Colon Pagan, I. C.
Since 1985, the South Florida Metropolitan area (SFMA), which covers the counties of Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach, has been directly affected by 9 tropical cyclones: four tropical storms and 5 hurricanes. This continuous hurricane and tropical storm activity has awakened the conscience of the communities, government, and private sector, about the social vulnerability, in terms of age, gender, ethnicity, and others. Several factors have also been significant enough to affect the vulnerability of the South Florida Metropolitan area, like its geographic location which is at the western part of the Atlantic hurricane track, with a surface area of 6,137 square miles, and elevation of 15 feet. And second, from the 2006 Census estimate, this metropolitan area is the 7th most populous area in the United States supporting almost 1,571 individuals per square mile. Mortality levels due to hurricanes and tropical storms have fluctuated over the last 21 years without any signal of a complete reduction, a phenomenon that can be related to both physical characteristics of the storms and government actions. The average annual death count remains almost the same from 4.10 between 1985 and 1995 to 4 from 1996 to 2006. However, the probability of occurrence of a direct impact of an atmospheric disturbance has increase from 0.3 to 0.6, with an average of three hurricane or tropical storm direct impacts for every five. This analysis suggests an increasing problem with regard to atmospheric disturbances-related deaths in the South Florida Metropolitan area. In other words, despite substantial increases in population during the last 21 years, the number of tropical cyclone-related deaths is not declining; it's just being segregated among more storms. Gaps between each impact can be related to mortality levels. When that time increases in five years or more, such as Bob and Andrew or Irene and Katrina, or decreases in weeks or months, such as Harvey and Irene or Katrina and Wilma
Miner, Michael D.; Kulp, Mark A.; Fitzgerald, Duncan M.; Flocks, James G.; Weathers, H. Dallon
A large deficit in the coastal sediment budget, high rates of relative sea-level rise (~0.9 cm/year), and storm-induced current and wave erosion are forcing barrier shoreface retreat along the periphery of the Mississippi River delta plain. Additionally, conversion of interior wetlands to open water has increased the bay tidal prism, resulting in degradation of barrier islands due to inlet widening, formation of new inlets, and sediment sequestration at ebb-tidal deltas. Single-beam bathymetric surveys along a 165-km stretch of south-central Louisiana barrier coast, from Raccoon Point in Terrebonne Parish to Sandy Point in Plaquemines Parish, were conducted in 2006. These data, combined with historical bathymetry from three time periods (dating to the 1880s), provide a series of digital elevation models that were used to calculate sediment volumetric changes and determine long-term erosional-depositional trends. Dominant patterns during the 125-year period include (1) erosion of ~1.6 × 109 m3 from the shoreface, forcing up to 3 km of shoreface retreat, (2) sediment deposition in coastal bights and at ebb-tidal deltas, and (3) a combined increase in tidal inlet cross-sectional area from ~41,400 m2 to ~139,500 m2. Bathymetric and shoreline change datasets separated by shorter time periods (sub-annual) demonstrate that these long-term trends are driven by processes associated with major hurricane impacts, and that rates of shoreface erosion are an order of magnitude greater during active hurricane seasons compared to long-term trends.
Miner, M.D.; Kulp, M.A.; FitzGerald, D.M.; Flocks, J.G.; Weathers, H.D.
A large deficit in the coastal sediment budget, high rates of relative sea-level rise (???0.9 cm/year), and storm-induced current and wave erosion are forcing barrier shoreface retreat along the periphery of the Mississippi River delta plain. Additionally, conversion of interior wetlands to open water has increased the bay tidal prism, resulting in degradation of barrier islands due to inlet widening, formation of new inlets, and sediment sequestration at ebb-tidal deltas. Single-beam bathymetric surveys along a 165-km stretch of south-central Louisiana barrier coast, from Raccoon Point in Terrebonne Parish to Sandy Point in Plaquemines Parish, were conducted in 2006. These data, combined with historical bathymetry from three time periods (dating to the 1880s), provide a series of digital elevation models that were used to calculate sediment volumetric changes and determine long-term erosional-depositional trends. Dominant patterns during the 125-year period include (1) erosion of ???1.6????????109 m3 from the shoreface, forcing up to 3 km of shoreface retreat, (2) sediment deposition in coastal bights and at ebb-tidal deltas, and (3) a combined increase in tidal inlet cross-sectional area from ???41,400 m2 to ???139,500 m 2. Bathymetric and shoreline change datasets separated by shorter time periods (sub-annual) demonstrate that these long-term trends are driven by processes associated with major hurricane impacts, and that rates of shoreface erosion are an order of magnitude greater during active hurricane seasons compared to long-term trends. ?? 2009 Springer-Verlag.
Plant, Nathaniel G.; Stockdon, Hilary F.; Sallenger,, Asbury H.; Turco, Michael J.; East, Jeffery W.; Taylor, Arthur A.; Shaffer, Wilson A.
Extreme storms can have a profound impact on coastal topography and thus on ecosystems and human-built structures within coastal regions. For instance, landfalls of several recent major hurricanes have caused significant changes to the U.S. coastline, particularly along the Gulf of Mexico. Some of these hurricanes (e.g., Ivan in 2004, Katrina and Rita in 2005, and Gustav and Ike in 2008) led to shoreline position changes of about 100 meters. Sand dunes, which protect the coast from waves and surge, eroded, losing several meters of elevation in the course of a single storm. Observations during these events raise the question of how storm-related changes affect the future vulnerability of a coast.
A hurricane is a severe type of tropical storm. Hurricanes produce high winds, heavy rains and thunderstorms. ... exceed 155 miles per hour. Hurricanes and tropical storms can also spawn tornadoes and lead to flooding. ...
Stronko, Jakob M.
Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. In response to this natural disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received a total of $41.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to support response, recovery, and rebuilding efforts. These funds support a science plan that will provide critical scientific information necessary to inform management decisions for recovery of coastal communities, and aid in preparation for future natural hazards. This science plan is designed to coordinate continuing USGS activities with stakeholders and other agencies to improve data collection and analysis that will guide recovery and restoration efforts. The science plan is split into five distinct themes: coastal topography and bathymetry, impacts to coastal beaches and barriers, impacts of storm surge, including disturbed estuarine and bay hydrology, impacts on environmental quality and persisting contaminant exposures, impacts to coastal ecosystems, habitats, and fish and wildlife. This fact sheet focuses assessing impacts to coastal beaches and barriers.
Pfost, Russell L.
This paper reexamines two historic South Florida hurricanes, the "Miami" Hurricane of 1926, and the "Okeechobee" Hurricane of 1928. These storms are frequently cited for their disastrous impacts, but the casualty figures currently associated with them are low due to underreporting of nonwhite persons and other sociological factors. More accurate information is available, and to put the impact of these storms in a better historical perspective, the casualty figures associated with them should be corrected.
In terms of insured losses, Hurricane Andrew is the most severe catastrophe in the Nation's history. Prior to the arrival of Andrew, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Louisiana Geological Survey (LGS), acquired an extensive body of information and data on the behavior and long-term erosion of Louisiana barrier islands. As a result, we have a clear understanding of pre-storm conditions in this area; Andrew provided an opportunity to learn in detail the impact of a very large storm on Louisiana coastal environment.
Rohrbach, Louise A; Grana, Rachel; Vernberg, Eric; Sussman, Steve; Sun, Ping
Little systematic research attention has been devoted to the impact of natural disasters on adolescent substance use. The present study examined relationships among exposure to Hurricane Rita, post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, and changes in adolescent substance use from 13 months pre-disaster to seven and 19 months post-disaster. Subjects were 280 high school students in southwestern Louisiana who participated in a drug abuse prevention intervention trial prior to the hurricane. Two-thirds of participants were female and 68% were white. Students completed surveys at baseline (13 months pre-hurricane) and two follow-ups (seven and 19 months post-hurricane). Results indicated a positive bivariate relationship between PTS symptoms, assessed at 7 months post-hurricane, and increases in alcohol (p < .05) and marijuana use (p < .10) from baseline to the 7 months post-hurricane follow-up. When these associations were examined collectively with other hurricane-related predictors in multivariate regression models, PTS symptoms did not predict increases in substance use. However, objective exposure to the hurricane predicted increases in marijuana use, and post-hurricane negative life events predicted increases in all three types of substance use (ps < .10). These findings suggest that increased substance use may be one of the behaviors that adolescents exhibit in reaction to exposure to hurricanes.
... Top What Teachers Can Do to Help Their Students In a school with many students affected by a hurricane, plan shorter lessons, go ... decline in performance for a short time. Identify students who had direct experience with the hurricane, particularly ...
Marcelin, Louis Herns; Cela, Toni; Shultz, James M.
ABSTRACT This article examines disaster preparedness and community responses to Hurricane Matthew in semi-urban and rural towns and villages in Grande-Anse, Haiti. Based on an ethnographic study conducted in the department of Grande-Anse one week after the hurricane made landfall in Haiti, the article focuses on the perspectives of citizens, community-based associations and local authorities in the affected areas. Sixty-three (63) interviews and 8 community meetings (focus groups) were conducted in 11 impacted sites in 8 communes. Results suggest that preexisting conditions in impacted communities, rather than deliberate and coordinated disaster management strategies, shaped levels of preparedness for and response to the disaster. Affected populations relied primarily on family networks and local forms of solidarity to attend to basic needs such as shelter, health and food. The main argument presented is that Haiti, by virtue of its geographic location, lack of resources, institutional fragility and vulnerability, must systematically integrate community-based assets and capacities in its responses to and management of disasters. Further, it is critical for the government, Haitian institutions, and society to apply integrated risk reduction and management and disaster preparedness measures in all aspects of life, if the country is to survive the many disasters to come in a time of climate change. These measures should be embedded in recovery and reconstruction efforts after Hurricane Matthew. PMID:28321361
Marcelin, Louis Herns; Cela, Toni; Shultz, James M
This article examines disaster preparedness and community responses to Hurricane Matthew in semi-urban and rural towns and villages in Grande-Anse, Haiti. Based on an ethnographic study conducted in the department of Grande-Anse one week after the hurricane made landfall in Haiti, the article focuses on the perspectives of citizens, community-based associations and local authorities in the affected areas. Sixty-three (63) interviews and 8 community meetings (focus groups) were conducted in 11 impacted sites in 8 communes. Results suggest that preexisting conditions in impacted communities, rather than deliberate and coordinated disaster management strategies, shaped levels of preparedness for and response to the disaster. Affected populations relied primarily on family networks and local forms of solidarity to attend to basic needs such as shelter, health and food. The main argument presented is that Haiti, by virtue of its geographic location, lack of resources, institutional fragility and vulnerability, must systematically integrate community-based assets and capacities in its responses to and management of disasters. Further, it is critical for the government, Haitian institutions, and society to apply integrated risk reduction and management and disaster preparedness measures in all aspects of life, if the country is to survive the many disasters to come in a time of climate change. These measures should be embedded in recovery and reconstruction efforts after Hurricane Matthew.
Nikitina, Daria; Horton, Benjamin; Khan, Nicole; Clear, Jennifer; Shaw, Timothy; Enache, Mihaela; Frizzera, Dorina; Procopio, Nick; Potapova, Marina
Hurricanes along the US Atlantic coast have caused significant damage and loss of human life over the last century. Recent studies suggest that intense-hurricane activity is closely related to changes of sea surface temperatures and therefore the risk of hurricane strikes may increase in the future. A clear understanding of the role of recent warming on tropical cyclone activity is limited by the shortness of the instrumental record. However, the sediment preserved beneath coastal wetlands is an archive of when hurricanes impacted the coast. We present two complimenting approaches that help to extend pre-historic record and assess frequency and intensity of hurricane landfalls along the New Jersey cost; dating overwash deposits and hurricane-induced salt-marsh erosion documented at multiple sites. The stratigraphic investigation of estuarine salt marshes in the southern New Jersey documented seven distinctive erosion events that correlate among different sites. Radiocarbon dates suggest the prehistoric events occurred in AD 558-673, AD 429-966, AD 558-673, Ad 1278-1438, AD 1526-1558 or AD 1630-1643 (Nikitina et al., 2014). Younger sequences correspond with historical land-falling hurricanes in AD 1903 and AD 1821 or AD 1788. Four events correlate well with barrier overwash deposits documented along the New Jersey coast (Donnelley et al., 2001 and 2004). The stratigraphic sequence of salt High resolution sedimentary-based reconstructions of past intense-hurricane landfalls indicate that significant variability in the frequency of intense hurricanes occurred over the last 2000 years.
McNulty, Steven G
Recent focus has been given to US forests as a sink for increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide. Current estimates of US forest carbon sequestration average approximately 20 Tg (i.e. 10(12) g) year. However, predictions of forest carbon sequestration often do not include the influence of hurricanes on forest carbon storage. Intense hurricanes occur two out of three years across the eastern US. A single storm can convert the equivalent of 10% of the total annual carbon sequestrated by US forests into dead and downed biomass. Given that forests require at least 15 years to recover from a severe storm, a large amount of forest carbon is lost either directly (through biomass destruction) or indirectly (through lost carbon sequestration capacity) due to hurricanes. Only 15% of the total carbon in destroyed timber is salvaged following a major hurricane. The remainder of the carbon is left to decompose and eventually return to the atmosphere. Short-term increases in forest productivity due to increased nutrient inputs from detritus are not fully compensated by reduced stem stocking, and the recovery time needed to recover leaf area. Therefore, hurricanes are a significant factor in reducing short-term carbon storage in US forests.
Tian, Xian-Liang; Guan, Xian
Objective: The objective of this paper is to examine the impact of Hurricane Katrina on displaced students’ behavioral disorder. Methods: First, we determine displaced students’ likelihood of discipline infraction each year relative to non-evacuees using all K12 student records of the U.S. state of Louisiana during the period of 2000–2008. Second, we investigate the impact of hurricane on evacuee students’ in-school behavior in a difference-in-difference framework. The quasi-experimental nature of the hurricane makes this framework appropriate with the advantage that the problem of endogeneity is of least concern and the causal effect of interest can be reasonably identified. Results: Preliminary analysis demonstrates a sharp increase in displaced students’ relative likelihood of discipline infraction around 2005 when the hurricane occurred. Further, formal difference-in-difference analysis confirms the results. To be specific, post Katrina, displaced students’ relative likelihood of any discipline infraction has increased by 7.3% whereas the increase in the relative likelihood for status offense, offense against person, offense against property and serious crime is 4%, 1.5%, 3.8% and 2.1%, respectively. Conclusion: When disasters occur, as was the case with Hurricane Katrina, in addition to assistance for adult evacuees, governments, in cooperation with schools, should also provide aid and assistance to displaced children to support their mental health and in-school behavior. PMID:26006127
Stockdon, H.F.; Thompson, D.M.; Sallenger, A.H.
Hindcasts of the coastal impact of Hurricane Ivan on Santa Rosa Island, Florida, using a storm-impact scaling model that compares hurricane-induced water levels to local dune morphology, were found to have an accuracy of 68% in predicting the occurrence of one of four impact regimes: swash, collision, overwash, and inundation. Errors were overwhelming under-predictions of the regime where the observed response was more extreme than had been expected. This is related to the evolution of the profile during the storm. Mean pre-storm dune elevations decreased by 1.9 m over the 75-km long island as most of the dunes were completely eroded during the storm. Dramatic morphologic change during a hurricane makes barrier islands more vulnerable to overwash and inundation than will be predicted based on pre-storm dune parameters. Incorporation of the timing of rising water levels relative to storm-induced profile evolution is required to improve model accuracy.
of latlll I Ihe central pressore had dropped to 946 mb. onshore winds in excess of 200 km/hr were lashing the Alabama I-~to infd thie open coast toerin...relationship between the hurricane tide height lowing criteria. Large lateral extent of’ horizontal. upper flow , and the barrier profile. regime, planar...stratification Each set is some 10 to 20 cr0 These fans are characterized byv wide con tinhi-its upper- flow thick. Tahular cross-stratif aioofviblthcnsisa
Jayakaran, A. D.; Williams, T. M.; Ssegane, H.; Amatya, D. M.; Song, B.; Trettin, C. C.
Hurricanes are infrequent but influential disruptors of ecosystem processes in the southeastern Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Every southeastern forested wetland has the potential to be struck by a tropical cyclone. We examined the impact of Hurricane Hugo on two paired coastal watersheds in South Carolina in terms of stream flow and vegetation dynamics, both before and after the hurricane's passage in 1989. The study objectives were to quantify the magnitude and timing of changes including a reversal in relative streamflow-difference between two paired watersheds, and to examine the selective impacts of a hurricane on the vegetative composition of the forest. We related these impacts to their potential contribution to change watershed hydrology through altered evapotranspiration processes. Using over thirty years of monthly rainfall and streamflow data we showed that there was a significant transformation in the hydrologic character of the two watersheds - a transformation that occurred soon after the hurricane's passage. We linked the change in the rainfall-runoff relationship to a catastrophic shift in forest vegetation due to selective hurricane damage. While both watersheds were located in the path of the hurricane, extant forest structure varied between the two watersheds as a function of experimental forest management techniques on the treatment watershed. We showed that the primary damage was to older pines, and to some extent larger hardwood trees. We believe that lowered vegetative water use impacted both watersheds with increased outflows on both watersheds due to loss of trees following hurricane impact. However, one watershed was able to recover to pre hurricane levels of canopy transpiration at a quicker rate due to the greater abundance of pine seedlings and saplings in that watershed.
Jayakaran, A. D.; Williams, T. M.; Ssegane, H.; Amatya, D. M.; Song, B.; Trettin, C. C.
Hurricanes are infrequent but influential disruptors of ecosystem processes in the southeastern Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Every southeastern forested wetland has the potential to be struck by a tropical cyclone. We examined the impact of Hurricane Hugo on two paired coastal South Carolina watersheds in terms of streamflow and vegetation dynamics, both before and after the hurricane's passage in 1989. The study objectives were to quantify the magnitude and timing of changes including a reversal in relative streamflow difference between two paired watersheds, and to examine the selective impacts of a hurricane on the vegetative composition of the forest. We related these impacts to their potential contribution to change watershed hydrology through altered evapotranspiration processes. Using over 30 years of monthly rainfall and streamflow data we showed that there was a significant transformation in the hydrologic character of the two watersheds - a transformation that occurred soon after the hurricane's passage. We linked the change in the rainfall-runoff relationship to a catastrophic change in forest vegetation due to selective hurricane damage. While both watersheds were located in the path of the hurricane, extant forest structure varied between the two watersheds as a function of experimental forest management techniques on the treatment watershed. We showed that the primary damage was to older pines, and to some extent larger hardwood trees. We believe that lowered vegetative water use impacted both watersheds with increased outflows on both watersheds due to loss of trees following hurricane impact. However, one watershed was able to recover to pre hurricane levels of evapotranspiration at a quicker rate due to the greater abundance of pine seedlings and saplings in that watershed.
Taylor, Ian L.
On Monday, August 29, 2005 Hurricane Katrina passed east of New Orleans causing minimal damage to Tulane's Medical Center. Later that day, levees that protected the city failed and several feet of water entered the hospitals and school buildings. Emergency generators provided power for 36 hours before running out of fuel. Temperatures in the hospitals soared into the upper 90's and conditions were made intolerable by 100% humidity and backed-up sewage. For several days, faculty, residents, nurses and hospital personnel performed heroically, caring for patients in appalling conditions, hand-ventilating critically ill patients in shifts. Approximately 200 patients, and 1500 additional personnel would be evacuated on Wednesday and Thursday from a makeshift heliport on Tulane's parking garage. Current disaster plans may be inadequate should facilities be inaccessible for months because of damage or contamination. Contingency plans also need to be made should outside disaster relief be markedly delayed as was the case with Katrina. PMID:18528490
Stronko, Jakob M.
Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. In response to this natural disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received a total of $41.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to support response, recovery, and rebuilding efforts. These funds support a science plan that will provide critical scientific information necessary to inform management decisions for recovery of coastal communities, and aid in preparation for future natural hazards. This science plan is designed to coordinate continuing USGS activities with stakeholders and other agencies to improve data collection and analysis that will guide recovery and restoration efforts. The science plan is split into five distinct themes: • Coastal topography and bathymetry • Impacts to coastal beaches and barriers • Impacts of storm surge, including disturbed estuarine and bay hydrology • Impacts on environmental quality and persisting contaminant exposures • Impacts to coastal ecosystems, habitats, and fish and wildlife This fact sheet focuses on coastal topography and bathymetry. This fact sheet focuses on coastal topography and bathymetry.
Barras, John A.
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessed changes in land and water coverage in coastal Louisiana within 2 months of Hurricane Gustav (September 1, 2008) and Hurricane Ike (September 13, 2008) by using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite imagery. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to provide preliminary information on land-water area changes in coastal Louisiana shortly after Hurricanes Ike and Gustav made landfall and (2) to contrast these changes with prior, widespread land area changes caused by Hurricane Katrina (August 29, 2005) and Hurricane Rita (September 24, 2005) 3 years earlier. Hurricane Gustav's physical surge impacts were not as severe as those observed from Hurricane Katrina. The largest observed changes were the reversion of recovery vegetation in Upper Breton Sound to an immediate post-Katrina appearance. Hurricane Ike's surge impacts were similar, although of somewhat lesser magnitude than Hurricane Rita's surge impacts. Major surge-removed marsh occurred in similar locations with similar morphologies from the two westward tracking storms. Although the net reduction in land from 2004 to 2008 (849.5 km2) exceeded that from 1978 to 2004 (743.3 km2), it is likely that the 2004-08 estimate will decrease, given time for the coast to recover from those hurricane seasons. Nevertheless, it is likely that the cumulative loss from these hurricane seasons will remain significant. Estimation of permanent losses cannot be made until several growing seasons have passed and the transitory impacts of the hurricanes are accounted for.
Tao, Wei-Kuo; Shi, Jainn Jong; Chen, Shuyi S.; Lang, Stephen; Lin, Pay-Liam; Hong, Song-You; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Hou, Arthur
During the past decade, both research and operational numerical weather prediction models [e.g. the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF)] have started using more complex microphysical schemes originally developed for high-resolution cloud resolving models (CRMs) with 1-2 km or less horizontal resolutions. WRF is a next-generation meso-scale forecast model and assimilation system. It incorporates a modern software framework, advanced dynamics, numerics and data assimilation techniques, a multiple moveable nesting capability, and improved physical packages. WRF can be used for a wide range of applications, from idealized research to operational forecasting, with an emphasis on horizontal grid sizes in the range of 1-10 km. The current WRF includes several different microphysics options. At NASA Goddard, four different cloud microphysics options have been implemented into WRF. The performance of these schemes is compared to those of the other microphysics schemes available in WRF for an Atlantic hurricane case (Katrina). In addition, a brief review of previous modeling studies on the impact of microphysics schemes and processes on the intensity and track of hurricanes is presented and compared against the current Katrina study. In general, all of the studies show that microphysics schemes do not have a major impact on track forecasts but do have more of an effect on the simulated intensity. Also, nearly all of the previous studies found that simulated hurricanes had the strongest deepening or intensification when using only warm rain physics. This is because all of the simulated precipitating hydrometeors are large raindrops that quickly fall out near the eye-wall region, which would hydrostatically produce the lowest pressure. In addition, these studies suggested that intensities become unrealistically strong when evaporative cooling from cloud droplets and melting from ice particles are removed as this results in much weaker downdrafts in the simulated
Van Biersel, T. P.; Carlson, D.A.; Milner, L.R.
Ocean surges onto coastal lowlands caused by tropical and extra tropical storms, tsunamis, and sea level rise affect all coastal lowlands and present a threat to drinking water resources of many coastal residents. In 2005, two such storms, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita struck the Gulf Coast of the US. Since September 2005, water samples have been collected from water wells impacted by the hurricanes' storm surges along the north shore of Lake Pontchartrain in southeastern Louisiana. The private and public water wells tested were submerged by 0.6-4.5 m of surging saltwater for several hours. The wells' casing and/or the associated plumbing were severely damaged. Water samples were collected to determine if storm surge water inundated the well casing and, if so, its effect on water quality within the shallow aquifers of the Southern Hills Aquifer System. In addition, the samples were used to determine if the impact on water quality may have long-term implication for public health. Laboratory testing for several indicator parameters (Ca/Mg, Cl/Si, chloride, boron, specific conductance and bacteria) indicates that surge water entered water wells' casing and the screened aquifer. Analysis of the groundwater shows a decrease in the Ca/Mg ratio right after the storm and then a return toward pre-Katrina values. Chloride concentrations were elevated right after Katrina and Rita, and then decreased downward toward pre-Katrina values. From September 2005 to June 2006, the wells showed improvement in all the saltwater intrusion indicators. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.
Late Monday night, September 9, and into the early morning hours of Tuesday, September 10, 1996, Hurricane Hortense passed over the southwestern part of Puerto Rico (inset). Hurricane Hortense made landfall as a Category One Hurricane (74 to 95 miles per hour) on the Saffir-Simpson Scale, with maximum sustained winds of nearly 80 miles per hour. The eye of Hurricane Hortense moved over the towns of Guayanilla, Yauco, Guánica, Lajas, San Germán, Cabo Rojo, Hormigueros, and Mayagüez (fig. 1).
Bythell, John C.; Hillis-Star, Zandy M; Rogers, Caroline S.
Coral reef community structure has remained remarkably stable over a 10 yr period within a small protected marine area despite repeated hurricane impacts. Local community dynamics have been highly variable, however. Sites that were destroyed by disease in the 1970s are showing little or no recovery, while sites less than a kilometre away that were devastated by Hurricane Hugo in 1989 are recovering well. Strong coral recruitment has occurred in shallow, exposed areas that showed the greatest hurricane impacts, and these areas are now more species rich than in 1988, although coral cover has not reached pre-hurricane levels. Coral colony survivorship has been high throughout most of the study area. Partial mortality rates were elevated for several years following Hurricane Hugo, but significant whole coral-head mortality only occurred during periods with hurricane impacts and only at the most exposed sites. Overall, the coral community has proved resilient to closely repeated major hurricane impacts. From a single case study we cannot attribute this resilience to the relatively low level of human impacts, but grazing fish populations have apparently remained high enough to keep macroalgae in check despite the mass mortality of the herbivore Diadema antillarum in the 1980s.
Faulkner, Stephen; Barrow, Wylie; Couvillion, Brady R.; Conner, William; Randall, Lori; Baldwin, Michael
Floodplain forests are an important habitat for Neotropical migratory birds. Hurricane Katrina passed through the Pearl River flood plain shortly after making landfall. Field measurements on historical plots and remotely sensed data were used to assess the impact of Hurricane Katrina on the structure of floodplain forests of the Pearl River.
Hall, Timothy M.; Sobel, Adam H.
Hurricane Sandy's track crossed the New Jersey coastline at an angle closer to perpendicular than any previous hurricane in the historic record, one of the factors contributing to recordsetting peak-water levels in parts of New Jersey and New York. To estimate the occurrence rate of Sandy-like tracks, we use a stochastic model built on historical hurricane data from the entire North Atlantic to generate a large sample of synthetic hurricanes. From this synthetic set we calculate that under long-term average climate conditions, a hurricane of Sandy's intensity or greater (category 1+) makes NJ landfall at an angle at least as close to perpendicular as Sandy's at an average annual rate of 0.0014 yr-1 (95% confidence range 0.0007 to 0.0023); i.e., a return period of 714 years (95% confidence range 435 to 1429).
Hall, Timothy M.; Sobel, Adam H.
Hurricane Sandy's track crossed the New Jersey coastline at an angle closer to perpendicular than any previous hurricane in the historic record, one of the factors contributing to record-setting peak-water levels in parts of New Jersey and New York. To estimate the occurrence rate of Sandy-like tracks, we use a stochastic model built on historical hurricane data from the entire North Atlantic to generate a large sample of synthetic hurricanes. From this synthetic set we calculate that under long-term average climate conditions, a hurricane of Sandy's intensity or greater (category 1+) makes NJ landfall at an angle at least as close to perpendicular as Sandy's at an average annual rate of 0.0014 yr-1 (95% confidence range 0.0007 to 0.0023); i.e., a return period of 714 years (95% confidence range 435 to 1429).
Lowe, Sarah R; Rhodes, Jean E; Zwiebach, Liza; Chan, Christian S
Associations between pet loss and posthurricane perceived social support and psychological distress were explored. Participants (N = 365) were primarily low-income African American single mothers who were initially part of an educational intervention study. All participants were exposed to Hurricane Katrina, and 47% experienced Hurricane Rita. Three waves of survey data, two from before the hurricanes, were included. Sixty-three participants (17.3%) reported losing a pet due to the hurricanes and their aftermath. Pet loss significantly predicted postdisaster distress, above and beyond demographic variables, pre- and postdisaster perceived social support, predisaster distress, hurricane-related stressors, and human bereavement, an association that was stronger for younger participants. Pet loss was not a significant predictor of postdisaster perceived social support, but the impact of pet loss on perceived social support was significantly greater for participants with low levels of predisaster support.
... Hurricane and Storm Damage Reduction for South Ponte Vedra Beach, Vilano Beach, and Summer Haven Beach... Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for evaluation of the feasibility of providing hurricane and... in the interest of beach erosion control, hurricane protection and related purposes, provided...
SHORT COMMUNICATION Documenting hurricane impacts on coral reefs using two- dimensional video-mosaic technology Arthur C. R. Gleason1, Diego Lirman1...sequence of four hurricanes impacted the reefs of the Florida Keys. Damage patterns to coral reefs are commonly influenced by the strength, path, and...physical disturbance on coral reefs and can be used to complement existing survey methodologies. Marine Ecology. ISSN 0173-9565 254 Marine Ecology 28
Burkholder, JoAnn; Eggleston, David; Glasgow, Howard; Brownie, Cavell; Reed, Robert; Janowitz, Gerald; Posey, Martin; Melia, Greg; Kinder, Carol; Corbett, Reide; Toms, David; Alphin, Troy; Deamer, Nora; Springer, Jeffrey
Ecosystem-level impacts of two hurricane seasons were compared several years after the storms in the largest lagoonal estuary in the U.S., the Albemarle–Pamlico Estuarine System. A segmented linear regression flow model was developed to compare mass-water transport and nutrient loadings to a major artery, the Neuse River Estuary (NRE), and to estimate mean annual versus storm-related volume delivery to the NRE and Pamlico Sound. Significantly less water volume was delivered by Hurricane Fran (1996), but massive fish kills occurred in association with severe dissolved oxygen deficits and high contaminant loadings (total nitrogen, total phosphorus, suspended solids, and fecal bacteria). The high water volume of the second hurricane season (Hurricanes Dennis, Floyd, and Irene in 1999) delivered generally comparable but more dilute contaminant loads, and no major fish kills were reported. There were no discernable long-term adverse impacts on water quality. Populations of undesirable organisms, such as toxic dinoflagellates, were displaced down-estuary to habitats less conducive for growth. The response of fisheries was species-dependent: there was no apparent impact of the hurricanes on commercial landings of bivalve molluscs or shrimp. In contrast, interacting effects of hurricane floodwaters in 1999 and intensive fishing pressure led to striking reductions in blue crabs. Overall, the data support the premise that, in shallow estuaries frequently disturbed by hurricanes, there can be relatively rapid recovery in water quality and biota, and benefit from the scouring activity of these storms. PMID:15199179
Reible, D. D.
The flooding of New Orleans by Hurricane Katrina provides many lessons for the environmental and engineering communities and raises serious public policy questions about risk management. Although serious environmental and waste management concerns were highlighted as a result of the flooding, many were not observed in the extensive environmental sampling that occurred. The potential environmental consequences were of concern because of the many chemical plants, petroleum facilities, and contaminated sites, including Superfund sites, in the areas covered by floodwaters. The potential sources of toxics and environmental contaminants included metal-contaminated soils typical of old urban areas. Compounding these concerns is the presence of hazardous chemicals commonly stored in households and commercial establishments and the fuel and motor oil in approximately 350,000 flooded automobiles. Uncontrolled biological wastes from both human and animal sources also contributed to the pollutant burden. There were concerns associated with the immediate impacts of the flooding, the disposal of the debris and wastes in the aftermath, as well as the long- term legacy associated with contaminants in homes and yards. This discussion focuses on successes and failures in responding to each of these concerns as well as lessons learned for future major flooding events. Special attention is paid to some of the unique hazards posed by Katrina, including water quality impacts associated with debris disposal, high indoor concentrations of contaminants due to fractionation from outdoor soils, and mold.
Ramsey, Elijah W.; Spruce, Joseph; Rangoonwala, Amina; Suzuoki, Yukihiro; Smoot, James; Gasser, Jerry; Bannister, Terri
We studied the use of daily satellite data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors to assess wetland forest damage and recovery from Hurricane Katrina (29 August 2005 landfall). Processed MODIS daily vegetation index (VI) trends were consistent with previously determined impact and recovery patterns provided by the "snapshot" 25 m Landsat Thematic Mapper optical and RADARSAT-1 synthetic aperture radar satellite data. Phenological trends showed high 2004 and 2005 pre-hurricane temporal correspondence within bottomland hardwood forest communities, except during spring green-up, and temporal dissimilarity between these hardwoods and nearby cypress-tupelo swamp forests (Taxodium distichum [baldcypress] and Nyssa aquatica [water tupelo]). MODIS VI trend analyses established that one year after impact, cypress-tupelo and lightly impacted hardwood forests had recovered to near pre-hurricane conditions. In contrast, canopy recovery lagged in the moderately and severely damaged hardwood forests, possibly reflecting regeneration of pre-hurricane species and stand-level replacement by invasive trees.
Hammond, A L
This is the third is a continuing series of articles on natural disasters, their prediction and mnodification, and progress in understanding the physical bases of these phenomena. Two earlier articles (Science, 25 May, p. 851, and 1 June, p. 940) reported advances in earthquake prediction. Hurricanes are the subject here. Generally less devastating than major earthquakes-although a single hurricane in 1970 killed an estimated 200,000 persons in Bangladesh-these storms are still the most destructive of all atmospheric phenomena. A recent report of the National Academy of Sciences (see box) recommends that efforts to modify hurricanes and other severe storms become a national goal.
Stockdon, Hilary; Sallenger, Abby
Beaches serve as a natural barrier between the ocean and inland communities, ecosystems, and resources. These dynamic environments move and change in response to winds, waves, and currents. During a powerful hurricane, changes to beaches can be large, and the results are sometimes catastrophic. Lives are lost, communities are destroyed, and millions of dollars are spent on rebuilding. There is a clear need to identify areas of our coastline that are likely to experience extreme and devastating erosion during a hurricane. It is also important to determine risk levels associated with development in areas where the land shifts and moves with each landfalling storm. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides scientific support for hurricane planning and response. Using observations of beach changes and models of waves and storm surge, we are predicting how the coast will respond to hurricanes and identifying areas vulnerable to extreme coastal changes.
Zhang, H.; Pu, Z.
Accurate forecasts of the track, intensity and structure of a landfalling hurricane can save lives and mitigate social impacts. Over the last two decades, significant improvements have been achieved for hurricane forecasts. However, only a few of studies have emphasized landfalling hurricanes. Specifically, there are difficulties in predicting hurricane landfall due to the uncertainties in representing the atmospheric near-surface conditions in numerical weather prediction models, the complicated interaction between the atmosphere and the ocean, and the multiple-scale dynamical and physical processes accompanying storm development. In this study, the impact of the assimilation of conventional and satellite observations on the predictability of landfalling hurricanes is examined by using a mesoscale community Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and an ensemble Kalman filter developed by NCAR Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART). Hurricane Katrina (2005) was chosen as a case study since it was one of the deadliest disasters in US history. The minimum sea level pressure from the best track, QuikScat ocean surface wind vectors, surface mesonet observations, airborne Doppler radar derived wind components and available conventional observations are assimilated in a series of experiments to examine the data impacts on the predictability of Hurricane Katrina. The analyses and forecasts show that ensemble-based data assimilation significantly improves the forecast of Hurricane Katrina. The assimilation improves the track forecast through modifying the storm structures and related environmental fields. Cyclonic increments are clearly seen in vorticity and wind analyses. Temperature and humidity fields are also modified by the data assimilation. The changes in relevant fields help organize the structure of the storm, intensify the circulation, and result in a positive impact on the evolution of the storm in both analyses and forecasts. The forecasts in the
Palaseanu-Lovejoy, Monica; Kranenburg, Christine J.; Brock, John C.
The purpose of this project is to provide improved estimates of Louisiana wetland land loss due to hurricane impacts between 2004 and 2009 based upon a change detection mapping analysis that incorporates pre- and post-landfall (Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, Gustav, and Ike) fractional water classification of a combination of high resolution (QuickBird, IKONOS and Geoeye-1) and medium resolution (Landsat) satellite imagery. This second dataset focuses on Hurricanes Katrina and Gustav, which made landfall on August 29, 2005, and September 1, 2008, respectively. The study area is an approximately 1208-square-kilometer region surrounding Delacroix, Louisiana, in the eastern Delta Plain. Overall, 77 percent of the area remained unchanged between 2004 and 2009, and over 11 percent of the area was changed permanently by Hurricane Katrina (including both land gain and loss). Less than 3 percent was affected, either temporarily or permanently, by Hurricane Gustav. A related dataset (SIM 3141) focused on Hurricane Rita, which made landfall on the Louisiana/Texas border on September 24, 2005, as a Category 3 hurricane.
Whelan, T; Van Tussenbroek, B I; Santos, M G Barba
Major hurricanes Emily and Wilma hit the Mexican Caribbean in 2005. Changes in trace metals in the seagrass Thalassia testudinum prior to (May 2004, 2005) and following passage of these hurricanes (May, June 2006) were determined at four locations along a ≈ 130 km long stretch of coast. Before the hurricanes, essential metals were likely limiting and concentrations of potentially toxic Pb were high in a contaminated lagoon (27.5 μg g(-1)) and near submarine springs (6.10 μg g(-1)); the likely sources were inland sewage disposal or excessive boat traffic. After the hurricanes, Pb decreased to 2.0 μg g(-1) in the contaminated lagoon probably through flushing. At the northern sites, essential Fe increased >2-fold (from 26.8 to 68.3 μg g(-1) on average), possibly from remobilization of anoxic sediments or upwelling of deep seawater during Wilma. Thus, hurricanes can be beneficial to seagrass beds in flushing toxic metals and replenishing essential elements.
Lau, William K. M.; Kim, K. M.
In this paper, we present observational evidence of significant relationships between Saharan dust outbreak, and African Easterly wave activities and hurricane activities. We found two dominant paths of transport of Saharan dust: a northern path, centered at 25degN associated with eastward propagating 6-19 days waves over northern Africa, and a southern path centered at 15degN, associated with the AEW, and the Atlantic ITCZ. Seasons with stronger dust outbreak from the southern path are associated with a drier atmosphere over the Maximum Development Region (MDR) and reduction in tropical cyclone and hurricane activities in the MDR. Seasons with stronger outbreak from the northern path are associated with a cooler N. Atlantic, and suppressed hurricane in the western Atlantic basin.
Hou, A.; Laws, E. A.; Gambrell, R. P.
On August 29, 2005 Hurricane Katrina made landfall on the Gulf Coast of the United States, causing extensive damage to coastal communities in Mississippi, Louisiana, and Alabama. The hurricane produced an estimated storm surge of 3-3.5 m near the city of New Orleans, and by late morning of August 29 had caused several sections of the levee system in New Orleans to collapse. Subsequent flooding over 80% of the city, much of which lies below sea level, resulted in widespread damage. By September 6 breaks in the levee system had been repaired, and efforts to pump out the floodwaters were underway. Most of the floodwaters pumped out of the city had been discharged to Lake Pontchartrain, which lies directly north of the city. Concerns about the environmental impact of discharging this water to Lake Pontchartrain have been expressed by the public, scientific community, and government officials. Storm and wastewater runoff from urban areas are often polluted by pathogens, heavy metals, nutrients, and solid waste materials. Perhaps the greatest concern about the Katrina floodwaters from a human health standpoint is the presence of pathogens, presumably a consequence of disabled sewage services in the city of New Orleans. From the perspective of long-term environmental damage, a serious concern may be trace and toxic metals. Water and sediment samples were collected during September 19 - October 9, 2005 from the area of the lake receiving the discharge from the 17th Street Canal, which is a conduit for the discharge from the largest of the dewatering pumping stations. This paper reports the spatial characteristics of the concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria, enterococci, E. coli, and selected metals in water and surface sediment samples as well as the depth-distribution of metals in sediment core samples. The results provide information on the possible impact of floodwater pumping on Lake Pontchartrain.
Penland, Shea; Suter, John R.; Sallenger, Ashbury H.; Williams, S. Jeffress; McBride, Randolph A.; Westphal, Karen E.; Reimer, P. Douglas; Jaffe, Bruce E.
Three hurricanes hit Lousiana (LA), Mississippi (MS), Alabama (AL), and the Florida (FL) panhandle in 1985, producing dramatic geomorphic changes in a wide variety of coastal environments. The impact zone for hurricanes Danny, Elena, and Juan stretched 1000 km between the Sabine River in LA to the Apalachicola River in FL. Barrier shorelines experienced repeated intense overwash events, producing beach and dune erosion exceeding 30 m, as well as producing classic examples of storm surge deposits. Pre- and post-storm airborne videotape surveys, sequential vertical mapping photography, and field surveys provide the data base for this regional hurricane impact assessment on the northern Gulf of Mexico. Hurricane impacts on the low-profile and high-profile barrier shorelines, as well as on the marine terrace cliffs were systematic and predictable. Controlling the direction of overwash flow and the impact distribution pattern is the relationship among shoreline orientation, hurricane storm track, and regional wind field. The relationship between shore-zone geomorphology and storm surge overwash controls the impact response.
Ryan, K. E.; Bucci, L. R.; Christophersen, H.; Atlas, R. M.; Murillo, S.; Dodge, P.
Each year, NOAA/AOML's Hurricane Research Division (HRD) conducts its Hurricane field Program in which observations are collected via NOAA aircraft to improve the understanding and prediction of hurricanes. Mission experiments suggest a variety of flight patterns and sampling strategies aimed towards their respective goals described by the Intensity Forecasting Experiment (IFEX; Rogers et al., BAMS, 2006, 2013), a collaborative effort among HRD, NHC, and EMC. Evaluating the potential impact of various trade-offs in design is valuable for determining the optimal air reconnaissance flight pattern for a given prospective mission. AOML's HRD has developed a system for performing regional Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) to assess the potential impact of proposed observing systems on hurricane track and intensity forecasts and analyses. This study focuses on investigating the potential impact of proposed aircraft reconnaissance observing system designs. Aircraft instrument and flight level retrievals were simulated from a regional WRF ARW Nature Run (Nolan et al., 2013) spanning 13 days, covering the life cycle of a rapidly intensifying Atlantic tropical cyclone. The aircraft trajectories are simulated in a variety of ways and are evaluated to investigate the potential impact of aircraft reconnaissance observations on hurricane track and intensity forecasts.
Robertson, Angela A; Morse, David T; Baird-Thomas, Connie
Exposure to multiple traumatic events and high rates of mental health problems are common among juvenile offenders. This study draws on Conservation of Resources (COR) stress theory to examine the impact of a specific trauma, Hurricane Katrina, relative to other adverse life events, on the mental health of female adolescent offenders in Mississippi. Teenage girls (N=258, 69% African American) were recruited from four juvenile detention centers and the state training school. Participants were interviewed about the occurrence and timing of adverse life events and hurricane-related experiences and completed a self-administered mental health assessment. Hierarchical linear regression models were used to identify predictors of anxiety and depression. Pre-hurricane family stressors, pre-hurricane traumatic events, hurricane-related property damage, and receipt of hurricane-related financial assistance significantly predicted symptoms of anxiety and depression. Findings support COR theory. Family stressors had the greatest influence on symptoms of anxiety and depression, highlighting the need for family based services that address the multiple, inter-related problems and challenges in the lives of female juvenile offenders.
Aguirre-Macedo, María Leopoldina; Vidal-Martínez, Victor M; Lafferty, Kevin D
In September 2002, Hurricane Isidore devastated the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. To understand its effects on the parasites of aquatic organisms, we analyzed long-term monthly population data of the horn snail Cerithidea pliculosa and its trematode communities in Celestún, Yucatán, Mexico before and after the hurricane (February 2001 to December 2009). Five trematode species occurred in the snail population: Mesostephanus appendiculatoides, Euhaplorchis californiensis, two species of the genus Renicola and one Heterophyidae gen. sp. Because these parasites use snails as first intermediate hosts, fishes as second intermediate hosts and birds as final hosts, their presence in snails depends on food webs. No snails were present at the sampled sites for 6 months after the hurricane. After snails recolonised the site, no trematodes were found in snails until 14 months after the hurricane. It took several years for snail and trematode populations to recover. Our results suggest that the increase in the occurrence of hurricanes predicted due to climate change can impact upon parasites with complex life cycles. However, both the snail populations and their parasite communities eventually reached numbers of individuals and species similar to those before the hurricane. Thus, the trematode parasites of snails can be useful indicators of coastal lagoon ecosystem degradation and recovery.
Aguirre-Macedo, Maria Leopoldina; Vidal-Martinez, Victor M.; Lafferty, Kevin D.
In September 2002, Hurricane Isidore devastated the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. To understand its effects on the parasites of aquatic organisms, we analyzed long-term monthly population data of the horn snail Cerithidea pliculosa and its trematode communities in Celestún, Yucatán, Mexico before and after the hurricane (February 2001 to December 2009). Five trematode species occurred in the snail population: Mesostephanus appendiculatoides, Euhaplorchis californiensis, two species of the genus Renicola and one Heterophyidae gen. sp. Because these parasites use snails as first intermediate hosts, fishes as second intermediate hosts and birds as final hosts, their presence in snails depends on food webs. No snails were present at the sampled sites for 6 months after the hurricane. After snails recolonised the site, no trematodes were found in snails until 14 months after the hurricane. It took several years for snail and trematode populations to recover. Our results suggest that the increase in the occurrence of hurricanes predicted due to climate change can impact upon parasites with complex life cycles. However, both the snail populations and their parasite communities eventually reached numbers of individuals and species similar to those before the hurricane. Thus, the trematode parasites of snails can be useful indicators of coastal lagoon ecosystem degradation and recovery.
Ramsey, Elijah, III; Spruce, Joseph; Rangoonwala, Amina; Suzuoki, Yukihiro; Smoot, James; Gasser, Jerry; Bannister, Terri
We studied the use of daily satellite data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors to assess wetland forest damage and recovery from Hurricane Katrina (29 August 2005 landfall). Processed MODIS daily vegetation index (VI) trends were consistent with previously determined impact and recovery patterns provided by the "snapshot" 25 m Landsat Thematic Mapper optical and RADARSAT-1 synthetic aperture radar satellite data. Phenological trends showed high 2004 and 2005 pre-hurricane temporal correspondence within bottomland hardwood forest communities, except during spring green-up, and temporal dissimilarity between these hardwoods and nearby cypress-tupelo swamp forests (Taxodium distichum [baldcypress] and Nyssa aquatica [water tupelo]). MODIS VI trend analyses established that one year after impact, cypress-tupelo and lightly impacted hardwood forests had recovered to near prehurricane conditions. In contrast, canopy recovery lagged in the moderately and severely damaged hardwood forests, possibly reflecting regeneration of pre-hurricane species and stand-level replacement by invasive trees.
Smith, T. J.; Anderson, G.H.; Balentine, K.; Tiling, G.; Ward, G.A.; Whelan, K.R.T.
Hurricanes have shaped the structure of mangrove forests in the Everglades via wind damage, storm surges and sediment deposition. Immediate effects include changes to stem size-frequency distributions and to species relative abundance and density. Long-term impacts to mangroves are poorly understood at present. We examine impacts of Hurricane Wilma on mangroves and compare the results to findings from three previous storms (Labor Day, Donna, Andrew). Surges during Wilma destroyed ??? 1,250 ha of mangroves and set back recovery that started following Andrew. Data from permanent plots affected by Andrew and Wilma showed no differences among species or between hurricanes for stem mortality or basal area lost. Hurricane damage was related to hydro-geomorphic type of forest. Basin mangroves suffered significantly more damage than riverine or island mangroves. The hurricane by forest type interaction was highly significant. Andrew did slightly more damage to island mangroves. Wilma did significantly more damage to basin forests. This is most likely a result of the larger and more spatially extensive storm surge produced by Wilma. Forest damage was not related to amount of sediment deposited. Analyses of reports from Donna and the Labor Day storm indicate that some sites have recovered following catastrophic disturbance. Other sites have been permanently converted into a different ecosystem, namely intertidal mudflats. Our results indicate that mangroves are not in a steady state as has been recently claimed. ?? 2009 The Society of Wetland Scientists.
Lima Rego, Joao; Li, Chunyan
The improvement of present understanding of surge dynamics over wide and shallow shelves is vital for the improvement of our ability to forecast storm surge impacts to coastal regions, particularly the low-lying land areas that are most vulnerable to hurricane flooding (e.g. the Northern Gulf of Mexico, coastal Bangladesh, the Southeast China sea). Given the increase of global sea-surface temperature, both the total number and proportion of intense tropical cyclones have increased notably since 1970 (Emanuel, 2005; Nature). Therefore, more intense hurricanes may hit densely populated coastal regions, and this problem may be aggravated by the prospect of accelerated sea-level rise in the 21st century. This presentation offers a review of recent work on hurricane-induced storm surge. The finite-volume coastal ocean model ("FVCOM", by Chen et al., 2003; J. Atmos. Ocean Tech.) was applied to the storm surge induced by Hurricanes Rita and Ike along the coasts of Louisiana and Texas in 2005 and 2008, respectively, to study coastal storm surge dynamics. The sensitivity analysis of Rego and Li (2009; Geophys. Res. Lett.) demonstrated how stronger, wider or faster tropical cyclones would affect coastal flooding. Li, Weeks and Rego (2009; Geophys. Res. Lett) looked into how hurricane flooding and receding dynamics differ, concluding that the overland flow in the latter stage is of considerable importance. Rego and Li (2010; J. Geophys. Res.) showed how extreme events may result of a combination of non-extreme factors, by studying the nonlinear interaction of tide and hurricane surge. The ability of models to reproduce these extreme events and to proactive plan for damage reduction is covered in Rego and Li's (2010; J. Marine Syst.) study of how barrier island systems protect coastal bays from offshore surge propagation. Here we combine these results for a wider perspective on how hurricane flooding could be mitigated under changing conditions.
Miller, T.; Amarin, R.; Atlas, R.; Bailey, M.; Black, P.; Buckley, C.; Chen, S.; El-Nimri, S.; Hood, R.; James, M.; Johnson, J.; Jones, W.; Ruf, C.; Simmons, D.; Uhlhorn, E.; Inglish, C.
The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is a new airborne microwave remote sensor for hurricane observations that is currently under development by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in partnership with the NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory/Hurricane Research Division, the University of Central Florida, the University of Michigan, and the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The instrument is being test flown in January and is expected to participate in the tropical cyclone experiment GRIP (Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes) in the 2010 season. HIRAD is being designed to study the wind field in some detail within strong hurricanes and to enhance the real-time airborne ocean surface winds observation capabilities of NOAA and USAF Weather Squadron hurricane hunter aircraft currently using the operational Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR). Unlike SFMR, which measures wind speed and rain rate along the ground track at a single point directly beneath the aircraft, HIRAD will provide images of the surface wind and rain field over a wide swath (approximately 3 x the aircraft altitude) with approximately 2 km resolution. This paper describes the HIRAD instrument and the physical basis for its operations, including chamber test data from the instrument. The potential value of future HIRAD observations will be illustrated with a summary of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) in which measurements from the new instrument as well as those from existing instruments (air, surface, and space-based) are simulated from the output of a detailed numerical model, and those results are used to construct simulated H*Wind analyses. Evaluations will be presented on the impact on H*Wind analyses of using the HIRAD instrument observations to replace those of the SFMR instrument, and also on the impact of a future satellite-based HIRAD in comparison to instruments with more limited capabilities for observing strong winds through heavy
Batke, Sven P; Kelly, Daniel L
The severity of the effects that large disturbance events such as hurricanes can have on the forest canopy and the associated mechanically dependent plant community (epiphytes, climbers, etc.) is dependent on the frequency and intensity of the disturbance events. Here we investigate the effects of different structural and environmental properties of the host trees and previously modelled past hurricanes on dependent plants in Cusuco National Park, Honduras. Tree-climbing methods were employed to sample different dependent life-forms in ten 150 × 150 m plots. We identified 7094 individuals of dependent plants from 214 different species. For holo- and hemi-epiphytes, we found that diversity was significantly negatively related to past hurricane impact. The abundance of dependent plants was greatly influenced by their position in tree canopy and hurricane disturbance regimes. The relationship between abundance and mean branch height shifts across a gradient of hurricane impact (from negative to positive), which might result from a combination of changes in abundance of individual species and composition of the dependent flora across sites. Mechanically dependent plants also responded to different structural and environmental conditions along individual branches. The variables that explained much of the community differences of life-forms and families among branches were branch surface area and bryophyte cover. The factors that explained most variation at a plot level were mean vapour pressure deficit and elevation. At the level of the individual tree, the most important factors were canopy openness and past hurricane impact. We believe that more emphasis needs to be placed on the effects that past disturbance events have on mechanically dependent plant communities, particularly in areas that are prone to catastrophic perturbations.
Batke, Sven P.; Kelly, Daniel L.
The severity of the effects that large disturbance events such as hurricanes can have on the forest canopy and the associated mechanically dependent plant community (epiphytes, climbers, etc.) is dependent on the frequency and intensity of the disturbance events. Here we investigate the effects of different structural and environmental properties of the host trees and previously modelled past hurricanes on dependent plants in Cusuco National Park, Honduras. Tree-climbing methods were employed to sample different dependent life-forms in ten 150 × 150 m plots. We identified 7094 individuals of dependent plants from 214 different species. For holo- and hemi-epiphytes, we found that diversity was significantly negatively related to past hurricane impact. The abundance of dependent plants was greatly influenced by their position in tree canopy and hurricane disturbance regimes. The relationship between abundance and mean branch height shifts across a gradient of hurricane impact (from negative to positive), which might result from a combination of changes in abundance of individual species and composition of the dependent flora across sites. Mechanically dependent plants also responded to different structural and environmental conditions along individual branches. The variables that explained much of the community differences of life-forms and families among branches were branch surface area and bryophyte cover. The factors that explained most variation at a plot level were mean vapour pressure deficit and elevation. At the level of the individual tree, the most important factors were canopy openness and past hurricane impact. We believe that more emphasis needs to be placed on the effects that past disturbance events have on mechanically dependent plant communities, particularly in areas that are prone to catastrophic perturbations. PMID:26286220
Pouget, Enrique R; Sandoval, Milagros; Nikolopoulos, Georgios K; Friedman, Samuel R
Over the eight months following Hurricane Sandy, of October 2012, we interviewed 300 people who inject drugs in New York City. During the week after the storm, 28% rescued others or volunteered with aid groups; 60% experienced withdrawal; 27% shared drug injection or preparation equipment, or injected with people they normally would not inject with; 70% of those on opioid maintenance therapy could not obtain sufficient doses; and 43% of HIV-positive participants missed HIV medication doses. Although relatively brief, a hurricane can be viewed as a Big Event that can alter drug environments and behaviors, and may have lasting impact. The study's limitations are noted and future needed research is suggested.
