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Sample records for hussar tetsuji sato

  1. Information about Tests from Sato's S-P Chart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinero, Thomas E.; Blixt, Sonia L.

    1988-01-01

    Takahiro Sato, a Japanese engineer, has developed a method to study the composition of an objective test by finding out how individual students are responding to the test's items and by summarizing this information in a single index. The Student-Problem Chart is discussed. (MLW)

  2. An Initial Look at the Validity of Diagnoses Based on Sato's Caution Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blixt, Sonya L.; Dinero, Thomas E.

    1985-01-01

    Sato's Caution Index is a method of analyzing item response patterns independently of total test score to provide diagnostic information about students. This research supports the validity of the diagnostic interpretations of the Index when compared to graduate students' self evaluation. (Author/BS)

  3. Monochromatic observations of Comet Tago-Sato-Kosaka 1969g /1969IX/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahe, J.; Mccracken, C. M.; Hallam, K. L.; Donn, B. D.

    1976-01-01

    Isophotes have been determined from 10 narrow-band filter photographs of Comet Tago-Sato-Kosaka 1969g (1969IX) taken between Feb. 11 and 14, 1970. The five interference filters used were centered on the CN band sequence at 3383A, the C2 band sequence at 4737A and 5165A, the C3 sequence at 4050A, and the continuum at 5300A. Gradients of intensity in various directions from the nucleus have been derived from the isophotes.

  4. Bifurcations, chaos, and sensitivity to parameter variations in the Sato cardiac cell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otte, Stefan; Berg, Sebastian; Luther, Stefan; Parlitz, Ulrich

    2016-08-01

    The dynamics of a detailed ionic cardiac cell model proposed by Sato et al. (2009) is investigated in terms of periodic and chaotic action potentials, bifurcation scenarios, and coexistence of attractors. Starting from the model's standard parameter values bifurcation diagrams are computed to evaluate the model's robustness with respect to (small) parameter changes. While for some parameters the dynamics turns out to be practically independent from their values, even minor changes of other parameters have a very strong impact and cause qualitative changes due to bifurcations or transitions to coexisting attractors. Implications of this lack of robustness are discussed.

  5. The Lyman-alpha image of comet Tago-Sato-Kosaka /1969g/.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, E. B.; Wingert, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    An f/2 objective-grating spectrograph aboard an Aerobee rocket recorded a faint image of Comet Tago-Sato-Kosaka (1969g) in L-alpha emission. Some sharpening of the image and reduction of film grain noise was accomplished by multiplying the picture's Fourier transform by an optimum filter function. After this processing, which was carried out digitally, the L-alpha comet image appeared as a nearly circularly symmetric diffuse glow approximately 800,000 km in diameter. There was also the suggestion of a faintly visible core of emission whose dimensions are less than 100,000 km. The sublimation of ice in the nucleus of the comet and the subsequent dissociation of the free water molecules by sunlight could produce a large cloud of hydrogen atoms around the comet. Resonant reradiation of solar L-alpha emission by this cloud is probably responsible for the most of the observed emission.

  6. Use of Sato's curved laryngoscope and an insulated-tip knife for endoscopic incisional therapy of esophageal web

    PubMed Central

    Ohtaka, Masahiko; Kobayashi, Shouji; Yoshida, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Tatsuya; Uetake, Tomoyosi; Sato, Tadashi; Hayashi, Akira; Kanai, Mari; Yamamoto, Takanori; Hatsushika, Kyosuke; Masuyama, Keisuke; Enomoto, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    We experienced two cases of esophageal web accompanying severe stricture that were treated by endoscopic incisions with an insulated-tip knife (IT-knife). With attention paid to the mucosa at the stricture, the lesion was incised with an IT-knife without complications. Sato's curved laryngoscope was used even in cervical esophageal lesions and an excellent field was secured. PMID:25131450

  7. Two new species of Ergasilus Nordmann, 1832 (Copepoda: Ergasilidae) and a redescription of Ergasilus salmini Thatcher & Brazil-Sato, 2008 from Salminus brasiliensis Cuvier and S. franciscanus Lima & Britsky (Teleostei: Characidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marques, Taísa Mendes; Boeger, Walter A; de Carvalho Brasil-Sato, Marília

    2015-01-01

    Three species of Ergasilus Nordmann, 1832 are reported from the gills of Salminus spp. in Brazil. Ergasilus salmini Thatcher & Brazil-Sato, 2008 from Salminus brasiliensis Cuvier is redescribed, based on examination of paratypes. The study revealed morphological differences from the original description, especially in the morphology of the cephalothorax and the ornamentation of antenna, antennule and legs. Ergasilus lacusauratus n. sp. described from S. brasiliensis in lake Lagoa Dourada (Paraná) differs from the only known species from this host group, E. salmini, in the shape and size of the cephalothorax and the general morphology of the egg-sacs. Ergasilus sinefalcatus n. sp. from S. franciscanus Lima & Britsky in River São Francisco (Minas Gerais) closely resembles E. pitalicus, E. coatiarus and E. leporinidis in the lack of a pectinate seta on the first exopodal segment, a feature common in species of Ergasilus in the Neotropics. Ergasilus sinefalcatus n. sp. differs from these species in the presence of a spiniform process on the coxae of legs 2, 3 and 4, an ornament never reported from freshwater species of Ergasilus in South America. PMID:25557749

  8. Two new species of Ergasilus Nordmann, 1832 (Copepoda: Ergasilidae) and a redescription of Ergasilus salmini Thatcher & Brazil-Sato, 2008 from Salminus brasiliensis Cuvier and S. franciscanus Lima & Britsky (Teleostei: Characidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marques, Taísa Mendes; Boeger, Walter A; de Carvalho Brasil-Sato, Marília

    2015-01-01

    Three species of Ergasilus Nordmann, 1832 are reported from the gills of Salminus spp. in Brazil. Ergasilus salmini Thatcher & Brazil-Sato, 2008 from Salminus brasiliensis Cuvier is redescribed, based on examination of paratypes. The study revealed morphological differences from the original description, especially in the morphology of the cephalothorax and the ornamentation of antenna, antennule and legs. Ergasilus lacusauratus n. sp. described from S. brasiliensis in lake Lagoa Dourada (Paraná) differs from the only known species from this host group, E. salmini, in the shape and size of the cephalothorax and the general morphology of the egg-sacs. Ergasilus sinefalcatus n. sp. from S. franciscanus Lima & Britsky in River São Francisco (Minas Gerais) closely resembles E. pitalicus, E. coatiarus and E. leporinidis in the lack of a pectinate seta on the first exopodal segment, a feature common in species of Ergasilus in the Neotropics. Ergasilus sinefalcatus n. sp. differs from these species in the presence of a spiniform process on the coxae of legs 2, 3 and 4, an ornament never reported from freshwater species of Ergasilus in South America.

  9. Erratum: Water Science and Technology 72 (7): Development of a new wastewater treatment process for resource recovery of carotenoids, H. Sato, H. Nagare, T. N. C. Huynh and H. Komatsu, doi: 10.2166/wst.2015.330.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    A new wastewater treatment process that involves coagulation, ozonation, and microalgae cultivation has been developed. Here, two challenges are discussed. The first was minimizing phosphorus removal during coagulation in order to maximize algal production. The second was to optimize microalgae cultivation; algal species that grow rapidly and produce valuable products are ideal for selection. Haematococcus pluvialis, which produces the carotenoid astaxanthin, was used. Growth rate, nutrient removal ability, and astaxanthin production of H. pluvialis in coagulated wastewater were investigated. After coagulation with chitosan, the turbidity and suspended solids decreased by 89% ± 8% and 73% ± 16%, respectively. The nitrogen and phosphorus contents of the supernatant remained at 86% ± 6% and 67% ± 24%, respectively. These results indicate that coagulation with chitosan can remove turbidity and SS while preserving nutrients. H. pluvialis grew well in the supernatant of coagulated wastewater. The astaxanthin yield from coagulated wastewater in which microalgae were cultured was 3.26 mg/L, and total phosphorus and nitrogen contents decreased 99% ± 1% and 90% ± 8% (Days 31-35), respectively. PMID:27508383

  10. 75 FR 28853 - Quarterly Publication of Individuals, Who Have Chosen To Expatriate, as Required by Section 6039G

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ... WONG ESTHER KA-LING WONG KAR WING CLARA WU KUNHER YOSHIKAWA TETSUJI YU HENRY C F YU COLLEEN M Dated...-JOHANNESSEN THOMAS ROBINSON NAN RUSSELL ROTTMANN THOMAS C. K. ROUSSEAU LOUISA WONG RUFER DANIEL HANS SABA... TRABAND ELEONORE A TSAI JOSEPH T TSE KEVIN WING KIN TSUI EDWARD KA HING VILLEVIEILLE JEAN-LUC WAI NELSON...

  11. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasma Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morfill, G. E.; Kong, M. G.; Zimmermann, J. L.

    2009-11-01

    -pressure microwave plasmas in an N2 and O2 gas mixture M K Singh, A Ogino and M Nagatsu Degradation of adhesion molecules of G361 melanoma cells by a non-thermal atmospheric pressure microplasma H J Lee, C H Shon, Y S Kim, S Kim, G C Kim and M G Kong The acidification of lipid film surfaces by non-thermal DBD at atmospheric pressure in air A Helmke, D Hoffmeister, N Mertens, S Emmert, J Schuette and W Vioel Reduction and degradation of amyloid aggregates by a pulsed radio-frequency cold atmospheric plasma jet D L Bayliss, J L Walsh, G Shama, F Iza and M G Kong The effect of low-temperature plasma on bacteria as observed by repeated AFM imaging René Pompl, Ferdinand Jamitzky, Tetsuji Shimizu, Bernd Steffes, Wolfram Bunk, Hans-Ulrich Schmidt, Matthias Georgi, Katrin Ramrath, Wilhelm Stolz, Robert W Stark, Takuya Urayama, Shuitsu Fujii and Gregor Eugen Morfill Removal and sterilization of biofilms and planktonic bacteria by microwave-induced argon plasma at atmospheric pressure Mi Hee Lee, Bong Joo Park, Soo Chang Jin, Dohyun Kim, Inho Han, Jungsung Kim, Soon O Hyun, Kie-Hyung Chung and Jong-Chul Park Cell permeabilization using a non-thermal plasma M Leduc, D Guay, R L Leask and S Coulombe Physical and biological mechanisms of direct plasma interaction with living tissue Danil Dobrynin, Gregory Fridman, Gary Friedman and Alexander Fridman Nosocomial infections-a new approach towards preventive medicine using plasmas G E Morfill, T Shimizu, B Steffes and H-U Schmidt Generation and transport mechanisms of chemical species by a post-discharge flow for inactivation of bacteria Takehiko Sato, Shiroh Ochiai and Takuya Urayama Low pressure plasma discharges for the sterilization and decontamination of surfaces F Rossi, O Kylián, H Rauscher, M Hasiwa and D Gilliland Contribution of a portable air plasma torch to rapid blood coagulation as a method of preventing bleeding S P Kuo, O Tarasenko, J Chang, S Popovic, C Y Chen, H W Fan, A Scott, M Lahiani, P Alusta, J D Drake and M Nikolic A two

  12. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasma Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morfill, G. E.; Kong, M. G.; Zimmermann, J. L.

    2009-11-01

    -pressure microwave plasmas in an N2 and O2 gas mixture M K Singh, A Ogino and M Nagatsu Degradation of adhesion molecules of G361 melanoma cells by a non-thermal atmospheric pressure microplasma H J Lee, C H Shon, Y S Kim, S Kim, G C Kim and M G Kong The acidification of lipid film surfaces by non-thermal DBD at atmospheric pressure in air A Helmke, D Hoffmeister, N Mertens, S Emmert, J Schuette and W Vioel Reduction and degradation of amyloid aggregates by a pulsed radio-frequency cold atmospheric plasma jet D L Bayliss, J L Walsh, G Shama, F Iza and M G Kong The effect of low-temperature plasma on bacteria as observed by repeated AFM imaging René Pompl, Ferdinand Jamitzky, Tetsuji Shimizu, Bernd Steffes, Wolfram Bunk, Hans-Ulrich Schmidt, Matthias Georgi, Katrin Ramrath, Wilhelm Stolz, Robert W Stark, Takuya Urayama, Shuitsu Fujii and Gregor Eugen Morfill Removal and sterilization of biofilms and planktonic bacteria by microwave-induced argon plasma at atmospheric pressure Mi Hee Lee, Bong Joo Park, Soo Chang Jin, Dohyun Kim, Inho Han, Jungsung Kim, Soon O Hyun, Kie-Hyung Chung and Jong-Chul Park Cell permeabilization using a non-thermal plasma M Leduc, D Guay, R L Leask and S Coulombe Physical and biological mechanisms of direct plasma interaction with living tissue Danil Dobrynin, Gregory Fridman, Gary Friedman and Alexander Fridman Nosocomial infections-a new approach towards preventive medicine using plasmas G E Morfill, T Shimizu, B Steffes and H-U Schmidt Generation and transport mechanisms of chemical species by a post-discharge flow for inactivation of bacteria Takehiko Sato, Shiroh Ochiai and Takuya Urayama Low pressure plasma discharges for the sterilization and decontamination of surfaces F Rossi, O Kylián, H Rauscher, M Hasiwa and D Gilliland Contribution of a portable air plasma torch to rapid blood coagulation as a method of preventing bleeding S P Kuo, O Tarasenko, J Chang, S Popovic, C Y Chen, H W Fan, A Scott, M Lahiani, P Alusta, J D Drake and M Nikolic A two

  13. Project management improved multiwell shallow gas development

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, D.L.

    1995-10-16

    Because of time and economic constraints, a multiwell shallow gas development project in southeastern Alberta required thorough prejob planning and special drilling, cementing, and completions designs. The Medicine Hat formation is the primary gas reservoir in the Hussar field. It lies in the Upper Colorado group and is of Upper Cretaceous age. The average anticipated net pay thickness was 2 m with a reservoir temperature of 17 C and pressure between 1,800 and 3,020 kPa. The paper describes directional drilling, bottom hole assemblies, well casings, drilling fluids, cementing, and well completions (perforation, fracturing, and cleanup), and recommendations.

  14. Clues to prolific productivity among prominent scientists.

    PubMed

    Kantha, S S

    1992-10-01

    In a survey based on the biographical sketches, obituary notes and eulogies of notable scientists, eight were identified as belonging to an elite group, having authored more than 1000 research publications, which include books, monographs and patents. They were, in chronological order, Thomas Alva Edison, Paul Karrer, Margaret Mead, Giulio Natta, Hans Selye, Herbert C Brown, Tetsuji Kametani and Carl Djerassi. Among these, Karrer, Natta and Brown were Nobelists in chemistry. Four criteria which can be identified as clues to their prolific productivity are, 1) enthusiasm for compulsive work and eccentric life style, 2) physical and/or environmental handicap, 3) pioneering efforts in a new research field, and 4) selection of research area, predominantly organic chemistry.

  15. Clues to prolific productivity among prominent scientists.

    PubMed

    Kantha, S S

    1992-10-01

    In a survey based on the biographical sketches, obituary notes and eulogies of notable scientists, eight were identified as belonging to an elite group, having authored more than 1000 research publications, which include books, monographs and patents. They were, in chronological order, Thomas Alva Edison, Paul Karrer, Margaret Mead, Giulio Natta, Hans Selye, Herbert C Brown, Tetsuji Kametani and Carl Djerassi. Among these, Karrer, Natta and Brown were Nobelists in chemistry. Four criteria which can be identified as clues to their prolific productivity are, 1) enthusiasm for compulsive work and eccentric life style, 2) physical and/or environmental handicap, 3) pioneering efforts in a new research field, and 4) selection of research area, predominantly organic chemistry. PMID:1461180

  16. Commuting flows and conservation laws for noncommutative Lax hierarchies

    SciTech Connect

    Hamanaka, Masashi

    2005-05-01

    We discuss commuting flows and conservation laws for Lax hierarchies on noncommutative spaces in the framework of the Sato theory. On commutative spaces, the Sato theory has revealed essential aspects of the integrability for wide class of soliton equations which are derived from the Lax hierarchies in terms of pseudodifferential operators. Noncommutative extension of the Sato theory has been already studied by the author and Toda, and the existence of various noncommutative Lax hierarchies are guaranteed. In this paper, we present conservation laws for the noncommutative Lax hierarchies with both space-space and space-time noncommutativities and prove the existence of infinite number of conserved densities. We also give the explicit representations of them in terms of Lax operators. Our results include noncommutative versions of KP, KdV, Boussinesq, coupled KdV, Sawada-Kotera, modified KdV equation and so on.

  17. Employing Online S-P Diagnostic Table for Qualitative Comments on Test Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chien-hwa; Chen, Cheng-ping

    2013-01-01

    The major concerns of adaptive testing studies have concentrated on effectiveness and efficiency of the system built for the research experiments. It has been criticised that such general information has fallen short of providing qualitative descriptions regarding learning performance. Takahiro Sato of Japan proposed an analytical diagram called…

  18. Item-Level Time Limits Are Not a Panacea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Florian; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The excellent paper by Goldhammer (this issue) deals with a most relevant and very pervasive problem of ability assessment: the evaluation of performance by considering speed and accuracy of performance. Goldhammer proposes item-level time limits as a possible remedy for individual differences in the speed-accuracy trade-off (SATO) to keep time…

  19. Variations in Cognitive Maps: Understanding Individual Differences in Navigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisberg, Steven M.; Schinazi, Victor R.; Newcombe, Nora S.; Shipley, Thomas F.; Epstein, Russell A.

    2014-01-01

    There are marked individual differences in the formation of cognitive maps both in the real world and in virtual environments (VE; e.g., Blajenkova, Motes, & Kozhevnikov, 2005; Chai & Jacobs, 2010; Ishikawa & Montello, 2006; Wen, Ishikawa, & Sato, 2011). These differences, however, are poorly understood and can be difficult to…

  20. Solution to the cosmological horizon problem proposed by Zee

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, M.D.

    1981-08-15

    Applying a theory of gravity with broken symmetry, Zee has suggested a solution to the cosmological horizon problem. His idea has been criticized on two independent grounds by Linde and by Sato. In this paper, we suggest answers to both these criticisms.

  1. Underachievement in Gifted Students: A Case Study of Three College Physics Students in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Kuei-Fang; Fu, Guopeng

    2016-01-01

    This case study provides an explanatory account on the underachievement of three gifted students studying physics in a Taiwanese university. The students' physics underachievement was diagnosed by Sato's student-problem analysis chart. These students were invited to complete a questionnaire and a follow-up interview in order to (1) understand the…

  2. RIG-I Works Double Duty

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ying Kai; Gack, Michaela U.

    2016-01-01

    The pathogen sensor RIG-I recognizes viral RNA and signals to induce an antiviral response. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Weber et al. (2015), along with recent work by Sato et al. (2015), demonstrate that RIG-I directly inhibits viral replication independent of antiviral signaling. PMID:25766287

  3. Increasing Compatibility Between Educational Practices and the Educational Needs of Pupils Who are Asian With Emphasis on Their Language and Cultural Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Lydia R.; Ponce, Corazon A.

    The contents of this document are organized in eight parts, as follows. Part One, "Speech of Dr. Esther M. T. Sato," the consultant, Associate Professor at the College of Education, University of Hawaii, discusses the following topics: in the background of Filipinos in Hawaii, their social problems, Filipino cultural values, guidelines to help the…

  4. Preparing Teachers of Gifted Students to Solve Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaco, Theresa M.; Georgiades, William Den Hartog

    1986-01-01

    Teachers have successfully used three Principles of Teacher Training (Curry Sato, 1984) as guidelines for identifying and solving instructional problems with gifted students. Teaching styles were changed through training, which was (1) reinforced through appropriate materials; (2) attempted to meet participants' specific needs; and (3) was…

  5. Misunderstandings of Communicative Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Wen

    2008-01-01

    Although Communicative Language Teaching is accepted by many English teachers in China as one of the most effective approach in English language teaching, there are still a number of misunderstandings about it. By comparing Johnstone; Sato and Kleinsasser and Thompson as well as Spada, this article focuses on four of the main misunderstandings,…

  6. Feature Integration Theory Revisited: Dissociating Feature Detection and Attentional Guidance in Visual Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Louis K. H.; Hayward, William G.

    2009-01-01

    In feature integration theory (FIT; A. Treisman & S. Sato, 1990), feature detection is driven by independent dimensional modules, and other searches are driven by a master map of locations that integrates dimensional information into salience signals. Although recent theoretical models have largely abandoned this distinction, some observed results…

  7. An Appetite for Creative Destruction: Should the Role of Senior Academic Technology Officer Be Modeled on a CIO or a CTO?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shurville, Simon; Browne, Tom; Whitaker, Marian

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to examine the emerging role of the Senior Academic Technology Officer (SATO) in higher education. It aims to consider two existing templates for this professional role derived from mainstream information management and information technology: the Chief Information Officer (CIO) and the Chief Technology Officer (CTO).…

  8. Absolute gravity measurements in Southeast Alaska and continuous gravity observation in Juneau by ISEA2 project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Kazama, T.; Miura, S.; Ohta, Y.; Okubo, S.; Fujimoto, H.; Kaufman, M.; Herreid, S. J.; Larsen, C. F.; Freymueller, J. T.

    2012-12-01

    It is known that Southeast Alaska (SE-AK) shows a large uplift rates exceeding 32 mm/year at the maximum mainly due to the three ice changes in ages, i.e. in the Large Glacier Maximum, the Little Ice Age and the present day. Comparisons between rates of change obtained from GPS and absolute gravimeter (AG) observations and the rates predicted by model computations based on independently estimated ice mass changes indicate the existence of a very thin lithosphere (on the order of 60 km) and a low viscousity upper mantle (on the order of 1.E18 Pa s) beneath SE-AK (Larsen et al., 2005; Sato et al, 2011; Sato et al., 2012). On the other hand, it is also known that there are very large oceanic tidal loading effects in SE-AK, i.e. exceeding 2.7 cm and 8 microGals for the M2 constituent of the vertical displacement and gravity, respectively (Sato et al., 2008; Inazu et al., 2009; Sun et al., 2010; Sato et al., 2012). These regional large loading and unloading effects provide good signals to study the viscoelastic structure beneath SE-AK. A joint observation project (ISEA2) between Japan and USA groups has restarted as a five years project beginning in 2012. In June 2012, we conducted the AG measurements at the 6 sites in SE-AK at where the AG measurements were conducted by the previous ISEA1 project (Sun et al., 2010). Continuous gravity observation started also on June 2012 with a portable super conducting gravimeter (iGrav) at the EGAN library of UAS. We will introduce the results for these observations and comparisons with the previous observations and model computations. It is noted that the precipitation during the period from the winter in 2011 to the spring in 2012 was very large compared with the usual amount. We evaluate this effect on our gravity observations with a hydrological model computation (Kazama and Okubo, 2009) using the observed precipitation data as an input data. The observation with the iGrav super conducting gravimeter shall give us a useful data

  9. New species of Hercostomus Loew, 1857 (Dolichopodidae, Diptera) from Japan.

    PubMed

    Negrobov, O P; Kumazawa, T; Tago, T; Sato, M

    2016-01-01

    Six new species of the genus Hercostomus Loew, 1857, are described from Japan: Hercostomus acutiformis Negrobov, Kumazawa & Tago sp. nov., H. falcilis Negrobov, Kumazawa & Tago sp. nov., H. flavipalpus Negrobov, Kumazawa, Tago & Sato sp. nov., H. nigricollaris Negrobov, Kumazawa & Tago sp. nov., H. spathulatus Negrobov, Kumazawa, Tago & Sato sp. nov., H. spinitibialis Negrobov, Kumazawa & Tago sp. nov. Hercostomus flaveolus Negrobov & Chalaya, 1987 is newly recorded from Japan, and Hercostomus arcticus Yang, 1996 is newly synonymized with Hercostomus flaveolus (syn. nov.). The holotype of Hercostomus flaviventris Smirnov & Negrobov, 1979 is redescribed. Hercostomus ussurianus Stackelberg is transferred to the genus Gymnopternus Loew, 1857 (stat. nov.). A key to the eleven recognized species of Japanese Hercostomus is provided. PMID:27615870

  10. [Parasitism on medfly by Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in different guava cultivars].

    PubMed

    Paranhos, Beatriz A J; Walder, Júlio M M; Alvarenga, Clarice D

    2007-01-01

    The parasitism efficiency of the Braconidae wasp, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead), was checked on four guava cultivars (Paluma, Sassaoca, Pedro Sato and Kumagai) infested with larvae of medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Five blocks of eight fruits, each with two fruits of each cultivar, were put inside C. capitata adult cages, during 2h for oviposition, and a week later, when the larvae inside guavas were developed, the fruits were exposed to parasitoids for 24h. The mean fruit weight, larvae mortality, number of pupae, percentage of medfly and parasitoid emergence were evaluated. There was not statistical difference among cultivars to weight, larvae mortality, number of pupae e emergence of medfly. The percentage of parasitism was higher in Pedro Sato cultivar (19.8%) compared with Kumagai cultivar (2.9%), but it was statistically similar to the other cultivars. PMID:17607457

  11. Retinal Fiber Tracing by In Ovo Electroporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Hidekiyo; Nakamura, Harukazu

    Axonal tracing techniques are the fundamentals for the investigation of neural circuit formation. In ovo electroporation system allows us to transfect a gene of interest to the desired place in chick embryos (Odani et al., 2008). Recently, Tol2 transposase element, which was originally found in medaka fish (Koga et al., 1996), has been adapted to an in ovo electroporation system (Niwa et al., 1991; Kawakami et al., 1998, 2000, 2004a, 2004b; Kawakami & Noda, 2004; Kawakami, 2005, 2007; Sato et al., 2007). This system assures the integration of the transgene into the genome by electroporation (Niwa et al., 1991; Sato et al., 2007). We applied this system for tracing retinal fibers (Harada et al., 2008). In this chapter, we demonstrate the method of tracing retinal fibers from both small and large groups of the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) with transposon-mediated gene transfer by in ovo electroporation to chick embryos.

  12. On-off selectivity and asymmetry in apparent contrast: An adaptation study.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiromi; Motoyoshi, Isamu; Sato, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Using textures composed of sparse bright/dark elements that can activate either on or off sensors selectively, Sato, Motoyoshi, and Sato (2012) reported simultaneous contrast-contrast effects tuned for contrast polarity. As with contrast-contrast effects, prolonged viewing of high-contrast stimuli reduces the perceived contrast of a subsequently presented stimulus. The present study examined whether contrast aftereffects are also selective for luminance polarity using texture patterns composed of sparse bright/dark elements. Results revealed that contrast aftereffects are selective for luminance polarity (polarity selectivity) but that adaptation aftereffects occur asymmetrically depending on the polarity of the adapter (polarity asymmetry). Polarity selectivity and asymmetry in adaptation aftereffects are reduced but not completely diminished if adapter and test stimuli are presented to separate eyes (dichoptically). Our results support the idea that suprathreshold contrast perception and its adaptational shifts are jointly determined by responses between monocular and binocular units.

  13. Search for ferromagnetism in transition-metal-doped piezoelectric ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spaldin, Nicola A.

    2004-03-01

    We present results of a computational study of ZnO in the presence of Co and Mn substitutional impurities. The goal of our work is to identify potential ferromagnetic ground states within the (Zn,Co)O or (Zn,Mn)O material systems that are also good candidates for piezoelectricity. We find that robust ferromagnetism is not obtained by substitution of Co or Mn on the Zn site, unless additional carriers (holes) are also incorporated. This is consistent with the conventional wisdom that carriers are required to induce ferromagnetism in diluted magnetic semiconductors, but in contrast to a previous theoretical prediction for this system [K. Sato and H. Katayama-Yoshida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 39, L555 (2000); K. Sato and H. Katayama-Yoshida, Phys. Status Solidi B 229, 673 (2002)]. We propose a practical scheme for achieving such p-type doping in ZnO.

  14. Synthesis of Conjugated Polymers Containing cis-Phenylenevinylenes by Titanium Mediated Reductions

    PubMed Central

    Moslin, Ryan M.; Espino, Christine G.; Swager, Timothy M.

    2009-01-01

    The utility of Sato's titanium-mediated reduction of alkynes towards the synthesis of all cis-poly(phenylenevinylene)s (PPVs) is demonstrated by the syn-selective reduction of a variety of model diynes as well as a tetrayne. This technique was then applied to the reduction of a poly(phenyleneethynylene) (PPE) to provide the corresponding all-cis PPV polymer. PMID:20827441

  15. Dephasing effect on backscattering of helical surface states in 3D topological insulators.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haiwen; Jiang, Hua; Sun, Qing-Feng; Xie, X C

    2014-07-25

    We analyze the dephasing effect on the backscattering behavior of the helical surface states in 3D topological insulators. We show that the combination of dephasing and impurity scattering can cause backscattering in the helical states. Especially for the charge impurity case, the backscattering cross section becomes extremely large around the Dirac point. This large backscattering behavior can lead to the anomalous "gaplike" features found in recent experiments [T. Sato et al., Nat. Phys. 7, 840 (2011)].

  16. Majorana modes and s-wave topological superfluids in ultracold fermionic atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ya-Jie; Li, Ning; Zhou, Jiang; Kou, Su-Peng; Yu, Jing

    2016-09-01

    We present another topological superfluid with s-wave pairing for ultracold fermionic atoms in addition to the chiral topological superfluid proposed by Sato et al (2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 020401), of which edge dislocations host Majorana zero modes that may be utilized as decoherence-free qubits, and quantized vortices trap zero energy modes. The quantum phase fluctuations for topological superfluids and Berezinsky–Kosterlitz–Thouless transition are also discussed.

  17. Lithium Batteries: Carbon-Rich Active Materials with Macrocyclic Nanochannels for High-Capacity Negative Electrodes in All-Solid-State Lithium Rechargeable Batteries (Small 25/2016).

    PubMed

    Sato, Sota; Unemoto, Atsushi; Ikeda, Takuji; Orimo, Shin-Ichi; Isobe, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    On page 3381, S. Sato, S. Orimo, H. Isobe, and co-workers present the first macrocyclic material to be utilized in negative electrodes of all-solid-state, rechargeable lithium batteries. Assembled to align the molecular openings, the macrocycle paves paths for lithium to migrate to the π-stack intercalation sites for the storage. The macrocyclic nanochannel of a nanometer-scale diameter further provides extra spaces for the lithium storage to surpass conventional graphitic electrodes in the capacity.

  18. Throwing speed and accuracy in baseball and cricket players.

    PubMed

    Freeston, Jonathan; Rooney, Kieron

    2014-06-01

    Throwing speed and accuracy are both critical to sports performance but cannot be optimized simultaneously. This speed-accuracy trade-off (SATO) is evident across a number of throwing groups but remains poorly understood. The goal was to describe the SATO in baseball and cricket players and determine the speed that optimizes accuracy. 20 grade-level baseball and cricket players performed 10 throws at 80% and 100% of maximal throwing speed (MTS) toward a cricket stump. Baseball players then performed a further 10 throws at 70%, 80%, 90%, and 100% of MTS toward a circular target. Baseball players threw faster with greater accuracy than cricket players at both speeds. Both groups demonstrated a significant SATO as vertical error increased with increases in speed; the trade-off was worse for cricketers than baseball players. Accuracy was optimized at 70% of MTS for baseballers. Throwing athletes should decrease speed when accuracy is critical. Cricket players could adopt baseball-training practices to improve throwing performance.

  19. Preliminary investigation of multispectral retinal tissue oximetry mapping using a hyperspectral retinal camera.

    PubMed

    Desjardins, Michèle; Sylvestre, Jean-Philippe; Jafari, Reza; Kulasekara, Susith; Rose, Kalpana; Trussart, Rachel; Arbour, Jean Daniel; Hudson, Chris; Lesage, Frédéric

    2016-05-01

    Oximetry measurement of principal retinal vessels represents a first step towards understanding retinal metabolism, but the technique could be significantly enhanced by spectral imaging of the fundus outside of main vessels. In this study, a recently developed Hyperspectral Retinal Camera was used to measure relative oximetric (SatO2) and total hemoglobin (HbT) maps of the retina, outside of large vessels, in healthy volunteers at baseline (N = 7) and during systemic hypoxia (N = 11), as well as in patients with glaucoma (N = 2). Images of the retina, on a field of view of ∼30°, were acquired between 500 and 600 nm with 2 and 5 nm steps, in under 3 s. The reflectance spectrum from each pixel was fitted to a model having oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin as the main absorbers and scattering modeled by a power law, yielding estimates of relative SatO2 and HbT over the fundus. Average optic nerve head (ONH) saturation over 8 eyes was 68 ± 5%. During systemic hypoxia, mean ONH saturation decreased by 12.5% on average. Upon further development and validation, the relative SatO2 and HbT maps of microvasculature obtained with this imaging system could ultimately contribute to the diagnostic and management of diseases affecting the ONH and retina. PMID:27060375

  20. List of participants at SIDE IV meeting, Tokyo, 27 November--1 December 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-12-01

    Mark J Ablowitz, Vsevolod Adler, Mark Alber, Said Belmehdi, Marco Boiti, Claude Brezinski, R Bullough, Y M Chiang, Theodore Chihara, Peter A Clarkson, Robert Conte, Adam Doliwa, Vladimir Dorodnitsyn, Mitsuaki Eguchi, Claire Gilson, Basil Grammaticos, Valeri Gromak, Rod Halburd, Koji Hasegawa, Jarmo Hietarinta, Ryogo Hirota, Xing Biao Hu, M Idzumi, J Inoguchi, Hiroya Ishikara, Mourad Ismail, Shin Isojima, Kenichi Ito, Yoshiaki Itoh, Masashi Iwasaki, Klara Janglajew, Michio Jimbo, Nalini Joshi, Kenji Kajiwara, Saburo Kakei, Masaru Kamata, Satoshi Kamei, Rinat Kashaev, Shingo Kawai, Taeko Kimijima, K Kimura, Anatol Kirillov, Koichi Kondo, Boris Konopelchenko, Martin Kruskal, Atsuo Kuniba, Wataru Kunishima, Franklin Lambert, Serguei Leble, Decio Levi, Shigeru Maeda, Manuel Manas, Ken-Ichi Maruno, Tetsu Masuda, J Matsukidaira, Atsushi Matsumiya, Shigeki Matsutani, Yukitaka Minesaki, Mikio Murata, Micheline Musette, Atsushi Nagai, Katsuya Nakagawa, Atsushi Nakamula, Akira Nakamura, Yoshimasa Nakamura, Frank Nijhoff, J J C Nimmo, Katsuhiro Nishinari, Michitomo Nishizawa, A Nobe, Masatoshi Noumi, Yaeko Ohsaki, Yasuhiro Ohta, Kazuo Okamoto, Alexandre Orlov, Naoki Osada, Flora Pempinelli, Spiro Pyrlis, Reinout Quispel, Orlando Ragnisco, Alfred Ramani, Jean-Pierre Ramis, Andreas Ruffing, Simon Ruijsenaars, Satoru Saito, Noriko Saitoh, Hidetaka Sakai, Paulo Santini, Narimasa Sasa, Ryu Sasaki, Yoshikatsu Sasaki, Junkichi Satsuma, Sergei Sergeev, Nobuhiko Shinzawa, Evgueni Sklyanin, Juris Suris, Norio Suzuki, Yukiko Tagami, Katsuaki Takahashi, Daisuke Takahashi, Tomoyuki Takenawa, Yoshiro Takeyama, K M Tamizhmani, T Tamizhmani, Kouichi Toda, Morikatsu Toda, Tetsuji Tokihiro, Takayuki Tsuchida, Yohei Tsuchiya, Teruhisa Tsuda, Satoru Tsujimoto, Walter Van Assche, Claude Viallet, Luc Vinet, Shinsuke Watanabe, Yoshihida Watanabe, Ralph Willox, Pavel Winternitz, Yasuhiko Yamada, Yuji Yamada, Jin Yoneda, Haruo Yoshida, Katsuhiko Yoshida, Daisuke Yoshihara, Fumitaka Yura, J

  1. Oxygen therapy multicentric study--a nationwide audit to oxygen therapy procedures in internal medicine wards.

    PubMed

    Neves, J T; Lobão, M J

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen therapy is a common and important treatment in Internal Medicine wards, however, several studies report that it isn't provided accordingly with the best of care. The goal of this work is to evaluate oxygen therapy procedures in Portuguese Internal Medicine wards, comparing them to the standards established by the British Thoracic Society (BTS) in its consensus statement "BTS guideline for emergency oxygen use in adult patients". Between September 3rd and 23rd 2010, each one of the 24 enrolled hospitals audited the oxygen therapy procedures for one randomly chosen day. All Internal Medicine inpatients under oxygen therapy or with oxygen prescription were included. Data was collected regarding oxygen prescription, administration and monitoring. Of the 1549 inpatients, 773 met inclusion criteria. There was an oxygen prescription in 93,4%. Most prescriptions were by a fixed dose (82,4%), but only 11,6% of those stated all the required parameters. Absence of oxygen therapy duration and monitoring were the most frequent errors. Oxygen was administered to only 77,0% of the patients with fixed dose prescriptions. FiO(2) or flow rate and the delivery device were the same as prescribed in 70,9 and 89,2% of the patients, respectively. Out of the 127 patients with oxygen therapy prescriptions by target SatO(2) range, 82,7% were on the prescribed SatO(2) objective range. Several errors were found in oxygen therapy procedures, particularly regarding fixed dose prescriptions, jeopardizing the patients. Although recommended by BTS, oxygen therapy prescriptions by target SatO(2) range are still a minority.

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of New Topological Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segawa, Kouji

    2012-02-01

    In this talk, I will show detailed information on synthesizing process and characterization results of new topological insulator (TI) materials with interesting properties. Among the synthesized materials, TlBiSe2 was the first ternary TI and has the largest bulk band gap [1], TlBi(S1-x,Sex)2 presents a topological phase transition with unexpected Dirac mass [2], BiTe2Se presents a large bulk resistivity [3], and Bi1.5Sb0.5Te1.7Se1.3 has finally achieved the surface-dominated transport in bulk single crystals [4]. It is essentially easy to grow single crystals of all the chalcogenides above, because those compounds melt congruently at relatively low temperatures. Therefore, the melt-growth method is applicable if the raw materials are in a sealed condition, e.g., in a quartz tube. However, crucial techniques for obtaining high-quality samples vary between the systems. Besides the growth method, characterizations of the transport properties, ARPES, the X-ray diffraction, and quantitative chemical analysis will also be presented. [4pt] This work is in collaboration with A. A. Taskin, S. Sasaki, Zhi Ren, K. Eto, T. Minami, and Y. Ando (Osaka Univ.), and T. Sato, S. Souma, H. Guo, K. Sugawara, K. Kosaka and K. Nakayama, and T. Takahashi (Tohoku Univ.). [4pt] [1] T. Sato, Kouji Segawa, T. Takahashi, Y. Ando et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 136802 (2010). [2] T. Sato, Kouji Segawa, Y. Ando, T. Takahashi et al., Nature Physics, 7, 840 (2011). [3] Zhi Ren, Kouji Segawa, Y. Ando et al., Phys. Rev. B (Rapid Comm.) 82, 241306(R) (2010). [4] A. A. Taskin, Kouji Segawa, and Y. Ando et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 016801 (2011).

  3. Relationship Between Afterslip of 2003 Tokachi Earthquakes and Coseismic-slip of 2004 Kushiro Earthquakes Using Viscoelastic Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Takemura, H.

    2010-12-01

    The studies of afterslip distribution of large plate interface earthquakes are important for revealing frictional properties on faults, and investigating trigger processes to adjacent faults. After 2003 Tokachi Earthquake (M8.0), Hokkaido, Japan, post seismic deformation was observed, and this observation indicates occurrence of afterslip at eastern side of the earthquake. After 1.2 yr of the Tokachi Earthquake, two large events (M7.1, M6.9) occurred at off Kushiro, which is located 150km east from the Tokachi Earthquake. It is considered that these two events may be triggered by the afterslip of the Tokachi Earthquake. To investigate the trigger process, we estimate special and temporal afterslip distribution. The effect of viscoelastic relaxation at the asthenosphere is important on post seismic surface deformation (Matsu’ura and Sato, GJI, 1989; Sato and Matsu’ura, GJI, 1992). We estimate afterslip distribution of large interplate earthquakes using viscoelastic media. We consider not only viscoelastic responses of coseismic slip but also viscoelastic responses of afterslips (Sato and Higuchi, AGU Fall Meeting, 2009). Because many studies suggested that the magnitude of afterslips was comparable to that of coseismic slip, viscoelastic responses of afterslips should not be negligible. Therefore, surface displacement data include viscoelastic response of coseismic slip, viscoelastic response of afterslips which occurred just after coseismic period to just before the present, and elastic response of the present afterslip. We estimate afterslip distribution of the Tokachi Earthquake using GPS data by GSI, Japan. We use CAMP model (Hashimoto et al, PAGEOPH, 2004) as a plate interface between the Pacific plate and the North American plate. The viscoelastic results show that afterslips concentrate deeper parts of the plate interface at the eastern adjoining area of the Tokachi Earthquake. Just before the Kushiro Events (1-1.2 yr after the Tokachi Earthquake

  4. Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-08-01

    Finally, we thank the following colleagues for their contribution in reviewing manuscripts for the special issue: R. E. Abercrombie, P. Bernard, S. Das, R. Dmowska, W. L. Ellsworth, F. Evison, S. A. Fedotov, Y. Fujinawa, E. I. Gordeev, A. Hasegawa, M. Hashimoto, M. Imoto, M. Ishida, T. Kato, V. I. Keilis-Borok, C.-Y. King, C. Kisslinger, R. I. Madariaga, R. S. Matsu'ura, T. Matsuzawa, J.-B. Minster, K. Mogi, Y. Ogata, Y. Okada, D. A. Rhoades, J. R. Rice, H. Sato, J. Schmittbuhl, T. Seno, D. Simpson, W. Thatcher, H. Utada, S. Uyeda, S. N. Ward, M. Wyss, S. Yoshida, I. Zaliapin, M. L. Zoback.

  5. Chemoselective Schwartz Reagent Mediated Reduction of Isocyanates to Formamides.

    PubMed

    Pace, Vittorio; de la Vega-Hernández, Karen; Urban, Ernst; Langer, Thierry

    2016-06-01

    Addition of the in situ generated Schwartz reagent to widely available isocyanates constitutes a chemoselective, high-yielding, and versatile approach to the synthesis of variously functionalized formamides. Steric and electronic factors or the presence of sensitive functionalities (esters, nitro groups, nitriles, alkenes) do not compromise the potential of the method. Full preservation of the stereochemical information contained in the starting materials is observed. The use of formamides in the nucleophilic addition of organometallic reagents (Chida-Sato allylation, Charette-Huang addition to imidoyl triflate activated amides, Matteson homologation of boronic esters) is briefly investigated. PMID:27218199

  6. Measurement of the partial cross sections {sigma}{sub TT}, {sigma}{sub LT}, and ({sigma}{sub T} + {epsilon}{sigma}{sub L}) of the {sup 1}H(e, e{sup '{pi}+})n reaction in the {Delta}(1232) resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, J. M.; Calarco, J.; Holtrop, A.; Sparveris, N. F.; Nakagawa, I.; Bernstein, A. M.; Bertozzi, W.; Botto, T.; Casagrande, F.; Dow, K.; Farkondeh, M.; Gilad, S.; Kowalski, S.; Milner, R.; Sirca, S.; Stave, S.; Tsentalivich, G.; Tschalaer, C.; Turchinetz, W.; Zhou, Z.-L.

    2011-08-15

    We report precision {sup 1}H(e, e{sup '{pi}+})n measurements in the {Delta}(1232) resonance at Q{sup 2}=0.127(GeV/c){sup 2} obtained at the MIT-Bates out-of-plane scattering facility. These are the lowest, but nonzero, Q{sup 2} measurements in the {pi}{sup +} channel. The data offer tests of the theoretical calculations, particularly of the background amplitude contributions. The chiral effective field theory and Sato-Lee model calculations are not in agreement with this experiment.

  7. A Comment on the New Formulation of a Many-Level Shell Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasumoto, S.; Shimizu, Y. R.

    2003-11-01

    In order to construct a set of orthonormalized basis vectors in a many-level shell model space, we introduced a new type of CFP in a previous paper [K. Takada, M. Sato and S. Yasumoto, Prog. Theor. Phys. 104 (2000), 173]. There, we also presented one of its analytic representations. In this paper, we improve that representation by making it much simpler and applicable to the case of the five-level. Using this improved representation, it is possible to develop a general-use computer program for the shell-model calculation.

  8. Macroscale particle simulation of kinetic Alfven waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, Motohiko; Sato, Tetsuya; Hasegawa, Akira

    1987-01-01

    Two types of simulations of the kinetic Alfven wave are presented using a macroscale particle simulation code (Tanaka and Sato, 1986) which enables individual particle dynamics to be followed in the MHD scales. In this code, low frequency electromagnetic fields are solved by eliminating high frequency oscillations such as the light modes, and the scalar potential electric field is solved by eliminating Lagrangian oscillations. The dependences of the frequency and the Landau damping on the perpendicular wavenumber were studied, and good agreement was found between simulation and theoretical predictions. Some fundamental nonlinear interactions of the kinetic Alfven wave with the particles (parallel acceleration of the electrons) were also noted.

  9. Design of dilute magnetic semiconductors with room temperature ferromagnetism by controlling spinodal decompostion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kazunori

    2008-03-01

    Owing to the recent development of the first-principles method for calculating magnetic properties of dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS), it has been recognized that the magnetic percolation effect is disastrous to the high temperature ferromagnetism in DMS in particular for low concentrations [1]. The exchange interactions calculated from first-principles are strong for nearest neighbors, but those interactions are short ranged and can not play an important role for realizing high- TC because the solubility of magnetic impurities into DMS is too low to achieve magnetic percolation. To overcome this difficulty and realize room temperature ferromagnetism, we focus on the spinodal decomposition in DMS, and suggest that by controlling the spinodal decomposition high blocking temperature can be realized leading to ferromagnetic behaviour at high temperature [2]. We calculate electronic structure of DMS from first-principles by using the Korringa- Kohn-Rostoker coherent potential approximation (KKR-CPA) method. Then, chemical pair interactions and magnetic exchange interactions between magnetic are calculated. We use the Monte Carlo techniques to simulate spinodal decomposition of DMS and to estimate the magnetic properties of them [3]. The computer simulations for the magnetization process of the decomposition phases indicate that we can control super-paramagnetic blocking temperature by optimizing the size of the clusters by changing the crystal growth condition. This simulation suggests the material design of high blocking temperature DMS by controlling the spinodal decomposition [2].As another approach for realizing high-Tc DMS we propose co-doping method to increase solubility limit of transition metal impurities in DMS [4]. This work is based on the collaboration with H. Katayama-Yoshida and T. Fukushima. [1] L. Bergqvist et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 137202 (2004), K. Sato et al., Phys. Rev. B 70, 201202 (2004) [2] K. Sato et al., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L682

  10. Dislocated interests and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Steven J.; Diffenbaugh, Noah

    2016-06-01

    The predicted effects of climate change on surface temperatures are now emergent and quantifiable. The recent letter by Hansen and Sato (2016 Environ. Res. Lett. 11 034009) adds to a growing number of studies showing that warming over the past four decades has shifted the distribution of temperatures higher almost everywhere, with the largest relative effects on summer temperatures in developing regions such as Africa, South America, southeast Asia, and the Middle East (e.g., Diffenbaugh and Scherer 2011 Clim. Change 107 615-24 Anderson 2011 Clim. Change 108 581; Mahlstein et al 2012 Geophys. Res. Lett. 39 L21711). Hansen and Sato emphasize that although these regions are warming disproportionately, their role in causing climate change—measured by cumulative historical CO2 emissions produced—is small compared to the US and Europe, where the relative change in temperatures has been less. This spatial and temporal mismatch of climate change impacts and the burning of fossil fuels is a critical dislocation of interests that, as the authors note, has ‘substantial implications for global energy and climate policies.’ Here, we place Hansen and Sato’s ‘national responsibilities’ into a broader conceptual framework of problematically dislocated interests, and briefly discuss the related challenges for global climate mitigation efforts.

  11. The forced radiation efficiency of finite size flat panels that are excited by incident sound.

    PubMed

    Davy, John L

    2009-08-01

    The radiation efficiency of an infinite flat panel that radiates a plane wave into a half space is equal to the inverse of the cosine of the angle between the direction of propagation of the plane wave and the normal to the panel. The fact that this radiation efficiency tends to infinity as the angle tends to 90 degrees causes problems with simple theories of sound insulation. Sato calculated numerical values of radiation efficiency for a finite size rectangular panel in an infinite baffle whose motion is forced by sound incident at an angle to the normal from the other side. This paper presents a simple two dimensional analytic strip theory, which agrees reasonably well with Sato's numerical calculations for a rectangular panel. This leads to the conclusion that it is mainly the length of the panel in the direction of radiation, rather than its width that is important in determining its radiation efficiency. A low frequency correction is added to the analytic strip theory. The theory is analytically integrated over all angles of incidence, with the appropriate weighting function, to obtain the diffuse sound field forced radiation efficiency of a panel. PMID:19640035

  12. Dislocated interests and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Steven J.; Diffenbaugh, Noah

    2016-06-01

    The predicted effects of climate change on surface temperatures are now emergent and quantifiable. The recent letter by Hansen and Sato (2016 Environ. Res. Lett. 11 034009) adds to a growing number of studies showing that warming over the past four decades has shifted the distribution of temperatures higher almost everywhere, with the largest relative effects on summer temperatures in developing regions such as Africa, South America, southeast Asia, and the Middle East (e.g., Diffenbaugh and Scherer 2011 Clim. Change 107 615–24 Anderson 2011 Clim. Change 108 581; Mahlstein et al 2012 Geophys. Res. Lett. 39 L21711). Hansen and Sato emphasize that although these regions are warming disproportionately, their role in causing climate change—measured by cumulative historical CO2 emissions produced—is small compared to the US and Europe, where the relative change in temperatures has been less. This spatial and temporal mismatch of climate change impacts and the burning of fossil fuels is a critical dislocation of interests that, as the authors note, has ‘substantial implications for global energy and climate policies.’ Here, we place Hansen and Sato’s ‘national responsibilities’ into a broader conceptual framework of problematically dislocated interests, and briefly discuss the related challenges for global climate mitigation efforts.

  13. [The Chinese nuclear test and 'atoms for peace' as a measure for preventing nuclear armament of Japan: the nuclear non-proliferation policy of the United States and the introduction of light water reactors into Japan, 1964-1968].

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Masakatsu

    2014-07-01

    Japan and the United States signed in 1968 a new atomic energy agreement through which US light-water nuclear reactors, including those of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of Tokyo Electric Power Company, were to be introduced into Japan. This paper studies the history of negotiations for the 1968 agreement using documents declassified in the 1990s in the US and Japan. After the success of the Chinese nuclear test in October 1964, the United States became seriously concerned about nuclear armament of other countries in Asia including Japan. Expecting that Japan would not have its own nuclear weapons, the US offered to help the country to demonstrate its superiority in some fields of science including peaceful nuclear energy to counter the psychological effect of the Chinese nuclear armament. Driven by his own political agenda, the newly appointed Prime Minister Eisaku Sato responded to the US expectation favorably. When he met in January 1965 with President Johnson, Sato made it clear that Japan would not pursue nuclear weapons. Although the US continued its support after this visit, it nevertheless gave priority to the control of nuclear technology in Japan through the bilateral peaceful nuclear agreement. This paper argues that the 1968 agreement implicitly meant a strategic measure to prevent Japan from going nuclear and also a tactic to persuade Japan to join the Nuclear Non -Proliferation Treaty.

  14. It's only a matter of time: the altered role of subsidies in a warming world.

    PubMed

    O'Gorman, Eoin J

    2016-09-01

    Clockwise from left: an experimental stream reach from the study, highlighting the fences used to contain fish as the apex predator; a cutthroat trout from the experiment, the only fish species in the study streams; stomach contents from a fish, highlighting the major role of the terrestrial subsidy (mealworms) in the diet. In Focus: Sato, T., El-Sabaawi, R.W., Campbell, K., Ohta, T. & Richardson, J.S. (2016) A test of the effects of timing of a pulsed resource subsidy on stream ecosystems. Journal of Animal Ecology, 85, 1136-1146. Cross-ecosystem subsidies play a critical role in maintaining the structure and functioning of natural communities, especially if they are asynchronous with resource production in the recipient ecosystem. Sato et al. () use a large-scale field experiment to show that changes in the timing of a pulsed terrestrial subsidy can alter stream dynamics from the individual to the ecosystem level. With increasing evidence that global warming will alter the timing, magnitude and frequency of allochthonous inputs, these findings make an important contribution to our understanding of how such changes will reverberate throughout ecosystems that depend on subsidies.

  15. It's only a matter of time: the altered role of subsidies in a warming world.

    PubMed

    O'Gorman, Eoin J

    2016-09-01

    Clockwise from left: an experimental stream reach from the study, highlighting the fences used to contain fish as the apex predator; a cutthroat trout from the experiment, the only fish species in the study streams; stomach contents from a fish, highlighting the major role of the terrestrial subsidy (mealworms) in the diet. In Focus: Sato, T., El-Sabaawi, R.W., Campbell, K., Ohta, T. & Richardson, J.S. (2016) A test of the effects of timing of a pulsed resource subsidy on stream ecosystems. Journal of Animal Ecology, 85, 1136-1146. Cross-ecosystem subsidies play a critical role in maintaining the structure and functioning of natural communities, especially if they are asynchronous with resource production in the recipient ecosystem. Sato et al. () use a large-scale field experiment to show that changes in the timing of a pulsed terrestrial subsidy can alter stream dynamics from the individual to the ecosystem level. With increasing evidence that global warming will alter the timing, magnitude and frequency of allochthonous inputs, these findings make an important contribution to our understanding of how such changes will reverberate throughout ecosystems that depend on subsidies. PMID:27511321

  16. Operation status of the electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Gunma University

    SciTech Connect

    Souda, H. Yamada, S.; Kanai, T.; Takeshita, E.; Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Kanazawa, M.; Izumiya, H.; Kano, Y.

    2014-02-15

    An ECR ion source of Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, so-called KeiGM [M. Muramatsu, A. Kitagawa, Y. Sakamoto, S. Sato, Y. Sato, H. Ogawa, S. Yamada, H. Ogawa, Y. Yoshida, and A. G. Drentje, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 113304 (2005)], has been operated for cancer therapy and physical/biological experiment since 2010. KeiGM produces typically 230 μA of 10 keV/u C{sup 4+} ions from CH{sub 4} gases. The vacuum pressure is kept between 1.2 × 10{sup −4} and 1.7 × 10{sup −4} Pa so as to suppress the pulse-to-pulse current fluctuation within ±10%. The extraction electrode is cleaned every 6–8 months in order to remove deposited carbon, which increases the leak current and discharge. In order to investigate the possibility of long-term operation without such maintenances, oxygen aging for the cleaning of the extraction electrode has been tested in the test bench. The same-designed ion sources at National Institute of Radiological Sciences and SAGA Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Tosu (SAGA-HIMAT) are also operated with stable C{sup 4+} current, which are suitable for the continuous operation for cancer therapy.

  17. Investigation on the effects of guava (Psidium guajava L.) infusions on germination, root tips and meristematic cells of Latuca sativa.

    PubMed

    Luber, Jaquelini; Palmieri, Marcel J; Botelho, Carolina M; Rinaldo, Daniel; Andrade-Vieira, Larissa F

    2015-01-01

    Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is a plant often employed in popular medicine. Recently several studies have alerted about the toxicity of substances present in medicinal plants, which can pose risks to the human health. In this sense, the present work aimed to investigate the phytotoxic, cytotoxic and genotoxic action of three guava varieties - Paluma, Pedro Sato and Roxa ("purple") - on the plant test system Lactuca sativa L. Thus, macro- and microscopic evaluations were carried out for five infusion concentrations (2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0 and 40.0 g.L(-1)) prepared from each variety. Distilled water was used as negative control. Chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis by HPLC-PAD indicated that the chemical composition of the infusion of Roxa is different than that of the infusions of the varieties Paluma and Pedro Sato. It was observed that seed germination and root growth in L. sativa exposed to infusions decreased with increasing infusion concentration, regardless of the tested cultivar. For the mitotic index, no statistical differences were observed. On the other hand, a significant increase in the frequency of cell cycle alterations was verified, especially for the highest concentrations tested. The cytogenotoxic effect was significant. Therefore, guava should not be used indiscriminately in popular medicine.

  18. Investigation on the effects of guava (Psidium guajava L.) infusions on germination, root tips and meristematic cells of Latuca sativa.

    PubMed

    Luber, Jaquelini; Palmieri, Marcel J; Botelho, Carolina M; Rinaldo, Daniel; Andrade-Vieira, Larissa F

    2015-01-01

    Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is a plant often employed in popular medicine. Recently several studies have alerted about the toxicity of substances present in medicinal plants, which can pose risks to the human health. In this sense, the present work aimed to investigate the phytotoxic, cytotoxic and genotoxic action of three guava varieties - Paluma, Pedro Sato and Roxa ("purple") - on the plant test system Lactuca sativa L. Thus, macro- and microscopic evaluations were carried out for five infusion concentrations (2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0 and 40.0 g.L(-1)) prepared from each variety. Distilled water was used as negative control. Chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis by HPLC-PAD indicated that the chemical composition of the infusion of Roxa is different than that of the infusions of the varieties Paluma and Pedro Sato. It was observed that seed germination and root growth in L. sativa exposed to infusions decreased with increasing infusion concentration, regardless of the tested cultivar. For the mitotic index, no statistical differences were observed. On the other hand, a significant increase in the frequency of cell cycle alterations was verified, especially for the highest concentrations tested. The cytogenotoxic effect was significant. Therefore, guava should not be used indiscriminately in popular medicine. PMID:25993362

  19. [The Chinese nuclear test and 'atoms for peace' as a measure for preventing nuclear armament of Japan: the nuclear non-proliferation policy of the United States and the introduction of light water reactors into Japan, 1964-1968].

