomedical system in which cultural and linguistic diversity are matters of pressing concern. Using data drawn from ethnographic research with PNG nursing students, I show how nursing education socializes nurses to take stances toward language and communication that impact their care practices. I argue that nurses' use of language is shaped by their ethical commitments as educated Christians and indigenous concerns about the links between language, emotion, and health. In a resource-poor setting where health workers risk blame for structural inequalities, this "ethical metapragmatics" is an important but neglected facet of care work.

  6. Investigation of Breakwater Stability at Presque Isle Peninsula Erie, Pennsylvania

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    PRESQUE ISLE PENINSULA AD-A208 528 ERIE , PENNSYLVANIA by Peter J. Grace...STABILITY AT PRESQUE ISLE PENINSULA, ERIE . PENNSYLVANIA PART I: INTRODUCTION The Prototype 1. Harbor facilities at Erie , Pennsylvania , are protected...at Presque Isle Beaches, Erie , Pennsylvania ," Technical Report HL-83-15, US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS. Stevens, J.

  7. 46 CFR 7.175 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Nunivak, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Nunivak, AK. 7.175 Section 7.175 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.175 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Nunivak, AK. (a) A line drawn from the northernmost extremity of...

  8. 46 CFR 7.175 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Nunivak, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Nunivak, AK. 7.175 Section 7.175 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.175 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Nunivak, AK. (a) A line drawn from the northernmost extremity of...

  9. 46 CFR 7.175 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Nunivak, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Nunivak, AK. 7.175 Section 7.175 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.175 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Nunivak, AK. (a) A line drawn from the northernmost extremity of...

  10. 46 CFR 7.175 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Nunivak, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Nunivak, AK. 7.175 Section 7.175 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.175 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Nunivak, AK. (a) A line drawn from the northernmost extremity of...

  11. 46 CFR 7.175 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Nunivak, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Nunivak, AK. 7.175 Section 7.175 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.175 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Nunivak, AK. (a) A line drawn from the northernmost extremity of...

  12. Refugees in Papua New Guinea: government response and assistance, 1984-1988.

    PubMed

    Preston, R

    1992-01-01

    The refugee situation after the 1984 movement from Indonesia is examined in terms of policy implications and assistance as well as the welfare and education of refugees. Information was collected from government sources and documents and from households in camps and communities over a 3-month period and was published in a government report in February, 1988. This article provides a review of the border issues, resistance and exodus, reactions within Papua New Guinea, 1984-85 border crossings, social and demographic refugee profiles, government response, UN involvement, border refugee camp conditions, repatriation and relocation, reasons for the exodus, and relocation to and conditions in East Awin and the implications. This exodus from West Papua New Guinea (a region now called Irian Jaya) after Indonesia's take over in 1962 represents a unique situation, which also has lessons for other asylum seekers looking for refuge status in friendly neighboring countries. International agreements, such as the Geneva Convention and Protocol, can disrupt social networks and households when the relocation they permit is implemented. Full economic and social participation is hampered by a low quality provision of education and social services. The gain is in removing "destabilizing threats to the host state and society," at the expense of the economic and residential security of the migrants. Humanitarianism hides inequalities; internationalism, in this case, confirmed Indonesian sovereignty and large scale economic exploitation. An estimated 300,000 Melanesians have died since the take over, which amounts to 30% of the total population in 1970. Persecution was the reason for migration to Papua New Guinea; migration numbers are not accurate and range from the official 2000-3000 to 12,000 in 1984. Reactions to the migration have been mixed, and fear of the military might of Indonesia is real. The government was not prepared to cope with the scale of migration and had no plans for

  13. Black Carbon Measurement and Modeling in the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawad, Faisal Al; Khoder, Mamdouh; Almazroui, Mansour; Alghamdi, Mansour; Lihavainen, Heikki; Hyvarinen, Antti; Henriksson, Svante

    2017-04-01

    Black carbon is an important atmospheric aerosol as an effective factor in public health, changing the global and regional climate, and reducing visibility. Black carbon absorbs light, warms the atmosphere, and modifies cloud droplets and the amount of precipitation. In spite of this significance, knowledge of black carbon over the Arabian Peninsula is hard to find in literature until recently. The total mass of black carbon and wind direction and speeds were measured continuously at Hada Al-Sham, Saudi Arabia for the year 2013. In addition, a state of the art global aerosol - climate model (ECHAM5-HAM) was used to determine black carbon climatology over the Arabian Peninsula. Simulation of the model was carried out for the years eight years (2004 - 2011). The daily mean values of the concentrations of black carbon had a minimum of 15.0 ng/m3 and a maximum of 6372 ng/m3 with a mean of at 1899 ng/m3. The diurnal pattern of black carbon showed higher values overnight, and steady low values during daytimes caused by sea and land breezes. Seasons of black carbon vary over the Arabian Peninsula, and the longest is in the Northern Region where it lasts from July to October. High concentrations of black carbon at Hada Al-Sham was observed with a mean of 1.9 µm/m3, and seasons of black carbon vary widely across the Arabian Peninsula. Assessment of the effects of black carbon over the Arabian Peninsula on the global radiation balance. Initiating a black carbon monitoring network is highly recommended to assess its impacts on health, environment, and climate.

  14. Mission and modern citrus species diversity of Baja California Peninsula cases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The spring-fed mission oases of the Baja California peninsula, Mexico, hold several species, varieties and unique hybrids of heritage citrus, which may represent valuable genetic resources. Citrus species first arrived to the peninsula with the Jesuit missionaries (1697-1768), and new varieties were...

  15. Learning to Lead: A Social Justice Perspective on Understanding Elementary Teacher Leadership in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownlee, Joanne; Scholes, Laura; Farrell, Ann; Davis, Julie; Cook, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Leadership in elementary education is currently recognized as a political imperative in Papua New Guinea (PNG), as the nation develops strategies towards equitable access to schooling. One recent initiative aimed at building educational leadership was an intensive Australian Leadership Award Fellowship (ALAF) program funded by AusAID, involving a…

  16. Long-term persistence of subduction earthquake segment boundaries - evidence from Mejillones Peninsula, N-Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Victor, P.; Sobiesiak, M.; Nielsen, S.; Glodny, J.; Oncken, O.

    2010-12-01

    The Mejillones Peninsula in N-Chile is a strong anomaly in coastline morphology along the Chilean convergent margin. The location of the Peninsula coincides with the northern limit of the 1995 Mw=8.0 Antofagasta earthquake and the southern limit of the 2007 Mw=7.8 Tocopilla earthquake and, probably, also with the southern limit of the 1877 Mw=8.5 Iquique earthquake. Although it is tempting to recognise the Mejillones Peninsula as the surface expression of a major segment boundary for large subduction earthquakes, so far evidence for its stability over multiple seismic cycles is lacking. We introduce a detailed analysis of the aftershock sequences in combination with new age data of the surface uplift evolution since the late Pliocene to test the hypothesis whether earthquake rupture propagation is limited at the latitude of Mejillones Peninsula since a longer time period. If the Peninsula really is linked to a persistent segment boundary, then the surface deformation of the Peninsula in fact holds the record about a deep-seated mechanism revealing the interaction between the subduction process and near-surface deformation. In our study we present new chronostratigraphic and structural data that allow reconstructing the evolution of the Peninsula at the surface and correlation of the latter with seismic cycle deformation on the interface. We investigated sets of paleo-strandlines preserved in beach ridges and uplifted cliffs to reconstruct the uplift history of the Peninsula. Our results show that the central graben area on the Peninsula started uplifting above sea level as an anticlinal hinge zone prior to 400 ky ago, most probably 790 ky ago. The resulting E-W trending hinge exactly overlies the limit between the rupture planes of the Antofagasta and Tocopilla earthquakes. By correlating the uplift data with the slip distribution of the Antofagasta and Tocopilla earthquakes, we demonstrate that deformation and uplift is focussed during the postseismic and

  17. 3-D crustal structure beneath the southern Korean Peninsula from local earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. H.; Park, J. H.; Park, Y.; Hao, T.; Kang, S. Y.; Kim, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    Located at the eastern margin of the Eurasian continent, the geology and tectonic evolution of the Korean Peninsula are closely related to the rest of the Asian continent. Although the widespread deformation of eastern Asia and its relation to the geology and tectonics of the Korean Peninsula have been extensively studied, the answers to many fundamental questions about the peninsula's history remain inconclusive. The three-dimensional subsurface structure beneath the southern Korean Peninsula is poorly known, even though such information could be key in verifying or rejecting several competing models of the tectonic evolution of East Asia. We constructed a three-dimensional velocity model of the upper crust beneath the southern Korean Peninsula using 19,935 P-wave arrivals from 747 earthquakes recorded by high-density local seismic networks maintained by Korea Meteorological Administration and Korea Institute of Geosciences and Mineral Resources. Results show significant lateral and vertical variations: velocity increases from northwest to southeast at shallow depths, and significant velocity variations are observed across the South Korea Tectonic Line between the Okcheon Fold Belt and the Youngnam Massif. Collision between the North China and South China blocks during the Early Cretaceous might have caused extensive deformation and the observed negative velocity anomalies in the region. The results of the tomographic inversion, combined with the findings of previous studies of Bouguer and isostatic gravity anomalies, indicate the presence of high-density material in the upper and middle crust beneath the Gyeongsang Basin in the southeastern Korean Peninsula. Although our results partially support the indentation tectonic model, it is still premature to discard other tectonic evolution models because our study only covers the southern half of the peninsula.

  18. Cost–effectiveness of artemisinin combination therapy for uncomplicated malaria in children: data from Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Wendy A; Clarke, Philip M; Siba, Peter M; Karunajeewa, Harin A; Davy, Carol; Mueller, Ivo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To compare the cost–effectiveness of conventional antimalarial therapy with that of three artemisinin combination treatment regimens in children from Papua New Guinea aged 6 to 60 months. Methods An incremental cost–effectiveness analysis was performed using data from 656 children with Plasmodium falciparum and/or P. vivax malaria who participated in a large intervention trial in two clinics in northern Papua New Guinea. The children were randomized to one of the following groups: (i) conventional treatment with chloroquine plus sulfadoxine plus pyrimethamine (CQ+S+P); (ii) artesunate plus S plus P; (iii) dihydroartemisinin plus piperaquine (DHA+PQ); and (iv) artemether plus lumefantrine (A+L). For treatment outcomes, World Health Organization definitions were used. The cost of transport between home and the clinic plus direct health-care costs served as a basis for determining each regimen’s incremental cost per incremental treatment success relative to CQ+S+P by day 42 and its cost per life year saved. Findings A+L proved to be the most effective regimen against P. falciparum malaria and was highly cost-effective at 6.97 United States dollars (US$) per treatment success (about US$ 58 per life year saved). DHA+PQ was the most effective regimen against P. vivax malaria and was more cost-effective than CQ+S+P. Conclusion A+L and DHA+PQ are highly cost-effective regimens for the treatment of paediatric P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria, respectively, in parts of Papua New Guinea. Future research will be required to determine if these findings hold true for other territories in Asia and Oceania with similar malaria epidemiology. PMID:21379417

  19. Time trend of malaria in relation to climate variability in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae-Won; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Honda, Yasushi; Ha, Mina; Kim, Ho; Kolam, Joel; Inape, Kasis; Mueller, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to describe the regional malaria incidence in relation to the geographic and climatic conditions and describe the effect of altitude on the expansion of malaria over the last decade in Papua New Guinea. Malaria incidence was estimated in five provinces from 1996 to 2008 using national health surveillance data. Time trend of malaria incidence was compared with rainfall and minimum/maximum temperature. In the Eastern Highland Province, time trend of malaria incidence over the study period was stratified by altitude. Spatio-temporal pattern of malaria was analyzed. Nationwide, malaria incidence was stationary. Regionally, the incidence increased markedly in the highland region (292.0/100000/yr, p =0.021), and remained stationary in the other regions. Seasonality of the malaria incidence was related with rainfall. Decreasing incidence of malaria was associated with decreasing rainfall in the southern coastal region, whereas it was not evident in the northern coastal region. In the Eastern Highland Province, malaria incidence increased in areas below 1700 m, with the rate of increase being steeper at higher altitudes. Increasing trend of malaria incidence was prominent in the highland region of Papua New Guinea, while long-term trend was dependent upon baseline level of rainfall in coastal regions.

  20. Geyser Valley on the Kamchatka Peninsula

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-06-12

    A devastating mudslide in the world-renowned Geyser Valley on the Kamchatka Peninsula virtually obliterated the natural wonder, forcing the emergency evacuation of visitors and national park personnel. This image was acquired by NASA Terra spacecraft.

  1. Grammar of Kove: An Austronesian Language of the West New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is a descriptive grammar of Kove, an Austronesian language spoken in the West New Britain Province of Papua New Guinea. Kove is primarily spoken in 18 villages, including some on the small islands north of New Britain. There are about 9,000 people living in the area, but many are not fluent speakers of Kove. The dissertation…

  2. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of Papua-New Guinea, Eastern Indonesia, and East Timor, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 5.8 billion barrels of oil and 115 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas in five geologic provinces in the areas of Papua New Guinea, eastern Indonesia, and East Timor.

  3. Pattern or process? Evaluating the peninsula effect as a determinant of species richness in coastal dune forests

    PubMed Central

    Olivier, Pieter I.; van Aarde, Rudi J.

    2017-01-01

    The peninsula effect predicts that the number of species should decline from the base of a peninsula to the tip. However, evidence for the peninsula effect is ambiguous, as different analytical methods, study taxa, and variations in local habitat or regional climatic conditions influence conclusions on its presence. We address this uncertainty by using two analytical methods to investigate the peninsula effect in three taxa that occupy different trophic levels: trees, millipedes, and birds. We surveyed 81 tree quadrants, 102 millipede transects, and 152 bird points within 150 km of coastal dune forest that resemble a habitat peninsula along the northeast coast of South Africa. We then used spatial (trend surface analyses) and non-spatial regressions (generalized linear mixed models) to test for the presence of the peninsula effect in each of the three taxa. We also used linear mixed models to test if climate (temperature and precipitation) and/or local habitat conditions (water availability associated with topography and landscape structural variables) could explain gradients in species richness. Non-spatial models suggest that the peninsula effect was present in all three taxa. However, spatial models indicated that only bird species richness declined from the peninsula base to the peninsula tip. Millipede species richness increased near the centre of the peninsula, while tree species richness increased near the tip. Local habitat conditions explained species richness patterns of birds and trees, but not of millipedes, regardless of model type. Our study highlights the idiosyncrasies associated with the peninsula effect—conclusions on the presence of the peninsula effect depend on the analytical methods used and the taxon studied. The peninsula effect might therefore be better suited to describe a species richness pattern where the number of species decline from a broader habitat base to a narrow tip, rather than a process that drives species richness. PMID

  4. Adoption and hospital admission in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Pameh, Wendy; Ripa, Paulus; Vince, John; Mueller, Ivo

    2002-10-01

    We report a study of adopted children admitted to the children's wards of Port Moresby General Hospital, Papua New Guinea over a 5-month period in 2000. The proportion of hospitalized children known to be adopted was almost three times that in the children's outpatients department. Gastroenteritis and neonatal sepsis were more common causes of admission in adopted children than in the general paediatric hospital population. Admitted adopted children were lighter and shorter than the controls with no difference in weight-for-height, suggesting that stunting is the predominant nutritional problem among adopted children. These differences were even more marked in children with diagnoses other than gastroenteritis. Thirty-three (82.5 per cent) of the adopted children had ever been bottle fed compared with 11 (13.75 per cent) of the controls (p = 0.029). Twelve (30 per cent) children had been adopted because of neglect or abandonment. The biological mothers of seven of these children had died, and two children had been bought for cash. Biological mothers were more likely than the adoptive or control mothers to be single and less than 20 years of age. Knowledge of formal adoption procedures was very poor. The present study therefore shows that adoption in Papua New Guinea is not without risk and it is important that adoption should be recognized as having the potential for serious adverse effects on the child's well-being, especially since adoption is likely to become even more prevalent as the HIV epidemic continues. Consideration needs to be given to protection of the rights of children at high risk of adoption.

  5. Estimating groundwater discharge into the ocean in the Yucatán Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez Rodriguez, G.; Gutierrez-Jurado, H. A.; Uuh-Sonda, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Yucatán peninsula is an emerged flat carbonate block abundant in soluble rocks. High permeability and dissolution of the rock, facilitates the development of channels, sinkholes and caves where underground rivers discharge into the ocean. There are no rivers or streams acting as a surface drainage system, all rainfall water entering the peninsula is discharged either as evapotranspiration (ET) or as underground runoff into the ocean. To date there are no estimates of the total groundwater discharge from the peninsula into the sea, and of the spatial distribution of recharge and discharge areas thereby hindering efforts to understand the dynamics of a complex hydrologic system. In this study, we estimate the discharge (Q) by solving the water balance equation (ΔS=PPT-ET-Q) using remote sensing products over a period of 12 years; the change in storage (ΔS) was retrieved from the satellite GRACE; precipitation (PPT) from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission; and evapotranspiration (ET) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer. Results show that freshwater discharge via evapotranspiration can be a significant portion of the water budget depending on the climatic conditions throughout the year. We observe high recharge-discharge inter-annual variability in the center of the peninsula and some clearly defined recharge and discharge zones around the perimeter. On average the dryer north-east and wetter north-western parts of the peninsula act as recharge zones (where the influx of water is higher than the outflow), while the central-northern part of the peninsula corresponding to agricultural lands, acts as a discharge zone (outflow is higher than influx). The most southern region of the peninsula and the western mangroves are always discharge zones. Finally, our analyses reveal a number of highly subsidized zones, where precipitation levels are consistently lower than evapotranspiration, hence indicating the presence of groundwater dependent

  6. Drought variability and change across the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coll, J. R.; Aguilar, E.; Ashcroft, L.

    2017-11-01

    Drought variability and change was assessed across the Iberian Peninsula over more than 100 years expanding through the twentieth century and the first decade of the twenty-first century. Daily temperature and precipitation data from 24 Iberian time series were quality controlled and homogenized to create the Monthly Iberian Temperature and Precipitation Series (MITPS) for the period 1906-2010. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), driven only by precipitation, and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), based on the difference between the precipitation and the reference evapotranspiration (ET0), were computed at annual and seasonal scale to describe the evolution of droughts across time. The results confirmed that a clear temperature increase has occurred over the entire Iberian Peninsula at the annual and seasonal scale, but no significant changes in precipitation accumulated amounts were found. Similar drought variability was provided by the SPI and SPEI, although the SPEI showed greater drought severity and larger surface area affected by drought than SPI from 1980s to 2010 due to the increase in atmospheric evaporative demand caused by increased temperatures. Moreover, a clear drying trend was found by the SPEI for most of the Iberian Peninsula at annual scale and also for spring and summer, although the SPI did not experience significant changes in drought conditions. From the drying trend identified for most of the Iberian Peninsula along the twentieth century, an increase in drought conditions can also be expected for this region in the twenty-first century according to future climate change projections and scenarios.

  7. The epidemiology of spinal cord injuries in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Gee, R W; Sinha, S N

    1982-06-01

    Thirty six patients with traumatic spinal cord injury were studied in Papua New Guinean hospitals. Road trauma and falls from trees each accounted for 1/3 of injuries. The mean age of patients, 80% of whom were male, was 26 years. Complications included pressure sores (69%), urinary tract infection (61%) and contractures (22%). Two thirds of patients failed to make any significant recovery and remained permanently in hospital. At present there are no special facilities for treating paraplegic patients in this country but as the number of cases is increasing it is recommended that major hospitals provide special units and a standard management protocol for these patients.

  8. Clonal Origins of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Strains, Papua New Guinea, 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Deirdre; Jonduo, Marinjho H.; Rosewell, Alexander; Dutta, Samir R.; Dagina, Rosheila; Ropa, Berry; Siba, Peter M.; Greenhill, Andrew R.

    2011-01-01

    We used multilocus sequence typing and variable number tandem repeat analysis to determine the clonal origins of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains from an outbreak of cholera that began in 2009 in Papua New Guinea. The epidemic is ongoing, and transmission risk is elevated within the Pacific region. PMID:22099099

  9. Micro-Level Planning for a Papua New Guinean Elementary School Classroom: "Copycat" Planning and Language Ideologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    In the early 1990s, the government of Papua New Guinea (PNG) enacted educational reform. It officially abandoned its English-only policy at elementary school level, in favour of community languages. In response, the Kairak community of East New Britain Province developed a vernacular literacy programme. This paper, based on original fieldwork…

  10. Environmental, Ethical and Safety Issues in Chemistry/Science Curricula in Papua New Guinea Provincial High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, W. P.

    1986-01-01

    Chemistry occupies only a small portion of the Papua New Guinea science curriculum in grades seven to ten. Science itself occupies only a small proportion of the total curriculum. Nevertheless the existing syllabus, and previous and planned future revisions of it, give considerable prominence to environmental, health and safety issues. There is a…

  11. Place-Based Picture Books as an Adult Learning Tool: Supporting Agricultural Learning in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoncini, Kym; Pamphilon, Barbara; Mikhailovich, Katja

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the rationale, development, and outcomes of two place-based, dual-language picture books with agricultural messages for women farmers and their families in Papua New Guinea. The purpose of the books was to disseminate better agricultural and livelihood practices to women farmers with low literacy. The books were designed and…

  12. 46 CFR 7.170 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. 7.170 Section 7.170 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.170 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. (a) A line drawn from the...

  13. 46 CFR 7.165 - Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. 7.165 Section 7.165 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.165 Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. (a) A line drawn from the...

  14. 46 CFR 7.170 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. 7.170 Section 7.170 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.170 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. (a) A line drawn from the...

  15. 46 CFR 7.165 - Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. 7.165 Section 7.165 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.165 Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. (a) A line drawn from the...

  16. 46 CFR 7.165 - Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. 7.165 Section 7.165 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.165 Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. (a) A line drawn from the...

  17. 46 CFR 7.165 - Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. 7.165 Section 7.165 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.165 Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. (a) A line drawn from the...

  18. 46 CFR 7.165 - Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. 7.165 Section 7.165 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.165 Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. (a) A line drawn from the...

  19. 46 CFR 7.170 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. 7.170 Section 7.170 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.170 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. (a) A line drawn from the...

  20. Klyuchevskaya, Volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, CIS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-05-06

    STS039-77-010 (28 April 1991) --- The Kamchatka Peninsula, USSR. This oblique view of the eastern margin of the Kamchatka Peninsula shows pack-ice along the coast, which is drifting along with local currents and delineates the circulation patterns. Also visible are the Kamchatka River (left of center), and the volcanic complex with the active volcano Klyuchevskaya (Kloo-chevs'-ska-ya), 15,584 feet in elevation. The last reported eruption of the volcano was on April 8, but an ash and steam plume extending to the south can be seen in this photograph, taken almost three weeks later (April 28). On April 29, the crew observed and photographed the volcano again, and it was no longer visibly active. However, the flanks of the mountain are dirty from the ash fall. Just north of the Kamchatka River (to the left, just off frame) is Shiveluch, a volcano which was active in early April. There are more than 100 volcanic edifices recognized on Kamchatka, with 15 classified as active.

  1. Aniakchak Crater, Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Walter R.

    1925-01-01

    The discovery of a gigantic crater northwest of Aniakchak Bay (see fig. 11) closes what had been thought to be a wide gap in the extensive series of volcanoes occurring at irregular intervals for nearly 600 miles along the axial line of the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands. In this belt there are more active and recently active volcanoes than in all the rest of North America. Exclusive of those on the west side of Cook Inlet, which, however, belong to the same group, this belt contains at least 42 active or well-preserved volcanoes and about half as many mountains suspected or reported to be volcanoes. The locations of some of these mountains and the hot springs on the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands are shown on a map prepared by G. A. Waring. Attention has been called to these volcanoes for nearly two centuries, but a record of their activity since the discovery of Alaska is far from being complete, and an adequate description of them as a group has never been written. Owing to their recent activity or unusual scenic beauty, some of the best known of the group are Mounts Katmai, Bogoslof, and Shishaldin, but there are many other beautiful and interesting cones and craters.

  2. Amyloid fibril protein AA in Papua New Guinean amyloidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Anders, R F; Price, M A; Wilkey, I S; Husby, G; Takitaki, F; Natvig, J B; McAdam, K P

    1976-01-01

    In this study of protein composition of amyloid fibrils isolated from eight patients representative of the spectrum of amyloidosis found in Papua New Guinea has been investigated. All fibril preparations, including three from patients with amyloidosis secondary to lepromatous leprosy and one from an unusual juvenile case of primary amyloidosis, contained the non-immunogobulin amyloid protein, protein AA. However, only 44% of thirty-six amyloid patients had detectable levels of the protein AA-related serum component, protein SAA. Alkali-degraded material from each of the fibril preparations failed to react in double immunodiffusion test with antiserum to the amyloid-related light chain VgammaV, but evidence was found for this immunoglobulin light chain-specificity in the serum of one patient. Images FIG. 1 PMID:820500

  3. Amyloid fibril protein AA in Papua New Guinean amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Anders, R F; Price, M A; Wilkey, I S; Husby, G; Takitaki, F; Natvig, J B; McAdam, K P

    1976-04-01

    In this study of protein composition of amyloid fibrils isolated from eight patients representative of the spectrum of amyloidosis found in Papua New Guinea has been investigated. All fibril preparations, including three from patients with amyloidosis secondary to lepromatous leprosy and one from an unusual juvenile case of primary amyloidosis, contained the non-immunogobulin amyloid protein, protein AA. However, only 44% of thirty-six amyloid patients had detectable levels of the protein AA-related serum component, protein SAA. Alkali-degraded material from each of the fibril preparations failed to react in double immunodiffusion test with antiserum to the amyloid-related light chain VgammaV, but evidence was found for this immunoglobulin light chain-specificity in the serum of one patient.

  4. Characteristics of the Papua New Guinean dentition. I Shovel-shaped incisors and canines associated with lingual tubercles.

    PubMed

    Doran, G A

    1977-10-01

    The prevalence of shovel-shaped and lingual tubercles in maxillary incisors and canines in four groups of people in Papua New Guinea is reported. The shovel shape was not common among the people of Highland New Guinea but its presence in Papuans was comparable with that in Mongoloid races.

  5. Shaded Relief Color Wrapped, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-02-16

    This shaded relief topographic acquired by NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission SRTM image from data collected on February 12, 2000 shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia.

  6. Quantifying the Human Impacts on Papua New Guinea Reef Fish Communities across Space and Time.

    PubMed

    Drew, Joshua A; Amatangelo, Kathryn L; Hufbauer, Ruth A

    2015-01-01

    Describing the drivers of species loss and of community change are important goals in both conservation and ecology. However, it is difficult to determine whether exploited species decline due to direct effects of harvesting or due to other environmental perturbations brought about by proximity to human populations. Here we quantify differences in species richness of coral reef fish communities along a human population gradient in Papua New Guinea to understand the relative impacts of fishing and environmental perturbation. Using data from published species lists we categorize the reef fishes as either fished or non-fished based on their body size and reports from the published literature. Species diversity for both fished and non-fished groups decreases as the size of the local human population increases, and this relationship is stronger in species that are fished. Additionally, comparison of modern and museum collections show that modern reef communities have proportionally fewer fished species relative to 19th century ones. Together these findings show that the reef fish communities of Papua New Guinea experience multiple anthropogenic stressors and that even at low human population levels targeted species experience population declines across both time and space.

  7. 3-D Perspective View, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-03-23

    This perspective view shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia. The image was generated using the first data collected during NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission SRTM.

  8. Valuing Indigenous Knowledge in the Highlands of Papua New Guinea: A Model for Agricultural and Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radcliffe, Chris; Parissi, Cesidio; Raman, Anantanarayanan

    2016-01-01

    Current methods of agricultural and environmental education for indigenous farmers in Papua New Guinea (PNG) fail to provide high level engagement. Indigenous knowledge (IK) forms the basis of natural resource management, agriculture and health of farmers in PNG, yet its value to agricultural and environmental education in PNG is rarely…

  9. The Failure of Progressive Classroom Reform: Lessons from the Curriculum Reform Implementation Project in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    Progressive education has been an article of educational faith in Papua New Guinea during the last 50 years but the best available evidence indicates that major reforms to formalistic curriculum and teaching in primary and secondary classrooms have failed during this period despite large-scale professional, administrative and financial support. In…

  10. Prevalence of patients with acute febrile illnesses and positive dengue NS1 tests in a tertiary hospital in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Asigau, Viola; Lavu, Evelyn K; McBride, William J H; Biloh, Eric; Naroi, Francis; Koana, Egi; Ferguson, John K; Laman, Moses

    2015-01-01

    Because the prevalence of dengue fever in urban settings in Papua New Guinea is unknown, we investigated the presence of dengue using the NS1 antigen test in an outpatient-based prospective observational study at Port Moresby General Hospital. Of 140 patients with acute febrile illnesses, dengue fever was diagnosed in 14.9% (20 of 134; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 9.6-22.4). Malaria (2 of 137; 1.5%; 95% CI = 0.3-5.7), chikungunya (3 of 140; 2.1%; 95% CI = 0.6-6.6), and bacterial bloodstream infections (0 of 80; 0%; 95% CI = 0-5.7) were uncommon. Dengue fever should no longer be considered rare in Papua New Guinea. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  11. New technology and regional studies in human ecology: A Papua New Guinea example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morren, George E. B., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Two key issues in using technologies such as digital image processing and geographic information systems are a conceptually and methodologically valid research design and the exploitation of varied sources of data. With this realized, the new technologies offer anthropologists the opportunity to test hypotheses about spatial and temporal variations in the features of interest within a regionally coherent mosaic of social groups and landscapes. Current research on the Mountain OK of Papua New Guinea is described with reference to these issues.

  12. Hereditary pediatric cataract on the Arabian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Arif O.

    2011-01-01

    Hereditary pediatric cataract on the Arabian Peninsula does not follow the same epidemiological patterns as described for Western populations. This article describes selected genetic causes for inherited pediatric cataract in the region. PMID:23960971

  13. The Use of Indigenous Languages in Early Basic Education in Papua New Guinea: A Model for Elsewhere?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaus, David

    2003-01-01

    Suggests Papua New Guinea offers a practical example of how a small, multilingual country with limited resources has developed a package of strategies for dealing with the challenges of multilingualism and using its multiplicity of languages in education as a tool for improving teaching and learning, saving resources, and moving towards education…

  14. Diptera of forensic importance in the Iberian Peninsula: larval identification key.

    PubMed

    Velásquez, Y; Magaña, C; Martínez-Sánchez, A; Rojo, S

    2010-09-01

    A revision of the species and families of sarcosaprophagous flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, Fanniidae, Drosophilidae, Phoridae, Piophilidae and Stratiomyidae) suitable for forensic purposes in the Iberian Peninsula is presented. Morphological characteristics that allow the accurate identification of third instars of the species present in the Iberian Peninsula are described and presented in the form of a diagnostic key. For larval Calliphoridae, characteristics such as the spines of the body segments were useful for the genus Calliphora whereas features of the anal segment and the cephalopharyngeal skeleton were useful for larvae of Lucilia. Identification of three Chrysominae species present in the Iberian Peninsula is included. For larval Sarcophagidae, characters such as the arrangement and shape of spiracular openings, structures of the anal segment and the cephalopharyngeal skeleton were used for the first time. A new record of Sarcophaga cultellata Pandellé, from a human corpse, is also included as well as recent incursions into the European cadaveric entomofauna such as Synthesiomyia nudiseta (van der Wulp) and Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus). This work provides useful new information that could be applied to forensic investigations in the Iberian Peninsula and in southern Europe.

  15. Situation Report--Australia, The Gambia, Papua and New Guinea, Rhodesia, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tonga, and Western Samoa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Australia, The Gambia, Papua and New Guinea, Rhodesia, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tonga, and Western Somoa. Information is provided under three topics, statistical information, general background information,…

  16. A sketch of language history in the Korean Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Among 7100 languages spoken on Earth, the Koreanic language is the 13th largest, with about 77 million speakers in and around the Korean Peninsula. In comparison to other languages of similar size, however, surprisingly little is known about the evolution of the Koreanic language. This is mainly due to two reasons. The first reason is that the genealogical relationship of the Koreanic to other neighboring languages remains uncertain, and thus inference from the linguistic comparative method provides only provisional evidence. The second reason is that, as the ancestral Koreanic speakers lacked their own writing system until around 500 years ago, there are scant historical materials to peer into the past, except for those preserved in Sinitic characters that we have no straightforward way of interpreting. Here I attempt to overcome these disadvantages and shed some light on the linguistic history of the Korean Peninsula, by analyzing the internal variation of the Koreanic language with methods adopted from evolutionary biology. The preliminary results presented here suggest that the evolutionary history of the Koreanic language is characterized by a weak hierarchical structure, and intensive gene/culture flows within the Korean Peninsula seem to have promoted linguistic homogeneity among the Koreanic variants. Despite the gene/culture flows, however, there are still three detectable linguistic barriers in the Korean Peninsula that appear to have been shaped by geographical features such as mountains, elevated areas, and ocean. I discuss these findings in an inclusive manner to lay the groundwork for future studies.

  17. ENSO-related PM10 variability on the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wie, Jieun; Moon, Byung-Kwon

    2017-10-01

    Particulate matter, defined as particles of less than 10 μm in diameter (PM10), was analyzed over the Korean Peninsula from 2001 to 2015 to examine the influence of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on subseasonal PM10 variability. The PM10 data were obtained from 151 air quality monitoring stations provided by the Korea Environment Corporation (KECO). Lead-lag correlation analysis, which was performed to investigate the connection between NDJF (November-February) NINO3 index and seasonal mean PM10 data, did not yield any statistically significant correlations. However, using five-pentad moving-averaged PM10 data, statistically significant correlations between NDJF NINO3 index and PM10 variability were found in four subseasonal periods, with alternating positive and negative correlations. In the periods during which PM10 levels on the Korean Peninsula were positively (negatively) correlated with the ENSO index, the positive PM10 anomalies are associated with El Niño (La Niña) years, which implies that the occurrence of high-PM10 events could be modulated by the ENSO phase. In addition, this ENSO-related PM10 variation is negatively correlated with ENSO-related precipitation in the Korean Peninsula, indicating that more (less) wet deposition leads to lower (higher) PM10 level. Therefore, we conclude that the ENSO-induced precipitation anomalies over the Korean Peninsula are mainly responsible for ENSO-related PM10 variations. This study will be helpful for further identifying detailed chemistry-climate processes that control PM10 concentrations.

  18. Sinai peninsula taken by the STS-109 crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-03-02

    STS109-708-024 (1-12 March 2002) --- The astronauts on board the Space Shuttle Columbia took this 70mm picture featuring the Sinai Peninsula and the Dead Sea Rift. The left side of the view is dominated by the great triangle of the Sinai peninsula, which is partly obscured by an unusual cloud mass on this day. The famous Monastery of St. Catherine lies in the very remote, rugged mountains in the southern third of the peninsula (foreground). The Gulf of Aqaba is a finger of the Red Sea bottom center, pointing north to the Dead Sea, the small body of water near the center of the view. According to NASA scientists studying the STS-109 photo collection, the gulf and the Dead Sea are northerly extensions of the same geological rift that resulted in the opening of the Red Sea . The Gulf of Suez appears in the lower left corner. Northwest Saudi Arabia occupies the lower right side of the view, Jordan and Syria the right and top right, and the Eastern Mediterranean Sea the top left. Thin white lines of cloud have formed along the coastal mountains of southern Turkey and stretch across the top of the view near the Earth's limb.

  19. Dynamical Structure of Madden-Julian Oscillation over Malay Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djamil, Y. S.; Koh, T. Y.; Chandimala, J.; Teo, C. K.

    2014-12-01

    Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is the dominant weather event in the intraseasonal time scale over Malay Peninsula region. The MJO signals are represented by the first two modes of radiosonde records extracted using Extended Empirical Orthogonal Function (EEOF) analyses which we label as Local Multivariate MJO (LMM). LMM is able to capture the spatio-temporal profile of MJO along the global tropics in all seasons. With the help of LMM, we clarify the dynamical and thermodynamical structure of the MJO over Malay Peninsula, including the unique "boomerang-shaped" feature in the time-height temperature profile identified in previous literature.

  20. Changes in ice dynamics along the northern Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seehaus, Thorsten; Marinsek, Sebastian; Cook, Alison; Van Wessem, Jan-Melchior; Braun, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    The climatic conditions along the Antarctic Peninsula have undergone considerable changes during the last 50 years. A period of pronounced air temperature rise, increasing ocean temperatures as well as changes in the precipitation pattern have been reported by various authors. Consequently, the glacial systems showed changes including widespread retreat, surface lowering as well as variations in flow speeds. During the last decades numerous ice shelves along the Antarctic Peninsula retreated, started to break-up or disintegrated completely. The loss of the buttressing effect caused tributary glaciers to accelerate with increasing ice discharge along the Antarctic Peninsula. Quantification of the mass changes is still subject to considerable errors although numbers derived from the different methods are converging. The aim is to study the reaction of glaciers at the northern Antarctic Peninsula to the changing climatic conditions and the readjustments of tributary glaciers to ice shelf disintegration, as well as to better quantify the ice mass loss and its temporal changes. We analysed time series of various satellite sensors (ERS-1/2 SAR, ENVISAT ASAR, RADARSAT-1, ALOS PALSAR, TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X, ASTER, Landsat) to detect changes in ice dynamics of 74 glacier basins along the northern Antarctic Peninsula (<65°). Intensity feature tracking techniques were applied on data stacks from different SAR satellites over the last 20 years to infer temporal trends in glacier surface velocities. In combination with ice thickness reconstructions and modeled climatic mass balance fields regional imbalances were calculated. Variations in ice front position were mapped based on optical and SAR satellite data sets. Along the west coast of the northern Antarctic Peninsula an increase in flow speeds by 40% between 1992 and 2014 was observed, whereas glaciers on the east side (north of former Prince-Gustav Ice Shelf) showed a strong deceleration. Nearly all former ice shelf

  1. Changes in ice dynamics along the northern Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seehaus, T.; Braun, M.; Cook, A.; Marinsek, S.

    2016-12-01

    The climatic conditions along the Antarctic Peninsula have undergone considerable changes during the last 50 years. Numerous ice shelves along the Antarctic Peninsula retreated, started to break-up or disintegrated. The loss of the buttressing effect caused tributary glaciers to accelerate with increasing ice discharge along the Antarctic Peninsula. The aim is to study the reaction of glaciers at the northern Antarctic Peninsula to the changing climatic conditions and the readjustments of tributary glaciers to ice shelf disintegration, as well as to better quantify the ice mass loss and its temporal changes.We analysed time series of various SAR satellite sensors to detect changes in ice flow speed and surface elevation. Intensity feature tracking techniques were applied on data stacks from different SAR satellites over the last 20 years to infer changes in glacier surface velocities. High resolution bi-static TanDEM-X data was used to derive digital elevation models by differential SAR interferometry. In combination with ASTER and SPOT stereo images, changes in surface elevations were determined. Altimeter data from ICESat, CryoSat-2 and NASA operation IceBridge ATM were used for vertical referencing and quality assessment of the digital elevation models. Along the west coast of the northern Antarctic Peninsula an increase in flow speeds by 40% between 1992 and 2014 was observed, whereas glaciers on the east side (north of former Prince-Gustav Ice Shelf) showed a strong deceleration. In total an ice discharge of 17.93±6.22 Gt/a was estimated for 74 glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula north of 65°S. Most of the former ice shelf tributaries showed similar reactions to ice shelf disintegration. At the Sjögren-Inlet a total ice mass loss of -37.5±8.2 Gt and a contribution to sea level rise of 20.9±5.2 Gt were found in the period 1993-2014. The average surface lowering rate in the period 2012-2014 amounts to -2.2 m/a. At Dinsmoor-Bombardier-Edgeworth glacier

  2. Anaglyph with Landsat Overlay, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-02-16

    This 3-D anaglyph shows an area on the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia as seen by the instrument onboard NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. 3D glasses are necessary to view this image.

  3. Women's attitude and perceptions towards menopause in different cultures. Cross-cultural and intra-cultural comparison of pre-menopausal and post-menopausal women in Germany and in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Kowalcek, Ingrid; Rotte, Doerte; Banz, Constanze; Diedrich, Klaus

    2005-07-16

    To study cross-cultural and intra-cultural differences between the perception and the experience of menopause in pre-menopausal and post-menopausal German and Papua New Guineas women. Concepts concerning menopause and the experience of the menopause were assessed by the symptom categories (i.e. hot flashes, cardiac or sleeping disorders, depression, irritability, lack of drive, vaginal dryness, painful joints or muscles) according to the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS). In addition to the translated English version, a questionnaire in Pidgin-English was offered. Questions about positive and negative expectations of menopause and the acceptance of hormonal replacement therapy were included. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square test and the Mann-Whitney U-test as indicated. One hundred and one pre-menopausal and 40 post-menopausal women in Germany as well as 36 pre-menopausal and 41 post-menopausal women in Papua New Guinea were questioned. The expectations regarding the menopause differed significantly in favor of a higher trait intensity concerning the item of hot flashes in Germany and a significantly higher trait intensity in the items cardiac trouble, lack of drive, urological symptoms, vaginal dryness, joint and muscle symptoms in Papua New Guinea. In the menopause experience, significant differences between the cultures are confirmed in favor of a higher trait intensity in Papua New Guinea concerning experienced depression, drop in performance, sexual disturbances and vaginal dryness. The intra-cultural comparison between the concepts concerning menopause and the menopause experience in Germany shows a significantly higher trait intensity with regard to the expected disturbance from hot flashes, depression, agitation, lack of drive and sexual problems as compared to the experienced disturbances. In Papua New Guinea, the survey showed a difference in expected and experienced vaginal dryness. Perception and concepts concerning illness and health are

  4. Language Use and the Instructional Strategies of Grade 3 Teachers to Support "Bridging" in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franken, Margaret; August, Matilda

    2011-01-01

    For over a decade, the Department of Education in Papua New Guinea (PNG) has adopted vernacular education as a way of ensuring that the educational experiences of children in schools draw on the cultural and linguistic knowledge they bring to the classroom. In PNG, there are many potential vernaculars--apart from the local languages, there are Tok…

  5. Predictors of Acute Bacterial Meningitis in Children from a Malaria-Endemic Area of Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Laman, Moses; Manning, Laurens; Greenhill, Andrew R.; Mare, Trevor; Michael, Audrey; Shem, Silas; Vince, John; Lagani, William; Hwaiwhanje, Ilomo; Siba, Peter M.; Mueller, Ivo; Davis, Timothy M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Predictors of acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) were assessed in 554 children in Papua New Guinea 0.2–10 years of age who were hospitalized with culture-proven meningitis, probable meningitis, or non-meningitic illness investigated by lumbar puncture. Forty-seven (8.5%) had proven meningitis and 36 (6.5%) had probable meningitis. Neck stiffness, Kernig’s and Brudzinski’s signs and, in children < 18 months of age, a bulging fontanel had positive likelihood ratios (LRs) ≥ 4.3 for proven/probable ABM. Multiple seizures and deep coma were less predictive (LR = 1.5–2.1). Single seizures and malaria parasitemia had low LRs (≤ 0.5). In logistic regression including clinical variables, Kernig’s sign and deep coma were positively associated with ABM, and a single seizure was negatively associated (P ≤ 0.01). In models including microscopy, neck stiffness and deep coma were positively associated with ABM and parasitemia was negatively associated with ABM (P ≤ 0.04). In young children, a bulging fontanel added to the model (P < 0.001). Simple clinical features predict ABM in children in Papua New Guinea but malaria microscopy augments diagnostic precision. PMID:22302856

  6. Physicochemical and Microbiological Characteristics of Tundra Soils on the Rybachii Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evdokimova, G. A.; Mozgova, N. P.; Myazin, V. A.

    2018-01-01

    The Rybachii Peninsula is composed of Proterozoic sedimentary rocks and differs sharply from the rest of the Kola Peninsula in its geological structure, topographic forms, and parent rocks. It is dominated by Al-Fe-humus soils formed on moraines with an admixture of local rock fragments, including slates. Organic horizons of tundra soils in the peninsula are less acid than those on granitoids of adjacent mainland of the Kola Peninsula. The content of exchangeable calcium in the organic horizons varies from 17.4 to 68.0 cmolc/kg, and the content of water-soluble carbon reaches 400 mg/100 g amounting to 1-2% of the total soil organic matter content. The total number of bacteria in the organic horizons of tundra soils varies from 3.5 × 109 to 4.8 × 109 cells/g; and bacterial biomass varies from 0.14 to 0.19 mg/g. The length of fungal mycelium and its biomass in the organic horizons are significant (>1000 m/g soil). The biomass of fungal mycelium in the organic horizons exceeds the bacterial biomass by seven times in podzols (Albic Podzols) and by ten times in podbur (Entic Podzol), dry-peat soil (Folic Histosol), and low-moor peat soil (Sapric Histosol).