Baggerly, Jennifer; Ferretti, Larissa K.
What is the impact of natural disasters on students' statewide assessment scores? To answer this question, Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) scores of 55,881 students in grades 4 through 10 were analyzed to determine if there were significant decreases after the 2004 hurricanes. Results reveal that there was statistical but no practical…
Kilmer, Ryan P.; Gil-Rivas, Virginia
This study explored posttraumatic growth (PTG), positive change resulting from struggling with trauma, among 7- to 10-year-olds impacted by Hurricane Katrina. Analyses focused on child self-system functioning and cognitive processes, and the caregiving context, in predicting PTG at 2 time points (Time 1n = 66, Time 2n = 51). Findings suggest that…
Li, Fuyu; Collins, William D.; Wehner, Michael F.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.
High-resolution climate models have been shown to improve the statistics of tropical storms and hurricanes compared to low-resolution models. The impact of increasing horizontal resolution in the tropical storm simulation is investigated exclusively using a series of Atmospheric Global Climate Model (AGCM) runs with idealized aquaplanet steady-state boundary conditions and a fixed operational storm-tracking algorithm. The results show that increasing horizontal resolution helps to detect more hurricanes, simulate stronger extreme rainfall, and emulate better storm structures in the models. However, increasing model resolution does not necessarily produce stronger hurricanes in terms of maximum wind speed, minimum sea level pressure, and mean precipitation, as the increased number of storms simulated by high-resolution models is mainly associated with weaker storms. The spatial scale at which the analyses are conducted appears to have more important control on these meteorological statistics compared to horizontal resolution of the model grid. When the simulations are analyzed on common low-resolution grids, the statistics of the hurricanes, particularly the hurricane counts, show reduced sensitivity to the horizontal grid resolution and signs of scale invariant.
Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Downes, Paula Sue; Heinen, Russell; Welk, Margaret Ellen
Analysis of chemical supply chains is an inherently complex task, given the dependence of these supply chains on multiple infrastructure systems (e.g., the petroleum sector, transportation, etc.). This effort requires data and information at various levels of resolution, ranging from network-level distribution systems to individual chemical reactions. Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) has integrated its existing simulation and infrastructure analysis capabilities with chemical data models to analyze the chemical supply chains of several nationally critical chemical commodities. This paper describes how Sandia models the ethylene supply chain; that is, the supply chain for the most widely used raw material for plastics production including a description of the types of data and modeling capabilities that are required to represent the ethylene supply chain. The paper concludes with a description of Sandia's use the model to project how the supply chain would be affected by and adapt to a disruptive scenario hurricane.
Sallenger, Asbury; Wright, C. Wayne; Lillycrop, Jeff
As part of an ongoing cooperative effort between USGS, NASA and USACE, the barrier islands within the right-front quadrant of Hurricane Katrina were surveyed with airborne lidar both before and after landfall. Dauphin Island, AL was located the farthest from landfall and wave runup intermittently overtopped its central and western sections. The Gulf-side of the island experienced severe erosion, leaving the first row of houses in the sea, while the bayside accreted. In contrast, the Chandeleur Islands, LA did not experience, this classic `rollover'. Rather, the island chain was completely stripped of sand, transforming a 40-km-long sandy island chain into a discontinuous series of muddy marsh islets. Models indicate that storm surge likely submerged the entire Chandeleur Island chain, at least during the latter part of the storm. The net result was destructive coastal change for the Chandeleur Islands, while Dauphin Island tended to maintain its form through landward migration.
Deryugina, T.; Kawano, L.; Levitt, S.
Hurricane Katrina destroyed more than 200,000 homes and led to massive economic and physical dislocation. Using a panel of tax return data, we provide one of the first comprehensive analyses of the hurricane's long-term economic impact on its victims. We find small and mostly transitory impacts of the disaster on wages, employment, and total income, even among the worst affected. Remarkably, within a few years, Katrina victims have higher incomes than controls from similar cities that were unaffected by the storm. Withdrawals from retirement accounts offset some of the temporary fall in wages. Finally, there is a short-run spike in marriage and little impact on either divorce or child bearing. These findings suggest that, at least in developed countries like the United States, dislocation is unlikely to be an important component of the social or economic costs of dramatic negative events, such as natural disasters or climate change.
Swayze, G. A.; Furlong, E. T.; Livo, K. E.
New Orleans endured flooding on a massive scale subsequent to Hurricane Katrina in August of 2005. Contaminant plumes were noticeable in satellite images of the city in the days following flooding. Many of these plumes were caused by oil, gasoline, and diesel that leaked from inundated vehicles, gas stations, and refineries. News reports also suggested that the flood waters were contaminated with sewage from breached pipes. Effluent plumes such as these pose a potential health hazard to humans and wildlife in the aftermath of hurricanes and potentially from other catastrophic events (e.g., earthquakes, shipping accidents, chemical spills, and terrorist attacks). While the extent of effluent plumes can be gauged with synthetic aperture radar and broad- band visible-infrared images (Rykhus, 2005) (e.g., Radarsat and Landsat ETM+) the composition of the plumes could not be determined. These instruments lack the spectral resolution necessary to do chemical identification. Imaging spectroscopy may help solve this problem. Over 60 flight lines of NASA Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data were collected over New Orleans, the Mississippi Delta, and the Gulf Coast from one to two weeks after Katrina while the contaminated water was being pumped out of flooded areas. These data provide a unique opportunity to test if imaging spectrometer data can be used to identify the chemistry of these flood-related plumes. Many chemicals have unique spectral signatures in the ultraviolet to near-infrared range (0.2 - 2.5 microns) that can be used as fingerprints for their identification. We are particularly interested in detecting thin films of oil, gasoline, diesel, and raw sewage suspended on or in water. If these materials can be successfully differentiated in the lab then we will use spectral-shape matching algorithms to look for their spectral signatures in the AVIRIS data collected over New Orleans and other areas impacted by Katrina. If imaging spectroscopy
Kamineni, Rupa; Krishnamurti, T. N.; Pattnaik, S.; Browell, Edward V.; Ismail, Syed; Ferrare, Richard A.
This study explores the impact on hurricane data assimilation and forecasts from the use of dropsondes and remote-sensed moisture profiles from the airborne Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) system. We show that the use of these additional data sets, above those from the conventional world weather watch, has a positive impact on hurricane predictions. The forecast tracks and intensity from the experiments show a marked improvement compared to the control experiment where such data sets were excluded. A study of the moisture budget in these hurricanes showed enhanced evaporation and precipitation over the storm area. This resulted in these data sets making a large impact on the estimate of mass convergence and moisture fluxes, which were much smaller in the control runs. Overall this study points to the importance of high vertical resolution humidity data sets for improved model results. We note that the forecast impact from the moisture profiling data sets for some of the storms is even larger than the impact from the use of dropwindsonde based winds.
Carrio, G. G.; Cotton, W. R.
This paper examines the feasibility of mitigating the intensity of hurricanes by enhancing the CCN concentrations in the outer rainband region. Increasing CCN concentrations would cause a reduced collision and coalescence, resulting in more supercooled liquid water to be transported aloft which then freezes and enhances convection via enhanced latent heat of freezing. The intensified convection would condense more water ultimately enhancing precipitation in the outer rainbands. Enhanced evaporative cooling from the increased precipitation in the outer rainbands would produce stronger and more widespread areal cold pools which block the flow of energy into the storm core, ultimately inhibiting the intensification of the tropical cyclone. We designed a series of multi-grid for which the time of the "virtual flights" as well as the aerosol release rates are varied. A code that simulates the flight of a plane is used to increase the CCN concentrations as an aircraft flies. Results show a significant sensitivity to both the seeding time and the aerosol release rates and support the aforementioned hypothesis.
Carrió, G. G.; Cotton, W. R.
This paper examines the feasibility of mitigating the intensity of hurricanes by enhancing the CCN concentrations in the outer rainband region. Increasing CCN concentrations would cause a reduced collision and coalescence, resulting in more supercooled liquid water to be transported aloft which then freezes and enhances convection via enhanced latent heat of freezing. The intensified convection would condense more water ultimately enhancing precipitation in the outer rainbands. Enhanced evaporative cooling from the increased precipitation in the outer rainbands would produce stronger and more widespread areal cold pools which block the flow of energy into the storm core, ultimately inhibiting the intensification of the tropical cyclone. We designed a series of multi-grid for which the time of the "virtual flights" as well as the aerosol release rates are varied. A code that simulates the flight of a plane is used to increase the CCN concentrations as an aircraft flies. Results show a significant sensitivity to both the seeding time and the aerosol release rates and support the aforementioned hypothesis.
List, Jeffrey H.; Hansen, Mark E.; Sallenger,, Asbury H.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Edge, B.L
This paper examines the influence of Hurricane Andrew on the sediment budget of an 80-kilometer section of the Louisiana barrier islands west of the modern Mississippi delta. Because long-term bathymetric change has been extensively studied in this area, excellent baseline data are available for evaluating the impact of Hurricane Andrew. Results show that despite the high intensity of the storm and a storm track optimally positioned to impact the study area, the storm did not have an overwhelming influence on the sediment budget when compared to the changes occurring over the previous 50 years. For the Louisiana barrier islands, a 50-year record appears to be adequate for averaging the long-term contributions of both major and minor storm events to the sediment budget.
Shultz, James M; Cela, Toni; Marcelin, Louis Herns; Espinola, Maria; Heitmann, Ilva; Sanchez, Claudia; Jean Pierre, Arielle; Foo, Cheryl YunnShee; Thompson, Kip; Klotzbach, Philip; Espinel, Zelde; Rechkemmer, Andreas
Background. Hurricane Matthew was the most powerful tropical cyclone of the 2016 Atlantic Basin season, bringing severe impacts to multiple nations including direct landfalls in Cuba, Haiti, Bahamas, and the United States. However, Haiti experienced the greatest loss of life and population disruption. Methods. An established trauma signature (TSIG) methodology was used to examine the psychological consequences of Hurricane Matthew in relation to the distinguishing features of this event. TSIG analyses described the exposures of Haitian citizens to the unique constellation of hazards associated with this tropical cyclone. A hazard profile, a matrix of psychological stressors, and a "trauma signature" summary for the affected population of Haiti - in terms of exposures to hazard, loss, and change - were created specifically for this natural ecological disaster. Results. Hazard characteristics of this event included: deluging rains that triggered mudslides along steep, deforested terrain; battering hurricane winds (Category 4 winds in the "eye-wall" at landfall) that dismantled the built environment and launched projectile debris; flooding "storm surge" that moved ashore and submerged villages on the Tiburon peninsula; and pummeling wave action that destroyed infrastructure along the coastline. Many coastal residents were left defenseless to face the ravages of the storm. Hurricane Matthew's slow forward progress as it remained over super-heated ocean waters added to the duration and degree of the devastation. Added to the havoc of the storm itself, the risks for infectious disease spread, particularly in relation to ongoing epidemics of cholera and Zika, were exacerbated. Conclusions. Hurricane Matthew was a ferocious tropical cyclone whose meteorological characteristics amplified the system's destructive force during the storm's encounter with Haiti, leading to significant mortality, injury, and psychological trauma.
Shultz, James M.; Cela, Toni; Marcelin, Louis Herns; Espinola, Maria; Heitmann, Ilva; Sanchez, Claudia; Jean Pierre, Arielle; Foo, Cheryl YunnShee; Thompson, Kip; Klotzbach, Philip; Espinel, Zelde; Rechkemmer, Andreas
ABSTRACT Background. Hurricane Matthew was the most powerful tropical cyclone of the 2016 Atlantic Basin season, bringing severe impacts to multiple nations including direct landfalls in Cuba, Haiti, Bahamas, and the United States. However, Haiti experienced the greatest loss of life and population disruption. Methods. An established trauma signature (TSIG) methodology was used to examine the psychological consequences of Hurricane Matthew in relation to the distinguishing features of this event. TSIG analyses described the exposures of Haitian citizens to the unique constellation of hazards associated with this tropical cyclone. A hazard profile, a matrix of psychological stressors, and a “trauma signature” summary for the affected population of Haiti - in terms of exposures to hazard, loss, and change - were created specifically for this natural ecological disaster. Results. Hazard characteristics of this event included: deluging rains that triggered mudslides along steep, deforested terrain; battering hurricane winds (Category 4 winds in the “eye-wall” at landfall) that dismantled the built environment and launched projectile debris; flooding “storm surge” that moved ashore and submerged villages on the Tiburon peninsula; and pummeling wave action that destroyed infrastructure along the coastline. Many coastal residents were left defenseless to face the ravages of the storm. Hurricane Matthew's slow forward progress as it remained over super-heated ocean waters added to the duration and degree of the devastation. Added to the havoc of the storm itself, the risks for infectious disease spread, particularly in relation to ongoing epidemics of cholera and Zika, were exacerbated. Conclusions. Hurricane Matthew was a ferocious tropical cyclone whose meteorological characteristics amplified the system's destructive force during the storm's encounter with Haiti, leading to significant mortality, injury, and psychological trauma. PMID:28321360
Zhang, F.; Tang, X.
This work examines the impact of diurnally varying radiation cycle on the intensity, structure and track of Hurricane Edouard (2014) at different stages of its life cycle through convection-permitting simulations.During the formation stage, nighttime destabilization through radiative cooling may promote deep moist convection that eventually leads to the genesis of the storm while a tropical cyclone fails to develop in the absence of the night phase despite a strong incipient vortex under favorable environmental conditions. The nighttime radiative cooling further enhances the primary vortex before the storm undergoes rapid intensification (RI). Thereafter, the nighttime radiative cooling mainly increases convective activities outside of the primary eyewall that leads to stronger/broader outer rainbands and larger storm size during the mature stage of the hurricane but there is little impact on the hurricane intensity in terms of maximum surface wind speed. There is no apparent eyewall replacement cycle (ERC) simulated in both sensitivity experiments without the diurnal cycle (daytime only and nighttime only) while the control forecast undergoes secondary eyewall formation during the mature stage of Edourad (as observed), suggesting the potential role of the diurnally varying radiative impact. Through changing the strength of the initial vortex during the formation stage, the diurnal cycle may also alter the track of the storm.
Xing, F.; Kettner, A. J.; Syvitski, J. P.; Ye, Q.; Bevington, A.; Twilley, R.; Atkinson, J. H.
Coastal wetlands are natural barriers for storms, but have become more vulnerable especially when considering sea level rise and intensification of hurricanes due to global climate change. We use the numerical model Delft3D, which incorporates a newly developed vegetation routine to analyze the impact of natural vegetation on the morphological changes of coastal wetlands. The vegetation routine takes into account: 1) the influence of vertically oriented stems of plants as well as horizontally oriented stems (bent or broken but still attached to the belowground roots and rhizomes) on the flow turbulence as well as flow momentum, and 2) the influence of plant roots on the submerged soil strength. The model is applied to the Wax Lake Delta, a river-dominated delta that is part of the larger Mississippi River Delta system, during extreme events (hurricane Katrina and Rita (2005)). Hydrodynamic components as well as waves and salinity are included in the Delft3D model simulation. Results reveal that the submerged aboveground plant stems significantly decrease flow velocity and protect the wetland from erosion. When flow velocity exceeds a critical value, plant stems start to orient horizontally and lie on the bed, which changes the 3D vertical flow structure to free water condition (log profile), and also increases the bed roughness on the wetlands. Roots help to increase the soil strength, reducing erosion of the wetlands. However, roots can also intensify erosion if they got pulled out of the soil during storm events. Typically the whole root system of plants will be pulled out together, leading to a mat of soil that is eroded. This process has been observed for some parts of the Mississippi Delta during severe hurricanes like hurricane Katrina. Storm surges generated by hurricanes can push a large amount of saline water into the freshwater wetlands. The high salinity water increases flocculation and therefore sedimentation. Overall, plants have a complex impact on
During August 1080, Hurricane Allen passed along the north coast of Jamaica. Although several previous investigations have documented the effects of this hurricane on the fore reef and reef crest, this study presents the first detailed description of the storm impact on lagoonal patch reefs in Discovery Bay. In contrast to the damage described on the fore reef and reef crest, the patch reefs received only minor temporary damage to reef framework due to breakage and increased sedimentation. These effects could be recognized only by examination of bathymetric and zonal maps constructed during the last 10 years. However, hurricane impact on the sedimentologic record was readily observed in cores taken along transects of lagoonal patch reefs. Although in general, shallow reef zones had abnormally great amounts of fine sediment and deeper zones showed increased coarse material, other patterns could be documented and made recognition of storm deposits and distinction of these deposits from artificial disturbance relatively easy. Because lagoonal patch reefs may serve as models for many ancient bioherms, this study provides new evidence that may be used to recognize ancient storm deposits associated with bioherms in carbonate mud environments.
Pouget, Enrique R.; Sandoval, Milagros; Nikolopoulos, Georgios K.; Friedman, Samuel R.
Over the 8 months following Hurricane Sandy, of October 2012, we interviewed 300 people who inject drugs in New York City. During the week after the storm 28% rescued others or volunteered with aid groups; 60% experienced withdrawal; 27% shared drug injection or preparation equipment or injected with people they normally would not inject with; 70% of those in opioid maintenance therapy could not obtain sufficient doses; and 43% of HIV-positive participants missed HIV medication doses. Though relatively brief, a hurricane can be viewed as a Big Event that can alter drug environments and behaviors, and may have lasting impact. The study’s limitations are noted and future needed research is suggested. PMID:25775259
Gafford, Farrah D
The devastation of Hurricane Katrina unveiled the legacy of racial and class stratification in New Orleans, Louisiana. Much of the Katrina-related research has focused primarily on how poor Black neighborhoods were disproportionately affected by the disaster. While this body of research makes valid claims, there has been very little research that examines how Black middle-class residents in New Orleans were impacted by Hurricane Katrina. This study examines how residents in Pontchartrain Park, a Black middle-class neighborhood, are responding to the disaster. The author uses in-depth interviews, ethnographic observations, and archival data to examine the barriers that residents are facing in the recovery process. She argues that the experiences of the Black middle class also have implications for the connectedness of race and class. The challenges discussed within the article are linked to a history of racial stratification.
Mo, Y.; Kearney, M.; Riter, A.
Coastal marshes provide indispensable ecological functions, such as offering habitat for economic fish and wildlife, improving water quality, protecting inland areas from floods, and stabilizing the shoreline. Hurricanes—though helping to maintain the elevation of coastal wetlands by depositing large amounts of sediments—pose one of the largest threats for coastal marshes in terms of eroding shorelines, scouring marsh surfaces, and resuspending sediments. Coastal marshes phenologies can be important for understanding broad response of marshes to stressors, like hurricanes. We investigated the phenological impacts of Katrina and Gustav (Category 3 and 2 hurricanes at landfall in southeast Louisiana on 29 August, 2005, and 1 September, 2008, respectively) on freshwater, intermediate, brackish, and saline marshes in southeastern Louisiana. Landsat-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index data were processed using ENVI 4.8. Phenological patterns of the marshes were modeled using a nonlinear mixed model using SAS 9.4. We created and compared marsh phenologies of 1994 and 2014, the reference years, to those of 2005 and 2008, the hurricane years. Preliminary results show that in normal years: (1) the NDVI of four marsh types peaked in July; (2) freshwater marshes had the highest peak NDVI, followed by intermediate, brackish, and saline marshes; and (3) the growth durations of the marshes are around three to six months. In 2005, the major phenological change was shortening of growth duration, which was most obvious for intermediate and brackish marshes. The peak NDVI values of the four marsh types were not affected because the hurricane occurred at the end of August, one month after the peak NDVI time. By comparison, there was no obvious phenological impact on the marshes by Gustav (2008) with respect to peak NDVI, peak NDVI day, and growth duration.
Norcross, E D; Elliott, B M; Adams, D B; Crawford, F A
Hurricane Hugo struck Charleston, South Carolina, on September 21, 1989. This report analyzes the impact this storm had upon surgical care at a university medical center. Although disaster planning began on September 17, hurricane damage by high winds and an 8.7-foot tidal surge led to loss of emergency power and water. Consequently, system failures occurred in air conditioning, vacuum suction, steam and ethylene oxide sterilization, plumbing, central paging, lighting, and refrigeration. The following surgical support services were affected. In the blood bank, lack of refrigeration meant no platelet packs for 2 days. In radiology, loss of electrical power damaged CT/MRI scanners and flooding ruined patient files, resulting in lost information. In the intensive care unit, loss of electricity meant no monitors and hand ventilation was used for 4 hours. In the operating room, lack of temperature and humidity control (steam, water, and suction supply) halted elective surgery until October 2. Ground and air transportation were limited by unsafe landing sites, impassable roads, and personnel exhaustion. Surgical planning for a major hurricane should include: 1) a fail-safe source of electrical power, 2) evacuation of as many critically ill patients as possible before the storm, 3) cancellation of all elective surgery, and 4) augmented ancillary service staffing with some, although limited, physician support.
Osofsky, Joy D.; Cross Hansel, Tonya; Moore, Michelle B.; Callahan, Kristin L.; Hughes, Jennifer B.; Dickson, Amy B.
When expectant mothers are exposed to traumatic events such as natural disasters, their children are at increased risk for developmental and behavioral problems. Many people believe that young children will not be impacted by the traumatic experiences that occur during and following disasters. Therefore, planning for the youngest children at the…
Barker, Alan M; Freer, Eva B; Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Fernandez, Steven J; Chinthavali, Supriya; Kodysh, Jeffrey B
An ORNL team working on the Energy Awareness and Resiliency Standardized Services (EARSS) project developed a fully automated procedure to take wind speed and location estimates provided by hurricane forecasters and provide a geospatial estimate on the impact to the electric grid in terms of outage areas and projected duration of outages. Hurricane Sandy was one of the worst US storms ever, with reported injuries and deaths, millions of people without power for several days, and billions of dollars in economic impact. Hurricane advisories were released for Sandy from October 22 through 31, 2012. The fact that the geoprocessing was automated was significant there were 64 advisories for Sandy. Manual analysis typically takes about one hour for each advisory. During a storm event, advisories are released every two to three hours around the clock, and an analyst capable of performing the manual analysis has other tasks they would like to focus on. Initial predictions of a big impact and landfall usually occur three days in advance, so time is of the essence to prepare for utility repair. Automated processing developed at ORNL allowed this analysis to be completed and made publicly available within minutes of each new advisory being released.
Li, C.; Lin, H.; Chen, C.
The dynamical processes in coastal bays/estuaries and continental shelf are mostly tidally and wind driven. Under severe weather conditions such as hurricanes and tropical storms, the process is much more dynamic and variable. In an attempt to illustrate the dynamical regimes in coastal bays and adjacent coastal ocean, we have simulated circulation and storm tides in the northern Gulf of Mexico forced by 49 hurricanes, respectively; among which 4 are the most recent real hurricanes: Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita of 2005, and Hurricane Gustav and Hurricane Ike of 2008. The other 45 hurricanes are hypothetical in their tracks, but based on the real hurricanes in terms of forcing conditions. More specifically, these 45 hurricanes are divided into five groups, each corresponding to one of these four real hurricanes plus a group for hypothetical Category 5 hurricanes, based on the information of Hurricane Katrina, except that the strength of the hurricane is increased to Category 5. Using otherwise the same forcing conditions of the hurricanes, we apply variations of each of the hurricane tracks with roughly the same moving speed. Each group has a total of 9 simulations (with 9 different tracks). Our model allows inundation of wetland, and low lying lands on the coast and around the Louisiana Bays. The model for the hurricane storm tide was done with an implementation of the Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model, or FVCOM. Our analysis of the results reveals rich dynamical processes in the bays and estuaries and on the adjacent continental shelf. It involves various oscillations, depending on the hurricane conditions and track history and positions, long waves, under the influence of earth rotation, and currents. The protruding delta, bathymetry, and the setup of the bays all play some roles in shaping the dynamics, water movement, inundation, and receding of the storm surges.
Settembrino, Marc R
Presently, there is little research on how people experiencing homelessness prepare for, respond to, and recover from disasters. Existing emergency management literature does not provide an understanding of how disasters affect homeless shelter services. The present study seeks to fill these gaps by examining how Hurricane Sandy impacted homeless shelters and their guests in New Jersey. Presenting findings from ethnographic research in Atlantic City and Hoboken, this study identifies several areas in which homeless shelters and their guests may be able to assist in emergency response and disaster recovery such as preparing meals for victims, sorting and processing donated items, and assisting victims in filing for emergency assistance.
Walker, N. D.; Pilley, C.; Li, C.; Liu, B.; Leben, R. R.; Raghunthan, V.; Ko, D.; Teague, W. J.
Beginning in 1995, Atlantic hurricane activity increased significantly relative to the 1970s and 1980s. In 2005, records were broken when two hurricanes intensified rapidly to Category 5 for a period of time within the Gulf of Mexico, later landed, and flooded vast expanses of Louisiana's coastal regions within the span of 30 days. In this study, we investigate major hurricane events (including 2005) to elucidate air-sea interactions pertinent to hurricane intensity changes, shelf circulation, coastal flooding, and coastal land losses. We employ satellite measurements from passive sensors (temperature, true color, pigments) and active sensors (scatterometers, altimeters) in tandem with in-situ measurements from WAVCIS, NDBC, USGS, and NRL, as well as dedicated field campaigns along the coast. A selection of hurricane events during the 1998 to 2008 time period are used in this investigation. Research has shown that the Loop Current and its warm-core anticyclonic eddies (with high heat content) can intensify hurricanes transiting the Gulf; whereas, the cold-core cyclonic eddies (which are upwelling regions) can weaken hurricanes. Hurricane winds can intensify cold-core cyclonic eddies, which in some cases can impact outer shelf currents, mixing, and thermal structure throughout the water column. The exceptionally strong winds and waves in the northeast quadrant of these cyclonic atmospheric storms drive strong and long-lived westward currents. Storm surges and/or set-up of 2-6 m commonly occur along the Louisiana coastline, sometimes as a result of hurricanes traveling across the central Gulf of Mexico, at great distances from the coastal region experiencing the flooding (e.g. Hurricanes Rita and Gustav). The eastern shelf, north of the Mississippi River Birdfoot Delta, is particularly vulnerable to water level set-up and storm surge intensification due to the coastal orientation that causes the trapping of water. This area experienced land loss of 169 km2, or ~20
Arellano-Méndez, Leonardo U; Liceaga-Correa, María de los Angeles; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge A; Hernández-Núñez, Héctor
Hurricanes have increased in strength and frequency as a result of global climate change. This research was conducted to study the spatio-temporal distribution and changes of Thalassia testudinum, the dominant species in Bahia de la Ascension (Quintana Roo, Mexico), when affected by heavy weather conditions. To complete this objective, a 2001 Landsat ETM+ image and the information from 525 sampling stations on morpho-functional and coverage of T. testudinum were used, and the seeds generated for the classification of eight benthic habitats. To quantify the changes caused by two hurricanes, we used two images, one of 1988 (Gilberto) and another of 1995 (Roxanne); other three data sets (2003, 2005 and 2007) were also used to describe the study area without major weather effects. Six categorial maps were obtained and subjected to analysis by 8 Landscape Ecology indexes, that describe the spatial characteristics, structure, function, change of the elements (matrix-patch-corridor), effects on ecosystems, connectivity, edges, shape and patch habitat fragmentation. Models indicate that T. testudinum may be classified as a continuum (matrix), since the fragments were not observed intermittently, but as a progression from minimum to maximum areas in reference to their coverage (ecological corridors). The fragments do not have a regular shape, indicating that the impacts are recent and may be due to direct effects (high-intensity hurricanes) or indirect (sediment). Fragments of type "bare soils" have a discontinuous distribution, and are considered to be the sites that have remained stable over a long timescale. While more dense coverage areas ("beds", "medium prairie" and "prairie") have low fragmentation and high connection of fragments. Features have an irregular perimeter and radial growth of formal; suggesting that the impact of meteors has no effect on the resilience of T. testudinum in this ecosystem, indicating good environmental quality to grow in this bay.
Kwon, Young C.; Frank, William M.
A series of numerical simulations of dry, axisymmetric hurricane-like vortices is performed to examine the growth of barotropic and baroclinic eddies and their potential impacts on hurricane core structure and intensity. The numerical experiments are performed using the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU NCAR) Mesoscale Model (MM5) with a 6-km horizontal grid. To examine internal effects on the stability of vortices, all external forcings are eliminated. Axisymmetric vortices that resemble observed hurricane structures are constructed on an f plane, and the experiments are performed without moist and boundary layer processes.Three vortices are designed for this study. A balanced control vortex is built based on the results of a full-physics simulation of Hurricane Floyd (1999). Then, two other axisymmetric vortices, EXP-1 and EXP-2, are constructed by modifying the wind and mass fields of the control vortex. The EXP-1 vortex is designed to satisfy the necessary condition of baroclinic instability, while the EXP-2 vortex satisfies the necessary condition of barotropic instability. These modified vortices are thought to lie within the natural range of structural variability of hurricanes.The EXP-1 and EXP-2 vortices are found to be unstable with respect to small imposed perturbations, while the control vortex is stable. Small perturbations added to the EXP-1 and EXP-2 vortices grow exponentially at the expense of available potential energy and kinetic energy of the primary vortex, respectively. The most unstable normal modes of both vortices are obtained via a numerical method. The most unstable mode of the EXP-1 (baroclinically unstable) vortex vertically tilts against shear, and the maximum growth occurs near a height of 14 km and a radius of 20 km. On the other hand, the most unstable normal mode of the EXP-2 (barotropically unstable) vortex has horizontal tilting against the mean angular velocity shear
Tao, W. K.; Shi, J. J.; Chen, S. S.; Lang, S.; Lin, P.; Hong, S. Y.; Peters-Lidard, C.; Hou, A.
During the past decade, both research and operational numerical weather prediction models [e.g. Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF)] have started using more complex microphysical schemes originally developed for high-resolution cloud resolving models (CRMs) with a 1-2 km or less horizontal resolutions. The WRF is a next-generation meso-scale forecast model and assimilation system that has incorporated a modern software framework, advanced dynamics, numeric and data assimilation techniques, a multiple moveable nesting capability, and improved physical packages. The WRF model can be used for a wide range of applications, from idealized research to operational forecasting, with an emphasis on horizontal grid sizes in the range of 1-10 km. The current WRF includes several different microphysics options. At Goddard, four different cloud microphysics schemes (warm rain only, two-class of ice, two three-class of ice with either graupel or hail) are implemented into the WRF. The performances of these schemes have been compared to those from other WRF microphysics scheme options for an Atlantic hurricane case. In addition, a brief review and comparison on the previous modeling studies on the impact of microphysics schemes and microphysical processes on intensity and track of hurricane will be presented. Generally, almost all modeling studies found that the microphysics schemes did not have major impacts on track forecast, but did have more effect on the intensity. All modeling studies found that the simulated hurricane has rapid deepening and/or intensification for the warm rain-only case. It is because all hydrometeors were very large raindrops, and they fell out quickly at and near the eye-wall region. This would hydrostatically produce the lowest pressure. In addition, these modeling studies suggested that the simulated hurricane becomes unrealistically strong by removing the evaporative cooling of cloud droplets and melting of ice particles. This is due to the
Fuentes, J. D.; Dowell, K. K.; Engel, V. C.; Smith, T. J.
In October 2005, Hurricane Wilma made landfall along the mangrove forests of western Everglades National Park, Florida, USA. Damage from the storm varied with distance from landfall and included widespread mortality and extensive defoliation. Large sediment deposition events were recorded in the interior marshes, with erosion taking place along the coastal margins. Wilma made landfall near a 30 m flux tower where eddy-covariance measurements of ecosystem-level carbon and energy fluxes started in 2003. Repairs to the structure were completed in 2006, enabling comparisons of surface fluxes before and after the storm. One year after the hurricane, both the average and daily integrated CO2 fluxes are consistently lower than the pre-storm values. The storm's impact on standing live biomass and the slow recovery of leaf area appear to have resulted in decreased photosynthetic uptake capacity. Nighttime respiratory CO2 fluxes above the canopy are unchanged from pre-storm values. During some periods, daily integrated fluxes show the forest as a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Soil CO2 fluxes are not measured directly, but daytime soil temperatures and vertical heat fluxes have shown consistently higher values after the storm. Nighttime soil temperatures values have been slightly lower. These stronger diurnal soil temperature fluctuations indicate enhanced radiative fluxes at the soil surface, possibly as a result of the reduced leaf area. The increases in daytime soil temperatures are presumably leading to higher below-ground respiration rates and, along with the reduced photosynthetic capacity, contributing to the lower net CO2 assimilation rates. This hypothesis is supported by nearby measurements of declining surface elevations of the organic soils which have been correlated with mangrove mortality in impacted areas. Both sensible and latent heat fluxes above the canopy are found to be reduced following the hurricane, and soil heat storage is higher. Together
Tao, Wei-Kuo; Shi, Jainn J.; Jou, Ben Jong-Dao; Lee, Wen-Chau; Lin, Pay-Liam; Chang, Mei-Yu
During the past decade, both research and operational numerical weather prediction models, e.g. Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model, have started using more complex microphysical schemes originally developed for high-resolution cloud resolving models (CRMs) with a 1-2 km or less horizontal resolutions. WRF is a next-generation mesoscale forecast model and assimilation system that has incorporated modern software framework, advanced dynamics, numeric and data assimilation techniques, a multiple moveable nesting capability, and improved physical packages. WRF model can be used for a wide range of applications, from idealized research to operational forecasting, with an emphasis on horizontal grid sizes in the range of 1-10 km. The current WRF includes several different microphysics options such as Purdue Lin et al. (1983), WSM 6-class and Thompson microphysics schemes. We have recently implemented three sophisticated cloud microphysics schemes into WRF. The cloud microphysics schemes have been extensively tested and applied for different mesoscale systems in different geographical locations. The performances of these schemes have been compared to those from other WRF microphysics options. We are performing sensitivity tests in using WRF to examine the impact of six different cloud microphysical schemes on precipitation processes associated hurricanes and mesoscale convective systems developed at different geographic locations [Oklahoma (IHOP), Louisiana (Hurricane Katrina), Canada (C3VP - snow events), Washington (fire storm), India (Monsoon), Taiwan (TiMREX - terrain)]. We will determine the microphysical schemes for good simulated convective systems in these geographic locations. We are also performing the inline tracer calculation to comprehend the physical processes (i.e., boundary layer and each quadrant in the boundary layer) related to the development and structure of hurricanes and mesoscale convective systems.
Serrant, Ted Donaldson
By the time today's Grade K students graduate high school in the Commonwealth of Dominica, they will have experienced five major and many low-intensity hurricanes (LIH). Between August and November each year, each hurricane, major or low-intensity, represents a major threat to their safety and schooling. This mixed-method case study investigated…
This article presents suggestions for integrating the phenomenon of hurricanes into the teaching of high school fluid mechanics. Students come to understand core science concepts in the context of their impact upon both the environment and human populations. Suggestions for using information about hurricanes, particularly Hurricane Katrina, in a…
Langtimm, Catherine A.; Krohn, M. Dennis; Stith, Bradley M.; Reid, James P.; Beck, C.A.; Butler, Susan M.
U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research on Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) from 1982 through 1998 identified lower apparent survival rates for adult manatees during years when Hurricane Elena (1985), the March "Storm of the Century"(1993), and Hurricane Opal (1995) hit the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Although our analysis showed that a significant number of our monitored individual manatees failed to return to their winter homes after these storms, their actual fate remains unknown. With the aid of new satellite technology to track manatees during storms and new statistical techniques to determine survival and emigration rates, researchers are working to understand how hurricanes impact the endangered species by studying manatees caught in the path of the destructive hurricanes of 2004 and 2005.
Hurricane Katrina struck the United States at the end of August 2005. The consequent devastation appeared to be beyond the US government's ability to cope with and aid was offered by several states in varying degrees of conflict with the US. Hurricane Katrina therefore became a potential case study for 'disaster diplomacy', which examines how disaster-related activities do and do not yield diplomatic gains. A review of past disaster diplomacy work is provided. The literature's case studies are then categorised using a new typology: propinquity, aid relationship, level and purpose. Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath are then placed in the context of the US government's foreign policy, the international response to the disaster and the US government's reaction to these responses. The evidence presented is used to discuss the potential implications of Hurricane Katrina disaster diplomacy, indicating that factors other than disaster-related activities generally dominate diplomatic relations and foreign policy.
Curcic, Milan; Chen, Shuyi S.; Özgökmen, Tamay M.
Hurricane Isaac induced large surface waves and a significant change in upper ocean circulation in the Gulf of Mexico before making landfall at the Louisiana coast on 29 August 2012. Isaac was observed by 194 surface drifters during the Grand Lagrangian Deployment (GLAD). A coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean model was used to forecast hurricane impacts during GLAD. The coupled model and drifter observations provide an unprecedented opportunity to study the impacts of hurricane-induced Stokes drift on ocean surface currents. The Stokes drift induced a cyclonic (anticyclonic) rotational flow on the left (right) side of the hurricane and accounted for up to 20% of the average Lagrangian velocity. In a significant deviation from drifter measurements prior to Isaac, the scale-dependent relative diffusivity is estimated to be 6 times larger during the hurricane, which represents a deviation from Okubo's (1971) canonical results for lateral dispersion in nonhurricane conditions at the ocean surface.
Ramsey, Elijah W.; Hodgson, M.E.; Sapkota, S.K.; Nelson, G.A.
An empirical model was used to relate forest type and hurricane-impact distribution with wind speed and duration to explain the variation of hurricane damage among forest types along the Atchafalaya River basin of coastal Louisiana. Forest-type distribution was derived from Landsat Thematic Mapper image data, hurricane-impact distribution from a suite of transformed advanced very high resolution radiometer images, and wind speed and duration from a wind-field model. The empirical model explained 73%, 84%, and 87% of the impact variances for open, hardwood, and cypress-tupelo forests, respectively. These results showed that the estimated impact for each forest type was highly related to the duration and speed of extreme winds associated with Hurricane Andrew in 1992. The wind-field model projected that the highest wind speeds were in the southern basin, dominated by cypress-tupelo and open forests, while lower wind speeds were in the northern basin, dominated by hardwood forests. This evidence could explain why, on average, the impact to cypress-tupelos was more severe than to hardwoods, even though cypress-tupelos are less susceptible to wind damage. Further, examination of the relative importance of wind speed in explaining the impact severity to each forest type showed that the impact to hardwood forests was mainly related to tropical-depression to tropical-storm force wind speeds. Impacts to cypress-tupelo and open forests (a mixture of willows and cypress-tupelo) were broadly related to tropical-storm force wind speeds and by wind speeds near and somewhat in excess of hurricane force. Decoupling the importance of duration from speed in explaining the impact severity to the forests could not be fully realized. Most evidence, however, hinted that impact severity was positively related to higher durations at critical wind speeds. Wind-speed intervals, which were important in explaining the impact severity on hardwoods, showed that higher durations, but not the
Howat, Holly; Curtis, Nikki; Landry, Shauna; Farmer, Kara; Kroll, Tobias; Douglass, Jill
This article examines school and school district-level efforts to reopen schools after significant damage from hurricanes. Through an empirical, qualitative research design, four themes emerged as critical to the hurricane recovery process: the importance of communication, resolving tension, coordinating with other services and learning from the…
Davis, Thompson E., III; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Ollendick, Thomas H.
The following study examined the reactions of university students to Hurricane Katrina. A group of 68 New Orleans area students who were displaced from their home universities as a result of the hurricane were matched on race, gender, and age to a sample of 68 students who had been enrolled at Louisiana State University (LSU) prior to the…
responses to this storm. Hurricanes Ivan, Katrina, and Rita are among the most powertul hurricanes recently to enter the Gulf of Mexico . Although it...the Gulf of Mexico coast. The article focuses on storm meteorology, sea state, shelf circulation, and sediment transport on the shelf and along the coast.
Whelan, K.R.T.; Smith, T. J.; Anderson, G.H.; Ouellette, M.L.
Soil elevation affects tidal inundation period, inundation frequency, and overall hydroperiod, all of which are important ecological factors affecting species recruitment, composition, and survival in wetlands. Hurricanes can dramatically affect a site's soil elevation. We assessed the impact of Hurricane Wilma (2005) on soil elevation at a mangrove forest location along the Shark River in Everglades National Park, Florida, USA. Using multiple depth surface elevation tables (SETs) and marker horizons we measured soil accretion, erosion, and soil elevation. We partitioned the effect of Hurricane Wilma's storm deposit into four constituent soil zones: surface (accretion) zone, shallow zone (0–0.35 m), middle zone (0.35–4 m), and deep zone (4–6 m). We report expansion and contraction of each soil zone. Hurricane Wilma deposited 37.0 (± 3.0 SE) mm of material; however, the absolute soil elevation change was + 42.8 mm due to expansion in the shallow soil zone. One year post-hurricane, the soil profile had lost 10.0 mm in soil elevation, with 8.5 mm of the loss due to erosion. The remaining soil elevation loss was due to compaction from shallow subsidence. We found prolific growth of new fine rootlets (209 ± 34 SE g m−2) in the storm deposited material suggesting that deposits may become more stable in the near future (i.e., erosion rate will decrease). Surficial erosion and belowground processes both played an important role in determining the overall soil elevation. Expansion and contraction in the shallow soil zone may be due to hydrology, and in the middle and bottom soil zones due to shallow subsidence. Findings thus far indicate that soil elevation has made substantial gains compared to site specific relative sea-level rise, but data trends suggest that belowground processes, which differ by soil zone, may come to dominate the long term ecological impact of storm deposit.
Trembanis, A. C.; Beaudoin, J. D.; DuVal, C.; Schmidt, V. E.; Mayer, L. A.
Through the careful execution of precision high-resolution acoustic sonar surveys over the period of October 2012 through July 2013, we have obtained a unique set of high-resolution before and after storm measurements of seabed morphology and in situ hydrodynamic conditions (waves and currents) capturing the impact of the storm at an inner continental shelf field site known as the 'Redbird reef' (Raineault et al., 2013). Understanding the signature of this storm event is important for identifying the impacts of such events and for understanding the role that such events have in the transport of sediment and marine debris on the inner continental shelf. In order to understand and characterize the ripple dynamics and scour processes in an energetic, heterogeneous inner-shelf setting, a series of high-resolution geoacoustic surveys were conducted before and after Hurricane Sandy. Our overall goal is to improve our understanding of bedform dynamics and spatio-temporal length scales and defect densities through the application of a recently developed fingerprint algorithm technique (Skarke and Trembanis, 2011). Utilizing high-resolution swath sonar collected by an AUV and from surface vessel multibeam sonar, our study focuses both on bedforms in the vicinity of manmade seabed objects (e.g. shipwrecks and subway cars) and dynamic natural ripples on the inner-shelf in energetic coastal settings with application to critical military operations such as mine countermeasures. Seafloor mapping surveys were conducted both with a ship-mounted multibeam echosounder (200 kHz and 400 kHz) and an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) configured with high-resolution side-scan sonar (900 and 1800 kHz) and a phase measuring bathymetric sonar (500 kHz). These geoacoustic surveys were further augmented with data collected by in situ instruments placed on the seabed that recorded measurements of waves and currents at the site before, during, and after the storm. Multibeam echosounder map of
Pampe, William R.
Describes the formation and development of hurricanes and discusses the disasters associated with them. Reviews the warning signals used for tropical storms and provides an overview of the hurricane naming process. (ML)
Stockdon, Hilary F.; Fauver, Laura A.; Sallenger,, Asbury H.; Wright, C. Wayne
Hurricane Rita made landfall as a category 3 storm in western Louisiana in late September 2005, 1 month following Hurricane Katrina's devastating landfall in the eastern part of the State. Large waves and storm surge inundated the lowelevation coastline, destroying many communities and causing extensive coastal change including beach, dune, and marsh erosion.
Li, J.; Schmit, T. J.; Li, Z.; Zhu, F.; Lim, A.; Atlas, R. M.; John, P.
Future geostationary (Geo) advanced InfraRed (IR) sounders have finer spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions compared with the existing GOES sounders, providing much improved resolving power of atmospheric thermodynamic information. When quantitatively assessing the value-added impact from such instruments over the current sounding systems onboard the Low Earth Orbit (Leo) satellites, the real question is what is the optimal impact using the current assimilation/forecast systems. More specifically, will assimilation of more observations from Geo IR sounders with the current assimilation/forecast systems yield improved forecast as expected? And if so, how to assimilate the high temporal resolution Geo sounding information and what is the impact on forecasts? Taken tropical cyclone (TC) forecasting as an example, this study tries to address these questions through a quick regional Observing System Simulation Experiments (r-OSSE) study. The synthetic observations are simulated from the sample ECMWF T1279 nature run (NR) for Hurricane Sandy (2012), including RAOB, the Leo AIRS, and Geo AIRS. Various experiments were carried out using WRF 3.6.1 and GSI 3.3 to study the impact on Sandy track forecast. And the study shows that a) it is critical to assign an appropriate observational error (observation error covariance matrix - O matrix) in order to show improved positive impacts from Geo AIRS over Leo AIRS; b) cycling of 3/6-hourly shows improved positive impacts over none cycling, but hourly cycling does not show further improvement on forecasts among all experiments, and c) with thinning (120 ~ 240 km), the impacts have the following order: hourly > 3-hourly > 6-hourly > none cycling. These experiments indicate that while more observations may improve forecasts, much more observations are difficult to show further improvement with the current assimilation/forecast system configurations. There exists a tradeoff between the number of observations to be assimilated
article title: Roiling Clouds of Hurricane Katrina View Larger ... (MISR) shows the strong convective development of Hurricane Katrina on Saturday, August 27, 2005 as it moved west through the ... development - it had just been upgraded to a Category 3 hurricane, and within 24 hours it would reach Category 5. On Monday morning ...
article title: Tracking Hurricane Wilma Across the Caribbean ... stages in the life cycle of the rapidly intensifying Hurricane Wilma may prove useful for evaluating the ability of numerical ... sequence of images and cloud-top height observations for Hurricane Wilma as it progressed across the Caribbean in October 2005. Each ...
article title: Hurricane Lili Heads for Louisiana Landfall ... Image Characteristics of a strengthening Category 3 Hurricane Lili are apparent in these images from the Multi-angle Imaging ... (MISR), including a well-developed clearing at the hurricane eye. When these views were acquired on October 2, 2002, Lili was ...
article title: Hurricane Sandy's Wind Flow ... NASA's Terra spacecraft captured this imagery and data over Hurricane Sandy as the storm approached the U.S. east coast on October 28, ... to Florida; it shows much of the western half of the hurricane. The eye of the storm is to the right and outside of the observed ...
Davis, Thompson E; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E; Ollendick, Thomas H
The following study examined the reactions of university students to Hurricane Katrina. A group of 68 New Orleans area students who were displaced from their home universities as a result of the hurricane were matched on race, gender, and age to a sample of 68 students who had been enrolled at Louisiana State University (LSU) prior to the hurricane. All students were enrolled at LSU at the time they participated in an online survey, conducted 3 months following the hurricane. The survey included symptom measures of depression, anxiety, stress, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and other variables. Results indicated displaced students experienced more trauma exposure and greater subsequent distress, more symptoms of PTSD, and more symptoms of depression. Moreover, traumatic exposure and distress from the traumatic exposure were found to fully mediate depressive symptoms and posttraumatic symptoms in the displaced students.
Munroe, D.; Tabatabai, A.; Burt, I.; Bushek, D.; Powell, E. N.; Wilkin, J.
One predicted consequence of climate change is increasing variability of local weather extremes such as the frequency and intensity of storms. In August and September of 2011, Hurricane Irene and Tropical Storm Lee generated extreme flooding in the Delaware River watershed that produced prolonged baywide low salinity and consequent historically-high mortalities for the oyster stock in the upper reaches of Delaware Bay. The dynamics, consequences, and projections for recovery from the anomalously high oyster mortality that occurred as a consequence are reported using a combination of physical modeling, field sampling, and metapopulation dynamics modeling. Monthly mortality of 10% and 55% on the upper bay beds (Arnolds and Hope Creek respectively) exceeded the longer-term average at those locations and was associated with a continuous low salinity (<7) exposure of greater than 20 days. Population recovery projections based on metapopulation modeling suggests that recovery will take approximately 10 years for the uppermost beds. Clear understanding of the circumstances leading to this high population-level impact on oysters is important because anticipated future conditions of increased storm frequency will intensify the challenge such events pose for the management of fishery and aquaculture resources, and the siting of restoration efforts.
Wang, Shouping; Jiang, Qingfang
Quasi-two-dimensional roll vortices are frequently observed in hurricane boundary layers. It is believed that this highly coherent structure, likely caused by the inflection-point instability, plays an important role in organizing turbulent transport. Large-eddy simulations are conducted to investigate the impact of wind shear characteristics, such as the shear strength and inflection-point level, on the roll structure in terms of its spectral characteristics and turbulence organization. A mean wind nudging approach is used in the simulations to maintain the specified mean wind shear without directly affecting turbulent motions. Enhancing the radial wind shear expands the roll horizontal scale and strengthens the roll's kinetic energy. Increasing the inflection-point level tends to produce a narrow and sharp peak in the power spectrum at the wavelength consistent with the roll spacing indicated by the instantaneous turbulent fields. The spectral tangential momentum flux, in particular, reaches a strong peak value at the roll wavelength. In contrast, the spectral radial momentum flux obtains its maximum at the wavelength that is usually shorter than the roll's, suggesting that the roll radial momentum transport is less efficient than the tangential because of the quasi-two-dimensionality of the roll structure. The most robust rolls are produced in a simulation with the highest inflection-point level and relatively strong radial wind shear. Based on the spectral analysis, the roll-scale contribution to the turbulent momentum flux can reach 40 % in the middle of the boundary layer.
Annane, B.; McNoldy, B. D.; Bucci, L. R.; Delgado, J.; Atlas, R. M.; Majumdar, S.
The Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System, or CYGNSS, is a planned constellation of micro-satellites that utilizes existing GPS satellites to retrieve surface wind speed near the satellites' ground tracks. The orbits are designed such that there is excellent coverage of the tropics and subtropics, resulting in better sampling intervals over tropical cyclones than is possible with current scatterometers. Furthermore, CYGNSS will be able to retrieve winds under all precipitation conditions, and over a large range of wind speeds in a tropical cyclone. Using model output from a high-resolution tropical cyclone nature run as truth, synthetic CYGNSS and aircraft surface wind speed data have been created. The tropical cyclone nature run spans 13 days and is based on European Center for Medium range Weather Forecasting's (ECMWF) joint Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) global nature run. The impact of synthetic CYGNSS wind speed data on Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) analyses, and Hurricane Weather Research and Forecast system forecasts (HWRF) will be shown.
Wang, Chunzai; Lee, Sang-ki
The Atlantic Warm Pool (AWP) is a large body of warm water (warmer than 28.5°C) that appears in the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean Sea, and the western tropical North Atlantic during the summer and fall. Located to its northeastern side is the North Atlantic Subtropical High (NASH) that produces the easterly trade winds in the tropics. The trade winds carry moisture from the tropical North Atlantic into the Caribbean Sea where the flow intensifies forming the Caribbean Low-Level Jet (CLLJ). This paper finds that the easterly CLLJ is maximized in the summer and winter, whereas it is minimized in the fall and spring. The semi-annual feature of the CLLJ results from the semi-annual variation of sea level pressure in the Caribbean region associated with the east-west excursion of the NASH. The AWP's impact is to weaken the summertime NASH, especially at its southwestern edge and thus weaken the easterly CLLJ. The weakening of the easterly CLLJ, in conjunction with the AWP-induced change of upper-level wind, reduces the tropospheric vertical wind shear that favors hurricane formation and intensification during August-October.
Paerl, Hans W.; Bales, Jerad D.; Ausley, Larry W.; Buzzelli, Christopher P.; Crowder, Larry B.; Eby, Lisa A.; Fear, John M.; Go, Malia; Peierls, Benjamin L.; Richardson, Tammi L.; Ramus, Joseph S.
Three sequential hurricanes, Dennis, Floyd, and Irene, affected coastal North Carolina in September and October 1999. These hurricanes inundated the region with up to 1 m of rainfall, causing 50- to 500-year flooding in the watershed of the Pamlico Sound, the largest lagoonal estuary in the United States and a key West Atlantic fisheries nursery. We investigated the ecosystem-level impacts on and responses of the Sound to the floodwater discharge. Floodwaters displaced three-fourths of the volume of the Sound, depressed salinity by a similar amount, and delivered at least half of the typical annual nitrogen load to this nitrogen-sensitive ecosystem. Organic carbon concentrations in floodwaters entering Pamlico Sound via a major tributary (the Neuse River Estuary) were at least 2-fold higher than concentrations under prefloodwater conditions. A cascading set of physical, chemical, and ecological impacts followed, including strong vertical stratification, bottom water hypoxia, a sustained increase in algal biomass, displacement of many marine organisms, and a rise in fish disease. Because of the Sound's long residence time (≈1 year), we hypothesize that the effects of the short-term nutrient enrichment could prove to be multiannual. A predicted increase in the frequency of hurricane activity over the next few decades may cause longer-term biogeochemical and trophic changes in this and other estuarine and coastal habitats. PMID:11344306
Paerl, H.W.; Bales, J.D.; Ausley, L.W.; Buzzelli, C.P.; Crowder, L.B.; Eby, L.A.; Fear, J.M.; Go, M.; Peierls, B.L.; Richardson, T.L.; Ramus, J.S.
