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Sample records for hussar tetsuji sato

  1. Information about Tests from Sato's S-P Chart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinero, Thomas E.; Blixt, Sonia L.

    1988-01-01

    Takahiro Sato, a Japanese engineer, has developed a method to study the composition of an objective test by finding out how individual students are responding to the test's items and by summarizing this information in a single index. The Student-Problem Chart is discussed. (MLW)

  2. Denker-Sato type Markov chains and Harnack inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Qi-Rong; Wang, Xiang-Yang

    2015-10-01

    In ([DS1], [DS2], [DS3]), Denker and Sato studied a Markov chain on the finite words space of the Sierpinski gasket (SG). They showed that the Martin boundary is homeomorphic to the SG. Recently, Lau and Wang (2015 Math. Z. 280 401-20) showed that the homeomorphism holds for an iterated function system with the open set condition provided that the transition probability on the finite words space is of DS-type. In this work, we continue studying this kind of transition probability on the unit interval. Using matrix expressions, we obtain a formula to calculate the Green function. By the ergodic arguments for non-negative matrices, we find that the Martin boundary is homeomorphic to the unit interval or the union of the unit interval and a countable set. This gives a good illustration for the results in Lau and Wang (2015 Math. Z. 280 401-20).

  3. An Initial Look at the Validity of Diagnoses Based on Sato's Caution Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blixt, Sonya L.; Dinero, Thomas E.

    1985-01-01

    Sato's Caution Index is a method of analyzing item response patterns independently of total test score to provide diagnostic information about students. This research supports the validity of the diagnostic interpretations of the Index when compared to graduate students' self evaluation. (Author/BS)

  4. Monochromatic observations of Comet Tago-Sato-Kosaka 1969g /1969IX/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahe, J.; Mccracken, C. M.; Hallam, K. L.; Donn, B. D.

    1976-01-01

    Isophotes have been determined from 10 narrow-band filter photographs of Comet Tago-Sato-Kosaka 1969g (1969IX) taken between Feb. 11 and 14, 1970. The five interference filters used were centered on the CN band sequence at 3383A, the C2 band sequence at 4737A and 5165A, the C3 sequence at 4050A, and the continuum at 5300A. Gradients of intensity in various directions from the nucleus have been derived from the isophotes.

  5. Performance Comparison of Variable Step Size Techniques of Sato and Godard-Based Blind Equalizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suthendran, K.; Arivoli, T.

    2015-04-01

    The modern digital high speed wireless communication system demands quick convergence rate and low steady state error. The balancing between the demands can be achieved by opting step size. Thus, it is essential to define new algorithms to equalize channels and mitigate noise in communications. It is renowned that time varying step size blind equalization technique can speed up the convergence rate and minimize the misadjustment. This work presents a variable step size (VSS) approach based on godard blind equalization algorithm to resolve the conflict between the convergence rate and precision of the fixed step-size godard algorithm. The results of this projected approach is compared with the existing variable step size sato algorithm for a pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) input symbol.

  6. Use of Sato's curved laryngoscope and an insulated-tip knife for endoscopic incisional therapy of esophageal web.

    PubMed

    Ohtaka, Masahiko; Kobayashi, Shouji; Yoshida, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Tatsuya; Uetake, Tomoyosi; Sato, Tadashi; Hayashi, Akira; Kanai, Mari; Yamamoto, Takanori; Hatsushika, Kyosuke; Masuyama, Keisuke; Enomoto, Nobuyuki

    2015-05-01

    We experienced two cases of esophageal web accompanying severe stricture that were treated by endoscopic incisions with an insulated-tip knife (IT-knife). With attention paid to the mucosa at the stricture, the lesion was incised with an IT-knife without complications. Sato's curved laryngoscope was used even in cervical esophageal lesions and an excellent field was secured.

  7. Retraction: 'Beneficial Effect of Intermittent Cyclical Etidronate Therapy in Hemiplegic Patients Following an Acute Stroke' by Y. Sato, T. Asoh, M. Kaji and K. Oizumi.

    PubMed

    2016-10-01

    The above article, published online on 1 December 2000 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), and in Volume 15, Issue 12, pages 2487-2494, has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the Journal Editor in Chief, Juliet Compston, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed due to concerns about the underlying data to which the authors have given no satisfactory response. Dr Sato acknowledges that his co-authors are named as such for honorary reasons and are not responsible for the content of the manuscript. Reference Sato, Y., Asoh, T., Kaji, M. and Oizumi, K. (2000) Beneficial Effect of Intermittent Cyclical Etidronate Therapy in Hemiplegic Patients Following an Acute Stroke. J Bone Miner Res, 15:2487-2494. doi: 10.1359/jbmr.2000.15.12.2487.

  8. Retraction: 'Alendronate and vitamin D2 for prevention of hip fracture in Parkinson's disease: A randomized controlled trial,' by Sato, Y., Iwamoto, J., Kanoko, T., and Satoh, K.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    The above article, published online on 14 March 2006 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), and in Volume 21, Issue 7, Pages 924-929, has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the Editor-in-Chief, Jose A. Obeso, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed due to an acknowledgement from the authors that the co-authors did not participate in study design, data collection, data analysis, interpretation of data and drafting the manuscript. Thus all co-authors are honorary. Reference Sato, Y., Iwamoto, J., Kanoko, T., and Satoh, K. (2006) Alendronate and vitamin D2 for prevention of hip fracture in Parkinson's disease: A randomized controlled trial. Mov Disord. doi: 10.1002/mds.20825.

  9. Dynamics simulation of N(2) scattering onto W(100,110) surfaces: A stringent test for the recently developed flexible periodic London-Eyring-Polanyi-Sato potential energy surface.

    PubMed

    Martin-Gondre, L; Crespos, C; Larregaray, P; Rayez, J C; van Ootegem, B; Conte, D

    2010-05-28

    An efficient method to construct the six dimensional global potential energy surface (PES) for two atoms interacting with a periodic rigid surface, the flexible periodic London-Eyring-Polanyi-Sato model, has been proposed recently. The main advantages of this model, compared to state-of-the-art interpolated ab initio PESs developed in the past, reside in its global nature along with the small number of electronic structure calculations required for its construction. In this work, we investigate to which extent this global representation is able to reproduce the fine details of the scattering dynamics of N(2) onto W(100,110) surfaces reported in previous dynamics simulations based on locally interpolated PESs. The N(2)/W(100) and N(2)/W(110) systems are chosen as benchmarks as they exhibit very unusual and distinct dissociative adsorption dynamics although chemically similar. The reaction pathways as well as the role of dynamic trapping are scrutinized. Besides, elastic/inelastic scattering dynamics including internal state and angular distributions of reflected molecules are also investigated. The results are shown to be in fair agreement with previous theoretical predictions.

  10. The Security of the South Atlantic: Is It a Case for ’SATO’--South Atlantic Treaty Organization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-10

    of naval chiefs held in Lima , Peru, when the 174 Uruguayan Naval Chief, Admiral Hugo Marquez defended the need of such 22 F an alliance to face Soviet...compromise its entire pragmatic foreign policy. President I ~Joao Figueiredo in his visit to Lima , Peru, in June 1981, closed all I speculations on Brazil’s...p. 704. 21Ibid. 2 2 Ibid. 2 3A.R.A. Nicolas Piccaluga, Control Del Trafico Maritimo en el Atlantic Sud. Politics para la Defensa v Seguridad de las

  11. Online Portfolios: Marketing Apparel Merchandising Millennials into Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keist, Carmen N.; Bruer, Shanna

    2016-01-01

    In a sea of applicant uniformity, how can an undergraduate student develop a means of personal differentiation while attempting to land an internship or job? That is the dilemma of the roughly 1.9 million Millennials graduating with bachelor's degrees within the United States in 2015 (Hussar & Bailey, 2015). Although the national unemployment…

  12. Part-Time Undergraduates in Postsecondary Education: 2003-04. Postsecondary Education Descriptive Analysis Report. NCES 2007-165

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xianglei

    2007-01-01

    After dramatic growth between 1970 and 1990, part-time students have formed a large and stable segment of the undergraduate population in U.S. postsecondary institutions (Hussar 2005). In fall 2004, approximately 5.5 million undergraduates were enrolled part time, making up 37 percent of the undergraduate enrollment in all degree-granting…

  13. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasma Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morfill, G. E.; Kong, M. G.; Zimmermann, J. L.

    2009-11-01

    -pressure microwave plasmas in an N2 and O2 gas mixture M K Singh, A Ogino and M Nagatsu Degradation of adhesion molecules of G361 melanoma cells by a non-thermal atmospheric pressure microplasma H J Lee, C H Shon, Y S Kim, S Kim, G C Kim and M G Kong The acidification of lipid film surfaces by non-thermal DBD at atmospheric pressure in air A Helmke, D Hoffmeister, N Mertens, S Emmert, J Schuette and W Vioel Reduction and degradation of amyloid aggregates by a pulsed radio-frequency cold atmospheric plasma jet D L Bayliss, J L Walsh, G Shama, F Iza and M G Kong The effect of low-temperature plasma on bacteria as observed by repeated AFM imaging René Pompl, Ferdinand Jamitzky, Tetsuji Shimizu, Bernd Steffes, Wolfram Bunk, Hans-Ulrich Schmidt, Matthias Georgi, Katrin Ramrath, Wilhelm Stolz, Robert W Stark, Takuya Urayama, Shuitsu Fujii and Gregor Eugen Morfill Removal and sterilization of biofilms and planktonic bacteria by microwave-induced argon plasma at atmospheric pressure Mi Hee Lee, Bong Joo Park, Soo Chang Jin, Dohyun Kim, Inho Han, Jungsung Kim, Soon O Hyun, Kie-Hyung Chung and Jong-Chul Park Cell permeabilization using a non-thermal plasma M Leduc, D Guay, R L Leask and S Coulombe Physical and biological mechanisms of direct plasma interaction with living tissue Danil Dobrynin, Gregory Fridman, Gary Friedman and Alexander Fridman Nosocomial infections-a new approach towards preventive medicine using plasmas G E Morfill, T Shimizu, B Steffes and H-U Schmidt Generation and transport mechanisms of chemical species by a post-discharge flow for inactivation of bacteria Takehiko Sato, Shiroh Ochiai and Takuya Urayama Low pressure plasma discharges for the sterilization and decontamination of surfaces F Rossi, O Kylián, H Rauscher, M Hasiwa and D Gilliland Contribution of a portable air plasma torch to rapid blood coagulation as a method of preventing bleeding S P Kuo, O Tarasenko, J Chang, S Popovic, C Y Chen, H W Fan, A Scott, M Lahiani, P Alusta, J D Drake and M Nikolic A two

  14. A Survey of Technology for Hybrid Vehicle Auxiliary Power Units.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-10-01

    920778, 1992. 14. Sato, K., Ukawa , H., and Nakano, M., "A Two-Stroke Cycle Gasoline Engine with Poppet Valves in the Cylinder Head - Part II," SAE...Paper No. 920780, 1992. 15. Ukawa , H, Nakano, M., and Sato, K., "A Two-Stroke Cycle Engine with Poppet Valves in the Cylinder Head - Part III: An

  15. The DTIC Review. Hybrid and Electronic Vehicles. Volume 4. Number 1, June 1998.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    Stroke Flagship Engine," SAE Paper No. 920778, 1992. 14. Sato, K., Ukawa , H., and Nakano, M., "A Two-Stroke Cycle Gasoline Engine with Poppet Valves...in the Cylinder Head - Part II," SAE Paper No. 920780, 1992. 15. Ukawa , H., Nakano, M., and Sato, K., "A Two-Stroke Cycle Engine with Poppet Valves in

  16. MIZMAS: Modeling the Evolution of Ice Thickness and Floe Size Distributions in the Marginal Ice Zone of the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    N. LeGrande, J. Lerner, J. Marshall, S. Menon, V. Oinas, J. Perlwitz, M. J. Puma , D. Rind, A. Romanou, G. L. Russell, M. Sato, D. T. Shindell, S...A. Lacis, A. N. LeGrande, J. Lerner, K. K. Lo, S. Menon, V. Oinas, J. Perlwitz, M. J. Puma , D. Rind, A. Romanou, M. Sato, D. T. Shindell, S. Sun, K...Miller, V. Oinas, A. Oloso, J. Perlwitz, M. J. Puma , W. M. Putman, D. Rind, A. Romanou, M. Sato, D. T. Shindell, S. Sun, R. Syed, N. Tausnev, K

  17. Clues to prolific productivity among prominent scientists.

    PubMed

    Kantha, S S

    1992-10-01

    In a survey based on the biographical sketches, obituary notes and eulogies of notable scientists, eight were identified as belonging to an elite group, having authored more than 1000 research publications, which include books, monographs and patents. They were, in chronological order, Thomas Alva Edison, Paul Karrer, Margaret Mead, Giulio Natta, Hans Selye, Herbert C Brown, Tetsuji Kametani and Carl Djerassi. Among these, Karrer, Natta and Brown were Nobelists in chemistry. Four criteria which can be identified as clues to their prolific productivity are, 1) enthusiasm for compulsive work and eccentric life style, 2) physical and/or environmental handicap, 3) pioneering efforts in a new research field, and 4) selection of research area, predominantly organic chemistry.

  18. Characteristic Functional of a Probability Measure Absolutely Continuous with Respect to a Gaussian Radon Measure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    1962) 372-390. 5. J. Neveu, "Martingales a temps discret." Masson et Cie. Paris. 1972. 6. H. Sato and Y. Okazaki, Separabilities of a Gaussian Radon measure. Ann. Inst. Henri Poincare , 11 (1975) 287-298.

  19. Equipment Support Grant for Air Force Task ’Chemical Defense Drugs Effects with Exercise and Thermal Stress’

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-12

    1075 (1986). 12 13. Gisolfi, C. F., Sato, K., Wall, P. T., and Sato, F. In vivo and in vitro characteristics of eccrine sweating in patas and rhesus... sweating , and even- tually, evaporative heat loss through its anticholinergic activity (2) resulting in increased net heat storage (1, 15), decreased heat...similar to those reported for humans. The suppressed sweating capacity of the atropine significantly affected the heat loss mechanisms of the

  20. Prediction of Antichollintergic Drug Response Using a Thermoregulatory Exchange Index

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    psychoses are those compounds which have a degree of anticholinergic action directly on eccrine sweat glands which disrupts thermoregulation. Atropine...compounds which have a degree of anticholinergic action directly on eccrine sweat glands which disrupts thermoregulation. Atropine (a potent nerve agent...Pharm. 30, 209-221. Sato, K., Sato, F., 1981. Pharmacologic responsiveness of iso- lated single eccrine sweat glands. Am. J. Physiol. (Reg. Integrative Comp. Physiol.) 240, R44-R51.

  1. The Metabolic and Thermoregulatory Responses of Rhesus Monkeys to Combined Exercise and Environmental Heat Load

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    P.T. Wall and F. Sato. In vivo and in vitro characteristics of eccrine sweating in patas and rhesus monkeys. J. Appl. Physiol.: Respirat. Environ...in monkeys. Am. J. Physiol. 245: R76-R82, 1983. 15. Gisolfi, C.V., K. Sato and P.T. Wall. Monkey model and techniques for studying eccrine sweating in...baboon. J. Appl. Physiol. 55: 1173-1177, 1983. 18. Johnson, G.S. and R.S. Elizondo. Eccrine sweat gland in Macaca mulatta: physiology, histochemistry

  2. Stop-and-go sign algorithms for blind equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzinakos, Dimitrios

    1991-12-01

    Stop-and-go adaptation rules that are used to improve the blind convergence characteristics of the conventional and sign decision-directed algorithms are proposed and examined. They are based on the so-called Sato and Godard type errors which are commonly used in blind deconvolution applications. The convergence rates achieved by different algorithms with QAM type constellations are compared. Also, optimal values for the parameters that are used in the Sato and Godard errors and their effect to the convergence of the stop-and-go schemes are investigated by means of analysis and computer simulations.

  3. Blind equalization using stop-and-go adaptation rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzinakos, Dimitrios

    1992-06-01

    Stop-and-go adaptation rules that are utilized to improve the blind convergence characteristics of the conventional and sign decision-directed algorithms are proposed and examined. They are based on the Sato- and Godard-type errors, which are utilized in many blind deconvolution applications. The convergence rates achieved by the algorithms with quadrature amplitude modulated signal constellations and nonminimum phase communication channels are compared. Based on a new criterion, the optimal values of the Sato and Godard error parameters are redefined. The optimality of the new parameter values is confirmed by means of computer simulations.

  4. Research on the Multiple-Choice Test Item in Japan: Toward the Validation of Mathematical Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samejima, Fumiko

    Research related to the multiple choice test item is reported, as it is conducted by educational technologists in Japan. Sato's number of hypothetical equivalent alternatives is introduced. The based idea behind this index is that the expected uncertainty of the m events, or alternatives, be large and the number of hypothetical, equivalent…

  5. Selection of Human Antibody Fragments Which Bind Novel Breast Tumor Antigens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-01

    Roselli. M., Hardman. K. D., Johnson, S.. Pope, S., Dodd. 24. Juweid, M., Neumann . R.. Paik. C., Perez-Bacete. M. J.. Sato. L.. van Osdol. W., and S...Fand I, Houston LL, Bentel GC. Nelson CE and Noell KT (1989) Treatment Planning and Dose Oppermann H and Huston I5 (1994). Engineering disulfide-linked

  6. Assessment of the Effects of Air-Sea-Land Interaction Processes on the Intensity and Impact of Modelled and Observed Coastal Extratropical Cyclones

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-08

    estimated insured value of U.S. coastal properties. June Bengtsson, L. M., K. I. Hodges , M. Esch, N. Keenlyside, L. Kornbleuh, J.-J. Luo, and T...Russell, Makiko~Sato, Drew T. Shindell, Peter H. Stone, Shan Sun, Nick Tausnev, Duane Thresher, Mao-Sung Yao 2005. Present day atmospheric simulations

  7. Employing Online S-P Diagnostic Table for Qualitative Comments on Test Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chien-hwa; Chen, Cheng-ping

    2013-01-01

    The major concerns of adaptive testing studies have concentrated on effectiveness and efficiency of the system built for the research experiments. It has been criticised that such general information has fallen short of providing qualitative descriptions regarding learning performance. Takahiro Sato of Japan proposed an analytical diagram called…

  8. Transplantations and Cloning of an Immortal Cell Line from Rat SCN

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-31

    behavioral activities is located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the anterior hypothalamus (Moore, 1983; Turek, 1985). Evidence for the integral...1990). Circadian rhythms in spontaneous discharges of the cultured suprachiasmatic nucleus . Brain Res511.: 158-162. 4. Bottenstein, J. and Sato, G...Wiegand, S.J. (1989). Specificity of circadian function in transplants of the fetal suprachiasmatic nucleus . J.

  9. Signal Processing Design of Low Probability of Intercept Waveforms via Intersymbol Dither

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Blind Least Mean Square Shalvi- Weinstein Spectrum Fitting Block Subspace SOS Based HOS Based Bussgang Algorithms Cumulants Godard Algorithms Sato...Transactions on, 6(5):1743– 1763, May 2007. 2. Ding, Z., R. A. Kennedy, B. D. O. Anderson, and C. R. Johnson Jr. “Ill- convergence of Godard blind

  10. Feature Integration Theory Revisited: Dissociating Feature Detection and Attentional Guidance in Visual Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Louis K. H.; Hayward, William G.

    2009-01-01

    In feature integration theory (FIT; A. Treisman & S. Sato, 1990), feature detection is driven by independent dimensional modules, and other searches are driven by a master map of locations that integrates dimensional information into salience signals. Although recent theoretical models have largely abandoned this distinction, some observed…

  11. Computer Series 41: Potential-Energy Surfaces and Transition-State Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, S. J.; Coady, C. J.

    1983-01-01

    Describes computer programs involving the London-Eyring-Polany-Sato method (LEPS). The programs provide a valuable means of introducing students to potential energy surfaces and to the foundations of transition state theory. Program listings (with copies of student scripts) or programs on DOS 3.3 disc are available from authors. (JN)

  12. An Appetite for Creative Destruction: Should the Role of Senior Academic Technology Officer Be Modeled on a CIO or a CTO?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shurville, Simon; Browne, Tom; Whitaker, Marian

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to examine the emerging role of the Senior Academic Technology Officer (SATO) in higher education. It aims to consider two existing templates for this professional role derived from mainstream information management and information technology: the Chief Information Officer (CIO) and the Chief Technology Officer (CTO).…

  13. Preparing Teachers of Gifted Students to Solve Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaco, Theresa M.; Georgiades, William Den Hartog

    1986-01-01

    Teachers have successfully used three Principles of Teacher Training (Curry Sato, 1984) as guidelines for identifying and solving instructional problems with gifted students. Teaching styles were changed through training, which was (1) reinforced through appropriate materials; (2) attempted to meet participants' specific needs; and (3) was…

  14. Cometary spectral isophotes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, W. M.

    1973-01-01

    Observations of two recent bright comets, comet Bennet and comet Tago-Sato-Kosaka by a 91 centimeter telescope are reported. Results of monochromatic isophotes of the comets comas within 10,000 to 100,000 kilometers of their nuclei provide a spatial distribution of radicals, ions, and dust.

  15. Intrinsic Energy Localization Through Discrete Gap Breathers in One-Dimensional Diatomic Granular Crystals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    chanical resonators 12, superconducting Josephson junc- tions 13, Bose -Einstein condensation 14, electrical lat- tices 15, and more. In...Press, San Diego, CA, 2003. 10 M. Peyrard, Nonlinearity 17, R1 2004. 11 M. Sato, B. E. Hubbard , and A. J. Sievers, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 137

  16. Use of EEG to Track Visual Attention in Two Dimensions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    CSP   Number  of  data  features  (Dimensions)   d   Electroencephalography   EEG   Electromyography   EMG   Event-­‐Related...Sato,  S.  (1994).  Fast  wavelet  transformation  of   EEG.   Electroencephalography  and  Clinical  Neurophysiology

  17. Respecifying Display Questions: Interactional Resources for Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yo-An

    2006-01-01

    Previous research into teachers' questions has focused on what types of questions are more conducive for developing students' communicative language use. In this regard, "display questions," whose answers the teacher already knows, are considered less effective because they limit opportunities for students to use genuine language use (Long & Sato,…

  18. A Research Program in Computer Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    Jon Postel Greg Finn Mamie Chew Danny Cohen Alan Katz Linda Sato Carl Sunshine Paul Mockapetris PROBLEM BEING SOLVED this project explores the design...Robert M. Robbins Walt Edmison Lee P. Taylor Ronald L. Ross Glen Gauthier Phyllis L. Taylor Gary Seaton Kyoo C. Jo Leo Yamanaka Ronald D. Shestokes James

  19. Variations in Cognitive Maps: Understanding Individual Differences in Navigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisberg, Steven M.; Schinazi, Victor R.; Newcombe, Nora S.; Shipley, Thomas F.; Epstein, Russell A.

    2014-01-01

    There are marked individual differences in the formation of cognitive maps both in the real world and in virtual environments (VE; e.g., Blajenkova, Motes, & Kozhevnikov, 2005; Chai & Jacobs, 2010; Ishikawa & Montello, 2006; Wen, Ishikawa, & Sato, 2011). These differences, however, are poorly understood and can be difficult to…

  20. Underachievement in Gifted Students: A Case Study of Three College Physics Students in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Kuei-Fang; Fu, Guopeng

    2016-01-01

    This case study provides an explanatory account on the underachievement of three gifted students studying physics in a Taiwanese university. The students' physics underachievement was diagnosed by Sato's student-problem analysis chart. These students were invited to complete a questionnaire and a follow-up interview in order to (1) understand the…

  1. A New Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein (mac25) and Its Role in Breast Cancer and Cell Growth Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-01

    Kato, M., Sato, H., Tsukada, T., Ikawa, Y., Aizawa, S., and Nagayoshi, M. A. A follistatin -like gene, mac25, may act as a growth suppressor of...T., Ikawa, Y., Aizawa, S., and Nagayoshi, M. A. A follistatin -like gene, mac25, may act as a growth suppressor of osteosarcoma cells., Oncogene. 12

  2. Misunderstandings of Communicative Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Wen

    2008-01-01

    Although Communicative Language Teaching is accepted by many English teachers in China as one of the most effective approach in English language teaching, there are still a number of misunderstandings about it. By comparing Johnstone; Sato and Kleinsasser and Thompson as well as Spada, this article focuses on four of the main misunderstandings,…

  3. Solution to the cosmological horizon problem proposed by Zee

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, M.D.

    1981-08-15

    Applying a theory of gravity with broken symmetry, Zee has suggested a solution to the cosmological horizon problem. His idea has been criticized on two independent grounds by Linde and by Sato. In this paper, we suggest answers to both these criticisms.

  4. Increasing Compatibility Between Educational Practices and the Educational Needs of Pupils Who are Asian With Emphasis on Their Language and Cultural Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Lydia R.; Ponce, Corazon A.

    The contents of this document are organized in eight parts, as follows. Part One, "Speech of Dr. Esther M. T. Sato," the consultant, Associate Professor at the College of Education, University of Hawaii, discusses the following topics: in the background of Filipinos in Hawaii, their social problems, Filipino cultural values, guidelines…

  5. Transferring from the Simulator to a Live Robotic Environment: The Effectiveness of Part-Task and Whole-Task Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    concurrent monitoring and responding to stimuli, as well as Morse code, poetry , and preparing legal presentations. The meta-analysis investigated the...Sciences, 64B: 348–355. Wen, W., Ishikawa, T., & Sato, T. (2011). Working memory in spatial knowledge acquisition: Differences in encoding

  6. Nitrogen-Activated Phase Separation in InGaAsN/GaAs Heterostructures Grown by MBE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    Gorbenko 6, W. Passenberg2 , H. Kuenzel 2 , N. Grote 2, V. M. Ustinov1 , H. Kirmse 3 , W. Neuman 3 , P. Werner 4, N. D. Zakharov 4, D. Bimberg 5 and Zh. I...Phys’. 84, 6409 (1998). [9] S. Sato and S. Satoh, J. Cryst. Growth 192, 381 (1998). [10] B. .Soshnikov, A. M. Gorbenko , A. P . Golubok and N. N

  7. Building a CATR Research Agenda, Proceedings of the Third Bi-Annual International Symposium of the Center for Asian Terrorism Research (CATR) Held in Colombo, Sri Lanka, 1-3 March 2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    III-50 viii Management of the Tamil Diaspora–LTTE’s Primary Function Abroad ... III-52 Introduction...Predicaments in Managing Society in the Midst of Diversity”, in Yoichiro Sato (ed), Growth and Governance in Asia (Honolulu: Asia Pacific Center for...Muslim Perspective on the Mindanao Conflict (Makati City: Asian Institute of Management , 2003) p. 4. 63 For elaborate discussion, see Rommel C

  8. List of participants at SIDE IV meeting, Tokyo, 27 November--1 December 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-12-01

    Mark J Ablowitz, Vsevolod Adler, Mark Alber, Said Belmehdi, Marco Boiti, Claude Brezinski, R Bullough, Y M Chiang, Theodore Chihara, Peter A Clarkson, Robert Conte, Adam Doliwa, Vladimir Dorodnitsyn, Mitsuaki Eguchi, Claire Gilson, Basil Grammaticos, Valeri Gromak, Rod Halburd, Koji Hasegawa, Jarmo Hietarinta, Ryogo Hirota, Xing Biao Hu, M Idzumi, J Inoguchi, Hiroya Ishikara, Mourad Ismail, Shin Isojima, Kenichi Ito, Yoshiaki Itoh, Masashi Iwasaki, Klara Janglajew, Michio Jimbo, Nalini Joshi, Kenji Kajiwara, Saburo Kakei, Masaru Kamata, Satoshi Kamei, Rinat Kashaev, Shingo Kawai, Taeko Kimijima, K Kimura, Anatol Kirillov, Koichi Kondo, Boris Konopelchenko, Martin Kruskal, Atsuo Kuniba, Wataru Kunishima, Franklin Lambert, Serguei Leble, Decio Levi, Shigeru Maeda, Manuel Manas, Ken-Ichi Maruno, Tetsu Masuda, J Matsukidaira, Atsushi Matsumiya, Shigeki Matsutani, Yukitaka Minesaki, Mikio Murata, Micheline Musette, Atsushi Nagai, Katsuya Nakagawa, Atsushi Nakamula, Akira Nakamura, Yoshimasa Nakamura, Frank Nijhoff, J J C Nimmo, Katsuhiro Nishinari, Michitomo Nishizawa, A Nobe, Masatoshi Noumi, Yaeko Ohsaki, Yasuhiro Ohta, Kazuo Okamoto, Alexandre Orlov, Naoki Osada, Flora Pempinelli, Spiro Pyrlis, Reinout Quispel, Orlando Ragnisco, Alfred Ramani, Jean-Pierre Ramis, Andreas Ruffing, Simon Ruijsenaars, Satoru Saito, Noriko Saitoh, Hidetaka Sakai, Paulo Santini, Narimasa Sasa, Ryu Sasaki, Yoshikatsu Sasaki, Junkichi Satsuma, Sergei Sergeev, Nobuhiko Shinzawa, Evgueni Sklyanin, Juris Suris, Norio Suzuki, Yukiko Tagami, Katsuaki Takahashi, Daisuke Takahashi, Tomoyuki Takenawa, Yoshiro Takeyama, K M Tamizhmani, T Tamizhmani, Kouichi Toda, Morikatsu Toda, Tetsuji Tokihiro, Takayuki Tsuchida, Yohei Tsuchiya, Teruhisa Tsuda, Satoru Tsujimoto, Walter Van Assche, Claude Viallet, Luc Vinet, Shinsuke Watanabe, Yoshihida Watanabe, Ralph Willox, Pavel Winternitz, Yasuhiko Yamada, Yuji Yamada, Jin Yoneda, Haruo Yoshida, Katsuhiko Yoshida, Daisuke Yoshihara, Fumitaka Yura, J

  9. The Effects of Atropine and Pyridostigmine on Thermoregulation and Work Tolerance in the Patas Monkey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    12 13. Gisolfi, C. F., Sato, K., Wall, P. T., and Satc, F. In vivo and in vitro characteristics of eccrine sweating in patas and rhesus monkeys. J... sweating , and even- tually, evaporative heat loss through its anticholinergic activity (2) resulting in increased net heat storage (1, 15), decreased heat...those reported for humans. The suppressed sweating capacity of the atropine significantly affected the heat loss mechanisms of the exercising animals

  10. ONR (Office of Naval Research) Far East Scientific Information Bulletin. Volume 14, Number 3, July-September 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    Properties of Y-TZP/Non- Oxide Tsugio Sato Composites Tadashi Endo Masahiko Shimada Superstructure Diffraction of Toshiyuki Yamada Tokyo Institute of Zirconium ... oxidation state assemblies that may yield novel material in a conducting polymer (polypyrrole)/ characteristics and functions. Applications enzyme...temperature materials. New govern- strengths at 1,200 *C, but oxidation resis-I ment programs are placing more emphasis tance is poor. Nickel- and

  11. New Probes with Deep of Gas Flows within Galaxies at Intermediate Redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, D. C.

    2012-09-01

    Instead of using background QSO's, we suggest using the light from galaxies to probe cool gas flows within their own halos. We highlight two DEEP projects based on this idea, one by Sato et al. (2009) that uses NaD absorption lines of galaxies at low redshifts z < 0.6 and another by Weiner et al. (2009) that uses MgII lines seen in galaxies at higher redshifts z ˜ 1.4.

  12. Analysis of DoD Travel Management: An Application of Learning Curve Theory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    independent travel agency . Within this determination lies the nature of future air passenger transportation cost control. Justification The need for...8. The SATO located at McGuire AFB, New Jersey should provide comparable performance results to the travel agency operating at Travis AFB, California...cussion of the selection of WPAFB is included in Chapter II.) 3. The model constructed for the travel agency is based on published projections

  13. Cost Savings Potential of a Commercial Reservation System for the Military Airlift Command.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    Totals are maintained for each airline system. (1) TRAVEL AGENCY BOOKING REPORTS: Tracks all bookings made by automated travel agencies. It provides...Alphabetically lists all passengers booked on a given flight. (1) TRAVEL AGENCY HOSTING: Provides the capability of hosting travel agencies (major...handle the capabilities required by MAC. Travel Agency SATO is the airline owned and operated corporation which provides commercial travel services

  14. Factor Demand Theory Under Perfect Competition, Monopoly, and Monopsony,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-10-01

    MC(p 1,. . . , p , q *) = 0 (13) and -~~~~~~~ > 0. Holding p constant and different iat ing Eq. (13) as an f implicit function yields -~~~\\I...Charles , and C. E. Ferguson , “Factor Demand Elasticity under Monopoly and Monopsony ,” Economica , Vol. 40, May 19-73, pp. 180— 186. -• [5] Sato

  15. The Role of the Department of Defense (DoD) in Solar Energy Research, Development and Diffusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    closer to 40 percent (Hariharan, Sato, & Liu, 2008). In addition, the Prometheus Institute for Sustainable Development estimates that PV costs will... Prometheus Institute predicts that solar power costs will decrease 40 percent by 2010. Solar photovoltaic dramatic cost decrease has the potential to...database. Lipsky, M. S., & Sharp, L. K. (2001). From idea to market: The drug approval process. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine , 14(5

  16. Both Innate Immunity and Type 1 Humoral Immunity to Streptococcus pneumoniae Are Mediated by MyD88 but Differ in Their Relative Levels of Dependence on Toll-Like Receptor 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    normal pathogen- specific IgG isotype response to Borrelia burgdorferi was ob- served in TLR2/ mice, although this was associated with a higher... Borrelia burgdorferi -infected mice. Infect. Immun. 72:3195–3203. 28. Lund, J., A. Sato, S. Akira, R. Medzhitov, and A. Iwasaki. 2003. Toll-like...Zachary, C. J. Kirschning, and J. J. Weis. 2002. Toll-like receptor 2 is required for innate, but not acquired, host defense to Borrelia burgdorferi

  17. SATCOM General Purpose Modem DSCS III SCT Beacon Telemetry Display

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    Variables Used update, restart, data[, old[, FGCOLOR, *PRINTERUP, DISKLOGUP, S.BIRD, FIRST, IRIGUP, receiver, options, * quitnow , sat[], beaconport...data[], old[], FGCOLOR, *PRINTERUP, DISKLOGUP, BBIRD, FIRST, IRIGUP, receiver, options, * quitnow , sat[], beacon-port, gpmcontrol-port, remote-port...options = quitnow = FALSE; BBIRD = FIRST = TRUE; restart = IRIGUP = FALSE; receiver = 0; sat/O] 0 ’B’ sat/l] 𔃻’ sat[2] 𔃾’ /*****con port assignm

  18. Sustained Strong Fluctuations in a Nonlinear Chain at Acoustic Vacuum: Beyond Equilibrium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-21

    M . Remoissenet, Waves Called Solitons (Springer, Berlin, 1996). [10] D. K . Campbell, P. Rosenau, and G. M . Zaslavsky, Chaos 15, 01510 (2005). [11...Lindenberg, Phys. Rev. E 64, 066608 (2001); D. K . Campbell, P. Rosenau, and G. Zaslavsky, Chaos 15, 015101 (2005); M . Sato, B. E. Hubbard, and A. J...the possible implications of the work. II. THE NONLINEAR SYSTEM The system of interest is an alignment of N identical elastic spheres, each of mass m

  19. Andreev bound states in topological superconductors (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Yukio; Lu, Bo; Yada, Keiji; Sato, Masatoshi

    2016-10-01

    Andreev bound states in topological superconductors Yukio Tanaka1, Lu Bo1,, K. Yada1, A. Yamakage1, M. Sato2 1Department of Applied Physics, Nagoya University 2Yukawa Institute, Kyoto University e-mail: ytanaka@nuap.nagoya-u.ac.jp It is known that Andreev bound state is an important ingredient to identify unconventional superconductors [1]. Up to now, there have been several types of Andreev bound states stemming from their topological origins [2-3]. It can be classified into i)dispersionless flat band type realized in cuprate, ii)linear dispersion type realized in chiral superconductor like Sr2RuO4, iii)helical dispersion type realized in non-centrosymmetric superconductor and iv)cone type in the surface state on B-phase of superfluid 3He [3]. It has been noted that certain surfaces of Weyl semimetals have bound states forming open Fermi arcs, which are never seen in typical metallic states. We show that the Fermi arcs enable them to support an even more exotic surface state with crossed flat bands in the superconducting state. We clarify the topological origin of the crossed dispersionless flat bands and the relevant symmetry that stabilizes the cross point. Our symmetry analysis are applicable to known candidate materials of time-reversal breaking Weyl semimetals[4]. [1]S. Kashiwaya and Y. Tanaka, Rep. Prog. Phys. 63 1641 (2000). [2]Y. Tanaka, M. Sato, and N. Nagaosa, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 81 011013 (2012). [3] M. Sato, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 (2009) 020401. [4] B. Lu, K. Yada, M. Sato, and Y. Tanaka, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114 09

  20. Promoter and Cofactor Requirements for SERM-ER Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    Rett syndrome . Nat. Genet. 37, 31–40. keda, K., Sato, M., Tsutsumi, O., Tsuchiya, F., Tsuneizumi, M., Emi, ., Imoto, I., Inazawa, J., Muramatsu, M., and...already found a number of novel ER associated proteins that appear to be essential for ER-mediated transcription 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF...identify long distance cis-regulatory elements, which proved successful in two of the three assessed cases, including TFF-1 and NRIP-1. This for the first

  1. Throwing speed and accuracy in baseball and cricket players.

    PubMed

    Freeston, Jonathan; Rooney, Kieron

    2014-06-01

    Throwing speed and accuracy are both critical to sports performance but cannot be optimized simultaneously. This speed-accuracy trade-off (SATO) is evident across a number of throwing groups but remains poorly understood. The goal was to describe the SATO in baseball and cricket players and determine the speed that optimizes accuracy. 20 grade-level baseball and cricket players performed 10 throws at 80% and 100% of maximal throwing speed (MTS) toward a cricket stump. Baseball players then performed a further 10 throws at 70%, 80%, 90%, and 100% of MTS toward a circular target. Baseball players threw faster with greater accuracy than cricket players at both speeds. Both groups demonstrated a significant SATO as vertical error increased with increases in speed; the trade-off was worse for cricketers than baseball players. Accuracy was optimized at 70% of MTS for baseballers. Throwing athletes should decrease speed when accuracy is critical. Cricket players could adopt baseball-training practices to improve throwing performance.

  2. Preliminary investigation of multispectral retinal tissue oximetry mapping using a hyperspectral retinal camera.

    PubMed

    Desjardins, Michèle; Sylvestre, Jean-Philippe; Jafari, Reza; Kulasekara, Susith; Rose, Kalpana; Trussart, Rachel; Arbour, Jean Daniel; Hudson, Chris; Lesage, Frédéric

    2016-05-01

    Oximetry measurement of principal retinal vessels represents a first step towards understanding retinal metabolism, but the technique could be significantly enhanced by spectral imaging of the fundus outside of main vessels. In this study, a recently developed Hyperspectral Retinal Camera was used to measure relative oximetric (SatO2) and total hemoglobin (HbT) maps of the retina, outside of large vessels, in healthy volunteers at baseline (N = 7) and during systemic hypoxia (N = 11), as well as in patients with glaucoma (N = 2). Images of the retina, on a field of view of ∼30°, were acquired between 500 and 600 nm with 2 and 5 nm steps, in under 3 s. The reflectance spectrum from each pixel was fitted to a model having oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin as the main absorbers and scattering modeled by a power law, yielding estimates of relative SatO2 and HbT over the fundus. Average optic nerve head (ONH) saturation over 8 eyes was 68 ± 5%. During systemic hypoxia, mean ONH saturation decreased by 12.5% on average. Upon further development and validation, the relative SatO2 and HbT maps of microvasculature obtained with this imaging system could ultimately contribute to the diagnostic and management of diseases affecting the ONH and retina.

  3. First Observations of 5fce Auroral Roar Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labelle, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    Auroral radio emissions reveal physics of beam-plasma interactions and provide possibilities to remotely sense ionospheric plasma processes. Sato et al. [2012] recently discovered that auroral roar emissions, long known to occur at two and three times the electron gyrofrequency (fce), also occur at 4fce. Using data from wave receivers in the British Antarctic Survey Automatic Geophysical Observatories (BAS AGOs), we confirm the existence of 4fce-roars and observe for the first time 5fce-roars. A search at higher frequencies did not find higher harmonics, however. Both 4fce- and 5fce-roars only occur in sunlit conditions near the summer soltices. The harmonic emissions scale as expected with the strength of the geomagnetic field, and combining data from four stations with a wide range of magnetic field strengths suggests that the source height of the 4fce may lie around 245 km, significantly lower than the ˜ 275 km estimated for 2fce-roars. These observations show that the auroral roar generation mechanism acts under a broader set of plasma densities than previously considered, highlight how ubiquitous and robust the mechanism must be in different plasma environments, and suggest a broader application for remote sensing methods exploiting auroral roar, such as those described by Weatherwax et al. [2002]. References: Sato, Y., T. Ono, N. Sato, and Y. Ogawa, First observations of 4fce auroral roar emissions, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L07101, doi:10.1029/2012GL051205, 2012. Weatherwax, A.T., P.H. Yoon, and J. LaBelle, Model results and interpretation related to topside observations of auroral roar, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 10.1029/2001JA000315, 2002.

  4. Relationship Between Afterslip of 2003 Tokachi Earthquakes and Coseismic-slip of 2004 Kushiro Earthquakes Using Viscoelastic Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Takemura, H.

    2010-12-01

    The studies of afterslip distribution of large plate interface earthquakes are important for revealing frictional properties on faults, and investigating trigger processes to adjacent faults. After 2003 Tokachi Earthquake (M8.0), Hokkaido, Japan, post seismic deformation was observed, and this observation indicates occurrence of afterslip at eastern side of the earthquake. After 1.2 yr of the Tokachi Earthquake, two large events (M7.1, M6.9) occurred at off Kushiro, which is located 150km east from the Tokachi Earthquake. It is considered that these two events may be triggered by the afterslip of the Tokachi Earthquake. To investigate the trigger process, we estimate special and temporal afterslip distribution. The effect of viscoelastic relaxation at the asthenosphere is important on post seismic surface deformation (Matsu’ura and Sato, GJI, 1989; Sato and Matsu’ura, GJI, 1992). We estimate afterslip distribution of large interplate earthquakes using viscoelastic media. We consider not only viscoelastic responses of coseismic slip but also viscoelastic responses of afterslips (Sato and Higuchi, AGU Fall Meeting, 2009). Because many studies suggested that the magnitude of afterslips was comparable to that of coseismic slip, viscoelastic responses of afterslips should not be negligible. Therefore, surface displacement data include viscoelastic response of coseismic slip, viscoelastic response of afterslips which occurred just after coseismic period to just before the present, and elastic response of the present afterslip. We estimate afterslip distribution of the Tokachi Earthquake using GPS data by GSI, Japan. We use CAMP model (Hashimoto et al, PAGEOPH, 2004) as a plate interface between the Pacific plate and the North American plate. The viscoelastic results show that afterslips concentrate deeper parts of the plate interface at the eastern adjoining area of the Tokachi Earthquake. Just before the Kushiro Events (1-1.2 yr after the Tokachi Earthquake

  5. Growth of Single Crystals and Fabrication of GaN and AlN Wafers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    formed primarily by sublimation was undertaken by Aoki and Ogino [50]. They compared the 15 reaction between the ammonia and gallium in an open...Aoki, M. Sano, and T. Ogino , Sago Shikenso Nempo, 34 (1975) 125. 51. S. Sakai, S. Kurai, K. Nishino, K. Wada, H. Sato, and Y. Naoi, Mat. Res. Soc. Proc...34 Plenum, New York (1992). 105. T. Ogino and M. Aoki, J. Appl. Phys. 19 (1980) 2395. 106. E. Kaldis, and M. Piechotka, in D. T. J. Hurle (Ed.) "Handbook

  6. The Synthesis of Monometallated and Unsymmetrically Substituted Binuclear Phthalocyanines and a Pentanuclear Phthalocyanine by Solution and Polymer Support Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-03

    Nishiyama, Y.; Ohya , T.; Sato, M . J. Chem Soc. Chem. Commun. 1987, 390. (39) Dodsworth, E. S.; Lever, A. B. P.; Seymour, P. Leznoff, C. C. J. Phys. Chem. 1985...Texas A& M University California Institute of Technology College Station, TX 77843 Pasadena, CA 91125 413d005 4133004 Professor Royce W. Murray Dr...Sandstrom Professor Jack Simons Boeing Aerospace Company Department of Chemistry P.O. Box 3999, M /S 87-08 University of Utah Seattle, WA 98124-2499 Salt Lake

  7. Study of the Physics of Insulating Films as Related to the Reliability of Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    Masouka, T. Sato, and M . Ishikawa, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-23, 379 (1976). 23. M . Kikuchi, S. Ohya , and M . Yamagishi, Japan. J. App!. Phys. 17...34, at the Electrochemical Society Meeting, Minneapolis, Minnesota, May 10-15, 1981. 12. A. Reisman, J.M. Aitken, A.K. Ray, M . Berkenblit, C.J. Merz and...and Its Interfaces, ed. by S.T. Pantelides (Pergamon, New York, 1978), p. 160 and references contained therein. 5. M . Schutz, in Insulatinx Films on

  8. The Physiology of Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone (GHRH) in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    E., Billestrup, 5813. N., Gonzalez-Manchon, C., and Vale, W. (1992). Endocrino !- 28. Jungwirtb, A., Schally, A. V., Pinski, J., H-almos, G., Groot... Endocrino !. Metab. 82,690-696. Sc!. USA 88, 8749-8753. 33. Barinaga, M., Yamamoto, G., Rivier, C., Vale, W. W., Evans, 10. Berry, S. A., Srivastava, C. H...Matsubara, S., Sato, M., Mizobuchi, M., Niimi, M., and Docherty, K. (1986). J. Endocrino !. 110, 5 1-57. Takahara, J. (1997). Endocrinology 136, 4147-4150

  9. Characterisitics of Inertial Gravity Waves in the Antarctic Stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, D. J.; Klekociuk, A. R.; Alexander, S.; Love, P. T.; Vincent, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    A decade of radiosonde observations of wind and temperature in the troposphere and lower stratosphere have made it possible to compile a climatology of low-frequency gravity waves above Davis, Antarctica (69S, 78E). Wave characteristics, extracted using wavelet analysis [Zink and Vincent, 2001], show strong seasonal and height variations. In particular, the high prevalence of down-going waves in the winter lower stratosphere previously identified at other Antarctic sites [Moffat-Griffin et al. 2011; Yoshiki and Sato, 2000] has been shown to exist at Davis. The vertical structure and seasonal variation of down-going wave percentages are shown in Figure 1a, and a relationship with the background zonal wind structure (contoured) is suggested. Figures 1b and 1c show that the down-going waves replace up-going waves in the winter lower stratosphere. Statistical distributions of the characteristics of the up and down-going waves show strong similarities suggesting a common source. It is also possible that both classes of waves have characteristics that are more strongly dependent on propagation conditions than their source mechanism. It has been suggested [Sato and Yoshiki, 2008] that imbalance processes in the polar night jet may play a role in their production. This possibility is considered along with the propagation characteristics of the waves to explore their role in the dynamics of the polar stratosphere, and to examine the adequacy of their representation in atmospheric models. References: Moffat-Griffin, T., R. E. Hibbins, M. J. Jarvis and S. R. Colwell, Seasonal variations of gravity wave activity in the lower stratosphere over an Antarctic Peninsula station, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D14111, doi:10.1029/2010JD015349, 2011. Sato, K. And M. Yoshiki, Gravity wave generation around the polar vortex in the stratosphere revealed by 3-hourly radiosonde observations at Syowa station, J. Atmos. Sci., 65, 3719-3735, 2008. Yoshiki, M. And K. Sato, A statistical study of

  10. 3D MHD Study of Helias and Heliotron

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    Loss and Radial Electric Field in Wendelstein VII-A Stellarator ; Oct. 1991 N IFS-i 18 Y. Kondoh and Y. Hosaka, Kernel Optimum Nearly-analytical...30 September -- 7 October 1992 IAEA-CN-56/D-1 -4 31) MIlD Study or Ielias and lIfliotron 1’. Hayashi. T. Sato, W. Lotz. P. Merkel, J. Nuifirenbyerg...AGENCY Ŕ •JI" " FOURTEENTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PLASMA Zo PHYSICS AND CONTROLLED NUCLEAR FUSION RESEARCH Wirzburg, Germany, 30 September - 7

  11. Sea-Water Magnetohydrodynamic Propulsion for Next-Generation Undersea Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    1961. 2 J. B. Friauf, "Electromagnetic Ship Propulsion ," J. of Amer. Soc. of Naval Engrs., Feb., 1961, pp 139-142. 3 0. M. Phillips, "The Prospects for...Magnetohydrodynamic Ship Propulsion ," J. of Ship Research, March, 1962, pp 43-51. 4 R. A. Doragh, "Magnetohydrodynamic Ship Propulsion using...Paper # 67-432. I A. P. Baranov, "Future of Magnetohydrodynamic Ship Propulsion ," Sudostroyeniye, No. 12, 1966, pp 3-6. 8 A. Iwata, Y. Saji and S. Sato

  12. Measurement of the partial cross sections σTT, σLT, and (σT+ ɛσL) of the 1H(e,e'π+)n reaction in the Δ(1232) resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. M.; Sparveris, N. F.; Nakagawa, I.; Bernstein, A. M.; Alarcon, R.; Bertozzi, W.; Botto, T.; Bourgeois, P.; Calarco, J.; Casagrande, F.; Distler, M. O.; Dow, K.; Farkondeh, M.; Georgakopoulos, S.; Gilad, S.; Hicks, R.; Holtrop, A.; Hotta, A.; Jiang, X.; Karabarbounis, A.; Kowalski, S.; Milner, R.; Miskimen, R.; Papanicolas, C. N.; Sarty, A. J.; Sato, Y.; Širca, S.; Shaw, J.; Six, E.; Stave, S.; Stiliaris, E.; Tamae, T.; Tsentalivich, G.; Tschalaer, C.; Turchinetz, W.; Zhou, Z.-L.; Zwart, T.

    2011-08-01

    We report precision 1H(e,e'π+)n measurements in the Δ(1232) resonance at Q2=0.127(GeV/c)2 obtained at the MIT-Bates out-of-plane scattering facility. These are the lowest, but nonzero, Q2 measurements in the π+ channel. The data offer tests of the theoretical calculations, particularly of the background amplitude contributions. The chiral effective field theory and Sato-Lee model calculations are not in agreement with this experiment.

  13. SMJ's analysis of Ising model correlation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadanoff, Leo P.; Kohmoto, Mahito

    1980-05-01

    In a series of recent publications Sato, Miwa, and Jimbo (SMJ) have shown how to derive multispin correlation functions of the two-dimensional Ising model in the continuum, or scaling, limit by analyzing the behavior of the solutions to the two-dimensional version of the Dirac equation. The major purpose of the present work is to describe SMJ's analysis more discursively and in terms closer to that used in previous studies of the Ising model. In addition, new and more compact expressions for their basic equations are derived. A single new answer is obtained: the form of the three-spin correlation function at criticality.