  7. Merida, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This rare cloud free view of the city of Merida (21.0N, 90.0W) on the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico was taken as an experiment with color infrared film to determine the best applications of this unique film. Color film presents an image as it appears to the eye but color infrared film eliminates haze and better defines vegetation and its vitality by the shade of red or pink. Note that much of the native forests have been cut down for farm lands.

  8. Colonialism, Education and Social Change in the British Empire: The Cases of Australia, Papua New Guinea and Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donoghue, Tom

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the history of relations between colonialism, schooling and social change in Australia, Papua New Guinea and Ireland, countries that were once part of the British Empire. It indicates that responses to schooling ranged from acceptance and tolerance, to modification and rejection, depending on the country, the issue, and the…

  9. On Training in Language Documentation and Capacity Building in Papua New Guinea: A Response to Bird et al.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Joseph D.

    2015-01-01

    In a recent article, Bird et al. (2013) discuss a workshop held at the University of Goroka in Papua New Guinea (PNG) in 2012. The workshop was intended to offer a new methodological framework for language documentation and capacity building that streamlines the documentation process and accelerates the global effort to document endangered…

  10. Marine pelagic ecosystems: the West Antarctic Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Ducklow, Hugh W; Baker, Karen; Martinson, Douglas G; Quetin, Langdon B; Ross, Robin M; Smith, Raymond C; Stammerjohn, Sharon E; Vernet, Maria; Fraser, William

    2006-01-01

    The marine ecosystem of the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) extends from the Bellingshausen Sea to the northern tip of the peninsula and from the mostly glaciated coast across the continental shelf to the shelf break in the west. The glacially sculpted coastline along the peninsula is highly convoluted and characterized by deep embayments that are often interconnected by channels that facilitate transport of heat and nutrients into the shelf domain. The ecosystem is divided into three subregions, the continental slope, shelf and coastal regions, each with unique ocean dynamics, water mass and biological distributions. The WAP shelf lies within the Antarctic Sea Ice Zone (SIZ) and like other SIZs, the WAP system is very productive, supporting large stocks of marine mammals, birds and the Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba. Ecosystem dynamics is dominated by the seasonal and interannual variation in sea ice extent and retreat. The Antarctic Peninsula is one among the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, having experienced a 2°C increase in the annual mean temperature and a 6°C rise in the mean winter temperature since 1950. Delivery of heat from the Antarctic Circumpolar Current has increased significantly in the past decade, sufficient to drive to a 0.6°C warming of the upper 300 m of shelf water. In the past 50 years and continuing in the twenty-first century, the warm, moist maritime climate of the northern WAP has been migrating south, displacing the once dominant cold, dry continental Antarctic climate and causing multi-level responses in the marine ecosystem. Ecosystem responses to the regional warming include increased heat transport, decreased sea ice extent and duration, local declines in ice-dependent Adélie penguins, increase in ice-tolerant gentoo and chinstrap penguins, alterations in phytoplankton and zooplankton community composition and changes in krill recruitment, abundance and availability to predators. The climate/ecological gradients

  11. Stand structure and dynamics of sand pine differ between the Florida panhandle and peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drewa, P.B.; Platt, W.J.; Kwit, C.; Doyle, T.W.

    2008-01-01

    Size and age structures of stand populations of numerous tree species exhibit uneven or reverse J-distributions that can persist after non-catastrophic disturbance, especially windstorms. Among disjunct populations of conspecific trees, alternative distributions are also possible and may be attributed to more localized variation in disturbance. Regional differences in structure and demography among disjunct populations of sand pine (Pinus clausa (Chapm. ex Engelm.) Vasey ex Sarg.) in the Florida panhandle and peninsula may result from variation in hurricane regimes associated with each of these populations. We measured size, age, and growth rates of trees from panhandle and peninsula populations and then compiled size and age class distributions. We also characterized hurricanes in both regions over the past century. Size and age structures of panhandle populations were unevenly distributed and exhibited continuous recruitment; peninsula populations were evenly sized and aged and exhibited only periodic recruitment. Since hurricane regimes were similar between regions, historical fire regimes may have been responsible for regional differences in structure of sand pine populations. We hypothesize that fires were locally nonexistent in coastal panhandle populations, while periodic high intensity fires occurred in peninsula populations over the past century. Such differences in local fire regimes could have resulted in the absence of hurricane effects in the peninsula. Increased intensity of hurricanes in the panhandle and current fire suppression patterns in the peninsula may shift characteristics of sand pine stands in both regions. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  12. Diet and physical activity among migrant Bougainvilleans in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea: association with anthropometric measures and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Vengiau, Gwendalyn; Umezaki, Masahiro; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Siba, Peter; Watanabe, Chiho

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and hypertension are increasing in Papua New Guinea. This study investigated the association of dietary pattern and physical activity level with anthropometric measurements and blood pressure in migrant Bougainvilleans in the capital city of Port Moresby. Adults who had moved from Naasioi territory on Bougainville Island and resided in Port Moresby during the study period were studied (n = 70). The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity, and dietary pattern was assessed by per week consumption frequency of food items. The least square regression analysis revealed that interindividual variation in body mass index and waist circumference was explained by variations in physical activity but not by dietary pattern. Blood pressure was not associated with physical activity level or dietary pattern. The individual variation in anthropometric measurements in urban Papua New Guinea is mainly influenced by physical activity level. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-11 - EARTH SKY - OVERLAY - SINAI PENINSULA - POINTS OF INTEREST - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-09-14

    S66-54893 (14 Sept. 1966) --- Near East area as seen from the orbiting Gemini-11 spacecraft during its 26th revolution of Earth. The United Arab Republic (Egypt) is in foreground. Triangular-shaped area is the Sinai Peninsula. Saudi Arabia is at upper right. The Mediterranean Sea is at upper left. The Gulf of Suez separates Egypt from the Sinai Peninsula. The Red Sea is at bottom right. The Gulf of Aqaba is the body of water in right center of photograph separating the Sinai Peninsula and the Arabian Peninsula. The Dead Sea, Sea of Galilee, Jordan and Israel are in top center of picture. Iraq is at top right edge of photograph. Taken with a J. A. Maurer 70mm camera, using Eastman Kodak, Ektachrome, MS (S.O. 368) color film. Photo credit: NASA

  14. A rapid situation assessment of drug use in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    McDonald, David

    2005-01-01

    Papua New Guinea (PNG) is an Asia Pacific country that we hear little about in the drug and alcohol area. Recently at the APEC meeting in Chile, the Australian Prime Minister, Mr John Howard, announced that PNG would be one of the countries of focus with regards to public health programs and HIV AIDS assistance by Australia in the future. This is a timely report of a rapid situation assessment (RSA) of drug use and drug-related harm in Papua New Guinea (PNG) conducted in 1998-1999, with comments on developments since that time. The author of this paper, David McDonald, was appointed as the international consultant to work with the PNG National Narcotics Bureau to undertake an assessment of drug use in PNG, and is well-equipped to report on the drug and alcohol situation in that country. The rapid assessment study was conducted to provide up-to-date, factual information about drugs in PNG that could contribute to the development of a national drug strategy for PNG. The focus was on illegal drugs in accordance with the mandates of the auspicing bodies--namely cannabis and home-brewed alcohol. In keeping with the methodology for rapid assessment, the author utilised multiple information sources including published literature, administrative by-product data, case studies, a key informants' study and structured interviews with drug users. It was found that alcohol--both licit and home brew, as well as high potency cannabis, were the major substance problems in PNG. This paper, based on a more detailed report available through the author, provides a snap-shot of substance use problems in PNG. However, the author reports that problems in public sector management within and external to the sponsoring agency, the National Narcotics Bureau, have meant that the proposed national drug control strategy has not yet been developed.

  15. An annotated checklist of the Chilopoda and Diplopoda (Myriapoda) of the Abrau Peninsula, northwestern Caucasus, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Semenyuk, Irina I.; Tuf, Ivan H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The Abrau Peninsula is located in northwestern Caucasus between the cities of Novorossiysk and Anapa, Krasnodar Province, Russia. This paper contains an annotated checklist of the Chilopoda and Diplopoda inhabiting the Abrau Peninsula. New information The fauna of the Abrau Peninsula comprises 17 centipede (4 orders) and 16 millipede (6 orders) species. Henia taurica, hitherto known only from the Crimea, has now been reported from several localities in the studied region. The study also reveals two possibly new millipede species. Statistical analyses showed that habitat preferences of myriapod species within the Abrau Peninsula are caused by species geographic distribution pattern and microbiotope preferences. PMID:27346949

  16. Geology of the Prince William Sound and Kenai Peninsula region, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Hults, Chad P.

    2012-01-01

    The Prince William Sound and Kenai Peninsula region includes a significant part of one of the world’s largest accretionary complexes and a small part of the classic magmatic arc geology of the Alaska Peninsula. Physiographically, the map area ranges from the high glaciated mountains of the Alaska and Aleutian Ranges and the Chugach Mountains to the coastal lowlands of Cook Inlet and the Copper River delta. Structurally, the map area is cut by a number of major faults and postulated faults, the most important of which are the Border Ranges, Contact, and Bruin Bay Fault systems. The rocks of the map area belong to the Southern Margin composite terrane, a Tertiary and Cretaceous or older subduction-related accretionary complex, and the Alaska Peninsula terrane. Mesozoic rocks between these two terranes have been variously assigned to the Peninsular or the Hidden terranes. The oldest rocks in the map area are blocks of Paleozoic age within the mélange of the McHugh Complex; however, the protolith age of the greenschist and blueschist within the Border Ranges Fault zone is not known. Extensive glacial deposits mantle the Kenai Peninsula and the lowlands on the west side of Cook Inlet and are locally found elsewhere in the map area. This map was compiled from existing mapping, without generalization, and new or revised data was added where available.

  17. At Risk: The Relationship between Experiences of Child Sexual Abuse and Women's HIV Status in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Ione R.

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse in Papua New Guinea is a human rights issue as well as an indicator of HIV risk in women. This study aimed to develop knowledge about the link between violence experienced by women and their HIV status. The study used a mixed method approach to collect quantitative and qualitative data through structured interviews with a sample…

  18. Earth - Northeast Africa and the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-29

    This image of northeast Africa and the Arabian Peninsula was taken from an altitude of about 500,000 kilometers 300,000 miles by NASA’s Galileo spacecraft on December 9, 1992, as it left Earth en route to Jupiter. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00127

  19. STS-42 Earth observation of Kamchatka Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-42 Earth observation taken aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, with an electronic still camera (ESC) is of Kamchatka Peninsula in Russia. Mid-afternoon sun projects long shadows from volcanoes on the Kamchatka Peninsula. This flat-topped volcano with the sharp summit crater is Tobachinsky, over 3,085 kilometers high. Its last major eruption was in 1975 and 1976, but it has been very active since the middle of the Sixteenth Century. The shadows cast by the low sunlight brings out the dramatic relief of the volcano as well as the smaller morphologic features. For example, the small hills in the foreground and behind the central volcano are cinder cones, approximately only 200 meters high. Note the sharp triangular shadow from the conical volcano at right. Electronic still photography is a relatively new technology that enables a camera to electronically capture and digitize an image with resolution approaching film quality. The digital images from STS-42 were stored on a disk

  20. STS-42 Earth observation of Kamchatka Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-42 Earth observation taken aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, with an electronic still camera (ESC) is of Kamchatka Peninsula in Russia. Mid-afternoon sun projects long shadows from volcanoes on the Kamchatka Peninsula. This flat-topped volcano with the sharp summit crater is Tobachinsky, over 3,085 kilometers high. Its last major eruption was in 1975 and 1976, but it has been very active since the middle of the Sixteenth Century. The shadows cast by the low sunlight brings out the dramatic relief of the volcano as well as the smaller morphologic features. Electronic still photography is a relatively new technology that enables a camera to electronically capture and digitize an image with resolution approaching film quality. The digital images from STS-42 were stored on a disk and brought home with the flight crewmembers for processing. ESC was developed by the JSC Man-Systems Division and this mission's application of it is part of a continuing evolutionary development le

  1. Situation Report--Australia, Burundi, Cambodia, Mexico, Montserrat, Nicaragua, Papua & New Guinea, Republic of Vietnam, Sabah, Sarawak, Sierra Leone, Tahiti, Tonga.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in fourteen foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Australia, Burundi, Cambodia, Mexico, Montserrat, Nicaragua, Papua and New Guines, Republic of Vietnam, Sabah, Sarawak, Sierra Leone, Tahiti (French Polynesia), and Tonga. Information is provided under two…

  2. The Social Cost of Acting "Extra": Students' Moral Judgements of Self, Social Relations, and Academic Success in Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demerath, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Investigated how high school students in Papua New Guinea responded to rising educational credentialism and unemployment by drawing on elements of their traditional egalitarian village identity to make moral judgements about appropriate selves and futures. Interview and observation data indicated that students referred to specific western…

  3. Rebel girls? Unplanned pregnancy and colonialism in highlands Papua, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Butt, Leslie; Munro, Jenny

    2007-01-01

    In highlands Papua, Indonesia, rapid social change under a colonial system of governance has created novel sexual opportunities for young indigenous women. Recent scholarship has viewed similar youthful sexual practices that challenge the status quo as expressions of personal agency. By looking at how young women and their families cope with unplanned pregnancies, we suggest that a more viable analytic approach would be to view sexuality, pregnancy and childbirth as a single unit of analysis. From this perspective, young women's experiences are primarily ones of constraint. Case studies offer insights into the ways a political context of colonial domination limits options and choices for young women who have children born out of wedlock. In particular, this paper describes how the 'settler gaze' - omnipresent colonial norms and judgments - creates regulatory effects in the realm of reproduction.

  4. Aquarium Trade Supply-Chain Losses of Marine Invertebrates Originating from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Militz, Thane A; Kinch, Jeff; Southgate, Paul C

    2018-04-01

    A major difficulty in managing live organism wildlife trade is often the reliance on trade data to monitor exploitation of wild populations. Harvested organisms that die or are discarded before a point of sale are regularly not reported. For the global marine aquarium trade, identifying supply-chain losses is necessary to more accurately assess exploitation from trade data. We examined quality control rejections and mortality of marine invertebrates (Asteroidea, Gastropoda, Malacostraca, Ophiuroidea) moving through the Papua New Guinea marine aquarium supply-chain, from fisher to importer. Utilizing catch invoices and exporter mortality records we determined that, over a 160 day period, 38.6% of the total invertebrate catch (n = 13,299 individuals) was lost before export. Supply-chain losses were divided among invertebrates rejected in the quality control process (11.5%) and mortality of the accepted catch in transit to, and during holding at, an export facility (30.6%). A further 0.3% died during international transit to importers. We quantified supply-chain losses for the ten most fished species which accounted for 96.4% of the catch. Quality control rejections (n = 1533) were primarily explained by rejections of oversized invertebrates (83.2% of rejections). We suggest that enforceable size limits on species prone to size-based rejections and elimination of village-based holding of invertebrates would reduce losses along the Papua New Guinea supply-chain. This case study underscores that low mortality during international transit may mask large losses along supply-chains prior to export and exemplifies the limitations of trade data to accurately monitor exploitation.

  5. Aquarium Trade Supply-Chain Losses of Marine Invertebrates Originating from Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Militz, Thane A.; Kinch, Jeff; Southgate, Paul C.

    2018-04-01

    A major difficulty in managing live organism wildlife trade is often the reliance on trade data to monitor exploitation of wild populations. Harvested organisms that die or are discarded before a point of sale are regularly not reported. For the global marine aquarium trade, identifying supply-chain losses is necessary to more accurately assess exploitation from trade data. We examined quality control rejections and mortality of marine invertebrates (Asteroidea, Gastropoda, Malacostraca, Ophiuroidea) moving through the Papua New Guinea marine aquarium supply-chain, from fisher to importer. Utilizing catch invoices and exporter mortality records we determined that, over a 160 day period, 38.6% of the total invertebrate catch ( n = 13,299 individuals) was lost before export. Supply-chain losses were divided among invertebrates rejected in the quality control process (11.5%) and mortality of the accepted catch in transit to, and during holding at, an export facility (30.6%). A further 0.3% died during international transit to importers. We quantified supply-chain losses for the ten most fished species which accounted for 96.4% of the catch. Quality control rejections ( n = 1533) were primarily explained by rejections of oversized invertebrates (83.2% of rejections). We suggest that enforceable size limits on species prone to size-based rejections and elimination of village-based holding of invertebrates would reduce losses along the Papua New Guinea supply-chain. This case study underscores that low mortality during international transit may mask large losses along supply-chains prior to export and exemplifies the limitations of trade data to accurately monitor exploitation.

  6. Mobile phone-based syndromic surveillance system, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Rosewell, Alexander; Ropa, Berry; Randall, Heather; Dagina, Rosheila; Hurim, Samuel; Bieb, Sibauk; Datta, Siddhartha; Ramamurthy, Sundar; Mola, Glen; Zwi, Anthony B; Ray, Pradeep; MacIntyre, C Raina

    2013-11-01

    The health care system in Papua New Guinea is fragile, and surveillance systems infrequently meet international standards. To strengthen outbreak identification, health authorities piloted a mobile phone-based syndromic surveillance system and used established frameworks to evaluate whether the system was meeting objectives. Stakeholder experience was investigated by using standardized questionnaires and focus groups. Nine sites reported data that included 7 outbreaks and 92 cases of acute watery diarrhea. The new system was more timely (2.4 vs. 84 days), complete (70% vs. 40%), and sensitive (95% vs. 26%) than existing systems. The system was simple, stable, useful, and acceptable; however, feedback and subnational involvement were weak. A simple syndromic surveillance system implemented in a fragile state enabled more timely, complete, and sensitive data reporting for disease risk assessment. Feedback and provincial involvement require improvement. Use of mobile phone technology might improve the timeliness and efficiency of public health surveillance.

  7. Hurricane Ike Deposits on the Bolivar Peninsula, Galveston Bay, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, C. A.; Wilkinson, M. J.; Eppler, D.

    2011-12-01

    In September 2008, Hurricane Ike made landfall on Galveston Bay, close to the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The storm flooded much of the area with a storm surge ranging from 11-20 feet. The Bolivar peninsula, the southeastern coast of Galveston Bay, experienced the brunt of the surge. Several agencies collected excellent imagery baselines before the storm and complementary data a few days afterward that helped define the impacts of the storm. In April of 2011, a team of scientists and astronauts from JSC conducted field mapping exercises along the Bolivar Peninsula, the section of the Galveston Bay coast most impacted by the storm. Astronauts routinely observe and document coastal changes from orbit aboard the International Space Station. As part of their basic Earth Science training, scientists at the Johnson Space Center take astronauts out for field mapping exercises so that they can better recognize and understand features and processes that they will later observe from the International Space Station. Using pre-storm baseline images of the Bolivar Peninsula near Rollover Pass and Gilchrist (NOAA/Google Earth Imagery and USGS aerial imagery and lidar data), the astronauts mapped current coastline positions at defined locations, and related their findings to specific coastal characteristics, including channel, jetties, and other developments. In addition to mapping, we dug trenches along both the Gulf of Mexico coast as well as the Galveston Bay coast of the Bolivar peninsula to determine the depth of the scouring from the storm on the Gulf side, and the amount of deposition of the storm surge deposits on the Bay side of the peninsula. The storm signature was easy to identify by sharp sediment transitions and, in the case of storm deposits, a layer of storm debris (roof shingles, PVC pipes, etc) and black, organic rich layers containing buried sea grasses in areas that were marshes before the storm. The amount of deposition was generally about 20-25 cm; the

  8. Hurricane Ike Deposits on the Bolivar Peninsula, Galveston Bay, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Cynthia A.; Wilkinson, M. J.; Eppler, Dean

    2011-01-01

    In September 2008, Hurricane Ike made landfall on Galveston Bay, close to the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The storm flooded much of the area with a storm surge ranging from 11 -20 feet. The Bolivar peninsula, the southeastern coast of Galveston Bay, experienced the brunt of the surge. Several agencies collected excellent imagery baselines before the storm and complementary data a few days afterward that helped define the impacts of the storm. In April of 2011, a team of scientists and astronauts from JSC conducted field mapping exercises along the Bolivar Peninsula, the section of the Galveston Bay coast most impacted by the storm. Astronauts routinely observe and document coastal changes from orbit aboard the International Space Station. As part of their basic Earth Science training, scientists at the Johnson Space Center take astronauts out for field mapping exercises so that they can better recognize and understand features and processes that they will later observe from the International Space Station. Using pre -storm baseline images of the Bolivar Peninsula near Rollover Pass and Gilchrist (NOAA/Google Earth Imagery and USGS aerial imagery and lidar data), the astronauts mapped current coastline positions at defined locations, and related their findings to specific coastal characteristics, including channel, jetties, and other developments. In addition to mapping, we dug trenches along both the Gulf of Mexico coast as well as the Galveston Bay coast of the Bolivar peninsula to determine the depth of the scouring from the storm on the Gulf side, and the amount of deposition of the storm surge deposits on the Bay side of the peninsula. The storm signature was easy to identify by sharp sediment transitions and, in the case of storm deposits, a layer of storm debris (roof shingles, PVC pipes, etc) and black, organic rich layers containing buried sea grasses in areas that were marshes before the storm. The amount of deposition was generally about 20 -25 cm

  9. Ground-water conditions and quality in the western part of Kenai Peninsula, southcentral Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glass, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The western part of Kenai Peninsula in southcentral Alaska is bounded by Cook Inlet and the Kenai Mountains. Ground water is the predominant source of water for commercial, industrial, and domestic uses on the peninsula. Mean daily water use in an oil, gas, and chemical processing area north of Kenai is more than 3.5 million gallons. Unconsolidated sediments of glacial and fluvial origin are the most productive aquifers. In the upper (northwestern) peninsula, almost all water used is withdrawn from unconsolidated sediments, which may be as thick as 750 feet. In the lower peninsula, unconsolidated sediments are thinner and are absent on many hills. Water supplies in the lower peninsula are obtained from unconsolidated sediments and bedrock, and a public-water supply in parts of Homer is obtained from Bridge Creek. Throughout the peninsula, ground-water flow occurs primarily as localized flow controlled by permeability of aquifer materials and surface topography. The concentration of constituents analyzed in water from 312 wells indicated that the chemical quality of ground water for human consumption varies from marginal to excellent. Even though the median concentration of dissolved solids is low (152 milligrams per liter), much of the ground water on the peninsula does not meet water-quality regulations for public drinking water established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). About 8 percent of wells sampled yielded water having concentrations of dissolved arsenic that exceeded the USEPA primary maximum contaminant level of 50 micrograms per liter. Concentrations of dissolved arsenic were as great as 94 micrograms per liter. Forty-six percent of wells sampled yielded water having concentrations of dissolved iron greater than the USEPA secondary maximum contaminant level of 300 micrograms per liter. Unconsolidated sediments generally yield water having calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate as its predominant ions. In some areas, ground water at

  10. The Gut Microbiota of Rural Papua New Guineans: Composition, Diversity Patterns, and Ecological Processes

    DOE PAGES

    Martínez, Inés; Stegen, James C.; Maldonado-Gómez, Maria X.; ...

    2015-04-01

    Comparisons between the fecal microbiota of humans from industrialized and non-industrialized communities indicate a pronounced impact of westernization on the diversity and composition of the human gut microbiota. However, the exact consequences of westernization on community characteristics are still insufficiently understood, and the ecological processes that drive differences have not been elucidated. Here we have compared the fecal microbiota of adults from two non-industrialized regions in Papua New Guinea (PNG) with that of United States (US) residents. Papua New Guineans harbor communities with greater bacterial diversity but lower inter-individual variation. Although the fecal microbiota in PNG and US was largelymore » dominated by shared bacterial lineages, the relative abundance of 25 families, 45 genera, and 230 species-level OTUs differed, and 47 core OTUs in PNG were undetectable in US residents. To gain insight into the ecological mechanisms that cause the observed differences, we quantified community assembly processes in PNG and US microbiomes using a null modeling approach. This analysis demonstrated a significant higher rate of bacterial dispersal in PNG and divergent selective environments in the US. Interestingly, equivalent findings were obtained for other datasets comparing industrialized and non-industrialized microbiomes. Overall, the findings demonstrate a dominant role for microbial dispersal in shaping the human gut microbiota in non-industrialized societies, and point to differential selection pressures across individuals as a major factor shaping microbiomes associated with modern lifestyle.« less

  11. Event-based surveillance in Papua New Guinea: strengthening an International Health Regulations (2005) core capacity.

    PubMed

    Dagina, Rosheila; Murhekar, Manoj; Rosewell, Alexander; Pavlin, Boris I

    2013-01-01

    Under the International Health Regulations (2005), Member States are required to develop capacity in event-based surveillance (EBS). The Papua New Guinea National Department of Health established an EBS system during the influenza pandemic in August 2009. We review its performance from August 2009 to November 2012, sharing lessons that may be useful to other low-resource public health practitioners working in surveillance. We examined the EBS system's event reporting, event verification and response. Characteristics examined included type of event, source of information, timeliness, nature of response and outcome. Sixty-one records were identified. The median delay between onset of the event and date of reporting was 10 days. The largest proportion of reports (39%) came from Provincial Health Offices, followed by direct reports from clinical staff (25%) and reports in the media (11%). Most (84%) of the events were substantiated to be true public health events, and 56% were investigated by the Provincial Health Office alone. A confirmed or probable etiology could not be determined in 69% of true events. EBS is a simple strategy that forms a cornerstone of public health surveillance and response particularly in low-resource settings such as Papua New Guinea. There is a need to reinforce reporting pathways, improve timeliness of reporting, expand sources of information, improve feedback and improve diagnostic support capacity. For it to be successful, EBS should be closely tied to response.

  12. Critical interactions between Global Fund-supported programmes and health systems: a case study in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Rudge, James W; Phuanakoonon, Suparat; Nema, K Henry; Mounier-Jack, Sandra; Coker, Richard

    2010-11-01

    In Papua New Guinea, investment by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (the Global Fund) has played an important role in scaling up the response to HIV and tuberculosis (TB). As part of a series of case studies on how Global Fund-supported programmes interact with national health systems, we assessed the nature and extent of integration of the Global Fund portfolios within the national HIV and TB programmes, the integration of the HIV and TB programmes within the general health system, and system-wide effects of Global Fund support in Papua New Guinea. The study relied on a literature review and 30 interviews with key stakeholders using the Systemic Rapid Assessment Toolkit and thematic analysis. Global Fund-supported activities were found to be largely integrated, or at least coordinated, with the national HIV and TB programmes. However, this has reinforced the vertical nature of these programmes with respect to the general health system, with parallel systems established to meet the demands of programme scale-up and the performance-based nature of Global Fund investment in the weak health system context of Papua New Guinea. The more parallel functions include monitoring and evaluation, and procurement and supply chain systems, while human resources and infrastructure for service delivery are increasingly integrated at more local levels. Positive synergies of Global Fund support include engagement of civil-society partners, and a reliable supply of high-quality drugs which may have increased patient confidence in the health system. However, the severely limited and overburdened pool of human resources has been skewed towards the three diseases, both at management and service delivery levels. There is also concern surrounding the sustainability of the disease programmes, given their dependence on donors. Increasing Global Fund attention towards health system strengthening was viewed positively, but should acknowledge that system changes are slow

  13. Morphological variation and host range of two Ganoderma species from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Pilotti, Carmel A; Sanderson, Frank R; Aitken, Elizabeth A B; Armstrong, Wendy

    2004-08-01

    Two species of Ganoderma belonging to different subgenera which cause disease on oil palms in PNG are identified by basidiome morphology and the morphology of their basidiospores. The names G. boninense and G. tornatum have been applied. Significant pleiomorphy was observed in basidiome characters amongst the specimens examined. This variation in most instances did not correlate well with host or host status. Spore morphology appeared uniform within a species and spore indices varied only slightly. G. tornatum was found to have a broad host range whereas G. boninense appears to be restricted to palms in Papua New Guinea.

  14. Timber resource statistics for the Olympic Peninsula, Washington.

    Treesearch

    Patricia M. Bassett; Daniel D. Oswald

    1961-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1978-79 timber resource inventory of five counties in the Olympic Peninsula of Washington: Clallam, Grays Harbor, Jefferson, Mason, and Thurston. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  15. Prioritizing Surgical Care on National Health Agendas: A Qualitative Case Study of Papua New Guinea, Uganda, and Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Dare, Anna J.; Lee, Katherine C.; Bleicher, Josh; Elobu, Alex E.; Kamara, Thaim B.; Liko, Osborne; Luboga, Samuel; Danlop, Akule; Kune, Gabriel; Hagander, Lars; Leather, Andrew J. M.; Yamey, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about the social and political factors that influence priority setting for different health services in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), yet these factors are integral to understanding how national health agendas are established. We investigated factors that facilitate or prevent surgical care from being prioritized in LMICs. Methods and Findings We undertook country case studies in Papua New Guinea, Uganda, and Sierra Leone, using a qualitative process-tracing method. We conducted 74 semi-structured interviews with stakeholders involved in health agenda setting and surgical care in these countries. Interviews were triangulated with published academic literature, country reports, national health plans, and policies. Data were analyzed using a conceptual framework based on four components (actor power, ideas, political contexts, issue characteristics) to assess national factors influencing priority for surgery. Political priority for surgical care in the three countries varies. Priority was highest in Papua New Guinea, where surgical care is firmly embedded within national health plans and receives significant domestic and international resources, and much lower in Uganda and Sierra Leone. Factors influencing whether surgical care was prioritized were the degree of sustained and effective domestic advocacy by the local surgical community, the national political and economic environment in which health policy setting occurs, and the influence of international actors, particularly donors, on national agenda setting. The results from Papua New Guinea show that a strong surgical community can generate priority from the ground up, even where other factors are unfavorable. Conclusions National health agenda setting is a complex social and political process. To embed surgical care within national health policy, sustained advocacy efforts, effective framing of the problem and solutions, and country-specific data are required. Political

  16. Marine exotic isopods from the Iberian Peninsula and nearby waters.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Laiz, Gemma; Ros, Macarena; Guerra-García, José M

    2018-01-01

    Effective management of marine bioinvasions starts with prevention, communication among the scientific community and comprehensive updated data on the distribution ranges of exotic species. Despite being a hotspot for introduction due to numerous shipping routes converging at the Strait of Gibraltar, knowledge of marine exotics in the Iberian Peninsula is scarce, especially of abundant but small-sized and taxonomically challenging taxa such as the Order Isopoda. To fill this gap, we conducted several sampling surveys in 44 marinas and provide the first comprehensive study of marine exotic isopods from the Iberian Peninsula, the southern side of the Strait of Gibraltar (northern Africa) and the Balearic Islands. Exotic species included Ianiropsis serricaudis (first record for the Iberian Peninsula and Lusitanian marine province), Paracerceis sculpta (first record for the Alboran Sea ecoregion), Paradella dianae , Paranthura japonica (earliest record for the Iberian Peninsula) and Sphaeroma walkeri . Photographs with morphological details for identification for non-taxonomic experts are provided, their worldwide distribution is updated and patterns of invasion are discussed. We report an expansion in the distribution range of all species, especially at the Strait of Gibraltar and nearby areas. Ianiropsis serricaudis and Paranthura japonica are polyvectic, with shellfish trade and recreational boating being most probable vectors for their introduction and secondary spread. The subsequent finding of the studied species in additional marinas over the years points at recreational boating as a vector and indicates a future spread. We call for attention to reduce lags in the detection and reporting of small-size exotics, which usually remain overlooked or underestimated until the invasion process is at an advanced stage.

  17. Marine exotic isopods from the Iberian Peninsula and nearby waters

    PubMed Central

    Ros, Macarena; Guerra-García, José M.

    2018-01-01

    Effective management of marine bioinvasions starts with prevention, communication among the scientific community and comprehensive updated data on the distribution ranges of exotic species. Despite being a hotspot for introduction due to numerous shipping routes converging at the Strait of Gibraltar, knowledge of marine exotics in the Iberian Peninsula is scarce, especially of abundant but small-sized and taxonomically challenging taxa such as the Order Isopoda. To fill this gap, we conducted several sampling surveys in 44 marinas and provide the first comprehensive study of marine exotic isopods from the Iberian Peninsula, the southern side of the Strait of Gibraltar (northern Africa) and the Balearic Islands. Exotic species included Ianiropsis serricaudis (first record for the Iberian Peninsula and Lusitanian marine province), Paracerceis sculpta (first record for the Alboran Sea ecoregion), Paradella dianae, Paranthura japonica (earliest record for the Iberian Peninsula) and Sphaeroma walkeri. Photographs with morphological details for identification for non-taxonomic experts are provided, their worldwide distribution is updated and patterns of invasion are discussed. We report an expansion in the distribution range of all species, especially at the Strait of Gibraltar and nearby areas. Ianiropsis serricaudis and Paranthura japonica are polyvectic, with shellfish trade and recreational boating being most probable vectors for their introduction and secondary spread. The subsequent finding of the studied species in additional marinas over the years points at recreational boating as a vector and indicates a future spread. We call for attention to reduce lags in the detection and reporting of small-size exotics, which usually remain overlooked or underestimated until the invasion process is at an advanced stage. PMID:29507825

  18. Analysis of recent climatic changes in the Arabian Peninsula region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasrallah, H. A.; Balling, R. C.

    1996-12-01

    Interest in the potential climatic consequences of the continued buildup of anthropo-generated greenhouse gases has led many scientists to conduct extensive climate change studies at the global, hemispheric, and regional scales. In this investigation, analyses are conducted on long-term historical climate records from the Arabian Peninsula region. Over the last 100 years, temperatures in the region increased linearly by 0.63 °C. However, virtually all of this warming occurred from 1911 1935, and over the most recent 50 years, the Arabian Peninsula region has cooled slightly. In addition, the satellite-based measurements of lower-tropospheric temperatures for the region do not show any statistically significant warming over the period 1979 1991. While many other areas of the world are showing a decrease in the diurnal temperature range, the Arabian Peninsula region reveals no evidence of a long-term change in this parameter. Precipitation records for the region show a slight, statistically insignificant decrease over the past 40 years. The results from this study should complement the mass of information that has resulted from similar regional climate studies conducted in the United States, Europe, and Australia.

  19. The Peninsula Academies. Third Yearly Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Dorothy F.

    The performance of the Peninsula Academies of Electronics and Computer Technology was assessed for the program's third year of operation in two host schools in the Sequoia Union High School District. Data were collected for approximately 190 Academy students and for a comparison group of non-Academy students. Academies students missed fewer days…

  20. 27 CFR 9.114 - Old Mission Peninsula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... boundary in Grand Traverse County, Michigan, consists of all of Peninsula Township, excluding Marion and Bassett Islands. In addition, the viticultural area takes in a small portion of Traverse City Township. (1... Grand Traverse Bay at Section 1, Township 27 North, Range 11 West (T27N, R11W), approximately 500 feet...

  1. 27 CFR 9.114 - Old Mission Peninsula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... boundary in Grand Traverse County, Michigan, consists of all of Peninsula Township, excluding Marion and Bassett Islands. In addition, the viticultural area takes in a small portion of Traverse City Township. (1... Grand Traverse Bay at Section 1, Township 27 North, Range 11 West (T27N, R11W), approximately 500 feet...

  2. Mining legacy across a wetland landscape: high mercury in Upper Peninsula (Michigan) rivers, lakes, and fish.

    PubMed

    Kerfoot, W Charles; Urban, Noel R; McDonald, Cory P; Zhang, Huanxin; Rossmann, Ronald; Perlinger, Judith A; Khan, Tanvir; Hendricks, Ashley; Priyadarshini, Mugdha; Bolstad, Morgan

    2018-04-25

    A geographic enigma is that present-day atmospheric deposition of mercury in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan is low (48%) and that regional industrial emissions have declined substantially (ca. 81% reduction) relative to downstate. Mercury levels should be declining. However, state (MDEQ) surveys of rivers and lakes revealed elevated total mercury (THg) in Upper Peninsula waters and sediment relative to downstate. Moreover, Western Upper Peninsula (WUP) fish possess higher methyl mercury (MeHg) levels than Northern Lower Peninsula (NLP) fish. A contributing explanation for elevated THg loading is that a century ago the Upper Peninsula was a major industrial region, centered on mining. Many regional ores (silver, copper, zinc, massive sulfides) contain mercury in part per million concentrations. Copper smelters and iron furnace-taconite operations broadcast mercury almost continuously for 140 years, whereas mills discharged tailings and old mine shafts leaked contaminated water. We show that mercury emissions from copper and iron operations were substantial (60-650 kg per year) and dispersed over relatively large areas. Moreover, lake sediments in the vicinity of mining operations have higher THg concentrations. Sediment profiles from the Keweenaw Waterway show that THg accumulation increased 50- to 400-fold above modern-day atmospheric deposition levels during active mining and smelting operations, with lingering MeHg effects. High MeHg concentrations are geographically correlated with low pH and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), a consequence of biogeochemical cycling in wetlands, characteristic of the Upper Peninsula. DOC can mobilize metals and elevate MeHg concentrations. We argue that mercury loading from mining is historically superimposed upon strong regional wetland effects, producing a combined elevation of both THg and MeHg in the Western Upper Peninsula.

  3. Changes in glacier dynamics in the northern Antarctic Peninsula since 1985

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seehaus, Thorsten; Cook, Alison J.; Silva, Aline B.; Braun, Matthias

    2018-02-01

    The climatic conditions along the northern Antarctic Peninsula have shown significant changes within the last 50 years. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of temporally and spatially detailed observations of the changes in ice dynamics along both the east and west coastlines of the northern Antarctic Peninsula. Temporal evolutions of glacier area (1985-2015) and ice surface velocity (1992-2014) are derived from a broad multi-mission remote sensing database for 74 glacier basins on the northern Antarctic Peninsula ( < 65° S along the west coast and north of the Seal Nunataks on the east coast). A recession of the glaciers by 238.81 km2 is found for the period 1985-2015, of which the glaciers affected by ice shelf disintegration showed the largest retreat by 208.59 km2. Glaciers on the east coast north of the former Prince Gustav Ice Shelf extent in 1986 receded by only 21.07 km2 (1985-2015) and decelerated by about 58 % on average (1992-2014). A dramatic acceleration after ice shelf disintegration with a subsequent deceleration is observed at most former ice shelf tributaries on the east coast, combined with a significant frontal retreat. In 2014, the flow speed of the former ice shelf tributaries was 26 % higher than before 1996. Along the west coast the average flow speeds of the glaciers increased by 41 %. However, the glaciers on the western Antarctic Peninsula revealed a strong spatial variability of the changes in ice dynamics. By applying a hierarchical cluster analysis, we show that this is associated with the geometric parameters of the individual glacier basins (hypsometric indexes, maximum surface elevation of the basin, flux gate to catchment size ratio). The heterogeneous spatial pattern of ice dynamic evolutions at the northern Antarctic Peninsula shows that temporally and spatially detailed observations as well as further monitoring are necessary to fully understand glacier change in regions with such strong topographic and climatic variances.

  4. Solar photovoltaic systems in the development of Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinnell, G. H.

    Geographic and demographic features of Papua New Guinea are summarized, together with current applications of photovoltaic (PV) systems. The PV systems displace the increasing costs of generating power from diesel and kerosene powered units. PV systems power air navigation aids for the extensive air transport used in the absence of a road system. Remote television and visual aid education is possible with PV modules. A total of 50 kW of PV power is presently implemented, with the bulk dedicated to microwave repeater stations, navigation aids, and radio and lighting supplies. A village pumping installation is in operation, as are office lighting and ventilation, house lighting, and construction camp lighting. Another 350 kW is planned for the next 10 yr to run medical supply refrigeration, and further growth is seen for coupling with government-developed village lighting kits that feature industrial reflectors.

  5. Using the Global Environment Facility for developing Integrated Conservation and Development (ICAD) models -- Papua New Guinea`s Biodiversity Conservation Management Programme

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kula, G.; Jefferies, B.

    1995-03-01

    The unprecedented level of support that has been pledged to strengthen Government of Papua New Guinea (GoPNG) biodiversity conservation initiatives has re-identified an important fact that technical and infrastructure support must be complemented by programs that provide realistic opportunities for developing national capacity. Indications are that the next five years will present a range of challenging opportunities for the department to move from the intensive period of planning, which has been the focus of attention during the first phase of the National Forestry and Conservation Action Programme (NFCAP), into a sustained period of policy and project application. This paper examinesmore » processes under which strengthening programs contribute to national development objectives and complement accomplishment of the Department of Environment and Conservation Strategic Plan. An overview of the Global Environment Facility-Integrated Conservation and Development (ICAD) Project and coordination effort that are being made for biodiversity conservation projects in Papua New Guinea, are addressed.« less

  6. Mobile Phone–based Syndromic Surveillance System, Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Ropa, Berry; Randall, Heather; Dagina, Rosheila; Hurim, Samuel; Bieb, Sibauk; Datta, Siddhartha; Ramamurthy, Sundar; Mola, Glen; Zwi, Anthony B.; Ray, Pradeep; MacIntyre, C. Raina

    2013-01-01

    The health care system in Papua New Guinea is fragile, and surveillance systems infrequently meet international standards. To strengthen outbreak identification, health authorities piloted a mobile phone–based syndromic surveillance system and used established frameworks to evaluate whether the system was meeting objectives. Stakeholder experience was investigated by using standardized questionnaires and focus groups. Nine sites reported data that included 7 outbreaks and 92 cases of acute watery diarrhea. The new system was more timely (2.4 vs. 84 days), complete (70% vs. 40%), and sensitive (95% vs. 26%) than existing systems. The system was simple, stable, useful, and acceptable; however, feedback and subnational involvement were weak. A simple syndromic surveillance system implemented in a fragile state enabled more timely, complete, and sensitive data reporting for disease risk assessment. Feedback and provincial involvement require improvement. Use of mobile phone technology might improve the timeliness and efficiency of public health surveillance. PMID:24188144

  7. Coastal-Change and Glaciological Maps of the Antarctic Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrigno, Jane G.; Williams, Richard S.; Thomson, Janet W.

    2002-01-01

    In 2000, the Glacier Studies Project (GSP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Mapping and Geographic Information Centre (MAGIC) of the British Antarctic Survey (BAS) began a formal cooperative 3-year endeavor to prepare three maps of the Antarctic Peninsula region. The maps will be based on a large variety of cartographic, aerial photograph, satellite image, and ancillary historical datasets archived at each institution. The maps will document dynamic changes on the peninsula during the past 50 years. The three maps are part of a planned 24-map series (I-2600) being published by the USGS in both paper and digital format (see USGS Fact Sheet FS-050-98 at http://pubs.usgs.gov/factsheet/fs50-98/); the maps are of the Trinity Peninsula area (I-2600-A), the Larsen Ice Shelf area (I-2600-B), and the Palmer Land area (I-2600-C). The 1:1,000,000-scale maps will encompass an area 1,800 kilometers (km) long and with an average width of 400 km (range of 200 to 600 km wide); the area is between lats 60? and 76? S. and longs 52? and 80? W. Each of the three maps will include an interpretive booklet that analyzes documented historical changes in the fronts of the ice shelves and termini of the outlet glaciers.

  8. Past penguin colony responses to explosive volcanism on the Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Stephen J.; Monien, Patrick; Foster, Louise C.; Loftfield, Julia; Hocking, Emma P.; Schnetger, Bernhard; Pearson, Emma J.; Juggins, Steve; Fretwell, Peter; Ireland, Louise; Ochyra, Ryszard; Haworth, Anna R.; Allen, Claire S.; Moreton, Steven G.; Davies, Sarah J.; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen; Bentley, Michael J.; Hodgson, Dominic A.

    2017-04-01

    Changes in penguin populations on the Antarctic Peninsula have been linked to several environmental factors, but the potentially devastating impact of volcanic activity has not been considered. Here we use detailed biogeochemical analyses to track past penguin colony change over the last 8,500 years on Ardley Island, home to one of the Antarctic Peninsula's largest breeding populations of gentoo penguins. The first sustained penguin colony was established on Ardley Island c. 6,700 years ago, pre-dating sub-fossil evidence of Peninsula-wide occupation by c. 1,000 years. The colony experienced five population maxima during the Holocene. Overall, we find no consistent relationships with local-regional atmospheric and ocean temperatures or sea-ice conditions, although the colony population maximum, c. 4,000-3,000 years ago, corresponds with regionally elevated temperatures. Instead, at least three of the five phases of penguin colony expansion were abruptly ended by large eruptions from the Deception Island volcano, resulting in near-complete local extinction of the colony, with, on average, 400-800 years required for sustainable recovery.