Three sequential hurricanes, Dennis, Floyd, and Irene, affected coastal North Carolina in September and October 1999. These hurricanes inundated the region with up to 1 m of rainfall, causing 50- to 500-year flooding in the watershed of the Pamlico Sound, the largest lagoonal estuary in the United States and a key West Atlantic fisheries nursery. We investigated the ecosystem-level impacts on and responses of the Sound to the floodwater discharge. Floodwaters displaced three-fourths of the volume of the Sound, depressed salinity by a similar amount, and delivered at least half of the typical annual nitrogen load to this nitrogen-sensitive ecosystem. Organic carbon concentrations in floodwaters entering Pamlico Sound via a major tributary (the Neuse River Estuary) were at least 2-fold higher than concentrations under prefloodwater conditions. A cascading set of physical, chemical, and ecological impacts followed, including strong vertical stratification, bottom water hypoxia, a sustained increase in algal biomass, displacement of many marine organisms, and a rise in fish disease. Because of the Sound's long residence time (???1 year), we hypothesize that the effects of the short-term nutrient enrichment could prove to be multiannual. A predicted increase in the frequency of hurricane activity over the next few decades may cause longer-term biogeochemical and trophic changes in this and other estuarine and coastal habitats.
Yoshida, Yasuko; Duncan, Bryan N.; Retscher, Christian; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Celarier, Edward A.; Joiner, Joanna; Boersma, K. Folkert; Veefkind, J. Pepijn
The impact of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005 on pollution emissions in the Gulf of Mexico region was investigated using tropospheric column amounts of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the NASA Aura satellite. Around New Orleans and coastal Mississippi, we estimate that Katrina caused a 35% reduction in NO x emissions on average in the three weeks after landfall. Hurricane Rita caused a significant reduction (20%) in NO x emissions associated with power generation and intensive oil refining activities near the Texas/Louisiana border. We also found a 43% decrease by these two storms over the eastern Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf mainly due to the evacuation of and damage to platforms, rigs, and ports associated with oil and natural gas production.
Rock, B. N.; Hale, S.
the nearby construction of two student dormitories within 100 feet of the trees. The other student team studied cores for evidence of possible impacts from four recent hurricanes (Isabel, category 5, 2003; Floyd, category 4, 1999; Bonnie, category 3, 1998; and Fran, Category 3, 1996) on trees from the Alligator River (near Cape Hatteras, NC) and from the ECSU campus (well inland). Cores were evaluated for the presence or absence of false growth rings that could be the result of saltwater impoundment associated with storm surges. False growth rings were seen in the cores of loblolly pine from the Alligator River site, but only for the years 2003 and 1999. No false growth rings were seen in the cores of loblolly pine from the ECSU campus. Both hurricanes Isabel and Floyd were stronger storms and had higher storm surges (8-10 ft) than either Bonnie or Fran (storm surges of 3-5 feet). The team hypothesized that the false growth rings were related to the impacts of the two stronger storms.
Braun, Scott A.; Sippel, Jason A.; Nolan, David S.
This study examines the potential negative influences of dry midlevel air on the development of tropical cyclones (specifically, its role in enhancing cold downdraft activity and suppressing storm development). The Weather Research and Forecasting model is used to construct two sets of idealized simulations of hurricane development in environments with different configurations of dry air. The first set of simulations begins with dry air located north of the vortex center by distances ranging from 0 to 270 km, whereas the second set of simulations begins with dry air completely surrounding the vortex, but with moist envelopes in the vortex core ranging in size from 0 to 150 km in radius. No impact of the dry air is seen for dry layers located more than 270 km north of the initial vortex center (approximately 3 times the initial radius of maximum wind). When the dry air is initially closer to the vortex center, it suppresses convective development where it entrains into the storm circulation, leading to increasingly asymmetric convection and slower storm development. The presence of dry air throughout the domain, including the vortex center, substantially slows storm development. However, the presence of a moist envelope around the vortex center eliminates the deleterious impact on storm intensity. Instead, storm size is significantly reduced. The simulations suggest that dry air slows intensification only when it is located very close to the vortex core at early times. When it does slow storm development, it does so primarily by inducing outward- moving convective asymmetries that temporarily shift latent heating radially outward away from the high-vorticity inner core.
Morton, Robert A.; Barras, John A.
Temporally and spatially repeated patterns of wetland erosion, deformation, and deposition are observed on remotely sensed images and in the field after hurricanes cross the coast of Louisiana. The diagnostic morphological wetland features are products of the coupling of high-velocity wind and storm-surge water and their interaction with the underlying, variably resistant, wetland vegetation and soils. Erosional signatures include construction of orthogonal-elongate ponds and amorphous ponds, pond expansion, plucked marsh, marsh denudation, and shoreline erosion. Post-storm gravity reflux of floodwater draining from the wetlands forms dendritic incisions around the pond margins and locally integrates drainage pathways forming braided channels. Depositional signatures include emplacement of broad zones of organic wrack on topographic highs and inorganic deposits of variable thicknesses and lateral extents in the form of shore-parallel sandy washover terraces and interior-marsh mud blankets. Deformational signatures primarily involve laterally compressed marsh and displaced marsh mats and balls. Prolonged water impoundment and marsh salinization also are common impacts associated with wetland flooding by extreme storms. Many of the wetland features become legacies that record prior storm impacts and locally influence subsequent storm-induced morphological changes. Wetland losses caused by hurricane impacts depend directly on impact duration, which is controlled by the diameter of hurricane-force winds, forward speed of the storm, and wetland distance over which the storm passes. Distinguishing between wetland losses caused by storm impacts and losses associated with long-term delta-plain processes is critical for accurate modeling and prediction of future conversion of land to open water.
Morton, R.A.; Barras, J.A.
Temporally and spatially repeated patterns of wetland erosion, deformation, and deposition are observed on remotely sensed images and in the field after hurricanes cross the coast of Louisiana. The diagnostic morphological wetland features are products of the coupling of high-velocity wind and storm-surge water and their interaction with the underlying, variably resistant, wetland vegetation and soils. Erosional signatures include construction of orthogonal-elongate ponds and amorphous ponds, pond expansion, plucked marsh, marsh denudation, and shoreline erosion. Post-storm gravity reflux of floodwater draining from the wetlands forms dendritic incisions around the pond margins and locally integrates drainage pathways forming braided channels. Depositional signatures include emplacement of broad zones of organic wrack on topographic highs and inorganic deposits of variable thicknesses and lateral extents in the form of shore-parallel sandy washover terraces and interior-marsh mud blankets. Deformational signatures primarily involve laterally compressed marsh and displaced marsh mats and balls. Prolonged water impoundment and marsh salinization also are common impacts associated with wetland flooding by extreme storms. Many of the wetland features become legacies that record prior storm impacts and locally influence subsequent storm-induced morphological changes. Wetland losses caused by hurricane impacts depend directly on impact duration, which is controlled by the diameter of hurricane-force winds, forward speed of the storm, and wetland distance over which the storm passes. Distinguishing between wetland losses caused by storm impacts and losses associated with long-term delta-plain processes is critical for accurate modeling and prediction of future conversion of land to open water. ?? Coastal Education & Research Foundation 2011.
Miller, Timothy L.; Amarin, Ruba; Atlas, Robert; Bailey, M. C.; Black, Peter; Buckley, Courtney; James, Mark; Johnson, James; Jones, Linwood; Ruf, Christopher; Simmons, David; Uhlhorn, Eric
The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is a new airborne microwave remote sensor for hurricane observations that is currently under development by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in partnership with the NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory/Hurricane Research Division, the University of Central Florida, the University of Michigan, and the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The instrument is being test flown in January and is expected to participate in or collaborate with the tropical cyclone experiment GRIP (Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes) in the 2010 season. HIRAD is designed to study the wind field in some detail within strong hurricanes and to enhance the real-time airborne ocean surface winds observation capabilities of NOAA and USAF Weather Squadron hurricane hunter aircraft currently using the operational Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR). Unlike SFMR, which measures wind speed and rain rate along the ground track at a single point directly beneath the aircraft, HIRAD will provide images of the surface wind and rain field over a wide swath (approx.3 x the aircraft altitude) with approx.2 km resolution. See Figure 1, which depicts a simulated HIRAD swath versus the line of data obtained by SFMR.
Russell, James C; Stjernman, Martin; Lindström, Åke; Smith, Henrik G
Resilience of ecological communities to perturbation is important in the face of increased global change from anthropogenic stressors. Monitoring is required to detect the impact of, and recovery from, perturbations, and before-after-control-impact (BACI) analysis provides a powerful framework in this regard. However, species in a community are not observed with perfect detection, and occupancy analysis is required to correct for imperfect detectability of species. We present a Bayesian community occupancy before-after-control-impact (CO-BACI) framework to monitor ecological community response to perturbation when constituent species are imperfectly detected. We test the power of the model to detect changes in community composition following an acute perturbation with simulation. We then apply the model to a study of the impact of a large hurricane on the forest bird community of Sweden, using data from the national bird survey scheme. Although simulation shows the model can detect changes in community occupancy following an acute perturbation, application to a Swedish forest bird community following a major hurricane detected no change in community occupancy despite widespread forest loss. Birds with landscape occupancy less than 50% required correcting for detectability. We conclude that CO-BACI analysis is a useful tool that can incorporate rare species in analyses and detect occupancy changes in ecological communities following perturbation, but, because it does not include abundance, some impacts may be overlooked.
Bender, Morris A; Knutson, Thomas R; Tuleya, Robert E; Sirutis, Joseph J; Vecchi, Gabriel A; Garner, Stephen T; Held, Isaac M
Several recent models suggest that the frequency of Atlantic tropical cyclones could decrease as the climate warms. However, these models are unable to reproduce storms of category 3 or higher intensity. We explored the influence of future global warming on Atlantic hurricanes with a downscaling strategy by using an operational hurricane-prediction model that produces a realistic distribution of intense hurricane activity for present-day conditions. The model projects nearly a doubling of the frequency of category 4 and 5 storms by the end of the 21st century, despite a decrease in the overall frequency of tropical cyclones, when the downscaling is based on the ensemble mean of 18 global climate-change projections. The largest increase is projected to occur in the Western Atlantic, north of 20 degrees N.
Gordon, Joseph P.
During August and September 2004, four hurricanes tested the mettle of Space Coast residents and the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) leadership and workforce. These threats underscored two important points: the very real vulnerability of KSC and its valuable space program assets to the devastating power of a hurricane, and the planning required to effectively deal with such threats. The damage was significant even though KSC did not experience sustained hurricane-force winds. To better understand and appreciate these points, this report provides an overview of the meteorological history of the Space Coast and what is involved in the planning, preparation, and recovery activities, as well as addressing the impacts of the 2004 hurricane season.
Manzello, Derek P; Brandt, Marilyn; Smith, Tyler B; Lirman, Diego; Hendee, James C; Nemeth, Richard S
Recent, global mass-mortalities of reef corals due to record warm sea temperatures have led researchers to consider global warming as one of the most significant threats to the persistence of coral reef ecosystems. The passage of a hurricane can alleviate thermal stress on coral reefs, highlighting the potential for hurricane-associated cooling to mitigate climate change impacts. We provide evidence that hurricane-induced cooling was responsible for the documented differences in the extent and recovery time of coral bleaching between the Florida Reef Tract and the U.S. Virgin Islands during the Caribbean-wide 2005 bleaching event. These results are the only known scenario where the effects of a hurricane can benefit a stressed marine community.
Smith, Stanley K; McCarty, Chris
The 2004 hurricane season was the worst in Florida's history, with four hurricanes causing at least 47 deaths and some $45 billion in damages. To collect information on the demographic impact of those hurricanes, we surveyed households throughout the state and in the local areas that sustained the greatest damage. We estimate that one-quarter of Florida's population evacuated prior to at least one hurricane; in some areas, well over one-half of the residents evacuated at least once, and many evacuated several times. Most evacuees stayed with family or friends and were away from home for only a few days. Using logistic regression analysis, we found that the strength of the hurricane and the vulnerability of the housing unit had the greatest impact on evacuation behavior; additionally, several demographic variables had significant effects on the probability of evacuating and the choice of evacuation lodging (family/friends, public shelters, or hotels/motels). With continued population growth in coastal areas and the apparent increase in hurricane activity caused by global warming, threats posed by hurricanes are rising in the United States and throughout the world. We believe the present study will help government officials plan more effectively for future hurricane evacuations.
Doyle, T.W.; Krauss, K.W.; Wells, C.J.
The Everglades ecosystem contains the largest contiguous tract of mangrove forest outside the tropics that were also coincidentally intersected by a major Category 5 hurricane. Airborne videography was flown to capture the landscape pattern and process of forest damage in relation to storm trajectory and circulation. Two aerial video transects, representing different topographic positions, were used to quantify forest damage from video frame analysis in relation to prevailing wind force, treefall direction, and forest height. A hurricane simulation model was applied to reconstruct wind fields corresponding to the ground location of each video frame and to correlate observed treefall and destruction patterns with wind speed and direction. Mangrove forests within the storm's eyepath and in the right-side (forewind) quadrants suffered whole or partial blowdowns, while left-side (backwind) sites south of the eyewall zone incurred moderate canopy reduction and defoliation. Sites along the coastal transect sustained substantially more storm damage than sites along the inland transect which may be attributed to differences in stand exposure and/or stature. Observed treefall directions were shown to be non-random and associated with hurricane trajectory and simulated forewind azimuths. Wide-area sampling using airborne videography provided an efficient adjunct to limited ground observations and improved our spatial understanding of how hurricanes imprint landscape-scale patterns of disturbance. ?? 2009 The Society of Wetland Scientists.
Feller, Ilka C; Dangremond, Emily M; Devlin, Donna J; Lovelock, Catherine E; Proffitt, C Edward; Rodriguez, Wilfrid
Mangroves are an ecological assemblage of trees and shrubs adapted to grow in intertidal environments along tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate coasts. Despite repeated demonstrations of their ecologic and economic value, multiple stressors including nutrient over-enrichment threaten these and other coastal wetlands globally. These ecosystems will be further stressed if tropical storm intensity and frequency increase in response to global climate changes. These stressors will likely interact, but the outcome of that interaction is uncertain. Here, we examined potential interaction between nutrient over-enrichment and the September 2004 hurricanes. Hurricanes Frances and Jeanne made landfall along Florida's Indian River Lagoon and caused extensive damage to a long-term fertilization experiment in a mangrove forest, which previously revealed that productivity was nitrogen (N) limited across the forest and, in particular, that N enrichment dramatically increased growth rates and aboveground biomass of stunted Avicennia germinans trees in the interior scrub zone. During the hurricanes, these trees experienced significant defoliation with three to four times greater reduction in leaf area index (LAI) than control trees. Over the long-term, the +N scrub trees took four years to recover compared to two years for controls. In the adjacent fringe and transition zones, LAI was reduced by > 70%, but with no differences based on zone or fertilization treatment. Despite continued delayed mortality for at least five years after the storms, LAI in the fringe and transition returned to pre-hurricane conditions in two years. Thus, nutrient over-enrichment of the coastal zone will increase the productivity of scrub mangroves, which dominate much of the mangrove landscape in Florida and the Caribbean; however, that benefit is offset by a decrease in their resistance and resilience to hurricane damage that has the potential to destabilize the system.
Arya, Vibhuti; Medina, Eric; Scaccia, Allison; Mathew, Cathleen; Starr, David
Hurricane Sandy was one of the most severe natural disasters to hit the Mid-Atlantic States in recent history. Community pharmacies were among the businesses affected, with flooding and power outages significantly reducing services offered by many pharmacies. The objectives of our study were to assess the impact of Hurricane Sandy on community pharmacies, both independently owned and chain, in the severely affected areas of New York City (NYC), including Coney Island, Staten Island, and the Rockaways, using qualitative methods, and propose strategies to mitigate the impact of future storms and disasters. Of the total 52 solicited pharmacies, 35 (67 percent) responded and were included in our analysis. Only 10 (29 percent) of the pharmacies surveyed reported having a generator during Hurricane Sandy; 37 percent reported being equipped with a generator at the time of the survey approximately 1 year later. Our findings suggest that issues other than power outages contributed more toward a pharmacy remaining operational after the storm. Of those surveyed, 26 (74 percent) suffered from structural damage (most commonly in Coney Island). Most pharmacies (71 percent) were able to reopen within 1 month. Despite staffing challenges, most pharmacies (88 percent) had enough pharmacists/staff to resume normal operations. Overall, 91 percent were aware of law changes for emergency medication access, and 81 percent found the information easy to obtain. This survey helped inform our work toward improved community resiliency. Our findings have helped us recognize community pharmacists as important stakeholders and refocus our energy toward developing sustained partnerships with them in NYC as part of our ongoing preparedness strategy.
Lugo-Fernández, A.; Gravois, M.
A 100-year climatology of tropical storms and hurricanes within a 200-km buffer was developed to study their impacts on coral reefs of the Flower Garden Banks (FGB) and neighboring banks of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. The FGB are most commonly affected by tropical storms from May through November, peaking in August-September. Storms approach from all directions; however, the majority of them approach from the southeast and southwest, which suggests a correlation with storm origin in the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. A storm activity cycle lasting 30-40 years was identified similar to that known in the Atlantic basin, and is similar to the recovery time for impacted reefs. On average there is 52% chance of a storm approaching within 200 km of the FGB every year, but only 17% chance of a direct hit every year. Storm-generated waves 5-25 m in height and periods of 11-15 s induce particle speeds of 1-4 m s -1 near these reefs. The wave-current flow is capable of transporting large (˜3 cm) sediment particles, uplifting the near-bottom nepheloid layer to the banks tops, but not enough to break coral skeletons. The resulting storm-driven turbulence induces cooling by heat extraction, mixing, and upwelling, which reduces coral bleaching potential and deepens the mixed layer by about 20 m. Tropical storms also aid larvae dispersal from and onto the FGB. Low storm activity in 1994-2004 contributed to an 18% coral cover increase, but Hurricane Rita in 2005 reduced it by 11% and brought coral cover to nearly pre-1994 levels. These results suggest that the FGB reefs and neighboring reef banks act as coral refugia because of their offshore location and deep position in the water column, which shields them from deleterious effects of all but the strongest hurricanes.
... shown on the right. The lengths of the arrows indicate the wind speeds and their orientation shows wind direction. The altitude of a given ... flow of air into the hurricane. This warm, moist air is the power source for the hurricane. Mid- and high-level clouds (green and ...
Meng, X.; Peng, Z.; Yang, H.; Allman, S.
Recent studies have shown that typhoon could trigger shallow slow-slip events in Taiwan. However, it is unclear whether such extreme weather events could affect the occurrence of regular earthquakes as well. A good opportunity to test this hypothesis occurred in 2011 when an Mw 5.8 earthquake struck Louisa County, Virginia. This event ruptured a shallow, reverse fault. Roughly 5 days later, hurricane Irene struck the coast of Norfolk, Virginia, which is near the epicentral region of the Virginia mainshock. Because aftershocks listed in the ANSS catalog were incomplete immediately after the main shock, it is very difficult to find the genuine correlation between the seismicity rate changes and hurricane Irene. Hence, we use a recently developed waveform matched filter technique to scan through the continuous seismic data to detect small aftershocks that are previously unidentified. A mixture of 7 temporary stations from the IRIS Ramp deployment and 8 temporary stations deployed by Virginia Tech is used. The temporary stations were set up between 24 to 72 hours following the main shock around its immediate vicinity, which provides us a unique dataset recording the majority aftershock sequence of an intraplate earthquake. We us 80 aftershocks identified by Chapman  as template events and scan through the continuous data from 23 August 2011 through 10 September 2011. So far, we have detected 704 events using a threshold of 12 times the median absolute deviation (MAD), which is ~25 times more than listed in the ANSS catalog. The aftershock rate generally decayed with time as predicted by the Omori's law. A statistically significant increase of seismicity rate is found when hurricane Irene passed by the epicentral region. A possible explanation is that the atmosphere pressure drop unloaded the surface, which brought the reverse faults closer to failure. However, we also identified similar fluctuations of seismicity rate changes at other times. Hence, it is still
Palacios-Sánchez, Sonia Eugenia; Vega-Cendejas, María Eugenia
The coexistence of ecologically similar species may occur because of resources distribution, such as prey and habitat type and segregation time, that minimizes the interspecific competition. The changes brought about by Hurricane Isidore in the distribution of food resources by three coexisting fish species of the family Tetraodontidae (Sphoeroides nephelus, S. spengleri and S testudineus), were analyzed at the Carbonera Inlet. Sphoeroides spp. based their food on benthic organisms; principally, they consume mussels (Brachidontes sp.), barnacles (Balanus sp.) and gastropods (Crepidula sp). Before hurricane impact, the three species share the available food resources in different proportions (bivalves, gastropods, barnacles and decapods), according to different strategies that enabled them to coexist and reduce interspecific competition. After the impact, the abundance of available prey decreased and the interespecific competition for food increased, leading to S. testudines and S. nephelus change their trophic spectrum (xiphosurans, amphipods, isopods and detritus) and displacing S. splengleri of the inlet. The distribution of food resources was conditioned by the abundance and diversity of prey, as well as the adaptive response of each species.
Diaz, James H
Hymenopterid stings and subsequent allergic reactions are a common indication for emergency department visits worldwide. Unrecognized anaphylactic reactions to hymenopterid stings by apids, or bees, and vespids, or wasps, are a significant cause of sudden and unanticipated deaths outdoors in young people, with and without atopic histories. Insect bites and stings, often complicated by allergic reactions or skin infections, by community-acquired pathogens, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, are common sources of morbidity following hurricanes, tropical storms, and prolonged flooding. This article will review and critically analyze the descriptive epidemiology and outcomes of hymenopterid bites, stings, and allergic reactions, especially following hurricanes and prolonged flooding disasters; stratify the immunologic reactions to hymenopterid stings by clinical severity and outcomes; and present current recommendations for management, prophylaxis, and prevention of hymenopterid stings and reactions.
protection represents 51 percent of the population of the project area or about 34,000 people . The proposed plans will not prevent flooding from rain- fall...developable, of people . Increased community cohesion Increased noise levels during from increased hurricane flood construction and maintenance...urbanized area-some displacement of people . Stimulation of economic base with continued area growth Increased noise levels during 3-14 Table 3.3
Salloum, Alison; Carter, Paulette; Burch, Berre; Garfinkel, Abbe; Overstreet, Stacy
This study examined the relationship between exposure to Hurricane Gustav and distress among 122 children (ages 7-12) to determine whether that relationship was moderated by prior experiences with Hurricane Katrina and exposure to community violence (ECV). Measures of hurricane experiences, ECV, posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, and depression were administered. Assessments occurred after the third anniversary of Katrina, which coincided with the landfall of Gustav. Results indicated that the relation between exposure to Gustav and PTS was moderated by prior experiences. There was a positive association between Gustav exposure and PTS for children who experienced high Katrina exposure and low ECV, with a similar trend for children with high ECV and low Katrina exposure. There was no relationship between Gustav exposure and PTS for children with low Katrina and low ECV or for children with high Katrina and high ECV. The relationship between exposure to Gustav and depression was not moderated by children's prior experience. However, there was a relationship between Katrina exposure and depression for children with high ECV. Results suggest that prior trauma may amplify the relationship between hurricane exposure and distress, but children with high cumulative trauma may remain highly symptomatic regardless of disaster exposure.
Heitmuller, Thomas; Perez, Brian C.
Hurricane Katrina slammed the Louisiana-Mississippi Gulf Coast with 135-mi/hour (217-km/hour) winds and up to a 30-ft (9-m) storm surge. Lake Pontchartrain was further subjected to environmental threat by way of the millions of gallons of contaminated flood water that were pumped daily from the city of New Orleans into the lake.
The dynamics of plant regeneration via seed and vegetative spread in coastal wetlands dictate the nature of community reassembly that takes place after hurricanes or sea level rise. The objectives of my project were to evaluate the potential effects of saltwater intrusion and flooding of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on seedling regeneration in coastal wetlands of the Gulf Coast. Specifically I tested hypotheses to determine for species in fresh, brackish and salt marshes of the Gulf Coast if 1) the pattern of seed germination and seedling recruitment differed with distance from the shoreline, and 2) seed germination and seedling recruitment for various species were reduced in higher levels of water depth and salinity. Regarding Hypothesis 1, seedling densities increased with distance from the shoreline in fresh and brackish water marshes while decreasing with distance from the shoreline in salt marshes. Also to test Hypothesis 1, I used a greenhouse seed bank assay to examine seed germination from seed banks collected at distances from the shoreline in response to various water depths and salinity levels using a nested factorial design. For all marsh types, the influence of water level and salinity on seed germination shifted with distance from the shoreline (i.e., three way interaction of the main effects of distance nested within site, water depth, and salinity). Data from the seed bank assay were also used to test Hypothesis 2. The regeneration of species from fresh, brackish, and salt marshes were reduced in conditions of high salinity and/or water, so that following hurricanes or sea level rise, seedling regeneration could be reduced. Among the species of these coastal marshes, there was some flexibility of response, so that at least some species were able to germinate in either high or low salinity. Salt marshes had a few fresher marsh species in the seed bank that would not germinate without a period of fresh water input (e.g., Sagittaria lancifolia) as well
Goff, J. A.; Austin, J. A.; Flood, R. D.; Schwab, W. C.; Denny, J. F.; Christensen, B. A.; Browne, C. M.; Saustrup, S.
In January 2013, approximately two months after Hurricane Sandy made landfall in the Mid-Atlantic Bight, a scientific team from the University of Texas Institute for Geophysics, partnering with colleagues at Adelphi and Stony Brook universities and the USGS, conducted marine geophysical and surficial sampling surveys both offshore and in the inshore bays of Long Island, NY. The primary scientific goal was to assess the impact of the storm on the shoreface and inner shelf. Sandy made landfall as a post-tropical cyclone near Brigantine, NJ, with 70-kt maximum sustained winds. However, its unusual trajectory and massive size created record storm surges along the heavily-populated NJ and NY coastlines. As a result, infrastructure in the NY metropolitan area was damaged, and the Long Island barrier island system was both breached in places and elsewhere seriously eroded. The surveys included ten days of operations aboard Stony Brook's R/V Seawolf, offshore of Long Beach and Fire Island, barrier islands south of Long Island, complementing ongoing land-based studies of Sandy's impact on the NY-NJ barrier island system. Data collection involved multibeam bathymetric swath mapping, CHIRP very high resolution acoustic subbottom profiling, and surface sediment (grab) sampling to provide ground truth for the geophysical data. We surveyed regions that had been previously surveyed, both by Stony Brook in 2001 and 2005 to support reef management, and by the USGS for coastal sedimentary research, most recently in 2011 offshore Fire Island. These areas include shoreface-attached sand ridges that may be exchanging sand with the barrier island shoreface. We focus on before-and-after data comparisons on the shoreface and inner shelf, searching in particular for evidence that the storm contributed significantly to ravinement, either by wave- or current-forced erosion along the shoreface or via migration of shoreface-attached or detached sand ridges on the inner shelf. The interpreted
Toldson, Ivory A; Ray, Kilynda; Hatcher, Schnavia Smith; Louis, Laura Straughn
This study examines disparities in the long-term health, emotional well-being, and economic consequences of the 2005 Gulf Coast hurricanes. Researchers analyzed the responses of 216 Black and 508 White Hurricane Katrina survivors who participated in the ABC News Hurricane Katrina Anniversary Poll in 2006. Self-reported data of the long-term negative impact of the hurricane on personal health, emotional well-being, and finances were regressed on race, income, and measures of loss, injury, family mortality, anxiety, and confidence in the government. Descriptive analyses, stepwise logistic regression, and analyses of variance revealed that Black hurricane survivors more frequently reported hurricane-related problems with personal health, emotional well-being, and finances. In addition, Blacks were more likely than Whites to report the loss of friends, relatives, and personal property.
Ventura, Caterina Gulli
The purpose of the study was to examine hurricane emergency preparedness planning at institutions of higher learning of the Gulf South region following Hurricane Katrina. The problem addressed the impact of Hurricane Katrina on decision-making and policy planning processes. The focus was on individuals that administer the hurricane emergency…
article title: Hurricane Ida Cross-Track Winds View Larger ... central pressure of 983 millibars, with maximum sustained winds of 148 kilometers per hour/41 meters per second (92 miles per hour - ...
... 30. The National Hurricane Center predicted Juliette's cyclonic circulation to be mostly dissipated by October 4. Eyes, look ... project: MISR category: gallery Storms date: Sep 26, 2001 Images: ...
... Mississippi regions were acquired before and one day after Katrina made landfall along the Gulf of Mexico coast, and highlight many of the ... http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/HPDOCS/misr/misr_html/hurricane_katrina_flood.html ...
... near the hurricane's center, and are made up of individual cells that are typically less than 20 km in diameter. This image shows a number of these cells, some fairly isolated, and others connected together. Their ...
Christoplos, Ian; Rodríguez, Tomás; Schipper, E Lisa F; Narvaez, Eddy Alberto; Bayres Mejia, Karla Maria; Buitrago, Rolando; Gómez, Ligia; Pérez, Francisco J
This paper reviews how Nicaragua has recovered from Hurricane Mitch of October 1998. In particular, it examines how the assumptions and claims that were made during initial recovery planning have proven relevant in light of subsequent development. One must consider the response to Hurricane Mitch from the perspective of the broader trends that have driven recovery, including household, community and government initiatives and the wider economic context. Recovery efforts have not 'transformed' Nicaragua. In fact, market upheavals and livelihood changes in rural areas have had a more profound impact on poverty profiles than recovery programmes. Social protection programmes have been piloted, but patron-client ties and relations with aid providers are still more reliable sources of support in a time of crisis. Risk reduction has become more deeply integrated into the rural development discourse than was the case before the disaster, but risk reduction initiatives continue to place undue emphasis on hazard response rather than addressing vulnerability.
Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille L.; Laboute, Pierre
Underwater effects on coral reefs of the six hurricanes which ravaged French Polynesia between December 82 and April 83 were observed by SCUBA diving around high islands and atolls during September and October 1983. Special attention was paid to Tikehau atoll reef formations (Tuamotu archipelago) where quantitative studies on scleractinians, cryptofauna and fishes were conducted in 1982 immediatly prior to the hurricanes. On outer reef slopes coral destruction, varying from 50 to 100%, was a function of depth. Upper slope coral communities composed of small colonies well adapted to high energy level environments, suffered less than deeper formations. However, there is a narrow erosional trough in this zone at a depth of 6 m that was probably the result of storm-wave action (plunge point). Coral destruction was spectacular at depths greater than 12 m: 60 to 80% between 12 m and 30 m and 100% beyond 35 m, whereas earlier living coral coverage ranged from 60 to 75% in these zones. The outer slope was transformed into a scree zone covered with coarse sand and dead coral rubble. Dives on different sites around steep outer slopes (>45°) of the atolls and more gentle slopes (<25°) of some parts of the high islands permitted the formulation of an explanatory hypothesis: direct coral destruction by hurricane-induced waves occurred between the surface and 18 20 m; on low-angle slopes broken colonies were thrown up on reef flats and beaches; on steep slopes avalanches destroyed much of the living corals and left scree slopes of rubble and sand.
Kossin, James P.
The North Atlantic ocean/atmosphere environment exhibits pronounced interdecadal variability that is known to strongly modulate Atlantic hurricane activity. Variability in sea surface temperature (SST) is correlated with hurricane variability through its relationship with the genesis and thermodynamic potential intensity of hurricanes. Another key factor that governs the genesis and intensity of hurricanes is ambient environmental vertical wind shear (VWS). Warmer SSTs generally correlate with more frequent genesis and greater potential intensity, while VWS inhibits genesis and prevents any hurricanes that do form from reaching their potential intensity. When averaged over the main hurricane-development region in the Atlantic, SST and VWS co-vary inversely, so that the two factors act in concert to either enhance or inhibit basin-wide hurricane activity. Here I show, however, that conditions conducive to greater basin-wide Atlantic hurricane activity occur together with conditions for more probable weakening of hurricanes near the United States coast. Thus, the VWS and SST form a protective barrier along the United States coast during periods of heightened basin-wide hurricane activity. Conversely, during the most-recent period of basin-wide quiescence, hurricanes (and particularly major hurricanes) near the United States coast, although substantially less frequent, exhibited much greater variability in their rate of intensification, and were much more likely to intensify rapidly. Such heightened variability poses greater challenges to operational forecasting and, consequently, greater coastal risk during hurricane events.
Kossin, James P
The North Atlantic ocean/atmosphere environment exhibits pronounced interdecadal variability that is known to strongly modulate Atlantic hurricane activity. Variability in sea surface temperature (SST) is correlated with hurricane variability through its relationship with the genesis and thermodynamic potential intensity of hurricanes. Another key factor that governs the genesis and intensity of hurricanes is ambient environmental vertical wind shear (VWS). Warmer SSTs generally correlate with more frequent genesis and greater potential intensity, while VWS inhibits genesis and prevents any hurricanes that do form from reaching their potential intensity. When averaged over the main hurricane-development region in the Atlantic, SST and VWS co-vary inversely, so that the two factors act in concert to either enhance or inhibit basin-wide hurricane activity. Here I show, however, that conditions conducive to greater basin-wide Atlantic hurricane activity occur together with conditions for more probable weakening of hurricanes near the United States coast. Thus, the VWS and SST form a protective barrier along the United States coast during periods of heightened basin-wide hurricane activity. Conversely, during the most-recent period of basin-wide quiescence, hurricanes (and particularly major hurricanes) near the United States coast, although substantially less frequent, exhibited much greater variability in their rate of intensification, and were much more likely to intensify rapidly. Such heightened variability poses greater challenges to operational forecasting and, consequently, greater coastal risk during hurricane events.
Ramsey, Elijah W.; Rangoonwala, A.; Middleton, B.; Lu, Zhiming
Satellite Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and RADARSAT-1 (radar) satellite image data collected before and after the landfall of Hurricane Katrina in the Pearl River Wildlife Management Area on the Louisiana-Mississippi border, USA, were applied to the study of forested wetland impact and recovery. We documented the overall similarity in the radar and optical satellite mapping of impact and recovery patterns and highlighted some unique differences that could be used to provide consistent and relevant ecological monitoring. Satellite optical data transformed to a canopy foliage index (CFI) indicated a dramatic decrease in canopy cover immediately after the storm, which then recovered rapidly in the Taxodium distichum (baldcypress) and Nyssa aquatica (water tupelo) forest. Although CFI levels in early October indicated rapid foliage recovery, the abnormally high radar responses associated with the cypress forest suggested a persistent poststorm difference in canopy structure. Impact and recovery mapping results showed that even though cypress forests experienced very high wind speeds, damage was largely limited to foliage loss. Bottomland hardwoods, experiencing progressively lower wind speeds further inland, suffered impacts ranging from increased occurrences of downed trees in the south to partial foliage loss in the north. In addition, bottomland hardwood impact and recovery patterns suggested that impact severity was associated with a difference in stand structure possibly related to environmental conditions that were not revealed in the prehurricane 25-m optical and radar image analyses. ?? 2009 The Society of Wetland Scientists.
Bradley, Letitia T.
This study applied 3 theoretical frameworks--Lee Bolman and Terrence Deal's four frames, the Lighthouse Inquiry of the Iowa Association of School Boards, and effective governance characteristics--to examine the impact of the Masters in Governance(MIG) training offered by the California School Boards Association on the ability of school board…
Pielke, Roger A
Since the record impact of Hurricane Katrina, attention has focused on understanding trends in hurricanes and their destructive potential. Emanuel reports a marked increase in the potential destructiveness of hurricanes based on identification of a trend in an accumulated annual index of power dissipation in the North Atlantic and western North Pacific since the 1970s. If hurricanes are indeed becoming more destructive over time, then this trend should manifest itself in more destruction. However, my analysis of a long-term data set of hurricane losses in the United States shows no upward trend once the data are normalized to remove the effects of societal changes.
Bensman, Edward Leroy
Modern meteorological data assimilation techniques and ensemble weather prediction methods involve the minimization of error variance. Both of these techniques are used here to assess the impact of assimilating digital aircraft weather data, in an adaptive observation strategy, to improve hurricane forecasting. Many operational and research centers utilize ensemble prediction systems to improve their weather forecasts. This study utilizes a Monte Carlo technique to randomly generate a series of 50 separate perturbed model states. These ``random'' perturbations are scaled to the typical error values observed daily in meteorology. From the family of 50 ensemble members a field of sea level pressure variance, at the 48-hour forecast point, is calculated using deviations of the 50 members from the control (unperturbed state). The bull's eye of maximum error variance is then backward correlated to various meteorological fields such as temperature, wind and humidity at the 24-hour point of the forecast. The areas of highest correlation represent model sensitivity to random error growth and thus targets for intensive observations. In August and September of 1998, a team of scientists participated in a NASA-sponsored field campaign termed the Third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3). The purpose was to conduct an intensive study of Atlantic hurricanes. The CAMEX-3 data were utilized in this research to assess the impact of targeted observations on subsequent forecasts. Specifically, a series of experiments were conducted utilizing: all of the CAMEX-3 data, a portion just over the model-sensitive target areas, and from a random selection of data throughout the near-storm environment. These data were assimilated using both a multivariate optimal interpolation technique and a 4-dimensional variational assimilation method. Results from these experiments showed that these data, once assimilated into the model's initial state, improved subsequent hurricane forecasts
Graham, William D.; Ross, Kenton W.
The peril from hurricanes to Space Operations Centers is real and is forecast to continue; Katrina, Rita, and Wilma of 2005 and Charley, Frances, Ivan, and Jeanne of 2004 are sufficient motivation for NASA to develop a multi-Center plan for preparedness and response. As was demonstrated at SSC (Stennis Space Center) in response to Hurricane Katrina, NASA Centers are efficiently activated as local command centers, playing host to Federal and State agencies and first responders to coordinate and provide evacuation, relocation, response, and recovery activities. Remote sensing decision support provides critical insight for managing NASA infrastructure and for assisting Center decision makers. Managers require geospatial information to manage the federal city. Immediately following Katrina, SSC s power and network connections were disabled, hardware was inoperative, technical staff was displaced and/or out of contact, and graphical decision support tools were non-existent or less than fully effective. Despite this circumstance, SSC EOC (Emergency Operations Center) implemented response operations to assess damage and to activate recovery plans. To assist Center Managers, the NASA ASP (Applied Sciences Program) made its archive of high-resolution data over the site available. In the weeks and months after the immediate crisis, NASA supplemented this data with high-resolution, post-Katrina imagery over SSC and much of the affected coastal areas. Much of the high-resolution imagery was made available through the Department of Defense Clear View contract and was distributed through U.S. Geological Survey Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science "Hurricane Katrina Disaster Response" Web site. By integrating multiple image data types with other information sources, ASP applied an all-source solutions approach to develop decision support tools that enabled managers to respond to critical issues, such as expedient access to infrastructure and deployment of resources
Schubert, Christopher E.; Busciolano, Ronald; Hearn, Paul P.; Rahav, Ami N.; Behrens, Riley; Finkelstein, Jason S.; Monti, Jack; Simonson, Amy E.
Results of FEMA Hazus Program (HAZUS) flood loss analyses performed for New York counties were compared for extents of storm-tide inundation from Hurricane Sandy mapped (1) pre-storm, (2) on November 11, 2012, and (3) on February 14, 2013. The resulting depictions of estimated total building stock losses document how differing amounts of available USGS data affect the resolution and accuracy of storm-tide inundation extents. Using the most accurate results from the final (February 14, 2013) inundation extent, estimated losses range from $380 million to $5.9 billion for individual New York counties; total estimated aggregate losses are about $23 billion for all New York counties. Quality of the inundation extents used in HAZUS analyses has a substantial effect on final results. These findings can be used to inform future post-storm reconstruction planning and estimation of insurance claims.
Lowe, Sarah R.; Chan, Christian S.; Rhodes, Jean E.
In the present study, the authors examined the role of child-related stressors in the psychological adjustment of lower-income, primarily unmarried and African American, mothers (N = 386). All participants lived in areas affected by Hurricane Katrina, and about a third were also exposed to Hurricane Rita (30.3%, n = 117). Lacking knowledge of a…
Jung, Kiju; Shavitt, Sharon; Viswanathan, Madhu; Hilbe, Joseph M
Do people judge hurricane risks in the context of gender-based expectations? We use more than six decades of death rates from US hurricanes to show that feminine-named hurricanes cause significantly more deaths than do masculine-named hurricanes. Laboratory experiments indicate that this is because hurricane names lead to gender-based expectations about severity and this, in turn, guides respondents' preparedness to take protective action. This finding indicates an unfortunate and unintended consequence of the gendered naming of hurricanes, with important implications for policymakers, media practitioners, and the general public concerning hurricane communication and preparedness.
Rhodes, Jean; Chan, Christian; Paxson, Christina; Rouse, Cecilia Elena; Waters, Mary; Fussell, Elizabeth
The purpose of this study was to document changes in mental and physical health among 392 low-income parents exposed to Hurricane Katrina and to explore how hurricane-related stressors and loss relate to post-Katrina well-being. The prevalence of probable serious mental illness doubled, and nearly half of the respondents exhibited probable posttraumatic stress disorder. Higher levels of hurricane-related loss and stressors were generally associated with worse health outcomes, controlling for baseline sociodemographic and health measures. Higher baseline resources predicted fewer hurricane-associated stressors, but the consequences of stressors and loss were similar regardless of baseline resources. Adverse health consequences of Hurricane Katrina persisted for a year or more and were most severe for those experiencing the most stressors and loss. Long-term health and mental health services are needed for low-income disaster survivors, especially those who experience disaster-related stressors and loss.
Persing, John; Montgomery, Michael T.
High spatial and temporal resolution simulations using the Rotunno and Emanuel axisymmetric, cloud-resolving, hurricane model are found to greatly exceed Emanuel's energetically based upper bound for maximum potential intensity (E-MPI).Using a control simulation similar to that of Rotunno and Emanuel with a sea surface temperature (SST) of 26.13°C, the E-MPI is exceeded after 15 simulation days, after the warming of the eye is able to extend down to the ocean surface. At still higher resolution, the modeled storm greatly exceeds E-MPI more quickly, during initial spinup, and the resulting intensity for the standard numerical and microphysical parameters is found to converge with, respectively, radial and vertical grid spacing of 3.75 km and 312.5 m with maximum tangential winds (Vmax) of 90 m s-1. This is notably greater than the energetically based upper bound of Vmax = 55 m s-1. This `superintensity' occurs only in the presence of an enhancement of low-level eye entropy. The high-entropy air is entrained into the eyewall primarily by a breakdown of an azimuthal vortex sheet at the inner edge of the eyewall. Among the many underlying assumptions of E-MPI, only the violation of the related assumptions that the eyewall is neutral to moist ascent and that no entropy is fluxed from the eye to the eyewall can explain the degree of superintensity observed; other assumptions may be individually violated but their impacts on the intensity estimates are much smaller. The impact of the entrainment of heat from the eye to the eyewall on E-MPI theory is estimated through an ad hoc increase in the effective SST as a way of accounting for a second source of heat. This procedure produces a close estimate of the modeled intensity, but the problem is not closed since the degree of eyewall heating is not known a priori.Published observations and recent three-dimensional, cloud-resolving modeling studies are reviewed that appear to present various aspects of the observed entropy
Heilmayr, Robert; Lambin, Eric F.
Global markets for agricultural products, timber, and minerals are critically important drivers of deforestation. The supply chains driving land use change may also provide opportunities to halt deforestation. Market campaigns, moratoria, and certification schemes have been promoted as powerful tools to achieve conservation goals. Despite their promise, there have been few opportunities to rigorously quantify the ability of these nonstate, market-driven (NSMD) governance regimes to deliver conservation outcomes. This study analyzes the impacts of three NSMD governance systems that sought to end the conversion of natural forests to plantations in Chile at the start of the 21st century. Using a multilevel, panel dataset of land use changes in Chile, we identify the impact of participation within each of the governance regimes by implementing a series of matched difference-in-differences analyses. Taking advantage of the mosaic of different NSMD regimes adopted in Chile, we explore the relative effectiveness of different policies. NSMD governance regimes reduced deforestation on participating properties by 2–23%. The NSMD governance regimes we studied included collaborative and confrontational strategies between environmental and industry stakeholders. We find that the more collaborative governance systems studied achieved better environmental performance than more confrontational approaches. Whereas many government conservation programs have targeted regions with little likelihood of conversion, we demonstrate that NSMD governance has the potential to alter behavior on high-deforestation properties. PMID:26929349
Heilmayr, Robert; Lambin, Eric F
Global markets for agricultural products, timber, and minerals are critically important drivers of deforestation. The supply chains driving land use change may also provide opportunities to halt deforestation. Market campaigns, moratoria, and certification schemes have been promoted as powerful tools to achieve conservation goals. Despite their promise, there have been few opportunities to rigorously quantify the ability of these nonstate, market-driven (NSMD) governance regimes to deliver conservation outcomes. This study analyzes the impacts of three NSMD governance systems that sought to end the conversion of natural forests to plantations in Chile at the start of the 21st century. Using a multilevel, panel dataset of land use changes in Chile, we identify the impact of participation within each of the governance regimes by implementing a series of matched difference-in-differences analyses. Taking advantage of the mosaic of different NSMD regimes adopted in Chile, we explore the relative effectiveness of different policies. NSMD governance regimes reduced deforestation on participating properties by 2-23%. The NSMD governance regimes we studied included collaborative and confrontational strategies between environmental and industry stakeholders. We find that the more collaborative governance systems studied achieved better environmental performance than more confrontational approaches. Whereas many government conservation programs have targeted regions with little likelihood of conversion, we demonstrate that NSMD governance has the potential to alter behavior on high-deforestation properties.
Zhang, H.; Sokolik, I. N.; Curry, J. A.
An ice nucleation parameterization accounting for the deliquescent heterogeneous freezing (DHF) mode was implemented into the Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model. The DHF mode refers to the freezing process for internally mixed aerosols with soluble and insoluble species that can serve as both cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei (IN), such as dust. A modified version of WRF was used to examine the effect of Saharan dust on the early development of Hurricane Helene (2006) via acting as CCN and IN. The WRF simulations showed the tendency of DHF mode to promote ice formation at lower altitudes in strong updraft cores, increase the local latent heat release, and produce more low clouds and less high clouds. The inclusion of dust acting as CCN and IN through the DHF mode modified the storm intensity, track, hydrometeor distribution, cloud top temperature (hence the storm radiative energy budget), and precipitation and latent heat distribution. However, changes in storm intensity, latent heating rate, and total precipitation exhibit nonlinear dependence on the dust concentration. Improvement in the representation of atmospheric aerosols and cloud microphysics has the potential to contribute to better prediction of tropical cyclone development.
Cherry, Katie E.; Brown, Jennifer Silva; Marks, Loren D.; Galea, Sandro; Volaufova, Julia; Lefante, Christina; Su, L. Joseph; Welsh, David A.; Jazwinski, S. Michal
The authors examined the effects of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita (HKR) on cognitive and psychosocial functioning in a lifespan sample of adults 6 to 14 months after the storms. Participants were recruited from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS). Most were assessed during the immediate impact period and retested for this study. Analyses of pre-and post-disaster cognitive data confirmed that storm-related decrements in working memory for middle-aged and older adults observed in the immediate impact period had returned to pre-hurricane levels in the post-disaster recovery period. Middle-aged adults reported more storm-related stressors and greater levels of stress than the two older groups at both waves of testing. These results are consistent with a burden perspective on post-disaster psychological reactions. PMID:23526570
Trumbo, Craig; Lueck, Michelle; Marlatt, Holly; Peek, Lori
This study evaluated how individuals living on the Gulf Coast perceived hurricane risk after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. It was hypothesized that hurricane outlook and optimistic bias for hurricane risk would be associated positively with distance from the Katrina-Rita landfall (more optimism at greater distance), controlling for historically based hurricane risk and county population density, demographics, individual hurricane experience, and dispositional optimism. Data were collected in January 2006 through a mail survey sent to 1,375 households in 41 counties on the coast (n = 824, 60% response). The analysis used hierarchal regression to test hypotheses. Hurricane history and population density had no effect on outlook; individuals who were male, older, and with higher household incomes were associated with lower risk perception; individual hurricane experience and personal impacts from Katrina and Rita predicted greater risk perception; greater dispositional optimism predicted more optimistic outlook; distance had a small effect but predicted less optimistic outlook at greater distance (model R(2) = 0.21). The model for optimistic bias had fewer effects: age and community tenure were significant; dispositional optimism had a positive effect on optimistic bias; distance variables were not significant (model R(2) = 0.05). The study shows that an existing measure of hurricane outlook has utility, hurricane outlook appears to be a unique concept from hurricane optimistic bias, and proximity has at most small effects. Future extension of this research will include improved conceptualization and measurement of hurricane risk perception and will bring to focus several concepts involving risk communication.
Wang, C.; Lee, S.; Enfield, D.
of the AWP is to weaken the southerly GPLLJ and its northward moisture transport and thus to decrease rainfall in the United States east of the Rocky Mountains. Finally, the AWP largely reduces the tropospheric vertical wind shear in the main development region that favors hurricane formation and development during August-October.
Jones, William R.
Hurricane Sandy directly hit the Atlantic shoreline of New Jersey during several astronomical high tide cycles in late October, 2012. The eastern seaboard areas are subject to sea level rise and increased severity and frequency of storm events, prompting habitat and land use planning changes. Wetland Aquatic Research Center (WARC) has conducted detailed mapping of marine and estuarine wetlands and deepwater habitats, including beaches and tide flats, and upland land use/land cover, using specially-acquired aerial imagery flown at 1-meter resolution.These efforts will assist the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) continuing endeavors to map the barrier islands adhering to Coastal Barrier Resources Act (CBRA) guidelines. Mapped areas consist of selected federal lands including, National Park Service areas, USFWS National Wildlife Refuges, and selected CBRA Units, including barrier islands and marshes in New York and New Jersey. These vital wetland areas are important for migratory waterfowl and neotropical bird habitats, wildlife food chain support and nurseries for shellfish and finfish populations. Coastal wetlands also play an important function as storm surge buffers. This project includes mapping of dominant estuarine wetland plant species useful for wetland functional analysis and wildlife evaluation and management concerns. It also aims to integrate with and offer updated databases pertinent to: USFWS NWR and NWI programs, NOAA tide flats and beaches data, FEMA flood zone data, Natural Heritage Endangered and Threated Species, watershed management, and state and local land use planning.
Aronson, R. B.
The impacts of Hurricanes Gilbert (1988) and Hugo (1989) on echinoderm assemblages were assessed in backreef habitats in Jamaica and St. Croix, respectively. One site on each island was censused before the hurricanes. Ophiuroids were monitored at the Jamaican site for three years following Hurricane Gilbert, and ophiuroids and echinoids were monitored at the site on St. Croix for two years following Hurricane Hugo. No hurricane-related changes in ophiuroid abundance were observed at either site. Likewise, there was no evidence that Hurricane Hugo altered echinoid abundance at St. Croix. These negative results correlated with an observed lack of hurricane-generated physical disturbance in the backreef areas, despite 6-m waves that broke on the reef crests at the two sites during the storms. Hurricane impacts on mobile faunas appear to depend directly on physical habitat alterations.
Chen, X.; Wen, L.
Very weak, narrow band seismic signals excited by Hurricane Sandy are detected in cross-correlations of continuous waveforms recorded by stations in eastern United States, at the end of October 2012. We analyze propagational properties of the signal and track the source locations using travel-time difference residual projection, from 26 October to 1 November 2012. We find that (1) the seismic signals driven by Hurricane Sandy are azimuthal dependent. Signals are correlated only within close azimuths from the source, (2) seismic signals propagate as Rayleigh surface wave with an average velocity of about 3.3 km/s, and (3) the inferred seismic source locations follow the path of Sandy before UTC 2012.10.30 12:00:00(about half a day after its landfall in New Jersey), but then deviate from the hurricane center and stay in the coastal area near New England for another 12 hours after the hurricane dissipated. Our research discovers the properties of seismic source excited by Hurricane Sandy and demonstrates the capability of using seismic data to real-time track a hurricane and estimate its direct impacts and the subsequent disasters after it dissipates.
Zheng, Jing; Li, Jun; Schmit, Timothy J.; Li, Jinlong; Liu, Zhiquan
Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) measurements are a valuable supplement to current observational data, especially over the oceans where conventional data are sparse. In this study, two types of AIRS-retrieved temperature and moisture profiles, the AIRS Science Team product (SciSup) and the single field-of-view (SFOV) research product, were evaluated with European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analysis data over the Atlantic Ocean during Hurricane Ike (2008) and Hurricane Irene (2011). The evaluation results showed that both types of AIRS profiles agreed well with the ECMWF analysis, especially between 200 hPa and 700 hPa. The average standard deviation of both temperature profiles was approximately 1 K under 200 hPa, where the mean AIRS temperature profile from the AIRS SciSup retrievals was slightly colder than that from the AIRS SFOV retrievals. The mean SciSup moisture profile was slightly drier than that from the SFOV in the mid troposphere. A series of data assimilation and forecast experiments was then conducted with the Advanced Research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and its three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) data assimilation system for hurricanes Ike and Irene. The results showed an improvement in the hurricane track due to the assimilation of AIRS clear-sky temperature profiles in the hurricane environment. In terms of total precipitable water and rainfall forecasts, the hurricane moisture environment was found to be affected by the AIRS sounding assimilation. Meanwhile, improving hurricane intensity forecasts through assimilating AIRS profiles remains a challenge for further study.
This photo of hurricane Lili, captured during the Expedition Five mission, shows the compact storm system and the structure of its estimated 15 nautical mile wide eye. After strengthening to a Category 4 storm (125 knots with the central pressure of 940 millibars), Lili weakened to a Category 2 before slamming into the central coast of Louisiana just south of Lafayette. This is one of many photos that stem form the Crew Observation (CEO) experiment that has been a part of every Space Station expedition.