  14. Topological Insulators and Superconductors for Innovative Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-20

    Ong , and R. J. Cava, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 057001 (2010). [12] S. Sasaki, M. Kriener, K. Segawa, K. Yada, Y. Tanaka, M. Sato, and Y. Ando, Phys. Rev...Baumberger , C. R. A. Catlow , Adv. Mater. 2012 , 24 , 2154 . [ 7 ] D. X. Qu , Y. S. Hor , J. Xiong , R. J. Cava , N. P. Ong ...Xiong, R. J. Cava, and N. P. Ong , Science 329, 821 (2010). [6] Z. Ren, A.A. Taskin, S. Sasaki, K. Segawa, and Y. Ando, Phys. Rev. B 82, 241306(R

  15. Exploring the North Atlantic Ocean on Floppy Disks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A., 50, 396-398. Saunders, P. M., 1986. The accuracy of measurement of salinity, oxygen and temperature in the deep...all disks PLOTTER1.BAS Disk NA-3 only PLOTTER3.BAS " PLOTTER9 BAS " AUTOPLOT.BAS Disk NA-4 only MINIFILE.BAS " FASTSCAN.BAS " POTEMP.BAS " % SATO2 .BAS if...advanced machine that has seven or more colors and a higher resolution screen, then use an alternative form of PLOTTER found on Disk NA-3. If you can set

  16. A new potential energy surface for H[sub 2]Br and its use to calculate branching ratios and kinetic isotope effects for the H + HBr reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, G.C.; Truhlar, D.G. ); Brown, F.B.; Zhao, J.G. )

    1995-01-05

    We have carried out multireference configuration interaction calculations with a large basis set for the H[sub 2]Br system at 104 geometries preselected for convenient use in fitting an analytic potential energy surface for the reactions H + HBr [yields] H[sub 2]Br and H + H[prime]Br [yields] H[prime] + HBr. The external part of the correlation energy is scaled (SEC method) to yield a 101 geometry data set which is fitted using the extended London -Eyring-Polanyi-Sato method with bond-distance- and internal-angle-dependent Sato parameters plus a three-center term localized at the colinear H-Br-H saddle point. The unweighted root-mean-square error for 88 points corresponding to collinear and bent H-H-Br geometries and collinear H-Br-H geometries is 0.55 kcal/mol, with larger deviations for bent H-Br-H geometries. Rate constants were calculated by combining the new analytic potential energy surface with improved canonical variational transition state theory and the least-action semiclassical tunneling approximation. For the abstraction reaction, H + HBr [yields] H[sub 2] + Br, and four deuterium and muonium isotopic analogs, agreement with experiment is very good. 87 refs., 11 figs., 30 tabs.

  17. Evaluating the masticatory function after mandibulectomy with colour-changing chewing gum.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Y; Ishida, S; Hasegawa, T; Kobayashi, M; Nibu, K; Komori, T

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the usefulness of colour-changing gum in evaluating masticatory performance after mandibulectomy. Thirty-nine patients who underwent mandibulectomy between 1982 and 2010 at Kobe University Hospital were recruited in this study. There were 21 male and 18 female subjects with a mean age of 64·7 years (range: 12-89 years) at the time of surgery. The participants included six patients who underwent marginal mandibulectomy, 21 patients who underwent segmental mandibulectomy and 12 patients who underwent hemimandibulectomy. The masticatory function was evaluated using colour-changing chewing gum, gummy jelly and a modified Sato's questionnaire. In all cases, the data were obtained more than 3 months after completing the patient's final prosthesis. The colour-changing gum scores correlated with both the gummy jelly scores (r = 0·634, P < 0·001) and the total scores of the modified Sato's questionnaire (r = 0·537, P < 0·001). In conclusion, colour-changing gum is a useful item for evaluating masticatory performance after mandibulectomy.

  18. Evaluation of masticatory function after maxillectomy using a colour-changing chewing gum.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Y; Ishida, S; Kobayashi, M; Hasegawa, T; Nibu, K; Komori, T

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with the masticatory dysfunction after maxillectomy using a colour-changing chewing gum. Thirty-nine patients who underwent maxillectomy between January 2002 and May 2010 in the Department of Kobe University Hospital were recruited for this study. There were 20 male and 19 female subjects, with a median age of 73·3 years (range of 44-90) at the time of surgery. The intra-oral conditions after maxillectomy were classified by HS classification, and the masticatory function was evaluated by a colour-changing chewing gum and the results of a modified Sato's questionnaire. The scores of the colour-changing gum were closely correlated with the scores of the modified Sato's questionnaire (r = 0·661, P < 0·01). A logistic regression analysis with the outcome variable of the gum test <4 demonstrated that significant predictors for the masticatory dysfunction were the number of anchor teeth ≤2 and a soft palate defect. A colour-changing gum was found to be useful for evaluating the post-operative masticatory function, and it was important to conserve the anchor teeth and the soft palate to avoid masticatory dysfunction.

  19. [The Chinese nuclear test and 'atoms for peace' as a measure for preventing nuclear armament of Japan: the nuclear non-proliferation policy of the United States and the introduction of light water reactors into Japan, 1964-1968].

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Masakatsu

    2014-07-01

    Japan and the United States signed in 1968 a new atomic energy agreement through which US light-water nuclear reactors, including those of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of Tokyo Electric Power Company, were to be introduced into Japan. This paper studies the history of negotiations for the 1968 agreement using documents declassified in the 1990s in the US and Japan. After the success of the Chinese nuclear test in October 1964, the United States became seriously concerned about nuclear armament of other countries in Asia including Japan. Expecting that Japan would not have its own nuclear weapons, the US offered to help the country to demonstrate its superiority in some fields of science including peaceful nuclear energy to counter the psychological effect of the Chinese nuclear armament. Driven by his own political agenda, the newly appointed Prime Minister Eisaku Sato responded to the US expectation favorably. When he met in January 1965 with President Johnson, Sato made it clear that Japan would not pursue nuclear weapons. Although the US continued its support after this visit, it nevertheless gave priority to the control of nuclear technology in Japan through the bilateral peaceful nuclear agreement. This paper argues that the 1968 agreement implicitly meant a strategic measure to prevent Japan from going nuclear and also a tactic to persuade Japan to join the Nuclear Non -Proliferation Treaty.

  20. Comparison between near-infrared oximetry and 99mTc-HMPAO uptake in the resting peripheral muscle under normobaric normoxia and hypobaric hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagani, Marco; Ansjon, Ralf; Lind, Folke; Jonsson, Cathrine; Uusijarvi, Johan; Sumen, Gamze; Jacobsson, Hans; Larsson, Stig A.

    1997-12-01

    We have used three different oximeters to study finger capillary SatO2, transcutaneous oxygen tension and vastus lateralis hemoglobin saturation and hemoglobin concentration in 6 volunteers under normobaric normoxia and hypobaric hypoxia. Simultaneously, the 99mTc-HMPAO uptake in the thigh muscles was assessed by planar scintigraphy. We found a highly selective uptake of 99mTc-HMPAO in the muscles of all subjects thighs. 99mTc-HMPAO uptake was significantly higher in hypoxia as compared to normoxia (p < 0.001). By comparing scintigraphy and tissue spectrophotometry (OMNIA), we observed a strong correlation between 99mTc-HMPAO uptake and hemoglobin saturation (R equals 0.96, p < 0.001) and a good correlation between 99mTc-HMPAO uptake and hemoglobin concentration (R equals 0.77, p < 0.05). These correlations indicate the occurrence of a protective vasodilatory response during hypobaric hypoxia. During hypoxia, none of the three methods used to measure oxygen saturation correlated with the actual arterial SatO2. This results suggest that different body districts react to hypoxia in a non-uniform manner. The role of the used NIRS instrumentation in assessing quantitative values needs further investigations.

  1. Comparison between near-infrared oximetry and 99mTc-HMPAO uptake in the resting peripheral muscle under normobaric normoxia and hypobaric hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagani, Marco; Ansjon, Ralf; Lind, Folke; Jonsson, Cathrine; Uusijarvi, Johan; Sumen, Gamze; Jacobsson, Hans; Larsson, Stig A.

    1998-01-01

    We have used three different oximeters to study finger capillary SatO2, transcutaneous oxygen tension and vastus lateralis hemoglobin saturation and hemoglobin concentration in 6 volunteers under normobaric normoxia and hypobaric hypoxia. Simultaneously, the 99mTc-HMPAO uptake in the thigh muscles was assessed by planar scintigraphy. We found a highly selective uptake of 99mTc-HMPAO in the muscles of all subjects thighs. 99mTc-HMPAO uptake was significantly higher in hypoxia as compared to normoxia (p < 0.001). By comparing scintigraphy and tissue spectrophotometry (OMNIA), we observed a strong correlation between 99mTc-HMPAO uptake and hemoglobin saturation (R equals 0.96, p < 0.001) and a good correlation between 99mTc-HMPAO uptake and hemoglobin concentration (R equals 0.77, p < 0.05). These correlations indicate the occurrence of a protective vasodilatory response during hypobaric hypoxia. During hypoxia, none of the three methods used to measure oxygen saturation correlated with the actual arterial SatO2. This results suggest that different body districts react to hypoxia in a non-uniform manner. The role of the used NIRS instrumentation in assessing quantitative values needs further investigations.

  2. Dislocated interests and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Steven J.; Diffenbaugh, Noah

    2016-06-01

    The predicted effects of climate change on surface temperatures are now emergent and quantifiable. The recent letter by Hansen and Sato (2016 Environ. Res. Lett. 11 034009) adds to a growing number of studies showing that warming over the past four decades has shifted the distribution of temperatures higher almost everywhere, with the largest relative effects on summer temperatures in developing regions such as Africa, South America, southeast Asia, and the Middle East (e.g., Diffenbaugh and Scherer 2011 Clim. Change 107 615-24 Anderson 2011 Clim. Change 108 581; Mahlstein et al 2012 Geophys. Res. Lett. 39 L21711). Hansen and Sato emphasize that although these regions are warming disproportionately, their role in causing climate change—measured by cumulative historical CO2 emissions produced—is small compared to the US and Europe, where the relative change in temperatures has been less. This spatial and temporal mismatch of climate change impacts and the burning of fossil fuels is a critical dislocation of interests that, as the authors note, has ‘substantial implications for global energy and climate policies.’ Here, we place Hansen and Sato’s ‘national responsibilities’ into a broader conceptual framework of problematically dislocated interests, and briefly discuss the related challenges for global climate mitigation efforts.

  3. Posterior commissure of the human larynx revisited.

    PubMed

    Tucker, John A; Tucker, Sean T

    2010-05-01

    The existence of the posterior commissure (PC) of the human larynx has been disputed (Hirano M, Sato K, et al. The posterior glottis. Trans Am Laryngol Assoc. 1986;107:70-75). "The term posterior commissure has no relevance to anatomical structure. The term commissure means a joining together. The bilateral vocal folds never join at their posterior ends. The posterior aspect of the glottis is a wall. The posterior lateral aspect of the posterior glottis is also the lateral wall of the posterior glottis" (Hirano M, Sato K, et al. The posterior glottis. Trans Am Laryngol Assoc. 1986;107:70-75). This study is intended to clarify the development of anatomical and morphological aspects of the PC in conjunction with a clinical classification of the larynx in sagittal view. This study uses human embryo and fetal laryngeal sections from the Carnegie Collection of Human Embryos (the world standard) and whole organ laryngeal sections from the Tucker Laryngeal Fetal Collection. Correlation of histologic and gross anatomical structure is made with the Hirano et al atlas, the Vidić Photographic Atlas of the Human Body, and the O'Rahilly Embryonic Atlas. Embryologic data clearly describe and illustrate the posterior union of the cricoid cartilage with formation of the PC. The anatomical functional aspects of the posterior lateral cricoid lamina as the supporting buttress of the articulating arytenoid cartilages are illustrated.

  4. Investigation on the effects of guava (Psidium guajava L.) infusions on germination, root tips and meristematic cells of Latuca sativa.

    PubMed

    Luber, Jaquelini; Palmieri, Marcel J; Botelho, Carolina M; Rinaldo, Daniel; Andrade-Vieira, Larissa F

    2015-01-01

    Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is a plant often employed in popular medicine. Recently several studies have alerted about the toxicity of substances present in medicinal plants, which can pose risks to the human health. In this sense, the present work aimed to investigate the phytotoxic, cytotoxic and genotoxic action of three guava varieties - Paluma, Pedro Sato and Roxa ("purple") - on the plant test system Lactuca sativa L. Thus, macro- and microscopic evaluations were carried out for five infusion concentrations (2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0 and 40.0 g.L(-1)) prepared from each variety. Distilled water was used as negative control. Chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis by HPLC-PAD indicated that the chemical composition of the infusion of Roxa is different than that of the infusions of the varieties Paluma and Pedro Sato. It was observed that seed germination and root growth in L. sativa exposed to infusions decreased with increasing infusion concentration, regardless of the tested cultivar. For the mitotic index, no statistical differences were observed. On the other hand, a significant increase in the frequency of cell cycle alterations was verified, especially for the highest concentrations tested. The cytogenotoxic effect was significant. Therefore, guava should not be used indiscriminately in popular medicine.

  5. The Coagulative Profile of Cyanotic Children Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: The Role of Whole Blood Preoperative Thromboelastometry on Postoperative Transfusion Requirement.

    PubMed

    Vida, Vladimiro L; Spiezia, Luca; Bortolussi, Giacomo; Marchetti, Marta E; Campello, Elena; Pittarello, Demetrio; Gregori, Dario; Stellin, Giovanni; Simioni, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the preoperative coagulation pattern and its association to postoperative blood products transfusion in children with congenital heart disease (CHD), focusing on cyanotic patients (oxygen saturation, SATO 2  < 85%). From January to August 2014, preoperative standard coagulation tests and rotational thromboelastometry assays were performed on 81 pediatric patients (<16 years old) who underwent surgery for CHD with the aid of cardiopulmonary bypass. Sixty patients (74%) were acyanotic and 21 (26%) cyanotic. Mean age at time of surgery was 7.9 months (interquartile range 2.9-43.6 months). Cyanotic patients had a significantly higher hematocrit (P < 0.001), a reduced prothrombin activity (PT) (P = 0.01) level, and a lower platelet count (P = 0.02) than acyanotic patients. An inverse linear association was found between patient's SATO2 and clot formation time (CFT) (INTEM, P = 0.001, and EXTEM, P < 0.0001). A direct linear association was found between patient's SATO2 and maximum clot firmness (MCF) (INTEM, P = 0.04, and EXTEM, P = 0.05). Preoperative cyanosis was also associated with a lower median MCF in FIBTEM (P = 0.02). Cyanotic patients required more frequent postoperative transfusions of fibrinogen (7/21 patients, 33% vs. 4/60 patients, 6.7%, P = 0.01) and fresh frozen plasma (14/21, 67% vs. 25/60, 42%, P = 0.08). Patients with a lower presurgery PT and platelet count subsequently required more fibrinogen transfusion P = 0.02 and P = 0.003, respectively); the same goes for patients with a longer CFT (INTEM, P = 0.01 and EXTEM, P = 0.03) and a reduced MCF (INTEM, P = 0.02 and FIBTEM, P = 0.01) as well. Cyanotic patients showed significant preoperative coagulation anomalies and required a higher postoperative fibrinogen supplementation. The preoperative MCF FIBTEM has become an important factor in our postoperative thromboelastometry-guided transfusion

  6. Ultraviolet observations of comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Code, A. D.; Houck, T. E.; Lillie, C. F.

    1972-01-01

    The first observations of a comet in the vacuum ultraviolet were obtained on January 14, 1970, when OAO-2 recorded the spectrum of the bright comet Tago-Sato-Kosaka (1969g). The observations revealed, among other things, the predicted extensive hydrogen Lyman alpha halo. OAO-2 continued to collect spectrophotometric measurements of this comet throughout January of that year; a photograph of the nucleus in Lyman alpha revealed finer scale structures. In February of 1970, the bright comet Bennet (1969i) became favorable for space observations. On the basis of the OAO discovery, OGO-V made several measurements of comet Bennet with low spatial resolution photometers. Comet Enke was detected by OGO in January of 1971 at a large heliocentric distance from its Lyman alpha emission.

  7. The Nash Equilibrium Revisited: Chaos and Complexity Hidden in Simplicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellman, Philip V.

    The Nash Equilibrium is a much discussed, deceptively complex, method for the analysis of non-cooperative games (McLennan and Berg, 2005). If one reads many of the commonly available definitions the description of the Nash Equilibrium is deceptively simple in appearance. Modern research has discovered a number of new and important complex properties of the Nash Equilibrium, some of which remain as contemporary conundrums of extraordinary difficulty and complexity (Quint and Shubik, 1997). Among the recently discovered features which the Nash Equilibrium exhibits under various conditions are heteroclinic Hamiltonian dynamics, a very complex asymptotic structure in the context of two-player bi-matrix games and a number of computationally complex or computationally intractable features in other settings (Sato, Akiyama and Farmer, 2002). This paper reviews those findings and then suggests how they may inform various market prediction strategies.

  8. Origin of organism-dependent biogenic silica quartz formation.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kiminori

    2011-12-15

    Organism-dependent biogenic quartz formation in the steady-state environment is a phenomenon that can address the global environmental issues such as diagenetic evolution, biogeochemical cycling, and reservoir formation, but detailed studies have not been performed so far. Here, steady-state quartz formation is studied for amorphous silica of different biogenic origin on the basis of the recently established mechanistic model [Sato et al., J. Phys. Chem. C 2011, 115, 18131]. Amorphous silica originated from rice husks possesses angstrom-scale pores larger by 1.3 Å than those originated from diatom algae. The slight difference of pore size dramatically reduces activation energies of water diffusion by 78% and reactions of water molecules at pore surfaces by 47%, resulting in the reduction of activation energy of biogenic quartz formation by 64%. The present findings evidence that angstrom-scale pores intrinsically residing in the amorphous matrix are the organism-dependent origin of steady-state biogenic quartz formation.

  9. Comparison of techniques that use the single scattering model to compute the quality factor Q from coda waves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Lee, W.H.K.

    1991-01-01

    Using simulated coda waves, the resolution of the single-scattering model to extract coda Q (Qc) and its power law frequency dependence was tested. The back-scattering model of Aki and Chouet (1975) and the single isotropic-scattering model of Sato (1977) were examined. The results indicate that: (1) The input Qc models are reasonably well approximated by the two methods; (2) almost equal Qc values are recovered when the techniques sample the same coda windows; (3) low Qc models are well estimated in the frequency domain from the early and late part of the coda; and (4) models with high Qc values are more accurately extracted from late code measurements. ?? 1991 Birkha??user Verlag.

  10. Right-hand polarized 4fce auroral roar emissions: 2. Nonlinear generation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, P. H.; LaBelle, J.; Weatherwax, A. T.

    2016-08-01

    Auroral roar emissions are commonly interpreted as Z (or upper hybrid) mode naturally excited by precipitating auroral electrons. Subsequent conversion to escaping radiation makes it possible for these emissions to be detected on the ground. Most emissions are detected as having left-hand (L) circular (or ordinary O) polarization, but the companion paper presents a systematic experimental study on the rare occurrence of the right-hand polarized, or equivalently, extraordinary (X) mode 4fce emission. A similar observation was reported earlier by Sato et al. (2015). The suggested emission mechanism is the nonlinear coalescence of two upper hybrid roars at 2fce. The present paper formulates a detailed theory for such an emission mechanism.

  11. Somatoautonomic reflexes in acupuncture therapy: A review.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Sae; Kagitani, Fusako; Sato-Suzuki, Ikuko

    2017-03-01

    Oriental therapies such as acupuncture, moxibustion, or Anma, have been used to treat visceral disorders since ancient times. In each of these therapies, stimulation of the skin or underlying muscles leads to excitation of afferent nerves. The sensory information is carried to the central nervous system, where it is transferred to autonomic efferents, thus affecting visceral functions. This neuronal pathway, known as the "somatoautonomic reflex", has been systematically studied by Sato and his colleagues for over a half century. Nearly all their studies were conducted in anesthetized animals, whereas human patients are conscious. Responses in patients or the events following therapeutic somatic stimulation may differ from those observed in anesthetized animals. In fact, it is increasingly apparent that the responses in patients and animals are not always coincident, and the differences have been difficult for clinicians to reconcile. We review the mechanism of the "somatoautonomic reflex" as described in anesthetized animals and then discuss how it can be applied clinically.

  12. Stability of elongated cross-section tokamaks to axisymmetric even poloidal mode number deformations

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, R.; Jardin, S.C.; Pomphrey, N.

    1989-06-01

    A recent paper by Nakayama, Sato and Matsuoka suggests that elliptical cross section tokamaks with aspect ratio R/a = 3.2 and with elongation kappa = 2.6 are unstable to a splitting (m = 2, n = 0) instability for plasma ..beta.. > 5%, and that kappa /> =/ 4.0 plasmas are unstable to splitting for ..beta.. /> =/ 1%. We have tried to reproduce these results using the MHD evolution code TSC, but find these configurations to be stable, not even near a stability boundary. Even a kappa = 3.7 plasma with ..beta.. = 23.0% is stable to the splitting mode. However, the addition of pinching coils at the waist will cause the plasma to split if the current in these coils exceeds a critical value I/sub c/ which decreases with increasing ..beta... 8 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Application of spectral methods for high-frequency financial data to quantifying states of market participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Aki-Hiro

    2008-06-01

    Empirical analysis of the foreign exchange market is conducted based on methods to quantify similarities among multi-dimensional time series with spectral distances introduced in [A.-H. Sato, Physica A 382 (2007) 258-270]. As a result it is found that the similarities among currency pairs fluctuate with the rotation of the earth, and that the similarities among best quotation rates are associated with those among quotation frequencies. Furthermore, it is shown that the Jensen-Shannon spectral divergence is proportional to a mean of the Kullback-Leibler spectral distance both empirically and numerically. It is confirmed that these spectral distances are connected with distributions for behavioural parameters of the market participants from numerical simulation. This concludes that spectral distances of representative quantities of financial markets are related into diversification of behavioural parameters of the market participants.

  14. Stereodynamics Study of the Reaction of O(3P) with CH4 (v = 0, j = 0)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yufang; Gao, Yali; Zhai, Hongsheng; Shi, Deheng; Sun, Jinfeng

    2009-01-01

    A new London-Eyring-Polanyi-Sato (LEPS) potential energy surface (PES) is used in the O + CH4 → OH + CH3 reaction via the quasiclassical trajectory method (QCT). Comparing with the experiments and the former ab initio calculations, the new LEPS PES describes the actual potential energy surface of the O + CH4 reaction successfully. The four polarization dependent “generalized” differential cross sections (PDDCS) are presented in the center of mass frame. In the meantime, the distribution of dihedral angle [P(φr), the distribution of angle between k and j′ (P(θr)] and the angular distribution of product rotational vectors in the form of polar plots in θr and φr (P(θr, φr) are calculated. The isotope effect for the reactions O + CD4 is also calculated. These results are in good agreement with the experiments. PMID:19564945

  15. Online EM with weight-based forgetting.

    PubMed

    Celaya, Enric; Agostini, Alejandro

    2015-05-01

    In the online version of the EM algorithm introduced by Sato and Ishii ( 2000 ), a time-dependent discount factor is introduced for forgetting the effect of the old estimated values obtained with an earlier, inaccurate estimator. In their approach, forgetting is uniformly applied to the estimators of each mixture component depending exclusively on time, irrespective of the weight attributed to each unit for the observed sample. This causes an excessive forgetting in the less frequently sampled regions. To address this problem, we propose a modification of the algorithm that involves a weight-dependent forgetting, different for each mixture component, in which old observations are forgotten according to the actual weight of the new samples used to replace older values. A comparison of the time-dependent versus the weight-dependent approach shows that the latter improves the accuracy of the approximation and exhibits much greater stability.

  16. Schur function expansions of KP τ-functions associated to algebraic curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harnad, J.; Ènol'skii, Viktor Z.

    2011-08-01

    The Schur function expansion of Sato-Segal-Wilson KP \\tau-functions is reviewed. The case of \\tau-functions related to algebraic curves of arbitrary genus is studied in detail. Explicit expressions for the Plücker coordinate coefficients appearing in the expansion are obtained in terms of directional derivatives of the Riemann \\theta-function or Klein \\sigma-function along the KP flow directions. By using the fundamental bi-differential it is shown how the coefficients can be expressed as polynomials in terms of Klein's higher-genus generalizations of Weierstrass' \\zeta- and \\wp-functions. The cases of genus-two hyperelliptic and genus-three trigonal curves are detailed as illustrations of the approach developed here. Bibliography: 53 titles.

  17. Passenger Vessel Damage Stability Study for 1990 SOLAS Amendments. Volume 2. Appendix B

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    mi2) . 2.6 square kilmters (khu) 1 hectare (he) v 10,000 u@re Uatee (i2) a 2.5 acres I aere a 0.4 hectares (he) a 4,000 sAre aeters ( 02 ) MASS - IGNT...30.0S 2.277 2.960 -0.544 16 35.OS 2.221 2.451 -1.222 16 40.OS 2.038 1.994 -2.250 16 Note: Drafts are measured at A.P. und F.P sato ship’s centertine 02 ...F.P along ahtp’s cenotertine 02 suiBmaY (2valuated per 11O (SOLAS190) Rules for Passenger Ships) Available Required Static Heel Angle 0.00 deg 7.00

  18. Matter Effects On Neutrino Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Michael

    An introduction to neutrino oscillations in vacuum is presented, followed by a survey of various techniques for obtaining either exact or approximate expressions for numu → nue oscillations in matter. The method developed by Arafune, Koike, and Sato uses a perturbative analysis to find an approximation for the evolution operator. The method used by Freund yields an approximate oscillation probability by diagonalizing the Hamiltonian, finding the eigenvalues and eigenvectors, and then using those to find modified mixing angles with the matter effect taken into account. The method devised by Mann, Kafka, Schneps, and Altinok produces an exact expression for the oscillation by determining explicitly the evolution operator. These methods are compared to each other using the T2K, MINOS, NOnuA, and LBNE parameters.

  19. Comparison of νμ->νe Oscillation calculations with matter effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Michael; Toki, Walter

    2013-04-01

    An introduction to neutrino oscillations in vacuum is presented, followed by a survey of various techniques for obtaining either exact or approximate expressions for νμ->νe oscillations in matter. The method devised by Mann, Kafka, Schneps, and Altinok produces an exact expression for the oscillation by determining explicitely the evolution operator. The method used by Freund yields an approximate oscillation probability by diagonalizing the Hamiltonian, finding the eigenvalues and eigenvectors, and then using those to find modified mixing angles with the matter effect taken into account. The method developed by Arafune, Koike, and Sato uses an alternate method to find an approximation of the evolution operator. These methods are compared to each other using parameters from both the T2K and LBNE experiments.

  20. In situ x-ray diffraction measurements of the capillary fountain jet produced via ultrasonic atomization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Yohko F.; Douguchi, Junya; Kumagai, Atsushi; Iijima, Takao; Tomida, Yukinobu; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Matsuura, Kazuo

    2006-11-01

    In situ x-ray diffraction measurements were carried out for investigating the liquid structure in the ultrasonic fountain jet to consider the mechanism of the "ultrasonic ethanol separation" reported by Sato et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 114, 2382 (2001)]. For pure liquids (water and ethanol), it was found that the high frequency ultrasound does not affect the liquid structure microscopically. For the 20mol% ethanol-water mixture, the estimated ethanol mole fraction in the ultrasonic fountain jet by using the position of the main maximum in the x-ray diffraction profile coincided with that in the reservoir. This result suggests that the ethanol separation is not caused by any distorted liquid structure under the ultrasound irradiation and occurs when or after the generation of the liquid droplet mist.

  1. In situ x-ray diffraction measurements of the capillary fountain jet produced via ultrasonic atomization.

    PubMed

    Yano, Yohko F; Douguchi, Junya; Kumagai, Atsushi; Iijima, Takao; Tomida, Yukinobu; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Matsuura, Kazuo

    2006-11-07

    In situ x-ray diffraction measurements were carried out for investigating the liquid structure in the ultrasonic fountain jet to consider the mechanism of the "ultrasonic ethanol separation" reported by Sato et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 114, 2382 (2001)]. For pure liquids (water and ethanol), it was found that the high frequency ultrasound does not affect the liquid structure microscopically. For the 20 mol % ethanol-water mixture, the estimated ethanol mole fraction in the ultrasonic fountain jet by using the position of the main maximum in the x-ray diffraction profile coincided with that in the reservoir. This result suggests that the ethanol separation is not caused by any distorted liquid structure under the ultrasound irradiation and occurs when or after the generation of the liquid droplet mist.

  2. Liver vessel segmentation based on extreme learning machine.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ye Zhan; Zhao, Yu Qian; Liao, Miao; Zou, Bei Ji; Wang, Xiao Fang; Wang, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Liver-vessel segmentation plays an important role in vessel structure analysis for liver surgical planning. This paper presents a liver-vessel segmentation method based on extreme learning machine (ELM). Firstly, an anisotropic filter is used to remove noise while preserving vessel boundaries from the original computer tomography (CT) images. Then, based on the knowledge of prior shapes and geometrical structures, three classical vessel filters including Sato, Frangi and offset medialness filters together with the strain energy filter are used to extract vessel structure features. Finally, the ELM is applied to segment liver vessels from background voxels. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively segment liver vessels from abdominal CT images, and achieves good accuracy, sensitivity and specificity.

  3. Is guava phenolic metabolism influenced by elevated atmospheric CO2?

    PubMed

    Mendes de Rezende, Fernanda; Pereira de Souza, Amanda; Silveira Buckeridge, Marcos; Maria Furlan, Cláudia

    2015-01-01

    Seedlings of Psidium guajava cv. Pedro Sato were distributed into four open-top chambers: two with ambient CO(2) (∼390 ppm) and two with elevated CO(2) (∼780 ppm). Monthly, five individuals of each chamber were collected, separated into root, stem and leaves and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen. Chemical parameters were analyzed to investigate how guava invests the surplus carbon. For all classes of phenolic compounds analyzed only tannins showed significant increase in plants at elevated CO(2) after 90 days. There was no significant difference in dry biomass, but the leaves showed high accumulation of starch under elevated CO(2). Results suggest that elevated CO(2) seems to be favorable to seedlings of P. guajava, due to accumulation of starch and tannins, the latter being an important anti-herbivore substance.

  4. Investigation of transverse Peltier effect on top-seeded melt textureYBa2Cu3O7 - delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Z. H.; Ma, Z. G.; Li, Q. Y.; Luo, Y. Y.; Zhang, J. X.; Meng, R. L.; Chu, C. W.

    1996-12-01

    The transverse Peltier effect is investigated on the top-seeded melt texture superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO). By restricting the heat absorbing or evolving on one of the sample's surfaces, the Peltier heat flow is converted into a temperature difference for measurement. The temperature difference is found proportional to the current applied, which is in accordance with the prediction of transverse Peltier effect. Based on a simplified model, the difference of the Seebeck coefficients between the ab plane and the c axis, |Sab-Sc|, is about 35 μV/K. It is in good agreement with that of large single crystal [I. Terasaki, Y. Sato, S. Tajima, S. Miyamoto, and S. Tanaka, Physica C 235-240, 1413 (1994)]. The transverse Peltier effect is verified. This supports the idea that the off-diagonal thermoelectric effect is responsible for the anomalously high laser-induced transient transverse voltage on the oriented YBCO superconducting thin films.

  5. [Textbook of surgery by W. Schultze, used at the Tokyo Medical Academy in the early Meiji era].

    PubMed

    Koseki, T

    1993-06-01

    Wilhelm Schultze, Professor of Surgery of the Tokyo Medical Academy, wrote "Vortraege der Allgemeine Chirurgie" for the benefit of his students in about 1880. The author examined this book and concluded that it was based upon "Lehrbuch der Chirurgie und Operationslehre" by Prof. Adolf Bardeleben, his teacher at the Charité in Berlin. Schultze's textbook was translated into Japanese and published by G. Yamazaki and U. Ishiguro, his students at the Tokyo Medical Academy, in 1884. This version was widely used as a textbook in many medical schools at that time, as well as S. Sato's translation of "Die Allgemeine Chirurgische Pathologie und Therapie" written by Prof. Theodor Billroth. The author found and introduced two different Japanese versions of Schultze's textbook printed without permission.

  6. Quasiclassical trajectory study of the N(4S)+NO(X2Π)→N2(X1Σ+ g)+O(3P) reaction rate coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duff, J. W.; Sharma, R. D.

    Rate coefficients for the N+NO→N2+O reaction are calculated over the temperature range 100-1000 K by a quasiclassical trajectory calculation on the ³A″ potential energy surface (PES) based on the semiempirical London-Eyring-Polanyi-Sato (LEPS) formalism, neglecting spin-orbit coupling. The calculated results are only slightly temperature dependent and are in excellent agreement with available experimental data and the JPL recommended rate coefficient [DeMore et al., 1994] at room temperature. The present results do not support either the rate coefficient arrived at by Siskind and Rusch [1992] from modeling of the terrestrial thermosphere or the one arrived at by Fox [1994] from modeling of the Martian thermosphere. Possible causes of the discrepancies between the calculated rate coefficients and those arrived at from modeling studies may be additional NO production (loss or loss and production) mechanisms in the Martian (terrestrial) thermosphere.

  7. Exact solutions for a system of two counter-rotating black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Manko, V. S.; Rodchenko, E. D.; Sadovnikov, B. I.; Ruiz, E.

    2008-12-15

    The full metric describing two counter-rotating identical Kerr black holes separated by a massless strut is derived in the explicit analytical form. It contains three arbitrary parameters which are the Komar mass M, Komar angular momentum per unit mass a of one of the black holes (the other has the same mass and equal but opposite angular momentum) and the coordinate distance R between the centers of the horizons. In the limit of extreme black holes, the metric becomes a special member of the Kinnersly-Chitre five-parameter family of vacuum solutions generalizing the Tomimatsu-Sato {delta}=2 spacetime, and we present the complete set of metrical fields defining this limit.

  8. A review of the Japanese species of the family Tischeriidae (Lepidoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Shigeki; Sato, Hiroaki; Hirano, Nagao; Yamada, Kazutaka; Hirowatari, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper provides taxonomic and biological data on one new and one newly recorded species of Coptotriche Walsingham and one new and one newly recorded species of Tischeria Zeller from Japan. Coptotriche symplocosella Kobayashi & Hirowatari, sp. n. (host Symplocos lucida, Symplocaceae), and Tischeria kumatai Sato, Kobayashi & Hirowatari, sp. n. (host Tilia japonica, Malvaceae) are described. The pupal morphology of Coptotriche symplocosella is illustrated with scanning electron micrographs. Coptotriche minuta Diškus & Stonis, 2014 and Tischeria relictana Ermolaev, 1986 are newly recorded from Japan. The female, hostplants (Carpinus, Corylus, and Ostrya species), and immature stages of Coptotriche minuta and the adult features, female, and hostplants (Betula species) of Tischeria relictana are described with photographs and drawings for the first time. Mine types and characters of Japanese Tischeriidae are reviewed with photographs. PMID:27551192

  9. Electron microscopic observations of the anterior pituitary gland. Part I. The neurons in the "transitional zone" of the anterior pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Mabuchi, Yoshio; Shirasawa, Nobuyuki; Sakuma, Eisuke; Wada, Ikuo; Horiuchi, Osamu; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Sakamoto, Atsushi; Herbert, Damon C; Soji, Tsuyoshi

    2008-06-01

    Since [Westlud, K.N., Chils, G.V., 1982. Localization of serotonin fibers in the rat adenohypophysis. Endocrinology 111, 1761-1763] initially identified the serotonin nerve fibers in the anterior pituitary gland, attention has been paid to the rostral zone of the anterior lobe into which nerve fibers enter and subsequently spread to deeper regions of the lobe. The rostral zone is the trifurcated junction of the partes tuberalis, intermedia and distalis, and has the important role(s) for hormone secretion via the "transitional zone" [Sato, G, Shirasawa, N, Sakuma, E, Sato, Y, Asai, Y, Wada, I, Horiuchi, O, Sakamoto, A, Herbert, DC, Soji, T, 2005a. Intercellular communications within the rat anterior pituitary. XI: An immunohistochemical study of distributions of S-100 positive cells in the anterior pituitary of the rat. Tissue and Cell 37, 269-280.]. The objective of this study was to focus on the ultrastructure of this "zone." All of the animals studied were fixed by perfusion with glutaraldehyde via the left ventricle of the heart and examined by electron microscopy. In the "transitional zone," a cluster of neuronal elements was observed between the folliculo-stellate cell-rich area and the anterior lobe. This cluster consisted of myelinated fibers, unmyelinated fibers, neuroendocrine fibers, large cells, and supporting cells. The large cells were perikarya of neurons which made a "ganglion-like" structure with associated satellite cells. Agranular, folliculo-stellate cells were intermingled among the elements. This is the first report that neuronal elements form clusters in the "transitional zone." A relationship of the unmyelinated and neuroendocrine fibers in the basal layer and in the "transitional zone" is discussed.

  10. Photometric Characteristics of Lunar Terrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Hapke, Bruce W.; Denevi, Brett W.; Robinson, Mark

    2016-10-01

    The photometric properties of the lunar depend on albedo, surface roughness, porosity, and the internal/external structure of particles. Hapke parameter maps derived using a bidirectional reflectance model [Hapke, 2012] from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) images demonstrated the spatial and spectral variation of the photometric properties of the Moon [Sato et al., 2014]. Using the same methodology, here we present the photometric characteristics of typical lunar terrains, which were not systematically analyzed in the previous study.We selected five representative terrain types: mare, highland, swirls, and two Copernican (fresh) crater ejecta (one mare and one highlands example). As for the datasets, we used ~39 months of WAC repeated observations, and for each image pixel, we computed latitude, longitude, incidence, emission, and phase angles using the WAC GLD100 stereo DTM [Scholten et al., 2012]. To obtain similar phase and incidence angle ranges, all sampling sites are near the equator and in the vicinity of Reiner Gamma. Three free Hapke parameters (single scattering albedo: w, HG2 phase function parameter: c, and angular width of SHOE: hs) were then calculated for the seven bands (321-689 nm). The remaining parameters were fixed by simplifying the model [Sato et al., 2014].The highlands, highland ejecta, and swirl (Reiner Gamma) showed clearly higher w than the mare and mare ejecta. The derived c values were lower (less backscattering) for the swirl and higher (more backscattering) for the highlands (and ejecta) relative to the other sites. Forward scattering materials such as unconsolidated transparent crystalline materials might be relatively enriched in the swirl. In the highlands, anorthositic agglutinates with dense internal scattering could be responsible for the strong backscattering. The mare and mare ejecta showed continuously decreasing c from UV to visible wavelengths. This might be caused by the FeO-rich pyroxene

  11. Chest physiotherapy in preterm infants with lung diseases

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In neonatology the role of chest physiotherapy is still uncertain because of the controversial outcomes. Methods The aim of this study was to test the applicability in preterm infants of 'reflex rolling', from the Vojta method, in preterm neonates with lung pathology, with particular attention to the effects on blood gases and oxygen saturation, on the spontaneous breathing, on the onset of stress or pain. The study included 34 preterm newborns with mean gestational age of 30.5 (1.6) weeks - mean (DS) - and birth weight of 1430 (423) g - mean (DS) -, who suffered from hyaline membrane disease, under treatment with nasal CPAP (continuous positive airways pressure), or from pneumonia, under treatment with oxygen-therapy. The neonates underwent phase 1 of 'reflex rolling' according to Vojta method three times daily. Respiratory rate, SatO2, transcutaneous PtcCO2 e PtcO2 were monitored; in order to evaluate the onset of stress or pain following the stimulations, the NIPS score and the PIPP score were recorded; cerebral ultrasound scans were performed on postnatal days 1-3-5-7, and then weekly. Results In this population the first phase of Vojta's 'reflex rolling' caused an increase of PtcO2 and SatO2 values. No negative effects on PtcCO2 and respiratory rate were observed, NIPS and PIPP stress scores remained unmodified during the treatment; in no patient the intraventricular haemorrhage worsened in time and none of the infants developed periventricular leucomalacia. Conclusions Our experience, using the Vojta method, allows to affirm that this method is safe for preterm neonates, but further investigations are necessary to confirm its positive effects and to evaluate long-term respiratory outcomes. PMID:20868518

  12. Performance simulation of a spaceborne infrared coherent lidar for measuring tropospheric wind profiles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, Philippe; Ishii, Shoken; Kyoka, Gamo; Mizutani, Kohei; Chikako, Takahashi; Itabe, Toshikazu; Iwasaki, Toshiki; Kubota, Takuji; Okamoto, Kozo; Oki, Riko; Satoh, Masaki; Satoh, Yohei

    2014-05-01

    An effort has begun in Japan to develop a spaceborne instrument for measuring tropospheric winds. This project is a collaboration between the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), the Meteorological Research Institute (MRI, Japan) and the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT, Japan) [1,2]. The aim is to measure the horizontal wind field in the troposphere on a global scale with a precision better than 3 ms-1, and a vertical and horizontal (along the satellite ground track) resolution better than 1 km and 100 km, respectively. In order to support the definition and the development of the instrument, an end-to-end simulator has been implemented including modules for i) simulating the time-dependent laser shot return power, ii) for averaging the spectral power of several returns and iii) for estimating the line-of-sight wind from the Doppler shift of the averaged spectra. The simulations take into account the satellite position and motion along the orbit track, the observational and instrumental characteristics, a 3-D representation of the relevant atmospheric parameters (i.e. wind field, cloud coverage and aerosols distribution) and the Earth surface characteristics. The simulator and the method for estimating the line-of-sight wind will be presented. We will show the results obtained for a payload composed of two 2-μm coherent LIDARs looking in orthogonal directions, and for a satellite moving on a low orbit. The precision, accuracy and the vertical and horizontal resolution of the wind estimates will be discussed. References: [1] S. Ishii, T. Iwasaki, M. Sato, R. Oki, K. Okamoto, T. Ishibashi, P. Baron, and T. Nishizawa, Future Doppler lidar wind measurement from space in Japan, Proc. of SPIE Vol. 8529, 2012 [2] S. Ishii, H. Iwai, K. Mizutani, P. Baron, T. Itabe, H. Fukuoka, T. Ishikawa, A. Sato and A. Asai, 2-μm coherent LIDAR for CO2 and wind measurements, Proc. of SPIE Vol. 8872, 2013

  13. Scaling relationships between sizes of nucleation regions and eventual sizes of microearthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiramatsu, Yoshihiro; Furumoto, Muneyoshi

    2007-10-01

    We investigate the initial rupture process of microearthquakes to reveal relationships between nucleation region sizes and eventual earthquake sizes. In order to obtain high quality waveform data, we installed a trigger recording system with a sampling frequency of 10 kHz at the base of a deep borehole at the Nojima Fault, Japan. We analyze waveform data of 31 events around the borehole, with seismic moment ranging from 4.2 × 10 9 Nm to 7.1 × 10 11 Nm. We use both a circular crack model with an accelerating rupture velocity (SK model) [Sato, T., Kanamori, H., 1999. Beginning of earthquakes modeled with the Griffith's fracture criterion, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 89, 80-93.], which generates a slow initial phase of velocity pulse, and a circular crack model with a constant rupture velocity (SH model) [Sato, T, Hirasawa, T., 1973. Body wave spectra from propagating shear cracks, J. Phys. Earth, 21, 415-431.], which generates a ramp-like velocity pulse. Source parameters of these two models are estimated by waveform inversion of the first half cycle of the observed velocity pulse applying both a grid search and a non-linear least squares method. 14 of 31 events are never reproduced by the SH model with a constant Q operator. But SK model with a constant Q operator provides a size of the pre-existing crack, corresponding to the size of the nucleation regions, and a size of the eventual crack. We recognize that (i) the eventual seismic moment is approximately scaled as the cube of the size of pre-existing cracks, (ii) the eventual seismic moment is scaled as the cube of the size of eventual cracks, and (iii) the size of eventual cracks is roughly proportional to the size of pre-existing cracks. We, thus, conclude that the size of eventual earthquakes is controlled by the size of the nucleation regions.

  14. On the biomechanics of stem cell niche formation in the gut--modelling growing organoids.

    PubMed

    Buske, Peter; Przybilla, Jens; Loeffler, Markus; Sachs, Norman; Sato, Toshiro; Clevers, Hans; Galle, Joerg

    2012-09-01

    In vitro culture of intestinal tissue has been attempted for decades. Only recently did Sato et al. [Sato, T., Vries, R. G., Snippert, H. J., van de Wetering, M., Barker, N., Stange, D. E., van Es, J. H., Abo, A., Kujala, P., Peters, P. J., et al. (2009) Nature 459, 262-265] succeed in establishing long-term intestinal culture, demonstrating that cells expressing the Lgr5 gene can give rise to organoids with crypt-like domains similar to those found in vivo. In these cultures, Paneth cells provide essential signals supporting stem cell function. We have recently developed an individual cell-based computational model of the intestinal tissue [Buske, P., Galle, J., Barker, N., Aust, G., Clevers, H. & Loeffler, M. (2011) PLoS Comput Biol 7, e1001045]. The model is capable of quantitatively reproducing a comprehensive set of experimental data on intestinal cell organization. Here, we present a significant extension of this model that allows simulation of intestinal organoid formation in silico. For this purpose, we introduce a flexible basal membrane that assigns a bending modulus to the organoid surface. This membrane may be re-organized by cells attached to it depending on their differentiation status. Accordingly, the morphology of the epithelium is self-organized. We hypothesize that local tissue curvature is a key regulatory factor in stem cell organization in the intestinal tissue by controlling Paneth cell specification. In simulation studies, our model closely resembles the spatio-temporal organization of intestinal organoids. According to our results, proliferation-induced shape fluctuations are sufficient to induce crypt-like domains, and spontaneous tissue curvature induced by Paneth cells can control cell number ratios. Thus, stem cell expansion in an organoid depends sensitively on its biomechanics. We suggest a number of experiments that will enable new insights into mechano-transduction in the intestine, and suggest model extensions in the field of gland

  15. Deep seismic reflection profiling of the subduction megathrust across the Sagimi trough and Tokyo bay, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Iwasaki, Takaya; Abe, Susumu; Saito, Hideo; Kawanaka, Taku; Hirata, Naoshi

    2010-05-01

    Beneath the metropolitan Tokyo, the Philippine Sea plate, in particular the fore arc portion of the Izu-Bonin island arc, has been subducted. Subduction megathrust beneath Tokyo generated M-8 class earthquakes, such as the 1923 Kanto (M7.9) and 1703 Genroku (M8.0) earthquakes. Due to the buyant subduction of the Izu-Bonin arc, the megathrust lies very shallow part of the crust. The Kozu-Matsuda fault, probable spray fault from the megathrust, emerged at the surface. In 2009, we acquired the deep seismic reflection data across the toe of the thrust system to reveal the connectivity of the probable spray fault to the megathrust. Together with the deep seismic section acquired in 2003, we show a 120-km-long deep seismic reflection profile from the front to 30 km in depth and discuss the geometry and characteristics of the thrust system. We performed deep seismic profiling across the Sagami trough for a 70-km-long seismic line in September 2009, using two ships for offshore seismic data acquisition: a gun-ship with a 3020 cu. inch air-gun and a cable-ship with a 2-km-long, streamer cable and a 480 cu. inch air-gun. The seismic signals were recorded at Miura and Izu peninsulas located both ends of the seismic line. At both sides of the onshore line, off-line recorders were deployed along total 20-km-long seismic lines at a 50m interval. Seismic reflection data were acquired by different offset of ships making large-offset gathers. The northeast end of the seismic line connected with the 2003 Tokyo bay seismic line (Sato et al., 2005: Science). The obtained seismic sections portray the detailed geometry of the spray faults, suggesting an emergent thrust with 4 km thick landward dipping strata. It merges to the megathrust at 6-7 sec (TWT). Judging from the geometry of fault-related fold in the trough fill sediments, the tip of the megathrust is located at 3 sec (TWT) beneath the trough axis. According to the co-seismic crustal deformation, the slip of the 1923 Kanto

  16. A new Holocene eruptive history of Erebus volcano, Antarctica using cosmogenic 3He and 36Cl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmelee, D. E.; Kyle, P. R.; Kurz, M. D.; Marrero, S.

    2013-12-01

    Unraveling the timing of a volcano's most recent eruptions is crucial to understanding its present and future behavior. In this study, we use cosmogenic 3He and 36Cl in mineral separates (clinopyroxene and anorthoclase, respectively) to date the 10 most recent lava flows on Erebus volcano. Erebus is a 2,170-km3 active stratovolcano on Ross Island, Antarctica that is known for its persistent anorthoclase phonolite lava lake and frequent Strombolian eruptions. Previous anorthoclase 40Ar/39Ar ages from the 10 flows [1, 2] suggest they were erupted at roughly regular intervals between 17 and 0 ka. However, the uncertainties on the Ar ages are large (up to 39 %), and the likelihood of excess 40Ar in melt inclusions may skew the Ar ages older than eruption ages. The new cosmogenic ages provide new insights into Erebus eruption chronology. We used two different models to scale production rates: the Lal/Stone model [3] and the new Sato/Lifton model [4]. We find ~20-25 % younger ages with the Sato/Lifton model, attributable to different treatment of atmospheric pressure effects, solar modulation effects, and muogenic production rates in each model. 3He and 36Cl exposure ages of the same 10 flows range from 4.5 × 0.1 to 9.7 × 0.2 ka (Lal/Stone) or 3.5 × 0.1 to 7.5 × 0.2 ka (Sato/Lifton), significantly different than the Ar ages, with a much shorter eruption period. Surprisingly, three of the flows have exposure ages older than their Ar ages, despite the exposure ages being considered minimum ages of eruption and the Ar ages maxima. Concordance of the 3He and 36Cl ages measured in the same samples strengthens the validity of our results and implies that the 3He and 36Cl production rates [5] are well-calibrated for high latitude, high altitude sites and that the methodologies are robust. Regardless of which scaling model is used, the results yield a new understanding of the current eruptive phase of Erebus, particularly in documenting the short timespan over which the

  17. Multi-component diffusion between molten SiO2 inclusions and surrounding felsic melt in an indochinite: Tektites as natural laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macris, C. A.; Eiler, J. M.; Asimow, P. D.; Stolper, E. M.

    2013-12-01

    Tektites are natural glasses thought to have formed as a result of melting and quenching of distally ejected terrestrial material upon hypervelocity (>11 km/s) impact on Earth. Some tektites contain inclusions of lechatelierite (nearly pure SiO2 glass; 99-100 wt. % SiO2), generally thought to be the amorphous relicts of partially digested quartz grains (Koeberl, 1994). Electron and ion microprobe analyses of major and minor elements were performed on transects between lechatelierite inclusions and the surrounding felsic glass in an indochinite (sample from Newman et al., 1995). The surrounding glass is peraluminous with an average composition of 73.4 wt.% SiO2, 12.8 wt.% Al2O3, 4.5 wt. % FeO, 2.3 wt.% K2O, and < 2 wt.% (each) CaO, MgO, Na2O, and TiO2. The boundary between the lechatelierite and felsic glass is broad (~30 μm), with complex concentration profiles reflecting diffusion between the two melts at high temperatures (>2200 °C for formation of lechatelierite; Bunch et al., 2012) prior to quenching. Although all components except SiO2 are pinned to near zero at the same point at the lechatelierite end of the profiles, the shapes of the oxide concentration profiles differ, with Ca and Mg falling off from their far-field values first, followed in order by Fe, Ti, Al, Na, and K. K has apparently propagated the longest distance, diffusing faster than other components from the surrounding melt toward the lechatelierite. Furthermore, concentration profiles of K2O systematically increase, reach a maximum, then decrease closest to lechatelierite, indicating uphill diffusion of K against its concentration gradient. All concentration profiles are asymmetric, becoming steepest towards the most silicic portions of the interdiffusion zone approaching lechatelierite, likely due to the sharp compositional contrast between matrix glass and inclusions. Sato (1974) observed similar alkali enrichment in coronas around quartz xenocrysts in basalt and andesite, where K, and to

  18. The Oxidation (Not Reduction) of Ordinary Chondrites During Metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSween, H. Y., Jr.; Labotka, T. C.

