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Sample records for hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum

  1. Detection of acaricidal resistance in Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum from Banaskantha district, Gujarat.

    PubMed

    Singh, N K; Gelot, I S; Jyoti; Bhat, S A; Singh, Harkirat; Singh, Veer

    2015-09-01

    The resistance status in Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum collected from Banaskantha district, Gujarat (India) was estimated by larval packet test (LPT) with different concentrations of amitraz (125, 250, 500, 750 and 1,000 ppm) and cypermethrin (100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ppm). The regression graphs of mean mortality of larvae ticks were plotted against values of progressively increasing concentrations of amitraz and cypermethrin for the estimation of LC95 values and were determined as 1,529.39 and 351.84 ppm, respectively. Further a resistance of level I was determined against cypermethrin whereas, a comparatively higher resistance level (II) was recorded against amitraz. The current study appears to be the pioneer report of amitraz and cypermethrin resistance in H. a. anatolicum from the Gujarat state, India.

  2. Detection of acaricidal resistance in Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum from Banaskantha district, Gujarat.

    PubMed

    Singh, N K; Gelot, I S; Jyoti; Bhat, S A; Singh, Harkirat; Singh, Veer

    2015-09-01

    The resistance status in Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum collected from Banaskantha district, Gujarat (India) was estimated by larval packet test (LPT) with different concentrations of amitraz (125, 250, 500, 750 and 1,000 ppm) and cypermethrin (100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ppm). The regression graphs of mean mortality of larvae ticks were plotted against values of progressively increasing concentrations of amitraz and cypermethrin for the estimation of LC95 values and were determined as 1,529.39 and 351.84 ppm, respectively. Further a resistance of level I was determined against cypermethrin whereas, a comparatively higher resistance level (II) was recorded against amitraz. The current study appears to be the pioneer report of amitraz and cypermethrin resistance in H. a. anatolicum from the Gujarat state, India. PMID:26345072

  3. [The importance of gamma irradiations with caesium-137 for Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (Metastigmata, Ixodidae) control].

    PubMed

    Karaer, Zafer; Kar, Sirri; Düzgün, Ali; Güven, Esin; Pekmezci, Zafer; Emre, Zişan

    2006-01-01

    In this study, male ticks belonging to the Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum species were subjected to gamma radiation doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 50 Gy, emitted by a gamma-ray source of Caesium 137. In females that fed with these male ticks, proportional to the increase in radiation dose, the period of feeding was found to shorten. A decrease was demonstrated in the number of engorged female ticks, engorgement weights, number of laying ticks and number of eggs. The hatching period of larvae from eggs was found to increase despite the decrease in the number of hatched larvae. Moreover no larvae were observed to hatch from any of the eggs of female ticks treated with a radiation dose of 50 Gy. Similarly, proportional to the applied dose of radiation, rates of viability and activity were observed to decrease in male ticks. In conclusion, taking into consideration the feeding periods and fertility rates of female ticks as indicators of male activity, this study has demonstrated that in combating with H. anatolicum anatolicum, radiation may be successful and a radiation dose of 10 Gy is most favorable.

  4. Virulence of Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae and Paecilomyces lilacinus to the engorged female Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum tick (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Ming; Ren, Qiaoyun; Guan, Guiquan; Liu, Zhijie; Ma, Miling; Gou, Huitian; Chen, Ze; Li, Youquan; Liu, Aihong; Niu, Qingli; Yang, Jifei; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jianxun

    2011-08-25

    The tick is a common ectoparasite of livestock and humans, and is responsible for the transmission of pathogens among hosts. Direct and indirect impacts of ticks include limiting the sustainable development of the animal husbandry industry and detrimental effects on human health. Despite these negative effects, the main method of controlling ticks remains the application of chemical acaricides, which can lead to ambient pollution and the development of tick resistance to them. The biocontrol of ticks is one of the alternative control methods that has received recent research attention. The present study used Tenebrio moliter bait methods to collect 13 species of entomopathogenic fungi from different areas in China that were then tested to observe their effects on engorged female Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks. The results showed that more than half of the isolates had some pathogenic effects on the ticks; in particular, two Beauveria bassiana strains (B.bAT01, B.bAT17) and one Metarhizium anisopliae strain (M.aAT26) were highly virulent, causing up to 90% mortality. In addition, H. anatolicum anatolicum females were treated with B. bassiana B.bAT17 using different concentrations of the fungus. Results revealed that B. bassiana B.bAT17 is highly pathogenic against engorged H. anatolicum anatolicum females. This is the first report of the pathogenic effect of entomopathogenic fungi on engorged H. anatolicum anatolicum females. However, studies of the efficiency of this fungus against ticks in the field are required before it can be used for tick management in practice. PMID:21511397

  5. Detection of Malathion Resistance in Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum from Bathinda District, Punjab

    PubMed Central

    Jyoti; Singh, Nirbhay Kumar; Prerna, Mranalini; Singh, Harkirat; Rath, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The resistance status against malathion in Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks collected from Bathinda district, Punjab, was evaluated by adult immersion test (AIT). Materials and Methods: Technical grade malathion was used for conduction of AIT with 2 min immersion time protocol. The regression graph of probit mortality of ticks was plotted against log values of increasing concentrations of malathion and was utilized for the determination of slope of mortality, LC50, LC95 (95% confidence interval [CI]) and resistance factor (RF). The reproductive parameters of treated ticks viz. egg mass weight, reproductive index (RI), and percentage inhibition of oviposition (% IO) were also studied. Results: The increasing concentration of malathion showed an upward trend in per cent tick mortality. The slope of mortality (95% CI) was 2.489 ± 0.719 (2.489 ± 0.719) and value of goodness of fit (R2) was 0.799. The LC50 (95% CI) and LC95 (95% CI) values were recorded as 9099.2 (8378.6–9881.7) and 41,511.3 (35,060.2–49,149.4) ppm, respectively, with RF as 16.60 indicating level II resistance status. A negative dose-dependent slope of egg mass weight (−91.79 ± 25.15 [−171.8 to −11.76]) was recorded as the survived ticks laid significantly (P = 0.0355) fewer eggs. The mean RI of treated ticks decreased with increasing concentrations of drug and the slope (95% CI) was −0.293 ± 0.059 (−0.482 to −0.105). Further, a dose-dependent significant increase (P = 0.0157) in the mean % IO was recorded in treated ticks. Conclusions: The results of the current study would be useful in the formulation and implementation of effective tick strategies in the region. PMID:26862273

  6. Identification and characterization of microRNAs by deep-sequencing in Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jin; Liu, Guang-Yuan; Chen, Ze; Ren, Qiao-Yun; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jian-Xun; Wang, Hui

    2015-06-15

    Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (H.a. anatolicum) (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks are globally distributed ectoparasites with veterinary and medical importance. These ticks not only weaken animals by sucking their blood but also transmit different species of parasitic protozoans. Multiple factors influence these parasitic infections including miRNAs, which are non-coding, small regulatory RNA molecules essential for the complex life cycle of parasites. To identify and characterize miRNAs in H.a. anatolicum, we developed an integrative approach combining deep sequencing, bioinformatics and real-time PCR analysis. Here we report the use of this approach to identify miRNA expression, family distribution, and nucleotide characteristics, and discovered novel miRNAs in H.a. anatolicum. The result showed that miR-1-3p, miR-275-3p, and miR-92a were expressed abundantly. There was a strong bias on miRNA, family members, and nucleotide compositions at certain positions in H.a. anatolicum miRNA. Uracil was the dominant nucleotide, particularly at positions 1, 6, 16, and 18, which were located approximately at the beginning, middle, and end of conserved miRNAs. Analysis of the conserved miRNAs indicated that miRNAs in H.a. anatolicum were concentrated along three diverse phylogenetic branches of bilaterians, insects and coelomates. Two possible roles for the use of miRNA in H.a. anatolicum could be presumed based on its parasitic life cycle: to maintain a large category of miRNA families of different animals, and/or to preserve stringent conserved seed regions with active changes in other places of miRNAs mainly in the middle and the end regions. These might help the parasite to undergo its complex life style in different hosts and adapt more readily to the host changes. The present study represents the first large scale characterization of H.a. anatolicum miRNAs, which could further the understanding of the complex biology of this zoonotic parasite, as well as initiate miRNA studies

  7. Acaricide resistance in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Hyalomma anatolicum collected from Haryana and Rajasthan states of India.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Ruchi Singh; Sangwan, Arun Kumar; Sangwan, Nirmal; Kumar, Sachin

    2016-08-01

    Acaricide resistance status of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Hyalomma anatolicum ticks against deltamethrin and diazinon was assessed in Hisar (Haryana) and its adjoining district Churu (Rajasthan) using adult immersion test (AIT) and larval packet test (LPT). The mortality slope, LC50, LC95, 95 % confidence limit and resistance factor of field ticks were determined. Results showed that R. (B.) microplus ticks collected from Tohana (Hisar) were found resistant to both the acaricides while the ticks of Agroha (Hisar) were found to be susceptible using AIT. Similar results were observed by using standard method of LPT. Again, H. anatolicum tick isolates of Tara Nagar (Churu) were found susceptible whereas Churu tick isolates were found to be resistant using AIT for both the acaricides. LPT indicated susceptible status of H. anatolicum ticks collected from Churu as well as Tara Nagar for both the acaricides. The study warrants the need for strategic use of available acaricides to overcome the development of acaricide resistance in ticks.

  8. Acaricidal activity of ethanolic extract of Artemisia absinthium against Hyalomma anatolicum ticks.

    PubMed

    Godara, R; Parveen, S; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Katoch, M; Khajuria, J K; Kaur, D; Ganai, A; Verma, P K; Khajuria, Varun; Singh, N K

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of different concentrations of ethanolic extract obtained from the aerial parts of Artemisia absinthium in comparison to amitraz on adults, eggs and larvae of Hyalomma anatolicum using the adult immersion test (AIT), egg hatchability test and larval packet test (LPT), respectively. Four concentrations of the extract (2.5, 5, 10 and 20%) with three replications for each concentration were used in all the bioassays. In AIT, the mortality rates at 2.5, 5 and 10% were significantly different (p < 0.05) in comparison to the control group; however, at 20%, it was similar to the positive control group. Maximum mortality of 86.7% was recorded at 20%. The LC50 and LC95 values were calculated as 6.51 and 55.43%, respectively. The oviposition was reduced significantly by 36.8 and 59.1% at concentrations of 10 and 20%, respectively. Egg hatchability was reduced significantly at all concentrations (2.5-20%) in comparison to the control. In LPT, the extract caused 100% mortality of larvae at all the concentrations after 24 h. The results show that ethanolic extract obtained from the aerial parts of A. absinthium has acaricidal properties and could be useful in controlling H. anatolicum.

  9. [Comparison of the ability to fertilize females by Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum males irradiated with gamma radiation from caesium 137 with non-irradiated males].

    PubMed

    Karaer, Zafer; Kar, Sirri; Düzgün, Ali; Güven, Esin; Cakmak, Ayşe; Emre, Zişan; Nalbantoğlu, Serpil; Saribaş, Taner; Akçay, Aytaç

    2009-01-01

    In this study, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum male ticks were subjected to gamma radiation with a dose of 10 Gy emitted by a gamma-ray source of Caesium 137. Female ticks were divided into 3 groups and placed in rabbit ears to feed. In the first group, the females fed with normal and irradiated males, in the second group females fed only with irradiated males and in last group females fed with normal males. Biological parameters such as the feeding period, weights, period of time from dropping until egg-laying began, the number of eggs and the number of larva hatching from eggs were recorded. With the results of statistical analysis it was found that the average egg laying period of females in the second group was clearly less (22.77 days) than other groups and the difference between these groups was statistically important (P < 0.05). After evaluation of numbers of larva, also there was a statistically important difference between the groups and the average number of larva was clearly higher (2519.30) in third group than other groups. In conclusion, in this study it was found that irradiated males could not compete with normal males in mating with females and because of this they couldn't affect the feeding and reproductivity of females.

  10. Solanum trilobatum extract-mediated synthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles to control Pediculus humanus capitis, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Anopheles subpictus.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Marimuthu, Sampath; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Bagavan, Asokan; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Elango, Gandhi; Arora, Pooja; Karthikeyan, Rajan; Manikandan, Sivan; Jose, Sujin

    2014-02-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are widely used in paints, printing ink, rubber, paper, cosmetics, sunscreens, car materials, cleaning air products, industrial photocatalytic processes, and decomposing organic matters in wastewater due to their unique physical, chemical, and biological properties. The present study was conducted to assess the antiparasitic efficacies of synthesized TiO2 NPs utilizing leaf aqueous extract of Solanum trilobatum against the adult head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae); larvae of cattle tick Hyalomma anatolicum (a.) anatolicum Koch (Acari: Ixodidae), and fourth instar larvae of malaria vector Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). The green synthesized TiO2 NPs were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX), and Atomic force microscopy (AFM). XRD analysis of synthesized TiO2 NPs revealed that the particles were in the form of nanocrystals as evidenced by the major peaks at 2θ values of 27.52°, 36.21°, and 54.43° identified as 110, 101, and 211 reflections, respectively. FTIR spectra exhibited a prominent peak at 3,466 cm(-1) and showed OH stretching due to the alcoholic group, and the OH group may act as a capping agent. SEM images displayed NPs that were spherical, oval in shape, individual, and some in aggregates with an average size of 70 nm. Characterization of the synthesized TiO2 NPs using AFM offered a three-dimensional visualization and uneven surface morphology. The pediculocidal and acaricidal activities of synthesized TiO2 NPs showed the percent mortality of 31, 42, 63, 82, 100; 36, 44, 67, 89, and 100 at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mg/L, respectively, against P. h. capitis and H. a. anatolicum. The average larval percent mortality of synthesized TiO2 NPs was 38, 47, 66, 79, and 100 at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mg/L, respectively, against A. subpictus

  11. Metarhizium anisopliae as a biological control agent against Hyalomma anatolicum (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Suleiman, Elham A; Shigidi, M T; Hassan, S M

    2013-12-15

    In the Sudan, ticks and Tick-borne Diseases (TBDs) with subsequent costs of control and treatment are causing substantial economic loss. Control of ticks is mainly by chemical insecticides. The rising environmental hazards and problem of resistance has motivated research on biological agents as alternative methods of control. The present study aims at controlling livestock ticks using fungi for their unique mode of action besides their ability to adhere to the cuticle, to germinate and penetrate enzymatically. The study was conducted to evaluate the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for tick control as an alternative mean to chemical acaricides. Pathogenicity of the fungus was tested on different developmental stages of the tick Hyalomma anatolicum. The fungus induced high mortality to flat immature stages. It, also, affected reproductive potential of the females. Egg laid, hatching percent, fertility and moulting percent of immature stages were significantly (p < or = 0.05) reduced. It was, also, shown that the fungus had ability to adhere to the cuticle and penetrate the integument of the tick. Conidia of the fungus were isolated from their internal tissues. This phenomenon is important in considering fungi as bioinsecticides. Infection of eggs laid by treated engorged female ticks, with the fungus might demonstrate suggesting transovarian transmission. The use of M. anisopliae to control ticks is discussed.

  12. Acaricide resistance in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Hyalomma anatolicum collected from Haryana and Rajasthan states of India.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Ruchi Singh; Sangwan, Arun Kumar; Sangwan, Nirmal; Kumar, Sachin

    2016-08-01

    Acaricide resistance status of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Hyalomma anatolicum ticks against deltamethrin and diazinon was assessed in Hisar (Haryana) and its adjoining district Churu (Rajasthan) using adult immersion test (AIT) and larval packet test (LPT). The mortality slope, LC50, LC95, 95 % confidence limit and resistance factor of field ticks were determined. Results showed that R. (B.) microplus ticks collected from Tohana (Hisar) were found resistant to both the acaricides while the ticks of Agroha (Hisar) were found to be susceptible using AIT. Similar results were observed by using standard method of LPT. Again, H. anatolicum tick isolates of Tara Nagar (Churu) were found susceptible whereas Churu tick isolates were found to be resistant using AIT for both the acaricides. LPT indicated susceptible status of H. anatolicum ticks collected from Churu as well as Tara Nagar for both the acaricides. The study warrants the need for strategic use of available acaricides to overcome the development of acaricide resistance in ticks. PMID:27100113

  13. Molecular evidence of Theileria equi infection in Hyalomma anatolicum ticks infested on sero-positive Indian horses.

    PubMed

    Bhagwan, Jai; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Rajender; Goyal, Liza; Goel, Parveen; Kumar, Sanjay

    2015-06-01

    A sizeable Indian equine population is considered to be pre-immune carrier of Theileria equi infection. In this study we confirmed the presence of T. equi specific DNA in Hyalomma anatolicum ticks which were infested on sero-positive horses. Fifty two Indigenous horses were randomly selected from endemic areas and their blood and tick samples were collected. Tick salivary glands and blood samples were processed for separation of DNA and serum, respectively. Serum samples were analyzed by EMA-2ELISA and nine horses were found positive for T. equi specific antibodies. Species-specific primers were designed from EMA-2 gene of T. equi, so as to amplify 398 bp fragment in PCR. The gene fragment was amplified in PCR on the DNA samples (from blood) from these nine sero-positive horses. Corresponding six tick's DNA samples collected from these nine seropositive animals were observed positive in PCR. Further, qPCR assay demonstrated presence of T. equi DNA in infected tick's salivary glands, which was also confirmed by microscopic examination of infected acinar. This study concluded that Hyalomma anatolicum ticks infested on T. equi seropositive horses have sporozoite developmental stage in their salivary glands, which is an evidence for transmitting potential of these tick among Indian horse population.