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Masakatsu

    2014-07-01

    Japan and the United States signed in 1968 a new atomic energy agreement through which US light-water nuclear reactors, including those of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of Tokyo Electric Power Company, were to be introduced into Japan. This paper studies the history of negotiations for the 1968 agreement using documents declassified in the 1990s in the US and Japan. After the success of the Chinese nuclear test in October 1964, the United States became seriously concerned about nuclear armament of other countries in Asia including Japan. Expecting that Japan would not have its own nuclear weapons, the US offered to help the country to demonstrate its superiority in some fields of science including peaceful nuclear energy to counter the psychological effect of the Chinese nuclear armament. Driven by his own political agenda, the newly appointed Prime Minister Eisaku Sato responded to the US expectation favorably. When he met in January 1965 with President Johnson, Sato made it clear that Japan would not pursue nuclear weapons. Although the US continued its support after this visit, it nevertheless gave priority to the control of nuclear technology in Japan through the bilateral peaceful nuclear agreement. This paper argues that the 1968 agreement implicitly meant a strategic measure to prevent Japan from going nuclear and also a tactic to persuade Japan to join the Nuclear Non -Proliferation Treaty. PMID:25296517

  20. Molecular Realizations of Quantum Computing 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakahara, Mikio; Ota, Yukihiro; Rahimi, Robabeh; Kondo, Yasushi; Tada-Umezaki, Masahito

    2009-06-01

    Liquid-state NMR quantum computer: working principle and some examples / Y. Kondo -- Flux qubits, tunable coupling and beyond / A. O. Niskanen -- Josephson phase qubits, and quantum communication via a resonant cavity / M. A. Sillanpää -- Quantum computing using pulse-based electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR): molecular spin-qubits / K. Sato ... [et al.] -- Fullerene C[symbol]: a possible molecular quantum computer / T. Wakabayashi -- Molecular magnets for quantum computation / T. Kuroda -- Errors in a plausible scheme of quantum gates in Kane's model / Y. Ota -- Yet another formulation for quantum simultaneous noncooperative bimatrix games / A. SaiToh, R. Rahimi, M. Nakahara -- Continuous-variable teleportation of single-photon states and an accidental cloning of a photonic qubit in two-channel teleportation / T. Ide.

  1. New Pathologies of Skin Disorders Identified from the History of Perspiration Research.

    PubMed

    Yokozeki, Hiroo

    2016-01-01

    This chapter introduces the history of perspiration research and the latest perspiration research findings. Many investigators worldwide, particularly those in Japan, have carried forward globally leading studies on perspiration. This chapter will introduce the history of studies on the physiology of perspiration and perspiration research by classifying it in three stages, namely the early, maturation, and development stages, with a focus on Japanese researchers who have played active roles in each stage. In particular, I will introduce two historical physiologists in detail, Dr. Yasu Kuno, a former professor of Nagoya University, who dramatically revealed the physiology of perspiration in the early and maturation stages, and Dr. Kenzo Sato, a former professor of the University of Iowa. PMID:27584956

  2. Correlation of the five test methods to assess chemical toxicity and relation to physical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshioka, Y.; Ose, Y.; Sato, T.

    1986-08-01

    Biological tests using Orizias latipes (LC50 and oxygen uptake test), Moina macrocopa (LC50), and Dugesia japonica (head regeneration test and LC50) were carried out in order to clarify the mutual relationship of these test methods. The oxygen uptake rate of O. latipes was not effective to assess chemical toxicity. Adding the results of the growth inhibition test of Tetrahymena pyriformis (Yoshioka, Y., Ose, Y., and Sato, T. (1985). Sci. Total Environ. 43, 149-157), the correlation coefficients between each two test methods were calculated. The test results except EC50 and LC50 of D. japonica showed a good relation to each other. We determined the solubility and the n-octanol/water partition coefficient (P) of some chemicals used in the test. Log P interpreted the toxicity in mol/liter unit but not in mg/liter. Solubility was not a useful descripter neither in mol/liter nor in mg/liter unit.

  3. The Nash Equilibrium Revisited: Chaos and Complexity Hidden in Simplicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellman, Philip V.

    The Nash Equilibrium is a much discussed, deceptively complex, method for the analysis of non-cooperative games (McLennan and Berg, 2005). If one reads many of the commonly available definitions the description of the Nash Equilibrium is deceptively simple in appearance. Modern research has discovered a number of new and important complex properties of the Nash Equilibrium, some of which remain as contemporary conundrums of extraordinary difficulty and complexity (Quint and Shubik, 1997). Among the recently discovered features which the Nash Equilibrium exhibits under various conditions are heteroclinic Hamiltonian dynamics, a very complex asymptotic structure in the context of two-player bi-matrix games and a number of computationally complex or computationally intractable features in other settings (Sato, Akiyama and Farmer, 2002). This paper reviews those findings and then suggests how they may inform various market prediction strategies.

  4. Single pi+ Electroproduction on the Proton in the First and Second Resonance Regions at 0.25GeV^2 < Q^2 < 0.65GeV^2 Using CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    H. Egiyan; I.G. Aznauryan; V.D. Burkert; K.A. Griffioen; K. Joo; R. Minehart; L.C. Smith

    2006-01-05

    The ep {yields} e'pi{sup +}n reaction was studied in the first and second nucleon resonance regions in the 0.25 GeV{sup 2} < Q{sup 2} < 0.65 GeV{sup 2} range using the CLAS detector at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. For the first time the absolute cross sections were measured covering nearly the full angular range in the hadronic center-of-mass frame. The structure functions {sigma}{sub TL}, {sigma}{sub TT} and the linear combination {sigma}{sub T} + {epsilon}{sigma}{sub L} were extracted by fitting the {phi}-dependence of the measured cross sections, and were compared to the MAID and Sato-Lee models.

  5. Comparison of νμ->νe Oscillation calculations with matter effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Michael; Toki, Walter

    2013-04-01

    An introduction to neutrino oscillations in vacuum is presented, followed by a survey of various techniques for obtaining either exact or approximate expressions for νμ->νe oscillations in matter. The method devised by Mann, Kafka, Schneps, and Altinok produces an exact expression for the oscillation by determining explicitely the evolution operator. The method used by Freund yields an approximate oscillation probability by diagonalizing the Hamiltonian, finding the eigenvalues and eigenvectors, and then using those to find modified mixing angles with the matter effect taken into account. The method developed by Arafune, Koike, and Sato uses an alternate method to find an approximation of the evolution operator. These methods are compared to each other using parameters from both the T2K and LBNE experiments.

  6. Matter Effects On Neutrino Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Michael

    An introduction to neutrino oscillations in vacuum is presented, followed by a survey of various techniques for obtaining either exact or approximate expressions for numu → nue oscillations in matter. The method developed by Arafune, Koike, and Sato uses a perturbative analysis to find an approximation for the evolution operator. The method used by Freund yields an approximate oscillation probability by diagonalizing the Hamiltonian, finding the eigenvalues and eigenvectors, and then using those to find modified mixing angles with the matter effect taken into account. The method devised by Mann, Kafka, Schneps, and Altinok produces an exact expression for the oscillation by determining explicitly the evolution operator. These methods are compared to each other using the T2K, MINOS, NOnuA, and LBNE parameters.

  7. Supersymmetry and the discrete light-cone quantization limit of the Lie 3-algebra model of M theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Matsuo

    2012-02-01

    In M. Sato, J. High Energy Phys.JHEPFG1029-8479 07 (2010) 02610.1007/JHEP07(2010)026, we proposed two models of M theory, the Hermitian 3-algebra model and Lie 3-algebra model. In this paper, we study the Lie 3-algebra model with a Lorentzian Lie 3-algebra. This model is ghost-free despite the Lorentzian 3-algebra. We show that our model satisfies two criteria as a model of M theory. First, we show that the model possesses N=1 supersymmetry in 11 dimensions. Second, we show the model reduces to Banks-Fischler-Shenker-Susskind matrix theory with finite size matrices in a discrete light-cone quantization limit.

  8. A review of the Japanese species of the family Tischeriidae (Lepidoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Shigeki; Sato, Hiroaki; Hirano, Nagao; Yamada, Kazutaka; Hirowatari, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper provides taxonomic and biological data on one new and one newly recorded species of Coptotriche Walsingham and one new and one newly recorded species of Tischeria Zeller from Japan. Coptotriche symplocosella Kobayashi & Hirowatari, sp. n. (host Symplocos lucida, Symplocaceae), and Tischeria kumatai Sato, Kobayashi & Hirowatari, sp. n. (host Tilia japonica, Malvaceae) are described. The pupal morphology of Coptotriche symplocosella is illustrated with scanning electron micrographs. Coptotriche minuta Diškus & Stonis, 2014 and Tischeria relictana Ermolaev, 1986 are newly recorded from Japan. The female, hostplants (Carpinus, Corylus, and Ostrya species), and immature stages of Coptotriche minuta and the adult features, female, and hostplants (Betula species) of Tischeria relictana are described with photographs and drawings for the first time. Mine types and characters of Japanese Tischeriidae are reviewed with photographs. PMID:27551192

  9. On the similarity of theories of anelastic and scattering attenuation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wennerberg, L.; Frankel, A.

    1989-01-01

    We point out basic parallels between theories of anelastic and scattering attenuation. We consider approximations to scattering effects presented by O'Doherty and Anstey (1971), Sato (1982), and Wu (1982). We use the linear theory of anelasticity. We note that the frequency dependence of Q can be related to a distribution of scales of physical properties of the medium. The frequency dependence of anelastic Q is related to the distribution of relaxation times in exactly the same manner as the frequency dependence of scattering Q is related to the distribution of scatterer sizes. Thus, the well-known difficulty of separating scattering from intrinsic attenuation is seen from this point of view as a consequence of the fact that certain observables can be interpreted by identical equations resulting from either of two credible physical theories describing fundamentally different processes. -from Authors

  10. Ultraviolet observations of comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Code, A. D.; Houck, T. E.; Lillie, C. F.

    1972-01-01

    The first observations of a comet in the vacuum ultraviolet were obtained on January 14, 1970, when OAO-2 recorded the spectrum of the bright comet Tago-Sato-Kosaka (1969g). The observations revealed, among other things, the predicted extensive hydrogen Lyman alpha halo. OAO-2 continued to collect spectrophotometric measurements of this comet throughout January of that year; a photograph of the nucleus in Lyman alpha revealed finer scale structures. In February of 1970, the bright comet Bennet (1969i) became favorable for space observations. On the basis of the OAO discovery, OGO-V made several measurements of comet Bennet with low spatial resolution photometers. Comet Enke was detected by OGO in January of 1971 at a large heliocentric distance from its Lyman alpha emission.

  11. Infrared polarization of Venus - Its periodic fluctuations and evidence for thin haze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, T.; Sato, S.; Mukai, T.; Mukai, S.

    1984-01-01

    The Sato et al. (1980) IR polarimetry measurements of Venus have been extended to cover the phase angles from 18 to 171 deg. For the case of 2.25-5.0 micron polarization measurements, a remarkable variation with wavelength is found in the 2.2-4.2 micron filter region, together with a decrease with increasing field-of-view at 5.0 microns due to the contamination of thermal emission from the dark crescent. Comparisons with model calculations indicate that these results confirm the existence of a thin haze layer which consists of submicron-size particles above the main clouds of Venus. The 4.5-5.0 day fluctuations found could be due to a variation of the optical thickness of the haze layer, or of the brightness temperature of the main clouds.

  12. Is guava phenolic metabolism influenced by elevated atmospheric CO2?

    PubMed

    Mendes de Rezende, Fernanda; Pereira de Souza, Amanda; Silveira Buckeridge, Marcos; Maria Furlan, Cláudia

    2015-01-01

    Seedlings of Psidium guajava cv. Pedro Sato were distributed into four open-top chambers: two with ambient CO(2) (∼390 ppm) and two with elevated CO(2) (∼780 ppm). Monthly, five individuals of each chamber were collected, separated into root, stem and leaves and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen. Chemical parameters were analyzed to investigate how guava invests the surplus carbon. For all classes of phenolic compounds analyzed only tannins showed significant increase in plants at elevated CO(2) after 90 days. There was no significant difference in dry biomass, but the leaves showed high accumulation of starch under elevated CO(2). Results suggest that elevated CO(2) seems to be favorable to seedlings of P. guajava, due to accumulation of starch and tannins, the latter being an important anti-herbivore substance. PMID:25129845

  13. Development of three-dimensional site-site Smoluchowski-Vlasov equation and application to electrolyte solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kasahara, Kento; Sato, Hirofumi

    2014-06-28

    Site-site Smoluchowski-Vlasov (SSSV) equation enables us to directly calculate van Hove time correlation function, which describes diffusion process in molecular liquids. Recently, the theory had been extended to treat solute-solvent system by Iida and Sato [J. Chem. Phys. 137, 034506 (2012)]. Because the original framework of SSSV equation is based on conventional pair correlation function, time evolution of system is expressed in terms of one-dimensional solvation structure. Here, we propose a new SSSV equation to calculate time evolution of solvation structure in three-dimensional space. The proposed theory was applied to analyze diffusion processes in 1M NaCl aqueous solution and in lithium ion battery electrolyte solution. The results demonstrate that these processes are properly described with the theory, and the computed van Hove functions are in good agreement with those in previous works.

  14. Inhaled nitric oxide therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome in children.

    PubMed

    Medjo, Biljana; Atanaskovic-Markovic, Marina; Nikolic, Dimitrije; Cuturilo, Goran; Djukic, Slobodanka

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) therapy on oxygenation and mortality in children with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Thirty-three children with ARDS and an arterial SatO2 <88% despite mechanical ventilation were analyzed. Patients in the iNO group were prospectively enrolled and treated with conventional therapy plus iNO. The control group consisted of retrospectively analyzed patients treated only with conventional therapy. A significant increase in PaO2/FiO2 ratio (25.6%) and decrease in oxygenation index (19.5%) was observed after 4 h of iNO treatment, when compared to baseline values. A positive response to iNO was detected in 69% of patients, and there was no difference between pulmonary and extrapulmonary ARDS. There was no difference in mortality and duration of mechanical ventilation between iNO and control group. PMID:22885439

  15. Simulating phase transformations with the Cahn-Hilliard equation -- Potential and limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Loechte, L.; Gottstein, G.

    1998-12-31

    An extension of the classical Cahn-Hilliard equation, including elastic interactions is presented. This generalized diffusion equation allows real time simulation of phase-transformations, such as GP-zone formation in a near-commercial {und Al}Cu alloy. No a priori assumptions about kinetics, diffusion fields, as well as precipitate shape are necessary. Shape of precipitates and kinetic of simulated GP-zone formation are in qualitatively good agreement with experiments of Sato and Takahashi, and the concurrently derived interfacial energies are reasonable. Two algorithms for a numerical solution of the Cahn-Hilliard equation are presented. While the simple finite difference scheme does not converge, a slightly more complicated Fourier spectral method behaves reasonable as tested for a synthetic chemical potential.

  16. Measures for environmental conservation in enclosed coastal seas.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Akio; Nakura, Yoshio; Ishikawa, Takuya

    2016-01-30

    With putting a focus on the balance among the nutrient salts such as nitrogen and phosphorus, the Ministry of the Environment (MOE) developed the Action Plan for Healthy Material Circulation in Ocean (just called the Healthy Plan). The plan aims to facilitate the healthy and smooth circulation of the nutrients with an integrated management over land and sea as a package in respective sea areas. The Healthy Plan is now in a pilot phase and is to be implemented for some selected model regions. Meanwhile, devastating tsunamis caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11th, 2011 severely damaged the natural environments in the affected regions. In the affected bays, seaweed beds and spawning grounds disappeared in a blink. MOE has launched on the recovery activities of Zostera (eelgrass) beds, using the concepts and the methods used in the "Sato-umi Creation" activity which is a purposeful environmental recovery project. PMID:26969298

  17. Is guava phenolic metabolism influenced by elevated atmospheric CO2?

    PubMed

    Mendes de Rezende, Fernanda; Pereira de Souza, Amanda; Silveira Buckeridge, Marcos; Maria Furlan, Cláudia

    2015-01-01

    Seedlings of Psidium guajava cv. Pedro Sato were distributed into four open-top chambers: two with ambient CO(2) (∼390 ppm) and two with elevated CO(2) (∼780 ppm). Monthly, five individuals of each chamber were collected, separated into root, stem and leaves and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen. Chemical parameters were analyzed to investigate how guava invests the surplus carbon. For all classes of phenolic compounds analyzed only tannins showed significant increase in plants at elevated CO(2) after 90 days. There was no significant difference in dry biomass, but the leaves showed high accumulation of starch under elevated CO(2). Results suggest that elevated CO(2) seems to be favorable to seedlings of P. guajava, due to accumulation of starch and tannins, the latter being an important anti-herbivore substance.

  18. Schur function expansions of KP τ-functions associated to algebraic curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harnad, J.; Ènol'skii, Viktor Z.

    2011-08-01

    The Schur function expansion of Sato-Segal-Wilson KP \\tau-functions is reviewed. The case of \\tau-functions related to algebraic curves of arbitrary genus is studied in detail. Explicit expressions for the Plücker coordinate coefficients appearing in the expansion are obtained in terms of directional derivatives of the Riemann \\theta-function or Klein \\sigma-function along the KP flow directions. By using the fundamental bi-differential it is shown how the coefficients can be expressed as polynomials in terms of Klein's higher-genus generalizations of Weierstrass' \\zeta- and \\wp-functions. The cases of genus-two hyperelliptic and genus-three trigonal curves are detailed as illustrations of the approach developed here. Bibliography: 53 titles.

  19. The pressure effect of the Curie temperature in TbAl sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, K.; Nishimura, K. ); Isikawa, Y.; Kamigaki, K. ); Yoshida, H.; Kaneko, T. )

    1990-05-01

    The pressure effect of the ferromagnetic Curie temperature in Tb(Al{sub 1{minus}{ital x}}Co{sub {ital x}}){sub 2}, 0{le}{ital x}{le}0.1 was measured by the induction method under hydrostatic pressure. The Curie temperatures of these compounds increased with increasing pressure and the derivative {ital dT}{sub {ital c}}/{ital dp} as a function of cobalt concentration did not change so much compared with that of Gd(Al{sub 1{minus}{ital x}}Co{sub {ital x}}){sub 2} (Sato {ital et} {ital al}., J. Phys. (Paris) Colloq. {bold 49}, C8-453 (1988)). These results are discussed on the basis of the RKKY model.

  20. Stability of elongated cross-section tokamaks to axisymmetric even poloidal mode number deformations

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, R.; Jardin, S.C.; Pomphrey, N.

    1989-06-01

    A recent paper by Nakayama, Sato and Matsuoka suggests that elliptical cross section tokamaks with aspect ratio R/a = 3.2 and with elongation kappa = 2.6 are unstable to a splitting (m = 2, n = 0) instability for plasma ..beta.. > 5%, and that kappa /> =/ 4.0 plasmas are unstable to splitting for ..beta.. /> =/ 1%. We have tried to reproduce these results using the MHD evolution code TSC, but find these configurations to be stable, not even near a stability boundary. Even a kappa = 3.7 plasma with ..beta.. = 23.0% is stable to the splitting mode. However, the addition of pinching coils at the waist will cause the plasma to split if the current in these coils exceeds a critical value I/sub c/ which decreases with increasing ..beta... 8 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Comparison of techniques that use the single scattering model to compute the quality factor Q from coda waves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Lee, W.H.K.

    1991-01-01

    Using simulated coda waves, the resolution of the single-scattering model to extract coda Q (Qc) and its power law frequency dependence was tested. The back-scattering model of Aki and Chouet (1975) and the single isotropic-scattering model of Sato (1977) were examined. The results indicate that: (1) The input Qc models are reasonably well approximated by the two methods; (2) almost equal Qc values are recovered when the techniques sample the same coda windows; (3) low Qc models are well estimated in the frequency domain from the early and late part of the coda; and (4) models with high Qc values are more accurately extracted from late code measurements. ?? 1991 Birkha??user Verlag.

  2. Measurements of mantle wave velocities and inversion for lateral heterogeneity and anisotropy. I - Analysis of great circle phase velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakanishi, I.; Anderson, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    The global lateral heterogeneity of the upper mantle is investigated using the classical Fourier-transform method of Sato(1958) and IDA/GDSN data from 25 1980 earthquakes. The great-circle phase velocities of 200 Love and 250 Rayleigh 100-330-sec-period fundamental-mode wave paths are determined and interpreted in terms of regional phase-velocity variation, using additional data on surface tectonics to extrapolate odd-harmonic information from the even-harmonic data. The results are presented in extensive tables, maps, and graphs. Regionalized inversion using the seven-region model of Okal (1977) is found to give maximum variance reductions of 65 percent for Love waves and 85 percent for Rayleigh waves, compared to 60 and 90 percent for l(max) = 2 inversion. Significant interregion differences are found in the regionalized Love-wave phase velocities.

  3. Measures for environmental conservation in enclosed coastal seas.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Akio; Nakura, Yoshio; Ishikawa, Takuya

    2016-01-30

    With putting a focus on the balance among the nutrient salts such as nitrogen and phosphorus, the Ministry of the Environment (MOE) developed the Action Plan for Healthy Material Circulation in Ocean (just called the Healthy Plan). The plan aims to facilitate the healthy and smooth circulation of the nutrients with an integrated management over land and sea as a package in respective sea areas. The Healthy Plan is now in a pilot phase and is to be implemented for some selected model regions. Meanwhile, devastating tsunamis caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11th, 2011 severely damaged the natural environments in the affected regions. In the affected bays, seaweed beds and spawning grounds disappeared in a blink. MOE has launched on the recovery activities of Zostera (eelgrass) beds, using the concepts and the methods used in the "Sato-umi Creation" activity which is a purposeful environmental recovery project.

  4. Online EM with weight-based forgetting.

    PubMed

    Celaya, Enric; Agostini, Alejandro

    2015-05-01

    In the online version of the EM algorithm introduced by Sato and Ishii ( 2000 ), a time-dependent discount factor is introduced for forgetting the effect of the old estimated values obtained with an earlier, inaccurate estimator. In their approach, forgetting is uniformly applied to the estimators of each mixture component depending exclusively on time, irrespective of the weight attributed to each unit for the observed sample. This causes an excessive forgetting in the less frequently sampled regions. To address this problem, we propose a modification of the algorithm that involves a weight-dependent forgetting, different for each mixture component, in which old observations are forgotten according to the actual weight of the new samples used to replace older values. A comparison of the time-dependent versus the weight-dependent approach shows that the latter improves the accuracy of the approximation and exhibits much greater stability. PMID:25710091

  5. Origin of organism-dependent biogenic silica quartz formation.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kiminori

    2011-12-15

    Organism-dependent biogenic quartz formation in the steady-state environment is a phenomenon that can address the global environmental issues such as diagenetic evolution, biogeochemical cycling, and reservoir formation, but detailed studies have not been performed so far. Here, steady-state quartz formation is studied for amorphous silica of different biogenic origin on the basis of the recently established mechanistic model [Sato et al., J. Phys. Chem. C 2011, 115, 18131]. Amorphous silica originated from rice husks possesses angstrom-scale pores larger by 1.3 Å than those originated from diatom algae. The slight difference of pore size dramatically reduces activation energies of water diffusion by 78% and reactions of water molecules at pore surfaces by 47%, resulting in the reduction of activation energy of biogenic quartz formation by 64%. The present findings evidence that angstrom-scale pores intrinsically residing in the amorphous matrix are the organism-dependent origin of steady-state biogenic quartz formation.

  6. Online EM with weight-based forgetting.

    PubMed

    Celaya, Enric; Agostini, Alejandro

    2015-05-01

    In the online version of the EM algorithm introduced by Sato and Ishii ( 2000 ), a time-dependent discount factor is introduced for forgetting the effect of the old estimated values obtained with an earlier, inaccurate estimator. In their approach, forgetting is uniformly applied to the estimators of each mixture component depending exclusively on time, irrespective of the weight attributed to each unit for the observed sample. This causes an excessive forgetting in the less frequently sampled regions. To address this problem, we propose a modification of the algorithm that involves a weight-dependent forgetting, different for each mixture component, in which old observations are forgotten according to the actual weight of the new samples used to replace older values. A comparison of the time-dependent versus the weight-dependent approach shows that the latter improves the accuracy of the approximation and exhibits much greater stability.

  7. Recent Advances in the Base-Induced Sommelet-Hauser Rearrangement of Amino Acid Derived Ammonium Ylides.

    PubMed

    Tayama, Eiji

    2015-08-01

    The Sommelet-Hauser rearrangement of N-benzylic ammonium ylides generated from ammonium salts is an interesting and useful transformation that enables one to convert a readily accessible C-N bond into a new C-C bond to an aromatic ring. The rearrangement was discovered by Sommelet in 1937, studied in detail by Hauser, and applied to organic synthesis by Sato until 1999. Further studies have not advanced because several competitive side reactions and structural limitations of the products severely limit the substrate scope and synthetic applications. In this Personal Account, a history of the research in problem solving and recent advances in the base-induced Sommelet-Hauser rearrangement are described. This synthetic method developed by my group provides efficient access to various types of α-aryl-α-amino acid and α-aryl-β-amino acid derivatives.

  8. Right-hand polarized 4fce auroral roar emissions: 2. Nonlinear generation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, P. H.; LaBelle, J.; Weatherwax, A. T.

    2016-08-01

    Auroral roar emissions are commonly interpreted as Z (or upper hybrid) mode naturally excited by precipitating auroral electrons. Subsequent conversion to escaping radiation makes it possible for these emissions to be detected on the ground. Most emissions are detected as having left-hand (L) circular (or ordinary O) polarization, but the companion paper presents a systematic experimental study on the rare occurrence of the right-hand polarized, or equivalently, extraordinary (X) mode 4fce emission. A similar observation was reported earlier by Sato et al. (2015). The suggested emission mechanism is the nonlinear coalescence of two upper hybrid roars at 2fce. The present paper formulates a detailed theory for such an emission mechanism.

  9. A review of the Japanese species of the family Tischeriidae (Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shigeki; Sato, Hiroaki; Hirano, Nagao; Yamada, Kazutaka; Hirowatari, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides taxonomic and biological data on one new and one newly recorded species of Coptotriche Walsingham and one new and one newly recorded species of Tischeria Zeller from Japan. Coptotriche symplocosella Kobayashi & Hirowatari, sp. n. (host Symplocos lucida, Symplocaceae), and Tischeria kumatai Sato, Kobayashi & Hirowatari, sp. n. (host Tilia japonica, Malvaceae) are described. The pupal morphology of Coptotriche symplocosella is illustrated with scanning electron micrographs. Coptotriche minuta Diškus & Stonis, 2014 and Tischeria relictana Ermolaev, 1986 are newly recorded from Japan. The female, hostplants (Carpinus, Corylus, and Ostrya species), and immature stages of Coptotriche minuta and the adult features, female, and hostplants (Betula species) of Tischeria relictana are described with photographs and drawings for the first time. Mine types and characters of Japanese Tischeriidae are reviewed with photographs. PMID:27551192

  10. Chest physiotherapy in preterm infants with lung diseases

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In neonatology the role of chest physiotherapy is still uncertain because of the controversial outcomes. Methods The aim of this study was to test the applicability in preterm infants of 'reflex rolling', from the Vojta method, in preterm neonates with lung pathology, with particular attention to the effects on blood gases and oxygen saturation, on the spontaneous breathing, on the onset of stress or pain. The study included 34 preterm newborns with mean gestational age of 30.5 (1.6) weeks - mean (DS) - and birth weight of 1430 (423) g - mean (DS) -, who suffered from hyaline membrane disease, under treatment with nasal CPAP (continuous positive airways pressure), or from pneumonia, under treatment with oxygen-therapy. The neonates underwent phase 1 of 'reflex rolling' according to Vojta method three times daily. Respiratory rate, SatO2, transcutaneous PtcCO2 e PtcO2 were monitored; in order to evaluate the onset of stress or pain following the stimulations, the NIPS score and the PIPP score were recorded; cerebral ultrasound scans were performed on postnatal days 1-3-5-7, and then weekly. Results In this population the first phase of Vojta's 'reflex rolling' caused an increase of PtcO2 and SatO2 values. No negative effects on PtcCO2 and respiratory rate were observed, NIPS and PIPP stress scores remained unmodified during the treatment; in no patient the intraventricular haemorrhage worsened in time and none of the infants developed periventricular leucomalacia. Conclusions Our experience, using the Vojta method, allows to affirm that this method is safe for preterm neonates, but further investigations are necessary to confirm its positive effects and to evaluate long-term respiratory outcomes. PMID:20868518

  11. Afterslip Distribution of Large Earthquakes Using Viscoelastic Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Higuchi, H.

    2009-12-01

    One of important parameters in simulations of earthquake generation is frictional properties of faults. To investigate the frictional properties, many authors studied coseismic slip and afterslip distribution of large plate interface earthquakes using coseismic and post seismic surface deformation by GPS data. Most of these studies used elastic media to get afterslip distribution. However, the effect of viscoelastic relaxation at the asthenosphere is important on post seismic surface deformation (Matsu’ura and Sato, GJI, 1989; Sato and Matsu’ura, GJI, 1992). Therefore, the studies using elastic media did not estimate correct afterslip distribution because they forced the cause of surface deformation on only afterslips at plate interface. We estimate afterslip distribution of large interplate earthquakes using viscoelastic media. We consider not only viscoelastic responses of coseismic slip but also viscoelastic responses of afterslips. Because many studies suggested that the magnitude of afterslips was comparable to that of coseismic slip, viscoelastic responses of afterslips can not be negligible. Therefore, surface displacement data include viscoelastic response of coseismic slip, viscoelastic response of afterslips which occurred just after coseismic period to just before the present, and elastic response of the present afterslip. We estimate afterslip distribution for the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake, Hokkaido, Japan using GPS data by GSI, Japan. We use CAMP model (Hashimoto et al, PAGEOPH, 2004) as a plate interface between the Pacific plate and the North American plate. The viscoelastic results show clearer that afterslips distribute on areaes where the coseismic slip does not occur. The viscoelastic results also show that the afterslips concentrate deeper parts of the plate interface at the eastern adjoining area of the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake.

  12. Photometric Characteristics of Lunar Terrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Hapke, Bruce W.; Denevi, Brett W.; Robinson, Mark

    2016-10-01

    The photometric properties of the lunar depend on albedo, surface roughness, porosity, and the internal/external structure of particles. Hapke parameter maps derived using a bidirectional reflectance model [Hapke, 2012] from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) images demonstrated the spatial and spectral variation of the photometric properties of the Moon [Sato et al., 2014]. Using the same methodology, here we present the photometric characteristics of typical lunar terrains, which were not systematically analyzed in the previous study.We selected five representative terrain types: mare, highland, swirls, and two Copernican (fresh) crater ejecta (one mare and one highlands example). As for the datasets, we used ~39 months of WAC repeated observations, and for each image pixel, we computed latitude, longitude, incidence, emission, and phase angles using the WAC GLD100 stereo DTM [Scholten et al., 2012]. To obtain similar phase and incidence angle ranges, all sampling sites are near the equator and in the vicinity of Reiner Gamma. Three free Hapke parameters (single scattering albedo: w, HG2 phase function parameter: c, and angular width of SHOE: hs) were then calculated for the seven bands (321-689 nm). The remaining parameters were fixed by simplifying the model [Sato et al., 2014].The highlands, highland ejecta, and swirl (Reiner Gamma) showed clearly higher w than the mare and mare ejecta. The derived c values were lower (less backscattering) for the swirl and higher (more backscattering) for the highlands (and ejecta) relative to the other sites. Forward scattering materials such as unconsolidated transparent crystalline materials might be relatively enriched in the swirl. In the highlands, anorthositic agglutinates with dense internal scattering could be responsible for the strong backscattering. The mare and mare ejecta showed continuously decreasing c from UV to visible wavelengths. This might be caused by the FeO-rich pyroxene

  13. Performance simulation of a spaceborne infrared coherent lidar for measuring tropospheric wind profiles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, Philippe; Ishii, Shoken; Kyoka, Gamo; Mizutani, Kohei; Chikako, Takahashi; Itabe, Toshikazu; Iwasaki, Toshiki; Kubota, Takuji; Okamoto, Kozo; Oki, Riko; Satoh, Masaki; Satoh, Yohei

    2014-05-01

    An effort has begun in Japan to develop a spaceborne instrument for measuring tropospheric winds. This project is a collaboration between the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), the Meteorological Research Institute (MRI, Japan) and the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT, Japan) [1,2]. The aim is to measure the horizontal wind field in the troposphere on a global scale with a precision better than 3 ms-1, and a vertical and horizontal (along the satellite ground track) resolution better than 1 km and 100 km, respectively. In order to support the definition and the development of the instrument, an end-to-end simulator has been implemented including modules for i) simulating the time-dependent laser shot return power, ii) for averaging the spectral power of several returns and iii) for estimating the line-of-sight wind from the Doppler shift of the averaged spectra. The simulations take into account the satellite position and motion along the orbit track, the observational and instrumental characteristics, a 3-D representation of the relevant atmospheric parameters (i.e. wind field, cloud coverage and aerosols distribution) and the Earth surface characteristics. The simulator and the method for estimating the line-of-sight wind will be presented. We will show the results obtained for a payload composed of two 2-μm coherent LIDARs looking in orthogonal directions, and for a satellite moving on a low orbit. The precision, accuracy and the vertical and horizontal resolution of the wind estimates will be discussed. References: [1] S. Ishii, T. Iwasaki, M. Sato, R. Oki, K. Okamoto, T. Ishibashi, P. Baron, and T. Nishizawa, Future Doppler lidar wind measurement from space in Japan, Proc. of SPIE Vol. 8529, 2012 [2] S. Ishii, H. Iwai, K. Mizutani, P. Baron, T. Itabe, H. Fukuoka, T. Ishikawa, A. Sato and A. Asai, 2-μm coherent LIDAR for CO2 and wind measurements, Proc. of SPIE Vol. 8872, 2013

  14. Deep seismic reflection profiling of the subduction megathrust across the Sagimi trough and Tokyo bay, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Iwasaki, Takaya; Abe, Susumu; Saito, Hideo; Kawanaka, Taku; Hirata, Naoshi

    2010-05-01

    Beneath the metropolitan Tokyo, the Philippine Sea plate, in particular the fore arc portion of the Izu-Bonin island arc, has been subducted. Subduction megathrust beneath Tokyo generated M-8 class earthquakes, such as the 1923 Kanto (M7.9) and 1703 Genroku (M8.0) earthquakes. Due to the buyant subduction of the Izu-Bonin arc, the megathrust lies very shallow part of the crust. The Kozu-Matsuda fault, probable spray fault from the megathrust, emerged at the surface. In 2009, we acquired the deep seismic reflection data across the toe of the thrust system to reveal the connectivity of the probable spray fault to the megathrust. Together with the deep seismic section acquired in 2003, we show a 120-km-long deep seismic reflection profile from the front to 30 km in depth and discuss the geometry and characteristics of the thrust system. We performed deep seismic profiling across the Sagami trough for a 70-km-long seismic line in September 2009, using two ships for offshore seismic data acquisition: a gun-ship with a 3020 cu. inch air-gun and a cable-ship with a 2-km-long, streamer cable and a 480 cu. inch air-gun. The seismic signals were recorded at Miura and Izu peninsulas located both ends of the seismic line. At both sides of the onshore line, off-line recorders were deployed along total 20-km-long seismic lines at a 50m interval. Seismic reflection data were acquired by different offset of ships making large-offset gathers. The northeast end of the seismic line connected with the 2003 Tokyo bay seismic line (Sato et al., 2005: Science). The obtained seismic sections portray the detailed geometry of the spray faults, suggesting an emergent thrust with 4 km thick landward dipping strata. It merges to the megathrust at 6-7 sec (TWT). Judging from the geometry of fault-related fold in the trough fill sediments, the tip of the megathrust is located at 3 sec (TWT) beneath the trough axis. According to the co-seismic crustal deformation, the slip of the 1923 Kanto

  15. The Interrelationship Between Microstructure, Coercivity and Magnetic Viscosity in Cobalt-Aluminum and Cobalt-Nickel Fine-Particle Ferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Adam J.

    In this investigation, Co-24.8 wt.% Al and Co -17.7 at.% Ni-26.8 at.% Al beta-phase (B2, CsCl-type crystal structure) alloys have been studied using conventional and high resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction and magnetic measurements in an attempt to correlate the development of specific magnetic properties with the evolution of microstructure. In particular, the temperature dependence of coercivity and magnetic viscosity (time-dependence of magnetization) have been examined. The as-quenched Co-Ni-Al alloy exhibits characteristic tweed contrast and diffuse < 110> _beta and < 112 >_beta streaking in the TEM. It is concluded that a fine-scale decomposition occurs on the quench resulting in a dispersion of very small, acicular particles of a metastable Sato phase with an orthorhombic crystal structure. A preferential strain relaxation due to C^' softening combined with tetragonal strain centers produced by decomposition on the quench is suggested as the cause of tweed contrast. Upon aging, the Sato phase particles enrich in cobalt and transform to a metastable hcp varepsilon-phase. These single-domain Co-rich hcp particles have a slightly elongated plate-shaped morphology, an irregular {112 }_beta interface and a high density of internal faults on the basal planes. Aging the binary alloy results in similar microstructures and both HREM and a crystallographic analysis based on an invariant line hypothesis indicate an additional rotation around the close-packed directions away from an exact Burgers and toward a Potter orientation relationship. High resolution imaging reveals a high density of stacking faults on the basal plane and the presence of ledges on the {110}_beta and {112}_beta interphase interfaces. The age hardening curve for the ternary alloy has been found to be similar to binary alloy; however, the temperature dependence of coercivity curve exhibits a flattening at elevated temperatures rather than an increase. Magnetic

  16. Determinants of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Transfer during Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in an Experimental Model of Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Park, Marcelo; Costa, Eduardo Leite Vieira; Maciel, Alexandre Toledo; Silva, Débora Prudêncio e; Friedrich, Natalia; Barbosa, Edzangela Vasconcelos Santos; Hirota, Adriana Sayuri; Schettino, Guilherme; Azevedo, Luciano Cesar Pontes

    2013-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has gained renewed interest in the treatment of respiratory failure since the advent of the modern polymethylpentene membranes. Limited information exists, however, on the performance of these membranes in terms of gas transfers during multiple organ failure (MOF). We investigated determinants of oxygen and carbon dioxide transfer as well as biochemical alterations after the circulation of blood through the circuit in a pig model under ECMO support before and after induction of MOF. A predefined sequence of blood and sweep flows was tested before and after the induction of MOF with fecal peritonitis and saline lavage lung injury. In the multivariate analysis, oxygen transfer had a positive association with blood flow (slope = 66, P<0.001) and a negative association with pre-membrane PaCO2 (slope = −0.96, P = 0.001) and SatO2 (slope = −1.7, P<0.001). Carbon dioxide transfer had a positive association with blood flow (slope = 17, P<0.001), gas flow (slope = 33, P<0.001), pre-membrane PaCO2 (slope = 1.2, P<0.001) and a negative association with the hemoglobin (slope = −3.478, P = 0.042). We found an increase in pH in the baseline from 7.50[7.46,7.54] to 7.60[7.55,7.65] (P<0.001), and during the MOF from 7.19[6.92,7.32] to 7.41[7.13,7.5] (P<0.001). Likewise, the PCO2 fell in the baseline from 35 [32,39] to 25 [22,27] mmHg (P<0.001), and during the MOF from 59 [47,91] to 34 [28,45] mmHg (P<0.001). In conclusion, both oxygen and carbon dioxide transfers were significantly determined by blood flow. Oxygen transfer was modulated by the pre-membrane SatO2 and CO2, while carbon dioxide transfer was affected by the gas flow, pre-membrane CO2 and hemoglobin. PMID:23383011

  17. Study for Nuclear Structures of 22-35Na Isotopes via Measurements of Reaction Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Shinji

    2014-09-01

    T. Ohtsubo, M. Nagashima, T. Ogura, Y. Shimbara (Grad. Sch. of Sc., Niigata Univ.), M.Takechi, H. Geissel, M. Winkler (GSI), D. Nishimura, T. Sumikama (Dept. of Phys., Tokyo Univ. of Sc.), M. Fukuda, M. Mihara, H. Uenishi (Dept. of Phys., Osaka Univ.), T. Kuboki, T. Suzuki, T. Yamaguchi, H. Furuki, C. S. Lee, K. Sato (Dept. of Phys., Saitama Univ.), A. Ozawa, H. Ohnishi, T. Moriguchi, S. Fukuda, Y. Ishibashi, D. Nagae, R. Nishikiori, T. Niwa (Inst. of Phys., Univ. of Tsukuba), N. Aoi (RCNP), Rui-Jiu Chen, N. Inabe, D. Kameda, T. Kubo, M. Lantz, T. Ohnishi, K. Okumura, H. Sakurai, H. Suzuki, H. Takeda, S. Takeuchi, K. Tanaka, Y. Yanagisawa (RIKEN), De-Qing Fang, Yu-Gang Ma (SINAP), T. Izumikawa (RI Ctr., Niigata Univ.), and S. Momota (Fac. of Engn., Kochi Univ. of Tech.) Reaction cross sections (σR) for 22-35Na isotopes have been measured at around 240 MeV/nucleon. The σR for 22-35Na were measured for the first time. Enhancement in cross sections is clearly observed from the systematics for stable nuclei, for isotopes with large mass numbers. These enhancement can be mainly ascribed to the nuclear deformation. We will discuss the nuclear structure (neutron skin, nuclear shell structure) for neutron-excess Na isotopes. T. Ohtsubo, M. Nagashima, T. Ogura, Y. Shimbara (Grad. Sch. of Sc., Niigata Univ.), M.Takechi, H. Geissel, M. Winkler (GSI), D. Nishimura, T. Sumikama (Dept. of Phys., Tokyo Univ. of Sc.), M. Fukuda, M. Mihara, H. Uenishi (Dept. of Phys., Osaka Univ.), T. Kuboki, T. Suzuki, T. Yamaguchi, H. Furuki, C. S. Lee, K. Sato (Dept. of Phys., Saitama Univ.), A. Ozawa, H. Ohnishi, T. Moriguchi, S. Fukuda, Y. Ishibashi, D. Nagae, R. Nishikiori, T. Niwa (Inst. of Phys., Univ. of Tsukuba), N. Aoi (RCNP), Rui-Jiu Chen, N. Inabe, D. Kameda, T. Kubo, M. Lantz, T. Ohnishi, K. Okumura, H. Sakurai, H. Suzuki, H. Takeda, S. Takeuchi, K. Tanaka, Y. Yanagisawa (RIKEN), De-Qing Fang, Yu-Gang Ma (SINAP), T. Izumikawa (RI Ctr., Niigata Univ.), and S. Momota (Fac. of Engn

  18. Clinical factors associated with extreme sleep apnoea [AHI>100 events per hour] in Peruvian patients: A case-control study–A preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Rey de Castro, Jorge; Huamaní, Charles; Escobar-Córdoba, Franklin; Liendo, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The severity of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) ranges from mild or moderate to severe sleep apnoea. However, there is no information available on the clinical characteristics associated with cases involving more than 100 events per hour. This is a preliminary report and our goal was to characterise the demographics and sleep characteristics of patients with Extreme OSA and compare with patients with sleep apnoea of lesser severity. We hypothesised that patients with Extreme OSA (AHI>100) is associated with an increased comorbidities and/or risk factors. Methods We carried out a case-control study on male patients with OSA who were seen in a private hospital in Lima, Peru between 2006 and 2012. Cases were identified if their apnoea/hypopnea index (AHI) was higher than 100 (Extreme OSA), and four controls were selected per case: two with 15–29 AHI and two with 30–50 AHI, matched according to case diagnosis dates. We evaluated demographic, past medical history, and oxygen saturation variables Results We identified 19 cases that were matched with 54 controls. In the multivariate model, only arterial hypertension, neck circumference, age, and over 10% in SatO2Hb≤90% in total sleep time (T90) were associated with Extreme OSA. Arterial hypertension had an OR=6.31 (CI95%: 1.71–23.23) of Extreme OSA. Each 5-cm increment in neck circumference was associated with an increase of OR=4.34 (CI95%: 1.32–14.33), while T90>10% had an OR=19.68 (CI95%: 4.33–89.49). Age had a marginal relevance (OR=0.95; CI95%: 0.92–0.99) Conclusion Our results suggest that arterial hypertension, neck circumference, and over 10% SatO2Hb≤90% in total sleep time were associated with a higher probability of Extreme OSA. We recommend investigators to study this population of Extreme OSA looking for an early diagnosis and the identification of prognostic factors in comparison with moderate to severe levels. PMID:26483940

  19. Energy cost and optimisation in breath-hold diving.

    PubMed

    Trassinelli, M

    2016-05-01

    We present a new model for calculating locomotion costs in breath-hold divers. Starting from basic mechanics principles, we calculate the work that the diver must provide through propulsion to counterbalance the action of drag, the buoyant force and weight during immersion. Compared to those in previous studies, the model presented here accurately analyses breath-hold divers which alternate active swimming with prolonged glides during the dive (as is the case in mammals). The energy cost of the dive is strongly dependent on these prolonged gliding phases. Here we investigate the length and impacts on energy cost of these glides with respect to the diver characteristics, and compare them with those observed in different breath-hold diving species. Taking into account the basal metabolic rate and chemical energy to propulsion transformation efficiency, we calculate optimal swim velocity and the corresponding total energy cost (including metabolic rate) and compare them with observations. Energy cost is minimised when the diver passes through neutral buoyancy conditions during the dive. This generally implies the presence of prolonged gliding phases in both ascent and descent, where the buoyancy (varying with depth) is best used against the drag, reducing energy cost. This is in agreement with past results (Miller et al., 2012; Sato et al., 2013) where, when the buoyant force is considered constant during the dive, the energy cost was minimised for neutral buoyancy. In particular, our model confirms the good physical adaption of dolphins for diving, compared to other breath-hold diving species which are mostly positively buoyant (penguins for example). The presence of prolonged glides implies a non-trivial dependency of optimal speed on maximal depth of the dive. This extends previous findings (Sato et al., 2010; Watanabe et al., 2011) which found no dependency of optimal speed on dive depth for particular conditions. The energy cost of the dive can be further

  20. Recent Photoemission Results for the Electron-Doped Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Hiroaki

    2006-03-01

    , T. Sato, T. Takahashi, S.-C. Wang, H.-B. Yang, H. Ding, T. Uefuji, and K. Yamada, Phys. Rev. Lett. {94} (2005) 047005. 2) H. Matsui, K. Terashima, T. Sato, T. Takahashi, M. Fujita and K. Yamada, Phys. Rev. Lett. {95} (2005) 017003.

  1. Slow slip events in the Kii Peninsula and Shikoku, Japan detected by strain changes at the integrated observatories of Geological Survey of Japan, AIST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itaba, S.; Ohtani, R.; Kitagawa, Y.; Matsumoto, N.; Koizumi, N.

    2009-12-01

    Groundwater and Crustal Deformation for Forecasting Tonankai and Nankai Earthquakes in Japan, Pure Appl. Geophys, 2009, in press. Itaba, S., N. Koizumi, M. Takahashi, N. Matsumoto, T. Sato, R. Ohtani and Y. Kitagawa, Strain changes before and after deep low frequency tremor activities, Itaba, S., N. Koizumi, M. Takahashi, N. Matsumoto, T. Sato, R. Ohtani and Y. Kitagawa, Strain changes before and after deep low frequency tremor activities, Japan Geoscience Union Meeting 2009, Chiba, Japan, 2009 (in Japanese with English abstract).

  2. Energy cost and optimisation in breath-hold diving.

    PubMed

    Trassinelli, M

    2016-05-01

    We present a new model for calculating locomotion costs in breath-hold divers. Starting from basic mechanics principles, we calculate the work that the diver must provide through propulsion to counterbalance the action of drag, the buoyant force and weight during immersion. Compared to those in previous studies, the model presented here accurately analyses breath-hold divers which alternate active swimming with prolonged glides during the dive (as is the case in mammals). The energy cost of the dive is strongly dependent on these prolonged gliding phases. Here we investigate the length and impacts on energy cost of these glides with respect to the diver characteristics, and compare them with those observed in different breath-hold diving species. Taking into account the basal metabolic rate and chemical energy to propulsion transformation efficiency, we calculate optimal swim velocity and the corresponding total energy cost (including metabolic rate) and compare them with observations. Energy cost is minimised when the diver passes through neutral buoyancy conditions during the dive. This generally implies the presence of prolonged gliding phases in both ascent and descent, where the buoyancy (varying with depth) is best used against the drag, reducing energy cost. This is in agreement with past results (Miller et al., 2012; Sato et al., 2013) where, when the buoyant force is considered constant during the dive, the energy cost was minimised for neutral buoyancy. In particular, our model confirms the good physical adaption of dolphins for diving, compared to other breath-hold diving species which are mostly positively buoyant (penguins for example). The presence of prolonged glides implies a non-trivial dependency of optimal speed on maximal depth of the dive. This extends previous findings (Sato et al., 2010; Watanabe et al., 2011) which found no dependency of optimal speed on dive depth for particular conditions. The energy cost of the dive can be further

  3. Significance of hydrous silicate lamellae in pyrope-rich garnets from the Garnet Ridge in the Colorado Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogasawara, Y.; Sakamaki, K.; Sato, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Pyrope-rich garnets originated from the upper mantle underneath the Colorado Plateau occur at the Garnet Ridge. These garnets contain the following lamellae of hydrous and anhydrous minerals; Rt, Ilm, crichtonites, Cr-Spl, Amp, Cpx, Chl, rarely Apt, srilankite and carmichealite. The origin of these lamellae in the garnets is controversial; exsolved origin or epitaxial growth. We emphasize here the close relations between the presence of hydrous lamellae and the OH concentrations in the host garnets. Lamella phases were identified with a standard-less quantitative EDS system and a laser Raman spectrometer with Ar+ laser (514.5 nm). OH concentrations in garnets were quantitated on the basis of IR absorption spectra of garnet by micro FT-IR method using IR absorption coefficient (8770 L/mol/cm2, Katayama et al., 2006). Pyrope-rich reddish brown garnet (group B by Sato et al., AGU2014F) has large variations of major chemical compositions (Prp: 49-76, Alm: 6-43, Grs: 6-26 mol%), and OH contents (2-177 ppm wt. H2O). Among this group garnets, Ca-rich ones (Prp: 49-66; Alm: 18-28; Grs: 16-26 mol%) have lamellae of both hydrous (Amp and Chl) and anhydrous (Rt, Ilm, and Cpx) minerals. Amp and Chl lamellae are pargasitic amphibole and clinochlore, respectively, and their host garnets contain significantly low amounts of OH (2-42 ppm). Cr and pyrope-rich garnet (group A by Sato et al., AGU2014F) has chemical compositions of Prp: 67-74, Alm: 13-18, Grs: 7-11 mol% with Cr2O3 up to 5.9 wt.%, and contains lamellae of anhydrous minerals (Rt, Ilm, crichtonites, and Cr-Spl). The host garnet with these anhydrous lamellae contains a little higher OH ranging 24 to 115 ppm. Summarizing the present results, the OH contents of the host garnets depend on the presence of hydrous silicate lamella phase; OH in the garnet with hydrous silicate lamellae is lower than that in the garnet with anhydrous lamellae. The precursor OH incorporated in the host garnet structure was exsolved as hydrous

  4. Attenuation structure beneath the volcanic front in northeastern Japan from broad-band seismograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takanami, Tetsuo; Selwyn Sacks, I.; Hasegawa, Akira

    2000-10-01

    Anelastic structure in the asthenosphere beneath the volcanic front in northeastern Japan arc is estimated by using the spectral amplitude ratio data of P and S waves from about 100 events which occurred in the subducting Pacific slab below Japan. These earthquakes occurred within a 90 km radius centered about the station Sawauchi (SWU), with focal depths ranging from 60 to 200 km. Waveforms were recorded by the Carnegie broad-band three-component seismograph and were corrected for instrument responses, crustal reverberations, corner frequencies, and superimposed noise. Ray paths and travel times of P and S waves are calculated using a three-dimensional velocity model [Zhao, D., Hasegawa, A., Horiuchi, S., 1992. J. Geophys. Res. 97, 19909-19928]. We find a low- Q region ( QS˜70) extending down to 55 km depth from the lower crust beneath the volcanic front. Using Q-temperature laboratory results [Sato, H., Sacks, I.S., Murase, T., Muncill, G., Fukushima, H., 1989. J. Geophys. Res. 94, 10647-10661], this implies a temperature of about 130°C higher than the eastern forearc region and about 30°C higher than the western backarc region, in good agreement with the tomographic results of Zhao et al. [Zhao, D., Hasegawa, A., Horiuchi, S., 1992. J. Geophys. Res. 97, 19909-19928]. This suggests that low velocities in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath SWU may be explained by a subsolidus temperature increase without partial melting.

  5. Magnetized Plasma Experiments Using Thermionic- Thermoelectronic Plasma Emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamori, Eiichirou; Cheng, C. Z.; Fujikawa, Nobuko; Lee, Jyun-Yi; Peng, Albert

    2008-11-01

    We are developing a magnetic mirror device, which is the first magnetized plasma device in Taiwan, to explore basic plasma sciences relevant to fusion, space and astrophysical plasmas. Our research subjects include electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), Alfven wave physics, and plasma turbulence. A large diameter (> 200 mm) plasma emitter1, which utilizes thermionic- thermoelectronic emission from a mixture of LaB6 (Lanthanum-hexaboride) and beta-eucryptite (lithium type aluminosylicate) powders, is employed as a plasma source because of its production ability of fully ionized plasma and controllability of plasma emission rate. The plasma emitter has been installed recently and investigation of its characteristics will be started. The employment of beta-eucryptite in plasma emitter is the first experimental test because such investigation of beta-eucryptite has previously been used only for Li+-ion source2. Our plan for magnetized plasma experiments and results of the plasma emitter investigation will be presented. 1. K. Saeki, S. Iizuka, N. Sato, and Y. Hatta, Appl. Phys. Lett., 37, 1980, pp. 37-38. 2. M. Ueda, R. R. Silva, R. M. Oliveira, H. Iguchi, J. Fujita and K. Kadota, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 30 1997, pp. 2711--2716.

  6. Kozu-Matsuda fault system in northern Izu collision zone, western part of Kanagawa Prefecture, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odawara, K.; Aketagawa, T.; Yoshida, A.

    2010-12-01

    Western area of Kanagawa Prefecture is techtonically highlighted by its geological setting that the Izu-Bonin volcanic arc collides with the Japan Island arc there. The Kozu-Matsuda fault system which consists of the Kozu-Matsuda fault, the Matsuda-kita fault, the Hinata fault and the Hirayama fault is a surface manifestation of the plate boundary. Research of the Kozu-Matsuda fault has advanced dramatically after the 1995 Kobe Earthquake. Having conducted a trench survey, Kanagawa Prefectural Government (2004) reported that the Kozu-Matsuda fault was activated at least four times in the past 4000 years and the latest activity occurred 650-950 years ago (AD. 1350-1050). However, details of the activity of the Hinata and Hirayama faults, the northern extension of the Kozu-Matsuda fault, are not well understood. The Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Urban areas (DaiDaiToku) made a 2040 m deep drilling in 2004 in Yamakita Town (Hayashi et al., 2006). DaiDaiToku also carried out the seismic reflection profiling along a route from Odawara to Yamanashi in 2005 (Sato et al., 2005). The study done by DaiDaiToku elucidated presence of two north-dipping thrusts. The northern thrust corresponds to the Hinata fault, and the southern one which is also considered to be a continuation of the Kozu-Matsuda fault probably represents a frontal thrust (Miyauchi et al., 2006). We have conducted paleoseismic investigations using data from boreholes across these thrusts.

  7. Looking at physiological anthropology from a historical standpoint.

    PubMed

    Katsuura, Tetsuo

    2005-05-01

    As one way of thinking about physiological anthropology, let us survey it from a historical viewpoint. At the beginning of the 19th century, Blumenbach, considered the father of Physical Anthropology, wrote his "Handbook of Comparative Anatomy and Physiology." The subsequent research conducted and papers written by researchers such as Broca and Martin pointed in the direction of physiological anthropology; furthermore, the research carried out by the American researchers Demon and Baker had a physiological anthropology "feel." The courses in Physiological Anthropology taught by Tokizane exerted a major influence on physiological anthropology in Japan. The precursor of the Japan Society of Physiological Anthropology, organized by Sato in 1978, was extremely significant in the effect that it had on the subsequent development of physiological anthropology. The holding of the biennial International Congress of Physiological Anthropology, along with the allocation of the Research sub-field of Physiological Anthropology in the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research, would seem to suggest that the field of physiological anthropology is set to increasingly grow and evolve.

  8. Activation of Src family kinase yes induced by Shiga toxin binding to globotriaosyl ceramide (Gb3/CD77) in low density, detergent-insoluble microdomains.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Y U; Mori, T; Nakajima, H; Katagiri, C; Taguchi, T; Takeda, T; Kiyokawa, N; Fujimoto, J

    1999-12-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx) is an enterotoxin produced by Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, which binds specifically to globotriaosylceramide, Gb3, on the cell surface and causes cell death. We previously demonstrated that Stx induced apoptosis in human renal tubular cell line ACHN cells (Taguchi, T., Uchida, H., Kiyokawa, N., Mori, T., Sato, N., Horie, H., Takeda, T and Fujimoto, J. (1998) Kidney Int. 53, 1681-1688). To study the early signal transduction after Stx addition, Gb3-enriched microdomains were prepared from ACHN cells by sucrose density gradient centrifugation of Triton X-100 lysate as buoyant, detergent-insoluble microdomains (DIM). Gb3 was only recovered in DIM and was associated with Src family kinase Yes. Phosphorylation of tyrosine residues of proteins in the DIM fraction increased by 10 min and returned to the resting level by 30 min after the addition of Stx. Since the kinase activity of Yes changed with the same kinetics, Yes was thought to be responsible for the hyperphosphorylation observed in DIM proteins. Unexpectedly, however, all of the Yes kinase activity was obtained in the high density, detergent-soluble fraction. Yes was assumed to be activated and show increased Triton X-100 solubility in the early phase of retrograde endocytosis of Stx-Gb3 complex. Since Yes activation by the Stx addition was suppressed by filipin pretreatment, Gb3-enriched microdomains containing cholesterol were deeply involved in Stx signal transduction.

  9. Surface energy fluxes at Central Florida during the convection and precipitation electrification experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nie, D.; Demetriades-Shah, T. D.; Kanemasu, E. T.