  9. Past penguin colony responses to explosive volcanism on the Antarctic Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Stephen J.; Monien, Patrick; Foster, Louise C.; Loftfield, Julia; Hocking, Emma P.; Schnetger, Bernhard; Pearson, Emma J.; Juggins, Steve; Fretwell, Peter; Ireland, Louise; Ochyra, Ryszard; Haworth, Anna R.; Allen, Claire S.; Moreton, Steven G.; Davies, Sarah J.; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen; Bentley, Michael J.; Hodgson, Dominic A.

    2017-01-01

    Changes in penguin populations on the Antarctic Peninsula have been linked to several environmental factors, but the potentially devastating impact of volcanic activity has not been considered. Here we use detailed biogeochemical analyses to track past penguin colony change over the last 8,500 years on Ardley Island, home to one of the Antarctic Peninsula's largest breeding populations of gentoo penguins. The first sustained penguin colony was established on Ardley Island c. 6,700 years ago, pre-dating sub-fossil evidence of Peninsula-wide occupation by c. 1,000 years. The colony experienced five population maxima during the Holocene. Overall, we find no consistent relationships with local-regional atmospheric and ocean temperatures or sea-ice conditions, although the colony population maximum, c. 4,000–3,000 years ago, corresponds with regionally elevated temperatures. Instead, at least three of the five phases of penguin colony expansion were abruptly ended by large eruptions from the Deception Island volcano, resulting in near-complete local extinction of the colony, with, on average, 400–800 years required for sustainable recovery. PMID:28398353

  10. Klyuchevskaya, Volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, CIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Klyuchevskaya, Volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, CIS (56.0N, 160.5E) is one of several active volcanoes in the CIS and is 15,584 ft. in elevation. Fresh ash fall on the south side of the caldera can be seen as a dirty smudge on the fresh snowfall. Just to the north of the Kamchatka River is Shiveluch, a volcano which had been active a short time previously. There are more than 100 volcanic edifices recognized on Kamchatka, 15 of which are still active.

  11. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-03-06

    This shaded relief image of Mexico Yucatan Peninsula show a subtle, but unmistakable, indication of the Chicxulub impact crater. Most scientists now agree that this impact was the cause of the Cretatious-Tertiary Extinction.

  12. Peninsula Academies Replications: 1985-86 Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayton, Charles; And Others

    The Peninsula Academies is a three-year high school program for at-risk students, designed to provide them with incentives both to graduate and to acquire labor market-relevant skills. An academy combines academic and technical training in a school-within-a-school setting, and is based on school-business partnerships. In the fall of 1985, 10…

  13. 3D Electromagnetic Imaging of Fluid Distribution Below the Kii Peninsula, SW Japan Forearc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Y.; Ogawa, Y.; Ichiki, M.; Yamaguchi, S.; Fujita, K.; Umeda, K.; Asamori, K.

    2017-12-01

    Although Kii peninsula is located in the forearc of southwest Japan, it has high temperature hot springs and fluids from mantle are inferred from the isotopic ratio of helium. Non-volcanic tremors underneath the Kii Peninsula suggest rising fluids from the slab.Previously, in the southern part of the Kii Peninsula, wide band magnetotelluric measurements were carried out (Fujita et al. ,1997; Umeda et al., 2004). These studies could image the existence of the conductivity anomaly in the shallow and deep crust, however they used two dimensional inversions and three-dimensionality is not fully taken into consideration. As part of the "Crustal Dynamics" project, we have measured 20 more stations so that the whole wide-band MT stations constitute grids for three-dimensional modeling of the area. In total we have 51 wide-band magnetotelluric sites. Preliminary 3d inverse modeling showed the following features. (1) The high resistivity in the eastern Kii Peninsula at depths of 5-40km. This may imply consolidated magma body of Kumano Acidic rocks underlain by resistive Philippine Sea Plate which subducts with a low dip angle. (2) The northwestern part of Kii Peninsula has the shallow low resistivity in the upper crust, around which high seismicity is observed. (3) The northwestern part of the survey area has a deeper conductor. This implies a wedge mantle where the Philippine Sea subduction has a higher dip angle.

  14. Using soundscapes to detect variable degrees of human influence on tropical forests in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Burivalova, Zuzana; Towsey, Michael; Boucher, Tim; Truskinger, Anthony; Apelis, Cosmas; Roe, Paul; Game, Edward T

    2018-02-01

    There is global concern about tropical forest degradation, in part, because of the associated loss of biodiversity. Communities and indigenous people play a fundamental role in tropical forest management and are often efficient at preventing forest degradation. However, monitoring changes in biodiversity due to degradation, especially at a scale appropriate to local tropical forest management, is plagued by difficulties, including the need for expert training, inconsistencies across observers, and lack of baseline or reference data. We used a new biodiversity remote-sensing technology, the recording of soundscapes, to test whether the acoustic saturation of a tropical forest in Papua New Guinea decreases as land-use intensity by the communities that manage the forest increases. We sampled soundscapes continuously for 24 hours at 34 sites in different land-use zones of 3 communities. Land-use zones where forest cover was fully retained had significantly higher soundscape saturation during peak acoustic activity times (i.e., dawn and dusk chorus) compared with land-use types with fragmented forest cover. We conclude that, in Papua New Guinea, the relatively simple measure of soundscape saturation may provide a cheap, objective, reproducible, and effective tool for monitoring tropical forest deviation from an intact state, particularly if it is used to detect the presence of intact dawn and dusk choruses. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. Rifting and subduction in the papuan peninsula, papua new guinea: The significance of the trobriand tough, the nubara strike-slip fault, and the woodlark rift to the present configuration of papua new guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Milo Louis

    The calculated extension (~111 km) across the Woodlark rift is incompatible with the > 130 km needed to exhume the Metamorphic Core Complexes on shallow angle faults (< 30°) using N-S extension in the Woodlark Basin. High resolution bathymetry, seismicity, and seismic reflection data indicate that the Nubara Fault continues west of the Trobriand Trough, intersects the Woodlark spreading center, and forms the northern boundary of the Woodlark plate and the southern boundary of the Trobriand plate. The newly defined Trobriand plate, to the north of this boundary, has moved SW-NE along the right lateral Nubara Fault, creating SW-NE extension in the region bounded by the MCC's of the D'Entrecasteaux Islands and Moresby Seamount. Gravity and bathymetry data extracted along four transect lines were used to model the gravity and flexure across the Nubara Fault boundary. Differences exist in the elastic thickness between the northern and southern parts of the lines at the Metamorphic Core Complexes of Goodenough Island (Te_south = 5.7 x 103 m; Te_north = 6.1 x 103 m) and Fergusson Island (Te_south = 1.2 x 103 m; Te_north = 5.5 x 103 m). Differences in the elastic strength of the lithosphere also exist at Moresby Seamount (Te_south = 4.2 x 103 m; Te_north = 4.7 x 103 m) and Egum Atoll (Te_south =7.5 x 103 m; Te_north = 1.3 x 104 m). The differences between the northern and southern parts of each transect line imply an east-west boundary that is interpreted to be the Nubara Fault. The opening of the Woodlark Basin resulted in the rotation of the Papuan Peninsula and the Woodlark Rise, strike slip motion between the Solomon Sea and the Woodlark Basin at the Nubara Fault, and the formation of the PAC-SOL-WLK; SOL-WLK-TRB triple junctions. The intersection of the Woodlark Spreading Center with the Nubara Fault added the AUS-WLK-TRB triple junction and established the Nubara Fault as the northern boundary of the Woodlark plate.

  16. Event-based surveillance in Papua New Guinea: strengthening an International Health Regulations (2005) core capacity

    PubMed Central

    Dagina, Rosheila; Murhekar, Manoj; Rosewell, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Under the International Health Regulations (2005), Member States are required to develop capacity in event-based surveillance (EBS). The Papua New Guinea National Department of Health established an EBS system during the influenza pandemic in August 2009. We review its performance from August 2009 to November 2012, sharing lessons that may be useful to other low-resource public health practitioners working in surveillance. We examined the EBS system’s event reporting, event verification and response. Characteristics examined included type of event, source of information, timeliness, nature of response and outcome. Sixty-one records were identified. The median delay between onset of the event and date of reporting was 10 days. The largest proportion of reports (39%) came from Provincial Health Offices, followed by direct reports from clinical staff (25%) and reports in the media (11%). Most (84%) of the events were substantiated to be true public health events, and 56% were investigated by the Provincial Health Office alone. A confirmed or probable etiology could not be determined in 69% of true events. EBS is a simple strategy that forms a cornerstone of public health surveillance and response particularly in low-resource settings such as Papua New Guinea. There is a need to reinforce reporting pathways, improve timeliness of reporting, expand sources of information, improve feedback and improve diagnostic support capacity. For it to be successful, EBS should be closely tied to response. PMID:24319609

  17. Health promotion and empowerment in Henganofi District, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Barcham, Richard; Silas, Esther; Irie, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    Evidence shows that the government of Papua New Guinea is failing to provide basic services in health to the majority of its people. Local non-government organisations (NGOs), partnered with international NGOs, are attempting to fill this gap. With limited resources, these small Indigenous organisations must focus much of their effort on training that supports self-reliance as the main strategy for communities to improve their quality of life. This project explored the training content and methodology of Touching The Untouchables (TTU), a small Indigenous NGO based in Goroka, Eastern Highlands Province, that has trained a network of village volunteers in health promotion and safe motherhood.
    Village life imposes multiple demands, from self-sufficiency in food to maintaining law and order. There are established attitudes about power and dependence, referred to as 'cargo thinking'. Cargo thinking stands as a barrier to the necessity of self-reliance, and requires training strategies that seek to empower participants to create change from their own initiative. Empowerment is understood as oriented towards individual people taking collective action to improve their circumstances by rectifying disparities in social power and control. To achieve self-reliance, empowerment is necessarily operational on the levels of person, community and society.
    In addition to being operational on all three levels of empowerment, the training content and methodology adopted and developed by TTU demonstrate that empowering practice in training employs approaches to knowledge that are evidence-based, reflexive, contextual and skill-based. Creating knowledge that is reflexive and exploring knowledge about the broader context uses special kinds of communicative tools that facilitate discussion on history, society and political economy. Furthermore, training methodologies that are oriented to empowerment create settings that require the use of all three types of communication

  18. Timber resources of Michigan's Eastern Upper Peninsula, 1980.

    Treesearch

    W. Brad Smith

    1982-01-01

    The fourth inventory of the timber resource of Michigan's Eastern Upper Peninsula Survey Unit shows a 9% decline in commercial forest area and a 19% gain in growing-stock volume between 1966 and 1980. Presented are highlights and statistics on area, volume, growth, mortality, removals, utilization, and biomass.

  19. Timber resource of Michigan's Northern Lower Peninsula, 1980.

    Treesearch

    Pamela J. Jakes

    1982-01-01

    The fourth inventory of the timber resource of Michigan's Northern Lower Peninsula Survey Unit shows a 4% decline in commercial forest area and a 38% gain in growing-stock volume between 1966 and 1980. Presented are highlights and statistics on area, volume, growth, mortality, removals, utilization, and biomass.

  20. Preliminary timber resource statistics for the Olympic Peninsula, Washington.

    Treesearch

    Colin D. MacLean; Janet L. Ohmann; Patricia M. Bassett

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1989 timber resource inventory of five counties in the Olympic Peninsula region of Washington: Clallam, Grays Harbor, Jefferson, Mason, and Thurston. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  1. Storage of treated sewage effluent and stormwater in a saline aquifer, Pinellas Peninsula, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenshein, J.S.; Hickey, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    The Pinellas Peninsula, an area of 750 square kilometres (290 square miles) in coastal west-central Florida, is a small hydrogeologic replica of Florida. Most of the Peninsula's water supply is imported from well fields as much as 65 kilometres (40 miles) inland. Stresses on the hydrologic environment of the Peninsula and on adjacent water bodies, resulting from intensive water-resources development and waste discharge, have resulted in marked interest in subsurface storage of waste water (treated effluent and untreated storm water) and in future retrieval of the stored water for nonpotable use. If subsurface storage is approved by regulatory agencies, as much as 265 megalitres per day (70 million gallons a day) of waste water could be stored underground within a few years, and more than 565 megalitres per day (150 million gallons a day) could be stored in about 25 years. This storage would constitute a large resource of nearly fresh water in the saline aquifers underlying about 520 square kilometres (200 square miles) of the Peninsula.The upper 1,060 metres (3,480 feet) of the rock column underlying four test sites on the Pinellas Peninsula have been explored. The rocks consist chiefly of limestone and dolomite. Three moderately to highly transmissive zones, separated by leaky confining beds, (low permeability limestone) from about 225 to 380 metres (740 to 1,250 feet) below mean sea level, have been identified in the lower part of the Floridan aquifer in the Avon Park Limestone. Results of withdrawal and injection tests in Pinellas County indicate that the middle transmissive zone has the highest estimated transmissivity-about 10 times other reported values. The chloride concentration of water in this zone, as well as in the two other transmissive zones in the Avon Park Limestone in Pinellas Peninsula, is about 19,000 milligrams per litre. If subsurface storage is approved and implemented, this middle zone probably would be used for storage of the waste water and

  2. Plants and soil microbes respond to recent warming on the Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amesbury, M. J.; Royles, J.; Hodgson, D.; Convey, P.; Griffiths, H.; Charman, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula is one of the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, with temperature increases of as much as 3°C recorded since the 1950s. However, the longer-term context of this change is limited and existing records are not suitably located to be able to trace the spatial signature of change over time. This paper will present the first published results from a wider project exploiting peat moss banks spanning 10 degrees of latitude along the Antarctic Peninsula as an archive of late Holocene climate variability. These moss banks are ideal archives for palaeoclimate research as they are well-preserved by freezing, generally monospecific, easily dated by radiocarbon techniques and have sufficiently high accumulation rates to permit decadal resolution. A unique time series of past moss growth and soil microbial activity has been produced from a 150 year old moss bank at Lazarev Bay, Alexander Island, a site at the southern limit of significant plant growth in the Antarctic Peninsula region. We use accumulation rates, cellulose δ13C and fossil testate amoebae to provide an indication of ecosystem productivity. We show that both moss and microbial population growth rates rose rapidly in the 1960s, consistent with temperature change, although recently may have stalled, concurrent with other evidence. The increase in terrestrial plant growth rates and soil microbial activity is unprecedented in the last 150 years. The observed relationship between moss growth, microbial activity and climate at Lazarev Bay suggests that moss bank records have the potential to test the regional expression of temperature variability shown by instrumental data on the Antarctic Peninsula over centennial to millennial timescales, by providing long-term records of summer growth conditions, complementing the more distant and widely dispersed ice core records. As a result, we will conclude by placing the Lazarev Bay record into the wider context of the latest progress of analysis of

  3. Tectonic map of the Arabian Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Glen F.

    1972-01-01

    This tectonic map of the Arabian peninsula, prepared for the Audi Arabian Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resource, is the first of a series of peninsular maps that attempt to show regional features. Much recent information resulting from detailed geologic mapping notably within the Arabian craton, from geophysical surveys, both airborne and oceanographic in adjacent seas, from deep exploratory drilling, and from photography from the Gemini and Apollo space programs, has been used in the tectonic evaluation.

  4. Advective pathways near the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula: Trends, variability and ecosystem implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, Angelika H. H.; Thorpe, Sally E.; Heywood, Karen J.; Murphy, Eugene J.; Watkins, Jon L.; Meredith, Michael P.

    2012-05-01

    Pathways and rates of ocean flow near the Antarctic Peninsula are strongly affected by frontal features, forcings from the atmosphere and the cryosphere. In the surface mixed layer, the currents advect material from the northwestern Weddell Sea on the eastern side of the Peninsula around the tip of the Peninsula to its western side and into the Scotia Sea, connecting populations of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) and supporting the ecosystem of the region. Modelling of subsurface drifters using a particle tracking algorithm forced by the velocity fields of a coupled sea ice-ocean model (ORCA025-LIM2) allows analysis of the seasonal and interannual variability of drifter pathways over 43 years. The results show robust and persistent connections from the Weddell Sea both to the west into the Bellingshausen Sea and across the Scotia Sea towards South Georgia, reproducing well the observations. The fate of the drifters is sensitive to their deployment location, in addition to other factors. From the shelf of the eastern Antarctic Peninsula, the majority enter the Bransfield Strait and subsequently the Bellingshausen Sea. When originating further offshore over the deeper Weddell Sea, drifters are more likely to cross the South Scotia Ridge and reach South Georgia. However, the wind field east and southeast of Elephant Island, close to the tip of the Peninsula, is crucial for the drifter trajectories and is highly influenced by the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). Increased advection and short travel times to South Georgia, and reduced advection to the western Antarctic Peninsula can be linked to strong westerlies, a signature of the positive phase of the SAM. The converse is true for the negative phase. Strong westerlies and shifts of ocean fronts near the tip of the Peninsula that are potentially associated with both the SAM and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation restrict the connection from the Weddell Sea to the west, and drifters then predominantly follow the open

  5. Nutritional status and dietary diversity of Kamea in Gulf Province, Papua New Guineas.

    PubMed

    Goris, Janny M; Zomerdijk, Nienke; Temple, Victor J

    To assess the nutritional status of infants, children and non-pregnant women and underlying factors, dietary diversity and community food security, in the Kamea community in Gulf Province, Papua New Guinea. Prospective cross sectional study. Study population 69 infants (0-59 months), 151 children (6-12 years) and 79 non-pregnant women from 10 villages in Kotidanga Local Level Government, Kerema District, Gulf Province, Papua New Guinea. Among infants prevalence of moderate stunting, wasting and underweight were 38.9%, 8.3% and 44.4%, respectively; after adjusting Hb concentration for altitude, the anaemia prevalence was 53.8%. Among children prevalence of severe stunting was 21.2%; moderate stunting, wasting and underweight were 57.6%, 12.2% and 48.5%, respectively; anaemia was 30.3%; median urinary iodine concentration was 32.0 μg/L and iodine deficiency was prevalent among 88.1%. Among women, mean height, weight and BMI were 1.46±0.04 m, 43.9±5.91 kg and 20.4±2.32 kg/m2, respectively; low BMI (<18.5 kg/m2) and anaemia were prevalent among 22.8% and 35.4%, respectively; median urinary iodine concentration was 36.0 μg/L and iodine deficiency was prevalent among 80.3%. Exclusive breastfeeding was universal for young infants; complementary foods were limited in variety and frequency. Dietary diversity was limited, implementation of the universal salt iodisation strategy restricted and community food security was inadequate. The high prevalence of malnutrition and anaemia among the three age groups, including moderate status of iodine deficiency among women and children, are significant public health concerns. Improvements in dietary diversity, adequate use of iodised salt and community food security are needed.

  6. The Malaria Transition on the Arabian Peninsula: Progress toward a Malaria-Free Region between 1960–2010

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Robert W.; Amratia, Punam; Zamani, Ghasem; Mundia, Clara W.; Noor, Abdisalan M.; Memish, Ziad A.; Al Zahrani, Mohammad H.; Al Jasari, Adel; Fikri, Mahmoud; Atta, Hoda

    2014-01-01

    The transmission of malaria across the Arabian Peninsula is governed by the diversity of dominant vectors and extreme aridity. It is likely that where malaria transmission was historically possible it was intense and led to a high disease burden. Here, we review the speed of elimination, approaches taken, define the shrinking map of risk since 1960 and discuss the threats posed to a malaria-free Arabian Peninsula using the archive material, case data and published works. From as early as the 1940s, attempts were made to eliminate malaria on the peninsula but were met with varying degrees of success through to the 1970s; however, these did result in a shrinking of the margins of malaria transmission across the peninsula. Epidemics in the 1990s galvanised national malaria control programmes to reinvigorate control efforts. Before the launch of the recent global ambition for malaria eradication, countries on the Arabian Peninsula launched a collaborative malaria-free initiative in 2005. This initiative led a further shrinking of the malaria risk map and today locally acquired clinical cases of malaria are reported only in Saudi Arabia and Yemen, with the latter contributing to over 98% of the clinical burden. PMID:23548086

  7. Detroit and the Lower Peninsula of Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This scene displays the southeastern part of Michigan's Lower Peninsula and adjacent Ontario, Canada (43.0N, 84.0W). Detroit can be recognized by its radial pattern of development and sediment plumes in the rivers from the massive industrial activity. The area pockmarked by lakes northwest of Detroit essentially outlines the limits of the Defiance Moraine caused by the stagnation and melting of Ice Age glaciers.

  8. Timberland resources of the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, 1987.

    Treesearch

    Willem W.S. van Hees; Frederic R. Larson

    1991-01-01

    The 1987 inventory of the forest resources of the Kenai Peninsula was designed to assess the impact of the spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) on the timberland component of the forest resource. Estimates of timberland area, volumes of timber, and growth and mortality of timber were developed. These estimates of timber resource...

  9. Evaluation's Contribution to the Success of a Silicon Valley School/Industry Partnership: The Peninsula Academies Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Steven M.; And Others

    In an effort to encourage the participation of educationally disadvantaged youth in the Silicon Valley's high technology employment boom, the Peninsula Academies program was established utilizing a triad-partnership arrangement among the Sequoia Union High School District, high technology employers in the area, and the Stanford Mid-Peninsula Urban…

  10. The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary beneath the Korean Peninsula from S receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. H.; Rhie, J.

    2017-12-01

    The shallow lithosphere in the Eastern Asia at the east of the North-South Gravity Lineament is well published. The reactivation of the upper asthenosphere induced by the subducting plates is regarded as a dominant source of the lithosphere thinning. Additionally, assemblage of various tectonic blocks resulted in complex variation of the lithosphere thickness in the Eastern Asia. Because, the Korean Peninsula located at the margin of the Erasian Plate in close vicinity to the trench of subducting oceanic plate, significant reactivation of the upper asthenosphere is expected. For the study of the tectonic history surrounding the Korean Peninsula, we determined the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) beneath the Korean Peninsula using common conversion point stacking method with S receiver functions. The depth of the LAB beneath the Korean Peninsula ranges from 60 km to 100 km and confirmed to be shallower than that expected for Cambrian blocks as previous global studies. The depth of the LAB is getting shallower to the south, 95 km at the north and 60 km at the south. And rapid change of the LAB depth is observed between 36°N and 37°N. The depth change of the LAB getting shallower to the south implies that the source of the lithosphere thinning is a hot mantle upwelling induced by the northward subduction of the oceanic plates since Mesozoic. Unfortunately, existing tectonic models can hardly explain the different LAB depth in the north and in the south as well as the rapid change of the LAB depth.

  11. Bringing Together Learning from Two Worlds: Lessons from a Gender-Inclusive Community Education Approach with Smallholder Farmers in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pamphilon, Barbara; Mikhailovich, Katja

    2017-01-01

    Smallholder farmers are the backbone of food production in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Due to an increasing need to pay for schooling and health costs, many farming families are seeking ways to move from semi-subsistence farming to activities that generate more income. The long tradition of agricultural training in PNG to support the development of…

  12. Three-dimensional upper crustal velocity structure beneath San Francisco Peninsula, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.; Zoback, M.L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents new seismic data from, and crustal models of the San Francisco Peninsula. In much of central California the San Andreas fault juxtaposes the Cretaceous granitic Salinian terrane on its west and the Late Mesozoic/Early Tertiary Franciscan Complex on its east. On San Francisco Peninsula, however, the present-day San Andreas fault is completely within a Franciscan terrane, and the Pilarcitos fault, located southwest of the San Andreas, marks the Salinian-Franciscan boundary. This circumstance has evoked two different explanations: either the Pilarcitos is a thrust fault that has pushed Franciscan rocks over Salinian rocks or the Pilarcitos is a transform fault that has accommodated significant right-lateral slip. In an effort to better resolve the subsurface structure of the peninsula faults, we established a temporary network of 31 seismographs arrayed across the San Andreas fault and the subparallel Pilarcitos fault at ???1-2 km spacings. These instruments were deployed during the first 6 months of 1995 and recorded local earthquakes, air gun sources set off in San Francisco Bay, and explosive sources. Travel times from these sources were used to augment earthquake arrival times recorded by the Northern California Seismic Network and were inverted for three-dimensional velocity structure. Results show lateral velocity changes at depth (???0.5-7 km) that correlate with downward vertical projections of the surface traces of the San Andreas and Pilarcitos faults. We thus interpret the faults as high-angle to vertical features (constrained to a 70??-110?? dip range). From this we conclude that the Pilarcitos fault is probably an important strike-slip fault that accommodated much of the right-lateral plate boundary strain on the peninsula prior to the initiation of the modern-day San Andreas fault in this region sometime after about 3.0 m.y. ago.

  13. 78 FR 10595 - Olympic Peninsula Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... becomes a full time member when and if an assigned member can not complete his or her four-year term. The... reimbursed for travel expenses. Members must be Washington residents, preferably living in one of the Olympic Peninsula counties. Meetings are held at least once and up to four times per year within Thurston, Mason...

  14. Understanding Learning and Teaching in Papua New Guinea: Elementary Teacher Trainers Engaged in Cultural Authorship in the Context of National Educational Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownlee, Joanne M.; Farrell, Ann; Davis, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, Papua New Guinea (PNG) has pursued educational reform in elementary teacher education. Because elementary teachers and teacher education are central to the reform agenda, there is a need to gain empirical evidence about how PNG teacher trainers' understandings about learning and teaching impact on their practice. The study…

  15. The Concept of Proportionality as a Predictor of Success at the University of Papua and New Guinea. E.R.U. Report 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John

    A main problem encountered by science and mathematics students at secondary and tertiary institutions throughout Papua New Guinea is that of dealing with ratio and proportion. The problem is most clearly defined in science, since this is the area in which the quantitative manipulation of physical variables is most frequently carried out. An…

  16. Sinai Peninsula, Middle East as seen from STS-66 orbiter Atlantis

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-11-14

    A high oblique view of the Middle East centered at approximately 28.0 degrees north and 34.0 degrees east. Portions of the countries of Egypt, Israel, Jordan and Saudi Arabia are visible. The Dead Sea Rift Valley continuing into the Gulf of Aqaba marks the boundary between Israel and Jordan. The vegetation change in the Sinai Peninsula is the border between the Gaza Strip and Egypt. In Egypt, the Suez Canal connects the Gulf of Suez with the Mediterranean Sea and forms the western boundary of the Sinai Peninsula. The green ribbon of the Nile River is in marked contrast to this arid region. Even the Jordan River does not support large scale agriculture.

  17. Ages of subsurface stratigraphic intervals in the Quaternary of Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, B. J.; Tracey, J.I.; Goter, E.R.

    1985-01-01

    Drill cores of Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands, reveal six stratigraphic intervals, numbered in downward sequence, which represent vertical coral growth during Quaternary interglaciations. Radiocarbon dates indicate that the Holocene sea transgressed the emergent reef platform by about 8000 yr B.P. The reef grew rapidly upward (about 5 to 10 mm/yr) until about 6500 yr B.P. Afterward vertical growth slowed to about 0.5 mm/yr, then lateral development became dominant during the last several thousand years. The second interval is dated at 131,000 ?? 3000 yr B.P. by uranium series. This unit correlates with oxygen-isotope substage 5e and with terrace VIIa of Huon Peninsula, New Guinea, and of Main Reef-2 terrace at Atauro Island. The third interval is not dated because corals were recrystallized and it is tentatively correlated with either oxygen-isotope stages 7 or 9. The age of the fourth interval is estimated at 454,000 ?? 100,000 yr B.P. from measured 234U 238U activity ratios. This unit is correlated with either oxygen-isotope stage 9, 11, or 13. ?? 1985.

  18. Spiritual and natural etiologies on a Polynesian outlier in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, R

    1990-01-01

    Several writers have challenged recently the long-held contention that non-Western peoples tend to emphasize spirits, sorcerers, and other supernatural forces in their explanations for the cause of illness. Here, I examine indigenous theories of illness-causation on Nukumanu, a Polynesian outlier atoll in Papua New Guinea. Although Nukumanu invoke mundane as well as supernatural explanations, their major preoccupation is with spirits as etiological agents. In this light, I suggest a number of potential reasons for the difference between my findings on Nukumanu and those of commentators who have emphasized naturalistic etiologies among the peoples they have studied. In addition to real ethnographic variation, I argue that a major reason for the difference lies in the level of causality (instrumental as opposed to efficient and ultimate) sought by various investigators.

  19. Late Quaternary uplift rate across the Shimokita peninsula, northeastern Japan forearc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsu'Ura, T.

    2009-12-01

    I estimated the late Quaternary uplift rate across the northeastern Japan forearc (Shimokita peninsula) by using the height distribution of MIS 5.5 marine terraces as determined from tephra and cryptotephra stratigraphy. The heights of inner-margins (shoreline angles) of the MIS 5.5 marine terrace surface were previously reported to be 43-45 m and 30 m around Shiriyazaki and Gamanosawa, respectively. These heights decrease westward and are possibly due to a west-dipping offshore fault. But in some places, the heights of terrace inner-margins are probably overestimated by thick sediments. I found the MIS 5.5 wave-cut platform which is overlain by gravels and loess deposits containing a basal Toya tephra horizon (MIS 5.4) at Shiriyazaki by boring. The MIS 5.5 wave-cut platform (paleo sea level) is about 25 m above sea level, nearly half of the reported height of the terrace inner-margin. My result shows that the late Quaternary uplift rate across the Shimokita peninsula should be reconsidered. Further studies are also required whether or not the intra-plate (offshore) fault is a factor of the forearc uplifting at the peninsula. This research project has been conducted under the research contract with Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA).

  20. The timber resources of the Olympic Peninsula, Washington.

    Treesearch

    C.L. Bolsinger

    1969-01-01

    The fourth inventory of the timber resources of the Olympic Peninsula shows a total of 3,105,000 acres of commercial forest land and 81,464 million board feet (International 114-inch scale) of sawtimber volume. Total timber volume has remained about the same for the past 12 years, and cut and growth currently are nearly in balance.

  1. Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia as seen from STS-59

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    View southwestward across the Kamchatka Peninsula. The cluster of volcanoes in the middle distance are active, including Klutchevskaya whose summit reaches 15,580 feet. Changes in volcanic deposits, snow, and ice are being studied by Russian and American Space Radar Laboratory (SRL) investigators. Seasonal changes in sea ice are also of interest, for example, in Kamchatskiy Bay (upper left).

  2. Characteristics of storms that contribute to extreme precipitation events over the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo, Ricardo; Ramos, Alexandre M.; Ordoñez, Paulina; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Trigo, Isabel F.

    2014-05-01

    Floods correspond to one of the most deadly natural disasters in the Iberian Peninsula during the last century. Quite often these floods are associated to intense low pressure systems with an Atlantic origin. In recent years a number of episodes have been evaluated on a case-by-case approach, with a clear focus on extreme events, thus lacking a systematic assessment. In this study we focus on the characteristics of storms for the extended winter season (October to March) that are responsible for the most extreme rainfall events over large areas of the Iberian Peninsula. An objective method for ranking daily precipitation events during the extended winter is used based on the most comprehensive database of high resolution (0.2º latitude by 0.2º longitude) gridded daily precipitation dataset available for the Iberian Peninsula. The magnitude of an event is obtained after considering the total area affected as well as its intensity in every grid point (taking into account the daily normalised departure from climatology). Different precipitation rankings are studied considering the entire Iberian Peninsula, Portugal and also the six largest river basins in the Iberian Peninsula (Duero, Ebro, Tagus, Minho, Guadiana and Guadalquivir). Using an objective cyclone detecting and tracking scheme [Trigo, 2006] the storm track and characteristics of the cyclones were obtained using the ERA-Interim reanalyses for the 1979-2008 period. The spatial distribution of extratropical cyclone positions when the precipitation extremes occur will be analysed over the considered sub-domains (Iberia, Portugal, major river basins). In addition, we distinguish the different cyclone characteristics (lifetime, direction, minimum pressure, position, velocity, vorticity and radius) with significant impacts in precipitation over the different domains in the Iberian Peninsula. This work was partially supported by FEDER (Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional) funds through the COMPETE (Programa

  3. Population genetic structure of endangered Mongolian racerunner (Eremias argus) from the Korean Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Park, Han-Chan; Suk, Ho Young; Jeong, Eu-Jin; Park, Dae-Sik; Lee, Hang; Min, Mi-Sook

    2014-11-01

    The Mongolian racerunner (Eremias argus) is a small lacertid lizard species, and its distribution range encompasses the Korean Peninsula, Mongolia, China and Russia. Eremias argus is widespread, but populations on the Korean Peninsula are small and declining, provoking concerns that genetic diversity is being lost. This species is currently listed under the Protection of Wild Fauna and Flora Act in South Korea. In this study, nine novel microsatellites for E. argus were developed with a biotin-enrichment method and used to understand its population genetic structure and delineate conservation units on the Korean Peninsula. Overall, low intrapopulation genetic diversity was observed (mean number of alleles per locus = 2.463; mean H E = 0.398) from 10 populations investigated (n = 110). Two populations (among five with n≥ 10) showed an excess of heterozygosity expected under HWE relative to that expected at mutation-drift equilibrium, indicating severe reduction in population sizes. With only a few exceptions, the overall genetic differentiation among populations was substantial with the high levels of pairwise-F ST (0.006-0.746) and -R ST (0.034-0.940) values. The results of Bayesian STRUCTURE analysis showed that E. argus populations on the Korean Peninsula were most likely partitioned into three genetic clusters. Taken all together, such low levels of gene flow and strong genetic structuring have critical implications for the conservation of this endangered species and its management.

  4. Morphotectonic Index Analysis as an Indicator of Neotectonic Segmentation of the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrish, S.; Marshall, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    The Nicoya Peninsula lies within the Costa Rican forearc where the Cocos plate subducts under the Caribbean plate at ~8.5 cm/yr. Rapid plate convergence produces frequent large earthquakes (~50yr recurrence interval) and pronounced crustal deformation (0.1-2.0m/ky uplift). Seven uplifted segments have been identified in previous studies using broad geomorphic surfaces (Hare & Gardner 1984) and late Quaternary marine terraces (Marshall et al. 2010). These surfaces suggest long term net uplift and segmentation of the peninsula in response to contrasting domains of subducting seafloor (EPR, CNS-1, CNS-2). In this study, newer 10m contour digital topographic data (CENIGA- Terra Project) will be used to characterize and delineate this segmentation using morphotectonic analysis of drainage basins and correlation of fluvial terrace/ geomorphic surface elevations. The peninsula has six primary watersheds which drain into the Pacific Ocean; the Río Andamojo, Río Tabaco, Río Nosara, Río Ora, Río Bongo, and Río Ario which range in area from 200 km2 to 350 km2. The trunk rivers follow major lineaments that define morphotectonic segment boundaries and in turn their drainage basins are bisected by them. Morphometric analysis of the lower (1st and 2nd) order drainage basins will provide insight into segmented tectonic uplift and deformation by comparing values of drainage basin asymmetry, stream length gradient, and hypsometry with respect to margin segmentation and subducting seafloor domain. A general geomorphic analysis will be conducted alongside the morphometric analysis to map previously recognized (Morrish et al. 2010) but poorly characterized late Quaternary fluvial terraces. Stream capture and drainage divide migration are common processes throughout the peninsula in response to the ongoing deformation. Identification and characterization of basin piracy throughout the peninsula will provide insight into the history of landscape evolution in response to

  5. Medicinal plants of Papua New Guinea's Miu speaking population and a focus on their use of plant-slaked lime mixtures.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Thomas A K; Briggs, Marie; Kiapranis, Robert; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2015-11-04

    Here we present the results of an ethnobotanical survey of the medicinal plants used by the Miu, a virtually unresearched ethnolinguistic group who live in the mountainous interior of Papua New Guinea's West New Britain Province. We compare the findings for those previously reported for the neighbouring inland Kaulong speaking population. Three species, Trema orientalis, Spondias dulcis and Ficus botryocarpa are used in combination with locally prepared slaked lime to produce intensely coloured mixtures which are applied to dermatological infections. Their effects on dermal fibroblast viability with and without slaked lime are examined. The sap of F. botryocarpa which is used to treat tropical ulcers was examined further with assays relevant to wound healing. Focus groups and semi-structured interviews were used to acquire information on the uses of plants, vouchers of which were collected and identified by comparison with authentic herbarium specimens. LC-MS and NMR were used to identify chemical components. Cell viability assays were used to examine the effects of added slaked lime on dermal fibroblasts. For the sap of F. botryocarpa, fibroblast stimulation assays and antibacterial growth inhibition with Bacillus subtilis were carried out. The survey identified 33 plants and one fungal species, and clear differences with the inland Kaulong group despite their close proximity. Added slaked lime does not greatly increase the cytotoxicity of plant material towards dermal fibroblasts. The sap of F. botryocarpa contains the alkaloid ficuseptine as a single major component and displays antibacterial activity. The results demonstrate the potential for variation in medicinal plant use amongst Papua New Guinea's numerous language groups. The addition of slaked lime to plant material does not appear to present a concern for wound healing in the amounts used. The sap of F. botryocarpa displays antibacterial activity at concentrations that would occur at the wound surface

  6. The double burden of disease among mining workers in Papua, Indonesia: at the crossroads between Old and New health paradigms.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Fernandez, Rodrigo; Ng, Nawi; Susilo, Dwidjo; Prawira, John; Bangs, Michael J; Amiya, Rachel M

    2016-09-08

    As the global shift toward non-communicable diseases overlaps with the unfinished agenda of confronting infectious diseases in low- and middle-income countries, epidemiological links across both burdens must be recognized. This study examined the non-communicable disease-infectious disease overlap in the specific comorbidity rates for key diseases in an occupational cohort in Papua, Indonesia. Diagnosed cases of ischaemic heart disease, stroke, hypertension, diabetes (types 1 and 2), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, cancer, HIV and AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria were extracted from 22,550 patient records (21,513 men, 1037 women) stored in identical electronic health information systems from two clinic sites in Papua, Indonesia. Data were collected as International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, entries from records spanning January-December 2013. A novel application of Circos software was used to visualize the interconnectedness between the disease burdens as overlapping prevalence estimates representing comorbidities. Overall, NCDs represented 38 % of all disease cases, primarily in the form of type 2 diabetes (n = 1440) and hypertension (n = 1398). Malaria cases represented the largest single portion of the disease burden with 5310 recorded cases, followed by type 2 diabetes with 1400 cases. Tuberculosis occurred most frequently alongside malaria (29 %), followed by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (19 %), asthma (17 %), and stroke (12 %). Hypertension-tuberculosis (4 %), tuberculosis-cancer (4 %), and asthma-tuberculosis (2 %) comorbidities were also observed. The high prevalence of multimorbidity, preponderance of non-communicable diseases, and extensive interweaving of non-communicable and infectious disease comorbidities highlighted in this cohort of mining workers in Papua, Indonesia reflect the markedly double disease burden increasingly plaguing Indonesia and other similar low- and middle-income countries - a

  7. An Anthropologist Who Studies Music and Poetics in a Rain Forest in Papua New Guinea Worries about the Future of the Natives There.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine S.

    1991-01-01

    Living with the Kaluli of Papua New Guinea and completing his anthropology dissertation, Steven Feld saw ceremonial life begin to die and the sounds of helicopters and drill rigs compete with birds and waterfalls. Feld's sophisticated recordings preserve some ways in which the people act and blend with their environment. (MSE)

  8. ENSO relationship to Summer Rainfall Variability and its Potential Predictability over Arabian Peninsula Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adnan Abid, Mohammad; Almazroui, Mansour; Kucharski, Fred

    2017-04-01

    Summer seasonal rainfall falls mainly over the south and southwestern parts of the Arabian Peninsula (AP). The relationship between this mean summer seasonal rainfall pattern and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is analyzed with the aid of a 15-member ensemble of simulations using the King Abdulaziz University (KAU) Atmospheric Global Climate Model (AGCM). Each simulation is forced with Hadley Sea Surface Temperature (SST) for the period 1980-2015. The southwestern peninsula rainfall is linked towith the SST anomalies in the central-eastern pacific region. This relation is established through an atmospheric teleconnection which shows an upper-level convergence (divergence) anomalies over the southern Arabian Peninsula compensating the central-eastern Pacific region upper-level divergence (convergence) anomalies for the warm (cold) El Niño Southern Oscillaton (ENSO) phase. The upper-level convergence (divergence) over the southern Arabian Peninsula leads to sinking (rising) motion, low-level divergence (convergence) and consequently to reduced (enhanced) rainfall. The correlation coefficient between the observed area-averged Niño3.4 index and athe South Arabian Rainfall Index (SARI) is -0.54. This indicates that AP receives less rainfall during the warm (El Niño) phase, while the opposite happens in the cold (La Niña) El Niño Southern Oscillaton (ENSO) phase. The lower tropospheric cyclonic circulation anomalies strongly modulate the ENSO-related rainfall in the region. Overall, the model shows a 43% potential predictability (PP) for the Southern Arabian Peninsula Rainfall Index (SARI). Further, the predictability during the warm ENSO (El Niño) events is higher than during cold ENSO (La Niña) events. This is not only because of a stronger signal, but also noise reduction contributes to the increase of the regional PP in El Niño compared to that of La Niña years.

  9. Paleomagnetism and Geochronology of the Precambrian Dikes in NE Fennoscandia, Kola Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselovskiy, R. V.; Samsonov, A.; Stepanova, A.

    2017-12-01

    Paleomagnetism of Proterozoic dikes of Scandinavia, Karelia, and southern part of the Kola Peninsula is extensively explored in many studies (Veikkolainen et al., 2014). In particular, the paleomagnetism of intrusive formations in the southern part of the Kola Peninsula is thoroughly scrutinized in the study authored by Alexey Khramov and his colleagues (Khramov et al., 1997). However, information about the systematic paleomagnetic studies of the Archaean and Proterozoic dikes of the Central Kola block and, especially, Murmansk block are absent. Based on the results of preliminary paleomagnetic investigation of 57 Precambrian dikes of the Kola Peninsula, in 31 of them a stable monopolar component of natural remanent magnetization is revealed. The peculiarities of distribution of this magnetization component within the Kola Peninsula and the rock magnetic characteristics of the dikes in which this component is isolated suggest its secondary nature and relate the mechanism and formation time to the remagnetization processes which took place in the northwest of Fennoscandia about 1.8 Ga during the Svecofennian orogeny. The corresponding geomagnetic pole of Fennoscandia is located in the immediate vicinity of the known Paleoproterozoic (1.9-1.7 Ga) poles of Baltica (Khramov et al., 1997; Veikkolainen et al., 2014). We also present the new geochronological Ar/Ar, Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr and U-Pb data which allow to determine the age of remagnetization as 1.86 Ga. The studies were supported by the Russian Science Foundation (project no. 16-17-10260), partially supported by the Russian Federation Government (project no. 14.Z50.31.0017) and Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project no. 17-05-01121a).

  10. Zoonoses in the Arabian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Wernery, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    The human population is rising and will soon reach 9 billion people. In parallel, the demand for animal protein is increasing and with it is the threat of zoonotic diseases. We must therefore be on our guard. The close association of people with animals promotes the opportunity for zoonotic infections and real danger may arise when animals are imported with no health background. Therefore, it is essential to implement strict import controls, and establish efficient quarantine facilities. Many viral, bacterial, and zoonotic diseases have been diagnosed on the Arabian Peninsula, either by isolating the pathogens or through serological surveys. Most of them are briefly discussed in this paper. PMID:25491209

  11. A net volume equation for Michigan's Upper and Lower Peninsulas.

    Treesearch

    Gerhard K. Raile; W. Brad Smith; Carol A. Weist

    1982-01-01

    Describes a volume equation for Michigan's Upper and Lower Peninsulas developed as part of the 1981 Michigan Forest Inventory. Equation coefficients are presented by species groupings for both cubic-foot and board-foot volumes for three tree categories.

  12. Acadia National Park : assessment of alternate transportation for Schoodic Peninsula

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-11-01

    The National Park Service is developing reuse alternatives in anticipation of the U.S. Navys turnover of its base on Big Moose Island on Schoodic Peninsula. This report identifies and assesses alternate transportation alternatives to help ensure t...

  13. Peninsula College--P.C.F.A. Agreement, 1989-1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peninsula Coll., Port Angeles, WA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between Peninsula College, the Penninsula College Faculty Association, and the Board of Trustees of Community College District Number 1 is presented. This contract, covering the period from 1989 through 1992, deals with the following topics: bargaining agent recognition; compliance and conformity to law;…

  14. Timber resource of Michigan's Southern Lower Peninsula Unit, 1980.

    Treesearch

    Jerold T. Hahn

    1982-01-01

    The fourth inventory of the timber resource of Michigan's Southern Lower Peninsula Survey Unit shows a 12% decline in commercial forest area and a 26% gain in growing-stock volume between 1966 and 1980. Presented are highlights and statistics on area, volume, growth, mortality, removals, utilization, and biomass.