  14. Laboratory assessment of acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon winterianus, Vitex negundo and Withania somnifera extracts against deltamethrin resistant Hyalomma anatolicum.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nirbhay Kumar; Jyoti; Vemu, Bhaskar; Nandi, Abhijit; Singh, Harkirat; Kumar, Rajender; Dumka, V K

    2014-07-01

    Larval packet test was used for detection of resistance levels against cypermethrin and deltamethrin, the most commonly used synthetic pyrethroids, in the multi-host tick Hyalomma anatolicum collected from district Moga, Punjab (India). Results indicated the presence of level I resistance against deltamethrin (RF = 2.81), whereas the tick isolate was susceptible to cypermethrin (RF = 0.2). The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of leaves of Cymbopogon winterianus, Vitex negundo and Withania somnifera along with roots of Vitex negundo were assessed for their acaricidal activity against the larvae of deltamethrin resistant H. anatolicum. The efficacy was assessed by measuring per cent larval mortality and determination of LC50 values. The various ethanolic extracts produced a concentration dependent increase in larval tick mortality, whereas the aqueous extracts exhibited a much lower mortality. The highest mortality (93.7 ± 0.66 %) was observed at the 5.0 % concentration of ethanolic extract of leaves of C. winterianus and the lowest LC50 value (0.011 %) was recorded for ethanolic extracts of leaves of V. negundo. The results indicated that these plant extracts have potential to be developed as herbal acaricides.

  15. Esterase and glutathione S-transferase levels associated with synthetic pyrethroid resistance in Hyalomma anatolicum and Rhipicephalus microplus ticks from Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Abhijit; Jyoti; Singh, Harkirat; Singh, Nirbhay Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Larval packet test was used for assessment of resistance status against cypermethrin and deltamethrin in Hyalomma anatolicum and Rhipicephalus microplus from various districts of Punjab (India). Among the various field isolates of H. anatolicum susceptible status was recorded against cypermethrin in all isolates, whereas against deltamethrin resistance status (level I-III) was recorded. In R. microplus lower resistance levels (I-II) were recorded against cypermethrin in comparison to deltamethrin (level I-IV). Quantitative analysis of general esterase activity revealed a range of 4.21 ± 0.46 to 6.05 ± 0.55 and 2.23 ± 0.23 to 2.66 ± 0.24 µmol/min/mg protein for α- and β-esterase activity, respectively, in different field isolates of H. anatolicum and the increase in comparison to susceptible was not significant (P > 0.05). In contrast to H. anatolicum, the α- and β-esterase activity in all field isolates (except Jalandhar) of R. microplus was higher (range of 3.89 ± 0.26 to 10.85 ± 0.47 and 1.75 ± 0.08 to 5.87 ± 0.29 µmol/min/mg protein, respectively) (P < 0.001). The glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity in field isolates of H. anatolicum and R. microplus was in the range of 0.01 ± 0.001 to 0.03 ± 0.001 and 0.02 ± 0.0003 to 0.03 ± 0.001 mM/mg/min. The enzyme ratios (α-and β-esterase and GST) and RR95 against deltamethrin of H. anatolicum isolates were correlated (P < 0.05), whereas in R. microplus only α-and β-esterase and RR50 against deltamethrin were correlated (P < 0.05).

  16. In vitro acaricidal effect of plant extract of neem seed oil (Azadirachta indica) on egg, immature, and adult stages of Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum (Ixodoidea: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Abdel-Shafy, S; Zayed, A A

    2002-05-30

    Effects of the plant extract of neem seed (Azadirachta indica) on eggs, immature, and adult stages of Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum was studied at concentrations of 1.6, 3.2, 6.4, and 12.8%. The extract was found to have a significant effect on the hatching rate of eggs. It significantly increased the hatching rate during the first 7 days post-treatment (DPT) giving incompletely developed and dead larvae; however, it cause hatching failure at DPT 15. Neem Azal F induced a significant increased in mortality rates of newly hatched larvae, unfed larvae, and unfed adults reaching 100% on 15th, 3rd, and 15th DPT, respectively. The mortality rates increased with the extract concentrations. Although, it had no significant effect on the moulting rates of fed nymphs, it caused malformation or deformities in 4% of adults moulted. It was concluded that the concentration of Neem Azal F which may be used for commercial control of this tick species were 1.6 and 3.2%. PMID:11992715

  17. [Genetic characterization of the Wad Medani virus (WMV) (Reoviridae, Orbivirus), isolated from the ticks Hyalomma asiaticum Schulze et Schlottke, 1930 (Ixodidae: Hyalomminae) in Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, and Armenia and from the ticks H. anatolicum Koch, 1844 in Tajikistan].

    PubMed

    Al'khovskiĭ, S V; L'vov, D K; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Shchetinin, A M; Deriabin, P G; Gitel'man, A K; Aristova, V A; Botikov, A G

    2014-01-01

    Near full-genome sequence of the Wad Medani Virus (WMV) (strain LEIV-8066Tur) (Orbivirus, Reoviridae) isolated from the ticks Hyalomma asiaticum Schulze et Schlottke, 1929, collected from sheep in Baharly district in Turkmenistan, was determined using next generation sequencing approach. The similarity of the RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (Pol, VP1) amino acid sequence between WMV and the Kemerovo group orbiviruses (KEMV), as well as of the Baku virus (BAKV), was 64%. The similarity of the conserved structural protein VP3 (T2) of WMV with mosquito-borne and tick-borne orbiviruses reaches 46% and 67%, respectively. For the surface proteins VP2, VP5, and VP7 (T13), which have major antigenic determinants of orbiviruses, the similarity of WMV with tickborne orbiviruses (KEMV and BAKV) is 26-30%, 45% and, 57%, respectively (ID GenBank: KJ425426-35). PMID:25549464

  18. Prevalence of ixodid ticks on cattle and sheep northeast of Iran.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mehdi Aghamohammad; Raoofi, Afshin; Hosseini, Arman; Mehrara, Mohammad Reza; Amininajafi, Fatemeh

    2016-09-01

    A survey was carried out to investigate the prevalence of hard tick species (Acari: Ixodidae) on cattle and sheep north of Iran. The aim of study was to determine the prevalence of hard ticks on cattle and sheep in the mountainous areas of Golestan province and their geographical distribution. A total of 26 ticks were collected from 22 infested cattle and 26 ticks were collected from 12 infested sheep during activating seasons of ticks in 2013-2014. The species collected from cattle and sheep were Hyalomma marginatum, Hyalomma anatolicum, Hyalomma asiaticum, Rhipicephalus bursa and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The results show that these are dominant tick species in the surveyed area. PMID:27605782

  19. Theileria ovis discovered in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Youquan; Guan, Guiquan; Ma, Miling; Liu, Junlong; Ren, Qiaoyun; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

    2011-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using 989/990 primers was conducted to identify a newly isolated Theileria sp. in Xinjiang Province of China. The target DNA fragments of the complete 18S rRNA gene were cloned and sequenced. The phylogenetic relationship of newly isolated Theileria spp. was inferred based on the 18S rRNA gene. The results showed that the new Theileria sp. belonged to the cluster of Theileria ovis. Moreover, the findings were confirmed by T. ovis species-specific PCR. An expected 520 bp fragment of T. ovis DNA was obtained from 25 out of 320 (8%) field blood samples, and blood of an experimental sheep infested by Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum collected in Xinjiang. The infection rate of T. ovis was 78% (25/32) in Xinjiang province. The investigation did not find T. ovis positive samples from the field samples collected from the other twelve provinces. This study indicates that T. ovis is prevalent in Xinjiang province of China and its transmission vector is H. anatolicum anatolicum.

  20. Molecular Investigation of Francisella-Like Endosymbiont in Ticks and Francisella tularensis in Ixodid Ticks and Mosquitoes in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Duzlu, Onder; Yildirim, Alparslan; Inci, Abdullah; Gumussoy, Kadir Semih; Ciloglu, Arif; Onder, Zuhal

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the molecular prevalence of Francisella-like endosymbionts (FLEs) and Francisella tularensis in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and mosquitoes in Turkey. Genomic DNA pools were constructed from a total of 1477 adult hard ticks of Rhipicephalus (Rh.) annulatus, Rh. turanicus, Rh. sanguineus, Rh. bursa, Haemaphysalis (Hae.) parva, Hae. sulcata, Hyalomma marginatum marginatum, H. anatolicum anatolicum, H. anatolicum excavatum, H. detritum detritum, H. dromedarii, Dermacentor marginatus, and Ixodes ricinus species, which were collected from several barns, cattle, and people. Genomic DNA was also extracted from pools consisting of 6203 adult female mosquito species belonging to Aedes vexans, Culex (Cx.) pipiens, Cx. hortensis, Cx. theileri, Culiseta annulata, and Anopheles maculipennis species. Conventional PCR and TaqMan probe-based real- time PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene for FLEs and the lpnA gene for F. tularensis, respectively, were performed on the DNA isolates obtained. FLEs and F. tularensis were not found in any genomic DNA pools constructed from ixodid ticks and mosquitos. This study represents the first investigation of F. tularensis and FLEs in potential vector ticks and mosquitoes by molecular methods in Turkey. The present study provides useful insights into the molecular epidemiology of F. tularensis and FLEs. One of the major conclusions of the study is that tularemia outbreaks may be essentially due to direct transmission from the environment (especially from water) in Turkey and not to vector-borne transmission. PMID:26741324

  1. Molecular Investigation of Francisella-Like Endosymbiont in Ticks and Francisella tularensis in Ixodid Ticks and Mosquitoes in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Duzlu, Onder; Yildirim, Alparslan; Inci, Abdullah; Gumussoy, Kadir Semih; Ciloglu, Arif; Onder, Zuhal

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the molecular prevalence of Francisella-like endosymbionts (FLEs) and Francisella tularensis in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and mosquitoes in Turkey. Genomic DNA pools were constructed from a total of 1477 adult hard ticks of Rhipicephalus (Rh.) annulatus, Rh. turanicus, Rh. sanguineus, Rh. bursa, Haemaphysalis (Hae.) parva, Hae. sulcata, Hyalomma marginatum marginatum, H. anatolicum anatolicum, H. anatolicum excavatum, H. detritum detritum, H. dromedarii, Dermacentor marginatus, and Ixodes ricinus species, which were collected from several barns, cattle, and people. Genomic DNA was also extracted from pools consisting of 6203 adult female mosquito species belonging to Aedes vexans, Culex (Cx.) pipiens, Cx. hortensis, Cx. theileri, Culiseta annulata, and Anopheles maculipennis species. Conventional PCR and TaqMan probe-based real- time PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene for FLEs and the lpnA gene for F. tularensis, respectively, were performed on the DNA isolates obtained. FLEs and F. tularensis were not found in any genomic DNA pools constructed from ixodid ticks and mosquitos. This study represents the first investigation of F. tularensis and FLEs in potential vector ticks and mosquitoes by molecular methods in Turkey. The present study provides useful insights into the molecular epidemiology of F. tularensis and FLEs. One of the major conclusions of the study is that tularemia outbreaks may be essentially due to direct transmission from the environment (especially from water) in Turkey and not to vector-borne transmission.

  2. Ticks (Ixodidae) on migrating birds in Egypt, spring and fall 1962*

    PubMed Central

    Hoogstraal, Harry; Traylor, Melvin A.; Gaber, Sobhy; Malakatis, George; Guindy, Ezzat; Helmy, Ibrahim

    1964-01-01

    Over a number of years studies have been carried out in Egypt on the transport by migrating birds of ticks that may transmit pathogens of man and animals. In continuation of these investigations 11 036 birds migrating southwards through Egypt were examined for ticks during the fall of 1962. The 881 infested birds (comprising 24 species and sub-species represented by 10 612 individuals) yielded 1442 ticks. Tick-host relationships were similar to those of previous years except that in 1962 the prevalence of infestation was almost invariably much higher than the averages for 1959-61. Five species of birds were added to the previous list of 40 infested forms. Previously unrecorded tick species taken during 1962 were Ixodes redikorzevi (a species from Asia very occasionally found in rodent burrows in Egypt), the rare Haemaphysalis inermis, and Hyalomma a. anatolicum, H. anatolicum excavatum and H. dromedarii, which may have been carried from Asia or have attached themselves to the birds at the time of netting. During the spring of 1962, altogether 1774 birds migrating northwards through Egypt were also examined. The 56 tick-infested birds (comprising 13 species represented by 867 individuals) yielded 186 ticks. As in previous years, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes was the chief species (89.25%) parasitizing spring migrants. A single specimen of Amblyomma variegatum was taken on Anthus cervinus and 19 specimens of Ixodes?sp. nov. were collected from Sylvia c. communis and Motacilla a. alba. PMID:14163959

  3. Transstadial Transmission of Borrelia turcica in Hyalomma aegyptium Ticks

    PubMed Central

    Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Cozma, Vasile; Sprong, Hein; Jahfari, Setareh; D’Amico, Gianluca; Mărcuțan, Daniel I.; Ionică, Angela M.; Magdaş, Cristian; Modrý, David; Mihalca, Andrei D.

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia turcica comprises the third major group of arthropod-transmitted borreliae and is phylogenetically divergent from other Borrelia groups. The novel group of Borrelia was initially isolated from Hyalomma aegyptium ticks in Turkey and it was recently found in blood and multiple organs of tortoises exported from Jordan to Japan. However, the ecology of these spirochetes and their development in ticks or the vertebrate hosts were not investigated in detail; our aims were to isolate the pathogen and to evaluate the possibility of transstadial transmission of Borrelia turcica by H. aegyptium ticks. Ticks were collected from Testudo graeca tortoises during the summer of 2013 from southeastern Romania. Engorged nymphs were successfully molted to the adult stage. Alive B. turcica was isolated from molted ticks by using Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly (BSK) II medium. Four pure cultures of spirochetes were obtained and analyzed by PCR and sequencing. Sequence analysis of glpQ, gyrB and flaB revealed 98%–100% similarities with B. turcica. H. aegyptium ticks collected from T. graeca tortoises were able to pass the infection with B. turcica via transstadial route, suggesting its vectorial capacity. PMID:25695663

  4. Efficacy of larvicidal activity of green synthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticles using Mangifera indica extract against blood-feeding parasites.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Chung, Ill-Min; Anbarasan, Karunanithi; Karthikeyan, Viswanathan

    2015-02-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are considered to be among the best photocatalytic materials due to their long-term thermodynamic stability, strong oxidizing power, and relative non-toxicity. Nano-preparations with TiO2 NPs are currently under investigation as novel treatments for acne vulgaris, recurrent condyloma acuminata, atopic dermatitis, hyperpigmented skin lesions, and other non-dermatologic diseases. The present study was to investigate the acaricidal and larvicidal activity of synthesized TiO2 NPs utilizing leaf aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) against hematophagous parasites. The anti-parasitic activity of TiO2 NPs against the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Haemaphysalis bispinosa (Acari: Ixodidae), fourth instar larvae of Anopheles subpictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) were assessed. The green synthesized TiO2 NPs were analyzed by UV-Vis, FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD), AFM, SEM, and TEM. The XRD analysis of synthesized TiO2 NPs revealed the dominant peak at 2θ value of 27.81 which matched the 110 crystallographic plane of the rutile structure indicating the crystal structure. The FTIR spectra exhibited a prominent peak at 3,448 cm(-1) and showed OH stretching due to the alcoholic group, and the OH group may act as a capping agent. The SEM images of TiO2 NPs displayed spherical, oval in shape, individual, and some in aggregates. Characterization of the synthesized TiO2 NPs using AFM offered three-dimensional visualization and uneven surface morphology. The TEM micrograph showed agglomerates, round and slight elongation with an average size of 30 ± 5 nm. The maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized TiO2 NPs against the larvae of R. microplus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, Haemaphysalis bispinosa, A. subpictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus with LC50 value of 28.56, 33.17, 23.81, 5.84, and 4.34 mg/L, respectively. In the present study, a novel

  5. Molecular and serological detection of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi infection in horses and ixodid ticks in Iran.