    1993-01-01

    One of the objectives of CaPE is to better understand the convective process in central and south Florida during the warm season. The energy and moisture exchanges between the surface and the atmosphere are closely related to this process. Some recent studies have shown that the surface energy balance plays an important role in the climatic fields (Shukla and Mintz, 1982; Sud and Smith, 1985; Sato et. al, 1989). Surface energy fluxes and related surface processes such as evapotranspiration and sensible heat transfer directly effect the temperature, humidity, cloud formation and precipitation. For example, mesoscale circulation around a discontinuity in vegetation type were shown to be stronger with wet soil than with dry soil using an evapotranspiration model (Pinty et. al, 1989). In order to better describe the processes in the atmosphere at various scales and improve our ability of modeling and predicting weather related events, it is crucial to understand the mechanism of surface energy transfer in relation to atmospheric events. Surface energy flux measurements are required to fully understand the interactions between the atmosphere and the surface.

  10. Element Genesis - Solving the Mystery (Video Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, Yuko

    2001-10-01

    Our institute (RIKEN) produced a video on nucleosynthesis. Its new English version is presented. Y. M., I. Tanihata, Y. Yano, and R. Boyd are science editors for this. Time length of the video is 30 minutes. The primary characteristic of this video is that we have employed a number of 2-D and 3-Dimensional visualizations and animations based on an updated understanding of nuclear physics and astrophysics. One of the emphasized points is that microscopic physics (i.e., nuclear physics) and macroscopic physics (i.e., astrophysics) are strongly connected. It contains explanation on the chart of the nuclides, nuclear burning in the sun, big-bang nucleosynthesis, stellar nucleosynthesis, ``beta-stability valley", the s-process, the r-process, production of an RI beam, etc., and professors D. Arnett, T. Kajino, K. Langanke, K. Sato, C. Sneden, I. Tanihata, and F.-K. Thielemann appear as interviewees. Our prime target is college freshmen. We hope that this video would be useful for education both in the fields of astrophysics and nuclear physics at universities and even at high schools. Our institute is accordingly developing a distribution system of this video and it will be available soon at the cost price (please visit our web site for details: http://www.rarf.riken.go.jp/video). The Japanese version was awarded the prize of the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan 2001.

  11. Topology of nonsymmorphic crystalline insulators and superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiozaki, Ken; Sato, Masatoshi; Gomi, Kiyonori

    2016-05-01

    Topological classification in our previous paper [K. Shiozaki and M. Sato, Phys. Rev. B 90, 165114 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.165114] is extended to nonsymmorphic crystalline insulators and superconductors. Using the twisted equivariant K theory, we complete the classification of topological crystalline insulators and superconductors in the presence of additional order-two nonsymmorphic space-group symmetries. The order-two nonsymmorphic space groups include half-lattice translation with Z2 flip, glide, twofold screw, and their magnetic space groups. We find that the topological periodic table shows modulo-2 periodicity in the number of flipped coordinates under the order-two nonsymmorphic space group. It is pointed out that the nonsymmorphic space groups allow Z2 topological phases even in the absence of time-reversal and/or particle-hole symmetries. Furthermore, the coexistence of the nonsymmorphic space group with time-reversal and/or particle-hole symmetries provides novel Z4 topological phases, which have not been realized in ordinary topological insulators and superconductors. We present model Hamiltonians of these new topological phases and analytic expressions of the Z2 and Z4 topological invariants. The half-lattice translation with Z2 spin flip and glide symmetry are compatible with the existence of boundaries, leading to topological surface gapless modes protected by the order-two nonsymmorphic symmetries. We also discuss unique features of these gapless surface modes.

  12. Precursory Slope Deformation around Landslide Area Detected by Insar Throughout Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, T.; Wada, K.; Yamanaka, M.; Kamiya, I.; Nakajima, H.

    2016-06-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) technique is able to detect a slope deformation around landslide (e.g., Singhroy et al., 2004; Une et al., 2008; Riedel and Walther, 2008; Sato et al., 2014). Geospatial Information Authority (GSI) of Japan has been performing the InSAR analysis regularly by using ALOS/PALSAR data and ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 data throughout Japan. There are a lot of small phase change sites except for crustal deformation with earthquake or volcano activity in the InSAR imagery. Most of the phase change sites are located in landslide area. We conducted field survey at the 10 sites of those phase change sites. As a result, we identified deformation of artificial structures or linear depressions caused by mass movement at the 9 sites. This result indicates that InSAR technique can detect on the continual deformation of landslide block for several years. GSI of Japan will continue to perform the InSAR analysis throughout Japan. Therefore, we will be able to observe and monitor precursory slope deformation around landslide areas throughout Japan.

  13. A deep non-hydrostatic compressible atmospheric model on a Yin-Yang grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, T.; Zerroukat, M.

    2016-08-01

    The singularity in the traditional spherical polar coordinate system at the poles is a major factor in the lack of scalability of atmospheric models on massively parallel machines. Overset grids such as the Yin-Yang grid introduced by Kageyama and Sato [1] offer a potential solution to this problem. In this paper a three-dimensional, compressible, non-hydrostatic atmospheric model is developed and tested on the Yin-Yang grid building on ideas previously developed by the authors on the solution of Elliptic boundary value problems and conservation on overset grids. Using several tests from the literature, it is shown that this model is highly stable (even with little off-centering), accurate, and highly efficient in terms of computational cost. The model also incorporates highly efficient and accurate approaches to achieve positivity, monotonicity and conservative transport, which are paramount requirements for any atmospheric model. The parallel scalability of this model, using in excess of 212 million unknowns and more than 6000 processors, is also discussed and shown to compare favourably with a highly optimised latitude-longitude model in terms of scalability and actual run times.

  14. Estrogen Stimulates Homing of Endothelial Progenitor Cells to Endometriotic Lesions.

    PubMed

    Rudzitis-Auth, Jeannette; Nenicu, Anca; Nickels, Ruth M; Menger, Michael D; Laschke, Matthias W

    2016-08-01

    The incorporation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) into microvessels contributes to the vascularization of endometriotic lesions. Herein, we analyzed whether this vasculogenic process is regulated by estrogen. Estrogen- and vehicle-treated human EPCs were analyzed for migration and tube formation. Endometriotic lesions were induced in irradiated FVB/N mice, which were reconstituted with bone marrow from FVB/N-TgN (Tie2/green fluorescent protein) 287 Sato mice. The animals were treated with 100 μg/kg β-estradiol 17-valerate or vehicle (control) over 7 and 28 days. Lesion growth, cyst formation, homing of green fluorescent protein(+)/Tie2(+) EPCs, vascularization, cell proliferation, and apoptosis were analyzed by high-resolution ultrasonography, caliper measurements, histology, and immunohistochemistry. Numbers of blood circulating EPCs were assessed by flow cytometry. In vitro, estrogen-treated EPCs exhibited a higher migratory and tube-forming capacity when compared with controls. In vivo, numbers of circulating EPCs were not affected by estrogen. However, estrogen significantly increased the number of EPCs incorporated into the lesions' microvasculature, resulting in an improved early vascularization. Estrogen further stimulated the growth of lesions, which exhibited massively dilated glands with a flattened layer of stroma. This was mainly because of an increased glandular secretory activity, whereas cell proliferation and apoptosis were not markedly affected. These findings indicate that vasculogenesis in endometriotic lesions is dependent on estrogen, which adds a novel hormonally regulated mechanism to the complex pathophysiology of endometriosis. PMID:27315780

  15. Diphoton excess through dark mediators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chien-Yi; Lefebvre, Michel; Pospelov, Maxim; Zhong, Yi-Ming

    2016-07-01

    Preliminary ATLAS and CMS results from the first 13 TeV LHC run have encountered an intriguing excess of events in the diphoton channel around the invariant mass of 750 GeV. We investigate a possibility that the current excess is due to a heavy resonance decaying to light metastable states, which in turn give displaced decays to very highly collimated e + e - pairs. Such decays may pass the photon selection criteria, and successfully mimic the diphoton events, especially at low counts. We investigate two classes of such models, characterized by the following underlying production and decay chains: gg → S → A ' A ' → ( e + e -)( e + e -) and qoverline{q}to {Z}^'to sato ({e}+{e}-)({e}+{e}-) , where at the first step a heavy scalar, S, or vector, Z ', resonances are produced that decay to light metastable vectors, A ', or (pseudo-)scalars, s and a. Setting the parameters of the models to explain the existing excess, and taking the ATLAS detector geometry into account, we marginalize over the properties of heavy resonances in order to derive the expected lifetimes and couplings of metastable light resonances. We observe that in the case of A ', the suggested range of masses and mixing angles ɛ is within reach of several new-generation intensity frontier experiments.

  16. Monoclinic nanodomains in morphotropic phase boundary Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}–PbTiO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Y.; Hirayama, T.; Ikuhara, Y.

    2014-02-24

    Crystalline structure is a fundamental characteristic of many materials, and drastic changes in properties may accompany crystal phase transitions. A prominent example of this is the morphotropic phase boundary of (Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3}) single crystal, a region that exhibits a high piezoelectric effect. Although the highest piezoelectricity is often attributed to a monoclinic crystal phase, formation of ferroelectric nanodomains (NDs) complicates understanding of this crystal structure. In this Letter, we report dedicated transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction analysis to understand the crystal structure at the ND level. Splitting of diffraction spots, caused by very small lattice distortion in the NDs, is important to understanding crystal structure and has been unambiguously observed. The results can be explained by monoclinic phase NDs. Combining these results with our previous findings on ND dynamics [Sato et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 187601 (2011)], monoclinic NDs can potentially make a considerable contribution to the piezoelectricity in these materials.

  17. Orthogonal acoustical factors of a sound field in a bamboo forest.

    PubMed

    Sakai, H; Shibata, S; Ando, Y

    2001-06-01

    To investigate the acoustical quality of a sound field in a bamboo forest, acoustical measurements were conducted to obtain orthogonal acoustical factors of the sound field. These results are compared with previous results for a sound field in an ordinary forest [H. Sakai, S. Sato, and Y. Ando, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 104, 1491-1497 (1998)]. The IACC, which is defined as a maximum value of the normalized interaural cross-correlation function between signals at the ears, was 0.07 (4 kHz) and 0.16 (2 kHz) at positions 20 and 40 m from the source, respectively. These values are much better than those in the previously investigated forest. The measured subsequent reverberation time Tsub was up to 1.5 s in the frequency range above 1 kHz at the position 40 m from the source. For certain music sources with higher frequency components, therefore, sound fields in a bamboo forest have excellent acoustic properties.

  18. Dependence of the Apex Angle of an Inverted Pyramidal-Shaped Container on Crystallization of Brownian Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanatsu, Youhei; Sato, Masahide

    2015-11-01

    Large grains of a close-packed colloidal crystal have been experimentally shown to form in an inverted pyramidal pit by sedimentation [S. Matsuo et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4285 (2003)]. Keeping this experiment in mind, we study the crystallization of Brownian particles. We carry out Brownian dynamics simulations in an inverted pyramidal-shaped container. The Brownian particles settle out toward the apex of the container by a uniform external force. If the apex angle is suitable, large grains with the face-centered cubic (fcc) structure are formed [Y. Kanatsu and M. Sato, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 84, 044601 (2015)]. When the apex angle deviates from a suitable value, the number of hexagonal close-packed (hcp) structured particles, Nhcp, increases with increasing angle deviation. The formation of the hcp structure is induced by disordered particles remaining in the center region of the container.

  19. [A historical review of the therapeutic use of wood creosote. Part II: Original plant source of crude drug wood creosote].

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Nobuaki; Sato, Akane; Shibata, Takashi; Yoneda, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    Wood creosote is a medicine that has been listed in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP) since the first edition published in 1886. Medicines containing wood creosote and other natural ingredients have been very popular in Japan and Southeast Asian countries. In Japan, one such medicine, named Seirogan, has been used for more than 100 years. In this paper, we report the results of our examination on the historical aspects of wood creosote. One finding was that creosote, called "kereosote" at that time, was imported to Japan for the first time to Nagasaki by Johann Erdewin Niemann, who was the Director of the Dutch Mercantile House, and prescribed by Johannes Lijdius Catharinus Pompe van Meerdervoort and Anthonius Franciscus Bauduin. From our findings, we concluded that wood creosote was one of the essential medicines for the successful introduction and progression of Western medicine in Japan. Furthermore, we found that Dutch physicians introduced wood creosote to Japanese physicians, including Taizen Sato, Dokai Hayashi, and Jun Matsumoto, and that wood creosote was subsequently popularized by Rintaro (Ogai) Mori during the Russo-Japanese war. In addition, we examined the original plant for wood creosote, and consequently confirmed that the 15th edition of the JP, Supplement Two, clarifying the original plant for wood creosote, matches the pharmaceutical and historical facts. We also provide drug information relating to distinguishing between wood creosote and the creosote bush. PMID:22164686

  20. Colossal Spincaloritronic Cooling by Adiabatic Spin-Entropy Expansion in Nanospintronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama-Yoshida, Hiroshi; Fukushima, Tetsuya; Dinh, Van An; Sato, Kazunori

    2009-03-01

    The exchange interactions in DMS are short ranged and can not play an important role for realizing high-TC because the solubility of magnetic impurity is too low to achieve magnetic percolation [1]. We show that spinodal nano-decomposition under layer-by-layer crystal growth condition (2D) leads to characteristic quasi-one dimensional nano-structures (Konbu- Phase) with highly anisotropic shape and high TC (> 1000K) even for low concentrations in DMS [2]. We design a spin-currents- controlled 100 Tera bits/icnh^2, Tera Hz switching, and non- volatile MRAM without Si-CMOS based on Konbu-Phase [3]. In addition to the conventional Peltier effect, we propose a colossal spincaloritronic cooling based on the adiabatic spin- entropy expansion in a Konbu-Phase (Zn,Cr)Te with very high blocking temperature (TB > 1000 K) by spinodal nano- decomposition and by nano-column of Half-Heusler NiMnSi (TC = 1050 K) [4]. [1] K. Sato et al., Phys. Rev. B70, 201202 (2004). [2] H. Katayama-Yoshida et al., Phys. stat. sol. (a) 204 (2007) 15. [3] Japanese Patent: JP3571034, US Patent: US 7,164,180 B2, EU Patent: EP 1548832A1, Taiwan Patent:1262593, Korean Patent: 0557387. [4] H. Katayama-Yoshida et al., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46 (2007) L777.

  1. Revealing the physicochemical mechanism for ultrasonic separation of alcohol-water mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirpalani, D. M.; Toll, F.

    2002-08-01

    The selective separation of ethanol from ethanol-water mixtures by ultrasonic atomization has been reported recently by Sato, Matsuura, and Fujii [J. Chem. Phys. 114, 2382 (2001)]. In that work, experimental data were reported that confirmed the generation of an ethanol-rich droplet mist and attempted to explain the selective separation in terms of parametric decay instability of the capillary wave formed during sonication. In the present work, an alternate mechanism based on the conjunction theory has been postulated for the process of ultrasonic atomization. This mechanism involves the formation of cavitating bubbles in the liquid during sonication and their eventual collapse at the liquid surface into a cloud of microbubbles that moves upwards in a capillary fountain jet. The selective separation of alcohols has been explained as a corollary effect of the physical mechanism resulting in a surface excess of alcohol molecules formed at the surface of the microbubbles. The alcohol molecules vaporize into the microbubbles and release an alcohol-rich mist on their collapse in regions of high accumulation of acoustic energy.

  2. Local response dispersion method. II. Generalized multicenter interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Takeshi; Nakai, Hiromi

    2010-11-01

    Recently introduced local response dispersion method [T. Sato and H. Nakai, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 224104 (2009)], which is a first-principles alternative to empirical dispersion corrections in density functional theory, is implemented with generalized multicenter interactions involving both atomic and atomic pair polarizabilities. The generalization improves the asymptote of intermolecular interactions, reducing the mean absolute percentage error from about 30% to 6% in the molecular C6 coefficients of more than 1000 dimers, compared to experimental values. The method is also applied to calculations of potential energy curves of molecules in the S22 database [P. Jurečka et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 1985 (2006)]. The calculated potential energy curves are in a good agreement with reliable benchmarks recently published by Molnar et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 131, 065102 (2009)]. These improvements are achieved at the price of increasing complexity in the implementation, but without losing the computational efficiency of the previous two-center (atom-atom) formulation. A set of different truncations of two-center and three- or four-center interactions is shown to be optimal in the cost-performance balance.

  3. Substrate specificity of recombinant osteoclast-specific cathepsin K from rabbits.

    PubMed

    Aibe, K; Yazawa, H; Abe, K; Teramura, K; Kumegawa, M; Kawashima, H; Honda, K

    1996-08-01

    A cDNA clone encoding the rabbit cysteine proteinase cathepsin K, which is predominantly expressed in osteoclasts and is closely related to cathepsins L (EC 3.4.22.15) and S (EC 3.4.22.27) [Tezuka K., Tezuka Y., Maejima A., Sato T., Nemoto K., Kamioka H., Hakeda Y., Kumegawa M., J. Biol. Chem., 269, 1106 (1994)], was expressed at high levels in Escherichia coli in a T7 expression system. The insoluble recombinant enzyme was solubilized in urea and refolded at an alkaline pH. Cathepsin K (37-kDa) was purified by gel filtration and its enzymatic characteristics were determined. The enzymatic activity of cathepsin K was strongly inhibited by cysteine proteinase inhibitors and its optimal pH was pH 5.5. Synthetic substrate benzyloxycarbonyl-Phe-Arg-7-(4-methyl)coumaryl-amide, which is hydrolyzed by cathepsins L and S, was also cleaved by cathepsin K. On the other hand, benzyloxycarbonyl-Gly-Pro-Arg-7-(4-methyl)coumaryl-amide was the most suitable substrate for cathepsin K, but was hardly hydrolyzed by cathepsin L. The substrate specificity of cathepsin K, as determined using various chemogenic substrates, showed different characteristics from cathepsins L and S. PMID:8874809

  4. First measurement of target and double spin asymmetries for polarized e- polarized p --> e p pi0 in the nucleon resonance region above the Delta(1232)

    SciTech Connect

    Biselli, Angela; Burkert, Volker; Amaryan, Moscov; Amaryan, Moskov; Asryan, Gegham; Avagyan, Harutyun; Baghdasaryan, Hovhannes; Baillie, Nathan; Ball, J.P.; Ball, Jacques; Baltzell, Nathan; Battaglieri, Marco; Bedlinskiy, Ivan; Bellis, Matthew; Benmouna, Nawal; Berman, Barry; Blaszczyk, Lukasz; Bookwalter, Craig; Boyarinov, Sergey; Bosted, Peter; Bradford, Robert; Branford, Derek; Briscoe, William; Brooks, William; Bultmann, S.; Bueltmann, Stephen; Butuceanu, Cornel; Calarco, John; Careccia, Sharon; Carman, Daniel; Casey, Liam; Chen, Shifeng; Cheng, Lu; Cole, Philip; Collins, Patrick; Coltharp, Philip; Crabb, Donald; Crede, Volker; Dale, Daniel; Dashyan, Natalya; De Masi, Rita; De Vita, Raffaella; De Sanctis, Enzo; Degtiarenko, Pavel; Deur, Alexandre; Dhamija, Seema; Dickson, Richard; Djalali, Chaden; Dodge, Gail; Doughty, David; Dugger, Michael; Dzyubak, Oleksandr; Egiyan, Hovanes; Elfassi, Lamiaa; Elouadrhiri, Latifa; Eugenio, Paul; Fedotov, Gleb; Feuerbach, Robert; Fersch, Robert; Forest, Tony; Fradi, Ahmed; Garcon, Michel; Gavalian, Gagik; Gevorgyan, Nerses; Gilfoyle, Gerard; Giovanetti, Kevin; Girod, Francois-Xavier; Goetz, John; Gohn, Wesley; Gothe, Ralf; Graham, Lewis; Griffioen, Keith; Guidal, Michel; Guler, Nevzat; Guo, Lei; Gyurjyan, Vardan; Hafidi, Kawtar; Hakobyan, Hayk; Hanretty, Charles; Hassall, Neil; Hicks, Kenneth; Hleiqawi, Ishaq; Holtrop, Maurik; Hyde, Charles; Ilieva, Yordanka; Ireland, David; Ishkhanov, Boris; Isupov, Evgeny; Ito, Mark; Jenkins, David; Jo, Hyon-Suk; Johnstone, John; Joo, Kyungseon; Juengst, Henry; Kalantarians, Narbe; Keller, Dustin; Kellie, James; Khandaker, Mahbubul; Kim, Wooyoung; Klein, Andreas; Klein, Franz; Kossov, Mikhail; Krahn, Zebulun; Kubarovsky, Valery; Kuhn, Joachim; Kuhn, Sebastian; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Viacheslav; Lachniet, Jeff; Laget, Jean; Langheinrich, Jorn; Lawrence, David; Livingston, Kenneth; Lu, Haiyun; MacCormick, Marion; Markov, Nikolai; Mattione, Paul; McKinnon, Bryan; McNabb, John; Mecking, Bernhard; Mestayer, Mac; Meyer, Curtis; Mibe, Tsutomu; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Mirazita, Marco; Mokeev, Viktor; Moreno, Brahim; Moriya, Kei; Morrow, Steven; Moteabbed, Maryam; Munevar Espitia, Edwin; Mutchler, Gordon; Nadel-Turonski, Pawel; Nasseripour, Rakhsha; Niccolai, Silvia; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Niczyporuk, Bogdan; Niroula, Megh; Niyazov, Rustam; Nozar, Mina; Osipenko, Mikhail; Ostrovidov, Alexander; Park, Kil; Park, Seungkyung; Pasyuk, Evgueni; Paterson, Craig; Pereira, Sergio; Pierce, Joshua; Pivnyuk, Nikolay; Pogorelko, Oleg; Pozdnyakov, Sergey; Price, John; Prok, Yelena; Protopopescu, Dan; Raue, Brian; Ricco, Giovanni; Ripani, Marco; Ritchie, Barry; Rosner, Guenther; Rossi, Patrizia; Sabatie, Franck; Saini, Mukesh; Salamanca, Julian; Salgado, Carlos; Santoro, Joseph; Sapunenko, Vladimir; Schott, Diane; Schumacher, Reinhard; Serov, Vladimir; Sharabian, Youri; Sharov, Dmitri; Shvedunov, Nikolay; Smith, Elton; Sober, Daniel; Sokhan, Daria; Stavinskiy, Aleksey; Stepanyan, Samuel; Stepanyan, Stepan; Stokes, Burnham; Stoler, Paul; Strakovski, Igor; Strauch, Steffen; Taiuti, Mauro; Tedeschi, David; Tkabladze, Avtandil; Tkachenko, Svyatoslav; Todor, Luminita; Ungaro, Maurizio; Vineyard, Michael; Vlassov, Alexander; Watts, Daniel; Weinstein, Lawrence; Weygand, Dennis; Williams, M.; Wolin, Elliott; Wood, Michael; Yegneswaran, Amrit; Yurov, Mikhail; Zana, Lorenzo; Zhang, Jixie; Zhao, Bo; Zhao, Zhiwen

    2008-10-01

    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.78.045204
    The exclusive channel polarized proton(polarized e,e prime p)pi0 was studied in the first and second nucleon resonance regions in the Q2 range from 0.187 to 0.770 GeV2 at Jefferson Lab using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). Longitudinal target and beam-target asymmetries were extracted over a large range of center-of-mass angles of the pi0 and compared to the unitary isobar model MAID, the dynamic model by Sato and Lee, and the dynamic model DMT. A strong sensitivity to individual models was observed, in particular for the target asymmetry and in the higher invariant mass region. This data set, once included in the global fits of the above models, is expected to place strong constraints on the electrocoupling amplitudes A_{1/2} and S_{1/2} for the Roper resonance N(1400)P11, and the N(1535)S11 and N(1520)D13 states.

  5. Spectroscopic Investigation of Temperature Effects on the Hydration Structure of the Phenol Cluster Cation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Reona; Kasahara, Yasutoshi; Ishikawa, Haruki

    2015-06-01

    Owing to recent technical developments of various spectroscopies, microscopic hydration structures of various clusters in the gas phase have been determined so far. The next step for further understanding of the microscopic hydration is to reveal the temperature effect, such as a fluctuation of the hydration structure. Thus, we are carrying out photodissociation spectroscopy on the hydrated phenol cation clusters, [PhOH(H_2O)_n]^+. Since electronic spectra of [PhOH(H_2O)_n]^+ have been reported already, this system is suitable for our purpose. In the present study, we use our temperature-variable 22-pole ion trap apparatus. The ions in the trap become thermal equilibrium condition by multiple collisions with temperature-controlled He buffer gas. By this way, the temperature of the ions can be controlled. In the electronic spectrum of the n = 5 cluster measured at 30 K, a sharp band is observed. It shows that the temperature of ions are well-controlled. Contrary to the n = 5 cluster, the n = 6 cluster exhibits a wider band shape. The temperature dependence of the band shape indicates the existence of several, at least two, isomers in the present experimental condition. S.~Sato, N.~Mikami J.~Phys.~Chem. 100, 4765 (1996). H.~Ishikawa, T.~Nakano, T.~Eguchi, T.~Shibukawa, K.~Fuke Chem. Phys. Lett. 514, 234 (2011).

  6. The early history of odontogenic ghost cell lesions: from Thoma to Gorlin.

    PubMed

    Ide, Fumio; Kikuchi, Kentaro; Miyazaki, Yuji; Kusama, Kaoru; Saito, Ichiro; Muramatsu, Takashi

    2015-03-01

    To reappraise the early history of odontogenic ghost cell lesions (OGCL), the extensive world literature published from 1838 to 1962 was reviewed. In light of the long history of OGCL, the term "calcifying epithelioma of Malherbe" first appeared in a 1931 French report, and the term "ghost cells" had its origin in two American seminal articles by Thoma and Goldman in 1946. Although Gorlin et al. coined the term "calcifying odontogenic cyst" (COC) in 1962, this type of cyst was initially reported three decades earlier by Rywkind in Russia, and almost concurrently by Blood good in the United States and Sato in Japan. In 1948, Willis provided the initial histological evidence of a peripheral COC in his British pathology textbook. Credit for the earliest clinical presentation of odontoma associated calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor belongs to the American radiology textbook by Thoma in 1917. A Scandinavian journal report published in 1953 by Husted and Pindborg was the first to address a dentinogenic ghost cell tumor, and its peripheral counterpart was originally reported in the Swiss literature 7 years later. The current concept of COC was undoubtedly established by Gorlin et al. but the history of OGCL really started with Thoma's pioneering work about a century ago.

  7. BE-18591 as a new H(+)/Cl(-) symport ionophore that inhibits immunoproliferation and gastritis.

    PubMed

    Tanigaki, Keiji; Sato, Tomohiko; Tanaka, Yasufumi; Ochi, Takahiro; Nishikawa, Asako; Nagai, Kazuo; Kawashima, Hiroyuki; Ohkuma, Shoji

    2002-07-31

    In our previous papers [e.g. Sato et al., J. Biol. Chem. 273 (1998) 21455-21462], we have shown that prodigiosins can uncouple various H(+)-ATPases through their H(+)/Cl(-) symport activity. BE-18591 is an enamine of 4-methoxy-2,2'-bipyrrole-5-carboxyaldehyde (tambjamine group antibiotics) which resembles the prodigiosins. We found that BE-18591 was a new group of antibiotics that uncouples various H(+)-ATPases: it inhibited proton pump activities with IC(50)s of about 1-2 nM (about 20 pmol/mg protein) for submitochondrial particles as well as gastric vesicles and of 230 nM (about 230 pmol/mg protein) for lysosomes, but it had little effect on their ATP hydrolyses (up to 10 microM), a property of H(+)/Cl(-) symport activity. At low concentrations (<1 microM), BE-18591 inhibited immunoproliferation, the IC(50) of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse splenocytes was 38 nM, that of Concanavalin A-stimulated cells was 230 nM. Gastritis of rabbits was also inhibited. At higher concentrations (>1 microM), BE-18591 induced neurite outgrowth (15% induction in 48 h at 4 microM), inhibited bone resorption (approximately 35% in 48 h at 10 microM) and caused cell death (approximately 30% in 48 h at 4 microM) but with little apoptosis.

  8. On the relative scattering of P- and S-waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, P. E.; Phinney, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Using a single-scattering approximation, equations for the scattering attenuation coefficients of P-body and S-body waves are derived. The results are discussed in the light of the energy-renormalization approaches of Wu (1980, 1982) and Sato (1982) to seismic wave scattering. Practical methods for calculating the scattering attenuation coefficients for various earth models are emphasized. The conversions of P-waves to S-waves and S-waves to P-waves are included in the theory. The earth models are assumed to be randomly inhomogeneous, with their properties known only through their average-wavenumber power spectra. The power spectra are approximated with piecewise constant functions, each segment of which contributes to the net frequency-dependent scattering attenuation coefficient. The smallest and largest wavenumbers of a segment can be plotted along with the wavevectors of the incident and scattered waves on a wavenumber diagram. This diagram gives a geometric interpretation for the frequency behavior associated with each spectral segment, including a transition peak that is due entirely to the wavenumber limits of the segment. For regions of the earth where the inhomogeneity spectra are concentrated in a band of wavenumbers, it should be possible to observe such a peak in the apparent attenuation of seismic waves. Both the frequency and distance limits on the accuracy of the theoretical results are given.

  9. Cognition and the Default Mode Network in Children with Sickle Cell Disease: A Resting State Functional MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Montanaro, Maria; Rampazzo, Patrizia; Ermani, Mario; Talenti, Giacomo; Baracchini, Claudio; Favero, Angela; Basso, Giuseppe; Manara, Renzo; Sainati, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Cerebrovascular complications are frequent events in children with sickle cell disease, yet routinely used techniques such as Transcranial Doppler (TCD), Magnetic Resonance (MRI) and Angiography (MRA), insufficiently explain the cause of poor cognitive performances. Forty children with SS-Sβ° (mean age 8 years) underwent neurocognitive evaluation and comprehensive brain imaging assessment with TCD, MRI, MRA, Resting State (RS) Functional MRI with evaluation of the Default Mode Network (DMN). Sixteen healthy age-matched controls underwent MRI, MRA and RS functional MRI.Children with SCD display increased brain connectivity in the DMN even in the absence of alterations in standard imaging techniques. Patients with low neurocognitive scores presented higher brain connectivity compared to children without cognitive impairment or controls, suggesting an initial compensatory mechanism to maintain performances. In our cohort steady state haemoglobin level was not related to increased brain connectivity, but SatO2<97% was. Our findings provide novel evidence that SCD is characterized by a selective disruption of connectivity among relevant regions of the brain, potentially leading to reduced cognition and altered functional brain dynamics. RS functional MRI could be used as a useful tool to evaluate cognition and cerebral damage in SCD in longitudinal trials. PMID:27281287

  10. Glucosyltransferase gene polymorphism among Streptococcus mutans strains.

    PubMed Central

    Chia, J S; Hsu, T Y; Teng, L J; Chen, J Y; Hahn, L J; Yang, C S

    1991-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms in genes coding for the glucosyltransferases were detected among Streptococcus mutans serotype c strains by Southern blot analysis with DNA probes located within the gtfB gene (H. Aoki, T. Shiroza, M. Hayakawa, S. Sato, and H. K. Kuramitsu, Infect. Immun. 53:587-594, 1986). Restriction endonucleases were used to examine genomic DNAs isolated from serotype a to h strains. The variations were readily detected among 33 strains of serotype c by EcoRI and PstI restriction enzyme digestions. Serotypes e and f, which are genetically similar to serotype c, also had comparable polymorphism; however, serotypes a, b, d, g, and h did not hybridize to the same DNA probes in parallel experiments. Further analysis of enzymatic activities for glucan synthesis and sucrose-dependent adherence revealed no significant differences among the serotype c strains. Our results suggested that genetic polymorphisms existing in S. mutans serotype c strains may reflect a complexity in genes coding for the glucosyltransferases, which are produced ubiquitously in members of the S. mutans group. Images PMID:1826894

  11. New hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotyping system that allows for identification of HCV genotypes 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, 4, 5a, and 6a.

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, O; Mizokami, M; Wu, R R; Saleh, M G; Ohba, K; Orito, E; Mukaide, M; Williams, R; Lau, J Y

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies have focused on whether different hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes are associated with different profiles of pathogenicity, infectivity, and response to antiviral therapy. The establishment of a simple and precise genotyping system for HCV is essential to address these issues. A new genotyping system based on PCR of the core region with genotype-specific PCR primers for the determination of HCV genotypes 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, 4, 5a, and 6a was developed. A total of 607 samples (379 from Japan, 63 from the United States, 53 from Korea, 35 from Taiwan, 32 from China, 20 from Hong Kong, 15 from Australia, 6 from Egypt, 3 from Bangladesh, and 1 from South Africa) were tested by both the assay of Okamoto et al. (H. Okamoto, Y. Sugiyama, S. Okada, K. Kurai, Y. Akahane, Y. Sugai, T. Tanaka, K. Sato, F. Tsuda, Y. Miyamura, and M. Mayumi, J. Gen. Virol. 73:673-679, 1992) and this new genotyping system. Comparison of the results showed concordant results for 539 samples (88.8%). Of the 68 samples with discordant results, the nucleotide sequences of the HCV isolates were determined in 23, and their genotypes were determined by molecular evolutionary analysis. In all 23 samples, the assignment of genotype by our new genotyping system was correct. This genotyping system may be useful for large-scale determination of HCV genotypes in clinical studies. PMID:8968908

  12. First measurement of target and double spin asymmetries for e-vectorp-vector{yields}ep{pi}{sup 0} in the nucleon resonance region above the {delta}(1232)

    SciTech Connect

    Biselli, A. S.; Burkert, V. D.; Avakian, H.; Boiarinov, S.; Bosted, P.; Carman, D. S.; Degtyarenko, P. V.; Deur, A.; Egiyan, H.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Guo, L.; Gyurjyan, V.; Ito, M. M.; Kubarovsky, V.; Laget, J. M.; Mecking, B. A.; Mestayer, M. D.; Niczyporuk, B. B.; Nozar, M.; Sapunenko, V.

    2008-10-15

    The exclusive channel p-vectore-vector,e{sup '}p){pi}{sup 0} was studied in the first and second nucleon resonance regions in the Q{sup 2} range from 0.187 to 0.770 GeV{sup 2} at Jefferson Lab using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer. Longitudinal target and beam-target asymmetries were extracted over a large range of center-of-mass angles of the {pi}{sup 0} and compared to the unitary isobar model MAID, the dynamic model by Sato and Lee, and the dynamic model DMT. A strong sensitivity to individual models was observed, in particular for the target asymmetry and in the higher invariant mass region. This data set, once included in the global fits of the above models, is expected to place strong constraints on the electrocoupling amplitudes A{sub 1/2} and S{sub 1/2} for the Roper resonance N(1400)P{sub 11} and the N(1535)S{sub 11} and N(1520)D{sub 13} states.

  13. Target and double spin asymmetries for {rvec e} {rvec p} {yields} e{prime} p {pi}{sup 0}

    SciTech Connect

    Angela Biselli

    2004-03-01

    An extensive experimental program to measure the spin structure of the nucleons is carried out in Hall B with the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab using a polarized electron beam incident on a polarized target. Spin degrees of freedom offer the possibility to test, in an independent way, existing models of resonance electroproduction. The present analysis selects the exclusive channel {rvec p}({rvec e}, e{prime}, p){pi}{sup 0} from data taken in 2000-2001, to extract single and double asymmetries in a Q{sup 2} range from 0.2 to 0.75 GeV{sup 2} and W range from 1.1 to 1.6 GeV/c{sup 2}. Results of the asymmetries will be presented as a function of the center of mass decay angles of the {pi}{sup 0} and compared with the unitary isobar model MAID, the dynamic model by Sato and Lee and the dynamic model DMT.

  14. The torsion space nucleic acids molecular mechanics program DUPLEX: Surveying conformation space by potential energy minimization. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Hingerty, B.E.; Broyde, S.

    1993-11-01

    It has been 21 years since the inception of the program DUPLEX. Now that ``molecular modeling`` (encompassing quantum mechanics, molecular mechanics and dynamics, and computer graphics) has become something of a trade, the time seems ripe for us to offer a brief perspective of our efforts since the beginnings of the field. The purpose in writing the program was to solve the crystal structure of Ca{sup +2}-GpC, an RNA subunit for which x-ray diffraction data had been collected by T. Sato. No trial structure was available to aid in solving the phase problem in the Fall of 1972 and we hoped to generate one by potential energy minimization. We hoped to compute not only the conformation of the GpC molecule, but also its packing scheme in the unit cell, a feat that had never before been performed for a nucleic acid subunit. Indeed, only one dinucleoside monophosphate crystal structure, that of UpA, had been previously solved and its structure was very different from that of GpC.

  15. Clay-oil droplet suspensions in electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozynek, Zbigniew; Fossum, Jon Otto; Kjerstad, Knut; Mikkelsen, Alexander; Castberg, Rene

    2012-02-01

    Silicone oil droplets containing synthetic smectite clay submerged in immiscible organic oil have been studied by observing clay particle movement and oil circulation when an electric field is applied. Results show how electric field strength, dielectric and electrorheological properties as well as electrohydrodynamics determine the fluid flow and clay particle formation. In a presence of the DC electric fields the clay particles formed a ribbon-like structure onto the inner surface of the droplet. The structure consists of short chain-like clay elements orienting parallel to the electric field direction. It is suggested that a combination of two phenomena, namely the induced viscous flow (electrohydrodynamic effect) and the polarization of the clay particles (dielectric effect), contribute to the ribbon-like structure formation. -/abstract- References [1] G. Taylor, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A. Mathematical and Physical Sciences 291 (1966) 159--166. [2] J. R. Melcher and G. I. Taylor, Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 1 (1969) 111--146. [3] H. Sato, N. Kaji, T. Mochizuki, and Y. H. Mori, Physics of Fluids 18 (2006) 127101. [4] D. A. Saville, Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 29 (1997) 27--64. [5] J. O. Fossum, Y. M'eheust, K. P. S. Parmar, K. D. Knudsen, K. J. Måløy, and D. M. Fonseca Europhysics Letters 74

  16. Development of enzyme technology for Aspergillus oryzae, A. sojae, and A. luchuensis, the national microorganisms of Japan.

    PubMed

    Ichishima, Eiji

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the modern enzymology in Japanese bioindustries. The invention of Takadiastase by Jokiti Takamine in 1894 has revolutionized the world of industrial enzyme production by fermentation. In 1949, a new γ-amylase (glucan 1,4-α-glucosidase, EC 3.2.1.3) from A. luchuensis (formerly designated as A. awamori), was found by Kitahara. RNase T1 (guanyloribonuclease, EC 3.1.27.3) was discovered by Sato and Egami. Ando discovered Aspergillus nuclease S1 (single-stranded nucleate endonuclease, EC 3.1.30.1). Aspergillopepsin I (EC 3.4.23.18) from A. tubingensis (formerly designated as A. saitoi) activates trypsinogen to trypsin. Shintani et al. demonstrated Asp76 of aspergillopepsin I as the binding site for the basic substrate, trypsinogen. The new oligosaccharide moieties Man10GlcNAc2 and Man11GlcNAc2 were identified with α-1,2-mannosidase (EC 3.2.1.113) from A. tubingensis. A yeast mutant compatible of producing Man5GlcNAc2 human compatible sugar chains on glycoproteins was constructed. The acid activation of protyrosinase from A. oryzae at pH 3.0 was resolved. The hyper-protein production system of glucoamylase was established in a submerged culture. PMID:27151561

  17. Qc, Qβ, Qi and Qs attenuation parameters in the Umbria-Marche (Italy) region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lorenzo, Salvatore; Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Bianco, Francesca

    2013-05-01

    The attenuation of coda and S waves has been inferred for the Umbria-Marche region (central Italy) using seismic waveforms collected during the 1997 seismic crisis. The selected dataset is composed of 343 small magnitude (1.4 < ML < 4.2) earthquakes recorded at a temporary array composed of 23 seismic stations. The Sato (1977) method, based on the assumption of single isotropic scattering has been used to infer Qc, considering three different lapse times (20, 30 and 40 s). The coda normalization method (Aki, 1980) has been used to infer Qβ. Both Qc and Qβ show a clear frequency dependence with a different frequency dependent parameter. The frequency dependence of Qc is comparable with that previously found in the same area and around it. Using the method of Wennerberg (1993), intrinsic and scattering attenuation have been separated. Intrinsic attenuation is found to be close to coda attenuation and dominates over scattering dissipation. Coda Q increases with increasing lapse time but at a rate smaller than that observed in other areas of the Earth. Coda and intrinsic attenuation in the Umbria-Marche region are very high compared to other seismic active regions of the Earth. The retrieved high values of intrinsic attenuation may be explained in terms of the previously hypothesized fluid-pressurized regime of the crust in the central Apennines (Miller et al., 2004).

  18. Dynamical Coupled-channels Effects on Pion Photoproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Julia-Diaz, B; Lee, T -S. H.; Matsuyama, A; Sato, T; Smith, L C

    2007-12-18

    The electromagnetic pion production reactions are investigated within the dynamical coupled-channels model developed in {\\bf Physics Reports, 439, 193 (2007)}. The meson-baryon channels included in this study are $\\gamma N$, $\\pi N$, $\\eta N$, and the $\\pi\\Delta$, $\\rho N$ and $\\sigma N$ resonant components of the $\\pi\\pi N$ channel. With the hadronic parameters of the model determined in a recent study of $\\pi N$ scattering, we show that the pion photoproduction data up to the second resonance region can be described to a very large extent by only adjusting the bare $\\gamma N \\rightarrow N^*$ helicity amplitudes, while the non-resonant electromagnetic couplings are taken from previous works. It is found that the coupled-channels effects can contribute about 10 - 20 $\\%$ of the production cross sections in the $\\Delta$ (1232) resonance region, and can drastically change the magnitude and shape of the cross sections in the second resonance region. The importance of the off-shell effects in a dynamical approach is also demonstrated. The meson cloud effects as well as the coupled-channels contributions to the $\\gamma N \\rightarrow N^*$ form factors are found to be mainly in the low $Q^2$ region. For the magnetic M1 $\\gamma N \\rightarrow \\Delta$ (1232) form factor, the results are close to that of the Sato-Lee Model. Necessary improvements to the model and future developments are discussed.

  19. Dynamical coupled-channels effects on pion photoproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Julia-Diaz, B.; Lee, T.-S. H.; Matsuyama, A.; Sato, T.; Smith, L. C.

    2008-04-15

    The electromagnetic pion production reactions are investigated within the dynamical coupled-channels model developed by Matsuyama, Sato, and Lee [Phys. Rep. 439, 193 (2007)]. The meson-baryon channels included in this study are {gamma}N,{pi}N,{eta}N, and the {pi}{delta},{rho}N, and {sigma}N resonant components of the {pi}{pi}N channel. With the hadronic parameters of the model determined in a recent study of {pi}N scattering, we show that the pion photoproduction data up to the second resonance region can be described to a very large extent by only adjusting the bare {gamma}N{yields}N* helicity amplitudes, while the nonresonant electromagnetic couplings are taken from previous works. It is found that the coupled-channels effects can contribute about 30-40 % of the production cross sections in the {delta} (1232) resonance region, and can drastically change the magnitude and shape of the cross sections in the second resonance region. The importance of the loop-integrations in a dynamical approach is also demonstrated. The meson cloud effects as well as the coupled-channels contributions to the {gamma}N{yields}N* form factors are found to be mainly in the low Q{sup 2} region. Necessary improvements to the model and future developments are discussed.

  20. Dynamics of H2 Eley-Rideal abstraction from W(110): sensitivity to the representation of the molecule-surface potential.

    PubMed

    Pétuya, R; Larrégaray, P; Crespos, C; Busnengo, H F; Martínez, A E

    2014-07-14

    Dynamics of the Eley-Rideal (ER) abstraction of H2 from W(110) is analyzed by means of quasi-classical trajectory calculations. Simulations are based on two different molecule-surface potential energy surfaces (PES) constructed from Density Functional Theory results. One PES is obtained by fitting, using a Flexible Periodic London-Eyring-Polanyi-Sato (FPLEPS) functional form, and the other by interpolation through the corrugation reducing procedure (CRP). Then, the present study allows us to elucidate the ER dynamics sensitivity on the PES representation. Despite some sizable discrepancies between both H+H/W(110) PESs, the obtained projectile-energy dependence of the total ER cross sections are qualitatively very similar ensuring that the main physical ingredients are captured in both PES models. The obtained distributions of the final energy among the different molecular degrees of freedom barely depend on the PES model, being most likely determined by the reaction exothermicity. Therefore, a reasonably good agreement with the measured final vibrational state distribution is observed in spite of the pressure and material gaps between theoretical and experimental conditions.

  1. Isolation and characterization of major histocompatibility complex class IIB genes from the nurse shark.

    PubMed Central

    Bartl, S; Weissman, I L

    1994-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) contains a set of linked genes which encode cell surface proteins involved in the binding of small peptide antigens for their subsequent recognition by T lymphocytes. MHC proteins share structural features and the presence and location of polymorphic residues which play a role in the binding of antigens. In order to compare the structure of these molecules and gain insights into their evolution, we have isolated two MHC class IIB genes from the nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum. Two clones, most probably alleles, encode proteins which differ by 13 amino acids located in the putative antigen-binding cleft. The protein structure and the location of polymorphic residues are similar to their mammalian counterparts. Although these genes appear to encode a typical MHC protein, no T-cell-mediated responses have been demonstrated in cartilaginous fish. The nurse shark represents the most phylogenetically primitive organism in which both class IIA [Kasahara, M., Vazquez, M., Sato, K., McKinney, E.C. & Flajnik, M.F. (1992) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci USA 89, 6688-6692] and class IIB genes, presumably encoding the alpha/beta heterodimer, have been isolated. Images Fig. 2 PMID:8278377

  2. Tabulation of comet observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-10-01

    Concerning comets: 1968 VI Honda, 1968 IX Honda, 1969 I Thomas, 1970 I Daido-Fujikawa, 1970 II Bennett, 1970 VI White-Ortiz-Bolelli, 1970 X Suzuki-Sato-Seki, 1970 XV Abe, 1972 V P/Tempel 1, 1972 XI P/Kearns-Kwee, 1973 VII Kohoutek, 1973 XII Kohoutek, 1975 IX Kobayashi-Berger-Milon, 1975 X Suzuki-Saigusa-Mori, 1986 I P/Boethin, 1986 VIII P/Machholz, 1986 XVII Levy, 1987 II Sorrells, 1987 III Nishikawa-Takamizawa-Tago, 1987 VII Wilson, 1987 X P/Grigg-Skjellerup, 1987 XXI Levy, 1987 XXIII Rudenko, 1987 XXVII P/Kohoutek, 1987 XXIX Bradfield, 1987 XXXII McNaught, 1987 XXXIII P/Borrelly, 1988 I Ichimura, 1988 IV Furuyama, 1988 V Liller, 1988 XX Yanaka, 1988 XXIV Yanaka, 1988k P/Kopff, 1989d P/Russell 3, 1989ο P/Brorsen-Metcalf, 1989r Okazaki-Levy-Rudenko, 1989v Helin-Roman-Alu, 1989a1 Aarseth-Brewington, 1989b1 P/Tuttle-Giacobini-Kresák, 1989c1 Austin, 1989d1 P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3, 1989e1 Skorichenko-George, 1990a P/Wild 4, 1990b Černis-Kiuchi-Nakamura, 1990c Levy, 1990d P/Peters-Hartley, 1990f P/Honda-Mrkos-Pájdušaková, 1990i Tsuchiya-Kiuchi, P/Encke, P/Gunn, P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1.

  3. Recent developments in cosmogenic nuclide production rate scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifton, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    A new cosmogenic nuclide production rate scaling model based on analytical fits to Monte Carlo simulations of atmospheric cosmic ray flux spectra (both of which agree well with measured spectra) enables identification and quantification of the biases in previously published models (Lifton, N., Sato, T., Dunai, T., in review, Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett.). Scaling predictions derived from the new model (termed LSD) suggest two potential sources of bias in the previous models: different energy responses of the secondary neutron detectors used in developing the models, and different geomagnetic parameterizations. In addition, the particle flux spectra generated by the LSD model allow one to generate nuclide-specific scaling factors that reflect the influences of the flux energy distribution and the relevant excitation functions (probability of nuclide production in a given nuclear reaction as a function of energy). Resulting scaling factors indicate 3He shows the strongest positive deviation from the flux-based scaling, while 14C exhibits a negative deviation. These results are consistent with previous studies showing an increasing 3He/10Be ratio with altitude in the Himalayas, but with a much lower magnitude for the effect. Furthermore, the new model provides a flexible framework for exploring the implications of future advances in model inputs. For example, the effects of recently updated paleomagnetic models (e.g. Korte et al., 2011, Earth and Planet Sci. Lett. 312, 497-505) on scaling predictions will also be presented.

  4. Post-seismic deformation of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyriakopoulos, C.; Masterlark, T.; Chini, M.; Bignami, C.; Stramondo, S.

    2012-04-01

    The Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake on March 11, 2011 occurred near the northeast coast of Honshu, Japan. The earthquake resulted from a thrust faulting on the subduction zone boundary between the Pacific and North America plates. Surface displacements due to the Tohoku-Oki earthquake were observed by more than 1200 continuously recording Global Positioning System (GPS) sites, installed and operated by the Geodetic Survey of Japan (GSI). For the first time, in a megathrust event, the displacement above the hypocenter is detected from 5 GPS installed in the seafloor (Sato et., al 2011), giving new insights into the megathrust mechanism. The link, i.e. Green's Functions, between the surface displacement and the model parameters is obtained from a 3D Finite Element (FE) model for the 11 March earthquake. Several geophysical features of the Japan trench are implemented into the FE model. The Subducting slab geometry is implemented from USGS and Gavin Hayes Slab 1.0 project. Bathymetry and topography from the ETOPO Global Relief Project (NOAA) are implemented as well. Moreover, the model is designed to simulate coseismic and postseismic (poroelastic) deformation while simultaneously account for the known geologic structure and geophysical context (Zhao et al., 1992 ) of the Japanese subduction zone. The postseismic deformation is explored using the postseismic GPS vectors available in the literature. Furthermore, we applied DInSAR (Differential SAR interferometry) to infer the post-seismic deformation field by exploiting the available SAR images acquired by the ENVISAT satellite.

  5. Modulation of gamma-secretase for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Tate, Barbara; McKee, Timothy D; Loureiro, Robyn M B; Dumin, Jo Ann; Xia, Weiming; Pojasek, Kevin; Austin, Wesley F; Fuller, Nathan O; Hubbs, Jed L; Shen, Ruichao; Jonker, Jeff; Ives, Jeff; Bronk, Brian S

    2012-01-01

    The Amyloid Hypothesis states that the cascade of events associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD)-formation of amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, synaptic loss, neurodegeneration, and cognitive decline-are triggered by Aβ peptide dysregulation (Kakuda et al., 2006, Sato et al., 2003, Qi-Takahara et al., 2005). Since γ-secretase is critical for Aβ production, many in the biopharmaceutical community focused on γ-secretase as a target for therapeutic approaches for Alzheimer's disease. However, pharmacological approaches to control γ-secretase activity are challenging because the enzyme has multiple, physiologically critical protein substrates. To lower amyloidogenic Aβ peptides without affecting other γ-secretase substrates, the epsilon (ε) cleavage that is essential for the activity of many substrates must be preserved. Small molecule modulators of γ-secretase activity have been discovered that spare the ε cleavage of APP and other substrates while decreasing the production of Aβ(42). Multiple chemical classes of γ-secretase modulators have been identified which differ in the pattern of Aβ peptides produced. Ideally, modulators will allow the ε cleavage of all substrates while shifting APP cleavage from Aβ(42) and other highly amyloidogenic Aβ peptides to shorter and less neurotoxic forms of the peptides without altering the total Aβ pool. Here, we compare chemically distinct modulators for effects on APP processing and in vivo activity. PMID:23320246

  6. A phase-field model for incoherent martensitic transformations including plastic accommodation processes in the austenite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundin, J.; Raabe, D.; Emmerich, H.

    2011-10-01

    If alloys undergo an incoherent martensitic transformation, then plastic accommodation and relaxation accompany the transformation. To capture these mechanisms we develop an improved 3D microelastic-plastic phase-field model. It is based on the classical concepts of phase-field modeling of microelastic problems (Chen, L.Q., Wang Y., Khachaturyan, A.G., 1992. Philos. Mag. Lett. 65, 15-23). In addition to these it takes into account the incoherent formation of accommodation dislocations in the austenitic matrix, as well as their inheritance into the martensitic plates based on the crystallography of the martensitic transformation. We apply this new phase-field approach to the butterfly-type martensitic transformation in a Fe-30 wt%Ni alloy in direct comparison to recent experimental data (Sato, H., Zaefferer, S., 2009. Acta Mater. 57, 1931-1937). It is shown that the therein proposed mechanisms of plastic accommodation during the transformation can indeed explain the experimentally observed morphology of the martensitic plates as well as the orientation between martensitic plates and the austenitic matrix. The developed phase-field model constitutes a general simulations approach for different kinds of phase transformation phenomena that inherently include dislocation based accommodation processes. The approach does not only predict the final equilibrium topology, misfit, size, crystallography, and aspect ratio of martensite-austenite ensembles resulting from a transformation, but it also resolves the associated dislocation dynamics and the distribution, and the size of the crystals itself.

  7. Computational Nano-materials Design of Self-Organized Cd(Te,S) and Cd(Te,Se)Type II Nanowire (Konbu-Phase) by Spinodal Nano-Decomposition for High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Solar-Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama-Yoshida, Hiroshi; Oshitani, Masamune; Sato, Kazunori

    2012-02-01

    Based on multi-scale simulations combined ab initio electronic structure calculation (KKR-CPA) and Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) of the two-dimensional layer-by-layer crystal growth, we have designed the self-organized quasi-one-dimensional nano-structures (Konbu-Phase) fabricated by two-dimensional spinodal nano-decomposition for high-efficiency photovoltaic solar cells (PVSCs) in Cd(Te1-xSx), and Cd(Te1-xSex). The Konbu-Phase enhances the nano-scale electron-hole separation in PVSCs due to their Type II band alignment. The Konbu-Phase also increases the efficiency of PVSCs by multi-exciton formation using the inverse Auger effect in the self-organized quasi-one-dimensional nanostructures. We also discuss how to fabricate Konbu-Phase starting from the uniform nano-particles made by the photo-chemical reactions. Reference: M. Oshitani, K. Sato, H. Katayama-Yoshida, Applied Physics Express 4 (2011) 022302.

  8. Spinodal nanotechnology as a new class of bottom-up one and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama-Yoshida, Hiroshi; Fukushima, Tetsuya; Kizaki, Hidetoshi; Oshitani, Masamune; Sato, Kazunori

    2010-03-01

    We discuss the nano-materials design of spinodal nano-decomposition as a new class of bottom-up nanotechnology by combining ab initio calculations and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. We include all the complexity in the fabrication process of spinodal nano-decomposition (Konbu- and Dairiseki-phase) into advanced materials design with inhomogeneous materials. We compare the theoretical predictions with available experiments, such as (i)semiconductor nano-spintronics in dilute magnetic semiconductors, (ii)colossal thermoelectric-power responses of spincaloritronics, (iii)self-repaired nano-catalysis in La(Fe,Pd)O3, (iv)high-efficiency solar-cells, (v)high-efficiency light-emitting diode and Lasers. (1) K. Sato, et al., Reviews of Modern Physics, in printing (2009). (2) H. Katayama-Yoshida, et al.,Handbook of Spintronic Semiconductors, (Pan Stanford Pub.), p.1-79, (2009). (3) H. Katayama-Yoshida, et al.,Semiconductors and Semimetals, 82,433 (2008). (4) H. Katayama-Yoshida, et al.,Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L777 (2007). (5) H. Kizaki, et al.,Applied Physics Express 1, 104001, (2008).

  9. Structural, magnetic, and transport properties of (Zn,V)Te semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weigang; Ni, Chaoying; Zhu, Tao; Zhang, Huiwu; Xiao, John Q.

    2006-04-01

    Vanadium-doped ZnTe has been predicted to be one of the candidates for ferromagnetic semiconductors with a high Curie temperature [K. Sato and H. Katayama-Yoshida, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 17, 367 (2002)]. In this paper, we report the structural, magnetic, and transport properties of (Zn,V)Te films prepared by magnetron sputtering. Samples were fabricated on both GaAs and thermally oxidized silicon substrate at elevated temperature. Oriented sample (100) can be achieved on GaAs substrates and only polycrystalline samples are observed on Si substrates. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM) show no magnetic precipitates in the (Zn,V)Te film. The magnetization measurement shows that the oriented sample is paramagnetic at 5 K, while films on Si substrate shows weak ferromagnetism at 5 K. The sign of magnetoresistance (MR=[R(H)-R(0)]/R(0)) gradually changes from negative to positive with temperature, and positive MR at high temperatures shows H2 dependence, indicating ordinary MR effect. It is believed the observed negative MR corresponds to the ferromagnetic ordering at lower temperature.

  10. Stabilization of Ferromagnetic States by Electron Doping in ZnO-Based Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kazunori; Katayama-Yoshida, Hiroshi

    2001-03-01

    In order to investigate functionality of ZnO as a diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS), we had studied the magnetism in ZnO doped with 3d transition metal atoms (TM) and showed that it was also a candidate for a new functional magnetic material [1]. In this paper, we develop our previous work and give detailed materials design with ZnO-based DMS based on ab initio calculations. The electronic structure of a TM-doped ZnO was calculated within the local density approximation by the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method combined with the coherent potential approximation. Total energies of Zn_1-xTM^\\uparrow_xO and Zn_1-xTM^\\uparrow_x/2TM^downarrow_x/2O, where up and down arrows mean the directions of respective atomic magnetic moments, were compared and appearance of the ferromagnetism was discussed. Effects of carrier doping to these systems were also considered. It was found that their magnetic states were controllable by changing the carrier density. In particular, ferromagnetic states were stabilized by electron doping in the case of Fe, Co or Ni doped ZnO. From the point of practical applications, it is favorable feature to realize high Curie temperature ferromagnet, because n-type ZnO is easily available. [1] K. Sato and H. Katayama-Yoshida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39 (2000) L555.