  15. Timber resource of Michigan's Western Upper Peninsula Unit, 1980.

    Treesearch

    John S. Jr. Spencer

    1982-01-01

    The fourth inventory of the timber resource of Michigan's Western Upper Peninsula Survey Unit shows an 8% decline in commercial forest area and a 22% gain in growing-stock volume between 1966 and 1980. Presented are highlights and statistics on area, volume, growth, motility, removals, utilization, and biomass.

  16. Forest statistics for Michigan's Southern Lower Peninsula Unit, 1994.

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Schmidt

    1993-01-01

    The fifth inventory of Michigan's Southern Lower Peninsula forests reports 14,429.0 thousand acres of land, of which 3,053.7 thousand acres are forested. This bulletin presents statistical highlights and contains detailed tables of forest area, as well as timber volume, growth, removals, mortality, and ownership.

  17. Forest statistics for Michigan's Northern Lower Peninsula Unit, 1993.

    Treesearch

    Earl C. Leatherberry

    1994-01-01

    The fifth inventory of Michigan's Northern Lower Peninsula forests reports 11,345.1 thousand acres of land, of which 7,415.2 thousand acres are forested. This bulletin presents statistical highlights and contains detailed tables of forest area, as well as timber volume, growth, removals, mortality, and ownership.

  18. Forest statistics for Michigan's Western Upper Peninsula Unit, 1993.

    Treesearch

    Earl C. Leatherberry

    1994-01-01

    The fifth inventory of Michigan's Western Upper Peninsula Unit reports 12,329.1 million acres of land, of which 4,836.5 million acres are forested. This bulletin presents statistical highlights and contains detailed tables of forest area, as well as timber volume, growth, removals, mortality, and ownership.

  19. Forest statistics for Michigan's Eastern Upper Peninsula Unit, 1993.

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Schmidt

    1993-01-01

    The fifth inventory of Michigan's Eastern Upper Peninsula forests reports 4,989.1 thousand acres of land, of which 3,973.1 thousand acres are forested. This bulletin presents statistical highlights and contains detailed tables of forest area, as well as timber volume, growth, removals, mortality, and ownership.

  20. Kuwait Oil Fires, Persian Gulf, Qatar Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view up the Persian Gulf from the Qatar Peninsula into southern Iraq (25.5N, 51.0E) shows an excursion of the smoke plumes from the Kuwait oil fires set during the short Persian Gulf War. Smoke from the fires north of Kuwait City, extends across the Persian Gulf while a larger smoke plume from the southern fires heads into southern Saudi Arabia before beginning to spread out and become more diffuse.

  1. Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    In this view of the Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf, (25.0N, 51.0E) a large oil spill, seen as a large dark toned mass in the water covers much of the surface of the western Persian Gulf. Qatar is one of several of the oil rich United Arab Emirate states. Oil spills and oil pollution of the environment are common occurrances associated with oil tanker loading operations.

  2. 'We call it a virus but I want to say it's the devil inside': redemption, moral reform and relationships with God among people living with HIV in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Aggleton, Peter; Shih, Patti

    2014-10-01

    There is growing recognition of the importance of religion and religious beliefs as they relate to the experience of HIV, globally and in Papua New Guinea in particular. Based on 36 in-depth qualitative interviews conducted with people living with HIV receiving HIV antiretroviral therapy in 2008, this paper examines the cultural aetiology of HIV of in Papua New Guinea, the country with the highest reported burden of HIV in the Pacific. Narratives provided drew upon a largely moral framework, which viewed HIV acquisition as a consequence of moral failing and living an un-Christian life. This explanation for suffering viewed the individual as responsible for their condition in much the same way that neo-liberal biomedical discourses do. Moral reform and re-establishing a relationship with God were seen as key actions necessary to effect healing on the material body infected with HIV. Religious understandings of HIV drew upon a pre-existing cultural aetiology of dis-ease and misfortune widespread in Papua New Guinea. Understanding the centrality of Christianity to explanations of disease, and subsequently the actions necessary to bring about health, is essential in order to understand how people with HIV in receipt of antiretroviral therapies internalise biomedical perspectives and reconcile these with Christian beliefs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Simulating the Permafrost Distribution on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busey, R.; Hinzman, L. D.; Yoshikawa, K.; Liston, G. E.

    2005-12-01

    Permafrost extent has been estimated using an equivalent latitude / elevation model based upon good climate, terrain and soil property data. This research extends a previously developed model to a relatively data sparse region. We are applying the general equivalent attitude model developed for Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed over the much larger area of the Seward Peninsula, Alaska. This region of sub-Arctic Alaska is a proxy for a warmer Arctic due to the broad expanses of tussock tundra, invading shrubs and fragile permafrost with average temperatures just below freezing. The equivalent latitude model combines elevation, slope, and aspect with snow cover, where the snow cover distribution was defined using MicroMet and SnowModel. Source data for the distributed snow model came from meteorological stations across the Seward Peninsula from the National Weather Service, SNOTEL, RAWS, and our own stations. Simulations of permafrost extent will enable us to compare the current distribution to that existing during past climates and estimate the future state of permafrost on the Seward Peninsula. The broadest impacts to the terrestrial arctic regions will result through consequent effects of changing permafrost structure and extent. As the climate differentially warms in summer and winter, the permafrost will become warmer, the active layer (the layer of soil above the permafrost that annually experiences freeze and thaw) will become thicker, the lower boundary of permafrost will become shallower and permafrost extent will decrease in area. These simple structural changes will affect every aspect of the surface water and energy balances. As permafrost extent decreases, there is more infiltration to groundwater. This has significant impacts on large and small scales.

  4. Sedimentary provenance of Trinity Peninsula Group, Antarctic Peninsula: petrography, geochemistry and SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age constraints.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, P.; Lacassie, J. P.; Hervé, F.; Fanning, C. M.

    2009-04-01

    The Trinity Peninsula Group (TPG) crops out in northern Graham Land and consists of a mostly non-fossiliferous metasedimentary succession of Permo-Triassic(?) age, which was accreted prior to the initiation of the Gondwana breakup. This succession has been sub-divided, from north to south, into five formations, namely: Hope Bay (HBF), View Point (VPF), Legoupil (LgF), Charlotte Bay (ChBF) and Paradise Harbour (PHF) formations. However, there are still large areas with unknown stratigraphic allocation, age and extension. Twenty TPG samples (12 sandstones and 8 mudstones) were collected from four localities in the Antarctic Peninsula, including Hope Bay; Paradise Harbour, Cape Legoupil and Charlotte Bay. Twelve sandstones were selected for modal analysis and 15 samples (7 sandstones and 8 mudstones) for whole rock chemical analysis. The geochemical data of the TPG samples was compared with the geochemical data of other sedimentary successions of different provenance and tectonic setting, by using unsupervised artificial neural networks. The modal composition of the sandstones is dominated by quartz and, in similar but smaller proportions by feldspar, and according to the discrimination scheme of Dickinson et al. (1983) is consistent with the product of erosion of the plutonic roots of a magmatic arc. The chemical data suggest a relatively evolved source, with a composition similar to a typical granodioritic continental magmatic arc. The deposition of the detritus is most likely to have occurred within an active continental margin. Three sandstone samples from the HBF, LgF and PHF were selected for U-Pb dating of detrital zircons by SHRIMP. For the HBF and PHF samples, the major age component is Permian (270-280 Ma). Only the sample from LgF has two important peaks at ~270 and ~470 Ma. In all cases, the youngest dated zircon is Permian (~257 Ma). These results show that there are strong chemical and chronological similarities between the TPG, the Duque de York Complex

  5. Transformations in Kinship, Land Rights and Social Boundaries among the Wampar in Papua New Guinea and the Generative Agency of Children of Interethnic Marriages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schworer, Doris Bacalzo

    2012-01-01

    Among the Wampar in Papua New Guinea, children are active participants in the dynamics of kinship and identity construction. This article explores the transformative capabilities of children of interethnic marriages, particularly those with non-Wampar fathers. It examines children's notions of belonging and rights through their practices and…

  6. Remote Sensing-Based, 5-m, Vegetation Distributions, Kougarok Study Site, Seward Peninsula, Alaska, ca. 2009 - 2016

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Langford, Zachary; Kumar, Jitendra; Hoffman, Forrest

    A multi-sensor remote sensing-based deep learning approach was developed for generating high-resolution (5~m) vegetation maps for the western Alaskan Arctic on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska. This data was developed using the fusion of hyperspectral, multispectral, and terrain datasets. The current data is located in the Kougarok watershed but we plan to expand this over the Seward Peninsula.

  7. Spruce reproduction dynamics on Alaska's Kenai Peninsula, 1987-2000.

    Treesearch

    Willem W.S. van Hees

    2005-01-01

    During the past 30 years, spruce forests of Alaska’s Kenai Peninsula have undergone dramatic changes resulting from widespread spruce bark beetle(Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) infestation. In 1987 and again in 2000, the Pacific Northwest Research Station's Forest Inventory and Analysis Program conducted initial and remeasurement inventories...

  8. The gastropod Phorcus sauciatus (Koch, 1845) along the north-west Iberian Peninsula: filling historical gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubal, Marcos; Veiga, Puri; Moreira, Juan; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel

    2014-03-01

    The intertidal gastropod Phorcus sauciatus is a subtropical grazer that reaches its northern boundary in the Iberian Peninsula. Distribution of P. sauciatus along the Iberian Peninsula shows, however, gaps in its distribution. The present study was aimed at detecting possible recent changes on the population structure and distribution of P. sauciatus along the north-west Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula. To achieve this aim, we adopted a qualitative sampling design to explore the presence of P. sauciatus along a region within its historical gap of distribution (north Portuguese coast). In addition, a quantitative sampling design was adopted to test hypotheses about the abundance and size structure of P. sauciatus populations among regions with different historical records of its abundance and among shores with different exposure. Results showed that P. sauciatus was present along the north Portuguese coast. However, the abundance and size structure of the newly settled populations were significantly different to those of the historically recorded populations. Moreover, P. sauciatus was able to establish populations at sheltered shores. Considering these results, we propose models for the distribution of P. sauciatus along the Iberian Peninsula, based on effects of sea surface temperature, and to explain the size-frequency of their populations based on their density.

  9. Kinematics and segmentation of the South Shetland Islands-Bransfield basin system, northern Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Frederick W.; Bevis, Michael G.; Dalziel, Ian W. D.; Smalley, Robert; Frohlich, Cliff; Kendrick, Eric; Foster, James; Phillips, David; Gudipati, Krishnavikas

    2008-04-01

    New GPS measurements demonstrate tectonic segmentation of the South Shetland Islands platform, regarded as a microplate separating the Antarctic Peninsula from the oceanic portion of the Antarctic plate. King George, Greenwich, and Livingston islands on the central and largest segment are separating from the Antarctic Peninsula at 7-9 mm/a, moving NNW, roughly perpendicular to the continental margin. Smith and Low islands on the small southwestern segment are moving in the same direction, but at 2.2-3.0 mm/a. The Elephant Island subgroup in the northeast moves at ˜7 mm/a relative to the Peninsula, like the central group, but toward the WNW. This implies that it is presently coupled to the Scotia plate on the northern side of the South Scotia Ridge transform boundary; thus the uplift of these northeasternmost islands may be caused by Scotia-Antarctic plate convergence rather than by subduction of thickened oceanic crust.

  10. The Hoiamides, Structurally Intriguing Neurotoxic Lipopeptides from Papua New Guinea Marine Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyukjae; Pereira, Alban R.; Cao, Zhengyu; Shuman, Cynthia F.; Engene, Niclas; Byrum, Tara; Matainaho, Teatulohi; Murray, Thomas F.; Mangoni, Alfonso; Gerwick, William H.

    2011-01-01

    Two related peptide metabolites, one a cyclic depsipeptide, hoiamide B (2), and the other a linear lipopeptide, hoiamide C (3), were isolated from two different collections of marine cyanobacteria obtained in Papua New Guinea. Their structures were elucidated by combining various techniques in spectroscopy, chromatography and synthetic chemistry. Both metabolites belong to the unique hoiamide structural class, characterized by possessing an acetate extended and S-adenosyl methionine modified isoleucine unit, a central triheterocyclic system comprised of two α-methylated thiazolines and one thiazole, as well as a highly oxygenated and methylated C-15 polyketide unit. In neocortical neurons, the cyclic depsipeptide 2 stimulated sodium influx and suppressed spontaneous Ca2+ oscillations with EC50 values of 3.9 μM and 79.8 nM, respectively, while 3 had no significant effects in these assays. PMID:20687534

  11. Comparison of current and paleorecharge on the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Pelt, S.; Allen, D. M.; Kohfeld, K. E.

    2016-12-01

    During the Terminal Classic Period (TCP) 800-1000 AD, the Yucatan Peninsula is thought to have experienced a 150-year long series of droughts that contributed to the demise of the Mayan civilization. The occurrence of this type of event suggests that similar precipitation extremes could occur again, and severely impact water supplies. Studying the past occurrence of droughts may provide more insight into the possible timing and intensity of droughts. However, observed data of the past climate is limited to proxy records, which are not detailed enough for groundwater modeling. The goals of this study were two-fold: (a) to generate a daily paleoclimate time series for use in a recharge model, and (b) to compare current and past recharge on the Yucatan Peninsula. Past temperature and precipitation were reconstructed using a novel backwards shift factor approach using output from two experiments of the Community Climate System Model Version 4 (CCSM4). Shift factors were applied using two approaches: (1) application of shift factors to a stochastic weather series based on the observed climate, and (2) application of shift factors directly to the observed climate. The second method (direct shift factor approach) was found to be more suitable for the Yucatan Peninsula, as the observed median annual precipitation was poorly reproduced in the stochastic data. The reconstructed precipitation was used in the recharge model, which used the unsaturated component of the modeling program MIKE SHE. The comparison of the TCP and the current climate models indicated that on average, 1.74% more recharge occurred annually during the TCP. The seasonal water balance components showed that the majority of this higher recharge occurred during the wet season, with little to no increase in recharge during the dry season. Due to issues with the CCSM4 model data, changes in climate variability were not able to be incorporated into this study. If variability were incorporated, the TCP climate

  12. Detroit and the Lower Peninsula of Michigan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-22

    SL2-05-389 (22 June 1973) --- This scene displays the southeastern part of Michigan's Lower Peninsula and adjacent Ontario, Canada (43.0N, 84.0W). Detroit can be recognized by its radial pattern of development and sediment plumes in the rivers from the massive industrial activity. The area pockmarked by lakes northwest of Detroit essentially outlines the limits of the Defiance Moraine caused by the stagnation and melting of Ice Age glaciers. Photo credit: NASA

  13. Multiple tectonic mode switches indicate short-duration heat pulses in a Mio-Pliocene metamorphic core complex, West Papua, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, L. T.; Hall, R.; Gunawan, I.

    2017-12-01

    The Wandaman Peninsula is a narrow (<20 km), but mountainous (>2 km) promontory in remote western New Guinea. The peninsula is almost entirely composed of medium- to high-grade metamorphic rocks considered to be associated with a Mio-Pliocene metamorphic core complex. Previous work has shown that the uplift and exhumation of the core complex has potentially brought some extremely young eclogite to the surface. These might be comparable to the world's youngest (4.3 Ma) eclogites found in the D'Entrecasteaux Islands at the opposite end of New Guinea. We show that tectonic history of this region is complex. This is because the metamorphic sequences in the Wandaman Peninsula record multiple phases of deformation, all within the last few million years. This is demonstrated through methodical collation of cross-cutting relations from field and microstructural studies across the peninsula. The first phase of deformation and metamorphism is associated with crustal extension and partial melting that took place at 5-7 Ma according to new U-Pb data from metamorphic zircons. This extensional phase ceased after a tectonic mode switch and the region was shortened. This is demonstrated by two phases of folding (1. recumbent and 2. open) that overprint the earlier extensional fabrics. All previous structures were later overprinted by brittle extensional faults and uplift. This extensional phase is still taking place today, as is indicated by submerged forests exposed along the coastline associated with recent earthquakes and hot springs. The sequence of metamorphic rocks that are exposed in the Wandaman Peninsula show that stress and thermal conditions can change rapidly. If we consider that the present is a key to the past, then such results can identify the duration of deformation and metamorphic events more accurately than in much older orogenic systems.

  14. 77 FR 61046 - The Amendment of the Designation of Al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula, aka Al-Qa'ida of Jihad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8054] The Amendment of the Designation of Al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula, aka Al-Qa'ida of Jihad Organization in the Arabian Peninsula, aka Tanzim Qa'idat al-Jihad fi Jazirat al-Arab, aka Al- Qa'ida in Yemen, aka Al-Qa'ida in the South Arabian Peninsula, as a...

  15. 77 FR 61046 - The Review and Amendment of the Designation of Al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula, aka Al-Qa'ida...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8055] The Review and Amendment of the Designation of Al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula, aka Al-Qa'ida of Jihad Organization in the Arabian Peninsula, aka Tanzim Qa'idat al-Jihad fi Jazirat al-Arab, aka Al- Qa'ida in Yemen, aka Al-Qa'ida in the South Arabian Peninsula...

  16. Helminths of brown bears (Ursus arctos) in the Kola Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Bugmyrin, S V; Tirronen, K F; Panchenko, D V; Kopatz, A; Hagen, S B; Eiken, H G; Kuznetsova, A S

    2017-06-01

    We present data on the species composition of helminths in brown bears (Ursus arctos) from the Murmansk Region, Russia. The absence of any information about helminths of brown bear in the region necessitated the conduct of these studies. Samples were collected in 2014 and 2015 in the southern part of the Kola Peninsula from the White Sea coastal habitats. Annually, in the study area, 1-3 bears are legally hunted and biological samples for examination are very difficult to obtain. Therefore, we used fecal samples. We studied 93 feces and identified parasite eggs identified in 43 of them by morphometric criteria. The surveys revealed eggs of the following helminths: Dicrocoelium sp., Diphyllobothrium sp., Anoplocephalidae, Capillariidae, Baylisascaris sp., Strongylida 1, and Strongylida 2. These results represent the first reconnaissance stage, which allowed characterizing the taxonomic diversity and prevalence of parasites of brown bears of the Kola Peninsula.

  17. SRTM Colored Height and Shaded Relief: Sredinnyy Khrebet, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-07-05

    The Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia is shown in this scene created from a preliminary elevation model derived from the first data collected during NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission SRTM on February 12, 2000.

  18. Military confidence building on the Korean Peninsula: possible first steps toward cooperation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Vannoni, M.

    The Korean Peninsula is one of the world`s most tense military confrontational sites. Nearly 2 million North Korean, South Korean, and U.S. troops face each other along the 255-km long military demarcation line. Confidence building measures (CBMs), particularly military ones, that address the security needs of both countries could decrease the danger of conflict and help create an environment where a peace regime might be negotiated. In spite of the present high level of mutual distrust, steps can still be taken to prepare for future development and implementation of CBMs. This paper defines some simple and specific first steps towardmore » CBMs that might be useful on the Korean Peninsula.« less

  19. Risk factors for malaria and adverse birth outcomes in a prospective cohort of pregnant women resident in a high malaria transmission area of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Stanisic, Danielle I; Moore, Kerryn A; Baiwog, Francesca; Ura, Alice; Clapham, Caroline; King, Christopher L; Siba, Peter M; Beeson, James G; Mueller, Ivo; Fowkes, Freya J; Rogerson, Stephen J

    2015-05-01

    Low birth weight (LBW), anaemia and malaria are common in Papua New Guinean women. To identify risk factors for LBW, anaemia and preterm delivery (PTD), pregnant women recruited into a cohort study in Madang, Papua New Guinea, were followed to delivery. Of 470 women enrolled, delivery data were available for 328 (69.7%). By microscopy, 34.4% (113/328) of women had malaria parasitaemia at enrolment and 12.5% (41/328) at delivery; at each time point, PCR detected sub-microscopic parasitaemia in substantially more. Most infections were with Plasmodium falciparum; the remainder being predominantly P. vivax. Anaemia and smoking were associated with lower birth weight, and LBW (16.7%; 51/305) and PTD (21.8%; 63/290) were common. Histopathologically diagnosed chronic placental malaria was associated with LBW (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.3; p=0.048) and PTD (aOR 4.2; p=0.01). Lack of maternal education predisposed to PTD. Sub-microscopic parasitaemia at delivery appeared to increase the risk of LBW. Of the genetic polymorphisms, Southeast Asian ovalocytosis, α(+)-thalassaemia and complement receptor 1 (CR1) deficiency, a CR1 heterozygous genotype was associated with decreased risk of anaemia and substantial but non-significant effects were noted in other comparisons. In coastal Papua New Guinea, malaria and anaemia are important causes of adverse pregnancy outcomes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Resurrection Peninsula and Knight Island ophiolites and recent faulting on Montague Island, southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Steven W.; Miller, Marti L.; Dumoulin, Julie A.

    1987-01-01

    The Resurrection Peninsula forms the east side of Resurrection Bay (Fig. 1). The city of Seward is located at the head of the bay and can be reached from Anchorage by highway (127 mi;204 km). Relief ranges from 1,434 ft (437 m) at the southern end of the peninsula to more than 4,800 ft (1,463 m) 17 mi (28 km) to the north. All rock units composing the informally named Resurrection Peninsula ophiolite are visible and (or) accessible by boat.The eastern half of the peninsula is located within the Chugach National Forest; the western half is mainly state land, but there is some private land with recreational cabins. The Seward A6 and A7 and Blying Sound D6 and D7 maps at 1:63,360 scale (mile-to-the-inch) cover the entire Resurrection Peninsula.Knight Island is located 53 mi (85 km) east of Seward (Fig. 1). Numerous fiords indent the 31-mi-long (50 km) by 7.4-mi-wide (12 km) island and offer excellent bedrock exposures. The island is rugged and has a maximum elevation of 3,000 ft (914 m). It has numerous mineral prospects (Tysdal, 1978; Nelson and others, 1984; Jansons and others, 1984; Koski and others, 1985), and several abandoned canneries are located on the island. Knight Island lies entirely within the Chugach National Forest—state and private inholdings constitute less than five percent of its total land area. The Seward A2, A3, B2, B3, and C2, 1:63,360-scale U.S. Geological Survey topographic maps cover the entire island.Montague Island, 50 mi (80 km) long and up to 11 mi (18 km) wide, lies 10.6 mi (17 km) southeast of Knight Island. It belongs to an island group that forms the southern margin of Prince William Sound (Fig. 1). Montague Island is less rugged and less heavily vegetated than either the Resurrection Peninsula or Knight Island. Rock exposures are excellent along the beaches, and ground disruption due to recent fault movements is clearly visible. The Seward Al and A2 and Blying Sound Dl, D2, and D3 maps cover the areas of interest on Montague Island

  1. Coastal barium cycling at the West Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyle, K. M.; Hendry, K. R.; Sherrell, R. M.; Meredith, M. P.; Venables, H.; Lagerström, M.; Morte-Ródenas, A.

    2017-05-01

    Barium cycling in the ocean is associated with a number of processes, including the production and recycling of organic matter, freshwater fluxes, and phenomena that affect alkalinity. As a result, the biogeochemical cycle of barium offers insights into past and present oceanic conditions, with barium currently used in various forms as a palaeoproxy for components of organic and inorganic carbon storage, and as a quasi-conservative water mass tracer. However, the nature of the oceanic barium cycle is not fully understood, particularly in cases where multiple processes may be interacting simultaneously with the dissolved and particulate barium pools. This is particularly the case in coastal polar regions such as the West Antarctic Peninsula, where biological drawdown and remineralisation occur in tandem with sea ice formation and melting, glacial meltwater input, and potential fluxes from shelf sediments. Here, we use a high-precision dataset of dissolved barium (Bad) from a grid of stations adjacent to the West Antarctic Peninsula in conjunction with silicic acid (Si(OH)4), the oxygen isotope composition of water, and salinity measurements, to determine the relative control of various coastal processes on the barium cycle throughout the water column. There is a strong correlation between Bad and Si(OH)4 present in deeper samples, but nevertheless persists significantly in surface waters. This indicates that the link between biogenic opal and barium is not solely due to barite precipitation and dissolution at depth, but is supplemented by an association between Bad and diatom tests in surface waters, possibly due to barite formation within diatom-dominated phytodetritus present in the photic zone. Sea-ice meltwater appears to exert a significant secondary control on barium concentrations, likely due to non-conservative biotic or abiotic processes acting as a sink for Bad within the sea ice itself, or sea-ice meltwater stimulating non-siliceous productivity that acts

  2. Forest Fire Danger Rating (FFDR) Prediction over the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, B.; Won, M.; Jang, K.; Yoon, S.; Lim, J.

    2016-12-01

    Approximately five hundred forest fires occur and inflict the losses of both life and property each year in Korea during the forest fire seasons in the spring and autumn. Thus, an accurate prediction of forest fire is essential for effective forest fire prevention. The meteorology is one of important factors to predict and understand the fire occurrence as well as its behaviors and spread. In this study, we present the Forest Fire Danger Rating Systems (FFDRS) on the Korean Peninsula based on the Daily Weather Index (DWI) which represents the meteorological characteristics related to forest fire. The thematic maps including temperature, humidity, and wind speed produced from Korea Meteorology Administration (KMA) were applied to the forest fire occurrence probability model by logistic regression to analyze the DWI over the Korean Peninsula. The regional data assimilation and prediction system (RDAPS) and the improved digital forecast model were used to verify the sensitivity of DWI. The result of verification test revealed that the improved digital forecast model dataset showed better agreements with the real-time weather data. The forest fire danger rating index (FFDRI) calculated by the improved digital forecast model dataset showed a good agreement with the real-time weather dataset at the 233 administrative districts (R2=0.854). In addition, FFDRI were compared with observation-based FFDRI at 76 national weather stations. The mean difference was 0.5 at the site-level. The results produced in this study indicate that the improved digital forecast model dataset can be useful to predict the FFDRI in the Korean Peninsula successfully.

  3. An 40Ar/39Ar geochronology on a mid-Eocene igneous event on the Barton and Weaver peninsulas: Implications for the dynamic setting of the Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fei; Zheng, Xiang-Shen; Lee, Jong I. K.; Choe, Won Hie; Evans, Noreen; Zhu, Ri-Xiang

    2009-12-01

    The genesis of basaltic to andesitic lavas, mafic dikes, and granitoid plutons composing the subaerial cover on the Barton and Weaver peninsulas, Antarctica, is related to arc formation and subduction processes. Precise dating of these polar rocks using conventional 40Ar/39Ar techniques is compromised by the high degree of alteration (with loss on ignition as high as 8%). In order to minimize the alteration effects we have followed a sample preparation process that includes repeated acid leaching, acetone washing, and hand picking, followed by an overnight bake at 250°C. After this procedure, groundmass samples can yield accurate age plateaus consisting of 70%-100% of the total 39Ark released using high-resolution heating schedules. The different rock types studied on the Barton and Weaver peninsulas yielded almost coeval ages, suggesting a giant igneous event in the Weaver and Barton peninsulas at 44.5 Ma. A compilation of newly published ages indicate that this event took place throughout the whole South Shetland Islands, suggesting a dynamic incident occurred at this stage during the arc evolution history. We related this igneous event to a mantle delamination mechanism during Eocene times. The delamination process began at ˜52 Ma, and the resultant upwelling of asthenosphere baffled the subduction of Phoenix plate, causing an abrupt decrease in convergence rate. Then multiple magmatic sources were triggered, resulting in a culminating igneous activity during 50-40 Ma with a peak at ˜45 Ma along the archipelago. The delamination also caused the extension regime indicated by the dike swarm, plugs and sills all over the archipelago, and the uplift of Smith metamorphic complex and Livingston Island. Delamination process may have finished at some time during 40-30 Ma, leaving a weak igneous activity at that stage and thereafter. The convergence rate then recovered gradually, as indicated by the magnetic anomaly identifications. This model is supported by seismic

  4. Surveillance and molecular characterization of group A rotaviruses in Goroka, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Horwood, Paul Francis; Luang-Suarkia, Dagwin; Bebes, Sauli; Boniface, Karen; Datta, Siddhartha Sankar; Siba, Peter Max; Kirkwood, Carl Dunn

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the molecular epidemiology of group A rotaviruses in cases of acute gastroenteritis in Goroka, Papua New Guinea. From April 2008 through November 2010, 813 diarrheal stool samples were collected from children < 5 years of age hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis. Rotavirus antigen was detected in 31.2% of samples using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Genotyping revealed the presence of the globally circulating strains G1P[8] (50.0%), G3P[8] (23.0%), and G2P[4] (8.2%). The globally emerging strains G9 and G12 were detected in 1.2% and 6.1% of samples, respectively. Mixed infections were detected in a high proportion of samples (11.9%), with 9.0% and 3.7% of samples displaying multiple G and P genotypes, respectively.

  5. Tectonic implications of the 2017 Ayvacık (Çanakkale) earthquakes, Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özden, Süha; Över, Semir; Poyraz, Selda Altuncu; Güneş, Yavuz; Pınar, Ali

    2018-04-01

    The west to southwestward motion of the Anatolian block results from the relative motions between the Eurasian, Arabian and African plates along the right-lateral North Anatolian Fault Zone in the north and left-lateral East Anatolian Fault Zone in the east. The Biga Peninsula is tectonically influenced by the Anatolian motion originating along the North Anatolian Fault Zone which splits into two main (northern and southern) branches in the east of Marmara region: the southern branch extends towards the Biga Peninsula which is characterized by strike-slip to oblique normal faulting stress regime in the central to northern part. The southernmost part of peninsula is characterized by a normal to oblique faulting stress regime. The analysis of both seismological and structural field data confirms the change of stress regime from strike-slip character in the center and north to normal faulting character in the south of peninsula where the earthquake swarm recently occurred. The earthquakes began on 14 January 2017 (Mw: 4.4) on Tuzla Fault and migrated southward along the Kocaköy and Babakale's stepped-normal faults of over three months. The inversion of focal mechanisms yields a normal faulting stress regime with an approximately N-S (N4°E) σ3 axis. The inversion of earthquakes occurring in central and northern Biga Peninsula and the north Aegean region gives a strike-slip stress regime with approximately WNW-ESE (N85°W) σ1 and NNE-SSW (N17°E) σ3 axis. The strike-slip stress regime is attributed to westward Anatolian motion, while the normal faulting stress regime is attributed to both the extrusion of Anatolian block and the slab-pull force of the subducting African plate along the Hellenic arc.

  6. Habitat Selection and Foraging Behavior of Southern Elephant Seals in the Western Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huckstadt, L.; Costa, D. P.; McDonald, B. I.; Tremblay, Y.; Crocker, D. E.; Goebel, M. E.; Fedak, M. E.

    2006-12-01

    We examined the foraging behavior of 18 southern elephant seals foraging over two seasons in the Western Antarctic Peninsula. The foraging behavior and habitat utilization of 7 females in 2005 and 12 in 2006 were followed using satellite linked Satellite Relay Data Loggers that measured diving behavior as well collected salinity and temperature profiles as the animals dove. Animals were tagged after the annual molt during February at Cape Shirreff Livngston Island, South Shetland Islands. There was significant interannual variation in the regions of the Southern Ocean used by seals from Livingston Island. In 2005 of the 7 animals tagged one foraged 4700 km due west of the Antarctic Peninsula going as far as 150 W. The remaining females headed south along the Western Antarctic Peninsula bypassing Marguerite Bay moving south along Alexander Island. Three of these animals continued to forage in the pack ice as it developed. On their return trip all females swam past Livingston Island, continuing on to South Georgia Island where they apparently bred in the austral spring. One animal returned to Cape Shirreff to molt and her tag was recovered. During 2006 animals initially followed a similar migratory pattern going south along the Antarctic Peninsula, but unlike 2005 where the majority of the animals remained in the immediate vicinity of the Western Antarctic Peninsula, most of the animals in 2006 moved well to the west foraging as far as the Amundsen Sea. We compared the area restricted search (focal foraging areas) areas of these animals using a newly developed fractal landscape technique that identifies and quantifies areas of intensive search. The fractal analysis of area restricted search shows that the area, distance and coverage (Fractal D) searched were not different between years, while the time spent in the search areas was higher in 2005. Further analysis will examine how the physical properties of the water column as determined from the CTD data derived from

  7. Shaded Relief with Height as Color and Landsat, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-03-06

    The top picture is a shaded relief image of the northwest corner of Mexico Yucatan Peninsula generated from NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission SRTM data, and shows a subtle, but unmistakable, indication of the Chicxulub impact crater.

  8. Millennia-long tree-ring records from Tasmania and New Zealand: a basis for modelling climate variability and forcing, past, present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Edward R.; Buckley, Brendan M.; Palmer, Jonathan G.; Fenwick, Pavla; Peterson, Michael J.; Boswijk, Gretel; Fowler, Anthony

    2006-10-01

    Progress in the development of millennia-long tree-ring chronologies from Australia and New Zealand is reviewed from the perspective of modelling long-term climate variability there. Three tree species have proved successful in this regard: Huon pine (Lagarostrobos franklinii) from Tasmania, silver pine (L. colensoi) from the South Island of New Zealand, and kauri (Agathis australis) from the North Island of New Zealand. Each of these species is very long-lived and produces abundant quantities of well-preserved wood for extending their tree-ring chronologies back several millennia into the past. The growth patterns on these chronologies strongly correlate with both local and regional warm-season temperature changes over significant areas of the Southern Hemisphere (especially Huon and silver pine) and to ENSO variability emanating from the equatorial Pacific region (especially kauri). In addition, there is evidence for significant, band-limited, multi-decadal and centennial timescale variability in the warm-season temperature reconstruction based on Huon pine tree rings that may be related to slowly varying changes in ocean circulation dynamics in the southern Indian Ocean. This suggests the possibility of long-term climate predictability there. Copyright

  9. Investigating subduction reversal in Papua New Guinea from automatic analysis of seismicity recorded on a temporary local network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, S. P.; Harmon, N.; Rychert, C.; Tharimena, S.; Bogiatzis, P.; Savage, B.; Shen, Y.; Baillard, C.

    2017-12-01

    The area of Papua New Guinea is one of the most seismically active regions on the planet. Seismicity in the region results from oblique convergence between the Pacific and India-Australia plates, with deformation occurring across a broad region involving several microplates. The region gives an excellent natural laboratory to test geodynamic models of subduction polarity reversal, microplate interaction, and to delineate the structure of subducting plates and relic structures at depth. However, a lack of permanent seismic stations means that routine earthquake locations for small to intermediate sized earthquakes have significant location errors. In 2014, we deployed a temporary network of eight broadband stations on islands in eastern Papua New Guinea to record ongoing seismic deformation. The network straddles a complex region where subduction of the Solomon plate occurs to the south and possible subduction of the Ontong-Java plateau occurs to the north. The stations were installed for 27 months. During the deployment period, there were 13 M>6.5 earthquakes in the area, including M7.5 doublet events in 2015, giving a rich seismic dataset. A high-quality catalogue of local events was formed by a multi-step process. Using the scanloc module of SeisComp3, we first detect P-onsets using a STA/LTA detection. Once clusters of P onsets are found, S-wave picks are incorporated based on a pre-defined window length of maximum S-P time. Groups of onsets are then associated to events, giving us a starting catalogue of 269 events (1765 P-onsets) with minimum magnitude of M 3.5. In a second step, we refine onset times using a Kurtosis picker to improve location accuracy. To form robust hypocentral locations using an appropriate structural model for the area and to constrain crust and mantle structure in the region, we derive a minimum 1-D velocity model using the VELEST program. We use a starting model from Abers et al. (1991) and we restrict our catalogue to events with an

  10. Investigating subduction reversal in Papua New Guinea from automatic analysis of seismicity recorded on a temporary local network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, S. P.; Harmon, N.; Rychert, C.; Tharimena, S.; Bogiatzis, P.; Savage, B.; Shen, Y.; Baillard, C.

    2016-12-01

    The area of Papua New Guinea is one of the most seismically active regions on the planet. Seismicity in the region results from oblique convergence between the Pacific and India-Australia plates, with deformation occurring across a broad region involving several microplates. The region gives an excellent natural laboratory to test geodynamic models of subduction polarity reversal, microplate interaction, and to delineate the structure of subducting plates and relic structures at depth. However, a lack of permanent seismic stations means that routine earthquake locations for small to intermediate sized earthquakes have significant location errors. In 2014, we deployed a temporary network of eight broadband stations on islands in eastern Papua New Guinea to record ongoing seismic deformation. The network straddles a complex region where subduction of the Solomon plate occurs to the south and possible subduction of the Ontong-Java plateau occurs to the north. The stations were installed for 27 months. During the deployment period, there were 13 M>6.5 earthquakes in the area, including M7.5 doublet events in 2015, giving a rich seismic dataset. A high-quality catalogue of local events was formed by a multi-step process. Using the scanloc module of SeisComp3, we first detect P-onsets using a STA/LTA detection. Once clusters of P onsets are found, S-wave picks are incorporated based on a pre-defined window length of maximum S-P time. Groups of onsets are then associated to events, giving us a starting catalogue of 269 events (1765 P-onsets) with minimum magnitude of M 3.5. In a second step, we refine onset times using a Kurtosis picker to improve location accuracy. To form robust hypocentral locations using an appropriate structural model for the area and to constrain crust and mantle structure in the region, we derive a minimum 1-D velocity model using the VELEST program. We use a starting model from Abers et al. (1991) and we restrict our catalogue to events with an

  11. GPS and GIS-Based Data Collection and Image Mapping in the Antarctic Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanchez, Richard D.

    1999-01-01

    High-resolution satellite images combined with the rapidly evolving global positioning system (GPS) and geographic information system (GIS) technology may offer a quick and effective way to gather information in Antarctica. GPS- and GIS-based data collection systems are used in this project to determine their applicability for gathering ground truthing data in the Antarctic Peninsula. These baseline data will be used in a later study to examine changes in penguin habitats resulting in part from regional climate warming. The research application in this study yields important information on the usefulness and limits of data capture and high-resolution images for mapping in the Antarctic Peninsula.

  12. Current Status of Research on the Shorebirds, Marsh Birds, and Waders of the Peninsula of Baja California

    Treesearch

    Eric Mellink

    2005-01-01

    Regarding the information on its birds, the peninsula of Baja California has a luxury status, compared to other regions of México. In this sense, it is useful to compare it with its nearest states: Sonora and Sinaloa. While the peninsula measures 143,790 km², Sonora is 184,937 km². Sinaloa (58,092 km²), although much smaller, has a...

  13. Ground-water resources of the North Beach Peninsula, Pacific County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tracy, James V.

    1977-01-01

    The anticipated water demand of 425 million gallons per year for the North Brach Peninsula, Pacific County, Wash., can be met by properly developing the ground-water supplies of the area 's water-table aquifer. Of the approximately 77 inches of annual precipitation on the peninsula, an estimated 23 inches is lost to evapotranspiration, and approximately 36 inches is discharged by the water-table aquifer into the ocean and bay. The remaining water either runs off the surface or is leaked to a deeper aquifer that ultimately discharges to the ocean. At least 12 inches of the water that discharges naturally through the aquifer is available for additional development. This quantity of water is approximately equivalent to 860,000 gallons per day. Wells spaced at least 1,000 feet apart along the major axis of the peninsula and pumped at average rates of no more than 80 gallons per minute could ensure that water-level declines do not exceed 6 feet near the wells and 1 foot at the shoreline, thereby preventing seawater intrusion. Lowering of the water table may be beneficial in reducing waterlogging problems, but care must be taken not to lower the levels near cranberry bogs, which require a shallow water table. Treatment of the otherwise good quality water for iron may be required, as about 75 percent of the well water sampled from the aquifer had iron concentrations in excess of limits recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. Spatial and temporal characteristics of wildfire activity over the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calado, Teresa; DaCamara, Carlos C.; Ermida, Sofia; Trigo, Isabel.

    2013-04-01

    According to the official reports of the European Commission, during the period 1980-2010 the Iberian Peninsula has contributed to 60% of the total burned area of 14 620 968 ha, which was recorded in the five Southern Member States with higher wildfire activity (Portugal, Spain, France, Italy and Greece). The aim of the present study is to assess fire activity over the Iberian Peninsula based on time series of hot spots extracted from the MODIS global daily active fire product (MOD14A1 and MYD14A1). This dataset, which contains the coordinates of MODIS pixels where fire events were identified together with the respective date and quality indicators, covers the period from July 2002 to August 2012. It is first shown that overall hot spot activity exhibits power law behaviour. A spatial analysis is then undertaken based on land cover information as obtained from Globcover - an ESA initiative relying on observations from the 300m MERIS on board the ENVISAT. Temporal analysis of hot spot activity is also performed based on daily information about meteorological conditions provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. Results obtained allow defining a set of fire regions over the Iberian Peninsula determined essentially by the respective land cover type, which present coherent statistical behaviour in space and time. Finally, models of fire risk are developed for each region and their potential operational use by forest and civil protection services is discussed.

  15. Nursing accounting competencies related to HIV in a Papua New Guinea context.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alistair M

    2013-01-01

    Nursing administration is an important part of the campaign to eliminate HIV across Papua New Guinea (PNG). This paper considers the critical importance of developing nursing leadership in effective accounting competencies in relation to HIV projects in PNG. The results of the study's textual analysis of audit reports of the Auditor General of PNG revealed a failure on the part of PNG's main health agencies involved with its national HIV program to provide competent financial reporting. In light of these results, this study shows how improving accounting and other financial competencies among nursing leaders would benefit the implementation of the PNG HIV national strategy. The findings of this study have implications not only for the internal control of HIV nursing competencies but also for nursing leadership related to HIV issues in a developing-country context. Copyright © 2013 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The recent (upper Miocene to Quaternary) and present tectonic stress distributions in the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herraiz, M.; de Vicente, G.; Lindo-Ñaupari, R.; Giner, J.; Simón, J. L.; GonzáLez-Casado, J. M.; Vadillo, O.; RodríGuez-Pascua, M. A.; CicuéNdez, J. I.; Casas, A.; CabañAs, L.; Rincón, P.; CortéS, A. L.; RamíRez, M.; Lucini, M.

    2000-08-01

    A general synthesis of the recent and present stress situation and evolution in the Iberian Peninsula was obtained from microstructural and seismological analysis. The stress evolution was deduced from (1) fault population analysis (FPA) from 409 sites distributed throughout the Iberian Peninsula, (2) paleostress indicators given by 324 stations taken from the bibliography, and (3) seismic data corresponding to 161 focal mechanisms evenly spread in the studied region. The application of FPA together with the determination of stress tensors and focal mechanisms for the whole Iberian microplate has provided two main results: (1) the Iberian Peninsula is undergoing a NW-SE oriented compression, except for the northeastern part (Pyrenees, Ebro Basin, and Iberian Chain), where it is N-S to NE-SW, and the Gulf of Cádiz, where it seems to be E-W, and (2) the main trends of the stress field have remained almost constant since the upper Miocene. The analysis performed by zones suggests the presence of local heterogeneities in the stress field.

  17. Pumas and Prepositions: Training Nature Guides in the Yucatan Peninsula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Cynthia

    2000-01-01

    In the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico), the 10-week Nature Guide Training Program integrates English immersion with natural history and environmental interpretation to train rural adults as nature guides and conservation leaders. Most graduates have found work as ecotourism guides or in conservation-related activities, and many have provided English…

  18. An outbreak of type E botulism among common loons (Gavia immer) in Michigan's Upper Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brand, Christopher J.; Schmitt, Stephen; Duncan, Ruth M.; Cooley, Thomas M.

    1988-01-01

    An epizootic of type E botulism (Clostridium botulinum) occurred among common loons (Gavia immer) along the Lake Michigan shore of Michigan's Upper Peninsula (USA) during October and November 1983. An estimated 592 dead loons washed ashore along the Garden Peninsula. Type E botulinal toxin was demonstrated in blood samples and stomach contents of dead loons, and in samples of three species of dead fish found on the Lake Michigan shore. We suspect that loons acquired botulism by ingesting sick or dead fish containing type E toxin.

  19. Terrestrial Birds and Conservation Priorities in Baja California Peninsula

    Treesearch

    Ricardo Rodriguez-Estrella

    2005-01-01

    The Baja California peninsula has been categorized as an Endemic Bird Area of the world and it is an important wintering area for a number of aquatic, wading and migratory landbird species. It is an important area for conservation of bird diversity in northwestern México. In spite of this importance, only few, scattered studies have been done on the ecology...

  20. Tephra compositions from Late Quaternary volcanoes around the Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, S.