    PubMed

    Abedi, Vali; Razmi, Golamreza; Seifi, Hesam; Naghibi, Abolghasem

    2014-04-01

    Equine piroplasmosis is a hemoprotozoan tick-borne disease with worldwide distribution that is caused by Theileria equi and Babesia caballi. However, the geographical distribution of equine piroplasmosis in Iran is unknown. The aim of the current study was to determine the causative agents and vector ticks of equine piroplasmosis in horses in the North Khorasan Province. In the year 2011, 100 horses were randomly selected from 14 villages. Blood samples and ixodid ticks were collected and examined using microscopical, molecular, and serological methods. Theileria equi infection was microscopically detected in 5 (5%) of the blood smears with low parasitemia, while serum samples were tested by the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Antibodies against T. equi, B. caballi, and a mixed infection were detected in 48 (48%), 2 (2%), and 3 (3%) of the serum samples, respectively. A multiplex PCR was used to detect T. equi and B. caballi DNA in blood samples. No B. caballi infections could be found, but Theileria equi DNA was detected in 45 (45%) of the blood samples, and a BLAST analysis of the sequenced samples indicated a 99% similarity with T. equi 18S rRNA gene sequences in GenBank. Both molecular and serological results did not identify any significant association between T. equi infection and risk factors. A comparision of the results of 3 diagnostic methods demonstrated a poor agreement between microscopical examination with IFAT and PCR and a moderate agreement between IFAT and PCR. Thirty-seven adult ticks (20 females and 17 males) were collected from 15 horses. The most common tick was Hyalomma marginatum marginatum (n=19), followed by Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum (n=10), Rhipicephalus bursa (n=4), Hyalomma marginatum turanicum (n=3), and Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (n=1). The salivary glands and ovaries were also examined using PCR. The genomic DNA samples of the salivary glands of 3 ticks, H. a. excavatum (n=2) and R. bursa (n=1), had a

  6. Hyalomma ticks on northward migrating birds in southern Spain: Implications for the risk of entry of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus to Great Britain.

    PubMed

    England, Marion E; Phipps, Paul; Medlock, Jolyon M; Atkinson, Peter M; Atkinson, Barry; Hewson, Roger; Gale, Paul

    2016-06-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a zoonotic virus transmitted by Hyalomma ticks, the immature stages of which may be carried by migratory birds. In this study, a total of 12 Hyalomma ticks were recovered from five of 228 migratory birds trapped in Spring, 2012 in southern Spain along the East Atlantic flyway. All collected ticks tested negative for CCHFV. While most birds had zero Hyalomma ticks, two individuals had four and five ticks each and the statistical distribution of Hyalomma tick counts per bird is over-dispersed compared to the Poisson distribution, demonstrating the need for intensive sampling studies to avoid underestimating the total number of ticks. Rates of tick exchange on migratory birds during their northwards migration will affect the probability that a Hyalomma tick entering Great Britain is positive for CCHFV. Drawing on published data, evidence is presented that the latitude of a European country affects the probability of entry of Hyalomma ticks on wild birds. Further data on Hyalomma infestation rates and tick exchange rates are required along the East Atlantic flyway to further our understanding of the origin of Hyalomma ticks (i.e., Africa or southern Europe) and hence the probability of entry of CCHFV into GB. PMID:27232135

  7. Control and therapeutic management of bovine tropical theileriosis in crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Verma, Amit Kumar; Singh, Shanker Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Bovine tropical theileriosis (BTT) is a disease of worldwide economic importance in cattle, caused by Theileria annulata, a protozoan parasite, and transmitted cyclically by ticks. The disease is one of the serious constraints to dairy industry in endemic areas like India, leading to fatal infections in exotic cattle and significant mortality in cross-bred cattle and zebu cattle. The present report demonstrates the clinical manifestation, haematological alteration and therapeutic management of theileriosis cases in a cross-bred cattle dairy farm at district Bijnor, Uttar Pradesh. Clinical examination of affected animals revealed high rectal temperature (104-106 °F), generalized enlargement of superficial lymph nodes, pallor mucous, apathy and watery blood. The affected animals were severely infested with Hyalomma anatolicum ticks. The blood smears examination after staining with Leishman stain revealed the presence of typical Theileria organisms. Buparvaquone along with symptomatic and supportive therapy could cure all the animals. PMID:27065628

  8. Tick cell lines for study of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and other arboviruses.

    PubMed

    Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Kohl, Alain; Bente, Dennis A; Fazakerley, John K

    2012-09-01

    Continuous cell lines derived from many of the vectors of tick-borne arboviruses of medical and veterinary importance are now available. Their role as tools in arbovirus research to date is reviewed and their potential application in studies of tick cell responses to virus infection is explored, by comparison with recent progress in understanding mosquito immunity to arbovirus infection. A preliminary study of propagation of the human pathogen Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in tick cell lines is reported; CCHFV replicated in seven cell lines derived from the ticks Hyalomma anatolicum (a known vector), Amblyomma variegatum, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, and Ixodes ricinus, but not in three cell lines derived from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Ornithodoros moubata. This indicates that tick cell lines can be used to study growth of CCHFV in arthropod cells and that there may be species-specific restriction in permissive CCHFV infection at the cellular level.

  9. A review of Hyalomma scupense (Acari, Ixodidae) in the Maghreb region: from biology to control.

    PubMed

    Gharbi, Mohamed; Darghouth, Mohamed Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Hyalomma scupense (syn. Hyalomma detritum) is a two-host domestic endophilic tick of cattle and secondarily other ungulates in the Maghreb region (Africa). This species transmits several pathogens, among which two are major livestock diseases: Theileria annulata and Theileria equi. Various other pathogens are also transmitted by this tick species, such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia bovis. Hyalomma scupense is common in sub-humid and semi-arid areas of several regions in the world, mainly in the Maghreb region. In this region, adults attach to animals during the summer season; larvae and nymphs attach to their hosts during autumn, but there is a regional difference in H. scupense phenology. There is an overlap between immature and adult ticks, leading in some contexts to a dramatic modification of the epidemiology of tick-borne diseases. This tick species attaches preferentially to the posterior udder quarters and thighs. Tick burdens can reach 130 ticks per animal, with a mean of 60 ticks. Calves are 70 times less infested than adult cattle. The control can be implemented through six options: (i) rehabilitation of the farm buildings by roughcasting and smoothing the outer and inner surfaces of the enclosures and walls. This control option should be recommended to be combined with a thorough cleaning of the farm and its surrounding area. With regard to Theileria annulata infection, this control option is the most beneficial. (ii) Acaricide application to animals during the summer season, targeting adults. (iii) Acaricide application during the autumn period for the control of the immature stages. (iv) Acaricide application to the walls: many field veterinarians have suggested this option but it is only partially efficient since nymphs enter deep into the cracks and crevices. It should be used if there is a very high tick burden or if there is a high risk of tick-borne diseases. (v) Manual tick removal: this method is not efficient since the ticks can

  10. Molecular detection of Theileria spp. and Babesia spp. in sheep and ixodid ticks from the northeast of Iran.

    PubMed

    Razmi, Gholamreza; Pourhosseini, Moslem; Yaghfouri, Saeed; Rashidi, Ahmad; Seidabadi, Mohsen

    2013-02-01

    Theilerioses and babesioses are important diseases in Iranian sheep. The present study was undertaken to identify and classify/specify Theileria spp. and Babesia spp. in sheep and vector ticks. Investigation was carried out from 2009 to 2011 in the Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran. In total, 302 sheep originating from 60 different flocks were clinically examined and their blood collected. In addition, from the same flocks, ixodid ticks were sampled. Stained blood smears were microscopically examined for the presence of Theileria and Babesia organisms, and a semi-nested PCR was used for subsequent molecular specification. From the ticks, salivary glands and uterus were isolated and subsequently analyzed by semi-nested PCR. Piroplasm organisms were observed in 29% of the blood smears with low parasitemia, whereas 65% of the blood samples yielded positive PCR findings. The presence of Theileria ovis (55.6%), Theileria lestoquardi, and mixed infection with Theileria spp. and Babesia ovis were detected by semi-nested PCR in 0.3%, 5.6%, and 0.99%, respectively. In total, 429 ixodid ticks were collected from different areas of the province. The most prevalent ticks were Rhipicephalus turanicus (n = 376; 87.6% of the total), followed by Hyalomma marginatum turanicum (n = 30; 7.0%), Dermacentor raskemensis (n = 12; 2.8%), Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (n = 7; 1.6%), Dermacentor marginatus (n = 2; 0.5%), Rhipicephalus bursa (n = 1; 0.2%), and Haemaphysalis sp. (n = 1; 0.2%). Of the positive R. turanicus samples, 5 (5.7%) were infected with T. ovis and 2 (2.9%) with T. lestoquardi. Neither Babesia ovis nor Babesia motasi infection was detected in salivary glands or uterine samples of the ticks. The results also suggest that R. turanicus could be the vector responsible for transmission of the 2 Theileria species.

  11. Survey on infection rate, vectors and molecular identification of Theileria annulata in cattle from North West, Iran.

    PubMed

    Arjmand Yamchi, Jafar; Tavassoli, Mousa

    2016-09-01

    Tropical theileriosis is a progressive bovine lymphoproliferative disease caused by the intracellular protozoan parasite Theileria annulata. In this study 138 blood samples and 289 ticks were collected and examined from cattle that belonged to 10 randomly selected flocks. The Tbs-S/Tbs-A primer set was used for PCR amplification of Theileria spp. and the Ta-S/Tbs-A specific primer set was used in semi-nested PCR technique for detection of T. annulata. Blood smears of each case were examined by Giemsa staining method. The semi-nested PCR accurately revealed 22 (15.94 %) positive samples; whereas Giemsa staining method could detect 15 (10.86 %) out of 138 blood samples. The examination of 289 ticks by semi-nested PCR revealed that, 32.86 % of Hyalomma anatulicum anatulicum, 26.47 % of Hyalomma anatulicum excavatum and 22.42 % of Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum, were infected with T. annulata. The results suggest that H. anatulicum anatolicum may play a major role in transmission of T. annulata infection in Iran. The results indicated that the Giemsa staining method, having low sensitivity, while the semi-nested PCR technique can be used as a gold standard method for this purpose. PMID:27605839

  12. Rickettsia africae in Hyalomma dromedarii ticks from sub-Saharan Algeria.

    PubMed

    Kernif, Tahar; Djerbouh, Amel; Mediannikov, Oleg; Ayach, Bouhous; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe; Bitam, Idir

    2012-12-01

    Spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses are caused by obligate, intracellular Gram-negative bacteria of the genus Rickettsia. In recent years, several species and subspecies of rickettsias have been identified as emerging pathogens throughout the world, including sub-Saharan Africa. We report here the detection of Rickettsia africae, the agent responsible for African tick-bite fever, by amplification of fragments of gltA and ompA genes and multi-spacer typing from Hyalomma dromedarii ticks collected from the camel Camelus dromedarius in the Adrar and Béchar region (sub-Saharan Algeria). To date, R. africae has been associated mainly with Amblyomma spp. The role of H. dromedarii in the epidemiology of R. africae requires further investigation.

  13. Molecular detection of Rickettsia africae, Rickettsia aeschlimannii, and Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae in camels and Hyalomma spp. ticks from Israel.

    PubMed

    Kleinerman, Gabriela; Baneth, Gad; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; van Straten, Michael; Berlin, Dalia; Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Abdeen, Ziad; Nasereddin, Abed; Harrus, Shimon

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we aimed to identify and genetically characterize spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae in ticks, domestic one-humped camels, and horses from farms and Bedouin communities in southern Israel. A total of 618 ixodid ticks (Hyalomma dromedarii, Hyalomma turanicum, Hyalomma excavatum, and Hyalomma impeltatum) collected from camels and horses, as well as 152 blood samples from 148 camels and four horses were included in the study. Initial screening for rickettsiae was carried out by targeting the gltA gene. Positive samples were further analyzed for rickettsial ompA, 17kDa, ompB, and 16S rRNA genes. Rickettsia aeschlimannii DNA was detected in the blood of three camels and 14 ticks (H. dromedarii, H. turanicum, and H. excavatum). Rickettsia africae was found in six ticks (H. turanicum, H. impeltatum, H. dromedarii, and H. excavatum). In addition, Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae was detected in one H. turanicum tick. These findings represent the first autochthonous detection of R. africae in Israel. Previous detections of R. africae in Asia were reported from the Sinai Peninsula (Egypt) and Istanbul, only. Furthermore, we report for the first time the finding of R. aeschlimannii in H. turanicum and H. excavatum ticks, as well as the first identification of R. sibirica mongolitimonae in H. turanicum ticks. The tick species identified to harbor R. africae and other SFG rickettsiae have been reported to occasionally feed on people, and, therefore, physicians should be aware of the possible exposure of local communities and travelers, especially those in contact with camels, to these tick-borne rickettsial pathogens.

  14. Cloning and expression of the 4D8 gene from Hyalomma asiaticum tick.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z Q; Xia, J; Wang, G L; Kuermanali, N

    2016-01-01

    Hyalomma asiaticum tick, an important ectozoic parasite causes tickle, pain, anemia, weight loss, and paralysis in its hosts, which include humans, cattle, sheep, horses, camels, and hares. The 4D8 gene can be a potential vaccine candidate antigen for H. asiaticum. In the present study, we cloned and expressed the 4D8 gene of H. asiaticum from Xinjiang Province. Primers were designed according to the H. asiaticum tick 4D8 gene sequence available in GenBank. The gene was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and the fragments were subcloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET30a and the recombinant vector pET30a-4D8 was constructed. The expressed recombinant protein was purified and its biological activity was investigated by western blot. Results revealed that the recombinant protein was a biologically active fusion protein with a molecular weight of 20 kDa. The purified 4D8 protein would provide a strong foundation for further studies on this protein. PMID:27323189

  15. Purification and characterization of purine nucleoside phosphorylase from developing embryos of Hyalomma dromedarii.

    PubMed

    Kamel, M Y; Fahmy, A S; Ghazy, A H; Mohamed, M A

    1991-04-01

    Purine nucleoside phosphorylase from Hyalomma dromedarii, the camel tick, was purified to apparent homogeneity. A molecular weight of 56,000 - 58,000 was estimated for both the native and denatured enzyme, suggesting that the enzyme is monomeric. Unlike purine nucleoside phosphorylase preparations from other tissues, the H. dromedarii enzyme was unstable in the presence of beta-mercaptoethanol. The enzyme had a sharp pH optimum at pH 6.5. It catalyzed the phosphorolysis and arsenolysis of ribo- and deoxyribo-nucleosides of hypoxanthine and guanine, but not of adenine or pyrimidine nucleosides. The Km values of the enzyme at the optimal pH for inosine, deoxyinosine, guanosine, and deoxyguanosine were 0.31, 0.67, 0.55, and 0.33 mM, respectively. Inactivation and kinetic studies suggested that histidine and cysteine residues were essential for activity. The pKa values determined for catalytic ionizable groups were 6-7 and 8-9. The enzyme was completely inactivated by thiol reagents and reactivated by excess beta-mercaptoethanol. The enzyme was also susceptible to pH-dependent photooxidation in the presence of methylene blue, implicating histidine. Initial velocity studies showed an intersecting pattern of double-reciprocal plots of the data, consistent with a sequential mechanism. PMID:1905141

  16. Esterase and lipase in camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii (Acari: Ixodidae) during embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fahmy, Afaf S; Abdel-Gany, Somia S; Mohamed, Tarek M; Mohamed, Saleh A