  11. Materials and device design with III-V and II-VI compound-based diluted magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama-Yoshida, Hiroshi; Sato, Kazunori

    2002-03-01

    Since the discovery of the carrier induced ferromagnetism in (In, Mn)As and (Ga, Mn)As, diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) have been of much interest from the industrial viewpoint because of their potentiality as a new functional material (spintronics). In this paper, the magnetism in DMS is investigated based on the first principles calculations, and materials and device design with the DMS is proposed toward the spintronics. The electronic structure is calculated by the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method combined with the coherent potential approximation based on the local spin density approximation. We calculate the electronic structure of ferromagnetic and spin-glass DMS, and total energy difference between them is calculated to estimate whether the ferromagnetic state is stable or not. It is shown that V-, Cr- and Mn-doped III-V compounds, V- and Cr-doped II-VI compounds and Fe-, Co- and Ni-doped ZnO are promising candidates for a high-Curie temperature ferromagnet. A chemical trend in the ferromagnetism is well understood based on the double exchange mechanism [1]. Based upon this material design, some prototypes of the spintronics devices, such as a spin-FET, a photo-induced-magnetic memory and a coherent-spin-infection device, are proposed. [1] K. Sato and H. Katayama-Yoshida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39 (2000) L555, 40 (2001) L334, L485 and L651.

  12. Ferromagnetism in Co- and Mn-doped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodoropoulou, N. A.; Hebard, A. F.; Norton, D. P.; Budai, J. D.; Boatner, L. A.; Lee, J. S.; Khim, Z. G.; Park, Y. D.; Overberg, M. E.; Pearton, S. J.; Wilson, R. G.

    2003-12-01

    Bulk single crystals of Sn-doped ZnO were implanted with Co or Mn at doses designed to produce transition metal concentrations of 3-5 at.% in the near-surface (˜2000 Å) region. The implantation was performed at ˜350 °C to promote dynamic annealing of ion-induced damage. Following annealing at 700 °C, temperature-dependent magnetization measurements showed ordering temperatures of ˜300 K for Co- and ˜250 K for Mn-implanted ZnO. Clear hysteresis loops were obtained at these temperatures. The coercive fields were ⩽100 Oe for all measurement temperatures. X-ray diffraction showed no detectable second phases in the Mn-implanted material. One plausible origin for the ferromagnetism in this case is a carrier-induced mechanism. By sharp contrast, the Co-implanted material showed evidence for the presence of Co precipitates with hexagonal symmetry, which is the cause of the room temperature ferromagnetism. Our results are consistent with the stabilization of ferromagnetic states by electron doping in transition metal-doped ZnO predicted by Sato and Katayama-Yoshida [Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40 (2001) L334]. This work shows the excellent promise of Mn-doped ZnO for potential room temperature spintronic applications.

  13. Subsurface structure along the eastern marginal fault zone of Yokote Basin by Seismic reflection profiling studies, Northeast Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagohara, K.; Imaizumi, T.; Echigo, T.; Miyauchi, T.; Sato, H.

    2005-12-01

    Typical reverse faults, which are known as Senya earthquake faults appeared along the western foot of the Mahiru Mountains, associated with The Rikuu Earthquake (Mj7.2) of 1896 in Northeast Japan. Eastern marginal fault zone of the Yokote Basin consist of four main surface ruptures, about 35 km long, Obonai fault, Shiraiwa fault, Ota fault and Senya fault, depending on their continuity and strike (Matsuda et al., 1980). We carried out the seismic reflection profiling across these faults (Kawaguchi03 Seismic line, Unjono04 Seismic line and Kotaki05 Seismic line) to clarify the subsurface structure of these reverse fault system based on the data of tectonic geomorphology and structural geology and furthermore, to discuss the timing of migration of the thrusting from the range front to the basin margin. The seismic source was mini-vibrator trucks, with 20seconds of 10-100Hz signals at 10m or 5m intervals. The sweep signals were recorded by a digital telemetry system (GDAPS-4a) with 10 Hz geophones. The obtained seismic reflection data were processed by conventional Common mid-point (CMP) methods, including post-stack migration and depth conversion. The resulting seismic reflection profile reveals a thrust structure beneath these areas. At the Center of Senya hills there are two thrusts and one high angle reverse fault (1997 Seismic Line). Senya fault is an active frontal emergent thrust with flat and ramp structure. Although, the high angle reverse fault, located along the foot of the range is a short-cut branching fault from the Senya fault in the central part of the Senya hill (Sato et al., 1998), in the Unjono04 seismic line, the depth of the flat and ramp structure gradually shallow in the north part of the Senya hill, where the flexure scarp accompanied with antithetic faults formed on the fluvial terraces. In the Kawaguchi03 seismic line, the concealed fault, 0.5km below the surface, branched from the master Ota fault, form a flexure scarplet on the alluvial fan

  14. One atmosphere viscosity measurements of MORBs from ODP Leg 206, Hole 1256D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, H.; Nakamura, H.; Ishibashi, H.

    2009-12-01

    We carried out viscosity measurements of MORBs from ODP Leg 206, Hole 1256D at one atmosphere both in hyperliquidus and subliquidus conditions. Three samples examined are #1 (core 39R1), #2(core 27R19) and #3 (core 3R4). They are typical MORBs but have different Mg/(Mg+Fe) ratios of 0.60, 0.48, and 0.42. Viscosity measurements were carried out mostly after the method of Sato (2005, J. Mineral. Petrol. Sci),. The oxygen fugacity of the furnace was controlled by mixed gas of CO2:H2(400/20ml/min), at FMQ buffer conditions. Rotational viscometer was connected to a ceramic rod of 6 mm diameter, the end of which immersed in the sample crucible 30 mm inner diameter and 60 mm high. The system is calibrated with standard viscosity oils for different depths. The samples were initially melted at ca. 50 C higher temperature than liquidus, and kept for 3 days before viscometry and sampling. After the viscometry and sampling, the furnace temperature was decreased by 5 to 30 C, and kept for 1-3 days before another viscometry and sampling. These steps are repeated until the high viscosity of the melt precluded the measurements. The quenched samples were analayzed for phase chemistry and textural features. Sample #1 crystallized plagioclase and olivine at 1215 C, followed by augite at 1205 C. Total crystal content increased to 29 vol% at 1185 C. Sample #2 crystallized plagioclase and pigeonite at 1175 C, followed by olivine and augite at 1165 C. Total crystal content increased up to 25 vol% at 1152 C. Sample #3 crystallized plagioclase, pigeonite and olivine at 1155 C. Total crystal content increased up to 25 vol% at 1133 C. Bulk viscosity increased from 46 to 74 Pa s at hyperliquidus temperatures of 1240 to 1210 C, whereas it increased up to 2908 Pa s in subliquidus temperatures of 1185 C in the sample #1. In the sample #2, bulk viscosity also increased slowly from 42 Pa s at 1232 C to 79 Pa s at 1172 C, then increased much rapidly to 3422 Pa s at 1152 C. Similarly, the sample #3

  15. GRAVI-2 space experiment: investigating statoliths displacement and location effects on early stages of gravity perception pathways in lentil roots.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizet, François; Eche, Brigitte; Pereda Loth, Veronica; Badel, Eric; Legue, Valerie; Brunel, Nicole; Label, Philippe; Gérard, Joëlle

    2016-07-01

    The plants ability to orient their growth with respect to external stimuli such as gravity is a key factor for survival and acclimation to their environment. Belowground, plant roots modulate their growth towards gravity, allowing soil exploration and uptake of water and nutrients. In roots, gravity sensing cells called statocytes are located in the center of the root cap. Statocytes contain starch-filled plastids denser than the cytoplasm, which sedimentation along the direction of gravity is widely accepted as being involved into early stages of gravity perception (the starch-statolith hypothesis; Sack, 1991). Root gravitropism following statoliths displacement is based on auxin redistribution in the root apex, inducing differential growth between the root upward and downward sides. However at the cell scale, the chain of transduction starting from statoliths displacement and leading to auxin redistribution remains poorly documented. Signaling molecules such as calcium, reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate are serious candidates previously shown to be involved within minutes before modification of the expression of auxin-related genes (Morita, 2010; Sato et al., 2015). Here, we observe and quantify statoliths displacements and locations at various levels of gravity to investigate two hypothesis: (i) Are contacts between statoliths and the endoplasmic reticulum necessary to induce gravitropism? (ii) Are very low displacements of statoliths sufficient to initiate transduction pathways such as the calcium's one? These questionings have led to an experiment called GRAVI-2 which took place aboard the ISS in 2014. During the experiment, lentil roots were grown in the European modular cultivation system for several hours in microgravity and were then submitted to short high gravity stimulus (5 and 15 minutes at 2 g) before the return to Earth for analyses. Ongoing cytological measurements will reveal the effects of statoliths

  16. Collision and subduction structure of the Izu-Bonin arc, central Japan: Recent studies from refraction/wide-angle reflection analysis and seismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, R.; Iwasaki, T.; Sato, H.; Abe, S.; Hirata, N.

    2009-12-01

    Since the middle Miocene, the Izu-Bonin arc has been colliding from south with the Honshu arc in central Japan associated with subduction of the Philippine Sea plate. This process is responsible for forming a complex crustal structure called the Izu collision zone. Geological studies indicate the several geological blocks derived from the Izu-Bonin arc, such as the Misaka Mountains (MM), the Tanzawa Mountains (TM) and the Izu Peninsula (IP), were accreted onto the Honshu crust in the course of the collision, forming several tectonic boundaries in and around this collision zone (e.g. Amano, 1991). Recent seismic experiments succeeded in revealing the deep crustal structure in the eastern part of the Izu collision zone by reflection analysis (Sato et al., 2005) and refraction/wide-angle reflection analysis (Arai et al., 2009). Although these studies delineate the collision boundary between the Honshu crust and TM, and the upper surface of the subducting Philippine Sea plate, the southern part of the profile including the Kozu-Matsuda Fault (KMF, the tectonic boundary between TM and IP) is not well constrained due to the poor ray coverage. Moreover, clear images of tectonic boundaries are not obtained for the central or western part of the collision zone. In order to construct the structure model dominated by collision and subduction for the whole part of the collision zone, we carried out the following two analyses: (1) refraction tomography of active source data including another profile line in the western part of the collision zone (Sato et al., 2006), and (2) seismic tomography combining active and passive source data. In the analysis (1), we applied first arrival seismic tomography (Zelt and Barton, 1998) to the refraction data .We inverted over 39,000 travel times to construct a P wave velocity model for the 75-km-long transect, and a fine-scale structure with strong lateral heterogeneity was recovered. We conducted checkerboard resolution test to evaluate a

  17. Global Properties of X-Ray Flashes and X-Ray-Rich Gamma-Ray Bursts Observed by Swift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Takanori; Yamazaki, Ryo; Barthelmy, Scott; Gehrels, Neil; Osborne, Julian; Hullinger, Derek; Sato, Goro; Barbier, Louis; Cummings, Jay; Fenimore, Ed; Krimm, Hans; Lamb, Don; Markwardt, Craig; Palmer, David; Parsons, Ann; Stamatikos, Michael; Tueller, Jack

    Takanori Sakamoto, Taka.Sakamoto@nasa.gov NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, United States Ryo Yamazaki, ryo@theo.phys.sci.hiroshima-u.ac.jp Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Japan Scott Barthelmy, scott@milkyway.gsfc.nasa.gov NASA GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, United States Neil Gehrels, gehrels@milkyway.gsfc.nasa.gov NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, United States Julian Osborne, julo@star.le.ac.uk University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom Derek Hullinger, derek.hullinger@gmail.com Moxtek, Inc, Orem, Utah, United States Goro Sato, Goro.Sato@nasa.gov Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, United States Louis Barbier, lmb@milkyway.gsfc.nasa.gov Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, United States Jay Cummings, jayc@milkyway.gsfc.nasa.gov Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, United States Ed Fenimore, efenimore@lanl.gov Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, California, United States Hans Krimm, hans.krimm@nasa.gov Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, United States Don Lamb, d-lamb@uchicago.edu University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States Craig Markwardt, Craig.Markwardt@nasa.gov Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, United States David Palmer, palmer@lanl.gov Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, California, United States Ann Parsons, Ann.M.Parsons@nasa.gov Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, United States Michael Stamatikos, michael@milkyway.gsfc.nasa.gov Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, United States Jack Tueller, jack.tueller@nasa.gov Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, United States We present the spectral and temporal characteristics of the prompt emission and X-ray afterglow emission of X-ray flashes (XRFs) and X-ray-rich gamma-ray bursts (XRRs) detected and observed by Swift between December 2004 and September 2006. We compare these characteristics to a sample of conventional

  18. Devices and methods to measure H2 and CO2 concentrations in gases released from soils and low temperature fumaroles in volcanic areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Martino, R. M. R.; Camarda, M.; Gurrieri, S.; Valenza, M.

    2009-04-01

    Hydrogen solubility and diffusion have a great relevance to change the redox state of magmas, usually expressed by oxygen fugacity. This influences many chemical and physical properties, such as oxidation state of multivalent elements, kind and abundance of minerals and gas species. These processes change the phase ratios into the volcanic system and so the magma movement capability toward the earth surface and the eruptive dynamics. In past studies several authors (Carapezza et al., 1980; Sato et al., 1982; Sato and McGee, 1985; Wakita et al., 1980) proposed the application of the fuel cells in order to measure reducing capacity of volcanic gases. Their found some clear correlations between variation peaks and volcanic activity but a few reducing capacity changes showed no correlation with it. In this study we characterize a fuel cell device designed to measure hydrogen concentration in a gas mixture. We present test results obtained in laboratory and in field trip, carried out to verify the major interferences of others reducing gas species, commonly present in volcanic emissions, in the measurement carried out with a hydrogen fuel cell sensor. Tests were performed at controlled temperature ad pressure conditions and at air saturated pressure vapour in the cell cathode. A new device to measure simultaneously hydrogen (H2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in soil and in low temperature fumaroles in volcanic areas was proposed. The H2-detector is a hydrogen fuel cell, whereas CO2 is measured using an I.R. spectrometer. To build a continuous monitoring station of volcanic activity both sensors were put in a case together with a data logger. Our device has 0.2 mV ppm-1 sensitivity, accuracy of ± 5 ppm and about 10 ppm resolution whit respect to the hydrogen concentration. These instrumental characteristics were obtained applying a 500 ohm resistor to the external circuit that represents the best compromise between sensitivity, resolution, instrumental

  19. Mutagenic and carcinogenic potential of a textile azo dye processing plant effluent that impacts a drinking water source.

    PubMed

    Alves de Lima, Rodrigo Otávio; Bazo, Ana Paula; Salvadori, Daisy Maria Fávero; Rech, Célia Maria; de Palma Oliveira, Danielle; de Aragão Umbuzeiro, Gisela

    2007-01-10

    Recently a textile azo dye processing plant effluent was identified as one of the sources of mutagenic activity detected in the Cristais River, a drinking water source in Brazil [G.A. Umbuzeiro, D.A. Roubicek, C.M. Rech, M.I.Z. Sato, L.D. Claxton, Investigating the sources of the mutagenic activity found in a river using the Salmonella assay and different water extraction procedures, Chemosphere 54 (2004) 1589-1597]. Besides presenting high mutagenic activity in the Salmonella/microsome assay, the mutagenic nitro-aminoazobenzenes dyes CI Disperse Blue 373, CI Disperse Violet 93, and CI Disperse Orange 37 [G.A. Umbuzeiro, H.S. Freeman, S.H. Warren, D.P. Oliveira, Y. Terao, T. Watanabe, L.D. Claxton, The contribution of azo dyes in the mutagenic activity of the Cristais river, Chemosphere 60 (2005) 55-64] as well as benzidine, a known carcinogenic compound [T.M. Mazzo, A.A. Saczk, G.A. Umbuzeiro, M.V.B. Zanoni, Analysis of aromatic amines in surface waters receiving wastewater from textile industry by liquid chromatographic with eletrochemical detection, Anal. Lett., in press] were found in this effluent. After approximately 6 km from the discharge of this effluent, a drinking water treatment plant treats and distributes the water to a population of approximate 60,000. As shown previously, the mutagens in the DWTP intake water are not completely removed by the treatment. The water used for human consumption presented mutagenic activity related to nitro-aromatics and aromatic amines compounds probably derived from the cited textile processing plant effluent discharge [G.A. Umbuzeiro, D.A. Roubicek, C.M. Rech, M.I.Z. Sato, L.D. Claxton, Investigating the sources of the mutagenic activity found in a river using the Salmonella assay and different water extraction procedures, Chemosphere 54 (2004) 1589-1597; G.A. Umbuzeiro, H.S. Freeman, S.H. Warren, D.P. Oliveira, Y. Terao, T. Watanabe, L.D. Claxton, The contribution of azo dyes in the mutagenic activity of the Cristais

  20. Quantum Bio-Informatics IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accardi, Luigi; Freudenberg, Wolfgang; Ohya, Masanori

    2011-01-01

    The QP-DYN algorithms / L. Accardi, M. Regoli and M. Ohya -- Study of transcriptional regulatory network based on Cis module database / S. Akasaka ... [et al.] -- On Lie group-Lie algebra correspondences of unitary groups in finite von Neumann algebras / H. Ando, I. Ojima and Y. Matsuzawa -- On a general form of time operators of a Hamiltonian with purely discrete spectrum / A. Arai -- Quantum uncertainty and decision-making in game theory / M. Asano ... [et al.] -- New types of quantum entropies and additive information capacities / V. P. Belavkin -- Non-Markovian dynamics of quantum systems / D. Chruscinski and A. Kossakowski -- Self-collapses of quantum systems and brain activities / K.-H. Fichtner ... [et al.] -- Statistical analysis of random number generators / L. Accardi and M. Gabler -- Entangled effects of two consecutive pairs in residues and its use in alignment / T. Ham, K. Sato and M. Ohya -- The passage from digital to analogue in white noise analysis and applications / T. Hida -- Remarks on the degree of entanglement / D. Chruscinski ... [et al.] -- A completely discrete particle model derived from a stochastic partial differential equation by point systems / K.-H. Fichtner, K. Inoue and M. Ohya -- On quantum algorithm for exptime problem / S. Iriyama and M. Ohya -- On sufficient algebraic conditions for identification of quantum states / A. Jamiolkowski -- Concurrence and its estimations by entanglement witnesses / J. Jurkowski -- Classical wave model of quantum-like processing in brain / A. Khrennikov -- Entanglement mapping vs. quantum conditional probability operator / D. Chruscinski ... [et al.] -- Constructing multipartite entanglement witnesses / M. Michalski -- On Kadison-Schwarz property of quantum quadratic operators on M[symbol](C) / F. Mukhamedov and A. Abduganiev -- On phase transitions in quantum Markov chains on Cayley Tree / L. Accardi, F. Mukhamedov and M. Saburov -- Space(-time) emergence as symmetry breaking effect / I. Ojima

  1. A meteoroid stream survey using the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar. II: Identification of minor showers using a 3D wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, P.; Wong, D. K.; Weryk, R. J.; Wiegert, P.

    2010-05-01

    A 7 year survey using the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR), a specular backscattering orbital radar, has produced three million individually measured meteoroid orbits for particles with mean mass near 10 -7 kg. We apply a 3D wavelet transform to our measured velocity vectors, partitioning them into 1° solar longitude bins while stacking all 7 years of data into a single "virtual" year to search for showers which show annual activity and last for at least 3 days. Our automated stream search algorithm has identified 117 meteor showers. We have recovered 42 of the 45 previously described streams from our first reconnaissance survey (Brown, P., Weryk, R.J., Wong, D.K., Jones, J. [2008]. Icarus 195, 317-339). Removing possible duplicate showers from the automated results leaves 109 total streams. These include 42 identified in survey I and at least 62 newly identified streams. Our large data sample and the enhanced sensitivity of the 3D wavelet search compared to our earlier survey have allowed us to extend the period of activity for several major showers. This includes detection of the Geminid shower from early November to late December and the Quadrantids from early November to mid-January. Among our newly identified streams are the Theta Serpentids which appears to be derived from 2008 KP and the Canum Venaticids which have a similar orbit to C/1975 X1 (Sato). We also find evidence that nearly 60% of all our streams are part of seven major stream complexes, linked via secular invariants.

  2. A Technique for Estimating Distinctive Asperity Source Models by Waveform Fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushima, S.; Kawase, H.; Sato, T.; Graves, R. W.

    2001-12-01

    For predicting near fault strong motion, it is important to adequately evaluate the heterogeneity of the slip distribution of the source rupture process as well as the effects of the complex subsurface geology. Since the characteristics of pulse waves derived from forward rupture directivity effects are significantly affected by the size and the slip velocity function of the asperities, it is necessary to evaluate these parameters accurately (Matsushima and Kawase, 1999). In this study, we developed a technique for estimating rupture process assuming distinctive asperities by waveform fitting. In order to take into account of the 3-D subsurface geology in the Green?s functions, we used 3-D reciprocal Green?s functions (RGFs) calculated using the methodology by Graves and Wald (2001). We assumed that the fault geometry and the hypocenter was given, and that the asperity to be estimated was rectangular and on the fault plane. We also assumed that the slip is concentrated only on the asperity. The idea of this technique was as follows. First we calculated strong motions at observation sites using the RGFs for given range of parameters. Then we searched for the best fitting case by grid search technique (Sato et al., 1998). There were eight parameters, which were, location of asperity on the fault plane (X0, Y0), size of asperity (L, W), amplitude (Vd), duration (td), and decay shape parameter (α ) of the slip velocity function, and rake angle (λ ). We assumed that the rise time of the slip velocity function was 0.06 seconds and decays proportional to exp (-α t). The initiation point of the asperity was the closest point to the hypocenter. Numerical experiments showed that we can resolve the asperity model fairly well with good stability. We are planning to extend this technique to multiple asperities and to estimate asperity models for actual earthquakes.

  3. Troposphere-Stratosphere changes induced by volcanic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caian, M.; Haigh, J. D.

    2003-04-01

    The global UM model in a coupled to ocean configuration has been used to simulate the response to lower stratospheric aerosol. Aerosol optical depths, based on the reconstruction of Sato at al.(JGR, 1993) have been inserted in the above-tropopause level, representing the period from December 1990 to February 1992. The mechanisms of induced changes to the stratosphere-troposphere system dynamics and interactions are analysed through energy conversion diagnostics. A particular response is emphasised in the conversion of the diabatic supply, towards the mean stratospheric flow budget, leading to acceleration by an additional stratospheric circulation, with distinct features noticed in summer respectively winter. In both cases the entrance area to the stratosphere, is about the edge of the Hadley cell, with a retour circulation at about 10 hPa and about five days pulsation frequency. A simple linear 3D PE model is used to account for the non-interactive wave response to a similar thermal dipolar forcing at the tropopause. We show that the perturbation creates necessary conditions of increased wave propagation in a neighbouring layer, where the adjustment to the dipole forcing is done through a folding layer. This propagation as well as the vertical extension of this layer are shown to be controlled by second order variations of the static stability. The linear study together with energy diagnostics of GCM simulation, sustain the idea of mainly barotropic use of the tropospheric supply through planetary wave propagation to produce the accelerated stratospheric circulation. Transience seems to characterise this mechanism as shown in the pulsation frequency of accelerated circulation streamlines.

  4. [Radiolysis of acrinol in radio-sterilization of acrinol pharmaceuticals].

    PubMed

    Kimura, S; Nishimura, R; Kanbashi, T; Jo, H; Koide, H

    1983-11-01

    Acrinol in dry solid state after gamma irradiation with 80 kGy (8 Mrad) undergoes 8% decomposition, with G(-M)=30, and in wet solid state (10% moisture content) undergoes 15% decomposition, with G(-M)=56, as shown by absorbed spectrometric measurement. From these results, it is estimated that the irradiation dose of 25 kGy (2.5 Mrad) prefered by many countries as sterilization dose will achieve the radiolysis rate of 2.8% or 4.7% for dry solid state or wet solid state acrinol, respectively. The stickiness power of plaster tape made of raw rubber and polyterpene resin don't decrease with irradiation dose of less than 40 kGy (4 Mrad). Then, the radio-sterilization on the dose of 25 kGy (2.5 Mrad) may be applied to solid pharmaceuticals such as commercial rubber adhesive plaster with acrinol pad. Besides, acrinol in 0.1% aqueous solution after irradiation of 10 kGy (1 Mrad) at room temperature undergoes 20% decomposition, with G(-M)=0.5. The radiolysis rate in this state is estimated 45% with the dose of 25 kGy (2.5 Mrad). Then, the radio-sterilization with this dose must not be applied to liquid pharmaceuticals such as 0.1% acrinol aqueous solution. While, it was reported by Hosobuchi and Sato that the antimicrobial effect of irradiated acrinol to Staphlococcus aureus increased with irradiation dose. Then, it is expectable that some materials with antimicrobial activity are prodused by gamma irradiation.

  5. Positive Regulation of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin H by Rot (Repressor of Toxin) Protein and Its Importance in Clonal Complex 81 Subtype 1 Lineage-Related Food Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Sato'o, Yusuke; Hisatsune, Junzo; Nagasako, Yuria; Ono, Hisaya K.; Omoe, Katsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the clonal complex 81 (CC81) subtype 1 lineage is the major staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP)-associated lineage in Japan (Y. Sato'o et al., J Clin Microbiol 52:2637–2640, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00661-14). Strains of this lineage produce staphylococcal enterotoxin H (SEH) in addition to SEA. However, an evaluation of the risk for the recently reported SEH has not been sufficiently conducted. We first searched for staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) genes and SE proteins in milk samples that caused a large SFP outbreak in Japan. Only SEA and SEH were detected, while there were several SE genes detected in the samples. We next designed an experimental model using a meat product to assess the productivity of SEs and found that only SEA and SEH were detectably produced in situ. Therefore, we investigated the regulation of SEH production using a CC81 subtype 1 isolate. Through mutant analysis of global regulators, we found the repressor of toxin (Rot) functioned oppositely as a stimulator of SEH production. SEA production was not affected by Rot. seh mRNA expression correlated with rot both in media and on the meat product, and the Rot protein was shown to directly bind to the seh promoter. The seh promoter sequence was predicted to form a loop structure and to hide the RNA polymerase binding sequences. We propose Rot binds to the promoter sequence of seh and unfolds the secondary structure that may lead the RNA polymerase to bind the promoter, and then seh mRNA transcription begins. This alternative Rot regulation for SEH may contribute to sufficient toxin production by the CC81 subtype 1 lineage in foods to induce SFP. PMID:26341202

  6. Population Balance Modeling of Polydispersed Bubbly Flow in Continuous-Casting Using Multiple-Size-Group Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhongqiu; Li, Linmin; Qi, Fengsheng; Li, Baokuan; Jiang, Maofa; Tsukihashi, Fumitaka

    2014-09-01

    A population balance model based on the multiple-size-group (MUSIG) approach has been developed to investigate the polydispersed bubbly flow inside the slab continuous-casting mold and bubble behavior including volume fraction, breakup, coalescence, and size distribution. The Eulerian-Eulerian approach is used to describe the equations of motion of the two-phase flow. All the non-drag forces (lift force, virtual mass force, wall lubrication force, and turbulent dispersion force) and drag force are incorporated in this model. Sato and Sekiguchi model is used to account for the bubble-induced turbulence. Luo and Svendsen model and Prince and Blanch model are used to describe the bubbles breakup and coalescence behavior, respectively. A 1/4th water model of the slab continuous-casting mold was applied to investigate the distribution and size of bubbles by injecting air through a circumferential inlet chamber which was made of the specially-coated samples of mullite porous brick, which is used for the actual upper nozzle. Against experimental data, numerical results showed good agreement for the gas volume fraction and local bubble Sauter mean diameter. The bubble Sauter mean diameter in the upper recirculation zone decreases with increasing water flow rate and increases with increasing gas flow rate. The distribution of bubble Sauter mean diameter along the width direction of the upper mold increases first, and then gradually decreases from the SEN to the narrow wall. Close agreements between the predictions and measurements demonstrate the capability of the MUSIG model in modeling bubbly flow inside the continuous-casting mold.

  7. Incorporation of copper into lysyl oxidase.

    PubMed

    Kosonen, T; Uriu-Hare, J Y; Clegg, M S; Keen, C L; Rucker, R B

    1997-10-01

    Lysyl oxidase is a copper-dependent enzyme involved in extracellular processing of collagens and elastin. Although it is known that copper is essential for the functional activity of the enzyme, there is little information on the incorporation of copper. In the present study we examined the insertion of copper into lysyl oxidase using 67Cu in cell-free transcription/translation assays and in normal skin fibroblast culture systems. When a full-length lysyl oxidase cDNA was used as a template for transcription/translation reactions in vitro, unprocessed prolysyl oxidase appeared to bind copper. To examine further the post-translational incorporation of copper into lysyl oxidase, confluent skin fibroblasts were incubated with inhibitors of protein synthesis (cycloheximide, 10 microg/ml), glycosylation (tunicamycin, 10 microg/ml), protein secretion (brefeldin A, 10 microg/ml) and prolysyl oxidase processing (procollagen C-peptidase inhibitor, 2.5 microg/ml) together with 300 microCi of carrier-free 67Cu. It was observed that protein synthesis was a prerequisite for copper incorporation, but inhibition of glycosylation by tunicamycin did not affect the secretion of 67Cu as lysyl oxidase. Brefeldin A inhibited the secretion of 67Ci-labelled lysyl oxidase by 46%, but the intracellular incorporation of copper into lysyl oxidase was not affected. In addition, the inhibition of the extracellular proteolytic processing of prolysyl oxidase to lysyl oxidase had minimal effects on the secretion of protein-bound 67Cu. Our results indicate that, similar to caeruloplasmin processing [Sato and Gitlin (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 5128-5134], copper is inserted into prolysyl oxidase independently of glycosylation. PMID:9355764

  8. Responses of cultured neural retinal cells to substratum-bound laminin and other extracellular matrix molecules.

    PubMed

    Adler, R; Jerdan, J; Hewitt, A T

    1985-11-01

    The responses of cultured chick embryo retinal neurons to several extracellular matrix molecules are described. Retinal cell suspensions in serum-free medium containing the "N1" supplement (J. E. Bottenstein, S. D. Skaper, S. Varon, and J. Sato, 1980, Exp. Cell Res. 125, 183-190) were seeded on tissue culture plastic surfaces pretreated with polyornithine (PORN) and with one of the factors to be tested. Substantial cell survival could be observed after 72 hr in vitro on PORN pretreated with serum or laminin, whereas most cells appeared to be degenerating on untreated PORN, PORN-fibronectin, and PORN-chondronectin. Cell attachment, although quantitatively similar for all these substrata, was temperature-dependent on serum and laminin but not on fibronectin or untreated PORN. In a short-term bioassay, neurite development was abundant on laminin, scarce on serum and fibronectin, and absent on PORN. No positive correlation between cell spreading and neurite production could be seen: cell spreading was more extensive on PORN and fibronectin than on laminin or serum, while on laminin-treated dishes, spreading was similar for neurite-bearing and non-neurite-bearing cells. Laminin effects on retinal neurons were clearly substratum dependent. When bound to tissue culture plastic, laminin showed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on cell attachment and did not stimulate neurite development. PORN-bound laminin, on the other hand, did not affect cell attachment but caused marked stimulation of neurite development, suggesting that laminin conformation and/or the spatial distribution of active sites play an important role in the neurite-promoting function of this extracellular matrix molecule. Investigation of the embryonic retina with ELISA and immunocytochemical methods showed that laminin is present in this organ during development. Therefore, in vivo and in vitro observations are consistent with the possibility that laminin might influence neuronal development in the retina.

  9. Bubble reconstruction method for wire-mesh sensors measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukin, Roman V.

    2016-08-01

    A new algorithm is presented for post-processing of void fraction measurements with wire-mesh sensors, particularly for identifying and reconstructing bubble surfaces in a two-phase flow. This method is a combination of the bubble recognition algorithm presented in Prasser (Nuclear Eng Des 237(15):1608, 2007) and Poisson surface reconstruction algorithm developed in Kazhdan et al. (Poisson surface reconstruction. In: Proceedings of the fourth eurographics symposium on geometry processing 7, 2006). To verify the proposed technique, a comparison was done of the reconstructed individual bubble shapes with those obtained numerically in Sato and Ničeno (Int J Numer Methods Fluids 70(4):441, 2012). Using the difference between reconstructed and referenced bubble shapes, the accuracy of the proposed algorithm was estimated. At the next step, the algorithm was applied to void fraction measurements performed in Ylönen (High-resolution flow structure measurements in a rod bundle (Diss., Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule ETH Zürich, Nr. 20961, 2013) by means of wire-mesh sensors in a rod bundle geometry. The reconstructed bubble shape yields bubble surface area and volume, hence its Sauter diameter d_{32} as well. Sauter diameter is proved to be more suitable for bubbles size characterization compared to volumetric diameter d_{30}, proved capable to capture the bi-disperse bubble size distribution in the flow. The effect of a spacer grid was studied as well: For the given spacer grid and considered flow rates, bubble size frequency distribution is obtained almost at the same position for all cases, approximately at d_{32} = 3.5 mm. This finding can be related to the specific geometry of the spacer grid or the air injection device applied in the experiments, or even to more fundamental properties of the bubble breakup and coagulation processes. In addition, an application of the new algorithm for reconstruction of a large air-water interface in a tube bundle is

  10. Simulation of tectonic evolution of the Kanto basin of Japan since 1 Ma due to subduction of the Pacific and Philippine sea plates and collision of the Izu-Bonin arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashima, Akinori; Sato, Toshinori; Sato, Hiroshi; Asao, Kazumi; Furuya, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Shuji; Kameo, Koji; Miyauchi, Takahiro; Ito, Tanio; Tsumura, Noriko; Kaneda, Heitaro

    2015-04-01

    The Kanto basin, the largest lowland in Japan, developed by flexure as a result of (1) the subduction of the Philippine Sea (PHS) and the Pacific (PAC) plates and (2) the collision of the Izu-Bonin arc with the Japanese island arc. Geomorphological, geological, and thermochronological data on long-term vertical movements over the last 1 My suggest that subsidence initially affected the entire Kanto basin after which the area of subsidence gradually narrowed until, finally, the basin began to experience uplift. In this study, we modelled the tectonic evolution of the Kanto basin following the method of Matsu'ura and Sato (1989) for a kinematic subduction model with dislocations, in order to quantitatively assess the effects of PHS and PAC subduction. We include the steady slip-rate deficit (permanent locking rate at the plate interface) in our model to account for collision process. We explore how the arc-arc collision process has been affected by a westerly shift in the PHS plate motion vector with respect to the Eurasian plate, thought to have occurred between 1.0-0.5 Ma, using long-term vertical deformation data to constrain extent of the locked zone on the plate interface. We evaluated the change in vertical deformation rate for two scenarios: (1) a synchronous shift in the orientation of the locked zone as PHS plate motion shifts and (2) a delayed shift in the orientation of the locked zone following a change in plate motion. Observed changes in the subsidence/uplift pattern are better explained by scenario (2), suggesting that recent (<1 My) deformation in the Kanto basin shows a lag in crustal response to the shift in plate motion. We also calculated recent stress accumulation rates and found a good match with observed earthquake mechanisms, which shows that intraplate earthquakes serve to release stress accumulated through long-term plate interactions.

  11. Simulation of tectonic evolution of the Kanto Basin of Japan since 1 Ma due to subduction of the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates and the collision of the Izu-Bonin arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashima, Akinori; Sato, Toshinori; Sato, Hiroshi; Asao, Kazumi; Furuya, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Shuji; Kameo, Koji; Miyauchi, Takahiro; Ito, Tanio; Tsumura, Noriko; Kaneda, Heitaro

    2016-06-01

    The Kanto Basin, the largest lowland in Japan, developed by flexure as a result of (1) the subduction of the Philippine Sea (PHS) and the Pacific (PAC) plates and (2) the repeated collision of the Izu-Bonin arc fragments with the Japanese island arc. Geomorphological, geological, and thermochronological data on vertical movements over the last 1 My suggest that subsidence initially affected the entire basin after which the area of subsidence gradually narrowed until, finally, the basin began to experience uplift. In this study, we modeled the tectonic evolution of the Kanto Basin following the method of Matsu'ura and Sato (1989) for a kinematic subduction model with dislocations, in order to quantitatively assess the effects of PHS and PAC subduction. We include the steady slip-rate deficit (permanent locking rate at the plate interface) in our model to account for collision process. We explore how the latest collision of the Izu Peninsula block has been affected by a westerly shift in the PHS plate motion vector with respect to the Eurasian plate, thought to have occurred between 1.0-0.5 Ma, using long-term vertical deformation data to constrain extent of the locked zone on the plate interface. We evaluated the change in vertical deformation rate for two scenarios: (1) a synchronous shift in the orientation of the locked zone as PHS plate motion shifts and (2) a delayed shift in the orientation of the locked zone following the shift in plate motion. Observed changes in the uplift/subsidence pattern are better explained by scenario (2), suggesting that recent (< 1 My) deformation in the Kanto Basin shows a lag in crustal response to the plate motion shift. We also calculated stress accumulation rates and found a good match with observed earthquake mechanisms, which shows that intraplate earthquakes serve to release stress accumulated through long-term plate interactions.

  12. CFD model of an aerating hydrofoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, D.; Sabourin, M.; Beaulieu, S.; Papillon, B.; Ellis, C.

    2014-03-01

    Improving water quality in the tailrace below hydroelectric dams has become a priority in many river systems. In warm climates, water drawn by the turbine from deep in a reservoir can be deficient in dissolved oxygen (DO), a critical element in maintaining a healthy aquatic ecosystem. Many different solutions have been proposed in order to increase the DO levels in turbine discharge, including: turbine aeration systems (adding air to the water through either the turbine hub, the periphery or through distributed aeration in the runner blades); bubble diffusers in the reservoir or in the tailrace; aerating weirs downstream of the dams; and surface water pumps in the reservoir near the dam. There is a significant potential to increase the effectiveness of these solutions by improving the way that oxygen is introduced into the water; better distributions of bubbles will result in better oxygen transfer. In the present study, a two-phase Computational Fluid Dynamics model has been formulated using a commercial code to study the distribution of air downstream of a simple aerating hydrofoil. The two-phase model uses the Eulerian-Eulerian approach. Appropriate relations are used to model the interphase forces, including the Grace drag force model, the Favre averaged drag force and the Sato enhanced eddy viscosity. The model is validated using experimental results obtained in the water tunnel at the University of Minnesota's Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory. Results are obtained for water velocities between 5 and 10 m/s, air flow rates between 0.5 and 1.5 sL/min and for angles of attack between 0° and -8°. The results of this study show that the CFD model provides a good qualitative comparison to the experimental results by well predicting the wake location at the different flow rates and angles of attack used.

  13. PREFACE: IUMRS-ICA 2008 Symposium 'AA. Rare-Earth Related Material Processing and Functions'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Takayuki; Sato, Tsugio; Machida, Ken-ichi; Fukunaga, Hirotoshi

    2009-02-01

    Rare-earth related materials have been widely used in various advanced technologies and devices because of their novel functions such as excellent magnetic and optical properties. For the fabrication of the next generation of new rare-earth related materials with novel functions, it is necessary to design a wide range of materials from nano-scale to macro-scale and to develop novel techniques realizing such designs. Indeed, there has been great progress in the preparation, processing and characterization of new rare-earth materials covering magnetic alloys, inorganic and organic fluorescence materials. In the International Union of Materials Research Societies International Conference in Asia 2008 (IUMRS-ICA2008) (9-13 December, Nagoya, Japan), the symposium on 'AA: Rare-Earth Related Material Processing and Functions' was organized to provide an interdisciplinary forum for the discussion of recent advances in fabrication processing and applications of rare-earth related materials with various scaled and unique morphologies. Many papers were presented in the symposium, and some papers were accepted to be published in this proceeding after review. Editors: Takayuki KOMATSU (Nagaoka University of Technology, Japan) Tsugio SATO (Tohoku University, Japan) Ken-ichi MACHIDA (Osaka University, Japan) Hirotoshi FUKUNAGA (Nagasaki University, Japan) Jiro YAMASAKI (Kyushu Institute of Technology, Japan) Honjie ZHANG (Chinese Academy of Sciences, China) Chun Hua YAN (Peking University, China) Jianrong QIU (Zhejiang University, China) Jong HEO (Pohang University, Korea) Setsuhisa TANABE (Kyoto University, Japan) Hiroshi TATEWAKI (Nagoya City University, Japan) Tomokatsu HAYAKAWA (Nagoya Institute of Technology, Japan) Yasufumi FUJIWARA (Osaka University, Japan)

  14. The Arabidopsis ubiquitin ligases ATL31 and ATL6 control the defense response as well as the carbon/nitrogen response.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Shugo; Sato, Takeo; Asada, Yutaka; Yasuda, Shigetaka; Yoshida, Midori; Chiba, Yukako; Yamaguchi, Junji

    2012-06-01

    In higher plants, the metabolism of carbon (C) and nitrogen nutrients (N) is mutually regulated and referred to as the C and N balance (C/N). Plants are thus able to optimize their growth depending on their cellular C/N status. Arabidopsis ATL31 and ATL6 encode a RING-type ubiquitin ligases which play a critical role in the C/N status response (Sato et al. in Plant J 60:852-864, 2009). Since many ATL members are involved in the plant defense response, the present study evaluated whether the C/N response regulators ATL31 and ATL6 are involved in defense responses. Our results confirmed that ATL31 and ATL6 expression is up-regulated with the microbe-associated molecular patterns elicitors flg22 and chitin as well as with infections with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst. DC3000). Moreover, transgenic plants overexpressing ATL31 and ATL6 displayed increased resistance to Pst. DC3000. In accordance with these data, loss of ATL31 and ATL6 function in an atl31 atl6 double knockout mutant resulted in reduced resistance to Pst. DC3000. In addition, the molecular cross-talk between C/N and the defense response was investigated by mining public databases. The analysis identified the transcription factors MYB51 and WRKY33, which are involved in the defense response, and their transcripts levels correlate closely with ATL31 and ATL6. Further study demonstrated that the expression of ATL31, ATL6 and defense marker genes including MYB51 and WRKY33 were regulated by C/N conditions. Taken together, these results indicate that ATL31 and ATL6 function as key components of both C/N regulation and the defense response in Arabidopsis.

  15. Passive and transpassive anodic behavior of chalcopyrite in acid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, G. W.; Wadsworth, M. E.; El-Raghy, S. M.

    1992-01-01

    The electrochemical oxidation of CuFeS2 in various acid solutions was studied using electrodes made from massive samples. The primary techniques employed were potentiodynamic polarization and constant potential experiments supplemented by capacitance measurements. It was the purpose of this study to investigate the behavior of: (1) several sources of CuFeS2 in H2SO4 electrolytes, and (2) a single source of CuFeS2 in various dilute acids. Electrochemical characterization of CuFeS2 from various locations was performed in 1 M H2SO4 which showed significant differences in their behavior. All samples exhibited passive-like response during anodic polarization. The current density in this passive region was reproducible and showed differences of up to two orders of magnitude between samples from different sources which has been attributed mainly to the presence of impurities in some of the samples. During anodic polarization CuFeS2 was found to be sensitive to pH at higher potential, but insensitive at low potential in sulfate solution. In addition, current decay measurements at constant potential in the low potential-passive region were found to follow the Sato-Cohen (logarithmic) model for solid film formation. Based on current and mass balance measurements, two intermediate sulfide phases appeared to form in the sequence CuFeS2 → S, → S2. At higher potentials, in the transpassive region, the observed increase in current is compatible with the decomposition of water to form chemisorbed oxygen which releases copper and forms sulfate ions.

  16. Passive and transpassive anodic behavior of chalcopyrite in acid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, G. W.; Wadsworth, M. E.; El-Raghy, S. M.

    1982-12-01

    The electrochemical oxidation of CuFeS2 in various acid solutions was studied using electrodes made from massive samples. The primary techniques employed were potentiodynamic polarization and constant potential experiments supplemented by capacitance measurements. It was the purpose of this study to investigate the behavior of: (1) several sources of CuFeS2 in H2SO4 electrolytes, and (2) a single source of CuFeS2 in various dilute acids. Electrochemical characterization of CuFeS2 from various locations was performed in 1 M H2SO4 which showed significant differences in their behavior. All samples exhibited passive-like response during anodic polarization. The current density in this passive region was reproducible and showed differences of up to two orders of magnitude between samples from different sources which has been attributed mainly to the presence of impurities in some of the samples. During anodic polarization CuFeS2 was found to be sensitive to pH at higher potential, but insensitive at low potential in sulfate solution. In addition, current decay measurements at constant potential in the low potential-passive region were found to follow the Sato-Cohen (logarithmic) model for solid film formation. Based on current and mass balance measurements, two intermediate sulfide phases appeared to form in the sequence CuFeS2→S1→S2. At higher potentials, in the transpassive region, the observed increase in current is compatible with the decomposition of water to form chemisorbed oxygen which releases copper and forms sulfate ions.

  17. On the stationary Einstein-Maxwell field equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, A.; Kloster, S.

    1980-08-01

    The stationary gravitational equations in the presence of the electromagnetic fields, outside charged gravitating sources, are investigated. (i) The action integral of Kramer-Neugebauer-Stephani (K.N.S.) is derived from the Hilbert action integral by using new variational techniques. (ii) It is shown that the classification scheme for the system of partial differential equations of general relativity depends on the coordinate system used. In particular, if orthogonal coordinates are chosen for the associated space then the system of Einstein-Maxwell equations is a hyperbolic one. (iii) The eigenvalues of the Ricci tensor of associated space are expressed in terms of the invariants of stationary electro-gravitational fields. It is proved that if these eigenvalues are equal then the fields must belong to the class of Peres-Israel-Wilson (PIW) solutions. (iv) The global integrability of some of the stationary Einstein-Maxwell equations and the consequent equilibrium conditions of the ''bodies'' are investigated. (v) Boundary value problems for some of the field equations are pursued. It is proved that ω≡ln||g44|| is neither subharmonic nor superharmonic and the boundary value problem for this function does not yield a unique solution in general. A nontrivial solution of the stationary equations with ω≡0 is given. A special boundary value problem is explicitly solved. (vi) The PIW solutions are generated from the charged Kerr-Tomimatsu-Sato-Yamazaki (KTSY) solutions. The complex axially symmetric harmonic functions of these PIW solutions can be obtained from the real axially symmetric harmonic functions of the static Weyl class of electrovac solutions by a complex scale transformation of the coordinates.

  18. Scattered surface wave energy in the seismic coda

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeng, Y.

    2006-01-01

    One of the many important contributions that Aki has made to seismology pertains to the origin of coda waves (Aki, 1969; Aki and Chouet, 1975). In this paper, I revisit Aki's original idea of the role of scattered surface waves in the seismic coda. Based on the radiative transfer theory, I developed a new set of scattered wave energy equations by including scattered surface waves and body wave to surface wave scattering conversions. The work is an extended study of Zeng et al. (1991), Zeng (1993) and Sato (1994a) on multiple isotropic-scattering, and may shed new insight into the seismic coda wave interpretation. The scattering equations are solved numerically by first discretizing the model at regular grids and then solving the linear integral equations iteratively. The results show that scattered wave energy can be well approximated by body-wave to body wave scattering at earlier arrival times and short distances. At long distances from the source, scattered surface waves dominate scattered body waves at surface stations. Since surface waves are 2-D propagating waves, their scattered energies should in theory follow a common decay curve. The observed common decay trends on seismic coda of local earthquake recordings particular at long lapse times suggest that perhaps later seismic codas are dominated by scattered surface waves. When efficient body wave to surface wave conversion mechanisms are present in the shallow crustal layers, such as soft sediment layers, the scattered surface waves dominate the seismic coda at even early arrival times for shallow sources and at later arrival times for deeper events.

  19. The alpha effectiveness for formation of SO3- in barite: an essential factor for ESR dating of submarine hydrothermal barite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isono, Y.; Toyoda, S.; Nishido, H.; Kayama, M.

    2013-12-01

    While Kasuya et al. (1991) first pointed out that ESR (electron spin resonance) dating of barite (BaSO4) is possible, the method was first practically applied by Okumura et al. (2010) to a sample formed by the submarine hydrothermal activity. A subsequent study by Sato et al. (2011) studied the thermal stability of the signal and concluded that the dating signal due to SO3- is stable so that dating method is applicable up to at least several thousand years. Barite crystals formed by submarine hydrothermal activities contains large amount of Ra which replaces Ba in the crystal lattice where all dose rate is due to radiation from Ra. Okumura et al. (2010) reported a concentration of 7.7 Bq/g of Ra in a hydrothermal sulfide including barite where the internal alpha dose rate in barite contributes 40 to 60 % of total dose rate. Determination of alpha effectiveness is thus the one of the essential factors for improving the precision of dating of barite by ESR. Toyoda et al. (2012) investigated the alpha effectiveness for the ESR signal due to SO3- in barite by comparing the dose responses of the signal for gamma irradiation and for He ion implantation with an energy of 4 MeV. A value 0.043 ×0.018 was obtained for a sample from Morocco. However, the dose response was far from 'good', where the number of points is not sufficient. The experiments of He ion implantation was repeated in the present study for several samples to determine the precise alpha effectiveness. A value of 0.019 ×0.0096 and 0.0062 ×0.0036 were obtained for the samples from Morocco and from Funaoka Mine, Japan, respectively. The results of further repeated analysis will be presented.

  20. Population Balance Modeling of Polydispersed Bubbly Flow in Continuous-Casting Using Multiple-Size-Group Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhongqiu; Li, Linmin; Qi, Fengsheng; Li, Baokuan; Jiang, Maofa; Tsukihashi, Fumitaka

    2015-02-01

    A population balance model based on the multiple-size-group (MUSIG) approach has been developed to investigate the polydispersed bubbly flow inside the slab continuous-casting mold and bubble behavior including volume fraction, breakup, coalescence, and size distribution. The Eulerian-Eulerian approach is used to describe the equations of motion of the two-phase flow. All the non-drag forces (lift force, virtual mass force, wall lubrication force, and turbulent dispersion force) and drag force are incorporated in this model. Sato and Sekiguchi model is used to account for the bubble-induced turbulence. Luo and Svendsen model and Prince and Blanch model are used to describe the bubbles breakup and coalescence behavior, respectively. A 1/4th water model of the slab continuous-casting mold was applied to investigate the distribution and size of bubbles by injecting air through a circumferential inlet chamber which was made of the specially-coated samples of mullite porous brick, which is used for the actual upper nozzle. Against experimental data, numerical results showed good agreement for the gas volume fraction and local bubble Sauter mean diameter. The bubble Sauter mean diameter in the upper recirculation zone decreases with increasing water flow rate and increases with increasing gas flow rate. The distribution of bubble Sauter mean diameter along the width direction of the upper mold increases first, and then gradually decreases from the SEN to the narrow wall. Close agreements between the predictions and measurements demonstrate the capability of the MUSIG model in modeling bubbly flow inside the continuous-casting mold.

  1. Positive Regulation of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin H by Rot (Repressor of Toxin) Protein and Its Importance in Clonal Complex 81 Subtype 1 Lineage-Related Food Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Sato'o, Yusuke; Hisatsune, Junzo; Nagasako, Yuria; Ono, Hisaya K; Omoe, Katsuhiko; Sugai, Motoyuki

    2015-11-01

    We previously demonstrated the clonal complex 81 (CC81) subtype 1 lineage is the major staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP)-associated lineage in Japan (Y. Sato'o et al., J Clin Microbiol 52:2637-2640, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00661-14). Strains of this lineage produce staphylococcal enterotoxin H (SEH) in addition to SEA. However, an evaluation of the risk for the recently reported SEH has not been sufficiently conducted. We first searched for staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) genes and SE proteins in milk samples that caused a large SFP outbreak in Japan. Only SEA and SEH were detected, while there were several SE genes detected in the samples. We next designed an experimental model using a meat product to assess the productivity of SEs and found that only SEA and SEH were detectably produced in situ. Therefore, we investigated the regulation of SEH production using a CC81 subtype 1 isolate. Through mutant analysis of global regulators, we found the repressor of toxin (Rot) functioned oppositely as a stimulator of SEH production. SEA production was not affected by Rot. seh mRNA expression correlated with rot both in media and on the meat product, and the Rot protein was shown to directly bind to the seh promoter. The seh promoter sequence was predicted to form a loop structure and to hide the RNA polymerase binding sequences. We propose Rot binds to the promoter sequence of seh and unfolds the secondary structure that may lead the RNA polymerase to bind the promoter, and then seh mRNA transcription begins. This alternative Rot regulation for SEH may contribute to sufficient toxin production by the CC81 subtype 1 lineage in foods to induce SFP.

  2. Porphyrias in Japan: compilation of all cases reported through 2002.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Masao; Yano, Yuzo; Shirataka, Masuo; Urata, Gumpei; Sassa, Shigeru

    2004-06-01

    The first case of porphyria on record in Japan was a patient with congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP) reported by Sato and Takahashi in 1920. Since then until the end of December 2002, 827 cases of porphyrias have been diagnosed from characteristic clinical and/or laboratory findings (463 males, 358 females, and 6 of unknown sex). Essentially all inherited porphyrias have been found in Japan, with the incidences and clinical symptoms generally being similar to those reported for other countries. The male-female ratio was approximately 1:1 for CEP, whereas it was higher for erythropoietic protoporphyria. In contrast, preponderances of female patients exist with acute hepatic porphyrias, such as acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), variegate porphyria (VP), and hereditary coproporphyria (HCP), and with undefined acute porphyria. Although porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) is believed to be increasing recently in women in other countries because of smoking and the use of contraceptives, it is still by far more prominent in males in Japan than in females. The recent increasing contribution of hepatitis C virus infection to PCT in Japan has also been recognized. but there have been no PCT cases in Japan with HFE gene mutations. Familial occurrence and consanguinity were high for CEP, as expected; however, significant consanguinity was also noted in families where CEP, AIP, HCP, VP, or PCT occurred as a single isolated case without a family history of disease. This survey also revealed that as many as 71% of acute hepatic porphyria cases were initially diagnosed as nonporphyria and later revised or corrected to porphyria, indicating the difficulty of diagnosing porphyria in the absence of specific laboratory testing for porphyrins and their precursors in urine, stool, plasma, and erythrocyte samples.

  3. Single-Molecule Magnet Properties of Transition-Metal Ions Encapsulated in Lacunary Polyoxometalates: A Theoretical Study.

    PubMed

    Aravena, Daniel; Venegas-Yazigi, Diego; Ruiz, Eliseo

    2016-07-01

    Single-molecule magnet (SMM) properties of transition-metal complexes coordinated to lacunary polyoxometalates (POM) are studied by means of state of the art ab initio methodology. Three [M(γ-SiW10O36)2] (M = Mn(III), Fe(III), Co(II)) complexes synthesized by Sato et al. (Chem. Commun. 2015, 51, 4081-4084) are analyzed in detail. SMM properties for the Co(II) and Mn(III) systems can be rationalized due to the presence of low-energy excitations in the case of Co(II), which are much higher in energy in the case of Mn(III). The magnetic behavior of both cases is consistent with simple d-orbital splitting considerations. The case of the Fe(III) complex is special, as it presents a sizable demagnetization barrier for a high-spin d(5) configuration, which should be magnetically isotropic. We conclude that a plausible explanation for this behavior is related to the presence of low-lying quartet and doublet states from the iron(III) center. This scenario is supported by ab initio ligand field analysis based on complete active space self-consistent field results, which picture a d-orbital splitting that resembles more a square-planar geometry than an octahedral one, stabilizing lower multiplicity states. This coordination environment is sustained by the rigidity of the POM ligand, which imposes a longer axial bond distance to the inner oxygen atom in comparison to the more external, equatorial donor atoms.

  4. An extended magnetic viscous relaxation dating for calibrating an older age: an example of tsunamigenic coral boulders in Ishigaki Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Nakamura, N.; Goto, K.; Kumagai, Y.; Minoura, K.; Nagahama, H.

    2015-12-01

    A key to the understanding of past tsunami events is the ability to accurately date them. Analysis of past tsunami sediments is one of the most important tools for past tsunami reconstruction. A typical example of such tsunami sediment is tsunamigenic boulders. In Ishigaki Island, Japan, coral boulders that had been transported by tsunamis were distributed on the beach and land areas. Although the historical occurrences of several huge tsunamis were estimated based on large numbers of radiocarbon dating for coral boulders, radiocarbon dating can not determine a multiple rotational history by multiple tsunamis. A viscous remanet magnetization (VRM) dating method can be used to date any geological event that results in significant movements of a rock. Sato et al. (2014) applied VRM dating for comparing the radiocarbon age of these boulders. If a magnetic-mineral bearing rock is moved or re-oriented, the magnetism of the smaller magnetic grains re-aligns to the direction of the ambient magnetic field with time. This phenomenon is well known as Néel's (1949, 1955) single-domain (SD) relaxation theory. Pullaiah et al. (1975) derived a time-temperature (t-T relation) relation by assuming Néel's (1949, 1955) theory of magnetite. In principle, an experimental combination of short relaxation time and high temperature for removing VRM can determine the unknown relaxation time (tsunami age) at room temperature. We have been applied t-T relation to the coral boulders on Ishigaki Island, but their estimated ages showed older than radiocarbon dating. The longer relaxation time means that the observed magnetic relaxation is slower than the original Néel's theory. Such slow relaxation has been described by a stretched exponential function. The stretched exponential law provided a reasonable fit to the published experimental data. Thus, in this study, we revisit Néel's theory to provide a new t-T relation based on stretched exponential function.