    2009-12-01

    Crustal extension and rifting processes opened the Bransfield Strait between the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula during the last 4 Ma. Similar processes on the Peninsula's eastern side are responsible for volcanism along Larsen Rift. There are at least 11 volcanic centers with known or suspected Late Pleistocene / Holocene explosive activity (Fig. 1). Fieldwork was carried out on the islands Deception, Penguin, Bridgeman and Paulet, moreover at Melville Peak (King George Is.) and Rezen Peak (Livingston Is.). Of special importance is the second ever reported visit and sampling at Sail Rock, and the work on never before visited outcrops on the northern slopes and at the summit of Cape Purvis volcano (Fig. 1). The new bulk tephra ICP-MS geochemical data provide a reliable framework to distinguish the individual volcanic centers from each other. According to their Mg-number, Melville Peak and Penguin Island represent the most primitive magma source. Nb/Y ratios higher than 0.67 in combination with elevated Th/Yb and Ta/Yb ratios and strongly enriched LREE seem to be diagnostic to distinguish the volcanoes located along the Larsen Rift from those associated with Bransfield Rift. Sr/Y ratios discriminate between the individual Larsen Rift volcanoes, Paulet Island showing considerably higher values than Cape Purvis volcano. Along Bransfield Rift, Bridgeman Island and Melville Peak have notably lower Nb/Y and much higher Th/Nb than Deception Island, Penguin Island and Sail Rock. The latter displays almost double the Th/Yb ratio as compared to Deception Island, and also much higher LREE enrichment but extraordinarily low Ba/Th, discriminating it from Penguin Island. Such extremely low Ba/Th ratios are also typical for Melville Peak, but for none of the other volcanoes. Penguin Island has almost double the Ba/Th and Sr/Y ratios higher than any other investigated volcano. Whereas the volcanoes located in the northern part of Bransfield Strait have Zr

  1. Eruption of Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    On March 29, 2007, the Shiveluch Volcano on the Russian Federation's Kamchatka Peninsula erupted. According to the Alaska Volcano Observatory the volcano underwent an explosive eruption between 01:50 and 2:30 UTC, sending an ash cloud skyward roughly 9,750 meters (32,000 feet), based on visual estimates. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying onboard NASA's Aqua satellite took this picture at 02:00 UTC on March 29. The top image shows the volcano and its surroundings. The bottom image shows a close-up view of the volcano at 250 meters per pixel. Satellites often capture images of volcanic ash plumes, but usually as the plumes are blowing away. Plumes have been observed blowing away from Shiveluch before. This image, however, is different. At the time the Aqua satellite passed overhead, the eruption was recent enough (and the air was apparently still enough) that the ash cloud still hovered above the summit. In this image, the bulbous cloud casts its shadow northward over the icy landscape. Volcanic ash eruptions inject particles into Earth's atmosphere. Substantial eruptions of light-reflecting particles can reduce temperatures and even affect atmospheric circulation. Large eruptions impact climate patterns for years. A massive eruption of the Tambora Volcano in Indonesia in 1815, for instance, earned 1816 the nickname 'the year without a summer.' Shiveluch is a stratovolcano--a steep-sloped volcano composed of alternating layers of solidified ash, hardened lava, and volcanic rocks. One of Kamchatka's largest volcanoes, it sports a summit reaching 3,283 meters (10,771 feet). Shiveluch is also one of the peninsula's most active volcanoes, with an estimated 60 substantial eruptions in the past 10,000 years.

  2. Upper Cenozoic deposits of the central Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland and Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owens, James Patrick; Denny, Charles Storrow

    1979-01-01

    The surface and shallow subsurface sediments of the lower Delmarva Peninsula include beds ranging in age from Miocene to Holocene. The oldest beds appear to be typical shelf deposits of the Chesapeake Group (Calvert-Choptank age). These marine units are overlain by deltaic deposits, which range from fluviatile facies in the north (Pensauken Formation) to marginal marine and marine beds in the south ('Yorktown(?) and Cohansey(?)' Formations as used by Rasmussen and Slaughter in 1955). This large deltaic mass underlies most of the Delmarva Peninsula. Fossil age determinations supplemented by some radiometric dates indicate the delta to be largely late Miocene in age. The nonmarine facies of the delta, the Pensauken Formation, previously was considered to be Pleistocene in age. The late Miocene delta and possibly the Yorktown Formation (lower to middle Pliocene) are overlain by a feldspathic sand, the Beaverdam, which is at least in part marginal marine. Microflora recovered from this formation include species no longer indigenous to the Delmarva region ('exotics'). On the basis of existing information, microfloral assemblages containing 'exotics' are pre-Pleistocene in age. The Beaverdam therefore is pre-Pleistocene in age, probably late Pliocene. A highly dissected and weathered unit, the Walston Silt, caps the uplands of the central Delmarva Peninsula, where it overlies the Beaverdam. The Walston has a microflora containing 'exotics' and therefore is considered to be the youngest Tertiary unit (uppermost Pliocene) in this area. Sediments forming a barrier-back-barrier sequence fringe most of the southern Maryland-Delaware part of the Delmarva Peninsula and are found at altitudes of as much as 15 m (50 ft) above sea level. This sequence, the Omar Formation, is Sangamon in age and has been dated radiometrically as 60,000 to about 100,000 years old. The microflora in these beds contains no 'exotics,' and the assemblage suggests a warm-temperate environment. The Omar

  3. Nepal and Papua Airborne Gravity Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olesen, A. V.; Forsberg, R.; Kasenda, F.; Einarsson, I.; Manandhar, N.

    2011-12-01

    Airborne gravimetry offers a fast and economic way to cover vast areas and it allows access to otherwise difficult accessible areas like mountains, jungles and the near coastal zone. It has the potential to deliver high resolution and bias free data that may bridge the spectral gap between global satellite gravity models and the high resolution gravity information embedded in digital terrain models. DTU Space has for more than a decade done airborne gravity surveys in many parts of the world. Most surveys were done with a LaCoste & Romberg S-meter updated for airborne use. This instrument has proven to deliver near bias free data when properly processed. A Chekan AM gravimeter was recently added to the airborne gravity mapping system and will potentially enhance the spatial resolution and the robustness of the system. This paper will focus on results from two recent surveys over Nepal, flown in December 2010, and over Papua (eastern Indonesia), flown in May and June 2011. Both surveys were flown with the new double gravimeter setup and initial assessment of system performance indicates improved spatial resolution compared to the single gravimeter system. Comparison to EGM08 and to the most recent GOCE models highlights the impact of the new airborne gravity data in both cases. A newly computed geoid model for Nepal based on the airborne data allows for a more precise definition of the height of Mt. Everest in a global height system. This geoid model suggests that the height of Mt. Everest should be increased by approximately 1 meter. The paper will also briefly discuss system setup and will highlight a few essential processing steps that ensure that bias problems are minimized and spatial resolution enhanced.

  4. Past Penguin Colony Linkages to Climate Change and Catastrophic Volcanism on the Northern Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, S. J.; Monien, P.; Foster, L. C.; Loftfield, J.; Schnetger, B.; Pearson, E. J.; Hocking, E. P.; Fretwell, P.; Ireland, L.; Ochyra, R.; Haworth, A.; Allen, C. S.; Brumsack, H. J.; Bentley, M.; Hodgson, D.

    2016-12-01

    Recent warming and reductions in sea-ice in some parts of Antarctica are thought to be having a negative impact on populations of `ice-dependent' penguin species (e.g., Emperor, Adélie) that feed at the sea-ice edge because populations of `ice-avoiding'/more `adaptable' species (e.g., Gentoo, Chinstrap) have remained stable or increased, and some Adélie colonies located in areas of sea-ice expansion have increased. This hypothesis is based on short observational records and limited subfossil evidence, but has not been tested over longer, mid-late Holocene, timescales on the Antarctic Peninsula. Between 1950-1997, the northern Antarctic Peninsula was one of the most rapidly warming regions in the Southern Hemisphere and, over the last 30 years, the largest breeding population of Gentoo penguins in Antarctica on Ardley Island, north-western Antarctic Peninsula, has increased. We tracked past changes in the Ardley Island penguin colony size by comparing detailed biogeochemical analysis of an 8,500-year Ardley Lake sediment profile with past records of penguin presence, climate and sea-ice extent across the Antarctic Peninsula and found that the colony also responded positively during some local-regionally warmer parts of the late Holocene. However, at least three large volcanic eruptions from nearby Deception Island had a devastating impact on the colony between 7000-2000 years ago, with colony recovery taking up to 800 years following the most disruptive period of volcanic activity c. 5500-5000 years ago.

  5. Distribution and abundance of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) along the Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Volker; Reiss, Christian S.; Dietrich, Kimberly S.; Haraldsson, Matilda; Rohardt, Gerhard

    2013-07-01

    Net-based data on the abundance, distribution, and demographic patterns of Antarctic krill are quantified from a contemporaneous two ship survey of the Antarctic Peninsula during austral summer 2011. Two survey areas were sampled focussed on Marguerite Bay in the south, and the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula in the north. Data from 177 stations showed that the highest concentrations of krill were found in the southern sampling area. Differences between areas were associated with a few large catches of one year old krill found in anomalously warm and productive waters in Marguerite Bay, and small krill catches in the less-productive, offshore waters in the north. Estimated krill density across the survey area was 3.4 krill m-2, and was low compared to the long-term average of 45 krill m-2 for the Elephant Island area. Overall recruitment between the two survey regions was similar, but per capita recruitment was about 60% lower than historical mean recruitment levels measured at Elephant Island since the late 1970s. Demographic patterns showed small krill concentrated near the coast, and large krill concentrated offshore on the shelf and slope all along the survey area. The offshore distribution of adult krill was delineated by the warm (˜1 °C), low salinity (33.8) water at 30 m, suggesting that most krill were present shoreward of the southern boundary of Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front. Distributions of larvae indicated that three hotspot areas were important for the production of krill: slope areas outside Marguerite Bay and north of the South Shetland Islands, and near the coast around Antarctic Sound. Successful spawning, as inferred from larval abundance, was roughly coincident with the shelf break and not with inshore waters. Given the rapid changes in climate along the Antarctic Peninsula and the lower per capita recruitment observed in recent years, studies comparing and contrasting production, growth, and recruitment across the Peninsula will be

  6. Evaluating export container pooling options in MN, WI, and MI's Upper Peninsula.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-04-01

    Research was undertaken to investigate the issues impacting the expansion of containerized cargo in : Wisconsin, Minnesota and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Best practices in container pooling, load matching, : inland ports and electronic tracking...

  7. Sandstone detrital modes and basinal setting of the Trinity Peninsula Group, northern Graham Land, Antarctic Peninsula: A preliminary survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smellie, J. L.

    Sandstone detrital modes for a representative sample of the Trinity Peninsula Group in northern Graham Land are described and assessed. Whereas the volumetrically dominant quartz and feldspar were derived principally from erosion of a plutonic and high-rank metamorphic terrane, the lithic population was derived mainly from a volcanic cover. The data clearly indicate the presence of two major sandstone suites (petro-facies I and II) with distinctive and probably separate provenances. Further scope for subdivision is limited by the small sample set, but four petrofacies (Ia, Ib, IIa, and IIb) may be present, three of which correspond with previously described lithostratigraphical units (Legoupil, Hope Bay, and View Point formations). The sample distribution and detrital modes enable approximate geographical limits to be assigned to each petrofacies for the first time, although the nature of the boundaries (stratigraphical or structural) is unknown. Petrofacies II could have been derived from an active magmatic arc and deposited in a forearc basin (sensu lato) or series of basins at a major consuming margin. Petrofacies I is a much more quartzose suite, although otherwise petrographically very similar to petrofacies II. Its depositional setting is ambiguous on the basis of the data presently available, and deposition can only be said to have occurred at either an active or a passive continental margin. Finally, there is the possibility that strike-slip faulting has structurally shuffled the Trinity Peninsula Group, causing the pronounced age and compositional contrasts observed.

  8. An ikaite record of late Holocene climate at the Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zunli; Rickaby, Rosalind E. M.; Kennedy, Hilary; Kennedy, Paul; Pancost, Richard D.; Shaw, Samuel; Lennie, Alistair; Wellner, Julia; Anderson, John B.

    2012-04-01

    Calcium carbonate can crystallize in a hydrated form as ikaite at low temperatures. The hydration water in ikaite grown in laboratory experiments records the δ18O of ambient water, a feature potentially useful for reconstructing δ18O of local seawater. We report the first downcore δ18O record of natural ikaite hydration waters and crystals collected from the Antarctic Peninsula (AP), a region sensitive to climate fluctuations. We are able to establish the zone of ikaite formation within shallow sediments, based on porewater chemical and isotopic data. Having constrained the depth of ikaite formation and δ18O of ikaite crystals and hydration waters, we are able to infer local changes in fjord δ18O versus time during the late Holocene. This ikaite record qualitatively supports that both the Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age extended to the Antarctic Peninsula.

  9. Radiological dose in Muria peninsula from SB-LOCA event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunarko; Suud, Zaki

    2017-01-01

    Dose assessment for accident condition is performed for Muria Peninsula region using source-term from Three-Mile Island unit 2 SB-LOCA accident. Xe-133, Kr-88, 1-131 and Cs-137 isotopes are considered in the calculation. The effluent is assumed to be released from a 50 m stack. Lagrangian particle dispersion method (LPDM) employing non-Gaussian dispersion coefficient in 3-dimensional mass-consistent wind-field is employed to obtain periodic surface-level concentration which is then time-integrated to obtain spatial distribution of ground-level dose. In 1-hour simulation, segmented plumes with 60 seconds duration with a total of 18.000 particles involved. Simulations using 6-hour worst-case meteorological data from Muria peninsula results in a peak external dose of around 1.668 mSv for low scenario and 6.892 mSv for high scenario in dry condition. In wet condition with 5 mm/hour and 10 mm/hour rain for the whole duration of the simulation provides only minor effect to dose. The peak external dose is below the regulatory limit of 50 mSv for effective skin dose from external gamma exposure.

  10. Viral hemorrhagic fevers in the Tihamah region of the western Arabian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Al-habal, Mohammed; Taher, Rola; Alaoui, Altaf; El Mzibri, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) refers to a group of diseases characterized by an acute febrile syndrome with hemorrhagic manifestations and high mortality rates caused by several families of viruses that affect humans and animals. These diseases are typically endemic in certain geographical regions and sometimes cause major outbreaks. The history of hemorrhagic fever in the Arabian Peninsula refers to the 19th century and most outbreaks were reported in the Tihamah region—the Red Sea coastal plain of the Arabian Peninsula in the west and southwest of Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Herein, we describe the agents that cause VHFs and their epidemiology in Tihamah, the history of the diseases, transmission, species affected, and clinical signs. Finally, we address challenges in the diagnosis and control of VHFs in this region. PMID:28384205

  11. Genetic diversity and structure of Iberian Peninsula cowpeas compared to world-wide cowpea accessions using high density SNP markers.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Márcia; Muñoz-Amatriaín, María; Castro, Isaura; Lino-Neto, Teresa; Matos, Manuela; Egea-Cortines, Marcos; Rosa, Eduardo; Close, Timothy; Carnide, Valdemar

    2017-11-21

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important legume crop due to its high protein content, adaptation to heat and drought and capacity to fix nitrogen. Europe has a deficit of cowpea production. Knowledge of genetic diversity among cowpea landraces is important for the preservation of local varieties and is the basis to obtain improved varieties. The aims of this study were to explore diversity and the genetic structure of a set of Iberian Peninsula cowpea accessions in comparison to a worldwide collection and to infer possible dispersion routes of cultivated cowpea. The Illumina Cowpea iSelect Consortium Array containing 51,128 SNPs was used to genotype 96 cowpea accessions including 43 landraces and cultivars from the Iberian Peninsula, and 53 landraces collected worldwide. Four subpopulations were identified. Most Iberian Peninsula accessions clustered together with those from other southern European and northern African countries. Only one accession belonged to another subpopulation, while two accessions were 'admixed'. A lower genetic diversity level was found in the Iberian Peninsula accessions compared to worldwide cowpeas. The genetic analyses performed in this study brought some insights into worldwide genetic diversity and structure and possible dispersion routes of cultivated cowpea. Also, it provided an in-depth analysis of genetic diversity in Iberian Peninsula cowpeas that will help guide crossing strategies in breeding programs.

  12. Women's asset ownership and children's nutritional status: Evidence from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    van der Meulen Rodgers, Yana; Kassens, Alice Louise

    2018-05-01

    This study examines how women's asset ownership is associated with children's nutritional status in Papua New Guinea, a country with some of the most severe child malnutrition in the world. The 2009-2010 Household Income and Expenditure Survey is employed, but restricted to children under the age of 72 months living with married mothers, leaving a final analytic sample of 1651. Asset ownership is expected to strengthen mothers' income-generating capacity and their bargaining power within the home, which increases investments in children's health. Women's ownership of fishing and agricultural equipment (important for meeting subsistence needs and for generating cash earnings) appears to be driving most of the results. OLS regression results point to beneficial effects of maternal asset ownership for children's height-for-age, weight-for-height, and weight-for-age Z-scores, and results from detailed quantile regressions indicate that these effects occur at various parts of the distribution, especially for children's WAZ scores. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lymphatic filariasis in Papua New Guinea: distribution at district level and impact of mass drug administration, 1980 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF) caused by Wuchereria bancrofti is present at high prevalence in some parts of Papua New Guinea. However, there has been no rigorous data-based representative assessment of nationwide prevalence of LF. The LF programme has been daunted by the scope of the problem, and progress on mass drug administration (MDA) has been slow and lacking in resources. Methods A systematic literature review identified LF surveys in Papua New Guinea between 1980 and 2011. Results were extracted by location, time period and test used (blood slide, immunochromatographic test (ICT) or Og4C3 ELISA) and combined by district. Three criteria schemes based on the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis guidelines, with modifications, were developed to classify and prioritize districts by prevalence level. Results of repeated surveys in the same sites were used to investigate the impact of MDA on LF prevalence over the time period. Results There were 312 distinct survey sites identified in 80 of the 89 districts over the 31-year period. The overall LF prevalence in the sites tested was estimated at 18.5 to 27.5% by blood slide for microfilariae (Mf), 10.1% to 12.9% by ICT and 45.4% to 48.8% by Og4C3. Biases in site selection towards areas with LF, and change in type of assay used, affected the prevalence estimates, but overall decline in prevalence over the time period was observed. Depending on the criteria used, 34 to 36 districts (population 2.7 to 2.9 million) were classed as high endemic (≥5% prevalence), 15 to 25 districts (1.7 to 1.9 million) as low endemic (<5%) and 20 to 31 (1.3 to 2.2 million) as non-endemic. Nine districts (0.7 million) had no information. The strong impact of MDA, especially on microfilaria (Mf) prevalence, was noted in sites with repeat surveys. Conclusions This analytical review of past surveys of LF in Papua New Guinea enables better estimation of the national burden, identifies gaps in knowledge, quantifies and

  14. Sources and management of hazardous waste in Papua New Guinea

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Singh, K.

    1996-12-31

    Papua New Guinea (PNG) has considerable mineral wealth, especially in gold and copper. Large-scale mining takes place, and these activities are the source of most of PNG`s hazardous waste. Most people live in small farming communities throughout the region. Those living adjacent to mining areas have experienced some negative impacts from river ecosystem damage and erosion of their lands. Industry is centered mainly in urban areas and Generates waste composed of various products. Agricultural products, pesticide residues, and chemicals used for preserving timber and other forestry products also produce hazardous waste. Most municipal waste comes from domestic and commercial premises;more » it consists mainly of combustibles, noncombustibles, and other wastes. Hospitals generate pathogenic organisms, radioactive materials, and chemical and pharmaceutical laboratory waste. Little is known about the actual treatment of waste before disposal in PNG. Traditional low-cost waste disposal methods are usually practiced, such as use of landfills; storage in surface impoundments; and disposal in public sewers, rivers, and the sea. Indiscriminate burning of domestic waste in backyards is also commonly practiced in urban and rural areas. 10 refs., 4 tabs.« less

  15. Petrological and geochemical compositions of beach sands of the Barton and Weaver peninsulas of King George Island, West Antarctica: implications for provenance and deglacial history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. I.; Lim, H. S.; Choi, T.

    2017-12-01

    We studied the provenance of beach sediments of the Baton and Weaver peninsulas of King George Island, the South Shetland Islands of West Antarctica. The studied beach sand sediments of the both peninsulas are predominantly composed of volcanic-rock fragment, followed by altered grain and plutonic rock fragment in that order. In rock fragments, the volcanic rock fragments are about four times more than the plutonic rock fragments. The median quartz-feldspar-rock fragment (Q-F-R) ratios of the beach sands of the Weaver and Barton peninsulas are Q3.4-F5.5-R99.1 and Q0.5-F2.7-R96.8, respectively. These beach sands may have been originated from basaltic andesite-andesite distributed in the ice-free areas of the Barton and Weaver peninsulas and granodiorite of the Barton Peninsula. According to the geochemistry of the beach sand sediments of the two peninsulas, most of the sand samples are interpreted as originating from intermediate rocks that have experienced little chemical weathering. Taking together the modal composition and geochemical composition of the beach sand samples, the tectonic setting of the source area is interpreted as a magmatic arc setting. This interpretation is consistent with geology of the ice-free areas of the Barton and Weaver peninsulas and the tectonic setting of King George Island. However, the sand samples of the Barton Peninsula southern beach and the Weaver Peninsula beach were not derived from basement rocks currently exposed in the ice-free areas of the corresponding peninsula, but were formerly glaciomarine sediments derived from erosion of ice-covered subglacial basement rocks and transported to the submerged glacier grounding line prior to deglaciation. Sand sediments derived from wave erosion of basement rocks of paleoshoreline might have been mixed with these glaciomarine sediments. King George Island became uplifted due to deglaciation 6,000 years ago. The studied beach sediments might have been reworked after the uplift of the

  16. Geophysical anomalies associated with Imjin River Belt (IRB) in the middle Korean Peninsula revealed by geomagnetic depth sounding and seismological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Choi, H.; Noh, M.; Im, C.

    2012-12-01

    Imjin River Belt (IRB), located in the middle of the Korean Peninsula, has been one of long-standing geological issues because it is a very important tectonic link to understand a tectonic evolution of north-eastern Asia including China, Korea and Japan. Although the IRB has been considered as an extension of collision belt between the North China Block (NCB) and South China Block (SCB), there is little geophysical observation or study on this issue. In recent, we compiled a new induction arrow map for the Korean Peninsula, on the basis of long-period magneto-telluric (MT) data and the geomagnetic depth sounding data performed since the late 1990's. This newly compiled map has finer spatial resolution expecially in the middle area of the peninsula, which helps us to present the geophysical evidence that the IRB is the continuation or extension of the collision belt to the peninsula. The overall pattern of induction arrows in the peninsula appears to indicate a northwest-southeast direction, which is well-known 'sea effect' by the surrounding seas. However, the results of observations in the middle of the peninsula distinctly show an anomalous pattern around the IRB, which can not be explained only by the surrounding seas. This anomalous pattern may be attributed to enhanced conductivity associated with tectonic events that Imjin River Belt has experienced. The 3-D electromagnetic modeling results, considering both surrounding seas and enhanced conductivity of the IRB, explain well the anomalous observations around the IRB. Furthermore, recent seismological study demonstrates that focal mechanism around the IRB is mainly normal faulting event, which may be interpreted as the reactivation of paleo structures that are related to the post collisional lithospheric delamination. All the geophysical evidences convince us that the IRB is an extension of the collision belt between the NCB and SCB to the peninsula.

  17. Adaptive significance of small body size: strength and motor performance of school children in Mexico and Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Malina, R M; Little, B B; Shoup, R F; Buschang, P H

    1987-08-01

    The postulated superior functional efficiency in association with reduced body size under conditions of chronic protein-energy undernutrition was considered in school children from rural Mexico and coastal Papua New Guinea. Grip strength and three measures of motor performance were measured in cross-sectional samples of children 6-16 years of age from a rural agricultural community in Oaxaca, Mexico, and from the coastal community Pere on Manus Island, Papua New Guinea. The strength and performance of a mixed-longitudinal sample of well nourished children from Philadelphia was used as a reference. The Oaxaca and Pere children are significantly shorter and lighter and are not as strong as the well nourished children. Motor performances of Pere children compare favorably to those of the better-nourished Philadelphia children, whereas those of the Oaxaca children are poorer. Throwing performance is more variable. When expressed relative to body size, strength is similar in the three samples, but the running and jumping performances of Pere children per unit body size are better than the relative performances of Oaxaca and Philadelphia children. Throwing performance per unit body size is better in the undernourished children. The influence of age, stature, and weight on the performance of Oaxaca and Pere children is generally similar to that for well nourished children. These results suggest that the hypothesized adaptive significance of small body size for the functional efficiency of populations living under conditions of chronic undernutrition varies between populations and with performance tasks.

  18. Clusters of Earthquakes In The Southern of Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posadas, A. M.; Luzón, F.; Vidal, F.

    The southern part of the Iberian Peninsula forms part of the western border of Eurasia- Africa plate boundary. This area is characterized by the occurrence of earthquakes of moderate magnitude (the maximum magnitude ranging from 4.5 to 5.5). From the point of view of seismic activity, this region is the most active one in he Iberian Penin- sula. Until earlier 80, only the National Seismic Network belonging to the National Geographic Institute monitores the activity in the south of Iberian Peninsula. From 1983 to the actuality, the Andalusian Seismic Network belonging to the Andalusian Geophysics Institute and Seismic Disaster Prevention, records the microseismicity of the area. Nowadays, the earthquakes catalogue used belongs to the Andalusian Insti- tute of Geophysics and Seismic Disaster Prevention and it counts on more than 20000 events registered from 1985 to 2001. Today, after 20 years of recording seismic ac- tivity, statistics analysis of the catalogue have sense. In this paper we present a first approach to the clustering properties of the seismicity in the south of the Iberian Penin- sula. The analysis carried out starts with the study of clustering properties (temporal and spatial properties) in the Southern of Iberian Peninsula seismicity to demonstrate, by using the Fractal Dimension of the temporal earthquake distribution and the Mor- ishita Index of the spatial distribution of earthquakes, that this seismicity is charac- terized by a tendency to form earthquake clusters, both spatial and temporal clusters. As an example, five seismogenetic areas of the zone are analyzed (Adra-Berja, Agron, Alboran, Antequera and Loja). This particular study of the series find out the b param- eter from the Gutenberg-Richter's Law (which characterizes the energetic relaxation of events), the p parameter from Omori's Law (that characterizes the temporal relax- ation of aftershocks) and the Fractal Dimension of the spatial distribution of earth- quakes (to find the

  19. Focal Mechanisms of Recent Earthquakes in the Southern Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Kim, W.; Chung, T.; Baag, C.; Ree, J.

    2005-12-01

    There has been a lack of seismic data in the Korean Peninsula mainly because it is in a seismically stable area within the Eurasian plate (or Amurian microplate) and because a network of seismic stations has been poor until recently. Consequently, first motion studies on the peninsula showed a large uncertainty or covered only local areas. Also, a tectonic province map constructed based on pre-Cenozoic tectonic events in Korea has been used for a seismic zonation. To solve these problems, we made focal mechanism solutions for 71 earthquakes (ML = 1.9 to 5.2) occurred in and around the peninsula from 1999 to 2004 and collected by a new dense seismic network established since 1995. For this, we relocated the hypocenters and obtained fault plane solutions with errors of fault parameter less than 15° from the data set of 1,270 clear P-wave polarities and from 46 SH/P amplitude ratios. The focal mechanism solutions show that subhorizontal ENE P- and subhorizontal NNW T-axes are predominant, representing the common direction of P- and T-axes within the Amurian plate. The faulting mechanisms are mostly strike-slip faulting or strike-slip-dominant-oblique-slip faulting with a reverse-slip component, although normal-slip-dominant-oblique-slip faultings occur locally probably due to a local reorientation of stress. These results incorporated with those from the kinematic studies of the Quaternary faults imply that NNE-striking faults (dextral strike-slip or oblique-slip with a reverse-slip component) are highly likely to generate earthquakes in South Korea. The spatial distribution of the maximum horizontal stress direction and faulting types does not correlate with the preexisting tectonic province map of Korea, and a new construction of seismic zonation map is required for a better seismic evaluation.

  20. Breast shape (ptosis) as a marker of a woman's breast attractiveness and age: Evidence from Poland and Papua.

    PubMed

    Groyecka, Agata; Żelaźniewicz, Agnieszka; Misiak, Michał; Karwowski, Maciej; Sorokowski, Piotr

    2017-07-08

    A women's breast is a sex-specific and aesthetic bodily attribute. It is suggested that breast morphology signals maturity, health, and fecundity. The perception of a woman's attractiveness and age depends on various cues, such as breast size or areola pigmentation. Conducted in Poland and Papua, the current study investigated how breast attractiveness, and the further estimate of a woman's age based on her breast's appearance, is affected by the occurrence of breast ptosis (ie, sagginess, droopiness). In the Polish sample, 57 women and 50 men (N = 107) were presented with sketches of breasts manipulated to represent different stages of ptosis based on two different breast ptosis classifications. The participants were asked to rate the breast attractiveness and age of the woman whose breasts were depicted in each sketch. In Papua, 45 men aged 20 to 75 years took part in the study, which was conducted using only one of the classifications of breast ptosis. Regardless of the classification used, the results showed that the assessed attractiveness of the breasts decreased as the estimated age increased with respect to the more ptotic breasts depicted in the sketches. The results for Papuan raters were the same as for the Polish sample. Breast ptosis may be yet another physical trait that affects the perception and preferences of a potential sexual partner. The consistency in ratings between Polish and Papuan raters suggests that the tendency to assess ptotic breasts with aging and a loss of attractiveness is cross-culturally universal. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Rural freight rail and multimodal transportation improvements - the Upper Peninsula of Michigan.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-07-01

    Affordable freight transportation is a requirement for survival for rural industries, and in many : cases requires the presence of freight rail systems. This study investigated the transportation : system in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan (U.P.). Th...

  2. Human polyomavirus JC variants in Papua New Guinea and Guam reflect ancient population settlement and viral evolution.

    PubMed

    Ryschkewitsch, C F; Friedlaender, J S; Mgone, C S; Jobes, D V; Agostini, H T; Chima, S C; Alpers, M P; Koki, G; Yanagihara, R; Stoner, G L

    2000-07-01

    The peopling of the Pacific was a complex sequence of events that is best reconstructed by reconciling insights from various disciplines. Here we analyze the human polyomavirus JC (JCV) in Highlanders of Papua New Guinea (PNG), in Austronesian-speaking Tolai people on the island of New Britain, and in nearby non-Austronesian-speaking Baining people. We also characterize JCV from the Chamorro of Guam, a Micronesian population. All JCV strains from PNG and Guam fall within the broad Asian group previously defined in the VP1 gene as Type 2 or Type 7, but the PNG strains were distinct from both genotypes. Among the Chamorro JCV samples, 8 strains (Guam-1) were like the Type 7 strains found in Southeast Asia, while nine strains (Guam-2) were distinct from both the mainland strains and most PNG strains. We identified three JCV variants within Papua New Guinea (PNG-1, PNG-2 and PNG-3), but none of the Southeast Asian (Type 7) strains. PNG-1 strains were present in all three populations (Highlanders and the Baining and Tolai of New Britain), but PNG-2 strains were restricted to the Highlanders. Their relative lack of DNA sequence variation suggests that they arose comparatively recently. The single PNG-3 strain, identified in an Austronesian-speaking Tolai individual, was closely related to the Chamorro variants (Guam-2), consistent with a common Austronesian ancestor. In PNG-2 variants a complex regulatory region mutation inserts a duplication into a nearby deletion, a change reminiscent of those seen in the brains of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy patients. This is the first instance of a complex JCV rearrangement circulating in a human population.

  3. Seismic Hazard Assessment for the Baku City and Absheron Peninsula, Azerbaijan

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Babayev, Gulam R.

    2006-03-23

    This paper deals with the seismic hazard assessment for Baku and the Absheron peninsula. The assessment is based on the information on the features of earthquake ground motion excitation, seismic wave propagation (attenuation), and site effect. I analyze active faults, seismicity, soil and rock properties, geological cross-sections, the borehole data of measured shear-wave velocity, lithology, amplification factor of each geological unit, geomorphology, topography, and basic rock and surface ground motions. To estimate peak ground acceleration (PGA) at the surface, PGA at the basic rock is multiplied by the amplification parameter of each surface layers. Quaternary soft deposits, representing a highmore » risk due to increasing PGA values at surface, are studied in detail. For a near-zone target earthquake PGA values are compared to intensity at MSK-64 scale for the Absheron peninsula. The amplification factor for the Baku city is assessed and provides estimations for a level of a seismic motion and seismic intensity of the studied area.« less

  4. Non-timber forest products and livelihoods in Michigan's Upper Peninsula

    Treesearch

    Marla R. Emery

    2001-01-01

    Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are increasingly looked to as potential income sources for forest communities. Yet little is known about the existing livelihood uses of NTFPs. Drawing on a case study in Michigan's Upper Peninsula, this paper describes the contemporary contributions of NTFPs to the livelihoods of people who gather them. First-hand use of...

  5. Description of two new species of the Exocelina broschii-group from Papua New Guinea, with revision and key to all representatives of this species group (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Copelatinae)

    PubMed Central

    Shaverdo, Helena; Sagata, Katayo; Balke, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Exocelina Broun, 1886 from Papua New Guinea are described herein: Exocelina mondmillensis sp. n. and Exocelina pseudomarinae sp. n. They are placed into the Exocelina broschii-group based on the shovel/fork-like ventral sclerites of their median lobe. While the former has rather distinct combination of the morphological characters (inconspicuous dorsal punctation, thin apex of the median lobe and ventral sclerite of the median lobe with two tips of different length), the latter is very similar to already described species Exocelina marinae (Shaverdo, Sagata & Balke, 2005). All described species of the group are revised and a key to their identification is provided. Important diagnostic characters (habitus, color, protarsomeres 4–5, median lobes, and parameres) are illustrated. Data on the distribution of all species of the group are given showing that its representatives occur only in Papua New Guinea and most of them are widely distributed in it central part. PMID:27110191

  6. High-Resolution Aeromagnetic Survey over the Yucatan Peninsula - Implications for Chicxulub Impact, Secondary Craters and Regional Crustal Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.; Lopez-Loera, H.; Rebolledo-Vieyra, M.

    2011-12-01

    We present the initial results of a low-altitude high-resolution aeromagnetic study over the Yucatan peninsula. Area surveyed extends from 86W to 91W and 18N to 21N, covering the peninsula and adjacent continental margin of Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Aeromagnetic surveys are integrated into a regional map, and regional and residual anomalies are separated using spectral and least-squares methods. For the study, aeromagnetic field was reduced to the pole and several data filtering techniques were used, including first and second vertical derivatives, analytical signal, and upward and downward analytical continuations. The region is characterized by large amplitude broad elongated magnetic anomalies oriented north-south in the northern sector of the continental shelf, and northwest-southeast and northeast-southwest over the western and eastern sides of the peninsula, respectively. Major regional anomalies extend from the continental shelf into the peninsula, whereas other anomaly trends in the central northern sector, at northeast limit of Chicxulub crater, are restricted to the shelf. Largest anomaly on the east extends over the Holbox fracture zone. At its southern end, south of Chetumal a parallel trend extends over the Rio Hondo fault zone between Quintana Roo and Belize. On the western peninsula the anomaly is characterized by two parallel trends offset between Yucatan and Campeche. The central zone of Chicxulub is characterized by a semi-circular anomaly pattern, surrounded by long wavelength small amplitude anomalies extending to the east on the peninsula and shelf, isolated from the regional broad anomalies. To the south of Chicxulub anomaly, there is an elongated low with a central high extending southward from the terrace zone inside the crater rim. The elongated magnetic anomaly correlates with a broad gravity low, which is apparent south of the concentric zone of anomalies. To the north of Chicxulub anomaly, a magnetic high inside the crater is

  7. [Cytogenetic status of the residents of the Gydansky Peninsula (Gydan)].

    PubMed

    Shinkaruk, E V; Agbalyan, E V

    The relevance of the study on the Gydansky Peninsula lies in poor knowledge and inaccessibility of the territory, planned intensive industrial development of the Gydansky Peninsula, in 2011 there were received licenses for the exploration of license areas at the peninsula up to 2031. Industrial development will inevitably lead to certain environmental shifts, emission of the harmful substances into biosphere, the accumulation of anthropogenic pollutants in soil and water sources. The proposed development of the territory of the Peninsula Gydan sets the task of assessment of the impact of gas and oil production in conditions of the far North on health, as well indigenous persons as employees recruited to this of the region. One of the informative approaches to the assessment of population health is the assessment of the cytogenetic status with the use of noninvasive analysis of buccal epithelium. The aim of the study is to determine the cytogenetic status of the inhabitants of the village of Antipayuta of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug for the assessment of the impact of environmental factors on the health of the population at the present stage of the industrial development of the territory. Samples of buccal epithelium of 81 alien and indigenous people of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous district were the object of the investigation. There was performed the analysis of indices of cells of buccal epithelium of the residents living in the village in comparison with the control group. The analysis of samples was performed on a Nikon Eclipse E100 microscope. For the assessment of the cytogenetic status of the individual there was used the proposed by Sycheva L. P. (2012-Index of accumulation of cytogenetic damages (Iac). It is shown that the frequency of occurrence of micronucleus and nuclear protrusions does not exceed the performance of the control group. The index of accumulation of cytogenetic damage for the population of the village is 0.78±0.07% and corresponds to

  8. The superdeep well of the Kola Peninsula

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kozlovsky, Y.A.

    1986-01-01

    The structure of continental crusts is a subject of ever increasing importance in the geological sciences. Over 15 years ago, Soviet scientist began drilling a superdeep well on the Kola Peninsula near Murmansk. The well has reached a depth of 12 km and is thereby the deepest well in the world, yielding a vast amount of information on the structure of the continental crust. The geological, geophysical and technological data from the Kola well were initially published in a monographic account entitled ''Kol'skaja sverchglubokaja''. This English translation makes the results available to non-Soviet scientists as well.

  9. Thermochronologic constraints on the tectonic evolution of the western Antarctic Peninsula in late Mesozoic and Cenozoic times

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brix, M.R.; Faundez, V.; Hervé, F.; Solari, M.; Fernandez, J.; Carter, A.; Stöckhert, B.

    2007-01-01

    West of the Antarctic Peninsula, oceanic lithosphere of the Phoenix plate has been subducted below the Antarctic plate. Subduction has ceased successively from south to north over the last 65 Myr. An influence of this evolution on the segmentation of the crust in the Antarctic plate is disputed. Opposing scenarios consider effects of ridge crest – trench interactions with the subduction zone or differences in slip along a basal detachment in the overriding plate. Fission track (FT) analyses on apatites and zircons may detect thermochronologic patterns to test these hypotheses. While existing data concentrate on accretionary processes in Palmer Land, new data extend information to the northern part of the Antarctic Peninsula. Zircons from different geological units over wide areas of the Antarctic Peninsula yield fission track ages between 90 and 80 Ma, indicating a uniform regional cooling episode. Apatite FT ages obtained so far show considerable regional variability

  10. Pleistocene leopards in the Iberian Peninsula: New evidence from palaeontological and archaeological contexts in the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchis, Alfred; Tormo, Carmen; Sauqué, Víctor; Sanchis, Vicent; Díaz, Rebeca; Ribera, Agustí; Villaverde, Valentín

    2015-09-01

    This study analyses the fossil record of leopards in the Iberian Peninsula. According to the systematic and morphometric features of new remains, identified mainly in Late Pleistocene palaeontological and archaeological sites of the Mediterranean region, they can be attributed to Panthera pardus Linnaeus 1758. The findings include the most complete leopard skeleton from the Iberian Peninsula and one of the most complete in Europe, found in a chasm (Avenc de Joan Guitón) south of Valencia. The new citations and published data are used to establish the leopard's distribution in the Iberian Peninsula, showing its maximum development during the Late Pleistocene. Some references suggest that the species survived for longer here (Lateglacial-Early Holocene) than in other parts of Europe. Finally, the contexts of appearance and origin of leopard remains are described and the processes of interaction with prehistoric human groups are assessed.

  11. Microsatellite variation in Donax trunculus from the Iberian Peninsula, with particular attention to Galician estuaries (NW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nantón, A.; Arias-Pérez, A.; Freire, R.; Fernández-Pérez, J.; Nóvoa, S.; Méndez, J.

    2017-10-01

    Genetic variation and population structure information is essential for conservation and stock management policies. The wedge clam Donax trunculus is an important fishing resource in the Iberian Peninsula and in some areas, such as the northwestern Spain, wild stocks have decreased greatly. Despite this, information is mainly from the southwestern Atlantic to the northwestern Mediterranean of the Iberian Peninsula. In this study, fifteen microsatellite loci were examined at 17 localities along the Iberian Peninsula to characterize its genetic diversity and population structure. Particular attention was paid to the northwestern Atlantic area, and to test if the pattern previously described for this species is confirmed when localities distributed across the Atlantic coast are included and different microsatellite markers are used. All localities displayed similar allelic richness values and heterozygosity levels but when genetic diversity levels were compared among groups of localities, tests were significant and samples from the northwestern area (Galicia) showed the lowest values. The analysis of population structure indicated that localities from the Atlantic coast are genetically homogeneous although some samples showed significant pairwise Fst values. These values were low and Bayesian analysis of genetic differentiation did not show a consistent structure along the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula. However, Atlantic samples were genetically different from those located in Mediterranean coast, which may be explained by the existence of the Almeria-Oran front. Moreover, Fuengirola, locality situated in the Alboran Sea between the Strait of Gibraltar and Mediterranean Sea, showed significant differences from all remaining localities included in the study. Overall, the data showed the existence of genetic homogeneity along the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula and support the three management units (Atlantic Ocean, the Alboran Sea and the northwestern

  12. Sinai Peninsula, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Sinai Peninsula, located between Africa and Asia, is a result of those two continents pulling apart from each other. Earth's crust is cracking, stretching, and lowering along the two northern branches of the Red Sea, namely the Gulf of Suez, seen here on the west (left), and the Gulf of Aqaba, seen to the east (right). This color-coded shaded relief image shows the triangular nature of the peninsula, with the coast of the Mediterranean Sea forming the northern side of the triangle. The Suez Canal can be seen as the narrow vertical blue line in the upper left connecting the Red Sea to the Mediterranean.

    The peninsula is divided into three distinct parts; the northern region consisting chiefly of sandstone, plains and hills, the central area dominated by the Tih Plateau, and the mountainous southern region where towering peaks abound. Much of the Sinai is deeply dissected by river valleys, or wadis, that eroded during an earlier geologic period and break the surface of the plateau into a series of detached massifs with a few scattered oases.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot

  13. Geological and Petrological Characteristics of Oligocene Magmatic Rocks in The Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erenoglu, Oya

    2016-04-01

    Oligocene magmatic activity in the Biga Peninsula (NW-Anatolia) produced widespread volcano-plutonic complexes. The study region, where in north of the Evciler village in the middle of Biga Peninsula includes these igneous assemblages. In this study, the petrographic and geochemical characteristics of igneous rocks in the region were investigated as well as the geological locations. The magmatic rocks are classified as 6 different units using their lithostratigraphical properties. The volcanism in the region starts with basaltic andesite lava including basalt dykes in the Lower Oligocene. In the Upper Oligocene, the evolved magma by crustal contamination produced commonly dacitic and andesitic lavas. The volcanism continued with andesitic lavas which had significant alterations in the region during this period. Evciler pluton including granite and granodiorite composition with shallow intrusive, was located with the related volcanism at the same time. The volcanic products, i.e. andesitic and trachydacitic lavas, was completed in the interval between Upper Oligocene and Lower Miocene. The post-collisional Oligocene sequence is associated with calc-alkaline composition and it has middle, high-K. Trace and rare earth elements (REE) diagrams show the enrichment in both large-ion lithophile elements (LILE) and light rare earth elements (LREE) with respect to the high field strength elements (HFSE), and a significant increment in heavy rare earth element consumption (HREE). The features of major, trace and rare earth elements of plutonic and volcanic rocks and the compositional variations of Oligocene volcanic group indicate increasing amounts of partial melting, crustal contamination and/or assimilation. The Oligocene post-collisional volcanism in Biga Peninsula points out the lithospheric mantle source enriched by subduction which controlled by slab break-off and lithospheric delamination. Acknowledgement. This study was supported by Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University

  14. Daily precipitation extreme events for the Iberian Peninsula and its association with Atmospheric Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Alexandre M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Liberato, Margarida LR

    2014-05-01

    Extreme precipitation events in the Iberian Peninsula during the extended winter months have major socio-economic impacts such as floods, landslides, extensive property damage and life losses. These events are usually associated with low pressure systems with Atlantic origin, although some extreme events in summer/autumn months can be linked to Mediterranean low pressure systems. Quite often these events are evaluated on a casuistic base and making use of data from relatively few stations. An objective method for ranking daily precipitation events is presented here based on the extensive use of the most comprehensive database of daily gridded precipitation available for the Iberian Peninsula (IB02) and spanning from 1950 to 2008, with a resolution of 0.2° (approximately 16 x 22 km at latitude 40°N), for a total of 1673 pixels. This database is based on a dense network of rain gauges, combining two national data sets, 'Spain02' for peninsular Spain and Balearic islands, and 'PT02' for mainland Portugal, with a total of more than two thousand stations over Spain and four hundred stations over Portugal, all quality-controlled and homogenized. Through this objective method for ranking daily precipitation events the magnitude of an event is obtained after considering the area affected as well as its intensity in every grid point and taking into account the daily precipitation normalised departure from climatology. Different precipitation rankings are presented considering the entire Iberian Peninsula, Portugal and also the six largest river basins in the Iberian Peninsula. Atmospheric Rivers (AR) are the water vapour (WV) core section of the broader warm conveyor belt occurring over the oceans along the warm sector of extra-tropical cyclones. They are usually W-E oriented steered by pre-frontal low level jets along the trailing cold front and subsequently feed the precipitation in the extra-tropical cyclones. They are relatively narrow regions of concentrated WV

  15. The Analysis of Phytoplankton Abundance Using Weibull Distribution (A Case Study in the Coastal Area of East Yapen in the Regency of Yapen Islands, Papua)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indrayani, Ervina; Dimara, Lisiard; Paiki, Kalvin; Reba, Felix

    2018-01-01

    The coastal waters of East Yapen is one of the spawning sites and areas of care for marine biota in Papua. Because of its very open location, it is widely used by human activities such as fishing, residential, industrial and cruise lines. This indirectly affects the balance of coastal waters condition of East Yapen that impact on the existence of…

  16. Impact of acid and trace metals deposition on freshwater invertebrates in north-eastern Fennoscandia and Kola Peninsula

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Yakovlev, V.