    2004-02-01

    Esterase and lipase activity showed significant changes during embryogenesis of camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii. From the elution profile of chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, six forms of H. dromedarii esterase (El to EVI) can be distinguished. Esterase EIII was purified to homogeneity after chromatography on Sepharose 6B. The molecular mass of esterase EIII was 45 kDa for the native enzyme and represented a monomer of 45 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Esterase EIII had an acidic pI at 5.3. Lipase activity was detected in the same DEAE-cellulose peaks (LI to LVI) of H. dromedarii esterases. The highest lipase activity was exhibited by lipase LIII. Esterase EIII and lipase LIII were compared with respect to Michaelis constant, substrate specificity, temperature optimum, heat stability, pH optimum, effect of metal ions and inhibitors. This study suggests that H. dromedarii lipolytic enzymes may play a central role in the interconversion of lipovitellins during embryogenesis. PMID:14990212

  17. An insight into the sialotranscriptome and proteome of the coarse bontlegged tick, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes

    PubMed Central

    Francischetti, Ivo MB; Anderson, Jennifer M; Manoukis, Nicholas; Pham, Van M; Ribeiro, José MC

    2011-01-01

    Ticks are mites specialized in acquiring blood from vertebrates as their sole source of food and are important disease vectors to humans and animals. Among the specializations required for this peculiar diet, ticks evolved a sophisticated salivary potion that can disarm their host’s hemostasis, inflammation, and immune reactions. Previous transcriptome analysis of tick salivary proteins has revealed many new protein families indicative of fast evolution, possibly due to host immune pressure. The hard ticks (family Ixodidae) are further divided into two basal groups, of which the Metastriata have 11 genera. While salivary transcriptomes and proteomes have been described for some of these genera, no tick of the genus Hyalomma has been studied so far. The analysis of 2,084 expressed sequence tags (EST) from a salivary gland cDNA library allowed an exploration of the proteome of this tick species by matching peptide ions derived from MS/MS experiments to this data set. We additionally compared these MS/MS derived peptide sequences against the proteins from the bovine host, finding many host proteins in the salivary glands of this tick. This annotated data set can assist the discovery of new targets for anti-tick vaccines as well as help to identify pharmacologically active proteins. PMID:21851864

  18. The dependence of Hyalomma aegyptium on its tortoise host Testudo graeca in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Tiar, G; Tiar-Saadi, M; Benyacoub, S; Rouag, R; Široký, P

    2016-09-01

    Hyalomma aegyptium (Linnaeus, 1758) (Ixodida: Ixodidae) has recently been confirmed as a carrier of numerous pathogenic, including zoonotic, agents. Four environmentally distinct regions of Algeria, located between the humid coastal zone and the arid Saharan Atlas range, were selected in order to compare differences in tick abundance among localities, and the correlations between tick abundance and host population characteristics and other environmental conditions. Sampling was carried out during May and early June in 2010-2012. A total of 1832 H. aegyptium were removed from 201 tortoises. Adult ticks accounted for 52% of the collection. In the pre-adult stages, larvae were dominant. Data on prevalence, intensity (mean ± standard deviation, range) and abundance of tick infestation were calculated for each locality. Locally, prevalences reached 100%. The sex ratio was biased in favour of males (4.2). Intensities of infestation differed significantly among the localities studied for all developmental stages of the tick. The intensity of infestation by adult ticks was positively correlated to the size of the tortoise and with tortoise population density in the habitat. However, findings for immature tick stages were independent of both variables. No significant correlations between infestation intensities and the climatic parameters tested were found. Immature ticks were observed to prefer the front parts of their tortoise hosts, whereas the majority of adults were attached to the rear parts. PMID:27218892

  19. Infestation of the spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca) by Hyalomma aegyptium in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Gharbi, Mohamed; Rjeibi, Mohamed Ridha; Rouatbi, Mariem; Mabrouk, Moez; Mhadhbi, Moez; Amairia, Safa; Amdouni, Yosra; Boussaadoun, Mohamed Anis

    2015-04-01

    We examined 210 spur-thighed tortoises (Testudo graeca) for the presence of ticks in Tunisia during May 2014. A total number of 602 adult ticks were collected and identified leading to the estimation of parasitological indicators. All the ticks belonged to a single species: Hyalomma aegyptium. The mean infestation prevalence was 66.2%, mean overall infestation intensity and abundance were 4.33 and 2.86 ticks/tortoise respectively. Our survey showed that tortoises were significantly more infested by male ticks than females (p<0.001). The ticks were mainly present in the posterior limbs compared to other body regions (p<0.05). There was no significance variation of length and weight of tortoises according to sex (p<0.05). There was a significant correlation between the tortoises' size (length and weight) and tick infestation. This study showed high tick burdens of spur-thighed tortoises in Tunisia; further investigations are needed to determine exactly the role of this tick species in the transmission of different zoonotic pathogens.

  20. Hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) as a Source of Ectoparasites in Urban-suburban Areas of Northwest of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hajipour, Nasser; Tavassoli, Mousa; Gorgani-Firouzjaee, Tahmineh; Naem, Soraya; Pourreza, Behzad; Bahramnejad, Kia; Arjmand, Jafar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hedgehogs are small, nocturnal mammals which become popular in the world and have important role in transmission of zoonotic agents. Thus, the present study aimed to survey ectoparasite infestation from April 2010 to December 2011 in urban and suburban parts of Urmia and Tabriz Cities, Northwest of Iran. Methods: A total number of 84 hedgehogs (40 females and 44 males) were examined. They have been carefully inspected for ectoparasites and collected arthropods were stored in 70% ethanol solution. The identification of arthropods was carried out using morphological diagnostic keys. Results: The occurrence of ticks on hedgehogs was 23 (67.7%) with Rhipicephalus turanicus in Urmia and 11 (22%) as well as 1(2%) with Rh. turanicus and Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum in Tabriz, respectively. One flea species, Archaeopsylla erinacei, was found with prevalence of 19 (55.9%) and 27 (54%) in Urmia and Tabriz Cities, respectively. Prevalence of infestation with Rh. turanicus and A. erinacei were not different (P> 0.05) between sexes of hedgehogs in two study areas. Highest prevalence of tick and flea infestation was in June in Urmia, whereas it was observed in August in Tabriz. Both tick and flea parasitizing hedgehogs showed seasonal difference in prevalence (P< 0.05) in Urmia, but it was not detected in Tabriz (P> 0.05). Conclusion: The result showed the high occurrence of ectoparasites in hedgehog population and according to the zoonotic potential of these animals as vector of some agents further studies are needed to investigate in different parts of Iran. PMID:26114147

  1. An experimental ovine Theileriosis: The effect of Theileria lestoquardi infection on cardiovascular system in sheep.

    PubMed

    Yaghfoori, Saeed; Razmi, Gholam Reza; Mohri, Mehrdad; Razavizadeh, Ali Reza Taghavi; Movassaghi, Ahmad Reza

    2016-09-01

    The malignant ovine theileriosis is caused by Theileria lestoquardi, which is highly pathogenic in sheep. Theileriosis involves different organs in ruminants, but the effect of the disease on the cardiovascular system is unclear. To understand the pathogenesis of T. lestoquardi on the cardiovascular system, Baluchi breed sheep were infected with the mentioned parasite by releasing unfed adults of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, which were infected with T. lestoquardi. The infected sheep were clinically examined on days 0, 2, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14, 17, and 21, and the blood samples were collected for biochemical parameters measurement. At termination of the experiment, the infected sheep were euthanized and pathological examinations of heart tissue were conducted. During experimental infection of sheep with T. lestoquardi, activities of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase, were significantly increased (P˂0.05), while a conspicuous decrease (P˂0.05) was observed in creatine phosphokinase activities. Alterations made in biochemical factors almost coincided with the presence of piroplasm in the blood and schizont in lymph nodes. Maximum and minimum of parasitemia in the sheep stood between 3.3% and 0.28%, respectively. In addition, electrocardiography revealed sinus tachycardia, sinus arrhythmia, sino-atrial block and ST-elevation, atrial premature beat, and alteration in QRS and in T waves' amplitude. Heart histopathological examination showed hyperemia, infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells into interstitial tissue, endocarditis, and focal necrosis of cardiac muscle cells. In addition, in one of the sheep, definite occurrence of infarction was observed. The results indicate that T. lestoquardi infection has devastating pathological impacts on the cardiovascular system of sheep. Furthermore, measurement of the cTnI amount is a useful biochemical factor for diagnosis and for better understanding of the severity and

  2. An experimental ovine Theileriosis: The effect of Theileria lestoquardi infection on cardiovascular system in sheep.

    PubMed

    Yaghfoori, Saeed; Razmi, Gholam Reza; Mohri, Mehrdad; Razavizadeh, Ali Reza Taghavi; Movassaghi, Ahmad Reza

    2016-09-01

    The malignant ovine theileriosis is caused by Theileria lestoquardi, which is highly pathogenic in sheep. Theileriosis involves different organs in ruminants, but the effect of the disease on the cardiovascular system is unclear. To understand the pathogenesis of T. lestoquardi on the cardiovascular system, Baluchi breed sheep were infected with the mentioned parasite by releasing unfed adults of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, which were infected with T. lestoquardi. The infected sheep were clinically examined on days 0, 2, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14, 17, and 21, and the blood samples were collected for biochemical parameters measurement. At termination of the experiment, the infected sheep were euthanized and pathological examinations of heart tissue were conducted. During experimental infection of sheep with T. lestoquardi, activities of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase, were significantly increased (P˂0.05), while a conspicuous decrease (P˂0.05) was observed in creatine phosphokinase activities. Alterations made in biochemical factors almost coincided with the presence of piroplasm in the blood and schizont in lymph nodes. Maximum and minimum of parasitemia in the sheep stood between 3.3% and 0.28%, respectively. In addition, electrocardiography revealed sinus tachycardia, sinus arrhythmia, sino-atrial block and ST-elevation, atrial premature beat, and alteration in QRS and in T waves' amplitude. Heart histopathological examination showed hyperemia, infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells into interstitial tissue, endocarditis, and focal necrosis of cardiac muscle cells. In addition, in one of the sheep, definite occurrence of infarction was observed. The results indicate that T. lestoquardi infection has devastating pathological impacts on the cardiovascular system of sheep. Furthermore, measurement of the cTnI amount is a useful biochemical factor for diagnosis and for better understanding of the severity and

  3. Prevalence and associated risk factors for bovine tick infestation in two districts of lower Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sajid, Muhammad Sohail; Iqbal, Zafar; Khan, Muhammad Nisar; Muhammad, Ghulam; Khan, Muhammad Kasib

    2009-12-01

    Bovine tick infestation is still a serious nuisance to livestock and the dairy industry of Pakistan. The current paper reports the prevalence and associated risk factors for bovine tick infestation in the districts Layyah and Muzaffargarh of lower Punjab, Pakistan. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to identify and to quantify variation in the prevalence of bovine tick infestation with respect to host (age, species, sex, and breed) and environmental (geographical area and climate) determinants. Multiple stage cluster random sampling was used and 3500 cattle and buffaloes from the two districts were selected. Prevalence of bovine tick infestation was significantly higher (OR=1.95; p<0.05) in cattle (1076/1475; 72.9%) than in buffaloes (957/2025; 47.3%). Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum was the major tick species (33.5%; 1173/3500), followed by Rhipicephalus sanguineus (13%; 456/3500). The highest monthly prevalence in both the districts was found in July. Ticks were not found in Layyah from November to March and in Muzaffargarh from December to March. The average number of ticks was proportional to the prevalence of infestation. Also, tick infestation in a 7cmx7cm dewlap of the animal was proportional to that of the rest of body. Prevalence of tick infestation was associated (p<0.05) with district, host species and breed. In cattle, prevalence of tick infestation was associated (p<0.05) with age and sex of host. The results of this study provide better understanding of disease epidemiology in the study districts, which will help for planning of control strategies. PMID:19782414

  4. Molecular detection of Rickettsia aeschlimannii in Hyalomma spp. ticks from camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Nigeria, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Kamani, J; Baneth, G; Apanaskevich, D A; Mumcuoglu, K Y; Harrus, S

    2015-06-01

    Several species of the spotted fever group rickettsiae have been identified as emerging pathogens throughout the world, including in Africa. In this study, 197 Hyalomma ticks (Ixodida: Ixodidae) collected from 51 camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Kano, northern Nigeria, were screened by amplification and sequencing of the citrate synthase (gltA), outer membrane protein A (ompA) and 17-kDa antigen gene fragments. Rickettsia sp. gltA fragments were detected in 43.3% (42/97) of the tick pools tested. Rickettsial ompA gene fragments (189 bp and 630 bp) were detected in 64.3% (n = 27) and 23.8% (n = 10) of the gltA-positive tick pools by real-time and conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. The amplicons were 99-100% identical to Rickettsia aeschlimannii TR/Orkun-H and R. aeschlimannii strain EgyRickHimp-El-Arish in GenBank. Furthermore, 17-kDa antigen gene fragments of 214 bp and 265 bp were detected in 59.5% (n = 25) and 38.1% (n = 16), respectively, of tick pools, and sequences were identical to one another and 99-100% identical to those of the R. aeschlimannii strain Ibadan A1 in GenBank. None of the Hyalomma impressum ticks collected were positive for Rickettsia sp. DNA. Rickettsia sp. gltA fragments (133 bp) were detected in 18.8% of camel blood samples, but all samples were negative for the other genes targeted. This is the first report to describe the molecular detection of R. aeschlimannii in Hyalomma spp. ticks from camels in Nigeria.

  5. Hyalomma scupense (Acari, Ixodidae) in northeast Tunisia: seasonal population dynamics of nymphs and adults on field cattle.

    PubMed

    Gharbi, Mohamed; Hayouni, Mohamed Ettaïeb; Sassi, Limam; Dridi, Walid; Darghouth, Mohamed Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Hyalomma scupense is a two-host tick infesting mainly cattle representing in North Africa the vector of tropical theileriosis (Theileria annulata infection), a major tick-borne disease affecting cattle. Any effective control programme of ticks requires a good knowledge of the biology of the target species. In the present study, three cattle farms in northeast Tunisia were surveyed during the activity seasons for adult and nymphs of Hyalomma scupense. Several indicators were studied, including chronological indicators, infestation prevalence, infestation intensity and feeding predilection sites of the ticks. The adult ticks were present from mid-June to late November. Nymphs were observed on animals from early September to late November. A large proportion of the ticks were attached in the posterior udder quarters: 41% and 64% of adult ticks and nymphs, respectively. The animals that were heavily infested by adult ticks were also heavily infested by nymphs. Moreover, 17% of adult ticks and 53% of nymphs were present on only 5% of cattle population. These data are important for the success of targeted acaricide application leading to a dramatic decrease of acaricide quantity needed for the treatment. When the preferential sites of attachment are known, the effectiveness of manual removal of ticks can be improved. The presence of highly infested animals is to be considered when any control programme is implemented, since these animals harbour a high proportion of the ticks. PMID:23547915

  6. Efficacy of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Bm86 against Hyalomma dromedarii and Amblyomma cajennense tick infestations in camels and cattle.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Valle, Manuel; Taoufik, Amar; Valdés, Mario; Montero, Carlos; Ibrahin, Hassan; Hassan, Shawgi Mohammed; Jongejan, Frans; de la Fuente, Jose

    2012-05-14

    The recombinant Bm86-based tick vaccines have shown their efficacy for the control of cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. annulatus infestations. However, cattle ticks often co-exist with multi-host ticks such as Hyalomma and Amblyomma species, thus requiring the control of multiple tick infestations for cattle and other hosts. Vaccination trials using a R. microplus recombinant Bm86-based vaccine were conducted in cattle and camels against Hyalomma dromedarii and in cattle against Amblyomma cajennense immature and adult ticks. The results showed an 89% reduction in the number of H. dromedarii nymphs engorging on vaccinated cattle, and a further 32% reduction in the weight of the surviving adult ticks. In vaccinated camels, a reduction of 27% and 31% of tick engorgement and egg mass weight, respectively was shown, while egg hatching was reduced by 39%. However, cattle vaccination with Bm86 did not have an effect on A. cajennense tick infestations. These results showed that Bm86 vaccines are effective against R. microplus and other tick species but improved vaccines containing new antigens are required to control multiple tick infestations.

  7. Molecular analysis of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and Rickettsia in Hyalomma marginatum ticks removed from patients (Spain) and birds (Spain and Morocco), 2009-2015.