Presley, Steven M; Abel, Michael T; Austin, Galen P; Rainwater, Thomas R; Brown, Ray W; McDaniel, Les N; Marsland, Eric J; Fornerette, Ashley M; Dillard, Melvin L; Rigdon, Richard W; Kendall, Ronald J; Cobb, George P
The long-term environmental impact and potential human health hazards resulting from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita throughout much of the United States Gulf Coast, particularly in the New Orleans, Louisiana, USA area are still being assessed and realized after more than four years. Numerous government agencies and private entities have collected environmental samples from throughout New Orleans and found concentrations of contaminants exceeding human health screening values as established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for air, soil, and water. To further assess risks of exposure to toxic concentrations of soil contaminants for citizens, particularly children, returning to live in New Orleans following the storms, soils collected from schoolyards prior to Hurricane Katrina and after Hurricane Rita were screened for 26 metals. Concentrations exceeding USEPA Regional Screening Levels (USEPA-RSL), total exposure, non-cancer endpoints, for residential soils for arsenic (As), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), and thallium (Tl) were detected in soil samples collected from schoolyards both prior to Hurricane Katrina and after Hurricane Rita. Approximately 43% (9/21) of schoolyard soils collected prior to Hurricane Katrina contained Pb concentrations greater than 400mgkg(-1), and samples from four schoolyards collected after Hurricane Rita contained detectable Pb concentrations, with two exceeding 1700mgkg(-1). Thallium concentrations exceeded USEPA-RSL in samples collected from five schoolyards after Hurricane Rita. Based upon these findings and the known increased susceptibility of children to the effects of Pb exposure, a more extensive assessment of the soils in schoolyards, public parks and other residential areas of New Orleans for metal contaminants is warranted.
Glantz, M. H.
By American standards, New Orleans is a very old, very popular city in the southern part of the United States. It is located in Louisiana at the mouth of the Mississippi River, a river which drains about 40% of the Continental United States, making New Orleans a major port city. It is also located in an area of major oil reserves onshore, as well as offshore, in the Gulf of Mexico. Most people know New Orleans as a tourist hotspot; especially well-known is the Mardi Gras season at the beginning of Lent. People refer to the city as the "Big Easy". A recent biography of the city refers to it as the place where the emergence of modern tourism began. A multicultural city with a heavy French influence, it was part of the Louisiana Purchase from France in early 1803, when the United States bought it, doubling the size of the United States at that time. Today, in the year 2007, New Orleans is now known for the devastating impacts it withstood during the onslaught of Hurricane Katrina in late August 2005. Eighty percent of the city was submerged under flood waters. Almost two years have passed, and many individuals and government agencies are still coping with the hurricane's consequences. And insurance companies have been withdrawing their coverage for the region. The 2005 hurricane season set a record, in the sense that there were 28 named storms that calendar year. For the first time in hurricane forecast history, hurricane forecasters had to resort to the use of Greek letters to name tropical storms in the Atlantic and Gulf (Fig.~1). Hurricane Katrina was a Category 5 hurricane when it was in the middle of the Gulf of Mexico, after having passed across southern Florida. At landfall, Katrina's winds decreased in speed and it was relabeled as a Category 4. It devolved into a Category 3 hurricane as it passed inland when it did most of its damage. Large expanses of the city were inundated, many parts under water on the order of 20 feet or so. The Ninth Ward, heavily
Osofsky, Joy; Kronenberg, Mindy; Bocknek, Erika; Hansel, Tonya Cross
Background: Research suggests that young childhood is a dynamic developmental phase during which risks to attachment figures as well as traumatic events may be particularly important. The loss and disruption associated with Hurricane Katrina highlighted the vulnerabilities and special needs of young children exposed to natural disaster. Objective:…
Powell, Robyn; Gilbert, Sheldon
This paper focuses on the effects of the hurricanes on people with all types of disabilities. The National Council on Disability (NCD) released another report that addressed in detail the specific challenges for people with psychiatric disabilities. Please refer to "The Needs of People with Psychiatric Disabilities During and After Hurricanes…
In Head Start, family service workers facilitate the process for guiding and assisting families in securing services needed for specific family issues regarding health care, housing, employment, education, and/or crisis management. These services were particularly important to families following Hurricane Charley and the subsequent recovery…
Brun, J.; Barros, A. P.
Hurricanes and tropical storms (collectively known as tropical cyclones TCs) are regular events of varying magnitude and moderate frequency. These powerful and hazardous meteorological phenomena cause damages to natural and built areas all around the world. However, on the flip side, TCs provide a significant influx of freshwater resources to surface and subsurface reservoirs during the warm season and participate to the relief of drought conditions in several part of the world. Previously, a framework using remote-sensing data (MODIS EVI) was developed to characterize the spatial organization of vegetation disturbances and monitor vegetation recovery in the aftermath of land-falling hurricanes. Here, a distributed eco-hydrological model (Garcia-Quijano and Barros, 2005; Yildiz and Barros, 2007) is used to investigate the link between vegetation disturbance persistence and hydrological processes in pristine watersheds along the terrestrial tracks of hurricanes in 2004 and 2005. Model simulated gross primary production (GPP) over the Southeastern US before and after these two highly active hurricane seasons will be used to map EVI based vegetation disturbances to primary productivity changes.
As urbanized areas continue to grow and green spaces dwindle, the importance of urban forests increases for both ecologically derived health benefits and for their potential to mitigate climate change. This study examined pre- and post- hurricane conditions of Pensacola's urban f...
Cecil, Daniel J.; James, Mark W.; Roberts, J. Brent; Bisawas, Sayak K.; Jones, W. Linwood; Johnson, James; Farrar, Spencer; Sahawneh, Saleem; Ruf, Christopher S.; Morris, Mary; Black, Peter G.
The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is a synthetic thinned array passive microwave radiometer designed to allow retrieval of surface wind speed in hurricanes, up through category five intensity. The retrieval technology follows the Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR), which measures surface wind speed in hurricanes along a narrow strip beneath the aircraft. HIRAD has flown in the NASA Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) experiement in 2010 on a WB-57 aircraft, and on a Global Hawk unmanned aircraft system (UAS) in 2012 and 2013 as part of NASA's Hurricane and Severe Storms Sentinel (HS3) program. The GRIP program included flights over Hurricanes Earl and Karl (2010). The 2012 HS3 deployment did not include any hurricane flights for the UAS carrying HIRAD. Hurricane flights are expected for HIRAD in 2013 during HS3. This presentation will describe the HIRAD instrument, its results from the 2010 hurricane flights, and hopefully results from hurricane flights in August and September 2013.
Middleton, Beth A.
Hurricane wind and surge may have different influences on the subsequent composition of forests. During Hurricane Sandy, while damaging winds were highest near landfall in New Jersey, inundation occurred along the entire eastern seaboard from Georgia to Maine. In this study, a comparison of damage from salinity intrusion vs. wind/surge was recorded in swamps of the Delmarva Peninsula along the Pocomoke (MD) and Nanticoke (DE) Rivers, south of the most intense wind damage. Hickory Point Cypress Swamp (Hickory) was closest to the Chesapeake Bay and may have been subjected to a salinity surge as evidenced by elevated salinity levels at a gage upstream of this swamp (storm salinity = 13.1 ppt at Nassawango Creek, Snow Hill, Maryland). After Hurricane Sandy, 8% of the standing trees died at Hickory including Acer rubrum, Amelanchier laevis, Ilex spp., and Taxodium distichum. In Plot 2 of Hickory, 25% of the standing trees were dead, and soil salinity levels were the highest recorded in the study. The most important variables related to structural tree damage were soil salinity and proximity to the Atlantic coast as based on Stepwise Regression and NMDS procedures. Wind damage was mostly restricted to broken branches although tipped−up trees were found at Hickory, Whiton and Porter (species: Liquidamabar styraciflua, Pinus taeda, Populus deltoides, Quercus pagoda and Ilex spp.). These trees fell mostly in an east or east−southeast direction (88o−107o) in keeping with the wind direction of Hurricane Sandy on the Delmarva Peninsula. Coastal restoration and management can be informed by the specific differences in hurricane damage to vegetation by salt versus wind.
A. Hutton; D. Arenius; J. Benesch; S. Chattopadhyay; E. F. Daly; O. Garza; R. Kazimi; R. Lauzi; L. Merminga; W. Merz; R. Nelson; W. Oren; M. Poelker; P. Powers; J. Preble; V. Ganni; C. R. Reece; R. Rimmer; M. Spata; S. Suhring
Hurricane Isabel, originally a Category 5 storm, arrived at Jefferson Lab on September 18, 2003 with winds of only 75 mph, creating little direct damage to the infrastructure. However, electric power was lost for four days allowing the superconducting cryomodules to warm up and causing a total loss of the liquid helium. The subsequent recovery of the cryomodules and the impact of the considerable amount of opportunistic preventive maintenance provides important lessons for all accelerator complexes, not only those with superconducting elements. The details of how the recovery process was structured and the resulting improvement in accelerator availability will be discussed in detail.
Drenkard, Karen N
In addition to board leadership of health care organizations and corporations, there are strategic opportunities for nurses to participate in professional association boards and commissions and expert panels. These boards have specific and unique challenges and opportunities, and it is important for nurse leaders to serve in shaping the direction of the profession. Nursing as a profession has an opening to solve many of the care delivery issues that face the country. A strategic contribution to association boards and commissions can influence the health care delivery system changes needed to improve quality of care, access to care, and reducing costs. This article describes similarities and differences of service on association boards and commissions compared with organizational and corporate boards. Through these leadership roles, the larger community can observe influential nurses in an essential role. These leadership opportunities, including membership boards, commissions, and content expert panels, call for a special understanding of those governance structures and the contributions that nurse leaders can make to impact health care. Association and membership organizations have undergone many changes in the past 10 years, and new models of governance and leadership have been called into play. There are challenges and opportunities in serving on these boards and commissions. Maximizing the leadership and governance roles of this type of service is a critical contribution that nurses can make to impact the profession of nursing and the greater health care system.
Joaquin became a tropical storm Monday evening (EDT) midway between the Bahamas and Bermuda and has now formed into a hurricane, the 3rd of the season--the difference is Joaquin could impact the US...
De Silva Lokuwaduge, Chitra; Armstrong, Anona
Australian government concern for improved governance in the higher education sector over recent years has driven the implementation of governance protocols. However, there has been little evidence of any evaluation of the impact of the governance structures on the performance of universities. This paper presents an analysis of the impact of the…
Christensen, B. A.; Goff, J. A.; Flood, R. D.; Austin, J. A., Jr.; Browne, C. M.; Saustrup, S.
To understand the impact of Hurricane Sandy on the NY coast, we conducted subsurface and multi-beam analyses, ground-truthed by grab samples, in 3 areas: the western end of Fire Island (FIW), eastern Fire Island (FIE) where a new inlet formed during the storm, and Long Beach (LB). Grab samples yielded sands and muds, a surprise given the shallow (10-25m) water depths. Muds rested on top of sands and were removed for additional analyses. Since percent mud could not be determined absolutely, sediments were washed through a 63 mm sieve, RoTapped for 10 minutes at ¼ Φ, and weight percent calculated for the coarse fraction. At FIW and FIE, fine sands dominate the shallowest depths studied, consistent with previous studies. At FIE, the sedimentary wedge extends to ~15m, with finest sands (peak 3-3.5 Φ) in shallowest waters surveyed (~10m). Slightly coarser (2.5Φ) sediments plus relict gravels are present in swales where the wedge shoals. This supports mapping results indicating sand ridges migrated to the SW. Medium to fine sand is present at the deepest extent of the wedge; the grain size distribution matches a sample taken in the swash zone on the eastern flank of the new breach. Sediments may have been transported shoreward and then reworked post-Sandy. Samples seaward of the new breach were capped by a mud layer, which in turn had a layer of fine sand resting on it, evidence of a nascent ebb tidal deposit. At FIW, sediments in the shallow NE swale are finer (3.5Φ) and better sorted. As the region is underlain by relict sediments, these fine sands may be relicts exposed by storm-driven bedform migration. Deeper water (~22m w.d.) samples at FIW are coarser and contain shell hash. Sand on the lee side of the sand ridge, which CHIRP profiles show did not migrate significantly and accumulated sands, are medium (1.5 Φ), and match the grain sizes found on Fire Island beach. Muds contain heavy metals in concentrations consistent with transport from adjacent estuaries.
article title: Cloud Height Maps for Hurricanes Frances and Ivan ... predict the intensity and amount of rainfall associated with hurricanes still requires improvement, especially on the 24 to 48 hour ...
During the 2010 hurricane season, NASA deployed its piloted DC-8 and WB-57, and unmanned Global Hawk aircraft in a massive effort to collect as much data as possible, arming hurricane researchers w...
Animation revealing a swath of GPM/GMI precipitation rates over Hurricane Odile. The camera then moves down closer to the Hurricane to reveal DPR's volumetric view of Odile. As the camera rotates a...
Albers, Cerese; Sippel, Jason A.; Braun, Scott A.; Miller, Timothy
Previous studies (e.g., Zhang et al. 2009, Weng et al. 2011) have shown that radial velocity data from airborne and ground-based radars can be assimilated into ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) systems to produce accurate analyses of tropical cyclone vortices, which can reduce forecast intensity error. Recently, wind speed data from SFMR technology has also been assimilated into the same types of systems and has been shown to improve the forecast intensity of mature tropical cyclones. Two instruments that measure these properties were present during the NASA Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) field experiment in 2010 which sampled Hurricane Karl, and will next be co-located on the same aircraft for the subsequent NASA HS3 experiment. The High Altitude Wind and Rain Profiling Radar (HIWRAP) is a conically scanning Doppler radar mounted upon NASAs Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle, and the usefulness of its radial velocity data for assimilation has not been previously examined. Since the radar scans from above with a fairly large fixed elevation angle, it observes a large component of the vertical wind, which could degrade EnKF analyses compared to analyses with data taken from lesser elevation angles. The NASA Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is a passive microwave radiometer similar to SFMR, and measures emissivity and retrieves hurricane surface wind speeds and rain rates over a much wider swath. Thus, this study examines the impact of assimilating simulated HIWRAP radial velocity data into an EnKF system, simulated HIRAD wind speed, and HIWRAP+HIRAD with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and compares the results to no data assimilation and also to the Truth from which the data was simulated for both instruments.
Stehling-Ariza, Tasha; Park, Yoon Soo; Sury, Jonathan J; Abramson, David
This paper examined the effect of Hurricane Katrina on children's access to personal healthcare providers and evaluated the use of propensity score methods to compare a nationally representative sample of children, as a proxy for an unexposed group, with a smaller exposed sample. 2007 data from the Gulf Coast Child and Family Health (G-CAFH) Study, a longitudinal cohort of households displaced or greatly impacted by Hurricane Katrina, were matched with 2007 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) data using propensity score techniques. Propensity scores were created using poverty level, household educational attainment, and race/ethnicity, with and without the addition of child age and gender. The outcome was defined as having a personal healthcare provider. Additional confounders (household structure, neighborhood safety, health and insurance status) were also examined. All covariates except gender differed significantly between the exposed (G-CAFH) and unexposed (NSCH) samples. Fewer G-CAFH children had a personal healthcare provider (65 %) compared to those from NSCH (90 %). Adjusting for all covariates, the propensity score analysis showed exposed children were 20 % less likely to have a personal healthcare provider compared to unexposed children in the US (OR = 0.80, 95 % CI 0.76, 0.84), whereas the logistic regression analysis estimated a stronger effect (OR = 0.28, 95 % CI 0.21, 0.39). Two years after Hurricane Katrina, children exposed to the storm had significantly lower odds of having a personal health care provider compared to unexposed children. Propensity score matching techniques may be useful for combining separate data samples when no clear unexposed group exists.
Riter, J. C.; Kearney, M. S.; Turner, R.
Twenty-four Landsat data sets (1984-2011), collected as close to peak vegetation growth as possible, were used to evaluate marsh vegetation health and marsh loss in Terrebonne, Barataria, and Breton Sound Basins. Marsh loss varies spatially and temporally in the basins: freshwater and most intermediate marshes located west of the Mississippi River and more than 40 km from the coast were determined to be more stable than marshes closer to the coast. In most areas of the three basins, vegetation health and marsh area from 1984-1992 were relatively stable with minor inter-annual fluctuations throughout each basin and only a few areas of localized marsh loss. By 1994, shoreline erosion, tidal creek erosion, and erosion of soil banks adjacent to canals had increased in marshes located <40 km from the Gulf of Mexico, although some sites suffered substantially greater erosion than most coastal areas. Wave erosion also increased around the shores of Lakes Salvador, Cataouatche, Levy and other large lakes by 1994. Marsh loss also occurred in marshes immediately west of the Mississippi River, especially in areas close to diversion inlets. Hurricane Ivan in 2004 produced little sustained widespread damage in the basin marshes. However, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005 and Gustav and Ike in 2008 caused extensive erosion of vegetation and the marsh substrate, especially near the inlet to Caernarvon diversion, but also near the Naomi and West Point a La Hache diversions inlets. We attribute the significant marsh damage from hurricanes to greater flooding, and greater wave and storm surge impacts due to diminished marsh soil strength from the effects of excess nutrients causing lower rhizome and root biomass and increased substrate decomposition rates.
Liu, Yin; Zou, Xiaolei
The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) provides twice-daily global observations of brightness temperature, which can be used to retrieve the total column ozone with high spatial and temporal resolution. In order to apply the AIRS ozone data to numerical prediction of tropical cyclones, a four-dimensional variational (4DVAR) assimilation scheme on selected model levels is adopted and implemented in the mesoscale non-hydrostatic model MM5. Based on the correlation between total column ozone and potential vorticity (PV), the observation operator of each level is established and five levels with highest correlation coefficients are selected for the 4DVAR assimilation of the AIRS total column ozone observations. The results from the numerical experiments using the proposed assimilation scheme for Hurricane Earl show that the ozone data assimilation affects the PV distributions with more mesoscale information at high levels first and then influences those at middle and low levels through the so-called asymmetric penetration of PV anomalies. With the AIRS ozone data being assimilated, the warm core of Hurricane Earl is intensified, resulting in the improvement of other fields near the hurricane center. The track prediction is improved mainly due to adjustment of the steering flows in the assimilation experiment.
data about the hurricane and supplying the data to a trained neural network for yielding a predicted path for the hurricane. The system further includes...a device for displaying the predicted path of the hurricane. A method for using and training the neural network in the system is described. In the...method, the neural network is trained using information about hurricanes in a specific geographical area maintained in a database. The training involves
terms on the RHS). The wave number k is obtained from the eikonal equations (e.g. Dingemans, 1993): ⎟⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎜⎜ ⎝ ⎛ ∂ ∂ − ∂ ∂ −= ∂ ∂ + ∂ ∂ y k x k c xt...components and ω represents the absolute radial frequency. The RHS of the eikonal equations ensures the irrotationality of wave number vector field (pers...sandy coasts, especially during the 2004 and 2005 seasons have pointed at an urgent need to be able to assess the vulnerability of coastal areas and
Information and anecdotes are provided for the following topics: the typical length of the hurricane season for the North Atlantic, Caribbean, and Gulf of Mexico; specifics related to the practice of naming hurricanes; and categorical details related to the Saffir/Simpson scale for rating hurricane magnitude. (JJK)
Giovannettone, J. P.
Based on the method of Regional Frequency Analysis (RFA) and L-moments (Hosking & Wallis, 1997), a tool was developed to estimate the frequency/intensity of a rainfall event of a particular duration using ground-based rainfall observations. Some of the code used to develop this tool was taken from the FORTRAN code provided by Hosking & Wallis and rewritten in Visual Basic 2010. This tool was developed at the International Center for Integrated Water Resources Management (ICIWaRM) and is referred to as the ICIWaRM Regional Analysis of Frequency Tool (ICI-RAFT) (Giovannettone & Wright, 2012). In order to study the effectiveness of ICI-RAFT, three case studies were selected for the analysis. The studies take place in selected regions within Argentina, Nicaragua, and Venezuela. Rainfall data were provided at locations throughout each country; total rainfall for specific periods were computed and analyzed with respect to several global climate indices using lag times ranging from 1 to 6 months. Each analysis attempts to identify a global climate index capable of predicting above or below average rainfall several months in advance, qualitatively and using an equation that is developed. The index that had the greatest impact was the MJO (Madden-Julian Oscillation), which is the focus of the current study. The MJO is considered the largest element of intra-seasonal (30 - 90 days) variability in the tropical atmosphere and, unlike other indices, is characterized by the eastward propagation of large areas of convective anomalies near the equator, propagating from the Indian Ocean east into the Pacific Ocean. The anomalies are monitored globally using ten different indices located on lines of longitude near the equator, with seven in the eastern hemisphere and three in the western hemisphere. It has been found in previous studies that the MJO is linked to summer rainfall in Southeast China (Zhang et al., 2009) and southern Africa (Pohl et al., 2007) and to rainfall patterns
Relative Spectral Mixture Analysis for monitoring natural hazards that impact vegetation cover: the importance of the nonphotosynthetic fraction in understanding landscape response to drought, fire, and hurricane damage
Okin, G. S.
Remote sensing provides a unique ability to monitor natural hazards that impact vegetation hydrologically. Here, the use of a new multitemporal remote sensing technique that employs free, coarse multispectral remote sensing data is demonstrated in monitoring short- and long-term drought, fire occurrence and recovery, and damage to hurricane-related mangrove ecosystems and subsequent recovery of these systems. The new technique, relative spectral mixture analysis (RSMA), provides information about the nonphotosynthetic fraction (nonphotosynthetic vegetation plus litter) of ground cover in addition to the green vegetation fraction. In some cases, RSMA even provides an improved ability to monitor changes in the green fraction compared to traditional vegetation indices or standard remote sensing products. In arid and semiarid regions, the nonphotosynthetic fraction can vary on an annual basis significantly more than the green fraction and is thus perfectly suited for monitoring drought in these regions. Mortality of evergreen trees due to long-term drought also shows up strongly in the nonphotosynthetic fraction as green vegetation is replaced by dry needles and bare trunks. The response of the nonphotosynthetic fraction to fire is significantly different from that of drought because of the combustion of nonphotosynthetic material. Finally, damage to mangrove ecosystems from hurricane damage, and their subsequent recovery, is readily observable in both the green and nonphotosynthetic fractions as estimated by RSMA.
Doran, Kara S.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Stockdon, Hilary F.; Sallenger, Asbury H.; Serafin, Katherine A.
Understanding storm-induced coastal change and forecasting these changes require knowledge of the physical processes associated with the storm and the geomorphology of the impacted coastline. The primary physical processes of interest are the wind field, storm surge, and wave climate. Not only does wind cause direct damage to structures along the coast, but it is ultimately responsible for much of the energy that is transferred to the ocean and expressed as storm surge, mean currents, and large waves. Waves and currents are the processes most responsible for moving sediments in the coastal zone during extreme storm events. Storm surge, the rise in water level due to the wind, barometric pressure, and other factors, allows both waves and currents to attack parts of the coast not normally exposed to those processes. Coastal geomorphology, including shapes of the shoreline, beaches, and dunes, is equally important to the coastal change observed during extreme storm events. Relevant geomorphic variables include sand dune elevation, beach width, shoreline position, sediment grain size, and foreshore beach slope. These variables, in addition to hydrodynamic processes, can be used to predict coastal vulnerability to storms The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards Project (http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/hurricanes), strives to provide hazard information to those interested in the Nation's coastlines, including residents of coastal areas, government agencies responsible for coastal management, and coastal researchers. As part of the National Assessment, observations were collected to measure coastal changes associated with Hurricane Ike, which made landfall near Galveston, Texas, on September 13, 2008. Methods of observation included aerial photography and airborne topographic surveys. This report documents these data-collection efforts and presents qualitative and quantitative descriptions of hurricane-induced changes to the shoreline
Doran, Kara S.; Stockdon, Hilary F.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Sallenger, Asbury H.; Guy, Kristy K.; Serafin, Katherine A.
Understanding storm-induced coastal change and forecasting these changes require knowledge of the physical processes associated with a storm and the geomorphology of the impacted coastline. The primary physical processes of interest are the wind field, storm surge, currents, and wave field. Not only does wind cause direct damage to structures along the coast, but it is ultimately responsible for much of the energy that is transferred to the ocean and expressed as storm surge, mean currents, and surface waves. Waves and currents are the processes most responsible for moving sediments in the coastal zone during extreme storm events. Storm surge, which is the rise in water level due to the wind, barometric pressure, and other factors, allows both waves and currents to attack parts of the coast not normally exposed to these processes. Coastal geomorphology, including shapes of the shoreline, beaches, and dunes, is also a significant aspect of the coastal change observed during extreme storms. Relevant geomorphic variables include sand dune elevation, beach width, shoreline position, sediment grain size, and foreshore beach slope. These variables, in addition to hydrodynamic processes, can be used to predict coastal vulnerability to storms. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project (http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/hurricanes) strives to provide hazard information to those concerned about the Nation's coastlines, including residents of coastal areas, government agencies responsible for coastal management, and coastal researchers. As part of the National Assessment, observations were collected to measure morphological changes associated with Hurricane Gustav, which made landfall near Cocodrie, Louisiana, on September 1, 2008. Methods of observation included oblique aerial photography, airborne topographic surveys, and ground-based topographic surveys. This report documents these data-collection efforts and presents qualitative and
The report provides highlights related to impacts of Hurricane Frances and Hurricane Ivan in the Florida area. Sections on electric information, oil and gas information, and county outage data are provided.
The report provides highlights related to impacts of Hurricane Frances and Hurricane Ivan in the Florida area. Sections on electric information, oil and gas information, county outage data, and a table for restoration targets/status are provided.
Fussell, Elizabeth; Lowe, Sarah R
Previous studies in the aftermath of natural disasters have demonstrated relationships between four dimensions of displacement - geographic distance from the predisaster community, type of postdisaster housing, number of postdisaster moves, and time spent in temporary housing - and adverse psychological outcomes. However, to date no study has explored how these dimensions operate in tandem. The literature is further limited by a reliance on postdisaster data. We addressed these limitations in a study of low-income parents, predominantly non-Hispanic Black single mothers, who survived Hurricane Katrina and who completed pre and postdisaster assessments (N = 392). Using latent profile analysis, we demonstrated three profiles of displacement experiences within the sample: (1) returned, characterized by return to a predisaster community; (2) relocated, characterized by relocation to a new community, and (3) unstably housed, characterized by long periods in temporary housing and multiple moves. Using regression analyses, we assessed the relationship between displacement profiles and three mental health outcomes (general psychological distress, posttraumatic stress, and perceived stress), controlling for predisaster characteristics and mental health indices and hurricane-related experiences. Relative to participants in the returned profile, those in the relocated profile had significantly higher general psychological distress and perceived stress, and those in the unstably housed profile had significantly higher perceived stress. Based on these results, we suggest interventions and policies that reduce postdisaster housing instability and prioritize mental health services in communities receiving evacuees.
Hou, Arthur Y.; Zhang, Sara Q.; Reale, Oreste
We describe a variational continuous assimilation (VCA) algorithm for assimilating tropical rainfall data using moisture and temperature tendency corrections as the control variable to offset model deficiencies. For rainfall assimilation, model errors are of special concern since model-predicted precipitation is based on parameterized moist physics, which can have substantial systematic errors. This study examines whether a VCA scheme using the forecast model as a weak constraint offers an effective pathway to precipitation assimilation. The particular scheme we exarnine employs a '1+1' dimension precipitation observation operator based on a 6-h integration of a column model of moist physics from the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) global data assimilation system DAS). In earlier studies, we tested a simplified version of this scheme and obtained improved monthly-mean analyses and better short-range forecast skills. This paper describes the full implementation ofthe 1+1D VCA scheme using background and observation error statistics, and examines how it may improve GEOS analyses and forecasts of prominent tropical weather systems such as hurricanes. Parallel assimilation experiments with and without rainfall data for Hurricanes Bonnie and Floyd show that assimilating 6-h TMI and SSM/I surfice rain rates leads to more realistic storm features in the analysis, which, in turn, provide better initial conditions for 5-day storm track prediction and precipitation forecast. These results provide evidence that addressing model deficiencies in moisture tendency may be crucial to making effective use of precipitation information in data assimilation.
2007-01-01Location: The coast of Mexico from Manzanillo to Mazatlan Categorization: Tropical Depression Sustained Winds: 35 mph (56 km/hr) [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Infrared ImageMicrowave Image [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image to access AIRS Weather Snapshot for Hurricane Dean Infrared Images Because infrared radiation does not penetrate through clouds, AIRS infrared images show either the temperature of the cloud tops or the surface of the Earth in cloud-free regions. The lowest temperatures (in purple) are associated with high, cold cloud tops that make up the top of the storm. In cloud-free areas the AIRS instrument will receive the infrared radiation from the surface of the Earth, resulting in the warmest temperatures (orange/red). Microwave Images In the AIRS microwave imagery, deep blue areas in storms show where the most precipitation occurs, or where ice crystals are present in the convective cloud tops. Outside of these storm regions, deep blue areas may also occur over the sea surface due to its low radiation emissivity. On the other hand, land appears much warmer due to its high radiation emissivity. Microwave radiation from Earth's surface and lower atmosphere penetrates most clouds to a greater or lesser extent depending upon their water vapor, liquid water and ice content. Precipitation, and ice crystals found at the cloud tops where strong convection is taking place, act as barriers to microwave radiation. Because of this barrier effect, the AIRS microwave sensor detects only the radiation arising at or above their location in the atmospheric column. Where these barriers are not present, the microwave sensor detects radiation arising throughout the air column and down to the surface. Liquid surfaces (oceans, lakes and rivers) have 'low emissivity' (the signal isn't as strong) and their radiation brightness temperature is
2007-01-01[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Microwave Image These infrared and microwave images were created with data retrieved by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua satellite, and show the remnants of the former Hurricane Felix over Central America. Infrared Images Because infrared radiation does not penetrate through clouds, AIRS infrared images show either the temperature of the cloud tops or the surface of the Earth in cloud-free regions. The lowest temperatures (in purple) are associated with high, cold cloud tops that make up the top of the storm. In cloud-free areas the AIRS instrument will receive the infrared radiation from the surface of the Earth, resulting in the warmest temperatures (orange/red). Microwave Images In the AIRS microwave imagery, deep blue areas in storms show where the most precipitation occurs, or where ice crystals are present in the convective cloud tops. Outside of these storm regions, deep blue areas may also occur over the sea surface due to its low radiation emissivity. On the other hand, land appears much warmer due to its high radiation emissivity. Microwave radiation from Earth's surface and lower atmosphere penetrates most clouds to a greater or lesser extent depending upon their water vapor, liquid water and ice content. Precipitation, and ice crystals found at the cloud tops where strong convection is taking place, act as barriers to microwave radiation. Because of this barrier effect, the AIRS microwave sensor detects only the radiation arising at or above their location in the atmospheric column. Where these barriers are not present, the microwave sensor detects radiation arising throughout the air column and down to the surface. Liquid surfaces (oceans, lakes and rivers) have 'low emissivity' (the signal isn't as strong) and their radiation brightness temperature is therefore low. Thus the ocean also appears 'low temperature' in the AIRS microwave images and is assigned
Guy, Kristy K.; Stockdon, Hilary F.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Doran, Kara S.; Morgan, Karen L.M.
Understanding storm-induced coastal change and forecasting these changes require knowledge of the physical processes associated with a storm and the geomorphology of the impacted coastline. The primary physical process of interest is sediment transport that is driven by waves, currents, and storm surge associated with storms. Storm surge, which is the rise in water level due to the wind, barometric pressure, and other factors, allows both waves and currents to impact parts of the coast not normally exposed to these processes. Coastal geomorphology reflects the coastal changes associated with extreme-storm processes. Relevant geomorphic variables that are observable before and after storms include sand dune elevation, beach width, shoreline position, sediment grain size, and foreshore beach slope. These variables, in addition to hydrodynamic processes, can be used to quantify coastal change and are used to predict coastal vulnerability to storms (Stockdon and others, 2007). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards (NACCH) project (http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/national-assessment/) provides hazard information to those concerned about the Nation’s coastlines, including residents of coastal areas, government agencies responsible for coastal management, and coastal researchers. Extreme-storm research is a component of the NACCH project (http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/hurricanes/) that includes development of predictive understanding, vulnerability assessments using models, and updated observations in response to specific storm events. In particular, observations were made to determine morphological changes associated with Hurricane Isaac, which made landfall in the United States first at Southwest Pass, at the mouth of the Mississippi River, at 0000 August 29, 2012 UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) and again, 8 hours later, west of Port Fourchon, Louisiana (Berg, 2013). Methods of observation included oblique aerial photography
Hurricane Earl, currently a powerful category 4 storm, is barreling north with the potential to batter the East Coast and threaten Labor Day plans for beachgoers from North Carolina to Massachusett...
Negri, A.; Golden, J. H.; Updike, R.
Hurricanes, typhoons, and cyclones strike Central American, Caribbean, Southeast Asian and Pacific Island nations even more frequently than the U.S. The global losses of life and property from the floods, landslides and debris flows caused by cyclonic storms are staggering. One of the keys to reducing these losses, both in the U.S. and internationally, is to have better forecasts of what is about to happen from several hours to days before the event. Particularly in developing nations where science, technology and communication are limited, advance-warning systems can have great impact. In developing countries, warnings of even a few hours or days can mitigate or reduce catastrophic losses of life. With the foregoing needs in mind, we propose an initial project of three years total duration that will aim to develop and transfer a warning system for a prototype region in the Central Caribbean, specifically the islands of Puerto Rico and Hispanola. The Hurricane-Flood-Landslide Continuum will include satellite observations to track and nowcast dangerous levels of precipitation, atmospheric and hydrological models to predict near-future runoff, and streamflow changes in affected regions, and landslide models to warn when and where landslides and debris flows are imminent. Since surface communications are likely to be interrupted during these crises, the project also includes the capability to communicate disaster information via satellite to vital government officials in Puerto Rico, Haiti, and Dominican Republic.
Sallenger,, Asbury H.; Wang, Ping; Rosati, Julie D.; Roberts, Tiffany M.
Sixteen hurricanes have made landfall along the U.S. east and Gulf coasts over the past decade. For most of these storms, the USGS with our partners in NASA and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers have flown before and after lidar missions to detect changes in beaches and dunes. The most dramatic changes occurred when the coasts were completely submerged in an inundation regime. Where this occurred locally, a new breach was cut, like during Hurricane Isabel in North Carolina. Where surge inundated an entire island, the sand was stripped off leaving marshy outcrops behind, like during Hurricane Katrina in Louisiana. Sea level rise together with sand starvation and repeated hurricane impacts could increase the probabilities of inundation and degrade coasts more than sea level rise alone.
Spruce, Joseph P.; Ross, Kenton W.; Graham, William D.
Hurricane Katrina inflicted widespread damage to vegetation in southwestern coastal Mississippi upon landfall on August 29, 2005. Storm damage to surface vegetation types at the NASA John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) was mapped and quantified using IKONOS data originally acquired on September 2, 2005, and later obtained via a Department of Defense ClearView contract. NASA SSC management required an assessment of the hurricane s impact to the 125,000-acre buffer zone used to mitigate rocket engine testing noise and vibration impacts and to manage forestry and fire risk. This study employed ERDAS IMAGINE software to apply traditional classification techniques to the IKONOS data. Spectral signatures were collected from multiple ISODATA classifications of subset areas across the entire region and then appended to a master file representative of major targeted cover type conditions. The master file was subsequently used with the IKONOS data and with a maximum likelihood algorithm to produce a supervised classification later refined using GIS-based editing. The final results enabled mapped, quantitative areal estimates of hurricane-induced damage according to general surface cover type. The IKONOS classification accuracy was assessed using higher resolution aerial imagery and field survey data. In-situ data and GIS analysis indicate that the results compare well to FEMA maps of flooding extent. The IKONOS classification also mapped open areas with woody storm debris. The detection of such storm damage categories is potentially useful for government officials responsible for hurricane disaster mitigation.
Hurricane Emily, formed in the Atlantic Ocean on July 10, 2005, was the strongest hurricane ever to form before August. By checking computer models against the actual path of the storm, researchers can improve hurricane prediction. In 2010, NOAA researchers were awarded 25 million processor-hours on Argonne's BlueGene/P supercomputer for the project. Read more at http://go.usa.gov/OLh
With the official conclusion of the Atlantic hurricane season on 29 November, Irene was the only hurricane to strike the United States this year and the first one since Hurricane Ike made landfall in Texas in 2008, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Irene “broke the ‘hurricane amnesia’ that can develop when so much time lapses between landfalling storms,” indicated Jack Hayes, director of NOAA's National Weather Service. “This season is a reminder that storms can hit any part of our coast and that all regions need to be prepared each and every season.” During the season, there were 19 tropical storms, including 7 that became hurricanes; 3 of those were major hurricanes, of category 3 or above. The activity level was in line with NOAA predictions. The agency stated that Hurricane Irene was an example of improved accuracy in forecasting storm tracks: NOAA National Hurricane Center had accurately predicted the hurricane's landfall in North Carolina and its path northward more than 4 days in advance.
La Greca, Annette M.; Silverman, Wendy K.; Lai, Betty; Jaccard, James
Objective: We investigated the influence of hurricane exposure, stressors occurring during the hurricane and recovery period, and social support on children's persistent posttraumatic stress (PTS). Method: Using a 2-wave, prospective design, we assessed 384 children (54% girls; mean age = 8.74 years) 9 months posthurricane, and we reassessed 245…
Living in France, near Paris, we have the chance not to be exposed to natural hazards. But on TV we can see, almost every year, geological disasters affecting people from all around the world. Sometimes it also affects us indirectly. For example, the Icelandic volcanic eruption of 2010 prevented some of my students to go on holidays because of the air travel disruption. Since then, every year, we study a natural disaster that has just made the headlines. This topic is of great interest for students because it is connected with their everyday life, with what they see on the news at that time. This year, they were amazed that a city as New York could be struck so violently by a hurricane. Understanding the formation of a hurricane and the consequences of such an event made them think about how to educate people and warn them in case of a hurricane. As a matter of fact, history teaches that a lack of hurricane awareness and preparation are common threads among all major hurricane disasters. By knowing the vulnerability and what actions people should take, it is possible to reduce the effects of a hurricane disaster. They designed posters, showing how a hurricane form, the risks and what to do in case of a hurricane alert. They used TV news broadcasts and educational videos as well as videos from the National Hurricane Center [of the United-States]. Later, they tried to model the formation of a hurricane and the consequences of storm surge, high winds and inland flooding on a coastal area. They filmed their experiments in order to create an interactive exhibition on hurricanes, to be displayed in the school library for other students.
Prabhakaran, Nagarajan; Rishe, Naphtali; Athauda, Rukshan
The South East coastal region experiences hurricane threat for almost six months in every year. To improve the accuracy of hurricane forecasts, meteorologists would need the storm paths of both the present and the past. A hurricane path can be established if we could identify the correct position of the storm at different times right from its birth to the end. We propose a method based on both spatial and temporal image correlations to locate the position of a storm from satellite images. During the hurricane season, the satellite images of the Atlantic ocean near the equator are examined for the hurricane presence. This is accomplished in two steps. In the first step, only segments with more than a particular value of cloud cover are selected for analysis. Next, we apply image processing algorithms to test the presence of a hurricane eye in the segment. If the eye is found, the coordinate of the eye is recorded along with the time stamp of the segment. If the eye is not found, we examine adjacent segments for the existence of hurricane eye. It is probable that more than one hurricane eye could be found from different segments of the same period. Hence, the above process is repeated till the entire potential area for hurricane birth is exhausted. The subsequent/previous position of each hurricane eye will be searched in the appropriate adjacent segments of the next/previous period to mark the hurricane path. The temporal coherence and spatial coherence of the images are taken into account by our scheme in determining the segments and the associated periods required for analysis.
Atlas, R. M.; Hoffman, R. N.; Bucci, L. R.; Annane, B.; Murillo, S.
Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs), when done correctly, provide an effective means to evaluate the potential impact of a proposed observing system, as well as to determine tradeoffs in their design, and to evaluate data assimilation methodology. Great care must be taken to ensure the realism of the OSSEs and in the interpretation of OSSE results. While early OSSEs focused on large-scale numerical weather prediction, more recent OSSEs have included evaluation of the impact of proposed observing systems on smaller-scale phenomena. These have included global OSSEs to evaluate impact on hurricane track forecasting and regional OSSEs aimed at evaluating both track and intensity prediction. Two global OSSEs conducted using the fvGCM nature runs showed a substantial impact of space-based lidar wind profiles on hurricane track predictions. Current OSSEs are using multiple nature runs in which the WRF model, at very high resolution, is embedded within a global T511 nature run that had been generated by ECMWF. These OSSEs are evaluating the potential impact of new (proposed) observing systems on hurricane track and intensity prediction and trade-offs in the design and configuration of these observing systems They are also being used to optimize sampling strategies for current and future airborne and spaceborne observing systems and to evaluate and improve data assimilation and vortex initialization methodology for hurricane prediction. Results from recent OSSEs show the relative impact of alternative lidar technologies and the relative impact of global and regional assimilation on hurricane track and intensity prediction. OSSEs are currently underway to evaluate advanced concepts for hyperspectral infrared (IR) sounding from both polar and geostationary orbit, as well as to evaluate a variety of aspects of hurricane predictability.
... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Additional Waivers and Alternative Requirements for Hurricane Sandy Grantees in... impacted and distressed areas declared a major disaster due to Hurricane Sandy (see 78 FR 14329, published....) (Stafford Act), due to Hurricane Sandy and other eligible events in calendar years 2011, 2012, and 2013....
... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Clarifying Guidance, Waivers, and Alternative Requirements for Hurricane Sandy... recovery in the most impacted and distressed areas declared a major disaster due to Hurricane Sandy (see 78....) (Stafford Act), due to Hurricane Sandy and other eligible events in calendar years 2011, 2012, and 2013....
The Gulf Coast region suffered an unusually severe hurricane season in 2005: Hurricane Katrina (August 28-29, 2005) devastated much of southern Mississippi and Louisiana. Approximately 2,700 licensed early care and education facilities in those states and in Alabama were affected by Katrina, in addition to an unknown number of family child care…
Rindo, Roger J.
The purpose of this study was to examine school board member behaviors to determine how those board members operationalized the broad constructs of high impact governance found in the literature. Behaviors of high impact governance were defined in this study as: Focusing on the district's strategic, long-term directions; addressing the…
Waters, K.; Brock, J.; Subramaniam, A.; Stumpf, R.P.; Armstrong, E.
Advanced very high resolution radiometer images before and after three hurricanes were processed to estimate the reflectance difference between visible and near-infrared bands. The reflectance difference provides a measure of the turbidity in the water column. The images were compared to examine the influence of hurricanes on coastal waters Hurricanes were found to increase turbidity in a large area, with the greatest impact to the right side of the hurricane track. ??2005 Copyright SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering.
Seo, Hyodae; Xie, Shang-Ping
The effect of pre-storm subsurface thermal structure on the intensity of hurricane Katrina (2005) is examined using a regional coupled model. The Estimating Circulation and Climate of Ocean (ECCO) ocean state estimate is used to initialize the ocean component of the coupled model, and the source of deficiencies in the simulation of Katrina intensity is investigated in relation to the initial depth of 26 °C isotherm (D26). The model underestimates the intensity of Katrina partly due to shallow D26 in ECCO. Sensitivity tests with various ECCO initial fields indicate that the correct relationship between intensity and D26 cannot be derived because D26 variability is underestimated in ECCO. A series of idealized experiments is carried out by modifying initial ECCO D26 to match the observed range. A more reasonable relationship between Katrina’s intensity and pre-storm D26 emerges: the intensity is much more sensitive to D26 than to sea surface temperature (SST). Ocean mixed layer process plays a critical role in modulating inner-core SSTs when D26 is deep, reducing mixed layer cooling and lowering the center pressure of the Katrina. Our result lends strong support to the notion that accurate initialization of pre-storm subsurface thermal structure in prediction models is critical for a skillful forecast of intensity of Katrina and likely other intense storms.
Moran, K. D.
The author notes that two trends appear to be developing in litigation over the governance of the public schools. One trend is increasing participation of organized groups in suits against the schools. The other is a greater volume of litigation dealing with open meeting laws and freedom of information acts. Reflecting the second trend, the…
Cecil, Daniel J.; Biswas, Sayak K.; James, Mark W.; Roberts, J. Brent; Jones, W. Linwood; Johnson, James; Farrar, Spencer; Sahawneh, Saleem; Ruf, Christopher S.; Morris, Mary; Black, Peter G.
The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is a synthetic thinned array passive microwave radiometer designed to allow retrieval of surface wind speed in hurricanes, up through category five intensity. The retrieval technology follows the Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR), which measures surface wind speed in hurricanes along a narrow strip beneath the aircraft. HIRAD maps wind speeds in a swath below the aircraft, about 50-60 km wide when flown in the lower stratosphere. HIRAD has flown in the NASA Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) experiment in 2010 on a WB-57 aircraft, and on a Global Hawk unmanned aircraft system (UAS) in 2012 and 2013 as part of NASA's Hurricane and Severe Storms Sentinel (HS3) program. The GRIP program included flights over Hurricanes Earl and Karl (2010). The 2012 HS3 deployment did not include any hurricane flights for the UAS carrying HIRAD. The 2013 HS3 flights included one flight over the predecessor to TS Gabrielle, and one flight over Hurricane Ingrid. This presentation will describe the HIRAD instrument, its results from the 2010 and 2013 flights, and potential future developments.
Hurricane Dennis made landfall as a Category 3 storm on Santa Rosa Island in the Florida Panhandle on July 10, 2005. Exposed to some of the strongest winds, Santa Rosa Island suffered erosion, as well as severe overwash. A storm surge of 2 m was recorded near Navarre Beach. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) are collaborating in a research project investigating coastal change that occurred as a result of Hurricane Dennis. The USGS acquired still oblique aerial photography both before and after hurricane landfall to better understand the impacts of extreme storms on coastal environments. On Tuesday, July 12, 2005, scientists conducted an aerial photographic survey of Santa Rosa Island, Florida, that was impacted by Hurricane Dennis. The photographs were compared to pre-Dennis photographs taken in July 2001 and after the landfall of Hurricane Ivan in September 2004 to illustrate extreme coastal change. On Santa Rosa Island, the storm eroded dunes and beaches, and overwashed roads. In Navarre Beach, parking lots and roads were covered with sand and dune walkovers damaged or destroyed.
Treuer, G.; Bolson, J.
Tropical storms provide fresh water necessary for healthy economies and health ecosystems. Hurricanes, massive tropical storms, threaten catastrophic flooding and wind damage. Sea level rise exacerbates flooding risks from rain and storm surge for coastal communities. Climate change adaptation measures to manage this risk must be implemented locally, but actions at other levels of government and by neighboring communities impact the options available to local municipalities. When working on adaptation local decision makers must balance multiple types of risk: physical or scientifically described risks, legal risks, and political risks. Generating usable or actionable climate science is a goal of the academic climate community. To do this we need to expand our analysis to include types of risk that constrain the use of objective science. Integrating physical, legal, and political risks is difficult. Each requires specific expertise and uses unique language. An opportunity exists to study how local decision makers manage all three on a daily basis and how their risk management impacts climate resilience for communities and ecosystems. South Florida's particular vulnerabilities make it an excellent case study. Besides physical vulnerabilities (low elevation, intense coastal development, frequent hurricanes, compromised ecosystems) it also has unique legal and political challenges. Federal and state property rights protections create legal risks for government action that restricts land use to promote climate adaptation. Also, a lack of cases that deal with climate change creates uncertainty about the nature of these legal risks. Politically Florida is divided ideologically and geographically. The regions in the southeast which are most vulnerable are predominantly Hispanic and under-represented at the state level, where leadership on climate change is functionally nonexistent. It is conventional wisdom amongst water managers in Florida that little climate adaptation
A new exhibit in StenniSphere depicting NASA's role in hurricane prediction and research and SSC's role in helping the region recover from Hurricane Katrina. The cyclone-shaped exhibit focuses on the effects of the Aug. 29, 2005 storm and outlines how NASA is working to improve weather forecasting. Through photos, 3-D models and digital animations, the exhibit tells the story of what happened inside the storm and how NASA's scientific research can increase the accuracy of hurricane tracking and modeling.
Fisher, Irene; Phillips, Patrick; Colella, Kaitlyn; Fisher, Shawn C.; Tagliaferri, Tristen N.; Foreman, William T.; Furlong, Edward T.
Coastal onsite wastewater disposal systems (OWDS) were inundated by Hurricane Sandy's storm tide. This study compares the shallow groundwater quality (nutrients, pharmaceuticals, and hormones) downgradient of OWDS before and after Hurricane Sandy, where available, and establishes a baseline for wastewater influence on groundwater in coastal communities inundated by Hurricane Sandy. Nutrients and contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) were detected in shallow groundwater downgradient of OWDS in two settings along the New Jersey and New York coastlines: 1) a single, centralized OWDS in a park; and 2) multiple OWDS (cesspools) in low-density residential and mixed-use/medium density residential areas. The most frequently detected pharmaceuticals were lidocaine (40%), carbamazepine (36%), and fexofenadine, bupropion, desvenlafaxine, meprobamate, and tramadol (24–32%). Increases in the number and total concentration of pharmaceuticals after Hurricane Sandy may reflect other factors (seasonality, usage) besides inundation, and demonstrate the importance of analyzing for a wide variety of CECs in regional studies.
Fisher, Irene J; Phillips, Patrick J; Colella, Kaitlyn M; Fisher, Shawn C; Tagliaferri, Tristen; Foreman, William T; Furlong, Edward T
Coastal onsite wastewater disposal systems (OWDS) were inundated by Hurricane Sandy's storm tide. This study compares the shallow groundwater quality (nutrients, pharmaceuticals, and hormones) downgradient of OWDS before and after Hurricane Sandy, where available, and establishes a baseline for wastewater influence on groundwater in coastal communities inundated by Hurricane Sandy. Nutrients and contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) were detected in shallow groundwater downgradient of OWDS in two settings along the New Jersey and New York coastlines: 1) a single, centralized OWDS in a park; and 2) multiple OWDS (cesspools) in low-density residential and mixed-use/medium density residential areas. The most frequently detected pharmaceuticals were lidocaine (40%), carbamazepine (36%), and fexofenadine, bupropion, desvenlafaxine, meprobamate, and tramadol (24-32%). Increases in the number and total concentration of pharmaceuticals after Hurricane Sandy may reflect other factors (seasonality, usage) besides inundation, and demonstrate the importance of analyzing for a wide variety of CECs in regional studies.
Schubert, Siegfried; Kang, In-Sik; Reale, Oreste
This talk gives an update on the progress and further plans for a coordinated project to carry out and analyze high-resolution simulations of tropical storm activity with a number of state-of-the-art global climate models. Issues addressed include, the mechanisms by which SSTs control tropical storm. activity on inter-annual and longer time scales, the modulation of that activity by the Madden Julian Oscillation on sub-seasonal time scales, as well as the sensitivity of the results to model formulation. The project also encourages companion coarser resolution runs to help assess resolution dependence, and. the ability of the models to capture the large-scale and long-terra changes in the parameters important for hurricane development. Addressing the above science questions is critical to understanding the nature of the variability of the Asian-Australian monsoon and its regional impacts, and thus CLIVAR RAMP fully endorses the proposed tropical storm simulation activity. The project is open to all interested organizations and investigators, and the results from the runs will be shared among the participants, as well as made available to the broader scientific community for analysis.
Donnelly, J. P.; Lin, N.
Damage from hurricanes has increased markedly over the last century, largely the result of increased coastal population and wealth. The recent impacts of Hurricane Sandy, a minimal category 1 storm on the Saffir-Simpson scale (sustained winds of ~80 mph), in New York and New Jersey highlight the vulnerability of the northeastern United States to tropical cyclone strikes. Despite the relatively low sustained wind speeds associated with Sandy, the large size, shore-perpendicular track, and slow movement of the storm resulted in a significant surge along the New Jersey and New York coastline (e.g., 2.75 m in New York City). Making matters worse, the peak in surge in New York City (NYC) and surrounds coincided with a high tide, resulting in total storm tide heights of more than 3 meters above mean sea level in NYC. Current estimates of the damage resulting from Hurricane Sandy exceed 71 billion USD and 285 lives were lost. While direct hurricane strikes to NYC and New Jersey coast were rare in the 20th century (a cat 1 hurricane made landfall in southern NJ in 1903), hurricanes tracked slightly east and impacted Long Island and southern New England in 1938, 1944, 1954, 1960, 1976, 1985, and 1991. Looking back to the 19th and 18th centuries reveals that NYC and the New Jersey coast were struck by hurricanes in 1788, 1821 and 1893. The combination of documentary evidence and hydrodynamic modeling of these historic events indicates that the intensity of these storms were much greater than that of Hurricane Sandy, with the 1788 and 1821 storms likely making landfall at category 3 intensity. Given the increase in coastal population and development over the last two centuries, if storms like these were to occur today they would likely result in significantly more damage and loss of life than Hurricane Sandy. Overwash-deposit based reconstructions of hurricane landfalls suggest that the northeastern US may have at times experienced intense hurricane strikes much more
Turco, M.; East, J. W.; Dorsey, M. E.; McGee, B. D.; McCallum, B. E.; Pearman, J. L.; Sallenger, A. H.; Holmes, R. R.; Berembrock, C. E.; Turnipseed, D. P.; Mason, R. R.
Historically, hurricane-induced storm-tides were documented through analysis of structural or vegetative damage and high-water marks. However, these sources rarely provided quantitative information about the timing of the flooding, the sequencing of multiple paths by which the storm-surge waters arrived, or the magnitude of waves and wave run-up comprising floodwaters. In response to these deficiencies, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed and deployed an experimental mobile storm-surge network to provide detailed time-series data for selected hurricane landfalls. The USGS first deployed the network in September 2005 as Hurricane Rita approached the Texas and Louisiana coasts. The network for Rita consisted of 32 water-level and 14 barometric-pressure monitoring sites. Sensors were located at distances ranging from a few hundred feet to approximately 30 miles inland and sampled 4,000 square miles. Deployments have also occurred for Hurricanes Wilma, Gustav, and Ike. For Hurricane Gustav, more than 100 water level sensors were deployed. Analysis of the water-level data enable construction of maps depicting surge topography through time and space, essentially rendering elements of a 3-dimensional view of the storm-surge dome as it moves on- shore, as well as a map of maximum water-level elevations. The USGS also acquired LIDAR topographic data from coasts impacted by hurricanes. These data reveal extreme changes to the beaches and barrier islands that arise from hurricane storm surge and waves. By better understanding where extreme changes occur along our coasts, we will be able to position coastal structures away from hazards.
Gordon, Fitzroy R.
This dissertation is a study of the relationship between Information Technology (IT) strategic alignment and IT governance structure within the organization. This dissertation replicates Asante (2010) among a different population where the prior results continue to hold, the non-experimental approach explored two research questions but include two…
TRMM provides a closer look at hurricanes using a unique combination of passive and active microwave instruments designed to peer inside cloud systems and measure rainfall. TRMM allows scientists t...