  5. Skeletal muscle–specific eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α phosphorylation controls amino acid metabolism and fibroblast growth factor 21–mediated non–cell-autonomous energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Miyake, Masato; Nomura, Akitoshi; Ogura, Atsushi; Takehana, Kenji; Kitahara, Yoshihiro; Takahara, Kazuna; Tsugawa, Kazue; Miyamoto, Chinobu; Miura, Naoko; Sato, Ryosuke; Kurahashi, Kiyoe; Harding, Heather P.; Oyadomari, Miho; Ron, David; Oyadomari, Seiichi

    2016-01-01

    The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) phosphorylation-dependent integrated stress response (ISR), a component of the unfolded protein response, has long been known to regulate intermediary metabolism, but the details are poorly worked out. We report that profiling of mRNAs of transgenic mice harboring a ligand-activated skeletal muscle–specific derivative of the eIF2α protein kinase R-like ER kinase revealed the expected up-regulation of genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis and transport but also uncovered the induced expression and secretion of a myokine, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), that stimulates energy consumption and prevents obesity. The link between the ISR and FGF21 expression was further reinforced by the identification of a small-molecule ISR activator that promoted Fgf21 expression in cell-based screens and by implication of the ISR-inducible activating transcription factor 4 in the process. Our findings establish that eIF2α phosphorylation regulates not only cell-autonomous proteostasis and amino acid metabolism, but also affects non–cell-autonomous metabolic regulation by induced expression of a potent myokine.—Miyake, M., Nomura, A., Ogura, A., Takehana, K., Kitahara, Y., Takahara, K., Tsugawa, K., Miyamoto, C., Miura, N., Sato, R., Kurahashi, K., Harding, H. P., Oyadomari, M., Ron, D., Oyadomari, S. Skeletal muscle–specific eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α phosphorylation controls amino acid metabolism and fibroblast growth factor 21–mediated non–cell-autonomous energy metabolism. PMID:26487695

  6. Single-Molecule Magnet Properties of Transition-Metal Ions Encapsulated in Lacunary Polyoxometalates: A Theoretical Study.

    PubMed

    Aravena, Daniel; Venegas-Yazigi, Diego; Ruiz, Eliseo

    2016-07-01

    Single-molecule magnet (SMM) properties of transition-metal complexes coordinated to lacunary polyoxometalates (POM) are studied by means of state of the art ab initio methodology. Three [M(γ-SiW10O36)2] (M = Mn(III), Fe(III), Co(II)) complexes synthesized by Sato et al. (Chem. Commun. 2015, 51, 4081-4084) are analyzed in detail. SMM properties for the Co(II) and Mn(III) systems can be rationalized due to the presence of low-energy excitations in the case of Co(II), which are much higher in energy in the case of Mn(III). The magnetic behavior of both cases is consistent with simple d-orbital splitting considerations. The case of the Fe(III) complex is special, as it presents a sizable demagnetization barrier for a high-spin d(5) configuration, which should be magnetically isotropic. We conclude that a plausible explanation for this behavior is related to the presence of low-lying quartet and doublet states from the iron(III) center. This scenario is supported by ab initio ligand field analysis based on complete active space self-consistent field results, which picture a d-orbital splitting that resembles more a square-planar geometry than an octahedral one, stabilizing lower multiplicity states. This coordination environment is sustained by the rigidity of the POM ligand, which imposes a longer axial bond distance to the inner oxygen atom in comparison to the more external, equatorial donor atoms. PMID:27299178

  7. Morphological characteristics of disturbances generated in the polar cap region of the upper thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Hitoshi

    Recent radar and satellite observations have shown various disturbances in the polar cap region of the upper thermosphere. For example, the European incoherent scatter (EISCAT) radar, Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN), and CHAMP satellite observations have revealed ionospheric and thermospheric variations due to energy inputs from the magnetosphere. From the simultaneous observations with the EISCAT Svalbard radar and CUTLASS radar, Fujiwara et al. [2007] showed existence of significant heat source in the dayside polar cap/cusp region of the upper thermosphere in association with the dayside magnetospheric phenomena of reconnections and flux transfer events. Bruinsma and Forbes [2007] showed trans-polar propagation of the traveling atmospheric disturbances (TADs) in connection with three sudden injections of energy at high latitudes from the CHAMP mass density observations. In the present study, we focus our attention on both disturbances directly generated in the polar cap region of the upper thermosphere and those propagating from other regions. We perform numerical simulations with a general circulation model, which includes all the atmospheric regions, developed by Miyoshi and Fujiwara [2003]. The morphological characteristics of the disturbances due to auroral particle precipitation and electric field enhancement are investigated here. References: Bruinsma, S., and J. M. Forbes, Global observation of traveling atmospheric disturbances (TADs) in the thermosphere, Geophys. Res., Lett., 34, L14103, doi: 10.1029/2007GL030243, 2007. Fujiwara, H., R. Kataoka, M. Suzuki, S. Maeda, S. Nozawa, K. Hosokawa, H. Fukunishi, N. Sato, and M. Lester, Electromagnetic energy deposition rate in the polar upper thermosphere derived from the EISCAT Svalbard radar and CUTLASS Finland radar observations, Ann. Geophys., 25, 2393-2403, 2007. Miyoshi, Y., and H. Fujiwara, Day-to-day variations of migrating diurnal tide simulated by a GCM from the ground surface to the

  8. Crustal structure of the western Yamato Basin, Japan Sea, revealed from seismic survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    No, T.; Sato, T.; Kodaira, S.; Miura, S.; Ishiyama, T.; Sato, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Yamato Basin is the second largest basin of the Japan Sea. This basin is important to clarify its formation process. Some studies of crustal structure had been carried out in the Yamato Basin (e.g. Ludwig et al., 1975; Katao, 1988; Hirata et al., 1989; Sato et al., 2006). However, the relationship between formation process and crustal structure is not very clear, because the amount of seismic exploration data is very limited. In addition, since there is ODP Leg 127 site 797 (Tamaki et al., 1990) directly beneath our seismic survey line, we contributed to the study on the formation of the Yamato Basin by examining the relation between the ODP results and our results. During July-August 2014, we conducted a multi-channel seismic (MCS) survey and ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) survey to study the crustal structure of the western Yamato Basin. We present an outline of the data acquisition and results of the data processing and preliminary interpretations from this study. As a result of our study, the crust, which is about 12 km thick, is thicker than standard oceanic crust (e.g., Spudich and Orcutt, 1980; White et al., 1992) revealed from P-wave velocity structure by OBS survey. A clear reflector estimated to be the Moho can be identified by MCS profiles. The characteristics of the sedimentary layer are common within the survey area. For example, a strong coherent reflector that is estimated to be an opal-A/opal-CT BSR (bottom simulating reflector) (Kuramoto et al., 1992) was confirmed in the sediment of all survey lines. On the other hand, a coherent reflector in the crust was confirmed in some lines. It is identified as this reflector corresponding with the deformation structure in the sediment and basement.

  9. The preliminary results of new submarine caldera on the west of Kume-jima island, Central Ryukyu Arc, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harigane, Y.; Ishizuka, O.; Shimoda, G.; Sato, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Ryukyu Arc occurs between the islands of Kyushu and Taiwan with approximately 1200 km in the full length. This volcanic arc is caused by subduction of the Philippine Sea plate beneath the Eurasia Plate along the Ryukyu trench, and is composed of forearc islands, chains of arc volcanoes, and a back-arc rift called Okinawa Trough. The Ryukyu Arc is commonly divided into three segments (northern, central and southern) that bounded by the Tokara Strait and the Kerama Gap, respectively (e.g., Konishi 1965; Kato et al., 1982). Sato et al. (2014) mentioned that there is no active subaerial volcano in the southwest of Iotori-shima in the Central Ryukyu Arc whereas the Northern Ryukyu Arc (i.e., the Tokara Islands) has active frontal arc volcanoes. Therefore, the existence of volcanoes and volcanotectonic history of active volcanic front in the southwestern part of the Central Ryukyu Arc are still ambiguous. Detailed geophysical and geological survey was mainly conducted using R/V Kaiyou-maru No.7 during GK12 cruise operated by the Geological Survey of Japan/National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan. As a result, we have found a new submarine volcanic caldera on the west of Kume-jima island, where located the southwestern part of Central Ryukyu Arc. Here, we present (1) the bathymetrical feature of this new submarine caldera for the first time and (2) the microstructural and petrological observations of volcanic rocks (20 volcanic samples in 13 dredge sites) sampled from the small volcanic cones of this caldera volcano. The dredged samples from the caldera consist of mainly rhyolite pumice with minor andesites, Mn oxides-crust and hydrothermally altered rocks. Andesite has plagioclase, olivine and pyroxene phenocrysts. Key words: volcanic rock, caldera, arc volcanism, active volcanic front, Kume-jima island, Ryukyu Arc

  10. A fast lightstripe rangefinding system with smart VLSI sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruss, Andrew; Carley, L. Richard; Kanade, Takeo

    1989-01-01

    The focus of the research is to build a compact, high performance lightstripe rangefinder using a Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) smart photosensor array. Rangefinding, the measurement of the three-dimensional profile of an object or scene, is a critical component for many robotic applications, and therefore many techniques were developed. Of these, lightstripe rangefinding is one of the most widely used and reliable techniques available. Though practical, the speed of sampling range data by the conventional light stripe technique is severely limited. A conventional light stripe rangefinder operates in a step-and-repeat manner. A stripe source is projected on an object, a video image is acquired, range data is extracted from the image, the stripe is stepped, and the process repeats. Range acquisition is limited by the time needed to grab the video images, increasing linearly with the desired horizontal resolution. During the acquisition of a range image, the objects in the scene being scanned must be stationary. Thus, the long scene sampling time of step-and-repeat rangefinders limits their application. The fast range sensor proposed is based on the modification of this basic lightstripe ranging technique in a manner described by Sato and Kida. This technique does not require a sampling of images at various stripe positions to build a range map. Rather, an entire range image is acquired in parallel while the stripe source is swept continuously across the scene. Total time to acquire the range image data is independent of the range map resolution. The target rangefinding system will acquire 1,000 100 x 100 point range images per second with 0.5 percent range accuracy. It will be compact and rugged enough to be mounted on the end effector of a robot arm to aid in object manipulation and assembly tasks.

  11. Modeling of magnetic reconnection in the magnetotail using global MHD simulation with an effective resistivity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Den, M.; Horiuchi, R.; Fujita, S.; Tanaka, T.

    2011-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection is considered to play an important role in space phenomena such as substorm in the Earth's magnetosphere. Tanaka and Fujita reproduced substorm evolution process by numerical simulation with the global MHD code [1]. In the MHD framework, the dissipation model is introduced for modeling of the kinetic effects. They found that the normalized reconnection viscosity, one of the dissipation model employed there, gave a large effect for the dipolarization, central phenomenon in the substorm development process, though that viscosity was assumed to be a constant parameter. It is well known that magnetic reconnection is controlled by microscopic kinetic mechanism. Frozen-in condition is broken due to particle kinetic effects and collisionless reconnection is triggered when current sheet is compressed as thin as ion kinetic scales under the influence of external driving flow [2, 3]. Horiuchi and his collaborators showed that reconnection electric field generated by microscopic physics evolves inside ion meandering scale so as to balance the flux inflow rate at the inflow boundary, which is controlled by macroscopic physics [2]. That is, effective resistivity generated through this process can be expressed by balance equation between micro and macro physics. In this paper, we perform substorm simulation by using the global MHD code developed by Tanaka [3] with this effective resistivity instead of the empirical resistivity model. We obtain the AE indices from simulation data, in which substorm onset can be seen clearly, and investigate the relationship between the substorm development and the effective resistivity model. [1] T. Tanaka, A, Nakamizo, A. Yoshikawa, S. Fujita, H. Shinagawa, H. Shimazu, T. Kikuchi, and K. K. Hashimoto, J. Geophys. Res. 115 (2010) A05220,doi:10.1029/2009JA014676. [2] W. Pei, R. Horiuchi, and T. Sato, Physics of Plasmas,Vol. 8 (2001), pp. 3251-3257. [3] A. Ishizawa, and R. Horiuchi, Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 95, 045003 (2005). [4

  12. Aerosol Disinfection Capacity of Slightly Acidic Hypochlorous Acid Water Towards Newcastle Disease Virus in the Air: An In Vivo Experiment.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Hakimullah; Thammakarn, Chanathip; Suguro, Atsushi; Ishida, Yuki; Nakajima, Katsuhiro; Kitazawa, Minori; Takehara, Kazuaki

    2015-12-01

    Existence of bioaerosol contaminants in farms and outbreaks of some infectious organisms with the ability of transmission by air increase the need for enhancement of biosecurity, especially for the application of aerosol disinfectants. Here we selected slightly acidic hypochlorous acid water (SAHW) as a candidate and evaluated its virucidal efficacy toward a virus in the air. Three-day-old conventional chicks were challenged with 25 doses of Newcastle disease live vaccine (B1 strain) by spray with nebulizer (particle size <3 μm in diameter), while at the same time reverse osmosis water as the control and SAHW containing 50 or 100 parts per million (ppm) free available chlorine in pH 6 were sprayed on the treated chicks with other nebulizers. Exposed chicks were kept in separated cages in an isolator and observed for clinical signs. Oropharyngeal swab samples were collected from 2 to 5 days postexposure from each chick, and then the samples were titrated with primary chicken kidney cells to detect the virus. Cytopathic effects were observed, and a hemagglutination test was performed to confirm the result at 5 days postinoculation. Clinical signs (sneezing) were recorded, and the virus was isolated from the control and 50 ppm treatment groups, while no clinical signs were observed in and no virus was isolated from the 100 ppm treatment group. The virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain Sato, too, was immediately inactivated by SAHW containing 50 ppm chlorine in the aqueous phase. These data suggest that SAHW containing 100 ppm chlorine can be used for aerosol disinfection of NDV in farms. PMID:26629621

  13. Aerosol Disinfection Capacity of Slightly Acidic Hypochlorous Acid Water Towards Newcastle Disease Virus in the Air: An In Vivo Experiment.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Hakimullah; Thammakarn, Chanathip; Suguro, Atsushi; Ishida, Yuki; Nakajima, Katsuhiro; Kitazawa, Minori; Takehara, Kazuaki

    2015-12-01

    Existence of bioaerosol contaminants in farms and outbreaks of some infectious organisms with the ability of transmission by air increase the need for enhancement of biosecurity, especially for the application of aerosol disinfectants. Here we selected slightly acidic hypochlorous acid water (SAHW) as a candidate and evaluated its virucidal efficacy toward a virus in the air. Three-day-old conventional chicks were challenged with 25 doses of Newcastle disease live vaccine (B1 strain) by spray with nebulizer (particle size <3 μm in diameter), while at the same time reverse osmosis water as the control and SAHW containing 50 or 100 parts per million (ppm) free available chlorine in pH 6 were sprayed on the treated chicks with other nebulizers. Exposed chicks were kept in separated cages in an isolator and observed for clinical signs. Oropharyngeal swab samples were collected from 2 to 5 days postexposure from each chick, and then the samples were titrated with primary chicken kidney cells to detect the virus. Cytopathic effects were observed, and a hemagglutination test was performed to confirm the result at 5 days postinoculation. Clinical signs (sneezing) were recorded, and the virus was isolated from the control and 50 ppm treatment groups, while no clinical signs were observed in and no virus was isolated from the 100 ppm treatment group. The virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain Sato, too, was immediately inactivated by SAHW containing 50 ppm chlorine in the aqueous phase. These data suggest that SAHW containing 100 ppm chlorine can be used for aerosol disinfection of NDV in farms.

  14. Geophysical assessment of the hydraulic property of the fracture systems around Lake Nasser-Egypt: In sight of polarimetric borehole radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour, Khamis; Basheer, Alhussein A.; Rabeh, Taha; Khalil, Ahmed; Eldin, A. A. Essam; Sato, Motoyuki

    2014-06-01

    Hydraulic property of the subsurface structures is a complicated mission. In this work, the polarimetric analysis for the measured dataset applied by the polarimetric borehole radar system in order to delineate the characteristics of subsurface fractures. Two different locations in USA and Egypt were selected to perform our investigation. The first polarimetric dataset has been acquired at Mirror Lake, USA which is well known as a standard site for testing the hydraulic properties of subsurface fractures (Sato et al., 1999). The results show the presence of nine fracture zones in one borehole FSE-1. The hydraulic properties were detected and the subsurface fractures were differentiated into four categories fracture zones after deriving the radar polarimetric analysis of alpha, entropy and anisotropy parameters at 30 MHz frequency. The fracture zones at 24.75, 47.8 and 55.2 m depths have the highest hydraulic transmissivity while the fracture zones at 28.5, 36.15 m have the lowest hydraulic transmissivity. These results show a good consistency with the hydraulic permeability tracer test and the structures exist in the area. Similarly, we used the same technique to characterize the subsurface fracture systems detected by geoelectric and geomagnetic methods around Lake Nasser in Egypt using the previous results of Mirror Lake as a key guide. The results show a great correlation with detected structures prevailed in the sedimentary and basement rocks. These results illustrate an ideal explanation for the prevailed subsurface structures and the recharging of the main Nubian sandstone aquifer from Lake Nasser. Also, these results also show that the northeast fracture zone trends are most probably having the highest hydraulic transmissivity whereas the northwest fracture zones have the lowest one. The integration of surface geophysical measurements with the polarimetric borehole radar and the polarimetric analysis of its datasets introduce better understanding of the

  15. Co-seismic displacement of the 11 March 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake detected by differential multi-narrow beam bathymetric survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, T.; Kodaira, S.; No, T.; Kaiho, Y.; Fujie, G.; Nakamura, Y.; Takahashi, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Takahashi, N.; Kaneda, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The large tsunami that followed the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake is believed to have been caused by a fault rupture extending to a shallow part of the subduction zone at the Japan Trench. This is indicated by the results obtained by primary seismic and geodetic inversion procedures; however, an accurate up-dip limit of the co-seismic displacement has not yet been determined. In order to estimate the co-seismic displacement around the trench axis, which is a key to understand the tsunami generation, we carried out post-earthquake, multi-channel seismic reflection and multi-narrow beam bathymetric surveys [Kodaira et al.; Nakamura et al., this AGU meeting] along the survey lines obtained before the earthquake [e.g. Tsuru et al., 2002; Ito et al., 2005]. We analyzed the difference in bathymetry before and after the earthquake, and the results revealed that in a large slip area (~38°N), the seafloor on the landward side of the trench moved by 50 m horizontally to the SE to ESE direction and 10 m upward. Our results show the co-seismic displacement increasing toward the trench axis [for landward side results, refer to Kido et al., 2011; Sato et al., 2011], and the displacement reaches immediately at the trench axis, and also topographic changes were probably caused by land sliding at the axial seafloor. This observation suggests that the plate-coupled zone between earthquakes does extend at the shallowest part of the subduction zone, which was believed to be a stable sliding region. The landward slope near the Japan Trench has steep angle (~5°). Therefore the resultant large horizontal displacement effectively lifted the steep slope area in addition to the actual uplift. Together, these uplifts have caused the massive tsunami.

  16. Responses of cultured neural retinal cells to substratum-bound laminin and other extracellular matrix molecules.

    PubMed

    Adler, R; Jerdan, J; Hewitt, A T

    1985-11-01

    The responses of cultured chick embryo retinal neurons to several extracellular matrix molecules are described. Retinal cell suspensions in serum-free medium containing the "N1" supplement (J. E. Bottenstein, S. D. Skaper, S. Varon, and J. Sato, 1980, Exp. Cell Res. 125, 183-190) were seeded on tissue culture plastic surfaces pretreated with polyornithine (PORN) and with one of the factors to be tested. Substantial cell survival could be observed after 72 hr in vitro on PORN pretreated with serum or laminin, whereas most cells appeared to be degenerating on untreated PORN, PORN-fibronectin, and PORN-chondronectin. Cell attachment, although quantitatively similar for all these substrata, was temperature-dependent on serum and laminin but not on fibronectin or untreated PORN. In a short-term bioassay, neurite development was abundant on laminin, scarce on serum and fibronectin, and absent on PORN. No positive correlation between cell spreading and neurite production could be seen: cell spreading was more extensive on PORN and fibronectin than on laminin or serum, while on laminin-treated dishes, spreading was similar for neurite-bearing and non-neurite-bearing cells. Laminin effects on retinal neurons were clearly substratum dependent. When bound to tissue culture plastic, laminin showed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on cell attachment and did not stimulate neurite development. PORN-bound laminin, on the other hand, did not affect cell attachment but caused marked stimulation of neurite development, suggesting that laminin conformation and/or the spatial distribution of active sites play an important role in the neurite-promoting function of this extracellular matrix molecule. Investigation of the embryonic retina with ELISA and immunocytochemical methods showed that laminin is present in this organ during development. Therefore, in vivo and in vitro observations are consistent with the possibility that laminin might influence neuronal development in the retina

  17. Growth and Properties of Magnetic Spinel Ferrite Thin Films and Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Arunava

    2013-03-01

    There is considerable interest in the growth of single crystal spinel ferrites films because of their numerous technological applications in areas such as microwave integrated devices, magnetoelectric coupling heterostructures, and potentially as an active barrier material in an emerging class of spintronic devices called spin filters. Unlike perovskites, the study of spinel ferrite films is quite limited in part due to the complex crystal structure with a large unit cell consisting of many interstitial sites and that the transition metal cations can adopt various oxidation states. We have grown high-quality, atomically smooth epitaxial ferrite (NiFe2O4, CoFe2O4 and LiFe5O8) films using chemical vapor deposition and pulsed laser deposition techniques and carried out detailed studies of their structural, magnetic and optical properties. Of particular interest are systematic studies on the formation of antiphase boundaries in epitaxial NiFe2O4 films grown on different substrates and the accurate determination of the band gap of this material using optical spectroscopy and first principles calculations. Additionally, we have grown ferrite films on piezoelectric substrates and observed large shifts in the ferromagnetic resonance profile due to magnetoelectric coupling resulting from electrostatic field-induced changes in the magnetic anisotropy field. Work done in collaboration with N. Z. Bao, W. H. Butler, R. Datta, B. S. Holinsworth, M. Iliev, S. Kanuri, S. V. Karthik, G. Kim, T. M. Klein, N. Li, M. Liu, P. R. LeClair, J. X. Ma, D. Mazumdar, T. Mewes, D. V. B. Murthy, J. L. Musfeldt, K. R. O'Neal, N. Pachauri, V. M. Petrov, H. Sato, S. Schäfer, L. Shen, H. Sims, G. Srinivasan, N. X. Sun, Q. -C. Sun, and Z. Zhou. The work was supported by ONR (Grant Number N00014-12-1-0102)

  18. An axis-free overset grid in spherical polar coordinates for simulating 3D self-gravitating flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wongwathanarat, A.; Hammer, N. J.; Müller, E.

    2010-05-01

    Aims: Three dimensional explicit hydrodynamic codes based on spherical polar coordinates using a single spherical polar grid suffer from a severe restriction of the time step size due to the convergence of grid lines near the poles of the coordinate system. More importantly, numerical artifacts are encountered at the symmetry axis of the grid where boundary conditions have to be imposed that flaw the flow near the axis. The first problem can be eased and the second one avoided by applying an overlapping grid technique. Methods: A type of overlapping grid in spherical coordinates is adopted. This so called “Yin-Yang” grid is a two-patch overset grid proposed by Kageyama and Sato for geophysical simulations. Its two grid patches contain only the low-latitude regions of the usual spherical polar grid and are combined together in a simple manner. This property of the Yin-Yang grid greatly simplifies its implementation into a 3D code already employing spherical polar coordinates. It further allows for a much larger time step in 3D simulations using high angular resolution (⪉1°) than that required in 3D simulations using a regular spherical grid with the same angular resolution. Results: The Yin-Yang grid is successfully implemented into a 3D version of the explicit Eulerian grid-based code PROMETHEUS including self-gravity. The modified code successfully passed several standard hydrodynamic tests producing results which are in very good agreement with analytic solutions. Moreover, the solutions obtained with the Yin-Yang grid exhibit no peculiar behaviour at the boundary between the two grid patches. The code has also been successfully used to model astrophysically relevant situations, namely equilibrium polytropes, a Taylor-Sedov explosion, and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. According to our results, the usage of the Yin-Yang grid greatly enhances the suitability and efficiency of 3D explicit Eulerian codes based on spherical polar coordinates for astrophysical

  19. Effects of syntactic complexity in L1 and L2; an fMRI study of Korean-English bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Suh, Soyoung; Yoon, Hyo Woon; Lee, Seungbok; Chung, Jun-Young; Cho, Zang-Hee; Park, Hyunwook

    2007-03-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying the syntactic processing of sentence comprehension in Korean (L1) and English (L2) by late bilinguals were investigated using functional MRI. The Korean native speakers were asked to read sentences with different levels of syntactic complexity in L1 and L2 and respond to comprehension questions concerning the sentences. The syntactic complexity was varied using a center-embedded sentence "The director that the maid introduced ignored the farmer" or a conjoined sentence "The maid introduced the director and ignored the farmer". It was found that the major areas involved in sentence processing such as the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), bilateral inferior parietal gyrus, and occipital lobe including cuneus, and lingual gyrus were commonly activated during the processing of both L1 and L2. However, the pattern of activation was different for L1 and L2 in the left IFG. The amount of activation was greater for embedded sentences than for conjoined sentences in L1 while no difference was found in L2. These results suggest that the cortical areas involved with syntactic processing in L1 and L2 are shared, but that the underlying neural mechanisms are different. The findings of the present study are discussed in comparison with Hasegawa et al.'s (Hasegawa, M., Carpenter, P.A., Just, M.A., 2002. An fMRI study of bilingual sentence comprehension and workload. NeuroImage 15, 647-660.) and Yokoyama et al.'s (Yokoyama, S., Okamoto, H., Miyamoto, T., Yoshimoto, K., Kim, J., Iwata, K., Jeong, H., Uchida, S., Ikuta, N., Sassa, Y., Nakamura, W., Horie, K., Sato, S., Kawashima, R., 2006. Cortical activation in the processing of passive sentences in L1 and L2: An fMRI study. NeuroImage 30, 570-579.) studies which also found common areas of activation but different patterns of activation during the processing of L1 and L2.

  20. The Dependence on the Monodromy Data of the Isomonodromic Tau Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertola, M.

    2010-03-01

    The isomonodromic tau function defined by Jimbo-Miwa-Ueno vanishes on the Malgrange’s divisor of generalized monodromy data for which a vector bundle is nontrivial, or, which is the same, a certain Riemann-Hilbert problem has no solution. In their original work, Jimbo, Miwa, Ueno provided an algebraic construction of its derivatives with respect to isomonodromic times. However the dependence on the (generalized) monodromy data (i.e. monodromy representation and Stokes’ parameters) was not derived. We fill the gap by providing a (simpler and more general) description in which all the parameters of the problem (monodromy-changing and monodromy-preserving) are dealt with at the same level. We thus provide variational formulæ for the isomonodromic tau function with respect to the (generalized) monodromy data. The construction applies more generally: given any (sufficiently well-behaved) family of Riemann-Hilbert problems (RHP) where the jump matrices depend arbitrarily on deformation parameters, we can construct a one-form Ω (not necessarily closed) on the deformation space (Malgrange’s differential), defined off Malgrange’s divisor. We then introduce the notion of discrete Schlesinger transformation: it means that we allow the solution of the RHP to have poles (or zeros) at prescribed point(s). Even if Ω is not closed, its difference evaluated along the original solution and the transformed one, is shown to be the logarithmic differential (on the deformation space) of a function. As a function of the position of the points of the Schlesinger transformation, it yields a natural generalization of the Sato formula for the Baker-Akhiezer vector even in the absence of a tau function, and it realizes the solution of the RHP as such BA vector. Some exemplifications in the setting of the Painlevé II equation and finite Töplitz/Hankel determinants are provided.

  1. Validation of Broadband Ground Motion Simulations for Japanese Crustal Earthquakes by the Recipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwaki, A.; Maeda, T.; Morikawa, N.; Miyake, H.; Fujiwara, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion (HERP) of Japan has organized the broadband ground motion simulation method into a standard procedure called the "recipe" (HERP, 2009). In the recipe, the source rupture is represented by the characterized source model (Irikura and Miyake, 2011). The broadband ground motion time histories are computed by a hybrid approach: the 3-D finite-difference method (Aoi et al. 2004) and the stochastic Green's function method (Dan and Sato, 1998; Dan et al. 2000) for the long- (> 1 s) and short-period (< 1 s) components, respectively, using the 3-D velocity structure model. As the engineering significance of scenario earthquake ground motion prediction is increasing, thorough verification and validation are required for the simulation methods. This study presents the self-validation of the recipe for two MW6.6 crustal events in Japan, the 2000 Tottori and 2004 Chuetsu (Niigata) earthquakes. We first compare the simulated velocity time series with the observation. Main features of the velocity waveforms, such as the near-fault pulses and the large later phases on deep sediment sites are well reproduced by the simulations. Then we evaluate 5% damped pseudo acceleration spectra (PSA) in the framework of the SCEC Broadband Platform (BBP) validation (Dreger et al. 2015). The validation results are generally acceptable in the period range 0.1 - 10 s, whereas those in the shortest period range (0.01-0.1 s) are less satisfactory. We also evaluate the simulations with the 1-D velocity structure models used in the SCEC BBP validation exercise. Although the goodness-of-fit parameters for PSA do not significantly differ from those for the 3-D velocity structure model, noticeable differences in velocity waveforms are observed. Our results suggest the importance of 1) well-constrained 3-D velocity structure model for broadband ground motion simulations and 2) evaluation of time series of ground motion as well as response spectra.

  2. Location of the Bombyx mori aminopeptidase N type 1 binding site on Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Aa toxin.

    PubMed

    Atsumi, Shogo; Mizuno, Eri; Hara, Hirotaka; Nakanishi, Kazuko; Kitami, Madoka; Miura, Nami; Tabunoki, Hiroko; Watanabe, Ayako; Sato, Ryoichi

    2005-07-01

    We analyzed the binding site on Cry1Aa toxin for the Cry1Aa receptor in Bombyx mori, 115-kDa aminopeptidase N type 1 (BmAPN1) (K. Nakanishi, K. Yaoi, Y. Nagino, H. Hara, M. Kitami, S. Atsumi, N. Miura, and R. Sato, FEBS Lett. 519:215-220, 2002), by using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that block binding between the binding site and the receptor. First, we produced a series of MAbs against Cry1Aa and obtained two MAbs, MAbs 2C2 and 1B10, that were capable of blocking the binding between Cry1Aa and BmAPN1 (blocking MAbs). The epitope of the Fab fragments of MAb 2C2 overlapped the BmAPN1 binding site, whereas the epitope of the Fab fragments of MAb 1B10 did not overlap but was located close to the binding site. Using three approaches for epitope mapping, we identified two candidate epitopes for the blocking MAbs on Cry1Aa. We constructed two Cry1Aa toxin mutants by substituting a cysteine on the toxin surface at each of the two candidate epitopes, and the small blocking molecule N-(9-acridinyl)maleimide (NAM) was introduced at each cysteine substitution to determine the true epitope. The Cry1Aa mutant with NAM bound to Cys582 did not bind either of the two blocking MAbs, suggesting that the true epitope for each of the blocking MAbs was located at the site containing Val582, which also consisted of 508STLRVN513 and 582VFTLSAHV589. These results indicated that the BmAPN1 binding site overlapped part of the region blocked by MAb 2C2 that was close to but excluded the actual epitope of MAb 2C2 on domain III of Cry1Aa toxin. We also discuss another area on Cry1Aa toxin as a new candidate site for BmAPN1 binding. PMID:16000811

  3. Location of the Bombyx mori Aminopeptidase N Type 1 Binding Site on Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Aa Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Atsumi, Shogo; Mizuno, Eri; Hara, Hirotaka; Nakanishi, Kazuko; Kitami, Madoka; Miura, Nami; Tabunoki, Hiroko; Watanabe, Ayako; Sato, Ryoichi

    2005-01-01

    We analyzed the binding site on Cry1Aa toxin for the Cry1Aa receptor in Bombyx mori, 115-kDa aminopeptidase N type 1 (BmAPN1) (K. Nakanishi, K. Yaoi, Y. Nagino, H. Hara, M. Kitami, S. Atsumi, N. Miura, and R. Sato, FEBS Lett. 519:215-220, 2002), by using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that block binding between the binding site and the receptor. First, we produced a series of MAbs against Cry1Aa and obtained two MAbs, MAbs 2C2 and 1B10, that were capable of blocking the binding between Cry1Aa and BmAPN1 (blocking MAbs). The epitope of the Fab fragments of MAb 2C2 overlapped the BmAPN1 binding site, whereas the epitope of the Fab fragments of MAb 1B10 did not overlap but was located close to the binding site. Using three approaches for epitope mapping, we identified two candidate epitopes for the blocking MAbs on Cry1Aa. We constructed two Cry1Aa toxin mutants by substituting a cysteine on the toxin surface at each of the two candidate epitopes, and the small blocking molecule N-(9-acridinyl)maleimide (NAM) was introduced at each cysteine substitution to determine the true epitope. The Cry1Aa mutant with NAM bound to Cys582 did not bind either of the two blocking MAbs, suggesting that the true epitope for each of the blocking MAbs was located at the site containing Val582, which also consisted of 508STLRVN513 and 582VFTLSAHV589. These results indicated that the BmAPN1 binding site overlapped part of the region blocked by MAb 2C2 that was close to but excluded the actual epitope of MAb 2C2 on domain III of Cry1Aa toxin. We also discuss another area on Cry1Aa toxin as a new candidate site for BmAPN1 binding. PMID:16000811

  4. [Postoperative analgesia with tramal in newborn children using the method of continuous intravenous infusion].

    PubMed

    Mikhel'son, V A; Zhirkova, Iu V; Beliaeva, I D; Stepanenko, S M; Manerova, A F; Butyleva, O Iu

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficiency of postoperative analgesia with tramal in the newborns. Analgesia with tramal (5% solution for injections, "Gruonental GmbH", Germany) was administered postoperatively in 20 newborn children. Thirteen children were operated for congenital malformations in the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts, three children were operated for purulent-septic diseases and four children were operated for neoplasms. Hemodynamics indices, i.e. heart rate (HR) and arterial pressure, as well as SaO2, respiratory rate (RR), acid-base condition and behavioral reactions were assessed. Analgesia was implemented by the method of continuous intravenous infusion of tramal, 0.1-0.2 mg/kg.h combined with boluses, 1-2 mg/kg. The newborns were asleep for a major part of time during analgesia with tamal; the stable indices of hemodynamics, acid-base balance, glycemia and of the cortisol level were registered. Arterial hypertension, caused by several factors including the effect produced by tamal, was noted in 70% of children. Dose-dependent hypercapnia was registered in 80% of tests in children at unassisted respiration during the infusion of tamal, which is indicative of that tamal affects the respiratory center during the neonatal period and that it is necessary to monitor thoroughly the respiratory functions, i.e. RR, SatO2, pO2, pCO2, and to choose accurately a preparation dose. The continuous infusion of tamal ensures a sufficient analgesia after different operations and especially after medium-traumatic operations.

  5. Materials design of dilute magnetic semiconductors based on the control of spinodal decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kazunori

    2010-03-01

    Recently, spinodal decomposition phenomena attract much attention in the fabrication of dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS). Many experimental results indicate that the magnetic properties of DMS are strongly affected by the occurrence of spinodal decomposition [1], thus people are now interested in controlling the magnetic properties of DMS by tuning the spinodal decomposition. In this talk, I will discuss spinodal decomposition in DMS based on the first-principles calculation. The electronic structure of DMS is calculated by using the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker coherent potential approximation method. Based on the calculated mixing energy I will discuss phase diagrams of DMS systems and their chemical trends. By using the calculated chemical pair interactions between magnetic impurities in DMS, the self-organization of nano-structures in DMS of the nano-structures are simulated by using the Monte Carlo method. The simulation results indicate that we can control super-paramagnetic blocking temperature by optimizing the size of the nano-structures by changing the crystal growth condition [2]. Next, I will propose co-doping method to control solubility limit of magnetic impurities in DMS. From the total energy calculations, it is shown that the solubility of magnetic impurities is strongly enhanced under the existence of interstitial donors [2]. However, due to the compensation of holes by the co-dopants, the ferromagnetism is suppressed. Based on the kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, we propose low temperature annealing method to remove interstitial co-dopants for recovering the ferromagnetism. By combining the co-doping and the low temperature annealing, we can fabricate DMS with high concentration of magnetic impurities which should show high-Tc. This work is based on the collaboration with H. Fujii, L. Bergqvist, P. H. Dederichs and H. Katayama-Yoshida.[4pt] [1] A. Bonanni, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22 (2007) R41.[0pt] [2] K. Sato et al., Rev. Mod. Phys. Phys

  6. Wide band gap ferromagnetic semiconductors and oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearton, S. J.; Abernathy, C. R.; Overberg, M. E.; Thaler, G. T.; Norton, D. P.; Theodoropoulou, N.; Hebard, A. F.; Park, Y. D.; Ren, F.; Kim, J.; Boatner, L. A.

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in the theory and experimental realization of ferromagnetic semiconductors give hope that a new generation of microelectronic devices based on the spin degree of freedom of the electron can be developed. This review focuses primarily on promising candidate materials (such as GaN, GaP and ZnO) in which there is already a technology base and a fairly good understanding of the basic electrical and optical properties. The introduction of Mn into these and other materials under the right conditions is found to produce ferromagnetism near or above room temperature. There are a number of other potential dopant ions that could be employed (such as Fe, Ni, Co, Cr) as suggested by theory [see, for example, Sato and Katayama-Yoshida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 39, L555 (2000)]. Growth of these ferromagnetic materials by thin film techniques, such as molecular beam epitaxy or pulsed laser deposition, provides excellent control of the dopant concentration and the ability to grow single-phase layers. The mechanism for the observed magnetic behavior is complex and appears to depend on a number of factors, including Mn-Mn spacing, and carrier density and type. For example, in a simple Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida carrier-mediated exchange mechanism, the free-carrier/Mn ion interaction can be either ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic depending on the separation of the Mn ions. Potential applications for ferromagnetic semiconductors and oxides include electrically controlled magnetic sensors and actuators, high-density ultralow-power memory and logic, spin-polarized light emitters for optical encoding, advanced optical switches and modulators and devices with integrated magnetic, electronic and optical functionality.

  7. PREFACE Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Migaku; Saito, Hitoshi; Yoshimura, Satoru; Takanashi, Koki; Sahashi, Masashi; Tsunoda, Masakiyo

    2011-01-01

    23 countries, with about 40 percent of participants attending from overseas (see figure). The program involved 4 plenary talks (45 minutes each), 37 invited talks (30 minutes), 85 contributed talks (15 minutes), and 352 posters. Pie chart Organizing Committee of ISAMMA 2010 M TakahashiTohoku Univ., Japan, Chairman K TakanashiTohoku Univ., Japan, Chair of the Program Committee H SaitoAkita Univ., Japan, Chair of the Publication Committee M SahashiTohoku Univ., Japan, Chair of the Treasury Committee M TsunodaTohoku Univ., Japan, General Secretary H AkinagaAIST, Japan H FukunagaNagasaki Univ., Japan K HonoNIMS, Japan S IshioAkita Univ., Japan S IwataNagoya Univ., Japan K NakagawaNihon Univ., Japan S NakagawaTokyo Inst. of Tech., Japan T OnoKyoto Univ., Japan Y SuzukiOsaka Univ., Japan M TanakaEhime Univ., Japan T Tanaka Univ. of Tokyo, Japan Program Committee of ISAMMA 2010 K TakanashiTohoku Univ., Japan, ChairS MizukamiTohoku Univ., Japan M MizuguchiTohoku Univ., Japan, Vice-chairH NaganumaTohoku Univ., Japan M DoiTohoku Univ., JapanS NakagawaTokyo Inst. of Tech., Japan A FujitaTohoku Univ., JapanK NakamuraTohoku Univ., Japan K IshiyamaTohoku Univ., JapanK OnoKEK, Japan T KatoNagoya Univ., JapanT OnoKyoto Univ., Japan T KawagoeOsaka Pref. Univ.of Edu., JapanF SatoTohoku Univ., Japan O KitakamiTohoku Univ., JapanM ShiraiTohoku Univ., Japan Y KitamotoTokyo Inst. of Tech., JapanS SugimotoTohoku Univ., Japan F MatsukuraTohoku Univ., JapanM YamaguchiTohoku Univ., Japan C MitsumataHitachi Metals, Japan Publication Committee of ISAMMA 2010 H SaitoAkita Univ., Japan, ChairS MitaniNIMS, Japan S YoshimuraAkita Univ., Japan, Vice-chairH MuraokaTohoku, Japan Y AndoTohoku Univ., JapanM NakanoNagasaki Univ., Japan J AriakeAIT, JapanR NakataniOsaka Univ., Japan H AsanoNagoya Univ., JapanK O'GradyUniv. of York, UK M FutamotoChuo Univ., JapanA SakumaTohoku Univ., Japan J HayakawaHitachi, ARL, JapanT SatoKeio Univ., Japan T HondaKyushu Inst. of Tech., JapanT SatoShinshu Univ., Japan M

  8. PREFACE Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Migaku; Saito, Hitoshi; Yoshimura, Satoru; Takanashi, Koki; Sahashi, Masashi; Tsunoda, Masakiyo

    2011-01-01

    23 countries, with about 40 percent of participants attending from overseas (see figure). The program involved 4 plenary talks (45 minutes each), 37 invited talks (30 minutes), 85 contributed talks (15 minutes), and 352 posters. Pie chart Organizing Committee of ISAMMA 2010 M TakahashiTohoku Univ., Japan, Chairman K TakanashiTohoku Univ., Japan, Chair of the Program Committee H SaitoAkita Univ., Japan, Chair of the Publication Committee M SahashiTohoku Univ., Japan, Chair of the Treasury Committee M TsunodaTohoku Univ., Japan, General Secretary H AkinagaAIST, Japan H FukunagaNagasaki Univ., Japan K HonoNIMS, Japan S IshioAkita Univ., Japan S IwataNagoya Univ., Japan K NakagawaNihon Univ., Japan S NakagawaTokyo Inst. of Tech., Japan T OnoKyoto Univ., Japan Y SuzukiOsaka Univ., Japan M TanakaEhime Univ., Japan T Tanaka Univ. of Tokyo, Japan Program Committee of ISAMMA 2010 K TakanashiTohoku Univ., Japan, ChairS MizukamiTohoku Univ., Japan M MizuguchiTohoku Univ., Japan, Vice-chairH NaganumaTohoku Univ., Japan M DoiTohoku Univ., JapanS NakagawaTokyo Inst. of Tech., Japan A FujitaTohoku Univ., JapanK NakamuraTohoku Univ., Japan K IshiyamaTohoku Univ., JapanK OnoKEK, Japan T KatoNagoya Univ., JapanT OnoKyoto Univ., Japan T KawagoeOsaka Pref. Univ.of Edu., JapanF SatoTohoku Univ., Japan O KitakamiTohoku Univ., JapanM ShiraiTohoku Univ., Japan Y KitamotoTokyo Inst. of Tech., JapanS SugimotoTohoku Univ., Japan F MatsukuraTohoku Univ., JapanM YamaguchiTohoku Univ., Japan C MitsumataHitachi Metals, Japan Publication Committee of ISAMMA 2010 H SaitoAkita Univ., Japan, ChairS MitaniNIMS, Japan S YoshimuraAkita Univ., Japan, Vice-chairH MuraokaTohoku, Japan Y AndoTohoku Univ., JapanM NakanoNagasaki Univ., Japan J AriakeAIT, JapanR NakataniOsaka Univ., Japan H AsanoNagoya Univ., JapanK O'GradyUniv. of York, UK M FutamotoChuo Univ., JapanA SakumaTohoku Univ., Japan J HayakawaHitachi, ARL, JapanT SatoKeio Univ., Japan T HondaKyushu Inst. of Tech., JapanT SatoShinshu Univ., Japan M

  9. Active Tectonics of off-Hokuriku, Central Japan, by two ships seismic reflection profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Naoko; Sato, Hiroshi; Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Abe, Susumu; Shiraishi, Kazuya

    2015-04-01

    earthquake occurred by the oblique motion on source fault dipping 60 degrees, which is favorable normal faulting. The geometry is well constrained by deep seismic reflection profiling using two-ships and hypocentral distribution (Sato et al., 2007, BERI ).

  10. Study of wind retrieval from space-borne infrared coherent lidar in cloudy atmosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, Philippe; Ishii, Shoken; Mizutani, Kohei; Okamoto, Kozo; Ochiai, Satoshi

    2015-04-01

    Future spaceborne tropospheric wind missions using infrared coherent lidar are currently being studied in Japan and in the United States [1,2]. The line-of-sight wind velocity is retrieved from the Doppler shift frequency of the signal returned by aerosol particles. However a large percentage (70-80%) of the measured single-shot intensity profiles are expected to be contaminated by clouds [3]. A large number of cloud contaminated profiles (>40%) will be characterized by a cloud-top signal intensity stronger than the aerosol signal by a factor of one order of magnitude, and by a strong attenuation of the signal backscattered from below the clouds. Profiles including more than one cloud layer are also expected. This work is a simulation study dealing with the impacts of clouds on wind retrieval. We focus on the three following points: 1) definition of an algorithm for optimizing the wind retrieval from the cloud-top signal, 2) assessment of the clouds impact on the measurement performance and, 3) definition of a method for averaging the measurements before the retrieval. The retrieval simulations are conducted considering the instrumental characteristics selected for the Japanese study: wavelength at 2 µm, PRF of 30 Hz, pulse power of 0.125 mJ and platform altitude between 200-400 km. Liquid and ice clouds are considered. The analysis uses data from atmospheric models and statistics of cloud effects derived from CALIPSO measurements such as in [3]. A special focus is put on the average method of the measurements before retrieval. Good retrievals in the mid-upper troposphere implie the average of measured single-range power spectra over large horizontal (100 km) and vertical (1 km) ranges. Large differences of signal intensities due to the presence of clouds and the clouds non-uniform distribution have to be taken into account when averaging the data to optimize the measurement performances. References: [1] S. Ishii, T. Iwasaki, M. Sato, R. Oki, K. Okamoto, T

  11. Potentiation Effects of Half-Squats Performed in a Ballistic or Nonballistic Manner.

    PubMed

    Suchomel, Timothy J; Sato, Kimitake; DeWeese, Brad H; Ebben, William P; Stone, Michael H

    2016-06-01

    Suchomel, TJ, Sato, K, DeWeese, BH, Ebben, WP, and Stone, MH. Potentiation effects of half-squats performed in a ballistic or nonballistic manner. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1652-1660, 2016-This study examined and compared the acute effects of ballistic and nonballistic concentric-only half-squats (COHSs) on squat jump performance. Fifteen resistance-trained men performed a squat jump 2 minutes after a control protocol or 2 COHSs at 90% of their 1 repetition maximum (1RM) COHS performed in a ballistic or nonballistic manner. Jump height (JH), peak power (PP), and allometrically scaled peak power (PPa) were compared using three 3 × 2 repeated-measures analyses of variance. Statistically significant condition × time interaction effects existed for JH (p = 0.037), PP (p = 0.041), and PPa (p = 0.031). Post hoc analysis revealed that the ballistic condition produced statistically greater JH (p = 0.017 and p = 0.036), PP (p = 0.031 and p = 0.026), and PPa (p = 0.024 and p = 0.023) than the control and nonballistic conditions, respectively. Small effect sizes for JH, PP, and PPa existed during the ballistic condition (d = 0.28-0.44), whereas trivial effect sizes existed during the control (d = 0.0-0.18) and nonballistic (d = 0.0-0.17) conditions. Large statistically significant relationships existed between the JH potentiation response and the subject's relative back squat 1RM (r = 0.520; p = 0.047) and relative COHS 1RM (r = 0.569; p = 0.027) during the ballistic condition. In addition, large statistically significant relationship existed between JH potentiation response and the subject's relative back squat strength (r = 0.633; p = 0.011), whereas the moderate relationship with the subject's relative COHS strength trended toward significance (r = 0.483; p = 0.068). Ballistic COHS produced superior potentiation effects compared with COHS performed in a nonballistic manner. Relative strength may contribute to the elicited potentiation response after ballistic and

  12. Fault Model of the 1703 Genroku Kanto Earthquake Based on Newly Imaged Upper- Surface of Philippine Sea Plate, Coseismic Coastal Movements, and Tsunami Inundation Heights Along the Eastern Boso Coast, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namegaya, Y.; Shishikura, M.; Satake, K.

    2008-12-01

    We propose a fault model of the 1703 Genroku Kanto earthquake by using recently imaged shape of Philippine Sea Plate, distributions of coseismic coastal movements, and tsunami inundation heights along the eastern Boso coast. The Genroku Kanto earthquake occurred in southern Kanto, less than 100 km away from Tokyo, on December 31, 1703. Its magnitude is estimated to be 7.9-8.2 (Usami, 2003). The source is located on subducting Philippine Sea Plate. Several fault models have been proposed from distributions of the coseismic coastal vertical movements or tsunami inundated heights (e.g. Kasahara et al., 1973; Matsuda et al., 1978; Aida, 1991; Shishikura, 2003). Recently, upper-surface of the subducted Philippine Sea Plate has been imaged in detail by using deep seismic reflection profiling (e.g. Sato et al., 2005; Takeda et al., 2007; Tsumura et al., 2008). One of the features is low dip angle in the shallow region (Tsumura et al., 2008). In this study, we first compiled the above three images and estimated the shape of the plate. Next, 49 subfaults whose size is 10 km x 10 km are located on the upper surface of Philippine Sea Plate in such a way that they do not overlap with each other. Vertical movement on the coast from each subfault (Green functions) is calculated for a unit amount of slip. The slip amounts of each subfault are estimated by an inversion of measured vertical movement (Shishikura, 2000). As a result, the slip amount of more than 10 m is estimated on the plate surface in the south part of Boso peninsula and Miura peninsula, while small slip is estimated between two peninsulas. To discuss with tsunami inundation height, we next locate additional large two faults whose size is 30 km x 28 km and 50 km x 28 km off southern (S) and southeastern (SE) Boso peninsula, respectively. Tsunami inundation heights along the eastern Boso coast is calculated using the estimated slip distribution of the 49 subfaults and the additional two faults with slip amount of 7

  13. Use of the vial equilibration technique for determination of metabolic rate constants for dichloromethane.

    PubMed

    Kim, C; Manning, R O; Brown, R P; Bruckner, J V

    1996-08-01

    Metabolism of methylene chloride, or dichloromethane (DCM), plays a key role in determining the kinetics and carcinogenicity of the halocarbon. The objectives of this study were: to evaluate and optimize the vial equilibration technique, originally described by Sato and Nakajima (1979a), in order to characterize the hepatic metabolism of DCM by Sprague-Dawley rats; to employ different hepatic microsomal preparations to examine buffer effects on DCM metabolism; and to assess the relative importance and metabolic constants of the mixed-function oxidase (MFO) and glutathione (GSH) S-transferase (GST) metabolic pathways. A crude liver homogenate (20% W/V) was prepared from perfused livers of male Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats (275-325 g). A 30% glycerol buffer was found to significantly inhibit DCM metabolism, while 0.25 M sucrose buffer containing 10 mM EDTA and 1.15% KCl did not. DCM was incubated with the liver 10,000 g supernatant or microsomes and cofactors in sealed headspace vials. Disappearance of DCM, as a measure of the chemical's metabolism, was monitored by headspace gas chromatography. Different trials were conducted to elucidate time-, enzyme-, and substrate-activity relationships. The scaled-up K(m) and Vmax values for the microsomal fraction were quite similar to optimized in vivo values reported by other investigators. In the current study, DCM appeared to be metabolized preferentially by cytochrome P450 IIE1, since substrates (e.g., pyrazole, ethanol, and glycerol) for this isozyme completely inhibited DCM metabolism. Thus, glycerol should not be used as a P450 stabilizer for preparation or storage of microsomes. Phorone pretreatment caused marked hepatic GSH depletion, but had little effect on the overall rate of DCM metabolism. Quantitatively, the GST pathway in the cytosol played a very minor role in DCM metabolism. It was not possible to accurately calculate metabolic constants for this pathway in S-D rats. The vial equilibration technique, as

  14. Nitrogen Molecule-Ethylene Sulfide Complex Investigated by Fourier Transform Microwave Spectroscopy and AB Initio Calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwano, Sakae; Kawashima, Yoshiyuki; Hirota, Eizi

    2016-06-01

    We have systematically investigated the van der Waals complexes consisting of the one from each of the two groups: (Rg, CO, N_2 or CO_2) and (dimethyl ether, dimethyl sulfide, ethylene oxide or ethylene sulfide), by using Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy supplemented by ab initio MO calculations, in order to understand the dynamical behavior of van der Waals complexes and to obtain information on the potential function to internal motions in complexes. Two examples of the N_2 complex were investigated: N_2-DME (dimethyl ether), for which we reported a preliminary result and N_2-EO (ethylene oxide). In the present study we focused attention to the N_2-ES (ethylene sulfide) complex. We have detected two sets of the {b}-type transitions for the 15N_2-ES in ortho and para states, and have analyzed them by using the asymmetric-rotor program of {A}-reduction. In contrast with the N_2-EO, for which each of the ortho and para states were found split into a strong/weak pair, only some transitions of the 15N_2-ES were accompanied by two or three components. The observed spectra of the 14N_2-ES were complicated because of hyperfine splittings due to the nuclear quadrupole coupling of the two nitrogen atoms. We concluded that the N_2 moiety was located in the plane perpendicular to the C-S-C plane and bisecting the CSC angle of the ES. Two isomers were expected to exist for 15NN-ES, one with 15N in the inner and the other in the outer position, and in fact two sets of the spectra were detected. We have carried out ab initio molecular orbital calculations at the level of MP2 with basis sets 6-311++G(d, p), aug-cc-pVDZ, and aug-cc-pVTZ, to complement the information on the intracomplex motions obtained from the observed rotational spectra. Y. Kawashima, A. Sato, Y. Orita, and E. Hirota, J. Phys. Chem. A, 2012 116, 1224 Y. Kawashima, Y. Tatamitani, Y. Morita, and E. Hirota, 61st International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, TE10 (2006) Y. Kawashima and E. Hirota, J

  15. Equation of State of Amorphous MgSiO3 and (MgFe)SiO3 to Lowermost Mantle Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinmyo, R.; Petitgirard, S.; Malfait, W.; Kupenko, I.; Rubie, D. C.

    2014-12-01

    Melting phenomena have a crucial importance during the Earth's formation and evolution. For example, a deep magma ocean of 1000 km or more has lead to the segregation of the core. Tomographic images of the Earth reveal ultra-low velocity zones at the core-mantle boundary that may be due to the presence of dense magmas or remnant zones of a deep basal magma ocean [1]. Unfortunately, measurements of amorphous silicate density over the entire pressure regime of the mantle are scarce and the density contrast between solid and liquid are difficult to assess due to the lack of such data. Only few studies have reported density measurements of amorphous silicates at high-pressure, with limitation up to 60 GPa. High-pressure acoustic velocity measurements have been used to calculate the density of MgSiO3 glass up to 30 GPa [2] but exhibit a large discrepancy compared to recent calculations [3]. SiO2 glass was measured up to 55 GPa using the X-ray absorption method through the diamond anvils [4] and very recently, X-ray diffraction has been used to infer the density of basaltic melt up to 60 GPa [5]. Here we report density measurement of MgSiO3 glass up to 130 GPa and (MgFe)SiO3 glass up to 55 GPa using a novel variation of the X-ray absorption method. The sample contained in a beryllium gasket was irradiated with a micro-focus X-ray beam in two directions: perpendicular and parallel to the compression axis to obtain the absorption coefficient and density under pressure. Our data constrain the first experimental EoS for (Mg,Fe)SiO3 and the first EoS for MgSiO3 up to lowermost mantle pressures. Technical details and EoS parameters will be shown in the presentation. We will address the implications for melts in the deep Earth based on compressibility, bulk modulus and density contrasts between iron-free and iron-bearing glasses. [1] Labrosse S. et al. Nature 2007 [2] Sanchez-Valle C. et al. Earth Planet. Sc. Lett. 2010 [3] Ghosh D. et al Am. Mineral. 2014 [4] Sato T. et al

  16. Synthesis of wavelet envelope in 2-D random media having power-law spectra: comparison with FD simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Haruo; Fehler, Michael C.

    2016-10-01

    The envelope broadening and the peak delay of the S-wavelet of a small earthquake with increasing travel distance are results of scattering by random velocity inhomogeneities in the earth medium. As a simple mathematical model, Sato proposed a new stochastic synthesis of the scalar wavelet envelope in 3-D von Kármán type random media when the centre wavenumber of the wavelet is in the power-law spectral range of the random velocity fluctuation. The essential idea is to split the random medium spectrum into two components using the centre wavenumber as a reference: the long-scale (low-wavenumber spectral) component produces the peak delay and the envelope broadening by multiple scattering around the forward direction; the short-scale (high-wavenumber spectral) component attenuates wave amplitude by wide angle scattering. The former is calculated by the Markov approximation based on the parabolic approximation and the latter is calculated by the Born approximation. Here, we extend the theory for the envelope synthesis of a wavelet in 2-D random media, which makes it easy to compare with finite difference (FD) simulation results. The synthetic wavelet envelope is analytically written by using the random medium parameters in the angular frequency domain. For the case that the power spectral density function of the random velocity fluctuation has a steep roll-off at large wavenumbers, the envelope broadening is small and frequency independent, and scattering attenuation is weak. For the case of a small roll-off, however, the envelope broadening is large and increases with frequency, and the scattering attenuation is strong and increases with frequency. As a preliminary study, we compare synthetic wavelet envelopes with the average of FD simulation wavelet envelopes in 50 synthesized random media, which are characterized by the RMS fractional velocity fluctuation ε = 0.05, correlation scale a = 5 km and the background wave velocity V0 = 4 km s-1. We use the radiation

  17. A shock tube and theory study of the dissociation of acetone and subsequent recombination of methyl radicals.

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, A.; Kiefer, J. H.; Klippenstein, S. J.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Univ. of llinois at Chicago

    2009-01-01

    The dissociation of acetone: CH{sub 3}C{double_bond}OCH{sub 3} {yields} CH{sub 3}C{double_bond}O + CH{sub 3}, quickly followed by CH{sub 3}CO {yields} CH{sub 3} + CO, has been examined with Laser-Schlieren measurements in incident shock waves over 32-717 Torr and 1429-1936 K using 5% acetone dilute in krypton. A few very low pressure experiments ({approx}10 Torr) were used in a marginal effort to resolve the extremely fast vibrational relaxation of this molecule. This effort was partly motivated as a test for molecular, 'roaming methyl' reactions, and also as a source of methyl radicals to test the application of a recent high-temperature mechanism for ethane decomposition [J.H. Kiefer, S. Santhanam, N.K. Srinivasan, R.S. Tranter, S.J. Klippenstein, M.A. Oehlschlaeger, Proc. Combust. Inst. 30 (2005) 1129-1135] on the reverse methyl combination. The gradient profiles show strong initial positive gradients and following negative values fully consistent with methyl radical formation and its following recombination. Thus C-C fission is certainly a large part of the process and molecular channels cannot be responsible for more than 30% of the dissociation. Rates obtained for the C-C fission show strong falloff well fit by variable reaction coordinate transition state theory when combined with a master equation. The calculated barrier is 82.8 kcal/mol, the fitted <{Delta}E>{sub down} = 400 (T/298) cm{sup -1}, similar to what was found in a recent study of C-C fission in acetaldehyde, and the extrapolated k{sub {infinity}} = 10{sup 25.86} T{sup -2.72} exp(?87.7 (kcal/mol)/RT), which agrees with the literature rate for CH{sub 3} + CH{sub 3}CO. Large negative (exothermic) gradients appearing late from methyl combination are accurately fit in both time of onset and magnitude by the earlier ethane dissociation mechanism. The measured dissociation rates are in close accord with one earlier shock-tube study [K. Sato, Y. Hidaka, Combust. Flame 122 (2000) 291-311], but show much

  18. Seasonal Loads, Crustal Deformation, and Seismicity in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heki, K.

    2001-12-01

    Heki (2001) found that snow loads over the Japan Sea side of the backbone range is responsible for the seasonal crustal deformation in northeastern Japan found by the Global Positioning System (Murakami and Miyazaki, 2001). It is known that earthquakes in and around Japan have a clear seasonality (Mogi, 1969). Ohtake & Nakahara (1999) confirmed statistical significance of the seasonality of interplate earthquakes at the Nankai-Suruga Trough (M>7.9) they concentrate in autumn/winter. Okada (1982) compiled inland historic earthquakes (M>7.0) and found that shallow earthquakes in the snow covered region preferentially occur in spring and summer. The latter may simply reflect the Coulomb failure function (CFF) increase in spring due to the unclamping of the fault by the removal of the snow load whose maximum reaches 10 kPa in February/March. Heki (2001), however, failed to verify the causal relation between snow loads and the seasonalily of the offshore interplate earthquake since a 10 kPa snow load could increase the CFF at plate interface by only 0.1 kPa. Stress for a typical interplate earthquake with 1 MPa stress drop and 100 yr recurrence interval, would be built up by 10 kPa/yr (Ohtake and Nakahara, 1999). A simple calculation shows that annual stress perturbation of a 1 kPa amplitude to this secular increase could cause a seasonality such that earthquakes occur > 4 times more frequently in the maximum month than in the minimum month, and that the maximum comes three months earlier than the CFF peak. Sea surface along the Pacific coast of Japan becomes highest in August-September, whose amplitude is > 10 cm even after thermal steric correction (Sato et al., 2001). This would cause a CFF increase of about 1 kPa in February-March (due mainly to the decrease in normal stress), which might be responsible for the observed maximum seismicity approximately three months earlier (Ohtake & Nakahara, 1999).