    PubMed

    Palomar, Ana M; Portillo, Aránzazu; Mazuelas, David; Roncero, Lidia; Arizaga, Juan; Crespo, Ariñe; Gutiérrez, Óscar; Márquez, Francisco J; Cuadrado, Juan F; Eiros, José M; Oteo, José A

    2016-07-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) was detected in Spain in 2010. The presence of CCHFV in Hyalomma marginatum ticks from migratory birds passing through Morocco during the spring migration strengthened the hypothesis of the arrival of infected ticks transported by birds to the Iberian Peninsula. Furthermore, Hyalomma species are vectors of bacterial infections such as spotted fever rickettsioses. CCHFV and Rickettsia were screened in Hyalomma ticks from Spain attached to patients (n=12) and birds (n=149). In addition, Rickettsia was investigated in 52 Hyalomma ticks from Morocco (previously reported as CCHFV-infected). No sample collected in Spain showed an infection with CCHFV. Two ticks removed from patients (16.7%), as well as 47 (31.5%) and 4 (7.7%) from birds, collected in Spain and Morocco respectively, were infected with Rickettsia aeschlimannii. Rickettsia sibirica subsp. mongolitimonae was also found in 2 ticks from birds collected in Spain (1.3%). The risk of CCHFV-infected ticks attached to migratory birds to reach the North of Spain is low. This study corroborates the presence of R. aeschlimannii in Spain and Morocco, and supports that H. marginatum can be a potential vector of R. sibirica subsp. mongolitimonae in the Iberian Peninsula.

  8. A tick B-cell inhibitory protein from salivary glands of the hard tick, Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Da; Liang Jiangguo; Yu Haining; Wu Haifeng; Xu Chunhua; Liu Jingze . E-mail: jzliu21@heinfo.net; Lai Ren . E-mail: rlai72@njau.edu.cn

    2006-05-05

    Some studies done to date suggest that B-cell inhibitory factor occurred in tick saliva. In this study, a novel protein having B-cell inhibitory activity was purified and characterized from the salivary glands of the hard tick, Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum. This protein was named B-cell inhibitory factor (BIF). The cDNA encoding BIF was cloned by cDNA library screening. The predicted protein from the cDNA sequence is composed of 138 amino acids including the mature BIF. No similarity was found by Blast search. The lipopolysaccharide-induced B-cell proliferation was inhibited by BIF. This is First report of the identification and characterization of B-cell inhibitory protein from tick. The current study facilitates the study of identifying the interaction among tick, Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, and host.

  9. Vectors of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Telmadarraiy, Zakkyeh; Chinikar, Sadegh; Vatandoost, Hassan; Faghihi, Faezeh; Hosseini-Chegeni, Asadollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ticks are important vectors and reservoirs of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) virus. Human beings may be infected whenever the normal life cycle of the infected ticks on non-human vertebrate hosts is interrupted by the undesirable presence of humans in the cycle. A total of 26 species of Argasid and Ixodid ticks have been recorded in Iran; including nine Hyalomma, two Rhipicephalus, two Dermacentor, five Haemaphysalis, two Boophilus, one Ixodes and two Argas as well as three Ornithodoros species as blood sucking ectoparasites of livestock and poultries. The present paper reviews tick vectors of CCHF virus in Iran, focusing on the role of ticks in different provinces of Iran using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Methods: During ten years study, 1054 tick specimens; including two species of Argasidae and 17 species of Ixodidae were examined for their infection to CCHF virus genome. The output of all studies as well as related publications were discussed in the current paper. Results: The results show that Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Hyalomma marginatum, H. anatolicum, H. asiaticum and H. dromedarii were known as the most frequent species which were positive for CCHF virus. Conclusion: The status of ticks which were positive for CCHF virus revealed that unlike the most common idea that Hyalomma species are the most important vectors of CCHF virus, other ticks including Rhipicephalus, Haemaphysalis and Dermacentor can be reservoir of this virus; thus, considering geographical distribution, type of host and environmental conditions, different tick control measurements should be carried out in areas with high incidence of CCHF disease. PMID:26623426

  10. Molecular surveillance of Theileria ovis, Theileria lestoquardi and Theileria annulata infection in sheep and ixodid ticks in Iran.

    PubMed

    Razmi, Gholamreza; Yaghfoori, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    A molecular study was undertaken to detect Theileria ovis, Theileria lestoquardi and Theileria annulata in sheep and tick vectors. Investigation was conducted from 2010 to 2011 in the south of Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran. A total of 150 blood samples were collected from 30 different sheep flocks. In addition, ixodid ticks were sampled from the same flocks. The stained blood smears were microscopically examined for the presence of piroplasms and a semi-nested polymerase chain reaction-restriction (PCR) was used for subsequent molecular speciation. Salivary glands were isolated from the ticks and subsequently analysed by semi-nested PCR. polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to differentiate between T. lestoquardi and T. annulata from PCR-positive samples. Theileria species infection was microscopically detected in 18.6% of blood smears. The presence of T. ovis and T. lestoquardi or T. annulata was detected by semi-nested PCR in 58.6% and 6.6% of blood samples respectively. In total, 169 ixodid ticks were collected from different areas of the province. The most prevalent ticks were Rhipicephalus turanicus (n = 155; 91.7% of the total), followed by Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (n = 8; 4.7%) and Hyalomma marginatum turanicum (n = 6; 3.5%). From an organ pooling of 33 ticks, three pools of salivary glands from R. turanicus were positive for Theileria species by semi-nested PCR. Of the three R. turanicus samples testing positive for Theileria species, two (6.1%) were positive for T. ovis and one (3.0%) for T. lestoquardi or T.annulata. Amongst the 11 PCR-positive samples for T. lestoquardi or T. annulata, 10 were positive for T. lestoquardi and one sample was positive for both T. lestoquardi and T. annulata using PCR-RFLP. The results also demonstrated that PCR-RFLP could be used for the detection of T. ovis. Based on the results, it can be concluded that T. ovis has a higher prevalence than T. lestoquardi, and that R

  11. Acaricidal effects of cardiac glycosides, azadirachtin and neem oil against the camel tick, Hyalomma dromedarii (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Al-Rajhy, DiefAlla H; Alahmed, Azzam M; Hussein, Hamdy I; Kheir, Salah M

    2003-11-01

    The cardiac glycoside, digitoxin, from Digitalis purpurea L (Scrophulariaceae), a cardiac glycosidal (cardenolide) extract from Calotropis procera (Ait) R Br (Asclepiadaceae), azadirachtin and neem oil from Azadirachta indica A Juss (Meliaceae) were tested for their effects against larvae and adult stages of the camel tick, Hyalomma dromedarii Koch (Acari: Ixodidae). The contact LC50 values of the first three materials against adults were 4.08, 9.63 and >40.7 microg cm(-2), respectively, whereas the dipping LC50 values of the four materials were 409.9, 1096, >5000 and >5000 mg litre(-1), respectively. Contact and dipping LC50 values of the extract and azadirachtin against larvae were 6.16, >20.3 microg cm(-2) and 587.7 and >2500 mg litre(-1), respectively. Azadirachtin had no effects on egg production or feeding of adults up to 5000 mg litre(-1); however at 2500 mg litre(-1), it caused significant reduction in feeding activity of larve, prolonged the period for moulting to nymphal stage, and caused 60% reduction in moultability. Results of the two cardiac glycoside materials are comparable with those of several commercial acaricides. The risks and benefits associated with the use of cardiac glycosides are considered. PMID:14620053

  12. Hidden threat of tortoise ticks: high prevalence of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus in ticks Hyalomma aegyptium in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Široký, Pavel; Bělohlávek, Tomáš; Papoušek, Ivo; Jandzik, David; Mikulíček, Peter; Kubelová, Michaela; Zdražilová-Dubská, Lenka

    2014-03-11

    It is the first time that Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), causing potentially lethal disease of humans, has been reported from the Middle East region and from the tortoise tick Hyalomma aegyptium from a tortoise host, whose epidemiological significance may have remained almost completely overlooked so far. We used RT-PCR to screen for 245 ticks collected from 38 Testudo graeca tortoise individuals. Results of our genetic screening provide unambiguous evidence of occurrence of CCHFV in this region and host, suggesting a potentially important role of H. aegyptium in CCHF epidemiology.

  13. The Impact of Climate Trends on a Tick Affecting Public Health: A Retrospective Modeling Approach for Hyalomma marginatum (Ixodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Peña, Agustín; de la Fuente, José; Latapia, Tamara; Ortega, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    The impact of climate trends during the period 1901–2009 on the life cycle of Hyalomma marginatum in Europe was modeled to assess changes in the physiological processes of this threat to public health. Monthly records of temperature and water vapour at a resolution of 0.5° and equations describing the life cycle processes of the tick were used. The climate in the target region affected the rates of the life cycle processes of H. marginatum: development rates increased, mortality rates in molting stages decreased, and the survival rates of questing ticks decreased in wide territories of the Mediterranean basin. The modeling framework indicated the existence of critical areas in the Balkans, central Europe, and the western coast of France, where the physiological processes of the tick improved to extents that are consistent with the persistence of populations if introduced. A spatially explicit risk assessment was performed to detect candidate areas where active surveys should be performed to monitor changes in tick density or persistence after a hypothetical introduction. We detected areas where the critical abiotic (climate) and biotic (host density) factors overlap, including most of the Iberian peninsula, the Mediterranean coast of France, eastern Turkey, and portions of the western Black Sea region. Wild ungulate densities are unavailable for large regions of the territory, a factor that might affect the outcome of the study. The risk of successfully establishing H. marginatum populations at northern latitudes of its current colonization range seems to be still low, even if the climate has improved the performance of the tick in these areas. PMID:25955315

  14. Spotted fever Rickettsia species in Hyalomma and Ixodes ticks infesting migratory birds in the European Mediterranean area

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A few billion birds migrate annually between their breeding grounds in Europe and their wintering grounds in Africa. Many bird species are tick-infested, and as a result of their innate migratory behavior, they contribute significantly to the geographic distribution of pathogens, including spotted fever rickettsiae. The aim of the present study was to characterize, in samples from two consecutive years, the potential role of migrant birds captured in Europe as disseminators of Rickettsia-infected ticks. Methods Ticks were collected from a total of 14,789 birds during their seasonal migration northwards in spring 2009 and 2010 at bird observatories on two Mediterranean islands: Capri and Antikythira. All ticks were subjected to RNA extraction followed by cDNA synthesis and individually assayed with a real-time PCR targeting the citrate synthase (gltA) gene. For species identification of Rickettsia, multiple genes were sequenced. Results Three hundred and ninety-eight (2.7%) of all captured birds were tick-infested; some birds carried more than one tick. A total number of 734 ticks were analysed of which 353 ± 1 (48%) were Rickettsia-positive; 96% were infected with Rickettsia aeschlimannii and 4% with Rickettsia africae or unidentified Rickettsia species. The predominant tick taxon, Hyalomma marginatum sensu lato constituted 90% (n = 658) of the ticks collected. The remaining ticks were Ixodes frontalis, Amblyomma sp., Haemaphysalis sp., Rhipicephalus sp. and unidentified ixodids. Most ticks were nymphs (66%) followed by larvae (27%) and adult female ticks (0.5%). The majority (65%) of ticks was engorged and nearly all ticks contained visible blood. Conclusions Migratory birds appear to have a great impact on the dissemination of Rickettsia-infected ticks, some of which may originate from distant locations. The potential ecological, medical and veterinary implications of such Rickettsia infections need further examination. PMID:25011617

  15. Enzymes of delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate metabolism in the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii during embryogenesis. Purification and characterization of delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Fahmy, A S; Mohamed, S A; Girgis, R B; Abdel-Ghaffar, F A

    1997-09-01

    The activity of P5C metabolizing enzymes: OAT, P5CR, PO, and P5CD, in the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii has been followed throughout embryogenesis. The profiles of enzymatic activity showed clear differences in the four enzymes as the embryos grew older. During purification of P5CD to homogeneity the ion exchange chromatography steps lead to two separate forms (termed A and B) with different molecular weights (60,000-59,000 and 50,000-52,000 for the native and denatured enzymes, respectively), amino acid composition, Km for P5C and coenzymes, varying dehydrogenase activities with different substrate specificity when supplied with various aldehyde substrates. Both P5CD A and B exhibited sharp optima at pH 7.5. The effect of different divalent cations and competitive and noncompetitive inhibitors was examined. The changes in P5C metabolizing enzymes during embryogenesis suggest that H. dromedarii has the metabolic potential to convert ornithine into proline and glutamate. PMID:9418013

  16. Ixodid ticks parasitizing Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) and European wild boar (Sus scrofa) from Spain: geographical and temporal distribution.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Fernández-de-Mera, Isabel G; Acevedo, Pelayo; Höfle, Ursula; Vicente, Joaquín; de la Fuente, José; Gortazár, Christian

    2006-08-31

    Commercial hunting of Spanish wild ungulates has made them an important economic resource. Wild ungulates may have an important role in the maintenance of ixodid tick populations, and also as reservoirs of pathogens. We studied the ixodid ticks that parasitize Iberian red deer and European wild boar from Spain. Ixodid ticks (n=6,336) were collected from 431 Iberian red deer and 142 wild boar in different regions of Spain. We found 10 different ixodid tick species parasitizing Iberian red deer, mainly Hyalomma marginatum marginatum (63.7%), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus (7.9%) and R. bursa (7.5%). R. (Boophilus) annulatus was only collected in the province of Cádiz (southern Spain). We found 8 ixodid tick species on the wild boar, mainly Hy. m. marginatum (68.7%), R. bursa (14.6%) and Dermacentor marginatus (9.3%). We found one adult Hy. marginatum rufipes and one adult Hy. anatolicum excavatum parasitizing wild boar from south-central Spain. Mean prevalence of ixodid ticks was 41.3+/-0.08% (n=475) and 31+/-0.09% (n=284) and intensity of parasitization was 13.9+/-0.2 (n=283) and 13.6+/-0.3 (n=130) ticks/animal for Iberian red deer and wild boar, respectively. Only 5 of the 13 ixodid tick species found were shared by Iberian red deer and wild boar. This finding could indicate a host preference when Iberian red deer and wild boar share common habitats. In both Iberian red deer and wild boar from south-central Spain the monthly relative frequencies of Hy. m. marginatum and R. bursa presented an inverse pattern. The highest Hy. m. marginatum relative frequencies coincided with the lowest R. bursa relative frequencies along the year. R. bursa and I. ricinus were present in areas from northern to southern Spain while Hyalomma sp. and D. marginatus were exclusively collected in the two southern thirds of Spain. Haemaphysalis sp. and D. reticulatus were collected in northern Spain. Hy. m. marginatum and R. bursa were present during the whole year in red deer and wild

  17. Molecular detection of spotted fever group rickettsiae associated with ixodid ticks in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Shafy, Sobhy; Allam, Nesreen A T; Mediannikov, Oleg; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier

    2012-05-01

    Tick-borne diseases comprise a complex epidemiological and ecological network that connects the vectors, pathogens, and a group of host species. The aim of this study was to identify bacteria from the genus Rickettsia associated with ixodid ticks infesting camels and cows in Egypt. Ticks were collected from 6 different localities: Qina, Giza, Qalet El Nakhl, New Valley, El Arish, and Minufia, from July to October 2008. Species were identified using PCR, followed by sequencing. The gltA and rOmpA genes were used for the initial detection of Rickettsia spp. Further characterization of positive samples utilized primers targeting rOmpB, sca4, and intergenic spacers (mppA-purC, dksA-xerC, and rpmE-tRNA(fMet)). Cows were infested with Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum and Boophilus annulatus. Camels were infested with Hyalomma dromedarii, H. impeltatum, and H. marginatum marginatum. Approximately 57.1% of H. dromedarii ticks collected from Qalet El Nakhl were infected with Rickettsia africae, exhibiting 99.1-100% identity to reference strains. Within H. impeltatum, 26.7% and 73.3% of ticks from El Arish were infected with R. africae and R. aeschlimannii, with 98.3-100% and 97.9-100% identity, respectively. Furthermore, 33.3% of H. marginatum marginatum ticks in Qalet El Nakhl were infected with the same two species as H. impeltatum, demonstrating 99.1-100% and 99.3-100% identity, respectively. By comparing percent identities and phylogenetic relationships, R. africae is identified for the first time in Egypt, in addition to R. aeschlimannii, which exhibits 100% identity with the Stavropol strain in GenBank. In conclusion, the obtained data underscore the medical and veterinary importance of tick-borne rickettsioses, which necessitate further investigation by authorities in Egypt. Moreover, additional characterization of these rickettsial isolates should be performed to designate their strains, using a polyphasic strategy combining genotypic and phenotypic tests, to

  18. Tick repellents and acaricides of botanical origin: a green roadmap to control tick-borne diseases?

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Pavela, Roman; Canale, Angelo; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2016-07-01

    Arthropods are dangerous vectors of agents of deadly diseases, which may hit as epidemics or pandemics in the increasing world population of humans and animals. Among them, ticks transmit more pathogen species than any other group of blood-feeding arthropods worldwide. Thus, the effective and eco-friendly control of tick vectors in a constantly changing environment is a crucial challenge. A number of novel routes have been attempted to prevent and control tick-borne diseases, including the development of (i) vaccines against viruses vectored by ticks; (ii) pheromone-based control tools, with special reference to the "lure and kill" techniques; (iii) biological control programmes relying on ticks' natural enemies and pathogens; and (iv) the integrated pest management practices aimed at reducing tick interactions with livestock. However, the extensive employment of acaricides and tick repellents still remains the two most effective and ready-to-use strategies. Unfortunately, the first one is limited by the rapid development of resistance in ticks, as well as by serious environmental concerns. On the other hand, the exploitation of plants as sources of effective tick repellents is often promising. Here, we reviewed current knowledge concerning the effectiveness of plant extracts as acaricides or repellents against tick vectors of public health importance, with special reference to Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes persulcatus, Amblyomma cajennense, Haemaphysalis bispinosa, Haemaphysalis longicornis, Hyalomma anatolicum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Rhipicephalus pulchellus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus turanicus. Eighty-three plant species from 35 botanical families were selected. The most frequent botanical families exploited as sources of acaricides and repellents against ticks were Asteraceae (15 % of the selected studies), Fabaceae (9 %), Lamiaceae (10 %), Meliaceae (5 %), Solanaceae (6

  19. The complete sequence of a West Nile virus lineage 2 strain detected in a Hyalomma marginatum marginatum tick collected from a song thrush (Turdus philomelos) in eastern Romania in 2013 revealed closest genetic relationship to strain Volgograd 2007.