    1996-12-31

    Freshwater invertebrate communities in a total 400 lakes and streams in northeastern Norway, Finnish Lapland and the Kola Peninsula, subjected to the atmospheric deposition were studied. The severe influence of toxic heavy metals, dusts from smelters and mineral enrichment factories were found in the Kola Peninsula. The negative acidification effects on benthic communities were found in the Jarfjord (Norway), Enontekio, Ranua-Posio and Kittila-Kolari (Finnish Lapland) areas and in the Kola Peninsula (Russia). Taxa groups, known to be sensitive to acidification, such as gammarids, snails, mayflies, stone flies, were represented with few species and in a low abundance. Heavy metals accumulationmore » in biota is recorded in areas surrounding nickel smelters in the Kola Peninsula. The metal concentration invertebrates in remote areas is rather wide and depend on an air deposition, characteristics of lake catchment areas, as well as water acidity. The environmental variables, such as lake hydrological type, altitude of lakes, dominant substratum type, abundance of macrophytes and mosses in sampling area, content of pollutants in water also show significant relationships with metal concentration in invertebrates. The most severe negative effects on biota were found in waters with low pH and simultaneously contaminated by heavy metals. The biological method for estimation of simultaneously water acidification and contamination is suggested.« less

  17. 48. Photocopy of photograph (from Reflections, Peninsula Transportation District Commission, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Photocopy of photograph (from Reflections, Peninsula Transportation District Commission, 1985. Original three CRT buses in 1928. *FOR Photocopy of photograph (from the Charles H. Taylor Memorial Library), photographer unknown. Trolley car No. 315 shown April 25, 1929 at the Trolley Barn. SEE FIELD NOTES - Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Company, Trolley Barn & Administration Building, 3400 Victoria Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  18. 46. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), (from Alexander Brown's Peninsula's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), (from Alexander Brown's Peninsula's Last Street Cars, Daily Press, January 15, 1956) photographer unknown. The first streetcar (with dignitaries) to make the run from Newport News to a new housing development named Hilton Village in September 1918. - Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Company, Trolley Barn & Administration Building, 3400 Victoria Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  19. Preliminary classification of forest vegetation of the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska.

    Treesearch

    K.M. Reynolds

    1990-01-01

    A total of 5,597 photo points was systematically located on 1:60,000-scale high altitude photographs of the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska; photo interpretation was used to classify the vegetation at each grid position. Of the total grid points, 12.3 percent were classified as timberland; 129 photo points within the timberland class were randomly selected for field survey....

  20. CCR2, CCR5, and CXCL12 variation and HIV/AIDS in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Mehlotra, Rajeev K.; Zikursh, Melinda J. Blood; Stein, Catherine M.; Siba, Peter M.; Zimmerman, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Polymorphisms in chemokine receptors, serving as HIV co-receptors, and their ligands are among the well-known host genetic factors associated with susceptibility to HIV infection and/or disease progression. Papua New Guinea (PNG) has one of the highest adult HIV prevalences in the Asia-Pacific region. However, information regarding the distribution of polymorphisms in chemokine receptor (CCR5, CCR2) and chemokine (CXCL12) genes in PNG is very limited. In this study, we genotyped a total of nine CCR2-CCR5 polymorphisms, including CCR2 190G>A, CCR5 −2459G>A and Δ32, and CXCL12 801G>A in PNG (n = 258), North America (n = 184), and five countries in West Africa (n = 178). Using this data, we determined previously characterized CCR5 haplotypes. In addition, based on the previously reported associations of CCR2 190, CCR5 −2459, CCR5 open reading frame, and CXCL12 801 genotypes with HIV acquisition and/or disease progression, we calculated composite full risk scores, considering both protective as well as susceptibility effects of the CXCL12 801 AA genotype. We observed a very high frequency of the CCR5 −2459A allele (0.98) in the PNG population, which together with the absence of Δ32 resulted in a very high frequency of the HHE haplotype (0.92). These frequencies were significantly higher than in any other population (all P-values < 0.001). Regardless of whether we considered the CXCL12 801 AA genotype protective or susceptible, the risk scores were significantly higher in the PNG population compared with any other population (all P-values < 0.001). The results of this study provide new insights regarding CCR5 variation in the PNG population, and suggest that the collective variation in CCR2, CCR5, and CXCL12 may increase the risk of HIV/AIDS in a large majority of Papua New Guineans. PMID:26397046

  1. Climate Change Scenarios in the Yucatan Peninsula to the year 2020

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orellana, R.; Espadas, C.; Conde, C.; Gay, C.

    2010-03-01

    A topic that has not been sufficiently analyzed is that the global warming is already affecting, and that it will have worst consequences in those regions with transitional climates, which have more sensibility to changes. This is the case of the Yucatan Peninsula which is semi-arid in their northern portion, and toward the south is subhumid, with a tendency to be more rainy toward the south. To have an estimation of what could happen in the future, the Intergovernmental Panel of Climatic Change (IPCC) has promoted the use of General Circulation Models (GCM), as well as the construction of possible emission scenarios that integrate different global and regional socioeconomic and demographic conditions, which project then a possible increase of emissions of greenhouse gases. These conditions are recognized as the decisive forces that will determine the variations of temperature and of precipitation. These projections are useful for the analysis of climatic change, and in particular for the assessments of the possible impacts and of the initiatives of adaptation and of mitigation that should be implemented in every country or region. In Mexico, most of those evaluations of climate change have been carried out generally at country level. For that reason, it is necessary to direct the research at regional level. In this work, we evaluated the potential climatic changes on the Yucatan Peninsula, considering the different changes of temperature and precipitation as a consequence for different emission scenarios and for the horizon 2020. To project the environmental responses of the region, we used as a base scenario the available temperature and precipitation information of the period 1961-1990, registered in 85 meteorological stations of the peninsula. With these data, we generated climate change scenarios using the outputs of four General Circulation Models: HADLEY, ECHAM, GFDL and CGCM, and the emission scenarios A1FI, A2, B1 and B2. The outputs of these models were

  2. The basement of the Mount Athos peninsula, northern Greece: insights from geochemistry and zircon ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himmerkus, F.; Zachariadis, P.; Reischmann, T.; Kostopoulos, D.

    2012-09-01

    The Mount Athos Peninsula is situated in the south-easternmost part of the Chalkidiki Peninsula in northern Greece. It belongs to the Serbo-Macedonian Massif (SMM), a large basement massif within the Internal Hellenides. The south-eastern part of the Mount Athos peninsula is built by fine-grained banded biotite gneisses and migmatites forming a domal structure. The southern tip of the peninsula, which also comprises Mount Athos itself, is built by limestone, marble and low-grade metamorphic rocks of the Chortiatis Unit. The northern part and the majority of the western shore of the Mount Athos peninsula are composed of highly deformed rocks belonging to a tectonic mélange termed the Athos-Volvi-Suture Zone (AVZ), which separates two major basement units: the Vertiskos Terrane in the west and the Kerdillion Unit in the east. The rock-types in this mélange range from metasediments, marbles and gneisses to amphibolites, eclogites and peridotites. The gneisses are tectonic slivers of the adjacent basement complexes. The mélange zone and the gneisses were intruded by granites (Ierissos, Ouranoupolis and Gregoriou). The Ouranoupolis intrusion obscures the contact between the mélange and the gneisses. The granites are only slightly deformed and therefore postdate the accretionary event that assembled the units and created the mélange. Pb-Pb- and U-Pb-SHRIMP-dating of igneous zircons of the gneisses and granites of the eastern Athos peninsula in conjunction with geochemical and isotopic analyses are used to put Athos into the context of a regional tectonic model. The ages form three clusters: The basement age is indicated by two samples that yielded Permo-Carboniferous U-Pb-ages of 292.6 ± 2.9 Ma and 299.4 ± 3.5 Ma. The main magmatic event of the granitoids now forming the gneiss dome is dated by Pb-Pb-ages between 140.0 ± 2.6 Ma and 155.7 ± 5.1 Ma with a mean of 144.7 ± 2.4 Ma. A within-error identical age of 146.6 ± 2.3 Ma was obtained by the U

  3. Mass Balance of the Northern Antarctic Peninsula and its Ongoing Response to Ice Shelf Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scambos, T. A.; Berthier, E.; Haran, T. M.; Shuman, C. A.; Cook, A. J.; Bohlander, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    An assessment of the most rapidly changing areas of the Antarctic Peninsula (north of 66°S) shows that ice mass loss for the region is dominated by areas affected by eastern-Peninsula ice shelf losses in the past 20 years. Little if any of the mass loss is compensated by increased snowfall in the northwestern or far northern areas. We combined satellite stereo-image DEM differencing and ICESat-derived along-track elevation changes to measure ice mass loss for the Antarctic Peninsula north of 66°S between 2001-2010, focusing on the ICESat-1 period of operation (2003-2009). This mapping includes all ice drainages affected by recent ice shelf loss in the northeastern Peninsula (Prince Gustav, Larsen Inlet, Larsen A, and Larsen B) as well as James Ross Island, Vega Island, Anvers Island, Brabant Island and the adjacent west-flowing glaciers. Polaris Glacier (feeding the Larsen Inlet, which collapsed in 1986) is an exception, and may have stabilized. Our method uses ASTER and SPOT-5 stereo-image DEMs to determine dh/dt for elevations below 800 m; at higher elevations ICESat along-track elevation differencing is used. To adjust along-track path offsets between its 2003-2009 campaigns, we use a recent DEM of the Peninsula to establish and correct for cross-track slope (Cook et al., 2012, doi:10.5194/essdd-5-365-2012; http://nsidc.org/data/nsidc-0516.html) . We reduce the effect of possible seasonal variations in elevation by using only integer-year repeats of the ICESat tracks for comparison. Mass losses are dominated by the major glaciers that had flowed into the Prince Gustav (Boydell, Sjorgren, Röhss), Larsen A (Edgeworth, Bombardier, Dinsmoor, Drygalski), and Larsen B (Hektoria, Jorum, and Crane) embayments. The pattern of mass loss emphasizes the significant and multi-decadal response to ice shelf loss. Areas with shelf losses occurring 30 to 100s of years ago seem to be relatively stable or losing mass only slowly (western glaciers, northernmost areas). The

  4. Lower Miocene Stratigraphy along the Panama Canal and Its Bearing on the Central American Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Michael Xavier; Jones, Douglas S.; MacFadden, Bruce J.

    2008-01-01

    Before the formation of the Central American Isthmus, there was a Central American Peninsula. Here we show that southern Central America existed as a peninsula as early as 19 Ma, based on new lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic and strontium chemostratigraphic analyses of the formations exposed along the Gaillard Cut of the Panama Canal. Land mammals found in the Miocene Cucaracha Formation have similar body sizes to conspecific taxa in North America, indicating that there existed a terrestrial connection with North America that allowed gene flow between populations during this time. How long did this peninsula last? The answer hinges on the outcome of a stratigraphic dispute: To wit, is the terrestrial Cucaracha Formation older or younger than the marine La Boca Formation? Previous stratigraphic studies of the Panama Canal Basin have suggested that the Cucaracha Formation lies stratigraphically between the shallow-marine Culebra Formation and the shallow-to-upper-bathyal La Boca Formation, the latter containing the Emperador Limestone. If the La Boca Formation is younger than the Cucaracha Formation, as many think, then the peninsula was short-lived (1–2 m.y.), having been submerged in part by the transgression represented by the overlying La Boca Formation. On the other hand, our data support the view that the La Boca Formation is older than the Cucaracha Formation. Strontium dating shows that the La Boca Formation is older (23.07 to 20.62 Ma) than both the Culebra (19.83–19.12 Ma) and Cucaracha (Hemingfordian to Barstovian North American Land Mammal Ages; 19–14 Ma) formations. The Emperador Limestone is also older (21.24–20.99 Ma) than the Culebra and Cucaracha formations. What has been called the “La Boca Formation” (with the Emperador Limestone), is re-interpreted here as being the lower part of the Culebra Formation. Our new data sets demonstrate that the main axis of the volcanic arc in southern Central America more than likely existed as a

  5. Lower Miocene stratigraphy along the Panama Canal and its bearing on the Central American Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Michael Xavier; Jones, Douglas S; MacFadden, Bruce J

    2008-07-30

    Before the formation of the Central American Isthmus, there was a Central American Peninsula. Here we show that southern Central America existed as a peninsula as early as 19 Ma, based on new lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic and strontium chemostratigraphic analyses of the formations exposed along the Gaillard Cut of the Panama Canal. Land mammals found in the Miocene Cucaracha Formation have similar body sizes to conspecific taxa in North America, indicating that there existed a terrestrial connection with North America that allowed gene flow between populations during this time. How long did this peninsula last? The answer hinges on the outcome of a stratigraphic dispute: To wit, is the terrestrial Cucaracha Formation older or younger than the marine La Boca Formation? Previous stratigraphic studies of the Panama Canal Basin have suggested that the Cucaracha Formation lies stratigraphically between the shallow-marine Culebra Formation and the shallow-to-upper-bathyal La Boca Formation, the latter containing the Emperador Limestone. If the La Boca Formation is younger than the Cucaracha Formation, as many think, then the peninsula was short-lived (1-2 m.y.), having been submerged in part by the transgression represented by the overlying La Boca Formation. On the other hand, our data support the view that the La Boca Formation is older than the Cucaracha Formation. Strontium dating shows that the La Boca Formation is older (23.07 to 20.62 Ma) than both the Culebra (19.83-19.12 Ma) and Cucaracha (Hemingfordian to Barstovian North American Land Mammal Ages; 19-14 Ma) formations. The Emperador Limestone is also older (21.24-20.99 Ma) than the Culebra and Cucaracha formations. What has been called the "La Boca Formation" (with the Emperador Limestone), is re-interpreted here as being the lower part of the Culebra Formation. Our new data sets demonstrate that the main axis of the volcanic arc in southern Central America more than likely existed as a peninsula

  6. International Field Research with Undergraduate Students: Investigating Active Tectonics of the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J. S.; Gardner, T. W.; Protti, M.

    2005-12-01

    Over the past eight years, 18 undergraduate students from 12 U.S. and Costa Rican universities and colleges have participated in field research projects investigating coastal tectonics on the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica. These projects have been organized around two different models: 1) a month-long "field camp" with 10 students and 5 project faculty (Keck Geology Consortium Project, 1998), and 2) several two-week field projects with 1-3 students and one faculty advisor (Cal Poly Pomona University and Trinity University). Under the direction of the authors, each of these projects has been carefully designed to provide a new piece to a larger research puzzle. The Nicoya Peninsula lies along Costa Rica's northern Pacific coast inboard of the Middle America Trench where the Cocos and Caribbean plates converge at 10 cm/yr. In 1950, the peninsula was shaken by a ~M 7.7 subduction earthquake that produced widespread damage and 0.5-1.0 m of coseismic coastal uplift. With a large slip deficit since 1950, the Nicoya Peninsula is viewed as a high-potential seismic gap. Field study of uplifted Quaternary marine terraces along the Nicoya coastline provides undergraduate students with a unique opportunity to examine rapid forearc deformation related to large subduction earthquakes. The field research conducted by each of these students provides the basis for a senior thesis at their home institution. In most cases, the students have focused their individual work on separate, but adjacent field areas. Collectively, each of these projects has generated significant data that contribute toward of an ongoing investigation of fore arc tectonics and subduction cycle earthquakes along the Costa Rican Pacific margin.

  7. Effect of aerosol feedback in the Korea Peninsula using WRF-CMAQ two-way coupled model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, J.; Jeon, W.; Lee, H.; Lee, S.

    2017-12-01

    Aerosols influence the climate system by scattering and absorption of the solar radiation by altering the cloud radiative properties. For the reason, consideration of aerosol feedback is important numerical weather prediction and air quality models. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aerosol feedback on PM10 simulation in Korean Peninsula using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and the community multiscale air quality (CMAQ) two-way coupled model. Simulations were conducted with the aerosol feedback (FB) and without (NFB). The results of the simulated solar radiation in the west part of Korea decreased due to the aerosol feedback effect. The feedback effect was significant in the west part of Korea Peninsula, showing high Particulate Matter (PM) estimates due to dense emissions and its long-range transport from China. The decrease of solar radiation lead to planetary boundary layer (PBL) height reduction, thereby dispersion of air pollutants such as PM is suppressed, and resulted in higher PM concentrations. These results indicate that aerosol feedback effects can play an important role in the simulation of meteorology and air quality over Korea Peninsula.

  8. Evaluation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) alone as a first-line thyroid function test (TFT) in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Kende, M; Kandapu, S

    2002-01-01

    In the Port Moresby General Hospital, the Chemical Pathology Department assays both thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) on all requests for a thyroid function test (TFT). The cost of assaying both tests is obviously higher than either test alone. In order to minimize the cost of a TFT we aimed to determine if TSH or FT4 alone as a first-line test would be adequate in assessing the thyroid hormone status of patients. We analyzed TFT records from January 1996 to May 2000 in the Port Moresby General Hospital. A total of 3089 TSH and 2867 FT4 were assayed at an annual reagent cost of Papua New Guinea kina 14,500. When TSH alone is used as a first-line test at the Port Moresby General Hospital, the biochemical status of 95% of patients will be appropriately categorized as euthyroidism, hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism with only 5% discrepant (ie, normal TSH with abnormal FT4) results. In contrast, using FT4 alone as a first-line test correctly classifies only 84% of TFTs. Euthyroid status is observed in 50% of patients and FT4 assays on these samples will be excluded appropriately if a TSH-only protocol is adopted. Furthermore, we will save a quarter of the yearly cost of TFTs on reagents alone by performing TSH only. We conclude that TSH alone is an adequate first-line thyroid function test in Papua New Guinea and when it is normal no further FT4 test is necessary unless clinically indicated.

  9. Health impact assessments of malaria and Ross River virus infection in the Southern Highlands Province of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Hii, J; Dyke, T; Dagoro, H; Sanders, R C

    1997-03-01

    Malaria at an elevation of 1050 metres is common and highly endemic in the Tagari Valley in the Southern Highlands of Papua New Guinea. Health impact assessments showed that the risks of malaria and epidemic polyarthritis at a gasfield development project in this area were high. Baseline malariometric surveys were conducted in four villages in June and August 1990 and two follow-up surveys (May and December 1991) were made in the village of Nogolitogo near the gasfield pioneer base camp. A total of 941 blood smears were examined. Average malaria prevalence rates decreased with altitude from 56% (at 1050 m) to 9% (at 1700 m) for children 1-9 years of age and from 45% (at 1050 m) to 8% (at 1550 m) for those aged 10 years or more. The spleen rate for children less than 10 years old did not vary significantly with altitude, but average enlarged spleen for all ages decreased with altitude. Mean packed cell volume increased with altitude. Plasmodium falciparum was the most common malaria parasite found and Anopheles punctulatus the predominant vector. Ross River arbovirus (RRV) antibody prevalence was 59%. These results indicate frequent or constant transmission of malaria and pathogenic arboviruses. Entomological and epidemiological data suggested that the vulnerability of the valley community, the receptivity of the environment and the health hazards from malaria and RRV were high. Nonimmune Papua New Guineans and expatriate employees face high health hazards; therefore effective preventive measures are required to mitigate epidemics and avoid the likely heightened transmission of malaria and arboviruses caused by the development project.

  10. Persistence as the path from motivation to performance in the Papua New Guinea health sector.

    PubMed

    Elich, Luke

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers how the individual capacity states of motivation, confidence, skill and ability relate to performance, and identifies a crucial role for the discretionary behaviour of individuals: specifically, employee persistence and innovation. The study Understanding the people and performance link: unlocking the black box undertaken by Purcell and colleagues is relied upon in constructing a theoretical framework for the conceptual interrelationships between performance and the human-resource-mediating variables, which is then applied within the Papua New Guinea (PNG) health sector context. The study by Purcell and colleagues, which was informed by organizations with well-developed and functioning human resource policies and practices, is distinguished from the PNG health sector, where human resource frameworks are largely ineffective--yet it is determined that the importance of 'discretionary behaviour' relative to performance, whilst varied, is undiminished.

  11. Views on the philosophy of science among undergraduate science students and their tutors at the University of Papua New Guinea: origins, progression, enculturation and destinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kichawen, Pongie; Swain, Julian; Monk, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Using a schedule originated by Nott and Wellington to explore science teachers' views on the philosophy of science, data were gathered at the University of Papua New Guinea. Similarities in response were established for successive first year intakes of science undergraduates (1999-2000). Students with experience in national high schools or Australian high schools responded more positively than their provincial secondary school trained peers to items indicating that the findings of scientific enquiry were universally true. A cross-sectional analysis showed the undergraduates in the third and fourth years to be more process orientated than the first or second years. Both the first and second years were different in their views compared with their tutors in the relativism-positivism scale, where they were more positivist, the contextualism-decontextualism scale, where they were less decontextualist, and the process-content scale where they were considerably less process orientated. Those with a preferred career destination of medicine were slightly more decontextualist in outlook while being marginally realist, those with a preferred physical science career being very weakly instrumentalist. The results can be interpreted in terms of respondents' experiences in secondary schooling and on programmes at the University of Papua New Guinea.

  12. Evaluation Of Water Quality At River Bian In Merauke Papua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djaja, Irba; Purwanto, P.; Sunoko, H. R.

    2018-02-01

    River Bian in Merauke Regency has been utilized by local people in Papua (the Marind) who live along the river for fulfilling their daily needs, such as shower, cloth and dish washing, and even defecation, waste disposal, including domestic waste, as well as for ceremonial activities related to the locally traditional culture. Change in land use for other necessities and domestic activities of the local people have mounted pressures on the status of the River Bian, thus decreasing the quality of the river. This study had objectives to find out and to analyze river water quality and water quality status of the River Bian, and its compliance with water quality standards for ideal use. The study determined sample point by a purposive sampling method, taking the water samples with a grab method. The analysis of the water quality was performed by standard and pollution index methods. The study revealed that the water quality of River Bian, concerning BOD, at the station 3 had exceeded quality threshold. COD parameter for all stations had exceeded the quality threshold for class III. At three stations, there was a decreasing value due to increasing PI, as found at the stations 1, 2, and 3. In other words, River Bian had been lightly contaminated.

  13. A new glacier inventory for 2009 reveals spatial and temporal variability in glacier response to atmospheric warming in the Northern Antarctic Peninsula, 1988-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, B. J.; Carrivick, J. L.; Glasser, N. F.; Hambrey, M. J.; Smellie, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    The Northern Antarctic Peninsula has recently exhibited ice-shelf disintegration, glacier recession and acceleration. However, the dynamic response of land-terminating, ice-shelf tributary and tidewater glaciers has not yet been quantified or assessed for variability, and there are sparse published data for glacier classification, morphology, area, length or altitude. This paper firstly uses ASTER images from 2009 and a SPIRIT DEM from 2006 to classify the area, length, altitude, slope, aspect, geomorphology, type and hypsometry of 194 glaciers on Trinity Peninsula, Vega Island and James Ross Island. Secondly, this paper uses LANDSAT-4 and ASTER images from 1988 and 2001 and data from the Antarctic Digital Database (ADD) from 1997 to document glacier change 1988-2009. From 1988-2001, 90 % of glaciers receded, and from 2001-2009, 79 % receded. Glaciers on the western side of Trinity Peninsula retreated relatively little. On the eastern side of Trinity Peninsula, the rate of recession of ice-shelf tributary glaciers has slowed from 12.9 km2 a-1 (1988-2001) to 2.4 km2 a-1 (2001-2009). Tidewater glaciers on the drier, cooler Eastern Trinity Peninsula experienced fastest recession from 1988-2001, with limited frontal retreat after 2001. Land-terminating glaciers on James Ross Island also retreated fastest in the period 1988-2001. Large tidewater glaciers on James Ross Island are now declining in areal extent at rates of up to 0.04 km2 a-1. This east-west difference is largely a result of orographic temperature and precipitation gradients across the Antarctic Peninsula. Strong variability in tidewater glacier recession rates may result from the influence of glacier length, altitude, slope and hypsometry on glacier mass balance. High snowfall means that the glaciers on the Western Peninsula are not currently rapidly receding. Recession rates on the eastern side of Trinity Peninsula are slowing as the floating ice tongues retreat into the fjords and the glaciers reach a

  14. The use of normalized climatological anomalies to rank precipitation events in the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Alexandre M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Liberato, Margarida L. R.

    2013-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events in the Iberian Peninsula during winter months have major socio-economic impacts such as flooding, landslides, extensive property damage and life losses, and are usually associated to deep low pressure systems with Atlantic origin, although some extreme events in summer/autumn months are fed by the Mediterranean. Quite often these events are evaluated on a casuistic base and with relatively few stations. An objective method for ranking daily precipitation events is presented based on the extensive use of the most comprehensive database of daily precipitation available for the Iberian Peninsula (IB02) and spanning from 1950 to 2003, with a resolution of 0.2° (approximately 16 x 22 km at latitude 40°N), for a total of 1673 pixels. This database is based on a dense network of rain gauges, combining two national data sets, 'Spain02' for peninsular Spain and Balearic islands (Herrera et al., 2012), and 'PT02' for mainland Portugal (Belo-Pereira et al., 2011), with a total of more than two thousand stations over Spain and four hundred stations over Portugal, all quality-controlled and homogenized. The daily precipitation data from 1950 to 2003 are compared with a 30-year (1961-90) precipitation climatology to achieve a daily normalized departure from the climatology. The magnitude of an event is given daily by an index that is obtained after multiplying 1) the area (in percentage) that has precipitation anomalies above two standard deviations by 2) the mean values of these anomalies over this area. With this criterion we are able to evaluate not only the spatial extent of the precipitation events but also their spatially integrated intensity. In addition, to stress out the hydrological responses to precipitation, rankings taking into account the sum of the normalized anomalies over different time periods (3 days, 5 days and 10 days) were also computed. Here different precipitation rankings will be presented considering the entire Iberian

  15. Melt production and mantle refertilisation above a subduction zone: Direct constraints from Antarctic Peninsula spinel-peridotite xenoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, L. C.; Gibson, S. A.; Leat, P. T.

    2010-12-01

    Spinel peridotites and pyroxenites from the Antarctic Peninsula provide rare, direct evidence of mantle processes operating during and after a major subduction event. The Antarctic Peninsula consists of a series of suspect arc terranes accreted onto the Gondwana margin. Subduction occured off the west coast and lasted for 200Ma before ceasing after a series of ridge-trench collisions, which began at ~50Ma in the south of the peninsula and ended at ~4Ma in the north. The end of subduction was followed by extensive alkaline volcanism which hosts mantle xenoliths at several localities. The widest variety of peridotites and pyroxenites so far collected occur in ~ 5Ma basanites and tephrites on Alexander Island and Rothschild Island, in the southern fore-arc. Mineral textures and chemistry suggest that the constituent phases are in equilibrium in the xenoliths and can be used to estimate pressures and temperatures. The results of these calculations indicate that, at the time of xenolith entrainment, the Antarctic Peninsula had a normal, unperturbed mantle geotherm and a lithospheric thickness of ~70km. The Alexander and Rothschild Island xenolith suites show an almost continuous range of compositions from harzburgites and lherzolites to pyroxenites. This wide variation in lithologies is confirmed by large ranges in mineral chemistry. For example, olivine compositions range from Fo77 to Fo91 while Al2O3 contents of orthopyroxenes range from 0.17 to 5.84%. Some clinopyroxenes have low LREE/MREE ratios ([La/Sm]n=0.01) whereas others are enriched in LREE relative to MREE ([La/Sm]n=8.56). The ‘depleted’ xenoliths resemble abyssal peridotites and may represent either (i) accreted sub-oceanic lithosphere or (ii) residues of melting in the underlying mantle wedge that have been incorporated in to the base of the Antarctic Peninsula lithosphere post subduction. The ‘enriched’ peridotites and pyroxenites appear to have formed as a result of mantle

  16. Earthquake Swarm in Armutlu Peninsula, Eastern Marmara Region, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavuz, Evrim; Çaka, Deniz; Tunç, Berna; Serkan Irmak, T.; Woith, Heiko; Cesca, Simone; Lühr, Birger-Gottfried; Barış, Şerif

    2015-04-01

    The most active fault system of Turkey is North Anatolian Fault Zone and caused two large earthquakes in 1999. These two earthquakes affected the eastern Marmara region destructively. Unbroken part of the North Anatolian Fault Zone crosses north of Armutlu Peninsula on east-west direction. This branch has been also located quite close to Istanbul known as a megacity with its high population, economic and social aspects. A new cluster of microseismic activity occurred in the direct vicinity southeastern of the Yalova Termal area. Activity started on August 2, 2014 with a series of micro events, and then on August 3, 2014 a local magnitude is 4.1 event occurred, more than 1000 in the followed until August 31, 2014. Thus we call this tentatively a swarm-like activity. Therefore, investigation of the micro-earthquake activity of the Armutlu Peninsula has become important to understand the relationship between the occurrence of micro-earthquakes and the tectonic structure of the region. For these reasons, Armutlu Network (ARNET), installed end of 2005 and equipped with currently 27 active seismic stations operating by Kocaeli University Earth and Space Sciences Research Center (ESSRC) and Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ), is a very dense network tool able to record even micro-earthquakes in this region. In the 30 days period of August 02 to 31, 2014 Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) announced 120 local earthquakes ranging magnitudes between 0.7 and 4.1, but ARNET provided more than 1000 earthquakes for analyzes at the same time period. In this study, earthquakes of the swarm area and vicinity regions determined by ARNET were investigated. The focal mechanism of the August 03, 2014 22:22:42 (GMT) earthquake with local magnitude (Ml) 4.0 is obtained by the moment tensor solution. According to the solution, it discriminates a normal faulting with dextral component. The obtained focal mechanism solution is

  17. Historic anthropogenically maintained bear grass savannas of the southeastern Olympic Peninsula.

    Treesearch

    D.H. Peter; D. Shebitz

    2006-01-01

    A little-known fire-maintained anthropogenic ecosystem in the southeastern Olympic Peninsula of Washington is documented. Owing to cessation of burning, most of these areas have succeeded to forest. We present cultural, historical, and ecological data to describe the structure and function of this ecosystem. We believe that native peoples maintained this system for the...

  18. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in lichen and moss samples from the Antarctic Peninsula

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bacci, E.; Calamari, D.; Gaggi, C.

    1986-01-01

    The concentrations of some chlorinated hydrocarbon residues (HCB, HCH isomers, p,p'DDT and DDE, PCB cogeners) in lichen and moss samples from the Antarctic Peninsula are reported and compared with available data from other parts of the world. The use of these materials as indicators of tropospheric contamination levels in Antarctica is discussed.

  19. Geophysical study of a magma chamber near Mussau Island, Papua New Guinea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dadisman, Shawn V.; Marlow, M. S.

    1988-01-01

    Analysis of a 24-channel seismic-reflection data collected near Mussau Island, Papua New Guinea, shows a high-amplitude, negative-polarity reflection that we believe is from the top of a magma chamber.  The reflecting horizon lies at a depth of about 4.4 s subbottom and can be traced laterally for 2.6 km.  On shot gathers, the reflection demonstrates normal moveout appropriate for an in-place event.  The frequency spectrum of the reflection shows a decrease in high-frequency content when compared to the sea floor reflection, as would be expected for a deep subsurface event.  The polarity of the reflection event is negative, suggesting that the reflection horizon is the top of a low-velocity zone.  Magnetic data indicate that the ridge containing the reflecting horizon is magnetic, and the geology of Massau Island suggests that the ridge is volcanic in its origin.  We speculate that the high-amplitude reflection is from the top of a magma chamber some 7-11 km deep.

  20. Search for an astronomical site on the Arabian Peninsula: meteorological and climatological analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultan, A. H.; Graham, E.

    The Arabian Peninsula is the richest in oil but the poorest in A A -Astronomy and Astrophysics- the largest telescope in the region doesn t exceed 45cm To promote A A education and research we propose that all the countries of the region work together to install an optical regional observatory telescope diameter 2 meters on an accessible summit somewhere within the mountains of the Arabian Peninsula The first step is to make a climatological and meteorological study of the highest summits of the region A preliminary study has revealed only one mountain peak above 3000 meters in Saudi Arabia one in Oman but more than thirty in Yemen Of all these summits we have narrowed the selection to six candidate sites on which we are performing detailed meteorological and climatological analyses Our database is composed mainly of Reanalysis datasets from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting ECMWF and the National Center for Environmental Protection National Center for Atmospheric Research NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis datasets are reconstructions of all available past weather station data aeroplane sensor data weather balloon data weather ship data and satellite data from the 1950s onwards using sophisticated numerical weather prediction and data assimilation models This paper discusses ECMWF and NCEP-NCAR images of Arabian Peninsula for the following parameters at a monthly mean temporal resolution begin enumerate item Temperature variability at 700hPa item Precipitation item Geopotential height of the

  1. Gulf Cooperation Council: Arabian Gulf Cooperation Continues Defense Forces (Peninsula Shield Force)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-23

    Lieutenant Colonel Rhett Champagne , USAF, “The Case for a Gulf Cooperation Council Peninsula Shield Force,” The FAOA Journal of International Affairs...Anthony J. Mastalir USAF, Lieutenant Colonel Jim Keating USA, and Lieutenant Colonel Rhett Champagne , USAF. “The Case for a Gulf Cooperation Council

  2. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) in Papua New Guinea: a high incidence in young children.

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, K. M.; Sanders, R. C.; Rongap, A.; Rongap, T.; Pinai, S.; Alpers, M. P.

    1992-01-01

    Eighty-seven cases of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) were diagnosed from September 1988 to April 1991 in Papua New Guinea (PNG), by demonstration of high-titre measles-specific antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). For 1990 the annual incidence of SSPE, for the study provinces, was calculated to be 56 cases per million under 20 years of age and it is expected that this figure will be higher in 1991. The mean age of presentation was 4.9 years, with a male to female ratio of 1.8:1. An elevation in the ratio of immunoglobulin G as a percentage of total protein in CSF and an increase in the CSF:serum immunoglobulin G ratio was shown in SSPE patients. The dramatic appearance and high frequency of the disease in PNG might relate to the early age of measles infection encountered in children in this country. PMID:1601084

  3. Reproduction on cut-over swamplands in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan

    Treesearch

    Z.A. Zasada

    1952-01-01

    The 1 ¼ million acres of coniferous swamp forest in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan are important to industry, game management and water conservation. Because there was little knowledge on handling this type, foresters in 1950 began a program of research in swamp forest management. The first project was a survey of recent swamp cuttings. The survey shows that...

  4. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the Arabian Peninsula and Zagros Fold Belt, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pitman, Janet K.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 86 billion barrels of oil and 336 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas resources in the Arabian Peninsula and Zagros Fold Belt. The USGS assessed the potential for undiscovered conventional oil and gas accumulations within the Arabian Peninsula and Zagros Fold Belt as part of the USGS World Petroleum Resources Project. Twenty-three assessment units within seven petroleum systems were quantitatively assessed in this study, which represents a reassessment of this area last published in 2000.

  5. Isolated intermediate-depth seismicity north of the Izu peninsula, Japan: implications for subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Junichi

    2018-01-01

    The subduction of the Philippine Sea (PHS) Plate toward the north of Izu peninsula, Japan, is of great interest because intraslab seismicity is absent where the buoyant Izu volcanic arc has been subducting over the past 15 Myr. This study analyzes 42 earthquakes in an isolated seismic cluster that occurred 100 km north of Izu peninsula at depths of 40-90 km and discusses seismogenesis in the context of plate subduction. We picked P- and S-wave arrival times of earthquakes to produce a complete hypocenter catalogue, carried out double-difference event relocations, and then determined focal mechanism solutions of 7 earthquakes from P-wave polarity data. Based on the focal mechanism solution, the largest earthquake (M3.1) is interpreted as a thrust earthquake along the upper surface of the PHS Plate. Locations of other earthquakes relative to the largest event suggest that most earthquakes occur within the subducting PHS Plate. Our results suggest that the PHS Plate north of Izu peninsula has temperatures low enough to facilitate thrust and intraslab earthquakes at depths of 60-90 km. Earthquakes are likely to occur where pore pressures are locally high, which weakens pre-existing faults. The presence of the intermediate-depth seismic cluster indicates the continuous subduction of the PHS Plate toward the north of Izu peninsula without any disruption.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Extreme precipitation events in the Iberian Peninsula and its association with Atmospheric Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Alexandre M.; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2015-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events in the Iberian Peninsula during the winter half of the year have major socio-economic impacts associated with floods, landslides, extensive property damage and life losses. In recent years, a number of works have shed new light on the role played by Atmospheric Rivers (ARs) in the occurrence of extreme precipitation events in both Europe and USA. ARs are relatively narrow regions of concentrated WV responsible for horizontal transport in the lower atmosphere corresponding to the core section of the broader warm conveyor belt occurring over the oceans along the warm sector of extra-tropical cyclones. Over the North Atlantic ARs are usually W-E oriented steered by pre-frontal low level jets along the trailing cold front and subsequently feed the precipitation in the extra-tropical cyclones. It was shown that more than 90% of the meridional WV transport in the mid-latitudes occurs in the AR, although they cover less than 10% of the area of the globe. The large amount of WV that is transported can lead to heavy precipitation and floods. An automated ARs detection algorithm is used for the North Atlantic Ocean Basin allowing the identification and a comprehensive characterization of the major AR events that affected the Iberian Peninsula over the 1948-2012 period. The extreme precipitation days in the Iberian Peninsula were assessed recently by us (Ramos et al., 2014) and their association (or not) with the occurrence of AR is analyzed in detail here. The extreme precipitation days are ranked by their magnitude and are obtained after considering 1) the area affected and 2) the precipitation intensity. Different rankings are presented for the entire Iberian Peninsula, Portugal and also for the six largest Iberian river basins (Minho, Duero, Tagus, Guadiana, Guadalquivir and Ebro) covering the 1950-2008 period (Ramos et al., 2014). Results show that the association between ARs and extreme precipitation days in the western domains (Portugal

  7. Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Bioaccumulation in Fish: A Look at Michigan's Upper Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokol, E. C.; Urban, N. R.; Perlinger, J. A.; Khan, T.; Friedman, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    Fish consumption is an important economic, social and cultural component of Michigan's UpperPeninsula, where safe fish consumption is threatened due to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)contamination. Despite its predominantly rural nature, the Upper Peninsula has a history of industrialPCB use. PCB congener concentrations in fish vary 50-fold in Upper Peninsula lakes. Several factors maycontribute to this high variability including local point sources, unique watershed and lakecharacteristics, and food web structure. It was hypothesized that the variability in congener distributionscould be used to identify factors controlling concentrations in fish, and then to use those factors topredict PCB contamination in fish from lakes that had not been monitored. Watershed and lakecharacteristics were acquired from several databases for 16 lakes sampled in the State's fishcontaminant survey. Species congener distributions were compared using Principal Component Analysis(PCA) to distinguish between lakes with local vs. regional, atmospheric sources; six lakes were predictedto have local sources and half of those have confirmed local PCB use. For lakes without local PCBsources, PCA indicated that lake size was the primary factor influencing PCB concentrations. The EPA'sbioaccumulation model, BASS, was used to predict PCB contamination in lakes without local sources as afunction of food web characteristics. The model was used to evaluate the hypothesis that deep,oligotrophic lakes have longer food webs and higher PCB concentrations in top predator fish. Based onthese findings, we will develop a mechanistic watershed-lake model to predict PCB concentrations infish as a function of atmospheric PCB concentrations, lake size, and trophic state. Future atmosphericconcentrations, predicted by modeling potential primary and secondary emission scenarios, will be usedto predict the time horizon for safe fish consumption.

  8. Crustal Structure of Southern Baja California Peninsula, Mexico, and its Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, A.; Robles-Vazquez, L. N.; Requena-Gonzalez, N. A.; Fletcher, J.; Lizarralde, D.; Kent, G.; Harding, A.; Holbrook, S.; Umhoefer, P.; Axen, G.

    2007-05-01

    Data from 6 deep 2D multichannel seismic (MCS) lines, 1 wide-angle seismic transect and gravity were used to investigate the crustal structure and stratigraphy of the southern Baja California peninsula and its margins. An array of air guns was used as seismic source shooting each 50 m. Each signal was recorded during 16 s by a 6 km long streamer with 480 channels and a spacing of 12.5 m. Seismic waves were also recorded by Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) in the Pacific and the Gulf of California and by portable seismic instruments onshore southern Baja California. MCS data were conventionally processed, to obtain post-stack time-migrated seismic sections. We used a direct method for the interpretation of the wide-angle data, including ray tracing and travel times calculation. In addition to the gravity data recorded onboard, satellite and land public domain data were also used in the gravity modeling. The combined MCS, wide-angle and gravity transect between the Magdalena microplate to the center of Farallon basin in the Gulf of California, crossing the southern Baja California Peninsula to the north of La Paz, allows to verify the existence of the Magdalena microplate under Baja California. We have also confirmed an extensional component of the Tosco-Abreojos fault zone and we have calculated crustal thicknesses. We have also observed the continuation to the south of the Santa Margarita detachment. The MCS seismic sections show a number of fault scarps, submarine canyons and grabens and horsts associated to normal faults offshore southern Baja California peninsula. The normal displacement observed in the Tosco-Abreojos fault zone and some basins in the continental platform, as well as the presence of faulted acoustic basement blocks, evidence that not all extension was accommodated by the Gulf Extensional Province during the middle to late Miocene. Part of the extension was (and is) accommodated in the Baja California Pacific margin. This confirms the observations

  9. Basement structure based on gravity anomaly in the northern Noto peninsula, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizubayashi, T.; Sawada, A.; Hamada, M.; Hiramatsu, Y.; Honda, R.

    2012-12-01

    Upper crustal block structures are usually defined by using surface information, such as geological and morphological data. The northern Noto Peninsula, central Japan, is divided into four geological block structures from tectonic geomorphologic perspectives (Ota and Hirakawa, 1979). This division is based on the surface crustal movement. To image the geological blocks three-dimensionally, it is necessary to construct a subsurface structure model. Gravity survey can clarify the detailed subsurface structure with dense gravity measurement. From the detailed Bouguer anomalies in the northwestern Noto Peninsula, Honda et al. (2008) suggested that the rupture size of the 2007 Noto Hanto earthquake was constrained by the geological block structures. Hiramatsu et al. (2008) also suggested the active faults on the seafloor, such as the source fault of the 2007 Noto Hanto earthquake plays a major role for the formation of the geological block structures. In this study, we analyze subsurface density structure based on the Bouguer anomaly and estimate the distribution of basement depth in the northern Noto Peninsula. We focus the relationship among the basement depth, the block structures and the active faults on the seafloor and discuss the block movement in the northern Noto Peninsula. We compiled the data measured and published previously (Gravity Database of Southwest Japan, 2001; Geological survey of Japan, 2004; Geographical survey institute of Japan, 2006; The Gravity Research Group in Southwest Japan, 2001; Komazawa and Okuma, 2010; Hokuriku electric power Co. Ltd., undisclosed) and calculated Bouguer anomaly in the northern Noto Peninsula. Based on this Bouguer anomaly, we analyzed subsurface density structures along 13 northeastern-southwestern profiles and 35 northwestern-southeastern profiles with the interval of 2 km using the two dimensional Talwani's method (Talwani et al., 1959). In the analysis, we assumed a density structure with four layers: basement

  10. Impacts of the north and tropical Atlantic Ocean on the Antarctic Peninsula and sea ice.

    PubMed

    Li, Xichen; Holland, David M; Gerber, Edwin P; Yoo, Changhyun

    2014-01-23

    In recent decades, Antarctica has experienced pronounced climate changes. The Antarctic Peninsula exhibited the strongest warming of any region on the planet, causing rapid changes in land ice. Additionally, in contrast to the sea-ice decline over the Arctic, Antarctic sea ice has not declined, but has instead undergone a perplexing redistribution. Antarctic climate is influenced by, among other factors, changes in radiative forcing and remote Pacific climate variability, but none explains the observed Antarctic Peninsula warming or the sea-ice redistribution in austral winter. However, in the north and tropical Atlantic Ocean, the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (a leading mode of sea surface temperature variability) has been overlooked in this context. Here we show that sea surface warming related to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation reduces the surface pressure in the Amundsen Sea and contributes to the observed dipole-like sea-ice redistribution between the Ross and Amundsen-Bellingshausen-Weddell seas and to the Antarctic Peninsula warming. Support for these findings comes from analysis of observational and reanalysis data, and independently from both comprehensive and idealized atmospheric model simulations. We suggest that the north and tropical Atlantic is important for projections of future climate change in Antarctica, and has the potential to affect the global thermohaline circulation and sea-level change.