  19. Evaluating the benefit of recorded early reflections from a classroom for speech intelligibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Jeffery B.

    Recent standards for classrooms acoustics recommend achieving low levels of reverberation to provide suitable conditions for speech communication (ANSI, 2002; ASHA, 1995). Another viewpoint recommends optimizing classroom acoustics to emphasize early reflections and reduce later arriving reflections (Boothroyd, 2004; Bradley, Sato, & Picard, 2003). The idea of emphasizing early reflections is based in the useful-to-detrimental ratio (UDR) model of speech intelligibility in rooms (Lochner & Burger, 1964). The UDR model predicts that listeners integrate energy from early reflections to improve the signal-to-noise (SNR) of the direct speech signal. However, both early and more recent studies of early reflections and speech intelligibility have used simulated reflections that may not accurately represent the effects of real early reflections on the speech intelligibility of listeners. Is speech intelligibility performance enhanced by the presence of real early reflections in noisy classroom environments? The effect of actual early reflections on speech intelligibility was evaluated by recording a binaural impulse response (BRIR) with a K.E.M.A.R. in a college classroom. From the BRIR, five listening conditions were created with varying amounts of early reflections. Young-adult listeners with normal hearing participated in a fixed SNR word intelligibility task and a variable SNR task to test if speech intelligibility was improved in competing noise when recorded early reflections were present as compared to direct speech alone. Mean speech intelligibility performance gains or SNR benefits were not observed with recorded early reflections. When simulated early reflections were included, improved speech understanding was observed for simulated reflections but for with real reflections. Spectral, temporal, and phonemic analyses were performed to investigate acoustic differences in recorded and simulated reflections. Spectral distortions in the recorded reflections may have

  20. Frequency dependence of long-period tidal factors determined from gravity and space geodetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T.; Nilsson, T.; Doi, K.; Aoyama, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The effects of ocean tides, a fluid core and mantle inelasticity of the earth cause the frequency dependence on zonal tidal signals. In particular, because inelastic effects of the medium of the Earth become larger for lower frequencies (Wahr, 1985) and the long-periods tides have their maximum values at the poles, tidal observations and analysis of long-period at high latitudes is advantageous for studying the dissipative properties in the Earth (Iwano et al., 2005). From this view point, Sato et al. (1995) and Iwano et al. (2005) analyzed the data of the gravity observations using superconducting gravimeter (SG) at Syowa Station in Antarctica. However, they concluded that the residuals from theory is mainly due to the inaccurate ocean models for ocean tidal loading correction. Recently, new two ocean tide models (FES2012 and TPXO8-atlas) were developed, which provide long-period ocean tide information. Thus, we reanalyzed the gravity data of Syowa Station using these new ocean tide models for ocean loading correction, and evaluated the gravimetric factors (δ). The estimated gravimetric factors are 1.15822 (FES2012) and 1.15541 (TPXO8-atlas) for Mm and 1.15396 and 1.15405 for Mf. Meanwhile, the zonal response coefficient κ defined by Agnew and Farrell (1978) were also estimated using zonal tidal signals with periods from 5 to 35 days in dUT1 (UTC-UT1), a tidally induced variation of the rotation rate of the Earth. This coefficient show also the frequency dependent zonal response. In this study, the values of estimated κ for different tidal frequencies from dUT1 observed by VLBI were compared to theory and to the results of previous determinations of κ from observations of space geodetic techniques. We used VieVs (Vienna VLBI Software) program for the estimation of dUT1 and processed all 24 hours from 1984 to 2012 and also processed the IERS C04 dUT1 series. These time series of dUT1 data were subtracted by the UT1 variations from atmospheric, hydrologic, and

  1. [The Japanese Colonial Medicine as Seen Through the Life of Fujita Tsuguakira].

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyu-Jin

    2016-04-01

    Fujita Tsuguakira was a man who established Jahyeuiwon, a governmental medical facility, during the Residency-General Period and took over the presidency of a committee in the Japanese Government-General of Chosun after Chosun was annexed to Japanese. In addition, he is a man well qualified to be placed on the top of the list when discussing the Japanese colonial medicine in Chosun, considering his personal history of getting evolved in the colonial rule of Taiwan for seven years as an army surgeon. He led the colonial medicine in Chosun for nine years before and after the Japanese annexation of Korea. He was engaged in almost all the areas related to the colonial medicine such as anti-cholera projects, Hansung Sanitation Union, Deahan Hospital, Chosun Chongdokbu Hospital, Jahyeuiwon, medical schools affiliated to the Japanese Government-General of Chosun. In all respects, his life was in sync with the expansionist strategies of Imperial Japan. Especially, his deeds in Chosun was an "active aid to the instructions" from Army Minister Terauchi Masatake " as Sato Kozo testifies. Fujita was chosen by the military, and so he faithfully served the role given from it. The rewards that he received form the military attest to this fact. He took the position of Surgeon General in Army Medical Service on September, 1912, the top place that an army surgeon could hold. The position was first given to the officer who worked outside Japan proper, and he was the only army surgeon with no doctorial degree to receive such title except for Ishiguro Tadanori who was the first army surgeon in Japan. To sum up, Fujita was not a "doctor" but a "military officer". His walk of life mainly lay in the role of an aider adjusted to the ups and downs and the speeds of the plans of Imperial Japan to invade the continent. Therefore, the Japanese colonial medicine controlled by such man as Fujita in Chosun was inevitably studded with the military things. As a chief in the army medicine, what was

  2. Quantum Bio-Informatics II From Quantum Information to Bio-Informatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accardi, L.; Freudenberg, Wolfgang; Ohya, Masanori

    2009-02-01

    / H. Kamimura -- Massive collection of full-length complementary DNA clones and microarray analyses: keys to rice transcriptome analysis / S. Kikuchi -- Changes of influenza A(H5) viruses by means of entropic chaos degree / K. Sato and M. Ohya -- Basics of genome sequence analysis in bioinformatics - its fundamental ideas and problems / T. Suzuki and S. Miyazaki -- A basic introduction to gene expression studies using microarray expression data analysis / D. Wanke and J. Kilian -- Integrating biological perspectives: a quantum leap for microarray expression analysis / D. Wanke ... [et al.].

  3. Dangerous human-made interference with climate: a GISS modelE study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J.; Sato, M.; Ruedy, R.; Kharecha, P.; Lacis, A.; Miller, R.; Nazarenko, L.; Lo, K.; Schmidt, G. A.; Russell, G.; Aleinov, I.; Bauer, S.; Baum, E.; Cairns, B.; Canuto, V.; Chandler, M.; Cheng, Y.; Cohen, A.; Del Genio, A.; Faluvegi, G.; Fleming, E.; Friend, A.; Hall, T.; Jackman, C.; Jonas, J.; Kelley, M.; Kiang, N. Y.; Koch, D.; Labow, G.; Lerner, J.; Menon, S.; Novakov, T.; Oinas, V.; Perlwitz, Ja.; Perlwitz, Ju.; Rind, D.; Romanou, A.; Schmunk, R.; Shindell, D.; Stone, P.; Sun, S.; Streets, D.; Tausnev, N.; Thresher, D.; Unger, N.; Yao, M.; Zhang, S.

    2006-12-01

    We investigate the issue of "dangerous human-made interference with climate" using simulations with GISS modelE driven by measured or estimated forcings for 1880-2003 and extended to 2100 for IPCC greenhouse gas scenarios as well as the "alternative" scenario of Hansen and Sato (2004). Identification of "dangerous" effects is partly subjective, but we find evidence that added global warming of more than 1°C above the level in 2000 has effects that may be highly disruptive. The alternative scenario, with peak added forcing ~1.5 W/m2 in 2100, keeps further global warming under 1°C if climate sensitivity is ~3°C or less for doubled CO2. The alternative scenario keeps mean regional seasonal warming within 2σ (standard deviations) of 20th century variability, but other scenarios yield regional changes of 5-10σ, i.e., mean conditions outside the range of local experience. We discuss three specific sub-global topics: Arctic climate change, tropical storm intensification, and ice sheet stability. We suggest that Arctic climate change has been driven as much by pollutants (O3, its precursor CH4, and soot) as by CO2, offering hope that dual efforts to reduce pollutants and slow CO2 growth could minimize Arctic change. Simulated recent ocean warming in the region of Atlantic hurricane formation is comparable to observations, suggesting that greenhouse gases (GHGs) may have contributed to a trend toward greater hurricane intensities. Increasing GHGs cause significant warming in our model in submarine regions of ice shelves and shallow methane hydrates, raising concern about the potential for accelerating sea level rise and future positive feedback from methane release. Growth of non-CO2 forcings has slowed in recent years, but CO2 emissions are now surging well above the alternative scenario. Prompt actions to slow CO2 emissions and decrease non-CO2 forcings are needed to achieve the low forcing of the alternative scenario.

  4. Dangerous human-made interference with climate: a GISS modelE study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J.; Sato, M.; Ruedy, R.; Kharecha, P.; Lacis, A.; Miller, R.; Nazarenko, L.; Lo, K.; Schmidt, G. A.; Russell, G.; Aleinov, I.; Bauer, S.; Baum, E.; Cairns, B.; Canuto, V.; Chandler, M.; Cheng, Y.; Cohen, A.; Del Genio, A.; Faluvegi, G.; Fleming, E.; Friend, A.; Hall, T.; Jackman, C.; Jonas, J.; Kelley, M.; Kiang, N. Y.; Koch, D.; Labow, G.; Lerner, J.; Menon, S.; Novakov, T.; Oinas, V.; Perlwitz, Ja.; Perlwitz, Ju.; Rind, D.; Romanou, A.; Schmunk, R.; Shindell, D.; Stone, P.; Sun, S.; Streets, D.; Tausnev, N.; Thresher, D.; Unger, N.; Yao, M.; Zhang, S.

    2007-05-01

    We investigate the issue of "dangerous human-made interference with climate" using simulations with GISS modelE driven by measured or estimated forcings for 1880-2003 and extended to 2100 for IPCC greenhouse gas scenarios as well as the "alternative" scenario of Hansen and Sato (2004). Identification of "dangerous" effects is partly subjective, but we find evidence that added global warming of more than 1°C above the level in 2000 has effects that may be highly disruptive. The alternative scenario, with peak added forcing ~1.5 W/m2 in 2100, keeps further global warming under 1°C if climate sensitivity is ~3°C or less for doubled CO2. The alternative scenario keeps mean regional seasonal warming within 2σ (standard deviations) of 20th century variability, but other scenarios yield regional changes of 5-10σ, i.e. mean conditions outside the range of local experience. We conclude that a CO2 level exceeding about 450 ppm is "dangerous", but reduction of non-CO2 forcings can provide modest relief on the CO2 constraint. We discuss three specific sub-global topics: Arctic climate change, tropical storm intensification, and ice sheet stability. We suggest that Arctic climate change has been driven as much by pollutants (O3, its precursor CH4, and soot) as by CO2, offering hope that dual efforts to reduce pollutants and slow CO2 growth could minimize Arctic change. Simulated recent ocean warming in the region of Atlantic hurricane formation is comparable to observations, suggesting that greenhouse gases (GHGs) may have contributed to a trend toward greater hurricane intensities. Increasing GHGs cause significant warming in our model in submarine regions of ice shelves and shallow methane hydrates, raising concern about the potential for accelerating sea level rise and future positive feedback from methane release. Growth of non-CO2 forcings has slowed in recent years, but CO2 emissions are now surging well above the alternative scenario. Prompt actions to slow CO2

  5. Molecular photoacoustic imaging of angiogenesis with integrin-targeted gold nanobeacons

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Dipanjan; Pramanik, Manojit; Senpan, Angana; Allen, John S.; Zhang, Huiying; Wickline, Samuel A.; Wang, Lihong V.; Lanza, Gregory M.

    2011-01-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) combines optical and acoustic imaging to generate high-resolution images of microvasculature. Inherent sensitivity to hemoglobin permits PAT to image blood vessels but precludes discriminating neovascular from maturing microvasculature. αvβ3-Gold nanobeacons (αvβ3-GNBs) for neovascular molecular PAT were developed, characterized, and demonstrated in vivo using a mouse Matrigel-plug model of angiogenesis. PAT results were microscopically corroborated with fluorescent αvβ3-GNB localization and supporting immunohistology in Rag1tm1Mom Tg(Tie-2-lacZ)182-Sato mice. αvβ3-GNBs (154 nm) had 10-fold greater contrast than blood on an equivolume basis when imaged at 740 nm to 810 nm in blood. The lowest detectable concentration in buffer was 290 nM at 780 nm. Noninvasive PAT of angiogenesis using a 10-MHz ultrasound receiver with αvβ3-GNBs produced a 600% increase in signal in a Matrigel-plug mouse model relative to the inherent hemoglobin contrast pretreatment. In addition to increasing the contrast of neovessels detected at baseline, αvβ3-GNBs allowed visualization of numerous angiogenic sprouts and bridges that were undetectable before contrast injection. Competitive inhibition of αvβ3-GNBs with αvβ3-NBs (no gold particles) almost completely blocked contrast enhancement to pretreatment levels, similar to the signal from animals receiving saline only. Consistent with other studies, nontargeted GNBs passively accumulated in the tortuous neovascular but provided less than half of the contrast enhancement of the targeted agent. Microscopic studies revealed that the vascular constrained, rhodamine-labeled αvβ3-GNBs homed specifically to immature neovasculature (PECAM+, Tie-2−) along the immediate tumor periphery, but not to nearby mature microvasculature (PECAM+, Tie-2+). The combination of PAT and αvβ3-GNBs offered sensitive and specific discrimination and quantification of angiogenesis in vivo, which may be clinically

  6. Seismic structure at the Kairei Hydrothermal vent field near the Rodriguez Triple Junction in the Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takata, H.; Sato, T.; Imai, Y.; Mori, T.; Noguchi, Y.; Kono, A.; Yamada, T.; Shinohara, M.

    2014-12-01

    Central Indian Ridge is located at the north of the Rodriguez Triple Junction and shows slow-intermediate spreading rate. The Kairei hydrothermal Field (KHF) was discovered in the first segment of Central Indian Ridge near the Rodriguez Triple Junction. The vent fluid which is extruding at the KHF has higher H2 content compared with other hydrothermal vent fluid in the world. Although The KHF itself exists above a basaltic rock massif, gabbro and mafic rocks were discovered on the seafloor around the KHF. These deep-seated rocks may contribute to the high H2concentration of the Kairei vent fluid .To understand how gabbro and mafic rocks are uplifted and exhumed on the seafloor, we conducted a seismic refraction/reflection survey using ocean bottom seismograms (OBSs). We conducted the seismic refraction/reflection survey from January 27 to March 19 in 2013 using S/V Yokosuka of Jamstec. In the experiment, we used 21 OBSs, an air gun (G.I.gun) and a single channel steamer cable. We obtained 5 survey lines NNW-SSE direction parallel to the ridge axis, 5 lines E-W direction and 5 lines NNE-SSW direction. In addition to these lines, we acquired other 5 lines passing through the point above the KHF or Yokoniwa Rise, which is the north of the KHF. In analysis of refraction data, firstly, we estimated 2D velocity model under survey lines, which are parallel to the ridge axis, using the progressive model development method developed by Sato and Kennett (2000). Then, we constructed a 3D initial model and run the 3D tomographic method developed by Zelt and Barton (1998). The 1D velocity profile of the KHF seems to be similar to that of mid ocean ridges such as Mid Atlantic Ridge, East Pacific Rise. Seismic velocities under the KHF and Yokoniwa Rise reach about 6km/s at depth of 1~2 km below seafloor, probably indicating uplift of deep-seated rocks. In this presentation we will show 3D seismic structure of this area.

  7. Cachectic skeletal muscle response to a novel bout of low-frequency stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Puppa, Melissa J.; Murphy, E. Angela; Fayad, Raja; Hand, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    While exercise benefits have been well documented in patients with chronic diseases, the mechanistic understanding of cachectic muscle's response to contraction is essentially unknown. We previously demonstrated that treadmill exercise training attenuates the initiation of cancer cachexia and the development of metabolic syndrome symptoms (Puppa MJ, White JP, Velazquez KT, Baltgalvis KA, Sato S, Baynes JW, Carson JA. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 3: 117–137, 2012). However, cachectic muscle's metabolic signaling response to a novel, acute bout of low-frequency contraction has not been determined. The purpose of this study was to determine whether severe cancer cachexia disrupts the acute contraction-induced response to low-frequency muscle contraction [low-frequency stimulation (LoFS)]. Metabolic gene expression and signaling was examined 3 h after a novel 30-min bout of contraction (10 Hz) in cachectic ApcMin/+ (Min) and C57BL/6 (BL-6) mice. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, a STAT/NF-κB inhibitor and free radical scavenger, was administered systemically to a subset of mice to determine whether this altered the muscle contraction response. Although glucose transporter-4 mRNA was decreased by cachexia, LoFS increased muscle glucose transporter-4 mRNA in both BL-6 and Min mice. LoFS also induced muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α coactivator-1 mRNA. However, in Min mice, LoFS was not able to induce muscle proliferator-activated receptor-α coactivator-1 targets nuclear respiratory factor-1 and mitochondrial transcription factor A mRNA. LoFS induced phosphorylated-S6 in BL-6 mice, but this induction was blocked by cachexia. Administration of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate for 24 h rescued LoFS-induced phosphorylated-S6 in cachectic muscle. LoFS increased muscle phosphorylated-AMP-activated protein kinase and p38 in BL-6 and Min mice. These data demonstrate that cachexia alters the muscle metabolic response

  8. Synthesis of Wavelet Envelope in 2-D Random Media Having Power-Law Spectra: Comparison with FD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Haruo; Fehler, Michael C.

    2016-07-01

    The envelope broadening and the peak delay of the S-wavelet of a small earthquake with increasing travel distance are results of scattering by random velocity inhomogeneities in the earth medium. As a simple mathematical model, Sato (2016) proposed a new stochastic synthesis of the scalar wavelet envelope in 3-D von Kármán type random media when the center wavenumber of the wavelet is in the power-law spectral range of the random velocity fluctuation. The essential idea is to split the random medium spectrum into two components using the center wavenumber as a reference: the long-scale (low-wavenumber spectral) component produces the peak delay and the envelope broadening by multiple scattering around the forward direction; the short-scale (high-wavenumber spectral) component attenuates wave amplitude by wide angle scattering. The former is calculated by the Markov approximation based on the parabolic approximation and the latter is calculated by the Born approximation. Here, we extend the theory for the envelope synthesis of a wavelet in 2-D random media, which makes it easy to compare with finite difference (FD) simulation results. The synthetic wavelet envelope is analytically written by using the random medium parameters in the angular frequency domain. For the case that the power spectral density function of the random velocity fluctuation has a steep roll-off at large wavenumbers, the envelope broadening is small and frequency independent, and scattering attenuation is weak. For the case of a small roll-off, however, the envelope broadening is large and increases with frequency, and the scattering attenuation is strong and increases with frequency. As a preliminary study, we compare synthetic wavelet envelopes with the average of FD simulation wavelet envelopes in 50 synthesized random media, which are characterized by the RMS fractional velocity fluctuation ε=0.05, correlation scale a =5 km and the background wave velocity V0=4 km/s. We use the radiation

  9. Coupled LBM-DEM Three-phase Simulation on Gas Flux Seeping from Marine Sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kano, Y.; Sato, T.

    2014-12-01

    One of the main issues of the geological storage of CO2 under the seabed is a risk of CO2 leakage. Once CO2seeps into the ocean, it rises in water column dissolving into seawater, which results in the acidification of seawater and/or returning to the air. Its behaviour significantly depends on flow rate and bubble size (Kano et al., 2009; Dewar et al., 2013). As for porous media, bubble size is generally predicted through simple force balance based on flow rate, surface tension and channel size which is estimated by porosity and grain size. However, in shallow marine sediments, grains could be mobilised and displaced by buoyant gas flow, which causes distinctive phenomena such as blow-out or formation of gas flow conduit. As a result, effective gas flux into seawater can be intermissive, and/or concentrated in narrow area (QICS, 2012; Kawada, 2013). Bubble size is also affected by these phenomena. To predict effective gas flux and bubble size into seawater, three-phase behaviour of gas-water-sediment grains should be revealed. In this presentation, we will report the results of gas-liquid-solid three-phase simulations and their comparisons with experimental and observation data. Size of solid particles is based on grain size composing marine sediments at some CCS project sites. Fluid-particle interactions are solved using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), while the particle-particle interactions are treated by coupling with the Discrete Element method (DEM). References: Dewar, M., Wei, W., McNeil, D., Chen, B., 2013. Small-scale modelling of the physiochemical impacts of CO2leaked from sub-seabed reservoirs or pipelines within the North Sea and surrounding waters. Marine Pollution Bulletin 73(2), 504-515. Kano, Y., Sato, T., Kita, J., Hirabayashi, S., Tabeta, S., 2009. Model prediction on the rise of pCO2 in uniform flows by leakage of CO2purposefully stored under the seabed. Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control, Vol. 3(5), 617-625. Kawada, R. 2014. A study on the

  10. Role of Yield Stress in Magma Rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurokawa, A.; Di Giuseppe, E.; Davaille, A.; Kurita, K.

    2012-04-01

    Magmas are essentially multiphase material composed of solid crystals, gaseous bubbles and silicate liquids. They exhibit various types of drastic change in rheology with variation of mutual volumetric fractions of the components. The nature of this variable rheology is a key factor in controlling dynamics of flowing magma through a conduit. Particularly the existence of yield stress in flowing magma is expected to control the wall friction and formation of density waves. As the volumetric fraction of solid phase increases yield stress emerges above the critical fraction. Several previous studies have been conducted to clarify this critical value of magmatic fluid both in numerical simulations and laboratory experiments ([Lejeune and Pascal, 1995], [Saar and Manga 2001], [Ishibashi and Sato 2010]). The obtained values range from 13.3 to 40 vol%, which display wide variation and associated change in rheology has not been clarified well. In this presentation we report physical mechanism of emergence of yield stress in suspension as well as the associated change in the rheology based on laboratory experiments using analog material. We utilized thermogel aqueous suspension as an analog material of multiphase magma. Thermogel, which is a commercial name for poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM) undergoes volumetric phase change at the temperature around 35C:below this temperature the gel phase absorbs water and swells while below this it expels water and its volume shrinks. Because of this the volumetric fraction of gel phase systematically changes with temperature and the concentration of gel powder. The viscosity measured at lower stress drastically decreases across this phase change with increasing temperature while the viscosity at higher stress does not exhibit large change across the transition. We have performed a series of rheological measurements focusing on the emergence of yield stress on this aqueous suspension. Since the definition of yield stress is not

  11. Extraterrestrial Impact Event Recorded in the Late Triassic Deep-Sea Deposits from Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, H.; Shirai, N.; Ebihara, M.; Nozaki, T.; Suzuki, K.; Onoue, T.; Kiyokawa, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Late Triassic is marked by the formation of several large impact structures on the Earth, including the 90-km-diameter Manicouagan crater in Canada (Spray and Kelly, 1998). Anomalously high platinum group element (PGE) concentrations have been reported from the Upper Triassic deep-sea deposits in Japan, which have been interpreted to be derived from an extraterrestrial impact event forming the Manicouagan crater (Onoue et al., 2012; Sato et al., 2013). However, previous studies have not clarified the composition of the projectile. Here we report the PGE element ratios and osmium (Os) isotopic compositions of the Upper Triassic ejecta layers in Japan in order to understand the projectile component. Evidence for the Late Triassic impact event has been discovered in the deep-sea claystone layers at four bedded chert sections in the Japanese accretionary complex. The claystone layers contain microspherules, Ni-rich magnetite grains and high abundance of PGEs (Onoue et al., 2012). Biostratigraphic analysis of radiolarian fossils from the studied sections revealed that the claystone layers occur embedded in the upper middle Norian (Sugiyama, 1997; Onoue et al., 2012). Identification of the projectile is attempted by comparing the isotope and elemental ratios of the ejecta deposit with similar data obtained from meteorites. The Ru/Ir and Pt/Ir ratios of all the claystone samples from the study sites are plotted along the mixing line between chondrites and upper continental crust. Although chondrites cannot be distinguished from iron meteorites by using PGE/Ir ratios, the claystone layers have Cr/Ir ratios between 104-105, indicating that the claystone layers are clearly contaminated by chondritic material. The Os isotope data show an abrupt and marked negative excursion from an initial Os isotope ratio of ~0.477 to unradiogenic values of ~0.126 in a claystone layer within a middle Norian bedded chert, indicating the input of chondrite-derived Os into seawater. The

  12. [Use of new elastomeric pumps and PCA in postoperative pain control in thoraco-abdominal surgery].

    PubMed

    Testa, G; Borzomati, V; Costantini, D; De Chiara, A; Picarazzi, A; Capelli, O

    1996-01-01

    36 patients submitted to interventions for thoraco-abdominal surgery has been submitted to antalgic post-operatory therapy with elastomeric pump at a continuous intravenous infusion and patient controlled analgesia (PCA). The patients have been randomized in three groups. The patients of the 1 degree group received 30 minutes before of the end of the surgical intervention 30 mg of Ketorolac. At the end of the anesthesia came started an infusion of 150 mg of Ketorolac (5 vials) in 60 ml of isotonic chlorinated solution at the rate of 0.5 ml/h. The pump had besides the capability of disperse a maximum of 4 bolus/ h, everyone of 0.5 ml, on demand of the patient. The 2 degrees group received a solution containing 60 ml of Morphine in 60 ml of isotonic chlorinated solution with the same formality of administration. The 3 degrees group (placebo) received 60 ml of isotonic chlorinated solution in pumps from infusion and Ketorolac intramuscular on demand. To the times T0 (awakening), T1 (3 h), T2 (6h), T3 (12 h), T4 (24 h), T5 (30 h, was collected algometrical consequences according to VAS (Visual Analogous Scale of Sc modification of the PA increase, FC, FR, SatO2.. The obtained results have highlighted like in the 1 degree group, to the 1 degree algometric consequence (T0), there is a good sedative effect on the pain (intensity of the middle low pain 3.70 +/- 1.64); this antalgic effect has also continued in the other consequences effected in the post-operatory. In the 2 degree group to the awakening (T0), the pain was middle-tall (5.50 +/- 2.32) and an expressive reduction appeared at the time T2 (3.60 +/- 1.35 P < 0.005). In the 3 degrees group have not recorded a diminution of the pain if not after 24 hours from the end of the intervention deposit the intramuscular antalgic therapy. In conclusion, the system infusion + PCA represents an indubitable advantage in comparison with the traditional antalgic therapy as for concern the entity of the reduction of the pain as

  13. Fourier Transform Microwave Spectrum of N{_2}-(CH{_2}){_2}O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Yoshiyuki; Hirota, Eizi

    2013-06-01

    atoms and/or groups in, or internal rotations of, N{_2} and EO. Y. Kawashima, A. Sato, Y. Orita, and E. Hirota J. Phys. Chem. A {116}, 1224 2012. Y. Kawashima, Y. Tatamitani, Y. Morita, and E. Hirota 61st International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, TE10 2006.

  14. The effects of climate uncertainty on the stability of the Antarctic ice sheet during the mid-Pliocene warm period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernales, Jorge; Häfliger, Tonio; Rogozhina, Irina; Thomas, Maik

    2015-04-01

    . Dynamic behaviour of the East Antarctic ice sheet during Pliocene warmth. Nature Geoscience 6.9 (2013): 765-769. [2] Sato, T., and Greve, R. Sensitivity experiments for the Antarctic ice sheet with varied sub-ice-shelf melting rates. Annals of Glaciology 53.60 (2012): 221-228. [3] Haywood, A. M., et al. Large-scale features of Pliocene climate: results from the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project. Clim. Past 9 (2013): 191-209.

  15. Monitoring underground migration of sequestered CO2 using self-potential methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishido, T.; Pritchett, J.; Tosha, T.; Nishi, Y.; Nakanishi, S.

    2013-12-01

    known as a 'geobattery' (e.g. Sato & Mooney, Geophysics 1960; Bigalke & Grabner, Electrochimica Acta 1997): the metallic well casing acts as a vertical electronic conductor connecting regions of differing redox potential. Electrons flow upward though the casing from a deeper reducing environment to a shallower oxidizing environment, and simultaneously a compensating vertical flow of ions is induced in the surrounding formation to maintain charge neutrality. If the redox potential in the deeper region is then increased by injecting an oxidizing substance, the difference in redox potential between the shallower and deeper regions will be reduced, resulting in an SP increase near the wellhead. We will report the results of SP measurements during gas (CO2 or air) injection tests at various sites and numerical simulations carried out using the extended SP postprocessor, which incorporates the above 'geobattery' mechanism in addition to electrokinetic coupling, and discuss the possibility mentioned above more quantitatively.

  16. PREFACE: 4th International Symposium on Functional Materials (ISFM2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Shu; Sekino, Tohru; Tanaka, Shun-ichiro; Sato, Tsugio; Lu, Li; Xue, Dongfeng

    2012-01-01

    express our sincere appreciation to all the members of the International Advisory Committee, the Organizing Committee, and all the authors and participants. It is expected that the published output of this special issue will be accepted as an original and valuable contribution to the literature in the functional materials field. Guest Editors Dr Shu Yin Tohoku University, Japan Dr Tohru Sekino Tohoku University, Japan Professor Shun-ichiro Tanaka, IMRAM, Tohoku University, Japan Professor Tsugio Sato IMRAM, Tohoku University, Japan Professor Li Lu National University of Singapore, Singapore Professor Dongfeng Xue Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China Conference photograph Group photograph of the participants of ISFM2011 held in Sendai, 4 August 2011

  17. Newborn piglet traits associated with survival and growth performance until weaning.

    PubMed

    Panzardi, A; Bernardi, M L; Mellagi, A P; Bierhals, T; Bortolozzo, F P; Wentz, I

    2013-06-01

    Pre-weaning piglet mortality represents significant economic losses, and approximately half of this mortality occurs within the first 3 days after birth. Factors involved in postnatal mortality can also be associated with a poor growth performance until weaning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of some variables measured right after birth on piglet survival during the first week of life and growth performance until weaning. Piglets included in the analysis (n=612) were born from 3 to 5 parity sows. Piglets were monitored for blood oxygen saturation (SatO2), heart rate (HR), blood glucose concentration, rectal temperature at birth (RT0 h) and at 24h after birth (RT24 h). Genetic line, birth following or not an obstetric intervention, birth order, sex, skin color, integrity of the umbilical cord, and time elapsed from birth until first attempts to stand were also recorded. Piglets were weighed at birth (BW), and at 7, 14 and 21 days after birth in order to evaluate their postnatal development. Cumulative mortality rates were 3.3%, 5.4% and 8.7% at 3, 7 and 21 days after birth, respectively. Body temperature at birth (RT0 h) did not affect (P>0.05) the survival nor the piglet growth performance. Piglets with cyanotic skin and those that took more than 5 min to stand showed higher chance of mortality (P<0.05) compared to normal skin piglets and to piglets which stood before 1 min, respectively. Piglets with broken umbilical cord had higher odds (P<0.05) of mortality up to 3 days after birth, respectively. Higher odds (P<0.05) of mortality up to 3 or 7 days were associated with later birth order (>9), low BW (<1275g), low (24-30 mg/dl) and high (45-162 mg/dl) blood glucose concentrations, or low RT24 h (<38.1°C). Piglets with BW<1545 g, low RT24 h (<38.6°C) and female piglets had higher odds of a low weight at weaning (P<0.05). Among the factors studied, cyanotic skin, delay for standing, broken umbilical cord, high birth order, low BW, low RT24 h, and

  18. Multiple Collision and Subduction Structure of the Izu-Bonin Arc: Tectonics of the Arc-arc Collision in Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, R.; Iwasaki, T.; Sato, H.; Abe, S.; Hirata, N.

    2011-12-01

    The Izu collision zone in central Japan provides a great research field for studying crustal evolution of island arcs associated with collision and subduction processes. Since the middle Miocene, an intraoceanic volcanic arc named the Izu-Bonin arc has been colliding from south with the Honshu arc along with the subduction of the Philippine Sea plate. Intensive geological studies in the last few decades revealed that several crustal blocks derived from the Izu-Bonin arc, such as Koma Mountains, Misaka Mountains, Tanzawa Mountains and Izu Peninsula, were accreted onto the Honshu arc in the course of the multiple collision (e.g. Amano, 1991). In order to understand the whole crustal structure dominated by the active arc-arc collision, we carried out several seismic experiments using controlled sources (Sato et al., 2005, 2006; Arai et al., 2009). Structural models obtained by reflection and refraction/wide-angle reflection analyses show extremely complex collision styles characterized by obduction in the northernmost part (Misaka) and crustal stacking in the middle part (Tanzawa). Delamination structure is recognized at a mid-crustal level for these two blocks. On the other hand, a subduction style is dominant in the southern part (Izu). These differences may be attributed to the along-arc structural variation of the Izu-Bonin arc (Kodaira et al., 2007). It is also indicated that some portions of the Izu-Bonin middle crust were accreted at the bottom of the Honshu crust. Consideration of mass balance, however, suggests that the most Izu-Bonin crust has been subducting deep into the mantle without being accreted. So we can say that the dynamic process of this intraoceanic volcanic arc is essentially controlled by subduction rather than collision/accretion. A northwestward dipping reflector was found at depths of 25-35 km beneath the accreted crustal blocks of Misaka and Tanzawa, which is interpreted to be the upper surface of the subducting lower crust of the Izu

  19. Characteristics of mesosphere echoes over Antarctica obtained using PANSY and MF radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsumi, Masaki; Nakamura, Takuji; Sato, Toru; Nishimura, Koji; Sato, Kaoru; Tomikawa, Yoshihiro; Kohma, Masashi

    2016-07-01

    In the polar region characteristic radar echoes are observed from the mesosphere by using a VHF system. The nature of the echoes is distinctively different between summer and winter and those echoes are called Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSEs) and Polar Mesosphere Winter Echoes (PMWEs), respectively. Since the PMSEs are usually very strong and can be easily measured with a small radar system, their nature is relatively well understood. On the other hand PMWEs are much weaker and they are still only poorly understood. The PANSY radar (47MHz) at Syowa station (69S) is the only large aperture atmospheric radar in the Antarctic, and can continuously survey the dynamics of the middle atmosphere with high time and height resolutions [Sato et al., 2014]. Nishiyama et al [2014] reported the first study of PMWEs using PANSY radar and showed a seasonal and local time dependence of these echoes. An MF radar system (2.4MHz) is co-located at Syowa, and has been operating for mesosphere and lower thermosphere observations. Although the MF radar has only a much poorer height resolution and is incapable of vertical wind measurement, it can almost continuously measure mesosphere day and night. In this study the nature of the mesosphere echoes, mainly PMWEs, are being studied using the two radars based on the observation made in 2015. These radars are operated using largely different radio frequencies and can provide complementary information with each other such as wind velocities and also echo scattering mechanisms. Horizontal wind velocities have been compared between the two radars with a great care mostly in the MF radar winds in order to avoid possible biases inherent in the correlation analysis technique employed for the MF radar wind measurement. A careful analysis has shown that the horizontal wind velocities agree well between the two systems with a high correlation coefficient around 0.8 throughout the height region of 65-85km. Aspect sensitivities estimated using

  20. Undersea interplate coupling off the western Japan revealed by GPS-A observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Y.; Ishikawa, T.; Watanabe, S. I.; Tashiro, T.

    2015-12-01

    The recurring devastating earthquakes in the Nankai and Sagami Troughs subduction zone between the Philippine Sea plate and the continental plates (Eurasian and North American plates) have a potential to cause an extremely dangerous natural disaster in not-so-distant future. Many studies assumed the interplate coupling ratios using the onshore geodetic data only. However, the offshore region that has a potential to derive a devastating tsunami cannot be resolved enough due to the observation network that is biased to land area. The Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department of Japan (JHOD) have constructed the seafloor geodetic observation network on the seafloor surface using a GPS-acoustic combination technique (GPS-A) [e.g., Sato et al., 2011, Science] and observed seafloor crustal movements directly above the Nankai and Sagami Troughs subduction zones. We have set 17 sites off the western Japan to lead an undersea interplate coupling distribution. The observations around the Sagami Trough are consistent with the block motions presented by Nishimura [2011, Tectonophysics]. On the other hand, our seafloor geodetic observation network along the Nankai Trough revealed heterogeneity and complexity interplate coupling off the western Japan. The fast displacement rates observed in the eastern area indicate a strong interplate coupling around not only the future Tokai earthquake source region but also the Paleo-Zenisu ridge. Our observations in the westernmost area also suggest that the area off the Cape Ashizuri has a high-coupling ratio. The slow displacement rate observed in the shallower area than the 1946 Nankaido earthquake source region off the Cape Muroto-zaki reflects a weakening interplate coupling probably due to a subducting seamount. The observation in the westernmost area differs depending on the depth. The north deep area below Bungo-channel has a high-coupling ratio. The south shallow area has a low-coupling ratio. In these deep and shallow areas, VLFEs

  1. Fourier Transform Microwave Spectra of CO{2}-ETHYLENE Sulfide, CO{2}-ETHYLENE Oxide and CO{2}-PROPYLENE Oxide Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orita, Yukari; Kawashima, Yoshiyuki; Hirota, Eizi

    2010-06-01

    We have previously examined the difference in roles of O and S in structure and dynamics of the CO-ethylene oxide (EO) and CO-ethylene sulfide (ES) complexes. We have extended the investigation to CO{2}-EO and CO{2}-ES for comparison. We have also observed the CO{2}-propylene oxide (PO) complex, which is an important intermediate in the reaction of PO with CO{2} leading to polycarbonate. Both a-type and b-type transitions were observed for the CO{2}-EO and CO{2}-ES, but no c-type transitions were observed at all. We also detected the {34}S and {13}C isotopic species in natural abundance and the species containing {18}OCO and C{18}O% {2}, which were synthesized by burning paper in an {18}O{2} and{% 16}O{2} mixture. By analyzing the observed spectra we concluded the CO{2} moiety of CO{2}-EO and CO{2}-ES located in a plane % prependicular to the three-membered ring and bisecting the COC or CSC angle of EO or ES, respectively, as in the case of CO-EO and CO-ES complexes. An % ab initio MO calculation at the level of MP2/6-311G(d, p) yielded an optimized structure in good agreement with the experimental result. We have derived from the observed spectra the distance, the stretching force constant, and the binding energy of the bonds between the constituents of the CO{2}-EO and CO{2}-ES complexes and have found that the distances of the two complexes were shorter by 0.2Å than those in CO-EO and CO-ES, respectively, and that the intermolecular bonds were two times stronger in the CO{2} complexes than in the corresponding CO complexes. We have concluded from the observed spectra that the CO{2} moiety in CO{2}-PO is located on the PO three-membered ring plane opposite to the methyl group. The constituents in CO{2}-PO were more weakly bound than those in CO{2}-EO and CO{2}-ES. S. Sato, Y. Kawashima, Y. Tatamitani, and E. Hirota, 63rd International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, WF05 (2008).

  2. Fourier Transform Microwave Spectrum of CO{_2} -(CH{_3}){_2} S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Yoshiyuki; Moritani, Takayuki; Hirota, Eizi

    2012-06-01

    , A. Sato, Y. Orita, and E. Hirota J. Phys. Chem. A 116, 1224 2012. J. J. Newby, R. A. Peebles, and S. A. Peebles J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 11234 2004.

  3. The Kinetic Behavior of Benzaldehyde under Hydrothermal Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fecteau, K.; Gould, I.; Hartnett, H. E.; Williams, L. B.; Shock, E.

    2013-12-01

    , metamorphism, and other hydrothermal processes of interest occur in natural systems. References Ikushima, Y., K. Hatakeda, O. Sato, T. Yokoyama, and M. Arai. 2001. Structure and base catalysis of supercritical water in the noncatalytic benzaldehyde disproportionation using water at high temperatures and pressures. Angewandte Chemie, 40, 210-213. Tsao, C.C., Y. Zhou, X. Liu, and T.J. Houser. 1992. Reactions of supercritical water with benzaldehyde, benzylidenebenzylamine, benzyl alcohol, and benzoic acid. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 5, 107-113.

  4. Dust Particle Alignment in the Solar Magnetic Field: a Possible Cause of the Cometary Circular Polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolokolova, L.; Koenders, C.; Rosenbush, V.; Kiselev, N.; Ivanova, A.; Afanasiev, V.

    2015-12-01

    Circular polarization (CP) produced by scattering of sunlight on cometary dust has been observed in 11 comets, and showed the values from 0.01% to 0.8%. CP of both signs was observed, although negative (left-handed) CP dominates. Recent observations of several comets using SCORPIO-2 focal reducer at the 6-m BTA telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory (Russia) allowed producing maps of CP in the comet continuum filter at 684 nm and red wide-band filter. A gradual increase of the CP with the nucleocentric distance was usually observed. The most plausible reason why the light scattered by cometary dust becomes circularly polarized is alignment of the dust particles in the solar magnetic field. However, in-situ data for comet Halley, indicated that the solar magnetic field could not penetrate deep into the coma, limited by the diamagnetic cavity, and, thus, could not be responsible for the CP observed closer than ~4000 km from the nucleus. Advanced theoretical studies of interaction of the solar magnetic field with cometary ions led to reconsidering the diamagnetic cavity boundary - it is defined by the cometary ionopause, at which a balance is achieved between the magnetic pressure in the magnetic pile up region and the neutral friction force. The nucleocentric distance where this balance is achieved depends on the comet characteristics, increasing with the increase of the gas production rate, and local solar wind conditions, approximatively given by the comet location, specifically, its heliocentric distance. The size of diamagnetic cavity was calculated for the conditions of our CP observations. We found that it could be as small as dozens (comets 73P, 8P, 290P) or hundreds (comets Q4 NEAT, K1 PanSTARRS, Tago-Sato-Kosaka) kilometers. Thus, non-zero CP close to the nucleus can be easily explained by the interaction of the dust particles with the solar magnetic field. This mechanism also explains the observed increase in CP with the distance from the

  5. The PHITS code for space applications: status and recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sihver, Lembit; Ploc, Ondrej; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Niita, Koji; Hashimoto, Shintaro; El-Jaby, Samy

    Since COSPAR 2012, the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System, PHITS, has been upgraded and released to the public [1]. The code has been improved and so has the contents of its package, such as the attached data libraries. In the new version, the intra-nuclear cascade models INCL4.6 and INC-ELF have been implemented as well as the Kurotama model for the total reaction cross sections. The accuracies of the new reaction models for transporting the galactic cosmic-rays were investigated by comparing with experimental data. The incorporation of these models has improved the capabilities of PHITS to perform particle transport simulations for different space applications. A methodology for assessing the pre-mission exposure of space crew aboard the ISS has been developed in terms of an effective dose equivalent [2]. PHITS was used to calculate the particle transport of the GCR and trapped radiation through the hull of the ISS. By using the predicted spectra, and fluence-to-dose conversion factors, the semi-empirical ISSCREM [3,4,5] code was then scaled to predict the effective dose equivalent. This methodology provides an opportunity for pre-flight predictions of the effective dose equivalent, which can be compared to post-flight estimates, and therefore offers a means to assess the impact of radiation exposure on ISS flight crew. We have also simulated [6] the protective curtain experiment, which was performed to test the efficiency of water-soaked hygienic tissue wipes and towels as a simple and cost-effective additional spacecraft shielding. The dose from the trapped particles and low energetic GCR, was significantly reduced, which shows that the protective curtains are efficient when they are applied on spacecraft at LEO. The results of these benchmark calculations, as well as the mentioned applications of PHITS to space dosimetry, will be presented. [1] T. Sato et al. J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 50, 913-923 (2013). [2] S. El-Jaby, et al. Adv. Space Res. doi: http

  6. Seismic velocity structure and spatial distribution of reflection intensity off the Boso Peninsula, Central Japan, revealed by an ocean bottom seismographic experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, Akihiro; Sato, Toshinori; Shinohara, Masanao; Mochizuki, Kimihiro; Yamada, Tomoaki; Uehira, Kenji; Shinbo, Takashi; Machida, Yuuya; Hino, Ryota; Azuma, Ryosuke

    2016-04-01

    Off the Boso Peninsula, central Japan, where the Sagami Trough is in the south and the Japan Trench is in the east, there is a triple junction where the Pacific plate (PAC), the Philippine Sea plate (PHS) and the Honshu island arc (HIA) meet each other. In this region, the PAC subducts beneath the PHS and the HIA, and the PHS subducts beneath the HIA. Due to the subduction of 2 oceanic plates, numerous seismic events took place in the past. In order to understand these events, it is important to image structure of these plates. Hence, many researchers attempted to reveal the substructure from natural earthquakes and seismic experiments. Because most of the seismometers are placed inland area and the regular seismicity off Boso is inactive, it is difficult to reveal the precise substructure off Boso area using only natural earthquakes. Although several marine seismic experiments using active sources were conducted, vast area remains unclear off Boso Peninsula. In order to improve the situation, a marine seismic experiment, using airgun as an active source, was conducted from 30th July to 4th of August, 2009. The survey line has 216 km length and 20 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs) were placed on it. We estimated 2-D P-wave velocity structure from the airgun data using the PMDM (Progressive Model Development Method; Sato and Kenett, 2000) and the FAST (First Arrival Seismic Tomography ; Zelt and Barton, 1998). Furthermore, we identified the probable reflection phases from the data and estimated the location of reflectors using Travel time mapping method (Fujie et al. 2006). We found some reflection phases from the data, and the reflectors are located near the region where P-wave velocity is 5.0 km/s. We interpret that the reflectors indicate the plate boundary between the PHS and the HIA. The variation of the intensity of reflection along the upper surface of PHS seems to be consistent with the result from previous reflection seismic experiment conducted by Kimura et

  7. PREFACE: 3rd International Symposium on Functional Materials 2009 (ISFM 2009) 3rd International Symposium on Functional Materials 2009 (ISFM 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiwon, Kim; Li, Lu; Taehyun, Nam; Jouhyeon, Ahn

    2010-05-01

    The 3rd International Symposium on Functional Materials 2009 (ISFM 2009) and its preconference, Advances in Functional Materials 2009 (AFM 2009), were successfully held in the Republic of Korea from 15-18 June 2009 and in the People's Republic of China from 8-12 June 2009, respectively. The two conferences attracted over 300 oral and poster presentations from over 12 countries including Australia, Canada, China, Germany, Japan, India, Israel, Korea, The Netherlands, Thailand, the UK and the USA. In the two conferences, eight keynote lectures were delivered by S Miyazaki, S A Akbar, D J Singh, C Suryanarayana, M~Greenblatt, H Zhang, T Sato and J Ding. This topical issue of Physica Scripta contains papers presented at the ISFM 2009 and AFM 2009. Keyan Li from Dalian University, People's Republic of China, presents some empirical formulae to estimate the elastic moduli of rocksalt-, zincblende- and chalcopyrite-structured crystals, on the basis of electronegativities of bonded atoms in the crystallographic frame. Min-Jung Kim from Hanyang University, Korea, reports on the preparation and characterization of carboxyl functionalization of magnetite nanoparticles for oligonucleotide immobilization. F Yan from the National University of Singapore studies the fabrication of Bi(Fe0.5Sc0.5)O3-PbTiO3 (BSF-PT) thin films by pulsed laser deposition, and the enhanced magnetic moment with respect to BiFeO3-PbTiO3. Dong-Gil Lee from Pusan National University, Korea, reports on the sterilization of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli using nanofiber TiO2 films prepared by the electrostatic spray method. Sang-Eun Park from the Korea Institute of Science and Technology reports on the study of encapsulated Fe3O4 nanoparticles with a silica thin layer with a reversible capacity of about 363 mAhg-1. Other researchers report on many other exiting achievements in the fields of ferromagnetic materials, magneto-optical materials, thermoelectric materials, shape memory materials, fuel-cell and

  8. [The Japanese Colonial Medicine as Seen Through the Life of Fujita Tsuguakira].

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyu-Jin

    2016-04-01

    Fujita Tsuguakira was a man who established Jahyeuiwon, a governmental medical facility, during the Residency-General Period and took over the presidency of a committee in the Japanese Government-General of Chosun after Chosun was annexed to Japanese. In addition, he is a man well qualified to be placed on the top of the list when discussing the Japanese colonial medicine in Chosun, considering his personal history of getting evolved in the colonial rule of Taiwan for seven years as an army surgeon. He led the colonial medicine in Chosun for nine years before and after the Japanese annexation of Korea. He was engaged in almost all the areas related to the colonial medicine such as anti-cholera projects, Hansung Sanitation Union, Deahan Hospital, Chosun Chongdokbu Hospital, Jahyeuiwon, medical schools affiliated to the Japanese Government-General of Chosun. In all respects, his life was in sync with the expansionist strategies of Imperial Japan. Especially, his deeds in Chosun was an "active aid to the instructions" from Army Minister Terauchi Masatake " as Sato Kozo testifies. Fujita was chosen by the military, and so he faithfully served the role given from it. The rewards that he received form the military attest to this fact. He took the position of Surgeon General in Army Medical Service on September, 1912, the top place that an army surgeon could hold. The position was first given to the officer who worked outside Japan proper, and he was the only army surgeon with no doctorial degree to receive such title except for Ishiguro Tadanori who was the first army surgeon in Japan. To sum up, Fujita was not a "doctor" but a "military officer". His walk of life mainly lay in the role of an aider adjusted to the ups and downs and the speeds of the plans of Imperial Japan to invade the continent. Therefore, the Japanese colonial medicine controlled by such man as Fujita in Chosun was inevitably studded with the military things. As a chief in the army medicine, what was

  9. Formation of Island Arc-Trench System due to Plate Subduction on the Basis of Elastic Dislocation Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukahata, Y.; Matsu'ura, M.

    2015-12-01

    The most conspicuous cumulative deformation in subduction zones is the formation of island arc-trench system. A pair of anomalies in topography and free-air gravity, high in the arc and low around the trench, is observed without exceptions all over the world. Since the 1960s, elastic dislocation theory has been widely used to interpret coseismic crustal deformation. For the modeling of longer-term crustal deformation, it is necessary to consider viscoelastic properties of the asthenosphere. By simply applying elastic-viscoelastic dislocation theory to plate subduction, Matsu'ura and Sato (1989, GJI) have shown that some crustal deformation remains after the completion of one earthquake cycle, which means that crustal deformation accumulates with time in a long term due to plate subduction. In fact, by constructing a plate interface model in and around Japan, Hashimoto, Fukui and Matsu'ura (2004, PAGEOPH) have demonstrated that the computed vertical displacements due to steady plate subduction well explain the observed free-air gravity anomaly pattern. Recently, we got a lucid explanation of crustal deformation due to plate subduction. In subduction zones, oceanic plates bend and descend into the mantle. Because the bending of oceanic plates is usually not spontaneous, there exists kinematic interaction between the oceanic and overriding plates, which causes cumulative deformation of the overriding plate. This may be understood based on the law of action and reaction: one is bending of an oceanic plate and the other is deformation of the overriding plate. As a special case, it is useful to consider plate subduction along a part of true circle. In this case, crustal deformation due to steady subduction is solely caused by the effect of gravity, because dislocation along a circle does not cause any intrinsic internal deformation. When an oceanic plate is descending along an arcuate plate interface from the right-hand side, according to dislocation theory, the oceanic

  10. Mega-thrust and Intra-slab Earthquakes Beneath Tokyo Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, N.; Sato, H.; Koketsu, K.; Hagiwara, H.; Wu, F.; Okaya, D.; Iwasaki, T.; Kasahara, K.

    2006-12-01

    In central Japan the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducts beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan area, the Kanto region, where it causes mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9) which had 105,000 fatalities. The vertical proximity of this down going lithospheric plate is of concern because the greater Tokyo urban region has a population of 42 million and is the center of approximately 40% of the nation's economic activities. A M7+ earthquake in this region at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The M7+ earthquake is evaluated to occur with a probability of 70% in 30 years by the Earthquake Research Committee of Japan. In 2002, a consortium of universities and government agencies in Japan started the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Urban Areas, a project to improve information needed for seismic hazards analyses of the largest urban centers. Assessment in Kanto of the seismic hazard produced by the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) mega-thrust earthquakes requires identification of all significant faults and possible earthquake scenarios and rupture behavior, regional characterizations of PSP geometry and the overlying Honshu arc physical properties (e.g., seismic wave velocities, densities, attenuation), and local near-surface seism ic site effects. Our study addresses (1) improved regional characterization of the PSP geometry based on new deep seismic reflection profiles (Sato etal.,2005), reprocessed off-shore profiles (Kimura et al.,2005), and a dense seismic array in the Boso peninsular (Hagiwara et al., 2006) and (2) identification of asperities of the mega-thrust at the top of the PSP. We qualitatively examine the relationship between seismic reflections and asperities inferred by reflection physical properties. We also discuss the relation between deformation of PSP and intra-slab M7+ earthquakes: the

  11. Density measurements and structural properties of liquid and amorphous metals under high pressure studied by in situ X-ray scattering (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morard, G.; Garbarino, G.; Andrault, D.; Antonangeli, D.; Guignot, N.; Siebert, J.; Roberge, M.; Boulard, E.; Lincot, A.; Denoeud, A.; Petitgirard, S.