    PubMed

    Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Marinov, Mihai; Kiss, Botond J; Alexe, Vasile; Nowotny, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    In this study the first complete sequence of the West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 strain currently circulating in Romania was determined. The virus was detected in a Hyalomma marginatum marginatum tick collected from a juvenile song thrush (Turdus philomelos) in the Romanian Danube Delta close to the city of Tulcea, end of August 2013. Our finding emphasizes the role of ticks in introduction and maintenance of WNV infections. Sequence analyses revealed close genetic relationship of the Romanian WNV strain to strain Reb_Volgograd_07_H, which was isolated from human brain tissue during an outbreak of West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND) in Russia in 2007. In 2010 the Eastern European lineage 2 WNV caused an outbreak of human WNND in Romania. Partial sequences from subsequent years demonstrated that this WNV strain became endemic in Eastern Europe and has been causing outbreaks of varying sizes in southern Russia since 2007 and in Romania since 2010.

  20. [Genetic characterization of the Syr-Darya valley fever virus (SDVFV) (Picornaviridae, Cardiovirus) isolated from the blood of the patients and ticks Hyalomma as. asiaticum (Hyalomminae), Dermacentor daghestanicus (Rhipicephalinae) (Ixodidae) and Ornithodoros coniceps (Argasidae) in Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan].

    PubMed

    L'vov, D K; Al'khovskiĭ, S V; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Shchetinin, A M; Deriabin, P G; Gitel'man, A K; Aristova, V A; Botikov, A G

    2014-01-01

    The Syr-Darya valley fever virus (SDVFV) was originally isolated from the blood of the patient with fever in the Kyzylorda province, Kazakhstan, in July 1973 and was classified to the Cardiovirus genus (fam. Picornaviridae). Later, SDVFV was isolated from the ticks Hyalomma as. asiaticum Schulze et Schlottke, 1929 (Hyalomminae) (1 strain) and Dermacentor daghestanicus Olenev, 1929 (Rhipicephalinae) (7 strains), collected in the floodplains of the Syr-Darya river and the Ili river. In this paper, complet genome of the SDVFV (strain LEIV-Tur2833) was sequenced using the next-generation sequencing approach (GenBank ID: KJ191558). It was demonstrated that, phylogenetically, the SDVFV is closely related closest to the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) and Vilyuisk human encephalomyelitis virus (VMEV). The similarity of the SDVFV with VHEV and TMEV based on P1 region of the polyprotein-precursor (structural proteins VP1-VP4), reaches 75% and 91% for nucleotide sequences and 80% and 93% for putative amino acid sequences, respectively. For nonstructural proteins regions P2 (2A-2C) and P3 (3A-3D) similarity of SDVFV with TMEV and VHEV is 96%-98%.

  1. [Genetic characterization of the Syr-Darya valley fever virus (SDVFV) (Picornaviridae, Cardiovirus) isolated from the blood of the patients and ticks Hyalomma as. asiaticum (Hyalomminae), Dermacentor daghestanicus (Rhipicephalinae) (Ixodidae) and Ornithodoros coniceps (Argasidae) in Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan].

    PubMed

    L'vov, D K; Al'khovskiĭ, S V; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Shchetinin, A M; Deriabin, P G; Gitel'man, A K; Aristova, V A; Botikov, A G

    2014-01-01

    The Syr-Darya valley fever virus (SDVFV) was originally isolated from the blood of the patient with fever in the Kyzylorda province, Kazakhstan, in July 1973 and was classified to the Cardiovirus genus (fam. Picornaviridae). Later, SDVFV was isolated from the ticks Hyalomma as. asiaticum Schulze et Schlottke, 1929 (Hyalomminae) (1 strain) and Dermacentor daghestanicus Olenev, 1929 (Rhipicephalinae) (7 strains), collected in the floodplains of the Syr-Darya river and the Ili river. In this paper, complet genome of the SDVFV (strain LEIV-Tur2833) was sequenced using the next-generation sequencing approach (GenBank ID: KJ191558). It was demonstrated that, phylogenetically, the SDVFV is closely related closest to the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) and Vilyuisk human encephalomyelitis virus (VMEV). The similarity of the SDVFV with VHEV and TMEV based on P1 region of the polyprotein-precursor (structural proteins VP1-VP4), reaches 75% and 91% for nucleotide sequences and 80% and 93% for putative amino acid sequences, respectively. For nonstructural proteins regions P2 (2A-2C) and P3 (3A-3D) similarity of SDVFV with TMEV and VHEV is 96%-98%. PMID:25549463

  2. On the reaction of adult Rhipicephalus evertsi mimeticus and Hyalomma truncatum to horizontally incidenting optical radiation of various wavelengths ranges and different irradiances and to optical radiation of a sun-simulating wavelength spectrum.

    PubMed

    Leuterer, G; Gothe, R

    1991-01-01

    The valence of horizontally incidenting light/optical radiation for host-seeking-inclined ixodid ticks was investigated by exposing male and female adults of Rhipicephalus evertsi mimeticus and Hyalomma truncatum to narrow-band monochromatic radiation in the wavelength range of 300-801 nm at irradiances corresponding to an overcast to clear sunny day, a cloudy day and a full-moon night as well as to optical radiation of a sun-simulating wavelength spectrum of 190-2600 nm within a test chamber from which other stimuli were excluded. It was demonstrated that independent of sex, adult ticks of R. e. mimeticus and H. truncatum responded to a wide wavelength spectrum in the visible and UV range, even at irradiances corresponding to a full-moon night. Interspecific differences existed in the degree and extent of the response as well as in the spectral sensitivity. Ticks of H. truncatum consistently showed a faster and stronger response and reacted phototactically positively in higher percentages than adults of R. e. mimeticus. Independent of wavelength range and irradiance, predominantly only few R. e. mimeticus ticks were stimulated to positive phototaxis, whereas at least 33.3% (in most cases, 50%) and maximally greater than 80% of H. truncatum adults reacted phototactically positively. Spectral sensitivity maxima were demonstrated at the yellow and red light and at the UV-A waveband width for R. e. mimeticus and at the violet, blue, green and yellow light wavelength for H. truncatum. With decreasing irradiance, the spectral sensitivity shifted to the blue wavelength range.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1866424

  3. Genetic characterization and molecular clock analyses of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus from human and ticks in India, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Pragya D; Cherian, Sarah S; Zawar, Divya; Kokate, Prasad; Gunjikar, Rashmi; Jadhav, Santosh; Mishra, Akhilesh C; Mourya, Devendra T

    2013-03-01

    A nosocomial outbreak of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) was reported among humans in Ahmadabad district, Gujarat, India during January, 2011. In the present study we provide the complete genomic sequences of four CCHFV isolates derived from two human patients and two pools of Hyalomma anatolicum ticks during the period of this outbreak and the complete S segment sequence of two retrospective human serum samples, positive for CCHFV in 2010. Sequence-based molecular characterization of the Indian CCHFV showed that they possessed the functional motifs known to occur in the S, M and L gene segment products as in other CCHF viruses. The S segment of the six Indian CCHF viruses showed 99.8% nucleotide identity. Notably both tick isolates shared 100% nucleotide identity with one of the Indian human isolates of 2011. Phylogenetic analysis based on the S segment demonstrated that the Indian CCHFV isolates formed a distinct cluster in the Asian-Middle East group IV of CCHF viruses. The S segment was closest to a Tajikistan strain TADJ/HU8966 of 1990 (98.5% nucleotide identity) and was of South-Asia 2 type while the M segment was of type M2. Both M and L segments were closest to an Afghanistan strain Afg09-2990 of 2009 (93% and 98% nucleotide identity, respectively). The Indian isolates were thus identified as a South-Asia 2/M2 far-east virus combination and the differing parental origin in the S and L/M segments is suggestive that it may be an intra-genotypic reassortant. Molecular clock studies further revealed that the ancestry of the viruses was not very recent and dated back to about 33years on the basis of the S segment while it was about 15years based on the M segment. Thus though the 2011 outbreak may not have resulted from a very recent introduction, considering that so far there is no evidence of multiple circulating strains in the country, the possibility of a recent re-introduction of the virus from any of the neighboring countries cannot be ruled out. The

  4. Association of environmental traits with the geographic ranges of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) of medical and veterinary importance in the western Palearctic. A digital data set.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Peña, A; Farkas, Robert; Jaenson, Thomas G T; Koenen, Frank; Madder, Maxime; Pascucci, Ilaria; Salman, Mo; Tarrés-Call, Jordi; Jongejan, Frans

    2013-03-01

    We compiled information on the distribution of ticks in the western Palearctic (11°W, 45°E; 29°N, 71°N), published during 1970-2010. The literature search was filtered by the tick's species name and an unambiguous reference to the point of capture. Records from some curated collections were included. We focused on tick species of importance to human and animal health, in particular: Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor marginatus, D. reticulatus, Haemaphysalis punctata, H. sulcata, Hyalomma marginatum, Hy. lusitanicum, Rhipicephalus annulatus, R. bursa, and the R. sanguineus group. A few records of other species (I. canisuga, I. hexagonus, Hy. impeltatum, Hy. anatolicum, Hy. excavatum, Hy. scupense) were also included. A total of 10,280 records was included in the data set. Almost 42 % of published references are not adequately referenced (and not included in the data set), host is reported for only 61 % of records and a reference to time of collection is missed for 84 % of published records. Ixodes ricinus accounted for 44.3 % of total records, with H. marginatum and D. marginatus accounting for 7.1 and 8.1 % of records, respectively. The lack of homogeneity of the references and potential pitfalls in the compilation were addressed to create a digital data set of the records of the ticks. We attached to every record a coherent set of quantitative descriptors for the site of reporting, namely gridded interpolated monthly climate and remotely sensed data on vegetation (NDVI). We also attached categorical descriptors of the habitat: a standard classification of land biomes and an ad hoc classification of the target territory from remotely sensed temperature and NDVI data. A descriptive analysis of the data revealed that a principal components reduction of the environmental (temperature and NDVI) variables described the distribution of the species in the target territory. However, categorical descriptors of the habitat were less effective. We stressed the importance of

  5. An insight into the sialotranscriptome and proteome of the coarse bontlegged tick, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The analysis of 2,084 expressed sequemce tags (EST) from a salivary gland cDNA library lead to the assembly of 1,167 clusters of sequences, allowing identification of 255 contigs and singletons associated with putative salivary secreted componenets, from which 56 coding sequences (CDS) were extracte...

  6. On the potential roles of ticks and migrating birds in the ecology of West Nile virus

    PubMed Central

    Hagman, Karl; Barboutis, Christos; Ehrenborg, Christian; Fransson, Thord; Jaenson, Thomas G. T.; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Lundkvist, Åke; Nyström, Fredrik; Waldenström, Jonas; Salaneck, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Background Mosquitoes are the primary vectors of West Nile virus (WNV). Ticks have, however, been suggested to be potential reservoirs of WNV. In order to investigate their role in the spread of the virus, ticks, which had been collected from birds migrating northwards from Africa to Europe, were analyzed for the potential presence of WNV-RNA. Methods On the Mediterranean islands Capri and Antikythira a total of 14,824 birds were captured and investigated from which 747 ticks were collected. Results and conclusion Most of the identified ticks (93%) were nymphs and larvae of Hyalomma marginatum sensu lato, most of which were or appear to be Hyalomma rufipes. Of these ticks 729 were individually screened for WNV-RNA. None of the ticks was found to be WNV positive. Thus, there was no evidence that Hyalomma marginatum s.l. ticks play a role in the spread of WNV from Africa to Europe. PMID:24455105

  7. Lyme borreliosis spirochetes and spotted fever group rickettsiae in ixodid ticks from Pianosa island, Tuscany Archipelago, Italy.

    PubMed

    Tomassone, L; Grego, E; Auricchio, D; Iori, A; Giannini, F; Rambozzi, L

    2013-02-01

    A study on tick fauna and tick-borne pathogens was undertaken in Pianosa, an island in the Tuscany Archipelago that constitutes an important stopping and nesting point for migratory birds. Ticks were removed from feral cats and a few terrestrial birds, and host-seeking ticks were collected by dragging. A total of 89 ticks were found on animals: 57 Ixodes ventalloi Gil Collado, 1936 and 32 Ixodes acuminatus Neumann, 1901. Host-seeking ticks were 354 Hyalomma spp. larvae and 18 Hyalomma spp. adults, identified as Hyalomma marginatum C.L. Koch, 1844 (n=11) and 7 Hyalomma detritum Schulze, 1919 (n=7). A sample of adult ticks was subjected to molecular analyses to look for Rickettsia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). Sequence analysis of the 5S-23S intergenic spacer region and OspA gene of B. burgdorferi s.l.-positive samples showed the presence of Borrelia spielmanii (n=3; 3.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08-10.4) and Borrelia valaisiana (n=13; 13.6%, 95% CI 7.0-23.0) in Ixodes ticks from cats and terrestrial birds. Ixodes spp. were also infected by Rickettsia helvetica (n=19; 23.4%, 95% CI 14.7-34.2). Finally, we detected Rickettsia aeschlimannii in 3 out of 12 host-seeking Hyalomma spp. adults tested (25%, 95% CI 5.5-57.2). Our study shows the presence of several tick-borne pathogens in Pianosa. Hyalomma spp. and Ixodes ticks other than I. ricinus seem to be involved in their epidemiological cycle, and birds could contribute to the pathogen dispersal along their migration routes. This is the first finding of B. spielmanii in Italy. We hypothesize the involvement of peridomestic rodents or hedgehogs in its maintenance in Pianosa.

  8. Population dynamics of ticks infesting the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) in central Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Gharbi, Mohamed; Moussi, Nawfel; Jedidi, Mohamed; Mhadhbi, Moez; Sassi, Limam; Darghouth, Mohamed Aziz

    2013-12-01

    A tick population was monitored on 30 camels (Camelus dromedarius) over one year in Kairouan region, Central Tunisia. A total of 1630 ticks was collected and identified resulting in an estimate of different parasitological indicators. The ticks belonged to 2 genera and 5 species: Hyalomma impeltatum (53%) and Hyalomma dromedarii (45%) were the dominant species followed by Hyalomma excavatum (1%), Hyalomma marginatum (0.5%), and Rhipicephalus turanicus (0.5%) (p<0.001). Mean infestation prevalence was 90.6%; all the animals were infested by at least one tick from May to September. The highest mean prevalence was observed in H. impeltatum (60%), the lowest was reported in R. turanicus (0.03%) (p<0.05). Mean overall intensity of infestation was 4.4 ticks/animal. The highest mean intensity was observed in H. impeltatum (2.7 ticks/animal). Overall mean abundance of ticks was 4.4 ticks/animal. Different abiotic factors, namely monthly mean minimum and monthly mean maximum temperatures and the number of sunny days were positively correlated with overall monthly tick burdens which were in turn negatively correlated with the monthly mean relative humidity. This is the first study on camel tick dynamics in Tunisia.