  11. The ambient stress field in the continental margin around the Korean Peninsula and Japanese islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Hong, T. K.; Chang, C.

    2016-12-01

    The ambient stress field is mainly influenced by regional tectonics. The stress field composition is crucial information for seismic hazard assessment. The Korean Peninsula, Japanese Islands and East Sea comprise the eastern margin of the Eurasian plate. The regions are surrounded by the Okhotsk, Pacific, and Philippine Sea plates. We investigate the regional stress field around the Korean Peninsula and Japanese islands using the focal mechanism solutions of regional earthquakes. Complex lateral and vertical variations of regional crustal stress fields are observed around a continental margin. The dominant compression directions are ENE-WSW around the Korean Peninsula and eastern China, E-W in the central East Sea and northern and southern Japan, NW-SE in the central Japan, and N-S around the northern Nankai trough. The horizontal compression directions are observed to be different by fault type, suggesting structure-dependent stress field distortion. The regional stress field change by depth and location, suggesting that the compression and tension stress may alternate in local region. The stress field and structures affect mutually, causing stress field distortion and reactivation of paleo-structures. These observation may be useful for understanding of local stress-field perturbation for seismic hazard mitigation of the region.

  12. Distribution of phthalate esters in agricultural soil with plastic film mulching in Shandong Peninsula, East China.

    PubMed

    Li, Kankan; Ma, Dong; Wu, Juan; Chai, Chao; Shi, Yanxi

    2016-12-01

    The content of phthalate esters (PAEs) was investigated in 36 vegetable fields with plastic film mulching in Shandong Peninsula, East China. Soils at depths of 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, and 20-40 cm were collected, and 16 PAEs were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PAEs were detected in all the analyzed samples. The total contents of the 16 PAEs (Σ 16 PAEs) ranged from 1.374 to 18.810 mg/kg, with an average of 6.470 mg/kg. Among the four areas of Shandong Peninsula, including Qingdao, Weihai, Weifang, and Yantai, the highest Σ 16 PAE in the soil was observed in Weifang district (9.786 mg/kg), which is famous for large-scale vegetable production. Despite the significant differences among the Σ 16 PAEs, the PAE compositions in soils with plastic film mulching in Shandong Peninsula were comparable. Diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate, and di(4-methyl-2-pentyl) phthalate were present in all the samples, whereas di-n-hexyl phthalate was detected only in Qingdao (∼1%) and dicyclohexyl phthalate was observed only in Weifang (5.7-8.2%) in low proportions. The ratios of dimethyl phthalate, DEP, and di-n-butyl phthalate, which exceeded allowable concentrations, were 63.9-100% at different soil depths, indicating high PAE pollution. The concentration of butyl benzyl phthalate detected only in Weifang exceeded the recommended allowable soil concentration. Overall, the high PAE content in the soil with plastic film mulching in Shandong Peninsula is an issue of concern because of the large amounts of plastic film used. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the East Sepik province of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Koch, Michael; Kehop, Dickson Andrew; Kinminja, Boniface; Sabak, Malcolm; Wavimbukie, Graham; Barrows, Katherine M; Matainaho, Teatulohi K; Barrows, Louis R; Rai, Prem P

    2015-11-14

    Rapid modernization in the East Sepik (ES) Province of Papua New Guinea (PNG) is resulting in a decrease in individuals knowledgeable in medicinal plant use. Here we report a synthesis and comparison of traditional medicinal plant use from four ethnically distinct locations in the ES Province and furthermore compare them to two other previous reports of traditional plant use from different provinces of PNG. This manuscript is based on an annotated combination of four Traditional Medicines (TM) survey reports generated by University of Papua New Guinea (UPNG) trainees. The surveys utilized a questionnaire titled "Information sheet on traditional herbal preparations and medicinal plants of PNG", administered in the context of the TM survey project which is supported by WHO, US NIH and PNG governmental health care initiatives and funding. Regional and transregional comparison of medicinal plant utilization was facilitated by using existing plant databases: the UPNG TM Database and the PNG Plant Database (PNG Plants) using Bayesian statistical analysis. Medicinal plant use between four distinct dialect study areas in the ES Province of PNG showed that only a small fraction of plants had shared use in each area, however usually utilizing different plant parts, being prepared differently and to treat different medical conditions. Several instances of previously unreported medicinal plants could be located. Medicinally under- and over-utilized plants were found both in the regional reports and in a transregional analysis, thus showing that these medicinal utilization frequencies differ between provinces. Documentation of consistent plant use argues for efficacy and is particularly important since established and effective herbal medicinal interventions are sorely needed in the rural areas of PNG, and unfortunately clinical validation for the same is often lacking. Despite the existence of a large corpus of medical annotation of plants for PNG, previously unknown medical

  14. Abrupt along-strike change in tectonic style: San Andreas fault zone, San Francisco Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zoback, M.L.; Jachens, R.C.; Olson, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    Seismicity and high-resolution aeromagnetic data are used to define an abrupt change from compressional to extensional tectonism within a 10- to 15-km-wide zone along the San Andreas fault on the San Francisco Peninsula and offshore from the Golden Gate. This 100-km-long section of the San Andreas fault includes the hypocenter of the Mw = 7.8 1906 San Francisco earthquake as well as the highest level of persistent microseismicity along that ???470-km-long rupture. We define two distinct zones of deformation along this stretch of the fault using well-constrained relocations of all post-1969 earthquakes based a joint one-dimensional velocity/hypocenter inversion and a redetermination of focal mechanisms. The southern zone is characterized by thrust- and reverse-faulting focal mechanisms with NE trending P axes that indicate "fault-normal" compression in 7- to 10-km-wide zones of deformation on both sides of the San Andreas fault. A 1- to 2-km-wide vertical zone beneath the surface trace of the San Andreas is characterized by its almost complete lack of seismicity. The compressional deformation is consistent with the young, high topography of the Santa Cruz Mountains/Coast Ranges as the San Andreas fault makes a broad restraining left bend (???10??) through the southernmost peninsula. A zone of seismic quiescence ???15 km long separates this compressional zone to the south from a zone of combined normal-faulting and strike-slip-faulting focal mechanisms (including a ML = 5.3 earthquake in 1957) on the northernmost peninsula and offshore on the Golden Gate platform. Both linear pseudo-gravity gradients, calculated from the aeromagnetic data, and seismic reflection data indicate that the San Andreas fault makes an abrupt ???3-km right step less than 5 km offshore in this northern zone. A similar right-stepping (dilatational) geometry is also observed for the subparallel San Gregorio fault offshore. Persistent seismicity and extensional tectonism occur within the San

  15. How unique is the tiger beetle fauna (Coleoptera, Cicindelidae) of the Balkan Peninsula?

    PubMed Central

    Jaskuła, Radomir

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The tiger beetle fauna of the Balkan Peninsula is one of the richest in Europe and includes 19 species or 41% of the European tiger beetle fauna. Assembled by their biogeographical origins, the Balkan tiger beetle species fall into 14 different groups that include, Mediterranean, Middle Oriental, Central Asiatic, Euro-Siberian, South and East European, Pannonian-Sarmatian, West Palaearctic, Turano-European and Afrotropico Indo-Mediterranean species. The Mediterranean Sclerophyl and the Pontian Steppe are the Balkan biogeographical provinces with the highest species richness, while the Balkan Highlands has the lowest Cicindelidae diversity. Most species are restricted to single habitat types in lowland areas of the Balkan Peninsula and only Calomera aulica aulica and Calomera littoralis nemoralis occur in respectively 3 and 4 different types of habitat. About 60% of all Balkan Cicindelidae species are found in habitats potentially endangered by human activity. PMID:21738429

  16. Drought trends in the Iberian Peninsula over the last 112 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, Célia M.; Ramos, Patrícia; Russo, Ana; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2015-04-01

    The Iberian Peninsula is often affected by drought events with strong influences in ecosystems and the related social and economic impacts (Gouveia et al. 2012, Trigo et al., 2013). In the last decades the severity of droughts in Iberia have increased due to the higher atmospheric evaporative demand (Vicente-Serrano et al., 2014). The need for a deeper knowledge of drought frequency, duration and intensity over the Iberian Peninsula during the last 112 years is reinforced by the findings showing that the period of 1970-2010 over the Mediterranean region was considered drier when compared with 1901-1970. Together with the increasing dryness, the projections point for an increase of drought conditions during the twenty-first century (Hoerling et al., 2012) will tend to exacerbate these problems. The evolution of drought in the Iberian Peninsula was analyzed, using the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), for the period 1901-2012, and the sub-periods 1901-1937, 1938-1974 and 1975-2012. We have used SPI and SPEI for the time scale of 12 months, as obtained from CRU TS3.21 database between 1901 and 2012, using a spatial resolution of 0.5°. The drought indices were analyzed in order to identify significant trends during the entire period and sub-periods. Trends in annual precipitation and PET were also performed. Drought's duration, magnitude and time spanned between drought events were computed. SPI and SPEI significant trends show areas with opposite signals in the period 1901-2012, following precipitation patterns. Precipitation trends are significant and positive in the Northwestern region of the IP, and significant and negative in the Southern areas. SPEI identified dryer conditions and an increase in the area affected by droughts, which is in agreement with the increase in PET on the majority of the territory. The same spatial differences were identified in the drought duration, magnitude and

  17. A new species of Spauligodon (Nematoda; Oxyuroidea; Pharyngodonidae) and other Nematodes in Cyrtodactylus epiroticus (Squamata; Gekkonidae) from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Kraus, Fred

    2017-12-20

    Spauligodon papuensis sp. nov. from the large intestines of Cyrtodactylus epiroticus (Gekkonidae) from Papua New Guinea is described and illustrated. Spauligodon papuensis sp. nov. represents the 54th species assigned to the genus and the second species from the Oceanic Region. The new species is separated from congeners by the unique combination of aspinose filamentous tail and no spicule in the male; and spinose filamentous tail, fusiform, flanged eggs, and postbulbar vulva in the female. Four additional species of nematodes were also found in C. epiroticus: mature specimens of Cosmocerca zugi, Falcaustra papuensis, Physalopteroides milnensis and larvae of Abbreviata sp.

  18. Sinai peninsula taken by the STS-112 crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-10-08

    STS112-702-002 (7-18 October 2002) --- Egypt's triangular Sinai Peninsula lies in the center of this view, photographed from the Space Shuttle Atlantis, with the dark greens of the Nile delta lower right. In this southwesterly view, the Red Sea, with its characteristic parallel coastlines, stretches toward the top. At the bottom of the image, the Suez Canal appears as an irregular line joining the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea (lower left). The Dead Sea in central Israel, with its light blue salt ponds at the south end, appears on the left margin.

  19. Permian Tethyan Fusulinina from the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, C.H.; Davydov, V.I.; Bradley, D.

    1997-01-01

    Two samples from a large, allochthonous limestone block in the McHugh Complex of the Chugach terrane on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, contain species of 12 genera of Permian Fusulinina including Abadehella, Kahlerina, Pseudokahlerina?, Nankinella, Codonofusiella, Dunbarula, Parafusulina?, Chusenella, Verbeekina, Pseudodoliolina, Metadoliolina?, Sumatrina?, and Yabeina, as well as several other foraminiferans and one alga. The assemblage of fusulinids is characteristically Tethyan, belonging to the Yabeina archaica zone of early Midian (late Wordian) age. Similar faunas are known from the Pamirs, Transcaucasia, and Japan, as well as from allochthonous terranes in British Columbia, northwestern Washington, and Koryakia in eastern Siberia.

  20. Research partnerships with local communities: two case studies from Papua New Guinea and Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almany, G. R.; Hamilton, R. J.; Williamson, D. H.; Evans, R. D.; Jones, G. P.; Matawai, M.; Potuku, T.; Rhodes, K. L.; Russ, G. R.; Sawynok, B.

    2010-09-01

    Partnerships between scientists and local communities can increase research capacity and data delivery while improving management effectiveness through enhanced community participation. To encourage such collaboration, this study demonstrates how these partnerships can be formed, drawing on two case studies in coral reef ecosystems in very different social settings (Papua New Guinea and Australia). In each case, steps towards successfully engaging communities in research were similar. These included: (1) early engagement by collaborating organizations to build trust, (2) ensuring scientific questions have direct relevance to the community, (3) providing appropriate incentives for participation, and (4) clear and open communication. Community participants engaged in a variety of research activities, including locating and capturing fishes, collecting and recording data (weight, length and sex), applying external tags, and removing otoliths (ear bones) for ageing and elemental analysis. Research partnerships with communities enhanced research capacity, reduced costs and, perhaps more importantly, improved the likelihood of long-term community support for marine protected areas (MPAs).

  1. Information systems for health sector monitoring in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed Central

    Cibulskis, R. E.; Hiawalyer, G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes (i). how a national health information System was designed, tested and implemented in Papua New Guinea, (ii). how the system was integrated with other management information systems, and (iii). how information has been used to support decision-making. It concludes that central coordination of systems design is essential to make sure that information systems are aligned with government priorities and can deliver the information required by managers. While there is often scope for improving the performance of existing information systems, too much emphasis can be placed on revising data collection procedures and creating the perfect information system. Data analysis, even from imperfect systems, can stimulate greater interest in information, which can improve the quality and completeness of reporting and encourage a more methodical approach to planning and monitoring services. Our experience suggests that senior decision-makers and political leaders can play an important role in creating a culture of information use. By demanding health information, using it to formulate policy, and disseminating it through the channels open to them, they can exert greater influence in negotiations with donors and other government departments, encourage a more rational approach to decision-making that will improve the operation of health services, and stimulate greater use of information at lower levels of the health system. The ability of information systems to deliver these benefits is critical to their sustainability. PMID:12378295

  2. Sredinnyy Khrebet, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia is shown in this scene created from a preliminary elevation model derived from the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) on February 12, 2000. Sredinnyy Khrebet, the mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula, is a chain of active volcanic peaks. Pleistocene and recent glaciers have carved the broad valleys and jagged ridges that are common here. The relative youth of the volcanism is revealed by the topography as infilling and smoothing of the otherwise rugged terrain by lava, ash, and pyroclastic flows, particularly surrounding the high peaks in the south central part of the image. Elevations here range from near sea level up to 2,618 meters (8,590 feet). Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space

  3. Perspective View, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). In the foreground is the broad, flat floodplain of the Amanina River, shown in blue. In background of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills in the upper right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This shaded relief perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. To emphasize subtle differences in topography, the relief is exaggerated by a factor of 5.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the

  4. Characterization of synoptic patterns causing dust outbreaks that affect the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermida, L.; Merino, A.; Sánchez, J. L.; Fernández-González, S.; García-Ortega, E.; López, L.

    2018-01-01

    Dust storms pose serious weather hazards in arid and semiarid regions of the earth. Understanding the main synoptic conditions that give rise to dust outbreaks is important for issuing forecasts and warnings to the public in cases of severe storms. The aim of the present study is to determine synoptic patterns that are associated with or even favor dust outbreaks over the Arabian Peninsula. In this respect, red-green-blue dust composite images from the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite are used to detect dust outbreaks affecting the Arabian Peninsula, with possible influences in southwestern Asia and northeastern Africa, between 2005 and 2013. The Meteosat imagery yielded a sample of 95 dust storm days. Meteorological fields from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data of wind fields at 10 m and 250 hPa, mean sea level pressure, and geopotential heights at 850 and 500 hPa were obtained for the dust storm days. Using principal component analysis in T-mode and non-hierarchical k-means clustering, we obtained four major atmospheric circulation patterns associated with dust outbreaks during the study days. Cluster 4 had the largest number of days with dust events, which were constrained to summer, and cluster 3 had the fewest. In clusters 1, 2 and 3, the jet stream favored the entry of a low-pressure area or trough that varied in location between the three clusters. Their most northerly location was found in cluster 4, along with an extensive low-pressure area supporting strong winds over the Arabian Peninsula. The spatial distribution of aerosol optical depth for each cluster obtained was characterized using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data. Then, using METAR stations, clusters were also characterized in terms of frequency and visibility.

  5. Water Quality in the Delmarva Peninsula, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia, 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denver, Judith M.; Ator, Scott W.; Debrewer, Linda M.; Ferrari, Matthew J.; Barbaro, Jeffrey R.; Hancock, Tracy C.; Brayton, Michael J.; Nardi, Mark R.

    2004-01-01

    This report contains the major findings of a 1999-2001 assessment of water quality in the Delmarva Peninsula. It is one of a series of reports by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program that present major findings in 51 major river basins and aquifer systems across the Nation. In these reports, water quality is assessed at many scales?from local ground-water flow paths to regional ground-water networks and in surface water?and is discussed in terms of local, State, and regional issues. Conditions in the Delmarva Peninsula are compared to conditions found elsewhere and to selected national benchmarks, such as those for drinking-water quality and the protection of aquatic organisms. This report is intended for individuals working with water-resource issues in Federal, State, or local agencies; universities; public interest groups; or in the private sector. The information will be useful in addressing a number of current issues, such as the effects of agricultural and urban land use on water quality, human health, drinking water, source-water protection, hypoxia and excessive growth of algae and plants, pesticide registration, and monitoring and sampling strategies. This report is also for individuals who wish to know more about the quality of streams and ground water in areas near where they live, and how that water quality compares to the quality of water in other areas across the Nation. Other products describing water-quality conditions in the Delmarva Peninsula are available. Detailed technical information, data and analyses, methodology, models, graphs, and maps that support the findings presented in this report can be accessed from http://md.water.usgs.gov/delmarva. Other reports in this series and data collected from other basins can be accessed from the national NAWQA Web site (http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa).

  6. Tropical Glaciers in the Common Era: Papua, Indonesia, Quelccaya Ice Cap, Peru and Kilimanjaro, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, L. G.; Mosley-Thompson, E. S.; Davis, M. E.

    2011-12-01

    High-resolution ice core stratigraphic records of δ18O (temperature proxy) demonstrate that the current warming at high elevations in mid- to lower latitudes is unprecedented for at least the last two millennia, although at many sites the Early Holocene was much warmer than at present. Here we discuss the interaction of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability and warming trends as recorded in ice core records from high-altitude tropical glaciers and the implications of the warming trends for the future of these glaciers. ENSO has strong impacts on meteorological phenomena that either directly or indirectly affect most regions on the planet and their populations, particularly throughout the Tropics. Here we examine similarities and differences among ice core records from Papua (Indonesia), Quelccaya Ice Cap (Peru) and Kilimanjaro (Tanzania). Quelccaya, Earth's largest tropical ice cap, has provided continuous, annually-resolved proxy records of climatic and environmental variability preserved in many measurable parameters, especially oxygen and hydrogen isotopic ratios (δ18O, δD) and the net mass balance (accumulation) spanning the last 1800 years. The remarkable similarity between changes in the highland and coastal cultures of Peru and climate variability in the Andes, especially with regard to precipitation, implies a strong connection between prehistoric human activities and climate in this region. The well-documented ice loss on Quelccaya, Kilimanjaro in eastern Africa and the ice fields near Puncak Jaya in Papua, Indonesia presents a possible analog for glacier response in the tropics during the Holocene. The ongoing melting of these ice fields is consistent with model predictions of a vertical amplification of temperature in the Tropics. A sequence of over 50 recently exposed, rooted, soft-bodied plant deposits collected between 2002 and 2011 from the retreating margins of the Quelccaya ice cap provide a longer term perspective for the recent

  7. Pack ice along the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia as seen from STS-60

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Pack ice is documented in this photograph along the coast of the Kamchatka Peninsula of Russia in Zaliv Ozernoj. Detailed photographs of the ice provide information to scientists in both Russia and the United States about the location and fluctuation of ice edges, and how this new sea ice interacts with ocean and littoral currents.

  8. Acremonium camtosporum isolated as an endophyte of Bursera simaruba from Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae) is a frequent and co-dominant tree of tropical sub-caducifolious forest in the Yucatan Peninsula. This species is important ecologically because it can grow in poor, clay or sandy, saline soils. The Mayan communities use this plant medicinally for its analgesic, antimy...

  9. Women's groups for whom? The colonisation of women's groups in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Appleford, G

    2000-02-01

    This paper explores the issues concerning women's groups in the context of women's network in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and from an association with such a network in West New Britain province. The women's groups in PNG often came into existence under the influence of colonial rule and as an adjunct to the Church. Some 20 years later, their vulnerability to colonization by other development factors--whether the state, the donor agency, or the beneficiaries--remains an issue for these groups because of their ambiguity of function and purpose. Despite this ambiguity, and in spite of the women subsuming a passive role in the face of the state and the donor, the women themselves have their own individual strategies for accumulating symbolic as well as real resources. However, the strategy is only open to a handful of women, whose position in society depends on the fact that prevailing patriarchal gender relations are continued. In addition, it is suggested that by simply existing, women's groups in PNG have continued to aid and abet the masculine tradition within the provincial and district governments.

  10. Freshwater macroinvertebrate samples from a water quality monitoring network in the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Escribano, Nora; Oscoz, Javier; Galicia, David; Cancellario, Tommaso; Durán, Concha; Navarro, Patricia; Ariño, Arturo H

    2018-06-05

    This dataset gathers information about the macroinvertatebrate samples and environmental variables collected on rivers of the Ebro River Basin (NE Iberian Peninsula), the second largest catchment in the Iberian Peninsula. The collection is composed of 1,776 sampling events carried out between 2005 and 2015 at more than 400 sampling sites. This dataset is part of a monitoring network set up by the Ebro Hydrographic Confederation, the official body entrusted with the care of the basin, to fulfill the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive. Biological indices based on the freshwater macroinvertebrate communities were used to evaluate the ecological status of the water bodies within the basin. Samples were qualitatively screened for all occurring taxa. Then, all individuals from all taxa in a quantitative subsample of each sample were counted. Biological indices were calculated to estimate water quality at each sampling site. All samples are kept at the Museum of Zoology of the University of Navarra.

  11. Freshwater macroinvertebrate samples from a water quality monitoring network in the Iberian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Escribano, Nora; Oscoz, Javier; Galicia, David; Cancellario, Tommaso; Durán, Concha; Navarro, Patricia; Ariño, Arturo H.

    2018-01-01

    This dataset gathers information about the macroinvertatebrate samples and environmental variables collected on rivers of the Ebro River Basin (NE Iberian Peninsula), the second largest catchment in the Iberian Peninsula. The collection is composed of 1,776 sampling events carried out between 2005 and 2015 at more than 400 sampling sites. This dataset is part of a monitoring network set up by the Ebro Hydrographic Confederation, the official body entrusted with the care of the basin, to fulfill the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive. Biological indices based on the freshwater macroinvertebrate communities were used to evaluate the ecological status of the water bodies within the basin. Samples were qualitatively screened for all occurring taxa. Then, all individuals from all taxa in a quantitative subsample of each sample were counted. Biological indices were calculated to estimate water quality at each sampling site. All samples are kept at the Museum of Zoology of the University of Navarra. PMID:29870034

  12. Anaglyph, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This anaglyph (stereoscopic view) of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula was generated entirely from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data, and shows a subtle but distinctive indication of the Chicxulub impact crater. Most scientists now agree that this impact was the cause of the Cretatious-Tertiary extinction, the event 65 million years ago that marked the demise of the dinosaurs as well as the majority of life then on Earth. The crater's rim is marked by a shallow semicircular depression arcing about an offshore center point in the upper left of the picture. (The arcing depression is just above the blue line, when viewed with the naked eye.) This depression, or trough, only about 3 to 5 meters (10 - 15 feet) deep and about 5 kilometers (3 miles) wide, was likely caused by collapse of limestone caverns preferentially above the crater rim, resulting in an arcing chain of sinkholes. The limestone that covers most of the Yucatan Peninsula post-dates the impact crater. However, the crater pattern apparently controls the subsidence pattern just enough to show through.

    This anaglyph was created by deriving a shaded relief image from the SRTM data, draping it back over the SRTM elevation model, and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. Illumination is from the north (top). When viewed through special glasses, the anaglyph is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter. The total relief (range of elevations) across this entire image is less than 300 meters (1000 feet).

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM

  13. Detrital Zircon U-Pb and Hf-isotope Constrains on Basement Ages, Granitic Magmatism, and Sediment Provenance in the Malay Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevastjanova, Inga; Clements, Benjamin; Hall, Robert; Belousova, Elena; Pearson, Norman; Griffin, William

    2010-05-01

    The Malay Peninsula forms the western part of central Sundaland in SE Asia. Sundaland comprises Indochina, the Thai-Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and the shallow shelf between these landmasses. It is a composite region of continental crustal fragments that are separated by sutures that represent remnant ocean basins and volcanic arcs. The Malay Peninsula includes two of these fragments - East Malaya and Sibumasu - separated by the Bentong-Raub Suture Zone. The latter is a Palaeo-Tethyan ocean remnant. Granitoids of the Malay Peninsula are the major sources of detrital zircon in Sundaland. East Malaya is intruded by Permian-Triassic Eastern Province granitoids interpreted as products of Palaeozoic subduction of oceanic crust beneath the East Malaya Volcanic Arc. Sibumasu is intruded by Triassic Main Range Province granitoids interpreted as syn- to post-collisional magmatism following suturing to East Malaya. Locally, there are minor Late Cretaceous plutons. Basements of Sibumasu and East Malaya are not exposed and their ages are poorly constrained. The exact timing of the collision between these fragments is also contentious. In order to resolve these uncertainties, 752 U-Pb analyses from 9 samples were carried out on detrital zircons from modern rivers draining the Malay Peninsula and, of these, 243 grains from 6 samples were selected for Hf-isotope analyses. U-Pb zircon ages show that small numbers of Neoarchean-Proterozoic grains are consistently present in all samples, but do not form prominent populations. Permian-Triassic populations are dominant. Only one sample contains a small Jurassic population probably sourced from the area of Thailand and most likely recycled from fluvial-alluvial Mesozoic 'red-beds'. Late Cretaceous populations are locally abundant. Hf-isotope crustal model ages suggest that basement beneath the Malay Peninsula is heterogeneous. Some basement may be Neoarchean but there is no evidence for basement older than 2.8 Ga beneath

  14. Pliocene eclogite exhumation at plate tectonic rates in eastern Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Suzanne L; Monteleone, Brian D; Webb, Laura E; Fitzgerald, Paul G; Grove, Marty; Hill, E June

    2004-09-16

    As lithospheric plates are subducted, rocks are metamorphosed under high-pressure and ultrahigh-pressure conditions to produce eclogites and eclogite facies metamorphic rocks. Because chemical equilibrium is rarely fully achieved, eclogites may preserve in their distinctive mineral assemblages and textures a record of the pressures, temperatures and deformation the rock was subjected to during subduction and subsequent exhumation. Radioactive parent-daughter isotopic variations within minerals reveal the timing of these events. Here we present in situ zircon U/Pb ion microprobe data that dates the timing of eclogite facies metamorphism in eastern Papua New Guinea at 4.3 +/- 0.4 Myr ago, making this the youngest documented eclogite exposed at the Earth's surface. Eclogite exhumation from depths of approximately 75 km was extremely rapid and occurred at plate tectonic rates (cm yr(-1)). The eclogite was exhumed within a portion of the obliquely convergent Australian-Pacific plate boundary zone, in an extending region located west of the Woodlark basin sea floor spreading centre. Such rapid exhumation (> 1 cm yr(-1)) of high-pressure and, we infer, ultrahigh-pressure rocks is facilitated by extension within transient plate boundary zones associated with rapid oblique plate convergence.

  15. Non-communicable disease risk factor patterns among mining industry workers in Papua, Indonesia: longitudinal findings from the Cardiovascular Outcomes in a Papuan Population and Estimation of Risk (COPPER) Study

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Fernandez, Rodrigo; Rahajeng, Ekowati; Viliani, Francesca; Kushadiwijaya, Haripurnomo; Amiya, Rachel M; Bangs, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) constitute an increasing slice of the global burden of disease, with the South-East Asia region projected to see the highest increase in NCD-related deaths over the next decade. Mining industry employees may be exposed to various factors potentially elevating their NCD risk. This study aimed to assess the distribution and 5-year longitudinal trends of key metabolic NCD risk factors in a cohort of copper–gold mining company workers in Papua, Indonesia. Methods Metabolic indicators of NCD risk were assessed among employees (15 580 at baseline, 6496 prospectively) of a large copper–gold mining operation in Papua, Indonesia, using routinely collected 5-year medical surveillance data. The study cohort comprised individuals aged 18–68 years employed for ≥1 year during 2008–2013. Assessed risk factors were based on repeat measures of cholesterol, blood glucose, blood pressure and body weight, using WHO criteria. Results Metabolic risk indicator rates were markedly high and increased significantly from baseline through 5-year follow-up (p<0.001). Adjusting for gender and age, longer duration of employment (≥10 years) predicted raised cholesterol (adjusted OR (AOR)=1.13, p=0.003), raised blood pressure (AOR=1.16, p=0.009) and overweight/obesity (AOR=1.14, p=0.001) at baseline; and persistent raised cholesterol (AOR=1.26, p=0.003), and both incident (AOR=1.33, p=0.014) and persistent raised blood glucose (AOR=1.62, p=0.044) at 3-year follow-up. Conclusions Individuals employed for longer periods in a mining operations setting in Papua, Indonesia, may face elevated NCD risk through various routes. Workplace health promotion interventions and policies targeting modifiable lifestyle patterns and environmental exposures present an important opportunity to reduce such susceptibilities and mitigate associated health risks. PMID:26231573

  16. Latest Early Pleistocene remains of Lynx pardinus (Carnivora, Felidae) from the Iberian Peninsula: Taxonomy and evolutionary implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boscaini, Alberto; Alba, David M.; Beltrán, Juan F.; Moyà-Solà, Salvador; Madurell-Malapeira, Joan

    2016-07-01

    The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is a critically endangered felid that, during the last fifty years, has been subject to an intensive conservation program in an attempt to save it from extinction. This species is first recorded at ca. 1.7-1.6 Ma (late Villafranchian, late Early Pleistocene) in NE Iberian Peninsula, roughly coinciding with the large faunal turnover that occurred around the middle to late Villafranchian boundary. Here we describe the largest collection of L. pardinus remains available to date from the Iberian late Early Pleistocene (Epivillafranchian), including localities from the Vallparadís Section (Vallès-Penedès Basin, NE Iberian Peninsula) and Cueva Victoria (Cartagena, SE Iberian Peninsula). The morphology and biometry of the studied material attests to the widespread occurrence of L. pardinus in the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula since the latest Early Pleistocene, i.e., about 0.5 million years earlier than it was generally accepted (i.e., at the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene). Based on the features observed in the large sample studied in this paper, we conclude that Lynx spelaeus is a junior synonym of L. pardinus and further propose to assign all the Epivillafranchian and younger fossil lynxes from SW Europe to the extant species L. pardinus. Due to the arrival of the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) into Europe at the beginning of the Late Pleistocene, the attribution of specimens younger than MIS 5e to either this species or L. pardinus solely on morphological grounds has proven equivocal. Here we discuss the main diagnostic features of both species of European lynxes and further review their evolutionary history and paleobiogeography throughout the Pleistocene.

  17. Investigations of fungal diversity in wooden structures and soils at historic sites on the Antarctic Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Arenz, Brett E; Blanchette, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    Investigations of microbial diversity in Antarctic are important to begin to understand ecosystem functioning and decomposition processes. This study documents fungi at 9 historic sites on the Antarctic Peninsula collected from wooden structures, other organic materials, and soils during a joint National Science Foundation and British Antarctic Survey expedition in 2007. Many of these sites had wooden structures built by the British during the World War II Operation Tabarin, but others visited included the American "East Base" on Stonington Island and the Swedish hut on Snow Hill Island. Fungi were cultured on several different media and pure cultures were obtained and identified by DNA sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region. Cadophora species previously found to attack historic wooden structures on Ross Island, Antarctica, were found at all but 1 location sampled in the Peninsula region. Fungi causing decay in the historic wooden structures and artifacts and those causing mold problems inside the structures are of great concern, and conservation efforts are urgently needed to help preserve these important polar heritage structures. The results presented also expand our knowledge on the identity of fungi present throughout the Antarctic Peninsula region and provide insights into the organisms responsible for decomposition and nutrient recycling.

  18. The maternal genetic make-up of the Iberian Peninsula between the Neolithic and the Early Bronze Age.

    PubMed

    Szécsényi-Nagy, Anna; Roth, Christina; Brandt, Guido; Rihuete-Herrada, Cristina; Tejedor-Rodríguez, Cristina; Held, Petra; García-Martínez-de-Lagrán, Íñigo; Arcusa Magallón, Héctor; Zesch, Stephanie; Knipper, Corina; Bánffy, Eszter; Friederich, Susanne; Meller, Harald; Bueno Ramírez, Primitiva; Barroso Bermejo, Rosa; de Balbín Behrmann, Rodrigo; Herrero-Corral, Ana M; Flores Fernández, Raúl; Alonso Fernández, Carmen; Jiménez Echevarria, Javier; Rindlisbacher, Laura; Oliart, Camila; Fregeiro, María-Inés; Soriano, Ignacio; Vicente, Oriol; Micó, Rafael; Lull, Vicente; Soler Díaz, Jorge; López Padilla, Juan Antonio; Roca de Togores Muñoz, Consuelo; Hernández Pérez, Mauro S; Jover Maestre, Francisco Javier; Lomba Maurandi, Joaquín; Avilés Fernández, Azucena; Lillios, Katina T; Silva, Ana Maria; Magalhães Ramalho, Miguel; Oosterbeek, Luiz Miguel; Cunha, Claudia; Waterman, Anna J; Roig Buxó, Jordi; Martínez, Andrés; Ponce Martínez, Juana; Hunt Ortiz, Mark; Mejías-García, Juan Carlos; Pecero Espín, Juan Carlos; Cruz-Auñón Briones, Rosario; Tomé, Tiago; Carmona Ballestero, Eduardo; Cardoso, João Luís; Araújo, Ana Cristina; Liesau von Lettow-Vorbeck, Corina; Blasco Bosqued, Concepción; Ríos Mendoza, Patricia; Pujante, Ana; Royo-Guillén, José I; Esquembre Beviá, Marco Aurelio; Dos Santos Goncalves, Victor Manuel; Parreira, Rui; Morán Hernández, Elena; Méndez Izquierdo, Elena; Vega Y Miguel, Jorge; Menduiña García, Roberto; Martínez Calvo, Victoria; López Jiménez, Oscar; Krause, Johannes; Pichler, Sandra L; Garrido-Pena, Rafael; Kunst, Michael; Risch, Roberto; Rojo-Guerra, Manuel A; Haak, Wolfgang; Alt, Kurt W

    2017-11-15

    Agriculture first reached the Iberian Peninsula around 5700 BCE. However, little is known about the genetic structure and changes of prehistoric populations in different geographic areas of Iberia. In our study, we focus on the maternal genetic makeup of the Neolithic (~ 5500-3000 BCE), Chalcolithic (~ 3000-2200 BCE) and Early Bronze Age (~ 2200-1500 BCE). We report ancient mitochondrial DNA results of 213 individuals (151 HVS-I sequences) from the northeast, central, southeast and southwest regions and thus on the largest archaeogenetic dataset from the Peninsula to date. Similar to other parts of Europe, we observe a discontinuity between hunter-gatherers and the first farmers of the Neolithic. During the subsequent periods, we detect regional continuity of Early Neolithic lineages across Iberia, however the genetic contribution of hunter-gatherers is generally higher than in other parts of Europe and varies regionally. In contrast to ancient DNA findings from Central Europe, we do not observe a major turnover in the mtDNA record of the Iberian Late Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age, suggesting that the population history of the Iberian Peninsula is distinct in character.

  19. 75 FR 20991 - Upper Peninsula Power Company; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ... Peninsula Power Company's plan to replace the spillway at the Bond Falls Development of the Bond Falls... Bond Falls Development is located on the Middle Branch of the Ontonagon River in Ontonagon County..., would not constitute a major federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human...

  20. Hydrogeologic framework, groundwater movement, and water budget of the Kitsap Peninsula, west-central Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Wendy B.; Frans, Lonna M.; Olsen, Theresa D.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents information used to characterize the groundwater-flow system on the Kitsap Peninsula, and includes descriptions of the geology and hydrogeologic framework, groundwater recharge and discharge, groundwater levels and flow directions, seasonal groundwater-level fluctuations, interactions between aquifers and the surface‑water system, and a water budget. The Kitsap Peninsula is in the Puget Sound lowland of west-central Washington, is bounded by Puget Sound on the east and by Hood Canal on the west, and covers an area of about 575 square miles. The peninsula encompasses all of Kitsap County, the part of Mason County north of Hood Canal, and part of Pierce County west of Puget Sound. The peninsula is surrounded by saltwater and the hydrologic setting is similar to that of an island. The study area is underlain by a thick sequence of unconsolidated glacial and interglacial deposits that overlie sedimentary and volcanic bedrock units that crop out in the central part of the study area. Geologic units were grouped into 12 hydrogeologic units consisting of aquifers, confining units, and an underlying bedrock unit. A surficial hydrogeologic unit map was developed and used with well information from 2,116 drillers’ logs to construct 6 hydrogeologic sections and unit extent and thickness maps. Unconsolidated aquifers typically consist of moderately to well-sorted alluvial and glacial outwash deposits of sand, gravel, and cobbles, with minor lenses of silt and clay. These units often are discontinuous or isolated bodies and are of highly variable thickness. Unconfined conditions occur in areas where aquifer units are at land surface; however, much of the study area is mantled by glacial till, and confined aquifer conditions are common. Groundwater in the unconsolidated aquifers generally flows radially off the peninsula in the direction of Puget Sound and Hood Canal. These generalized flow patterns likely are complicated by the presence of low

  1. Therapeutic Response to Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine for P. falciparum and P. vivax Nine Years after Its Introduction in Southern Papua, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Poespoprodjo, Jeanne Rini; Kenangalem, Enny; Wafom, Johny; Chandrawati, Freis; Puspitasari, Agatha M; Ley, Benedikt; Trianty, Leily; Korten, Zoé; Surya, Asik; Syafruddin, Din; Anstey, Nicholas M; Marfurt, Jutta; Noviyanti, Rintis; Price, Ric N

    2018-03-01

    Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHP) has been the first-line treatment of uncomplicated malaria due to both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections in Papua, Indonesia, since March 2006. The efficacy of DHP was reassessed to determine whether there had been any decline following almost a decade of its extensive use. An open-label drug efficacy study of DHP for uncomplicated P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria was carried out between March 2015 and April 2016 in Timika, Papua, Indonesia. Patients with uncomplicated malaria were administered supervised DHP tablets once daily for 3 days. Clinical and laboratory data were collected daily until parasite clearance and then weekly for 6 weeks. Molecular analysis was undertaken for all patients with recurrent parasitemia. A total of 129 study patients were enrolled in the study. At day 42, the polymerase chain reaction-adjusted efficacy was 97.7% (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 87.4-99.9) in the 61 patients with P. falciparum malaria, and 98.2% [95% CI: 90.3-100] in the 56 patients with P. vivax malaria. By day 2, 98% (56/57) of patients with P. falciparum and 96.9% (63/65) of those with P. vivax had cleared their peripheral parasitemia; none of the patients were still parasitaemic on day 3. Molecular analysis of P. falciparum parasites showed that none (0/61) had K13 mutations associated previously with artemisinin resistance or increased copy number of plasmepsin 2-3 (0/61). In the absence of artemisinin resistance, DHP has retained high efficacy for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria despite extensive drug pressure over a 9-year period.

  2. Assessments of Maize Yield Potential in the Korean Peninsula Using Multiple Crop Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. H.; Myoung, B.; Lim, C. H.; Lee, S. G.; Lee, W. K.; Kafatos, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Korean Peninsular has unique agricultural environments due to the differences in the political and socio-economical systems between the Republic of Korea (SK, hereafter) and the Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea (NK, hereafter). NK has been suffering from the lack of food supplies caused by natural disasters, land degradation and failed political system. The neighboring developed country SK has a better agricultural system but very low food self-sufficiency rate (around 1% of maize). Maize is an important crop in both countries since it is staple food for NK and SK is No. 2 maize importing country in the world after Japan. Therefore evaluating maize yield potential (Yp) in the two distinct regions is essential to assess food security under climate change and variability. In this study, we have utilized multiple process-based crop models capable of regional-scale assessments to evaluate maize Yp over the Korean Peninsula - the GIS version of EPIC model (GEPIC) and APSIM model that can be expanded to regional scales (APSIM regions). First we evaluated model performance and skill for 20 years from 1991 to 2010 using reanalysis data (Local Data Assimilation and Prediction System (LDAPS); 1.5km resolution) and observed data. Each model's performances were compared over different regions within the Korean Peninsula of different regional climate characteristics. To quantify the major influence of individual climate variables, we also conducted a sensitivity test using 20 years of climatology. Lastly, a multi-model ensemble analysis was performed to reduce crop model uncertainties. The results will provide valuable information for estimating the climate change or variability impacts on Yp over the Korean Peninsula.

  3. The primacy of politics: charting the governance of the Papua New Guinea health system since independence.

    PubMed

    Day, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    To chart the course of health governance in Papua New Guinea (PNG) since Independence, this article identifies two arks of public sector administration in PNG. Each was instigated by the passing of an Organic Law. The reform periods presaged by the Organic Law on Provincial Government 1976 (OLPG) and the Organic Law on Provincial Governments and Local-level Governments 1995 (OLPGLLG) have fundamentally transformed the political and administrative structures governing the country, and in particularly those relating to health. Comparing the organization of the government-operated health system during each of these reform periods not only reveals why PNG's health services have struggled to improve since Independence, but also casts light on the key drivers of fundamental reforms in PNG. Ultimately, the exercise illustrates the 'primacy of politics', and why political concerns invariably trump service delivery concerns.

  4. Potential of iron sand from Betaf beach, Sarmi regency and river sand from Doyo, Jayapura regency, Papua as basic materials of mortar as nuclear radiation shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haryati, E.; Dahlan, K.

    2018-03-01

    According to the SNI, the type of concrete for use as nuclear radiation shielding is concrete or mortar that contains hematite, ilmenite, magnetite, barite, or ferrophosphorus synthesis. This study is focused on the characterization of iron sand from and river sand from Papua. The purpose of this research was to determine the specific content of gravity and minerals in iron sand and river sand from Papua. The specific gravities of the sands were measured by manual experiment in a laboratory, while their mineral content were calculated using XRF and SEM - EDS method. The result showed that the specific gravities of iron sand and river sand were 2.66 and 2.50, respectively. The XRF method revealed that the iron sand contained 41.68% Silica, 33.84% Iron, and 24.48% other minerals. The river sand on the other hand contained 58.98% Silica (Si), 26.87% Iron (Fe), and 14.15% other minerals. The SEM -EDS method showed that the iron sand was composed of 39.99 % SiO2, 21.67 % FeO, and, and 38.34 % others; while the river sand contained 39.28% SiO2, 17.45 % FeO, and 43.27 % others. The result showed that both sands have the potentials to be isolated from hematite minerals or magnetite.

  5. Chemical quality of depositional sediments and associated soils in New Orleans and the Louisiana peninsula following Hurricane Katrina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, C.; Witt, E.C.; Wang, Jingyuan; Shaver, D.K.; Summers, D.; Filali-Meknassi, Y.; Shi, H.; Luna, R.; Anderson, N.