    2013-12-01

    Density determination for crystalline materials under high pressure and high temperature is straightforward using X-ray diffraction. For liquid and amorphous materials, it is more complicated due to the absence of long-range order. Different high pressure techniques have been developed: in-situ X-ray absorption 1-4 or ex-situ sink/float method 5-8. However, these techniques suffer several limitations, such as the limited pressure range or the long exposure time required. We have implemented an in situ X-ray diffraction analysis method suitable for the determination of Pressure-Volume-Temperature equations of state (P-V-T EoS) in the critical case of liquid and amorphous materials over an extended thermodynamic range (T>2000 K and P> 40 GPa). This method is versatile, it can be applied to data obtained using various angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction high-pressure apparatus and, contrary to in situ X-ray absorption techniques, is independent from the sample geometry. Further advantage is the fast data acquisition (between 10 to 300 seconds integration time). Information on macroscopic bulk properties (density) and local atomic arrangement (pair distribution function g(r)) can be gathered in parallel. To illustrate the method, we present studies on liquid Fe-S alloys in Paris Edinburgh press and in laser-heated diamond anvil cell, and measurements on Ce glass in diamond anvil cell at room temperature. References 1 G. Shen, N. Sata, M. Newville et al., App. Phys. Lett. 81 (8), 1411 (2002). 2 C. Sanloup, F. Guyot, P. Gillet et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 27 (6), 811 (2000). 3 Y. Katayama, K. Tsuji, O. Shimomura et al., J. Synch. Rad. 5, 1023 (1998). 4 T. Sato and N. Funamori, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 255502 (2008). 5 R. Knoche and R. W. Luth, Chem. Geol. 128, 229 (1996). 6 P.S. Balog, R.A. Secco, D.C. Rubie et al., J. Geophys. Res. 108 (B2), 2124 (2003). 7 C. B. Agee and D. Walker, J. Geophys. Res. 93 (B4), 3437 (1988). 8 E. Ohtani, A. Suzuki, and T. Kato, Proc. Jpn. Acad

  12. Shallow Moho with aseismic upper crust and deep Moho with seismic lower crust beneath the Japanese Islands obtained by seismic tomography using data from dense seismic network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, Makoto; Obara, Kazushige

    2015-04-01

    . The Moho discontinuity deepens over 35 km in the collision zone like as Kanto Mountains, the volcanic underplating zone as the Tohoku backbone range, and non-tension region like as Chugoku Mountains. These regions associated with deep Moho are characterized by the crustal seismicity within the depth range from 20 to 30 km. The iso-depth contour of 35 km beneath the southwestern Japan is consistent with that derived from the receiver function method (Shiomi et al. 2006). There are nonvolcanic tremors and short-time slow slip events (SSE) beneath the southwestern Japan (eg. Obara, 2002). Matsubara et al. (2009) consider that the tremors and SSEs occur along the contact zone of Moho discontinuity beneath the Eurasian plate and the subducting Philippine Sea plate beneath southwestern Japan. Our Moho model is consistent with this since they exist along the southern edge of the Moho discontinuity of the continental Eurasian plate. Reference: Hirata, N., Sakai, S., Nakagawa, S., Ishikawa, M., Sato, H., Kasahara, K., Kimura, H. and Honda, R. (2012) A new tomographic image on the Philippine Sea Slab beneath Tokyo - Implication to seismic hazard in the Tokyo metropolitan region, EOS, Transactions, AGU, T11C-06. Kita, S., T. Okada, A. Hasegawa, J. Nakajima, and T. Matsuzawa (2010) Anomalous deepening of a seismic belt in the upper-plane of the double seismic zone in the Pacific slab beneath the Hokkaido corner: Possible evidence for thermal shielding caused by subducted forearc crust materials, Earth Planet. Science Lett., 290, 415-426. Matsubara, M. and K. Obara (2011) The 2011 Off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku earthquake related to a strong velocity gradient with the Pacific plate, Earth Planets Space, 63, 663-667. Matsubara, M., K. Obara, and K. Kasahara (2009) High-Vp/Vs zone accompanying non-volcanic tremors and slow-slip events beneath southwestern Japan, Tectonophysics, 472, 6-17, doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2008.06.013. Obara, K. (2002) Nonvolcanic deep tremor associated with

  13. Shallow Moho with aseismic upper crust and deep Moho with seismic lower crust beneath the Japanese Islands obtained by seismic tomography using data from dense seismic network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, Makoto; Obara, Kazushige

    2015-04-01

    . The Moho discontinuity deepens over 35 km in the collision zone like as Kanto Mountains, the volcanic underplating zone as the Tohoku backbone range, and non-tension region like as Chugoku Mountains. These regions associated with deep Moho are characterized by the crustal seismicity within the depth range from 20 to 30 km. The iso-depth contour of 35 km beneath the southwestern Japan is consistent with that derived from the receiver function method (Shiomi et al. 2006). There are nonvolcanic tremors and short-time slow slip events (SSE) beneath the southwestern Japan (eg. Obara, 2002). Matsubara et al. (2009) consider that the tremors and SSEs occur along the contact zone of Moho discontinuity beneath the Eurasian plate and the subducting Philippine Sea plate beneath southwestern Japan. Our Moho model is consistent with this since they exist along the southern edge of the Moho discontinuity of the continental Eurasian plate. Reference: Hirata, N., Sakai, S., Nakagawa, S., Ishikawa, M., Sato, H., Kasahara, K., Kimura, H. and Honda, R. (2012) A new tomographic image on the Philippine Sea Slab beneath Tokyo - Implication to seismic hazard in the Tokyo metropolitan region, EOS, Transactions, AGU, T11C-06. Kita, S., T. Okada, A. Hasegawa, J. Nakajima, and T. Matsuzawa (2010) Anomalous deepening of a seismic belt in the upper-plane of the double seismic zone in the Pacific slab beneath the Hokkaido corner: Possible evidence for thermal shielding caused by subducted forearc crust materials, Earth Planet. Science Lett., 290, 415-426. Matsubara, M. and K. Obara (2011) The 2011 Off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku earthquake related to a strong velocity gradient with the Pacific plate, Earth Planets Space, 63, 663-667. Matsubara, M., K. Obara, and K. Kasahara (2009) High-Vp/Vs zone accompanying non-volcanic tremors and slow-slip events beneath southwestern Japan, Tectonophysics, 472, 6-17, doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2008.06.013. Obara, K. (2002) Nonvolcanic deep tremor associated with

  14. Synchrotron FT-IR analyses of microstructured biomineral domains: Hints to the biomineralization processes in freshwater cultured pearls.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldati, A. L.; Vicente-Vilas, V.; Gasharova, B.; Jacob, D. E.

    2009-04-01

    to identify and pre-select those pearls containing ACC. Infrared absorption spectra were measured using a Ge ATR objective on 100-200 ?m thin sections and polished pearl sections. Attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy gives the opportunity to measure the infrared absorption in a reflectance mode directly without necessity to apply Kramers-Kronig transformation. The spectral range available is 650-5000 cm-1when using a Ge ATR crystal with the MCT detector at the ANKA-IR microscope and allowed the detection of the ?4 in-plane bending band (around 750 cm-1 in vaterite and 710 cm-1 in aragonite), the ?1 symmetric stretching bands (1070-7085 cm-1 for vaterite4 and 1082-1084 cm-1 in aragonite5), the ?2 out-of-plane bending vibration of the CO3 groups (855 cm-1 for vaterite and 857-877 cm-1 in aragonite) and the ?3 asymmetric stretching (1420-1490 cm-1 in vaterite and 1480 cm-1 in aragonite) respectively (Sato and Masuda, 1969; Yamoto et al., 1974).Water was detected by the presence of the O-H stretching at around 3500 cm-1. Proteins and sugars included in the biogenic carbonates were recognized through the N-H and C-H bands, for example 1717-1575 cm-1 for aspartic acid, 1712-1558 cm-1 for glutamic acid, 1500 to 2000 cm-1 amide I and II (Dauphin et al., 2006). References WEHRMEISTER U., JACOB D.E., SOLDATI A.L., HÄGER T. & HOFMEISTER W. 2007. Vaterite in freshwater cultured pearls from China and Japan. The Journal of Gemmology; 31: 269-276. SOLDATI A.L., JACOB D.E., WEHRMEISTER U.& HOFMEISTER W. 2008. Structural characterization and chemical composition of aragonite and vaterite in freshwater cultured pearls. Mineralogical Magazine 72: 577-590. JACOB, D.E., SOLDATI, A.L., WIRTH, R., HUTH, J., WEHRMEISTER, U. & HOFMEISTER, W. 2008. Nanostructure, composition and mechanisms of bivalve shell growth. Geochimica et Coscmochimica Acta 72: 5401-5415. SATO M. & MATSUDA S. 1969. Structure of vaterite and infrared spectra. Z. Kistalography 129: 405-410. YAMAMOTO A, SHIRO Y

  15. Synchrotron FT-IR analyses of microstructured biomineral domains: Hints to the biomineralization processes in freshwater cultured pearls.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldati, A. L.; Vicente-Vilas, V.; Gasharova, B.; Jacob, D. E.

    2009-04-01

    to identify and pre-select those pearls containing ACC. Infrared absorption spectra were measured using a Ge ATR objective on 100-200 ?m thin sections and polished pearl sections. Attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy gives the opportunity to measure the infrared absorption in a reflectance mode directly without necessity to apply Kramers-Kronig transformation. The spectral range available is 650-5000 cm-1when using a Ge ATR crystal with the MCT detector at the ANKA-IR microscope and allowed the detection of the ?4 in-plane bending band (around 750 cm-1 in vaterite and 710 cm-1 in aragonite), the ?1 symmetric stretching bands (1070-7085 cm-1 for vaterite4 and 1082-1084 cm-1 in aragonite5), the ?2 out-of-plane bending vibration of the CO3 groups (855 cm-1 for vaterite and 857-877 cm-1 in aragonite) and the ?3 asymmetric stretching (1420-1490 cm-1 in vaterite and 1480 cm-1 in aragonite) respectively (Sato and Masuda, 1969; Yamoto et al., 1974).Water was detected by the presence of the O-H stretching at around 3500 cm-1. Proteins and sugars included in the biogenic carbonates were recognized through the N-H and C-H bands, for example 1717-1575 cm-1 for aspartic acid, 1712-1558 cm-1 for glutamic acid, 1500 to 2000 cm-1 amide I and II (Dauphin et al., 2006). References WEHRMEISTER U., JACOB D.E., SOLDATI A.L., HÄGER T. & HOFMEISTER W. 2007. Vaterite in freshwater cultured pearls from China and Japan. The Journal of Gemmology; 31: 269-276. SOLDATI A.L., JACOB D.E., WEHRMEISTER U.& HOFMEISTER W. 2008. Structural characterization and chemical composition of aragonite and vaterite in freshwater cultured pearls. Mineralogical Magazine 72: 577-590. JACOB, D.E., SOLDATI, A.L., WIRTH, R., HUTH, J., WEHRMEISTER, U. & HOFMEISTER, W. 2008. Nanostructure, composition and mechanisms of bivalve shell growth. Geochimica et Coscmochimica Acta 72: 5401-5415. SATO M. & MATSUDA S. 1969. Structure of vaterite and infrared spectra. Z. Kistalography 129: 405-410. YAMAMOTO A, SHIRO Y

  16. A study of the earth radiation budget using a 3D Monte-Carlo radiative transer code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okata, M.; Nakajima, T.; Sato, Y.; Inoue, T.; Donovan, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the earth's radiation budget when data are available from satellite-borne active sensors, i.e. cloud profiling radar (CPR) and lidar, and a multi-spectral imager (MSI) in the project of the Earth Explorer/EarthCARE mission. For this purpose, we first developed forward and backward 3D Monte Carlo radiative transfer codes that can treat a broadband solar flux calculation including thermal infrared emission calculation by k-distribution parameters of Sekiguchi and Nakajima (2008). In order to construct the 3D cloud field, we tried the following three methods: 1) stochastic cloud generated by randomized optical thickness each layer distribution and regularly-distributed tilted clouds, 2) numerical simulations by a non-hydrostatic model with bin cloud microphysics model and 3) Minimum cloud Information Deviation Profiling Method (MIDPM) as explained later. As for the method-2 (numerical modeling method), we employed numerical simulation results of Californian summer stratus clouds simulated by a non-hydrostatic atmospheric model with a bin-type cloud microphysics model based on the JMA NHM model (Iguchi et al., 2008; Sato et al., 2009, 2012) with horizontal (vertical) grid spacing of 100m (20m) and 300m (20m) in a domain of 30km (x), 30km (y), 1.5km (z) and with a horizontally periodic lateral boundary condition. Two different cell systems were simulated depending on the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration. In the case of horizontal resolution of 100m, regionally averaged cloud optical thickness, , and standard deviation of COT, were 3.0 and 4.3 for pristine case and 8.5 and 7.4 for polluted case, respectively. In the MIDPM method, we first construct a library of pair of observed vertical profiles from active sensors and collocated imager products at the nadir footprint, i.e. spectral imager radiances, cloud optical thickness (COT), effective particle radius (RE) and cloud top temperature (Tc). We then select a

  17. A Reference Crustal and Plate-Boundary Velocity Model of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishise, M.; Koketsu, K.; Miyake, H.

    2007-12-01

    The study of velocity structure using earthquake data has been remarkably progressed by development of seismic observation networks, improvement of the methodology, and increase in processing power. Recent studies on 3D velocity structures have produced tomographic images with resolution of a few kilometers (e.g., Matsubara et al., 2005; Nakamichi et al., 2007). In addition to these traveltime analyses, waveform studies such as receiver function analyses have been developed to image the configuration of continental Moho and oceanic plate boundaries (e.g., Yamauchi et al., 2003; Shiomi et al., 2004). Reflection and refraction surveys with controled sources have also been providing information on 2D and 3D velocity structures (e.g., Sato et al., 2005; Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Urban Areas). Thus, plenty of structural property models exist over the Japan islands, but the validity of an individual model is confined to its study area. Therefore, it is essential to build a reference crustal and plate-boundary velocity model for the whole Japan by combining them all together. If this sort of reference velocity model over the Japan islands is available under a unified criterion, it will be valuable for many fields of seismology and Earth sciences. We here construct a reference crustal and plate-boundary velocity model of Japan by integrating 2D models from seismic profiling and receiver functions, 3D models of seismic tomography, and other geophysical data such as gravity anomalies. The goal of this study is to construct a 3D laterally heterogeneous seismic velocity structure model, which clarifies the topography of the Conrad and Moho discontinuities and shapes of the oceanic plates, like the SCEC Unified Velocity Model (e.g., Magistrale et al., 1996). We first make a preliminary Japan model by compiling information on the topography of the Conrad and Moho discontinuities and subducting plates. To this end, we collect 2D seismic velocity models

  18. Tabulation of comet observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-10-01

    Concerning comets: 1955 III Mrkos, 1955 IV Bakharev-Macfarlane-Krienke, 1955 V Honda, 1956 III Mrkos, 1956 IV P/Olbers, 1957 III Arend-Roland, 1957 V Mrkos, 1958 III Burnham, 1959 VIII P/Giacobini-Zinner, 1960 II Burnham, 1973 XII Kohoutek, 1974 III Bradfield, 1975 IX Kobayashi-Berger-Milon, 1975 X Suzuki-Saigusa-Mori, 1975 XI Bradfield, 1975 XII Mori-Sato-Fujikawa, 1976 IV Bradfield, 1976 VI West, 1979 VII Bradfield, 1980 X P/Stephan-Oerma, 1980 XII Meier, 1980 XIII P/Tuttle, 1981 II Panther, 1981 IV P/Borrelly, 1981 XIX P/Swift-Gehrels, 1982 I Bowell, 1982 IV P/Grigg-Skjellerup, 1982 VI Austin, 1982 VII P/d'Arrest, 1982 VIII P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, 1983 V Sugano-Saigusa-Fujikawa, 1983 VII IRAS-Araki-Alcock, 1983 X P/Tempel 2, 1983 XI P/Tempel 1, 1983 XIII P/Kopff, 1983 XIV P/IRAS, 1983 XV Shoemaker, 1984 III P/Hartley-IRAS, 1984 IV P/Crommelin, 1984 XI P/Faye, 1984 XIII Austin, 1984 XIV P/Wild 2, 1984 XVI P/Shoemaker 1, 1984 XXIII Levy-Rudenko, 1985 I P/Tsuchinshan 1, 1985 XIII P/Giacobini-Zinner, 1985 XV P/Giclas, 1985 XVI P/Ciffréo, 1985 XVII Hartley-Good, 1985 XVIII P/Shoemaker 3, 1985 XIX Thiele, 1986 I P/Boethin, 1986 III P/Halley, 1986 VIII P/Machholz, 1986 XVII Levy, 1986 XVIII Terasako, 1987 II Sorrells, 1987 VII Wilson, 1987 XIX P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 2, 1987 XXI Levy, 1987 XXIII Rudenko, 1987 XXIV P/Brooks 2, 1987 XXVII P/Kohoutek, 1987 XXIX Bradfield, 1988 IV Furuyama, 1988 XIV P/Tempel 2, 1989 III Shoemaker, 1989 XV P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1, 1989 XIX Okazaki-Levy-Rudenko, 1990 V Austin, 1990 XVII Tsuchiya-Kiuchi, 1990 XX Levy, 1990 XXI P/Encke, 1990 XXVI Arai, 1991 I P/Metcalf-Brewington, 1991 XV P/Hartley 2, 1991 XVII P/Arend-Rigaux, 1991a1 Shoemaker-Levy, 1991g1 Zanotta-Brewington, 1992c P/Howell, 1992d Tanaka-Machholz, 1992e P/Singer Brewster, 1992f P/Shoemaker-Levy 8, 1992h Spacewatch, 1992j P/Ashbrook-Jackson, 1992t P/Swift-Tuttle, 1992u P/Väisälä 1, 1992w P/Slaughter-Burnham, 1992x P/Schaumasse, 1992y Shoemaker, 1993a Mueller, 1993d Mueller

  19. Spatial distribution of precisely determined hypocenters and focal mechanisms in the Izu-Honshu collision zone, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukutake, Y.; Takeda, T.; Honda, R.; Yoshida, A.

    2010-12-01

    In the Tanzawa region, central Japan, where the Izu-Bonin arc collides into the Honshu crust, the Philippine Sea plate (PHS) subducts intricately and the seismicity is particularly high. The configuration of the PHS plate in the region has been estimated based on the hypocenter distribution, seismic velocity tomography, and seismic profile (e.g. Ishida, 1992; Matsubara et al., 2005; Sato et al., 2005). However, the relationship between the structure of the PHP and the seismicity in the collision zone is still not clearly understood. To elucidate the seismotectonics, it is essential to get precisely determined hypocenters and focal mechanisms. We used data from 107 permanent online stations operated by Hot Springs Research Institute of Kanagawa Prefecture, NIED Hi-net and JMA, which are located within 80-km from the epicenters. We relocated hypocenters of 4351 events that occurred in and around the Tanzawa region with the double-difference relocation algorithm (DD method) (Waldhauser and Ellsworth, 2000), using the differential arrival time obtained by both manual picking and waveform cross-correlation analysis. Then, we determined the focal mechanisms of 420 events using the absolute P- and SH-wave amplitudes by adding the P-wave polarities. We found that the earthquakes in the eastern Tanzawa region are distributed along the planar zone slightly dipping toward east. On the other hand, the earthquakes in the western region spread out in the volume of approximately 10 km × 10 km × 10 km. We examined similarity between the focal mechanisms of earthquakes and a reference of focal mechanism that is inferred from the configuration and relative motion of the PHP. We assumed the fault plane direction of the reference focal mechanism based on the fault model of the 1923 Kanto Earthquake (Matsu'ura et al., 1980). The slip direction is assumed so as to be consistent with the relative motion of the PHP with respect to the Eurasian plate in the Kanto region (Seno, 1993). The

  20. PREFACE: 14th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilbao, Luis; Minotti, Fernando; Kelly, Hector

    2012-06-01

    These proceedings present the written contributions from participants of the Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP), which was held in Mar del Plata, Argentina, on 20-25 November 2011. This was the 14th session of the series of LAWPP biennial meetings, which started in 1982. The five-day scientific program of LAWPP 2011 consisted of 32 talks and various poster sessions, with the participation of 135 researchers from Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Puerto Rico, USA, Venezuela, as well as others from Europe and Asia. In addition, a School on Plasma Physics and a Workshop on Industrial Applications of Plasma Technology (AITP) were organized together with the main meeting. The five-day School held in the week previous to the meeting was intended for young scientists starting their research in Plasma Physics. On the other hand, the objective of the AITP Workshop was to enhance regional academic and industrial cooperation in the field of plasma assisted surface technology. Topics addressed at LAWPP 2011 included space plasmas, dusty plasmas, nuclear fusion, non-thermal plasmas, basic plasma processes, plasma simulation and industrial plasma applications. This variety of subjects is reflected in these proceedings, which the editors hope will result in enjoyable and fruitful reading for those interested in Plasma Physics. It is a pleasure to thank the Institutions that sponsored the meeting, as well as all the participants and collaborators for making this meeting possible. The Editors Luis Bilbao, Fernando Minotti and Hector Kelly LAWPP participants Participants of the 14th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics, 20-25 November 2011, Mar del Plata, Argentina International Scientific Committee Carlos Alejaldre, Spain María Virginia Alves, Brazil Ibere Caldas, Brazil Luis Felipe Delgado-Aparicio, Peru Mayo Villagrán, Mexico Kohnosuke Sato, Japan Héctor Kelly, Argentina Edberto Leal-Quirós, Puerto Rico George Morales, USA Julio Puerta

  1. A recovery of scattering environment in the crust after a large earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugaya, K.; Hiramatsu, Y.; Furumoto, M.; Katao, H.

    2006-12-01

    A large earthquake generates defects such as small faults and cracks and changes scattering environment in and around its rupture zone by the static or the dynamic stress change. The defects are expected to recover with time. A time constant of the healing of the defects is a key parameter for the recurrence of a large earthquake. Coda waves consist mainly of scattered S-waves. The attenuation property of coda waves, coda Q-1 or Qc-1, reflects the scattering environment in the crust and is considered to be a good indicator of the stress condition in the crust (Aki, 1985, Hiramatsu et al., 2000). In the Tamba region, northeast of the rupture zone of the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake (MJMA 7.3), Hiramatsu et al. (2000) reported a coseismic increase in Qc-1 at frequencies of 1.5-4 Hz and decrease in b-value due to the static stress change caused by the event. In this study, we investigate the temporal variation in Qc-1 and seismicity from 1997 to 2000 in the Tamba region, following the period of Hiramatsu et al. (2000), to check the recovery of Qc-1 at lower frequencies and the seismicity. We estimate Qc-1 for 10 frequency bands in a range of 1.5-24 Hz based on the single isotropic scattering model (Sato, 1977). We analyze the waveform data of 2812 shallow microearthquakes (M1.5-3) in the region. In order to examine the duration of high Qc-1, we divide the period after the event (1995-2000), including the data reported by Hiramatsu et al. (2000), into two periods of various time windows. The Student's t test confirms that a significant decrease in the mean values of Qc-1 at frequencies of 1.5- 4 Hz at 2-4 years after the event. This indicates that the values of Qc-1 at the lower frequencies return to those before the event for 2-4 years. The mean values of Qc-1 at 3 and 4 Hz, showing the largest significant variation (Hiramatsu et al., 2000), return to those before the event, in particular, for 2 years. There is no tectonic event that causes a stress change at the

  2. Peridotite-pyroxenite intraplating near the continental Moho (Ivrea-Verbano Zone, Western Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berno, Davide; Tribuzio, Riccardo; Zanetti, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    addition, the pyroxenites locally show variable percentages of plagioclase, which produce a defined pyroxenite to gabbro magmatic layering. The whole sill is frequently crosscut by coarse-grained plagioclase-hornblende dykes. Chemical and isotopic data are currently in progress to define the geochemical signature of the primitive melts, their magmatic evolution and accurate intrusion timing. These information are expected to shed light on the process of continental crustal accretion and on the geodynamic evolution of the IVZ. References: Klötzli, U. S., Sinigoi, S., Quick, J. E., Demarchi, G., Tassinari, C. C. G., Sato, K., Günes, Z., 2014. Duration of igneous activity in the Sesia Magmatic System and implications for high-temperature metamorphism in the Ivrea-Verbano deep crust. Lithos 206-207, pages 19-33 Schaltegger, U., Ulianov, A., Müntener, O., Ovtcharova, M., Peytcheva, I., Vonlanthen, P., Vennemann, T., Antognini, M., Girlanda, F., 2015. Megacrystic zircon with planar fractures in miaskite-type nepheline pegmatites formed at high pressures in the lower crust (Ivrea Zone, southern Alps, Switzerland). American Mineralogist. Volume 100, Issue 1, Pages 83-94. Sinigoi, S., Quick, J.E., Demarchi, G., Peressini, G., 2010. The Sesia magmatic system In: Beltrando, M., Peccerillo, A., Mattei, M., Conticelli, S., Doglioni, C. (Eds.), Journal of The Virtual Explorer 36, 1-33. Zanetti, A., Mazzucchelli, M., Sinigoi, S., Giovanardi, T., Peressini, G., Fanning, M., 2013. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon Triassic intrusion age of the Finero Mafic Complex (Ivrea-Verbano Zone, Western Alps) and its geodynamic implications. Journal of Petrology 54, 2235-2265.

  3. Simulated precursory large aseismic slip at the deeper extension of the seismic region along the Nankai Trough, SW Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtani, Makiko; Kame, Nobuki; Nakatani, Masao

    2016-04-01

    At the subduction zone along the Nankai Trough, SW Japan, large earthquakes around M8 had occurred repeatedly. Their intervals (around 100 - 200 years) have been identified precisely from old historical documents combined with geological surveys (Sangawa, 2011). The most recent events occurred in 1944 (the Showa To-Nankai EQ.) and 1946 (the Showa Nankai EQ.) when modern satellite geodetic networks had not been developed yet. The existence of short-term aseismic processes before the 1944 and 1946 events has been inferred from the leveling or interview records. Two-times level difference measurements showed the displacement of north down before the 1944 event (Mogi, 1986), and the water level of some wells were reported to have dropped before the 1946 event (Sato, 1982). These phenomena were observed within several days before the earthquakes, and each could have been caused by 2 m slip on the plate interface at the deeper extension of the seismic region before each event (Linde and Sacks, 2002). In this study, we simulate the cycle of large earthquakes in a quasi-dynamic 2D model to investigate aseismic slip acceleration in the deeper extension of seismic fault. We consider a flat plate interface with a shallow dipping angle of 15° for the depth 0 - 60 km mimicking the Nankai Trough. Following Nakatani and Scholz (2006) and Yoshida et al. (2013), we introduce an intrinsic cut-off time for healing into the state evolution law of the rate-and-state friction. The intrinsic time leads to a corresponding cut-off velocity (V cx) beyond which velocity strengthening occurs. We assume that V cx is depth dependent (1 - 10-9m/s). We show that this depth variation in V cx can possibly produce large aseismic slip. In our simulation, the bottom part of the fault below the deeper extension exhibits a constant slip rate loaded by a subducting plate velocity (4.5 cm/year). This bottom slip drives the adjacent deeper locked part and aseismic slip starts to accelerate. Because of the

  4. Antiradiation Vaccine: Technology Development- Radiation Tolerance,Prophylaxis, Prevention And Treatment Of Clinical Presentation After Heavy Ion Irradiation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava; Jones, Jeffrey

    Introduction: Research in the field of biological effects of heavy charged particles is necessary for both heavy-ion therapy (hadrontherapy) and protection from the exposure to galactic cosmic radiation in long-term manned space missions.[Durante M. 2004] In future crew of long-term manned missions could operate in exremely high hadronic radiation areas of space and will not survive without effective radiation protection. An Antiradiation Vaccine (AV) must be an important part of a countermeasures regimen for efficient radiation protection purposes of austronauts-cosmonauts-taukonauts: immune-prophylaxis and immune-therapy of acute radiation toxic syndromes developed after heavy ion irradiation. New technology developed (AV) for the purposes of radiological protection and improvement of radiation tolerance and it is quite important to create protective immune active status which prevent toxic reactions inside a human body irradiated by high energy hadrons.[Maliev V. et al. 2006, Popov D. et al.2008]. High energy hadrons produce a variety of secondary particles which play an important role in the energy deposition process, and characterise their radiation qualities [Sato T. et al. 2003] Antiradiation Vaccine with specific immune-prophylaxis by an anti-radiation vaccine should be an important part of medical management for long term space missions. Methods and experiments: 1. Antiradiation vaccine preparation standard, mixture of toxoid form of Radiation Toxins [SRD-group] which include Cerebrovascular RT Neurotoxin, Cardiovascular RT Neurotoxin, Gastrointestinal RT Neurotoxin, Hematopoietic RT Hematotoxin. Radiation Toxins of Radiation Determinant Group isolated from the central lymph of gamma-irradiated animals with Cerebrovascular, Cardiovascular, Gastro-intestinal, Hematopoietic forms of ARS. Devices for radiation are "Panorama", "Puma". 2. Heavy ion exposure was accomplished at Department of Research Institute of Nuclear Physics, Dubna, Russia. The heavy ions

  5. From photoelectron detachment spectra of BrHBr(-), BrDBr(-) and IHI(-), IDI(-) to vibrational bonding of BrMuBr and IMuI.

    PubMed

    Manz, Jörn; Sato, Kazuma; Takayanagi, Toshiyuki; Yoshida, Takahiko

    2015-04-28

    centered at the transition state. This means that XMuX(00(0)0) are vibrationally bonded. This implies a fundamental change of the nature of chemical bonding, from vdW bonding of the heavy XHX, XDX to vibrational bonding of XMuX. For BrMuBr, the present results derived from experimental pds of BrHBr(-) and BrDBr(-) confirm the recent discovery of vibrational bonding based on quantum chemical ab initio calculations [D. G. Fleming, J. Manz, K. Sato, and T. Takayanagi, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 53, 13706 (2014)]. The extension from BrLBr to ILI means the discovery of a new example of vibrational bonding. These empirical results for the vibrational bonding of IMuI, derived from the photoelectron spectra of IHI(-) and IDI(-), are supported by ab initio simulations of the spectra and of the wavefunction representing vibrational bonding of IMuI. PMID:25933765

  6. Analysis of gravity wave propagation and properties, comparison between WRF model simulations and LIDAR data in Southern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costantino, Lorenzo; Heinrich, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    capability of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to generate and propagate GW forced by convection and orography, without any GW parametrization. Results from model simulations are compared with in-situ observations of potential energy vertical profiles in the stratosphere, measured by a LIDAR located at the Observatoire de Haute Provence (Southern France). This comparison allows, to a certain extent, to validate WRF numerical results and quantify some of those wave parameters (e.g., GW drag force, intrinsic frequency, breaking level altitude, etc..) that are fundamental for a deeper understanding of GW role in atmospheric dynamics, but that are not easily measurable by ground- or space-based systems (limited to specific region or certain latitude band). Alexander, M. J., Geller, M., McLandress, C., Polavarapu, S., Preusse, P., Sassi, F., Sato, K., Eckermann, S., Ern, M., Hertzog, A., Kawatani, Y., Pulido, M., Shaw, T. A., Sigmond, M., Vincent, R. and Watanabe, S. (2010), Recent developments in gravity-wave effects in climate models and the global distribution of gravity-wave momentum flux from observations and models. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 136: 1103-1124. doi: 10.1002/qj.637

  7. Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Foundations of Quantum Mechanics in the Light of New Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishioka, Sachio; Fujikawa, Kazuo

    2009-06-01

    Committee -- Obituary: Professor Sadao Nakajima -- Opening address / H. Fukuyama -- Welcoming address / N. Osakabe -- Cold atoms and molecules. Pseudopotential method in cold atom research / C. N. Yang. Symmetry breaking in Bose-Einstein condensates / M. Ueda. Quantized vortices in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates / M. Tsubota. Quantum degenerate gases of Ytterbium atoms / S. Uetake ... [et al.]. Superfluid properties of an ultracold fermi gas in the BCS-BEC crossover region / Y. Ohashi, N. Fukushima. Fermionic superfluidity and the BEC-BCS crossover in ultracold atomic fermi gases / M. W. Zwierlein. Kibble-Zurek mechanism in magnetization of a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate / H. Saito, Y. Kawaguchi, M. Ueda. Quasiparticle inducing Josephson effect in a Bose-Einstein condensate / S. Tsuchiya, Y. Ohashi. Stability of superfluid fermi gases in optical lattices / Y. Yunomae ... [et al.]. Z[symbol] symmetry breaking in multi-band bosonic atoms confined by a two-dimensional harmonic potential / M. Sato, A. Tokuno -- Spin hall effect and anomalous hall effect. Recent advances in anomalous hall effect and spin hall effect / N. Nagaosa. Topological insulators and the quantum spin hall effect / C. L. Kane. Application of direct and inverse spin-hall effects: electric manipulation of spin relaxation and electric detection of spin currents / K. Ando, E. Saitoh. Novel current pumping mechanism by spin dynamics / A. Takeuchi, K. Hosono, G. Tatara. Quantum spin hall phase in bismuth ultrathin film / S. Murakami. Anomalous hall effect due to the vector chirality / K. Taguchi, G. Tatara. Spin current distributions and spin hall effect in nonlocal magnetic nanostructures / R. Sugano ... [et al.]. New boundary critical phenomenon at the metal-quantum spin hall insulator transition / H. Obuse. On scaling behaviors of anomalous hall conductivity in disordered ferromagnets studied with the coherent potential approximation / S. Onoda -- Magnetic domain wall dynamics and spin related

  8. PHITS-2.76, Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    sections from evaluated nuclear data libraries JENDL-4.0 (Shibata et al 2011). For high energy neutrons and other particles, we have incorporated several models such as JAM (Nara et al 1999), INCL (Cugnon et al 2011), INCL-ELF (Sawada et al 2012) and JQMD (Niita et al 1995) to simulate nuclear reactions up to 100 GeV/u. The special features of PHITS are the event generator mode (Iwamoto et al 2007) and the microdosimetric function (Sato et al 2009). Owing to the event generator mode, PHITS can determine the profiles of all secondary particles generated from a single nuclear interaction even using nuclear data libraries, taking the momentum and energy conservations into account. The microdosimetric function gives the probability densities of deposition energy in microscopic sites such as lineal energy y and specific energy z, using the mathematical model developed based on the results of the track structure simulation. These features are very important for various purposes such as the estimations of soft-error rates of semi-conductor devices induced by neutrons, and relative biological effectiveness of charged particles. From version 2.64, Prompt gamma spectrum and isomer production rates can be precisely estimated, owing to the implementation of EBITEM (ENSDF-Based Isomeric Transition and isomEr production Model). The photo-nuclear reaction model was improved up to 140 MeV. From version 2.76, electron and photon transport algorithm based on EGS5 (Hirayama et al. 2005) was incorporated. Models for describing photo-nuclear reaction above 140 MeV and muon-nuclear reaction were implemented. Event-generator mode version 2 was developed. Relativistic theory can be considered in the JQMD model.

  9. FDTD Studies of Eigenfrequencies and Q-factors of the Earth-ionosphere Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H.; Pasko, V.

    2004-12-01

    Resonance properties of the Earth-ionosphere cavity were predicted by W. O. Schumann in 1952 [Schumann, Z. Naturforsch., 7a, 149, 1952]. Since then observations of electromagnetic signals in the frequency range 1-500 Hz have become a powerful tool for variety of remote sensing applications [e.g., Williams, Science, 256, 1184, 1992; Cummer, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., 48, 1420, 2000; Roldugin et al., JGR, 109, A01216, 2004], which in recent years included studies of thunderstorm related transient luminous events in the middle atmosphere and related lightning discharges [e.g., Sato and Fukunishi, GRL, 30, 1859, 2003; Su et al., Nature, 423, 974, 2003]. In this talk we will provide a comparison of a limited set of results from a simplified version of a 3-D FDTD model of the Earth-ionosphere cavity originally introduced in [Yang and Pasko, EOS Trans. AGU, 84, Fall Meet. Suppl., AE42A-0796, 2003] with a set of classical eigenfrequency (fn) and quality factor (Qn) solutions for laterally uniform spherically symmetric Earth-ionosphere cavity and with recent observations of Schumann resonances (SR) during solar proton events (SPEs) and X-ray bursts in order to demonstrate the potential and applicability of the FDTD technique for studies of realistic SR problems. The specific uniform cavities, which will be discussed in our talk, incorporate the following conductivity models: (1) a single-exponential profile with a perturbation [Sentman, JATP, 45, 55, 1983]; (2) a "knee" profile [e.g., Mushtak and Williams, JASTP, 64, 1989, 2002]; and (3) a two-exponential profile [Greifinger and Greifinger, Radio Sci., 13, 831, 1978; Sentman, JATP, 52, 35, 1990; JGR, 101, 9479, 1996; Mushtak and Williams, 2002]. The FDTD fn and Qn solutions for uniform cavity appear to be in excellent agreement (within several %) with well-known results documented in the literature [e.g., Sentman, 1983; Mushtak and Williams, 2002], including such particular details as a very flat frequency dependence

  10. Simulated precursory large aseismic slip at the deeper extension of the seismic region along the Nankai Trough, SW Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtani, Makiko; Kame, Nobuki; Nakatani, Masao

    2016-04-01

    At the subduction zone along the Nankai Trough, SW Japan, large earthquakes around M8 had occurred repeatedly. Their intervals (around 100 - 200 years) have been identified precisely from old historical documents combined with geological surveys (Sangawa, 2011). The most recent events occurred in 1944 (the Showa To-Nankai EQ.) and 1946 (the Showa Nankai EQ.) when modern satellite geodetic networks had not been developed yet. The existence of short-term aseismic processes before the 1944 and 1946 events has been inferred from the leveling or interview records. Two-times level difference measurements showed the displacement of north down before the 1944 event (Mogi, 1986), and the water level of some wells were reported to have dropped before the 1946 event (Sato, 1982). These phenomena were observed within several days before the earthquakes, and each could have been caused by 2 m slip on the plate interface at the deeper extension of the seismic region before each event (Linde and Sacks, 2002). In this study, we simulate the cycle of large earthquakes in a quasi-dynamic 2D model to investigate aseismic slip acceleration in the deeper extension of seismic fault. We consider a flat plate interface with a shallow dipping angle of 15° for the depth 0 - 60 km mimicking the Nankai Trough. Following Nakatani and Scholz (2006) and Yoshida et al. (2013), we introduce an intrinsic cut-off time for healing into the state evolution law of the rate-and-state friction. The intrinsic time leads to a corresponding cut-off velocity (V cx) beyond which velocity strengthening occurs. We assume that V cx is depth dependent (1 - 10‑9m/s). We show that this depth variation in V cx can possibly produce large aseismic slip. In our simulation, the bottom part of the fault below the deeper extension exhibits a constant slip rate loaded by a subducting plate velocity (4.5 cm/year). This bottom slip drives the adjacent deeper locked part and aseismic slip starts to accelerate. Because of

  11. [Non-tuberculous mycobacteriosis. What has been coming out].

    PubMed

    Kajiki, Akira

    2011-02-01

    Diagnosis of non-tuberculous mycobacteriosis is relatively easy, because of recent technological advances (HRCT, MGIT, PCR, DDH etc). Although many reports of this disease have been published, there are many problems to resolve. (1) Prevalence of non-tuberculous mycobacteriosis: Shigeki SATO (Department of Medical Oncology and Immunology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences) Questionnaire surveys to determine the prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease were carried out in 2001, 2007, and 2009. The NTM disease rate was estimated at 5.9/100,000, confirming that Japan has one of the world's highest NTM disease rates. Examination of the proportions of M. avium and M. intracellulare disease in Japan by region revealed that the M. avium/M. intracellulare disease ratio increased in different regions since past reports. In the 2007 survey, the M. avium disease rate had increased over the 2001 level. M. kansasii had a high disease rate in the Kinki and Kanto regions. Disease rates tended to be high in regions that have a metropolis. However, the disease rate was low in Aichi Prefecture, so that the presence in a region of a metropolis is probably not of itself a factor causing a high disease rate. The distributions of the bacteria causing NTM thus vary among different countries and regions. (2) Polyclonal infection of Mycobacterium avium using variable numbers of tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis: Tomoshige MATSUMOTO (Department of Clinical Research and Development, Center for Infectious Diseases, Osaka Prefectural Hospital Organization, Osaka Prefectural Medical Center for Respiratory and Allergic Diseases) Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is refractory to therapy, containing rifampicin (RFP), ethambutol (EB), and clarithromycin (CAM). It was widely accepted that therapeutic difficulties of pulmonary MAC treatment was caused by highly resistance to antibiotics or repeated re-infection from environment. Variable number of tandem repeats

  12. A Thermal Infrared Emission Spectra Library for Unpowdered Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashley, J. W.; Christensen, P. R.

    2007-12-01

    interpretation of asteroid spectroscopic studies in the mid-infrared [4]. However, the high-resolution Itokawa imaging results of the Hayabusa mission have shown that not all asteroid surfaces are dominated by powdered materials [e.g. 5]. It is therefore anticipated that whole-rock, mid-infrared emission spectra may serve a further purpose in studies conducted with Spitzer Space Telescope and other space-born observatories equipped with mid-infrared detectors. The library will therefore continue to be augmented with additional spectra, to include unweathered carbonaceous chondrites and achondrites at a minimum. All spectra are available through the Arizona State University Thermal Emission Spectral Library. References: [1] Sato K. and Miyamoto M. (1998) Antarctic Meteorite Research 11, 155-162. [2] Salisbury J.W. et al. (1991) NASA Technical Memorandum #4300, 262-204. [3] Dameron S.N. and Burbine T.H. (2006) LPSC XXXVII, abstract #1828. [4] Emery J.P. et al. (2006) Icarus 182, 496-512. [5] Miyamoto et al. (2007) Science 316, 1011- 1014.

  13. Precursory Seismic Activity Surrounding the High-Slip Patches of the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Hiratsuka, S.; Mori, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    The 11 March 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake (Mw9.0) occurred on the megathrust along the western margin of the Pacific Ocean where the Pacific plate is being subducted beneath the island of Honshu, Japan. The slip near the Japan Trench was estimated to be enormous; it averaged about 40 m over the upper 100 km of the megathrust and peaked at 60-80 m close to the trench (Lay et al., 2011; Ozawa et al., 2012; Iinuma et al., 2012). Nearly a thousand years are required to accumulate such a large slip for the convergence rate of 8-9 cm/yr along this plate boundary zone. Two days before the Tohoku-Oki earthquake, foreshock activity (largest event M7.3) occurred north of the main-shock epicenter. The epicentral area of the foreshock activity is similar to a M7.0 earthquake in 1981 (Shao et al., 2011). The question arises, why did the 1981 event not trigger a great earthquake? A time difference of 30 years is negligible in comparison with the long time required for the slip deficit of more than 40 m. In order to address this question, we investigated the seismic activity prior to the Tohoku-Oki earthquake using the earthquake catalogue compiled by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) since 1923. For the purpose of the present study, we independently determined the slip distribution of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake, using the coseismic displacements derived from the GEONET GPS stations on land (Ozawa et al., 2011) and those from the offshore GPS stations and ocean-bottom water pressure gauges (Sato et al., 2011; Iinuma et al., 2012). The slip distribution is characterized by two high-slip ( 20m) patches separated by a zone of relatively low slip. The peak of the northern high-slip patch is located near the trench while the peak of the southern high-slip patches are situated about 40 km southeast of the main-shock epicenter, about 70 km away from the trench. Combined with the analyses of main-shock rupture process by Ide et al. (2011) and Shao et al. (2011), it is estimated that the

  14. ASTRO-H Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soong, Yang; Okajima, Takashi; Serlemitsos, Peter J.; Odell, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Ishida, Manabu; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Iizuka, Ryo; Hayashi, Takayuki; Tawara, Yuzuru; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Mori, Hideyuki; Miyazawa, Takuya; Kunieda, Hideyo; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Sugita, Satoshi; Tamura, Keisuke; Ishibashi, Kazunori; Izumiya, Takanori; Minami, Sari; Sato, Toshiki; Tomikawa, Kazuki; Kikuchi, Naomichi; Iwase, Toshihiro

    2014-07-01

    were carried out, and optical quality of the telescopes has been confirmed. SXT-1 and -2 were tested with the broad but slightly divergent beam, up to 8 arc-minutes, at Goddard. The full characterization were carried out in Japan which includes: angular resolution, effective area in the energy range of ~ 0.4 - 12keV, off-axis response at various energies, etc. We report the calibration results of the SXT-1 and -2 that were obtained at NASA/Goddard and JAXA/ISAS. The detailed calibration are reported in the two papers in this conference: 9144-206, "Ground-based x-ray calibration of the ASTRO-H soft x-ray telescopes" by R. Iizuka et al. and 9144-207, "Revealing a detailed performance of the soft x-ray telescopes of the ASTRO-H mission" by T. Sato, et al. Some small but significant discrepancies existed between ISAS and Goddard measurements that were attributed to the difference of the X-ray beams - pencil beam vs divergent beam.

  15. PREFACE: International Symposium on Non-Equilibrium Soft Matter 2010 International Symposium on Non-Equilibrium Soft Matter 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakatsu, T.; Matsuyama, A.; Ohta, T.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, S.

    2011-07-01

    , Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of Japan. We thank those who contributed to this symposium as well as members of the 'Soft Matter Physics' project for their valuable discussions and collaborations. Non-equilibrium soft matter contents Insights on raft behavior from minimal phenomenological models G Garbès Putzel and M Schick Dynamical membrane curvature instability controlled by intermonolayer friction Anne-Florence Bitbol, Jean-Baptiste Fournier, Miglena I Angelova and Nicolas Puff Numerical investigations of the dynamics of two-component vesicles Takashi Taniguchi, Miho Yanagisawa and Masayuki Imai Asymmetric distribution of cone-shaped lipids in a highly curved bilayer revealed by a small angle neutron scattering technique Y Sakuma, N Urakami, T Taniguchi and M Imai Hydration, phase separation and nonlinear rheology of temperature-sensitive water-soluble polymers Fumihiko Tanaka, Tsuyoshi Koga, Isamu Kaneda and Françoise M Winnik Morphology and rheology of an immiscible polymer blend subjected to a step electric field under shear flow H Orihara, Y Nishimoto, K Aida, Y H Na, T Nagaya and S Ujiie Surfactant-induced friction reduction for hydrogels in the boundary lubrication regime Kosuke Kamada, Hidemitsu Furukawa, Takayuki Kurokawa, Tomohiro Tada, Taiki Tominaga, Yukihiro Nakano and Jian Ping Gong Fabrication and structural analysis of polyrotaxane fibers and films Yasuhiro Sakai, Kentaro Ueda, Naoya Katsuyama, Koji Shimizu, Shunya Sato, Jun Kuroiwa, Jun Araki, Akira Teramoto, Koji Abe, Hideaki Yokoyama and Kohzo Ito Micellization kinetics of diblock copolymers in a homopolymer matrix: a self-consistent field study Raghuram Thiagarajan and David C Morse Hierarchical self-assembly of two-length-scale multiblock copolymers Gerrit ten Brinke, Katja Loos, Ivana Vukovic and Gerrit Gobius du Sart Kaleidoscopic morphologies from ABC star-shaped terpolymers Yushu Matsushita, Kenichi Hayashida, Tomonari Dotera and Atsushi Takano Direct and inverted nematic

  16. Geodetic Inversion Analysis Method of Coseismic Slip Distribution Using a Three-dimensional Finite Element High-fidelity Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agata, R.; Ichimura, T.; Hirahara, K.; Hori, T.; Hyodo, M.; Hori, M.

    2013-12-01

    Many studies have focused on geodetic inversion analysis method of coseismic slip distribution with combination of observation data of coseismic crustal deformation on the ground and simplified crustal models such like analytical solution in elastic half-space (Okada, 1985). On the other hand, displacements on the seafloor or near trench axes due to actual earthquakes has been observed by seafloor observatories (e.g. the 2011 Tohoku-oki Earthquake (Tohoku Earthquake) (Sato et. al. 2011) (Kido et. al. 2011)). Also, some studies on tsunamis due to the Tohoku Earthquake indicate that large fault slips near the trench axis may have occurred. Those facts suggest that crustal models considering complex geometry and heterogeneity of the material property near the trench axis should be used for geodetic inversion analysis. Therefore, our group has developed a mesh generation method for finite element models of the Japanese Islands of higher fidelity and a fast crustal deformation analysis method for the models. Degree-of-freedom of the models generated by this method is about 150 million. In this research, the method is extended for inversion analyses of coseismic slip distribution. Since inversion analyses need computation of hundreds of slip response functions due to a unit fault slip assigned for respective divided cells on the fault, parallel computing environment is used. Plural crustal deformation analyses are simultaneously run in a Message Passing Interface (MPI) job. In the job, dynamic load balancing is implemented so that a better parallel efficiency is obtained. Submitting the necessary number of serial job of our previous method is also possible, but the proposed method needs less computation time, places less stress on file systems, and allows simpler job management. A method for considering the fault slip right near the trench axis is also developed. As the displacement distribution of unit fault slip for computing response function, 3rd order B

  17. Coseismic Slip Distribution of the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake Deduced from Land and Seafloor Geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iinuma, T.; Kido, M.; Osada, Y.; Inazu, D.; Ohzono, M.; Tsushima, H.; Hino, R.; Ohta, Y.; Suzuki, S.; Fujimoto, H.; Miura, S.; Shinohara, M.

    2011-12-01

    The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake (M9.0) occurred on 11 March 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku district, northeastern Japan, where the Pacific plate is subducting beneath the overriding continental plate. A number of models of the coseismic slip distribution of this earthquake have been already proposed based on seismological, geodetic, and tsunami data. Here, we present comprehensive coseismic slip distribution model based not only on land GPS data but also on seafloor geodetic observations, which are obtained through recent observation cruises. We combined displacements at seafloor sites that are deduced from two different types of seafloor observations with the displacements at land GPS stations. One is the seafloor crustal deformation observation with GPS/Acoustic ranging (GPS/A). Horizontal displacements associated with the 2011 Tohoku earthquake at 2 GPS/A stations are estimated by comparing the station positions deduced from the observations before and after the earthquake. Another type of the seafloor data is seafloor water pressure that is observed by means of ocean bottom pressure gauge (OBP). We analyzed OBP data observed at 2 cabled and 4 self pop-up stations, and estimated vertical displacements due to the main shock. Displacements at 5 GPS/A stations of Japan Coast Guard [Sato et al., 2011, science] are also included to estimate the coseismic slip distribution of the earthquake. Estimated slip distribution of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake shows following features. 1) The area of large slip ( > 20 m) is about 100 km x 200 km on the plate interface shallower than 30 km in depth. 2) There is no large slip occurred off southern Iwate prefecture on the plate interface throughout shallow to deep. 3) The latitudinal range of the area of large slip almost corresponds to the one of the area of strong interplate coupling zone off Miyagi prefecture. 4) Significant slip is estimated around the rupture area of 1978 M7.4 Miyagi-oki earthquake (40

  18. PREFACE: Ultrafast and nonlinear optics in carbon nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, Junichiro

    2013-02-01

    Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter staff for their help, patience and professionalism. Since this is a fast-moving field, there is absolutely no way of presenting definitive answers to all open questions, but we hope that this special section will provide an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding this topic. Furthermore, we hope that the exciting science and technology described in this section will attract and inspire other researchers and students working in related fields to enter into the study of ultrafast and nonlinear optical phenomena in carbon-based nanostructures. Ultrafast and nonlinear optics in carbon nanomaterials contents Ultrafast and nonlinear optics in carbon nanomaterialsJunichiro Kono The impact of pump fluence on carrier relaxation dynamics in optically excited grapheneT Winzer and E Malic Time-resolved spectroscopy on epitaxial graphene in the infrared spectral range: relaxation dynamics and saturation behaviorS Winnerl, F Göttfert, M Mittendorff, H Schneider, M Helm, T Winzer, E Malic, A Knorr, M Orlita, M Potemski, M Sprinkle, C Berger and W A de Heer Nonlinear optics of graphene in a strong magnetic fieldXianghan Yao and Alexey Belyanin Theory of coherent phonons in carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbonsG D Sanders, A R T Nugraha, K Sato, J-H Kim3, J Kono3, R Saito and C J Stanton Non-perturbative effects of laser illumination on the electrical properties of graphene nanoribbons Hernán L Calvo, Pablo M Perez-Piskunow, Horacio M Pastawski, Stephan Roche and Luis E F Foa Torres Transient absorption microscopy studies of energy relaxation in graphene oxide thin film Sean Murphy and Libai Huang Femtosecond dynamics of exciton localization: self-trapping from the small to the large polaron limit F X Morrissey, J G Mance, A D Van Pelt and S L Dexheimer

  19. Kanto Asperity Project -Background and Outline-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, R.; Yamamoto, Y.; Sato, T.; Shishikura, M.; Curewitz, D.

    2009-12-01

    The Kanto region (Tokyo and the surrounding area) is one of the most densely populated urban areas in the world and has been devastated by repeated great earthquakes. This region is located at an island arc-island arc collision zone and a zone where Pacific and Philippine Sea plates are subducting. Great earthquakes along the Sagami trough, where the Philippine Sea slab is subducting, have repeatedly occurred. The 1703 Genroku and 1923 (Taisho) Kanto earthquakes caused severe damages in the metropolitan area. The recurrence periods of Taisho- and Genroku-type earthquakes are about 200-400 and 2000 years, respectively (e.g., Earthquake Research Committee, 2004). Many studies on the asperities along the Sagami trough have been carried out. Two asperities of the 1923 Kanto earthquake are located around the western part of Kanagawa prefecture (the base of the Izu peninsula) and around the Miura peninsula. An additional asperity of the 1703 Genroku earthquake is located the southern part of the Boso Peninsula. Slow slip events have also repeatedly occurred in an area adjacent to the asperities of the great earthquakes, off Boso peninsula (e.g., Ozawa et al 2007). In the cases of Nankai and Cascadia, slow slip events occur at deeper levels than the asperities, in a transition zone between the asperity and a region of steady slip. In contrast, slow slip events in the Kanto region have occurred at relatively shallow depths, at the same level as the asperity, raising the possibiltiy of friction controlled by different conditions (materials, fluid, or surface roughness) to those (temperature and pressure) encountered at Nankai and Cascadia. Deep seismic profiling have been carried out since the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Urban areas (DaiDaiToku) (2002-2006). These profiling successfully presented a new image of the upper surface of the Philippine Sea slab (Sato et al. 2005), which is shallower than the previous models. This profiling also presents

  20. Two-Stage Magma Mixing and Initial Phase of the 1667 Plinian Eruption of Tarumai Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiya, A.; Takeuchi, S.

    2009-12-01

    Plinian eruptions can eject high-viscosity low-T magma with high crystal content. Several mechanisms have been proposed, such as remobilization by addition of volatile from high-T magma (Bachmann & Bergantz, 2006) and precursory eruption of low-viscosity hybrid magma between low-T and high-T magmas (Pallister et al., 1996; Takeuchi & Nakamura, 2001). We discuss this matter by analysis on a Plinian eruption of Tarumai Volcano. Tarumai (Tarumae) is one of the most active volcanoes in Japan. The 1667 eruption is the first one in historical time after thousands of years of dormancy, and one of the largest eruptions (VEI 5) in the volcano (Soya & Sato, 1980). The major eruptive product, Ta-b pumice, is andesite, consisting of abundant phenocrysts (20-40 %) and rhyolitic glass (Soya, 1971; Furukawa, 1998; Nakagawa et al., 2006). Hiraga & Nakagawa (2000) reported that the bulk rock was homogeneous (SiO2 = 58-62 wt.%) from subunit b8 (lower) to b1 (upper). On the other hand, Takeuchi (2001) found that the bottom layer of b8 (b8-bottom) was more mafic (SiO2 = 56-58 wt.%) and interpreted it as precursory hybrid magma. We analyzed phenocrysts in b8-bottom and other subunits of Ta-b, and compared their compositions and textures. The followings are obtained. Plagioclase: the compositions and textures are similar among the subunits; some phenocrysts are calcic with a homogeneous core of An > 90, whereas most have a complex texture with An 65 to 75. Orthopyroxene/clinopyroxene: the compositions and textures are similar among the subunits; most phenocrysts have a homogeneous core of Mg* 62 to 68 for orthopyroxene and Mg* 70 to 74 for clinopyroxene; those in b8-bottom show reverse zonings. Olivine: there are few phenocrysts and they often coexist with the calcic plagioclase. Magnetite: the compositions are homogeneous (Usp 30 to 34, Mg/Mn 5 to 7; type-1) except for those in b8-bottom; there are two types of phenocrysts in b8-bottom, Usp 30 to 34, Mg/Mn 7 to 9 (type-2) and Usp 23 to

  1. Ocean Bottom Pressure Measurements Off Sanriku, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Fujimoto, H.; Matsumoto, K.; Tamura, Y.; Higashi, T.; Nishino, M.; Hino, R.; Kanazawa, T.

    2003-12-01

    Variable motions of the ocean are changing the Earth's gravity field. For example, mass exchange in the Pacific Ocean is considered to be the most probable source of the recent rapid and large change in the J2 term, which may be related to the ENSO event in 1997 (Cox and Chao, 2002). The actual ocean mass exchange related to that event was also observed from ocean bottom pressure records (OBPRs) offshore of Peru (Fujimoto et al., 2003). On the other hand, satellite altimetry measurements, such as TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P), enable us to estimate the oceanic effect on gravity observations using globally-gridded data for sea surface height (SSH) variability. However, the altimeter data are affected by steric changes in the ocean, which should not contribute to the observed gravity changes (for example, Sato et al., 2001). In order to examine the relation among the mass exchange in the oceans, SSH variation, and gravity changes, we began a three-year observation project in 2001 to measure the ocean bottom pressure changes at the three crossover points of the T/P satellite off Sanriku, Japan: 143.1E, 39.2N (Point-A); 146.0E, 39.2N (Point-B); and 144.6E, 41.5N (Point-N). The data are sampled at an interval of one minute. Here, we will report the analysis results for the OBPR data for the two years since the beginning of the observations. Although the records at Point-N show a peculiar time variation, we obtained clear tidal signals at Point-A and Point-B. We compared the tidal analysis results with a global ocean tide model, NAO99b (Matsumoto et al., 2000), and we confirmed that, at both Point-A and Point-B, the predicted tides agree to the actual observations within the difference of 1 % in amplitude for the four major tidal waves: M2, S2, K1 and O1. This suggests that it may be possible to correct the tidal effect on the satellite gravity data with an accuracy of about 1 % by using recent global tide models. We also compared residuals of the OBPR data, which were obtained

  2. From photoelectron detachment spectra of BrHBr-, BrDBr- and IHI-, IDI- to vibrational bonding of BrMuBr and IMuI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manz, Jörn; Sato, Kazuma; Takayanagi, Toshiyuki; Yoshida, Takahiko

    2015-04-01

    means that XMuX(0000) are vibrationally bonded. This implies a fundamental change of the nature of chemical bonding, from vdW bonding of the heavy XHX, XDX to vibrational bonding of XMuX. For BrMuBr, the present results derived from experimental pds of BrHBr- and BrDBr- confirm the recent discovery of vibrational bonding based on quantum chemical ab initio calculations [D. G. Fleming, J. Manz, K. Sato, and T. Takayanagi, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 53, 13706 (2014)]. The extension from BrLBr to ILI means the discovery of a new example of vibrational bonding. These empirical results for the vibrational bonding of IMuI, derived from the photoelectron spectra of IHI- and IDI-, are supported by ab initio simulations of the spectra and of the wavefunction representing vibrational bonding of IMuI.

  3. From photoelectron detachment spectra of BrHBr{sup −}, BrDBr{sup −} and IHI{sup −}, IDI{sup −} to vibrational bonding of BrMuBr and IMuI

    SciTech Connect

    Manz, Jörn; Sato, Kazuma; Takayanagi, Toshiyuki Yoshida, Takahiko

    2015-04-28

    der Waals (vdW) bonded. In contrast, the energies E{sub XMuX,00{sup 0}0} of the light isotopomers XMuX(00{sup 0}0) are below the threshold for dissociation, with wavefunctions centered at the transition state. This means that XMuX(00{sup 0}0) are vibrationally bonded. This implies a fundamental change of the nature of chemical bonding, from vdW bonding of the heavy XHX, XDX to vibrational bonding of XMuX. For BrMuBr, the present results derived from experimental pds of BrHBr{sup −} and BrDBr{sup −} confirm the recent discovery of vibrational bonding based on quantum chemical ab initio calculations [D. G. Fleming, J. Manz, K. Sato, and T. Takayanagi, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 53, 13706 (2014)]. The extension from BrLBr to ILI means the discovery of a new example of vibrational bonding. These empirical results for the vibrational bonding of IMuI, derived from the photoelectron spectra of IHI{sup −} and IDI{sup −}, are supported by ab initio simulations of the spectra and of the wavefunction representing vibrational bonding of IMuI.