This is an overview of NASA's hurricane research campaign called Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP). The six-week mission was conducted in coordination with NOAA and the National Sc...
Mogil, H. Michael; Collins, H. Thomas
Background information using Hurricane Gilbert (1988) is provided. Ideas for 27 activities including a mapping activity are discussed. The 5 themes of geography are listed and a glossary is given. (CW)
Video of Hurricane Irene compiled from a series of Astronaut Photography still images taken from the International Space Station on Aug. 24, 2011 (2:12-2:15PM EST). These frames were taken as the I...
Convertino, Angelyn; Meyer, Stephan; Edwards, Becca
Post-tropical Storm Sandy underwent extratropical transition shortly before making landfall in southern New Jersey October 29 2012. Data from this system was compared with data from Hurricane Ike (2008) which represents a classic hurricane with a clear eye wall and symmetry after landfall. Storm Sandy collided with a low pressure system coming in from the north as the hurricane made landfall on the US East coast. This contributed to Storm Sandy acting as a non-typical hurricane when it made landfall. Time histories of wind speed and wind direction were generated from data provided by Texas Tech's StickNet probes for both storms. The NOAA Weather and Climate program were used to generate radar loops of reflectivity during the landfall for both storms; these loops were compared with time histories for both Ike and Sandy to identify a relationship between time series data and storm-scale features identified on radar.
DeVaney, Thomas A.; Carr, Sonya C.; Allen, Diane D.
Natural disasters have been shown to have a substantial impact on school-age children. Consequently, schools are positioned to be a source of support while helping students resume familiar roles and routines. However, few studies have examined how schools prepare for and respond to disasters. In this study, we investigated the impact of Hurricane…
Hurricanes bring destructive winds, storm surge, torrential rain, flooding, and tornadoes. A single storm can wreak havoc on coastal and inland communities and on natural areas over thousands of square miles. In 2005, Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, and Wilma demonstrated the devastation that hurricanes can inflict and the importance of hurricane hazards research and preparedness. More than half of the U.S. population lives within 50 miles of a coast, and this number is increasing. Many of these areas, especially the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, will be in the direct path of future hurricanes. Hawaii is also vulnerable to hurricanes.
Lipinski, Doug; Mohseni, Kamran
We present the results of a ``surface tracking'' algorithm for efficiently computing Lagrangian coherent structure (LCS) surfaces in three dimensions. The algorithm is applied to data from a Weather Research and Forecasting simulation of hurricane Rita. The highly complicated LCS surfaces reveal complex dynamics and transport in the hurricane, particularly in the lower atmosphere boundary layer and the upper level outflow. The lower level transport in the hurricane is of particular importance for accurate intensity prediction in hurricane forecasts due to the uncertainty in the ocean-atmosphere interaction. Understanding the lower level transport and mixing behavior in hurricanes could lead to significant advances in hurricane intensity prediction.
... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How can State and local governments prevent discrimination or adverse impacts? 170.110 Section 170.110 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Eligibility Consultation, Collaboration, Coordination § 170.110 How can State and local governments...
Rao, Nyapati; Mehra, Ashwin
Hurricane Sandy was one of the most devastating storms to hit the United States in history. The impact of the hurricane included power outages, flooding in the New York City subway system and East River tunnels, disrupted communications, acute shortages of gasoline and food, and a death toll of 113 people. In addition, thousands of residences and businesses in New Jersey and New York were destroyed. This article chronicles the first author's personal and professional experiences as a survivor of the hurricane, more specifically in the dual roles of provider and trauma victim, involving informed self-disclosure with a patient who was also a victim of the hurricane. The general analytic framework of therapy is evaluated in the context of the shared trauma faced by patient and provider alike in the face of the hurricane, leading to important implications for future work on resilience and recovery for both the therapist and patient.
Otte, M. J.; Walko, R. L.; Avissar, R.
A global forecast model is essential for predicting hurricane tracks beyond a period of ~2 days since global processes that may influence the longer-term storm tracks can be represented explicitly and there are no errors from the lateral boundary conditions that can propagate into the model domain and diminish the accuracy of the track forecasts. However, global models usually do not have enough horizontal and vertical resolution to produce meaningful hurricane intensity forecasts. Most current operational global forecast models represent the atmosphere horizontally using spherical harmonic basis functions with an equivalent resolution of ~40-50 km. The NOAA Science Advisory Board Hurricane Intensity Research Working Group recommends approximately 1-km-resolution hurricane forecasts in order to represent the important physical processes in the core region of hurricanes that are important to accurately predict hurricane intensity. Even with state-of-the-art computers, it will be many years before global forecasts with 1-km horizontal resolution are practical. To predict both hurricane tracks and intensity well, a nested global model is necessary. Large-scale processes are represented on a coarser, computationally-efficient grid while features such as hurricanes are represented on a high-resolution nest. The global model used in this study is the Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Model (OLAM) being developed at Duke University. OLAM is the global successor to the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), which originated at Colorado State University in 1986. OLAM uses the same physics parameterizations as RAMS, but it solves the governing equations by discretizing the atmosphere on an unstructured triangular finite-volume grid. The triangular grid uses the Arakawa-C staggering and is fully mass conservative. Since the triangular mesh is unstructured, the mesh can be refined to produce much higher horizontal resolution in areas of interest such as near hurricanes. Here, we
On August 25, 2005, Hurricane Katrina made landfall between Hallandale Beach and Aventura, Florida, as a Category 1 hurricane, with sustained winds of 80 mph. Storm effects, primarily rain, flooding, and high winds, were substantial; certain areas reported nearly 12 inches of rainfall. After crossing southern Florida and entering the Gulf of Mexico, the hurricane strengthened and made landfall in southeastern Louisiana on August 29 as a Category 3 hurricane, with sustained winds of 125 mph. Katrina was one of the strongest hurricanes to strike the United States during the past 100 years and was likely the nation's costliest natural disaster to date. This report summarizes findings and recommendations from a review of mortality records of Florida's Medical Examiners Commission (FMEC) and the Alabama Department of Forensic Science (ADFS). CDC was invited by the Florida Department of Health (FDOH) and the Alabama Department of Public Health (ADPH) to assess the mortality related to Hurricane Katrina. The mortality review was intended to provide county-based information that would be used to 1) define the impact of the hurricane, 2) describe the etiology of deaths, and 3) identify strategies to prevent or reduce future hurricane-related mortality. Combined, both agencies identified five, 23, and 10 deaths, respectively, that were directly, indirectly, or possibly related to Hurricane Katrina. Information from the characterization of these deaths will be used to reduce hurricane-related mortality through early community awareness of hurricane-related risk, prevention measures, and effective communication of a coordinated hurricane response plan.
NASA IMERG Data Hurricane Sandra's Heavy Rainfall This IMERG rainfall analysis indicates that moisture flowing from Hurricane Sandra caused heavy rainfall totals of over 700 mm (28 inches) in an ar...
Cameras on the International Space Station show views of Hurricane Julia and Hurricane Igor, both moving west-northwest across the Atlantic on Sept. 14, 2010. At the time the video was captured, Ju...
Gesch, Dean B.
The damages caused by the storm surges from Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita were significant and occurred over broad areas. Storm-surge maps are among the most useful geospatial datasets for hurricane recovery, impact assessments, and mitigation planning for future storms. Surveyed high-water marks were used to generate a maximum storm-surge surface for Hurricane Katrina extending from eastern Louisiana to Mobile Bay, Alabama. The interpolated surface was intersected with high-resolution lidar elevation data covering the study area to produce a highly detailed digital storm-surge inundation map. The storm-surge dataset and related data are available for display and query in a Web-based viewer application. A unique water-level dataset from a network of portable pressure sensors deployed in the days just prior to Hurricane Rita's landfall captured the hurricane's storm surge. The recorded sensor data provided water-level measurements with a very high temporal resolution at surveyed point locations. The resulting dataset was used to generate a time series of storm-surge surfaces that documents the surge dynamics in a new, spatially explicit way. The temporal information contained in the multiple storm-surge surfaces can be visualized in a number of ways to portray how the surge interacted with and was affected by land surface features. Spatially explicit storm-surge products can be useful for a variety of hurricane impact assessments, especially studies of wetland and land changes where knowledge of the extent and magnitude of storm-surge flooding is critical.
During power outages after hurricanes, survivors can be at risk for carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning if they use portable generators improperly. On September 13, 2008, Hurricane Ike struck the coast of Texas, leaving approximately 2.3 million households in the southeastern portion of the state without electricity. Six days later, 1.3 million homes were still without electrical power. To assess the impact of storm-related CO exposures and to enhance prevention efforts, CDC analyzed data from five disparate surveillance sources on CO exposures reported during September 13--26 in counties of southeast Texas that were declared disaster areas by the federal government. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that one data source, Texas poison centers, received reports of 54 persons with storm-related CO exposures during the surveillance period. Another data source, the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society (UHMS) hyperbaric oxygen treatment database, reported that 15 persons received hyperbaric oxygen treatment for storm-related CO poisoning. Medical examiners, public health officials, and hospitals in Texas reported that seven persons died from storm-related CO poisoning. Among the data sources, the percentage of reported storm-related CO exposures caused by improper generator use ranged from 82% to 87%. These findings underscore the need for effective prevention messages during storm preparation, warnings, and response periods regarding the correct use of generators and the installation and maintenance of battery-powered CO detectors.
Durant, Thomas J., Jr.
The definition of a disaster is followed by an explanation of vulnerability and social capital theories. The importance of using a sound theoretical framework and the utility and efficacy of vulnerability and social capital theories in studying the impact of natural disasters on the elderly population are emphasized and discussed. The conclusion…
Phillips, Patrick; Gibson, Cathy A; Fisher, Shawn C.; Fisher, Irene; Reilly, Timothy J.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Romanok, Kristin M.; Foreman, William T.; ReVello, Rhiannon C.; Focazio, Michael J.; Jones, Daniel K.
Bed sediment samples from 79 coastal New York and New Jersey, USA sites were analyzed for 75 compounds including wastewater associated contaminants, PAHs, and other organic compounds to assess the post-Hurricane Sandy distribution of organic contaminants among six regions. These results provide the first assessment of wastewater compounds, hormones, and PAHs in bed sediment for this region. Concentrations of most wastewater contaminants and PAHs were highest in the most developed region (Upper Harbor/Newark Bay, UHNB) and reflected the wastewater inputs to this area. Although the lack of pre-Hurricane Sandy data for most of these compounds make it impossible to assess the effect of the storm on wastewater contaminant concentrations, PAH concentrations in the UHNB region reflect pre-Hurricane Sandy conditions in this region. Lower hormone concentrations than predicted by the total organic carbon relation occurred in UHNB samples, suggesting that hormones are being degraded in the UHNB region.
Phillips, Patrick J; Gibson, Catherine A; Fisher, Shawn C; Fisher, Irene J; Reilly, Timothy J; Smalling, Kelly L; Romanok, Kristin M; Foreman, William T; ReVello, Rhiannon C; Focazio, Michael J; Jones, Daniel K
Bed sediment samples from 79 coastal New York and New Jersey, USA sites were analyzed for 75 compounds including wastewater associated contaminants, PAHs, and other organic compounds to assess the post-Hurricane Sandy distribution of organic contaminants among six regions. These results provide the first assessment of wastewater compounds, hormones, and PAHs in bed sediment for this region. Concentrations of most wastewater contaminants and PAHs were highest in the most developed region (Upper Harbor/Newark Bay, UHNB) and reflected the wastewater inputs to this area. Although the lack of pre-Hurricane Sandy data for most of these compounds make it impossible to assess the effect of the storm on wastewater contaminant concentrations, PAH concentrations in the UHNB region reflect pre-Hurricane Sandy conditions in this region. Lower hormone concentrations than predicted by the total organic carbon relation occurred in UHNB samples, suggesting that hormones are being degraded in the UHNB region.
Zhu, Ping; Wang, Yuting; Chen, Shuyi S.; Curcic, Milan; Gao, Cen
Roll vortices in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) are important to oil operation and oil spill transport. This study investigates the impact of storm-induced sea surface temperature (SST) cooling on the roll vortices generated by the convective and dynamic instability in the ABL of Hurricane Isaac (2012) and the roll induced transport using hindcasting large eddy simulations (LESs) configured from the multiply nested Weather Research & Forecasting model. Two experiments are performed: one forced by the Unified Wave INterface - Coupled Model and the other with the SST replaced by the NCEP FNL analysis that does not include the storm-induced SST cooling. The simulations show that the roll vortices are the prevalent eddy circulations in the ABL of Isaac. The storm-induced SST cooling causes the ABL stability falls in a range that satisfies the empirical criterion of roll generation by dynamic instability, whereas the ABL stability without considering the storm-induced SST cooling meets the criterion of roll generation by convective instability. The ABL roll is skewed and the increase of convective instability enhances the skewness. Large convective instability leads to large vertical transport of heat and moisture; whereas the dominant dynamic instability results in large turbulent kinetic energy but relatively weak heat and moisture transport. This study suggests that failure to consider roll vortices or incorrect initiation of dynamic and convective instability of rolls in simulations may substantially affect the transport of momentum, energy, and pollutants in the ABL and the dispersion/advection of oil spill fume at the ocean surface.
Berkowitz, Robert D.
Increased government regulation of the medical device industry produces higher expenses, a longer time to return investment capital, and greater uncertainty. As a result there are fewer new ventures and reduced efforts to develop new technology in established companies. The current federal regulatory framework has shifted from monitoring the product to monitoring the process. The inability to reach perfect performance in such a regulated environment subject to continuous and fluid interpretation guarantees non-compliance and growing ethical tension. Without new medical technology, we may be unable to maintain quality medical coverage in the face of rising demand. The author proposes risk assessment to set regulatory priorities; the conversion of a national weapons lab to a national device testing lab; the establishment of device standards and the monitoring of in-use performance against these standards; and the education of patients and users as to the results of these examinations.
Klima, Kelly; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Morgan, M Granger; Grossmann, Iris
If hurricane modification were to become a feasible strategy for potentially reducing hurricane damages, it would likely generate public discourse about whether to support its implementation. To facilitate an informed and constructive discourse, policymakers need to understand how people perceive hurricane modification. Here, we examine Florida residents' perceptions of hurricane modification techniques that aim to alter path and wind speed. Following the mental models approach, we conducted a survey study about public perceptions of hurricane modification that was guided by formative interviews on the topic. We report a set of four primary findings. First, hurricane modification was perceived as a relatively ineffective strategy for damage reduction, compared to other strategies for damage reduction. Second, hurricane modification was expected to lead to changes in projected hurricane path, but not necessarily to the successful reduction of projected hurricane strength. Third, more anger was evoked when a hurricane was described as having changed from the initially forecasted path or strength after an attempted modification. Fourth, unlike what we expected, participants who more strongly agreed with statements that recognized the uncertainty inherent in forecasts reported more rather than less anger at scientists across hurricane modification scenarios. If the efficacy of intensity-reduction techniques can be increased, people may be willing to support hurricane modification. However, such an effort would need to be combined with open and honest communications to members of the general public.
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Sallenger, Asbury H.; Stockdon, Hilary; Fauver, Laura A.; Hansen, Mark; Thompson, David; Wright, C. Wayne; Lillycrop, Jeff
Four hurricanes battered the state of Florida during 2004, the most affecting any state since Texas endured four in 1884. Each of the storms changed the coast differently. Average shoreline change within the right front quadrant of hurricane force winds varied from 1 m of shoreline advance to 20 m of retreat, whereas average sand volume change varied from 11 to 66 m3 m−1 of net loss (erosion). These changes did not scale simply with hurricane intensity as described by the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. The strongest storm of the season, category 4 Hurricane Charley, had the least shoreline retreat. This was likely because of other factors like the storm's rapid forward speed and small size that generated a lower storm surge than expected. Two of the storms, Hurricanes Frances and Jeanne, affected nearly the same area on the Florida east coast just 3 wk apart. The first storm, Frances, although weaker than the second, caused greater shoreline retreat and sand volume erosion. As a consequence, Hurricane Frances may have stripped away protective beach and exposed dunes to direct wave attack during Jeanne, although there was significant dune erosion during both storms. The maximum shoreline change for all four hurricanes occurred during Ivan on the coasts of eastern Alabama and the Florida Panhandle. The net volume change across a barrier island within the Ivan impact zone approached zero because of massive overwash that approximately balanced erosion of the beach. These data from the 2004 hurricane season will prove useful in developing new ways to scale and predict coastal-change effects during hurricanes.
Hurricane Ike made landfall at 2:10 a.m. on September 13, 2008, as a Category 2 hurricane. The eye of the hurricane crossed over the eastern end of Galveston Island and a large region of the Texas and Louisiana coast experienced extreme winds, waves and water levels, resulting in large impacts from overtopping, overwash, wind and wave forces and flooding. Major damage stretched from Freeport to the southwest and to Port Arthur to the northeast. The effects of the hurricane force winds were felt well inland in Texas and Louisiana and the storm continued to the interior of the US, causing more damage and loss of life. Through the support of the Coasts, Oceans, Ports and Rivers Institute (COPRI) of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) a team of 14 coastal scientists and engineers inspected the upper Texas coast in early October 2008. The COPRI team surveyed Hurricane Ike’s effects on coastal landforms, structures, marinas, shore protection systems, and other infrastructure. Damages ranges from very minor to complete destruction, depending upon location and elevation. Bolivar Peninsula, to the right of the hurricane path, experienced severe damage and three peninsula communities were completely destroyed. Significant flood and wave damage also was observed in Galveston Island and Brazoria County that were both on the left side of the hurricane path. Beach erosion and prominent overwash fans were observed throughout much of the field investigation area. The post-storm damage survey served to confirm expected performance under extreme conditions, as well as to evaluate recent development trends and conditions unique to each storm. Hurricane Ike confirmed many previously reported observations. One of the main conclusions from the inspection of buildings was that elevation was a key determinant for survival. Elevation is also a major factor in the stability and effectiveness of shore protection. The Galveston Seawall was high enough to provide protection from
Bush, Susan M.
Hurricane Gilbert has been called one of the most monstrous hurricanes of the 20th century, cutting a nearly 2000-mile swath across Jamaica, Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula, and along the border of Texas and Mexico September 10-17. Death toll was about 200, and damage estimates were above $8 billion.A briefing on the effects of Gilbert was held in Washington, D.C., on October 24. It was sponsored by the Committee on Natural Disasters of the National Academy of Sciences, with the Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
Li, Yuepeng; Teng, Yi-Cheng; Kelly, David M.; Zhang, Keqi
Hurricanes Frances, Jeanne, and Wilma passed over Lake Okeechobee, Florida, in September 2004 and October 2005, respectively. Strong winds caused a large surface seiche on the lake during all three storms. These storms resulted in erosion damage to the Herbert Hoover Dike (HHD) on Lake Okeechobee. In this paper, we use the Fully Adaptive Storm Tide (FAST) model (Kelly et al. in Coast Eng J 57(4):1-30, 2015, Nat Hazards 83:53-74, 2016) to study the response of the lake (in terms of the water level fluctuations and induced currents) to hurricanes Frances, Jeanne, and Wilma. Comparisons of the modeled surface water level with the observations are in overall good agreement for all three hurricanes. The modeled results suggest that the strong currents induced by the storm winds may be the dominant factor controlling the dike erosion observed at the lake side. The locations of erosion damage to the dike are consistent with the modeled high velocity zones during these three storms. In addition, numerical experiments have been conducted with eight hypothetical category 5 hurricanes approaching from different directions to investigate the erosion-prone zones related to high velocities in the vicinity of the dike. The results of the study should help to provide insight into vulnerable reaches of the HHD and inform flood control in the Okeechobee region.
Stewart, Jennifer Michelle
One important outcome of the restructuring of the New Orleans school system post-Hurricane Katrina, and the subsequent performance of students, was an awareness that some fundamental premises in No Child Left Behind (NCLB) should be revisited. An examination of student performance in the restructured school system, for example, raised questions…
Scaramella, Laura V.; Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Callahan, Kristin L.; Mirabile, Scott P.
Hurricane Katrina dramatically altered the level of social and environmental stressors for the residents of the New Orleans area. The Family Stress Model describes a process whereby felt financial strain undermines parents' mental health, the quality of family relationships, and child adjustment. Our study considered the extent to which the Family…
Scott, George A.
In August and September 2005, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita devastated large portions of the U.S. Gulf Coast, resulting in nearly 2,000 deaths and severe damage to 305,000 houses and apartments. Thousands of families relocated to communities throughout the United States and enrolled their children in local public or private schools. Some families…
Gheytanchi, Anahita; Joseph, Lisa; Gierlach, Elaine; Kimpara, Satoko; Housley, Jennifer; Franco, Zeno E.; Beutler, Larry E.
This comprehensive analysis addresses the United States' alarming lack of preparedness to respond effectively to a massive disaster as evidenced by Hurricane Katrina. First, a timeline of problematic response events during and after Hurricane Katrina orients readers to some of the specific problems encountered at different levels of government.…
Sterling, Donna R.
While learning about the types of weather events that occur in the local area, students in grades 4-6 were asked to consider how structures can be built to withstand extreme weather conditions. Teams of students designed, constructed, and tested buildings to withstand hurricanes and designed the tests they would use to evaluate their structures.…
Aten, Jamie D; Gonzalez, Rose A; Boan, David M; Topping, Sharon; Livingston, William V; Hosey, John M
After a disaster, survivors find themselves seeking many types of help from others in their communities. The purpose of this exploratory study was to assist in mental health service planning by determining the type and priority of support services sought by church attendees after Hurricane Katrina. Surveys were given to church attendees from two Mississippi coast and four New Orleans area churches that were directly affected by Hurricane Katrina participants were asked to review a list of 12 potential sources of help and were asked to rank the items chronologically from whom they had sought help first after Hurricane Katrina. Overall, participants sought out assistance from informal social networks such as family and friends first, followed by governmental and clergy support. This study also showed there may be differences in help-seeking behaviors between church attendees in more urban areas versus church attendees in more rural areas. Moreover, findings highlighted that very few church attendees seek out mental health services during the initial impact phase of a disaster. Since timely engagement with mental health services is important for resolving trauma, strategies that link professional mental health services with clergy and government resources following a disaster could improve the engagement with mental health professionals and improve mental health outcomes. Disaster mental health clinical implications and recommendations are offered for psychologists based on these findings.
Shaw, Kristi S.; Jacobs, John M.; Crump, Byron C.
To determine if a storm event (i.e., high winds, large volumes of precipitation) could alter concentrations of Vibrio vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus in aquacultured oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and associated surface water and sediment, this study followed a sampling timeline before and after Hurricane Irene impacted the Chesapeake Bay estuary in late August 2011. Aquacultured oysters were sampled from two levels in the water column: surface (0.3 m) and near-bottom (just above the sediment). Concentrations of each Vibrio spp. and associated virulence genes were measured in oysters with a combination of real-time PCR and most probable number (MPN) enrichment methods, and in sediment and surface water with real-time PCR. While concentration shifts of each Vibrio species were apparent post-storm, statistical tests indicated no significant change in concentration for either Vibrio species by location (surface or near bottom oysters) or date sampled (oyster tissue, surface water, and sediment concentrations). V. vulnificus in oyster tissue was correlated with total suspended solids (r = 0.41, P = 0.04), and V. vulnificus in sediment was correlated with secchi depth (r = -0.93, P <0.01), salinity (r = -0.46, P = 0.02), tidal height (r = -0.45, P = 0.03), and surface water V. vulnificus (r = 0.98, P <0.01). V. parahaemolyticus in oyster tissue did not correlate with environmental measurements, but V. parahaemolyticus in sediment and surface water correlated with several measurements including secchi depth [r = -0.48, P = 0.02 (sediment); r = -0.97, P <0.01 (surface water)] and tidal height [r = -0.96, P <0.01 (sediment), r = -0.59, P <0.01 (surface water)]. The concentrations of Vibrio spp. were higher in oysters relative to other studies (average V. vulnificus 4 × 105 MPN g-1, V. parahaemolyticus 1 × 105 MPN g-1), and virulence-associated genes were detected in most oyster samples. This study provides a first estimate of storm-related Vibrio density changes in
Knutson, Thomas R.; Tuleya, Robert E.
Previous studies have found that idealized hurricanes, simulated under warmer, high-CO2 conditions, are more intense and have higher precipitation rates than under present-day conditions. The present study explores the sensitivity of this result to the choice of climate model used to define the CO2-warmed environment and to the choice of convective parameterization used in the nested regional model that simulates the hurricanes. Approximately 1300 five-day idealized simulations are performed using a higher-resolution version of the GFDL hurricane prediction system (grid spacing as fine as 9 km, with 42 levels). All storms were embedded in a uniform 5 m s-1 easterly background flow. The large-scale thermodynamic boundary conditions for the experiments— atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles and SSTs—are derived from nine different Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP2+) climate models. The CO2-induced SST changes from the global climate models, based on 80-yr linear trends from +1% yr-1 CO2 increase experiments, range from about +0.8° to +2.4°C in the three tropical storm basins studied. Four different moist convection parameterizations are tested in the hurricane model, including the use of no convective parameterization in the highest resolution inner grid. Nearly all combinations of climate model boundary conditions and hurricane model convection schemes show a CO2-induced increase in both storm intensity and near-storm precipitation rates. The aggregate results, averaged across all experiments, indicate a 14% increase in central pressure fall, a 6% increase in maximum surface wind speed, and an 18% increase in average precipitation rate within 100 km of the storm center. The fractional change in precipitation is more sensitive to the choice of convective parameterization than is the fractional change of intensity. Current hurricane potential intensity theories, applied to the climate model environments, yield an average increase of intensity
Chen, Xiaohan; Tian, Dongdong; Wen, Lianxing
We find that microseisms generated by Hurricane Sandy exhibit coherent energy within 1 h time windows in the frequency band of 0.1-0.25 Hz, but with signals correlated among seismic stations aligned along close azimuths from the hurricane center. With the identification of this signal property, we show that travel time difference can be measured between the correlated stations. These correlated seismic signals can be attributed to two types of seismic sources, with one group of the seismic signals from the hurricane center and the other from coastal region. The seismic sources in coastal region are diffusive and move northward along the coastline as Sandy moves northward. We further develop a hurricane seismic source model, to quantitatively describe the coupling among sea level pressure fluctuations, ocean waves, and solid Earth in the region of hurricane center and determine the evolution of source's strength and pressure fluctuation in the region of hurricane center using seismic data. Strong seismic sources are also identified near the coastal region in New England after Sandy's dissipation, possibly related to subsequent storm surge in the area. The seismic method may be implemented as another practical means for hurricane monitoring, and seismological estimates of the hurricane seismic source model could be used as in situ proxy measurements of pressure fluctuation in the region of hurricane center for hurricane physics studies.
Woods, Jeff; Zucker, Mark
Hurricanes and tropical storms are critical components of the south Florida hydrologic cycle. These storms cause dramatic and often rapid changes in water level of, salinity of, and discharge into northeastern Florida Bay as well as into adjacent marine estuaries. During 2005, two major hurricanes (Katrina and Wilma) crossed the southern estuaries of the Everglades and had substantial impacts on hydrologic conditions.
Scaramella, Laura V; Sohr-Preston, Sara L; Callahan, Kristin L; Mirabile, Scott P
Hurricane Katrina dramatically altered the level of social and environmental stressors for the residents of the New Orleans area. The Family Stress Model describes a process whereby felt financial strain undermines parents' mental health, the quality of family relationships, and child adjustment. Our study considered the extent to which the Family Stress Model explained toddler-aged adjustment among Hurricane Katrina affected and nonaffected families. Two groups of very low-income mothers and their 2-year-old children participated (pre-Katrina, n = 55; post-Katrina, n = 47). Consistent with the Family Stress Model, financial strain and neighborhood violence were associated with higher levels of mothers' depressed mood; depressed mood was linked to less parenting efficacy. Poor parenting efficacy was associated to more child internalizing and externalizing problems.
With winds reaching 155 mph, this year's Hurricane Carlotta became the second strongest eastern Pacific June hurricane on record. These images from MISR show the hurricane on June 21, the day of its peak intensity. The pictures are oriented so that the spacecraft's flight path is from left to right; north is at the left.The top image is a color view from MISR's vertical (nadir) camera, showing Carlotta's location in the eastern Pacific Ocean, about 500 km south of Puerto Vallarta, Mexico.The middle image is a stereoscopic 'anaglyph' created using MISR's nadir camera plus one of its aftward-viewing cameras, and shows a closer view of the area around the hurricane. Viewing with red/blue glasses (red filter over the left eye) is required to obtain a 3-D stereo effect.Near the center of the storm, the eye is about 25 km in diameter and partially obscured by a thin cloud. About 50 km to the left of the eye, the sharp drop-off from high-level to low-level cloud gives a sense of the vertical extent of the hidden eye wall. The low-level cloud is spiraling counterclockwise into the center of the cyclone. It then rises in the vicinity of the eye wall and emerges with a clockwise rotation at high altitude. Maximum surface winds are found near the eye wall.The bottom stereo image is a zoomed-in view of convective clouds in the hurricane's spiral arms. The arms are breeding grounds for severe thunderstorms, with associated heavy rain and flooding, frequent lightning, and tornadoes. Thunderstorms rise in dramatic fashion to about the same altitude as the high cloud near the hurricane's center, and are made up of individual cells that are typically less than 20 km in diameter. This image shows a number of these cells, some fairly isolated, and others connected together. Their three-dimensional structure is clearly apparent in this stereo view.MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science
Elkins, Tom; Elliott, John
This paper outlines the ways in which successive UK governments have regulated and controlled the teaching profession since the 1980s. Key initiatives relating to curriculum, school effectiveness and individual teacher performance are considered in some detail, because these issues have arguably had the greatest impact upon teaching and learning.…
Baughman, Sarah; Boyd, Heather H.; Kelsey, Kathleen D.
The research reported here examined the impact of the Government Performance and Results Act on accountability and evaluation activities in two state Cooperative Extension Systems. Accountability was examined using five dimensions from Koppell's (2005) framework. Findings indicated both Extension systems transferred accountability activities to…
Wilkesmann, Uwe; Schmid, Christian J.
In this article we will present findings from a national survey questioning the actual impact of the new governance structures at German universities on academic teaching. To begin with, we give a theoretical underpinning to the economization of higher education institutions (HEIs) according to Principal-Agent Theory. This allows for the…
Perez-Peraza, Jorge; Velasco Herrera, Victor Manuel; Zapotitla Roman, Julian; Juarez Zuñiga, Alan
Category-5 Hurricanes are the most devastating from the standpoint of human and economic losses. Approximately 80 cyclones per year occurring worldwide, from which 8.8 per year occur on average in different regions of the Atlantic. However, category-5 Hurricanes do not follow a cyclic pattern but ar rather of quasi-stochastic nature. To assist in the alert processes o of hurricanes, we propose here a method to predict those kinds of hurricanes based on the Wavelet Analysis and applying techniques of Fuzzy Logic. For our study we consider North Atlantic category-5 hurricanes since 1920. Data was transformed into a series of Pulses with unitary value at the dates of hurricanes occurrence and 0 for dates of no occurrence. By means of the Wavelet transform we determine dominant oscillation periods. Under the hypothesis that the occurrence of hurricanes of this category can be described by the certain periodicities, we can define the dominant periods of oscillation and establish correspondence rules using fuzzy logic. The fuzzy logic searches for associations between the hurricanes occurrence and the behavior of the harmonics, and then delimits the occurrence of the next hurricane. The Wavelet Power Spectrum yields the following periodicities 2, 9, 14 and 24 years. According to the behavior of the harmonics we found that their combination restricts regions of possible Hurricane occurrence. Interpolation of this sinusoidal behavior allows for a good reconstruction of past Hurricanes dates as well as extrapolation to the future. In this way we conclude that there is a good probability that the next category-5 Hurricane in the north Atlantic occur of 2014-2015. Regarding categorie-5 typhoons in the pacific we delimitate the genesis regions of western of these kind of typhoons.
Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, USA cHurricane Research Division, NOAA , Miami, Florida, USA *Correspondence to: R. K. Smith, Meteorological...smoothly into the eyewall (Marks et al., 2008; Bell and Montgomery, 2008). Retrievals of turbulent kinetic energy from Doppler radar data in hurricanes...during the authors’ recent visit to the US Hurricane Research Division of NOAA /AOML. We thank especially the Director, Frank Marks, and his staff for
Mitchell, Laurie; Anderle, Diane; Nastally, Kathleen; Sarver, Troy; Hafner-Burton, Tana; Owens, Sheron
After the poorly planned evacuation for Hurricane Rita in 2005, many health care systems in the Houston area updated the disaster plans they would implement in the event of a major disaster. In September 2008, Texas health care systems in the Houston-Galveston area had the opportunity to execute those plans when Hurricane Ike made landfall. Despite hours of hurricane preparation at the Texas Orthopedic Hospital in Houston, TX, before the storm, we found that there were still lessons to be learned from Hurricane Ike that can be used by other health care systems to prepare for disaster.
Hurricane Iris hit the small Central American country of Belize around midnight on October 8, 2001. At the time, Iris was the strongest Atlantic hurricane of the season, with sustained winds up to 225 kilometers per hour (140 mph). The hurricane caused severe damage-destroying homes, flooding streets, and leveling trees-in coastal towns south of Belize City. In addition, a boat of American recreational scuba divers docked along the coast was capsized by the storm, leaving 20 of the 28 passengers missing. Within hours the winds had subsided to only 56 kph (35 mph), a modest tropical depression, but Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras were still expecting heavy rains. The above image is a combination of visible and thermal infrared data (for clouds) acquired by a NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-8) on October 8, 2001, at 2:45 p.m., and the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) (for the color of the ground). The three-dimensional view is from the south-southeast (north is towards the upper left). Belize is off the image to the left. Image courtesy Marit Jentoft-Nilsen, NASA GSFC Visualization Analysis Lab
Silva, A. C. S.; Galvão, C. O.; Silva, G. N. S.
Extreme events are part of climate variability. Dealing with variability is still a challenge that might be increased due to climate change. However, impacts of extreme events are not only dependent on their variability, but also on management and governance. In Brazil, its semi-arid region is vulnerable to extreme events, especially droughts, for centuries. Actually, other Brazilian regions that have been mostly concerned with floods are currently also experiencing droughts. This article evaluates how a combination between climate variability and water governance might affect water scarcity and increase the impacts of extreme events on some regions. For this evaluation, Ostrom's framework for analyzing social-ecological systems (SES) was applied. Ostrom's framework is useful for understanding interactions between resource systems, governance systems and resource users. This study focuses on social-ecological systems located in a drought-prone region of Brazil. Two extreme events were selected, one in 1997-2000, when Brazil's new water policy was very young, and the other one in 2012-2015. The analysis of SES considering Ostrom's principle "Clearly defined boundaries" showed that deficiencies in water management cause the intensification of drought's impacts for the water users. The reasons are more related to water management and governance problems than to drought event magnitude or climate change. This is a problem that holdup advances in dealing with extreme events.
Crabbe, M James C; Martinez, Edwin; Garcia, Christina; Chub, Juan; Castro, Leonardo; Guy, Jason
This study set out to test the hypothesis that hurricanes and tropical storms limit the recruitment and subsequent survival of massive non-branching corals on the barrier reef off the coast of Belize in the Gulf of Honduras. Overall, the surface areas of 523 individual coral specimens were measured, and recruitment dates were then modelled. There was no significant difference in coral cover or coral biodiversity between any of the sites studied (p > 0.1). There were significant differences in non-branching coral recruitment in years when hurricanes impacted the area (p < 0.05) compared with years when no hurricanes impacted the area. There were significantly more non-branching massive corals recruited in non-hurricane years (mean 7.7) than in hurricane years (mean 3.8; p = 0.011). When years with tropical storms are added to the years with hurricanes, there was significantly lower coral recruitment (mean 4.7) relative to non-storm or hurricane years (mean 7.4; p = 0.019). These results show that hurricanes and severe storms limited the recruitment and survival of massive non-branching corals of the Mesoamerican barrier reef and on patch reefs near the Belize coast in the Caribbean, and suggests that marine park managers may need to assist coral recruitment in years where there are hurricanes or severe storms.
Doyle, Thomas W.
Mangrove ecosystems are at their most northern limit along the coastline of Florida and in isolated areas of the gulf coast in Louisiana and Texas. Mangroves are marine-based forests that have adapted to colonize and persist in salty intertidal waters. Three species of mangrove trees are common to the United States, black mangrove (Avicennia germinans), white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa), and red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle). Mangroves are highly productive ecosystems and provide valuable habitat for fisheries and shorebirds. They are susceptible to lightning and hurricane disturbance, both of which occur frequently in south Florida. Climate change studies predict that, while these storms may not become more frequent, they may become more intense with warming sea temperatures. Sea-level rise alone has the potential for increasing the severity of storm surge, particularly in areas where coastal habitats and barrier shorelines are rapidly deteriorating. Given this possibility, U.S. Geological Survey researchers modeled the impact of hurricanes on south Florida mangrove communities.
The Regional Atmospheric Model System (RAMS) has been used to simulate Hurricane Bertha as it moved toward and onto shore during the period July 10--12, 1996. Using large-scale atmospheric data from 00 UTC, 11 July (Wednesday evening) to initialize the model, a 36-hour simulation was created for a domain centered over the Atlantic Ocean east of the Florida coast near Jacksonville. The simulated onshore impact time of the hurricane was much earlier than observed (due to the use of results from the large-scale model, which predicted early arrival). However, the movement of the hurricane center (eye) as it approached the North Carolina/South Carolina coast as simulated in RAMS was quite good. Observations revealed a northerly storm track off the South Carolina coast as it moved toward land. As it approached landfall, Hurricane Bertha turned to the north-northeast, roughly paralleling the North Carolina coast before moving inland near Wilmington. Large-scale model forecasts were unable to detect this change in advance and predicted landfall near Myrtle Beach, South Carolina; RAMS, however, correctly predicted the parallel coastal movement. For future hurricane activity in the southeast, RAMS is being configured to run in an operational model using input from the large-scale pressure data in hopes of providing more information on predicted hurricane movement and landfall location.
Liu, J.; Liu, Z.
Precipitation, though necessary, can affect humanity in disastrous ways. Droughts, floods and other related disasters can costly damage economy. In 2012, Hurricane Sandy, caused a total economic loss of about 65 billion and in the state of Maryland, approximately 13.55 million. The purpose of this study is to determine what, if any effect do hurricanes have on monthly and annual precipitation in Maryland. Furthermore, using this information, discussion can be made on hurricane activity in Maryland and the possible connection to global climate change. To achieve this goal, three objectives were developed to: 1) Gain a better understanding of Maryland's terrain and how that affects precipitation; 2) Calculate monthly and annual precipitation in the state; and 3) Calculate how much precipitation was contributed by each hurricane. The NASA TRMM Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) precipitation products were used. Our results show that hurricanes do significantly affect both monthly and annual precipitation in Maryland, so much so that if removed, most monthly and annual precipitations would be below their averages. The methodology could be applied to other states or regions as well. Giving the global warming scenario, it is important to understand changes of hurricane size, track and intensity since both can have significant impacts on Maryland, which warrants further studies.
Background Between 2006 and 2008, Thailand's Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) granted government use licenses for seven patented drugs in order to improve access to these essential treatments. The decision to grant the government use licenses was contentious both within and beyond the country. In particular, concerns were highlighted that the negative consequences might outweigh the expected benefits of the policy. This study conducted assessments of the health and economic implications of these government use licenses. Methods The health and health-related economic impacts were quantified in terms of i) Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) gained and ii) increased productivity in US dollars (USD) as a result of the increased access to drugs. The study adopted a five-year timeframe for the assessment, commencing from the time of the grant of the government use licenses. Empirical evidence gathered from national databases was used to assess the changes in volume of exports after US Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) withdrawal and level of foreign direct investment (FDI). Results As a result of the granting of the government use licenses, an additional 84,158 patients were estimated to have received access to the seven drugs over five years. Health gains from the use of the seven drugs compared to their best alternative accounted for 12,493 QALYs gained, which translates into quantifiable incremental benefits to society of USD132.4 million. The government use license on efavirenze was found to have the greatest benefit. In respect of the country's economy, the study found that Thailand's overall exports increased overtime, although exports of the three US GSP withdrawal products to the US did decline. There was also found to be no relationship between the government use licenses and the level of foreign investment over the period 2002 to 2008. Conclusions The public health benefits of the government use licenses were generally positive. Specifically, the policy
Ogashawara, I.; Ferreira, C.; Curtarelli, M. P.
Flooding is one of the main hazards caused by extreme events such as hurricanes and tropical storms. Therefore, flood maps are a crucial tool to support policy makers, environmental managers and other government agencies for emergency management, disaster recovery and risk reduction planning. However traditional flood mapping methods rely heavily on the interpolation of hydrodynamic models results, and most recently, the extensive collection of field data. These methods are time-consuming, labor intensive, and costly. Efficient and fast response alternative methods should be developed in order to improve flood mapping, and remote sensing has been proved as a valuable tool for this application. Our goal in this paper is to introduce a novel technique based on spectral analysis in order to aggregate knowledge and information to map coastal flood areas. For this purpose we used the Normalized Diference Water Index (NDWI) which was derived from two the medium resolution LANDSAT/TM 5 surface reflectance product from the LANDSAT climate data record (CDR). This product is generated from specialized software called Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS). We used the surface reflectance products acquired before and after the passage of Hurricane Ike for East Texas in September of 2008. We used as end member a classification of estimated flooded area based on the United States Geological Survey (USGS) mobile storm surge network that was deployed for Hurricane Ike. We used a dataset which consisted of 59 water levels recording stations. The estimated flooded area was delineated interpolating the maximum surge in each location using a spline with barriers method with high tension and a 30 meter Digital Elevation Model (DEM) from the National Elevation Dataset (NED). Our results showed that, in the flooded area, the NDWI values decreased after the hurricane landfall on average from 0.38 to 0.18 and the median value decreased from 0.36 to 0.2. However
Grech, A; Bos, M; Brodie, J; Coles, R; Dale, A; Gilbert, R; Hamann, M; Marsh, H; Neil, K; Pressey, R L; Rasheed, M A; Sheaves, M; Smith, A
The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) region of Queensland, Australia, encompasses a complex and diverse array of tropical marine ecosystems of global significance. The region is also a World Heritage Area and largely within one of the world's best managed marine protected areas. However, a recent World Heritage Committee report drew attention to serious governance problems associated with the management of ports and shipping. We review the impacts of ports and shipping on biodiversity in the GBR, and propose a series of guiding principles to improve the current governance arrangements. Implementing these principles will increase the capacity of decision makers to minimize the impacts of ports and shipping on biodiversity, and will provide certainty and clarity to port operators and developers. A 'business as usual' approach could lead to the GBR's inclusion on the List of World Heritage in Danger in 2014.
Singh, Ramesh P.
The federal government shutdown, apart from the impact on the U.S. economy and cancellation of some important nationally funded research, greatly affected scientists studying Earth and space science across the nation. Much coverage has highlighted how the fallout from this will influence large research projects, but the fallout goes beyond this. In particular, Earth science education involving natural hazards in the United States and in developing countries was put on hold.
This NASA Dryden Flight Research Center DC-8 takes off from Patrick Air Force Base to pursue its goal of collecting high- altitude information about Atlantic hurricanes and tropical storms. Flying at 35,000 to 40,000 feet, the plane is equipped with instruments to measure the storm's structure, environment and changes in intensity and tracking. The DC-8 is part of the NASA-led Atmospheric Dynamics and Remote Sensing program that includes other government weather researchers and the university community in a study of Atlantic hurricanes and tropical storms. The hurricane study, which lasts through September, is part of NASA's Earth Science enterprise to better understand the total Earth system and the effects of natural and human-induced changes on the global environment.
This NASA Dryden Flight Research Center DC-8, on view at Patrick Air Force Base, stands ready to pursue its goal of collecting high-altitude information about Atlantic hurricanes and tropical storms. Flying at 35,000 to 40,000 feet, the plane is equipped with instruments to measure the storm's structure, environment and changes in intensity and tracking. The DC-8 is part of the NASA-led Atmospheric Dynamics and Remote Sensing program that includes other government weather researchers and the university community in a study of Atlantic hurricanes and tropical storms. The hurricane study, which lasts through September 1998, is part of NASA's Earth Science enterprise to better understand the total Earth system and the effects of natural and human-induced changes on the global environment.
On September 18, 2003, Hurricane Isabel made landfall on the northern Outer Banks of North Carolina. At the U.S. Army Corps of Engineer's Field Research Facility in Duck, 125 km north of where the eyewall cut across Hatteras Island, the Category 2 storm generated record conditions for the 27 years of monitoring. The storm produced an 8.1 m high wave measured at a waverider buoy in 20 m of water and a 1.5 m storm surge. As part of a program to document and better understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), surveyed the impact zone of Hurricane Isabel. Methods included pre- and post-storm photography, videography, and lidar. Hurricane Isabel caused extensive erosion and overwash along the Outer Banks near Cape Hatteras, including the destruction of houses, the erosion of protective sand dunes, and the creation of island breaches. The storm eroded beaches and dunes in Frisco and Hatteras Village, southwest of the Cape. Overwash deposits covered roads and filled homes with sand. The most extensive beach changes were associated with the opening of a new breach about 500 m wide that divided into three separate channels that completely severed the island southwest of Cape Hatteras. The main breach, and a smaller one several kilometers to the south (not shown), occurred at minima in both island elevation and island width.
Morgan, Karen L.M.
Category 3 Hurricane Ivan came ashore near Gulf Shores, Alabama, on September 16, 2004. The barrier islands of the northern Gulf of Mexico near the Florida/Alabama border were exposed to the strongest winds. The communities of Gulf Shores, Pine Island and Orange Beach, AL, are, in places, very low lying with their dunes rising up only several meters. These dunes were unable to contain the 3-4 meter storm surge. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) are cooperating in a research project investigating coastal change during Hurricane Ivan. On Friday September 17, 2004, the USGS acquired oblique aerial photography to help understand the impact of Ivan on the coastal environment. Two days later, airborne lidar was collected using NASA Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL). Gulf waters, driven by hurricane force winds spilled across the barrier islands creating currents strong enough to transport massive amounts of sand landward. These waters undermined buildings and roads and opened new island breaches. On top of the surge, breaking waves nearly as tall as the depth of the surge, eroded dunes and battered structures.
Uncertainty is highlighted in the case of the oil spill. Hurricane is considered a known factor that people are used to and know how to handle. This uncertainty is primarily attributed to the magnitude of the spill. As the largest spill in the U.S., the long-term effects of the spill are difficult to assess. Uncertainty, however, has more to do with the novelty of the disaster and the accompanying regulatory change than the specific characteristics of this spill such as the size and longevity of the spill. The unfamiliarity with the Oil Pollution Act results in a lack of knowledge and uncertainty about local and state responses to the spill. The unpreparedness and unfamiliarity of this spill accompanied by different regulations underlie people's sense of uncertainty. This paper examines coastal Louisiana's shift from frequent hurricanes to the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010, particularly focusing on the effects of changed regulations from the Stafford Act to the Oil Pollution Act. It documents how the federal, state, and local governments adjust, and discusses the shifting emphasis to the environment with the activation of the Oil Pollution Act and the Clean Water Act. One assumption is that people's established ways of behavior are commonly shaped by their previous experience of disasters, but this can paradoxically hinder their timely adaptation to new or different, high- impact environmental change. This leads to testing the hypothesis whether greater vulnerabilities result from adaptations to previous and well-known disasters. Results: The structural differences in regulations dictate the way governments and communities respond and adapt to the oil spill. The new set of regulations during the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill unlike the ones during hurricanes served as barriers to adaptation. Governments at federal, state, and local levels had difficulties adjusting to new rules and changed authorities, and they, in turn, generated uncertainty and
Hurricane season in the eastern Pacific started off with a whimper late last month as Alma, a Category 2 hurricane, slowly made its way up the coast of Baja California, packing sustained winds of 110 miles per hour and gusts of 135 miles per hour. The above image of the hurricane was acquired on May 29, 2002, and displays the rainfall rates occurring within the storm. Click the image above to see an animated data visualization (3.8 MB) of the interior of Hurricane Alma. The images of the clouds seen at the beginning of the movie were retrieved from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association's (NOAA's) Geostationary Orbiting Environmental Satellite (GOES) network. As the movie continues, the clouds are peeled away to reveal an image of rainfall levels in the hurricane. The rainfall data were obtained by the Precipitation Radar aboard NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. The Precipitation Radar bounces radio waves off of clouds to retrieve a reading of the number of large, rain-sized droplets within the clouds. Using these data, scientists can tell how much precipitation is occurring within and beneath a hurricane. In the movie, yellow denotes areas where 0.5 inches of rain is falling per hour, green denotes 1 inch per hour, and red denotes over 2 inches per hour. (Please note that high resolution still images of Hurricane Alma are available in the NASA Visible Earth in TIFF format.) Image and animation courtesy Lori Perkins, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio
Inmuong, Uraiwan; Rithmak, Panee; Srisookwatana, Soomol; Traithin, Nathathai; Maisuporn, Pornpun
The Thai Public Health Act 1992 required the Thai local governments to issue respective regulations to take control of any possible health-hazard related activities, both from commercial and noncommercial sources. Since 1999, there has been centrally decentralized of power to a new form of local government establishment, namely Sub-district Administrative Organization (SAO). The SAO is asmall-scale local governing structure while its legitimate function is for community services, including control of health impact related activities. Most elected SAO administrators and officers are new and less experience with any of public health code of practice, particularly on health-hazard control. This action research attempted to introduce and apply a participatory health impact assessment (HIA) tool for the development of SAO health-hazard control regulation. The study sites were at Ban Meang and Kok See SAOs, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand, while all intervention activities conducted during May 2005-April 2006. A set of cooperative activities between researchers and community representatives were planned and organized by; surveying and identifying place and service base locally causing local environmental health problems, organizing community participatory workshops for drafting and proposing the health-hazard control regulation, and appropriate practices for health-hazard controlling measures. This action research eventually could successfully enable the SAO administrators and officers understanding of local environmental-related health problem, as well as development of imposed health-hazard control regulation for local community.
Li, L.; Daneshvaran, S.; Jakubowski, S.
. Flooding due to hurricane storm surge is one of the most damaging natural disasters in tropical and sub-tropical coastal regions. Storm surge peril can cause catastrophic loss to coastal properties and loss of life. Estimated hurricane flood risk is often statistically-based and relies on historical data. It provides catastrophic loss and risk information for the event as a whole, but lacks geographical detail. The purpose of this study is to analyze hurricane-induced storm surge flood damage using a grid-based numerical model. Storm surge flood damage due to Hurricane Katrina 2005 is presented as a case study. In order to analyze the resulting hazard from Hurricane Katrina, the United States National Weather Service's operational storm surge model, SLOSH (Sea, Lake and Overland Surges from Hurricanes) was used to predict the maximum storm surge surface using track data from meteorological observations. Local inundation is computed using the flood water depth with the ground elevation above the mean sea level. Residential exposure is estimated using total number of housing units damaged by flood water in each US census block in a grid of 0.01 by 0.01 degrees for hurricane Katrina in 2005. The modeled results for the storm surge inundation and the estimated number of housing units damaged by hurricane Katrina are compared with the extensive field observations by US Geological Survey and FEMA in the counties along the Gulf Coast in the three impacted states of Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana. The modeled surge results are compared and contrasted with high water mark observations, where available. Storm surge losses in residential construction are highly sensitive to location and are best evaluated at a fine spatial resolution. This paper presents the analysis of the catastrophic flood risk based on the magnitude of hurricane storm surge flood depth on a local scale of US census blocks. The framework presented here is analytically-derived and can be used to
Paxson, Christina; Fussell, Elizabeth; Rhodes, Jean; Waters, Mary
Hurricane Katrina, which struck the Gulf Coast of the United States in August 2005, exposed area residents to trauma and extensive property loss. However, little is known about the long-run effects of the hurricane on the mental health of those who were exposed. This study documents long-run changes in mental health among a particularly vulnerable group-low income mothers-from before to after the hurricane, and identifies factors that are associated with different recovery trajectories. Longitudinal surveys of 532 low-income mothers from New Orleans were conducted approximately one year before, 7-19 months after, and 43-54 months after Hurricane Katrina. The surveys collected information on mental health, social support, earnings and hurricane experiences. We document changes in post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), as measured by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and symptoms of psychological distress (PD), as measured by the K6 scale. We find that although PTSS has declined over time after the hurricane, it remained high 43-54 months later. PD also declined, but did not return to pre-hurricane levels. At both time periods, psychological distress before the hurricane, hurricane-related home damage, and exposure to traumatic events were associated with PTSS that co-occurred with PD. Hurricane-related home damage and traumatic events were associated with PTSS without PD. Home damage was an especially important predictor of chronic PTSS, with and without PD. Most hurricane stressors did not have strong associations with PD alone over the short or long run. Over the long run, higher earnings were protective against PD, and greater social support was protective against PTSS. These results indicate that mental health problems, particularly PTSS alone or in co-occurrence with PD, among Hurricane Katrina survivors remain a concern, especially for those who experienced hurricane-related trauma and had poor mental health or low socioeconomic status before the hurricane.
Black, Robert A.; Hallett, John
A survey of reports of electrical activity in hurricanes and typhoons from flight notes and personal experience (18 years, >230 eyewall penetrations for R. A. Black; 20 years for J. Hallett, plus that of others at the Hurricane Research Division), and perusal of flight notes dating from 1980, show that lightning in and within 100 km or so of the eyewall is usually sparse. However, occasionally, significant electrical activity (>one flash per minute) occurs in or near the eyewall. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration WP-3D aircraft penetrations through a number of storms relate the lightning occurrence to strong vertical velocity (>10 m s1) and the presence of supercooled liquid cloud droplets extending to temperatures below 20°C. Specific measurements of cloud properties during eyewall penetrations show that the supercooled cloud water content increases with upward velocities >5.0 m s1, as does the presence of large (>2 mm) supercooled drops. Measurements at temperatures >13°C show that the transition of supercooled cloud water to ice along an outward radial in all systems is associated with local electric fields (occasionally >20 kV m1) and negative charge above positive charge. In systems with stronger vertical velocity there is a larger region of supercooled cloud extending to lower temperatures where charge separation may occur, as judged by the presence of regions containing graupel, small ice, and cloud droplets. The ratio of ice to supercooled water increases radially outward from the eyewall and depends upon altitude (temperature). The spatial distribution of charge is further influenced by the relation of vertical velocity to the radial flow, with the upper charge regions tending to be advected outward. In symmetrical, mature hurricanes, supercooled water usually occurs only in regions at temperatures above about 5°C.The upward transport of supercooled cloud water is limited by a balance between water condensed in the eyewall updraft and its
In this animation of satellite observations from August 17-20, 2012, Tropical Storm Gordon strengthens into a hurricane as an eye became visible on Aug. 18 just before Gordon affected the Azores Is...
NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement mission, or GPM, a joint NASA/JAXA mission, will provide rainfall data on storms and hurricanes like Irene that move out of the tropics. The data will be ava...
Ruiz, Carlos Enrique
This study explored the perceptions of Mexican senior government agency officials with regard to the impact of NAFTA on training and development practices in Mexico. This study was conducted using a phenomenological tradition within qualitative research. The major findings of the study indicate that Mexican senior government agency officials…
Asante, Keith K.
This dissertation explored the extent to which Information Technology (IT) strategic alignment are impacted by IT governance structures. The study discusses several strategic alignment and IT governance literature that presents a gap in the literature domain. Subsequent studies researched issues surrounding why organizations are not able to align…
Lazo, Jeffrey K; Bostrom, Ann; Morss, Rebecca E; Demuth, Julie L; Lazrus, Heather
Protective actions for hurricane threats are a function of the environmental and information context; individual and household characteristics, including cultural worldviews, past hurricane experiences, and risk perceptions; and motivations and barriers to actions. Using survey data from the Miami-Dade and Houston-Galveston areas, we regress individuals' stated evacuation intentions on these factors in two information conditions: (1) seeing a forecast that a hurricane will hit one's area, and (2) receiving an evacuation order. In both information conditions having an evacuation plan, wanting to keep one's family safe, and viewing one's home as vulnerable to wind damage predict increased evacuation intentions. Some predictors of evacuation intentions differ between locations; for example, Florida respondents with more egalitarian worldviews are more likely to evacuate under both information conditions, and Florida respondents with more individualist worldviews are less likely to evacuate under an evacuation order, but worldview was not significantly associated with evacuation intention for Texas respondents. Differences by information condition also emerge, including: (1) evacuation intentions decrease with age in the evacuation order condition but increase with age in the saw forecast condition, and (2) evacuation intention in the evacuation order condition increases among those who rely on public sources of information on hurricane threats, whereas in the saw forecast condition evacuation intention increases among those who rely on personal sources. Results reinforce the value of focusing hurricane information efforts on evacuation plans and residential vulnerability and suggest avenues for future research on how hurricane contexts shape decision making.
Wachtel, C. J.; Godek, M. L.
Examining Pacific and Atlantic Hurricane Stage Duration and Length Since 1980Cassidy Wachtel and Melissa L. GodekDepartment of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, State University of New York College at Oneonta, New York 13820 Abstract:Each year hurricanes impact thousands of people and over time changes in hurricane characteristics, such as intensity and frequency, have been identified. This study aims to examine changes in hurricane stage duration and track length of West Atlantic and eastern North Pacific hurricanes between 1980 and 2013. Category 2 through 5 hurricanes are analyzed as they evolved through the full life cycle of a hurricane (tropical depression to tropical storm to category). The NOAA National Ocean Service hurricane reanalysis datasets are used to identify 286 storms which are statistically analyzed by category for 1) temporal changes in stage duration with time and 2) temporal changes in stage track lengths with time. NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory daily mean composites of variables such as vertical wind shear and sea surface temperatures are then examined to explain the temporal tendencies that may be related to climate change. Preliminary results indicate that category 2, 4 and 5 storms experienced an overall decrease in stage duration since 1980. For storms of these magnitudes, generally more rapid intensification to category has occurred over time. Contrarily, increased stage duration is detected for hurricanes that reached category 3 status, showing that these storms have strengthened more slowly with time. In all categories, a few unique cases occurred that exhibited stage durations greater than 1 standard deviation from the mean of the long term trend. These cases require further scrutiny for the environmental conditions that might explain the anomalous departures. Keywords: Hurricanes, West Atlantic Ocean, North Pacific Ocean, Storm Tracks, Tropical Storm, Tropical Depression, Hurricane Stage
There, undoubtedly, will be a flurry of research activity in the "Superstorm" Sandy impact area on a myriad of disaster-related topics, across academic disciplines. The purpose of this study was to review the disaster research related specifically to hurricanes in the educational and social sciences that would best serve as a compendium…
Rendall, Michael S.
Theory and evidence on disaster-induced population displacement have focused on individual and population-subgroup characteristics. Less is known about impacts on households. I estimate excess incidence of household breakup resulting from Hurricane Katrina by comparing a probability sample of pre-Katrina New Orleans resident adult household heads…
Locascio, James V; Mann, David A
Hurricane Charley, a category 4 hurricane, passed through Charlotte Harbor, Florida, directly over an autonomous underwater acoustic datalogger used to record sound production by fishes associated with courtship and spawning. Acoustic recordings made on 9 days prior to the storm, during and 3 days after the storm provided unprecedented documentation of the hurricane's passage and its effect on fishes' calling behaviour. The hurricane did not inhibit nightly chorusing events of spawning fish. Sound levels produced by spawning fish on the night of and 3 days after the hurricane were higher and lasted longer than any of the 9 days recorded prior to the hurricane. PMID:17148207
... Response to Hurricane Sandy: Response, Recovery & Resiliency AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA... projects that increase the resiliency of the affected transit systems to future disasters. Such resiliency... the availability of competitive funding for eligible resiliency projects in areas impacted...
Despite drawing on a common pool of data, observers of the 2012 presidential campaign came to different conclusions about whether, how, and to what extent "October surprise" Hurricane Sandy influenced the election. The present study used a mixed correlational and experimental design to assess the relation between, and effect of, the salience of Hurricane Sandy on attitudes and voting intentions regarding President Barack Obama and Mitt Romney in a large sample of voting-aged adults. Results suggest that immediately following positive news coverage of Obama's handling of the storm's aftermath, Sandy's salience positively influenced attitudes toward Obama, but that by election day, reminders of the hurricane became a drag instead of a boon for the President. In addition to theoretical implications, this study provides an example of how to combine methodological approaches to help answer questions about the impact of unpredictable, large-scale events as they unfold.
Barbeau, Deborah N; Grimsley, L Faye; White, LuAnn E; El-Dahr, Jane M; Lichtveld, Maureen
The extensive flooding in the aftermath of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita created conditions ideal for indoor mold growth, raising concerns about the possible adverse health effects associated with indoor mold exposure. Studies evaluating the levels of indoor and outdoor molds in the months following the hurricanes found high levels of mold growth. Homes with greater flood damage, especially those with >3 feet of indoor flooding, demonstrated higher levels of mold growth compared with homes with little or no flooding. Water intrusion due to roof damage was also associated with mold growth. However, no increase in the occurrence of adverse health outcomes has been observed in published reports to date. This article considers reasons why studies of mold exposure after the hurricane do not show a greater health impact.
hurricanes . OBJECTIVES This grants support efforts in the TC10/ITOP (Tropical Cyclone 2010 / Impacts of Typhoons on the Ocean in the Pacific) program...noise data from ITOP has been accepted in JPO. A paper with Tobias Kukulka and students comparing LES simulations with observations in Hurricane ...press Rabe, T. J.; T. Kukulka; I. Ginis; T. Hara; B. Reichl; E. A. D’Asaro; R. Harcourt; P. Sullivan, 2014,Langmuir Turbulence Under Hurricane
Staehling, Erica M.; Truchelut, Ryan E.
Assessing hurricane landfall risk is of immense public utility, yet extant methods of diagnosing annual tropical cyclone (TC) activity demonstrate no skill in diagnosing U.S. hurricane landfalls. Atlantic TC count itself has limited skill, explaining less than 20% of interannual variance in landfall incidence. Using extended landfall activity and reanalysis data sets, we employed empirical Poisson modeling to produce a landfall diagnostic index (LDI), incorporating spatially and temporally averaged upper level divergence, relative sea surface temperature, meridional wind, and zonal shear vorticity. LDI captures 31% of interannual variability of U.S. hurricane landfalls and offers physical insight into why indices that successfully capture TC activity fail to diagnose landfalls: there is inherent tension between conditions likely to steer hurricanes toward the U.S. and conditions favorable for TC development. Given this tension, attempting to diagnose, predict, or understand TC count is inadequate for quantifying societal impacts due to landfalling hurricanes.
Palaseanu-Lovejoy, Monica; Kranenburg, Christine J.; Barras, John A.; Brock, John C.
The aim of this study is to improve estimates of wetland land loss in two study regions of coastal Louisiana, U.S.A., due to the extreme storms that impacted the region between 2004 and 2009. The estimates are based on change-detection-mapping analysis that incorporates pre and postlandfall (Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, Gustav, and Ike) fractional-water classifications using a combination of high-resolution (<5 m) QuickBird, IKONOS, and GeoEye-1, and medium-resolution (30 m) Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite imagery. This process was applied in two study areas: the Hackberry area located in the southwestern part of chenier plain that was impacted by Hurricanes Rita (September 24, 2005) and Ike (September 13, 2008), and the Delacroix area located in the eastern delta plain that was impacted by Hurricanes Katrina (August 29, 2005) and Gustav (September 1, 2008). In both areas, effects of the hurricanes include enlargement of existing bodies of open water and erosion of fringing marsh areas. Surge-removed marsh was easily identified in stable marshes but was difficult to identify in degraded or flooded marshes. Persistent land loss in the Hackberry area due to Hurricane Rita was approximately 5.8% and increased by an additional 7.9% due to Hurricane Ike, although this additional area may yet recover. About 80% of the Hackberry study area remained unchanged since 2003. In the Delacroix area, persistent land loss due to Hurricane Katrina measured approximately 4.9% of the study area, while Hurricane Gustav caused minimal impact of 0.6% land loss by November 2009. Continued recovery in this area may further erase Hurricane Gustav's impact in the absence of new storm events.
Smith, Thomas J.; Robblee, Michael B.; Wanless, Harold R.; Doyle, Thomas W.
The track of Hurricane Andrew carried it across one of the most extensive mangrove for ests in the New World. Although it is well known that hurricanes affect mangrove forests, surprisingly little quantitative information exists concerning hurricane impact on forest structure, succession, species composition, and dynamics of mangrove-dependent fauna or on rates of eco-system recovery (see Craighead and Gilbert 1962, Roth 1992, Smith 1992, Smith and Duke 1987, Stoddart 1969).After Hurricane Andrew's passage across south Florida, we assessed the environmental damage to the natural resources of the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks. Quantitative data collected during subsequent field trips (October 1992 to July 1993) are also provided. We present measurements of initial tree mortality by species and size class, estimates of delayed (or continuing) tree mortality, and observations of geomorphological changes along the coast and in the forests that could influence the course of forest recovery. We discuss a potential interaction across two differing scales of disturbance within mangrove forest systems: hurricanes and lightning strikes.
Background: Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in Ireland has developed significantly since its endorsement in the health strategies of the Republic of Ireland (2001) and Northern Ireland (2002). Throughout 2007 and 2008, research was conducted to examine HIA as a policy-informing tool throughout both jurisdictions. One aspect of this research investigated the role of local government and its relationship in advancing HIA practise and use in Ireland. Methods: A case study research design was used which employed qualitative research methods, including semistructured interviewing and participant observation. In total 48 interviews were conducted with members of the HIA steering committees and individuals closely involved in the HIAs. Results: The relationship between local government and HIA in Northern Ireland is a positive one given the strong tradition of local government in the jurisdiction. The Review of Public Administration (RPA) negatively influenced the integration of HIA into local authority procedures. In the Republic of Ireland, the influence of social values and political will was found to be negatively present with the HIA on Traveller accommodation. Evidence from the HIA conducted on traffic and transport in Dublin was used to plan further health promotion and community planning activities in the area. Conclusion: Local government plays a vital role in HIA practise and development in both jurisdictions. The willingness to work with external partners (such as the health care services) was an important enabler or barrier to HIA operation. This will remain the case in the foreseeable future. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated influences on the use of HIA knowledge of four cases from Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The engagement of the public authorities assists implementation of the findings of the HIA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tension continues between positivist and incrementalist
Schwab, William C.; Baldwin, Wayne E.; Denny, Jane F.
This report documents the changes in seabed morphology and modern sediment thickness detected on the inner continental shelf offshore of Fire Island, New York, before and after Hurricanes Irene and Sandy made landfall. Comparison of acoustic backscatter imagery, seismic-reflection profiles, and bathymetry collected in 2011 and in 2014 show that sedimentary structures and depositional patterns moved alongshore to the southwest in water depths up to 30 meters during the 3-year period. The measured lateral offset distances range between about 1 and 450 meters with a mean of 20 meters. The mean distances computed indicate that change tended to decrease with increasing water depth. Comparison of isopach maps of modern sediment thickness show that a series of shoreface-attached sand ridges, which are the dominant sedimentary structures offshore of Fire Island, migrated toward the southwest because of erosion of the ridge crests and northeast-facing flanks as well as deposition on the southwest-facing flanks and in troughs between individual ridges. Statistics computed suggest that the modern sediment volume across the about 81 square kilometers of common sea floor mapped in both surveys decreased by 2.8 million cubic meters, which is a mean change of –0.03 meters, which is smaller than the resolution limit of the mapping systems used.
Liu, Zhong; Ostrenga, Dana; Leptoukh, Gregory
In order to facilitate Earth science data access, the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data Information Services Center (GES DISC) has developed a web prototype, the Hurricane Data Analysis Tool (HDAT; URL: http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/HDAT), to allow users to conduct online visualization and analysis of several remote sensing and model datasets for educational activities and studies of tropical cyclones and other weather phenomena. With a web browser and few mouse clicks, users can have a full access to terabytes of data and generate 2-D or time-series plots and animation without downloading any software and data. HDAT includes data from the NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), the NASA Quick Scatterometer(QuikSCAT) and NECP Reanalysis, and the NCEP/CPC half-hourly, 4-km Global (60 N - 60 S) IR Dataset. The GES DISC archives TRMM data. The daily global rainfall product derived from the 3-hourly multi-satellite precipitation product (3B42 V6) is available in HDAT. The TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) sea surface temperature from the Remote Sensing Systems is in HDAT as well. The NASA QuikSCAT ocean surface wind and the NCEP Reanalysis provide ocean surface and atmospheric conditions, respectively. The global merged IR product, also known as, the NCEP/CPC half-hourly, 4-km Global (60 N -60 S) IR Dataset, is one of TRMM ancillary datasets. They are globally-merged pixel-resolution IR brightness temperature data (equivalent blackbody temperatures), merged from all available geostationary satellites (GOES-8/10, METEOSAT-7/5 & GMS). The GES DISC has collected over 10 years of the data beginning from February of 2000. This high temporal resolution (every 30 minutes) dataset not only provides additional background information to TRMM and other satellite missions, but also allows observing a wide range of meteorological phenomena from space, such as, hurricanes, typhoons, tropical cyclones, mesoscale convection system, etc. Basic functions include selection of area of
...-2010-0288] Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear... (NRC or the Commission) is issuing a new regulatory guide, (RG) 1.221, ``Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This regulatory guide provides licensees and applicants...
Lavender, Anthony L.
The idea of Open Government is an extension of the Electronic Government Act of 2002 which addresses the accessibility, usability, and preservation of government information. The concept of Open Government has evolved into the open government directive that mandates Executive Departments and Agencies to become more open and transparent while…
NASA's GRIP 2010 hurricane mission is in full force. During this year's Atlantic hurricane season, researchers using powerful instruments onboard three aircraft will be able to "see"" below the clo...
NASA hurricane scientist Dr. Jeff Halverson explains how hurricanes draw energy from the ocean surface. The video also provides an example of a classroom activity that allows students to map the ch...
An animation of satellite observations from Oct. 13-16, 2012, shows Hurricane Paul affecting Baja California, Mexico, and Hurricane Rafael moving toward Bermuda. This visualization was created by t...
This is an animation of GOES-13 satellite imagery from Aug. 26-28, 2012 of Hurricane Isaac's track through the Gulf of Mexico. Isaac is headed for New Orleans, exactly 7 years after hurricane Katri...
2005-01-01Seventeen days after Hurricane Katrina flooded New Orleans, much of the city is still under water. In this pair of images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer on NASA's Terra satellite, the affected areas can clearly be seen. The top image mosaic was acquired in April and September 2000, and the bottom image was acquired September 13, 2005. The flooded parts of the city appear dark blue, such as the golf course in the northeast corner, where there is standing water. Areas that have dried out appear light blue gray, such as the city park in the left middle. On the left side of the image, the failed 17th street canal marks a sharp boundary between flooded city to the east, and dry land to the west. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Size: 10.4 by 7.1 kilometers Location: 30 degrees North latitude, 90.1 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 1, 2, and 3 Original Data Resolution: 15 meters (49.2 feet) Dates Acquired: September 13, 2005
Moore, John; Grinsted, Aslak; Ji, Duoying; Yu, Xiaoyong; Guo, Xiaoran
Devastating Atlantic hurricanes are relatively rare events. However their intensity and frequency in a warming world may rapidly increase - perhaps by a factor of 5 for a 2°C mean global warming. Geoengineering by sulphate aerosol injection preferentially cools the tropics relative to the polar regions, including the hurricane main development region in the Atlantic, suggesting that geoengineering may be an effective method of controlling hurricanes. We examine this hypothesis using 6 Earth System Model simulations of climate under the GeoMIP G3 and G4 schemes that use aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the RCP4.5 scenario. We find that although temperatures are ameliorated by geoengineering, the numbers of storm surge events as big as that caused the 2005 Katrina hurricane are only slightly reduced compared with no geoengineering. As higher levels of sulphate aerosol injection produce diminishing returns in terms of cooling, but cause undesirable effects in various regions, it seems that stratospheric aerosol geoengineering is not an effective method of controlling hurricane damage.
Smith, Mark E.; Phillips, Jeffrey V.; Spahr, Norman E.
Hurricane Mitch began as a tropical depression in the Caribbean Sea on 22 October 1998. By 26 October, Mitch had strengthened to a Category 5 storm as defined by the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale (National Climate Data Center, 1999a), and on 27 October was threatening the northern coast of Honduras (fig. 1). After making landfall 2 days later (29 October), the storm drifted south and west across Honduras, wreaking destruction throughout the country before reaching the Guatemalan border on 31 October. According to the National Climate Data Center of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (National Climate Data Center, 1999b), Hurricane Mitch ranks among the five strongest storms on record in the Atlantic Basin in terms of its sustained winds, barometric pressure, and duration. Hurricane Mitch also was one of the worst Atlantic storms in terms of loss of life and property. The regionwide death toll was estimated to be more than 9,000; thousands of people were reported missing. Economic losses in the region were more than $7.5 billion (U.S. Agency for International Development, 1999). Honduras suffered the most widespread devastation during the storm. More than 5,000 deaths, and economic losses of more than $4 billion, were reported by the Government of Honduras. Honduran officials estimated that Hurricane Mitch destroyed 50 years of economic development. In addition to the human and economic losses, intense flooding and landslides scarred the Honduran landscape - hydrologic and geomorphologic processes throughout the country likely will be affected for many years. As part of the U.S. Government's response to the disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted post-flood measurements of peak discharge at 16 river sites throughout Honduras (fig. 2). Such measurements, termed 'indirect' measurements, are used to determine peak flows when direct measurements (using current meters or dye studies, for example) cannot be made. Indirect measurements of
... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 2005 hurricanes. 701.150 Section 701.150 Agriculture... 2005 hurricanes. In addition benefits elsewhere allowed by this part, claims related to calendar year 2005 hurricane losses may be allowed to the extent provided for in §§ 701.150 through 701.157....
... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 2005 hurricanes. 701.150 Section 701.150 Agriculture... 2005 hurricanes. In addition benefits elsewhere allowed by this part, claims related to calendar year 2005 hurricane losses may be allowed to the extent provided for in §§ 701.150 through 701.157....
... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 2005 hurricanes. 701.150 Section 701.150 Agriculture... 2005 hurricanes. In addition benefits elsewhere allowed by this part, claims related to calendar year 2005 hurricane losses may be allowed to the extent provided for in §§ 701.150 through 701.157....
... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 2005 hurricanes. 701.50 Section 701.50 Agriculture... ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.50 2005 hurricanes. In addition benefits elsewhere allowed by this part, claims related to calendar year 2005 hurricane losses may be allowed to the extent provided for in §§...
... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 2005 hurricanes. 701.150 Section 701.150 Agriculture... 2005 hurricanes. In addition benefits elsewhere allowed by this part, claims related to calendar year 2005 hurricane losses may be allowed to the extent provided for in §§ 701.150 through 701.157....
The Pacific Risk Management 'Ohana (PRiMO) is a network of partners and stakeholders involved in the development, delivery, and communication of risk management-related information, products, and services across the Pacific Ocean (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Pacific Services Center, 2008). One PRiMO-related project is the NOAA National Climatic Data Center's Integrated Data and Environmental Applications (IDEA) Center's Pacific Region Integrated Climatology Information Products (PRICIP) initiative, which seeks to improve the understanding of patterns and trends of storm frequency and intensity ('storminess') within the Pacific region and to develop a suite of integrated information products that can be used by emergency managers, mitigation planners, government agencies, and other decision-makers (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Integrated Data and Environmental Applications Center, 2008a). One of the PRICIP information products is a historical storm 'event anatomy', which includes a summary of sector-specific socioeconomic impacts associated with a particular event, as well as information about the event and its climatological context. The intent of an event anatomy is to convey the causes of an extreme storm event and the associated impacts in a format that users can understand. The event anatomies also are intended to familiarize users with the in-place and remotely sensed products typically employed to track and forecast weather and climate. The first event anatomy developed as a prototype and hosted on the PRICIP portal is for Hurricane 'Iniki (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Integrated Data and Environmental Applications Center, 2008b), a Category 3-4 hurricane that made landfall on the south coast of Kaua'i Island on September 11, 1992, with estimated maximum sustained winds of more than 140 mph and gusts as high as 175 mph. Storm-surge inundation occurred on the southern and northeastern coast of Kaua
Rowe, Cynthia L.; La Greca, Annette M.; Alexandersson, Anders
Objective: This study examined the influence of hurricane impact as well as family and individual risk factors on posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms and substance involvement among clinically referred adolescents affected by Hurricane Katrina. Method: A total of 80 adolescents (87% male; 13-17 years old; mean age = 15.6 years; 38% minorities) and…
Clettenberg, Stacey; Gentry, Judy; Held, Matthew; Mock, Lou Ann
This article tracks the trajectory and impact of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on the communities of Houston/Harris County, Texas, USA, the schools, children, and families; along with the community partnerships that addressed the trauma and upheaval. Following the influx of individuals and families who were displaced by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita…
Androulidakis, Yannis; Kourafalou, Vassiliki; Halliwell, George; Le Hénaff, Matthieu; Kang, Heesook; Mehari, Michael; Atlas, Robert
The evolution of three successive hurricanes (Katia, Maria, and Ophelia) is investigated over the river plume area formed by the Amazon and Orinoco river outflows during September of 2011. The study focuses on hurricane impacts on the ocean structure and the ocean feedback influencing hurricane intensification. High-resolution (1/25° × 1/25° horizontal grid) numerical simulations of the circulation in the extended Atlantic Hurricane Region (Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and Northwest Atlantic Ocean) were used to investigate the upper ocean response during the three hurricane-plume interaction cases. The three hurricanes revealed different evolution and intensification characteristics over an area covered by brackish surface waters. The upper ocean response to the hurricane passages over the plume affected region showed high variability due to the interaction of oceanic and atmospheric processes. The existence of a barrier layer (BL), formed by the offshore spreading of brackish waters, probably facilitated intensification of the first storm (Hurricane Katia) because the river-induced BL enhanced the resistance of the upper ocean to cooling. This effect was missing in the subsequent two hurricanes (Maria and Ophelia) as the eroded BL (due to Katia passage) allowed the upper ocean cooling to be increased. As a consequence, the amount of ocean thermal energy provided to these storms was greatly reduced, which acted to limit intensification. Numerical experiments and analyses, in tandem with observational support, lead to the conclusion that the presence of a river plume-induced BL is a strong factor in the ocean conditions influencing hurricane intensification.
Chen, Shuyi S.; Curcic, Milan
Forecasting hurricane impacts of extreme winds and flooding requires accurate prediction of hurricane structure and storm-induced ocean surface waves days in advance. The waves are complex, especially near landfall when the hurricane winds and water depth varies significantly and the surface waves refract, shoal and dissipate. In this study, we examine the spatial structure, magnitude, and directional spectrum of hurricane-induced ocean waves using a high resolution, fully coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean model and observations. The coupled model predictions of ocean surface waves in Hurricane Ike (2008) over the Gulf of Mexico and Superstorm Sandy (2012) in the northeastern Atlantic and coastal region are evaluated with the NDBC buoy and satellite altimeter observations. Although there are characteristics that are general to ocean waves in both hurricanes as documented in previous studies, wave fields in Ike and Sandy possess unique properties due mostly to the distinct wind fields and coastal bathymetry in the two storms. Several processes are found to significantly modulate hurricane surface waves near landfall. First, the phase speed and group velocities decrease as the waves become shorter and steeper in shallow water, effectively increasing surface roughness and wind stress. Second, the bottom-induced refraction acts to turn the waves toward the coast, increasing the misalignment between the wind and waves. Third, as the hurricane translates over land, the left side of the storm center is characterized by offshore winds over very short fetch, which opposes incoming swell. Landfalling hurricanes produce broader wave spectra overall than that of the open ocean. The front-left quadrant is most complex, where the combination of windsea, swell propagating against the wind, increasing wind-wave stress, and interaction with the coastal topography requires a fully coupled model to meet these challenges in hurricane wave and surge prediction.
Boscarino, Joseph A; Hoffman, Stuart N; Kirchner, H Lester; Erlich, Porat M; Adams, Richard E; Figley, Charles R; Solhkhah, Ramon
On October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy made landfall in the most densely populated region in the US. In New Jersey, thousands of families were made homeless and entire communities were destroyed in the worst disaster in the history of the state. The economic impact of Sandy was huge, comparable to Hurricane Katrina. The areas that sustained the most damage were the small- to medium-sized beach communities along New Jersey's Atlantic coastline. Six months following the hurricane, we conducted a random telephone survey of 200 adults residing in 18 beach communities located in Monmouth County. We found that 14.5% (95% CI = 9.9-20.2) of these residents screened positive for PTSD and 6.0% (95% CI = 3.1-10.2) met criteria for major depression. Altogether 13.5% (95% CI = 9.1-19.0) received mental health counseling and 20.5% (95% CI = 15.1-26.8) sought some type of mental health support in person or online, rates similar to those reported in New York after the World Trade Center disaster In multivariate analyses, the best predictors of mental health status and service use were having high hurricane exposure levels, having physical health limitations, and having environmental health concerns. Research is needed to assess the mental health status and service use of Jersey Shore residents over time, to evaluate environmental health concerns, and to better understand the storm's impact among those with physical health limitations.
Negri, A.J.; Burkardt, N.; Golden, J.H.; Halverson, J.B.; Huffman, G.J.; Larsen, M.C.; McGinley, J.A.; Updike, R.G.; Verdin, J.P.; Wieczorek, G.F.
In August 2004, representatives from NOAA, NASA, the US Geological Survey (USGS), as well as other government agencies and academic institutions convened in San Juan, Puerto Rico, at a workshop to discuss a proposed research project called the Hurricane-Flood-Landslide Continuum (HFLC). The purpose of the HFLC is to develop and integrate the multidisciplinary tools needed to issue regional guidance products for floods and landslide associated with major tropical rain systems with sufficient lead time that local emergency managers can notify vulnerable populations and protect infrastructure. The workshop sought to initiate discussion among these agencies about their highly complementary capabilities, and to establish a framework to leverage the strengths of each agency. Once a prototype system is developed, it could be adapted for use in regions that have a high frequency of tropical disturbances.
Udoh, I. E.; Taylor, A.; Irish, J. L.; Kaihatu, J. M.
Studies on the impact of potential flooding in complex coastal regions, such as coastal bays, require efficient models for the estimation of surge and waves under various hurricane meteorological scenarios. Recently, surrogate models for high resolution numerical models have been successfully applied in extreme value flood studies (e.g. Resio et al. 2009; Niedoroda et al. 2008). Adequate identification of the primary parameters that drive the surge and wave trends, and physical understanding of the expected trends are important in developing non-dimensional equations which replicate the processes of surge and wave generation. Identified parameters can thus be used in developing scaling laws for the estimation of hurricane surge and wave response. In this study, we discuss surge and wave trends in Corpus Christi Bay, Texas as a function of meteorological and spatial parameters, and we isolate their influences on surge response. Changes in surge with hurricane forward speed in the bay is found to be primarily dependent on time available for surge development and re-distribution within the bay. The hurricane angle of approach affects surge generation based on the orientation of onshore-directed winds and the proximity of the storm track to the entrance of the bay and locations of interest. A positive linear trend is observed between sea level rise and storm surge in the bay - this is due to overtopping of the barrier island, and the fact that the irregular bay boundaries support surge accumulation. As a basis for investigating wave responses, hurricane parameters of central pressure and size were identified as main factors in characterizing the wave field. Results showed that with variation in the hurricane's central pressure and size, changes in wave heights are more pronounced in the nearshore and onshore environment at the open coast, than they are within the bay. Likewise, a similar spatial trend is observed in the variation of these hurricane parameters to
Kessler, Ronald C.; Galea, Sandro; Jones, Russell T.; Parker, Holly A.
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the impact of Hurricane Katrina on mental illness and suicidality by comparing results of a post-Katrina survey with those of an earlier survey. METHODS: The National Comorbidity Survey-Replication, conducted between February 2001 and February 2003, interviewed 826 adults in the Census Divisions later affected by Hurricane Katrina. The post-Katrina survey interviewed a new sample of 1043 adults who lived in the same area before the hurricane. Identical questions were asked about mental illness and suicidality. The post-Katrina survey also assessed several dimensions of personal growth that resulted from the trauma (for example, increased closeness to a loved one, increased religiosity). Outcome measures used were the K6 screening scale of serious mental illness and mild-moderate mental illness and questions about suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. FINDINGS: Respondents to the post-Katrina survey had a significantly higher estimated prevalence of serious mental illness than respondents to the earlier survey (11.3% after Katrina versus 6.1% before; chi(2)1= 10.9; P < 0.001) and mild-moderate mental illness (19.9% after Katrina versus 9.7% before; chi(2)1 = 22.5; P < 0.001). Among respondents estimated to have mental illness, though, the prevalence of suicidal ideation and plans was significantly lower in the post-Katrina survey (suicidal ideation 0.7% after Katrina versus 8.4% before; chi(2)1 = 13.1; P < 0.001; plans for suicide 0.4% after Katrina versus 3.6% before; chi(2)1 = 6.0; P = 0.014). This lower conditional prevalence of suicidality was strongly related to two dimensions of personal growth after the trauma (faith in one's own ability to rebuild one's life, and realization of inner strength), without which between-survey differences in suicidality were insignificant. CONCLUSION: Despite the estimated prevalence of mental illness doubling after Hurricane Katrina, the prevalence of suicidality was unexpectedly low. The role of post
The investment process in U.S. industries was studied in order to characterize the critical elements in major high risk investment decisions. Because motivation was determined to be the greatest single factor force in inducing a company to invest in a high risk venture, the relative impact of alternative government programs and policies on personal and financial motivations were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively to ascertain the effect on these programs and policies on photovoltaic industrialization. The government alternatives are ranked on the basis of their ease of implementation and their probable effect. The recommended sequence in which government policies would be applied to maximize the industrialization of the photovoltaic venture is discussed.
Chima, Charles Chikodili; Homedes, Nuria
existing health workers. There is poor policy direction, strategic planning and coordination, and regulation of externally–financed HIV programs by the government and this poses a great limitation to the optimal use of HIV–specific foreign aid in Nigeria. Conclusions A few reforms are necessary to improve the strengthening effect of GHIs and to minimize their negative and unintended consequences. This will require stronger leadership from the Nigerian government with regards to better coordination of externally–financed health programs. Also, donors need to play a greater role in addressing the negative consequences of foreign aid. The findings highlight important unintended consequences and system–wide impacts that get little attention in traditional program evaluation. PMID:25969731
Antipova, Anzhelika; Curtis, Andrew
Disasters and displacement increasingly affect and challenge urban settings. How do pregnant women fare in the aftermath of a major disaster? This paper investigates the effect of pregnancies in disaster situations. The study tests a hypothesis that pregnant women residing in hurricane-prone areas suffer higher health risks. The setting is Louisiana in the Gulf Coast, United States, a state that continually experiences hurricane impacts. The time period for the analysis is three years following the landfall of Hurricane Andrew in 1992. We analysed low birth weight and preterm deliveries before and after landfall, as a whole and by race. Findings support an association between hazards and health of a community and indicate that pregnant women in the affected area, irrespective of race, are more likely to experience preterm deliveries compared to pre-event births. Results suggest there is a negative health legacy impact in Louisiana as a result of hurricane landfall.
Paerl, Hans W; Steppe, Timothy F; Buchan, Kenneth C; Potts, Malcolm
The Atlantic hurricanes of 1999 caused widespread environmental damage throughout the Caribbean and US mid-Atlantic coastal regions. However, these storms also proved beneficial to certain microbial habitats; specifically, cyanobacteria-dominated mats. Modern mats represent the oldest known biological communities on earth, stromatolites. Contemporary mats are dominant biological communities in the hypersaline Bahamian lakes along the Atlantic hurricane track. We examined the impacts of varying levels of hypersalinity on 2 processes controlling mat growth, photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation, in Salt Pond, San Salvador Island, Bahamas. Hypersalinity (> 5 times seawater salinity) proved highly inhibitory to these processes. Freshwater input from Hurricane Floyd and other large storms alleviated this salt-inhibition. A predicted 10 to 40 year increase in Atlantic hurricane activity accompanied by more frequent "freshening" events will enhance mat productivity, CO2 sequestration and nutrient cycling. Cyanobacterial mats are sensitive short- and long-term indicators of climatic and ecological changes impacting these and other waterstressed environments.
Marshall, R.; Callander, R.C.
This paper examines the long-term psychological effects of the nation`s worst natural disaster on the employees of the Turkey Point nuclear power plant. It also examines the efforts made by plant personnel and company volunteers to aid employees` families affected by the storm. Despite significant damage at the plant, unit 4 was returned to service 5 weeks after the August 24, 1992, hurricane. Unit 3 was returned to service on December 3, 1992. Unit 3 was originally scheduled to start a refueling outage the day Hurricane Andrew struck. While plant personnel are still recovering from Andrew`s impact, the plant`s performance has never been better. On May 26, 1993, the plant completed a record-breaking 46-day refueling outage - 7 days ahead of schedule and $3 million under budget. Turkey Point`s recovery, return to service, and superior performance would not have been possible without the efforts of hundreds of employees who put their personal tragedies aside and focused on the common goal of the plant`s operation. To help employees with rebuilding their lives, the plant launched extensive assistance programs. Although the plant returned to normal operation, plant personnel continue to struggle in a community whose infrastructure (homes, schools, stores, etc.) have been almost eliminated.
Sallenger,, Asbury H.; Krabill, William; Swift, Robert; Brock, John
USGS and NASA are investigating the impacts of hurricanes on the United States East and Gulf of Mexico coasts with the ultimate objective of improving predictive capabilities. The cornerstone of our effort is to use topographic lidar to acquire pre- and post-storm topography to quantify changes to beaches and dunes. With its rapidity of acquisition and very high density, lidar is revolutionizing the. quantification of storm-induced coastal change. Lidar surveys have been acquired for the East and Gulf coasts to serve as pre-storm baselines. Within a few days of a hurricane landfall anywhere within the study area, the impacted area will be resurveyed to detect changes. For example, during 1999, Hurricane Dennis impacted the northern North Carolina coast. Along a 70-km length of coast between Cape Hatteras and Oregon Inlet, there was large variability in the types of impacts including overwash, dune erosion, dune stability, and even accretion at the base of dunes. These types of impacts were arranged in coherent patterns that repeated along the coast over scales of tens of kilometers. Preliminary results suggest the variability is related to the influence of offshore shoals that induce longshore gradients in wave energy by wave refraction.
GOES-13 satellite imagery in 15 minute intervals from August 25, 2011, at 9:40 a.m. EDT to August 27 at 9:40 a.m. EDT. The animations show Hurricane Irene moving through the Bahamas and making land...
Video sequence taken by the crew of the ISS on Aug. 23, 2011 at approximately 2:15PM EST. At that time, Hurricane Irene was a Category 3 storm with peak winds estimated at 115mph, moving west-north...
An animation of NOAA GOES-13 satellite observations from October 23 at 2:45 p.m. EDT through Oct. 25 at 1:30 p.m. EDT shows a strengthening Hurricane Rina in the western Caribbean Sea and headed fo...
Gorokhovich, Y.; Machado, E.; Giron, I.; Ghahremani, M.
Specific relationship between slope aspect and wind circulation during hurricane events exists for Guatemala. Analysis of hurricanes Mitch (1998) and Stan (2005) showed that eastern, southeastern and southern slopes are more subjected to landslides processes than other slope orientations. This conclusion is based on landslide data obtained immediately after hurricane occurences and satellite data on wind circulation during hurricane events. Because Guatemala is located between Atlantic and Pacific "swarms" of hurricane tracks, typical argument based on the strong right side impact of hurricanes cannot be applied here. We analyzed series of satellite based wind circulation data related to Mitch and Stan and established strong association between eastern, southeastern and southern wind directions and landslide affected areas. This is reflection of the local wind circulation during hurricane events at elevations 800 hPa. This is in agreement with previous meteorologic studies in the region by Portig (1965). It is possible that similar relationship is true for the rest of Central American region. If this is a case then future studies can develop a regional model that can be used as a tool in landslide assessment and hazard mapping on a regional level. However, data quality is a key factor in this type of analysis.
Farris, G. S.; Smith, G.J.; Crane, M.P.; Demas, C.R.; Robbins, L.L.; Lavoie, D.L.
This report is designed to give a view of the immediate response of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to four major hurricanes of 2005: Dennis, Katrina, Rita, and Wilma. Some of this response took place days after the hurricanes; other responses included fieldwork and analysis through the spring. While hurricane science continues within the USGS, this overview of work following these hurricanes reveals how a Department of the Interior bureau quickly brought together a diverse array of its scientists and technologies to assess and analyze many hurricane effects. Topics vary from flooding and water quality to landscape and ecosystem impacts, from geotechnical reconnaissance to analyzing the collapse of bridges and estimating the volume of debris. Thus, the purpose of this report is to inform the American people of the USGS science that is available and ongoing in regard to hurricanes. It is the hope that such science will help inform the decisions of those citizens and officials tasked with coastal restoration and planning for future hurricanes. Chapter 1 is an essay establishing the need for science in building a resilient coast. The second chapter includes some hurricane facts that provide hurricane terminology, history, and maps of the four hurricanes’ paths. Chapters that follow give the scientific response of USGS to the storms. Both English and metric measurements are used in the articles in anticipation of both general and scientific audiences in the United States and elsewhere. Chapter 8 is a compilation of relevant ongoing and future hurricane work. The epilogue marks the 2-year anniversary of Hurricane Katrina. An index of authors follows the report to aid in finding articles that are cross-referenced within the report. In addition to performing the science needed to understand the effects of hurricanes, USGS employees helped in the rescue of citizens by boat and through technology by “geoaddressing” 911 calls after Katrina and Rita so that other
Sopkin, Kristin L.; Stockdon, Hilary F.; Doran, Kara S.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Morgan, Karen L.M.; Guy, Kristy K.; Smith, Kathryn E.L.
Hurricane Sandy, the largest Atlantic hurricane on record, made landfall on October 29, 2012, and impacted a long swath of the U.S. Atlantic coastline. The barrier islands were breached in a number of places and beach and dune erosion occurred along most of the Mid-Atlantic coast. As a part of the National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project, the U.S. Geological Survey collected post-Hurricane Sandy oblique aerial photography and lidar topographic surveys to document the changes that occurred as a result of the storm. Comparisons of post-storm photographs to those collected prior to Sandy’s landfall were used to characterize the nature, magnitude, and spatial variability of hurricane-induced coastal changes. Analysis of pre- and post-storm lidar elevations was used to quantify magnitudes of change in shoreline position, dune elevation, and beach width. Erosion was observed along the coast from North Carolina to New York; however, as would be expected over such a large region, extensive spatial variability in storm response was observed.
Guikema, Seth D; Quiring, Steven M; Han, Seung-Ryong
Hurricanes frequently cause damage to electric power systems in the United States, leading to widespread and prolonged loss of electric service. Restoring service quickly requires the use of repair crews and materials that must be requested, at considerable cost, prior to the storm. U.S. utilities have struggled to strike a good balance between over- and underpreparation largely because of a lack of methods for rigorously estimating the impacts of an approaching hurricane on their systems. Previous work developed methods for estimating the risk of power outages and customer loss of power, with an outage defined as nontransitory activation of a protective device. In this article, we move beyond these previous approaches to directly estimate damage to the electric power system. Our approach is based on damage data from past storms together with regression and data mining techniques to estimate the number of utility poles that will need to be replaced. Because restoration times and resource needs are more closely tied to the number of poles and transformers that need to be replaced than to the number of outages, this pole-based assessment provides a much stronger basis for prestorm planning by utilities. Our results show that damage to poles during hurricanes can be assessed accurately, provided that adequate past damage data are available. However, the availability of data can, and currently often is, the limiting factor in developing these types of models in practice. Opportunities for further enhancing the damage data recorded during hurricanes are also discussed.
Vilella, F.J.; Fogarty, J.H.
Caribbean hurricanes often impact terrestrial vertebrates in forested environments. On 21 September 1998, Hurricane Georges impacted Puerto Rico with sustained winds in excess of 166 km/hr, causing damage to forests of the island's principal mountain range; the Cordillera Central. We estimated forest frog abundance and diversity from call counts conducted along marked transects before and after Hurricane Georges in two forests reserves of the Cordillera Central (Maricao and Guilarte). We used distance sampling to estimate density of Eleutherodactylus coqui and recorded counts of other species. After the hurricane, the abundance of E. coqui increased in both reserves compared to prehurricane levels while abundance of other frog species decreased. In Maricao, relative abundance of E. richmondi (P = 0.013) and E. brittoni (P = 0.034) were significantly lower after the hurricane. Moreover, species richness and evenness of the Maricao and Guilarte frog assemblages declined after the hurricane. Our results on abundance patterns of the forest frog assemblages of Maricao and Guilarte Forests were similar to those reported from the Luquillo Experimental Forest after Hurricane Hugo in September 1989. Long-term demographic patterns of the forest frog assemblages in the Cordillera Central may be associated with changes due to the ecological succession in post-hurricane forests. Copyright 2005 College of Arts and Sciences.
Jones, S.; Buxton, H. T.; Andersen, M.; Dean, T.; Focazio, M. J.; Haines, J.; Hainly, R. A.
In late October 2012, Hurricane Sandy came ashore during a spring high tide on the New Jersey coastline, delivering hurricane-force winds, storm tides exceeding 19 feet, driving rain, and plummeting temperatures. Hurricane Sandy resulted in 72 direct fatalities in the mid-Atlantic and northeastern United States, and widespread and substantial physical, environmental, ecological, social, and economic impacts estimated at near $50 billion. Before the landfall of Hurricane Sandy, the USGS provided forecasts of potential coastal change; collected oblique aerial photography of pre-storm coastal morphology; deployed storm-surge sensors, rapid-deployment streamgages, wave sensors, and barometric pressure sensors; conducted Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) aerial topographic surveys of coastal areas; and issued a landslide alert for landslide prone areas. During the storm, Tidal Telemetry Networks provided real-time water-level information along the coast. Long-term networks and rapid-deployment real-time streamgages and water-quality monitors tracked river levels and changes in water quality. Immediately after the storm, the USGS serviced real-time instrumentation, retrieved data from over 140 storm-surge sensors, and collected other essential environmental data, including more than 830 high-water marks mapping the extent and elevation of the storm surge. Post-storm lidar surveys documented storm impacts to coastal barriers informing response and recovery and providing a new baseline to assess vulnerability of the reconfigured coast. The USGS Hazard Data Distribution System served storm-related information from many agencies on the Internet on a daily basis. Immediately following Hurricane Sandy the USGS developed a science plan, 'Meeting the Science Needs of the Nation in the Wake of Hurricane Sandy-A U.S. Geological Survey Science Plan for Support of Restoration and Recovery'. The plan will ensure continuing coordination of internal USGS activities as well as
... COMMISSION Implementation of Regulatory Guide 1.221 on Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles AGENCY....221 on Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles.'' The purpose of this ISG is to supplement the guidance regarding the application of Regulatory Guide 1.221, ``Design-Basis Hurricane and...
... COMMISSION Draft Regulatory Guide, DG-1247, ``Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power... issuance and availability of Draft Regulatory Guide (DG)--1247, ``Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane... permits and licenses. The draft regulatory guide (DG), entitled, ``Design-Basis Hurricane and...
Stubbs, Thomas; Kentikelenis, Alexander; Stuckler, David; McKee, Martin; King, Lawrence
How do International Monetary Fund (IMF) policy reforms-so-called 'conditionalities'-affect government health expenditures? We collected archival documents on IMF programmes from 1995 to 2014 to identify the pathways and impact of conditionality on government health spending in 16 West African countries. Based on a qualitative analysis of the data, we find that IMF policy reforms reduce fiscal space for investment in health, limit staff expansion of doctors and nurses, and lead to budget execution challenges in health systems. Further, we use cross-national fixed effects models to evaluate the relationship between IMF-mandated policy reforms and government health spending, adjusting for confounding economic and demographic factors and for selection bias. Each additional binding IMF policy reform reduces government health expenditure per capita by 0.248 percent (95% CI -0.435 to -0.060). Overall, our findings suggest that IMF conditionality impedes progress toward the attainment of universal health coverage.
Wiley, J.W.; Wunderle, J.M.
Cyclonic storms, variously called typhoons, cyclones, or hurricanes (henceforth, hurricanes), are common in many parts of the world, where their frequent occurrence can have both direct and indirect effects on bird populations. Direct effects of hurricanes include mortality from exposure to hurricane winds, rains, and storm surges, and geographic displacement of individuals by storm winds. Indirect effects become apparent in the storm's aftermath and include loss of food supplies or foraging substrates; loss of nests and nest or roost sites; increased vulnerability to predation; microclimate changes; and increased conflict with humans. The short-term response of bird populations to hurricane damage, before changes in plant succession, includes shifts in diet, foraging sites or habitats, and reproductive changes. Bird populations may show long-term responses to changes in plant succession as second-growth vegetation increases in storm-damaged old-growth forests. The greatest stress of a hurricane to most upland terrestrial bird populations occurs after its passage rather than during its impact. The most important effect of a hurricane is the destruction of vegetation, which secondarily affects wildlife in the storm's aftermath. The most vulnerable terrestrial wildlife populations have a diet of nectar, fruit, or seeds; nest, roost, or forage on large old trees; require a closed forest canopy; have special microclimate requirements and/or live in a habitat in which vegetation has a slow recovery rate. Small populations with these traits are at greatest risk to hurricane-induced extinction, particularly if they exist in small isolated habitat fragments. Recovery of avian populations from hurricane effects is partially dependent on the extent and degree of vegetation damage as well as its rate of recovery. Also, the reproductive rate of the remnant local population and recruitment from undisturbed habitat patches influence the rate at which wildlife populations recover
Godwin, Oluwasegun; Adrian, Ohwofosirai; Johnbull, Emagbetere
The impact of Physics laboratory on students was carried out among senior secondary school students offering Physics in Ethiope West Local Government Area of Delta State using descriptive survey. Five public schools were random-even samplying technique was adopted for precision. Fifty questionnaires were distributed to students in each school,…
Ruiz, Carlos E.
This study explored the perceptions of Mexican senior government agency officials with regard to the impact of NAFTA on training and development practices in Mexico. This study was conducted using a qualitative research design. Based on the participants' perceptions, NAFTA motivated the creation and development of national programs for training…
Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.
The results of the G.A.O.'s State-by-State investigation of the status of the $1.7 billion distributed to 50 State governments and the District of Columbia for 1972 are reported in this pamphlet. The investigation attempted to assess the actual impact of revenue sharing in such areas as tax reduction, changes in budget priorities, and increased…
McKinnis, David R.; Sloan, Mary Anne; Snow, L. David; Garimella, Suresh V.
The Purdue Technical Assistance Program (TAP) offers a model of university engagement and service that is achieving technology adoption and performance improvement impacts in healthcare, manufacturing, government, and other sectors. The TAP model focuses on understanding and meeting the changing and challenging needs of those served, always…
Desjarlais, A. O.
This investigation of roof damage caused by Hurricane Katrina is a joint effort of the Roofing Industry Committee on Weather Issues, Inc. (RICOWI) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory/U.S. Department of Energy (ORNL/DOE). The Wind Investigation Program (WIP) was initiated in 1996. Hurricane damage that met the criteria of a major windstorm event did not materialize until Hurricanes Charley and Ivan occurred in August 2004. Hurricane Katrina presented a third opportunity for a wind damage investigation in August 29, 2005. The major objectives of the WIP are as follows: (1) to investigate the field performance of roofing assemblies after major wind events; (2) to factually describe roofing assembly performance and modes of failure; and (3) to formally report results of the investigations and damage modes for substantial wind speeds The goal of the WIP is to perform unbiased, detailed investigations by credible personnel from the roofing industry, the insurance industry, and academia. Data from these investigations will, it is hoped, lead to overall improvement in roofing products, systems, roofing application, and durability and a reduction in losses, which may lead to lower overall costs to the public. This report documents the results of an extensive and well-planned investigative effort. The following program changes were implemented as a result of the lessons learned during the Hurricane Charley and Ivan investigations: (1) A logistics team was deployed to damage areas immediately following landfall; (2) Aerial surveillance--imperative to target wind damage areas--was conducted; (3) Investigation teams were in place within 8 days; (4) Teams collected more detailed data; and (5) Teams took improved photographs and completed more detailed photo logs. Participating associations reviewed the results and lessons learned from the previous investigations and many have taken the following actions: (1) Moved forward with recommendations for new installation procedures
Dasaro, E. A.; Sanford, T. B.; Terrill, E.; Price, J.
The upper ocean beneath the peak winds of Hurricane Frances (57 m/s) was measured using several varieties of air-deployed floats as part of CBLAST. A multilayer structure was observed as the boundary layer deepened from 20m to 120m in about 12 hours. Bubbles generated by breaking waves create a 10m thick surface layer with a density anomaly, due to the bubbles, of about 1 kg/m3. This acts to lubricate the near surface layer. A turbulent boundary layer extends beneath this to about 40 m depth. This is characterized by large turbulent eddies spanning the boundary layer. A stratified boundary layer grows beneath this reaching 120m depth. This is characterized by a gradient Richardson number of 1/4, which is maintained by strong inertial currents generated by the hurricane, and smaller turbulent eddies driven by the shear instead of the wind and waves. There is little evidence of mixing beneath this layer. Heat budgets reveal the boundary layer to be nearly one dimensional through much of the deepening, with horizontal and vertical heat advection becoming important only after the storm had passed. Turbulent kinetic energy measurements support the idea of reduced surface drag at high wind speeds. The PWP model correctly predicts the degree of mixed layer deepening if the surface drag is reduced at high wind speed. Overall, the greatest uncertainty in understanding the ocean boundary layer at these extreme wind speeds is a characterization of the near- surface processes which govern the air-sea fluxes and surface wave properties.
Kourafalou, Vassiliki H.; Androulidakis, Yannis S.; Halliwell, George R.; Kang, HeeSook; Mehari, Michael M.; Le Hénaff, Matthieu; Atlas, Robert; Lumpkin, Rick
A high resolution, free-running model has been developed for the hurricane region of the North Atlantic Ocean. The model is evaluated with a variety of observations to ensure that it adequately represents both the ocean climatology and variability over this region, with a focus on processes relevant to hurricane-ocean interactions. As such, it can be used as the "Nature Run" (NR) model within the framework of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs), designed specifically to improve the ocean component of coupled ocean-atmosphere hurricane forecast models. The OSSE methodology provides quantitative assessment of the impact of specific observations on the skill of forecast models and enables the comprehensive design of future observational platforms and the optimization of existing ones. Ocean OSSEs require a state-of-the-art, high-resolution free-running model simulation that represents the true ocean (the NR). This study concentrates on the development and data based evaluation of the NR model component, which leads to a reliable model simulation that has a dual purpose: (a) to provide the basis for future hurricane related OSSEs; (b) to explore process oriented studies of hurricane-ocean interactions. A specific example is presented, where the impact of Hurricane Bill (2009) on the eastward extension and transport of the Gulf Stream is analyzed. The hurricane induced cold wake is shown in both NR simulation and observations. Interaction of storm-forced currents with the Gulf Stream produced a temporary large reduction in eastward transport downstream from Cape Hatteras and had a marked influence on frontal displacement in the upper ocean. The kinetic energy due to ageostrophic currents showed a significant increase as the storm passed, and then decreased to pre-storm levels within 8 days after the hurricane advanced further north. This is a unique result of direct hurricane impact on a western boundary current, with possible implications on the ocean
Kakar, R. K.
The direct question: How can weather forecast duration and reliability be improved and guide research within NASA's Weather Focus Area? A mandate of the Weather Focus Area is to investigate high impact weather events, such as severe tropical storms, through a combination of new and improved space-based observations, high-altitude research aircraft and sophisticated numerical models. The field experiments involving the NASA research aircraft are vital components of this three-pronged approach. The Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX) - 3 studied inner core dynamics, synoptic flow environment, land falling intensity change and the genesis environment for several hurricanes in a field experiment carried out during the 1998 season. CAMEX-4 studied rapid intensification, storm structure and dynamics, scale interactions and intercomparison of remote sensing techniques during the 2001 hurricane season. Several state of the art remote sensing instruments were used in these studies from the NASA DC-8 and ER-2 aircraft. During July 2005, NASA conducted its Tropical Cloud Systems and Processes (TCSP) experiment from San Jose, Costa Rica. The purpose of TCSP was to investigate the genesis and intensification of tropical cyclones primarily in the eastern North Pacific. This ocean basin was chosen because climatologically it represents the most concentrated region of cyclone formation on the planet and is within range of research aircraft deploying from Costa Rica. In 2005, however, the Caribbean was particularly active instead. We were greeted by two of the strongest July hurricanes on record for the Caribbean. The NASA ER-2 high altitude research aircraft flew twelve separate missions, carrying a payload of several remote sensing instruments. Many of these missions were flown in coordination with the NOAA Hurricane Research Division (HRD) P-3 Orion research aircraft as part of NOAA's 2005 Intensity Forecast Experiment. TCSP's successor program, the NAMMA-06 (NASA African
New Orleans to Venice, Louisiana, Hurricane Protection Project: Draft Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act Report on Reach C and Barrier Features. Supplement 2. Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement. Appendixes,
tree species where appropriate. The configuration of borrow pits proposed for the batture area could be modified to maximize sedimentation rates and thus...bottomland hardwood species where conditions would be conducive to their growth . -’ -*,.. 4. Unavoidable impacts to Resource Category 2 bottomland hardwood... duckweed , frogbit, bladderwort, coontail, and widgeon grass. Upland developed habitat consists of existing levees, roads, agricultural areas
Bove, Mark C.; Zierden, David F.; O'Brien, James J.