  9. Multiple Pathogens Including Potential New Species in Tick Vectors in Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Ehounoud, Cyrille Bilé; Yao, Kouassi Patrick; Dahmani, Mustapha; Achi, Yaba Louise; Amanzougaghene, Nadia; Kacou N’Douba, Adèle; N’Guessan, Jean David; Raoult, Didier; Fenollar, Florence; Mediannikov, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Background Our study aimed to assess the presence of different pathogens in ticks collected in two regions in Côte d’Ivoire. Methodology/Principal Findings Real-time PCR and standard PCR assays coupled to sequencing were used. Three hundred and seventy eight (378) ticks (170 Amblyomma variegatum, 161 Rhipicepalus microplus, 3 Rhipicephalus senegalensis, 27 Hyalomma truncatum, 16 Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, and 1 Hyalomma impressum) were identified and analyzed. We identified as pathogenic bacteria, Rickettsia africae in Am. variegatum (90%), Rh. microplus (10%) and Hyalomma spp. (9%), Rickettsia aeschlimannii in Hyalomma spp. (23%), Rickettsia massiliae in Rh. senegalensis (33%) as well as Coxiella burnetii in 0.2%, Borrelia sp. in 0.2%, Anaplasma centrale in 0.2%, Anaplasma marginale in 0.5%, and Ehrlichia ruminantium in 0.5% of all ticks. Potential new species of Borrelia, Anaplasma, and Wolbachia were detected. Candidatus Borrelia africana and Candidatus Borrelia ivorensis (detected in three ticks) are phylogenetically distant from both the relapsing fever group and Lyme disease group borreliae; both were detected in Am. variegatum. Four new genotypes of bacteria from the Anaplasmataceae family were identified, namely Candidatus Anaplasma ivorensis (detected in three ticks), Candidatus Ehrlichia urmitei (in nine ticks), Candidatus Ehrlichia rustica (in four ticks), and Candidatus Wolbachia ivorensis (in one tick). Conclusions/Significance For the first time, we demonstrate the presence of different pathogens such as R. aeschlimannii, C. burnetii, Borrelia sp., A. centrale, A. marginale, and E. ruminantium in ticks in Côte d’Ivoire as well as potential new species of unknown pathogenicity. PMID:26771308

  10. Arthropod parasites of springbok, gemsbok, kudus, giraffes and Burchell's and Hartmann's zebras in the Etosha and Hardap Nature Reserves, Namibia.

    PubMed

    Horak, I G; Anthonissen, M; Krecek, R C; Boomker, J

    1992-12-01

    A total of 48 springbok, 48 gemsbok, 23 kudus and 6 giraffes were examined for ticks and lice, while 9 Burchell's zebras and 6 Hartmann's mountain zebras were examined only for ticks. Springbok and gemsbok were shot in both the Etosha National Park in the north and the Hardap Nature Reserve in the south of Namibia. All the other animals were shot in the Etosha National Park. A total of 7 ixodid tick species and 8 lice species were recovered. The springbok carried few ticks. The adults of a Rhipicephalus sp. (near R. oculatus) were most numerous on the gemsbok, especially during November. The kudus were the only animals harbouring Rhipicephalus zambeziensis. Adult Hyalomma truncatum, followed by adult Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, were most abundant on the giraffes and adult Rhipicephalus evertsi mimeticus were commonest on the zebras.

  11. Spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks collected from wild animals in Israel.

    PubMed

    Keysary, Avi; Eremeeva, Marina E; Leitner, Moshe; Din, Adi Beth; Wikswo, Mary E; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Inbar, Moshe; Wallach, Arian D; Shanas, Uri; King, Roni; Waner, Trevor

    2011-11-01

    We report molecular evidence for the presence of spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) in ticks collected from roe deer, addax, red foxes, and wild boars in Israel. Rickettsia aeschlimannii was detected in Hyalomma marginatum and Hyalomma detritum while Rickettsia massiliae was present in Rhipicephalus turanicus ticks. Furthermore, a novel uncultured SFGR was detected in Haemaphysalis adleri and Haemaphysalis parva ticks from golden jackals. The pathogenicity of the novel SFGR for humans is unknown; however, the presence of multiple SFGR agents should be considered when serological surveillance data from Israel are interpreted because of significant antigenic cross-reactivity among Rickettsia. The epidemiology and ecology of SFGR in Israel appear to be more complicated than was previously believed. PMID:22049050

  12. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from animals in three western, semi-arid nature reserves in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Golezardy, H; Horak, I G

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to make an inventory of the ixodid tick species infesting wild animals in three western, semi-arid nature reserves in South Africa. To this end 22 animals in the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park, 10 in the West Coast National Park and 16 in the Karoo National Park were examined. Fourteen tick species were recovered, of which Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus exophthalmos and Rhipicephalus glabroscutatum were each present in two reserves and the remainder only in one. The distributions of two of the 14 tick species recovered, namely Rhipicephalus capensis and Rhipicephalus neumanni, are virtually confined to the western semi-arid regions of southern Africa. Hyalomma truncatum, R. capensis and R. glabroscutatum were the most numerous of the ticks recovered, and eland, Taurotragus oryx, were the most heavily infested with the former two species and gemsbok, Oryx gazella, and mountain reedbuck, Redunca fulvorufula, with R. glabroscutatum. PMID:17708155

  13. Spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks collected from wild animals in Israel.

    PubMed

    Keysary, Avi; Eremeeva, Marina E; Leitner, Moshe; Din, Adi Beth; Wikswo, Mary E; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Inbar, Moshe; Wallach, Arian D; Shanas, Uri; King, Roni; Waner, Trevor

    2011-11-01

    We report molecular evidence for the presence of spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) in ticks collected from roe deer, addax, red foxes, and wild boars in Israel. Rickettsia aeschlimannii was detected in Hyalomma marginatum and Hyalomma detritum while Rickettsia massiliae was present in Rhipicephalus turanicus ticks. Furthermore, a novel uncultured SFGR was detected in Haemaphysalis adleri and Haemaphysalis parva ticks from golden jackals. The pathogenicity of the novel SFGR for humans is unknown; however, the presence of multiple SFGR agents should be considered when serological surveillance data from Israel are interpreted because of significant antigenic cross-reactivity among Rickettsia. The epidemiology and ecology of SFGR in Israel appear to be more complicated than was previously believed.

  14. Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Ticks Collected from Wild Animals in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Keysary, Avi; Eremeeva, Marina E.; Leitner, Moshe; Din, Adi Beth; Wikswo, Mary E.; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Inbar, Moshe; Wallach, Arian D.; Shanas, Uri; King, Roni; Waner, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    We report molecular evidence for the presence of spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) in ticks collected from roe deer, addax, red foxes, and wild boars in Israel. Rickettsia aeschlimannii was detected in Hyalomma marginatum and Hyalomma detritum while Rickettsia massiliae was present in Rhipicephalus turanicus ticks. Furthermore, a novel uncultured SFGR was detected in Haemaphysalis adleri and Haemaphysalis parva ticks from golden jackals. The pathogenicity of the novel SFGR for humans is unknown; however, the presence of multiple SFGR agents should be considered when serological surveillance data from Israel are interpreted because of significant antigenic cross-reactivity among Rickettsia. The epidemiology and ecology of SFGR in Israel appear to be more complicated than was previously believed. PMID:22049050

  15. Ticks associated with the three largest wild ruminant species in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Horak, I G; Golezardy, H; Uys, A C

    2007-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the host status of the three largest southern African wild ruminants, namely giraffes, Giraffa camelopardalis, African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, and eland, Taurotragus oryx for ixodid ticks. To this end recently acquired unpublished data are added here to already published findings on the tick burdens of these animals, and the total numbers and species of ticks recorded on 12 giraffes, 18 buffaloes and 36 eland are summarized and discussed. Twenty-eight ixodid tick species were recovered. All stages of development of ten species, namely Amblyomma hebraeum, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Haemaphysalis silacea, Ixodes pilosus group, Margaropus winthemi, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus glabroscutatum, Rhipicephalus maculatus and Rhipicephalus muehlensi were collected. The adults of 13 species, of which the immature stages use small mammals as hosts, namely Haemaphysalis aciculifer, Hyalomma glabrum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Ixodes rubicundus, Rhipicephalus capensis, Rhipicephalus exophthalmos, Rhipicephalus follis, Rhipicephalus gertrudae, Rhipicephalus lounsburyi, Rhipicephalus lunulatus, Rhipicephalus pravus group and Rhipicephalus simus, were also collected.

  16. Ticks associated with the three largest wild ruminant species in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Horak, I G; Golezardy, H; Uys, A C

    2007-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the host status of the three largest southern African wild ruminants, namely giraffes, Giraffa camelopardalis, African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, and eland, Taurotragus oryx for ixodid ticks. To this end recently acquired unpublished data are added here to already published findings on the tick burdens of these animals, and the total numbers and species of ticks recorded on 12 giraffes, 18 buffaloes and 36 eland are summarized and discussed. Twenty-eight ixodid tick species were recovered. All stages of development of ten species, namely Amblyomma hebraeum, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Haemaphysalis silacea, Ixodes pilosus group, Margaropus winthemi, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus glabroscutatum, Rhipicephalus maculatus and Rhipicephalus muehlensi were collected. The adults of 13 species, of which the immature stages use small mammals as hosts, namely Haemaphysalis aciculifer, Hyalomma glabrum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Ixodes rubicundus, Rhipicephalus capensis, Rhipicephalus exophthalmos, Rhipicephalus follis, Rhipicephalus gertrudae, Rhipicephalus lounsburyi, Rhipicephalus lunulatus, Rhipicephalus pravus group and Rhipicephalus simus, were also collected. PMID:17933365

  17. Molecular Detection and Identification of Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Ticks Collected from the West Bank, Palestinian Territories

    PubMed Central

    Ereqat, Suheir; Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed; Al-Jawabreh, Amer; Azmi, Kifaya; Harrus, Shimon; Mumcuoglu, Kosta; Apanaskevich, Dimtry; Abdeen, Ziad

    2016-01-01

    Background Tick-borne rickettsioses are caused by obligate intracellular bacteria belonging to the spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae. Although Spotted Fever is prevalent in the Middle East, no reports for the presence of tick-borne pathogens are available or any studies on the epidemiology of this disease in the West Bank. We aimed to identify the circulating hard tick vectors and genetically characterize SFG Rickettsia species in ixodid ticks from the West Bank-Palestinian territories. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 1,123 ixodid ticks belonging to eight species (Haemaphysalis parva, Haemaphysalis adleri, Rhipicephalus turanicus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus bursa, Hyalomma dromedarii, Hyalomma aegyptium and Hyalomma impeltatum) were collected from goats, sheep, camels, dogs, a wolf, a horse and a tortoise in different localities throughout the West Bank during the period of January-April, 2014. A total of 867 ticks were screened for the presence of rickettsiae by PCR targeting a partial sequence of the ompA gene followed by sequence analysis. Two additional genes, 17 kDa and 16SrRNA were also targeted for further characterization of the detected Rickettsia species. Rickettsial DNA was detected in 148 out of the 867 (17%) tested ticks. The infection rates in Rh. turanicus, Rh. sanguineus, H. adleri, H. parva, H. dromedarii, and H. impeltatum ticks were 41.7, 11.6, 16.7, 16.2, 11.8 and 20%, respectively. None of the ticks, belonging to the species Rh. bursa and H. aegyptium, were infected. Four SFG rickettsiae were identified: Rickettsia massiliae, Rickettsia africae, Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae and Candidatus Rickettsia goldwasserii. Significance The results of this study demonstrate the geographic distribution of SFG rickettsiae and clearly indicate the presence of at least four of them in collected ticks. Palestinian clinicians should be aware of emerging tick-borne diseases in the West Bank, particularly infections due to R

  18. [Lymphangitis-associated rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae].

    PubMed

    Foissac, M; Socolovschi, C; Raoult, D

    2013-01-01

    Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae was first isolated 20 years ago in Asia but has now been identified on three continents. Hyalomma spp. and Rhipicephalus pusillus ticks are vectors but only a small number of cases have been reported to date, mainly on the Mediterranean coast. This bacterium induces the lymphangitis-associated rickettsiosis, a still unfamiliar rickettsiosis that is mainly characterized by fever with a rope-like lymphangitis and/or lymphadenopathy and skin eschar occurring after tick bites. These features are especially evocative if they occur in spring. Sequellae are very rare and treatment with doxycycline is recommended.

  19. Treatment of natural tropical theileriosis with the extract of the plant Peganum harmala.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Mohammad

    2007-12-01

    Theileria annulata, a protozoan parasite of cattle and domestic buffaloes, is transmitted by ticks of the genus Hyalomma, and causes a disease named Mediterranean or tropical theileriosis. In this research 50 cattle naturally infected with Theileria annulata were treated with the extract of the plant Peganum harmala. The treatment was continued for 5 days, the dose of the extract being 5 mg/kg per day. After the treatment, 39 cattle responded to the treatment and recovered, but 11 did not respond to the treatment and died. The recovery rate of animals treated with the extract of the plant Peganum harmala was 78%. PMID:18165708

  20. Patterns of tick infestation and their Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. infection in wild birds in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Norte, A C; da Silva, L P; Tenreiro, P J Q; Felgueiras, M S; Araújo, P M; Lopes, P B; Matos, C; Rosa, A; Ferreira, P J S G; Encarnação, P; Rocha, A; Escudero, R; Anda, P; Núncio, M S; Lopes de Carvalho, I

    2015-09-01

    Wild birds may act as reservoirs for zoonotic pathogens and may be mechanical carriers of pathogen infected vector ticks through long distances during migration. The aim of this study was to assess tick infestation patterns in birds in Portugal and the prevalence of tick infection by Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. using PCR techniques. Seven tick species were collected from birds including Haemaphysalis punctata, Hyalomma spp., Ixodes acuminatus, Ixodes arboricola, Ixodes frontalis, Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes ventalloi. We found that I. frontalis and Hyalomma spp. were the most common ticks infesting birds of several species and that they were widespread in Portugal. Turdus merula was the bird species that presented the highest diversity of infesting ticks and had one of the highest infestation intensities. B. burgdorferi s.l. was detected in 7.3% (37/505) of Ixodidae ticks derived from birds. The most common genospecies was Borrelia turdi (6.9%), detected in ticks collected from Parus major, T. merula and Turdus philomelos, but Borrelia valaisiana (0.2%) and one Borrelia sp. (0.2%) similar to Borrelia bissettii (96% of similarity of the flaB gene in Blastn) were also detected. This study contributed to a better knowledge of the Ixodidae tick fauna parasitizing birds in Western Europe and to the assessment of the prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. associated with birds and their ticks.