    1992-07-01

    Subtle but systematic changes in the compositions and relative abundances of olivine, pyroxene, and metal with increasing petrologic type in equilibrated (types 4-6) H, L, and LL chondrites suggest that metallic Fe in these meteorites was oxidized during metamorphism. Observed changes include increases in the mean Fe contents of olivine and pyroxene and in the mean Ni and Co contents of bulk metal, as well as increases in the olivine:low-Ca pyroxene ratio with decreasing metal abundance. This evidence for oxidation is at variance with the commonly accepted idea that chondritic Fe was reduced by graphite during metamorphism (Ringwood, 1965; Williams, 1971; Brett and Sato, 1984; Rubin et al., 1988). We suggest that graphite activity was lowered by its dissolution in taenite at metamorphic temperatures, so that redox state was determined largely by equilibrium between ferromagnesian silicates and metal. Oxygen fugacities calculated from chondrite mineral equilibria are 2-3 log units below intrinsic fO(sub)2 measurements (Brett and Sato, 1984). The mineralogies of type 3 chondrites do not conform to the oxidation sequence seen in types 4-6 chondrites, and there is some evidence to suggest that Fe in unequilibrated chondrites was actually reduced during mild heating. Apparently, redox conditions in the surficial layers of parent bodies were reducing, but were oxidizing in the hotter interiors. Much of the current confusion over oxidation versus reduction is attributable to comparing unequilibrated and equilibrated chondrites. Progressive oxidation of Fe during metamorphism implies reaction with an oxidizing agent no longer present in the meteorites. We suggest that this oxidant was an aqueous vapor, derived from heating small amounts of ices originally accreted into the parent asteroids. The condensation of this vapor in cooler, outer layers of asteroids could account for aqueous alteration phases documented in some type 3 chondrites (Alexander et al., 1989). Assuming

  19. Source Process of the 1923 Kanto Earthquake Using New Fault Geometry and 3-D Green's Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, R.; Koketsu, K.

    2005-12-01

    The September 1, 1923, Kanto earthquake caused severe damage and more than 100,000 fatalities in the Tokyo metropolitan area. This earthquake is an interplate event along the Sagami trough where the Philippine Sea plate is subducting beneath a continental plate. We have investigated the source process of this earthquake using the geodetic, teleseismic, and strong motion data (Kobayashi and Koketsu, 2005). The resultant slip distributions show that two asperities (areas of large slips) are located around the base of the Izu peninsula and the Uraga channel. In 2002 and 2003, four seismic surveys were carried out to determine crustal structures and fault locations in the Kanto region (Sato et al., 2005). The seismic reflections from the surface of the Philippine Sea slab suggested that the slab surface should be shallower than the previous models (e.g., Ishida, 1992; Matsu'ura et al., 1980). The fault model of Kobayashi and Koketsu (2005) was also based on Matsu'ura et al. (1980). In this study, we adopt new fault geometry consistent with the result of the reflection surveys and perform another source process inversion. The new slip distribution showed that the western asperity moved from the Uraga channel to the tip of the Miura peninsula, while the western asperity did not move considerably. Green's functions that Kobayashi and Koketsu (2005) used were calculated in a halfspace for geodetic data or in a 1-D model for strong motions. However, the real structure in the Kanto region is three-dimensionally complex as suggested by the geographical setting and seismic surveys. In fact, Kobayashi and Koketsu (2005) showed that the long coda of the observed seismogram at Hongo, Tokyo, was not reproduced in the synthetic one. The forward modeling with a 3-D structure (Sato et al., 1999) suggested that surface waves excited along the boundary between the Kanto mountains and Kanto basin can explain the large coda. Thus we calculate 3-D Green's functions for the strong motion

  20. Determinants of oxygen and carbon dioxide transfer during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in an experimental model of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Park, Marcelo; Costa, Eduardo Leite Vieira; Maciel, Alexandre Toledo; Silva, Débora Prudêncio E; Friedrich, Natalia; Barbosa, Edzangela Vasconcelos Santos; Hirota, Adriana Sayuri; Schettino, Guilherme; Azevedo, Luciano Cesar Pontes

    2013-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has gained renewed interest in the treatment of respiratory failure since the advent of the modern polymethylpentene membranes. Limited information exists, however, on the performance of these membranes in terms of gas transfers during multiple organ failure (MOF). We investigated determinants of oxygen and carbon dioxide transfer as well as biochemical alterations after the circulation of blood through the circuit in a pig model under ECMO support before and after induction of MOF. A predefined sequence of blood and sweep flows was tested before and after the induction of MOF with fecal peritonitis and saline lavage lung injury. In the multivariate analysis, oxygen transfer had a positive association with blood flow (slope = 66, P<0.001) and a negative association with pre-membrane PaCO(2) (slope = -0.96, P = 0.001) and SatO(2) (slope = -1.7, P<0.001). Carbon dioxide transfer had a positive association with blood flow (slope = 17, P<0.001), gas flow (slope = 33, P<0.001), pre-membrane PaCO(2) (slope = 1.2, P<0.001) and a negative association with the hemoglobin (slope = -3.478, P = 0.042). We found an increase in pH in the baseline from 7.50[7.46,7.54] to 7.60[7.55,7.65] (P<0.001), and during the MOF from 7.19[6.92,7.32] to 7.41[7.13,7.5] (P<0.001). Likewise, the PCO(2) fell in the baseline from 35 [32,39] to 25 [22,27] mmHg (P<0.001), and during the MOF from 59 [47,91] to 34 [28,45] mmHg (P<0.001). In conclusion, both oxygen and carbon dioxide transfers were significantly determined by blood flow. Oxygen transfer was modulated by the pre-membrane SatO(2) and CO(2), while carbon dioxide transfer was affected by the gas flow, pre-membrane CO(2) and hemoglobin.

  1. Energy cost and optimisation in breath-hold diving.

    PubMed

    Trassinelli, M

    2016-05-07

    We present a new model for calculating locomotion costs in breath-hold divers. Starting from basic mechanics principles, we calculate the work that the diver must provide through propulsion to counterbalance the action of drag, the buoyant force and weight during immersion. Compared to those in previous studies, the model presented here accurately analyses breath-hold divers which alternate active swimming with prolonged glides during the dive (as is the case in mammals). The energy cost of the dive is strongly dependent on these prolonged gliding phases. Here we investigate the length and impacts on energy cost of these glides with respect to the diver characteristics, and compare them with those observed in different breath-hold diving species. Taking into account the basal metabolic rate and chemical energy to propulsion transformation efficiency, we calculate optimal swim velocity and the corresponding total energy cost (including metabolic rate) and compare them with observations. Energy cost is minimised when the diver passes through neutral buoyancy conditions during the dive. This generally implies the presence of prolonged gliding phases in both ascent and descent, where the buoyancy (varying with depth) is best used against the drag, reducing energy cost. This is in agreement with past results (Miller et al., 2012; Sato et al., 2013) where, when the buoyant force is considered constant during the dive, the energy cost was minimised for neutral buoyancy. In particular, our model confirms the good physical adaption of dolphins for diving, compared to other breath-hold diving species which are mostly positively buoyant (penguins for example). The presence of prolonged glides implies a non-trivial dependency of optimal speed on maximal depth of the dive. This extends previous findings (Sato et al., 2010; Watanabe et al., 2011) which found no dependency of optimal speed on dive depth for particular conditions. The energy cost of the dive can be further

  2. Clinical factors associated with extreme sleep apnoea [AHI>100 events per hour] in Peruvian patients: A case-control study–A preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Rey de Castro, Jorge; Huamaní, Charles; Escobar-Córdoba, Franklin; Liendo, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The severity of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) ranges from mild or moderate to severe sleep apnoea. However, there is no information available on the clinical characteristics associated with cases involving more than 100 events per hour. This is a preliminary report and our goal was to characterise the demographics and sleep characteristics of patients with Extreme OSA and compare with patients with sleep apnoea of lesser severity. We hypothesised that patients with Extreme OSA (AHI>100) is associated with an increased comorbidities and/or risk factors. Methods We carried out a case-control study on male patients with OSA who were seen in a private hospital in Lima, Peru between 2006 and 2012. Cases were identified if their apnoea/hypopnea index (AHI) was higher than 100 (Extreme OSA), and four controls were selected per case: two with 15–29 AHI and two with 30–50 AHI, matched according to case diagnosis dates. We evaluated demographic, past medical history, and oxygen saturation variables Results We identified 19 cases that were matched with 54 controls. In the multivariate model, only arterial hypertension, neck circumference, age, and over 10% in SatO2Hb≤90% in total sleep time (T90) were associated with Extreme OSA. Arterial hypertension had an OR=6.31 (CI95%: 1.71–23.23) of Extreme OSA. Each 5-cm increment in neck circumference was associated with an increase of OR=4.34 (CI95%: 1.32–14.33), while T90>10% had an OR=19.68 (CI95%: 4.33–89.49). Age had a marginal relevance (OR=0.95; CI95%: 0.92–0.99) Conclusion Our results suggest that arterial hypertension, neck circumference, and over 10% SatO2Hb≤90% in total sleep time were associated with a higher probability of Extreme OSA. We recommend investigators to study this population of Extreme OSA looking for an early diagnosis and the identification of prognostic factors in comparison with moderate to severe levels. PMID:26483940

  3. Borehole water and hydrologic model around the Nojima fault, SW Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, K.; Ueda, A.; Ohtani, T.; Takahashi, M.; Ito, H.; Tanaka, H.; Boullier, Anne-Marie

    2007-10-01

    The active fault drilling at Nojima Hirabayashi after the 1995 Hyogoken-nanbu (Kobe) earthquake (M JMA = 7.2) provides us with a unique opportunity to investigate subsurface fault structure and the in-situ properties of fault and fluid. The borehole intersected the fault gouge of the Nojima fault at a depth interval of 623 m to 625 m. The lithology is mostly Cretaceous granodiorite with some porphyry dikes. The fault core is highly permeable due to fracturing. The borehole water was sampled in 1996 and 2000 from the depth interval between 630 and 650 m, just below the fault core. The chemical and isotopic compositions were analyzed. Carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of carbonates from the fault core were analyzed to estimate the origin of fluid. The following conclusions were obtained. (1) The ionic and isotopic compositions of borehole water did not change from 1996 to 2000. They are mostly derived from local ground water as mentioned by Sato and Takahashi [Sato, T., Takahashi, M., 2000. Chemical and isotopic compositions of groundwater obtained from the Hirabayashi well. Geological Survey of Japan Interim Report No. EQ/00/1, 187-192.]. (2) Geochemical speciation revealed that the borehole water was derived from a relatively deep reservoir, which may be situated at a depth of 3 to 4 km where the temperature is about 80-90 °C. (3) The shallower part of the Nojima fault (shallower than the reservoir depth) has not been healed from the hydrological viewpoints 5 years after the event, in contrast to the rapid healing detected by S wave splitting [Tadokoro, K., Ando, M., 2002. Evidence for rapid fault healing derived from temporal changes in S wave splitting, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 10.1029/2001GL013644.]. (4) Precipitation of calcite from the present borehole water since drilling supports the idea of precipitation of some calcite in coseismic hydraulic fractures in the fault core [Boullier, A-M., Fujimoto, K., Ohtani, T., Roman-Ross, G., Lewin, E., Ito, H., Pezard, P

  4. Field observations of the electrostatic charges of blowing snow in Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omiya, S.; Sato, A.

    2011-12-01

    An electrostatic charge of blowing snow may be a contributing factor in the formation of a snow drift and a snow cornice, and changing of the trajectory of own motion. However, detailed electrification characteristics of blowing snow are not known as there are few reports of charge measurements. We carried out field observations of the electrostatic charges of blowing snow in Tobetsu, Hokkaido, Japan in the mid winter of 2011. An anemovane and a thermohygrometer were used for the meteorological observation. Charge-to-mass ratios of blowing snow were obtained by a Faraday-cage, an electrometer and an electric balance. In this observation period, the air temperature during the blowing snow event was -6.5 to -0.5 degree Celsius. The measured charges in this observation were consistent with the previous studies in sign, which is negative, but they were smaller than the previous one. In most cases, the measured values increased with the temperature decrease, which corresponds with previous studies. However, some results contradicted the tendency, and the maximum value was obtained on the day of the highest air temperature of -0.5 degree Celsius. This discrepancy may be explained from the difference of the snow surface condition on observation day. The day when the maximum value was obtained, the snow surface was covered with old snow, and hard. On the other hand, in many other cases, the snow surface was covered with the fresh snow, and soft. Blowing snow particles on the hard surface can travel longer distance than on the soft one. Therefore, it can be surmised that the hard surface makes the blowing snow particles accumulate a lot of negative charges due to a large number of collisions to the surface. This can be supported by the results of the wind tunnel experiments by Omiya and Sato (2011). By this field observation, it was newly suggested that the electrostatic charge of blowing snow are influenced greatly by the difference of the snow surface condition. REFERENCE

  5. Recent Photoemission Results for the Electron-Doped Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Hiroaki

    2006-03-01

    , T. Sato, T. Takahashi, S.-C. Wang, H.-B. Yang, H. Ding, T. Uefuji, and K. Yamada, Phys. Rev. Lett. {94} (2005) 047005. 2) H. Matsui, K. Terashima, T. Sato, T. Takahashi, M. Fujita and K. Yamada, Phys. Rev. Lett. {95} (2005) 017003.

  6. Study for Nuclear Structures of 22-35Na Isotopes via Measurements of Reaction Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Shinji

    2014-09-01

    T. Ohtsubo, M. Nagashima, T. Ogura, Y. Shimbara (Grad. Sch. of Sc., Niigata Univ.), M.Takechi, H. Geissel, M. Winkler (GSI), D. Nishimura, T. Sumikama (Dept. of Phys., Tokyo Univ. of Sc.), M. Fukuda, M. Mihara, H. Uenishi (Dept. of Phys., Osaka Univ.), T. Kuboki, T. Suzuki, T. Yamaguchi, H. Furuki, C. S. Lee, K. Sato (Dept. of Phys., Saitama Univ.), A. Ozawa, H. Ohnishi, T. Moriguchi, S. Fukuda, Y. Ishibashi, D. Nagae, R. Nishikiori, T. Niwa (Inst. of Phys., Univ. of Tsukuba), N. Aoi (RCNP), Rui-Jiu Chen, N. Inabe, D. Kameda, T. Kubo, M. Lantz, T. Ohnishi, K. Okumura, H. Sakurai, H. Suzuki, H. Takeda, S. Takeuchi, K. Tanaka, Y. Yanagisawa (RIKEN), De-Qing Fang, Yu-Gang Ma (SINAP), T. Izumikawa (RI Ctr., Niigata Univ.), and S. Momota (Fac. of Engn., Kochi Univ. of Tech.) Reaction cross sections (σR) for 22-35Na isotopes have been measured at around 240 MeV/nucleon. The σR for 22-35Na were measured for the first time. Enhancement in cross sections is clearly observed from the systematics for stable nuclei, for isotopes with large mass numbers. These enhancement can be mainly ascribed to the nuclear deformation. We will discuss the nuclear structure (neutron skin, nuclear shell structure) for neutron-excess Na isotopes. T. Ohtsubo, M. Nagashima, T. Ogura, Y. Shimbara (Grad. Sch. of Sc., Niigata Univ.), M.Takechi, H. Geissel, M. Winkler (GSI), D. Nishimura, T. Sumikama (Dept. of Phys., Tokyo Univ. of Sc.), M. Fukuda, M. Mihara, H. Uenishi (Dept. of Phys., Osaka Univ.), T. Kuboki, T. Suzuki, T. Yamaguchi, H. Furuki, C. S. Lee, K. Sato (Dept. of Phys., Saitama Univ.), A. Ozawa, H. Ohnishi, T. Moriguchi, S. Fukuda, Y. Ishibashi, D. Nagae, R. Nishikiori, T. Niwa (Inst. of Phys., Univ. of Tsukuba), N. Aoi (RCNP), Rui-Jiu Chen, N. Inabe, D. Kameda, T. Kubo, M. Lantz, T. Ohnishi, K. Okumura, H. Sakurai, H. Suzuki, H. Takeda, S. Takeuchi, K. Tanaka, Y. Yanagisawa (RIKEN), De-Qing Fang, Yu-Gang Ma (SINAP), T. Izumikawa (RI Ctr., Niigata Univ.), and S. Momota (Fac. of Engn

  7. Back-arc Mantle Evolution inferred from Peridotite Xenotlishs from the Japan Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morishita, T.; Ichiyama, Y.; Tamura, A.; Arai, S.

    2014-12-01

    Peridotite xenoliths are recovered in basaltic to andesitic lavas from several localities in the Japan Sea, a Miocene back-arc basin of the Western Pacific region. These peridotites are classified into two groups: two-pyroxene peridotitess and dunite-wehrlite groups. Although slight chemical modifications are observed in these peridotite samples, two-pyroxene peridotite group has retained their original residual mantle geochemical signatures left after partial melting. The dunite-wehrlite group is, on the other hand, probably formed by extensive interaction of the two-pyroxene peridotite group. We examined trace element characteristics of clinopyroxene in these xenoliths. Light REE-depleted clinopyroxenes that are usually interpreted as a simple residual mantle after anhydrous partial melting are similar to those of abyssal peridotite recovered from mid-ocean ridges and back-arc basins. Other samples show LREE-enriched patterns that are residues after influx melting caused by hydrous melt/supercritical fluids released from the subducted slab at high pressure conditions. The geotectonic and geochemical variations of the peridotite xenoliths from the Japan Sea (Shirabeshi Seamount, Seifu Seamount and Oshima-Oshima Island) suggest that the mantle beneath the Japan Sea are suffered from hydrous to anhydrous melting as the Japan Sea forms. This is consistent with the geochemical and isotopic results from Miocene basaltic rocks formed during opening of the Japan Sea (Sato et al., Jour. Petrol., 2013). The Japan Sea peridotite xenoliths also shed lights on the origin of ophiolites.

  8. A deep non-hydrostatic compressible atmospheric model on a Yin-Yang grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, T.; Zerroukat, M.

    2016-08-01

    The singularity in the traditional spherical polar coordinate system at the poles is a major factor in the lack of scalability of atmospheric models on massively parallel machines. Overset grids such as the Yin-Yang grid introduced by Kageyama and Sato [1] offer a potential solution to this problem. In this paper a three-dimensional, compressible, non-hydrostatic atmospheric model is developed and tested on the Yin-Yang grid building on ideas previously developed by the authors on the solution of Elliptic boundary value problems and conservation on overset grids. Using several tests from the literature, it is shown that this model is highly stable (even with little off-centering), accurate, and highly efficient in terms of computational cost. The model also incorporates highly efficient and accurate approaches to achieve positivity, monotonicity and conservative transport, which are paramount requirements for any atmospheric model. The parallel scalability of this model, using in excess of 212 million unknowns and more than 6000 processors, is also discussed and shown to compare favourably with a highly optimised latitude-longitude model in terms of scalability and actual run times.

  9. Rheumatoid factor on a daily basis.

    PubMed

    Renaudineau, Yves; Jamin, Christophe; Saraux, Alain; Youinou, Pierre

    2005-02-01

    Rheumatoid factors (RF), which are antibodies (Ab) with specificity directed against gamma (?) globulins, are the commonest auto-Ab ever described in man. Some of them are referred to as agglutinating RF, others designated non-agglutinating RF. Not only do these characterize rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but they are also encountered in a variety of disease conditions, as well as a proportion of healthy controls. Although non-specific for RA, the measurement of agglutinating IgM-RF remains the most useful serological test for the diagnosis of this disease. Demonstration of abnormal amount of serum RF by any method for which the result has been positive in less than 5% of normal subjects has indeed become one of the seven revised criteria, listed by the American College of Rheumatology (Arnett, FC, Edworthy, SM, Bloch, DA, McShane, DJ, Fries, JF, Cooper, NS, et al. The American Rheumatism Association 1987 revised criteria for the classification of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum, 1988: 31: 315-24), for the classification of RA. Over the course of years, the relative importance of genetic (Carson, DA, Chen, PP, Kipps, TJ, Radoux, V, Jirik, FR, Goldfien, RD, et al. Idiotypic and genetic studies of human rheumatoid factors. Arthritis Rheum, 1987: 30: 1321-1325) and environmental (Nemazee, DA, Sato, VL. Enhancing antibody, a novel component of the immune response. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 1982: 79: 3828-3832) factors in the production of such intriguing auto-Ab has been delineated.

  10. Shepherding intrinsic localized modes in micro-mechanical arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sievers, Albert

    The energy profiles of intrinsic localized modes (ILMs) in periodic physical lattices with nonlinear forces resemble those of localized vibrational modes at defects in a harmonic lattice but, like solitons, they can propagate; however, in contrast with solitons they loose energy as they move through the lattice - the more localized the excitation the faster the energy loss. One of our experimental studies with micro-mechanical arrays involves steady state locking of ILMs, and their interactions with impurities. By measuring the linear response spectra of a driven array containing an ILM both the dynamics of bifurcation transitions and the hopping of vibrational energy have been connected to the transition properties of soft modes. Recently the search for a completely mobile ILM has focused attention on minimizing the resonance interaction that occurs between the localized excitation and small amplitude plane wave modes. Via simulations we demonstrate that when more than one type of nonlinear force is present their Fourier components can often be designed to cancel against each other in the k-space region of the plane wave dispersion curve, removing the resonance. The end result is super-transmission for an ILM in a discrete physical lattice. Such an engineered, intrinsic, low loss channel may prove to be a useful property for other physical systems treated within a tight binding approximation. In collaboration with M. Sato.

  11. Defect engineering in Multinary Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radautsan, S. I.

    1993-12-01

    The last two decades have shown a rapid increase both in our knowledge of the multinary compounds and their applications in engineering. The remarkable scientific leaders from different countries Prof. N.A.Goryunova, M.Rodot, A. Rabenau, E. Parthe, P. Manca, K. Matsumoto, C. Schwab, R. Tomlinson, J. Woolley, W.T. Kim, T. Irie, A. Zunger, N. Joshi, E. Sato et al. made their valuable contribution to the problems of the classification,crystal chemistry,growing processes and characterizations of multinary compounds [1-3]. Most of them were technologically difficult and as a result it was very hard to obtain the crystals with reproducible parameters. It was therefore obvious the well coordinated efforts in the field of chemistry,physics and electronics to be required. In this paper we review some of the major original results to get the defective compounds suitable for fundamental research and electronic applications. The main attention is paid to such effects as non-stoichiometry, order-disorder phase transitions as well as to non-equilibrium treatment by employing different methods of the defect engineering.

  12. How is the liver primed or sensitized for alcoholic liver disease?

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, H; Takei, Y; McClain, C J; Joshi-Barve, S; Hill, D; Schmidt, J; Deaciuc, I; Barve, S; Colell, A; Garcia-Ruiz, C; Kaplowitz, N; Fernandez-Checa, J C; Yokoyama, H; Okamura, Y; Nakamura, Y; Ishii, H; Chawla, R K; Barve, S; Joshi-Barve, S; Watson, W; Nelson, W; Lin, M; Ohata, M; Motomura, K; Enomoto, N; Ikejima, K; Kitamura, T; Oide, H; Hirose, M; Bradford, B U; Rivera, C A; Kono, H; Peter, S; Yamashina, S; Konno, A; Ishikawa, M; Shimizu, H; Sato, N; Thurman, R

    2001-05-01

    This article represents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2000 ISBRA Meeting in Yokohama, Japan. The chairs were Hidekazu Tsukamoto and Yoshiyuki Takei. The presentations were (1) Tribute to Professor Rajendar K. Chawla, by Craig J. McClain; (2) Dysregulated TNF signaling in alcoholic liver disease, by Craig J. McClain, S. Joshi-Barve, D. Hill, J Schmidt, I. Deaciuc, and S. Barve; (3) The role of mitochondria in ethanol-mediated sensitization of the liver, by Anna Colell, Carmen Garcia-Ruiz, Neil Kaplowitz, and Jose C. Fernandez-Checa; (4) A peroxisome proliferator (bezafibrate) can prevent superoxide anion release into hepatic sinusoid after acute ethanol administration, by Hirokazu Yokoyama, Yukishige Okamura, Yuji Nakamura, and Hiromasa Ishii; (5) S-adenosylmethionine affects tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene expression in macrophages, by Rajendar K. Chawla, S. Barve, S. Joshi-Barve, W. Watson, W. Nelson, and C. McClain; (6) Iron, retinoic acid and hepatic macrophage TNFalpha gene expression in ALD, by Hidekazu Tsukamoto, Min Lin, Mitsuru Ohata, and Kenta Motomura; and (7) Role of Kupffer cells and gut-derived endotoxin in alcoholic liver injury, by N. Enomoto, K. Ikejima, T. Kitamura, H. Oide, Y. Takei, M. Hirose, B. U. Bradford, C. A. Rivera, H. Kono, S. Peter, S. Yamashina, A. Konno, M. Ishikawa, H. Shimizu, N. Sato, and R. Thurman.

  13. Inhibitors of pig kidney trehalase.

    PubMed

    Kyosseva, S V; Kyossev, Z N; Elbein, A D

    1995-02-01

    Trehazolin, a new trehalase inhibitor isolated from the culture broth of Micromonospora, was reported to be a highly specific inhibitor for porcine and silk worm trehalases with IC50 values of 5.5 x 10(-9) and 3.7 x 10(-9) M, respectively (O. Ando, H. Satake, K. Itoi, A. Sato, M. Nakajima, S. Takashi, H. Haruyama, Y. Ohkuma, T. Kinoshita, and R. Enokita (1991) J. Antibiot. 44, 1165-1168). We also found that trehazolin is a very powerful and quite specific inhibitor against purified pig kidney trehalase, giving an IC50 value of 1.9 x 10(-8) M. Lineweaver-Burk plots showed that this compound was a competitive inhibitor of the trehalase. However, even at concentrations of 200 micrograms/ml, trehazolin did not inhibit the rat intestinal maltase or sucrase, yeast alpha-glucosidase or almond beta-glucosidase. Validoxylamine A and validamycin A, two other trehalase inhibitors, showed potent competitive inhibition against purified pig kidney trehalase, with IC50 values of 2.4 x 10(-9) and 2.5 x 10(-4) M, respectively. On the other hand, validoxylamine A was almost inactive against rat intestinal sucrase and maltase, with some inhibition being observed at millimolar concentration. A number of other glucosidase inhibitors, such as MDL 25637, castanospermine, and deoxynojirimycin were also tested against the purified trehalase and showed reasonable inhibitory activity.

  14. Installation of a Marine Thruster as a Hydroelectric Turbine at Eagle Creek National Fish Hatchery : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Division of Resource Engineering

    1986-11-15

    A 70kW hydroelectric plant utilizing a marine thruster and an induction generator was commissioned on May 15, 1985 at the Eagle Creek National Fish Hatchery near Estacada, OR as a Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) demonstration project. The marine thruster, normally used to maneuver large ships, was run ''backwards'' to produce electricity. The plant was completed and tested by J.F. Sato and Associates, Inc. (JFSA). The marine thruster was seen as a method for reducing the capital cost of small, low head hydro projects by utilizing readily available, off-the-shelf equipment. The owner of the hatchery, the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USF and WS), has an active energy conservation program and looked hopefully at a match of inexpensive hydroelectric technology and an available site at the hatchery to offset their annual 650,000-kWh usage. The preliminary results of the testing program indicated a water-to-wire efficiency in the mid-70 percent range and a turbine efficiency in the low-80 percent range. Total gross head was 19 feet with a maximum flow of 65 cubic feet per second. The unit was tested at four different speeds by varying sheave diameters on the drive system. Flow measurements were taken using the Venturi principle at a reducer in the penstock. A downstream weir was constructed to correct low tailwater conditions. 7 refs., 44 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. Proceedings of the Conference on Moments and Signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purdue, P.; Solomon, H.

    1992-09-01

    The focus of this paper is (1) to describe systematic methodologies for selecting nonlinear transformations for blind equalization algorithms (and thus new types of cumulants), and (2) to give an overview of the existing blind equalization algorithms and point out their strengths as well as weaknesses. It is shown that all blind equalization algorithms belong in one of the following three categories, depending where the nonlinear transformation is being applied on the data: (1) the Bussgang algorithms, where the nonlinearity is in the output of the adaptive equalization filter; (2) the polyspectra (or Higher-Order Spectra) algorithms, where the nonlinearity is in the input of the adaptive equalization filter; and (3) the algorithms where the nonlinearity is inside the adaptive filter, i.e., the nonlinear filter or neural network. We describe methodologies for selecting nonlinear transformations based on various optimality criteria such as MSE or MAP. We illustrate that such existing algorithms as Sato, Benveniste-Goursat, Godard or CMA, Stop-and-Go, and Donoho are indeed special cases of the Bussgang family of techniques when the nonlinearity is memoryless. We present results that demonstrate the polyspectra-based algorithms exhibit faster convergence rate than Bussgang algorithms. However, this improved performance is at the expense of more computations per iteration. We also show that blind equalizers based on nonlinear filters or neural networks are more suited for channels that have nonlinear distortions.

  16. Dual-mode type algorithms for blind equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weerackody, Vijitha; Kassam, Saleem A.

    1994-01-01

    Adaptive channel equalization accomplished without resorting to a training sequence is known as blind equalization. The Godard algorithm and the generalized Sato algorithm are two widely referenced algorithms for blind equalization of a QAM system. These algorithms exhibit very slow convergence rates when compared to algorithms employed in conventional data-aided equalization schemes. In order to speed up the convergence process, these algorithms may be switched over to a decision-directed equalization scheme once the error level is reasonably low. We present a scheme which is capable of operating in two modes: blind equalization mode and a mode similar to the decision-directed equalization mode. In this proposed scheme, the dominant mode of operation changes from the blind equalization mode at higher error levels to the mode similar to the decision-directed equalization mode at lower error levels. Manual switch-over to the decision-directed mode from the blind equalization mode, or vice-versa, is not necessary since transitions between the two modes take place smoothly and automatically.

  17. Quasi-Classical Trajectory Study of Atom-Diatomic Molecule Collisions in Symmetric Hyperspherical Coordinates: The F + HCl Reaction as a Test Case.

    PubMed

    Freixas-Lemus, Victor Manuel; Martínez-Mesa, Aliezer; Uranga-Piña, Llinersy

    2016-04-07

    We investigate the reactive dynamics of the triatomic system F + HCl → HF + Cl for total angular momentum equal zero and for different low-lying rovibrational states of the diatomic molecule. For each of the initial vibrational quantum numbers, the time evolution of the atom-diatom collision process is investigated for a wide range of impact angles and collision energies. To this purpose, the Quasi-Classical Trajectories (QCT) method was implemented in a hyperspherical configuration space. The Hamilton equations of motion are solved numerically in an intermediate effective Cartesian space to exploit the relative simplicity of this intermediate representation. Interatomic interactions are described by a London-Eyring-Polanyi-Sato potential energy surface, specifically developed for the title reaction, and the results of the QCT simulations are discussed in terms of the time-evolution of the hyperangles. The analysis of the collision dynamics using symmetric hyperspherical coordinates provides, in addition to the description in terms of a natural reaction coordinate (the hyperradius), a more striking representation of the exchange dynamics, in terms of the time-dependent probability distribution along the kinematic rotation hyperangle, and a precise distinction between direct and indirect mechanisms of the reaction.

  18. In-situ straining and time-resolved electron tomography data acquisition in a transmission electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Hata, S; Miyazaki, S; Gondo, T; Kawamoto, K; Horii, N; Sato, K; Furukawa, H; Kudo, H; Miyazaki, H; Murayama, M

    2016-12-18

    This paper reports the preliminary results of a new in-situ three-dimensional (3D) imaging system for observing plastic deformation behavior in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) as a directly relevant development of the recently reported straining-and-tomography holder [Sato K et al (2015) Development of a novel straining holder for transmission electron microscopy compatible with single tilt-axis electron tomography. Microsc. 64: 369-375]. We designed an integrated system using the holder and newly developed straining and image-acquisition software and then developed an experimental procedure for in-situ straining and time-resolved electron tomography (ET) data acquisition. The software for image acquisition and 3D visualization was developed based on the commercially available ET software TEMography(TM) We achieved time-resolved 3D visualization of nanometer-scale plastic deformation behavior in a Pb-Sn alloy sample, thus demonstrating the capability of this system for potential applications in materials science.

  19. Target and double spin asymmetries for {rvec e} {rvec p} {yields} e{prime} p {pi}{sup 0}

    SciTech Connect

    Angela Biselli

    2004-03-01

    An extensive experimental program to measure the spin structure of the nucleons is carried out in Hall B with the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab using a polarized electron beam incident on a polarized target. Spin degrees of freedom offer the possibility to test, in an independent way, existing models of resonance electroproduction. The present analysis selects the exclusive channel {rvec p}({rvec e}, e{prime}, p){pi}{sup 0} from data taken in 2000-2001, to extract single and double asymmetries in a Q{sup 2} range from 0.2 to 0.75 GeV{sup 2} and W range from 1.1 to 1.6 GeV/c{sup 2}. Results of the asymmetries will be presented as a function of the center of mass decay angles of the {pi}{sup 0} and compared with the unitary isobar model MAID, the dynamic model by Sato and Lee and the dynamic model DMT.

  20. First measurement of target and double spin asymmetries for e-vectorp-vector{yields}ep{pi}{sup 0} in the nucleon resonance region above the {delta}(1232)

    SciTech Connect

    Biselli, A. S.; Burkert, V. D.; Avakian, H.; Boiarinov, S.; Bosted, P.; Carman, D. S.; Degtyarenko, P. V.; Deur, A.; Egiyan, H.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Guo, L.; Gyurjyan, V.; Ito, M. M.; Kubarovsky, V.; Laget, J. M.; Mecking, B. A.; Mestayer, M. D.; Niczyporuk, B. B.; Nozar, M.; Sapunenko, V.

    2008-10-15

    The exclusive channel p-vectore-vector,e{sup '}p){pi}{sup 0} was studied in the first and second nucleon resonance regions in the Q{sup 2} range from 0.187 to 0.770 GeV{sup 2} at Jefferson Lab using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer. Longitudinal target and beam-target asymmetries were extracted over a large range of center-of-mass angles of the {pi}{sup 0} and compared to the unitary isobar model MAID, the dynamic model by Sato and Lee, and the dynamic model DMT. A strong sensitivity to individual models was observed, in particular for the target asymmetry and in the higher invariant mass region. This data set, once included in the global fits of the above models, is expected to place strong constraints on the electrocoupling amplitudes A{sub 1/2} and S{sub 1/2} for the Roper resonance N(1400)P{sub 11} and the N(1535)S{sub 11} and N(1520)D{sub 13} states.

  1. The early history of odontogenic ghost cell lesions: from Thoma to Gorlin.

    PubMed

    Ide, Fumio; Kikuchi, Kentaro; Miyazaki, Yuji; Kusama, Kaoru; Saito, Ichiro; Muramatsu, Takashi

    2015-03-01

    To reappraise the early history of odontogenic ghost cell lesions (OGCL), the extensive world literature published from 1838 to 1962 was reviewed. In light of the long history of OGCL, the term "calcifying epithelioma of Malherbe" first appeared in a 1931 French report, and the term "ghost cells" had its origin in two American seminal articles by Thoma and Goldman in 1946. Although Gorlin et al. coined the term "calcifying odontogenic cyst" (COC) in 1962, this type of cyst was initially reported three decades earlier by Rywkind in Russia, and almost concurrently by Blood good in the United States and Sato in Japan. In 1948, Willis provided the initial histological evidence of a peripheral COC in his British pathology textbook. Credit for the earliest clinical presentation of odontoma associated calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor belongs to the American radiology textbook by Thoma in 1917. A Scandinavian journal report published in 1953 by Husted and Pindborg was the first to address a dentinogenic ghost cell tumor, and its peripheral counterpart was originally reported in the Swiss literature 7 years later. The current concept of COC was undoubtedly established by Gorlin et al. but the history of OGCL really started with Thoma's pioneering work about a century ago.

  2. Recent developments in cosmogenic nuclide production rate scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifton, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    A new cosmogenic nuclide production rate scaling model based on analytical fits to Monte Carlo simulations of atmospheric cosmic ray flux spectra (both of which agree well with measured spectra) enables identification and quantification of the biases in previously published models (Lifton, N., Sato, T., Dunai, T., in review, Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett.). Scaling predictions derived from the new model (termed LSD) suggest two potential sources of bias in the previous models: different energy responses of the secondary neutron detectors used in developing the models, and different geomagnetic parameterizations. In addition, the particle flux spectra generated by the LSD model allow one to generate nuclide-specific scaling factors that reflect the influences of the flux energy distribution and the relevant excitation functions (probability of nuclide production in a given nuclear reaction as a function of energy). Resulting scaling factors indicate 3He shows the strongest positive deviation from the flux-based scaling, while 14C exhibits a negative deviation. These results are consistent with previous studies showing an increasing 3He/10Be ratio with altitude in the Himalayas, but with a much lower magnitude for the effect. Furthermore, the new model provides a flexible framework for exploring the implications of future advances in model inputs. For example, the effects of recently updated paleomagnetic models (e.g. Korte et al., 2011, Earth and Planet Sci. Lett. 312, 497-505) on scaling predictions will also be presented.

  3. [Delivery room resuscitation with room air and oxygen in newborns. State of art, recommendations].

    PubMed

    Lauterbach, Ryszard; Musialik-Swietlińska, Ewa; Swietliński, Janusz; Pawlik, Dorota; Bober, Klaudiusz

    2008-01-01

    The authors present and discuss the current data, concerning delivery room resuscitation with oxygen and room air in neonates. On the ground of the results obtained from literature and the Polish National Survey on Paediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care, 2007/2008 issue, the authors give the following proposals regarding optimal oxygen treatment: 1. there is a need for optimizing tissue oxygenation in order to prevent injury caused by radical oxygen species; 2. newborn resuscitation should be monitored by measuring the haemoglobin saturation - the values above 90%, found in resuscitated newborn within the first minutes of life may be dangerous and cause tissue injury; 3. starting the resuscitation with oxygen concentration lower than 40% and adjusting it according to the effects of the procedure - the less mature infant the lower oxygen concentration at the beginning of resuscitation; 4. heart rate >100/min and SatO2Hb between 70-80% within the first minutes of life should not be an indication for increasing oxygen concentration.

  4. NORMAL AND PATHOLOGICAL FRAGMENTATION OF RED BLOOD CELLS; THE PHAGOCYTOSIS OF THESE FRAGMENTS BY DESQUAMATED ENDOTHELIAL CELLS OF THE BLOOD STREAM; THE CORRELATION OF THE PEROXIDASE REACTION WITH PHAGOCYTOSIS IN MONONUCLEAR CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Doan, Charles A.; Sabin, Florence R.

    1926-01-01

    1. There is constantly some breaking down of red cells in the circulation by fragmentation. 2. The fragments of red cells, as well as whole red cells, are phagocytized and destroyed by clasmatocytes or endothelial phagocytes. 3. When there is an increase in fragmentation in abnormal or pathological states, desquamated endothelial cells of the blood stream, as well as the clasmatocytes of the tissues, increase proportionately and take in these fragments. These cells are to be distinguished from eosinophilic leucocytes by the nature of their granules, by the type of motility of the cells, and by a negative peroxidase test. 4. The desquamated endothelial cells, clasmatocytes, in the circulating blood are positive to the peroxidase test only when they have taken in positive material. 5. The monocytes show marked variations of the oxidase reaction in different species and to different techniques. With the Sato and Sekiya technique most monocytes of human blood are positive, while most of them in rabbit blood are negative, but both positive and negative reactions are found in both human and rabbit blood. PMID:19869165

  5. Palonosetron-A Single-Dose Antiemetic Adjunct for Hepatic Artery Radioembolization: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqi, Nasir H.; Khan, Atif J.; Devlin, Phillip M.

    2009-01-15

    Nausea and vomiting may occur in a significant minority of patients following hepatic artery embolization with yttrium-90 spheres (K. T. Sato et al. Radiology 247:507-515, 2008). This encumbers human and economic resources and undercuts the assertion that it is as a well-tolerated outpatient treatment. A single intravenous dose of palonosetron HCl was administered before hepatic artery embolization with yttrium-90 spheres to ameliorate posttreatment nausea and vomiting, in 23 consecutive patients. The patients were discharged the day of procedure on oral antiemetics, steroids, and blockers of gastric acid release. All patients had clinical and laboratory evaluation at 2 weeks after the procedure. The data were gathered and reviewed retrospectively. At 2-week follow-up, none reported significant nausea, vomiting, additional antiemetic use, need for parenteral therapy, hospital readmission, or palonosetron-related side effects. All patients recovered from postembolization symptoms within a week after treatment. In conclusion, this retrospective study suggests that single-dose palonosetron is feasible, safe, and effective for acute and delayed nausea and vomiting in this group of patients. The added cost may be offset by benefits.

  6. Modulation of Gamma-Secretase for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Timothy D.; Loureiro, Robyn M. B.; Dumin, Jo Ann; Xia, Weiming; Pojasek, Kevin; Austin, Wesley F.; Fuller, Nathan O.; Hubbs, Jed L.; Shen, Ruichao; Jonker, Jeff; Ives, Jeff; Bronk, Brian S.

    2012-01-01

    The Amyloid Hypothesis states that the cascade of events associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD)—formation of amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, synaptic loss, neurodegeneration, and cognitive decline—are triggered by Aβ peptide dysregulation (Kakuda et al., 2006, Sato et al., 2003, Qi-Takahara et al., 2005). Since γ-secretase is critical for Aβ production, many in the biopharmaceutical community focused on γ-secretase as a target for therapeutic approaches for Alzheimer's disease. However, pharmacological approaches to control γ-secretase activity are challenging because the enzyme has multiple, physiologically critical protein substrates. To lower amyloidogenic Aβ peptides without affecting other γ-secretase substrates, the epsilon (ε) cleavage that is essential for the activity of many substrates must be preserved. Small molecule modulators of γ-secretase activity have been discovered that spare the ε cleavage of APP and other substrates while decreasing the production of Aβ42. Multiple chemical classes of γ-secretase modulators have been identified which differ in the pattern of Aβ peptides produced. Ideally, modulators will allow the ε cleavage of all substrates while shifting APP cleavage from Aβ42 and other highly amyloidogenic Aβ peptides to shorter and less neurotoxic forms of the peptides without altering the total Aβ pool. Here, we compare chemically distinct modulators for effects on APP processing and in vivo activity. PMID:23320246

  7. Double carbonate breakdown reactions at high pressures: an experimental study in the system CaO-MgO-FeO-MnO-CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morlidge, Martin; Pawley, Alison; Droop, Giles

    2006-09-01

    The pressure-temperature conditions of the reactions of the double carbonates Ca M(CO3)2, where M = Mg (dolomite), Fe (ankerite) and Mn (kutnohorite), to MCO3 plus CaCO3 (aragonite) have been investigated at 5-8 GPa, 600-1,100°C, using multi-anvil apparatus. The reaction dolomite = magnesite + aragonite is in good agreement with the results of Sato and Katsura (Earth Planet Sci 184:529-534, 2001), but in poor agreement with the results of Luth (Contrib Mineral Petrol 141:222-232, 2001). The dolomite is partially disordered at 620°C, and fully disordered at 1,100°C. All ankerite and kutnohorite samples, including the synthetic starting materials, are disordered. The P-T slopes of the three reactions increase in the order M = Mg, Fe, Mn. The shallower slope for the reaction involving magnesite is due partly to its having a higher compressibility than expected from unit-cell volume considerations. At low pressures there is a preference for partitioning into the double carbonate of Mg > Fe > Mn. At high pressures the partitioning preference is reversed. Using the measured reaction positions, the P-T conditions at which dolomite solid solutions will break down on increasing P and T in subduction zones can be estimated.

  8. Precursory Slope Deformation around Landslide Area Detected by Insar Throughout Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, T.; Wada, K.; Yamanaka, M.; Kamiya, I.; Nakajima, H.

    2016-06-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) technique is able to detect a slope deformation around landslide (e.g., Singhroy et al., 2004; Une et al., 2008; Riedel and Walther, 2008; Sato et al., 2014). Geospatial Information Authority (GSI) of Japan has been performing the InSAR analysis regularly by using ALOS/PALSAR data and ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 data throughout Japan. There are a lot of small phase change sites except for crustal deformation with earthquake or volcano activity in the InSAR imagery. Most of the phase change sites are located in landslide area. We conducted field survey at the 10 sites of those phase change sites. As a result, we identified deformation of artificial structures or linear depressions caused by mass movement at the 9 sites. This result indicates that InSAR technique can detect on the continual deformation of landslide block for several years. GSI of Japan will continue to perform the InSAR analysis throughout Japan. Therefore, we will be able to observe and monitor precursory slope deformation around landslide areas throughout Japan.

  9. On the relative scattering of P- and S-waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, P. E.; Phinney, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Using a single-scattering approximation, equations for the scattering attenuation coefficients of P-body and S-body waves are derived. The results are discussed in the light of the energy-renormalization approaches of Wu (1980, 1982) and Sato (1982) to seismic wave scattering. Practical methods for calculating the scattering attenuation coefficients for various earth models are emphasized. The conversions of P-waves to S-waves and S-waves to P-waves are included in the theory. The earth models are assumed to be randomly inhomogeneous, with their properties known only through their average-wavenumber power spectra. The power spectra are approximated with piecewise constant functions, each segment of which contributes to the net frequency-dependent scattering attenuation coefficient. The smallest and largest wavenumbers of a segment can be plotted along with the wavevectors of the incident and scattered waves on a wavenumber diagram. This diagram gives a geometric interpretation for the frequency behavior associated with each spectral segment, including a transition peak that is due entirely to the wavenumber limits of the segment. For regions of the earth where the inhomogeneity spectra are concentrated in a band of wavenumbers, it should be possible to observe such a peak in the apparent attenuation of seismic waves. Both the frequency and distance limits on the accuracy of the theoretical results are given.

  10. Parallaxes of 6.7-GHz methanol masers towards the G 305.2 high-mass star formation region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, V.; Ellingsen, S. P.; Reid, M. J.; Bignall, H. E.; McCallum, J.; Phillips, C. J.; Reynolds, C.; Stevens, J.

    2017-02-01

    We have made measurements to determine the parallax and proper motion of the three 6.7-GHz methanol masers G 305.200+0.019, G 305.202+0.208 and G 305.208+0.206. The combined parallax is found to be 0.25±0.05 mas, corresponding to a distance of 4.1^{+1.2}_{-0.7} kpc. This places the G 305.2 star formation region in the Carina-Sagittarius spiral arm. The inclusion of G 305.2 increases the Galactic azimuth range of the sources in this arm by 40° from Sato et al., allowing us to determine the pitch angle of this spiral with greater confidence to be ψ = 19.0° ± 2.6°. The first very long baseline interferometry spot maps of the 6.7-GHz methanol masers towards these sources show that they have simple linear and ring-like structures, consistent with emission expected from class II methanol masers in general.

  11. Monoclinic nanodomains in morphotropic phase boundary Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Y.; Hirayama, T.; Ikuhara, Y.

    2014-02-01

    Crystalline structure is a fundamental characteristic of many materials, and drastic changes in properties may accompany crystal phase transitions. A prominent example of this is the morphotropic phase boundary of (Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3) single crystal, a region that exhibits a high piezoelectric effect. Although the highest piezoelectricity is often attributed to a monoclinic crystal phase, formation of ferroelectric nanodomains (NDs) complicates understanding of this crystal structure. In this Letter, we report dedicated transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction analysis to understand the crystal structure at the ND level. Splitting of diffraction spots, caused by very small lattice distortion in the NDs, is important to understanding crystal structure and has been unambiguously observed. The results can be explained by monoclinic phase NDs. Combining these results with our previous findings on ND dynamics [Sato et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 187601 (2011)], monoclinic NDs can potentially make a considerable contribution to the piezoelectricity in these materials.

  12. Universality and the thermal dependence of the conductance of nanodevices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Luiz N.; Seridonio, Antonio C.; Yoshida, Makoto

    2008-03-01

    The conductance of a quantum wire side-coupled to a quantum dot will be discussed. In this device, plots of the conductance G vs. the gate voltage Vg applied to the dot display Fano antiresonances due to the interference between the current traversing the wire and the flux of electrons that hop to the dot to bypass the adjacent section of the wire; at fixed Vg's, the interference accounts for a variety of thermal dependences G(T). Analytical renormalization-group arguments will be presented that map G(T) to the universal curve g(T/TK) for the conductance of the spin-degenerate Anderson impurity Hamiltonian, with temperatures normalized by the Kondo temperature TK. This linear, universal mapping will be shown to (i) generate curves in excellent agreement with the measurements of Sato et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 066801 (2005)] and justify those authors' phenomenological description of their data; (ii) fit novel numerical renormalization-group data for the conductance of the side-coupled device; and (iii) link G(T) to the conductance of the single-electron transistor.

  13. Dynamics of H{sub 2} Eley-Rideal abstraction from W(110): Sensitivity to the representation of the molecule-surface potential

    SciTech Connect

    Pétuya, R. Larrégaray, P.; Crespos, C.; Busnengo, H. F.; Martínez, A. E.

    2014-07-14

    Dynamics of the Eley-Rideal (ER) abstraction of H{sub 2} from W(110) is analyzed by means of quasi-classical trajectory calculations. Simulations are based on two different molecule-surface potential energy surfaces (PES) constructed from Density Functional Theory results. One PES is obtained by fitting, using a Flexible Periodic London-Eyring-Polanyi-Sato (FPLEPS) functional form, and the other by interpolation through the corrugation reducing procedure (CRP). Then, the present study allows us to elucidate the ER dynamics sensitivity on the PES representation. Despite some sizable discrepancies between both H+H/W(110) PESs, the obtained projectile-energy dependence of the total ER cross sections are qualitatively very similar ensuring that the main physical ingredients are captured in both PES models. The obtained distributions of the final energy among the different molecular degrees of freedom barely depend on the PES model, being most likely determined by the reaction exothermicity. Therefore, a reasonably good agreement with the measured final vibrational state distribution is observed in spite of the pressure and material gaps between theoretical and experimental conditions.

  14. Theoretical and experimental investigations of electron emission in C 6+ + H 2O collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Cappello, C.; Champion, C.; Boudrioua, O.; Lekadir, H.; Sato, Y.; Ohsawa, D.

    2009-03-01

    Theoretical differential and total cross sections for the direct ionization process of water vapour by 6 MeV/u C 6+ ions are compared to new experimental measurements performed by the dedicated apparatus already used for measuring the energy and angular distributions of secondary electrons emitted from water vapour by fast heavy-ion impact [D. Ohsawa, H. Kawauchi, M. Hirabayashi, Y. Okada, T. Homma, A. Higashi, S. Amano, Y. Hashimoto, F. Soga, Y. Sato, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 227 (2005) 431]. In the present work, ab initio calculations have been carried out in the first Born approximation by using an accurate molecular wave function for describing the initial bound state of the target. The calculated cross sections exhibit good agreement with the present experimental measurements and compare relatively well to the existing semi-empirical results over the entire angular and energy ranges investigated here. Free from any adjustable parameter, the proposed theoretical approach describes in detail the complete kinematics of the water molecule ionization process by highly energetic carbon ions, and could therefore be easily used for modelling the heavy charged-particle transport in the biological matter.

  15. [A historical review of the therapeutic use of wood creosote. Part II: Original plant source of crude drug wood creosote].