Recent predictions of increased hurricane activity in the Atlantic basin, as well as explosive coastal population growth, have prompted a study of the trends in quantity and intensity of U.S. landfalling hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico.Gulf of Mexico hurricane landfalls from Cape Sable, Florida, to Brownsville, Texas, are binned by decade from 1886 to 1995 to determine whether gulf hurricane landfalls are becoming more or less frequent. From these bins, subsets of intense hurricanes (sustained winds of 96 kt or more) per decade are also made. The results show that there is no sign of an increase of hurricane frequency or intensity in the Gulf of Mexico at this time
Ameca y Juárez, Eric I; Ellis, Edward A; Rodríguez-Luna, Ernesto
Long-term studies quantifying impacts of hurricane activity on growth and trajectory of primate populations are rare. Using a 14-year monitored population of Alouatta palliata mexicana as a study system, we developed a modeling framework to assess the relative contribution of hurricane disturbance and two types of human impacts, habitat loss, and hunting, on quasi-extinction risk. We found that the scenario with the highest level of disturbance generated a 21% increase in quasi-extinction risk by 40 years compared to scenarios of intermediate disturbance, and around 67% increase relative to that found in low disturbance scenarios. We also found that the probability of reaching quasi-extinction due to human disturbance alone was below 1% by 40 years, although such scenarios reduced population size by 70%, whereas the risk of quasi-extinction ranged between 3% and 65% for different scenarios of hurricane severity alone, in absence of human impacts. Our analysis moreover found that the quasi-extinction risk driven by hunting and hurricane disturbance was significantly lower than the quasi-extinction risk posed by human-driven habitat loss and hurricane disturbance. These models suggest that hurricane disturbance has the potential to exceed the risk posed by human impacts, and, in particular, to substantially increase the speed of the extinction vortex driven by habitat loss relative to that driven by hunting. Early mitigation of habitat loss constituted the best method for reducing quasi-extinction risk: the earlier habitat loss is halted, the less vulnerable the population becomes to hurricane disturbance. By using a well-studied population of A. p. mexicana, we help understand the demographic impacts that extreme environmental disturbance can trigger on isolated populations of taxa already endangered in other systems where long-term demographic data are not available. For those experiencing heavy anthropogenic pressure and lacking sufficiently evolved coping
This Quick Time movie captures Hurricane Linda moving off the Baja California coast in September 1997. The strongest hurricane on record for the eastern Pacific at that time, Hurricane Linda invaded Southern California with winds that had gusted to 105 mph (174 kph). While off the coast of Mexico, her winds gusted up to 220 mph (354 kph). Earth science and weather studies are an important ongoing function of NASA and its affiliates.
New Orleans to Venice, Louisiana, Hurricane Protection Project: Draft Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act Report on Reach C and Barrier Features. Supplement 2. Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement.
impacts on commercially important shellfish, finfish, and mamals are of concern. During the scoping process, concern was expressed over numerous issues...for a number of non-game species. A few reptiles are found in the area, including the gulf saltmarsh snake, diamondback terrapin, and alligator. Sea...humid areas are found. Reptiles and amphibians expected here Include marbled salamanders; cricket, chorus, and tree frogs; the box turtle; the EIS-62
Greer, Scott L; Jarman, Holly; Baeten, Rita
We argue that the political economy of health care in the European Union is being changed by the creation of a substantial new apparatus of European fiscal governance. A series of treaties and legal changes since 2008 have given the European Union new powers and duties to enforce budgetary austerity in the member states, and this apparatus of fiscal governance has already extended to include detailed and sometimes coercive policy recommendations to member states about the governance of their health care systems. We map the structures of this new fiscal governance and the way it purports to affect health care decision making.
A tale of two storms: Surges and sediment deposition from Hurricanes Andrew and Wilma in Florida’s southwest coast mangrove forests: Chapter 6G in Science and the storms-the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005
Smith, Thomas J.; Anderson, Gordon H.; Tiling, Ginger
Hurricanes can be very different from each other. Here we examine the impacts that two hurricanes, Andrew and Wilma, had in terms of storm surge and sediment deposition on the southwest coast of Florida. Although Wilma was the weaker storm, it had the greater impact. Wilma had the higher storm surge over a larger area and deposited more sediment than did Andrew. This effect was most likely due to the size of Wilma's eye, which was four times larger than that of Andrew.
of the country. However, the DHS 2007 Spills of National Significance exercise is aligned with the New Madrid Seismic Zone through the Midwestern...levees protecting New Orleans to break. Communications were disrupted by failed circuits and cellular towers, as well as by the loss of electrical...assistance to others, many emergency responders became disaster victims themselves.Flooding in New Orleans after Hurricane KatrinaU.S . C oa st G ua rd (K
5.39 Intracoastal Waterway @ Wax Lake East Control 76440 28 Oct 4.4 Structure LA IWW @ Wax Lake West Control Structure LA 76560 28 Oct/ 2000 4.68...Inland Waterway) @ Control 76600 28 Oct/ 2000 5.22 Structure LA (East Auto) Schooner Bayou Control Structure (West) 76680 30 Oct/1126 3.4 IWW @ Leland...GRAND ISLE HURRICANE PROTECTION AND BEACH EROSION PROJECT. Grand Isle is a low-lying barrier island witn natura , ground elevations ranging from
Hurricane Katrina devastated New Orleans and its suburbs on Monday August 29^th, 2005. The previous Friday morning, August 26, the National Hurricane Center indicated that Katrina was a Category One Hurricane, which was expected to hit Florida. By Friday afternoon, it had changed its course, and neither the city nor Xavier University was prepared for this unexpected turn in the hurricane's path. The university had 6 to 7 ft of water in every building and Xavier was closed for four months. Students and university personnel that were unable to evacuate were trapped on campus and transportation out of the city became a logistical nightmare. Email and all electronic systems were unavailable for at least a month, and all cell phones with a 504 area code stopped working. For the Department, the most immediate problem was locating faculty and students. Xavier created a list of faculty and their new email addresses and began coordinating with faculty. Xavier created a web page with advice for students, and the chair of the department created a separate blog with contact information for students. The early lack of a clear method of communication made worse the confusion and dismay among the faculty on such issues as when the university would reopen, whether the faculty would be retained, whether they should seek temporary (or permanent) employment elsewhere, etc. With the vision and determination of President Dr. Francis, Xavier was able to reopen the university in January and ran a full academic year from January through August. Since Katrina, the university has asked every department and unit to prepare emergency preparedness plans. Each department has been asked to collect e-mail addresses (non-Xavier), cell phone numbers and out of town contact information. The University also established an emergency website to communicate. All faculty have been asked to prepare to teach classes electronically via Black board or the web. Questions remain about the longer term issues of
Holm, Jennifer A.; Van Bloem, Skip J.; Larocque, Guy R.; Shugart, Herman H.
Caribbean tropical forests are subject to hurricane disturbances of great variability. In addition to natural storm incongruity, climate change can alter storm formation, duration, frequency, and intensity. This model-based investigation assessed the impacts of multiple storms of different intensities and occurrence frequencies on the long-term dynamics of subtropical dry forests in Puerto Rico. Using the previously validated individual-based gap model ZELIG-TROP, we developed a new hurricane damage routine and parameterized it with site- and species-specific hurricane effects. A baseline case with the reconstructed historical hurricane regime represented the control condition. Ten treatment cases, reflecting plausible shifts in hurricane regimes, manipulated both hurricane return time (i.e. frequency) and hurricane intensity. The treatment-related change in carbon storage and fluxes were reported as changes in aboveground forest biomass (AGB), net primary productivity (NPP), and in the aboveground carbon partitioning components, or annual carbon accumulation (ACA). Increasing the frequency of hurricanes decreased aboveground biomass by between 5% and 39%, and increased NPP between 32% and 50%. Decadal-scale biomass fluctuations were damped relative to the control. In contrast, increasing hurricane intensity did not create a large shift in the long-term average forest structure, NPP, or ACA from that of historical hurricane regimes, but produced large fluctuations in biomass. Decreasing both the hurricane intensity and frequency by 50% produced the highest values of biomass and NPP. For the control scenario and with increased hurricane intensity, ACA was negative, which indicated that the aboveground forest components acted as a carbon source. However, with an increase in the frequency of storms or decreased storms, the total ACA was positive due to shifts in leaf production, annual litterfall, and coarse woody debris inputs, indicating a carbon sink into the
In September 1999, Hurricane Floyd threatened the southeastern coast of the United States, causing the largest peacetime evacuation in history. The hurricane moved onto land when it curved northward and slammed into southeastern North Carolina near Wilmington and Cape Fear. This region already had experienced three hurricanes in recent years and had been brushed by Hurricane Dennis one month earlier. This article describes actions taken by the New Hanover Regional Medical Center surgical services department in Wilmington, NC, to prepare for and weather the storm. The aftermath and cleanup also are discussed.
Knosp, Brian W.; Li, Peggy; Vu, Quoc A.
A dynamic hurricane data analysis tool allows users of the JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System (TCIS) to analyze data over a Web medium. The TCIS software is described in the previous article, Tropical Cyclone Information System (TCIS) (NPO-45748). This tool interfaces with the TCIS database to pull in data from several different atmospheric and oceanic data sets, both observed by instruments. Users can use this information to generate histograms, maps, and profile plots for specific storms. The tool also displays statistical values for the user-selected parameter for the mean, standard deviation, median, minimum, and maximum values. There is little wait time, allowing for fast data plots over date and spatial ranges. Users may also zoom-in for a closer look at a particular spatial range. This is version 1 of the software. Researchers will use the data and tools on the TCIS to understand hurricane processes, improve hurricane forecast models and identify what types of measurements the next generation of instruments will need to collect.
Wang, Zhan; Deng, Xiangzheng; Li, Xiubin; Zhou, Qing; Yan, Haiming
In this paper, we introduced three-nested Constant Elasticity of Substitution (CES) production function into a static Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Model. Through four levels of factor productivity, we constructed three nested production function of land use productivity in the conceptual modeling frameworks. The first level of factor productivity is generated by the basic value-added land. On the second level, factor productivity in each sector is generated by human activities that presents human intervention to the first level of factor productivity. On the third level of factor productivity, water allocation reshapes the non-linear structure of transaction among first and second levels. From the perspective of resource utilization, we examined the economic efficiency of water allocation. The scenario-based empirical analysis results show that the three-nested CES production function within CGE model is well-behaved to present the economy system of the case study area. Firstly, water scarcity harmed economic production. Government investment on water projects in Gansu thereby had impacts on economic outcomes. Secondly, huge governmental financing on water projects bring depreciation of present value of social welfare. Moreover, water use for environment adaptation pressures on water supply. The theoretical water price can be sharply increased due to the increasing costs of factor inputs. Thirdly, water use efficiency can be improved by water projects, typically can be benefited from the expansion of water-saving irrigation areas even in those expanding dry area in Gansu. Therefore, increasing governmental financing on water projects can depreciate present value of social welfare but benefit economic efficiency for future generation.
Huang, Peisheng; Imberger, JöRg
The temporal and spatial variations of pCO2 in the ocean surface layer in response to the passage of Hurricane Frances (2004) were investigated with a coupled three-dimensional hydrodynamic and carbon model. The results showed that the sea surface temperature cooling was the dominant cause of the decrease of surface pCO2, while the entrainment of water with higher CO2 levels partially offset the cooling-induced decrease. The surface distribution of pCO2 was thus found to mimic the physical deepening processes, with a "right bias" to the hurricane track. The impact of the hurricane on the local air-sea CO2 exchange extended to about 100 km on both sides of the hurricane track. The whole passage of Hurricane Frances was estimated to have caused a CO2 efflux of about 3.504-10.363 Tg (1 Tg = 1012 g) C from ocean to the atmosphere. Globally, hurricanes in 2004 were estimated to have released a CO2 efflux of 0.047-0.141 Pg (1 Pg = 1015 g) C in total when extrapolating from Hurricane Frances. Under our assumptions, the CO2 efflux caused by the passages of global hurricanes should have increased by about 71.2%-75.0% in past decades.
Goff, John A.; Flood, Roger D.; Austin, James A., Jr.; Schwab, William C.; Christensen, Beth; Browne, Cassandra M.; Denny, Jane F.; Baldwin, Wayne E.
We investigate the impact of superstorm Sandy on the lower shoreface and inner shelf offshore the barrier island system of Fire Island, NY using before-and-after surveys involving swath bathymetry, backscatter and CHIRP acoustic reflection data. As sea level rises over the long term, the shoreface and inner shelf are eroded as barrier islands migrate landward; large storms like Sandy are thought to be a primary driver of this largely evolutionary process. The "before" data were collected in 2011 by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of a long-term investigation of the Fire Island barrier system. The "after" data were collected in January, 2013, ~two months after the storm. Surprisingly, no widespread erosional event was observed. Rather, the primary impact of Sandy on the shoreface and inner shelf was to force migration of major bedforms (sand ridges and sorted bedforms) 10's of meters WSW alongshore, decreasing in migration distance with increasing water depth. Although greater in rate, this migratory behavior is no different than observations made over the 15-year span prior to the 2011 survey. Stratigraphic observations of buried, offshore-thinning fluvial channels indicate that long-term erosion of older sediments is focused in water depths ranging from the base of the shoreface (~13-16 m) to ~21 m on the inner shelf, which is coincident with the range of depth over which sand ridges and sorted bedforms migrated in response to Sandy. We hypothesize that bedform migration regulates erosion over these water depths and controls the formation of a widely observed transgressive ravinement; focusing erosion of older material occurs at the base of the stoss (upcurrent) flank of the bedforms. Secondary storm impacts include the formation of ephemeral hummocky bedforms and the deposition of a mud event layer.
Goff, John A.; Flood, Roger D.; Austin, James A.; Schwab, William C.; Christensen, Beth A.; Browne, Cassandra M.; Denny, Jane F.; Baldwin, Wayne E.
We investigate the impact of superstorm Sandy on the lower shoreface and inner shelf offshore the barrier island system of Fire Island, NY using before-and-after surveys involving swath bathymetry, backscatter and CHIRP acoustic reflection data. As sea level rises over the long term, the shoreface and inner shelf are eroded as barrier islands migrate landward; large storms like Sandy are thought to be a primary driver of this largely evolutionary process. The “before” data were collected in 2011 by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of a long-term investigation of the Fire Island barrier system. The “after” data were collected in January, 2013, ~two months after the storm. Surprisingly, no widespread erosional event was observed. Rather, the primary impact of Sandy on the shoreface and inner shelf was to force migration of major bedforms (sand ridges and sorted bedforms) 10’s of meters WSW alongshore, decreasing in migration distance with increasing water depth. Although greater in rate, this migratory behavior is no different than observations made over the 15-year span prior to the 2011 survey. Stratigraphic observations of buried, offshore-thinning fluvial channels indicate that long-term erosion of older sediments is focused in water depths ranging from the base of the shoreface (~13–16 m) to ~21 m on the inner shelf, which is coincident with the range of depth over which sand ridges and sorted bedforms migrated in response to Sandy. We hypothesize that bedform migration regulates erosion over these water depths and controls the formation of a widely observed transgressive ravinement; focusing erosion of older material occurs at the base of the stoss (upcurrent) flank of the bedforms. Secondary storm impacts include the formation of ephemeral hummocky bedforms and the deposition of a mud event layer.
Watson, Louise; Ryan, Chris
For over three decades, government subsidies have been a major source of funds for private schools in Australia. Private schools now enrol more than one-third of all students. Analysing administrative and participation data, we find that Australian private schools have used government subsidies to increase the quality of their services (that is,…
Irish, J. L.
In the last decade, the US has experienced some of its largest surges and hurricane-related damages on record. Effective evacuation in advance of a hurricane strike requires accurate estimation of the hurricane surge hazard that effectively conveys risk not only to government decision makers but also to the general public. Two primary challenges exist with the current structure for surge warning. First, existing computational methods for developing accurate, quantitative surge forecasts, namely surge height and inundation estimation, are limited by time and computational resources. Second, due primarily to the popularity and wide use of the Saffir-Simpson wind scale to convey the complete hurricane hazard, the public's perception of surge hazard is inaccurate. Here, we use dimensionless scaling and hydrodynamics arguments to quantify the influence of hurricane variables and regional geographic characteristics on the surge response. It will be shown that hurricane surge primarily scales with the hurricane's central pressure, and size and with continental shelf width at the landfall location (Irish et al. 2009, Nat. Haz.; Song et al. in press, Nat. Haz.). Secondary influences include the hurricane's forward speed and path. The developed physical scaling is applied in two ways: (1) as a means for expanding the utility of computational simulations for real-time surge height forecasting and (2) as a means to convey relative surge hazard via a readily evaluated algebraic surge scale. In the first application, the use of this physical scaling to develop surge response functions (SRF) enables instantaneous algebraic calculation of maximum surge height at any location of interest for any hurricane meteorological condition, without loss of accuracy gained via high-resolution computational simulation. When coupled with joint probability statistics, the use of SRFs enables rapid development of continuous probability density functions for probabilistic surge forecasting (Irish
Marbley, Aretha Faye
Throughout the country and especially in Texas, local communities opened their arms to hurricane Katrina evacuees. Like the federal government, emergency health and mental health entities were unprepared for the massive numbers of people needing assistance. Mental health professionals, though armed with a wealth of crisis intervention information,…
Klopotek, Brian; Lintinger, Brenda; Barbry, John
Hurricane Katrina traumatized the city of New Orleans and the Gulf South. It filled most Americans and global citizens with grief and rage in the late summer of 2005. As the world watched, feeling powerless to help the many thousands of suffering people, at first stunned and then furious over the ineptitude of government response to this…
Vigil, Jacob M.; Geary, David C.; Granger, Douglas A.; Flinn, Mark V.
The study examines group and individual differences in psychological functioning and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity among adolescents displaced by Hurricane Katrina and living in a U.S. government relocation camp (n = 62, ages 12-19 years) 2 months postdisaster. Levels of salivary cortisol, salivary…
In the immediate aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in August 2005, many oral historians throughout the nation began to consider the role their methodology could serve in documenting the storm and its aftermath. Interviewing so soon after such a traumatic event creates new considerations for oral history as an approach to recording experience. The problems and possibilities of oral history as such a moment initiated a vibrant discussion on H-Oralhist and at professional meetings in the fall of 2005. This article reflects on many of the topics raised in that dialogue, including issues of historical distance, objectivity, reflection, and emotional trauma. The piece also offers an early review of the work of the Center for Oral History and Cultural Heritage at the University of Southern Mississippi to document the impact of Hurricane Katrina in Mississippi.
Hyater-Adams, Sinone; DeYoung, Russell J.
The protection of NASA Langley Research Center from future hurricanes is important in order to allow the center to fulfill its mission. The impact of the center is not only great within NASA but the economy as well. The infrastructure of the Center is under potential risk in the future because of more intense hurricanes with higher speed winds and flooding. A potential method of protecting the Center s facilities is the placement of a windbreak barrier composed of indigenous trees. The New Town program that is now in progress creates a more condensed area of focus for protection. A potential design for an efficient tree windbreak barrier for Langley Research center is proposed.
Steyer, Gregory D.; Cretini, Kari Foster; Piazza, Sarai C.; Sharp, Leigh A.; Snedden, Gregg A.; Sapkota, Sijan
The impacts of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005 on wetland vegetation were investigated in Louisiana coastal marshes. Vegetation cover, pore-water salinity, and nutrients data from 100 marsh sites covering the entire Louisiana coast were sampled for two consecutive growing seasons after the storms. A mixed-model nested ANOVA with Tukey's HSD test for post-ANOVA multiple comparisons was used to analyze the data. Significantly (p<0.05) lower vegetation cover was observed within brackish and fresh marshes in the west as compared to the east and central regions throughout 2006, but considerable increase in vegetation cover was noticed in fall 2007 data. Marshes in the west were stressed by prolonged saltwater logging and increased sulfide content. High salinity levels persisted throughout the study period for all marsh types, especially in the west. The marshes of coastal Louisiana are still recovering after the hurricanes; however, changes in the species composition have increased in these marshes.
Raoelison, R. N.; Sapanathan, T.; Padayodi, E.; Buiron, N.; Rachik, M.
This paper investigates the complex interfacial kinematics and governing mechanisms during high speed impact conditions. A robust numerical modelling technique using Eulerian simulations are used to explain the material response of the interface subjected to a high strain rate collision during a magnetic pulse welding. The capability of this model is demonstrated using the predictions of interfacial kinematics and revealing the governing mechanical behaviours. Numerical predictions of wave formation resulted with the upward or downward jetting and complex interfacial mixing governed by wake and vortex instabilities corroborate the experimental observations. Moreover, the prediction of the material ejection during the simulation explains the experimentally observed deposited particles outside the welded region. Formations of internal cavities along the interface is also closely resemble the resulted confined heating at the vicinity of the interface appeared from those wake and vortex instabilities. These results are key features of this simulation that also explains the potential mechanisms in the defects formation at the interface. These results indicate that the Eulerian computation not only has the advantage of predicting the governing mechanisms, but also it offers a non-destructive approach to identify the interfacial defects in an impact welded joint.
van Heerden, I. L.
Recent floods along the Atlantic and Gulf seaboards and elsewhere in the world before Katrina had demonstrated the complexity of public health impacts including trauma; fires; chemical, sewerage, and corpse contamination of air and water; and diseases. We realized that Louisiana's vulnerability was exacerbated because forty percent of the state is coastal zone in which 70% of the population resides. Ninety percent of this zone is near or below sea level and protected by man-made hurricane-protection levees. New Orleans ranked among the highest in the nation with respect to potential societal, mortality, and economic impacts. Recognizing that emergency responders had in the past been unprepared for the extent of the public health impacts of these complex flooding disasters, we created a multi-disciplinary, multi-campus research center to address these issues for New Orleans. The Louisiana Board of Regents, through its millennium Health Excellence Fund, awarded a 5-year contract to the Center in 2001. The research team combined the resources of natural scientists, social scientists, engineers, and the mental health and medical communities. We met annually with a Board of Advisors, made up of federal, state, local government, and non-governmental agency officials, first responders and emergency managers. Their advice was invaluable in acquiring various datasets and directing aspects of the various research efforts. Our center developed detailed models for assessment and amelioration of public health impacts due to hurricanes and major floods. Initial research had showed that a Category 3 storm would cause levee overtopping, and that most levee systems were unprotected from the impacts of storm-induced wave erosion. Sections of levees with distinct sags suggested the beginnings of foundation and subsidence problems. We recognized that a slow moving Cat 3 could flood up to the eaves of houses and would have residence times of weeks. The resultant mix of sewage, corpses
Bromet, Evelyn J; Clouston, Sean; Gonzalez, Adam; Kotov, Roman; Guerrera, Kathryn M; Luft, Benjamin J
The psychological consequences of a second disaster on populations exposed to an earlier disaster have rarely been studied prospectively. Using a pre- and postdesign, we examined the effects of Hurricane Sandy on possible World Trade Center (WTC) related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD Checklist score of ≥ 50) and overall depression (major depressive disorder [MDD]; Patient Health Questionnaire depression score of ≥ 10) among 870 WTC responders with a follow-up monitoring visit at the Long Island WTC Health Program during the 6 months post-Hurricane Sandy. The Hurricane Sandy exposures evaluated were damage to home (8.3%) and to possessions (7.8%), gasoline shortage (24.1%), prolonged power outage (42.7%), and filing a Federal Emergency Management Agency claim (11.3%). A composite exposure score also was constructed. In unadjusted analyses, Hurricane Sandy exposures were associated with 1.77 to 5.38 increased likelihood of PTSD and 1.58 to 4.13 likelihood of MDD; odds ratios for ≥ 3 exposures were 6.47 for PTSD and 6.45 for MDD. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, WTC exposure, pre-Hurricane Sandy mental health status, and time between assessments, reporting ≥ 3 Hurricane Sandy exposures was associated with a 3.29 and 3.71 increased likelihood of PTSD and MDD, respectively. These findings underscore the importance of assessing the impact of a subsequent disaster in ongoing responder health surveillance programs.
Xie, Kun; Ozbay, Kaan; Yang, Hong
The objectives of this study are (1) to develop an incident duration model which can account for the spatial dependence of duration observations, and (2) to investigate the impacts of a hurricane on incident duration. Highway incident data from New York City and its surrounding regions before and after Hurricane Sandy was used for the study. Moran's I statistics confirmed that durations of the neighboring incidents were spatially correlated. Moreover, Lagrange Multiplier tests suggested that the spatial dependence should be captured in a spatial lag specification. A spatial error model, a spatial lag model and a standard model without consideration of spatial effects were developed. The spatial lag model is found to outperform the others by capturing the spatial dependence of incident durations via a spatially lagged dependent variable. It was further used to assess the effects of hurricane-related variables on incident duration. The results show that the incidents during and post the hurricane are expected to have 116.3% and 79.8% longer durations than those that occurred in the regular time. However, no significant increase in incident duration is observed in the evacuation period before Sandy's landfall. Results of temporal stability tests further confirm the existence of the significant changes in incident duration patterns during and post the hurricane. Those findings can provide insights to aid in the development of hurricane evacuation plans and emergency management strategies.
Han, Seung-Ryong; Guikema, Seth D; Quiring, Steven M
Electric power is a critical infrastructure service after hurricanes, and rapid restoration of electric power is important in order to minimize losses in the impacted areas. However, rapid restoration of electric power after a hurricane depends on obtaining the necessary resources, primarily repair crews and materials, before the hurricane makes landfall and then appropriately deploying these resources as soon as possible after the hurricane. This, in turn, depends on having sound estimates of both the overall severity of the storm and the relative risk of power outages in different areas. Past studies have developed statistical, regression-based approaches for estimating the number of power outages in advance of an approaching hurricane. However, these approaches have either not been applicable for future events or have had lower predictive accuracy than desired. This article shows that a different type of regression model, a generalized additive model (GAM), can outperform the types of models used previously. This is done by developing and validating a GAM based on power outage data during past hurricanes in the Gulf Coast region and comparing the results from this model to the previously used generalized linear models.
Schoener, Thomas W.; Spiller, David A.
We monitored spiders on 41 Bahamian islands for 4 years before and then 4 years after the catastrophic Hurricane Floyd passed directly over the site, inundating the study islands with its storm surge. The respective recoveries of major community properties after this annihilation were far from synchronous. Before the hurricane, the species-area relation was generally strong and the slope showed no temporal trend. After the hurricane, the slope increased from near zero (7 months later) to a value about equal to its prehurricane state. The lizard effect (difference in spider abundance or species richness between islands with and without the lizard Anolis sagrei) was generally strong before the hurricane; 7 months after, the lizard effect on abundance was weak and the effect on richness had vanished. In subsequent years, the lizard effect on abundance became strong again, but the effect on species richness remained weak. The strength of the lizard effect on both abundance and richness over the 8 years was strongly positively related to the density of lizards measured on a subset of the study islands. Twelve months after the hurricane, species richness averaged over all islands rebounded to the last prehurricane value, but abundance attained only about half that value; this finding was remarkably similar to results found in an earlier study of spiders impacted by Hurricane Lili (1996) in a different Bahamian region. Nonetheless, in the next 3 years, species richness failed to increase further, part of its long-term decline at the study site. PMID:16452167
Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty; Siri, Zailan
In the event of death of any government employee, their monthly pension will be given to their widow and their child. The government will stop paying that pension when the widow died and when the widow chooses to remarry. However, in 1st January 2002, the remarriage clause has been removed from the regulations. This would allow all widows who remarried to receive pension as usual. In view of this, there are possibilities that those widows who are still young might remarried. If many of the widows choose to remarry, it will be a burden to the government as it would increase the pension liabilities. However, we do not know how many of the widow will remarry. In view of this, the purpose of the study is to assess the impact to pension liabilities of government pension schemes on individual life due to removal clause of the remarriage by determining the pension factor and to assess to what extent the pension liabilities of government pension schemes would be affected.
Wasileski, Gabriela; Rodríguez, Havidán; Diaz, Walter
The occurrence of a number of large-scale disasters or catastrophes in recent years, including the Indian Ocean tsunami (2004), the Kashmir earthquake (2005), Hurricane Katrina (2005) and Hurricane Ike (2008), have raised our awareness regarding the devastating effects of disasters on human populations and the importance of developing mitigation and preparedness strategies to limit the consequences of such events. However, there is still a dearth of social science research focusing on the socio-economic impact of disasters on businesses in the United States. This paper contributes to this research literature by focusing on the impact of disasters on business closure and relocation through the use of multivariate logistic regression models, specifically focusing on the Loma Prieta earthquake (1989) and Hurricane Andrew (1992). Using a multivariate model, we examine how physical damage to the infrastructure, lifeline disruption and business characteristics, among others, impact business closure and relocation following major disasters.
Nateghi, R.; Quiring, S. M.; Guikema, S. D.
Hurricanes are among the costliest and most destructive natural hazards in the U.S. Accurate hurricane forecasts are crucial to optimal preparedness and mitigation decisions in the U.S. where 50 percent of the population lives within 50 miles of the coast. We developed a flexible statistical approach to forecast annual number of hurricanes in the Atlantic region during the hurricane season. Our model is based on the method of Random Forest and captures the complex relationship between hurricane activity and climatic conditions through careful variable selection, model testing and validation. We used the National Hurricane Center's Best Track hurricane data from 1949-2011 and sixty-one candidate climate descriptors to develop our model. The model includes information prior to the hurricane season, i.e., from the last three months of the previous year (Oct. through Dec.) and the first five months of the current year (January through May). Our forecast errors are substantially lower than other leading forecasts such as that of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).
Fernandez, Maria L.; Schoen, Robert C.
Mathematics teachers can tap into students' curiosity about hurricanes to develop their understanding of mathematical ideas within a real-life context. This article discusses hurricane-based mathematics tasks involving cooperative learning that were found to help students enhance their understanding of patterns, graphs, and rates of change. For…
There are 49,300 customers without power in Florida as of 7:00 AM EST 11/9 due to Hurricane Wilma, down from a peak of about 3.6 million customers. Currently, less than 1 percent of the customers are without power in the state. This is the last report we will due on outages due to Hurricane Wilma.
In this article, the author talks about students being taking in public schools in Houston and Dallas, as well as other states, after evacuating from New Orleans which was struck by Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita. For students displaced by the storm, mobility is as constant as stability is elusive. Already traumatized and faced with the loss…
An animation of satellite observations from July 8 (6:00 p.m. EDT) to July 11 (1:30 p.m. EDT), 2012, shows Hurricane Daniel as it loses its hurricane eye and become a tropical storm as it heads tow...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD.
This publication, produced by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), is an illustrated non-technical description of the meteorology of hurricanes and their effects on the land areas they hit. As an information source for students and teachers alike, this publication also describes the damage done in the past by hurricanes, the…
The Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS) has recently been deselected from the Earth Observing System (EOS). A broad range of orbital altitudes and laser power are being considered for future wind lidar missions. As a result, as was anticipated in the proposed work, it may be impossible to meaningfully study tropical cyclones with lidar wind data because data coverage (i.e., swath width) is insufficient. Research on this grant has focused on how to maximize the benefits of a wind lidar regardless of the choice of platform or laser. Our studies have shown that major unsolved problems in tropical meteorology relate to the structure, dynamics, and role in tropical cyclogenesis of 'easterly waves'. These disturbances exist almost everywhere in the global subtropics. Results are described that focus upon easterly wave impacts on eastern Pacific tropical cyclogenesis. The availability of wind lidar data would create tremendous opportunities for the study of these waves and their role in the general circulation.
Gentry, R. C.
The climatological history of hurricane-tornadoes is brought up to date through 1982. Most of the tornadoes either form near the center of the hurricane, from the outer edge of the eyewall outward, or in an area between north and east-southeast of the hurricane center. The blackbody temperatures of the cloud tops which were analyzed for several hurricane-tornadoes that formed in the years 1974, 1975, and 1979, did not furnish strong precursor signals of tornado formation, but followed one of two patterns: either the temperatures were very low, or the tornado formed in areas of strong temperature gradients. Tornadoes with tropical cyclones most frequently occur at 1200-1800 LST, and although most are relatively weak, they can reach the F3 intensity level. Most form in association with the outer rainbands of the hurricane.
Ludwig, K. A.; Machlis, G. E.; Applegate, D.
This presentation will describe the history, mission, and current activities of the newly formed Department of the Interior (DOI) Strategic Sciences Group (SSG), with a focus on its response to Hurricane Sandy and lessons learned from using scenario building to support decision making. There have been several environmental crises of national significance in recent years, including Hurricane Katrina (2005), large-scale California wildfires (2007-2008), the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (2010), and Hurricane Sandy (2012). Such events are complex because of their impacts on the ecology, economy, and people of the affected locations. In these and other environmental disasters, the DOI has had significant responsibilities to protect people and resources and to engage in emergency response, recovery, and restoration efforts. In recognition of the increasingly critical role of strategic science in responding to such complex events, the DOI established the SSG by Secretarial Order in 2012. Its purpose is to provide the DOI with science-based assessments and interdisciplinary scenarios of environmental crises affecting Departmental resources; rapidly assemble interdisciplinary teams of scientists from government, academia, and non-governmental organizations to conduct such work; and provide results to DOI leadership as usable knowledge to support decision making. March 2013 was the SSG's first deployment since its formation. The SSG's charge was to support DOI's participation on the Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force by developing scenarios of Hurricane Sandy's environmental, economic, and social consequences in the New York/New Jersey area and potential interventions that could improve regional resilience to future major storms. Over the course of one week, the SSG Sandy team (Operational Group Sandy) identified 13 first-tier consequences and 17 interventions. The SSG briefed DOI leadership, Task Force representatives, and other policy makers in both Washington, DC and
Holland, G. J.; Done, J.; Bruyere, C.; NESL Regional Climate Research Group
The vulnerability of a community to hurricane impacts depends on a diverse array of factors. At the community level these include: the quality of their infrastructure and its ability to withstand a hurricane impact, their level of preparedness and ability to respond appropriately to a threat, and their capacity to recover after an impact. Developing and maintaining these at an appropriate level requires a dedicated and sustained effort that results in considerable cost to the community. This cost must be balanced against the likely damage from an impact and its frequency of occurrence. And therein lies the rub; traditional assessment techniques use past cyclone data that: are subject to various levels of data deficiencies, cannot account for changes that might arise from climate change, may cover too short a time period to adequately account for long-term climate variability or to enable assessment of the very rare extreme events. This talk will address current approaches to assessing these deficiencies. We will first discuss the cyclone parameters that are important to assessing impact and show that intensity alone is only one part. For wind it is duration, extent and gustiness that are crucial, and often the rainfall is the dominant impact. These also depend on hurricane size, translation speed and local terrain; and the level of storm surge is also dependent on bathymetry and coastline details. Second, We will address how numerical models are becoming a valuable tool in assessing these features for future climate. The talk will conclude with a summary of the current state of agreement, and disagreement, on likely future changes.
Carmichael, Laurence; Barton, Hugh; Gray, Selena; Lease, Helen; Pilkington, Paul
This article presents the results of a review of literature examining the barriers and facilitators in integrating health in spatial planning at the local, mainly urban level, through appraisals. Our literature review covered the UK and non UK experiences of appraisals used to consider health issues in the planning process. We were able to identify four main categories of obstacles and facilitators including first the different knowledge and conceptual understanding of health by different actors/stakeholders, second the types of governance arrangements, in particular partnerships, in place and the political context, third the way institutions work, the responsibilities they have and their capacity and resources and fourth the timeliness, comprehensiveness and inclusiveness of the appraisal process. The findings allowed us to draw some lessons on the governance and policy framework regarding the integration of health impact into spatial planning, in particular considering the pros and cons of integrating health impact assessment (HIA) into other forms of impact assessment of spatial planning decisions such as environmental impact assessment (EIA) and strategic environment assessment (SEA). In addition, the research uncovered a gap in the literature that tends to focus on the mainly voluntary HIA to assess health outcomes of planning decisions and neglect the analysis of regulatory mechanisms such as EIA and SEA. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Governance and policy barriers and facilitators to the integration of health into urban planning. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Review of literature on impact assessment methods used across the world. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knowledge, partnerships, management/resources and processes can impede integration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HIA evaluations prevail uncovering research opportunities for evaluating other techniques.
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Hurricane plan. 1852.236-73... Hurricane plan. As prescribed in 1836.570(c), insert the following clause: Hurricane Plan (DEC 1988) In the event of a hurricane warning, the Contractor shall— (a) Inspect the area and place all...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hurricane plan. 1852.236... 1852.236-73 Hurricane plan. As prescribed in 1836.570(c), insert the following clause: Hurricane Plan (DEC 1988) In the event of a hurricane warning, the Contractor shall— (a) Inspect the area and...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hurricane plan. 1852.236... 1852.236-73 Hurricane plan. As prescribed in 1836.570(c), insert the following clause: Hurricane Plan (DEC 1988) In the event of a hurricane warning, the Contractor shall— (a) Inspect the area and...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hurricane plan. 1852.236... 1852.236-73 Hurricane plan. As prescribed in 1836.570(c), insert the following clause: Hurricane Plan (DEC 1988) In the event of a hurricane warning, the Contractor shall— (a) Inspect the area and...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hurricane plan. 1852.236... 1852.236-73 Hurricane plan. As prescribed in 1836.570(c), insert the following clause: Hurricane Plan (DEC 1988) In the event of a hurricane warning, the Contractor shall— (a) Inspect the area and...
Steyer, Gregory D.; Perez, Brian C.; Piazza, Sarai C.; Suir, Glenn
Hurricanes Katrina and Rita pushed salt water from the Gulf of Mexico well inland into freshwater marsh communities in coastal Louisiana. This paper describes the spatial extent of saltwater intrusion and provides an initial assessment of impacts (salt stress) to coastal marsh vegetation communities.
Lewis, Mark David; Spruce, Joseph; Evans, David; Anderson, Daniel
Hurricane damage to forests can be severe, causing millions of dollars of timber damage and loss. To help mitigate loss, state agencies require information on location, intensity, and extent of damaged forests. NASA's MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series data products offers a potential means for state agencies to monitor hurricane-induced forest damage and recovery across a broad region. In response, a project was conducted to produce and assess 250 meter forest disturbance and recovery maps for areas in southern Mississippi impacted by Hurricane Katrina. The products and capabilities from the project were compiled to aid work of the Mississippi Institute for Forest Inventory (MIFI). A series of NDVI change detection products were computed to assess hurricane induced damage and recovery. Hurricane-induced forest damage maps were derived by computing percent change between MODIS MOD13 16-day composited NDVI pre-hurricane "baseline" products (2003 and 2004) and post-hurricane NDVI products (2005). Recovery products were then computed in which post storm 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009 NDVI data was each singularly compared to the historical baseline NDVI. All percent NDVI change considered the 16-day composite period of August 29 to September 13 for each year in the study. This provided percent change in the maximum NDVI for the 2 week period just after the hurricane event and for each subsequent anniversary through 2009, resulting in forest disturbance products for 2005 and recovery products for the following 4 years. These disturbance and recovery products were produced for the Mississippi Institute for Forest Inventory's (MIFI) Southeast Inventory District and also for the entire hurricane impact zone. MIFI forest inventory products were used as ground truth information for the project. Each NDVI percent change product was classified into 6 categories of forest disturbance intensity. Stand age
Im, E.; Chandrasekar, V.; Chen, S. S.; Holland, G. J.; Kakar, R.; Lewis, W. E.; Marks, F. D.; Smith, E. A.; Tanelli, S.; Tripoli, G. J.
The Nexrad-In-Space (NIS) is a revolutionary atmospheric radar observation concept from the geostationary orbiting platform. It was developed over the last 4 years under the auspices of NASA's Earth Science Instrument Incubator Program (IIP). The NIS radar would provide Ka-band (35 GHz) reflectivity and line-of-sight Doppler velocity profiles over a circular Earth region of approximately 5200 km in diameter with a 12-km horizontal resolution, and a minimum detectable signal of 5 dBZ. The NIS radar achieves its superb sampling capabilities by use of a 35-m diameter, deployable antenna made from lightweight membrane material. The antenna has two transmit-receive array pairs that create a dual-beam, spiral-feed combined profile image of both reflectivity and Doppler velocity approximately every 60 minutes. This sampling time can be shortened even further by increasing the number of transmit-receive array pairs. It is generally recognized that the processes important in governing hurricane intensity and structure span a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. The environmental forcing considerations require a large domain. The vortex response to the environmental forcing ultimately involves convection on small horizontal scales in the eyewall and rainband regions. Resolving this environment-vortex-convection feedback in a numerical model requires observations on the space and time scales necessary to unambiguously define these structures within and surrounding the tropical cyclone. Because the time and space scales of these processes are small, continuous 3-dimensional independent observations of the 3-dimensional wind and precipitation structures will be needed to initialize numerical models critical for this purpose. The proposed NIS Doppler radar would be the first instrument capable of accomplishing this feat at time scales less than hours, and would create the opportunity for hurricane science to enter a new era of understanding and improved prediction. This
Chen, Yang; Randerson, James T.; Morton, Douglas C.
We describe a climate mode synchronizing forest carbon losses from North and South America by analyzing time series of tropical North Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs), landfall hurricanes and tropical storms, and Amazon fires during 1995-2013. Years with anomalously high tropical North Atlantic SSTs during March-June were often followed by a more active hurricane season and a larger number of satellite-detected fires in the southern Amazon during June-November. The relationship between North Atlantic tropical cyclones and southern Amazon fires (r = 0.61, p < 0.003) was stronger than links between SSTs and either cyclones or fires alone, suggesting that fires and tropical cyclones were directly coupled to the same underlying atmospheric dynamics governing tropical moisture redistribution. These relationships help explain why seasonal outlook forecasts for hurricanes and Amazon fires both failed in 2013 and may enable the design of improved early warning systems for drought and fire in Amazon forests.
government. Anything above zero is a better alternative.”27 In Sadr City , the Shi`a are loyal to Muqtada al-Sadr’s organization for much the same...reason—it provides services the government does not. One resident stated that the locals in Sadr City “get no help from Maliki. Only Sayyid...canister instead of the market price of 24,000 dinars.29 When I patrolled Sadr City in early 2005, my unit frequented sewage sub-stations (which
Zhang, Banglin; Lindzen, Richard S.; Tallapragada, Vijay; Weng, Fuzhong; Liu, Qingfu; Sippel, Jason A.; Ma, Zaizhong; Bender, Morris A.
The atmosphere-ocean coupled Hurricane Weather Research and Forecast model (HWRF) developed at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) is used as an example to illustrate the impact of model vertical resolution on track forecasts of tropical cyclones. A number of HWRF forecasting experiments were carried out at different vertical resolutions for Hurricane Joaquin, which occurred from September 27 to October 8, 2015, in the Atlantic Basin. The results show that the track prediction for Hurricane Joaquin is much more accurate with higher vertical resolution. The positive impacts of higher vertical resolution on hurricane track forecasts suggest that National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/NCEP should upgrade both HWRF and the Global Forecast System to have more vertical levels.
Zhang, Keqi; Simard, Marc; Ross, Michael; Rivera-Monroy, Victor H.; Houle, Patricia; Ruiz, Pablo; Twilley, Robert R.; Whelan, Kevin R. T.
Airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR) measurements derived before and after Hurricanes Katrina and Wilma (2005) were used to quantify the impact of hurricanes and lightning strikes on the mangrove forest at two sites in Everglades National Park (ENP). Analysis of LIDAR measurements covering 61 and 68 ha areas of mangrove forest at the Shark River and Broad River sites showed that the proportion of high tree canopy detected by the LIDAR after the 2005 hurricane season decreased significantly due to defoliation and breakage of branches and trunks, while the proportion of low canopy and the ground increased drastically. Tall mangrove forests distant from tidal creeks suffered more damage than lower mangrove forests adjacent to the tidal creeks. The hurricanes created numerous canopy gaps, and the number of gaps per square kilometer increased from about 400∼500 to 4000 after Katrina and Wilma. The total area of gaps in the forest increased from about 1∼2% of the total forest area to 12%. The relative contribution of hurricanes to mangrove forest disturbance in ENP is at least 2 times more than that from lightning strikes. However, hurricanes and lightning strikes disturb the mangrove forest in a related way. Most seedlings in lightning gaps survived the hurricane impact due to the protection of trees surrounding the gaps, and therefore provide an important resource for forest recovery after the hurricane. This research demonstrated that LIDAR is an effective remote sensing tool to quantify the effects of disturbances such as hurricanes and lightning strikes in the mangrove forest. PMID:27879821
Zhang, Keqi; Simard, Marc; Ross, Michael; Rivera-Monroy, Victor H; Houle, Patricia; Ruiz, Pablo; Twilley, Robert R; Whelan, Kevin
Airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR) measurements derived before and after Hurricanes Katrina and Wilma (2005) were used to quantify the impact of hurricanes and lightning strikes on the mangrove forest at two sites in Everglades National Park (ENP). Analysis of LIDAR measurements covering 61 and 68 ha areas of mangrove forest at the Shark River and Broad River sites showed that the proportion of high tree canopy detected by the LIDAR after the 2005 hurricane season decreased significantly due to defoliation and breakage of branches and trunks, while the proportion of low canopy and the ground increased drastically. Tall mangrove forests distant from tidal creeks suffered more damage than lower mangrove forests adjacent to the tidal creeks. The hurricanes created numerous canopy gaps, and the number of gaps per square kilometer increased from about 400~500 to 4000 after Katrina and Wilma. The total area of gaps in the forest increased from about 1~2% of the total forest area to 12%. The relative contribution of hurricanes to mangrove forest disturbance in ENP is at least 2 times more than that from lightning strikes. However, hurricanes and lightning strikes disturb the mangrove forest in a related way. Most seedlings in lightning gaps survived the hurricane impact due to the protection of trees surrounding the gaps, and therefore provide an important resource for forest recovery after the hurricane. This research demonstrated that LIDAR is an effective remote sensing tool to quantify the effects of disturbances such as hurricanes and lightning strikes in the mangrove forest.
Molinari, John; Vollaro, David
Helicity was calculated in Hurricane Bonnie (1998) using tropospheric-deep dropsonde soundings from the NASA Convection and Moisture Experiment. Large helicity existed downshear of the storm center with respect to the ambient vertical wind shear. It was associated with veering, semicircular hodographs created by strong, vortex-scale, radial-vertical flow induced by the shear. The most extreme values of helicity, among the largest ever reported in the literature, occurred in the vicinity of deep convective cells in the downshear-left quadrant. These cells reached as high as 17.5 km and displayed the temporal and spatial scales of supercells. Convective available potential energy (CAPE) averaged 861 J/kg downshear, but only about one-third as large upshear. The soundings nearest the deep cells were evaluated using two empirical supercell parameters that make use of CAPE, helicity, and/or shear. These parameters supported the possible existence of supercells as a consequence of the exceptional helicity combined with moderate but sufficient CAPE. Ambient vertical wind shear exceeded 12 m/s for 30 h, yet the hurricane maintained 50 m/s maximum winds. It is hypothesized that the long-lived convective cells enabled the storm to resist the negative impact of the shear. Supercells in large-helicity, curved-hodograph environments appear to provide a useful conceptual model for intense convection in the hurricane core. Helicity calculations might also give some insight into the behavior of vortical hot towers, which share some characteristics with supercells.
Harville, Emily W; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre
We review the literature on the effects of Hurricane Katrina on perinatal health, and providing data from our own research on pregnant and postpartum women. After Katrina, obstetric, prenatal, and neonatal care was compromised in the short term, but increases in adverse birth outcomes such as preterm birth, low birthweight, and maternal complications were mostly limited to highly exposed women. Both pregnant and postpartum women had rates of post-traumatic stress disorder similar to, or lower than, others exposed to Katrina, and rates of depression similar to other pregnant and postpartum populations. Health behaviors, such as smoking and breastfeeding, may have been somewhat negatively affected by the disaster, whereas effects on nutrition were likely associated with limited time, money, and food choices, and indicated by both weight gain and loss. We conclude that, with a few specific exceptions, postdisaster concerns and health outcomes for pregnant and postpartum women were similar to those of other people exposed to Hurricane Katrina. In such situations, disaster planners and researchers should focus on providing care and support for the normal concerns of the peripartum period, such as breastfeeding, depression, and smoking cessation. Contraception needs to be available for those who do not want to become pregnant. Although additional physical and mental health care needs to be provided for the most severely exposed women and their babies, many women are capable of surviving and thriving in postdisaster environments.
....221 on Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... guidance regarding the application of Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.221, ``Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane... ML13015A688 Interim Staff Guidance-024 on Implementation of Regulatory Guide 1.221 on Design-Basis...
Galway, Gerald; Sheppard, Bruce; Wiens, John; Brown, Jean
Across Canada there have been numerous recent examples of incidents where the political and ideological interests of provincial governments have run counter to the mandates of school districts. In this pan-Canadian study, focus groups were conducted with school board trustees and school district superintendents to examine the relationships between…
This article sets out to contribute to the current debate on the transformation of educational research with regard to global transitions and challenges. Nation-centred hierarchical organizations in Europe have increasingly failed to address emergent processes. And in contrast novel forms of governance have gained prevalence in controlling…
Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2013
Congress did not enact a continuing resolution bill by midnight September 30, 2013, thereby triggering a partial government shutdown effective October 1, 2013. October 1 began the federal fiscal year 2014. Most discretionary programs, those that are subject to the annual Congressional appropriations process, will not receive 2014 funding. Most,…
Copp, James H.
Communities with a flexible, open leadership structure may weather energy booms better than communities with old-guard leadership cliques, according to a study of community governance in two small Texas towns. Although similar in location, ethnic composition, population, access to transportation, economic base, and importance in the county,…
Gorman, Hugh S; Gagnon, Valoree S; Norman, Emma S
Over the last half century, a multijurisdictional, multiscale system of governance has emerged to address concerns associated with toxic chemicals that have the capacity to bioaccumulate in organisms and biomagnify in food chains, leading to fish consumption advisories. Components of this system of governance include international conventions (such as the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants and the Minamata Convention on Mercury), laws enacted by nation states and their subjurisdictions, and efforts to adaptively manage regional ecosystems (such as the U.S.-Canadian Great Lakes). Given that many of these compounds - including mercury, industrial chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls, and pesticides such as toxaphene - circulate throughout the globe through cycles of deposition and reemission, regional efforts to eliminate the need for fish consumption advisories cannot be successful without efforts to reduce emissions everywhere in the world. This paper argues that the scientific community, by monitoring the concentrations of these compounds in the atmosphere and by modeling their fate and transport, play an important role in connecting the various jurisdictional scales of governance. In addition, the monitoring networks that this community of scientists has established can be visualized as a technology of governance essential in an era in which societies have the capacity to produce and release such chemicals on an industrial scale.
Lunin, Lois F.; And Others
Nine articles examine patterns of federal health information services including: the current Administration's policy; the history of the National Library of Medicine; Federal Health Information Clearinghouses and other unique projects; the Center for the Utilization of Technology; marketing trends at the Government Printing Office; and…
Colleges and universities should be among the world's leading institutions in the field of data governance. After all, higher education institutions are dedicated to the creation and dissemination of knowledge. Why, then, do those who work in colleges and universities often have so much difficulty corralling information about their own operations…
Zahran, Sammy; Snodgrass, Jeffrey G; Peek, Lori; Weiler, Stephan
Logistic regression and spatial analytic techniques are used to model fetal distress risk as a function of maternal exposure to Hurricane Andrew. First, monthly time series compare the proportion of infants born distressed in hurricane affected and unaffected areas. Second, resident births are analyzed in Miami-Dade and Broward counties, before, during, and after Hurricane Andrew. Third, resident births are analyzed in all Florida locales with 100,000 or more persons, comparing exposed and unexposed gravid females. Fourth, resident births are analyzed along Hurricane Andrew's path from southern Florida to northeast Mississippi. Results show that fetal distress risk increases significantly with maternal exposure to Hurricane Andrew in second and third trimesters, adjusting for known risk factors. Distress risk also correlates with the destructive path of Hurricane Andrew, with higher incidences of fetal distress found in areas of highest exposure intensity. Hurricane exposed African-American mothers were more likely to birth distressed infants. The policy implications of in utero costs of natural disaster exposure are discussed.
Shelton, Kay L.; Molinari, John
Hurricane Claudette developed from a weak vortex in 6 h as deep convection shifted from downshear into the vortex center, despite ambient vertical wind shear exceeding 10 m/s. Six hours later it weakened to a tropical storm, and 12 h after the hurricane stage a circulation center could not be found at 850 hPa by aircraft reconnaissance. At hurricane strength the vortex contained classic structure seen in intensifying hurricanes, with the exception of 7-12 C dewpoint depressions in the lower troposphere upshear of the center. These extended from the 100-km radius to immediately adjacent to the eyewall, where equivalent potential temperature gradients reached 6 K/km. The dry air was not present prior to intensification, suggesting that it was associated with vertical shear-induced subsidence upshear of the developing storm. It is argued that weakening of the vortex was driven by cooling associated with the mixing of dry air into the core, and subsequent evaporation and cold downdrafts. Evidence suggests that this mixing might have been enhanced by eyewall instabilities after the period of rapid deepening. The existence of a fragile, small, but genuinely hurricane-strength vortex at the surface for 6 h presents difficult problems for forecasters. Such a "temporary hurricane" in strongly sheared flow might require a different warning protocol than longer-lasting hurricane vortices in weaker shear.