    2007-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina made landfall on the Louisiana peninsula south of New Orleans on Aug 29, 2005. The resulting storm surge caused numerous levy breaches in the parishes of New Orleans as well as on the Louisiana peninsula. This study was conducted to determine the concentrations of inorganic and organic constituents in sediments and associated soils in New Orleans parishes and the Louisiana peninsula after the floodwaters had been removed and/or receded following Hurricane Katrina. A total of 46 sediment and soil samples were analyzed that were collected throughout New Orleans and the Louisiana peninsula. Approximately 20% of the sediment samples were analyzed, including shallow sediment samples from locations that included the top and beneath automobiles, in residential and commercial areas, and near refineries. Gasoline constituents, pesticides, and leachable heavy metals were analyzed using headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), organic extraction GC/MS, and inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry, respectively. A significant number of samples had leachable As and Pb concentrations in excess of drinking water standards. The remaining metals analyzed (i.e., Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, and V) generally had much lower leachable levels. Of the gasoline constituents, only benzene was observed above the limit of detection (of 5 ??g/kg), with no samples observed as being above the method detection limits of 10 ??g/kg. For the 18 pesticides analyzed, most were in the nondetectable range and all were in trace amounts that were orders of magnitude below regulatory guidelines. ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  6. Effects of teleconnection patterns on the atmospheric routes, precipitation and deposition amounts in the north-eastern Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izquierdo, Rebeca; Alarcón, Marta; Aguillaume, Laura; Àvila, Anna

    2014-06-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) has been identified as one of the atmospheric patterns which mostly influence the temporal evolution of precipitation and temperature in the Mediterranean area. Recently, the Western Mediterranean Oscillation (WeMO) has also been proposed to describe the precipitation variability in the eastern Iberian Peninsula. This paper examines whether the chemical signature and/or the chemical deposition amounts recorded over NE Iberian Peninsula are influenced by these climatic variability patterns. Results show a more relevant role of the WeMO compared to NAO in the deposition of either marine (Cl-, Na+, Mg2+) or anthropogenic pollutants (H+, NH4+, NO3- and SO42-). A cluster classification of provenances indicated that in winter (December to March) fast Atlantic air flows correspond to positive WeMO indices, while negative WeMOi are associated to Northeastern and Southwestern circulations. The negative phase of WeMO causes the entry of air masses from the Mediterranean into the Iberian Peninsula, that are enriched with marine ions and ions of anthropogenic origin (NH4+, NO3- and SO42-). For these later, this suggests the advection over the Mediterranean of polluted air masses from southern Europe and the scavenging and deposition of this pollution by precipitation during the WeMO negative phases. This will carry transboundary pollutants to the NE Iberian Peninsula. However, local pollutants may also contribute, as precipitation events from the Mediterranean and the Atlantic (associated to both WeMO phases) may incorporate emissions that accumulate locally during the winter anticyclonic episodes typical of the region.

  7. Gastrointestinal helminths of Gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) from Stranger Point, 25 de Mayo/King George Island, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Julia Inés; Fusaro, Bruno; Longarzo, Lucrecia; Coria, Néstor Rubén; Vidal, Virginia; Jerez, Silvia; Ortiz, Juana; Barbosa, Andrés

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this work is to contribute to the knowledge of gastrointestinal parasites of the Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) from 25 de Mayo/King George Island (South Shetlands, Antarctica). Gastrointestinal tracts of 37 fresh dead individuals (21 chicks, 10 juveniles, and 6 adults) were collected from December 2006 to February 2012 and examined for macroparasites. Four adult parasite species were found: one Cestoda species (Parorchites zederi), two Nematoda species (Stegophorus macronectes and Tetrameres wetzeli), and one Acanthocephalan (Corynosoma shackletoni). Two species of immature acanthocephalans, Corynosoma hamanni and Corynosoma bullosum, were found in a single host. This is the first record of Tetrameres wetzeli in Gentoo penguins. The low parasite richness observed could be related to the stenophagic and pelagic diet of this host species which feeds almost exclusively on krill.

  8. Creosote retention levels of timber highway bridge superstructures in Michigan’s Lower Peninsula.

    Treesearch

    James P. Wacker; Douglas M. Crawford; Merv O. Eriksson

    2003-01-01

    Environmental concerns about preservative bleeding (or migrating) from timber bridges have increased in recent years. This preliminary study examined the creosote retention levels at six timber highway bridges in Michigan's lower peninsula during the summer of 2000. Several test core samples were removed from the bridge superstructures (four bleeders and two...

  9. Drug use and HIV risks among migrant workers on the DelMarVa Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Inciardi, J A; Surratt, H L; Colón, H M; Chitwood, D D; Rivers, J E

    1999-01-01

    Because high rates of drug use have been documented in the migrant farm worker population, the National Institute on Drug Abuse funded the Migrant Health Study to examine HIV risk behaviors among drug-using farm workers and their sexual partners. Many of these individuals were home-based in South Florida and migrated during the work season to various points along the Eastern Migratory Stream. The focus of this paper is a description of the characteristics and behaviors of the 151 respondents contacted on the DelMarVa Peninsula during 1994 and 1995. The data indicate that drug use was widespread in this population, a significant proportion were at risk for HIV infection, and 6% were HIV positive. As a result of these findings, public health agencies on the peninsula have instituted HIV education programs in those clinics utilized by both local and transient agricultural workers.

  10. Stable isotopes and Antarctic moss banks: Plants and soil microbes respond to recent warming on the Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royles, Jessica; Amesbury, Matthew; Ogée, Jérôme; Wingate, Lisa; Convey, Peter; Hodgson, Dominic; Griffiths, Howard; Leng, Melanie; Charman, Dan

    2014-05-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula is one of the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, with air temperature increases of as much as 3°C recorded since the 1950s. However, the longer-term context of this change is limited and existing records, largely relying on ice core data, are not suitably located to be able to trace the spatial signature of change over time. We are working on a project exploiting stable isotope records preserved in moss peat banks spanning 10 degrees of latitude along the Antarctic Peninsula as an archive of late Holocene climate variability. Here we present a unique time series of past moss growth and soil microbial activity that has been produced from a 150 year old moss bank at Lazarev Bay, Alexander Island (69°S), a site at the southern limit of significant plant growth in the Antarctic Peninsula region. These moss banks are ideal archives for palaeoclimate research as they are well-preserved by freezing, generally monospecific, easily dated by radiocarbon techniques, and have sufficiently high accumulation rates to permit decadal resolution. We use accumulation rates, cellulose δ13C and fossil testate amoebae to show that growth rates, assimilation and microbial productivity rose rapidly in the 1960s, consistent with temperature change, although recently may have stalled, concurrent with other evidence. The increase in biological activity is unprecedented in the last 150 years. Along with work completed on Signy Island (60°S), in the South Orkney Islands, in which we used carbon isotope evidence to show recent climate-related enhancement of CO2 assimilation and peat accumulation rates in Antarctica, the observed relationships between moss growth, microbial activity and climate suggests that moss bank records have the potential to test the regional expression of temperature variability shown by instrumental data on the Antarctic Peninsula over centennial to millennial timescales, by providing long-term records of summer growth conditions

  11. Contemporary crustal deformations in the Izu peninsula, Honshu, Japan and acceleration of plate bending in the northernmost part of the Philippine Sea plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Yoichiro

    1991-07-01

    Since the beginning of the anomalous vertical crustal movement in the Izu peninsul, Honshu, Japan, many repeated precise levellings have been carried out by the Geographical Survey Institute. Trilaterations covering the entire Izu peninsula have also been carried out by the Geographical Survey Institute. A new technique is developed to adjust the results of levellings, because they had been carried out for different epochs along each levelling route and because of rapid vertical crustal movements. In conventional least-squares adjustment of levelling network, only corrections to the approximate height are assumed to be unknown, while in the present analysis a special model in which rates of vertical deformation at any bench marks are also assumed to be unknown, is adopted. In addition, tidal stations along the coast of the Izu peninsula yield the rate of vertical crustal movement from analysis of tidal data independent of levelling data. We select several special bench marks in which rates of vertical movement are determined by tidal analysis, thereafter special adjustment is applied according to the type of network. The results show that the peninsula is inclined to the south-west. Uplift in the northeastern part of the peninsula is accompanied by remarkable subsidence in the southwest. The rate of contemporary inclination is many times higher than the rate during the period from 1929 to 1972. The deformation is concentrated in the area where Nakamura (1979, 1980) pointed out the bending of the Philippine Sea plate. The mode and rate of the detected crustal deformation suggest the accelerated bending of the peninsula. There are some local “uplift” that deviate from the general pattern of deformation. The most remarkable land uplift was observed near Ito, a city within the peninsula, and the focus of this uplift migrated with time. The accelerated plate bending will produce an extension at the earth's surface and contraction in the deeper part of the subcrustal

  12. Population structure of Cicada barbara Stål (Hemiptera, Cicadoidea) from the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco based on mitochondrial DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Juma, G A; Quartau, J A; Bruford, M W

    2008-02-01

    We assess the genetic history and population structure of Cicada barbara in Morocco and the Iberian Peninsula, based on analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. The divergence between Morocco and the Iberian Peninsula populations was strongly corroborated by the molecular data, suggesting genetically isolated populations with a low level of gene flow. The Ceuta population from Spanish North Africa was more similar to the Iberian populations than the surrounding Moroccan populations, suggesting that the Strait of Gibraltar has not been acting as a strict barrier to dispersal while the Rif Mountains have. The Iberian Peninsula specimens showed a signature of demographic expansion before that which occurred in Morocco, but some of the assumptions related to the demographic parameters should be considered with caution due to the small genetic variation found. The high haplotype diversity found in Morocco implies higher demographic stability than in the Iberian Peninsula populations. These results do not, however, suggest a Moroccan origin for Iberian cicadas; but the most northwest region in Africa, such as Ceuta, might have acted as a southern refuge for Iberian cicadas during the most severe climatic conditions, from where they could expand north when climate improved. The separation of two subspecies within C. barbara (C. barbara lusitanica and C. barbara barbara) finds support with these results.

  13. Malaria epidemiology in Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Mitjà, Oriol; Paru, Raymond; Selve, Billy; Betuela, Inoni; Siba, Peter; De Lazzari, Elisa; Bassat, Quique

    2013-03-15

    Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria remain highly endemic in the Pacific Islands including Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea. Lihir Gold Limited is conducting mining activities and funded an integrated vector control intervention within the villages surrounding the mine. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of such programme by comparing the epidemiological trends of malaria in different parts of the island. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted before and after the intervention (2006-2010) to determine malaria prevalence in mine-impact (MI) and non-MI areas. Incidence of malaria was estimated for the Lihir Medical Centre catchment area using island population denominators and a health-centre passive case detection ongoing from 2006-2011. A total of 2,264 and 1,653 children < 15 were surveyed in the cross-sectional studies. The prevalence of any malaria parasitaemia initially was 31.5% in MI areas and, 34.9% in non-MI (POR 1.17; 95 CI 0.97 - 1.39). After four years there was a significant reduction in prevalence in the MI areas (5.8%; POR 0.13, 95 CI 0.09-0.20), but reduction was less marked in non-MI areas (26.9%; POR 0.69, 95 CI 0.58-0.81).28,747 patients were included in the evaluation of incidence trends and overall malaria in local Lihirian population in MI areas declined over time, while it remained at similar high levels among migrants. The age-incidence analysis showed that for each higher age range the malaria incidence declines compared to that of the previous stratum. There was a substantial reduction in prevalence and incidence rates of both P. vivax and P. falciparum in the mining area following implementation of a malaria control intervention, which was not seen in the area outside the mining activities.

  14. Late Eocene Hydrological Conditions on the Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feakins, S. J.; Deconto, R. M.; Warny, S.

    2013-12-01

    The late Eocene to Oligocene transition (EOT) witnessed a major ice advance on Antarctica. Little is known about hydrological conditions in the Antarctic Peninsula during the late Eocene prior to the major ice advance. Here we explore the hydrological conditions with proxy reconstructions from marine sediment core NBP0602A-3C, adjacent to the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, with sediments dated to approximately 35.9 × 1.1 Ma providing a snapshot of conditions prior to the EOT. We combine plant leaf wax hydrogen isotopic evidence paired with previously-published evidence from pollen assemblages from the marine core, and compare to results of climate model experiments. The pollen from late Eocene sediments of NBP0602A-3C indicate a Nothofagidites (southern beech) dominated landscape. In the same sediments, leaf wax hydrogen isotope (δDwax) values average -202×7‰ (1σ, n=22) for the C28 n-alkanoic acid. Based on an estimated net fractionation of -100‰, these values suggest paleoprecipitation δD values on the order of -118×8‰. The similarity between Late Eocene precipitation isotopic reconstructions (with no ice on what was then an island) and in situ modern isotopic values (while ice-covered) is surprising as ice-free conditions should imply warmer temperatures which would normally imply more enriched isotopic values. Convergent isotopic compositions during demonstrably different environments require a dynamical test to evaluate this validity of this isotopic result. In order to test the isotopic response to an expanding Antarctic ice sheet across the EOT, we conducted experiments with an isotope-enabled GCM. We simulated conditions before, during, and after the transition by systematically decreasing carbon dioxide levels from 1000 to 560 ppm while increasing ice volume to represent an ice-free to fully glaciated continent. Model experiments predict changes in vegetation cover from mixed forest to tundra biomes, reductions in austral summer temperature of

  15. Relationship of oil seep in Kudat Peninsula with surrounding rocks based on geochemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izzati Azman, Nurul; Nur Fathiyah Jamaludin, Siti

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to investigate the relation of oil seepage at Sikuati area with the structural and petroleum system of Kudat Peninsula. The abundance of highly carbonaceous rocks with presence of lamination in the Sikuati Member outcrop at Kudat Peninsula may give an idea on the presence of oil seepage in this area. A detailed geochemical analysis of source rock sample and oil seepage from Sikuati area was carried out for their characterization and correlation. Hydrocarbon propectivity of Sikuati Member source rock is poor to good with Total Organic Carbon (TOC) value of 0.11% to 1.48%. and also categorized as immature to early mature oil window with Vitrinite Reflectance (VRo) value of 0.43% to 0.50 %Ro. Based on biomarker distribution, from Gas Chromatography (GC) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, source rock sample shows Pr/Ph, CPI and WI of 2.22 to 2.68, 2.17 to 2.19 and 2.46 to 2.74 respectively indicates the source rock is immature and coming from terrestrial environment. The source rock might be rich in carbonaceous material organic matter resulting from planktonic/bacterial activity which occurs at fluvial to fluvio-deltaic environment. Overall, the source rock from outcrop level of Kudat Peninsula is moderately prolific in term of prospectivity and maturity. However, as go far deeper beneath the surface, we can expect more activity of mature source rock that generate and expulse hydrocarbon from the subsurface then migrating through deep-seated fault beneath the Sikuati area.

  16. Analysis of the relationship between the monthly temperatures and weather types in Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña Angulo, Dhais; Trigo, Ricardo; Nicola, Cortesi; José Carlos, González-Hidalgo

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the relationship between the atmospheric circulation and weather types and the monthly average maximum and minimum temperatures in the Iberian Peninsula is modeled (period 1950-2010). The temperature data used were obtained from a high spatial resolution (10km x 10km) dataset (MOTEDAS dataset, Gonzalez-Hidalgo et al., 2015a). In addition, a dataset of Portuguese temperatures was used (obtained from the Portuguese Institute of Sea and Atmosphere). The weather type classification used was the one developed by Jenkinson and Collison, which was adapted for the Iberian Peninsula by Trigo and DaCamara (2000), using Sea Level Pressure data from NCAR/NCEP Reanalysis dataset (period 1951-2010). The analysis of the behaviour of monthly temperatures based on the weather types was carried out using a stepwise regression procedure of type forward to estimate temperatures in each cell of the considered grid, for each month, and for both maximum and minimum monthly average temperatures. The model selects the weather types that best estimate the temperatures. From the validation model it was obtained the error distribution in the time (months) and space (Iberian Peninsula). The results show that best estimations are obtained for minimum temperatures, during the winter months and in coastal areas. González-Hidalgo J.C., Peña-Angulo D., Brunetti M., Cortesi, C. (2015a): MOTEDAS: a new monthly temperature database for mainland Spain and the trend in temperature (1951-2010). International Journal of Climatology 31, 715-731. DOI: 10.1002/joc.4298

  17. A diverse assemblage of fossil hardwood from the Upper Tertiary (Miocene?) of the Arauco Peninsula, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöning, Meike; Bandel, Klaus

    2004-09-01

    Silicified woods of 10 dicotyledonous tree families of probably Miocene age from the Arauco Peninsula, central Chile are described and classified according to their anatomy. The diversity is surprisingly high, in that of the 19 samples analyzed, virtually every one could belong to a different species of tree or shrub. Almost all species document a damp climate, and most have related species living in the central zone of modern Chile. The samples were collected in a narrow zone on Punta El Fraile, west of the town of Arauco. The following families are based on woods from the Arauco Peninsula: Anacardiaceae, Boraginaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Leguminosae, Monimiaceae, the first report of fossil Myristicaceae, Myrtaceae, and Proteaceae. Their diagenetic history is connected to tuffaceous material and calcareous concretions.

  18. Assessing the robustness and uncertainties of projected changes in temperature and precipitation in AR5 Global Climate Models over the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almazroui, Mansour; Islam, M. Nazrul; Saeed, Fahad; Alkhalaf, Abdulrahman K.; Dambul, Ramzah

    2017-09-01

    The current study presents the future projection of temperature and precipitation based on ensemble from Couple Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) at seasonal and annual time scales over the Arabian Peninsula. Various analysis methods and techniques including spatial plots with robustness analysis, line plots with likelihood spread, and bar plots as well as annual cycles with likelihood ranges of both temperature and precipitation have been employed. The Northern Arabian Peninsula (NAP) region shows an increase in projected signal of temperature higher than the Southern Arabian Peninsula (SAP). Moreover, the northwestern part of NAP shows a large decrease in precipitation for both the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. However, the SAP region shows a great increase in precipitation for both the scenarios. Further, the central, southern and eastern parts of Saudi Arabia also show a tendency of increase in precipitation. Moreover at annual time scale, NAP shows a consistent statistically significant (95% level) decreasing trend of precipitation at the rate of 0.66% (- 1.18/- 0.14 for RCP4.5/RCP8.5) per decade, whereas SAP shows statistically significant (99% level) increasing trend in precipitation at the rate of 1.67% (0.34/2.99 for RCP4.5/RCP8.5) per decade, while the precipitation significant (99% level) increasing trend 0.86% (- 0.27/2.00 for RCP4.5/RCP8.5) per decade over the Arabian Peninsula. The significant (99% level) warming is projected 0.42 °C (0.23 °C/0.60 °C for RCP4.5/RCP8.5) and 0.37 °C (0.20 °C/0.53 °C for RCP4.5/RCP8.5) per decade over NAP and SAP respectively, which is 0.39 °C (0.22 °C/0.57 °C for RCP4.5/RCP8.5) per decade over the whole Peninsula. Our results call for the development of immediate actions and policies in order to combat negative impacts of climate change over the Arabian Peninsula.

  19. Composition and microstructure of Roman metallic artefacts of Southwestern Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valério, P.; Voráčová, E.; Silva, R. J. C.; Araújo, M. F.; Soares, A. M. M.; Arruda, A. M.; Pereira, C.

    2015-10-01

    The Roman invasion introduces new alloys and metallurgical practices in Iberian Peninsula. The southwestern end of this region has many evidences of connections with the Roman World, but there are no studies about the manufacture and use of copper-based artefacts during this period. Therefore, a set of about 20 ornaments, tools and small attachments recovered at the Roman sites of Monte Molião and Cidade das Rosas was studied by an analytical approach combining micro-EDXRF, optical microscopy, SEM-EDS and Vickers microhardness testing. The artefact composition shows a good correlation with function, namely pure copper for nails and rivets, low-tin bronze (2-6 wt% Sn) for basic tools, high-tin bronze (14 wt% Sn) for fibulae and high-lead bronze (19 wt% Pb) for a decorated jug handle. The manufacture also depends on function because most artefacts were subjected to thermomechanical processing, except the ornaments that would not benefit from post-casting work. Brass and gunmetal were only present in the site with a later chronology. A metallurgy visibly ruled by economical, aesthetical and technological concerns reinforces the evidences about the total integration of Southwestern Iberian Peninsula in the Roman World, but further studies will be essential to determine the evolution of copper-based alloys in Lusitania under Roman influence.

  20. Climatic record of the Iberian peninsula from lake Moncortes' sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Min; Huguet, Carme; Rull, Valenti; Valero, Blas; Rosell-Mele, Antoni

    2014-05-01

    Climatic record of the Iberian peninsula from lake Moncortes' sediments Min Cao1, Carme Huguet1, Valenti Rull2, Blas L. Valero-Garces3, Antoni Rosell-Melé1,4 1Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia Ambientals (ICTA), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain; 2Institut de Botanic de Barcelona (CSIC), Passeig del Migdia s/n, 08038, Barcelona, Spain, 3 Instituto Pirenaico de Ecologıa (CSIC), Avda. Montañana 1005, 50059 Zaragoza, Spain, 4Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), 08010 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. The continuing buildup of industrial greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and concomitant increase in global temperatures has made much of the world's society aware that decades to centuries of environmental change lie ahead, and that these will have profound economic, political and societal impacts. The Iberian Peninsula lies in the boundary between tropical and subtropical climates and seems to amplify the climatic signals form the northern hemisphere through both atmospheric and water circulation feedbacks, making it an ideal site to monitor Northern hemisphere climate changes. This extreme sensitivity to climatic changes also makes the Iberian Peninsula extremely vulnerable to future climate changes. This is why understanding sensitivity to climate change and the consequences it will have on both climate and the hydrological cycle is key to implement preventive measures. The aim of our study is to come up with a high resolution quantitative reconstruction of climate variability (temperature, production and precipitation) in the Iberian Peninsula from lake sediments. We also want to establish the relation between those changes and the ones observed in both ice cores from Greenland and paleotemperature records from marine sediments of the continental Iberian margin. For these reasons we sampled a core in Moncortes (42.3N, 0.99E), a lake of karstic origin with an average depth of 25m and an area of 0

  1. Application of Space Technology to Discovery of Ancient Desert Trade Routes in the Southern Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blom, Ronald; Crippen, Robert; Hedges, George; Zarins, Juris

    1997-01-01

    Over the last decade, an unusual combination of historical research, traditional archaeology, and application of space technolgy has demonstrated the existence of trans-desert trade routes in the sourthern Arabian peninsula.

  2. A Computerized Questionnaire for the Dialectal Survey of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Papers from the Michigan Linguistic Society Meeting, Vol. 1, No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Joseph; Thundyil, Zacharias

    This questionnaire presents about 450 phonological, lexical, and grammatical items that are used in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. In composing the dialect survey, terms pertaining to climate, topography, and ethnic groups were taken into account, as were other words and phrases which might be used by Upper Peninsula native speakers. The survey…

  3. Where Does the Ordered Line Come From? Evidence From a Culture of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Cooperrider, Kensy; Marghetis, Tyler; Núñez, Rafael

    2017-05-01

    Number lines, calendars, and measuring sticks all represent order along some dimension (e.g., magnitude) as position on a line. In high-literacy, industrialized societies, this principle of spatial organization- linear order-is a fixture of visual culture and everyday cognition. But what are the principle's origins, and how did it become such a fixture? Three studies investigated intuitions about linear order in the Yupno, members of a culture of Papua New Guinea that lacks conventional representations involving ordered lines, and in U.S. undergraduates. Presented with cards representing differing sizes and numerosities, both groups arranged them using linear order or sometimes spatial grouping, a competing principle. But whereas the U.S. participants produced ordered lines in all tasks, strongly favoring a left-to-right format, the Yupno produced them less consistently, and with variable orientations. Conventional linear representations are thus not necessary to spark the intuition of linear order-which may have other experiential sources-but they nonetheless regiment when and how the principle is used.

  4. Fitting monthly Peninsula Malaysian rainfall using Tweedie distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunus, R. M.; Hasan, M. M.; Zubairi, Y. Z.

    2017-09-01

    In this study, the Tweedie distribution was used to fit the monthly rainfall data from 24 monitoring stations of Peninsula Malaysia for the period from January, 2008 to April, 2015. The aim of the study is to determine whether the distributions within the Tweedie family fit well the monthly Malaysian rainfall data. Within the Tweedie family, the gamma distribution is generally used for fitting the rainfall totals, however the Poisson-gamma distribution is more useful to describe two important features of rainfall pattern, which are the occurrences (dry months) and the amount (wet months). First, the appropriate distribution of the monthly rainfall was identified within the Tweedie family for each station. Then, the Tweedie Generalised Linear Model (GLM) with no explanatory variable was used to model the monthly rainfall data. Graphical representation was used to assess model appropriateness. The QQ plots of quantile residuals show that the Tweedie models fit the monthly rainfall data better for majority of the stations in the west coast and mid land than those in the east coast of Peninsula. This significant finding suggests that the best fitted distribution depends on the geographical location of the monitoring station. In this paper, a simple model is developed for generating synthetic rainfall data for use in various areas, including agriculture and irrigation. We have showed that the data that were simulated using the Tweedie distribution have fairly similar frequency histogram to that of the actual data. Both the mean number of rainfall events and mean amount of rain for a month were estimated simultaneously for the case that the Poisson gamma distribution fits the data reasonably well. Thus, this work complements previous studies that fit the rainfall amount and the occurrence of rainfall events separately, each to a different distribution.

  5. Modeling soil temperature change in Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debolskiy, M. V.; Nicolsky, D.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Muskett, R. R.; Panda, S. K.

    2017-12-01

    Increasing demand for assessment of climate change-induced permafrost degradation and its consequences promotes creation of high-resolution modeling products of soil temperature changes. This is especially relevant for areas with highly vulnerable warm discontinuous permafrost in the Western Alaska. In this study, we apply ecotype-based modeling approach to simulate high-resolution permafrost distribution and its temporal dynamics in Seward Peninsula, Alaska. To model soil temperature dynamics, we use a transient soil heat transfer model developed at the Geophysical Institute Permafrost Laboratory (GIPL-2). The model solves one dimensional nonlinear heat equation with phase change. The developed model is forced with combination of historical climate and different future scenarios for 1900-2100 with 2x2 km resolution prepared by Scenarios Network for Alaska and Arctic Planning (2017). Vegetation, snow and soil properties are calibrated by ecotype and up-scaled by using Alaska Existing Vegetation Type map for Western Alaska (Flemming, 2015) with 30x30 m resolution provided by Geographic Information Network of Alaska (UAF). The calibrated ecotypes cover over 75% of the study area. We calibrate the model using a data assimilation technique utilizing available observations of air, surface and sub-surface temperatures and snow cover collected by various agencies and research groups (USGS, Geophysical Institute, USDA). The calibration approach takes into account a natural variability between stations in the same ecotype and finds an optimal set of model parameters (snow and soil properties) within the study area. This approach allows reduction in microscale heterogeneity and aggregated soil temperature data from shallow boreholes which is highly dependent on local conditions. As a result of this study we present a series of preliminary high resolution maps for the Seward Peninsula showing changes in the active layer depth and ground temperatures for the current climate

  6. Leishmanicidal evaluation of extracts from native plants of the Yucatan peninsula.

    PubMed

    Peraza-Sánchez, S R; Cen-Pacheco, F; Noh-Chimal, A; May-Pat, F; Simá-Polanco, P; Dumonteil, E; García-Miss, M R; Mut-Martín, M

    2007-06-01

    Methanol extracts were prepared from different parts of 18 plants collected in the Yucatan peninsula and evaluated in an in vitro bioassay for leishmanicidal activity against Leishmania mexicana promastigotes. The ten most potent plant extracts (IC(50)<50 microg/ml) were Aphelandra scabra leaves, Byrsonima bucidaefolia bark, Byrsonima crassifolia bark, Clusia flava leaves, Cupania dentata bark, Diphysa carthagenensis leaves, Dorstenia contrajerva whole plant, Milleria quinqueflora roots, Tridax procumbens whole plant, and Vitex gaumeri bark.

  7. Shaded Relief, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On the left side are four rivers, which flow northwest to the Sea of Okhotsk. These rivers are, from the south to north, Tigil, Amanina, Voyampolka, and Zhilovaya. The broad, flat floodplains of the rivers are shown in blue. These rivers are important spawning grounds for salmon. In the right side of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills to the lower right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and

  8. Longitudinal and Cross-Sectional Genetic Diversity in the Korean Peninsula Based on the P vivax Merozoite Surface Protein Gene.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Yeon; Suh, Eun-Jung; Yu, Hyo-Soon; Jung, Hyun-Sik; Park, In-Ho; Choi, Yien-Kyeoug; Choi, Kyoung-Mi; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Won-Ja

    2011-12-01

    Vivax malaria has reemerged and become endemic in Korea. Our study aimed to analyze by both longitudinal and cross-sectional genetic diversity of this malaria based on the P vivax Merozoite Surface Protein (PvMSP) gene parasites recently found in the Korean peninsula. PvMSP-1 gene sequence analysis from P vivax isolates (n = 835) during the 1996-2010 period were longitudinally analyzed and the isolates from the Korean peninsula through South Korea, the demilitarized zone and North Korea collected in 2008-2010 were enrolled in an overall analysis of MSP-1 gene diversity. New recombinant subtypes and severe multiple-cloneinfection rates were observed in recent vivax parasites. Regional variation was also observed in the study sites. This study revealed the great complexity of genetic variation and rapid dissemination of genes in P vivax. It also showed interesting patterns of diversity depending, on the region in the Korean Peninsula. Understanding the parasiteninsula. Under genetic variation may help to analyze trends and assess the extent of endemic malaria in Korea.

  9. Suez Canal, Gulf of Suez, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt, as seen from the Apollo 7

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1968-10-12

    Suez Canal, Gulf of Suez, Sinai Peninsula, United Arab Republic (Egypt), Mediterranean Sea, as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft during its 13th revolution of the earth. Photographed from an altitude of 126 nautical miles, at ground elapsed time of 19 hours and 42 minutes.

  10. Persistent genetic signatures of colonization in Brachionus manjavacas rotifers in the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Africa; Montero-Pau, Javier; Lunt, David H; Serra, Manuel; Campillo, Sergi

    2007-08-01

    Recent phylogeographical assessments have consistently shown that continental zooplankton display high levels of population subdivision, despite the high dispersal capacity of their diapausing propagules. As such, there is an apparent paradox between observed cosmopolitanism in the zooplankton that is associated with long-distance dispersal, and strong phylogeographical structures at a regional scale. Such population dynamics, far from migration-drift equilibrium, have been shown in the rotifer species complex Brachionus plicatilis, a group of over a dozen species inhabiting salt lakes and coastal lagoons worldwide. Here we present the mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of one of these species, Brachionus manjavacas, in the Iberian Peninsula, where it often co-occurs with the morphologically similar species B. plicatilis sensu stricto. We obtained sequences from 233 individuals from diapausing eggs and clonal cultures from 16 lakes in the Iberian Peninsula, and a Tunisian lake. Two strongly supported deep mitochondrial DNA clades were found (A and B). Phylogenetic and nested clade analysis showed that clade A has a strong phylogeographical structure, with a strong similarity of phylogeographical patterns between B. manjavacas clade A and B. plicatilis s.s. These include (i) signatures of allopatric fragmentation between central and southern populations, and (ii) range expansions in the Iberian Peninsula, both likely to have occurred during the Pleistocene. We find evidence for a glacial refugium in the Guadiana basin. Clades A and B co-occurred in several of these lakes because of range expansion and secondary contact between both clades. The co-occurrence between B. plicatilis s.s. and B. manjavacas is not recent, and both species might have experienced similar environmental challenges during the Pleistocene. The strong correlation of genetic and geographical distance found suggests that historical events can lead to such correlation, mirroring the effects of

  11. Recent Ice Loss from the Fleming and Other Glaciers, Wordie Bay, West Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, E.; Casassa, G.; Gogineni, S.; Kanagaratnam, P.; Krabill, W.; Pritchard, H.; Rivera, A.; Thomas, R.; Turner, J.; Vaughan, D.

    2005-01-01

    Satellite radar interferometry data from 1995 to 2004, and airborne ice thickness data from 2002, reveal that the glaciers flowing into former Wordie Ice Shelf, West Antarctic Peninsula, discharge 6.8 +/- 0.3 km(exp 3)/yr of ice, which is 84 +/- 30 percent larger than a snow accumulation of 3.7 +/- 0.8 km(exp 3)/yr over a 6,300 km(exp 2) drainage basin. Airborne and ICESat laser altimetry elevation data reveal glacier thinning at rates up to 2 m/yr. Fifty km from its ice front, Fleming Glacier flows 50 percent faster than it did in 1974 prior to the main collapse of Wordie Ice Shelf. We conclude that the glaciers accelerated following ice shelf removal, and have been thinning and losing mass to the ocean over the last decade. This and other observations suggest that the mass loss from the northern part of the Peninsula is not negligible at present.

  12. High resolution stalagmite climate record from the Yucatán Peninsula spanning the Maya terminal classic period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina-Elizalde, Martín; Burns, Stephen J.; Lea, David W.; Asmerom, Yemane; von Gunten, Lucien; Polyak, Victor; Vuille, Mathias; Karmalkar, Ambarish

    2010-09-01

    The decline of the Classic Maya civilization was complex and geographically variable, and occurred over a ~ 150-year interval, known as the Terminal Classic Period (TCP, C.E. 800-950). Paleoclimate studies based on lake sediments from the Yucatán Peninsula lowlands suggested that drought prevailed during the TCP and was likely an important factor in the disintegration of the Classic Maya civilization. The lacustrine evidence for decades of severe drought in the Yucatán Peninsula, however, does not readily explain the long 150-year socio-political decline of the Classic Maya civilization. Here we present a new, absolute-dated, high-resolution stalagmite δ18O record from the northwest Yucatán Peninsula that provides a much more detailed picture of climate variability during the last 1500 years. Direct calibration between stalagmite δ18O and rainfall amount offers the first quantitative estimation of rainfall variability during the Terminal Classic Period. Our results show that eight severe droughts, lasting from 3 to 18 years, occurred during major depopulation events of Classic Maya city-states. During these droughts, rainfall was reduced by 52% to 36%. The number and short duration of the dry intervals help explain why the TCP collapse of the Mayan civilization occurred over 150 years.

  13. Influence of finite-time Lyapunov exponents on winter precipitation over the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garaboa-Paz, Daniel; Lorenzo, Nieves; Pérez-Muñuzuri, Vicente

    2017-05-01

    Seasonal forecasts have improved during the last decades, mostly due to an increase in understanding of the coupled ocean-atmosphere dynamics, and the development of models able to predict the atmosphere variability. Correlations between different teleconnection patterns and severe weather in different parts of the world are constantly evolving and changing. This paper evaluates the connection between winter precipitation over the Iberian Peninsula and the large-scale tropospheric mixing over the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLEs) have been calculated from 1979 to 2008 to evaluate this mixing. Our study suggests that significant negative correlations exist between summer FTLE anomalies and winter precipitation over Portugal and Spain. To understand the mechanisms behind this correlation, summer anomalies of the FTLE have also been correlated with other climatic variables such as the sea surface temperature (SST), the sea level pressure (SLP) or the geopotential. The East Atlantic (EA) teleconnection index correlates with the summer FTLE anomalies, confirming their role as a seasonal predictor for winter precipitation over the Iberian Peninsula.

  14. Uranium-series ages of marine terraces, La Paz Peninsula, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sirkin, L.; Szabo, B. J.; Padilla, G.A.; Pedrin, S.A.; Diaz, E.R.

    1990-01-01

    Uranium-series dating of coral samples from raised marine terrace deposits between 1.5 and 10 m above sea level in the La Paz Peninsula area, Baja California Sur, yielded ages between 123 ka and 138 ka that are in agreement with previously reported results. The stratigraphy and ages of marine units near the El Coyote Arroyo indicate the presence of two high stands of the sea during the last interglacial or oxygen isotope substage 5e at about 140 ka and 123 ka. Accepting 5 m for the sea level during the last interglacial transgression, we calculate average uplift rates for the marine terraces of about ???70 mm/ka and 40 mm/ka. These slow rates of uplift indicate a relative stability of the La Paz peninsula area for the past 140 000 years. In contrast, areas of Baja California affected by major faultf experienced higher rates of uplift. Rockwell et al. (1987) reported vertical uplift rates of 180 to 300 mm/ka at Punta Banda within the Aqua Blanea fault zone in northern Baja California. ?? 1990 Springer-Verlag.

  15. Making the most of Papua New Guinea’s biodiversity: Establishment of an integrated set of programs that link botanical survey with pharmacological assessment in “The Land of the Unexpected”

    PubMed Central

    Barrows, L.R.; Matainaho, T.K.; Ireland, C.M.; Miller, S.; Carter, G.T.; Bugni, T.; Rai, P.; Gideon, O.; Manoka, B.; Piskaut, P.; Banka, R.; Kiapranis, R.; Noro, J.N.; Pond, C.D.; Andjelic, C.D.; Koch, M.; Harper, M.K.; Powan, E.; Pole, A.R.; Jensen, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    An integrated and coordinated set of programs has been established to meet ICBG goals in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Here we give an overview of the PNG ICBG and focus on the key elements and major steps taken to establish a program necessary for the pharmacological assessment of botanicals and traditional medicines in PNG and, by extrapolation, in other developing countries. PMID:20016761

  16. Tourism as science and science as tourism: environment, society, self, and other in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    West, Paige

    2008-08-01

    The experience of villagers in Maimafu, in the Crater Mountain Wildlife Management Area of the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea, calls attention to two forms of social interaction between rural people and outsiders that have been little examined in the anthropological literature. One of these is scientific research and the other is scientific tourism, a form of ecotourism that is linked not to science but to self-fashioning and individual gain. Scientific tourists may be seeking an educational adventure that they can turn into symbolic capital on their return home, a way into the world of science, or an experience that can be turned into economic capital through publication in popular magazines. For both researchers and scientific journalists, New Guinea combines the exotic, the about-to-be-lost, the primitive, the untouched, and the spectacular and is therefore a powerful space for imaginary and representational practice.

  17. Monitoring of land-based glaciers on James Ross Island, Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laska, Kamil; Nyvlt, Daniel; Engel, Zbynek; Stachon, Zdenek

    2015-04-01

    Antarctic Peninsula has been considered one of the most rapidly warming parts of our planet during the second half of the 20th century. Therefore, James Ross Island located near the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, represents a unique place to study the sensitivity of glacier systems to regional atmospheric warming. Since 2006, an integrated multidisciplinary study of glaciers and terrestrial ecosystems has been carried out in the northern part of Ulu Peninsula, James Ross Island. In this contribution, glacier monitoring network consisting of four dominant land-based glaciers at the Ulu Peninsula is presented. Davies Dome (DD) is an ice dome, which originates on the surface of a flat volcanic mesa at >400 m a.s.l. and terminates as a single 700 m wide outlet in Whisky Bay. In 2006, Davies Dome had an area of 6.5 km2 and lay in the altitude range 0-514 m a.s.l. Whisky Glacier (WG) is a cold-based land-terminating valley glacier, which is surrounded by an extensive area of debris-covered ice. WG covered an area of 2.4 km2 and ranged from 215 to 520 m a.s.l. Triangular Glacier (TG) is a southwest-facing land-terminating glacier with an area of 0.6 km2 ranging from 302 to 107 m a.s.l. with well-developed ice-cored terminal moraine. San Jose Glacier (SJG) is a south-facing land-terminating piedmont glacier rejuvenated from the above lying Lachman Crags Dome (~640 m a.s.l.). SJG covers an area of 0.6 km2 and extends between 138 and 310 m a.s.l. Moreover, monitoring network consists of five automatic weather stations (AWS) placed in the central and marginal parts of the selected glaciers. Each AWS was equipped with the EMS33 air temperature and humidity probes placed inside the radiation shields. Apart from that, additional instruments, e.g. albedometer, propeller anemometer, snow depth sensors were installed on the central part of DD and WG. Since 2009, annual mass balance measurements have been realized on the DD, WG and TG glaciers. In 2010, ice thickness and

  18. A comparison of daily evaporation downscaled using WRFDA model and GLEAM dataset over the Iberian Peninsula.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José González-Rojí, Santos; Sáenz, Jon; Ibarra-Berastegi, Gabriel

    2017-04-01

    GLEAM dataset was presented a few years ago and since that moment, it has just been used for validation of evaporation in a few places of the world (Australia and Africa). The Iberian Peninsula is composed of different soil types and it is affected by different weather regimes, with different climate regions. It is this feature which makes it a very interesting zone for the study of the meteorological cycle, including evaporation. For that purpose, a numerical downscaling exercise over the Iberian Peninsula was run nesting the WRF model inside ERA Interim. Two model configurations were tested in two experiments spanning the period 2010-2014 after a one-year spin-up (2009). In the first experiment (N), boundary conditions drive the model. The second experiment (D) is configured the same way as the N case, but 3DVAR data assimilation is run every six hours (00Z, 06Z, 12Z and 18Z) using observations obtained from the PREPBUFR dataset. For both N and D runs and ERA Interim, the evaporation of the model runs was compared to GLEAM v3.0b and v3.0c datasets over the Iberian Peninsula, both at the daily and monthly time scales. GLEAM v3.0a was not used for validation as it uses for forcing radiation and air temperature data from ERA Interim. Results show that the experiment with data assimilation (D) improve the results obtained for N experiment. Moreover, correlations values are comparable to the ones obtained with ERA Interim. However, some negative correlation values are observed at Portuguese and Mediterranean coasts for both WRF runs. All of these problematic points are considered as urban sites by the NOAH land surface model. Because of that, the model is not able to simulate a correct evaporation value. Even with these discrepancies, better results than for ERA Interim are observed for seasonal Biases and daily RMSEs over Iberian Peninsula, obtaining the best values inland. Minimal differences are observed for the two GLEAM datasets selected.

  19. Inventory of the tropical coral reef fishes in Wondama Bay regency, West Papua, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madiyani, K. D. P.; Triastuti, J.; Pursetyo, K. T.

    2018-04-01

    Teluk Wondama Regency is one of the areas in West Papua that is part of the Cendrawasih Bay National Park due to its potential of coral fishes. Until now, there is no thorough information that gives the potential diversities of coral fishes species can be found in the waters, and one of the attempts to find out is to carry out an inventory. Inventories were conducted from March to May 2016 in Rariei and Auri (Roon District), Numamuran (Duairi District), Nusrowi (Rumberpon District) and Waprak (Roswar District). The results of these inventories found 28 species of coral fishes in Rariei consisting of 8 genus (Balistapus, Synodus, Pentapodus, Thalassoma, Zebrasoma, Amblyglyphidodon, Chaetodon and Labroides) in Rariei, 11 genus (Abudefduf, Chaetodon, Amphiprion, Cheilinus, Dascyllus, Chromis, Parastromateus, Priacanthus, Epinephelus, Nemipterus and Lutjanus) in Namamuran, 11 genus in Nusrowi (Halichoeres, Pomacentrus, Dischistodus, Heniochus, Amblyglyphidodon, Arothron, Parupeneus, Lutjanus, Plectropomus, Epinephelus and Acanthurus), 4 genus in the waters of Waprak (Parupeneus, Pomacentrus, Chaetodon and Amblyglyphidodon) and 10 genus in Auri (Lutjanus, Pomacentrus, Amphiprion, Chaetodon, Chromis, Dascyllus, Zanclus, Halichoeres, Siganus and Amblyglyphidodon)

  20. Extension of historical range of Betylobraconinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) into Palaearctic Region based on a Baltic amber fossil, and description of a new species of Mesocentrus Szépligeti from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Butcher, Buntika Areekul; Zaldivar-Riverón, Alejandro; Van de Kamp, Thomas; Rolo, Tomy Dos Santos; Baumbach, Tilo; Quicke, Donald L J

    2014-09-09

    Two new species of the parasitic wasp genus Mesocentrus Szépligeti (Betylobraconinae) are described. One based on a new species from Papua New Guinea, the other the first Palaearctic member of the subfamily based on a 30+ mya, species from Baltic amber. The second species is illustrated using synchrotron X-ray microtomography. Whereas the extant Betylobraconinae are restricted to Australia, New Guinea and New Caledonia, their ancestral distribution is now known to have extended considerably further. A key to the four species of Mesocentrus known from Papua New Guinea is provided. Both species possess some putatively plesiomorphic characters absent in other extant Mesocentrus spp. The new extant species differs in having a considerably larger number of antennal segments and a less laterally depressed frons, while the extinct one has the clypeus separated from the face dorsally and strongly developed hypoclypeal depression. Availability of sequence data for this species enabled further analysis of the relationships of the subfamily, which we present in a phylogenetic analysis additionally including the release of a number of new sequences of related taxa.