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Nobuaki; Sato, Akane; Shibata, Takashi; Yoneda, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    Wood creosote is a medicine that has been listed in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP) since the first edition published in 1886. Medicines containing wood creosote and other natural ingredients have been very popular in Japan and Southeast Asian countries. In Japan, one such medicine, named Seirogan, has been used for more than 100 years. In this paper, we report the results of our examination on the historical aspects of wood creosote. One finding was that creosote, called "kereosote" at that time, was imported to Japan for the first time to Nagasaki by Johann Erdewin Niemann, who was the Director of the Dutch Mercantile House, and prescribed by Johannes Lijdius Catharinus Pompe van Meerdervoort and Anthonius Franciscus Bauduin. From our findings, we concluded that wood creosote was one of the essential medicines for the successful introduction and progression of Western medicine in Japan. Furthermore, we found that Dutch physicians introduced wood creosote to Japanese physicians, including Taizen Sato, Dokai Hayashi, and Jun Matsumoto, and that wood creosote was subsequently popularized by Rintaro (Ogai) Mori during the Russo-Japanese war. In addition, we examined the original plant for wood creosote, and consequently confirmed that the 15th edition of the JP, Supplement Two, clarifying the original plant for wood creosote, matches the pharmaceutical and historical facts. We also provide drug information relating to distinguishing between wood creosote and the creosote bush.

  16. Iron K shell line, a probe of low energy cosmic rays in SNRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Katsuji; Sato, Tamotsu

    2016-06-01

    Since the discovery of non thermal power-law X-rays at the rim of SN1006 by Koyama et al. (1995), this feature has been established to be evidence of high energy cosmic rays (HECRs). The HECRs are created by a diffuse shock acceleration process. Accordingly low energy cosmic rays (LECRS) must be presented as the injector of this acceleration process. We found for the first time that the K-shell line from neutral iron at 6.4 keV is good tracer of LECRs in SNRs. This paper present the observational facts for LECRs from intermediate aged SNRs, 3C391, Kes79, Kes 78 and W44 in the Scutum Arm region (see figure, Sato et al. 2014, 2015). Two SNRs, 3C391 and W44, exhibit recombining plasma (RP), an unusual structure in the frame work of the standard SNR evolution scenario. Together with the RP, we discuss the origin of LECRs in the SNRs.

  17. Quantum Nash Equilibria and Quantum Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellman, Philip Vos; Post, Jonathan Vos

    In 2004, At the Fifth International Conference on Complex Systems, we drew attention to some remarkable findings by researchers at the Santa Fe Institute (Sato, Farmer and Akiyama, 2001) about hitherto unsuspected complexity in the Nash Equilibrium. As we progressed from these findings about heteroclinic Hamiltonians and chaotic transients hidden within the learning patterns of the simple rock-paper-scissors game to some related findings on the theory of quantum computing, one of the arguments we put forward was just as in the late 1990's a number of new Nash equilibria were discovered in simple bi-matrix games (Shubik and Quint, 1996; Von Stengel, 1997, 2000; and McLennan and Park, 1999) we would begin to see new Nash equilibria discovered as the result of quantum computation. While actual quantum computers remain rather primitive (Toibman, 2004), and the theory of quantum computation seems to be advancing perhaps a bit more slowly than originally expected, there have, nonetheless, been a number of advances in computation and some more radical advances in an allied field, quantum game theory (Huberman and Hogg, 2004) which are quite significant. In the course of this paper we will review a few of these discoveries and illustrate some of the characteristics of these new "Quantum Nash Equilibria". The full text of this research can be found at http://necsi.org/events/iccs6/viewpaper.php?id-234

  18. First measurement of target and double spin asymmetries for polarized e- polarized p --> e p pi0 in the nucleon resonance region above the Delta(1232)

    SciTech Connect

    Biselli, Angela; Burkert, Volker; Amaryan, Moscov; Amaryan, Moskov; Asryan, Gegham; Avagyan, Harutyun; Baghdasaryan, Hovhannes; Baillie, Nathan; Ball, J.P.; Ball, Jacques; Baltzell, Nathan; Battaglieri, Marco; Bedlinskiy, Ivan; Bellis, Matthew; Benmouna, Nawal; Berman, Barry; Blaszczyk, Lukasz; Bookwalter, Craig; Boyarinov, Sergey; Bosted, Peter; Bradford, Robert; Branford, Derek; Briscoe, William; Brooks, William; Bultmann, S.; Bueltmann, Stephen; Butuceanu, Cornel; Calarco, John; Careccia, Sharon; Carman, Daniel; Casey, Liam; Chen, Shifeng; Cheng, Lu; Cole, Philip; Collins, Patrick; Coltharp, Philip; Crabb, Donald; Crede, Volker; Dale, Daniel; Dashyan, Natalya; De Masi, Rita; De Vita, Raffaella; De Sanctis, Enzo; Degtiarenko, Pavel; Deur, Alexandre; Dhamija, Seema; Dickson, Richard; Djalali, Chaden; Dodge, Gail; Doughty, David; Dugger, Michael; Dzyubak, Oleksandr; Egiyan, Hovanes; Elfassi, Lamiaa; Elouadrhiri, Latifa; Eugenio, Paul; Fedotov, Gleb; Feuerbach, Robert; Fersch, Robert; Forest, Tony; Fradi, Ahmed; Garcon, Michel; Gavalian, Gagik; Gevorgyan, Nerses; Gilfoyle, Gerard; Giovanetti, Kevin; Girod, Francois-Xavier; Goetz, John; Gohn, Wesley; Gothe, Ralf; Graham, Lewis; Griffioen, Keith; Guidal, Michel; Guler, Nevzat; Guo, Lei; Gyurjyan, Vardan; Hafidi, Kawtar; Hakobyan, Hayk; Hanretty, Charles; Hassall, Neil; Hicks, Kenneth; Hleiqawi, Ishaq; Holtrop, Maurik; Hyde, Charles; Ilieva, Yordanka; Ireland, David; Ishkhanov, Boris; Isupov, Evgeny; Ito, Mark; Jenkins, David; Jo, Hyon-Suk; Johnstone, John; Joo, Kyungseon; Juengst, Henry; Kalantarians, Narbe; Keller, Dustin; Kellie, James; Khandaker, Mahbubul; Kim, Wooyoung; Klein, Andreas; Klein, Franz; Kossov, Mikhail; Krahn, Zebulun; Kubarovsky, Valery; Kuhn, Joachim; Kuhn, Sebastian; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Viacheslav; Lachniet, Jeff; Laget, Jean; Langheinrich, Jorn; Lawrence, David; Livingston, Kenneth; Lu, Haiyun; MacCormick, Marion; Markov, Nikolai; Mattione, Paul; McKinnon, Bryan; McNabb, John; Mecking, Bernhard; Mestayer, Mac; Meyer, Curtis; Mibe, Tsutomu; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Mirazita, Marco; Mokeev, Viktor; Moreno, Brahim; Moriya, Kei; Morrow, Steven; Moteabbed, Maryam; Munevar Espitia, Edwin; Mutchler, Gordon; Nadel-Turonski, Pawel; Nasseripour, Rakhsha; Niccolai, Silvia; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Niczyporuk, Bogdan; Niroula, Megh; Niyazov, Rustam; Nozar, Mina; Osipenko, Mikhail; Ostrovidov, Alexander; Park, Kil; Park, Seungkyung; Pasyuk, Evgueni; Paterson, Craig; Pereira, Sergio; Pierce, Joshua; Pivnyuk, Nikolay; Pogorelko, Oleg; Pozdnyakov, Sergey; Price, John; Prok, Yelena; Protopopescu, Dan; Raue, Brian; Ricco, Giovanni; Ripani, Marco; Ritchie, Barry; Rosner, Guenther; Rossi, Patrizia; Sabatie, Franck; Saini, Mukesh; Salamanca, Julian; Salgado, Carlos; Santoro, Joseph; Sapunenko, Vladimir; Schott, Diane; Schumacher, Reinhard; Serov, Vladimir; Sharabian, Youri; Sharov, Dmitri; Shvedunov, Nikolay; Smith, Elton; Sober, Daniel; Sokhan, Daria; Stavinskiy, Aleksey; Stepanyan, Samuel; Stepanyan, Stepan; Stokes, Burnham; Stoler, Paul; Strakovski, Igor; Strauch, Steffen; Taiuti, Mauro; Tedeschi, David; Tkabladze, Avtandil; Tkachenko, Svyatoslav; Todor, Luminita; Ungaro, Maurizio; Vineyard, Michael; Vlassov, Alexander; Watts, Daniel; Weinstein, Lawrence; Weygand, Dennis; Williams, M.; Wolin, Elliott; Wood, Michael; Yegneswaran, Amrit; Yurov, Mikhail; Zana, Lorenzo; Zhang, Jixie; Zhao, Bo; Zhao, Zhiwen

    2008-10-01

    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.78.045204
    The exclusive channel polarized proton(polarized e,e prime p)pi0 was studied in the first and second nucleon resonance regions in the Q2 range from 0.187 to 0.770 GeV2 at Jefferson Lab using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). Longitudinal target and beam-target asymmetries were extracted over a large range of center-of-mass angles of the pi0 and compared to the unitary isobar model MAID, the dynamic model by Sato and Lee, and the dynamic model DMT. A strong sensitivity to individual models was observed, in particular for the target asymmetry and in the higher invariant mass region. This data set, once included in the global fits of the above models, is expected to place strong constraints on the electrocoupling amplitudes A_{1/2} and S_{1/2} for the Roper resonance N(1400)P11, and the N(1535)S11 and N(1520)D13 states.

  19. Dependence of crystallization of Brownian particles by sedimentation on the force direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Masahide; Yusuf Hakim Widianto, Muhammad; Kanatsu, Youhei

    2015-11-01

    The formation of a large close-packed colloidal crystal with the fcc structure was observed during the sedimentation of colloidal particles in an inverted pyramidal pit [S. Matsuo et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4285 (2003)]. Carrying out Brownian dynamics simulations, we confirmed that large grains with the fcc structure are formed when the apex angle of the inverted pyramidal container is suitable and the force direction is parallel to the the center axis [Y. Kanatsu and M. Sato, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 84, 044601 (2015)]. To form a high-quality colloidal crystal without defects, it is important to investigate in detail how the quality of a colloidal crystal is affected by the force direction and container shape. In this paper, we focus on the effect of the force direction on crystal quality and investigate how the ratio of the number of the hcp structured particles, Nhcp, to that of fcc structured particles, Nfcc, is affected by the force direction. In our simulation, the ratio of Nfcc to Nhcp is hardly changed when the force direction deviates from the central axis: Nfcc is much larger than Nhcp irrespective of the force direction. Thus, our results show that the crystal structure is insensitive to the force direction in forming a colloidal crystal by sedimentation in an inverted pyramidal container.

  20. Spectroscopic Investigation of Temperature Effects on the Hydration Structure of the Phenol Cluster Cation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Reona; Kasahara, Yasutoshi; Ishikawa, Haruki

    2015-06-01

    Owing to recent technical developments of various spectroscopies, microscopic hydration structures of various clusters in the gas phase have been determined so far. The next step for further understanding of the microscopic hydration is to reveal the temperature effect, such as a fluctuation of the hydration structure. Thus, we are carrying out photodissociation spectroscopy on the hydrated phenol cation clusters, [PhOH(H_2O)_n]^+. Since electronic spectra of [PhOH(H_2O)_n]^+ have been reported already, this system is suitable for our purpose. In the present study, we use our temperature-variable 22-pole ion trap apparatus. The ions in the trap become thermal equilibrium condition by multiple collisions with temperature-controlled He buffer gas. By this way, the temperature of the ions can be controlled. In the electronic spectrum of the n = 5 cluster measured at 30 K, a sharp band is observed. It shows that the temperature of ions are well-controlled. Contrary to the n = 5 cluster, the n = 6 cluster exhibits a wider band shape. The temperature dependence of the band shape indicates the existence of several, at least two, isomers in the present experimental condition. S.~Sato, N.~Mikami J.~Phys.~Chem. 100, 4765 (1996). H.~Ishikawa, T.~Nakano, T.~Eguchi, T.~Shibukawa, K.~Fuke Chem. Phys. Lett. 514, 234 (2011).

  1. Electron Impact Vibrational Excitation of H2O Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hidetoshi; Kajita, Rina; Tanaka, Takahiro; Makochekanwa, Casten; Kimura, Mineo; Cho, Hyuck; Kitajima, Masashi; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2004-09-01

    Electron impact interaction studies with water have invited a lot experimental and theoretical attention for more than half century because it falls into the unique group of polar molecules whose dipole moments are above the critical dipole moments, thus enabling studies of dipole-related threshold peaks [1]. However, because of the experimental difficulties encountered in separating the three fundamental modes of vibration, for instance, there remained controversies about the existence of resonance effects in the vibrational excitation. In this report, the H2O vibrational exciation into modes (100) and (001) investigated at energy losses of 0.43, 0.46, 0.49 and 0.51 eV, where peaks for these two modes closely overlap, while sweeping the impact energies from 1.6 to 10 eV, at angles 60º and 90º, using a cross-beam method [2]. The continuum multiple scattering (CMS) [4] calculations have also been performed for the theoretical analysis of the experimental results. We have observed distinct resonance enhancement only in the symmetric stretching (100) mode, but not in the antisymmetric (001) and bending (010) modes. The theoretical interpretation is provided. [1] K. Rohr and F. Linder, J. Phys. B 9, 2521 (1976). [2] H. Tanaka, L. Boesten, D. Matsunaga and T. Kudo, J. Phys. B 21, 1255 (1988). [3] M. Kimura and H. Sato, Comments At. Mol. Phys. 26, 333 (1991).

  2. Electron and Positron Scattering from C3H6 Isomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makochekanwa, Casten; Sueoka, Osamu; Kimura, Mineo; Hoshino, Masamitsu; Tanaka, Takahiro; Kitajima, Masashi; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2004-09-01

    Hydrocarbons play an important role in high temperature plasmas in Tokamak fusion devices in plasma processing and many other fields [1]. In this paper we report experiments for 0.4-1000 eV electron and 0.2-1000 eV positron total cross sections (TCS) measured using a linear time-of-flight apparatus [2], and electron differential cross sections (DCS) for elastic, vibrational and electronic excitations covering the ranges 1.5 to 100 eV and 15 deg to 130 deg, measured using the crossed beam and relative flow method [3]. The continuum multiple scattering (CMS) [4] calculations have also been performed for the theoretical analysis of the observed features in our cross sections. We observe the isomer effect in both electron and positron TCSs and DCSs. The presence of a dipole moment in propene molecules shows up in enhanced forward scattering in DCSs, leading to larger TCSs and integral cross sections compared to cyclopropane at energies less than 20 eV. However, both electron and positron TCSs for these two molecules nearly equal each other above 100 eV, i.e. the molecular size effect. [1] W. L. Moragn, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43, 79 (2000). [2] O. Sueoka, S. Mori and A. Hamada, J. Phys. B 27, 1453 (1994). [3] H. Tanaka, L. Boesten, D. Matsunaga and T. Kudo, J. Phys. B 21, 1255 (1988). [4] M. Kimura and H. Sato, Comments At. Mol. Phys. 26, 333 (1991).

  3. Micromagnetic theory of antiferromagnetically coupled magnetic recording media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schabes, Manfred

    2001-03-01

    The micromagnetic theory of antiferromagnetically coupled magnetic recording media (AFC media) is discussed for the case of AFC media consisting of two ferromagnetic layers and a polarization layer.[1-2] Attention is focused on AFC media where the top layer governs the remanent magnetization while the bottom layer acts as a slave layer. Micromagnetic simulations of recorded bit transitions demonstrate a good anticorrelation of the layer magnetizations at bit transitions for this case. Calculation of MR readback pulses shows that these AFC media have pulse widths of a thin single layer magnetic recording medium with an effective MrT that is approximately given by the difference in MrT's of the top and bottom layers. Magnetic stability is set to first order by the thicker top layer and the interactions between the top and bottom layers. [1] E.E. Fullerton, D.T. Margulies, M.E. Schabes, M. Carey, B. Gurney, A. Moser, M. Best, G. Zeltzer, K. Rubin, H. Rosen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77 (2000), 3806. [2] E.N. Abarra, A. Inomata, H. Sato, I. Okamoto, Y. Mizoshita, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77 (2000), 2581.

  4. Topology of nonsymmorphic crystalline insulators and superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiozaki, Ken; Sato, Masatoshi; Gomi, Kiyonori

    2016-05-01

    Topological classification in our previous paper [K. Shiozaki and M. Sato, Phys. Rev. B 90, 165114 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.165114] is extended to nonsymmorphic crystalline insulators and superconductors. Using the twisted equivariant K theory, we complete the classification of topological crystalline insulators and superconductors in the presence of additional order-two nonsymmorphic space-group symmetries. The order-two nonsymmorphic space groups include half-lattice translation with Z2 flip, glide, twofold screw, and their magnetic space groups. We find that the topological periodic table shows modulo-2 periodicity in the number of flipped coordinates under the order-two nonsymmorphic space group. It is pointed out that the nonsymmorphic space groups allow Z2 topological phases even in the absence of time-reversal and/or particle-hole symmetries. Furthermore, the coexistence of the nonsymmorphic space group with time-reversal and/or particle-hole symmetries provides novel Z4 topological phases, which have not been realized in ordinary topological insulators and superconductors. We present model Hamiltonians of these new topological phases and analytic expressions of the Z2 and Z4 topological invariants. The half-lattice translation with Z2 spin flip and glide symmetry are compatible with the existence of boundaries, leading to topological surface gapless modes protected by the order-two nonsymmorphic symmetries. We also discuss unique features of these gapless surface modes.

  5. Quantitative evaluation of noise reduction and vesselness filters for liver vessel segmentation on abdominal CTA images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luu, Ha Manh; Klink, Camiel; Moelker, Adriaan; Niessen, Wiro; van Walsum, Theo

    2015-05-01

    Liver vessel segmentation in CTA images is a challenging task, especially in the case of noisy images. This paper investigates whether pre-filtering improves liver vessel segmentation in 3D CTA images. We introduce a quantitative evaluation of several well-known filters based on a proposed liver vessel segmentation method on CTA images. We compare the effect of different diffusion techniques i.e. Regularized Perona-Malik, Hybrid Diffusion with Continuous Switch and Vessel Enhancing Diffusion as well as the vesselness approaches proposed by Sato, Frangi and Erdt. Liver vessel segmentation of the pre-processed images is performed using a histogram-based region grown with local maxima as seed points. Quantitative measurements (sensitivity, specificity and accuracy) are determined based on manual landmarks inside and outside the vessels, followed by T-tests for statistic comparisons on 51 clinical CTA images. The evaluation demonstrates that all the filters make liver vessel segmentation have a significantly higher accuracy than without using a filter (p  <  0.05) Hybrid Diffusion with Continuous Switch achieves the best performance. Compared to the diffusion filters, vesselness filters have a greater sensitivity but less specificity. In addition, the proposed liver vessel segmentation method with pre-filtering is shown to perform robustly on a clinical dataset having a low contrast-to-noise of up to 3 (dB). The results indicate that the pre-filtering step significantly improves liver vessel segmentation on 3D CTA images.

  6. Seismic coda attenuation after the Mw = 6.2 Armenia (Colombia) earthquake of 25 January 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugalde, Arantza; Vargas, Carlos A.; Pujades, Lluís G.; Canas, José A.

    2002-06-01

    Seismic wave attenuation in the central region of the Colombian Andes is studied using coda waves. Most of the events used occurred in the region on the occasion of the Armenia 25 January 1999 earthquake. The estimation of the decay rate of coda amplitudes (called coda Q-1 or Qc-1) is performed by means of the single isotropic scattering method of Sato [1977]. The attenuation parameters Qi-1 (intrinsic absorption), Qs-1 (scattering loss), and Qt-1 (total attenuation) are also estimated using the multiple lapse time window method of Hoshiba et al. [1991]. The frequencies of interest lie between 1 and 15 Hz. Results show that scattering attenuation is predominant for the frequency bands 1.5 +/- 0.5 and 13.5 +/- 1.5 Hz, whereas the intrinsic absorption and scattering contribute in equal shares to total attenuation for the 3 +/- 1, 5 +/- 1, 7.5 +/- 1.5, and 10.5 +/- 1.5 Hz frequencies. A comparison among the estimated attenuation parameters indicates that Qc-1 is close to total attenuation for all the studied frequency bands. On the other hand, no evidence in support of temporal changes of Qc-1 before and after the main shock has been found. Finally, the regionalization of Qc-1 values seems to correlate well with the geotectonic characteristics of the region.

  7. Temporal Change in Coda Wave Attenuation Observed at Colima Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DOMINGUEZ, T.; FLORES, F.; REYES, G.

    2001-12-01

    The last eruptive processes of Colima volcano (November 1998- January 1999) was characterized by the occurrence of several seismic swarms. During the year previous to the eruption, the seismic activity developed in such a form that we could identified several stages in the evolution of the activity. By measuring the amplitude decay of coda waves we estimated coda attenuation Qc in the frequency range 2-10 Hz. We used Sato's (1977) single scattering model for coda windows of 10 to 15 seconds beginning at twice the S-wave travel time. We found a change in Q0 of approximately a 20-30% lower toward the end of the period. We also found that Qc was frequency dependent within this range. This dependence was progressively lower until the last month of activity just before the eruption. Studies of the same type that have been carried out in other volcanoes (Fehler, et al., 1998, Londoño, 1996) showed changes in the attenuation of the seismic waves related to volcanic eruptions. Changes of coda Q can be attributed to the change of density of the open microcracks in the rocks because of the pressure generated by the pushing of magma toward the surface which is also responsible for the inflation of the volcanic edifice.

  8. Revealing the physicochemical mechanism for ultrasonic separation of alcohol-water mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirpalani, D. M.; Toll, F.

    2002-08-01

    The selective separation of ethanol from ethanol-water mixtures by ultrasonic atomization has been reported recently by Sato, Matsuura, and Fujii [J. Chem. Phys. 114, 2382 (2001)]. In that work, experimental data were reported that confirmed the generation of an ethanol-rich droplet mist and attempted to explain the selective separation in terms of parametric decay instability of the capillary wave formed during sonication. In the present work, an alternate mechanism based on the conjunction theory has been postulated for the process of ultrasonic atomization. This mechanism involves the formation of cavitating bubbles in the liquid during sonication and their eventual collapse at the liquid surface into a cloud of microbubbles that moves upwards in a capillary fountain jet. The selective separation of alcohols has been explained as a corollary effect of the physical mechanism resulting in a surface excess of alcohol molecules formed at the surface of the microbubbles. The alcohol molecules vaporize into the microbubbles and release an alcohol-rich mist on their collapse in regions of high accumulation of acoustic energy.

  9. Displacement of the ventricular fold following cordectomy.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, H; Tsuji, D H; Kawasaki, Y; Kawaida, M; Sakou, T

    1990-01-01

    In order to avoid radiation and its undesirable side effects, we have employed surgical techniques for treatment of early glottic cancer when the lesion is confined to one membranous cord (Fukuda, Saito, Sato, and Kitahara: J. Jpn. Bronchoesophagol. Soc. 30: 7-14, 1979; Fukuda and Saito: Otologica 26: 434-436, 1980; Fukuda, Kawaida, Ohki, Kawasaki, Kita, and Tatehara: J. Jpn. Bronchoesophagaol. Soc. 39: 139-144, 1988). Laser is one of the most popular techniques and it has been accepted as the first choice by many authors (Annyas, Overbeek, Escajadillo, and Hoeksema: Laryngoscope 94: 836-838, 1984; Mcguirt and Koufman: Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 113: 501-505, 1987; Tsuji, Fukuda, Kawaskai, Kawaida, and Kanzaki: Keio J. Med. 38: 413-418, 1989). However, some cases are difficult to approach by direct laryngoscopy, requiring an external way to expose the lesion. In these cases, cordectomy by laryngofissure is the method of choice, but the function of the glottis could be improved by replacing the excised cord displacing the ventricular fold. This technique, designed by the authors, was carried out in 22 patients and the results from the viewpoint of phonodynamics, voice quality, and cure rate are discussed in this study. The results are encouraging and we believe that this method is a very reasonable alternative to the laser when such equipment is not available. We also believe that late side effects and oncogenic problems associated with radiation are important points to be considered, especially in patients of relatively younger age.

  10. Dependence of the Apex Angle of an Inverted Pyramidal-Shaped Container on Crystallization of Brownian Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanatsu, Youhei; Sato, Masahide

    2015-11-01

    Large grains of a close-packed colloidal crystal have been experimentally shown to form in an inverted pyramidal pit by sedimentation [S. Matsuo et al., http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1583138, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4285 (2003)]. Keeping this experiment in mind, we study the crystallization of Brownian particles. We carry out Brownian dynamics simulations in an inverted pyramidal-shaped container. The Brownian particles settle out toward the apex of the container by a uniform external force. If the apex angle is suitable, large grains with the face-centered cubic (fcc) structure are formed [Y. Kanatsu and M. Sato, http://dx.doi.org/10.7566/JPSJ.84.044601, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 84, 044601 (2015)]. When the apex angle deviates from a suitable value, the number of hexagonal close-packed (hcp) structured particles, Nhcp, increases with increasing angle deviation. The formation of the hcp structure is induced by disordered particles remaining in the center region of the container.

  11. q-Difference Kac-Schwarz Operators in Topological String Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takasaki, Kanehisa; Nakatsu, Toshio

    2017-02-01

    The perspective of Kac-Schwarz operators is introduced to the authors' previous work on the quantum mirror curves of topological string theory in strip geometry and closed topological vertex. Open string amplitudes on each leg of the web diagram of such geometry can be packed into a multi-variate generating function. This generating function turns out to be a tau function of the KP hierarchy. The tau function has a fermionic expression, from which one finds a vector |W\\rangle in the fermionic Fock space that represents a point W of the Sato Grassmannian. |W\\rangle is generated from the vacuum vector |0\\rangle by an operator g on the Fock space. g determines an operator G on the space V = C((x)) of Laurent series in which W is realized as a linear subspace. G generates an admissible basis {Φ_j(x)}_{j=0}^∞ of W. q-difference analogues A, B of Kac-Schwarz operators are defined with the aid of G. Φ_j(x)'s satisfy the linear equations AΦ_j(x) = q^jΦ_j(x), BΦ_j(x) = Φ_{j+1}(x). The lowest equation AΦ_0(x) = Φ_0(x) reproduces the quantum mirror curve in the authors' previous work.

  12. Spinodal nanotechnology as a new class of bottom-up one and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama-Yoshida, Hiroshi; Fukushima, Tetsuya; Kizaki, Hidetoshi; Oshitani, Masamune; Sato, Kazunori

    2010-03-01

    We discuss the nano-materials design of spinodal nano-decomposition as a new class of bottom-up nanotechnology by combining ab initio calculations and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. We include all the complexity in the fabrication process of spinodal nano-decomposition (Konbu- and Dairiseki-phase) into advanced materials design with inhomogeneous materials. We compare the theoretical predictions with available experiments, such as (i)semiconductor nano-spintronics in dilute magnetic semiconductors, (ii)colossal thermoelectric-power responses of spincaloritronics, (iii)self-repaired nano-catalysis in La(Fe,Pd)O3, (iv)high-efficiency solar-cells, (v)high-efficiency light-emitting diode and Lasers. (1) K. Sato, et al., Reviews of Modern Physics, in printing (2009). (2) H. Katayama-Yoshida, et al.,Handbook of Spintronic Semiconductors, (Pan Stanford Pub.), p.1-79, (2009). (3) H. Katayama-Yoshida, et al.,Semiconductors and Semimetals, 82,433 (2008). (4) H. Katayama-Yoshida, et al.,Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L777 (2007). (5) H. Kizaki, et al.,Applied Physics Express 1, 104001, (2008).

  13. Quantum Bio-Informatics IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accardi, Luigi; Freudenberg, Wolfgang; Ohya, Masanori

    2011-01-01

    The QP-DYN algorithms / L. Accardi, M. Regoli and M. Ohya -- Study of transcriptional regulatory network based on Cis module database / S. Akasaka ... [et al.] -- On Lie group-Lie algebra correspondences of unitary groups in finite von Neumann algebras / H. Ando, I. Ojima and Y. Matsuzawa -- On a general form of time operators of a Hamiltonian with purely discrete spectrum / A. Arai -- Quantum uncertainty and decision-making in game theory / M. Asano ... [et al.] -- New types of quantum entropies and additive information capacities / V. P. Belavkin -- Non-Markovian dynamics of quantum systems / D. Chruscinski and A. Kossakowski -- Self-collapses of quantum systems and brain activities / K.-H. Fichtner ... [et al.] -- Statistical analysis of random number generators / L. Accardi and M. Gabler -- Entangled effects of two consecutive pairs in residues and its use in alignment / T. Ham, K. Sato and M. Ohya -- The passage from digital to analogue in white noise analysis and applications / T. Hida -- Remarks on the degree of entanglement / D. Chruscinski ... [et al.] -- A completely discrete particle model derived from a stochastic partial differential equation by point systems / K.-H. Fichtner, K. Inoue and M. Ohya -- On quantum algorithm for exptime problem / S. Iriyama and M. Ohya -- On sufficient algebraic conditions for identification of quantum states / A. Jamiolkowski -- Concurrence and its estimations by entanglement witnesses / J. Jurkowski -- Classical wave model of quantum-like processing in brain / A. Khrennikov -- Entanglement mapping vs. quantum conditional probability operator / D. Chruscinski ... [et al.] -- Constructing multipartite entanglement witnesses / M. Michalski -- On Kadison-Schwarz property of quantum quadratic operators on M[symbol](C) / F. Mukhamedov and A. Abduganiev -- On phase transitions in quantum Markov chains on Cayley Tree / L. Accardi, F. Mukhamedov and M. Saburov -- Space(-time) emergence as symmetry breaking effect / I. Ojima

  14. Global Properties of X-Ray Flashes and X-Ray-Rich Gamma-Ray Bursts Observed by Swift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Takanori; Yamazaki, Ryo; Barthelmy, Scott; Gehrels, Neil; Osborne, Julian; Hullinger, Derek; Sato, Goro; Barbier, Louis; Cummings, Jay; Fenimore, Ed; Krimm, Hans; Lamb, Don; Markwardt, Craig; Palmer, David; Parsons, Ann; Stamatikos, Michael; Tueller, Jack

    Takanori Sakamoto, Taka.Sakamoto@nasa.gov NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, United States Ryo Yamazaki, ryo@theo.phys.sci.hiroshima-u.ac.jp Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Japan Scott Barthelmy, scott@milkyway.gsfc.nasa.gov NASA GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, United States Neil Gehrels, gehrels@milkyway.gsfc.nasa.gov NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, United States Julian Osborne, julo@star.le.ac.uk University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom Derek Hullinger, derek.hullinger@gmail.com Moxtek, Inc, Orem, Utah, United States Goro Sato, Goro.Sato@nasa.gov Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, United States Louis Barbier, lmb@milkyway.gsfc.nasa.gov Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, United States Jay Cummings, jayc@milkyway.gsfc.nasa.gov Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, United States Ed Fenimore, efenimore@lanl.gov Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, California, United States Hans Krimm, hans.krimm@nasa.gov Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, United States Don Lamb, d-lamb@uchicago.edu University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States Craig Markwardt, Craig.Markwardt@nasa.gov Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, United States David Palmer, palmer@lanl.gov Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, California, United States Ann Parsons, Ann.M.Parsons@nasa.gov Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, United States Michael Stamatikos, michael@milkyway.gsfc.nasa.gov Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, United States Jack Tueller, jack.tueller@nasa.gov Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, United States We present the spectral and temporal characteristics of the prompt emission and X-ray afterglow emission of X-ray flashes (XRFs) and X-ray-rich gamma-ray bursts (XRRs) detected and observed by Swift between December 2004 and September 2006. We compare these characteristics to a sample of conventional

  15. Antarctic glaciations under Pliocene climate conditions from numerical modeling and compilation of local field-based reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernales, Jorge; Rogozhina, Irina; Greve, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    The mid-Pliocene (3.15 to 2.85 million years before present) is the most recent period in Earth's history when temperatures and CO2 concentrations were likely sustainedly higher than pre-industrial values. Furthermore, the positions of the continents and their sea-land distributions had already reached their present configuration, sharing some similarities with today's patterns of ocean circulation and vegetation distributions. Although significant differences exist -such as a peak sea level that could have been 22 ± 10 m higher than it is today and sea surface temperatures particularly warmer at higher latitudes, mid-Pliocene has been identified as an ideal interval for studying the climate system under conditions similar to those projected for the end of this century. Among the sources of uncertainty in the projections, the response of the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) to warmer-than-today conditions seems to play a central role. Therefore, a better understanding of AIS's behavior during periods like the mid-Pliocene will provide valuable information that could help improve future predictions. For this purpose, we have compiled a wide range of local field-based reconstructions of the ice-sheet margin from Pliocene sediments (with the inclusions of organic matters such as, for instance, diatoms or palynoflora, or ice rafted debris), geochemical records, volcanic ashes and rocks, and geomorphology, and designed numerical experiments of the AIS dynamics during the mid-Pliocene warm period using the large-scale polythermal ice sheet-shelf model SICOPOLIS (Greve, 1997 [1]; Sato and Greve, 2012 [2]). The model is run with a horizontal resolution of 40 × 40 km by the climatology obtained from the PlioMIP Atmosphere Ocean Global Circulation Model experiments (Dolan et al., 2012 [3]). Parameters of the AIS model (e.g. ice calving, sub-ice shelf and surface ice melt, basal sliding, etc.) have initially been estimated using ice-sheet simulations driven by the present

  16. The role of ice shelves in the Holocene evolution of the Antarctic ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernales, Jorge; Rogozhina, Irina; Thomas, Maik

    2014-05-01

    Using the continental-scale ice sheet-shelf model SICOPOLIS (Greve, 1997 [1]; Sato and Greve, 2012 [2]), we assess the influence of ice shelves on the Holocene evolution and present-day geometry of the Antarctic ice sheet. We have designed a series of paleoclimate simulations driven by a time-evolved climate forcing that couples the surface temperature record from the Vostok ice core with precipitation pattern using an empirical relation of Dahl-Jensen et al., (1998) [3]. Our numerical experiments show that the geometry of ice shelves is determined by the evolution of climate and ocean conditions over time scales of 15 to 25 kyr. This implies that the initial configuration of ice shelves at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, about 21 kyr before present) has a significant effect on the modelled Early Holocene volume of ice shelves (up to 20%) that gradually diminishes to a negligible level for the present-day ice shelf configuration. Thus, the present-day geometry of the Antarctic ice shelves can be attained even if an ice-shelf-free initial condition is chosen at the LGM. However, the grounded ice volume, thickness and dynamic states are found to be sensitive to the ice shelf dynamics over a longer history spanning several tens of thousands of years. A presence of extensive marine ice at the LGM, supported by sediment core reconstructions (e.g. Naish et al., 2009 [4]), has a clear buttressing effect on the grounded ice that remains significant over a period of 30 to 50 kyr. If ice-shelf-free conditions are prescribed at the LGM, the modelled Early Holocene and present-day grounded ice volumes are underestimated by up to 10%, as opposed to simulations incorporating ice shelf dynamics over longer periods. The use of ice-shelf-free LGM conditions thus results in 50 to over 200 meters thinner ice sheet across much of East Antarctica. References [1] Greve, R. (1997). Application of a polythermal three-dimensional ice sheet model to the Greenland ice sheet: response to

  17. Devices and methods to measure H2 and CO2 concentrations in gases released from soils and low temperature fumaroles in volcanic areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Martino, R. M. R.; Camarda, M.; Gurrieri, S.; Valenza, M.

    2009-04-01

    Hydrogen solubility and diffusion have a great relevance to change the redox state of magmas, usually expressed by oxygen fugacity. This influences many chemical and physical properties, such as oxidation state of multivalent elements, kind and abundance of minerals and gas species. These processes change the phase ratios into the volcanic system and so the magma movement capability toward the earth surface and the eruptive dynamics. In past studies several authors (Carapezza et al., 1980; Sato et al., 1982; Sato and McGee, 1985; Wakita et al., 1980) proposed the application of the fuel cells in order to measure reducing capacity of volcanic gases. Their found some clear correlations between variation peaks and volcanic activity but a few reducing capacity changes showed no correlation with it. In this study we characterize a fuel cell device designed to measure hydrogen concentration in a gas mixture. We present test results obtained in laboratory and in field trip, carried out to verify the major interferences of others reducing gas species, commonly present in volcanic emissions, in the measurement carried out with a hydrogen fuel cell sensor. Tests were performed at controlled temperature ad pressure conditions and at air saturated pressure vapour in the cell cathode. A new device to measure simultaneously hydrogen (H2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in soil and in low temperature fumaroles in volcanic areas was proposed. The H2-detector is a hydrogen fuel cell, whereas CO2 is measured using an I.R. spectrometer. To build a continuous monitoring station of volcanic activity both sensors were put in a case together with a data logger. Our device has 0.2 mV ppm-1 sensitivity, accuracy of ± 5 ppm and about 10 ppm resolution whit respect to the hydrogen concentration. These instrumental characteristics were obtained applying a 500 ohm resistor to the external circuit that represents the best compromise between sensitivity, resolution, instrumental

  18. GRAVI-2 space experiment: investigating statoliths displacement and location effects on early stages of gravity perception pathways in lentil roots.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizet, François; Eche, Brigitte; Pereda Loth, Veronica; Badel, Eric; Legue, Valerie; Brunel, Nicole; Label, Philippe; Gérard, Joëlle

    2016-07-01

    The plants ability to orient their growth with respect to external stimuli such as gravity is a key factor for survival and acclimation to their environment. Belowground, plant roots modulate their growth towards gravity, allowing soil exploration and uptake of water and nutrients. In roots, gravity sensing cells called statocytes are located in the center of the root cap. Statocytes contain starch-filled plastids denser than the cytoplasm, which sedimentation along the direction of gravity is widely accepted as being involved into early stages of gravity perception (the starch-statolith hypothesis; Sack, 1991). Root gravitropism following statoliths displacement is based on auxin redistribution in the root apex, inducing differential growth between the root upward and downward sides. However at the cell scale, the chain of transduction starting from statoliths displacement and leading to auxin redistribution remains poorly documented. Signaling molecules such as calcium, reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate are serious candidates previously shown to be involved within minutes before modification of the expression of auxin-related genes (Morita, 2010; Sato et al., 2015). Here, we observe and quantify statoliths displacements and locations at various levels of gravity to investigate two hypothesis: (i) Are contacts between statoliths and the endoplasmic reticulum necessary to induce gravitropism? (ii) Are very low displacements of statoliths sufficient to initiate transduction pathways such as the calcium's one? These questionings have led to an experiment called GRAVI-2 which took place aboard the ISS in 2014. During the experiment, lentil roots were grown in the European modular cultivation system for several hours in microgravity and were then submitted to short high gravity stimulus (5 and 15 minutes at 2 g) before the return to Earth for analyses. Ongoing cytological measurements will reveal the effects of statoliths

  19. Back-trajectory Analyses of Water Vapor in Northern Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Y.; Asanuma, J.

    2012-12-01

    Knowledge of precipitation sources is indispensable for prediction of extreme events as droughts and flood [Dirmeyer and Brubaker, 1999]. In this paper, the transport pathways of water vapor that precipitates in northern Mongolia were identified using back-trajectory analyses in order to find out factors causing such events in arid/semi-arid area. First, a back-trajectory model of atmospheric water vapor was developed. An air parcel is placed on an isentropic plane over the target site at each time of precipitation. Then, back trajectories was calculated with a kinematic method following the implicit technique [Merrill et al., 1986; Merrill, 1989]. Each of the air parcels was tagged with the precipitation time and the altitude, and then tracked back in time for 5 days on the isentropic surface. Japanese 25-year Reanalysis/JMA Climate Data Assimilation System (JRA-25/JCDAS) of Japan Meteorological Agency [Onogi et al., 2007] was used for 3D field of meteorological variables for the calculation. As a validation, the model was compared with two others, namely, Meteorological Data Explorer of the Center for Global Environmental Reserch (METEX/CGER) [Zeng et al., 2003], and the trajectory model of the National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR) [Tomikawa and Sato, 2005]. The comparison found that model results are fairly robust within 5 days from the computational start, i.e., the end of the trajectory, regardless of different datasets and different schemes employed in these models. Then, the back-trajectory model was applied to the observed precipitation at the target site, a surface station in northern Mongolia called Kherlenbayan-Ulaan(KBU), where highly accurate and temporarily dense precipitation measurements are available. Back trajectory lines were calculated for each of the observed precipitation during the warm season of the years 2003 to 2009, on the isentropic surfaces of 300K, 310K and 320K where the highest value of water vapor is observed. The results show

  20. Parathyroid hormone 1 receptor is essential to induce FGF23 production and maintain systemic mineral ion homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yi; Bi, Ruiye; Densmore, Michael J.; Sato, Tadatoshi; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Yuan, Quan; Zhou, Xuedong; Erben, Reinhold G.; Lanske, Beate

    2016-01-01

    Parathyroid-hormone–type 1 receptor (PTH1R) is extensively expressed in key regulatory organs for systemic mineral ion homeostasis, including kidney and bone. We investigated the bone-specific functions of PTH1R in modulating mineral ion homeostasis by generating a novel mouse model in which PTH1R is ablated in the limb mesenchyme using Prx1Cre transgenic mice. Such ablation decreased FGF23 protein and serum levels by 50%, despite normal Fgf23 mRNA levels in long bones. Circulating calcium and PTH levels were unchanged, but inorganic phosphate and 1,25(OH)2D3 levels were significantly decreased and accompanied by elevated urinary calcium and phosphate wasting. Key renal genes for balancing mineral ion homeostasis, calbindinD28k, Klotho, and Napi2a were suppressed by 30–40%. Intermittent hPTH(1–34) injections increased Fgf23 mRNA (7.3-fold), Nurr1 mRNA (3.1-fold), and serum intact-FGF23 (1.6-fold) in controls, but failed to induce Fgf23, Nurr1 mRNA, or intact FGF23 production in mutants. Moreover, a significant elevation in serum C-terminal-FGF23 levels (4-fold) was detected in both genotypes. PTH markedly downregulated Galnt3 expression (2.7-fold) in controls but not in mutants. These results demonstrate the pivotal role of PTH1R in long bones to regulate systemic mineral ion homeostasis and the direct induction of FGF23 by PTH1R signaling.—Fan, Y., Bi, R., Densmore, M. J., Sato, T., Kobayashi, T., Yuan, Q., Zhou, X., Erben, R. G., Lanske, B. Parathyroid hormone 1 receptor is essential to induce FGF23 production and maintain systemic mineral ion homeostasis. PMID:26428657

  1. Single-Molecule Magnet Properties of Transition-Metal Ions Encapsulated in Lacunary Polyoxometalates: A Theoretical Study.

    PubMed

    Aravena, Daniel; Venegas-Yazigi, Diego; Ruiz, Eliseo

    2016-07-05

    Single-molecule magnet (SMM) properties of transition-metal complexes coordinated to lacunary polyoxometalates (POM) are studied by means of state of the art ab initio methodology. Three [M(γ-SiW10O36)2] (M = Mn(III), Fe(III), Co(II)) complexes synthesized by Sato et al. (Chem. Commun. 2015, 51, 4081-4084) are analyzed in detail. SMM properties for the Co(II) and Mn(III) systems can be rationalized due to the presence of low-energy excitations in the case of Co(II), which are much higher in energy in the case of Mn(III). The magnetic behavior of both cases is consistent with simple d-orbital splitting considerations. The case of the Fe(III) complex is special, as it presents a sizable demagnetization barrier for a high-spin d(5) configuration, which should be magnetically isotropic. We conclude that a plausible explanation for this behavior is related to the presence of low-lying quartet and doublet states from the iron(III) center. This scenario is supported by ab initio ligand field analysis based on complete active space self-consistent field results, which picture a d-orbital splitting that resembles more a square-planar geometry than an octahedral one, stabilizing lower multiplicity states. This coordination environment is sustained by the rigidity of the POM ligand, which imposes a longer axial bond distance to the inner oxygen atom in comparison to the more external, equatorial donor atoms.

  2. Aerosol Disinfection Capacity of Slightly Acidic Hypochlorous Acid Water Towards Newcastle Disease Virus in the Air: An In Vivo Experiment.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Hakimullah; Thammakarn, Chanathip; Suguro, Atsushi; Ishida, Yuki; Nakajima, Katsuhiro; Kitazawa, Minori; Takehara, Kazuaki

    2015-12-01

    Existence of bioaerosol contaminants in farms and outbreaks of some infectious organisms with the ability of transmission by air increase the need for enhancement of biosecurity, especially for the application of aerosol disinfectants. Here we selected slightly acidic hypochlorous acid water (SAHW) as a candidate and evaluated its virucidal efficacy toward a virus in the air. Three-day-old conventional chicks were challenged with 25 doses of Newcastle disease live vaccine (B1 strain) by spray with nebulizer (particle size <3 μm in diameter), while at the same time reverse osmosis water as the control and SAHW containing 50 or 100 parts per million (ppm) free available chlorine in pH 6 were sprayed on the treated chicks with other nebulizers. Exposed chicks were kept in separated cages in an isolator and observed for clinical signs. Oropharyngeal swab samples were collected from 2 to 5 days postexposure from each chick, and then the samples were titrated with primary chicken kidney cells to detect the virus. Cytopathic effects were observed, and a hemagglutination test was performed to confirm the result at 5 days postinoculation. Clinical signs (sneezing) were recorded, and the virus was isolated from the control and 50 ppm treatment groups, while no clinical signs were observed in and no virus was isolated from the 100 ppm treatment group. The virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain Sato, too, was immediately inactivated by SAHW containing 50 ppm chlorine in the aqueous phase. These data suggest that SAHW containing 100 ppm chlorine can be used for aerosol disinfection of NDV in farms.

  3. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases during rat skin wound healing: evidence that membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase is a stromal activator of pro-gelatinase A.

    PubMed

    Okada, A; Tomasetto, C; Lutz, Y; Bellocq, J P; Rio, M C; Basset, P

    1997-04-07

    Skin wound healing depends on cell migration and extracellular matrix remodeling. Both processes, which are necessary for reepithelization and restoration of the underlying connective tissue, are believed to involve the action of extracellular proteinases. We screened cDNA libraries and we found that six matrix metalloproteinase genes were highly expressed during rat skin wound healing. They were namely those of stromelysin 1, stromelysin 3, collagenase 3, gelatinase A (GelA), gelatinase B, and membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP). The expression kinetics of these MMP genes, the tissue distribution of their transcripts, the results of cotransfection experiments in COS-1 cells, and zymographic analyses performed using microdissected rat wound tissues support the possibility that during cutaneous wound healing pro-GelA and pro-gelatinase B are activated by MT1-MMP and stromelysin 1, respectively. Since MT1-MMP has been demonstrated to be a membrane-associated protein (Sato, H., T. Takino, Y. Okada, J. Cao, A. Shinagawa, E. Yamamoto, and M. Seiki. 1994. Nature (Lond.). 370: 61-65), our finding that GelA and MT1-MMP transcripts were expressed in stromal cells exhibiting a similar tissue distribution suggests that MT1-MMP activates pro-GelA at the stromal cell surface. This possibility is further supported by our observation that the processing of pro-GelA to its mature form correlated to the detection of MT1-MMP in cell membranes of rat fibroblasts expressing the MT1-MMP and GelA genes. These observations, together with the detection of high levels of the mature GelA form in the granulation tissue but not in the regenerating epidermis, suggest that MT1-MMP and GelA contribute to the restoration of connective tissue during rat skin wound healing.

  4. The preliminary results of new submarine caldera on the west of Kume-jima island, Central Ryukyu Arc, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harigane, Y.; Ishizuka, O.; Shimoda, G.; Sato, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Ryukyu Arc occurs between the islands of Kyushu and Taiwan with approximately 1200 km in the full length. This volcanic arc is caused by subduction of the Philippine Sea plate beneath the Eurasia Plate along the Ryukyu trench, and is composed of forearc islands, chains of arc volcanoes, and a back-arc rift called Okinawa Trough. The Ryukyu Arc is commonly divided into three segments (northern, central and southern) that bounded by the Tokara Strait and the Kerama Gap, respectively (e.g., Konishi 1965; Kato et al., 1982). Sato et al. (2014) mentioned that there is no active subaerial volcano in the southwest of Iotori-shima in the Central Ryukyu Arc whereas the Northern Ryukyu Arc (i.e., the Tokara Islands) has active frontal arc volcanoes. Therefore, the existence of volcanoes and volcanotectonic history of active volcanic front in the southwestern part of the Central Ryukyu Arc are still ambiguous. Detailed geophysical and geological survey was mainly conducted using R/V Kaiyou-maru No.7 during GK12 cruise operated by the Geological Survey of Japan/National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan. As a result, we have found a new submarine volcanic caldera on the west of Kume-jima island, where located the southwestern part of Central Ryukyu Arc. Here, we present (1) the bathymetrical feature of this new submarine caldera for the first time and (2) the microstructural and petrological observations of volcanic rocks (20 volcanic samples in 13 dredge sites) sampled from the small volcanic cones of this caldera volcano. The dredged samples from the caldera consist of mainly rhyolite pumice with minor andesites, Mn oxides-crust and hydrothermally altered rocks. Andesite has plagioclase, olivine and pyroxene phenocrysts. Key words: volcanic rock, caldera, arc volcanism, active volcanic front, Kume-jima island, Ryukyu Arc

  5. [Postoperative analgesia with tramal in newborn children using the method of continuous intravenous infusion].

    PubMed

    Mikhel'son, V A; Zhirkova, Iu V; Beliaeva, I D; Stepanenko, S M; Manerova, A F; Butyleva, O Iu

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficiency of postoperative analgesia with tramal in the newborns. Analgesia with tramal (5% solution for injections, "Gruonental GmbH", Germany) was administered postoperatively in 20 newborn children. Thirteen children were operated for congenital malformations in the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts, three children were operated for purulent-septic diseases and four children were operated for neoplasms. Hemodynamics indices, i.e. heart rate (HR) and arterial pressure, as well as SaO2, respiratory rate (RR), acid-base condition and behavioral reactions were assessed. Analgesia was implemented by the method of continuous intravenous infusion of tramal, 0.1-0.2 mg/kg.h combined with boluses, 1-2 mg/kg. The newborns were asleep for a major part of time during analgesia with tamal; the stable indices of hemodynamics, acid-base balance, glycemia and of the cortisol level were registered. Arterial hypertension, caused by several factors including the effect produced by tamal, was noted in 70% of children. Dose-dependent hypercapnia was registered in 80% of tests in children at unassisted respiration during the infusion of tamal, which is indicative of that tamal affects the respiratory center during the neonatal period and that it is necessary to monitor thoroughly the respiratory functions, i.e. RR, SatO2, pO2, pCO2, and to choose accurately a preparation dose. The continuous infusion of tamal ensures a sufficient analgesia after different operations and especially after medium-traumatic operations.

  6. Responses of cultured neural retinal cells to substratum-bound laminin and other extracellular matrix molecules.

    PubMed

    Adler, R; Jerdan, J; Hewitt, A T

    1985-11-01

    The responses of cultured chick embryo retinal neurons to several extracellular matrix molecules are described. Retinal cell suspensions in serum-free medium containing the "N1" supplement (J. E. Bottenstein, S. D. Skaper, S. Varon, and J. Sato, 1980, Exp. Cell Res. 125, 183-190) were seeded on tissue culture plastic surfaces pretreated with polyornithine (PORN) and with one of the factors to be tested. Substantial cell survival could be observed after 72 hr in vitro on PORN pretreated with serum or laminin, whereas most cells appeared to be degenerating on untreated PORN, PORN-fibronectin, and PORN-chondronectin. Cell attachment, although quantitatively similar for all these substrata, was temperature-dependent on serum and laminin but not on fibronectin or untreated PORN. In a short-term bioassay, neurite development was abundant on laminin, scarce on serum and fibronectin, and absent on PORN. No positive correlation between cell spreading and neurite production could be seen: cell spreading was more extensive on PORN and fibronectin than on laminin or serum, while on laminin-treated dishes, spreading was similar for neurite-bearing and non-neurite-bearing cells. Laminin effects on retinal neurons were clearly substratum dependent. When bound to tissue culture plastic, laminin showed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on cell attachment and did not stimulate neurite development. PORN-bound laminin, on the other hand, did not affect cell attachment but caused marked stimulation of neurite development, suggesting that laminin conformation and/or the spatial distribution of active sites play an important role in the neurite-promoting function of this extracellular matrix molecule. Investigation of the embryonic retina with ELISA and immunocytochemical methods showed that laminin is present in this organ during development. Therefore, in vivo and in vitro observations are consistent with the possibility that laminin might influence neuronal development in the retina.