  4. Photometric parameter maps of the Moon derived from LROC WAC images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, H.; Robinson, M. S.; Hapke, B. W.; Denevi, B. W.; Boyd, A. K.

    2013-12-01

    highlands (0.47×0.16). Since c controls the fraction of backward/forward scattering in H-G2, lower c for the maria indicates more forward scattering relative to the highlands. This trend is opposite to what was expected because darker particles are usually more backscattering. However, the lower albedo of the maria is due to the higher abundance of ilmenite, which is an opaque mineral that scatters all of the light by specular reflection from the its surface. If their surface facets are relatively smooth the ilmenite particles will be forward scattering. Other factors (e.g. grain shape, grain size, porosity, maturity) besides the mineralogy might also be affecting c. The angular-width of SHOE (hs) typically shows lower values (0.047×0.02) for the maria relative to the highlands (0.074×0.025). An increase in hs for the maria theoretically suggests lower porosity or a narrower grain size distribution [1], but the link between actual materials and hs is not well constrained. Further experiments using both laboratory and spacecraft observations will help to unravel the photometric properties of the surface materials of the Moon. [1] Hapke, B.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2012. [2] Sato, H. et al.: 42nd LPSC, abstract #1974, 2011. [3] Scholten, F. et al.: JGR, 117, E00H17, 2012. [4] Hapke, B.: Icarus, 221(2), p1079-1083, 2012.

  5. PHITS-2.76, Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System

    2015-08-01

    the cross sections from evaluated nuclear data libraries JENDL-4.0 (Shibata et al 2011). For high energy neutrons and other particles, we have incorporated several models such as JAM (Nara et al 1999), INCL (Cugnon et al 2011), INCL-ELF (Sawada et al 2012) and JQMD (Niita et al 1995) to simulate nuclear reactions up to 100 GeV/u. The special features of PHITS are the event generator mode (Iwamoto et al 2007) and the microdosimetric function (Sato et al 2009). Owing to the event generator mode, PHITS can determine the profiles of all secondary particles generated from a single nuclear interaction even using nuclear data libraries, taking the momentum and energy conservations into account. The microdosimetric function gives the probability densities of deposition energy in microscopic sites such as lineal energy y and specific energy z, using the mathematical model developed based on the results of the track structure simulation. These features are very important for various purposes such as the estimations of soft-error rates of semi-conductor devices induced by neutrons, and relative biological effectiveness of charged particles. From version 2.64, Prompt gamma spectrum and isomer production rates can be precisely estimated, owing to the implementation of EBITEM (ENSDF-Based Isomeric Transition and isomEr production Model). The photo-nuclear reaction model was improved up to 140 MeV. From version 2.76, electron and photon transport algorithm based on EGS5 (Hirayama et al. 2005) was incorporated. Models for describing photo-nuclear reaction above 140 MeV and muon-nuclear reaction were implemented. Event-generator mode version 2 was developed. Relativistic theory can be considered in the JQMD model.« less

  6. Multiple paleotsunamis inferred from a single coral boulder (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, K.; Nakamura, N.; Sato, T.; Hisamatsu, A.

    2013-12-01

    Tsunami boulders are important geological evidence of paleotsunamis. Recent advance in field observation, laboratory analyses and numerical modeling on coastal boulders have greatly improved our knowledge regarding to their depositional process. For example, in the southern Ryukyu Islands, Japan, radiocarbon dating of many coral boulders were performed and the recurrence interval of the paleotsunamis was estimated [Araoka et al., 2013 Geology]. Their preferential distributions in specific area would also suggest local occurrence of tsunamigenic earthquakes [Goto et al., 2013 Geology]. These types of works can be conducted at the place where many boulders exist and any type of dating methods are applicable to estimate their depositional ages. On the other hand, there are many isolated boulders in the world and their depositional ages were sometimes uncertain. Therefore, it is highly required developing a methodology to use such isolated boulders not just to use it as evidence of paleotsunamis but to know more details such as timing and size of tsunami. In order to overcome this issue, we introduce an advanced methodology based on the paleomagnetism as well as the numerical modeling. Rocks possess a remanent magnetization parallel to the Earth's magnetic field at the time of rock formation. When boulders are rotated or overturned by the paleotsunami from their original locations, a new component of viscous remanent magnetization (VRM) is added on an original component parallel to the Earth's magnetic field. The VRM acquired at low temperature during a long time scale in nature can be demagnetized at high temperature in a short time in laboratory. Therefore, the demagnetizing (unblocking) temperature of VRM gives a transportation mode and also its timing for the transportation histories from a single boulder [Sato et al., 2013 AOGS abstract]. We applied this method to a large coral boulder at 10 m in elevation at Ishigaki Island, Japan, which was deposited around 2000

  7. Proposal of benchmark to study hospital management sustainability.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Zaiken

    2008-07-01

    Well, regarding how I introduced this story today, I thought that I would have to add a new story due to the original request from Vice President Sato. There were other situations. The other day, Mr. Miyabayashi visited my office at the University of Shizuoka, he looked like lack of spirit. I asked him what was wrong. He told me that an incorporated foundation running a mental hospital consulted with him concerning rebuilding their mental hospital that was in practice in the town. It has been in business for a long time. When they opened business, the place was not a commercial center. However, the place is in the town now, so they would like to replace the old building with a new one. They have been running the hospital in the red for the last several years, so they were wondering how to rebuild the hospital under these conditions. Simply put, since the land price went up since the opening of business, they will sell the half of the land and rebuild a new building on the remaining land using the land money and loan from the bank. However, the top executives of the incorporated foundation have been replaced completely, and there are no people related to the owner family. Hired president and hired hospital director wished to rebuild with a gorgeous hospital. Then he sit up all night to write a draft of the down-to-earth hospital rebuilding plan because their future repayment would be deadlocked if they built such a gorgeous hospital. Then he brought the plan to them. However, his client became angry after reading it, and he was banned from the hospital. He felt depressed and visited me in Shizuoka. I have come to like the universal coverage health insurance system while studying hospital management sustainability. The universal coverage health insurance system in Japan is the envy of the world. It functions if there is a medical institution nearby when a citizen owning an insurance certificate becomes ill. Today, it is functioning, so citizens' satisfaction level

  8. Proposal of benchmark to study hospital management sustainability.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Zaiken

    2008-07-01

    Well, regarding how I introduced this story today, I thought that I would have to add a new story due to the original request from Vice President Sato. There were other situations. The other day, Mr. Miyabayashi visited my office at the University of Shizuoka, he looked like lack of spirit. I asked him what was wrong. He told me that an incorporated foundation running a mental hospital consulted with him concerning rebuilding their mental hospital that was in practice in the town. It has been in business for a long time. When they opened business, the place was not a commercial center. However, the place is in the town now, so they would like to replace the old building with a new one. They have been running the hospital in the red for the last several years, so they were wondering how to rebuild the hospital under these conditions. Simply put, since the land price went up since the opening of business, they will sell the half of the land and rebuild a new building on the remaining land using the land money and loan from the bank. However, the top executives of the incorporated foundation have been replaced completely, and there are no people related to the owner family. Hired president and hired hospital director wished to rebuild with a gorgeous hospital. Then he sit up all night to write a draft of the down-to-earth hospital rebuilding plan because their future repayment would be deadlocked if they built such a gorgeous hospital. Then he brought the plan to them. However, his client became angry after reading it, and he was banned from the hospital. He felt depressed and visited me in Shizuoka. I have come to like the universal coverage health insurance system while studying hospital management sustainability. The universal coverage health insurance system in Japan is the envy of the world. It functions if there is a medical institution nearby when a citizen owning an insurance certificate becomes ill. Today, it is functioning, so citizens' satisfaction level

  9. Crustal image along the southern Izu-Bonin arc and the northern tip of the West Mariana Ridge deduced from a seismic refaction/reflection data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Kodaira, S.; Takahashi, N.; Kaiho, Y.; Kaneda, Y.

    2009-12-01

    The Izu-Bonin island arc, which is located from 35°N to 23.5°N, is a typical oceanic island arc and the location that the continental middle crust is produced (e.g., Suyehiro et al., 1996). Along the Izu-Bonin island arc, seismic surveys were conducted in the northern arc (35°-30°N) and the central arc (30°-26°N) (e.g., Kodaira et al., 2007). Beneath the volcanic front along the northern and central Izu-Bonin island arc, this arc has the middle, lower crust, and the crust-mantle transition layer (Vp: 7.2-7.5 km/s) (Kodaira et al., 2007; Sato at al., 2009). Moreover, the crustal bulk composition beneath basaltic volcanoes has a small variation along the northern and central arc although the layer of 6.0-6.8 km/s in the central arc is thinner than that in the northern arc (Kodaira et al., 2007). However, little is known about the crustal structure along the southern Izu-Bonin island arc from 26°N southward and the northern tip of the West Mariana Ridge. For this study, we present the crustal image along the southern Izu-Bonin island arc (26°-23.5°N) and the northern tip of the West Mariana Ridge (23.5°-21.5°N). Moreover, we present the variation of the crustal component along the whole Izu-Bonin island arc (35°-23.5°N), about 1250 km long. In 2007, a seismic refraction/reflection survey using ocean bottom seismographs (OBSs) and airguns were conducted beneath the volcanic front along the southern Izu-Bonin island arc and along the northern tip of the West Mariana Ridge. In record sections of several OBSs, not only the first arrived phases but also later phases reflected from interfaces in the crust and uppermost mantle are visible. In this study, to obtain seismic velocity image and reflection image in the crust including sediments and uppermost mantle, we used the seismic refraction tomography using first-arrival phases (Zhang et al., 1998) and reflection travel-time mapping method (Fujie et al., 2006). The southern Izu-Bonin island arc and the northern

  10. How do aquifers respond to volcanic strain changes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strehlow, Karen; Gottsmann, Jo; Rust, Alison

    2015-04-01

    are two of the most important influences on the simulated hydraulic head change. Especially the elastic stratigraphy needs to be carefully considered when inverting signals: In certain elastic settings, the resulting hydraulic head change is of opposite sign than what would be expected from poroelastic theory for a homogeneous earth. The generic setups developed to study poroelastic responses to volcanic strain changes now also provide the platform to study reported real cases in more detail and test hypotheses for the observed changes in hydrological systems. Candidate volcanoes include Souffrière Hills Volcano (Montserrat), Unzen (Japan), Kilauea (Hawaii) and Hekla (Iceland). References: Matsumoto, N., Sato, T., Matsushima, N., Akita, F., Shibata, T., and Suzuki, A. (2002). Hydrological anomalies associated with crustal deformation before the 2000 eruption of Usu volcano, Japan. Geophysical research letters, 29(5):1057. Mogi, K. (1958). Relations between the eruptions of various volcanoes and the deformations of the ground surface around them. Bull. Earthquake Res. Inst. Univ. Tokyo, 36:99-134.

  11. Improvement of Epicentral Direction Estimation by P-wave Polarization Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Mitsutaka

    2016-04-01

    records and applied no filtering. Further study on optimal type of filter and its application frequency band is necessary. In poster presentation, the results of aforementioned study shall be shown. [1] Flinn, E. A. (1965) , Signal analysis using rectilinearity and direction of particle motion. Proceedings of the IEEE, 53(12), 1874-1876. [2] Smart, E., & Sproules, H. (1981), Regional phase processors (No. SDAC-TR-81-1). TELEDYNE GEOTECH ALEXANDRIA VA SEISMIC DATA ANALYSIS CENTER. [3] Noda, S., Yamamoto, S., Sato, S., Iwata, N., Korenaga, M., & Ashiya, K. (2012). Improvement of back-azimuth estimation in real-time by using a single station record. Earth, planets and space, 64(3), 305-308. [4] Vidale, J. E. (1986). Complex polarization analysis of particle motion. Bulletin of the Seismological society of America, 76(5), 1393-1405. [5] Montalbetti, J. F., & Kanasewich, E. R. (1970). Enhancement of teleseismic body phases with a polarization filter. Geophysical Journal International, 21(2), 119-129.

  12. Reconstruction of the Gulf Stream since 1900 and correlation with the North Atlantic Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watelet, Sylvain; Beckers, Jean-Marie; Barth, Alexander; Ouberdous, Mohamed; Troupin, Charles

    2014-05-01

    Prevailing winds over the North Atlantic (NA) have a direct influence on the location and intensity of the Gulf Stream (GS) by the transfer of momentum between atmosphere and ocean. Therefore, the study of interannual variability of the GS requires the identification of sources of variability within the atmospheric circulation. Various studies have highlighted the impact of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on the variability of the GS transport. However, there is still no scientific consensus thereupon. On the one hand, several scientific papers (Sato & Rossby, 1995; Curry & McCartney, 2001; deCoëtlogon et al., 2006) exhibit a decrease of the GS transport during low NAO periods, as well as a higher transport during high NAO phases. On the second hand, studies of Gangopadhyay et al. (1992), Baringer & Larsen (2001) and DiNezio et al. (2009) suggest a lower transport during positive phases of the NAO. Finally, Chaudhuri et al. (2011) obtained a more complex conclusion, whereby the influence of the NAO is different upstream and downstream of Cape Hatteras. This currently limited understanding of the links between the NAO and the GS in NA, impels us to further analyze the spatial and temporal distribution of the GS. Our main purpose in this study is to reconstruct a spatially continuous field of ocean (sub)surface circulation in the NA from in situ time series of discrete steps, in order to accurately quantify the position and intensity of the GS since 1900. From there, we will be able to examine the correlation of this current with the NAO. To this end, we used the DIVA (Data-Interpolating Variational Analysis) tool, which is a numerical implementation of the variational inverse method (VIM) using the finite elements method to reconstruct continuous fields from discrete measurements. These measurements of temperature, salinity and currents since the beginning of the last century originate from several data bases, such as WOD (World Ocean Database, NOAA), Sea

  13. Chlorine-36 Production Rate Calibration by the CRONUS-Earth Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, F. M.; Marrero, S.; Stone, J. O.; Lifton, N. A.

    2012-12-01

    Among the cosmogenic nuclides commonly used for Quaternary geochronology and geomorphology (36Cl, 10Be, 26Al, 3He, and 14C), the production rate of 36Cl has proved particularly difficult to calibrate because of the multiple nuclear reactions that lead to its production (3 major reactions and 5 minor ones). Achieving a consensus on the production constants for 36Cl has therefore been a major emphasis of the NSF-funded Cosmic Ray Produced Nuclide Systematics on Earth (CRONUS-Earth) Project. The most suitable for 36Cl calibration of the sites sampled by CRONUS-Earth proved to be ignimbrites from Younger Dryas-correlative moraines near the Quelccaya Ice Cap in Peru, basalts from the similar-aged Tabernacle Hill flow in Utah, and granodiorite boulders on a similar-aged moraine at Baboon Lakes in the Sierra Nevada, California. Production rates were estimated by minimizing 36Cl concentration residuals, with production scaled between the sites using the recently developed Lifton-Sato formulation. The scaling parameters employed were cut-off rigidity of 0 GV, solar modulation parameter of 587.4 MV, and air pressure of 1013.25 hPa; production-rate parameters obtained using this scaling approach are not directly comparable to those previously estimated using alternative scaling methods. This approach yielded sea-level high-latitude production rates of 55±2 atoms 36Cl (g Ca)-1 yr-1, 157±5 atoms 36Cl (g K)-1 yr-1, and 704±140 neutrons (g air)-1 yr-1. The results from the minimization did not meet tests for statistical significance and therefore the parameter-rate uncertainties could not be determined directly from the calibration data set. An independent secondary data set consisting of 82 samples from 16 localities and compiled from 7 separate published studies was therefore employed for this purpose. Average deviations of calculated 36Cl ages from independently determined ages increased from about 10% for samples where 36Cl production was nearly all from spallation

  14. Re-examination of the original questionnaire documents for the 1944 Tonankai, 1945 Mikawa, and 1946 Nanaki earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Tomoya; Satake, Kenji; Furumura, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    With the object of estimating seismic intensity, the Earthquakes Research Institute (ERI) of the University of Tokyo performed questionnaire surveys for the significant (destructive or large/great) earthquakes from 1943 to 1988 (Kayano, 1990, BERI). In these surveys, Kawasumi (1943)'s 12-class seismic intensity scale similar to the Modified Mercalli scale (MM-scale) was used. Survey results for earthquakes after 1950 were well investigated and published (e.g. Kayano and Komaki, 1977, BERI; Kayano and Sato, 1975, BERI), but the survey results for earthquakes in the 1940s have not been published and original documents of the surveys was missing. Recently, the original sheets of the surveys for the five earthquakes in the 1940s with more than 1,000 casualties were discovered in the ERI warehouse, although they are incomplete (Tsumura et al, 2010). They are from the 1943 Tottori (M 7.2), 1944 Tonankai (M 7.9), 1945 Mikawa (M 6.8), 1946 Nankai (M 8.0), and 1948 Fukui (M 7.1) earthquakes. In this study, we examined original questionnaire and summary sheets for the 1944 Tonankai, 1945 Mikawa, and 1946 Nanaki earthquakes, and estimated the distributions of seismic intensity, various kinds of damage, and human behaviors in detail. Numbers of the survey points for the 1944, 1945, and 1946 event are 287, 145, and 1,014, respectively. The numbers for the 1944 and 1945 earthquakes are much fewer than that of the 1946 event, because they occurred during the last years of World War II. The 1944 seismic intensities in the prefectures near the source region (Aichi, Mie, Shizuoka, and Gifu Pref.) tend to be high. However, the 1944 intensities are also high and damage is serious at the Suwa Lake shore in Nagano Pref. which is about 240 km far from the source region because seismic waves are amplified dramatically in the thick sediment in the Suwa Basin. Seismic intensities of the 1945 Mikawa earthquake near the source region in Aichi Pref. were very high (X-XI). However, the

  15. A Kinematic Simulation for Quasi-static Stress Change in Southwest Japan: Effect of the Interplate Earthquake Cycle on the MTL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, A.; Ogawa, H.; Ishikawa, Y.; Ohno, Y.; Kato, S.; Si, H.; Fukahata, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Stress change caused by a great earthquake affects seismicity in the surrounding area, as shown by the fact that the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku Earthquake induced M6-7 earthquakes. In Southwest Japan, great interplate earthquakes along the Nankai trough (M~8) have occurred repeatedly with the interval of 100-150 years. In addition, there is a great active fault system, Median Tectonic Line (MTL), consisted of arc-parallel strike-slip fault segments, whose total fault length is about 360km. The occurrences of these earthquakes around the same time will wreak tremendous damage. This is a pressing problem, because the probabilities of earthquake occurrence within 30 years are estimated to be 70 % and 60 % for the next Tonankai and Nankai earthquakes, respectively. In the present study, we simulate the stress change in Southwest Japan in recent 440 years and evaluate the effect of interplate earthquake cycle on the MTL by change in the Coulomb Failure Function (CFF). We constructed a kinematic simulation model composed of the layered elastic-viscoelastic half-space with realistic 3-D geometry of the Eurasian-Philippine Sea plate interface (Hashimoto et al., 2004). The cause of stress change is essentially in kinematic plate interaction at plate boundaries, which is represented by the increase of discontinuity in tangential displacement across the plate interface (Matsu'ura & Sato, 1989). We can decompose the total slip motion on the plate interface into a steady slip over the whole plate interface and its perturbation, earthquake cycles. The long-term effect of steady subduction cannot be ignored, because it inevitably causes secular change in tectonic stress (Hashimoto et al., 2006). Assuming slip history at plate boundary based on the global plate motion NUVEL-1A (DeMets et al., 1994) and historical earthquake data, we calculated the stress accumulation due to steady subduction and the cyclic stress change due to earthquake cycle, respectively, by using quasi

  16. Mega-thrust and Intra-slab Earthquakes beneath Tokyo Metropolitan Area around subduction and collision zones in JAPAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, N.; Kasahara, K.; Hagiwara, H.; Satow, H.; Shimazaki, K.; Koketsu, K.; Wu, F.; Okaya, D.

    2007-12-01

    the overlying Honshu arc physical properties. Our study addresses (1) improved regional characterization of the PSP geometry based on new deep seismic reflection profiles (Sato etal.,2005), reprocessed off-shore profiles (Kimura et al.,2005), and a dense seismic array in the Boso peninsula (Hagiwara et al., 2006) and (2) identification of collision of internal heterogeneity (Wu et al., 2007). We compile these results and present a new model which will be verified by data from the planned MeSO-net. We present a relatively high resolution tomographic image from so far obtained data to show a low velocity zone which suggests a possible internal failure of the slab; a source region of the M7+ intra-slab earthquake. Our study contributes a new assessment of the seismic hazard in the Tokyo metropolitan area. tokyo.ac.jp/shuto/EN/index.html

  17. Mega-thrust and Intra-slab Earthquakes beneath Tokyo Metropolitan Area around subduction and collision zones in JAPAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, N.; Kasahara, K.; Hagiwara, H.; Satow, H.; Shimazaki, K.; Koketsu, K.; Wu, F.; Okaya, D.

    2004-12-01

    the overlying Honshu arc physical properties. Our study addresses (1) improved regional characterization of the PSP geometry based on new deep seismic reflection profiles (Sato etal.,2005), reprocessed off-shore profiles (Kimura et al.,2005), and a dense seismic array in the Boso peninsula (Hagiwara et al., 2006) and (2) identification of collision of internal heterogeneity (Wu et al., 2007). We compile these results and present a new model which will be verified by data from the planned MeSO-net. We present a relatively high resolution tomographic image from so far obtained data to show a low velocity zone which suggests a possible internal failure of the slab; a source region of the M7+ intra-slab earthquake. Our study contributes a new assessment of the seismic hazard in the Tokyo metropolitan area. tokyo.ac.jp/shuto/EN/index.html

  18. Climate forcing growth rates: doubling down on our Faustian bargain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko

    2013-03-01

    vapor. The Alternative Scenario, defined in detail by Hansen and Sato (2004), keeps maximum global warming at ~1.5 °C relative to 1880-1920, under the assumption that fast-feedback climate sensitivity is ~3 °C for doubled CO2 (Hansen et al 2007). The Alternative Scenario allows CO2 to reach 475 ppm in 2100 before declining slowly; this scenario assumes that reductions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases and black carbon aerosols can be achieved sufficient to balance the warming effect of likely future decreases of reflective aerosols. Figure 4. Figure 4. Observed atmospheric CH4 amount and scenarios for twenty first century. Alternative scenario (Hansen et al 2000, Hansen and Sato 2004) yields maximum global warming ~1.5 °C above 1880-1920. Other scenarios are from IPCC (2001). Forcing on right hand scale is adjusted forcing, Fa, relative to values in 2000 (Hansen et al 2007). There are anthropogenic sources of CH4 that potentially could be reduced, indeed, the leveling off of CH4 amount during the past 20 years seems to have been caused by decreased venting in oil fields (Simpson et al 2012), but the feasibility of overall CH4 reduction also depends on limiting global warming itself, because of the potential for amplifying climate-CH4 feedbacks (Archer et al 2009, Koven et al 2011). Furthermore, reduction of atmospheric CH4 might become problematic if unconventional mining of gas, such as 'hydro-fracking', expands widely (Cipolla 2009), as discussed further below. The growth rate for the total climate forcing by well-mixed greenhouse gases has remained below the peak values reached in the 1970s and early 1980s, has been relatively stable for about 20 years, and is falling below IPCC (2001) scenarios (figure 5). However, the greenhouse gas forcing is growing faster than in the Alternative Scenario. MPTGs and OTGs in figure 5 are Montreal Protocol Trace Gases and Other Trace Gases (Hansen and Sato 2004). Figure 5. Figure 5. Five-year mean of the growth rate of climate forcing

  19. PREFACE: XII Latin American workshop on plasma physics (17-21 September 2007, Caracas, Venezuela)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puerta, Julio

    2008-10-01

    Deutsch, Ricardo Galvao, Carlos Hidalgo, Paulo Sakanaka, Konosuke Sato, Malcom Haines and Maher Boulos. The general feeling is that these mini-courses were very successful. As an original idea of Professor Ricardo Magnus Osorio Galvão, Director of Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, we saluted the creation of The Vladimir Tsypin Award to the best Poster in the meeting. This prize was presented by Professor Galvão in memoriam of Vladimir Semenovich Tsypin. It was suggested that the granting of this award be made in every meeting from now on. We think that it is very important to emphasise the mini-courses due to the necessity of increasing in the near future a better formation for our young scientists. The contributions of all the lecturers are greatly appreciated. We had the typical fields in plasma physics as in past meetings. We also appreciated very much the lectures of Professor Malcolm Haines, Professor Sergey Popel, Professor Claude Deutsch, and Professor Antony Peratt for their very interesting talks on the Z-Pinch recorded to prehistory. Special thanks again to these lecturers since they have joined and honoured our meetings in the past as well. As in the VII LAWPP, all the sessions of the workshop were held at the Universidad Simon Bolivar campus, located in the nice green Valley of Sartenejas near Caracas. We also appreciate the stimulus and the financial support that we have always had for the preparation of these workshops from our institution by means of its authorities: Professor Benjamin Sharifker (Rector), Professor Aura Lopez (Dean of Academic Activities), (Professor Jose Luis Paz (Dean of Research and Development), Professor Pedro Berrisbeitia (Dean of Postgraduate Studies) and Professor William Colmenares (Dean of Extended Activities). We must also mention and appreciate the collaboration of architect Alejandro Chataing Roncajolo as Secretary and Coordinator of the Congress, as well as the daily important collaborations of our students Anais M

  20. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnology in vivo Nanotechnology in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-04-01

    of nanoparticles in the tumour vasculature. However, previous reports on techniques to generate nanobubbles have either been slow or problematic due to the resulting development of cardiac dimension reduction, hypotension and tachycardia. Xing and colleagues have now demonstrated the use of polyoxyethylene 40 stearate, which is known to be biocompatible, degradable and non-toxic, as an alternative surfactant for generating nanobubbles. In the early 1980s scanning probe micrographs of nanosized features unleashed the power of imaging to push forward the science of structures and mechanisms at the nanoscale. The continued development of new and increasingly sophisticated nanoparticles and systems looks set to empower medicine in the same way, providing further means to exploit the mechanistic nature of biological organisms for better health and longevity. References [1] Leon R, Petroff P M, Leonard D and Fafard S 1995 Science 267 1966-8 [2] Nie Q, Tan W B and Zhang Y 2006 Nanotechnology 17 140-4 [3] Li L, Chen D, Zhang Y, Deng Z, Ren X, Meng X, Tang F, Ren J and Zhang L 2007 Nanotechnology 18 405102 [4] Fujioka K et al 2008 Nanotechnology 19 415102 [5] Shinoda K, Yangisawa S, Sato K amd Hirakuri K 2006 J. Cryst. Growth 288 84-6 [6] Manzoor K, Johny S, Thomas D, Setua S, Menon D and Nair S 2009 Nanotechnology 20 065102 [7] Hu R, Yong K-T, Roy I, Ding H, Law W-C, Cai H, Zhang X, Vathy L A, Bergey E J and Prasad P N 2010 Nanotechnology 21 145105 [8] Xing, Z, Ke H, Wang J, Zhao B, Yue X, Dai Z and Liu J 2010 Nanotechnology 21 145607

  1. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-08-01

    Abigail Alvarez OlarteCINVESTAV Alba Leticia Carrillo MonteverdeDCI-UG Alberto CarramiñanaINAOE Aldo MorselliFERMI Alejandro CastillaDCI-UG Alejandro IbarraTechnical University of Munich Alma D Rojas PachecoFCFM-BUAP Alma Xochitl Gonzalez MoralesInstituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM Andrew Walcott BeckwithAmerican Institute of Beam Energy Physics Ariadna Montiel ArenasDepartamento de Física, CINVESTAV Arnulfo ZepedaCinvestav Arturo Alvarez CruzInstituto de Fisica, UNAM Axel de la MacorraUNAM, IAC Azar MustafayevUniversity of Minnesota Benjamin JaramilloDCI-UG Vincent BertinCPPM-Marseille Carlos Alberto Vaquera-AraujoDCI-UG Carlos MuñozMadrid Autonoma U. & Madrid, IFT Carmine PagliaroneINFN, FNAL Carolina Lujan PeschardDCI-UG Christiane Frigerio MartinsUniversidade Federal do ABC-São Paulo Csaba BalazsMonash University David DelepineDCI-UG David G CerdenoUniversidad Autonoma de Madrid & Instituto de Fisica Teorica Debasish MajumdarSaha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata, India Dibyendu PanigrahiKandi Raj College, Kandi, Murshidabad, INDIA-742137 Dupret Alberto Santana BejaranoUniversidad de Sonora Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica Ernest MaRiverside U.C. Esteban Alejandro Reyes Pírez MontañezInstituto de Física, UNAM Federico Ortiz TrejoINSTITUTO DE ASTRONOMÍA - UNAM Francisco José de Anda NavarroUniversidad de Guadalajara González Alvarez Francisco JavierCINVESTAV-Depto. Física Gustavo Medina TancoICN-UNAM Hernando Efrain Caicedo OrtizInstituto Politecnico Nacional - IPN J D VergadosCERN & Ioannina U. James R BoyceJefferson Lab Jason SteffenFERMILAB Javier Montaño DomínguezDCI-UG Jeevan SolankiMandsaur Institue of Technology MP India Joe SatoSaitama University Jorge Luis Navarro EstradaUNAM-ICN and Universidad del Atlantico (B/quilla-Col.) Jose A R CembranosUniversity of Minnesota José DíazIFIC Jose Didino Garcia AguilarDepto. de Fisica. Cinvestav Keith OliveUniversity of Minnesota Konstantia BalasiUniversity of Ioannina, Greece Lilian Prado

  2. Safety in GPR prospecting: a rarely-considered issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persico, Raffaele; Pajewski, Lara; Trela, Christiane; Carrick Utsi, Erica

    2016-04-01

    Optical Society of America Part A, vol. 19, n. 12, pp. 2424-2428, December 2002. [3] IAGC Land Geophysical Safety Manual, Int. Association of Geophysical Contractors, 2012. [4] Recommendations for the Safety of People and Instruments in Ground-Penetrating Radar and Near-Surface Geophysical Prospecting, R.Persico, A. Provenzano, C. Trela, M. Sato, K. Takahashi, S. Arcone, S. Koppenjan, L. Stolarczyk, E. C. Utsi, S. Ebihara, K. Wada, E. Pettinelli, L. Pajewski, EAGE, 2015.

  3. Antiradiation Vaccine: Technology Development- Radiation Tolerance,Prophylaxis, Prevention And Treatment Of Clinical Presentation After Heavy Ion Irradiation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava; Jones, Jeffrey

    Introduction: Research in the field of biological effects of heavy charged particles is necessary for both heavy-ion therapy (hadrontherapy) and protection from the exposure to galactic cosmic radiation in long-term manned space missions.[Durante M. 2004] In future crew of long-term manned missions could operate in exremely high hadronic radiation areas of space and will not survive without effective radiation protection. An Antiradiation Vaccine (AV) must be an important part of a countermeasures regimen for efficient radiation protection purposes of austronauts-cosmonauts-taukonauts: immune-prophylaxis and immune-therapy of acute radiation toxic syndromes developed after heavy ion irradiation. New technology developed (AV) for the purposes of radiological protection and improvement of radiation tolerance and it is quite important to create protective immune active status which prevent toxic reactions inside a human body irradiated by high energy hadrons.[Maliev V. et al. 2006, Popov D. et al.2008]. High energy hadrons produce a variety of secondary particles which play an important role in the energy deposition process, and characterise their radiation qualities [Sato T. et al. 2003] Antiradiation Vaccine with specific immune-prophylaxis by an anti-radiation vaccine should be an important part of medical management for long term space missions. Methods and experiments: 1. Antiradiation vaccine preparation standard, mixture of toxoid form of Radiation Toxins [SRD-group] which include Cerebrovascular RT Neurotoxin, Cardiovascular RT Neurotoxin, Gastrointestinal RT Neurotoxin, Hematopoietic RT Hematotoxin. Radiation Toxins of Radiation Determinant Group isolated from the central lymph of gamma-irradiated animals with Cerebrovascular, Cardiovascular, Gastro-intestinal, Hematopoietic forms of ARS. Devices for radiation are "Panorama", "Puma". 2. Heavy ion exposure was accomplished at Department of Research Institute of Nuclear Physics, Dubna, Russia. The heavy ions

  4. Strong Coupling Gauge Theories in LHC ERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukaya, H.; Harada, M.; Tanabashi, M.; Yamawaki, K.

    2011-01-01

    conformal Higgs / Kazumoto Haba, Shinya Matsuzaki and Koichi Yamawaki -- Phase structure of topologically massive gauge theory with fermion / Yuichi Hoshino -- New regularization in extra dimensional model and renormalization group flow of the cosmological constant / Shoichi Ichinose -- Spectral analysis of dense two-color QCD / T. Kanazawa, T. Wettig and N. Yamamoto -- NJL model with dimensional regularization at finite temperature / T. Fujihara ... [et al.] -- A new method of evaluating the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking scale and the chiral restoration temperature in general gauge theories by using the non-perturbative renormalization group analyses with general 4-Fermi effective interaction space / Ken-Ichi Aoki, Daisuke Sato and Kazuhiro Miyashita -- The effective chiral Lagrangian with vector mesons and hadronic [symbol] decays / D. Kimura ... [et al.] -- Spontaneous SUSY breaking with anomalous U(1) symmetry in metastable vacua and moduli stabilization / Hiroyuki Nishino -- A new description of the lattice Yang-Mills theory and non-abelian magnetic monopole dominance in the string tension / Akihiro Shibata -- Thermodynamics with unbroken center symmetry in two-flavor QCD / S. Takemoto, M. Harada and C. Sasaki -- Masses of vector bosons in two-color QCD based on the hidden local symmetry / T. Yamaoka, M. Harada and C. Nonaka -- Walking dynamics from string duals / Maurizio Piai -- The quark mass dependence of the nucleon mass in AdS/QCD / Hyo Chul Ahn -- Structure of thermal quasi-fermion in QED/QCD from the Dyson-Schwinger equation / Hisao Nakkagawa -- Critical behaviors of sigma-mode and pion in holographic superconductors / Cheonsoo Park.

  5. PREFACE: International Symposium on Non-Equilibrium Soft Matter 2010 International Symposium on Non-Equilibrium Soft Matter 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakatsu, T.; Matsuyama, A.; Ohta, T.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, S.

    2011-07-01

    , Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of Japan. We thank those who contributed to this symposium as well as members of the 'Soft Matter Physics' project for their valuable discussions and collaborations. Non-equilibrium soft matter contents Insights on raft behavior from minimal phenomenological models G Garbès Putzel and M Schick Dynamical membrane curvature instability controlled by intermonolayer friction Anne-Florence Bitbol, Jean-Baptiste Fournier, Miglena I Angelova and Nicolas Puff Numerical investigations of the dynamics of two-component vesicles Takashi Taniguchi, Miho Yanagisawa and Masayuki Imai Asymmetric distribution of cone-shaped lipids in a highly curved bilayer revealed by a small angle neutron scattering technique Y Sakuma, N Urakami, T Taniguchi and M Imai Hydration, phase separation and nonlinear rheology of temperature-sensitive water-soluble polymers Fumihiko Tanaka, Tsuyoshi Koga, Isamu Kaneda and Françoise M Winnik Morphology and rheology of an immiscible polymer blend subjected to a step electric field under shear flow H Orihara, Y Nishimoto, K Aida, Y H Na, T Nagaya and S Ujiie Surfactant-induced friction reduction for hydrogels in the boundary lubrication regime Kosuke Kamada, Hidemitsu Furukawa, Takayuki Kurokawa, Tomohiro Tada, Taiki Tominaga, Yukihiro Nakano and Jian Ping Gong Fabrication and structural analysis of polyrotaxane fibers and films Yasuhiro Sakai, Kentaro Ueda, Naoya Katsuyama, Koji Shimizu, Shunya Sato, Jun Kuroiwa, Jun Araki, Akira Teramoto, Koji Abe, Hideaki Yokoyama and Kohzo Ito Micellization kinetics of diblock copolymers in a homopolymer matrix: a self-consistent field study Raghuram Thiagarajan and David C Morse Hierarchical self-assembly of two-length-scale multiblock copolymers Gerrit ten Brinke, Katja Loos, Ivana Vukovic and Gerrit Gobius du Sart Kaleidoscopic morphologies from ABC star-shaped terpolymers Yushu Matsushita, Kenichi Hayashida, Tomonari Dotera and Atsushi Takano Direct and inverted nematic

  6. Synchrotron radiation protein data collection system using the newly developed Weissenberg camera and imaging plate for crystal structure analysis (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakabe, N.; Nakagawa, A.; Sasaki, K.; Sakabe, K.; Watanabe, N.; Kondo, H.; Shimomura, M.

    1989-07-01

    It has been an earnest desire of protein crystallographers to collect fast, accurate, high resolution diffraction data from protein crystals, preferably with exposure time as short as possible. In order to meet this challenge, a new type of Weissenberg camera has been developed for the recording of diffraction intensity from protein crystals using synchrotron radiation. The BL6A2 line has a plane-bending mirror designed by Y. Sato. The optical bench with triangular tilt-cut Si crystal monochromator was designed by N. Kamiya and was installed in the BL6A2 hutch. The Weissenberg camera was set on the 2θ arm of the optical bench. This camera can be used with Fuji Imaging Plate (IP) as an x-ray detector, and the reading out of the image from the IP is carried out by using BA100. The characterization of this system was carried out using the native crystal of chicken gizzard G-actin DNase I complex and its Yb3+, PCMB, indium, and FMA derivatives. Since these crystals are very sensitive for x rays, the resolution limit of the diffraction was 5 Å with a 4-circle diffractometer on a rotating anode x-ray generator (N. Sakabe et al., J. Biochem. 95, 887. This complex was crystallized in space group P2,2,2, with a=42.0, b=225.3, and c=77.4 Å. The data were collected with this system with the 430-mm radius cassette when Photon Factory was operated at 2.5 GeV and 270 mA and the wavelength λ=1.004 Å was chosen. In order to avoid overlapping of diffraction spots, oscillation angle range and coupling constant (degree/mm) were settled on the basis of simulation patterns of diffraction spots up to the maximum resolution to be measured considering the direction of the crystal axes, wavelength, radius of the camera, and mosaicness of the crystal. When the oscillation axis was a axis, the oscillation angle range was selected at either 10° (1°/mm) or 5° (0.5°/mm) depending on the density of reciprocal lattice points along the incident beam, and typical exposure time in each IP

  7. Explanation of observable secular variations of gravity and alternative methods of determination of drift of the center of mass of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yury

    2010-05-01

    contribution to corresponding variations of heights). In the given work we did not consider other factors influencing on gravimetric measurements (superficial redistributions of fluid masses, variations of coefficients of the second and higher harmonics of a geopotential, etc.). As an example here we shall analyse secular variations of a gravity and heights at Ny-Alesund station (geographical coordinates: 78°93 N, 11°87 E, ? =23°16). Linear trends of a gravity and height observable at this station make -2.5±0.9 ?Gal/yr and + (6.9±0.9) mm/yr, accordingly, during 1998-2002 (Sato et.al., 2006). On our model a slow closing of the core to the Ny-Alesund station causes a positive variation of a gravity in 1.60 ?Gal/yr and a negative variation of height of station in -5.09 mm/yr [5]. These data testify a deformation of a surface of the Earth in area of station with a velocity +11.99±0.9 mm/yr owing to which the gravity tests a negative variation -3.74±0.28 ?Gal/yr. Putting effects of a variation of a gravity because of displacement of the core and from deformation of a surface, we obtain negative value for secular trend of gravity in - (2.14±0.28) ?Gal/yr, that within the limits of errors it will be coordinated with observable value - (2.5±0.9) ?Gal/yr. Similar results we have obtained for 7 another's gravimetric stations. All results are summarized in the table 1. Here we have used known data about observable secular trends of gravity and GPS heights at considered here stations of the following authors: Ny-Alesund (Sato et al., 2006); Churchill (Larson et al., 2000); Medicine (Zerbini et al., 2001); Syowa (Fukuda et.al., 2007); Strastburg (Almavict et. al., 2004); Membach (Francis et al., 2004); Wuhan (Xu et al., 2008); Metsahovi (Gitlein et. al., 2009). Table 1. Theoretical and observable values of secular variations of a gravity. Stations Core attractionSurface deformation Theory Observations Ny-Alesund+1.60 ?Gal/yr -(3.77±0.09) ?Gal/yr -(2.17±0.03) ?Gal/yr -(2.5±0

  8. Special section on biomimetics of movement.

    PubMed

    Carpi, Federico; Erb, Rainer; Jeronimidis, George

    2011-11-29

    academia into commercialization. In conclusion, we hope that the selection of papers in this special section might help to provide readers with a balanced overview, through examples on the relevant fundamental aspects, materials, actuators, structures, controls and on their effective integration, in order to develop approaches which will be successful in 'taking inspiration from nature for systems that move'. References [1] Lienhard J, Schleicher S, Poppinga S, Masselter T, Milwich M, Speck T and Knippers J 2011 Flectofin: a hingeless flapping mechanism inspired by nature Bioinsp. Biomim. 6 045001 [2] Nakata T, Liu H, Tanaka Y, Nishihashi N, Wang X and Sato A 2011 Aerodynamics of a bio-inspired flexible flapping-wing micro air vehicle Bioinsp. Biomim. 6 045002 [3] Annunziata S, Paskarbeit J and Schneider A 2011 Novel bioinspired control approaches to increase the stiffness variability in multi-muscle driven joints Bioinsp. Biomim. 6 045003 [4] Merker A, Rummel J and Seyfarth A 2011 Stable walking with asymmetric legs Bioinsp. Biomim. 6 045004 [5] Rossi C, Colorado J, Coral W and Barrientos A 2011 Bending continuous structures with SMAs: a novel robotic fish design Bioinsp. Biomim. 6 045005 [6] Carpi F, Kornbluh R, Sommer-Larsen P and Alici G 2011 Electroactive polymer actuators as artificial muscles: are they ready for bioinspired applications? Bioinsp. Biomim. 6 045006.

  9. Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Foundations of Quantum Mechanics in the Light of New Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishioka, Sachio; Fujikawa, Kazuo

    2009-06-01

    Committee -- Obituary: Professor Sadao Nakajima -- Opening address / H. Fukuyama -- Welcoming address / N. Osakabe -- Cold atoms and molecules. Pseudopotential method in cold atom research / C. N. Yang. Symmetry breaking in Bose-Einstein condensates / M. Ueda. Quantized vortices in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates / M. Tsubota. Quantum degenerate gases of Ytterbium atoms / S. Uetake ... [et al.]. Superfluid properties of an ultracold fermi gas in the BCS-BEC crossover region / Y. Ohashi, N. Fukushima. Fermionic superfluidity and the BEC-BCS crossover in ultracold atomic fermi gases / M. W. Zwierlein. Kibble-Zurek mechanism in magnetization of a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate / H. Saito, Y. Kawaguchi, M. Ueda. Quasiparticle inducing Josephson effect in a Bose-Einstein condensate / S. Tsuchiya, Y. Ohashi. Stability of superfluid fermi gases in optical lattices / Y. Yunomae ... [et al.]. Z[symbol] symmetry breaking in multi-band bosonic atoms confined by a two-dimensional harmonic potential / M. Sato, A. Tokuno -- Spin hall effect and anomalous hall effect. Recent advances in anomalous hall effect and spin hall effect / N. Nagaosa. Topological insulators and the quantum spin hall effect / C. L. Kane. Application of direct and inverse spin-hall effects: electric manipulation of spin relaxation and electric detection of spin currents / K. Ando, E. Saitoh. Novel current pumping mechanism by spin dynamics / A. Takeuchi, K. Hosono, G. Tatara. Quantum spin hall phase in bismuth ultrathin film / S. Murakami. Anomalous hall effect due to the vector chirality / K. Taguchi, G. Tatara. Spin current distributions and spin hall effect in nonlocal magnetic nanostructures / R. Sugano ... [et al.]. New boundary critical phenomenon at the metal-quantum spin hall insulator transition / H. Obuse. On scaling behaviors of anomalous hall conductivity in disordered ferromagnets studied with the coherent potential approximation / S. Onoda -- Magnetic domain wall dynamics and spin related

  10. Mechanism of secular increasing of mean gravity in Northern hemisphere and secular decreasing of mean gravity in Southern hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yu. V.; Ferrandiz, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    velocity -2.54 mGal/yr, that have actually confirmed SG observations during 1995-1998: -2.4 mGal/yr (Sato et al., 2001). Amplitudes of an annual and semi-annual variations approximately make 4.8 mGal/yr and 0.8 mGal/yr (theoretical values: 4.2 mGal/yr and 0.95 mGal/yr). References Barkin Yu.V. (2002) Explanation of endogenous activity of planets and satellites and its cyclicity. Izvestia cekzii nauk o Zemle. Rus. Acad. of Nat. Sciences, Issue 9, December 2002, M.: VINITI, pp. 45-97. In Russian. Barkin Yu.V., Ferrandiz J.M. (2008) Phenomenon of secular increasing of mean gravity in Northern hemisphere and secular decreasing of gravity in Southern hemisphere; predictions and new confirmations. EGU General Assembly (Vienna, Austria, 13-18 April 2008). Geophysical Research Abstracts, EGU General Assembly 2008. Vol. 10, EGU2008-A-10506.

  11. Complexity and interdisciplinary approaches to environmental research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2013-03-01

    integration with assessments of current data gathering and 'big data' needs, and with wider socioeconomic questions of effective political, and policy response. Through that, dialog papers in ERL will be critically important to advancing not only climate science, but the interactive dialog between knowledge and action. References [1] Hansen J, Sato M and Ruedy R 2012 Perception of climate change Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 109 E2415-23 [2] Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact 2013 Turn Down the Heat: Why a 4 °C Warmer World Must be Avoided (Washington, DC: The World Bank) 1 The Kyoto Protocol was adopted on 11 December 1997 in Kyoto, Japan, and entered into force on 16 February 2005. As of September 2011, 191 states have signed and ratified the protocol. The United States signed but did not ratify the Protocol and Canada withdrew from it in 2011.

  12. Special section on biomimetics of movement.

    PubMed

    Carpi, Federico; Erb, Rainer; Jeronimidis, George

    2011-11-29

    academia into commercialization. In conclusion, we hope that the selection of papers in this special section might help to provide readers with a balanced overview, through examples on the relevant fundamental aspects, materials, actuators, structures, controls and on their effective integration, in order to develop approaches which will be successful in 'taking inspiration from nature for systems that move'. References [1] Lienhard J, Schleicher S, Poppinga S, Masselter T, Milwich M, Speck T and Knippers J 2011 Flectofin: a hingeless flapping mechanism inspired by nature Bioinsp. Biomim. 6 045001 [2] Nakata T, Liu H, Tanaka Y, Nishihashi N, Wang X and Sato A 2011 Aerodynamics of a bio-inspired flexible flapping-wing micro air vehicle Bioinsp. Biomim. 6 045002 [3] Annunziata S, Paskarbeit J and Schneider A 2011 Novel bioinspired control approaches to increase the stiffness variability in multi-muscle driven joints Bioinsp. Biomim. 6 045003 [4] Merker A, Rummel J and Seyfarth A 2011 Stable walking with asymmetric legs Bioinsp. Biomim. 6 045004 [5] Rossi C, Colorado J, Coral W and Barrientos A 2011 Bending continuous structures with SMAs: a novel robotic fish design Bioinsp. Biomim. 6 045005 [6] Carpi F, Kornbluh R, Sommer-Larsen P and Alici G 2011 Electroactive polymer actuators as artificial muscles: are they ready for bioinspired applications? Bioinsp. Biomim. 6 045006. PMID:22128305

  13. PREFACE: Nonlinearity and Geometry: connections with integrability Nonlinearity and Geometry: connections with integrability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieslinski, Jan L.; Ferapontov, Eugene V.; Kitaev, Alexander V.; Nimmo, Jonathan J. C.

    2009-10-01

    -component dispersionless Boussinesq-type system. T E Kouloukas and V G Papageorgiou introduce a family of nonparametric Yang-Baxter maps obtained by re-factorization of matrix polynomials of first degree. These maps are Poisson with respect to the Sklyanin bracket, and their degenerations are connected to known integrable systems on quad-graphs. S V Manakov and P M Santini apply a novel version of the inverse scattering transform based on Lax pairs in multidimensional commuting vector fields to the heavenly and Pavlov equations, establishing that their localized solutions evolve without breaking, and constructing the long-time behaviour of the corresponding Cauchy problems. Discretizations of integrable geometric models depend heavily on the coordinates used. M Nieszporski and A Sym show how to discretize Bianchi surfaces (associated with an elliptic version of the Ernst equation) in arbitrary parametrization. C Rogers and A Szereszewski study the Bäcklund transformation for L-isothermic surfaces in the original Bianchi formulation. They establish a connection between this transformation and a nonhomogeneous linear Schrödinger equation and construct a class of generalized Dupin cyclides. W K Schief, A Szereszewski and C Rogers study a classical system of equilibrium equations for shell membranes. Various examples of viable membrane geometries lead to remarkable geometric configurations such as generalized Dupin cyclides and L-minimal surfaces. A Sergyeyev constructs infinite hierarchies of nonlocal higher symmetries for the oriented associativity equations using the spectral problem. The hierarchies in question generalize those constructed by Chen, Kontsevich and Schwarz for the WDVV equations. J Shiraishi and Y Tutiya study an integro-differential equation which generalizes the periodic intermediate long wave equation. The kernel of the singular integral involved is a second order difference of the Weierstrass ζ-function. Using Sato's formulation, the authors

  14. Is 2-D turbulence relevant in the atmosphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovejoy, Shaun; Schertzer, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    argue that now exactly such a reinterpretation of the aircraft data has been found (Lovejoy et al., 2009b). We argue that the debate has now been decisively resolved in favour of the SP approaches so that neither 2-D isotropic nor 3D isotropic turbulence - are relevant in the atmosphere. References: J.G. Charney, Geostrophic Turbulence, J. Atmos. Sci 28(1971), p. 1087. J. Cho and E. Lindborg, Horizontal velocity structure functions in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere i: Observations, J. Geophys. Res. 106(2001), pp. 10223-10232. E. Dewan, Saturated-cascade similtude theory of gravity wave sepctra, J. Geophys. Res. 102(1997), pp. 29799-29817. R. Fjortoft, On the changes in the spectral distribution of kinetic energy in two dimensional, nondivergent flow, Tellus 7(1953), pp. 168-176. D. Fritts, T. Tsuda, T. Sato, S. Fukao and S. Kato, Observational evidence of a saturated gravity wave spectrum in the troposphere and lower stratosphere, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 45(1988), p. 1741. K.S. Gage and G.D. Nastrom, Theoretical Interpretation of atmospheric wavenumber spectra of wind and temperature observed by commercial aircraft during GASP, J. of the Atmos. Sci. 43(1986), pp. 729-740. C.S. Gardner, C.A. Hostetler and S.J. Franke, Gravity Wave models for the horizontal wave number spectra of atmospheric velocity and density flucutations, J. Geophys. Res. 98(1993), pp. 1035-1049. C.A. Hostetler and C.S. Gardner, Observations of horizontal and vertical wave number spectra of gravity wave motions in the stratosphere and mesosphere ove rthe mid-Pacific, J. Geophys. Res. 99(1994), pp. 1283-1302. A.N. Kolmogorov, Local structure of turbulence in an incompressible liquid for very large Reynolds numbers. (English translation: Proc. Roy. Soc. A434, 9-17, 1991), Proc. Acad. Sci. URSS., Geochem. Sect. 30(1941), pp. 299-303. R.H. Kraichnan, Inertial ranges in two-dimensional turbulence, Physics of Fluids 10(1967), pp. 1417-1423. A. Lazarev, D. Schertzer, S. Lovejoy and

  15. The First 24 Years of Reverse Monte Carlo Modelling, Budapest, Hungary, 20-22 September 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keen, David A.; Pusztai, László

    2013-11-01

    -ray scattering and modeling studiesL Hawelek, A Brodka, J C Dore, V Honkimaki and A Burian Local structure correlations in plastic cyclohexane—a reverse Monte Carlo studyNicholas P Funnell, Martin T Dove, Andrew L Goodwin, Simon Parsons and Matthew G Tucker Neutron powder diffraction and molecular dynamics study of superionic SrBr2S Hull, S T Norberg, S G Eriksson and C E Mohn Atomic order and cluster energetics of a 17 wt% Si-based glass versus the liquid phaseG S E Antipas, L Temleitner, K Karalis, L Pusztai and A Xenidis Total scattering analysis of cation coordination and vacancy pair distribution in Yb substituted Ō-Bi2O3G S E Antipas, L Temleitner, K Karalis, L Pusztai and A Xenidis Modification of the sampling algorithm for reverse Monte Carlo modeling with an insufficient data setSatoshi Sato and Kenji Maruyama The origin of diffuse scattering in crystalline carbon tetraiodideTemleitner and L Pusztai Silver environment and covalent network rearrangement in GeS3-Ag glassesL Rátkai, I Kaban, T Wágner, J Kolár, S Valková, Iva Voleská, B Beuneu and P Jóvári Reverse Monte Carlo study of spherical sample under non-periodic boundary conditions: the structure of Ru nanoparticles based on x-ray diffraction dataOrsolya Gereben and Valeri Petkov Total neutron scattering investigation of the structure of a cobalt gallium oxide spinel prepared by solvothermal oxidation of gallium metalHelen Y Playford, Alex C Hannon, Matthew G Tucker, Martin R Lees and Richard I Walton The structure of water in solutions containing di- and trivalent cations by empirical potential structure refinementDaniel T Bowron and Sofia Díaz Moreno The proton conducting electrolyte BaTi0.5In0.5O2.75: determination of the deuteron site and its local environmentStefan T Norberg, Seikh M H Rahman, Stephen Hull, Christopher S Knee and Sten G Eriksson Acidic properties of aqueous phosphoric acid solutions: a microscopic viewI Harsányi, L Pusztai, P Jóvári and B Beuneu Comparison of the atomic level

  16. EDITORIAL: Focus on Iron-Based Superconductors FOCUS ON IRON-BASED SUPERCONDUCTORS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosono, Hideo; Ren, Zhi-An

    2009-02-01

    Elastic theory for the vortex-lattice melting in iron-based high-Tc superconductors Q-H Chen, Q-M Nie, J-P Lv and T-C Au Yeung Electronic properties of LaO1-xFxFeAs in the normal state probed by NMR/NQR H-J Grafe, G Lang, F Hammerath, D Paar, K Manthey, K Koch, H Rosner, N J Curro, G Behr, J Werner, N Leps, R Klingeler, H-H Klauss, F J Litterst and B Büchner AFe2As2 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba, Eu) and SrFe2-xTMxAs2 (TM = Mn, Co, Ni): crystal structure, charge doping, magnetism and superconductivity Deepa Kasinathan, Alim Ormeci, Katrin Koch, Ulrich Burkhardt, Walter Schnelle, Andreas Leithe-Jasper and Helge Rosner Impurity states in a family of antiferromagnetic iron arsenides Qiang Han and Z D Wang Coherence-incoherence crossover in the normal state of iron oxypnictides and importance of Hund's rule coupling K Haule and G Kotliar Electronic structure of heavily electron-doped BaFe1.7Co0.3As2 studied by angle-resolved photoemission Y Sekiba, T Sato, K Nakayama, K Terashima, P Richard, J H Bowen, H Ding, Y-M Xu, L J Li, G H Cao, Z-A Xu and T Takahashi Absorption and photoemission spectroscopy of rare-earth oxypnictides T Kroll, F Roth, A Koitzsch, R Kraus, D R Batchelor, J Werner, G Behr, B Büchner and M Knupfer Superconductivity in LnFePO (Ln = La, Pr and Nd) single crystals R E Baumbach, J J Hamlin, L Shu, D A Zocco, N M Crisosto and M B Maple Unconventional pairing originating from disconnected Fermi surfaces in the iron-based superconductor Kazuhiko Kuroki, Seiichiro Onari, Ryotaro Arita, Hidetomo Usui, Yukio Tanaka, Hiroshi Kontani and Hideo Aoki Near-degeneracy of several pairing channels in multiorbital models for the Fe pnictides S Graser, T A Maier, P J Hirschfeld and D J Scalapino Investigation of superconducting gap structure in TbFeAsO0.9F0.1 using point contact Andreev reflection K A Yates, K Morrison, J A Rodgers, G B S Penny, J-W G Bos, J P Attfield and L F Cohen Competition of magnetism and superconductivity in underdoped (Ba1-xKx)Fe2As2 Marianne Rotter, Marcus

  17. FOREWORD: Special section on electromagnetic characterization of buried obstacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesselier, Dominique; Chew, Weng Cho

    2004-12-01

    laboratory data that emulate buried objects in the ocean and where the data are very limited and the environment is highly attenuative. The forward model is employed with an integral equation approach. The inverse scattering algorithm uses the level set method as well as a binary specialized contrast source method. Though computationally intensive these approaches are expected to be effective whenever linearization of the inversion fails. Two types of antennae were tested out in the experiment, a small one and a larger one. It is found, in particular, that the smaller antenna reproduces the modelled result better than the larger one. • X Feng and M Sato, in `Pre-stack migration applied to GPR for landmine detection', investigate the testing of a ground penetrating radar with synthetic aperture, acquiring mid-point multi-offset data in the demanding situations (strong clutter) of inhomogeneous soil and rough ground and/or of steeply oblique landmines. This is done in practice with experimental data, and is thoroughly illustrated by numerical experiments in the framework of migration techniques. These techniques are tailored to provide an approximate but robust solution to the highly involved three-dimensional vector wave-field inversion problem which is relevant here. • A Kirsch, in `The factorization method for Maxwell's equations', shows how the theory of the recently introduced and much considered factorization method can be developed in a sound theoretical fashion for the time-harmonic three-dimensional Maxwell system when far-field scattering patterns are known—by constructing a binary criterion which tells whether, if a given point lies inside or outside an unknown obstacle, the shape of which is to be retrieved. The vector nature of the electromagnetic field is fully considered in this paper. This is investigated in depth both for a lossy obstacle (with lower-bounded imaginary part of the dielectric permittivity) and for a lossless one (albeit with smoothly