Espinosa, F. I.; Gonzalez, A. O.; Slocum, C. J.; Schubert, W. H.
Typical hurricanes have a warm-core structure such that the warmest temperatures occur in the center of the hurricane. However, weather reconnaissance aircraft data has observed warm-rings in intense hurricanes. A warm-ring structure results when the warmest temperature anomalies occur on the outer edge of the eye. Schubert et al. (2007) suggests the Eliassen transverse circulation equation can model intense hurricanes with a warm-core structure in the upper troposphere and also a warm-ring structure in the lower. Although the thermal wind equation was used in the derivation of the transverse circulation equation, the thermal wind equation has not been used explicitly in an attempt to create such a temperature field. This study derives the thermal wind equation from the hydrostatic and the gradient wind equations to analyze the temperature, tangential velocity, and the absolute vorticity fields. Using observed hurricanes, a warm-ring structure is simulated with the thermal wind equation as the basis. With a prescribed temperature profile, the calculated tangential velocity and absolute vorticity fields resemble those of a realistic hurricane. Thus, the thermal wind equation can be used to create a realistic, intense hurricane with a warm ring structure. Schubert et al. (2007) discusses subsidence as a mechanism that leads to the warm-ring but the tangential velocity and absolute vorticity fields suggest some influence of boundary layer processes that should be explored in future research for a further understanding of warm-rings.
Krishnamurti, T. N.; Bedi, H. S.; Oosterhof, Darlene; Hardiker, Vivek
A high-resolution global model forecast of the formation of Hurricane Frederic of 1979 is analyzed by means of several diagnostic computations on the model's output history. The formation is addressed from an analysis of limited-area energetics where the growth of eddy kinetic energy is examined. The question on internal versus external forcing during the formative stage of the hurricane is explored by means of the Kuo-Eliassen framework for the radial-vertical circulation of the hurricane. The intensity of the predicted hurricane is diagnosed from a detailed angular momentum budget following the three-dimensional motion of parcels arriving at the maximum wind belt. Overall, the successful simulation of the hurricane has enabled us to make such a detailed diagnosis of the predicted hurricane at a high resolution. The principal findings of this study are that a north-south-oriented heating function maintained a zonal easterly flow that supplied energy barotropically during the growth of an African wave. The growth of eddy kinetic energy is somewhat monotonic and slow throughout the history of the computations. The initial development of the easterly wave appears to be related to the widespread weak convective heating that contributes to a covariance of heating and temperature and of temperature and vertical velocity. The hurricane development period is seen as one where both the barotropic and convective processes contribute to the growth of eddy kinetic energy.
Geisz-Everson, Marjorie A; Bennett, Marsha J; Dodd-McCue, Diane; Biddle, Chuck
The purpose of this focused ethnography was to describe the shared experiences of student registered nurse anesthetists (SRNAs) whose senior year of education and training was disrupted by Hurricane Katrina, as well as to determine the storm's psychosocial impact on them. A convenience sample of 10 former SRNAs participated in focus groups that were audiorecorded, transcribed, and qualitatively analyzed. Three major themes emerged from the study: Seriousness of Urgency, Managing Uncertainty, and Stability Equaled Relief. The themes represented how the SRNAs appraised and coped with the stressful events surrounding Hurricane Katrina. The psychosocial impact of Hurricane Katrina on the SRNAs resulted mainly in temporary increased alcohol consumption and short-term anxiety. One person started smoking. The results of this study should serve as a guide to formulate policies regarding the education of SRNAs during and immediately after a disaster and to provide a framework for future disaster studies regarding SRNAs.
In this paper, existing relevant Ethiopian government biodiversity-related policies and strategies, and mandates of various institutions prior to GSPC targets, are reviewed. Response to whether or not institutions responded to GSPC targets as the result of new policies or rebranded their work to fit within the context of existing policies and adjust their outcomes to fit into the GSPC targets is provided. The Ethiopian national report of 2009 submitted to the Convention of Biological Diversity Secretariat is reviewed and gaps analysed. The policies of the Federal government (and implementing institutions) post-GSPC so far have had only a limited impact on science, but research institutions have aligned their outputs to fit with the GSPC targets. Suggestions, conclusions and recommendations are made in order to work effectively towards the realization of the GSPC targets beyond 2010 in Ethiopia.
Huang, Y.; Weisberg, R. H.; Zheng, L.
Effects of wind input parameterizations to hurricane wave estimation are examined by using an unstructured grid, third generation wave model Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) forced by real Hurricane Ike wind field impacting the Gulf of Mexico in 2008. Experiments illustrate the default and recommended setting of wind input parameterization tend to overestimate the maximum significant wave heights about 2m in the middle of Gulf of Mexico when comparing with mooring observed data. The overestimation can be relieved by adjusting the cap value of drag coefficient or by substituting the high-wind-speed bulk formula for default low-to-moderate one. Since the significant cushion effects of coastal areas with 20m ~ 30m water depth, the overestimated waves have limited negative effects to shallower waters along beach line. Thus previous wave model results depends on low-to-moderate wind speed bulk formulas maybe still reliable in water areas shallower than 20m, but tend to overestimation in deeper waters for high wind speed conditions like hurricanes.
Frazier, Tim G.; Wood, Nathan; Yarnal, Brent; Bauer, Denise H.
Although the potential for hurricanes under current climatic conditions continue to threaten coastal communities, there is concern that climate change, specifically potential increases in sea level, could influence the impacts of future hurricanes. To examine the potential effect of sea level rise on community vulnerability to future hurricanes, we assess variations in socioeconomic exposure in Sarasota County, FL, to contemporary hurricane storm-surge hazards and to storm-surge hazards enhanced by sea level rise scenarios. Analysis indicates that significant portions of the population, economic activity, and critical facilities are in contemporary and future hurricane storm-surge hazard zones. The addition of sea level rise to contemporary storm-surge hazard zones effectively causes population and asset (infrastructure, natural resources, etc) exposure to be equal to or greater than what is in the hazard zone of the next higher contemporary Saffir–Simpson hurricane category. There is variability among communities for this increased exposure, with greater increases in socioeconomic exposure due to the addition of sea level rise to storm-surge hazard zones as one progresses south along the shoreline. Analysis of the 2050 comprehensive land use plan suggests efforts to manage future growth in residential, economic and infrastructure development in Sarasota County may increase societal exposure to hurricane storm-surge hazards.
Frazier, T.G.; Wood, N.; Yarnal, B.; Bauer, D.H.
Although the potential for hurricanes under current climatic conditions continue to threaten coastal communities, there is concern that climate change, specifically potential increases in sea level, could influence the impacts of future hurricanes. To examine the potential effect of sea level rise on community vulnerability to future hurricanes, we assess variations in socioeconomic exposure in Sarasota County, FL, to contemporary hurricane storm-surge hazards and to storm-surge hazards enhanced by sea level rise scenarios. Analysis indicates that significant portions of the population, economic activity, and critical facilities are in contemporary and future hurricane storm-surge hazard zones. The addition of sea level rise to contemporary storm-surge hazard zones effectively causes population and asset (infrastructure, natural resources, etc) exposure to be equal to or greater than what is in the hazard zone of the next higher contemporary Saffir-Simpson hurricane category. There is variability among communities for this increased exposure, with greater increases in socioeconomic exposure due to the addition of sea level rise to storm-surge hazard zones as one progresses south along the shoreline. Analysis of the 2050 comprehensive land use plan suggests efforts to manage future growth in residential, economic and infrastructure development in Sarasota County may increase societal exposure to hurricane storm-surge hazards. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
time intervals. • Improvement of avalanching mechanism, with separate criteria for critical slope at wet or dry points . A first series of (mainly 1D...Improvement of avalanching mechanism, with separate criteria for critical slope at wet or dry points . 3.3 General setup (update) The program XBeach...first term on the RHS) and current refraction (last two terms on the RHS). The wave number k is obtained from the eikonal equations: 0 0 x y k t x
Weng, Y.; Zhang, F.; Gamache, J. F.; Marks, F. D.
This study explores the feasibility and impacts of on-demand, real-time assimilation of Doppler radar observations straight from the planes with an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) to initialize a cloud-resolving hurricane prediction model. The NOAA P3 aircrafts have being flying into tropical cyclones to gather radar observations since 1994. These observations are significant in investigating and anglicizing hurricane's intensity, eye-wall structure and intensity changes, but the radar data has never been ingested into hurricane prediction models in real-time. Likely reasons are (1) insufficient model resolution due to inadequate computing resources for ingesting convective-scale details observed by the radar, (2) inadequacy of existing data assimilation method for operational models, and (3) lack of sufficient bandwidth in transmitting huge volume radar data to the ground in realtime. This work is built on our recent case studies of predicting the rapid formation and intensification of past hurricanes in assimilating both ground-base and/or airborne radial velocity into a cloud-resolving mesoscale model with EnKF. Under the auspices of NOAA Hurricane Forecasting Improvement Project (HFIP), we have access to the NSF-sponsored high-performance computing facility TACC at University of Texas at Austin that makes realtime cloud-resolving hurricane data assimilation and forecasting possible. We alleviate the requirement of large volume data transfer from the aircraft through developing a radar radial velocity data quality and thinning procedure (namely to produce superobervations or SOs) to significantly reduce the data size before being transferred. We have first conducted near realtime testing of the cloud-resolving data assimilation and forecasting with Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model using 40.5, 13.5, 4.5 and 1.5 km grid spacings and movable nested grids for Hurricanes Dolly and Fay (2008). As of today, we have successfully demonstrated the feasibility, data
Hodge, Joshua; Williams, Harry
This study uses storm surge sediment beds deposited by Hurricanes Audrey (1957), Carla (1961), Rita (2005) and Ike (2008) to investigate spatial and temporal changes in marsh sedimentation on the McFaddin National Wildlife Refuge in Southeastern Texas. Fourteen sediment cores were collected along a transect extending 1230 m inland from the Gulf coast. Storm-surge-deposited sediment beds were identified by texture, organic content, carbonate content, the presence of marine microfossils and 137Cs dating. The hurricane-derived sediment beds facilitate assessment of changes in marsh sedimentation from nearshore to inland locations and over decadal to annual timescales. Spatial variation along the transect reflects varying contributions from three prevailing sediment sources: flooding, overwash and organic sedimentation from marsh plants. Over about the last decade, hurricane overwash has been the predominant sediment source for nearshore locations because of large sediment inputs from Hurricanes Rita and Ike. Farther inland, hurricane inputs diminish and sedimentation is dominated by deposition from flood waters and a larger organic component. Temporal variations in sedimentation reflect hurricane activity, changes in marsh surface elevation and degree of compaction of marsh sediments, which is time-dependent. There was little to no marsh sedimentation in the period 2008-2014, firstly because no hurricanes impacted the study area and secondly because overwash sedimentation prior to 2008 had increased nearshore marsh surface elevations by up to 0.68 m, reducing subsequent inputs from flooding. Marsh sedimentation rates were relatively high in the period 2005-2008, averaging 2.13 cm/year and possibly reflecting sediment contributions from Hurricanes Humberto and Gustav. However, these marsh sediments are highly organic and largely uncompacted. Older, deeper marsh deposits formed between 1961 and 2005 are less organic-rich, more compacted and have an average annual
Stone, Monica H.; Cohen, Sagy
Recent tropical cyclones, like Hurricane Katrina, have been some of the worst the United States has experienced. Tropical cyclones are expected to intensify, bringing about 20 % more precipitation, in the near future in response to global climate warming. Further, global climate warming may extend the hurricane season. This study focuses on four major river basins (Neches, Pearl, Mobile, and Roanoke) in the southeastern United States that are frequently impacted by tropical cyclones. An analysis of the timing of tropical cyclones that impact these river basins found that most occur during the low-discharge season and thus rarely produce riverine flooding conditions. However, an extension of the current hurricane season of June-November could encroach upon the high-discharge seasons in these basins, increasing the susceptibility for riverine hurricane-induced flooding. Our results indicate that 28-180 % more days would be at risk of flooding from an average tropical cyclone with an extension of the hurricane season to May-December (just 2 months longer). Future research should aim to extend this analysis to all river basins in the United States that are impacted by tropical cyclones in order to provide a bigger picture of which areas are likely to experience the worst increases in flooding risk due to a probable extension of the hurricane season with expected global climate change in the near future.
Gorsky, Martin; Lock, Karen; Hogarth, Sue
This article uses history to stimulate reflection on the present opportunities and challenges for public health practice in English local government. Its motivation is the paradox that despite Department of Health policy-makers’ allusions to ‘a long and proud history’ and ‘returning public health home’ there has been no serious discussion of that past local government experience and what we might learn from it. The article begins with a short resumé of the achievements of Victorian public health in its municipal location, and then considers the extensive responsibilities that it developed for environmental, preventive and health services by the mid-twentieth century. The main section discusses the early NHS, explaining why historians see the era as one of decline for the speciality of public health, leading to the reform of 1974, which saw the removal from local government and the abolition of the Medical Officer of Health role. Our discussion focuses on challenges faced before 1974 which raise organizational and political issues relevant to local councils today as they embed new public health teams. These include the themes of leadership, funding, integrated service delivery, communication and above all the need for a coherent vision and rationale for public health action in local authorities. PMID:24472776
Gorsky, Martin; Lock, Karen; Hogarth, Sue
This article uses history to stimulate reflection on the present opportunities and challenges for public health practice in English local government. Its motivation is the paradox that despite Department of Health policy-makers' allusions to 'a long and proud history' and 'returning public health home' there has been no serious discussion of that past local government experience and what we might learn from it. The article begins with a short resumé of the achievements of Victorian public health in its municipal location, and then considers the extensive responsibilities that it developed for environmental, preventive and health services by the mid-twentieth century. The main section discusses the early NHS, explaining why historians see the era as one of decline for the speciality of public health, leading to the reform of 1974, which saw the removal from local government and the abolition of the Medical Officer of Health role. Our discussion focuses on challenges faced before 1974 which raise organizational and political issues relevant to local councils today as they embed new public health teams. These include the themes of leadership, funding, integrated service delivery, communication and above all the need for a coherent vision and rationale for public health action in local authorities.
Singh, J.; Carboni, J.V.; Shah, D.V.; White, J.M. Jr.
The ability of the US to increase coal use depends on the leadtimes required to bring from inception into operation: (1) new coal use facilities such as powerplants, industrial boilers, coke ovens, and coal-based synfuel plants; and (2) new coal facilities including surface mines, deep mines, coal preparation plants, and railroad lines. This study examines the effect of government regulations on the leadtimes for the following ten facilities: surface mines on federal land; surface mines - private surface/private coal; underground coal mines; coal preparation plants; railroad lines; coal-fired electric generating plants; coal-fired industrial facilities; coke plants; synthetic fuels; and transmission lines. Environmental activities consume a significant portion of critical path time for all facilities. The time spent for obtaining permits and licenses account for as much as 63% of total critical path time in the case of a new railroad line servicing a coal mine in the western US. For surface mines, permitting accounts for 33% of total project critical path; for underground mines, it is 43%. Permitting requires 26 and 42% of the critical paths for new industrial facilities and power plants, respectively. Long durations of critical environmental activities account for much of the uncertainty surrounding the approval of large coal projects. Government regulations have also affected the way companies conduct their business. Dealing with government regulations has become as important to the completion of new coal facilities as project financing, design, and construction.
Integrated Environmental Health Impact Assessment (IEHIA) can be considered as an element in the third phase of environmental risk management. Its focus is on providing inclusive descriptions of multiple impacts from multiple stressors in such a way that they can be evaluated against the potential societal benefits of the causes of the stressors. This paper emphasises some differences and difficulties in the integration across professional paradigms and scientific fields, across stakeholder perspectives and differences in impact indicators that emanate from these different fields and paradigms.
Integrated Environmental Health Impact Assessment (IEHIA) can be considered as an element in the third phase of environmental risk management. Its focus is on providing inclusive descriptions of multiple impacts from multiple stressors in such a way that they can be evaluated against the potential societal benefits of the causes of the stressors. This paper emphasises some differences and difficulties in the integration across professional paradigms and scientific fields, across stakeholder perspectives and differences in impact indicators that emanate from these different fields and paradigms. PMID:26703709
Rath, Barbara; Young, Elizabeth A.; Harris, Amy; Perrin, Keith; Bronfin, Daniel R.; Ratard, Raoult; VanDyke, Russell; Goldshore, Matthew; Magnus, Manya
Objectives Children and adolescents are especially vulnerable to environmental exposures and their respiratory effects. Following Hurricane Katrina in 2005, residents experienced multiple adverse environmental exposures. We characterized the association between upper respiratory symptoms (URS) and lower respiratory symptoms (LRS) and environmental exposures among children and adolescents affected by Hurricane Katrina. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study following the return of the population to New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina (October 2005 and February 2006) among a convenience sample of children and adolescents attending New Orleans health facilities. We used uni-, bi-, and multivariable analyses to describe participants, exposures, and associations with URS/LRS. Results Of 1,243 participants, 47% were Caucasian, 50% were male, and 72% were younger than 11 years of age. Multiple environmental exposures were identified during and after the storm and at current residences: roof/glass/storm damage (50%), outside mold (22%), dust (18%), and flood damage (15%). Self-reported URS and LRS (76% and 36%, respectively) were higher after the hurricane than before the hurricane (22% and 9%, respectively, p<0.0001). Roof/glass/storm damage at home was associated with URS (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15, 2.21) and LRS (AOR=1.35, 95% CI 1.01, 1.80), while mold growth at home was associated with LRS (AOR=1.47, 95% CI 1.02, 2.12). Conclusions Children and adolescents affected by Hurricane Katrina experienced environmental exposures associated with increased prevalence of reported URS and LRS. Additional research is needed to investigate the long-term health impacts of Hurricane Katrina. PMID:22043101
Díaz García, Ovel; Zavala Hidalgo, Jorge; Douillet, Pascal
Veracruz is the most populated city along the Mexican shoreline of the Gulf of Mexico and also is the country's largest commercial port. In recent years the city has been affected by hurricanes of medium intensity that have provoked human casualties, property damaged and economic loss. Two of the most recent events were hurricane Karl (2010), which caused a storm surge and severe flooding, and hurricane Ernesto (2012). The purpose of this work is to study, based on high-resolution numerical simulations, scenarios of storm surge flooding using state-of-the-art open source numerical models: the Weather, Research and Forecasting (WRF), and the coupled models ADvanced CIRCulation (ADCIRC) and Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) for weather and storm surge hindcast, respectively. We also use topography high resolution data from LIDAR and bathymetry from GEBCO 30", the Mexican Navy and nautical charts from Electrical Federal Commission. We present the validation of the models evaluating several statistical parameters against measurements from Acoustic Data Current Profilers, pressure sensors, tide gauge and meteorological stations for these events. In the case of hurricane Karl, it made landfall 15 km north of Veracruz City, reducing the maximum surge along the city shoreline. The hurricane Ernesto made landfall 200 km southeast of the city, too far to have a significant impact. We did some numerical experiments slightly changing the trajectory, reported by the best track data, for these two hurricanes with the purpose of evaluating storm surge scenarios. The results shows that the worst storm surge cases were when the tracks of this hurricanes made landfall south of the city in the range of 30 to 60 km.
Szantoi, Zoltan; Malone, Sparkle; Escobedo, Francisco; Misas, Orlando; Smith, Scot; Dewitt, Bon
Coastal communities in the southeast United States have regularly experienced severe hurricane impacts. To better facilitate recovery efforts in these communities following natural disasters, state and federal agencies must respond quickly with information regarding the extent and severity of hurricane damage and the amount of tree debris volume. A tool was developed to detect downed trees and debris volume to better aid disaster response efforts and tree debris removal. The tool estimates downed tree debris volume in hurricane affected urban areas using a Leica Airborne Digital Sensor (ADS40) and very high resolution digital images. The tool employs a Sobel edge detection algorithm combined with spectral information based on color filtering using 15 different statistical combinations of spectral bands. The algorithm identified downed tree edges based on contrasts between tree stems, grass, and asphalt and color filtering was then used to establish threshold values. Colors outside these threshold values were replaced and excluded from the detection processes. Results were overlaid and an "edge line" was placed where lines or edges from longer consecutive segments and color values within the threshold were met. Where two lines were paired within a very short distance in the scene a polygon was drawn automatically and, in doing so, downed tree stems were detected. Tree stem diameter-volume bulking factors were used to estimate post-hurricane tree debris volumes. Images following Hurricane Ivan in 2005 and Hurricane Ike in 2008 were used to assess the error of the tool by comparing downed tree counts and subsequent debris volume estimates with post-hurricane photo-interpreted downed tree counts and actual field measured estimates of downed tree debris volume. The errors associated with the use of the tool and potential applications are also presented.
Simpson, R. H.
Describes progress made in recent decades in predicting the track and landfall of hurricanes. Examines the problems of detecting, tracking, and describing tropical cyclones, and the difficulties which continue to complicate the matter of warning and evacuating coastal residents. (JR)
StenniSphere reopened Jan. 18, 2006, almost five months after Hurricane Katrina damaged the basement of the building that houses the visitor center. Thanks to the staff's careful preparations before the storm, no artifacts or exhibits were harmed.
Outside the International Space Station, cameras captured dramatic views of Hurricane Patricia at 12:15 p.m. EDT on October 23, 2015 as the mammoth system moved north at about 10 mph, heading for a...
This animation starts with an overview of North America, Central America, and the Caribbean. As the camera slowly pushes in, Hurricane Matthew begins to form. By the morning of Oct. 2, 2016, Matthe...
This animation starts with an overview of North America, Central America, and the Caribbean. As the camera slowly pushes in, Hurricane Matthew begins to form. By the morning of October 2nd, 2016 Ma...
This animation of infrared and visible images from NOAA's GOES-West satellite shows the development and movement of Hurricane Newton from Sept. 4 through Sept. 6 at 10 a.m. EDT (1400 UTC) toward Ba...
Cameras mounted on the International Space Station captured new views of Hurricane Igor heading westward over the Atlantic Ocean the morning of Sept. 13. Igor was at Category 4 strength with maximu...
According to Entergy New Orleans, electricity has been restored to the vast majority of residents and businesses in the city, except in a few isolated areas that sustained severe devastation from Hurricane Katrina.
This video explains what happens as a hurricaneâs life cycle nears itsfinish. Here we learn about an important concept known as the BermudaHigh. This atmospheric phenomenon has a big effect on ...
The TRMM satellite flew over Hurricane Amanda on Tuesday, May 27 at 1049 UTC (6:49 a.m. EDT) and captured rainfall rates and cloud height data that was used to create this 3-D simulated flyby. Cred...
This data visualization resumes where the visualization "GPM Captures Hurricane Matthew Over Haiti" leaves off. After dissolving away GPM's DPR and GPROF data over Haiti on October 3rd, 2016, we fo...
Hurricane Sandy was viewed Monday morning from the International Space Station as it orbited 260 miles above the Atlantic Ocean. Sandy had sustained winds of 90 miles an hour as the station passed ...
The International Space Station flew high above Hurricane Sandy just before 12 p.m. CDT Thursday. The storm was located about 85 miles south-southeast of Great Exuma Island. The stormâs maximum s...
An animation of satellite observations from Oct. 26-29, 2012, shows Hurricane Sandy move along the U.S. East coast and into the Mid-Atlantic and northeastern U.S. Sandy had still not made landfall ...
Hurricane Sandy was viewed Monday morning from the International Space Station as it orbited 260 miles above the Atlantic Ocean. Sandy had sustained winds of 90 miles an hour as the station passed ...
The eye of Hurricane Earl in the Atlantic Ocean is captured by a videographer aboard NASAs DC-8 research aircraft on Monday, Aug. 30, 2010. The DC-8 passed through the eye of the storm six times j...
Ransom, Clarice N.
Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. More than one-half of the U.S. population lives within 50 miles of a coast, and this number is increasing. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is one of the largest providers of geologic and hydrologic information in the world. Federal, State, and local partners depend on the USGS science to know how to prepare for hurricane hazards and reduce losses from future hurricanes. The USGS works closely with other bureaus within the Department of the Interior, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the Environmental Protection Agency, and many State and local agencies to identify their information needs before, during, and after hurricanes.
This animation of NOAA's GOES-West satellite imagery from Aug. 27 to Aug. 30, 2016, shows the movement of Category 4 Hurricane Madeline approaching Hawaii in the Central Pacific Ocean and Category ...
Picture yourself sitting in space watching the highlights of the 2009's Atlantic Ocean hurricane season in fast-forward. This latest animation from NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adm...
Hurricane Matthew dropped a lot of rain, caused flooding and deaths in the state of North Carolina. Flooding is still widespread in North Carolina. Some rivers in North Carolina such as the Tar and...
Rohli, Robert V.; Keppler, Kurt J.; Winkler, Daniel L.
Previous research suggests that the far-reaching impacts of hurricanes include the academic performance of students. In an examination of such impacts, we found a trend toward self-perceived decline in some performance indicators relative to students at peer universities. However, few longitudinal impacts were found, perhaps because of the sense…
Hertel, O.; Skjøth, C. A.; Reis, S.; Bleeker, A.; Harrison, R.; Cape, J. N.; Fowler, D.; Skiba, U.; Simpson, D.; Jickells, T.; Kulmala, M.; Gyldenkærne, S.; Sørensen, L. L.; Erisman, J. W.; Sutton, M. A.
Reactive nitrogen (Nr) compounds have different fates in the atmosphere due to differences in governing processes of physical transport, deposition and chemical transformation. Nr compounds addressed here include reduced nitrogen (NHx: ammonia (NH3) and its reaction product ammonium (NH4+)), oxidized nitrogen (NOy: nitrogen monoxide (NO) + nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and their reaction products) as well as organic nitrogen compounds (organic N). Pollution abatement strategies need to take into account these differences in the governing processes of these compounds when assessing their impact on ecosystem services, biodiversity, human health and climate. NOx (NO + NO2) emitted from traffic affects human health in urban areas where the presence of buildings increases the residence time in streets. In urban areas this leads to enhanced exposure of the population to NOx concentrations. NOx emissions have little impact on nearby ecosystems because of the small dry deposition rates of NOx. These compounds need to be converted into nitric acid (HNO3) before removal through deposition is efficient. HNO3 sticks quickly to any surface and is thereby either dry deposited or incorporated into aerosols as nitrate (NO3-). In contrast to NOx compounds, NH3 has potentially high impacts on ecosystems near the main agricultural sources of NH3 because of its large ground-level concentrations along with large dry deposition rates. Aerosol phase NH4+ and NO3- contribute significantly to background PM2.5 and PM10 (mass of aerosols with a diameter of less than 2.5 and 10 μm, respectively) with an impact on radiation balance as well as potentially on human health. Little is known quantitatively and qualitatively about organic N in the atmosphere, other than that it contributes a significant fraction of wet-deposited N, and is present in both gaseous and particulate forms in the atmosphere. Further studies are needed to characterize the sources, air chemistry and removal rates of organic N
Rossi Idarraga, Esteban
This dissertation examines the ecological effects of hurricane Felix (2007) in Northern Nicaragua as well as the socio-political factors that influenced forest management efforts in hurricane impacted locations. Specifically, this research focused on the following questions: first, what were the regional damage patterns caused by hurricane Felix on the forests of Northern Nicaragua? Second, what stand and tree attributes explain observed post-hurricane damage patterns? And, third, why were post-hurricane management efforts unsuccessful? The first dissertation article characterizes the intensity and spatial distribution of forest damage after hurricane Felix using satellite imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor and aerial photographs. Results indicated that Broadleaf forests experienced larger damage (>75% trees blown down) than Pine forest, and that Enhanced Vegetation Index data (EVI), obtained from the MODIS sensor, can adequately depict post-hurricane damage in tropical forests. The agreement between the obtained EVI damage map and the reference data set ranged from 91% in high-damage locations to 85% in low-damage locations, with 86% overall agreement. The second dissertation article describes the relationship between hurricane damage patterns and ecological variables at the local level. Specifically, it characterizes the relationship between tree-and-stand attributes (i.e. DBH, height, density, basal area) and wind damage, using field data. Findings indicate that tree attributes such as DBH and height strongly influenced the amount and type of wind damage and that stand attributes such as maximum canopy height and distance to the hurricane path were also predictive of the amount of damage. Observed differences in damage patterns among broadleaf and pine forests were strongly correlated with the height to diameter ratio (H/D). Field observations showed that while post-hurricane regeneration was abundant in broadleaf
Mrowiec, Agnieszka A.; Pauluis, Olivier; Zhang, Fuqing
Hurricanes, like many other atmospheric flows, are associated with turbulent motions over a wide range of scales. Here the authors adapt a new technique based on the isentropic analysis of convective motions to study the thermodynamic structure of the overturning circulation in hurricane simulations. This approach separates the vertical mass transport in terms of the equivalent potential temperature of air parcels. In doing so, one separates the rising air parcels at high entropy from the subsiding air at low entropy. This technique filters out oscillatory motions associated with gravity waves and separates convective overturning from the secondary circulation. This approach is applied here to study the flow of an idealized hurricane simulation with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model. The isentropic circulation for a hurricane exhibits similar characteristics to that of moist convection, with a maximum mass transport near the surface associated with a shallow convection and entrainment. There are also important differences. For instance, ascent in the eyewall can be readily identified in the isentropic analysis as an upward mass flux of air with unusually high equivalent potential temperature. The isentropic circulation is further compared here to the Eulerian secondary circulation of the simulated hurricane to show that the mass transport in the isentropic circulation is much larger than the one in secondary circulation. This difference can be directly attributed to the mass transport by convection in the outer rainband and confirms that, even for a strongly organized flow like a hurricane, most of the atmospheric overturning is tied to the smaller scales.
and110 mph (154-177 km/hr). A storm surge is a rise in water level above the predicted astronomical tide as associated with a tropical storm...and includes preliminary or unverified values. Figure 4 (left). Times series of observed water level and predicted ( astronomical ) tide at the... photography ,” Shore & Beach, 77(2). Williams, A.M., R.A. Feagin, W.K, Smith, and N.L. Jackson 2009. “Ecosystem impacts of Hurricane Ike on Galveston
Toriello, Paul J.; Pedersen-Wasson, Else; Crisham, Erin M.; Ellis, Robert; Morse, Patricia; Morse, Edward V.
Hurricane Katrina's impact on the operations of the largest residential, addiction treatment organization in New Orleans is described. Pre- and post-Katrina experiences are discussed and augmented with organizational performance data. Suggestions for future research are provided. (Contains 4 figures.)
The massive destruction brought by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita also impacted the many chemical plants and refineries in the region. The achievement of this rapid analysis capability highlights the advancement of this technology for air quality assessment and monitoring. Case st...
Amaral-Zettler, Linda A.; Rocca, Jennifer D.; LaMontagne, Michael G.; Dennett, Mark R.; Gast, Rebecca J.
Hurricanes have the potential to alter the structures of coastal ecosystems and generate pathogen-laden floodwaters that threaten public health. To examine the impact of hurricanes on urban systems, we compared microbial community structures in samples collected after Hurricane Katrina and before and after Hurricane Rita. We extracted environmental DNA and sequenced small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene clone libraries to survey microbial communities in floodwater, water and sediment samples collected from Lake Charles, Lake Pontchartrain, the 17th Street and Industrial Canals in New Orleans and raw sewage. Correspondence Analysis showed that microbial communities associated with sediments formed one cluster while communities associated with lake and Industrial Canal water formed a second. Communities associated with water from the 17th Street Canal and floodwaters collected in New Orleans showed similarity to communities in raw sewage and contained a number of sequences associated with possible pathogenic microbes. This suggests that a distinct microbial community developed in floodwaters following Hurricane Katrina and that microbial community structures as a whole might be sensitive indicators of ecosystem health and serve as “sentinels” of water quality in the environment. PMID:19174873
Stockdon, Hilary F.; Doran, Kara S.; Thompson, David M.; Sopkin, Kristin L.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Sallenger, Asbury H.
Sandy beaches provide a natural barrier between the ocean and inland communities, ecosystems, and resources. However, these dynamic environments move and change in response to winds, waves, and currents. During a hurricane, these changes can be large and sometimes catastrophic. High waves and storm surge act together to erode beaches and inundate low-lying lands, putting inland communities at risk. A decade of USGS research on storm-driven coastal change hazards has provided the data and modeling capabilities to identify areas of our coastline that are likely to experience extreme and potentially hazardous erosion during a hurricane. This report defines hurricane-induced coastal erosion hazards for sandy beaches along the U.S. Gulf of Mexico coastline. The analysis is based on a storm-impact scaling model that uses observations of beach morphology combined with sophisticated hydrodynamic models to predict how the coast will respond to the direct landfall of category 1-5 hurricanes. Hurricane-induced water levels, due to both surge and waves, are compared to beach and dune elevations to determine the probabilities of three types of coastal change: collision (dune erosion), overwash, and inundation. As new beach morphology observations and storm predictions become available, this analysis will be updated to describe how coastal vulnerability to storms will vary in the future.
Amaral-Zettler, Linda A; Rocca, Jennifer D; Lamontagne, Michael G; Dennett, Mark R; Gast, Rebecca J
Hurricanes have the potential to alter the structures of coastal ecosystems and generate pathogen-laden floodwaters thatthreaten public health. To examine the impact of hurricanes on urban systems, we compared microbial community structures in samples collected after Hurricane Katrina and before and after Hurricane Rita. We extracted environmental DNA and sequenced small-subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene clone libraries to survey microbial communities in floodwater, water, and sediment samples collected from Lake Charles, Lake Pontchartrain, the 17th Street and Industrial Canals in New Orleans, and raw sewage. Correspondence analysis showed that microbial communities associated with sediments formed one cluster while communities associated with lake and Industrial Canal water formed a second. Communities associated with water from the 17th Street Canal and floodwaters collected in New Orleans showed similarity to communities in raw sewage and contained a number of sequences associated with possible pathogenic microbes. This suggests that a distinct microbial community developed in floodwaters following Hurricane Katrina and that microbial community structures as a whole might be sensitive indicators of ecosystem health and serve as "sentinels" of water quality in the environment.
Mallela, J; Crabbe, M J C
Knowledge of coral recruitment patterns helps us understand how reefs react following major disturbances and provides us with an early warning system for predicting future reef health problems. We have reconstructed and interpreted historical and modern-day recruitment patterns, using a combination of growth modelling and in situ recruitment experiments, in order to understand how hurricanes, storms and bleaching events have influenced coral recruitment on the Caribbean coastline of Tobago. Whilst Tobago does not lie within the main hurricane belt results indicate that regional hurricane events negatively impact coral recruitment patterns in the Southern Caribbean. In years following hurricanes, tropical storms and bleaching events, coral recruitment was reduced when compared to normal years (p=0.016). Following Hurricane Ivan in 2004 and the 2005-2006 bleaching event, coral recruitment was markedly limited with only 2% (n=6) of colonies estimated to have recruited during 2006 and 2007. Our experimental results indicate that despite multiple large-scale disturbances corals are still recruiting on Tobago's marginal reef systems, albeit in low numbers.
Deitz, R.; Christian, J.; Wright, G.; Fang, N.; Bedient, P.
In conjunction with the SSPEED Center, large rainfall events in the upper Gulf of Mexico are being studied in an effort to help design a surge gate to protect the Houston Ship Channel during hurricane events. The ship channel is the world's second largest petrochemical complex and the Coast Guard estimates that a one-month closure would have a $60 billion dollar impact on the national economy. In this effort, statistical design storms, such as the 24-hour PMP, as well as historical storms, like Hurricane Ike, Hurricane Katrina, and Hurricane Rita, are being simulated in a hydrologic/hydraulic model using radar and rain gauge data. VfloTM, a distributed hydrologic model, is being used to quantify the effect that storm size, intensity, and location has on timing and peak flows in the in the upper drainage area. These hydrographs were input to a hydraulic model with various storm surges from Galveston Bay. Results indicate that there is a double peak phenomenon with flows from the west draining days earlier than flows from the north. With storm surge typically lasting 36-48 hours, this indicates the flows from the west are interacting with the storm surge, whereas flows from the north would arrive once the storm surge is receding. Gate operations were optimized in the model to account for the relative timing of upland runoff and hurricane surge, and to quantify the capability of the gate structure to protect the Ship Channel industry.
Shen, Bo-Wen; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Chern, Jiun-Dar
Improving our understanding of hurricane inter-annual variability and the impact of climate change (e.g., doubling CO2 and/or global warming) on hurricanes brings both scientific and computational challenges to researchers. As hurricane dynamics involves multiscale interactions among synoptic-scale flows, mesoscale vortices, and small-scale cloud motions, an ideal numerical model suitable for hurricane studies should demonstrate its capabilities in simulating these interactions. The newly-developed multiscale modeling framework (MMF, Tao et al., 2007) and the substantial computing power by the NASA Columbia supercomputer show promise in pursuing the related studies, as the MMF inherits the advantages of two NASA state-of-the-art modeling components: the GEOS4/fvGCM and 2D GCEs. This article focuses on the computational issues and proposes a revised methodology to improve the MMF's performance and scalability. It is shown that this prototype implementation enables 12-fold performance improvements with 364 CPUs, thereby making it more feasible to study hurricane climate.
Spiller, David A; Schoener, Thomas W
Major abiotic disturbance can be an important factor influencing food-web dynamics, particularly in areas impacted by the recent increase in hurricane activity. We present a unique set of data on key food-web processes occurring on 10 small islands for three relatively calm years and then four subsequent years during which two hurricanes passed directly over the study site. Herbivory, as measured by leaf damage, was 3.2 times higher in the year after the first hurricane (2000) than in the previous year and was 1.7 times higher in the year after the second hurricane (2002) than in 2001. The effect of a top predator (the lizard, Anolis sagrei) on herbivory strengthened continuously after the first hurricane and overall was 2.4 times stronger during the disturbance period than before. Overall abundance of lizards was 30% lower during the disturbance period than before, and abundances of web spiders and hymenopteran parasitoids were 66% and 59% lower, respectively. We suggest that increased herbivory observed on all islands was caused, at least in part, by the overall reduction in predation by both lizards and arthropods, whereas magnification of the lizard effect on herbivory was caused by reduced compensatory predation by arthropods.
Merchant, Joshua D.
Competition for philanthropic dollars has escalated in recent years, particularly in higher education. A new type of charitable giving--venture philanthropy--has emerged and is impacting both educational policy and practice. Venture philanthropy involves donors using business models, championed practices of venture capitalists, and decision making…
Hangartner, Judith; Svaton, Carla Jana
This article reviews the impact of discourses on "New Public Management" (NPM) on compulsory schooling in Switzerland during the last two decades and traces its implementation in the Canton of Bern. The analysis suggests that while NPM reformers initially promoted increased school autonomy, the introduction of market elements and school…
Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, Washington, DC.
The paper summarizes the results of an analysis of recently issued Census data. Examining the anti-poverty effectiveness of cash and non-cash benefit programs from 1979 to 1986, the analysis focuses on the impacts of those programs on families with children, the group whose poverty rate has risen most rapidly since 1979. The data reveal that…
The impact of national education policies on programme design practice in post-compulsory education tends to be marginalised in scholarly literature. This paper reviews and analyses the literature to explore how neo-liberalist discourses introduced in tertiary education and qualifications policies in New Zealand since 1989 continue to influence…
Mutter, J. C.; Mara, V.; Jayaprakash, S.; None
Hurricane Katrina was one of the highest mortality disasters in US history. Typical hurricanes of the same strength take very few lives. Katrina's mortality is exceeded only by the so-called Galveston Flood (a hurricane) of 1900 that occurred at a time when forecasting was poor and evacuation was possible only by train or horse. The levee failures in New Orleans were a major contributing factor unique to Katrina. An examination of the characteristics of mortality may give insight into the cause of the great scope of the tragedy and the special vulnerability of those who died. We examine the spatial aspects of mortality. The locations of deceased victims were matched with victim information including age, race and gender for approximately 800 victims (data from Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals). From this we can analyze for spatial clustering of mortality. We know that Katrina took a particularly heavy toll on the elderly so we can analyze, for instance, whether the elderly were more likely to die in some locations than in others. Similarly, we analyze for gender and race against age (dividing age into five groups this gives 20 categories) as a factory in the geographic distribution of mortality as a way to recover measures of vulnerability. We can also correlate the spatial characteristics of mortality with underlying causes that might contribute to vulnerability. Data is available at a census block level on household income, poverty rates, education, home ownership, car ownership and a variety of other factors that can be correlated with the spatial mortality data. This allows for a multi-parameter estimation of factors that govern mortality in this unusually high mortality event.
Doran, Kelly M; McCormack, Ryan P; Johns, Eileen L; Carr, Brendan G; Smith, Silas W; Goldfrank, Lewis R; Lee, David C
Hurricane Sandy struck New York City on October 29, 2012, causing not only a large amount of physical damage, but also straining people's health and disrupting health care services throughout the city. In prior research, we determined that emergency department (ED) visits from the most vulnerable hurricane evacuation flood zones in New York City increased after Hurricane Sandy for several medical diagnoses, but also for the diagnosis of homelessness. In the current study, we aimed to further explore this increase in ED visits for homelessness after Hurricane Sandy's landfall. We performed an observational before-and-after study using an all-payer claims database of ED visits in New York City to compare the demographic characteristics, insurance status, geographic distribution, and health conditions of ED patients with a primary or secondary ICD-9 diagnosis of homelessness or inadequate housing in the first week after Hurricane Sandy's landfall versus the baseline weekly average in 2012 prior to Hurricane Sandy. We found statistically significant increases in ED visits for diagnosis codes of homelessness or inadequate housing in the week after Hurricane Sandy's landfall. Those accessing the ED for homelessness or inadequate housing were more often elderly and insured by Medicare after versus before the hurricane. Secondary diagnoses among those with a primary ED diagnosis of homelessness or inadequate housing also differed after versus before Hurricane Sandy. These observed differences in the demographic, insurance, and co-existing diagnosis profiles of those with an ED diagnosis of homelessness or inadequate housing before and after Hurricane Sandy suggest that a new population cohort-potentially including those who had lost their homes as a result of storm damage-was accessing the ED for homelessness or other housing issues after the hurricane. Emergency departments may serve important public health and disaster response roles after a hurricane, particularly for
Pita, G. L.; Gunasekera, R.; Ishizawa, O. A.
Hurricane and tropical storm activity in Central America has consistently caused over the past decades thousands of casualties, significant population displacement, and substantial property and infrastructure losses. As a component to estimate future potential losses, we present a new regional probabilistic hurricane hazard model for Central America. Currently, there are very few openly available hurricane hazard models for Central America. This resultant hazard model would be used in conjunction with exposure and vulnerability components as part of a World Bank project to create country disaster risk profiles that will assist to improve risk estimation and provide decision makers with better tools to quantify disaster risk. This paper describes the hazard model methodology which involves the development of a wind field model that simulates the gust speeds at terrain height at a fine resolution. The HURDAT dataset has been used in this study to create synthetic events that assess average hurricane landfall angles and their variability at each location. The hazard model also then estimates the average track angle at multiple geographical locations in order to provide a realistic range of possible hurricane paths that will be used for risk analyses in all the Central-American countries. This probabilistic hurricane hazard model is then also useful for relating synthetic wind estimates to loss and damage data to develop and calibrate existing empirical building vulnerability curves. To assess the accuracy and applicability, modeled results are evaluated against historical events, their tracks and wind fields. Deeper analyses of results are also presented with a special reference to Guatemala. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this paper are entirely those of the authors. They do not necessarily represent the views of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/World Bank and its affiliated organizations, or those of the
Rateau, Margaret R
Literature suggests that survivors of catastrophic loss may suffer long-term emotional damage. This paper presents a secondary data analysis from the ABC News Hurricane Katrina Poll conducted in August, 2006. Following analyses, a significantly higher percentage of women (44%) and those who experienced residential damage (66.7%) reported long-term negative impact on emotional well-being. Overall, 70.3% of Katrina survivors reported a strengthening in fellow man following the disaster. These results may serve as beginning evidence for appropriate identification and implementation of mental health support for those most in need following disaster.
Hart, R. E.
is far greater than that seen for ensemble simulations of other New England hurricanes (e.g., Donna, Gloria, Bob, Floyd). Landfall timing is approximately nine hours late (the actual storm landfalls 9 hours earlier than the model forecast). This timing bias is not only consistent with operational forecasts of the prior mentioned storms, but also with a nightmare scenario where emergency preparedness and evacuations are not completed before the storm makes landfall at an intensity and speed likely in doubt based upon long-term climatology. The talk concludes with preliminary comparisons to Hurricane Sandy, in terms of structure, predictability, and impact.
Negri, Andrew J.; Burkardt, Nina; Golden, Joseph H.; Halverson, Jeffrey B.; Huffman, George J.; Larsen, Matthew C.; McGinley, John A.; Updike, Randall G.; Verdin, James P.; Wieczorek, Gerald F.
In August 2004, representatives from NOAA, NASA, the USGS, and other government agencies convened in San Juan, Puerto Rim for a workshop to discuss a proposed research project called the Hurricane-Flood-Landslide Continuum (HFLC). The essence of the HFLC is to develop and integrate tools across disciplines to enable the issuance of regional guidance products for floods and landslides associated with major tropical rain systems, with sufficient lead time that local emergency managers can protect vulnerable populations and infrastructure. All three lead agencies are independently developing precipitation-flood-debris flow forecasting technologies, and all have a history of work on natural hazards both domestically and overseas. NOM has the capability to provide tracking and prediction of storm rainfall, trajectory and landfall and is developing flood probability and magnTtude capabilities. The USGS has the capability to evaluate the ambient stability of natural and man-made landforms, to assess landslide susceptibilities for those landforms, and to establish probabilities for initiation of landslides and debris flows. Additionally, the USGS has well-developed operational capacity for real-time monitoring and reporting of streamflow across distributed networks of automated gaging stations (http://water.usgs.gov/waterwatch/). NASA has the capability to provide sophisticated algorithms for satellite remote sensing of precipitation, land use, and in the future, soil moisture. The Workshop sought to initiate discussion among three agencies regarding their specific and highly complimentary capabilities. The fundamental goal of the Workshop was to establish a framework that will leverage the strengths of each agency. Once a prototype system is developed for example, in relatively data-rich Puerto Rim, it could be adapted for use in data-poor, low-infrastructure regions such as the Dominican Republic or Haiti. This paper provides an overview of the Workshop s goals
Begg, C.; Walker, G.
CapHaz-Net - capacity building for natural hazards in Europe: towards more resilient societies - sees efforts to reduce vulnerability to natural hazards as a social endeavor. One of the findings from this project is the importance of as well as the advantages and pitfalls of participation within the natural hazard management process. Although participation is seen to be important it is still only a small part of the overall management process. However, as European societies see shifts in risk governance from the state to the local level, how are these participation processes likely to change? This paper takes these findings and looks at England as a case study. This case study focuses on the Big Society which promises to be the change that will remedy what Prime Minister David Cameron sees as a broken society. The idea has been put into practice through the Localism Act. The Act seeks not to totally repeal state control but to make decision-making processes more democratic. This includes less bureaucracy for local government to deal with and more space for innovation when dealing with local issues and support for volunteers, mutuals, co-ops, charities and social enterprises to get involved in decision-making and provision of services. But how is this shift going to be everything that it promises to be? And, what does this shift mean for flood risk management? Moreover, how are local people engaged to become involved in shaping the decisions that affect them? By conducting interviews with key stakeholders, this research aims at gaining an understanding of forms of participation that exist in the British context and the public reaction to such opportunities. In turn, this research aims to understand the boundaries of localism in regards to the delivery of flood risk management.
analysis, and corporate finance to provide an acceptable framework for the desired analysis. 9 2.2.1. Project Selection and Study Objective...statistics and calculate measures such as those used in corporate finance . These measures of impact offer a basis for comparison to some degree...estimation are greater than those needed for corporate finance measures. The latter require fewer and somewhat less precise individual (annual) values
Vigh, Jonathan L.
This dissertation consists of three distinct studies which investigate aspects of eye formation. The first study reviews eye phenomenon in a variety of vortices ranging from simple vortices to the menagerie of geophysical vortices, emphasizing similarities and differences to the eyes formed in hurricanes. The hurricane eye is found to be a paradoxical structure imposed by conservation of angular momentum and the boundaries of the vortex. A comprehensive definition for hurricane eye formation is proposed and various eye formation mechanisms are summarized. The next study presents a simple theoretical argument to isolate the conditions under which a tropical cyclone can rapidly develop a warm-core thermal structure and subsequently approach a steady state. The theoretical argument is based on the balanced vortex model and, in particular, on the associated transverse circulation equation and the geopotential tendency equation. The transverse circulation and the temperature tendency in a tropical vortex depend not only on the diabatic forcing, but also on the spatial distributions of the static stability, the baroclinity, and the inertial stability. The vortex response to diabatic heating depends critically on whether the heating occurs in the low inertial stability region outside the radius of maximum wind or in the high inertial stability region inside the radius of maximum wind. This result suggests that rapid intensification is favored for storms which have at least some of the eyewall convection inside the radius of maximum wind. The development of an eye partially removes diabatic heating from the high inertial stability region of the storm center, yet rapid intensification may continue if the eyewall heating continues to become more efficient. As the warm core matures and static stability increases over the inner core, conditions there become less favorable for deep upright convection and the storm tends to approach a steady state. The final study characterizes
Osuagwu, Denis Ahamarula
The United States Congress passed the Energy Policy Act of 1978 to promote ethanol production and reduce American dependence on foreign oil. The provision of subsidies in the act is indicative of the importance of energy in the economy. America needs a national energy policy that is economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable. Considering the importance of these needs, this study examines (a) the implementation of the Energy Policy Act of 1978 in regard to government subsidies and its effect on ethanol production, (b) the effect of gasoline consumption and cost on ethanol production, (c) the effect of corn production and price on ethanol fuel, and (d) the role of mandates and global crises on ethanol production. Secondary qualitative and quantitative data collected from various sources in 1978 through 2005 study the effect of ethanol subsidies on ethanol production. An autoregression error model is used to estimate the relevance of the explanatory variables on variations in ethanol production. The following are major study findings: (1) there is a positive correlation between corn production and ethanol production, is statistically significant; (2) government subsidies have a statistically significant positive correlation with ethanol production; (3) oil import has a statistically significant positive correlation with ethanol production, but has not contributed to a reduction the quantity of imported oil; (4) the price of corn has a statistically significant inverse relationship with ethanol production; (5) though not statistically significant, the price per barrel of oil is inversely related to ethanol production; (6) the budget surplus or deficit is associated with ethanol production; and (7) advocacy and lobbying for renewable fuel have encouraged support of ethanol production. The findings also show that global crises in the oil producing regions tend to influence the passage of favorable legislation for ethanol production. Furthermore, the
Eakins, Benjamin James
Natural disasters can be very devastating to the public during their impact phase. After a natural disaster impacts a region, the response and recovery phases begin immediately. Weather conditions may interrupt emergency response and recovery in the days following the disaster. This study analyzes the climatology of weather conditions during the response and recovery phases of hurricanes and tornadoes to understand how weather may impact both environment and societal needs. Using specific criteria, 66 tornadoes and 16 hurricane cases were defined. National Weather Service (NWS) recognized weather stations were used to provide temperature, precipitation, snowfall, relative humidity, wind speed, and wind direction data. Regional and temporal groups were defined for tornado cases, but only one group was defined for hurricanes. By applying statistical analysis to weather observations taken in the week following the disasters, a climatology was developed for the response and recovery phase. Tornado and hurricane post-disaster climate closely mimicked their synoptic climatology with cooler and drier weather prevailing in days 2-4 after a disaster until the next weather system arrived about 5 days later. Winter tornadoes trended to occur in the Southeast and were associated with more extreme temperature differences than in other regions and season. The results of this study may help governmental and non-governmental organizations prepare for weather conditions during the post-disaster phase.
The coexistence of hurricanes, coral reefs, and rainforests in the Caribbean demonstrates that highly structured ecosystems with great diversity can flourish in spite of recurring exposure to intense destructive energy. Coral reefs develop in response to wave energy and resist hurricanes largely by virtue of their structural strength. Limited fetch also protects some reefs from fully developed hurricane waves. While storms may produce dramatic local reef damage, they appear to have little impact on the ability of coral reefs to provide food or habitat for fish and other animals. Rainforests experience an enormous increase in wind energy during hurricanes with dramatic structural changes in the vegetation. The resulting changes in forest microclimate are larger than those on reefs and the loss of fruit, leaves, cover, and microclimate has a great impact on animal populations. Recovery of many aspects of rainforest structure and function is rapid, though there may be long-term changes in species composition. While resistance and repair have maintained reefs and rainforests in the past, human impacts may threaten their ability to survive.
Objectives The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of the corporate governance of pharmaceutical companies on research and development (R&D) investment. Methods The period of the empirical analysis is from 2000 to 2012. Financial statements and comments in general, and internal transactions were extracted from TS-2000 of the Korea Listed Company Association. Sample firms were those that belong to the medical substance and drug manufacturing industries. Ultimately, 786 firm-year data of 81 firms were included in the sample (unbalanced panel data). Results The shareholding ratio of major shareholders and foreigners turned out to have a statistically significant influence on R&D investment (p < 0.05). No statistical significance was found in the shareholding ratio of institutional investors and the ratio of outside directors. Conclusion The higher the shareholding ratio of the major shareholders, the greater the R&D investment. There will be a need to establish (or switch to) a holding company structure. Holding companies can directly manage R&D in fields with high initial risks, and they can diversify these risks. The larger the number of foreign investors, the greater the R&D investment, indicating that foreigners directly or indirectly impose pressure on a manager to make R&D investments that bring long-term benefits. PMID:26473092
The ability of the US to increase coal use depends on the leadtimes required to bring from inception into operation: (1) new coal use facilities such as powerplants, industrial boilers, coke ovens, and coal-based synfuel plants; and (2) new coal facilities including surface mines, deep mines, coal preparation plants, and railroad lines. This study examines the effect of government regulations on the leadtimes for the following ten facilities: surface mines on federal land; surface mines - private surface/private coal; underground coal mines; coal preparation plants; railroad lines; coal-fired electric generating plants; coal-fired industrial facilities; coke plants; synthetic fuels; and transmission lines. These appendices contain summaries of legislation affecting the above coal facilities. Discussed are: the Clean Air Act; National Environmental Policy Act; Federal Coal Leasing Amendments Act; Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act; Federal Land Policy and Management Act; River and Harbors Act; Federal Mine Health and Safety Amendments Act; Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act; National Historic Preservation Act; Endangered Species Act; the Clear Water Act; and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. (DMC)