  7. Spatial and temporal variability of snow accumulation rate at East Antarctic ice sheet in 1993-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motoyama, H.; Suzuki, K.; Yamanouchi, T.; Kawamura, K.

    2012-04-01

    Snow stakes along the traverse routes have been observed for long term monitoring program 'the variation of ice sheet surface mass balance' from the 1960's by the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition in Shirase glacier drainage basin, East Antarctica. During the traverse route between coastal S16 point (69 02'S, 40 03'E, 580m a.s.l.) to inland Dome Fuji (77 22'S, 39 42'E, 3,810m a.s.l.), the snow stake observations every 2 km have been carried out from 1993. Latest stake heights were measured in January 2011 and February 2011. Yearly net snow accumulations from S16 to Dome Fuji were calculated. Heavy snow events were shown in 1998, 2004, 2005, 2008-2009 and 2010. Otherwise, in 1994, 1996, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002 and 2006, light snow events were observed. They were different in way accumulating spatial pattern depending on places. The yearly accumulation rates were compared with seasonal change of AAO-index (SAM). As a result, yearly accumulation rate and AAO-index showed the positive correlation. We would indicate the spatial distributions of air parcel origins. So we calculate air transport by using the NITRAM trajectory model (Tomikawa and Sato, 2005) and ERA-Interim meteorological data set in 1990-2009. The time duration is 5 days and we suppose the origin of air parcel is the point of trajectory at 5 days ago. The starting points are distributed on 1 deg. x 1 deg. grids over Antarctica and its altitude is 1,300m above the surface. We indicate the spatial distributions of air parcel origins to Antarctica. If there were high ratios of sea origin atmosphere in the inland, there was much snow. It is indicated that the humid air from the sea is the main origin of snowfall. But such relations were not seen on the coast. We try to understand the cause of heavy snow and light snow event.

  8. Modeling of magnetic reconnection in the magnetotail using global MHD simulation with an effective resistivity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Den, M.; Horiuchi, R.; Fujita, S.; Tanaka, T.

    2011-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection is considered to play an important role in space phenomena such as substorm in the Earth's magnetosphere. Tanaka and Fujita reproduced substorm evolution process by numerical simulation with the global MHD code [1]. In the MHD framework, the dissipation model is introduced for modeling of the kinetic effects. They found that the normalized reconnection viscosity, one of the dissipation model employed there, gave a large effect for the dipolarization, central phenomenon in the substorm development process, though that viscosity was assumed to be a constant parameter. It is well known that magnetic reconnection is controlled by microscopic kinetic mechanism. Frozen-in condition is broken due to particle kinetic effects and collisionless reconnection is triggered when current sheet is compressed as thin as ion kinetic scales under the influence of external driving flow [2, 3]. Horiuchi and his collaborators showed that reconnection electric field generated by microscopic physics evolves inside ion meandering scale so as to balance the flux inflow rate at the inflow boundary, which is controlled by macroscopic physics [2]. That is, effective resistivity generated through this process can be expressed by balance equation between micro and macro physics. In this paper, we perform substorm simulation by using the global MHD code developed by Tanaka [3] with this effective resistivity instead of the empirical resistivity model. We obtain the AE indices from simulation data, in which substorm onset can be seen clearly, and investigate the relationship between the substorm development and the effective resistivity model. [1] T. Tanaka, A, Nakamizo, A. Yoshikawa, S. Fujita, H. Shinagawa, H. Shimazu, T. Kikuchi, and K. K. Hashimoto, J. Geophys. Res. 115 (2010) A05220,doi:10.1029/2009JA014676. [2] W. Pei, R. Horiuchi, and T. Sato, Physics of Plasmas,Vol. 8 (2001), pp. 3251-3257. [3] A. Ishizawa, and R. Horiuchi, Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 95, 045003 (2005). [4

  9. A Spectral Estimate of Average Slip in Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boatwright, J.; Hanks, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate that the high-frequency acceleration spectral level ao of an ω-square source spectrum is directly proportional to the average slip of the earthquake ∆u divided by the travel time to the station r/βao = 1.37 Fs (β/r) ∆uand multiplied by the radiation pattern Fs. This simple relation is robust but depends implicitly on the assumed relation between the corner frequency and source radius, which we take from the Brune (1970, JGR) model. We use this relation to estimate average slip by fitting spectral ratios with smaller earthquakes as empirical Green's functions. For a pair of Mw = 1.8 and 1.2 earthquakes in Parkfield, we fit the spectral ratios published by Nadeau et al. (1994, BSSA) to obtain 0.39 and 0.10 cm. For the Mw= 3.9 earthquake that occurred on Oct 29, 2012, at the Pinnacles, we fit spectral ratios formed with respect to an Md = 2.4 aftershock to obtain 4.4 cm. Using the Sato and Hirasawa (1973, JPE) model instead of the Brune model increases the estimates of average slip by 75%. These estimates of average slip are factors of 5-40 (or 3-23) times less than the average slips of 3.89 cm and 23.3 cm estimated by Nadeau and Johnson (1998, BSSA) from the slip rates, average seismic moments and recurrence intervals for the two sequences to which they associate these earthquakes. The most reasonable explanation for this discrepancy is that the stress release and rupture processes of these earthquakes is strongly heterogeneous. However, the fits to the spectral ratios do not indicate that the spectral shapes are distorted in the first two octaves above the corner frequency.

  10. Evaluation of the histological and mechanical features of tendon healing in a rabbit model with the use of second-harmonic-generation imaging and tensile testing

    PubMed Central

    Hase, E.; Sato, K.; Yonekura, D.; Minamikawa, T.; Takahashi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the histological and mechanical features of tendon healing in a rabbit model with second-harmonic-generation (SHG) imaging and tensile testing. Materials and Methods A total of eight male Japanese white rabbits were used for this study. The flexor digitorum tendons in their right leg were sharply transected, and then were repaired by intratendinous stitching. At four weeks post-operatively, the rabbits were killed and the flexor digitorum tendons in both right and left legs were excised and used as specimens for tendon healing (n = 8) and control (n = 8), respectively. Each specimen was examined by SHG imaging, followed by tensile testing, and the results of the two testing modalities were assessed for correlation. Results While the SHG light intensity of the healing tendon samples was significantly lower than that of the uninjured tendon samples, 2D Fourier transform SHG images showed a clear difference in collagen fibre structure between the uninjured and the healing samples, and among the healing samples. The mean intensity of the SHG image showed a moderate correlation (R2 = 0.37) with Young’s modulus obtained from the tensile testing. Conclusion Our results indicate that SHG microscopy may be a potential indicator of tendon healing. Cite this article: E. Hase, K. Sato, D. Yonekura, T. Minamikawa, M. Takahashi, T. Yasui. Evaluation of the histological and mechanical features of tendon healing in a rabbit model with the use of second-harmonic-generation imaging and tensile testing. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:577–585. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.511.BJR-2016-0162.R1. PMID:27881441

  11. Crustal structure of the western Yamato Basin, Japan Sea, revealed from seismic survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    No, T.; Sato, T.; Kodaira, S.; Miura, S.; Ishiyama, T.; Sato, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Yamato Basin is the second largest basin of the Japan Sea. This basin is important to clarify its formation process. Some studies of crustal structure had been carried out in the Yamato Basin (e.g. Ludwig et al., 1975; Katao, 1988; Hirata et al., 1989; Sato et al., 2006). However, the relationship between formation process and crustal structure is not very clear, because the amount of seismic exploration data is very limited. In addition, since there is ODP Leg 127 site 797 (Tamaki et al., 1990) directly beneath our seismic survey line, we contributed to the study on the formation of the Yamato Basin by examining the relation between the ODP results and our results. During July-August 2014, we conducted a multi-channel seismic (MCS) survey and ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) survey to study the crustal structure of the western Yamato Basin. We present an outline of the data acquisition and results of the data processing and preliminary interpretations from this study. As a result of our study, the crust, which is about 12 km thick, is thicker than standard oceanic crust (e.g., Spudich and Orcutt, 1980; White et al., 1992) revealed from P-wave velocity structure by OBS survey. A clear reflector estimated to be the Moho can be identified by MCS profiles. The characteristics of the sedimentary layer are common within the survey area. For example, a strong coherent reflector that is estimated to be an opal-A/opal-CT BSR (bottom simulating reflector) (Kuramoto et al., 1992) was confirmed in the sediment of all survey lines. On the other hand, a coherent reflector in the crust was confirmed in some lines. It is identified as this reflector corresponding with the deformation structure in the sediment and basement.

  12. The degree of the logarithmic extension of the cotangent bundle to the moduli of pointed curves and Hitchin systems, spectral curves and KP equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, Andrew Richard

    This dissertation is divided into two parts. In the first part we prove a recursive relation for the Kahler-Einsein volume of the moduli space of genus g curves with n marked points in terms of the intersection of the Kahler-Einstein form with kappa classes. We will show that in the case where the genus is zero, the cohomology classes of the Kahler-Einstein form and kappa1 coincide. We will also show that if the genus is one, then the Kahler-Einstein volume can be computed in terms of kappa1 volume of moduli spaces of curves with either a smaller genus or less marked points. Using this we will show that the generating function for kappa1 volumes of genus one pointed curves satisfies a non-linear second order ordinary differential equation. In the section part of this dissertation we examine the moduli space of stable Higgs bundles. We determine an effective family of spectral curves that appear in the Hitchin fibration. This effective family will provide an embedding into the Sato Grassmannian. The Hitchin integrable system will be shown to be the pull back of the KP-flows on the Sto Grassmannian. We will show that the formal adjoint on the space of pseudo-differential operators corresponds to the Serre duality operation on the moduli space of stable Higgs bundles. Using this correspondence, we can identify the moduli space of stable Sp2m-Higgs bundles as a reduction of the KP equations. The dual abelian fibration associated to the Sp2m-Higgs moduli space is constructed as the symplectic quotient of a Lie algebra action on the moduli space of GL-Higgs bundles.

  13. An extended magnetic viscous relaxation dating for calibrating an older age: an example of tsunamigenic coral boulders in Ishigaki Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Nakamura, N.; Goto, K.; Kumagai, Y.; Minoura, K.; Nagahama, H.

    2015-12-01

    A key to the understanding of past tsunami events is the ability to accurately date them. Analysis of past tsunami sediments is one of the most important tools for past tsunami reconstruction. A typical example of such tsunami sediment is tsunamigenic boulders. In Ishigaki Island, Japan, coral boulders that had been transported by tsunamis were distributed on the beach and land areas. Although the historical occurrences of several huge tsunamis were estimated based on large numbers of radiocarbon dating for coral boulders, radiocarbon dating can not determine a multiple rotational history by multiple tsunamis. A viscous remanet magnetization (VRM) dating method can be used to date any geological event that results in significant movements of a rock. Sato et al. (2014) applied VRM dating for comparing the radiocarbon age of these boulders. If a magnetic-mineral bearing rock is moved or re-oriented, the magnetism of the smaller magnetic grains re-aligns to the direction of the ambient magnetic field with time. This phenomenon is well known as Néel's (1949, 1955) single-domain (SD) relaxation theory. Pullaiah et al. (1975) derived a time-temperature (t-T relation) relation by assuming Néel's (1949, 1955) theory of magnetite. In principle, an experimental combination of short relaxation time and high temperature for removing VRM can determine the unknown relaxation time (tsunami age) at room temperature. We have been applied t-T relation to the coral boulders on Ishigaki Island, but their estimated ages showed older than radiocarbon dating. The longer relaxation time means that the observed magnetic relaxation is slower than the original Néel's theory. Such slow relaxation has been described by a stretched exponential function. The stretched exponential law provided a reasonable fit to the published experimental data. Thus, in this study, we revisit Néel's theory to provide a new t-T relation based on stretched exponential function.

  14. Simulation of tectonic evolution of the Kanto basin of Japan since 1 Ma due to subduction of the Pacific and Philippine sea plates and collision of the Izu-Bonin arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashima, Akinori; Sato, Toshinori; Sato, Hiroshi; Asao, Kazumi; Furuya, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Shuji; Kameo, Koji; Miyauchi, Takahiro; Ito, Tanio; Tsumura, Noriko; Kaneda, Heitaro

    2015-04-01

    The Kanto basin, the largest lowland in Japan, developed by flexure as a result of (1) the subduction of the Philippine Sea (PHS) and the Pacific (PAC) plates and (2) the collision of the Izu-Bonin arc with the Japanese island arc. Geomorphological, geological, and thermochronological data on long-term vertical movements over the last 1 My suggest that subsidence initially affected the entire Kanto basin after which the area of subsidence gradually narrowed until, finally, the basin began to experience uplift. In this study, we modelled the tectonic evolution of the Kanto basin following the method of Matsu'ura and Sato (1989) for a kinematic subduction model with dislocations, in order to quantitatively assess the effects of PHS and PAC subduction. We include the steady slip-rate deficit (permanent locking rate at the plate interface) in our model to account for collision process. We explore how the arc-arc collision process has been affected by a westerly shift in the PHS plate motion vector with respect to the Eurasian plate, thought to have occurred between 1.0-0.5 Ma, using long-term vertical deformation data to constrain extent of the locked zone on the plate interface. We evaluated the change in vertical deformation rate for two scenarios: (1) a synchronous shift in the orientation of the locked zone as PHS plate motion shifts and (2) a delayed shift in the orientation of the locked zone following a change in plate motion. Observed changes in the subsidence/uplift pattern are better explained by scenario (2), suggesting that recent (<1 My) deformation in the Kanto basin shows a lag in crustal response to the shift in plate motion. We also calculated recent stress accumulation rates and found a good match with observed earthquake mechanisms, which shows that intraplate earthquakes serve to release stress accumulated through long-term plate interactions.

  15. The Neighbor Switching Mechanism of Superplastic Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, David John

    At one time the notion that crystal plasticity resulted from the simultaneous motion of lattice planes over one another was entertained. This idea was displaced by the concept that relative atomic motions occur sequentially when dislocations move through the crystal. Similarly, McLean suggested that grains switch neighbors sequentially in a polycrystalline material undergoing superplastic flow. Morral and Ashby observed that the neighbor switching reactions in a froth occurred at irregular cells, and that these irregularities were associated with dislocations in the cellular array. They introduced cellular dislocation glide as a model for superplastic flow, and suggested that if the concentration of these defects required to make the froth flow increased with the flow stress, then the froth would have a non-Newtonian viscosity, like many superplastic materials. Cahn and Padawer pointed out that cellular dislocation climb was used as a model for grain growth by Hillert; this process results in the elimination of cells from the froth. Sato, Kuribayashi and Horiuchi used cellular dislocation climb to model both grain motion and the deformation-enhanced grain growth which can accompany superplastic flow. Here, the neighbor switching mechanism of superplastic deformation is developed as a topic in dislocation theory. The compatibility theory of dislocations is developed at an introductory level with exterior calculus. "Compatibility" of a cellular array corresponds to statements, a la Rivier, about the distribution of edges amongst the cells. The theory of dislocation motion, or crystal plasticity, is also developed with exterior calculus. Morral and Ashby's constitutive relationship for superplastic flow is analyzed and two models for deformation-enhanced grain growth are developed. The constitutive relationship and grain growth kinetics for superplastic flow are illustrated by modelling the behavior exhibited by single phase (Sn-1% Bi) and quasi -single phase (7475 Al

  16. Morphological characteristics of disturbances generated in the polar cap region of the upper thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Hitoshi

    Recent radar and satellite observations have shown various disturbances in the polar cap region of the upper thermosphere. For example, the European incoherent scatter (EISCAT) radar, Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN), and CHAMP satellite observations have revealed ionospheric and thermospheric variations due to energy inputs from the magnetosphere. From the simultaneous observations with the EISCAT Svalbard radar and CUTLASS radar, Fujiwara et al. [2007] showed existence of significant heat source in the dayside polar cap/cusp region of the upper thermosphere in association with the dayside magnetospheric phenomena of reconnections and flux transfer events. Bruinsma and Forbes [2007] showed trans-polar propagation of the traveling atmospheric disturbances (TADs) in connection with three sudden injections of energy at high latitudes from the CHAMP mass density observations. In the present study, we focus our attention on both disturbances directly generated in the polar cap region of the upper thermosphere and those propagating from other regions. We perform numerical simulations with a general circulation model, which includes all the atmospheric regions, developed by Miyoshi and Fujiwara [2003]. The morphological characteristics of the disturbances due to auroral particle precipitation and electric field enhancement are investigated here. References: Bruinsma, S., and J. M. Forbes, Global observation of traveling atmospheric disturbances (TADs) in the thermosphere, Geophys. Res., Lett., 34, L14103, doi: 10.1029/2007GL030243, 2007. Fujiwara, H., R. Kataoka, M. Suzuki, S. Maeda, S. Nozawa, K. Hosokawa, H. Fukunishi, N. Sato, and M. Lester, Electromagnetic energy deposition rate in the polar upper thermosphere derived from the EISCAT Svalbard radar and CUTLASS Finland radar observations, Ann. Geophys., 25, 2393-2403, 2007. Miyoshi, Y., and H. Fujiwara, Day-to-day variations of migrating diurnal tide simulated by a GCM from the ground surface to the

  17. PREFACE: IUMRS-ICA 2008 Symposium 'AA. Rare-Earth Related Material Processing and Functions'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Takayuki; Sato, Tsugio; Machida, Ken-ichi; Fukunaga, Hirotoshi

    2009-02-01

    Rare-earth related materials have been widely used in various advanced technologies and devices because of their novel functions such as excellent magnetic and optical properties. For the fabrication of the next generation of new rare-earth related materials with novel functions, it is necessary to design a wide range of materials from nano-scale to macro-scale and to develop novel techniques realizing such designs. Indeed, there has been great progress in the preparation, processing and characterization of new rare-earth materials covering magnetic alloys, inorganic and organic fluorescence materials. In the International Union of Materials Research Societies International Conference in Asia 2008 (IUMRS-ICA2008) (9-13 December, Nagoya, Japan), the symposium on 'AA: Rare-Earth Related Material Processing and Functions' was organized to provide an interdisciplinary forum for the discussion of recent advances in fabrication processing and applications of rare-earth related materials with various scaled and unique morphologies. Many papers were presented in the symposium, and some papers were accepted to be published in this proceeding after review. Editors: Takayuki KOMATSU (Nagaoka University of Technology, Japan) Tsugio SATO (Tohoku University, Japan) Ken-ichi MACHIDA (Osaka University, Japan) Hirotoshi FUKUNAGA (Nagasaki University, Japan) Jiro YAMASAKI (Kyushu Institute of Technology, Japan) Honjie ZHANG (Chinese Academy of Sciences, China) Chun Hua YAN (Peking University, China) Jianrong QIU (Zhejiang University, China) Jong HEO (Pohang University, Korea) Setsuhisa TANABE (Kyoto University, Japan) Hiroshi TATEWAKI (Nagoya City University, Japan) Tomokatsu HAYAKAWA (Nagoya Institute of Technology, Japan) Yasufumi FUJIWARA (Osaka University, Japan)

  18. Population Balance Modeling of Polydispersed Bubbly Flow in Continuous-Casting Using Multiple-Size-Group Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhongqiu; Li, Linmin; Qi, Fengsheng; Li, Baokuan; Jiang, Maofa; Tsukihashi, Fumitaka

    2015-02-01

    A population balance model based on the multiple-size-group (MUSIG) approach has been developed to investigate the polydispersed bubbly flow inside the slab continuous-casting mold and bubble behavior including volume fraction, breakup, coalescence, and size distribution. The Eulerian-Eulerian approach is used to describe the equations of motion of the two-phase flow. All the non-drag forces (lift force, virtual mass force, wall lubrication force, and turbulent dispersion force) and drag force are incorporated in this model. Sato and Sekiguchi model is used to account for the bubble-induced turbulence. Luo and Svendsen model and Prince and Blanch model are used to describe the bubbles breakup and coalescence behavior, respectively. A 1/4th water model of the slab continuous-casting mold was applied to investigate the distribution and size of bubbles by injecting air through a circumferential inlet chamber which was made of the specially-coated samples of mullite porous brick, which is used for the actual upper nozzle. Against experimental data, numerical results showed good agreement for the gas volume fraction and local bubble Sauter mean diameter. The bubble Sauter mean diameter in the upper recirculation zone decreases with increasing water flow rate and increases with increasing gas flow rate. The distribution of bubble Sauter mean diameter along the width direction of the upper mold increases first, and then gradually decreases from the SEN to the narrow wall. Close agreements between the predictions and measurements demonstrate the capability of the MUSIG model in modeling bubbly flow inside the continuous-casting mold.

  19. Skeletal muscle–specific eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α phosphorylation controls amino acid metabolism and fibroblast growth factor 21–mediated non–cell-autonomous energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Miyake, Masato; Nomura, Akitoshi; Ogura, Atsushi; Takehana, Kenji; Kitahara, Yoshihiro; Takahara, Kazuna; Tsugawa, Kazue; Miyamoto, Chinobu; Miura, Naoko; Sato, Ryosuke; Kurahashi, Kiyoe; Harding, Heather P.; Oyadomari, Miho; Ron, David; Oyadomari, Seiichi

    2016-01-01

    The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) phosphorylation-dependent integrated stress response (ISR), a component of the unfolded protein response, has long been known to regulate intermediary metabolism, but the details are poorly worked out. We report that profiling of mRNAs of transgenic mice harboring a ligand-activated skeletal muscle–specific derivative of the eIF2α protein kinase R-like ER kinase revealed the expected up-regulation of genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis and transport but also uncovered the induced expression and secretion of a myokine, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), that stimulates energy consumption and prevents obesity. The link between the ISR and FGF21 expression was further reinforced by the identification of a small-molecule ISR activator that promoted Fgf21 expression in cell-based screens and by implication of the ISR-inducible activating transcription factor 4 in the process. Our findings establish that eIF2α phosphorylation regulates not only cell-autonomous proteostasis and amino acid metabolism, but also affects non–cell-autonomous metabolic regulation by induced expression of a potent myokine.—Miyake, M., Nomura, A., Ogura, A., Takehana, K., Kitahara, Y., Takahara, K., Tsugawa, K., Miyamoto, C., Miura, N., Sato, R., Kurahashi, K., Harding, H. P., Oyadomari, M., Ron, D., Oyadomari, S. Skeletal muscle–specific eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α phosphorylation controls amino acid metabolism and fibroblast growth factor 21–mediated non–cell-autonomous energy metabolism. PMID:26487695

  20. CFD model of an aerating hydrofoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, D.; Sabourin, M.; Beaulieu, S.; Papillon, B.; Ellis, C.

    2014-03-01

    Improving water quality in the tailrace below hydroelectric dams has become a priority in many river systems. In warm climates, water drawn by the turbine from deep in a reservoir can be deficient in dissolved oxygen (DO), a critical element in maintaining a healthy aquatic ecosystem. Many different solutions have been proposed in order to increase the DO levels in turbine discharge, including: turbine aeration systems (adding air to the water through either the turbine hub, the periphery or through distributed aeration in the runner blades); bubble diffusers in the reservoir or in the tailrace; aerating weirs downstream of the dams; and surface water pumps in the reservoir near the dam. There is a significant potential to increase the effectiveness of these solutions by improving the way that oxygen is introduced into the water; better distributions of bubbles will result in better oxygen transfer. In the present study, a two-phase Computational Fluid Dynamics model has been formulated using a commercial code to study the distribution of air downstream of a simple aerating hydrofoil. The two-phase model uses the Eulerian-Eulerian approach. Appropriate relations are used to model the interphase forces, including the Grace drag force model, the Favre averaged drag force and the Sato enhanced eddy viscosity. The model is validated using experimental results obtained in the water tunnel at the University of Minnesota's Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory. Results are obtained for water velocities between 5 and 10 m/s, air flow rates between 0.5 and 1.5 sL/min and for angles of attack between 0° and -8°. The results of this study show that the CFD model provides a good qualitative comparison to the experimental results by well predicting the wake location at the different flow rates and angles of attack used.

  1. Porphyrias in Japan: compilation of all cases reported through 2002.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Masao; Yano, Yuzo; Shirataka, Masuo; Urata, Gumpei; Sassa, Shigeru

    2004-06-01

    The first case of porphyria on record in Japan was a patient with congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP) reported by Sato and Takahashi in 1920. Since then until the end of December 2002, 827 cases of porphyrias have been diagnosed from characteristic clinical and/or laboratory findings (463 males, 358 females, and 6 of unknown sex). Essentially all inherited porphyrias have been found in Japan, with the incidences and clinical symptoms generally being similar to those reported for other countries. The male-female ratio was approximately 1:1 for CEP, whereas it was higher for erythropoietic protoporphyria. In contrast, preponderances of female patients exist with acute hepatic porphyrias, such as acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), variegate porphyria (VP), and hereditary coproporphyria (HCP), and with undefined acute porphyria. Although porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) is believed to be increasing recently in women in other countries because of smoking and the use of contraceptives, it is still by far more prominent in males in Japan than in females. The recent increasing contribution of hepatitis C virus infection to PCT in Japan has also been recognized. but there have been no PCT cases in Japan with HFE gene mutations. Familial occurrence and consanguinity were high for CEP, as expected; however, significant consanguinity was also noted in families where CEP, AIP, HCP, VP, or PCT occurred as a single isolated case without a family history of disease. This survey also revealed that as many as 71% of acute hepatic porphyria cases were initially diagnosed as nonporphyria and later revised or corrected to porphyria, indicating the difficulty of diagnosing porphyria in the absence of specific laboratory testing for porphyrins and their precursors in urine, stool, plasma, and erythrocyte samples.

  2. A fast lightstripe rangefinding system with smart VLSI sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruss, Andrew; Carley, L. Richard; Kanade, Takeo

    1989-01-01

    The focus of the research is to build a compact, high performance lightstripe rangefinder using a Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) smart photosensor array. Rangefinding, the measurement of the three-dimensional profile of an object or scene, is a critical component for many robotic applications, and therefore many techniques were developed. Of these, lightstripe rangefinding is one of the most widely used and reliable techniques available. Though practical, the speed of sampling range data by the conventional light stripe technique is severely limited. A conventional light stripe rangefinder operates in a step-and-repeat manner. A stripe source is projected on an object, a video image is acquired, range data is extracted from the image, the stripe is stepped, and the process repeats. Range acquisition is limited by the time needed to grab the video images, increasing linearly with the desired horizontal resolution. During the acquisition of a range image, the objects in the scene being scanned must be stationary. Thus, the long scene sampling time of step-and-repeat rangefinders limits their application. The fast range sensor proposed is based on the modification of this basic lightstripe ranging technique in a manner described by Sato and Kida. This technique does not require a sampling of images at various stripe positions to build a range map. Rather, an entire range image is acquired in parallel while the stripe source is swept continuously across the scene. Total time to acquire the range image data is independent of the range map resolution. The target rangefinding system will acquire 1,000 100 x 100 point range images per second with 0.5 percent range accuracy. It will be compact and rugged enough to be mounted on the end effector of a robot arm to aid in object manipulation and assembly tasks.

  3. Klotho expression in long bones regulates FGF23 production during renal failure.

    PubMed

    Kaludjerovic, Jovana; Komaba, Hirotaka; Sato, Tadatoshi; Erben, Reinhold G; Baron, Roland; Olauson, Hannes; Larsson, Tobias E; Lanske, Beate

    2017-02-09

    Circulating levels of bone-derived fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) increase early during acute and chronic kidney disease and are associated with adverse outcomes. Membrane-bound Klotho acts as a permissive coreceptor for FGF23, and its expression was recently found in osteoblasts/osteocytes. We hypothesized that Klotho in bone cells is part of an autocrine feedback loop that regulates FGF23 expression during renal failure. Thus, we induced renal failure in mice with targeted deletion of Klotho in long bones. Uremic wild-type (KL(fl/fl) ) and knockout (Prx1-Cre;KL(fl/fl) ) mice both responded with reduced body weight, kidney atrophy, hyperphosphatemia, and increased bone turnover. Importantly, long bones of Prx1-Cre;KL(fl/fl) mice but not their axial skeleton failed to increase FGF23 expression as observed in uremic KL(fl/fl) mice. Consequently, Prx1-Cre;KL(fl/fl) mice had significantly lower serum FGF23 and parathyroid hormone levels, and higher renal 1-α-hydroxylase expression, serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and calcium levels than KL(fl/fl) mice. These results were confirmed in two independent models of renal failure, adenine diet induced and 5/6 nephrectomy. Moreover, FGF23-treated bone cells required Klotho to increase FGF23 mRNA and ERK phosphorylation. In summary, our novel findings show that Klotho in bone is crucial for inducing FGF23 production upon renal failure. We propose the presence of an autocrine feedback loop in which Klotho senses the need for FGF23.-Kaludjerovic, J., Komaba, H., Sato, T., Erben, R. G., Baron, R., Olauson, H., Larsson, T. E., Lanske, B. Klotho expression in long bones regulates FGF23 production during renal failure.

  4. Tobacco-smoke-inducible human haem oxygenase-1 gene expression: role of distinct transcription factors and reactive oxygen intermediates.

    PubMed Central

    Favatier, F; Polla, B S

    2001-01-01

    Exposure of eukaryotic cells to a variety of reactive-oxygen-intermediate (ROI)-mediated sources of cellular injury, including heavy metals and UV radiation, induces the expression of heat-shock (HS) and stress-related genes among which is a 32-34 kDa protein identified as inducible haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1). We previously showed that tobacco smoke (TS), a potent source of oxidants leading to oxidative stress, induces both HS proteins (HSPs) and HO-1 in normal human monocytes. Here we investigated the induction mechanisms of human HO-1 gene expression by TS in the human premonocytic line U937. Northern blotting and flow cytometry revealed a dose- and time-dependent induction of HO-1 mRNA and protein by TS. In order to clarify the role of transacting factors in this induction, electrophoretic mobility-shift analysis was performed with nuclear extracts from control, TS-, cadmium (Cd)- or H(2)O(2)-exposed cells, incubated with consensus elements and binding sites of the promoter region of HO-1[heat-shock factor (HSF), nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1)] and the cadmium-responsive element (CdRE) isolated by Takeda, Ishizawa, Sato, Yoshida and Shibahara [(1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 22858-22867]. We report an inhibition of NF-kappaB activation by TS, no effect on AP-1 and a strong activation of CdRE-binding activity, whereas cadmium chelation from TS only partially prevented HO-1 induction. H(2)O(2) also activated the CdRE-binding activity, and pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine, which replenishes the intracellular levels of GSH, suppressed, in TS-treated cells, both the CdRE-binding activity and the increased HO-1 expression. PMID:11171043

  5. Inhibition of ER stress and unfolding protein response pathways causes skeletal muscle wasting during cancer cachexia.

    PubMed

    Bohnert, Kyle R; Gallot, Yann S; Sato, Shuichi; Xiong, Guangyan; Hindi, Sajedah M; Kumar, Ashok

    2016-09-01

    Cachexia is a devastating syndrome that causes morbidity and mortality in a large number of patients with cancer. However, the mechanisms of cancer cachexia remain poorly understood. Accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes stress. The ER responds to this stress through activating certain pathways commonly known as the unfolding protein response (UPR). The main function of UPR is to restore homeostasis, but excessive or prolonged activation of UPR can lead to pathologic conditions. In this study, we examined the role of ER stress and UPR in regulation of skeletal muscle mass in naïve conditions and during cancer cachexia. Our results demonstrate that multiple markers of ER stress are highly activated in skeletal muscle of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) and Apc(Min/+) mouse models of cancer cachexia. Treatment of mice with 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA), a chemical chaperon and a potent inhibitor of ER stress, significantly reduced skeletal muscle strength and mass in both control and LLC-bearing mice. Blocking the UPR also increased the proportion of fast-type fibers in soleus muscle of both control and LLC-bearing mice. Inhibition of UPR reduced the activity of Akt/mTOR pathway and increased the expression of the components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy in LLC-bearing mice. Moreover, we found that the inhibition of UPR causes severe atrophy in cultured myotubes. Our study provides initial evidence that ER stress and UPR pathways are essential for maintaining skeletal muscle mass and strength and for protection against cancer cachexia.-Bohnert, K. R., Gallot, Y. S., Sato, S., Xiong, G., Hindi, S. M., Kumar, A. Inhibition of ER stress and unfolding protein response pathways causes skeletal muscle wasting during cancer cachexia.

  6. Scattered surface wave energy in the seismic coda

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeng, Y.

    2006-01-01

    One of the many important contributions that Aki has made to seismology pertains to the origin of coda waves (Aki, 1969; Aki and Chouet, 1975). In this paper, I revisit Aki's original idea of the role of scattered surface waves in the seismic coda. Based on the radiative transfer theory, I developed a new set of scattered wave energy equations by including scattered surface waves and body wave to surface wave scattering conversions. The work is an extended study of Zeng et al. (1991), Zeng (1993) and Sato (1994a) on multiple isotropic-scattering, and may shed new insight into the seismic coda wave interpretation. The scattering equations are solved numerically by first discretizing the model at regular grids and then solving the linear integral equations iteratively. The results show that scattered wave energy can be well approximated by body-wave to body wave scattering at earlier arrival times and short distances. At long distances from the source, scattered surface waves dominate scattered body waves at surface stations. Since surface waves are 2-D propagating waves, their scattered energies should in theory follow a common decay curve. The observed common decay trends on seismic coda of local earthquake recordings particular at long lapse times suggest that perhaps later seismic codas are dominated by scattered surface waves. When efficient body wave to surface wave conversion mechanisms are present in the shallow crustal layers, such as soft sediment layers, the scattered surface waves dominate the seismic coda at even early arrival times for shallow sources and at later arrival times for deeper events.

  7. Bubble reconstruction method for wire-mesh sensors measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukin, Roman V.

    2016-08-01

    A new algorithm is presented for post-processing of void fraction measurements with wire-mesh sensors, particularly for identifying and reconstructing bubble surfaces in a two-phase flow. This method is a combination of the bubble recognition algorithm presented in Prasser (Nuclear Eng Des 237(15):1608, 2007) and Poisson surface reconstruction algorithm developed in Kazhdan et al. (Poisson surface reconstruction. In: Proceedings of the fourth eurographics symposium on geometry processing 7, 2006). To verify the proposed technique, a comparison was done of the reconstructed individual bubble shapes with those obtained numerically in Sato and Ničeno (Int J Numer Methods Fluids 70(4):441, 2012). Using the difference between reconstructed and referenced bubble shapes, the accuracy of the proposed algorithm was estimated. At the next step, the algorithm was applied to void fraction measurements performed in Ylönen (High-resolution flow structure measurements in a rod bundle (Diss., Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule ETH Zürich, Nr. 20961, 2013) by means of wire-mesh sensors in a rod bundle geometry. The reconstructed bubble shape yields bubble surface area and volume, hence its Sauter diameter d_{32} as well. Sauter diameter is proved to be more suitable for bubbles size characterization compared to volumetric diameter d_{30}, proved capable to capture the bi-disperse bubble size distribution in the flow. The effect of a spacer grid was studied as well: For the given spacer grid and considered flow rates, bubble size frequency distribution is obtained almost at the same position for all cases, approximately at d_{32} = 3.5 mm. This finding can be related to the specific geometry of the spacer grid or the air injection device applied in the experiments, or even to more fundamental properties of the bubble breakup and coagulation processes. In addition, an application of the new algorithm for reconstruction of a large air-water interface in a tube bundle is

  8. Ordering kinetics in double carbonates and implications for processes at subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammouda, T.; Koga, K. T.; Katsura, T.; Andrault, D.; Martin, A.

    2007-12-01

    The identity of carbonate mineral species that are present on the solidus of carbonate bearing lithologies is the critical information that determines the solidus phase relations and element partitioning. Experimental determinations of pressure and temperature conditions of dolomite breakdown reaction, dolomite = magnesite + aragonite (or calcite), carried out over the last five years show disparities that have been attributed to the disorder state in dolomite starting materials and subsequent equilibration during the experiments. We have conducted high-pressure, in-situ synchrotron experiments at SPring8 (BL04B1) using multi-anvil apparatus to determine ordering state of dolomite during this reaction. Four dolomite breakdown experiments were conducted at pressures, from 3 to 7 GPa and temperatures, from 600 to 1200°C. We have crossed the dolomite breakdown reaction at three points between 4 and 5.5 GPa and have determined that dolomite is stable at 7.4 GPa and 1090°C. Our results agree with quench studies of Luth (2001 CMP141:222) and Buob et al. (2006 AmMim91:435) at 5 GPa and above. We disagree with those of Sato and Katsura (2001 EPSL184:529) and Morlidge et al. (2006 CMP152:365). Our data point at 4 GPa does not fall on any extrapolated curve of any previous investigation. Ordering state of dolomite in our experiments are consistent with those of Luth (2001) and results presented by Antao et al. (2004 AmMin89:1142) show a systematic offset, suggesting disagreement on pressure and temperature calibration. We have also observed that kinetics of disordering is relatively rapid in the order of tens of minutes. On the contrary reversal kinetics (i.e. to create ordered state) is sluggish. Only small fraction of reversal ordering has occurred within 2 hours of heating. We consider that this asymmetric kinetics of the order- disorder reaction is a cause of disparity of the previous quench experiments

  9. Simulation of tectonic evolution of the Kanto Basin of Japan since 1 Ma due to subduction of the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates and the collision of the Izu-Bonin arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashima, Akinori; Sato, Toshinori; Sato, Hiroshi; Asao, Kazumi; Furuya, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Shuji; Kameo, Koji; Miyauchi, Takahiro; Ito, Tanio; Tsumura, Noriko; Kaneda, Heitaro

    2016-06-01

    The Kanto Basin, the largest lowland in Japan, developed by flexure as a result of (1) the subduction of the Philippine Sea (PHS) and the Pacific (PAC) plates and (2) the repeated collision of the Izu-Bonin arc fragments with the Japanese island arc. Geomorphological, geological, and thermochronological data on vertical movements over the last 1 My suggest that subsidence initially affected the entire basin after which the area of subsidence gradually narrowed until, finally, the basin began to experience uplift. In this study, we modeled the tectonic evolution of the Kanto Basin following the method of Matsu'ura and Sato (1989) for a kinematic subduction model with dislocations, in order to quantitatively assess the effects of PHS and PAC subduction. We include the steady slip-rate deficit (permanent locking rate at the plate interface) in our model to account for collision process. We explore how the latest collision of the Izu Peninsula block has been affected by a westerly shift in the PHS plate motion vector with respect to the Eurasian plate, thought to have occurred between 1.0-0.5 Ma, using long-term vertical deformation data to constrain extent of the locked zone on the plate interface. We evaluated the change in vertical deformation rate for two scenarios: (1) a synchronous shift in the orientation of the locked zone as PHS plate motion shifts and (2) a delayed shift in the orientation of the locked zone following the shift in plate motion. Observed changes in the uplift/subsidence pattern are better explained by scenario (2), suggesting that recent (< 1 My) deformation in the Kanto Basin shows a lag in crustal response to the plate motion shift. We also calculated stress accumulation rates and found a good match with observed earthquake mechanisms, which shows that intraplate earthquakes serve to release stress accumulated through long-term plate interactions.

  10. Positive Regulation of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin H by Rot (Repressor of Toxin) Protein and Its Importance in Clonal Complex 81 Subtype 1 Lineage-Related Food Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Sato'o, Yusuke; Hisatsune, Junzo; Nagasako, Yuria; Ono, Hisaya K; Omoe, Katsuhiko; Sugai, Motoyuki

    2015-11-01

    We previously demonstrated the clonal complex 81 (CC81) subtype 1 lineage is the major staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP)-associated lineage in Japan (Y. Sato'o et al., J Clin Microbiol 52:2637-2640, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00661-14). Strains of this lineage produce staphylococcal enterotoxin H (SEH) in addition to SEA. However, an evaluation of the risk for the recently reported SEH has not been sufficiently conducted. We first searched for staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) genes and SE proteins in milk samples that caused a large SFP outbreak in Japan. Only SEA and SEH were detected, while there were several SE genes detected in the samples. We next designed an experimental model using a meat product to assess the productivity of SEs and found that only SEA and SEH were detectably produced in situ. Therefore, we investigated the regulation of SEH production using a CC81 subtype 1 isolate. Through mutant analysis of global regulators, we found the repressor of toxin (Rot) functioned oppositely as a stimulator of SEH production. SEA production was not affected by Rot. seh mRNA expression correlated with rot both in media and on the meat product, and the Rot protein was shown to directly bind to the seh promoter. The seh promoter sequence was predicted to form a loop structure and to hide the RNA polymerase binding sequences. We propose Rot binds to the promoter sequence of seh and unfolds the secondary structure that may lead the RNA polymerase to bind the promoter, and then seh mRNA transcription begins. This alternative Rot regulation for SEH may contribute to sufficient toxin production by the CC81 subtype 1 lineage in foods to induce SFP.

  11. An attenuation study using earthquakes from the 1997 Umbria-Marche sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Raul R.; Monachesi, Giancarlo; Trojani, Luca; Mucciarelli, Marco; Frapiccini, Massimo

    We studied spatial and temporal characteristics of seismic attenuation inCentral Italy using S- and coda- waves recorded by the MarchesanSeismograph Network from earthquakes located in the epicentral area ofthe 1997 Umbria-Marche sequence. The amplitude decay of the S waveswith distance was defined calculating empirical attenuation functions at 15frequencies between 1 and 25 Hz. We analyzed separately foreshocks andaftershocks and we found the same attenuation functions, suggesting thatthe possible temporal variations could be confined in a small area. Thefrequency dependence of Q S was approximated by the equation Q S=18 · f 2.0between 1 and 10 Hz. At higher frequencies (10-25 Hz), the frequencydependence of Q s weakens, having an average value of Q S=990. We also estimated Q from coda waves (Q C) using the single-scattering models of Aki andChouet (1975) and Sato (1977). We found that Q C=77 · f 0.6, (between 2 and 20Hz) at the western side of the mountain chain, using either foreshocks oraftershocks. This relation is consistent with previous estimates of Q Creported for the Central Apennines. For a volume sampling the Colfioritobasin, the Apennines and the Marche region we found that Q C=55 · f 0.8,indicating highattenuation below the mountain belt. To detect small temporal changes ofQ, we calculated spectral ratios of 5 temporal doublets located in theepicentral area and recorded at the closest station. We found temporalchanges of Q that vary from 27% to 56%, depending on the locationof the doublets. This variability suggests that the temporal change ofattenuation may depend on the spatial variation of Q and perhaps on thespatial distribution of tectonic stress in the epicentral area.

  12. Validation of Broadband Ground Motion Simulations for Japanese Crustal Earthquakes by the Recipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwaki, A.; Maeda, T.; Morikawa, N.; Miyake, H.; Fujiwara, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion (HERP) of Japan has organized the broadband ground motion simulation method into a standard procedure called the "recipe" (HERP, 2009). In the recipe, the source rupture is represented by the characterized source model (Irikura and Miyake, 2011). The broadband ground motion time histories are computed by a hybrid approach: the 3-D finite-difference method (Aoi et al. 2004) and the stochastic Green's function method (Dan and Sato, 1998; Dan et al. 2000) for the long- (> 1 s) and short-period (< 1 s) components, respectively, using the 3-D velocity structure model. As the engineering significance of scenario earthquake ground motion prediction is increasing, thorough verification and validation are required for the simulation methods. This study presents the self-validation of the recipe for two MW6.6 crustal events in Japan, the 2000 Tottori and 2004 Chuetsu (Niigata) earthquakes. We first compare the simulated velocity time series with the observation. Main features of the velocity waveforms, such as the near-fault pulses and the large later phases on deep sediment sites are well reproduced by the simulations. Then we evaluate 5% damped pseudo acceleration spectra (PSA) in the framework of the SCEC Broadband Platform (BBP) validation (Dreger et al. 2015). The validation results are generally acceptable in the period range 0.1 - 10 s, whereas those in the shortest period range (0.01-0.1 s) are less satisfactory. We also evaluate the simulations with the 1-D velocity structure models used in the SCEC BBP validation exercise. Although the goodness-of-fit parameters for PSA do not significantly differ from those for the 3-D velocity structure model, noticeable differences in velocity waveforms are observed. Our results suggest the importance of 1) well-constrained 3-D velocity structure model for broadband ground motion simulations and 2) evaluation of time series of ground motion as well as response spectra.

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of methylenedioxy bridge-forming enzymes involved in stylopine biosynthesis in Eschscholzia californica.

    PubMed

    Ikezawa, Nobuhiro; Iwasa, Kinuko; Sato, Fumihiko

    2007-02-01

    (S)-stylopine is an important intermediate in the biosynthesis of benzophenanthridine alkaloids, such as sanguinarine. Stylopine biosynthesis involves the sequential formation of two methylenedioxy bridges. Although the methylenedioxy bridge-forming P450 (CYP719) involved in berberine biosynthesis has been cloned from Coptis japonica[Ikezawa N, Tanaka M, Nagayoshi M, Shinkyo R, Sakaki T, Inouye K & Sato F (2003) J Biol Chem278, 38557-38565], no information is available regarding the genes for methylenedioxy bridge-forming enzymes in stylopine biosynthesis. Two cytochrome P450 cDNAs involved in stylopine biosynthesis were isolated using degenerate primers designed for C. japonica CYP719 from cultured Eschscholzia californica cells. Heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that both CYP719A2 and CYP719A3 had stylopine synthase activity to catalyze methylenedioxy bridge-formation from cheilanthifoline to stylopine, but not cheilanthifoline synthase activity to convert scoulerine to cheilanthifoline. Functional differences and expression patterns of CYP719A2 and CYP719A3 were examined to investigate their physiological roles in stylopine biosynthesis. Enzymatic analysis showed that CYP719A2 had high substrate affinity only toward (R,S)-cheilanthifoline, whereas CYP719A3 had high affinity toward three similar substrates (R,S)-cheilanthifoline, (S)-scoulerine, and (S)-tetrahydrocolumbamine. An expression analysis in E. californica plant tissues showed that CYP719A2 and CYP719A3 exhibited expression patterns similar to those of three stylopine biosynthetic genes (CYP80B1, berberine bridge enzyme, and S-adenosyl-l-methionine : 3'-hydroxy-N-methylcoclaurine 4'-O-methyltransferase), whereas the specific expression of CYP719A3 in root was notable. Treatment of E. californica seedlings with methyl jasmonate resulted in the coordinated induction of CYP719A2 and CYP719A3 genes. The physiological roles of CYP719A2 and CYP719A3 in stylopine biosynthesis are

  14. Lysine suppresses protein degradation through autophagic-lysosomal system in C2C12 myotubes.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tomonori; Ito, Yoshiaki; Nedachi, Taku; Nagasawa, Takashi

    2014-06-01

    Muscle mass is determined between protein synthesis and protein degradation. Reduction of muscle mass leads to bedridden condition and attenuation of resistance to diseases. Moreover, bedridden condition leads to additional muscle loss due to disuse muscle atrophy. In our previous study (Sato et al. 2013), we showed that administered lysine (Lys), one of essential amino acid, suppressed protein degradation in skeletal muscle. In this study, we investigated that the mechanism of the suppressive effects of Lys on skeletal muscle proteolysis in C2C12 cell line. C2C12 myotubes were incubated in the serum-free medium containing 10 mM Lys or 20 mM Lys, and myofibrillar protein degradation was determined by the rates of 3-methylhistidine (MeHis) release from the cells. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity from the phosphorylation levels of p70-ribosormal protein S6 kinase 1 and eIF4E-binding protein 1 and the autophagic-lysosomal system activity from the ratio of LC3-II/I in C2C12 myotubes stimulated by 10 mM Lys for 0-3 h were measured. The rates of MeHis release were markedly reduced by addition of Lys. The autophagic-lysosomal system activity was inhibited upon 30 min of Lys supplementation. The activity of mTOR was significantly increased upon 30 min of Lys supplementation. The suppressive effect of Lys on the proteolysis by the autophagic-lysosomal system was maintained partially when mTOR activity was inhibited by 100 nM rapamycin, suggesting that some regulator other than mTOR signaling, for example, Akt, might also suppress the autophagic-lysosomal system. From these results, we suggested that Lys suppressed the activity of the autophagic-lysosomal system in part through activation of mTOR and reduced myofibrillar protein degradation in C2C12 myotubes.

  15. [Effects of intravenous alimentation on adjuvant chemotherapy--an experimental study on the distribution of 5-FU after injection of tegafur (2)].

    PubMed

    Kimoto, M; Nagano, H; Sano, K

    1987-10-01

    The stomach, small and large intestines, heart, lungs, bone and kidneys were removed from 48 Sato lung cancer-bearing rats used in the previous experiments and given 90 mg/kg of tegafur (FT-207) by single intravenous administration and tissue 5-FU and FT-207 concentrations were measured. FT-207 concentration in the alimentary canal was somewhat lower than the blood concentration, but both were lowered in parallel. 5-FU concentration in the stomach and large intestines showed virtually identical changes in both IVH and PO groups, but IVH group tended to have higher concentration. IVH group showed higher values than PO group anytime, particularly in the large intestines. A reduction of the side effects on the digestive system via intravenous alimentation was thought due to the elimination of mechanical stimulation via a cessation of oral feeding. 5-FU concentration in the bone was highest in PO group at six hours after administration and blood concentration changes were parallel, but there was virtually no change in IVH group. Maximum values were found one hour after administration and slowly declined thereafter; at 24 hrs the values were 0.059 +/- 0.013 microgram/g, relatively high compared to the PO group at 0.041 +/- 0.022 microgram/g. In the present study under intravenous alimentation, the concentration changes were slight in spite of 5-FU maximum concentration being lower than that by oral feeding and the long-term high concentration which was maintained; this is thought to be a disadvantageous action with regard to the bone marrow. FT-207 concentration in the kidney, heart and lungs was the same as that for the blood, with a gradual reduction in IVH group. 5-FU concentration was the same for the kidneys and IVH group quickly reached to the high levels compared to PO group with only slight changes thereafter. Effects of continuous water load might be involved but not clear.

  16. Potential energy surface and quasiclassical trajectory studies of the N(2D)+H2 reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pederson, Lisa A.; Schatz, George C.; Ho, Tak-San; Hollebeek, Timothy; Rabitz, Herschel; Harding, Lawrence B.; Lendvay, György

    1999-05-01

    We present a global potential energy surface for the 1A″ state of NH2 based on application of the reproducing kernel Hilbert space interpolation method to high quality ab initio (multireference configuration interaction) results. Extensive quasiclassical trajectory calculations are performed on this surface to study the N(2D)+H2/D2 reaction dynamics. Comparison is made with calculations on the lower level [first order configuration interaction (FOCI)] surface of Kobayashi, Takayanagi, Yokoyama, Sato, and Tsunashima (KTYST). We find a saddle point energy of 2.3 (1.9) kcal/mol for the perpendicular approach for the second order configuration interaction (SOCI) (SOCI with Davidson correction) surfaces, and a collinear stationary point energy of 5.5 (4.6) kcal/mol. The ordering of these stationary points is reversed compared to the corresponding FOCI results, and the only true reaction path on our surface is perpendicular. The primary reaction mechanism is determined to be C2v insertion to produce short lived (100-300 fs) NH2 intermediates. Angular distributions are found to be primarily forward-backward symmetric, with a slight bias towards backward scattering at low energies. Decay of the NH2's occurs before energy is fully randomized, so the product vibrational distributions are a little hotter than statistical—with vibrational population ratios NH(v″=1)/NH(v″=0)=0.8 and ND(v″=1)/ND(v″=0)=0.9 (near threshold). These ratios, and other aspects of the vibrational product distributions are in excellent agreement with recent laser induced fluorescence studies.

  17. Effect of the Zener-Hollomon parameter on the formability of AA6082-T6 formed at elevated temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novella, Michele F.; Ghiotti, Andrea; Bruschi, Stefania

    2016-10-01

    Material formability is one of the main research topics in metal forming, but it is usually regarded as a secondary concern in processes carried out at high temperature. Though usually entailing higher material ductility, the high temperature used in hot forging can lead to the phenomenon of hot shortness, with fall of material formability due to the microstructural changes during the deformation. Hot metal formability modelling can imply three main issues: (i) the lack of models expressly developed for high temperatures, (ii) the exponential increase of the experimental effort which is needed for the model calibration, since different thermo-mechanical conditions need to be tested, according to the process window parameters, and consequently (iii) the more complex model calibration, especially if inverse analysis techniques are used. In this work the formability of the AA6082-T6 aluminum alloy is investigated by means of tensile tests carried out at different temperatures and strain rates. The hot shortness onset is identified as well as the negative strain rate influence on the material maximum strain at fracture. A linear dependency of the material formability on the Zener-Hollomon parameter is established for temperatures below the hot shortness point, allowing a significant simplification of the experiments needed for the calibration. A new formability model is proposed to overcome the limits of the linear correlation thanks to the introduction of a critical value of the Zener-Hollomon parameter. The Oyane-Sato damage criterion is then extended to hot conditions using the afore mentioned Zener-Hollomon dependency. Finally, the approach is validated on the reference industrial case: the cross wedge rolling of AA6082-T6 round bars carried out at elevated temperature showing axial cracking due to Mannesmann effect.

  18. PREFACE Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Migaku; Saito, Hitoshi; Yoshimura, Satoru; Takanashi, Koki; Sahashi, Masashi; Tsunoda, Masakiyo

    2011-01-01

    23 countries, with about 40 percent of participants attending from overseas (see figure). The program involved 4 plenary talks (45 minutes each), 37 invited talks (30 minutes), 85 contributed talks (15 minutes), and 352 posters. Pie chart Organizing Committee of ISAMMA 2010 M TakahashiTohoku Univ., Japan, Chairman K TakanashiTohoku Univ., Japan, Chair of the Program Committee H SaitoAkita Univ., Japan, Chair of the Publication Committee M SahashiTohoku Univ., Japan, Chair of the Treasury Committee M TsunodaTohoku Univ., Japan, General Secretary H AkinagaAIST, Japan H FukunagaNagasaki Univ., Japan K HonoNIMS, Japan S IshioAkita Univ., Japan S IwataNagoya Univ., Japan K NakagawaNihon Univ., Japan S NakagawaTokyo Inst. of Tech., Japan T OnoKyoto Univ., Japan Y SuzukiOsaka Univ., Japan M TanakaEhime Univ., Japan T Tanaka Univ. of Tokyo, Japan Program Committee of ISAMMA 2010 K TakanashiTohoku Univ., Japan, ChairS MizukamiTohoku Univ., Japan M MizuguchiTohoku Univ., Japan, Vice-chairH NaganumaTohoku Univ., Japan M DoiTohoku Univ., JapanS NakagawaTokyo Inst. of Tech., Japan A FujitaTohoku Univ., JapanK NakamuraTohoku Univ., Japan K IshiyamaTohoku Univ., JapanK OnoKEK, Japan T KatoNagoya Univ., JapanT OnoKyoto Univ., Japan T KawagoeOsaka Pref. Univ.of Edu., JapanF SatoTohoku Univ., Japan O KitakamiTohoku Univ., JapanM ShiraiTohoku Univ., Japan Y KitamotoTokyo Inst. of Tech., JapanS SugimotoTohoku Univ., Japan F MatsukuraTohoku Univ., JapanM YamaguchiTohoku Univ., Japan C MitsumataHitachi Metals, Japan Publication Committee of ISAMMA 2010 H SaitoAkita Univ., Japan, ChairS MitaniNIMS, Japan S YoshimuraAkita Univ., Japan, Vice-chairH MuraokaTohoku, Japan Y AndoTohoku Univ., JapanM NakanoNagasaki Univ., Japan J AriakeAIT, JapanR NakataniOsaka Univ., Japan H AsanoNagoya Univ., JapanK O'GradyUniv. of York, UK M FutamotoChuo Univ., JapanA SakumaTohoku Univ., Japan J HayakawaHitachi, ARL, JapanT SatoKeio Univ., Japan T HondaKyushu Inst. of Tech., JapanT SatoShinshu Univ., Japan M

  19. Seismic structure at the Kairei Hydrothermal vent field near the Rodriguez Triple Junction in the Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takata, H.; Sato, T.; Imai, Y.; Mori, T.; Noguchi, Y.; Kono, A.; Yamada, T.; Shinohara, M.

    2014-12-01

    Central Indian Ridge is located at the north of the Rodriguez Triple Junction and shows slow-intermediate spreading rate. The Kairei hydrothermal Field (KHF) was discovered in the first segment of Central Indian Ridge near the Rodriguez Triple Junction. The vent fluid which is extruding at the KHF has higher H2 content compared with other hydrothermal vent fluid in the world. Although The KHF itself exists above a basaltic rock massif, gabbro and mafic rocks were discovered on the seafloor around the KHF. These deep-seated rocks may contribute to the high H2concentration of the Kairei vent fluid .To understand how gabbro and mafic rocks are uplifted and exhumed on the seafloor, we conducted a seismic refraction/reflection survey using ocean bottom seismograms (OBSs). We conducted the seismic refraction/reflection survey from January 27 to March 19 in 2013 using S/V Yokosuka of Jamstec. In the experiment, we used 21 OBSs, an air gun (G.I.gun) and a single channel steamer cable. We obtained 5 survey lines NNW-SSE direction parallel to the ridge axis, 5 lines E-W direction and 5 lines NNE-SSW direction. In addition to these lines, we acquired other 5 lines passing through the point above the KHF or Yokoniwa Rise, which is the north of the KHF. In analysis of refraction data, firstly, we estimated 2D velocity model under survey lines, which are parallel to the ridge axis, using the progressive model development method developed by Sato and Kennett (2000). Then, we constructed a 3D initial model and run the 3D tomographic method developed by Zelt and Barton (1998). The 1D velocity profile of the KHF seems to be similar to that of mid ocean ridges such as Mid Atlantic Ridge, East Pacific Rise. Seismic velocities under the KHF and Yokoniwa Rise reach about 6km/s at depth of 1~2 km below seafloor, probably indicating uplift of deep-seated rocks. In this presentation we will show 3D seismic structure of this area.

  20. Study of aerosol properties in the upper haze of Venus from SPICAV IR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luginin, Mikhail; Fedorova, Anna; Belyaev, Denis; Montmessin, Franck; Wilquet, Valérie; Korablev, Oleg; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Vandaele, Ann-Carine

    2015-04-01

    Upper haze of Venus lies above cloud layer and extends from 70 to 90 km. According to previous missions results the upper haze consists of submicron particles that are considered to be droplets of concentrated sulfuric acid (75%) [Kawabata et al., 1980; Lane and Opstbaum, 1983; Sato et al., 1996]. Recently, from the observations of Venus Express spacecraft a bimodal particle distribution was discovered as well as presence of detached haze layers at 80-90 km. This may be due to abundance of different kinds of particles [Montmessin et al., 2008; Wilquet et al., 2009]. Moreover, study of aerosol particles at altitudes above 90 km could be the key to solution of the sulfur oxides problem recently discovered in this altitude range [Belyaev et al., 2012]. SPICAV IR spectrometer is a part of SPICAV/SOIR experiment on board the Venus Express orbiter [Korablev et al., 2012]. It measures a vertical structure of Venus atmosphere using solar occultation method at altitudes 70-100 km in spectral range of 0.65 1.7 µm. The spectrometer is sensitive to abundance of submicron (mode 1) and micron (mode 2) particles in the Venus' upper haze. Using sulfuric acid refractive indices, Mie scattering theory, and spectral dependence of aerosol extinction, one can derive vertical distribution of particles size and number density assuming bimodal as well as unimodal cases. In this paper we present vertical profiles of extinction, number density and size distribution from more than 200 occultations obtained between May 2006 and September 2014. Aerosol scale height is found to be equal to ~4 km in the upper haze. At the equator, upper haze top lies at higher altitudes than near the North Pole. A detached haze layers were observed in ~50% of all observations in latitude range from 60°N to 90°N where the best spatial resolution is achieved. According to our statistics bimodal distribution is typical for altitudes from 75 to 85 km, while unimodal distribution dominates at altitudes 70-75 km

  1. The Kinetic Behavior of Benzaldehyde under Hydrothermal Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fecteau, K.; Gould, I.; Hartnett, H. E.; Williams, L. B.; Shock, E.

    2013-12-01

    , metamorphism, and other hydrothermal processes of interest occur in natural systems. References Ikushima, Y., K. Hatakeda, O. Sato, T. Yokoyama, and M. Arai. 2001. Structure and base catalysis of supercritical water in the noncatalytic benzaldehyde disproportionation using water at high temperatures and pressures. Angewandte Chemie, 40, 210-213. Tsao, C.C., Y. Zhou, X. Liu, and T.J. Houser. 1992. Reactions of supercritical water with benzaldehyde, benzylidenebenzylamine, benzyl alcohol, and benzoic acid. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 5, 107-113.

  2. Dust Particle Alignment in the Solar Magnetic Field: a Possible Cause of the Cometary Circular Polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolokolova, L.; Koenders, C.; Rosenbush, V.; Kiselev, N.; Ivanova, A.; Afanasiev, V.

    2015-12-01

    Circular polarization (CP) produced by scattering of sunlight on cometary dust has been observed in 11 comets, and showed the values from 0.01% to 0.8%. CP of both signs was observed, although negative (left-handed) CP dominates. Recent observations of several comets using SCORPIO-2 focal reducer at the 6-m BTA telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory (Russia) allowed producing maps of CP in the comet continuum filter at 684 nm and red wide-band filter. A gradual increase of the CP with the nucleocentric distance was usually observed. The most plausible reason why the light scattered by cometary dust becomes circularly polarized is alignment of the dust particles in the solar magnetic field. However, in-situ data for comet Halley, indicated that the solar magnetic field could not penetrate deep into the coma, limited by the diamagnetic cavity, and, thus, could not be responsible for the CP observed closer than ~4000 km from the nucleus. Advanced theoretical studies of interaction of the solar magnetic field with cometary ions led to reconsidering the diamagnetic cavity boundary - it is defined by the cometary ionopause, at which a balance is achieved between the magnetic pressure in the magnetic pile up region and the neutral friction force. The nucleocentric distance where this balance is achieved depends on the comet characteristics, increasing with the increase of the gas production rate, and local solar wind conditions, approximatively given by the comet location, specifically, its heliocentric distance. The size of diamagnetic cavity was calculated for the conditions of our CP observations. We found that it could be as small as dozens (comets 73P, 8P, 290P) or hundreds (comets Q4 NEAT, K1 PanSTARRS, Tago-Sato-Kosaka) kilometers. Thus, non-zero CP close to the nucleus can be easily explained by the interaction of the dust particles with the solar magnetic field. This mechanism also explains the observed increase in CP with the distance from the

  3. Seismic velocity structure and spatial distribution of reflection intensity off the Boso Peninsula, Central Japan, revealed by an ocean bottom seismographic experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, Akihiro; Sato, Toshinori; Shinohara, Masanao; Mochizuki, Kimihiro; Yamada, Tomoaki; Uehira, Kenji; Shinbo, Takashi; Machida, Yuuya; Hino, Ryota; Azuma, Ryosuke

    2016-04-01

    Off the Boso Peninsula, central Japan, where the Sagami Trough is in the south and the Japan Trench is in the east, there is a triple junction where the Pacific plate (PAC), the Philippine Sea plate (PHS) and the Honshu island arc (HIA) meet each other. In this region, the PAC subducts beneath the PHS and the HIA, and the PHS subducts beneath the HIA. Due to the subduction of 2 oceanic plates, numerous seismic events took place in the past. In order to understand these events, it is important to image structure of these plates. Hence, many researchers attempted to reveal the substructure from natural earthquakes and seismic experiments. Because most of the seismometers are placed inland area and the regular seismicity off Boso is inactive, it is difficult to reveal the precise substructure off Boso area using only natural earthquakes. Although several marine seismic experiments using active sources were conducted, vast area remains unclear off Boso Peninsula. In order to improve the situation, a marine seismic experiment, using airgun as an active source, was conducted from 30th July to 4th of August, 2009. The survey line has 216 km length and 20 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs) were placed on it. We estimated 2-D P-wave velocity structure from the airgun data using the PMDM (Progressive Model Development Method; Sato and Kenett, 2000) and the FAST (First Arrival Seismic Tomography ; Zelt and Barton, 1998). Furthermore, we identified the probable reflection phases from the data and estimated the location of reflectors using Travel time mapping method (Fujie et al. 2006). We found some reflection phases from the data, and the reflectors are located near the region where P-wave velocity is 5.0 km/s. We interpret that the reflectors indicate the plate boundary between the PHS and the HIA. The variation of the intensity of reflection along the upper surface of PHS seems to be consistent with the result from previous reflection seismic experiment conducted by Kimura et

  4. No Two Ionospheric Storms Are the Same ..... Nonsense!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendillo, M.

    2008-12-01

    The study of ionospheric disturbances was initiated in the paper "Note on Kennelly-Heaviside Layer Observations During a Magnetic Storm" by Hafstad and Tuve in 1929. A remarkable degree of progress followed, first from the discovery of morphologies during individual case studies, and then from the statistical treatment of large numbers of ionospheric storms at many sites. By the end of 1950s (as the first space probes were being launched), the pioneers of aeronomy (e.g., Martyn, Sato, Matsushita) had analyzed many hundreds of ionospheric storms, reported on their effects, and offered theoretical explanations for the patterns observed. Data from satellites dominated the field during the 1960s to 1980s, producing a coherent picture of morphologies, physical mechanisms and models at most latitudes. With the advent of Space Weather in the 1990s, the field reverted to case study methods only, and new diagnostics (e.g., GPS and IMAGE) gave the impression that new patterns were being discovered and that new ideas were needed to explain them. Indeed, new names (for individual storm events, storm patterns and causative processes) now dominate the field. In many ways, this is a giant step backwards in that the potential for applications to technological systems is offered as sufficient reason to re-cast knowledge gained via the traditional methods of science. A self-perpetuating series of case studies now propels solar- terrestrial-physics via the theme that only one storm at a time can be understood. In this paper, evidence is offered to show that 80 years of study of ionospheric storms has been productive, and that the onset of a new solar cycle in 2009 should not be sufficient to warrant yet another period of re-discovery of solar- terrestrial physics. Rather, new diagnostics from the ground, and crucially needed satellite observations within the ionosphere-thermosphere system, can add to our knowledge if efforts are made to build upon past results, not just re

  5. Fourier Transform Microwave Spectrum of N{_2}-(CH{_2}){_2}O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Yoshiyuki; Hirota, Eizi

    2013-06-01

    atoms and/or groups in, or internal rotations of, N{_2} and EO. Y. Kawashima, A. Sato, Y. Orita, and E. Hirota J. Phys. Chem. A {116}, 1224 2012. Y. Kawashima, Y. Tatamitani, Y. Morita, and E. Hirota 61st International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, TE10 2006.

  6. Density measurements and structural properties of liquid and amorphous metals under high pressure studied by in situ X-ray scattering (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morard, G.; Garbarino, G.; Andrault, D.; Antonangeli, D.; Guignot, N.; Siebert, J.; Roberge, M.; Boulard, E.; Lincot, A.; Denoeud, A.; Petitgirard, S.

    2013-12-01

    Density determination for crystalline materials under high pressure and high temperature is straightforward using X-ray diffraction. For liquid and amorphous materials, it is more complicated due to the absence of long-range order. Different high pressure techniques have been developed: in-situ X-ray absorption 1-4 or ex-situ sink/float method 5-8. However, these techniques suffer several limitations, such as the limited pressure range or the long exposure time required. We have implemented an in situ X-ray diffraction analysis method suitable for the determination of Pressure-Volume-Temperature equations of state (P-V-T EoS) in the critical case of liquid and amorphous materials over an extended thermodynamic range (T>2000 K and P> 40 GPa). This method is versatile, it can be applied to data obtained using various angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction high-pressure apparatus and, contrary to in situ X-ray absorption techniques, is independent from the sample geometry. Further advantage is the fast data acquisition (between 10 to 300 seconds integration time). Information on macroscopic bulk properties (density) and local atomic arrangement (pair distribution function g(r)) can be gathered in parallel. To illustrate the method, we present studies on liquid Fe-S alloys in Paris Edinburgh press and in laser-heated diamond anvil cell, and measurements on Ce glass in diamond anvil cell at room temperature. References 1 G. Shen, N. Sata, M. Newville et al., App. Phys. Lett. 81 (8), 1411 (2002). 2 C. Sanloup, F. Guyot, P. Gillet et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 27 (6), 811 (2000). 3 Y. Katayama, K. Tsuji, O. Shimomura et al., J. Synch. Rad. 5, 1023 (1998). 4 T. Sato and N. Funamori, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 255502 (2008). 5 R. Knoche and R. W. Luth, Chem. Geol. 128, 229 (1996). 6 P.S. Balog, R.A. Secco, D.C. Rubie et al., J. Geophys. Res. 108 (B2), 2124 (2003). 7 C. B. Agee and D. Walker, J. Geophys. Res. 93 (B4), 3437 (1988). 8 E. Ohtani, A. Suzuki, and T. Kato, Proc. Jpn. Acad

  7. ISEA (International geodetic project in SouthEastern Alaska) for Rapid Uplifting Caused by Glacial Retreat: (2) Establishment of Continuous GPS Sites (CGPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, A. M.; Freymueller, J. T.; Miura, S.; Cross, R. S.; Sato, T.; Sun, W.; Fujimoto, H.

    2006-12-01

    Rapid disintegration and thinning of Glacier Bay's tidewater glaciers and ice fields followed the end of the Little Ice Age. Geodetic studies by Larsen et al. have quantified average rates of post-glacial isostatic rebound (PGR) in the vicinity of Glacier Bay in Southeast Alaska. PGR continues today with maximum uplift rates of 30 mm/yr in Glacier Bay's upper West Arm and 32 mm/yr in the Yakutat Icefield. ISEA is a collaborative Japanese-American project which will combine CGPS measurements of uplift with absolute gravity and gravity tide observations in Southeast Alaska. ISEA will build on previous work in Glacier Bay with a multi-pronged geophysical approach similar to that used by Sato et al. in Svalbard, Norway. CGPS data sets from Gustavus and elsewhere in Alaska show seasonal variability in vertical velocity. We hypothesize this is due to winter snow loading and summer ice loss in adjacent mountain ranges. If uplift rates are found to accelerate over the five year span of this project, this would suggest increasing rates of present day ice loss in Glacier Bay. CGPS measurements of seasonal crustal deformation might be used as a powerful integrating tool for mass balance monitoring over an extensive, glacierized area. ISEA supplements existing CGPS stations [U.S. Coast Guard and Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO)] and improves the spatial array with new stations in and around Glacier Bay. During June and September of 2006, an ISEA field team established five new CGPS stations. Two new sites within Glacier Bay National Park, at Blue Mouse Cove and Queen Inlet, are near the zone of maximum uplift. The third CGPS was placed to the east, on Eldred Rock, in northern Lynn Canal. The fourth site, to the west near Dry Bay, completes a 200 km east-west "transect" through this uplift peak. The fifth site lies to the northeast along the Haines Highway in Yukon, Canada. A sixth site in the Tatshenshini River region, north of Glacier Bay, is proposed for 2007. Site

  8. Late Holocene sea level changes and tectonic movements inferred from fossil diatom assemblages in Tainohama, Tokushima prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, T.; Fujino, S.; Kobori, E.

    2014-12-01

    freshwater species, suggesting paleo-sea level changes. The sea level in this area declined gradually to modern sea level from +50cm higher level than modern by eustatic sea level fall during the late Holocene (Sato 2014), thus the fluctuations suggest co-seismic or inter-seismic crustal movements of the past interplate earthquakes along the Nankai Trough.

  9. Empirical Photometric Normalization for the Seven Band UV-VIS Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Wide Angle Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, A. K.; Robinson, M. S.; Nuno, R. G.; Sato, H.

    2014-12-01

    .36 in some areas. The range of reflectance on the Moon is 10x from the least to most reflective.The new empirical normalized reflectance presented here correlates with an independent Hapke model based normalization [3] with an R-squared value of 0.985.[1] Scholten et al. LPSC XVII (2011) [2] Denevi et al. JGR Planets (2014) [3] Sato et al. JGR Planets (2014)

  10. Equation of State of Amorphous MgSiO3 and (MgFe)SiO3 to Lowermost Mantle Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinmyo, R.; Petitgirard, S.; Malfait, W.; Kupenko, I.; Rubie, D. C.

    2014-12-01

    Melting phenomena have a crucial importance during the Earth's formation and evolution. For example, a deep magma ocean of 1000 km or more has lead to the segregation of the core. Tomographic images of the Earth reveal ultra-low velocity zones at the core-mantle boundary that may be due to the presence of dense magmas or remnant zones of a deep basal magma ocean [1]. Unfortunately, measurements of amorphous silicate density over the entire pressure regime of the mantle are scarce and the density contrast between solid and liquid are difficult to assess due to the lack of such data. Only few studies have reported density measurements of amorphous silicates at high-pressure, with limitation up to 60 GPa. High-pressure acoustic velocity measurements have been used to calculate the density of MgSiO3 glass up to 30 GPa [2] but exhibit a large discrepancy compared to recent calculations [3]. SiO2 glass was measured up to 55 GPa using the X-ray absorption method through the diamond anvils [4] and very recently, X-ray diffraction has been used to infer the density of basaltic melt up to 60 GPa [5]. Here we report density measurement of MgSiO3 glass up to 130 GPa and (MgFe)SiO3 glass up to 55 GPa using a novel variation of the X-ray absorption method. The sample contained in a beryllium gasket was irradiated with a micro-focus X-ray beam in two directions: perpendicular and parallel to the compression axis to obtain the absorption coefficient and density under pressure. Our data constrain the first experimental EoS for (Mg,Fe)SiO3 and the first EoS for MgSiO3 up to lowermost mantle pressures. Technical details and EoS parameters will be shown in the presentation. We will address the implications for melts in the deep Earth based on compressibility, bulk modulus and density contrasts between iron-free and iron-bearing glasses. [1] Labrosse S. et al. Nature 2007 [2] Sanchez-Valle C. et al. Earth Planet. Sc. Lett. 2010 [3] Ghosh D. et al Am. Mineral. 2014 [4] Sato T. et al

  11. Coupled LBM-DEM Three-phase Simulation on Gas Flux Seeping from Marine Sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kano, Y.; Sato, T.

    2014-12-01

    One of the main issues of the geological storage of CO2 under the seabed is a risk of CO2 leakage. Once CO2seeps into the ocean, it rises in water column dissolving into seawater, which results in the acidification of seawater and/or returning to the air. Its behaviour significantly depends on flow rate and bubble size (Kano et al., 2009; Dewar et al., 2013). As for porous media, bubble size is generally predicted through simple force balance based on flow rate, surface tension and channel size which is estimated by porosity and grain size. However, in shallow marine sediments, grains could be mobilised and displaced by buoyant gas flow, which causes distinctive phenomena such as blow-out or formation of gas flow conduit. As a result, effective gas flux into seawater can be intermissive, and/or concentrated in narrow area (QICS, 2012; Kawada, 2013). Bubble size is also affected by these phenomena. To predict effective gas flux and bubble size into seawater, three-phase behaviour of gas-water-sediment grains should be revealed. In this presentation, we will report the results of gas-liquid-solid three-phase simulations and their comparisons with experimental and observation data. Size of solid particles is based on grain size composing marine sediments at some CCS project sites. Fluid-particle interactions are solved using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), while the particle-particle interactions are treated by coupling with the Discrete Element method (DEM). References: Dewar, M., Wei, W., McNeil, D., Chen, B., 2013. Small-scale modelling of the physiochemical impacts of CO2leaked from sub-seabed reservoirs or pipelines within the North Sea and surrounding waters. Marine Pollution Bulletin 73(2), 504-515. Kano, Y., Sato, T., Kita, J., Hirabayashi, S., Tabeta, S., 2009. Model prediction on the rise of pCO2 in uniform flows by leakage of CO2purposefully stored under the seabed. Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control, Vol. 3(5), 617-625. Kawada, R. 2014. A study on the

  12. An axisymmetric boundary integral model for incompressible linear viscoelasticity: application to the micropipette aspiration contact problem.

    PubMed

    Haider, M A; Guilak, F

    2000-06-01

    The micropipette aspiration test has been used extensively in recent years as a means of quantifying cellular mechanics and molecular interactions at the microscopic scale. However, previous studies have generally modeled the cell as an infinite half-space in order to develop an analytical solution for a viscoelastic solid cell. In this study, an axisymmetric boundary integral formulation of the governing equations of incompressible linear viscoelasticity is presented and used to simulate the micropipette aspiration contact problem. The cell is idealized as a homogeneous and isotropic continuum with constitutive equation given by three-parameter (E, tau 1, tau 2) standard linear viscoelasticity. The formulation is used to develop a computational model via a "correspondence principle" in which the solution is written as the sum of a homogeneous (elastic) part and a nonhomogeneous part, which depends only on past values of the solution. Via a time-marching scheme, the solution of the viscoelastic problem is obtained by employing an elastic boundary element method with modified boundary conditions. The accuracy and convergence of the time-marching scheme are verified using an analytical solution. An incremental reformulation of the scheme is presented to facilitate the simulation of micropipette aspiration, a nonlinear contact problem. In contrast to the halfspace model (Sato et al., 1990), this computational model accounts for nonlinearities in the cell response that result from a consideration of geometric factors including the finite cell dimension (radius R), curvature of the cell boundary, evolution of the cell-micropipette contact region, and curvature of the edges of the micropipette (inner radius a, edge curvature radius epsilon). Using 60 quadratic boundary elements, a micropipette aspiration creep test with ramp time t* = 0.1 s and ramp pressure p*/E = 0.8 is simulated for the cases a/R = 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 using mean parameter values for primary chondrocytes

  13. Structure-function analysis of CYP27B1 and CYP27A1. Studies on mutants from patients with vitamin D-dependent rickets type I (VDDR-I) and cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX).

    PubMed

    Sawada, N; Sakaki, T; Kitanaka, S; Kato, S; Inouye, K

    2001-12-01

    We have determined eight types of missense mutants of CYP27B1 from Japanese vitamin D-dependent rickets type I (VDDR-I) patients [Kitanaka, S., Takeyama, K., Murayama, A., Sato, T., Okumura, K., Nogami, M., Hasegawa, Y., Niimi, H., Yanagisawa, J., Tanaka, T. & Kato, S. (1998) New England J. Med., 338, 653-661 and Kitanaka, S., Murayama, A., Sakaki, T., Inouye, K., Seino, Y., Fukumoto, S., Shima, M., Yukizane, S., Takayanagi, M., Niimi, H., Takeyama, K. & Kato, S. (1999) J. Clin. Endocrine Metab., 84, 4111-4117]. None of the CYP27B1 mutants showed 1alpha-hydroxylase activity towards 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. Thus, it was assumed that the mutated amino-acid residues play important roles in the 1alpha-hydroxylase activity, such as substrate binding, activation of molecular oxygen, interaction with adrenodoxin, and folding of the cytochrome P450 structure. To examine our hypothesis, we generated various mutants of CYP27B1 and studied their enzymatic properties. In addition, the corresponding mutations were introduced to CYP27A1, which belongs to the same family as CYP27B1. As CYP27A1 showed much higher expression level than CYP27B1 in Escherichia coli, further analysis including heme-binding and substrate-binding was performed with CYP27A1 in place of CYP27B1. Western blot analysis, spectral analysis including reduced CO-difference spectra and substrate-induced difference spectra, and enzymatic analysis of the mutant CYP27A1 gave information on the structure-function relationships of both CYP27A1 and CYP27B1. Although the sequence alignment suggested that Arg107, Gly125, and Pro497 of CYP27B1 might be involved in substrate binding, the experimental data strongly suggested that mutations of these amino-acid residues destroyed the tertiary structure of the substrate-heme pocket. It was also suggested that Arg389 and Arg453 of CYP27B1 were involved in heme-propionate binding, and Asp164 stabilized the four-helix bundle consisting of D, E, I and J helices, possibly by forming

  14. Characteristics of mesosphere echoes over Antarctica obtained using PANSY and MF radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsumi, Masaki; Nakamura, Takuji; Sato, Toru; Nishimura, Koji; Sato, Kaoru; Tomikawa, Yoshihiro; Kohma, Masashi

    2016-07-01

    In the polar region characteristic radar echoes are observed from the mesosphere by using a VHF system. The nature of the echoes is distinctively different between summer and winter and those echoes are called Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSEs) and Polar Mesosphere Winter Echoes (PMWEs), respectively. Since the PMSEs are usually very strong and can be easily measured with a small radar system, their nature is relatively well understood. On the other hand PMWEs are much weaker and they are still only poorly understood. The PANSY radar (47MHz) at Syowa station (69S) is the only large aperture atmospheric radar in the Antarctic, and can continuously survey the dynamics of the middle atmosphere with high time and height resolutions [Sato et al., 2014]. Nishiyama et al [2014] reported the first study of PMWEs using PANSY radar and showed a seasonal and local time dependence of these echoes. An MF radar system (2.4MHz) is co-located at Syowa, and has been operating for mesosphere and lower thermosphere observations. Although the MF radar has only a much poorer height resolution and is incapable of vertical wind measurement, it can almost continuously measure mesosphere day and night. In this study the nature of the mesosphere echoes, mainly PMWEs, are being studied using the two radars based on the observation made in 2015. These radars are operated using largely different radio frequencies and can provide complementary information with each other such as wind velocities and also echo scattering mechanisms. Horizontal wind velocities have been compared between the two radars with a great care mostly in the MF radar winds in order to avoid possible biases inherent in the correlation analysis technique employed for the MF radar wind measurement. A careful analysis has shown that the horizontal wind velocities agree well between the two systems with a high correlation coefficient around 0.8 throughout the height region of 65-85km. Aspect sensitivities estimated using

  15. The PHITS code for space applications: status and recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sihver, Lembit; Ploc, Ondrej; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Niita, Koji; Hashimoto, Shintaro; El-Jaby, Samy

    Since COSPAR 2012, the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System, PHITS, has been upgraded and released to the public [1]. The code has been improved and so has the contents of its package, such as the attached data libraries. In the new version, the intra-nuclear cascade models INCL4.6 and INC-ELF have been implemented as well as the Kurotama model for the total reaction cross sections. The accuracies of the new reaction models for transporting the galactic cosmic-rays were investigated by comparing with experimental data. The incorporation of these models has improved the capabilities of PHITS to perform particle transport simulations for different space applications. A methodology for assessing the pre-mission exposure of space crew aboard the ISS has been developed in terms of an effective dose equivalent [2]. PHITS was used to calculate the particle transport of the GCR and trapped radiation through the hull of the ISS. By using the predicted spectra, and fluence-to-dose conversion factors, the semi-empirical ISSCREM [3,4,5] code was then scaled to predict the effective dose equivalent. This methodology provides an opportunity for pre-flight predictions of the effective dose equivalent, which can be compared to post-flight estimates, and therefore offers a means to assess the impact of radiation exposure on ISS flight crew. We have also simulated [6] the protective curtain experiment, which was performed to test the efficiency of water-soaked hygienic tissue wipes and towels as a simple and cost-effective additional spacecraft shielding. The dose from the trapped particles and low energetic GCR, was significantly reduced, which shows that the protective curtains are efficient when they are applied on spacecraft at LEO. The results of these benchmark calculations, as well as the mentioned applications of PHITS to space dosimetry, will be presented. [1] T. Sato et al. J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 50, 913-923 (2013). [2] S. El-Jaby, et al. Adv. Space Res. doi: http

  16. Dangerous human-made interference with climate: a GISS modelE study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J.; Sato, M.; Ruedy, R.; Kharecha, P.; Lacis, A.; Miller, R.; Nazarenko, L.; Lo, K.; Schmidt, G. A.; Russell, G.; Aleinov, I.; Bauer, S.; Baum, E.; Cairns, B.; Canuto, V.; Chandler, M.; Cheng, Y.; Cohen, A.; Del Genio, A.; Faluvegi, G.; Fleming, E.; Friend, A.; Hall, T.; Jackman, C.; Jonas, J.; Kelley, M.; Kiang, N. Y.; Koch, D.; Labow, G.; Lerner, J.; Menon, S.; Novakov, T.; Oinas, V.; Perlwitz, Ja.; Perlwitz, Ju.; Rind, D.; Romanou, A.; Schmunk, R.; Shindell, D.; Stone, P.; Sun, S.; Streets, D.; Tausnev, N.; Thresher, D.; Unger, N.; Yao, M.; Zhang, S.

    2007-05-01

    We investigate the issue of "dangerous human-made interference with climate" using simulations with GISS modelE driven by measured or estimated forcings for 1880-2003 and extended to 2100 for IPCC greenhouse gas scenarios as well as the "alternative" scenario of Hansen and Sato (2004). Identification of "dangerous" effects is partly subjective, but we find evidence that added global warming of more than 1°C above the level in 2000 has effects that may be highly disruptive. The alternative scenario, with peak added forcing ~1.5 W/m2 in 2100, keeps further global warming under 1°C if climate sensitivity is ~3°C or less for doubled CO2. The alternative scenario keeps mean regional seasonal warming within 2σ (standard deviations) of 20th century variability, but other scenarios yield regional changes of 5-10σ, i.e. mean conditions outside the range of local experience. We conclude that a CO2 level exceeding about 450 ppm is "dangerous", but reduction of non-CO2 forcings can provide modest relief on the CO2 constraint. We discuss three specific sub-global topics: Arctic climate change, tropical storm intensification, and ice sheet stability. We suggest that Arctic climate change has been driven as much by pollutants (O3, its precursor CH4, and soot) as by CO2, offering hope that dual efforts to reduce pollutants and slow CO2 growth could minimize Arctic change. Simulated recent ocean warming in the region of Atlantic hurricane formation is comparable to observations, suggesting that greenhouse gases (GHGs) may have contributed to a trend toward greater hurricane intensities. Increasing GHGs cause significant warming in our model in submarine regions of ice shelves and shallow methane hydrates, raising concern about the potential for accelerating sea level rise and future positive feedback from methane release. Growth of non-CO2 forcings has slowed in recent years, but CO2 emissions are now surging well above the alternative scenario. Prompt actions to slow CO2

  17. Dangerous human-made interference with climate: a GISS modelE study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J.; Sato, M.; Ruedy, R.; Kharecha, P.; Lacis, A.; Miller, R.; Nazarenko, L.; Lo, K.; Schmidt, G. A.; Russell, G.; Aleinov, I.; Bauer, S.; Baum, E.; Cairns, B.; Canuto, V.; Chandler, M.; Cheng, Y.; Cohen, A.; Del Genio, A.; Faluvegi, G.; Fleming, E.; Friend, A.; Hall, T.; Jackman, C.; Jonas, J.; Kelley, M.; Kiang, N. Y.; Koch, D.; Labow, G.; Lerner, J.; Menon, S.; Novakov, T.; Oinas, V.; Perlwitz, Ja.; Perlwitz, Ju.; Rind, D.; Romanou, A.; Schmunk, R.; Shindell, D.; Stone, P.; Sun, S.; Streets, D.; Tausnev, N.; Thresher, D.; Unger, N.; Yao, M.; Zhang, S.

    2006-12-01

    We investigate the issue of "dangerous human-made interference with climate" using simulations with GISS modelE driven by measured or estimated forcings for 1880-2003 and extended to 2100 for IPCC greenhouse gas scenarios as well as the "alternative" scenario of Hansen and Sato (2004). Identification of "dangerous" effects is partly subjective, but we find evidence that added global warming of more than 1°C above the level in 2000 has effects that may be highly disruptive. The alternative scenario, with peak added forcing ~1.5 W/m2 in 2100, keeps further global warming under 1°C if climate sensitivity is ~3°C or less for doubled CO2. The alternative scenario keeps mean regional seasonal warming within 2σ (standard deviations) of 20th century variability, but other scenarios yield regional changes of 5-10σ, i.e., mean conditions outside the range of local experience. We discuss three specific sub-global topics: Arctic climate change, tropical storm intensification, and ice sheet stability. We suggest that Arctic climate change has been driven as much by pollutants (O3, its precursor CH4, and soot) as by CO2, offering hope that dual efforts to reduce pollutants and slow CO2 growth could minimize Arctic change. Simulated recent ocean warming in the region of Atlantic hurricane formation is comparable to observations, suggesting that greenhouse gases (GHGs) may have contributed to a trend toward greater hurricane intensities. Increasing GHGs cause significant warming in our model in submarine regions of ice shelves and shallow methane hydrates, raising concern about the potential for accelerating sea level rise and future positive feedback from methane release. Growth of non-CO2 forcings has slowed in recent years, but CO2 emissions are now surging well above the alternative scenario. Prompt actions to slow CO2 emissions and decrease non-CO2 forcings are needed to achieve the low forcing of the alternative scenario.

  18. Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions of Adakitic magma from the Wakurayama Dacite in San-in district, SW Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, D.; Shibata, T.; Matsumoto, I.

    2011-12-01

    The Wakuraya Dacite, San-in district, SW Japan was described as Adakite (Defant and Drummond, 1990, Nature) by Sato et al. (2011, JGS). Adakitic rocks are characterized by higher Al2O3 and Sr, and lower MgO, K2O, Y and Yb. Many Quaternary silicate volcanoes in Southwest Japan are considered to be adakitic magmas that have been generated by partial melting of the subducted Philippine Sea plate (e.g. the Daisen volcano; Morris, 1995, Geology). The Wakurayama Dacite is distributed within a 5 km radius in Shimane prefecture, Southwest Japan. The Wakurayama Dacite was erupted in the Late Miocene to Pliocene (ca. 5 Ma; Morris et al., 1990, JSAES), the activity in advance of the Daisen volcano. We present major and trace elements and isotopic compositions (Sr, Nd and Pb) to discuss the origin of the end-members that are related to magma genesis of the Wakurayama Dacite. The chemical characteristics of these rocks, which have higher Al2O3 (17.6-19.7 wt.%) and Sr (552-799 ppm), and lower MgO (0.28-2.14 wt.%), K2O (1.26-1.48 wt.%), Y (5-15 ppm) and Yb (0.4-0.7 ppm) contents, are similar to typical adakite. The isotopic compositions of the Wakurayama Dacite show similar to those of the Daisen volcano (Tamura et al., 2003, J. Petrol.). According to Defant and Drummond (1990), adakites are characterized by similar low 87Sr/86Sr ratios (usually < 0.7040) to those of MORB, but the Wakurayama Dacite and the Daisen volcano have higher 87Sr/86Sr ratio (ca. 0.7046 to 0.7052). Kimura et al. (2005) proposed that the origin of Daisen adakitic magmas have been primarily created by mixing between subducted oceanic crust and its associated sediments from the Philippine Sea plate. The isotopic compositions (Sr, Nd and Pb) of the Wakurayama Dacite are shown the two component-mixing curve between oceanic crust (Shikoku basin basalt; Hicky-Vargas, 1991, EPSL) and sediments (the Nankai Trough terrigenous sediments; Shimoda et al., 1998, EPSL). Above results suggest that the partial melting of

  19. Formation of Island Arc-Trench System due to Plate Subduction on the Basis of Elastic Dislocation Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukahata, Y.; Matsu'ura, M.

    2015-12-01

    The most conspicuous cumulative deformation in subduction zones is the formation of island arc-trench system. A pair of anomalies in topography and free-air gravity, high in the arc and low around the trench, is observed without exceptions all over the world. Since the 1960s, elastic dislocation theory has been widely used to interpret coseismic crustal deformation. For the modeling of longer-term crustal deformation, it is necessary to consider viscoelastic properties of the asthenosphere. By simply applying elastic-viscoelastic dislocation theory to plate subduction, Matsu'ura and Sato (1989, GJI) have shown that some crustal deformation remains after the completion of one earthquake cycle, which means that crustal deformation accumulates with time in a long term due to plate subduction. In fact, by constructing a plate interface model in and around Japan, Hashimoto, Fukui and Matsu'ura (2004, PAGEOPH) have demonstrated that the computed vertical displacements due to steady plate subduction well explain the observed free-air gravity anomaly pattern. Recently, we got a lucid explanation of crustal deformation due to plate subduction. In subduction zones, oceanic plates bend and descend into the mantle. Because the bending of oceanic plates is usually not spontaneous, there exists kinematic interaction between the oceanic and overriding plates, which causes cumulative deformation of the overriding plate. This may be understood based on the law of action and reaction: one is bending of an oceanic plate and the other is deformation of the overriding plate. As a special case, it is useful to consider plate subduction along a part of true circle. In this case, crustal deformation due to steady subduction is solely caused by the effect of gravity, because dislocation along a circle does not cause any intrinsic internal deformation. When an oceanic plate is descending along an arcuate plate interface from the right-hand side, according to dislocation theory, the oceanic

  20. Role of Yield Stress in Magma Rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurokawa, A.; Di Giuseppe, E.; Davaille, A.; Kurita, K.

    2012-04-01

    Magmas are essentially multiphase material composed of solid crystals, gaseous bubbles and silicate liquids. They exhibit various types of drastic change in rheology with variation of mutual volumetric fractions of the components. The nature of this variable rheology is a key factor in controlling dynamics of flowing magma through a conduit. Particularly the existence of yield stress in flowing magma is expected to control the wall friction and formation of density waves. As the volumetric fraction of solid phase increases yield stress emerges above the critical fraction. Several previous studies have been conducted to clarify this critical value of magmatic fluid both in numerical simulations and laboratory experiments ([Lejeune and Pascal, 1995], [Saar and Manga 2001], [Ishibashi and Sato 2010]). The obtained values range from 13.3 to 40 vol%, which display wide variation and associated change in rheology has not been clarified well. In this presentation we report physical mechanism of emergence of yield stress in suspension as well as the associated change in the rheology based on laboratory experiments using analog material. We utilized thermogel aqueous suspension as an analog material of multiphase magma. Thermogel, which is a commercial name for poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM) undergoes volumetric phase change at the temperature around 35C:below this temperature the gel phase absorbs water and swells while below this it expels water and its volume shrinks. Because of this the volumetric fraction of gel phase systematically changes with temperature and the concentration of gel powder. The viscosity measured at lower stress drastically decreases across this phase change with increasing temperature while the viscosity at higher stress does not exhibit large change across the transition. We have performed a series of rheological measurements focusing on the emergence of yield stress on this aqueous suspension. Since the definition of yield stress is not

  1. Generalization of the possible algebraic basis of q-triplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsallis, Constantino

    2017-02-01

    The so called q-triplets were conjectured in 2004 [C. Tsallis, Physica A 340, 1 (2004)] and then found in nature in 2005 [L.F. Burlaga, A.F. Vinas, Physica A 356, 375 (2005)]. A relevant further step was achieved in 2005 [C. Tsallis, M. Gell-Mann, Y. Sato, PNAS 102, 15377 (2005)] when the possibility was advanced that they could reflect an entire infinite algebra based on combinations of the self-dual relations q → 2 - q (additive duality) and q → 1/q (multiplicative duality). The entire algebra collapses into the single fixed point q = 1, corresponding to the Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy and statistical mechanics. For q ≠ 1, an infinite set of indices q appears, corresponding in principle to an infinite number of physical properties of a given complex system describable in terms of the so called q-statistics. The basic idea that is put forward is that, for a given universality class of systems, a small number (typically one or two) of independent q indices exist, the infinite others being obtained from these few ones by simply using the relations of the algebra. The q-triplets appear to constitute a few central elements of the algebra. During the last decade, an impressive amount of q-triplets have been exhibited in analytical, computational, experimental and observational results in natural, artificial and social systems. Some of them do satisfy the available algebra constructed solely with the additive and multiplicative dualities, but some others seem to violate it. In the present work we generalize those two dualities with the hope that a wider set of systems can be handled within. The basis of the generalization is given by the selfdual relation q → qa(q) ≡ ((a+2)-aq) / (a-(a-2)q) (a ∈ R). We verify that qa(1) = 1, and that q2(q) = 2 - q and q0(q) = 1/q. To physically motivate this generalization, we briefly review illustrative applications of q

  2. Long-period Ground Motion Simulation in the Osaka Basin during the 2011 Great Tohoku Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, T.; Kubo, H.; Asano, K.; Sato, K.; Aoi, S.

    2014-12-01

    Large amplitude long-period ground motions (1-10s) with long duration were observed in the Osaka sedimentary basin during the 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw9.0) and its aftershock (Ibaraki-Oki, Mw7.7), which is about 600 km away from the source regions. Sato et al. (2013) analyzed strong ground motion records from the source region to the Osaka basin and showed the following characteristics. (1) In the period range of 1 to 10s, the amplitude of horizontal components of the ground motion at the site-specific period is amplified in the Osaka basin sites. The predominant period is about 7s in the bay area where the largest pSv were observed. (2) The velocity Fourier amplitude spectra with their predominant period of around 7s are observed at the bedrock sites surrounding the Osaka basin. Those characteristics were observed during both of the mainshock and the largest aftershock. Therefore, large long-period ground motions in the Osaka basin are generated by the combination of propagation-path and basin effects. They simulated ground motions due to the largest aftershock as a simple point source model using three-dimensional FDM (GMS; Aoi and Fujiwara, 1999). They used a three-dimensional velocity structure based on the Japan Integrated Velocity Structure Model (JIVSM, Koketsu et al., 2012), with the minimum effective period of the computation of 3s. Their simulation result reproduced the observation characteristics well and it validates the applicability of the JIVSM for the long period ground motion simulation. In this study, we try to simulate long-period ground motions during the mainshock. The source model we used for the simulation is based on the SMGA model obtained by Asano and Iwata (2012). We succeed to simulate long-period ground motion propagation from Kanto area to the Osaka basin fairly well. The long-period ground motion simulations with the several Osaka basin velocity structure models are done for improving the model applicability. We used strong motion

  3. A comparison between aerosol properties and air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, S.; Sano, I.; Nishimori, A.; Sato, M.

    A comparison between aerosol properties and air pollutants over urban cities in Japan S. Mukai, I. Sano, A. Nishimori and M. Sato Kinki University For understanding urban aerosols, sun/sky photometry and polarimetry with PSR-1000 (Opto. Research) have been undertaken over Higashi-Osaka since 1996. Multi-spectral photometers CE-318 (Cimel Electronique) and POM-100P (Prede Co.) are set up later for an AERONET site and a SKYNET site, respectively. Radiometers provide us with the optical thickness of aerosols and Ångström exponent. Another aerosol properties, e.g., size distribution, refractive index, etc., are retrieved based on the inversion method. Higashi-Osaka, which means east side of Osaka, is an industrial city located between Osaka bay and Mt.Ikoma. Anthropogenic aerosols produced by industrial activity and oceanic aerosols flying from Osaka bay are mixed together and trapped just around our site due to reflection from Mt.Ikoma. Therefore our city is famous for heavy air pollution, and aerosols here have a complicated feature mixing with the anthropogenic compound and natural one externally and/or internally. On the other hand, suspended particles matter (SPM) concentrations at ground level are compiled for these 10 years in this city. Strictly speaking, it is difficult to relate SPM data directly to the aerosol properties, however it is possible to say that SPM data represents the mass concentration of atmospheric particles at ground level. In other word, air pollutants could have some relations to the emission and transportation of aerosols. After several aerosol parameters are derived from the measurements and compared with the SPM data, the HYSPLIT4 backward trajectory analysis is adopted to search the origin of atmospheric particles. It is found that aerosol index shows a proportional correlation with SPM concentration, and that our aerosols are contaminated not only by surroundings but also the large scale phenomena, e.g. yellow sand event from China

  4. Ab initio molecular dynamics of hydrogen dissociation on metal surfaces using neural networks and novelty sampling.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Jeffery; Vlachos, Dionisios G

    2007-10-21

    We outline a hybrid multiscale approach for the construction of ab initio potential energy surfaces (PESs) useful for performing six-dimensional (6D) classical or quantum mechanical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of diatomic molecules reacting at single crystal surfaces. The algorithm implements concepts from the corrugation reduction procedure, which reduces energetic variation in the PES, and uses neural networks for interpolation of smoothed ab initio data. A novelty sampling scheme is implemented and used to identify configurations that are most likely to be predicted inaccurately by the neural network. This hybrid multiscale approach, which couples PES construction at the electronic structure level to MD simulations at the atomistic scale, reduces the number of density functional theory (DFT) calculations needed to specify an accurate PES. Due to the iterative nature of the novelty sampling algorithm, it is possible to obtain a quantitative measure of the convergence of the PES with respect to the number of ab initio calculations used to train the neural network. We demonstrate the algorithm by first applying it to two analytic potentials, which model the H2/Pt(111) and H2/Cu(111) systems. These potentials are of the corrugated London-Eyring-Polanyi-Sato form, which are based on DFT calculations, but are not globally accurate. After demonstrating the convergence of the PES using these simple potentials, we use DFT calculations directly and obtain converged semiclassical trajectories for the H2/Pt(111) system at the PW91/generalized gradient approximation level. We obtain a converged PES for a 6D hydrogen-surface dissociation reaction using novelty sampling coupled directly to DFT. These results, in excellent agreement with experiments and previous theoretical work, are compared to previous simulations in order to explore the sensitivity of the PES (and therefore MD) to the choice of exchange and correlation functional. Despite having a lower energetic

  5. Fourier Transform Microwave Spectrum of CO{_2} -(CH{_3}){_2} S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Yoshiyuki; Moritani, Takayuki; Hirota, Eizi

    2012-06-01

    , A. Sato, Y. Orita, and E. Hirota J. Phys. Chem. A 116, 1224 2012. J. J. Newby, R. A. Peebles, and S. A. Peebles J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 11234 2004.

  6. Fourier Transform Microwave Spectra of CO{2}-ETHYLENE Sulfide, CO{2}-ETHYLENE Oxide and CO{2}-PROPYLENE Oxide Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orita, Yukari; Kawashima, Yoshiyuki; Hirota, Eizi

    2010-06-01

    We have previously examined the difference in roles of O and S in structure and dynamics of the CO-ethylene oxide (EO) and CO-ethylene sulfide (ES) complexes. We have extended the investigation to CO{2}-EO and CO{2}-ES for comparison. We have also observed the CO{2}-propylene oxide (PO) complex, which is an important intermediate in the reaction of PO with CO{2} leading to polycarbonate. Both a-type and b-type transitions were observed for the CO{2}-EO and CO{2}-ES, but no c-type transitions were observed at all. We also detected the {34}S and {13}C isotopic species in natural abundance and the species containing {18}OCO and C{18}O% {2}, which were synthesized by burning paper in an {18}O{2} and{% 16}O{2} mixture. By analyzing the observed spectra we concluded the CO{2} moiety of CO{2}-EO and CO{2}-ES located in a plane % prependicular to the three-membered ring and bisecting the COC or CSC angle of EO or ES, respectively, as in the case of CO-EO and CO-ES complexes. An % ab initio MO calculation at the level of MP2/6-311G(d, p) yielded an optimized structure in good agreement with the experimental result. We have derived from the observed spectra the distance, the stretching force constant, and the binding energy of the bonds between the constituents of the CO{2}-EO and CO{2}-ES complexes and have found that the distances of the two complexes were shorter by 0.2Å than those in CO-EO and CO-ES, respectively, and that the intermolecular bonds were two times stronger in the CO{2} complexes than in the corresponding CO complexes. We have concluded from the observed spectra that the CO{2} moiety in CO{2}-PO is located on the PO three-membered ring plane opposite to the methyl group. The constituents in CO{2}-PO were more weakly bound than those in CO{2}-EO and CO{2}-ES. S. Sato, Y. Kawashima, Y. Tatamitani, and E. Hirota, 63rd International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, WF05 (2008).

  7. The effects of climate uncertainty on the stability of the Antarctic ice sheet during the mid-Pliocene warm period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernales, Jorge; Häfliger, Tonio; Rogozhina, Irina; Thomas, Maik

    2015-04-01

    . Dynamic behaviour of the East Antarctic ice sheet during Pliocene warmth. Nature Geoscience 6.9 (2013): 765-769. [2] Sato, T., and Greve, R. Sensitivity experiments for the Antarctic ice sheet with varied sub-ice-shelf melting rates. Annals of Glaciology 53.60 (2012): 221-228. [3] Haywood, A. M., et al. Large-scale features of Pliocene climate: results from the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project. Clim. Past 9 (2013): 191-209.

  8. Undersea interplate coupling off the western Japan revealed by GPS-A observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Y.; Ishikawa, T.; Watanabe, S. I.; Tashiro, T.

    2015-12-01

    The recurring devastating earthquakes in the Nankai and Sagami Troughs subduction zone between the Philippine Sea plate and the continental plates (Eurasian and North American plates) have a potential to cause an extremely dangerous natural disaster in not-so-distant future. Many studies assumed the interplate coupling ratios using the onshore geodetic data only. However, the offshore region that has a potential to derive a devastating tsunami cannot be resolved enough due to the observation network that is biased to land area. The Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department of Japan (JHOD) have constructed the seafloor geodetic observation network on the seafloor surface using a GPS-acoustic combination technique (GPS-A) [e.g., Sato et al., 2011, Science] and observed seafloor crustal movements directly above the Nankai and Sagami Troughs subduction zones. We have set 17 sites off the western Japan to lead an undersea interplate coupling distribution. The observations around the Sagami Trough are consistent with the block motions presented by Nishimura [2011, Tectonophysics]. On the other hand, our seafloor geodetic observation network along the Nankai Trough revealed heterogeneity and complexity interplate coupling off the western Japan. The fast displacement rates observed in the eastern area indicate a strong interplate coupling around not only the future Tokai earthquake source region but also the Paleo-Zenisu ridge. Our observations in the westernmost area also suggest that the area off the Cape Ashizuri has a high-coupling ratio. The slow displacement rate observed in the shallower area than the 1946 Nankaido earthquake source region off the Cape Muroto-zaki reflects a weakening interplate coupling probably due to a subducting seamount. The observation in the westernmost area differs depending on the depth. The north deep area below Bungo-channel has a high-coupling ratio. The south shallow area has a low-coupling ratio. In these deep and shallow areas, VLFEs

  9. Nitrogen Molecule-Ethylene Sulfide Complex Investigated by Fourier Transform Microwave Spectroscopy and AB Initio Calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwano, Sakae; Kawashima, Yoshiyuki; Hirota, Eizi

    2016-06-01

    We have systematically investigated the van der Waals complexes consisting of the one from each of the two groups: (Rg, CO, N_2 or CO_2) and (dimethyl ether, dimethyl sulfide, ethylene oxide or ethylene sulfide), by using Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy supplemented by ab initio MO calculations, in order to understand the dynamical behavior of van der Waals complexes and to obtain information on the potential function to internal motions in complexes. Two examples of the N_2 complex were investigated: N_2-DME (dimethyl ether), for which we reported a preliminary result and N_2-EO (ethylene oxide). In the present study we focused attention to the N_2-ES (ethylene sulfide) complex. We have detected two sets of the {b}-type transitions for the 15N_2-ES in ortho and para states, and have analyzed them by using the asymmetric-rotor program of {A}-reduction. In contrast with the N_2-EO, for which each of the ortho and para states were found split into a strong/weak pair, only some transitions of the 15N_2-ES were accompanied by two or three components. The observed spectra of the 14N_2-ES were complicated because of hyperfine splittings due to the nuclear quadrupole coupling of the two nitrogen atoms. We concluded that the N_2 moiety was located in the plane perpendicular to the C-S-C plane and bisecting the CSC angle of the ES. Two isomers were expected to exist for 15NN-ES, one with 15N in the inner and the other in the outer position, and in fact two sets of the spectra were detected. We have carried out ab initio molecular orbital calculations at the level of MP2 with basis sets 6-311++G(d, p), aug-cc-pVDZ, and aug-cc-pVTZ, to complement the information on the intracomplex motions obtained from the observed rotational spectra. Y. Kawashima, A. Sato, Y. Orita, and E. Hirota, J. Phys. Chem. A, 2012 116, 1224 Y. Kawashima, Y. Tatamitani, Y. Morita, and E. Hirota, 61st International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, TE10 (2006) Y. Kawashima and E. Hirota, J

  10. Study of wind retrieval from space-borne infrared coherent lidar in cloudy atmosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, Philippe; Ishii, Shoken; Mizutani, Kohei; Okamoto, Kozo; Ochiai, Satoshi

    2015-04-01

    Future spaceborne tropospheric wind missions using infrared coherent lidar are currently being studied in Japan and in the United States [1,2]. The line-of-sight wind velocity is retrieved from the Doppler shift frequency of the signal returned by aerosol particles. However a large percentage (70-80%) of the measured single-shot intensity profiles are expected to be contaminated by clouds [3]. A large number of cloud contaminated profiles (>40%) will be characterized by a cloud-top signal intensity stronger than the aerosol signal by a factor of one order of magnitude, and by a strong attenuation of the signal backscattered from below the clouds. Profiles including more than one cloud layer are also expected. This work is a simulation study dealing with the impacts of clouds on wind retrieval. We focus on the three following points: 1) definition of an algorithm for optimizing the wind retrieval from the cloud-top signal, 2) assessment of the clouds impact on the measurement performance and, 3) definition of a method for averaging the measurements before the retrieval. The retrieval simulations are conducted considering the instrumental characteristics selected for the Japanese study: wavelength at 2 µm, PRF of 30 Hz, pulse power of 0.125 mJ and platform altitude between 200-400 km. Liquid and ice clouds are considered. The analysis uses data from atmospheric models and statistics of cloud effects derived from CALIPSO measurements such as in [3]. A special focus is put on the average method of the measurements before retrieval. Good retrievals in the mid-upper troposphere implie the average of measured single-range power spectra over large horizontal (100 km) and vertical (1 km) ranges. Large differences of signal intensities due to the presence of clouds and the clouds non-uniform distribution have to be taken into account when averaging the data to optimize the measurement performances. References: [1] S. Ishii, T. Iwasaki, M. Sato, R. Oki, K. Okamoto, T

  11. [The Japanese Colonial Medicine as Seen Through the Life of Fujita Tsuguakira].

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyu-Jin

    2016-04-01

    Fujita Tsuguakira was a man who established Jahyeuiwon, a governmental medical facility, during the Residency-General Period and took over the presidency of a committee in the Japanese Government-General of Chosun after Chosun was annexed to Japanese. In addition, he is a man well qualified to be placed on the top of the list when discussing the Japanese colonial medicine in Chosun, considering his personal history of getting evolved in the colonial rule of Taiwan for seven years as an army surgeon. He led the colonial medicine in Chosun for nine years before and after the Japanese annexation of Korea. He was engaged in almost all the areas related to the colonial medicine such as anti-cholera projects, Hansung Sanitation Union, Deahan Hospital, Chosun Chongdokbu Hospital, Jahyeuiwon, medical schools affiliated to the Japanese Government-General of Chosun. In all respects, his life was in sync with the expansionist strategies of Imperial Japan. Especially, his deeds in Chosun was an "active aid to the instructions" from Army Minister Terauchi Masatake " as Sato Kozo testifies. Fujita was chosen by the military, and so he faithfully served the role given from it. The rewards that he received form the military attest to this fact. He took the position of Surgeon General in Army Medical Service on September, 1912, the top place that an army surgeon could hold. The position was first given to the officer who worked outside Japan proper, and he was the only army surgeon with no doctorial degree to receive such title except for Ishiguro Tadanori who was the first army surgeon in Japan. To sum up, Fujita was not a "doctor" but a "military officer". His walk of life mainly lay in the role of an aider adjusted to the ups and downs and the speeds of the plans of Imperial Japan to invade the continent. Therefore, the Japanese colonial medicine controlled by such man as Fujita in Chosun was inevitably studded with the military things. As a chief in the army medicine, what was

  12. Monitoring of seafloor crustal deformation using GPS/Acoustic technique along the Nankai Trough, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, K.; Tadokoro, K.; Ikuta, R.; Watanabe, T.; Fujii, C.; Matsuhiro, K.; Sayanagi, K.

    2014-12-01

    Seafloor crustal deformation is crucial for estimating the interplate locking at the shallow subduction zone and has been carried out at subduction margins in Japan, e.g., Japan Trench and Nankai Trough [Sato et al., 2011; Tadokoro et al., 2012]. Iinuma et al. [2012] derived slip distributions during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake using GPS/Acoustic data and on-land GPS data. The result showed that maximum slip is more than 85 m near the trench axis. The focal area along the Nankai trough extended to the trough axis affected this earthquake by cabinet office, government of Japan.  We monitored seafloor crustal deformation along the Nankai trough, Japan. Observation regions are at the eastern end of Nankai trough (named Suruga trough) and at the central Nankai trough. We established and monitored by two sites across the trough at each region. In the Suruga trough region, we repeatedly observed from 2005 to 2013. We observed 13 and 14 times at a foot wall side (SNE) and at a hanging wall side (SNW), respectively. We estimated the displacement velocities with relative to the Amurian plate from the result of repeated observation. The estimated displacement velocity vectors at SNE and SNW are 42±8 mm/y to N94±3˚W direction and 39±11 mm/y to N84±9˚W direction, respectively. The directions are the same as those measured at the on-land GPS stations. The magnitudes of velocity vector indicate significant shortening by approximately 4 mm/y between SNW and on-land GPS stations at hanging wall side of the Suruga Trough. This result shows that the plate interface at the northernmost Suruga trough is strongly locked. In the central Nankai trough region, we established new two stations across the central Nankai trough (Both stations are about 15km distance from trough) and observed only three times, August 2013, January 2014, and June 2014. We report the results of monitoring performed in this year.

  13. EUV two-photon-ionization cross sections of helium from the solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, and comparison with measurements using free-electron lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercouris, Theodoros; Komninos, Yannis; Nicolaides, Cleanthes A.

    2016-12-01

    Two recent experimental papers reported the first measurements of absolute two-photon-ionization cross sections σ (2 ) of helium, for EUV wavelengths, using free-electron laser (FEL) pulses [Sato et al., J. Phys. B 44, 161001 (2011), 10.1088/0953-4075/44/16/161001; Fushitani et al., Phys. Rev. A 88, 063422 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.88.063422]. The wavelengths correspond to transitions that are off resonance as well as on resonance with the 1 s 2 p and 1 s 3 p 1Po Rydberg states. Inspection of their results reveals considerable discrepancies, while their comparison with theoretical results obtained earlier from time-independent calculations, one perturbative and two nonperturbative ones, cannot lead to secure conclusions as to the true values of σ (2 ) . We examined this prototypical problem by implementing a time-dependent approach, which utilizes the nonperturbative solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. This solution was obtained in terms of the state-specific expansion approach, in an upgraded version where the coupling matrix elements are computed using the full electric operator of the multipolar Hamiltonian. The σ (2 ) were obtained for pulses of 300 fs, as in the 2011 FEL experiment. Their computation was achieved by fitting the time-dependent ionization survival probability to e-Γ t, where Γ is the rate of ionization. The wavelengths and intensities are those of the FEL experiments, as well as others, such as the wavelengths 52.22 and 51.56 nm, for which the 1 s 4 p 1Po and 1 s 5 p 1Po levels are on resonance with the initial 1S state. Apart from the predictions for these wavelengths, the paper contains characteristic comparisons among all the results on these EUV σ (2 ) , experimental and theoretical. In general, the trends predicted by nonperturbative methods are confirmed by the FEL measurements. However, discrepancies exist among the absolute numbers. Furthermore, comparison among the results of the three nonperturbative approaches

  14. Synthesis of wavelet envelope in 2-D random media having power-law spectra: comparison with FD simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Haruo; Fehler, Michael C.

    2016-10-01

    The envelope broadening and the peak delay of the S-wavelet of a small earthquake with increasing travel distance are results of scattering by random velocity inhomogeneities in the earth medium. As a simple mathematical model, Sato proposed a new stochastic synthesis of the scalar wavelet envelope in 3-D von Kármán type random media when the centre wavenumber of the wavelet is in the power-law spectral range of the random velocity fluctuation. The essential idea is to split the random medium spectrum into two components using the centre wavenumber as a reference: the long-scale (low-wavenumber spectral) component produces the peak delay and the envelope broadening by multiple scattering around the forward direction; the short-scale (high-wavenumber spectral) component attenuates wave amplitude by wide angle scattering. The former is calculated by the Markov approximation based on the parabolic approximation and the latter is calculated by the Born approximation. Here, we extend the theory for the envelope synthesis of a wavelet in 2-D random media, which makes it easy to compare with finite difference (FD) simulation results. The synthetic wavelet envelope is analytically written by using the random medium parameters in the angular frequency domain. For the case that the power spectral density function of the random velocity fluctuation has a steep roll-off at large wavenumbers, the envelope broadening is small and frequency independent, and scattering attenuation is weak. For the case of a small roll-off, however, the envelope broadening is large and increases with frequency, and the scattering attenuation is strong and increases with frequency. As a preliminary study, we compare synthetic wavelet envelopes with the average of FD simulation wavelet envelopes in 50 synthesized random media, which are characterized by the RMS fractional velocity fluctuation ε = 0.05, correlation scale a = 5 km and the background wave velocity V0 = 4 km s-1. We use the radiation

  15. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling down-regulates N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III expression: the implications of two mutually exclusive pathways for regulation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingsong; Akama, Ryota; Isaji, Tomoya; Lu, Yingying; Hashimoto, Hirokazu; Kariya, Yoshinobu; Fukuda, Tomohiko; Du, Yuguang; Gu, Jianguo

    2011-02-11

    In previous studies, we reported that N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III (GnT-III) activity and the enzyme product, bisected N-glycans, both were induced in cells cultured under dense conditions in an E-cadherin-dependent manner (Iijima, J., Zhao, Y., Isaji, T., Kameyama, A., Nakaya, S., Wang, X., Ihara, H., Cheng, X., Nakagawa, T., Miyoshi, E., Kondo, A., Narimatsu, H., Taniguchi, N., and Gu, J. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281, 13038-13046). Furthermore, we found that α-catenin, a component of the E-cadherin-catenin complex, was also required for this induction (Akama, R., Sato, Y., Kariya, Y., Isaji, T., Fukuda, T., Lu, L., Taniguchi, N., Ozawa, M., and Gu, J. (2008) Proteomics 8, 3221-3228). To further explore the molecular mechanism of this regulation, the roles of β-catenin, an essential molecule in both cadherin-mediated cell adhesion and canonical Wnt signaling, were investigated. Unexpectedly, shRNA knockdown of β-catenin resulted in a dramatic increase in GnT-III expression and its product, the bisected N-glycans, which was confirmed by RT-PCR and GnT-III activity and by E4-PHA lectin blot analysis. The induction of GnT-III expression increased bisecting GlcNAc residues on β1 integrin, which led to down-regulation of integrin-mediated cell adhesion and cell migration. Immunostaining showed that nuclear localization of β-catenin was greatly suppressed; intriguingly, the knockdown of β-catenin in the nuclei was more effective than that in cell-cell contacts in the knockdown cells, which was also confirmed by Western blot analysis. Stimulation of the Wnt signaling pathway by the addition of exogenous Wnt3a or BIO, a GSK-3β inhibitor, consistently and significantly inhibited GnT-III expression and its products. Conversely, the inhibition of β-catenin translocation into the nuclei increased GnT-III activation. Taken together, the results of the present study are the first to clearly demonstrate that GnT-III expression may be precisely regulated by the

  16. Three-dimensional FDTD Modeling of Earth-ionosphere Cavity Resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H.; Pasko, V. P.

    2003-12-01

    Resonance properties of the earth-ionosphere cavity were first predicted by W. O. Schumann in 1952 [Schumann, Z. Naturforsch. A, 7, 149, 1952]. Since then observations of extremely low frequency (ELF) signals in the frequency range 1-500 Hz have become a powerful tool for monitoring of global lightning activity and planetary scale variability of the lower ionosphere, as well as, in recent years, for location and remote sensing of sprites, jets and elves and associated lightning discharges [e.g., Sato et al., JASTP, 65, 607, 2003; Su et al., Nature, 423, 974, 2003; and references cited therein]. The simplicity and flexibility of finite difference time domain (FDTD) technique for finding first principles solutions of electromagnetic problems in a medium with arbitrary inhomogeneities and ever-increasing computer power make FDTD an excellent candidate to be the technique of the future in development of realistic numerical models of VLF/ELF propagation in Earth-ionosphere waveguide [Cummer, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., 48, 1420, 2000], and several reports about successful application of the FDTD technique for solution of related problems have recently appeared in the literature [e.g., Thevenot et al., Ann. Telecommun., 54, 297, 1999; Cummer, 2000; Berenger, Ann. Telecommun., 57, 1059, 2002, Simpson and Taflove, IEEE Antennas Wireless Propagat. Lett., 1, 53, 2002]. In this talk we will present results from a new three-dimensional spherical FDTD model, which is designed for studies of ELF electromagnetic signals under 100 Hz in the earth-ionosphere cavity. The model accounts for a realistic latitudinal and longitudinal variation of ground conductivity (i.e., for the boundaries between oceans and continents) by employing a broadband surface impedance technique proposed in [Breggs et al., IEEE Trans. Antenna Propagat., 41, 118, 1993]. The realistic distributions of atmospheric/lower ionospheric conductivity are derived from the international reference ionosphere model

  17. Experimental Investigation of Strength Variation of Subducting Slabs Crossing the 660km Discontinuity and Its Implications for Deep-Focus Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, S.; Green, H. W.; Jin, Z.; Zhang, J.

    2009-12-01

    The 660km seismic discontinuity corresponds, at least at lower temperatures, to the transition of the spinel phase of (Mg,Fe)2SiO4, ringwoodite, to (Mg,Fe)SiO3, perovskite (pv) + (Mg,Fe)O, magnesiowüstite (mw). The rheological properties of material above and below this discontinuity as well as the chemical/structural nature of the boundary itself play an important role for the understanding of deeply subducted slabs, the termination of deep earthquakes, mantle convection, post-glacial rebound, and other geodynamic processes. Although the rheology of olivine, the dominant upper-mantle mineral, has been extensively studied, knowledge about the rheological properties of the material near the 660km discontinuity, especially pv+mw is limited. It has been proposed (e.g. Ito and Sato, 1991; Karato et al, 1995) that decomposition of spinel to pv+mw leads to very fine-grained material that will be inherently weak and, making use of this kind of superplastic behavior, they interpreted the aseismicity, seismic anisotropy and other aspects of the lower mantle. However, the recent experimental results on a similar reaction (proxy reaction albite→jadeite+coesite) from Gleason & Green (2009) show that such decomposition reactions yield symplectites in which the apparent grain-size viewed in 2D is much smaller than the actual size of individual symplectites in which the two phases are complexly intergrown in 3D. They showed that such symplectites are in general not weak because the intergrown phases yield a strong composite material. Here we report a similar study in a more realistic analogue system: disproportionation of Co2TiO4 spinel into CoTiO3 ilmenite + CoO. We compare the strength of spinel with its dissociation product in detail through high pressure and temperature experiments in our 4 GPa piston-cylinder (Griggs) deformation apparatus in which the deformation can be well controlled, with accurate stress measurement. Our starting material, which is synthesized from

  18. Quantum Bio-Informatics II From Quantum Information to Bio-Informatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accardi, L.; Freudenberg, Wolfgang; Ohya, Masanori

    2009-02-01

    / H. Kamimura -- Massive collection of full-length complementary DNA clones and microarray analyses: keys to rice transcriptome analysis / S. Kikuchi -- Changes of influenza A(H5) viruses by means of entropic chaos degree / K. Sato and M. Ohya -- Basics of genome sequence analysis in bioinformatics - its fundamental ideas and problems / T. Suzuki and S. Miyazaki -- A basic introduction to gene expression studies using microarray expression data analysis / D. Wanke and J. Kilian -- Integrating biological perspectives: a quantum leap for microarray expression analysis / D. Wanke ... [et al.].

  19. Cross Sections for Planetary Escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tully, C.

    2001-05-01

    Energetic charged-particle bombardment, dissociative recombination and photodissociation processes produce energetic recoil atoms which heat the thermosphere and can lead to escape from a planet affecting the evolution of the atmosphere. In describing these processes by Monte Carlo methods, many of the critical cross sections are not available in the energy range of interest, a few eV to 1 keV. Here we present our recent results for elastic collision and collisional dissociation cross sections relevant to Titan, Triton, Europa and the terrestrial planets [1,2]. Elastic and diffusion cross sections were calculated using both quantum mechanical techniques and the semiclassical JWKB approximation for the collision of ground state oxygen atoms in the energy range 1-10eV [2]. This involved calculation of phase shifts for each of the 18 molecular energy states of O2 which separate to two ground state O atoms. For an O thermosphere the total elastic cross section is close to that typically assumed but the escape depths are shown to be larger than those typically used. Dissociation cross sections of N + N2 were calculated using a semiclassical method, in the energy range 0-30eV. This required treating the vibrational motion quantum mechanically while the rotational and the relative translational motion were treated classically. The evolution of the system was calculated by simultaneous propagation of the classical as well as the quantal degrees of freedom. The solution to the classical part was carried out by solving Hamilton equations of motion using an effective London-Eyring-Polanyi-Sato potential energy surface, calculated by Laganá et al [3]. Propagation of the quantal wavefunction was carried out by solving the time dependent Schrödinger equation using the split operator technique with the help of the fast fourier transform which was used to calculate the second derivatives arising from the kinetic energy operator. This work was supported by NASA's Planetary

  20. Synchrotron FT-IR analyses of microstructured biomineral domains: Hints to the biomineralization processes in freshwater cultured pearls.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldati, A. L.; Vicente-Vilas, V.; Gasharova, B.; Jacob, D. E.

    2009-04-01

    to identify and pre-select those pearls containing ACC. Infrared absorption spectra were measured using a Ge ATR objective on 100-200 ?m thin sections and polished pearl sections. Attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy gives the opportunity to measure the infrared absorption in a reflectance mode directly without necessity to apply Kramers-Kronig transformation. The spectral range available is 650-5000 cm-1when using a Ge ATR crystal with the MCT detector at the ANKA-IR microscope and allowed the detection of the ?4 in-plane bending band (around 750 cm-1 in vaterite and 710 cm-1 in aragonite), the ?1 symmetric stretching bands (1070-7085 cm-1 for vaterite4 and 1082-1084 cm-1 in aragonite5), the ?2 out-of-plane bending vibration of the CO3 groups (855 cm-1 for vaterite and 857-877 cm-1 in aragonite) and the ?3 asymmetric stretching (1420-1490 cm-1 in vaterite and 1480 cm-1 in aragonite) respectively (Sato and Masuda, 1969; Yamoto et al., 1974).Water was detected by the presence of the O-H stretching at around 3500 cm-1. Proteins and sugars included in the biogenic carbonates were recognized through the N-H and C-H bands, for example 1717-1575 cm-1 for aspartic acid, 1712-1558 cm-1 for glutamic acid, 1500 to 2000 cm-1 amide I and II (Dauphin et al., 2006). References WEHRMEISTER U., JACOB D.E., SOLDATI A.L., HÄGER T. & HOFMEISTER W. 2007. Vaterite in freshwater cultured pearls from China and Japan. The Journal of Gemmology; 31: 269-276. SOLDATI A.L., JACOB D.E., WEHRMEISTER U.& HOFMEISTER W. 2008. Structural characterization and chemical composition of aragonite and vaterite in freshwater cultured pearls. Mineralogical Magazine 72: 577-590. JACOB, D.E., SOLDATI, A.L., WIRTH, R., HUTH, J., WEHRMEISTER, U. & HOFMEISTER, W. 2008. Nanostructure, composition and mechanisms of bivalve shell growth. Geochimica et Coscmochimica Acta 72: 5401-5415. SATO M. & MATSUDA S. 1969. Structure of vaterite and infrared spectra. Z. Kistalography 129: 405-410. YAMAMOTO A, SHIRO Y

  1. Shallow Moho with aseismic upper crust and deep Moho with seismic lower crust beneath the Japanese Islands obtained by seismic tomography using data from dense seismic network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, Makoto; Obara, Kazushige

    2015-04-01

    . The Moho discontinuity deepens over 35 km in the collision zone like as Kanto Mountains, the volcanic underplating zone as the Tohoku backbone range, and non-tension region like as Chugoku Mountains. These regions associated with deep Moho are characterized by the crustal seismicity within the depth range from 20 to 30 km. The iso-depth contour of 35 km beneath the southwestern Japan is consistent with that derived from the receiver function method (Shiomi et al. 2006). There are nonvolcanic tremors and short-time slow slip events (SSE) beneath the southwestern Japan (eg. Obara, 2002). Matsubara et al. (2009) consider that the tremors and SSEs occur along the contact zone of Moho discontinuity beneath the Eurasian plate and the subducting Philippine Sea plate beneath southwestern Japan. Our Moho model is consistent with this since they exist along the southern edge of the Moho discontinuity of the continental Eurasian plate. Reference: Hirata, N., Sakai, S., Nakagawa, S., Ishikawa, M., Sato, H., Kasahara, K., Kimura, H. and Honda, R. (2012) A new tomographic image on the Philippine Sea Slab beneath Tokyo - Implication to seismic hazard in the Tokyo metropolitan region, EOS, Transactions, AGU, T11C-06. Kita, S., T. Okada, A. Hasegawa, J. Nakajima, and T. Matsuzawa (2010) Anomalous deepening of a seismic belt in the upper-plane of the double seismic zone in the Pacific slab beneath the Hokkaido corner: Possible evidence for thermal shielding caused by subducted forearc crust materials, Earth Planet. Science Lett., 290, 415-426. Matsubara, M. and K. Obara (2011) The 2011 Off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku earthquake related to a strong velocity gradient with the Pacific plate, Earth Planets Space, 63, 663-667. Matsubara, M., K. Obara, and K. Kasahara (2009) High-Vp/Vs zone accompanying non-volcanic tremors and slow-slip events beneath southwestern Japan, Tectonophysics, 472, 6-17, doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2008.06.013. Obara, K. (2002) Nonvolcanic deep tremor associated with

  2. Temporal and spatial variations of pulsating auroras obtained from ground-based observations at Poker Flat Research Range: Initial result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, T.; Sakanoi, T.; Miyoshi, Y.; Kataoka, R.; Katoh, Y.; Asamura, K.; Sato, M.; Okano, S.

    2011-12-01

    Pulsating Aurora(PA) is characterized by the periodically changing emission amplitudes with the rectangular pulses of a few seconds to a few tens of seconds [e.g., Oguti et al., 1981; Yamamoto, 1988]. PAs tend to appear in the recovery phase of substorm between postmidnight and dawn sector. The horizontal size of PAs are known to be 10-200 km, based on the optical observations. Recently, some ground-satellite coordinated observations suggested the generation mechanisms of PAs as a result of pitch angle scatterings due to whistler mode chorus waves and/or the electron cyclotron harmonics[Nishimura et al., 2010; Liang et al., 2010]. Time-varying field aligned potential was also suggested by Sato et al. [2004]. The dominant mechanisms and the origin of the periodicity remain unclear. Ground-based all-sky observations have been made for a long time, although they were not enough for a quantitative discussion about small-scale characteristics of PAs such as the shapes and dynamics due to their limited spatial resolutions. The fast temporal variations of intensity known as quasi-3Hz modulations, which was reported by a number of rocket/satellite observations about precipitating electrons[e.g., Sandahl et al., 1980], has been hardly discussed in detail using the ground instruments because of the limited temporal resolutions and sensitivities. We have carried out ground-based observations using a suit of instruments, consisting of an EMCCD camera, an all-sky video camera, a photometer, and a search coil magnetometer covering the frequency range of ELF-VLF. We installed the instruments at Poker Flat Research Range between November 2010 and March 2011. Our EMCCD camera has narrow field of view corresponding to 100km × 100km at altitude of 110 km and high sampling rate up to 100 frames per second. An initial analysis result of event on March 4th 2011 around 1100UT revealed two important features of PAs in small scale. One is PAs in the FOV can be categorized into three

  3. PREFACE: Ultrafast and nonlinear optics in carbon nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, Junichiro

    2013-02-01

    Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter staff for their help, patience and professionalism. Since this is a fast-moving field, there is absolutely no way of presenting definitive answers to all open questions, but we hope that this special section will provide an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding this topic. Furthermore, we hope that the exciting science and technology described in this section will attract and inspire other researchers and students working in related fields to enter into the study of ultrafast and nonlinear optical phenomena in carbon-based nanostructures. Ultrafast and nonlinear optics in carbon nanomaterials contents Ultrafast and nonlinear optics in carbon nanomaterialsJunichiro Kono The impact of pump fluence on carrier relaxation dynamics in optically excited grapheneT Winzer and E Malic Time-resolved spectroscopy on epitaxial graphene in the infrared spectral range: relaxation dynamics and saturation behaviorS Winnerl, F Göttfert, M Mittendorff, H Schneider, M Helm, T Winzer, E Malic, A Knorr, M Orlita, M Potemski, M Sprinkle, C Berger and W A de Heer Nonlinear optics of graphene in a strong magnetic fieldXianghan Yao and Alexey Belyanin Theory of coherent phonons in carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbonsG D Sanders, A R T Nugraha, K Sato, J-H Kim3, J Kono3, R Saito and C J Stanton Non-perturbative effects of laser illumination on the electrical properties of graphene nanoribbons Hernán L Calvo, Pablo M Perez-Piskunow, Horacio M Pastawski, Stephan Roche and Luis E F Foa Torres Transient absorption microscopy studies of energy relaxation in graphene oxide thin film Sean Murphy and Libai Huang Femtosecond dynamics of exciton localization: self-trapping from the small to the large polaron limit F X Morrissey, J G Mance, A D Van Pelt and S L Dexheimer

  4. How do aquifers respond to volcanic strain changes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strehlow, Karen; Gottsmann, Jo; Rust, Alison

    2015-04-01

    are two of the most important influences on the simulated hydraulic head change. Especially the elastic stratigraphy needs to be carefully considered when inverting signals: In certain elastic settings, the resulting hydraulic head change is of opposite sign than what would be expected from poroelastic theory for a homogeneous earth. The generic setups developed to study poroelastic responses to volcanic strain changes now also provide the platform to study reported real cases in more detail and test hypotheses for the observed changes in hydrological systems. Candidate volcanoes include Souffrière Hills Volcano (Montserrat), Unzen (Japan), Kilauea (Hawaii) and Hekla (Iceland). References: Matsumoto, N., Sato, T., Matsushima, N., Akita, F., Shibata, T., and Suzuki, A. (2002). Hydrological anomalies associated with crustal deformation before the 2000 eruption of Usu volcano, Japan. Geophysical research letters, 29(5):1057. Mogi, K. (1958). Relations between the eruptions of various volcanoes and the deformations of the ground surface around them. Bull. Earthquake Res. Inst. Univ. Tokyo, 36:99-134.

  5. PREFACE: 14th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilbao, Luis; Minotti, Fernando; Kelly, Hector

    2012-06-01

    These proceedings present the written contributions from participants of the Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP), which was held in Mar del Plata, Argentina, on 20-25 November 2011. This was the 14th session of the series of LAWPP biennial meetings, which started in 1982. The five-day scientific program of LAWPP 2011 consisted of 32 talks and various poster sessions, with the participation of 135 researchers from Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Puerto Rico, USA, Venezuela, as well as others from Europe and Asia. In addition, a School on Plasma Physics and a Workshop on Industrial Applications of Plasma Technology (AITP) were organized together with the main meeting. The five-day School held in the week previous to the meeting was intended for young scientists starting their research in Plasma Physics. On the other hand, the objective of the AITP Workshop was to enhance regional academic and industrial cooperation in the field of plasma assisted surface technology. Topics addressed at LAWPP 2011 included space plasmas, dusty plasmas, nuclear fusion, non-thermal plasmas, basic plasma processes, plasma simulation and industrial plasma applications. This variety of subjects is reflected in these proceedings, which the editors hope will result in enjoyable and fruitful reading for those interested in Plasma Physics. It is a pleasure to thank the Institutions that sponsored the meeting, as well as all the participants and collaborators for making this meeting possible. The Editors Luis Bilbao, Fernando Minotti and Hector Kelly LAWPP participants Participants of the 14th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics, 20-25 November 2011, Mar del Plata, Argentina International Scientific Committee Carlos Alejaldre, Spain María Virginia Alves, Brazil Ibere Caldas, Brazil Luis Felipe Delgado-Aparicio, Peru Mayo Villagrán, Mexico Kohnosuke Sato, Japan Héctor Kelly, Argentina Edberto Leal-Quirós, Puerto Rico George Morales, USA Julio Puerta

  6. Multiple paleotsunamis inferred from a single coral boulder (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, K.; Nakamura, N.; Sato, T.; Hisamatsu, A.

    2013-12-01

    Tsunami boulders are important geological evidence of paleotsunamis. Recent advance in field observation, laboratory analyses and numerical modeling on coastal boulders have greatly improved our knowledge regarding to their depositional process. For example, in the southern Ryukyu Islands, Japan, radiocarbon dating of many coral boulders were performed and the recurrence interval of the paleotsunamis was estimated [Araoka et al., 2013 Geology]. Their preferential distributions in specific area would also suggest local occurrence of tsunamigenic earthquakes [Goto et al., 2013 Geology]. These types of works can be conducted at the place where many boulders exist and any type of dating methods are applicable to estimate their depositional ages. On the other hand, there are many isolated boulders in the world and their depositional ages were sometimes uncertain. Therefore, it is highly required developing a methodology to use such isolated boulders not just to use it as evidence of paleotsunamis but to know more details such as timing and size of tsunami. In order to overcome this issue, we introduce an advanced methodology based on the paleomagnetism as well as the numerical modeling. Rocks possess a remanent magnetization parallel to the Earth's magnetic field at the time of rock formation. When boulders are rotated or overturned by the paleotsunami from their original locations, a new component of viscous remanent magnetization (VRM) is added on an original component parallel to the Earth's magnetic field. The VRM acquired at low temperature during a long time scale in nature can be demagnetized at high temperature in a short time in laboratory. Therefore, the demagnetizing (unblocking) temperature of VRM gives a transportation mode and also its timing for the transportation histories from a single boulder [Sato et al., 2013 AOGS abstract]. We applied this method to a large coral boulder at 10 m in elevation at Ishigaki Island, Japan, which was deposited around 2000

  7. From photoelectron detachment spectra of BrHBr{sup −}, BrDBr{sup −} and IHI{sup −}, IDI{sup −} to vibrational bonding of BrMuBr and IMuI

    SciTech Connect

    Manz, Jörn; Sato, Kazuma; Takayanagi, Toshiyuki Yoshida, Takahiko

    2015-04-28

    der Waals (vdW) bonded. In contrast, the energies E{sub XMuX,00{sup 0}0} of the light isotopomers XMuX(00{sup 0}0) are below the threshold for dissociation, with wavefunctions centered at the transition state. This means that XMuX(00{sup 0}0) are vibrationally bonded. This implies a fundamental change of the nature of chemical bonding, from vdW bonding of the heavy XHX, XDX to vibrational bonding of XMuX. For BrMuBr, the present results derived from experimental pds of BrHBr{sup −} and BrDBr{sup −} confirm the recent discovery of vibrational bonding based on quantum chemical ab initio calculations [D. G. Fleming, J. Manz, K. Sato, and T. Takayanagi, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 53, 13706 (2014)]. The extension from BrLBr to ILI means the discovery of a new example of vibrational bonding. These empirical results for the vibrational bonding of IMuI, derived from the photoelectron spectra of IHI{sup −} and IDI{sup −}, are supported by ab initio simulations of the spectra and of the wavefunction representing vibrational bonding of IMuI.

  8. Broad, Undulated Rift Structure Hidden Under Thick Sediment in the Niigata region, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiguchi, S.; Enescu, B.; Takeda, T.; Asano, Y.; Obara, K.

    2011-12-01

    Niigata area is part of a broader region, located in the central and north-eastern part of Japan, known for its high strain rates (Sagiya et al., 2000). The reverse fault system in the Niigata area may indicate present reactivation of an ancient rift structure formed in the Miocene, at the opening of the Sea of Japan (Sato, 1994). To have a detailed understanding of seismotectonics in the Niigata area, we have installed a dense temporary network of 300 seismic stations. Enescu et al. (2011) presented preliminary tomography results, using earthquake data recorded during intense observations. The present study uses an improved dataset and refined data processing to reveal the detailed velocity structure and accurate earthquake locations. The data consists of 1805 events that have 151,780 P-picks and 169,696 S-picks, recorded at 434 temporary and permanent seismic stations. We first use a JHD algorithm (Kissling et al., 1994) to determine an optimum 1D velocity structure and more accurate hypocenters (both used later as input for the tomography inversion). As a result of relocation, the hypocenters in the on-shore Niigata basin region are shifted upwards by ~3 km, while the off-shore events become shallower by as much as 10 km, in agreement with results obtained in previous studies (e.g., Kato et al., 2009). We next use the "tomoDD" software (Zhang and Thurber, 2003) to invert for the 3D velocity structure and relocate simultaneously the hypocenters. The horizontal and vertical grid spacing were of 5 ~ 10 km and 2 ~ 4 km, respectively. The obtained velocity model shows a wide and relatively low velocity (< 5.5 km/s for the P-wave velocity and < 3 km/s for the S-wave velocity) band extending in a NE-SW direction, which widens and narrows along its extent. The thickness of the low-velocity region varies from place to place and exceeds 8 km in some parts. We have constructed iso-velocity maps to better visualize the shape and depth extent of the low-velocity region. Such

  9. Hidden Rift Structure Beneath a Thick Sedimentary Basin in the Niigata Region, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, T.; Enescu, B.; Asano, Y.; Obara, K.; Sekiguchi, S.

    2010-12-01

    Niigata region is located in a high-strain-rate zone, along the easternmost margin of the back-arc basin of the Sea of Japan (Sagiya et al., 2000, Okamura et al., 1995). In this region, two M6.8 inland earthquakes with reverse fault type focal mechanism, having NW-SE compression, occurred in 2004 and 2007. The reverse fault system may indicate present reactivation of the rift structure formed as a result of normal faulting when the Sea of Japan opened in the Miocene (Sato, 1994). Therefore, imaging the spatial extent of the rift structure is important to reveal the seismotectonics and occurrence mechanism of inland earthquakes. To resolve the fine structure beneath the Niigata region, we have installed a dense temporary network of 300 seismic stations and performed a regional tomography analysis. The temporary seismic network was designed with a multi-scale station spacing of 3 to 5 km in and around the aftershock areas of the two large earthquakes, and of ~10 km for the surrounding region. The 3D velocity tomography analysis and relocation of earthquakes were performed using the tomoDD software (Zhang and Thurber, 2003). We used 777 events that occurred after the installation of the temporary network and 703 events that were recorded only by the permanent seismic network (Hi-net) before the temporary network deployment. The initial 3D velocity model was constructed by using the 3D shallow velocity structure provided by the “Japan Seismic Hazard Information Station” (J-SHIS; Fujiwara et al., 2009) of NIED. The horizontal and vertical grid spacing were of 5 ~ 10 km and 2 ~ 4 km, respectively. The tomography analysis enabled us to delineate the fine subsurface structure. The high and low velocity pattern corresponds well to the Bouguer gravity anomalies mapped in the region. The velocity model shows a wide and relatively low velocity (< 5 km/sec for the P-wave velocity) band extending in a NE-SW direction. The band widens and narrows along its extent. The

  10. Source scaling relationships of small earthquakes estimated from the inversion method using stopping phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imanishi, K.; Takeo, M.; Ito, H.; Ellsworth, W.; Matsuzawa, T.; Kuwahara, Y.; Iio, Y.; Horiuchi, S.; Ohmi, S.

    2002-12-01

    attenuation in the crust. This is consistent with the conclusion by Stork et al. (2002) inferred from the spectral analysis using the 800m deep borehole data. The average values of rupture velocity do not depend on earthquake size, and are similar to those reported for moderate and large earthquakes. We then calculate the seismic energy following Sato and Hirasawa (1973). The magnitude scaling of the apparent stress is almost constant in the analyzed events, ranging from 0.05 to 1 MPa. Since most of apparent stresses for large earthquakes are in the range of 0.1 to 10 MPa, there may be small differences in apparent stress between large and small earthquakes. However, it is likely that earthquakes are self-similar over a wide range of earthquake size and the dynamics of small and large earthquakes are similar from a macroscopic viewpoint.

  11. Precursory Seismic Activity Surrounding the High-Slip Patches of the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Hiratsuka, S.; Mori, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    The 11 March 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake (Mw9.0) occurred on the megathrust along the western margin of the Pacific Ocean where the Pacific plate is being subducted beneath the island of Honshu, Japan. The slip near the Japan Trench was estimated to be enormous; it averaged about 40 m over the upper 100 km of the megathrust and peaked at 60-80 m close to the trench (Lay et al., 2011; Ozawa et al., 2012; Iinuma et al., 2012). Nearly a thousand years are required to accumulate such a large slip for the convergence rate of 8-9 cm/yr along this plate boundary zone. Two days before the Tohoku-Oki earthquake, foreshock activity (largest event M7.3) occurred north of the main-shock epicenter. The epicentral area of the foreshock activity is similar to a M7.0 earthquake in 1981 (Shao et al., 2011). The question arises, why did the 1981 event not trigger a great earthquake? A time difference of 30 years is negligible in comparison with the long time required for the slip deficit of more than 40 m. In order to address this question, we investigated the seismic activity prior to the Tohoku-Oki earthquake using the earthquake catalogue compiled by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) since 1923. For the purpose of the present study, we independently determined the slip distribution of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake, using the coseismic displacements derived from the GEONET GPS stations on land (Ozawa et al., 2011) and those from the offshore GPS stations and ocean-bottom water pressure gauges (Sato et al., 2011; Iinuma et al., 2012). The slip distribution is characterized by two high-slip ( 20m) patches separated by a zone of relatively low slip. The peak of the northern high-slip patch is located near the trench while the peak of the southern high-slip patches are situated about 40 km southeast of the main-shock epicenter, about 70 km away from the trench. Combined with the analyses of main-shock rupture process by Ide et al. (2011) and Shao et al. (2011), it is estimated that the

  12. Long-Term Sun Climate Connections, Revealed by the Analyses of Historical and Other Proxy Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, K. D.; Yau, K.

    2004-12-01

    climate of China remained cold through the 19th century, as in the rest of the world, probably due to increased volcanic aerosol loading of the atmosphere [Sato, JGR 98, 22987, 1993]. The climate of China seems to have been warm during the Late 14th-Century Maximum (1350-1410). We have found only one Category 1 episode--in 1393. It then turned cold during the Sporer Minimum (1410-1590). Category 3 episodes occurred in 1453-54, 1493, 1513, 1569, and 1577-78. Lesser ones were also common. Some scientists suggest that the Little Ice Age actually began in the 13th Century, and is comprised of the Wolf (1280-1350), Sporer, Maunder, and Dalton Minima. It and the Little Climate Optimum make up a millennium-long cycle [Broecker, Natural History 101, 6, 4/1992]. The warm Classical Age and cool Dark Ages, the cold Iron Age (1st millennium BC), and warm Bronze Age (2nd and 3rd millennia BC) could be considered still earlier millennial cycles. These trends are generally consistent with carbon-14 deviations from its long-term variations. There is also some historical and archaeological evidence for the early trends, as rhinoceros and elephant herds were abundant along the Yellow River during the Shang dynasty (1600-1100 BC). The tropical fauna and flora have since disappeared, as North China gradually turned cold and arid. We conclude that the climate of China generally follows world trend. The major forcing seems to have been changing solar luminosity on a decadal to millennial timescale. Volcanic eruptions and changing ocean currents also frequently perturbed the climate.

  13. Re-examination of the original questionnaire documents for the 1944 Tonankai, 1945 Mikawa, and 1946 Nanaki earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Tomoya; Satake, Kenji; Furumura, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    With the object of estimating seismic intensity, the Earthquakes Research Institute (ERI) of the University of Tokyo performed questionnaire surveys for the significant (destructive or large/great) earthquakes from 1943 to 1988 (Kayano, 1990, BERI). In these surveys, Kawasumi (1943)'s 12-class seismic intensity scale similar to the Modified Mercalli scale (MM-scale) was used. Survey results for earthquakes after 1950 were well investigated and published (e.g. Kayano and Komaki, 1977, BERI; Kayano and Sato, 1975, BERI), but the survey results for earthquakes in the 1940s have not been published and original documents of the surveys was missing. Recently, the original sheets of the surveys for the five earthquakes in the 1940s with more than 1,000 casualties were discovered in the ERI warehouse, although they are incomplete (Tsumura et al, 2010). They are from the 1943 Tottori (M 7.2), 1944 Tonankai (M 7.9), 1945 Mikawa (M 6.8), 1946 Nankai (M 8.0), and 1948 Fukui (M 7.1) earthquakes. In this study, we examined original questionnaire and summary sheets for the 1944 Tonankai, 1945 Mikawa, and 1946 Nanaki earthquakes, and estimated the distributions of seismic intensity, various kinds of damage, and human behaviors in detail. Numbers of the survey points for the 1944, 1945, and 1946 event are 287, 145, and 1,014, respectively. The numbers for the 1944 and 1945 earthquakes are much fewer than that of the 1946 event, because they occurred during the last years of World War II. The 1944 seismic intensities in the prefectures near the source region (Aichi, Mie, Shizuoka, and Gifu Pref.) tend to be high. However, the 1944 intensities are also high and damage is serious at the Suwa Lake shore in Nagano Pref. which is about 240 km far from the source region because seismic waves are amplified dramatically in the thick sediment in the Suwa Basin. Seismic intensities of the 1945 Mikawa earthquake near the source region in Aichi Pref. were very high (X-XI). However, the

  14. Long-period Ground Motion Characteristics Inside and Outside of the Osaka Basin during the 2011 Great Tohoku Earthquake and Its Largest Aftershock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, K.; Iwata, T.; Asano, K.; Kubo, H.; Aoi, S.

    2013-12-01

    The 2011 great Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) occurred on March 11, 2011, and the largest aftershock (Mw 7.7) at the region adjacent to south boundary of the mainshock's source region. Long-period ground motions (1-10s) of large amplitude were observed in the Osaka sedimentary basin about 550-800km away from the source regions during both events. We studied propagation and site characteristics of these ground motions, and found some common features between these two events in the Osaka basin. (1) The amplitude of horizontal components of the ground motion at the site-specific period is amplified at each sedimentary station. The predominant period is around 7s in the bayside area where the largest pSv were observed. (2) The velocity Fourier spectra have their peak values around 7s at the bedrock sites surrounding the Osaka basin. (3) Two remarkable wave packets separated by 30s propagating from stations around the Nobi plain to the bedrock sites near the Osaka basin were seen in the pasted-up velocity waveforms from the source regions to the Osaka basin for both events (Sato et al., 2012). Therefore, large long-period ground motions in the Osaka basin are generated by the combination of propagation-path and basin effects. Firstly, we simulate ground motions due to the largest aftershock using three-dimensional FDM (GMS; Aoi and Fujiwara, 1999). The reason we focus on the largest aftershock is that this event has a relatively small rupture area and simple rupture process compared to the mainshock. The source model is based on the model estimated by Kubo et al. (2013). The velocity structure model is a three-dimensional velocity structure based on the Japan Integrated Velocity Structure Model (Koketsu et al., 2012) and the layer of Vs 350m/s in this model is replaced with one of Vs 500m/s. The minimum effective period in this computation is 3s. Then, we compare synthetic waveforms with observed ones. At CHBH14, the nearest station to the source and 60km away from the

  15. Seismic velocity structure around the shallow megathrust zone of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake deduced from onshore and offshore seismic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Obana, K.; Machida, Y.; Nakahigashi, K.; Shinohara, M.; Suzuki, K.; Ito, Y.; Hino, R.; Kodaira, S.; Kaneda, Y.; Murai, Y.; Sato, T.; Uehira, K.; Yakiwara, H.; Hirata, K.; Sugioka, H.; Ito, A.; Suetsugu, D.

    2012-12-01

    The coseismic rupture area of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake has been estimated to be over the wide region from the coastline to near the Japan Trench. Several kinds of studies, such as tsunami source inversion [e.g., Fujii et al., 2011], coseismic slip inversion [e.g., Ide et al., 2011], submarine topography change [Fujiwara et al., 2011] and seafloor displacement observation [Sato et al., 2011; Ito et al., 2011; Kido et al., 2011], share the common feature that the largest coseismic slip occurred at the shallow plate boundary in close vicinity to the Japan Trench. However, the structural image just beneath the largest coseismic slip area was unclear since the observation areas of previous ocean bottom seismographs (OBSs) in this region were limited and there were few OBSs near the Japan Trench [e.g., Yamamoto et al., 2011]. To understand the relationship between the coseismic rupture behavior and structural heterogeneities, it is necessary to know the seismic velocity structure around the plate boundary near the trench axis. After the occurrence of the 2011 earthquake, some National Universities (Hokkaido, Tohoku, Chiba, Tokyo, Kyushu, and Kagoshima), JAMSTEC, and Meteorological Research Institute together have conducted the aftershock observations along the landward slope of the Japan Trench to obtain detail hypocenter distribution [Shinohara et al., 2012]. Tohoku University has performed the other OBS observation off Miyagi prefecture from 2010 to 2011. During this observation, a sequence of foreshocks, the mainshock, and aftershocks of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake were recorded [Suzuki et al., 2012]. In addition, JAMSTEC has conducted the aftershock observation at outer slope of Japan Trench, around the epicenter of a Mw 7.6 earthquake that occurred about 40 minutes after the 2011 mainshock, from May to June in 2011[Obana et al., 2012]. In this study, we attempt to obtain the three-dimensional seismic velocity structure around the largest coseismic slip zone of the

  16. Development of an active wedge-thrust: A case study of the eastern boundary fault of the Echigo plain, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Naoko; Sato, Hiroshi; Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Abe, Susumu; Kawai, Nobuo

    2010-05-01

    The Niigata basin is located along the Japan Sea coast of the central Honshu and characterized by thick (max. 8 km) Neogene back-arc sediments and arc-parallel folds-and-thrusts. Thrust faults in the basement have generated devastative earthquakes, such as 1964 Niigata (Mw 7.6), 2004 Chuetsu (Mw 6.6) and 2007 Chuetsu-oki (Mw 6.6) earthquakes. Due to thick sedimentary cover, the relationship between active folding and source fault is poorly understood. We performed deep and shallow high-resolution seismic reflection profiling and discuss the development of active wedge-thrust in the eastern part of the Echigo plain, Niigata, Japan. Deep seismic data were acquired along a 70-km-long seismic line using air-guns and vibroseis trucks (Sato et al., 2009). Shallow high-resolution data was obtained by Mini-vib (IVI T15000) and 240 ch recording system (Kato et al., 2009). Subsurface geology was interpreted based on seismic sections, velocity profiles, surface geology and borehole data. The eastern boundary fault of the Echigo plain is an eastward dipping (40 degrees) thrust and its deeper extension clearly demonstrated down to 7 km in depth by velocity profiles showing a lower velocity zone at the foot wall and narrow east-dipping reflectors. The fault is a blind thrust and it becomes flat at the depth of 1 km and the detachment fault lies in the middle Miocene mudstone of the Teradomari Formation. At the toe of the thrust, a structural triangle zone has been developed associated with wedge thrusts and an anticlinorium. The shallow part (< 2 km) of hanging wall of lower detachment (main thrust) consists of mudstone and the wave length of folds in the hanging wall becomes smaller to the front of the thrust. Deformation of hanging wall is more intense at the thrust front. On the hanging wall of upper detachment, 1-km-thick fluvial sediments are widely distributed. The mechanisms of the concentration of strain at the intercutaneous wedge and formation of triangle zone is

  17. Photometric parameter maps of the Moon derived from LROC WAC images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, H.; Robinson, M. S.; Hapke, B. W.; Denevi, B. W.; Boyd, A. K.

    2013-12-01

    highlands (0.47×0.16). Since c controls the fraction of backward/forward scattering in H-G2, lower c for the maria indicates more forward scattering relative to the highlands. This trend is opposite to what was expected because darker particles are usually more backscattering. However, the lower albedo of the maria is due to the higher abundance of ilmenite, which is an opaque mineral that scatters all of the light by specular reflection from the its surface. If their surface facets are relatively smooth the ilmenite particles will be forward scattering. Other factors (e.g. grain shape, grain size, porosity, maturity) besides the mineralogy might also be affecting c. The angular-width of SHOE (hs) typically shows lower values (0.047×0.02) for the maria relative to the highlands (0.074×0.025). An increase in hs for the maria theoretically suggests lower porosity or a narrower grain size distribution [1], but the link between actual materials and hs is not well constrained. Further experiments using both laboratory and spacecraft observations will help to unravel the photometric properties of the surface materials of the Moon. [1] Hapke, B.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2012. [2] Sato, H. et al.: 42nd LPSC, abstract #1974, 2011. [3] Scholten, F. et al.: JGR, 117, E00H17, 2012. [4] Hapke, B.: Icarus, 221(2), p1079-1083, 2012.

  18. Reconstruction of the Gulf Stream since 1900 and correlation with the North Atlantic Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watelet, Sylvain; Beckers, Jean-Marie; Barth, Alexander; Ouberdous, Mohamed; Troupin, Charles

    2014-05-01

    Prevailing winds over the North Atlantic (NA) have a direct influence on the location and intensity of the Gulf Stream (GS) by the transfer of momentum between atmosphere and ocean. Therefore, the study of interannual variability of the GS requires the identification of sources of variability within the atmospheric circulation. Various studies have highlighted the impact of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on the variability of the GS transport. However, there is still no scientific consensus thereupon. On the one hand, several scientific papers (Sato & Rossby, 1995; Curry & McCartney, 2001; deCoëtlogon et al., 2006) exhibit a decrease of the GS transport during low NAO periods, as well as a higher transport during high NAO phases. On the second hand, studies of Gangopadhyay et al. (1992), Baringer & Larsen (2001) and DiNezio et al. (2009) suggest a lower transport during positive phases of the NAO. Finally, Chaudhuri et al. (2011) obtained a more complex conclusion, whereby the influence of the NAO is different upstream and downstream of Cape Hatteras. This currently limited understanding of the links between the NAO and the GS in NA, impels us to further analyze the spatial and temporal distribution of the GS. Our main purpose in this study is to reconstruct a spatially continuous field of ocean (sub)surface circulation in the NA from in situ time series of discrete steps, in order to accurately quantify the position and intensity of the GS since 1900. From there, we will be able to examine the correlation of this current with the NAO. To this end, we used the DIVA (Data-Interpolating Variational Analysis) tool, which is a numerical implementation of the variational inverse method (VIM) using the finite elements method to reconstruct continuous fields from discrete measurements. These measurements of temperature, salinity and currents since the beginning of the last century originate from several data bases, such as WOD (World Ocean Database, NOAA), Sea

  19. Improvement of Epicentral Direction Estimation by P-wave Polarization Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Mitsutaka

    2016-04-01

    records and applied no filtering. Further study on optimal type of filter and its application frequency band is necessary. In poster presentation, the results of aforementioned study shall be shown. [1] Flinn, E. A. (1965) , Signal analysis using rectilinearity and direction of particle motion. Proceedings of the IEEE, 53(12), 1874-1876. [2] Smart, E., & Sproules, H. (1981), Regional phase processors (No. SDAC-TR-81-1). TELEDYNE GEOTECH ALEXANDRIA VA SEISMIC DATA ANALYSIS CENTER. [3] Noda, S., Yamamoto, S., Sato, S., Iwata, N., Korenaga, M., & Ashiya, K. (2012). Improvement of back-azimuth estimation in real-time by using a single station record. Earth, planets and space, 64(3), 305-308. [4] Vidale, J. E. (1986). Complex polarization analysis of particle motion. Bulletin of the Seismological society of America, 76(5), 1393-1405. [5] Montalbetti, J. F., & Kanasewich, E. R. (1970). Enhancement of teleseismic body phases with a polarization filter. Geophysical Journal International, 21(2), 119-129.

  20. PHITS-2.76, Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    sections from evaluated nuclear data libraries JENDL-4.0 (Shibata et al 2011). For high energy neutrons and other particles, we have incorporated several models such as JAM (Nara et al 1999), INCL (Cugnon et al 2011), INCL-ELF (Sawada et al 2012) and JQMD (Niita et al 1995) to simulate nuclear reactions up to 100 GeV/u. The special features of PHITS are the event generator mode (Iwamoto et al 2007) and the microdosimetric function (Sato et al 2009). Owing to the event generator mode, PHITS can determine the profiles of all secondary particles generated from a single nuclear interaction even using nuclear data libraries, taking the momentum and energy conservations into account. The microdosimetric function gives the probability densities of deposition energy in microscopic sites such as lineal energy y and specific energy z, using the mathematical model developed based on the results of the track structure simulation. These features are very important for various purposes such as the estimations of soft-error rates of semi-conductor devices induced by neutrons, and relative biological effectiveness of charged particles. From version 2.64, Prompt gamma spectrum and isomer production rates can be precisely estimated, owing to the implementation of EBITEM (ENSDF-Based Isomeric Transition and isomEr production Model). The photo-nuclear reaction model was improved up to 140 MeV. From version 2.76, electron and photon transport algorithm based on EGS5 (Hirayama et al. 2005) was incorporated. Models for describing photo-nuclear reaction above 140 MeV and muon-nuclear reaction were implemented. Event-generator mode version 2 was developed. Relativistic theory can be considered in the JQMD model.

  1. Peridotite-pyroxenite intraplating near the continental Moho (Ivrea-Verbano Zone, Western Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berno, Davide; Tribuzio, Riccardo; Zanetti, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    addition, the pyroxenites locally show variable percentages of plagioclase, which produce a defined pyroxenite to gabbro magmatic layering. The whole sill is frequently crosscut by coarse-grained plagioclase-hornblende dykes. Chemical and isotopic data are currently in progress to define the geochemical signature of the primitive melts, their magmatic evolution and accurate intrusion timing. These information are expected to shed light on the process of continental crustal accretion and on the geodynamic evolution of the IVZ. References: Klötzli, U. S., Sinigoi, S., Quick, J. E., Demarchi, G., Tassinari, C. C. G., Sato, K., Günes, Z., 2014. Duration of igneous activity in the Sesia Magmatic System and implications for high-temperature metamorphism in the Ivrea-Verbano deep crust. Lithos 206-207, pages 19-33 Schaltegger, U., Ulianov, A., Müntener, O., Ovtcharova, M., Peytcheva, I., Vonlanthen, P., Vennemann, T., Antognini, M., Girlanda, F., 2015. Megacrystic zircon with planar fractures in miaskite-type nepheline pegmatites formed at high pressures in the lower crust (Ivrea Zone, southern Alps, Switzerland). American Mineralogist. Volume 100, Issue 1, Pages 83-94. Sinigoi, S., Quick, J.E., Demarchi, G., Peressini, G., 2010. The Sesia magmatic system In: Beltrando, M., Peccerillo, A., Mattei, M., Conticelli, S., Doglioni, C. (Eds.), Journal of The Virtual Explorer 36, 1-33. Zanetti, A., Mazzucchelli, M., Sinigoi, S., Giovanardi, T., Peressini, G., Fanning, M., 2013. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon Triassic intrusion age of the Finero Mafic Complex (Ivrea-Verbano Zone, Western Alps) and its geodynamic implications. Journal of Petrology 54, 2235-2265.

  2. History to the discovery of ghrelin.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Cyril Y

    2012-01-01

    classes, including peptides, partial peptides, and nonpeptides, and all probably act via the same receptor and cellular mechanisms. Generally, most GHRPs have been active by all routes of administration, intravenously (iv), subcutaneously (sc), orally, intranasally, and intracerebroventricularly (icv), which supports their possible broad future clinical utility. From evolutionary studies starting with the zebrafish, the natural receptor and hormone have been present for hundreds of years, underscoring the fundamental evolutionary and functional importance of the ghrelin system. GHRPs were well established to act directly on both the hypothalamus and pituitary several years before the GHS receptor assay (Howard et al., 1996; Smith et al., 1996; Van der Ploeg et al., 1998). Finally, the ghrelin chemical isolation and identification was accomplished surprisingly from the stomach, which is the major site but not the only site, for example, the hypothalamus (Bowers, 2005; Kojima et al., 1999; Sato et al., 2005). Ghrelin was isolated and identified by Kojima and Kangawa et al. in 1999. A primary action of GHRPs continues to concern GH secretion and regulation, but increasingly this has included direct and indirect effects on nutrition and metabolism as well as a variety of other actions which may be pharmacological and/or physiological. Possible continuing and expanding roles of this new hormonal receptor include the central nervous system as well as the cardiovascular, renal, gastrointestinal, pancreatic, immunological, and anti-inflammatory systems. Our basic and clinical studies have mainly involved effects on GH regulation and secretion and this relationship to metabolism. So far in our studies, the actions of GHRPs and ghrelin on GH secretion and regulation in rats and probably in humans have generally been the same. A current objective is the incorporation of ghrelin into the diffuse endocrine hormonal system especially via GH.

  3. A study of the earth radiation budget using a 3D Monte-Carlo radiative transer code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okata, M.; Nakajima, T.; Sato, Y.; Inoue, T.; Donovan, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the earth's radiation budget when data are available from satellite-borne active sensors, i.e. cloud profiling radar (CPR) and lidar, and a multi-spectral imager (MSI) in the project of the Earth Explorer/EarthCARE mission. For this purpose, we first developed forward and backward 3D Monte Carlo radiative transfer codes that can treat a broadband solar flux calculation including thermal infrared emission calculation by k-distribution parameters of Sekiguchi and Nakajima (2008). In order to construct the 3D cloud field, we tried the following three methods: 1) stochastic cloud generated by randomized optical thickness each layer distribution and regularly-distributed tilted clouds, 2) numerical simulations by a non-hydrostatic model with bin cloud microphysics model and 3) Minimum cloud Information Deviation Profiling Method (MIDPM) as explained later. As for the method-2 (numerical modeling method), we employed numerical simulation results of Californian summer stratus clouds simulated by a non-hydrostatic atmospheric model with a bin-type cloud microphysics model based on the JMA NHM model (Iguchi et al., 2008; Sato et al., 2009, 2012) with horizontal (vertical) grid spacing of 100m (20m) and 300m (20m) in a domain of 30km (x), 30km (y), 1.5km (z) and with a horizontally periodic lateral boundary condition. Two different cell systems were simulated depending on the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration. In the case of horizontal resolution of 100m, regionally averaged cloud optical thickness, , and standard deviation of COT, were 3.0 and 4.3 for pristine case and 8.5 and 7.4 for polluted case, respectively. In the MIDPM method, we first construct a library of pair of observed vertical profiles from active sensors and collocated imager products at the nadir footprint, i.e. spectral imager radiances, cloud optical thickness (COT), effective particle radius (RE) and cloud top temperature (Tc). We then select a

  4. A Kinematic Simulation for Quasi-static Stress Change in Southwest Japan: Effect of the Interplate Earthquake Cycle on the MTL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, A.; Ogawa, H.; Ishikawa, Y.; Ohno, Y.; Kato, S.; Si, H.; Fukahata, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Stress change caused by a great earthquake affects seismicity in the surrounding area, as shown by the fact that the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku Earthquake induced M6-7 earthquakes. In Southwest Japan, great interplate earthquakes along the Nankai trough (M~8) have occurred repeatedly with the interval of 100-150 years. In addition, there is a great active fault system, Median Tectonic Line (MTL), consisted of arc-parallel strike-slip fault segments, whose total fault length is about 360km. The occurrences of these earthquakes around the same time will wreak tremendous damage. This is a pressing problem, because the probabilities of earthquake occurrence within 30 years are estimated to be 70 % and 60 % for the next Tonankai and Nankai earthquakes, respectively. In the present study, we simulate the stress change in Southwest Japan in recent 440 years and evaluate the effect of interplate earthquake cycle on the MTL by change in the Coulomb Failure Function (CFF). We constructed a kinematic simulation model composed of the layered elastic-viscoelastic half-space with realistic 3-D geometry of the Eurasian-Philippine Sea plate interface (Hashimoto et al., 2004). The cause of stress change is essentially in kinematic plate interaction at plate boundaries, which is represented by the increase of discontinuity in tangential displacement across the plate interface (Matsu'ura & Sato, 1989). We can decompose the total slip motion on the plate interface into a steady slip over the whole plate interface and its perturbation, earthquake cycles. The long-term effect of steady subduction cannot be ignored, because it inevitably causes secular change in tectonic stress (Hashimoto et al., 2006). Assuming slip history at plate boundary based on the global plate motion NUVEL-1A (DeMets et al., 1994) and historical earthquake data, we calculated the stress accumulation due to steady subduction and the cyclic stress change due to earthquake cycle, respectively, by using quasi

  5. Geodetic Inversion Analysis Method of Coseismic Slip Distribution Using a Three-dimensional Finite Element High-fidelity Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agata, R.; Ichimura, T.; Hirahara, K.; Hori, T.; Hyodo, M.; Hori, M.

    2013-12-01

    Many studies have focused on geodetic inversion analysis method of coseismic slip distribution with combination of observation data of coseismic crustal deformation on the ground and simplified crustal models such like analytical solution in elastic half-space (Okada, 1985). On the other hand, displacements on the seafloor or near trench axes due to actual earthquakes has been observed by seafloor observatories (e.g. the 2011 Tohoku-oki Earthquake (Tohoku Earthquake) (Sato et. al. 2011) (Kido et. al. 2011)). Also, some studies on tsunamis due to the Tohoku Earthquake indicate that large fault slips near the trench axis may have occurred. Those facts suggest that crustal models considering complex geometry and heterogeneity of the material property near the trench axis should be used for geodetic inversion analysis. Therefore, our group has developed a mesh generation method for finite element models of the Japanese Islands of higher fidelity and a fast crustal deformation analysis method for the models. Degree-of-freedom of the models generated by this method is about 150 million. In this research, the method is extended for inversion analyses of coseismic slip distribution. Since inversion analyses need computation of hundreds of slip response functions due to a unit fault slip assigned for respective divided cells on the fault, parallel computing environment is used. Plural crustal deformation analyses are simultaneously run in a Message Passing Interface (MPI) job. In the job, dynamic load balancing is implemented so that a better parallel efficiency is obtained. Submitting the necessary number of serial job of our previous method is also possible, but the proposed method needs less computation time, places less stress on file systems, and allows simpler job management. A method for considering the fault slip right near the trench axis is also developed. As the displacement distribution of unit fault slip for computing response function, 3rd order B

  6. Chlorine-36 Production Rate Calibration by the CRONUS-Earth Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, F. M.; Marrero, S.; Stone, J. O.; Lifton, N. A.

    2012-12-01

    Among the cosmogenic nuclides commonly used for Quaternary geochronology and geomorphology (36Cl, 10Be, 26Al, 3He, and 14C), the production rate of 36Cl has proved particularly difficult to calibrate because of the multiple nuclear reactions that lead to its production (3 major reactions and 5 minor ones). Achieving a consensus on the production constants for 36Cl has therefore been a major emphasis of the NSF-funded Cosmic Ray Produced Nuclide Systematics on Earth (CRONUS-Earth) Project. The most suitable for 36Cl calibration of the sites sampled by CRONUS-Earth proved to be ignimbrites from Younger Dryas-correlative moraines near the Quelccaya Ice Cap in Peru, basalts from the similar-aged Tabernacle Hill flow in Utah, and granodiorite boulders on a similar-aged moraine at Baboon Lakes in the Sierra Nevada, California. Production rates were estimated by minimizing 36Cl concentration residuals, with production scaled between the sites using the recently developed Lifton-Sato formulation. The scaling parameters employed were cut-off rigidity of 0 GV, solar modulation parameter of 587.4 MV, and air pressure of 1013.25 hPa; production-rate parameters obtained using this scaling approach are not directly comparable to those previously estimated using alternative scaling methods. This approach yielded sea-level high-latitude production rates of 55±2 atoms 36Cl (g Ca)-1 yr-1, 157±5 atoms 36Cl (g K)-1 yr-1, and 704±140 neutrons (g air)-1 yr-1. The results from the minimization did not meet tests for statistical significance and therefore the parameter-rate uncertainties could not be determined directly from the calibration data set. An independent secondary data set consisting of 82 samples from 16 localities and compiled from 7 separate published studies was therefore employed for this purpose. Average deviations of calculated 36Cl ages from independently determined ages increased from about 10% for samples where 36Cl production was nearly all from spallation

  7. Proposal of benchmark to study hospital management sustainability.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Zaiken

    2008-07-01

    Well, regarding how I introduced this story today, I thought that I would have to add a new story due to the original request from Vice President Sato. There were other situations. The other day, Mr. Miyabayashi visited my office at the University of Shizuoka, he looked like lack of spirit. I asked him what was wrong. He told me that an incorporated foundation running a mental hospital consulted with him concerning rebuilding their mental hospital that was in practice in the town. It has been in business for a long time. When they opened business, the place was not a commercial center. However, the place is in the town now, so they would like to replace the old building with a new one. They have been running the hospital in the red for the last several years, so they were wondering how to rebuild the hospital under these conditions. Simply put, since the land price went up since the opening of business, they will sell the half of the land and rebuild a new building on the remaining land using the land money and loan from the bank. However, the top executives of the incorporated foundation have been replaced completely, and there are no people related to the owner family. Hired president and hired hospital director wished to rebuild with a gorgeous hospital. Then he sit up all night to write a draft of the down-to-earth hospital rebuilding plan because their future repayment would be deadlocked if they built such a gorgeous hospital. Then he brought the plan to them. However, his client became angry after reading it, and he was banned from the hospital. He felt depressed and visited me in Shizuoka. I have come to like the universal coverage health insurance system while studying hospital management sustainability. The universal coverage health insurance system in Japan is the envy of the world. It functions if there is a medical institution nearby when a citizen owning an insurance certificate becomes ill. Today, it is functioning, so citizens' satisfaction level

  8. Climate forcing growth rates: doubling down on our Faustian bargain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko

    2013-03-01

    vapor. The Alternative Scenario, defined in detail by Hansen and Sato (2004), keeps maximum global warming at ~1.5 °C relative to 1880-1920, under the assumption that fast-feedback climate sensitivity is ~3 °C for doubled CO2 (Hansen et al 2007). The Alternative Scenario allows CO2 to reach 475 ppm in 2100 before declining slowly; this scenario assumes that reductions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases and black carbon aerosols can be achieved sufficient to balance the warming effect of likely future decreases of reflective aerosols. Figure 4. Figure 4. Observed atmospheric CH4 amount and scenarios for twenty first century. Alternative scenario (Hansen et al 2000, Hansen and Sato 2004) yields maximum global warming ~1.5 °C above 1880-1920. Other scenarios are from IPCC (2001). Forcing on right hand scale is adjusted forcing, Fa, relative to values in 2000 (Hansen et al 2007). There are anthropogenic sources of CH4 that potentially could be reduced, indeed, the leveling off of CH4 amount during the past 20 years seems to have been caused by decreased venting in oil fields (Simpson et al 2012), but the feasibility of overall CH4 reduction also depends on limiting global warming itself, because of the potential for amplifying climate-CH4 feedbacks (Archer et al 2009, Koven et al 2011). Furthermore, reduction of atmospheric CH4 might become problematic if unconventional mining of gas, such as 'hydro-fracking', expands widely (Cipolla 2009), as discussed further below. The growth rate for the total climate forcing by well-mixed greenhouse gases has remained below the peak values reached in the 1970s and early 1980s, has been relatively stable for about 20 years, and is falling below IPCC (2001) scenarios (figure 5). However, the greenhouse gas forcing is growing faster than in the Alternative Scenario. MPTGs and OTGs in figure 5 are Montreal Protocol Trace Gases and Other Trace Gases (Hansen and Sato 2004). Figure 5. Figure 5. Five-year mean of the growth rate of climate forcing

  9. PREFACE: International Symposium on Non-Equilibrium Soft Matter 2010 International Symposium on Non-Equilibrium Soft Matter 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakatsu, T.; Matsuyama, A.; Ohta, T.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, S.

    2011-07-01

    , Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of Japan. We thank those who contributed to this symposium as well as members of the 'Soft Matter Physics' project for their valuable discussions and collaborations. Non-equilibrium soft matter contents Insights on raft behavior from minimal phenomenological models G Garbès Putzel and M Schick Dynamical membrane curvature instability controlled by intermonolayer friction Anne-Florence Bitbol, Jean-Baptiste Fournier, Miglena I Angelova and Nicolas Puff Numerical investigations of the dynamics of two-component vesicles Takashi Taniguchi, Miho Yanagisawa and Masayuki Imai Asymmetric distribution of cone-shaped lipids in a highly curved bilayer revealed by a small angle neutron scattering technique Y Sakuma, N Urakami, T Taniguchi and M Imai Hydration, phase separation and nonlinear rheology of temperature-sensitive water-soluble polymers Fumihiko Tanaka, Tsuyoshi Koga, Isamu Kaneda and Françoise M Winnik Morphology and rheology of an immiscible polymer blend subjected to a step electric field under shear flow H Orihara, Y Nishimoto, K Aida, Y H Na, T Nagaya and S Ujiie Surfactant-induced friction reduction for hydrogels in the boundary lubrication regime Kosuke Kamada, Hidemitsu Furukawa, Takayuki Kurokawa, Tomohiro Tada, Taiki Tominaga, Yukihiro Nakano and Jian Ping Gong Fabrication and structural analysis of polyrotaxane fibers and films Yasuhiro Sakai, Kentaro Ueda, Naoya Katsuyama, Koji Shimizu, Shunya Sato, Jun Kuroiwa, Jun Araki, Akira Teramoto, Koji Abe, Hideaki Yokoyama and Kohzo Ito Micellization kinetics of diblock copolymers in a homopolymer matrix: a self-consistent field study Raghuram Thiagarajan and David C Morse Hierarchical self-assembly of two-length-scale multiblock copolymers Gerrit ten Brinke, Katja Loos, Ivana Vukovic and Gerrit Gobius du Sart Kaleidoscopic morphologies from ABC star-shaped terpolymers Yushu Matsushita, Kenichi Hayashida, Tomonari Dotera and Atsushi Takano Direct and inverted nematic

  10. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnology in vivo Nanotechnology in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-04-01

    of nanoparticles in the tumour vasculature. However, previous reports on techniques to generate nanobubbles have either been slow or problematic due to the resulting development of cardiac dimension reduction, hypotension and tachycardia. Xing and colleagues have now demonstrated the use of polyoxyethylene 40 stearate, which is known to be biocompatible, degradable and non-toxic, as an alternative surfactant for generating nanobubbles. In the early 1980s scanning probe micrographs of nanosized features unleashed the power of imaging to push forward the science of structures and mechanisms at the nanoscale. The continued development of new and increasingly sophisticated nanoparticles and systems looks set to empower medicine in the same way, providing further means to exploit the mechanistic nature of biological organisms for better health and longevity. References [1] Leon R, Petroff P M, Leonard D and Fafard S 1995 Science 267 1966-8 [2] Nie Q, Tan W B and Zhang Y 2006 Nanotechnology 17 140-4 [3] Li L, Chen D, Zhang Y, Deng Z, Ren X, Meng X, Tang F, Ren J and Zhang L 2007 Nanotechnology 18 405102 [4] Fujioka K et al 2008 Nanotechnology 19 415102 [5] Shinoda K, Yangisawa S, Sato K amd Hirakuri K 2006 J. Cryst. Growth 288 84-6 [6] Manzoor K, Johny S, Thomas D, Setua S, Menon D and Nair S 2009 Nanotechnology 20 065102 [7] Hu R, Yong K-T, Roy I, Ding H, Law W-C, Cai H, Zhang X, Vathy L A, Bergey E J and Prasad P N 2010 Nanotechnology 21 145105 [8] Xing, Z, Ke H, Wang J, Zhao B, Yue X, Dai Z and Liu J 2010 Nanotechnology 21 145607

  11. Safety in GPR prospecting: a rarely-considered issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persico, Raffaele; Pajewski, Lara; Trela, Christiane; Carrick Utsi, Erica

    2016-04-01

    Optical Society of America Part A, vol. 19, n. 12, pp. 2424-2428, December 2002. [3] IAGC Land Geophysical Safety Manual, Int. Association of Geophysical Contractors, 2012. [4] Recommendations for the Safety of People and Instruments in Ground-Penetrating Radar and Near-Surface Geophysical Prospecting, R.Persico, A. Provenzano, C. Trela, M. Sato, K. Takahashi, S. Arcone, S. Koppenjan, L. Stolarczyk, E. C. Utsi, S. Ebihara, K. Wada, E. Pettinelli, L. Pajewski, EAGE, 2015.

  12. Active morphotectonics related to the upper crustal shortening in the back-arc of the Northeast Japan arc, based on geomorphic terrace deformation and elastic dislocation models for reverse faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soeda, Y.; Miyauchi, T.

    2009-04-01

    than 20 km. Applying the elastic dislocation model for reverse faults to the surface deformation patterns has clarified the deep geometry and slip rates of reverse faults beneath the Dewa Hills. Characterizing fault geometries beneath the Dewa Hills are east-dipping low-angle reverse faults stretching from the surface KTS to the bottom of seismogenic layer, with a shallower detachment and ramps. These deep-rooted east-dipping faults play an important role in the long wavelength deformation (defined as the major deformation unit) characterized by asymmetrical warping with uplift. The modeled east-dipping reverse faults are accompanied by west-dipping reverse faults on the hanging wall. These faults are characterized as relatively high-angle reverse faults accompanied by folds on the hanging wall side. The short wavelength deformation (defined as the secondary deformation unit) is strongly controlled by the shallow structure of reverse faults (flat and ramps at shallower depth). The delineated modeled fault geometries are in reasonably good agreement with, and provide a consistent explanatory framework for a variety of data describing the subsurface geologic structures, geologic history, longitudinal topographic profiles and co-seismic surface deformations in the back-arc. The 6.6-6.9 Ã- 10-8/yr strain rate and the 2.0-3.3 mm/yr of horizontal shortening in the back-arc are obtained by adapting elastic dislocation models to the surface deformation. Horizontal strain rates deduced from elastic dislocation models are comparable to the horizontal strain rate calculated by geological methods (Sato, 1989). The obtained strain rate indicates that considerable horizontal crustal shortening continued after 3.5 Ma and that the activity of reverse faults with high strain rates has morphotectonically promoted the uplifting of the Dewa Hills. The obtained values indicate that approximately 2-4% of the convergence rate of the Pacific plate (80-90 mm/yr) has accumulated in the upper

  13. Strong Coupling Gauge Theories in LHC ERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukaya, H.; Harada, M.; Tanabashi, M.; Yamawaki, K.

    2011-01-01

    conformal Higgs / Kazumoto Haba, Shinya Matsuzaki and Koichi Yamawaki -- Phase structure of topologically massive gauge theory with fermion / Yuichi Hoshino -- New regularization in extra dimensional model and renormalization group flow of the cosmological constant / Shoichi Ichinose -- Spectral analysis of dense two-color QCD / T. Kanazawa, T. Wettig and N. Yamamoto -- NJL model with dimensional regularization at finite temperature / T. Fujihara ... [et al.] -- A new method of evaluating the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking scale and the chiral restoration temperature in general gauge theories by using the non-perturbative renormalization group analyses with general 4-Fermi effective interaction space / Ken-Ichi Aoki, Daisuke Sato and Kazuhiro Miyashita -- The effective chiral Lagrangian with vector mesons and hadronic [symbol] decays / D. Kimura ... [et al.] -- Spontaneous SUSY breaking with anomalous U(1) symmetry in metastable vacua and moduli stabilization / Hiroyuki Nishino -- A new description of the lattice Yang-Mills theory and non-abelian magnetic monopole dominance in the string tension / Akihiro Shibata -- Thermodynamics with unbroken center symmetry in two-flavor QCD / S. Takemoto, M. Harada and C. Sasaki -- Masses of vector bosons in two-color QCD based on the hidden local symmetry / T. Yamaoka, M. Harada and C. Nonaka -- Walking dynamics from string duals / Maurizio Piai -- The quark mass dependence of the nucleon mass in AdS/QCD / Hyo Chul Ahn -- Structure of thermal quasi-fermion in QED/QCD from the Dyson-Schwinger equation / Hisao Nakkagawa -- Critical behaviors of sigma-mode and pion in holographic superconductors / Cheonsoo Park.

  14. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-08-01

    Abigail Alvarez OlarteCINVESTAV Alba Leticia Carrillo MonteverdeDCI-UG Alberto CarramiñanaINAOE Aldo MorselliFERMI Alejandro CastillaDCI-UG Alejandro IbarraTechnical University of Munich Alma D Rojas PachecoFCFM-BUAP Alma Xochitl Gonzalez MoralesInstituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM Andrew Walcott BeckwithAmerican Institute of Beam Energy Physics Ariadna Montiel ArenasDepartamento de Física, CINVESTAV Arnulfo ZepedaCinvestav Arturo Alvarez CruzInstituto de Fisica, UNAM Axel de la MacorraUNAM, IAC Azar MustafayevUniversity of Minnesota Benjamin JaramilloDCI-UG Vincent BertinCPPM-Marseille Carlos Alberto Vaquera-AraujoDCI-UG Carlos MuñozMadrid Autonoma U. & Madrid, IFT Carmine PagliaroneINFN, FNAL Carolina Lujan PeschardDCI-UG Christiane Frigerio MartinsUniversidade Federal do ABC-São Paulo Csaba BalazsMonash University David DelepineDCI-UG David G CerdenoUniversidad Autonoma de Madrid & Instituto de Fisica Teorica Debasish MajumdarSaha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata, India Dibyendu PanigrahiKandi Raj College, Kandi, Murshidabad, INDIA-742137 Dupret Alberto Santana BejaranoUniversidad de Sonora Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica Ernest MaRiverside U.C. Esteban Alejandro Reyes Pírez MontañezInstituto de Física, UNAM Federico Ortiz TrejoINSTITUTO DE ASTRONOMÍA - UNAM Francisco José de Anda NavarroUniversidad de Guadalajara González Alvarez Francisco JavierCINVESTAV-Depto. Física Gustavo Medina TancoICN-UNAM Hernando Efrain Caicedo OrtizInstituto Politecnico Nacional - IPN J D VergadosCERN & Ioannina U. James R BoyceJefferson Lab Jason SteffenFERMILAB Javier Montaño DomínguezDCI-UG Jeevan SolankiMandsaur Institue of Technology MP India Joe SatoSaitama University Jorge Luis Navarro EstradaUNAM-ICN and Universidad del Atlantico (B/quilla-Col.) Jose A R CembranosUniversity of Minnesota José DíazIFIC Jose Didino Garcia AguilarDepto. de Fisica. Cinvestav Keith OliveUniversity of Minnesota Konstantia BalasiUniversity of Ioannina, Greece Lilian Prado

  15. PREFACE: XII Latin American workshop on plasma physics (17-21 September 2007, Caracas, Venezuela)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puerta, Julio

    2008-10-01

    Deutsch, Ricardo Galvao, Carlos Hidalgo, Paulo Sakanaka, Konosuke Sato, Malcom Haines and Maher Boulos. The general feeling is that these mini-courses were very successful. As an original idea of Professor Ricardo Magnus Osorio Galvão, Director of Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, we saluted the creation of The Vladimir Tsypin Award to the best Poster in the meeting. This prize was presented by Professor Galvão in memoriam of Vladimir Semenovich Tsypin. It was suggested that the granting of this award be made in every meeting from now on. We think that it is very important to emphasise the mini-courses due to the necessity of increasing in the near future a better formation for our young scientists. The contributions of all the lecturers are greatly appreciated. We had the typical fields in plasma physics as in past meetings. We also appreciated very much the lectures of Professor Malcolm Haines, Professor Sergey Popel, Professor Claude Deutsch, and Professor Antony Peratt for their very interesting talks on the Z-Pinch recorded to prehistory. Special thanks again to these lecturers since they have joined and honoured our meetings in the past as well. As in the VII LAWPP, all the sessions of the workshop were held at the Universidad Simon Bolivar campus, located in the nice green Valley of Sartenejas near Caracas. We also appreciate the stimulus and the financial support that we have always had for the preparation of these workshops from our institution by means of its authorities: Professor Benjamin Sharifker (Rector), Professor Aura Lopez (Dean of Academic Activities), (Professor Jose Luis Paz (Dean of Research and Development), Professor Pedro Berrisbeitia (Dean of Postgraduate Studies) and Professor William Colmenares (Dean of Extended Activities). We must also mention and appreciate the collaboration of architect Alejandro Chataing Roncajolo as Secretary and Coordinator of the Congress, as well as the daily important collaborations of our students Anais M

  16. Antiradiation Vaccine: Technology Development- Radiation Tolerance,Prophylaxis, Prevention And Treatment Of Clinical Presentation After Heavy Ion Irradiation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava; Jones, Jeffrey

    Introduction: Research in the field of biological effects of heavy charged particles is necessary for both heavy-ion therapy (hadrontherapy) and protection from the exposure to galactic cosmic radiation in long-term manned space missions.[Durante M. 2004] In future crew of long-term manned missions could operate in exremely high hadronic radiation areas of space and will not survive without effective radiation protection. An Antiradiation Vaccine (AV) must be an important part of a countermeasures regimen for efficient radiation protection purposes of austronauts-cosmonauts-taukonauts: immune-prophylaxis and immune-therapy of acute radiation toxic syndromes developed after heavy ion irradiation. New technology developed (AV) for the purposes of radiological protection and improvement of radiation tolerance and it is quite important to create protective immune active status which prevent toxic reactions inside a human body irradiated by high energy hadrons.[Maliev V. et al. 2006, Popov D. et al.2008]. High energy hadrons produce a variety of secondary particles which play an important role in the energy deposition process, and characterise their radiation qualities [Sato T. et al. 2003] Antiradiation Vaccine with specific immune-prophylaxis by an anti-radiation vaccine should be an important part of medical management for long term space missions. Methods and experiments: 1. Antiradiation vaccine preparation standard, mixture of toxoid form of Radiation Toxins [SRD-group] which include Cerebrovascular RT Neurotoxin, Cardiovascular RT Neurotoxin, Gastrointestinal RT Neurotoxin, Hematopoietic RT Hematotoxin. Radiation Toxins of Radiation Determinant Group isolated from the central lymph of gamma-irradiated animals with Cerebrovascular, Cardiovascular, Gastro-intestinal, Hematopoietic forms of ARS. Devices for radiation are "Panorama", "Puma". 2. Heavy ion exposure was accomplished at Department of Research Institute of Nuclear Physics, Dubna, Russia. The heavy ions

  17. Special section on biomimetics of movement.

    PubMed

    Carpi, Federico; Erb, Rainer; Jeronimidis, George

    2011-12-01

    academia into commercialization. In conclusion, we hope that the selection of papers in this special section might help to provide readers with a balanced overview, through examples on the relevant fundamental aspects, materials, actuators, structures, controls and on their effective integration, in order to develop approaches which will be successful in 'taking inspiration from nature for systems that move'. References [1] Lienhard J, Schleicher S, Poppinga S, Masselter T, Milwich M, Speck T and Knippers J 2011 Flectofin: a hingeless flapping mechanism inspired by nature Bioinsp. Biomim. 6 045001 [2] Nakata T, Liu H, Tanaka Y, Nishihashi N, Wang X and Sato A 2011 Aerodynamics of a bio-inspired flexible flapping-wing micro air vehicle Bioinsp. Biomim. 6 045002 [3] Annunziata S, Paskarbeit J and Schneider A 2011 Novel bioinspired control approaches to increase the stiffness variability in multi-muscle driven joints Bioinsp. Biomim. 6 045003 [4] Merker A, Rummel J and Seyfarth A 2011 Stable walking with asymmetric legs Bioinsp. Biomim. 6 045004 [5] Rossi C, Colorado J, Coral W and Barrientos A 2011 Bending continuous structures with SMAs: a novel robotic fish design Bioinsp. Biomim. 6 045005 [6] Carpi F, Kornbluh R, Sommer-Larsen P and Alici G 2011 Electroactive polymer actuators as artificial muscles: are they ready for bioinspired applications? Bioinsp. Biomim. 6 045006.

  18. Mechanism of secular increasing of mean gravity in Northern hemisphere and secular decreasing of mean gravity in Southern hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yu. V.; Ferrandiz, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    velocity -2.54 mGal/yr, that have actually confirmed SG observations during 1995-1998: -2.4 mGal/yr (Sato et al., 2001). Amplitudes of an annual and semi-annual variations approximately make 4.8 mGal/yr and 0.8 mGal/yr (theoretical values: 4.2 mGal/yr and 0.95 mGal/yr). References Barkin Yu.V. (2002) Explanation of endogenous activity of planets and satellites and its cyclicity. Izvestia cekzii nauk o Zemle. Rus. Acad. of Nat. Sciences, Issue 9, December 2002, M.: VINITI, pp. 45-97. In Russian. Barkin Yu.V., Ferrandiz J.M. (2008) Phenomenon of secular increasing of mean gravity in Northern hemisphere and secular decreasing of gravity in Southern hemisphere; predictions and new confirmations. EGU General Assembly (Vienna, Austria, 13-18 April 2008). Geophysical Research Abstracts, EGU General Assembly 2008. Vol. 10, EGU2008-A-10506.

  19. Complexity and interdisciplinary approaches to environmental research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2013-03-01

    integration with assessments of current data gathering and 'big data' needs, and with wider socioeconomic questions of effective political, and policy response. Through that, dialog papers in ERL will be critically important to advancing not only climate science, but the interactive dialog between knowledge and action. References [1] Hansen J, Sato M and Ruedy R 2012 Perception of climate change Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 109 E2415-23 [2] Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact 2013 Turn Down the Heat: Why a 4 °C Warmer World Must be Avoided (Washington, DC: The World Bank) 1 The Kyoto Protocol was adopted on 11 December 1997 in Kyoto, Japan, and entered into force on 16 February 2005. As of September 2011, 191 states have signed and ratified the protocol. The United States signed but did not ratify the Protocol and Canada withdrew from it in 2011.

  20. Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Foundations of Quantum Mechanics in the Light of New Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishioka, Sachio; Fujikawa, Kazuo

    2009-06-01

    Committee -- Obituary: Professor Sadao Nakajima -- Opening address / H. Fukuyama -- Welcoming address / N. Osakabe -- Cold atoms and molecules. Pseudopotential method in cold atom research / C. N. Yang. Symmetry breaking in Bose-Einstein condensates / M. Ueda. Quantized vortices in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates / M. Tsubota. Quantum degenerate gases of Ytterbium atoms / S. Uetake ... [et al.]. Superfluid properties of an ultracold fermi gas in the BCS-BEC crossover region / Y. Ohashi, N. Fukushima. Fermionic superfluidity and the BEC-BCS crossover in ultracold atomic fermi gases / M. W. Zwierlein. Kibble-Zurek mechanism in magnetization of a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate / H. Saito, Y. Kawaguchi, M. Ueda. Quasiparticle inducing Josephson effect in a Bose-Einstein condensate / S. Tsuchiya, Y. Ohashi. Stability of superfluid fermi gases in optical lattices / Y. Yunomae ... [et al.]. Z[symbol] symmetry breaking in multi-band bosonic atoms confined by a two-dimensional harmonic potential / M. Sato, A. Tokuno -- Spin hall effect and anomalous hall effect. Recent advances in anomalous hall effect and spin hall effect / N. Nagaosa. Topological insulators and the quantum spin hall effect / C. L. Kane. Application of direct and inverse spin-hall effects: electric manipulation of spin relaxation and electric detection of spin currents / K. Ando, E. Saitoh. Novel current pumping mechanism by spin dynamics / A. Takeuchi, K. Hosono, G. Tatara. Quantum spin hall phase in bismuth ultrathin film / S. Murakami. Anomalous hall effect due to the vector chirality / K. Taguchi, G. Tatara. Spin current distributions and spin hall effect in nonlocal magnetic nanostructures / R. Sugano ... [et al.]. New boundary critical phenomenon at the metal-quantum spin hall insulator transition / H. Obuse. On scaling behaviors of anomalous hall conductivity in disordered ferromagnets studied with the coherent potential approximation / S. Onoda -- Magnetic domain wall dynamics and spin related

  1. PREFACE: Nonlinearity and Geometry: connections with integrability Nonlinearity and Geometry: connections with integrability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieslinski, Jan L.; Ferapontov, Eugene V.; Kitaev, Alexander V.; Nimmo, Jonathan J. C.

    2009-10-01

    -component dispersionless Boussinesq-type system. T E Kouloukas and V G Papageorgiou introduce a family of nonparametric Yang-Baxter maps obtained by re-factorization of matrix polynomials of first degree. These maps are Poisson with respect to the Sklyanin bracket, and their degenerations are connected to known integrable systems on quad-graphs. S V Manakov and P M Santini apply a novel version of the inverse scattering transform based on Lax pairs in multidimensional commuting vector fields to the heavenly and Pavlov equations, establishing that their localized solutions evolve without breaking, and constructing the long-time behaviour of the corresponding Cauchy problems. Discretizations of integrable geometric models depend heavily on the coordinates used. M Nieszporski and A Sym show how to discretize Bianchi surfaces (associated with an elliptic version of the Ernst equation) in arbitrary parametrization. C Rogers and A Szereszewski study the Bäcklund transformation for L-isothermic surfaces in the original Bianchi formulation. They establish a connection between this transformation and a nonhomogeneous linear Schrödinger equation and construct a class of generalized Dupin cyclides. W K Schief, A Szereszewski and C Rogers study a classical system of equilibrium equations for shell membranes. Various examples of viable membrane geometries lead to remarkable geometric configurations such as generalized Dupin cyclides and L-minimal surfaces. A Sergyeyev constructs infinite hierarchies of nonlocal higher symmetries for the oriented associativity equations using the spectral problem. The hierarchies in question generalize those constructed by Chen, Kontsevich and Schwarz for the WDVV equations. J Shiraishi and Y Tutiya study an integro-differential equation which generalizes the periodic intermediate long wave equation. The kernel of the singular integral involved is a second order difference of the Weierstrass ζ-function. Using Sato's formulation, the authors

  2. Is 2-D turbulence relevant in the atmosphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovejoy, Shaun; Schertzer, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    argue that now exactly such a reinterpretation of the aircraft data has been found (Lovejoy et al., 2009b). We argue that the debate has now been decisively resolved in favour of the SP approaches so that neither 2-D isotropic nor 3D isotropic turbulence - are relevant in the atmosphere. References: J.G. Charney, Geostrophic Turbulence, J. Atmos. Sci 28(1971), p. 1087. J. Cho and E. Lindborg, Horizontal velocity structure functions in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere i: Observations, J. Geophys. Res. 106(2001), pp. 10223-10232. E. Dewan, Saturated-cascade similtude theory of gravity wave sepctra, J. Geophys. Res. 102(1997), pp. 29799-29817. R. Fjortoft, On the changes in the spectral distribution of kinetic energy in two dimensional, nondivergent flow, Tellus 7(1953), pp. 168-176. D. Fritts, T. Tsuda, T. Sato, S. Fukao and S. Kato, Observational evidence of a saturated gravity wave spectrum in the troposphere and lower stratosphere, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 45(1988), p. 1741. K.S. Gage and G.D. Nastrom, Theoretical Interpretation of atmospheric wavenumber spectra of wind and temperature observed by commercial aircraft during GASP, J. of the Atmos. Sci. 43(1986), pp. 729-740. C.S. Gardner, C.A. Hostetler and S.J. Franke, Gravity Wave models for the horizontal wave number spectra of atmospheric velocity and density flucutations, J. Geophys. Res. 98(1993), pp. 1035-1049. C.A. Hostetler and C.S. Gardner, Observations of horizontal and vertical wave number spectra of gravity wave motions in the stratosphere and mesosphere ove rthe mid-Pacific, J. Geophys. Res. 99(1994), pp. 1283-1302. A.N. Kolmogorov, Local structure of turbulence in an incompressible liquid for very large Reynolds numbers. (English translation: Proc. Roy. Soc. A434, 9-17, 1991), Proc. Acad. Sci. URSS., Geochem. Sect. 30(1941), pp. 299-303. R.H. Kraichnan, Inertial ranges in two-dimensional turbulence, Physics of Fluids 10(1967), pp. 1417-1423. A. Lazarev, D. Schertzer, S. Lovejoy and

  3. The First 24 Years of Reverse Monte Carlo Modelling, Budapest, Hungary, 20-22 September 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keen, David A.; Pusztai, László

    2013-11-01

    -ray scattering and modeling studiesL Hawelek, A Brodka, J C Dore, V Honkimaki and A Burian Local structure correlations in plastic cyclohexane—a reverse Monte Carlo studyNicholas P Funnell, Martin T Dove, Andrew L Goodwin, Simon Parsons and Matthew G Tucker Neutron powder diffraction and molecular dynamics study of superionic SrBr2S Hull, S T Norberg, S G Eriksson and C E Mohn Atomic order and cluster energetics of a 17 wt% Si-based glass versus the liquid phaseG S E Antipas, L Temleitner, K Karalis, L Pusztai and A Xenidis Total scattering analysis of cation coordination and vacancy pair distribution in Yb substituted Ō-Bi2O3G S E Antipas, L Temleitner, K Karalis, L Pusztai and A Xenidis Modification of the sampling algorithm for reverse Monte Carlo modeling with an insufficient data setSatoshi Sato and Kenji Maruyama The origin of diffuse scattering in crystalline carbon tetraiodideTemleitner and L Pusztai Silver environment and covalent network rearrangement in GeS3-Ag glassesL Rátkai, I Kaban, T Wágner, J Kolár, S Valková, Iva Voleská, B Beuneu and P Jóvári Reverse Monte Carlo study of spherical sample under non-periodic boundary conditions: the structure of Ru nanoparticles based on x-ray diffraction dataOrsolya Gereben and Valeri Petkov Total neutron scattering investigation of the structure of a cobalt gallium oxide spinel prepared by solvothermal oxidation of gallium metalHelen Y Playford, Alex C Hannon, Matthew G Tucker, Martin R Lees and Richard I Walton The structure of water in solutions containing di- and trivalent cations by empirical potential structure refinementDaniel T Bowron and Sofia Díaz Moreno The proton conducting electrolyte BaTi0.5In0.5O2.75: determination of the deuteron site and its local environmentStefan T Norberg, Seikh M H Rahman, Stephen Hull, Christopher S Knee and Sten G Eriksson Acidic properties of aqueous phosphoric acid solutions: a microscopic viewI Harsányi, L Pusztai, P Jóvári and B Beuneu Comparison of the atomic level

  4. EDITORIAL: Focus on Iron-Based Superconductors FOCUS ON IRON-BASED SUPERCONDUCTORS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosono, Hideo; Ren, Zhi-An

    2009-02-01

    Elastic theory for the vortex-lattice melting in iron-based high-Tc superconductors Q-H Chen, Q-M Nie, J-P Lv and T-C Au Yeung Electronic properties of LaO1-xFxFeAs in the normal state probed by NMR/NQR H-J Grafe, G Lang, F Hammerath, D Paar, K Manthey, K Koch, H Rosner, N J Curro, G Behr, J Werner, N Leps, R Klingeler, H-H Klauss, F J Litterst and B Büchner AFe2As2 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba, Eu) and SrFe2-xTMxAs2 (TM = Mn, Co, Ni): crystal structure, charge doping, magnetism and superconductivity Deepa Kasinathan, Alim Ormeci, Katrin Koch, Ulrich Burkhardt, Walter Schnelle, Andreas Leithe-Jasper and Helge Rosner Impurity states in a family of antiferromagnetic iron arsenides Qiang Han and Z D Wang Coherence-incoherence crossover in the normal state of iron oxypnictides and importance of Hund's rule coupling K Haule and G Kotliar Electronic structure of heavily electron-doped BaFe1.7Co0.3As2 studied by angle-resolved photoemission Y Sekiba, T Sato, K Nakayama, K Terashima, P Richard, J H Bowen, H Ding, Y-M Xu, L J Li, G H Cao, Z-A Xu and T Takahashi Absorption and photoemission spectroscopy of rare-earth oxypnictides T Kroll, F Roth, A Koitzsch, R Kraus, D R Batchelor, J Werner, G Behr, B Büchner and M Knupfer Superconductivity in LnFePO (Ln = La, Pr and Nd) single crystals R E Baumbach, J J Hamlin, L Shu, D A Zocco, N M Crisosto and M B Maple Unconventional pairing originating from disconnected Fermi surfaces in the iron-based superconductor Kazuhiko Kuroki, Seiichiro Onari, Ryotaro Arita, Hidetomo Usui, Yukio Tanaka, Hiroshi Kontani and Hideo Aoki Near-degeneracy of several pairing channels in multiorbital models for the Fe pnictides S Graser, T A Maier, P J Hirschfeld and D J Scalapino Investigation of superconducting gap structure in TbFeAsO0.9F0.1 using point contact Andreev reflection K A Yates, K Morrison, J A Rodgers, G B S Penny, J-W G Bos, J P Attfield and L F Cohen Competition of magnetism and superconductivity in underdoped (Ba1-xKx)Fe2As2 Marianne Rotter, Marcus

  5. FOREWORD: Special section on electromagnetic characterization of buried obstacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesselier, Dominique; Chew, Weng Cho

    2004-12-01

    laboratory data that emulate buried objects in the ocean and where the data are very limited and the environment is highly attenuative. The forward model is employed with an integral equation approach. The inverse scattering algorithm uses the level set method as well as a binary specialized contrast source method. Though computationally intensive these approaches are expected to be effective whenever linearization of the inversion fails. Two types of antennae were tested out in the experiment, a small one and a larger one. It is found, in particular, that the smaller antenna reproduces the modelled result better than the larger one. • X Feng and M Sato, in `Pre-stack migration applied to GPR for landmine detection', investigate the testing of a ground penetrating radar with synthetic aperture, acquiring mid-point multi-offset data in the demanding situations (strong clutter) of inhomogeneous soil and rough ground and/or of steeply oblique landmines. This is done in practice with experimental data, and is thoroughly illustrated by numerical experiments in the framework of migration techniques. These techniques are tailored to provide an approximate but robust solution to the highly involved three-dimensional vector wave-field inversion problem which is relevant here. • A Kirsch, in `The factorization method for Maxwell's equations', shows how the theory of the recently introduced and much considered factorization method can be developed in a sound theoretical fashion for the time-harmonic three-dimensional Maxwell system when far-field scattering patterns are known—by constructing a binary criterion which tells whether, if a given point lies inside or outside an unknown obstacle, the shape of which is to be retrieved. The vector nature of the electromagnetic field is fully considered in this paper. This is investigated in depth both for a lossy obstacle (with lower-bounded imaginary part of the dielectric permittivity) and for a lossless one (albeit with smoothly