  1. Long term study of ixodid ticks feeding on red deer (Cervus elaphus) in a meso-Mediterranean climate.

    PubMed

    Valcárcel, F; González, J; Tercero Jaime, J M; Olmeda, A S

    2016-05-01

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) are very valuable in trophy-hunting but also contribute to the preservation of natural areas. They are affected by many parasites and pathogens, including hard ticks that are not only important parasites themselves but can also act as vectors and/or reservoirs of pathogens. Tick phenology is complex insofar as population dynamics depend on environmental conditions, vegetation, host availability and their own intrinsic characteristic. Ticks were collected monthly from January 2007 to December 2014 from red deer on a natural reserve located in a meso-Mediterranean environment in Central Spain. A total of 8978 specimens of ixodid ticks were recovered with a mean Parasitization Index of 65.06 ticks/deer. Red deer were infected the whole year round with a summer-spring pattern and two secondary peaks in February and October. The main species was Hyalomma lusitanicum Koch followed by Rhipicephalus bursa Canestrini and Fanzago, Rhipicephalus pusillus Gil Collado, Dermacentor marginatus Sulzer and Ixodes ricinus L. Hyalomma lusitanicum has a complex life cycle in which several generations initiate their cycle at different times throughout the year, most probably lasting more than 1 year. We also describe the ability of nymphs to feed on large ungulates even though their habitual host is wild rabbit. PMID:26715543

  2. Ticks (Ixodidae) on birds migrating from Europe and Asia to Africa, 1959-61*

    PubMed Central

    Hoogstraal, Harry; Kaiser, Makram N.; Traylor, Melvin A.; Guindy, Ezzat; Gaber, Sobhy

    1963-01-01

    The need for imaginative thinking and research in the epidemiology of diseases transmitted by arthropods is made manifest by new views of the longevity and host ranges of arthropod-borne viruses, as well as by other biological and medical phenomena. Among these is the intercontinental transport of ticks by migrating birds. During the fall migration periods of 1959, 1960 and 1961, 32 086 birds (comprising 72 forms) were examined for ticks in Egypt while en route from Asia and eastern Europe to tropical Africa. Of these, 40 forms, represented by 31 434 birds, were tick-infested. The bird hosts, numbering 1040 (3.31% of the tick-infested bird forms examined), bore 1761 ticks, or 1.69 ticks per host. Common ticks taken were Hyalomma m. marginatum, Haemaphysalis punctata, and Ixodes ricinus. Ixodes frontalis and Hyalomma aegyptium were less common and Haemaphysalis sulcata, H. otophila, and H. pavlovskyi were rare. The common tick species are known to be reservoirs and vectors of pathogens causing a number of human and animal diseases in Europe and Asia. Several of the bird hosts have also been incriminated as reservoirs in their summer ranges. Over 20 strains of pathogenic viruses were isolated from these birds and their ticks in Egypt in the 1961 fall migration period. The most difficult problems in investigations such as this in many parts of the world are taxonomic ones: the correct identification of bird hosts, of immature stages of ticks and of viruses. PMID:13961632

  3. Biogeography of Tick-Borne Bhanja Virus (Bunyaviridae) in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Hubálek, Zdenek

    2009-01-01

    Bhanja virus (BHAV) is pathogenic for young domestic ruminants and also for humans, causing fever and affections of the central nervous system. This generally neglected arbovirus of the family Bunyaviridae is transmitted by metastriate ticks of the genera Haemaphysalis, Dermacentor, Hyalomma, Rhipicephalus, Boophilus, and Amblyomma. Geographic distribution of BHAV covers southern and Central Asia, Africa, and southern (partially also central) Europe. Comparative biogeographic study of eight known natural foci of BHAV infections in Europe (in Italy, Croatia, Bulgaria, Slovakia) has revealed their common features. (1) submediterranean climatic pattern with dry growing season and wet mild winter (or microlimatically similar conditions, e.g., limestone karst areas in central Europe), (2) xerothermic woodland-grassland ecosystem, with plant alliances Quercetalia pubescentis, Festucetalia valesiacae, and Brometalia erecti, involving pastoral areas, (3) presence of at least one of the tick species Haemaphysalis punctata, Dermacentor marginatus, Rhipicephalus bursa, and/or Hyalomma marginatum, and (4) presence of ≥60% of the 180 BHAV bioindicator (157 plant, 4 ixodid tick, and 19 vertebrate spp.). On that basis, Greece, France (southern, including Corsica), Albania, Spain, Hungary, European Turkey, Ukraine (southern), Switzerland (southern), Austria (southeastern), Germany (southern), Moldova, and European Russia (southern) have been predicted as additional European regions where BHAV might occur. PMID:20182535

  4. Vector-borne pathogen spread through ticks on migratory birds: a probabilistic spatial risk model for South-Western europe.

    PubMed

    Bosch, J; Muñoz, M J; Martínez, M; de la Torre, A; Estrada-Peña, A

    2013-10-01

    Tick-borne pathogens can spread easily through the movements of infested birds. An important example is viruses that pose a threat to humans and that are carried in Hyalomma ticks that move from Africa into south-western Europe. This study evaluates the probability of arrival of migrating birds from Africa into Spain and the environmental suitability of different regions of Spain for the survival of tick stages introduced by these birds. This evaluation produced a spatial risk index measuring the probability that foreign tick populations will survive in the target area. Periods of highest risk were observed for large areas of Spain, from the second fortnight of April to the second fortnight of May. Although birds may arrive as early as January and massive migrations may take place in March, the environmental suitability for Hyalomma marginatum ticks is low in these periods and high mortality of the spread stages (nymphs) is expected. This study introduces new methods of objective analysis based on spatial and process-driven models for both ticks and hosts and critically evaluates the usefulness of spatial spreading methods for assessing the risk of tick-borne pathogens.

  5. Hormonal interference with pheromone systems in parasitic acarines, especially ixodid ticks. Annual technical report No. 4, 1 May 1983-30 April 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Sonenshine, D.E.; Oliver, J.H. Jr.; Homsher, P.J.

    1984-05-01

    The most important result of recent project research was the demonstration of the juvenoid JH III by radioimmunoassay. This assay revealed an estimated 78 pg/tick in the hemolymph of partially fed Hyalomma dromedarii females, and an estimated 3 pg/tick in the hemolymph of partially fed D. variabilis. Other studies, especially digestion of tritium labelled JH III, provided additional evidence suggesting the presence of this hormone in adult ticks. The implications of these findings for our understanding of sex pheromone regulation in ticks is discussed. Other studies described in this report deal with the source of ecdysteroid in teh camel tick, Hyalomma dromedarii, the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, and the soft tick, Ornithodoros parkeri. Studies done at ODU, using radioimmunoassay high performance liquid chromatography, and autoradiography, provide new evidence implicating the tick synganglion - lateral nerve plexus as an important site of ecdysteroid activity in the ixodid ticks. Other studies with ecdysteriods suggest that metabolism of ecdysone or 20-hydroxyecdysone (or both) to inactive metabolites, possibly including polar conjugates. If confirmed, these findings indicate the presence of only a single active ecdysteriod hormone in ticks, 20-hydroxyecdysone.

  6. Ticks (Acari: Ixodida) parasitizing humans in Corum and Yozgat provinces, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Adem; Keskin, Aysun; Bursali, Ahmet; Tekin, Saban

    2015-12-01

    In order to identify ticks infesting humans in Corum and Yozgat provinces in Turkey, a total of 2110 ticks representing 14 species were collected on humans, between June and September 2009. Of those, 1551 (687♂, 450♀, 407 nymphs, 7 larvae) were collected from Corum and 559 (330♂, 180♀, 49 nymphs) were collected from Yozgat. The majority of ticks (n = 1121, 53.1 %) was Hyalomma marginatum. Other common ticks infesting humans were Dermacentor marginatus (n = 209, 9.9 %) and Rhipicephalus turanicus sensu lato (n = 145, 6.9 %) in the study area. In addition, a total of 386 immature Hyalomma were found on humans in Corum (335 nymphs, 7 larvae) and Yozgat (44 nymphs). Ixodes laguri and Haemaphysalis erinacei taurica were recorded for the first time in Corum. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first detailed investigation on ticks infesting humans in Corum and Yozgat, except individual or incidental records. The present study provides useful information for those concerned with ticks and tick-borne diseases in Turkey.

  7. Prevalence and genetic diversity of piroplasm species in horses and ticks from Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ros-García, Amaia; M'ghirbi, Youmna; Hurtado, Ana; Bouattour, Ali

    2013-07-01

    The genetic diversity and prevalence of Babesia and Theileria species in the equine population of Tunisia were studied using reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization on blood samples and unfed adult ticks collected from apparently healthy horses from three bioclimatic zones in Tunisia. Piroplasms were identified in 13 of 104 of the horse blood samples analyzed (12.5%) and five genotype groups were identified: Theileria equi group A (nine animals, 8.7%), group C (one animal, 1.0%) and group D (three animals, 2.9%), and Babesia caballi groups A and B (one animal each). All horses from the semi-arid zone were negative and prevalence in the humid and sub-humid zones were 12.9% and 20.0%, respectively. Three Ixodid tick species (Hyalomma marginatum, Hyalomma excavatum and Rhipicephalus bursa) were collected from examined horses and equine piroplasms were detected in 10.8% of them. T. equi groups A and D (9.2%), and B. caballi group B (1.6%) were identified in ticks. This work represents the first epidemiological report of equine piroplasmosis in Tunisia. Results showed a high level of diversity within the 18S rRNA gene of equine piroplasm species, and confirmed the presence in Tunisia of two T. equi genetic groups, C and D, only reported before in South Africa and Sudan.

  8. Modelling the transmission dynamics of Theileria annulata: model structure and validation for the Turkish context

    PubMed Central

    SUTTON, A. J.; KARAGENC, T.; BAKIRCI, S.; SARALI, H.; PEKEL, G.; MEDLEY, G. F.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY A mathematical model that describes the transmission dynamics of Theileria annulata is proposed that consists of 2 host components: the Hyalomma tick population and a compartmental model of T. annulata infection in the cattle population. The model was parameterized using data describing tick infestation and the infection status of cattle in Turkey from 2006 to 2008. The tick attachment rates are highly seasonal and because of the temporal separation of infectious and susceptible ticks virtually all ticks are infected by carrier cattle, so that annual peaks of disease in cattle do not impact on infection in the Hyalomma tick population. The impact of intervention measures that target the tick population both on the host and in the environment and their impact on the transmission of T. annulata were investigated. Interventions that have a limited ‘one-off’ impact and interventions that have a more permanent impact were both considered. The results from the model show the importance of targeting ticks during the period when they have left their first host as nymphs but have yet to feed on their second host. PMID:22309815

  9. The first molecular detection of Rickettsia aeschlimannii in the ticks of camels from southern Algeria.

    PubMed

    Djerbouh, Amel; Kernif, Tahar; Beneldjouzi, Assia; Socolovschi, Cristina; Kechemir, Nadia; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Bitam, Idir

    2012-12-01

    We collected ticks from camels in 4 regions of southern Algeria (El Oued, Bechar, Ghardia, and Adrar) from February to October in 2008 and in April of 2011. A total of 307 ticks representing multiple species (including Hyalomma dromedarii, H. marginatum rufipes, H. impeltatum, and H. impressum), was tested for the presence of spotted fever group rickettsia DNA using gltA real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The presence of Rickettsia aeschlimannii was confirmed with a new qPCR using species-specific primers and Taqman probes based on the sca2 genes. The R. aeschlimannii sequence was further confirmed by detecting the gltA and outer membrane protein (ompA) genes in H. m. rufipes, H. impeltatum, and H. dromedarii ticks. These findings represent the first report of the detection of R. aeschlimannii in ticks collected from camels from southern Algeria.

  10. Acarological studies in two protected areas of Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Iori, A; Di Paolo, M

    1999-09-01

    In the present note are reported the results of preliminary studies on tick distribution in two wildlife areas of Abruzzo (National Park of Abruzzo, a mountainous area, approximately 40,000 ha, in Central Apennines, interesting Abruzzo, Latium and Molise regions) and Latium (Capocotta-Castel Porziano Presidential reserve, on the Tyrrhenian coast, 30 km from Rome). Sampling of ticks from domestic and wild mammals as well as from vegetation, was performed in three different areas of the National Park in 1995. Tick species identified include Rhipicephalus bursa, R. sanguineus, Hyalomma marginatum, Haemaphysalis punctata, Dermacentor marginatus, Ixodes ricinus, I. hexagonus. The presence of I. ricinus was discontinuous and sporadic. In Capocotta estate, samplings were performed bimonthly from March to November 1997 in an restricted area (1 ha) with typical Mediterranean flora and fauna. The following species were collected: I. ricinus, Haemaphysalis concinna, D. marginatus, R. bursa, Hy. marginatum. There was a high dominance of I. ricinus and H. concinna. PMID:11071544

  11. Ectoparasites on reintroduced roe deer Capreolus capreolus in Israel.

    PubMed

    Wallach, Arian D; Shanas, Uri; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Inbar, Moshe

    2008-07-01

    The ectoparasite fauna of reintroduced roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) was surveyed in a Mediterranean forest in Israel. Ectoparasites were collected from four female hand-reared deer during 2004 and 2005. Seasonality, predilection sites of infestation, and the apparent effect of the parasites are presented. This is the first study of roe deer parasites in the East Mediterranean. The ectoparasite fauna included three hippoboscid fly (Lipoptena capreoli, Hippobosca equina, and Hippobosca longipennis), four tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus turanicus, Rhipicephalus kohlsi, and Hyalomma marginatum), and one unidentified trombiculid mite species. For most of these ectoparasites, this is the first record on roe deer. All ectoparasite species were documented in Israel prior to the reintroduction program; exotic ectoparasites were not detected. PMID:18689655

  12. First description of the immature stages and redescription of the adults of Cosmiomma hippopotamensis (Acari: Ixodidae) with notes on its bionomics.

    PubMed

    Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Walker, Jane B; Heyne, Heloise; Bezuidenhout, J Dürr; Horak, Ivan G

    2013-07-01

    Cosmiomma hippopotamensis (Denny, 1843) is one of the most unusual, beautiful, and rare tick species known to the world. All stages of this species possess a unique morphology, on the one hand making them easy to identify, while on the other they exhibit similarities to certain species of Amblyomma Koch, 1844, Dermacentor Koch, 1844, and Hyalomma Koch, 1844. Adults of C. hippopotamensis have been collected on only two occasions from their hosts, namely Hippopotamus amphibius L. and Diceros bicornis (L.), and have been recorded from only a few widely separated localities in East and southern Africa. Here, the larva and nymph are described and illustrated for the first time, while the male and female are illustrated and redescribed. Data on hosts, geographic distribution, and life cycle of C. hippopotamensis are also provided. PMID:23926768

  13. First Description of the Immature Stages and Redescription of the Adults of Cosmiomma hippopotamensis (Acari: Ixodidae) With Notes on Its Bionomics

    PubMed Central

    APANASKEVICH, DMITRY A.; WALKER, JANE B.; HEYNE, HELOISE; BEZUIDENHOUT, J. DÜRR; HORAK, IVAN G.

    2014-01-01

    Cosmiomma hippopotamensis (Denny, 1843) is one of the most unusual, beautiful, and rare tick species known to the world. All stages of this species possess a unique morphology, on the one hand making them easy to identify, while on the other they exhibit similarities to certain species of Amblyomma Koch, 1844, Dermacentor Koch, 1844, and Hyalomma Koch, 1844. Adults of C. hippopotamensis have been collected on only two occasions from their hosts, namely Hippopotamus amphibius L. and Diceros bicornis (L.), and have been recorded from only a few widely separated localities in East and southern Africa. Here, the larva and nymph are described and illustrated for the first time, while the male and female are illustrated and redescribed. Data on hosts, geographic distribution, and life cycle of C. hippopotamensis are also provided. PMID:23926768

  14. Molecular detection of spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks from Ethiopia and Chad.

    PubMed

    Mura, Alessandra; Socolovschi, Cristina; Ginesta, Jacques; Lafrance, Bertrand; Magnan, Stéphan; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Davoust, Bernard; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2008-09-01

    DNA extracted from 363 ticks collected in Ethiopia and 9 ticks collected in Chad, Africa were screened by PCR to detect DNA from spotted fever group rickettsiae. Fifteen ticks (4.1%) collected in Ethiopia and one tick (11%) collected in Chad tested positive when PCR targeting the gltA and ompA rickettsial genes was performed. PCR-positive products of the gltA and ompA genes were used for DNA sequencing. Rickettsia africae was detected in 12/118 Amblyomma lepidum and in 1/2 A. variegatum. Also, 2/12 Hyalomma marginatum rufipes collected in Ethiopia and one H. marginatum rufipes collected in Chad were positive for R. aeschlimannii. Our results confirm the previously reported presence of R. africae in Ethiopia and also show the first evidence of R. aeschlimannii in ticks collected in Ethiopia and Chad.

  15. Ectoparasites on reintroduced roe deer Capreolus capreolus in Israel.

    PubMed

    Wallach, Arian D; Shanas, Uri; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Inbar, Moshe

    2008-07-01

    The ectoparasite fauna of reintroduced roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) was surveyed in a Mediterranean forest in Israel. Ectoparasites were collected from four female hand-reared deer during 2004 and 2005. Seasonality, predilection sites of infestation, and the apparent effect of the parasites are presented. This is the first study of roe deer parasites in the East Mediterranean. The ectoparasite fauna included three hippoboscid fly (Lipoptena capreoli, Hippobosca equina, and Hippobosca longipennis), four tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus turanicus, Rhipicephalus kohlsi, and Hyalomma marginatum), and one unidentified trombiculid mite species. For most of these ectoparasites, this is the first record on roe deer. All ectoparasite species were documented in Israel prior to the reintroduction program; exotic ectoparasites were not detected.

  16. Rickettsia africae and Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae in Ticks in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Waner, Trevor; Keysary, Avi; Eremeeva, Marina E.; Din, Adi Beth; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; King, Roni; Atiya-Nasagi, Yafit

    2014-01-01

    DNA of several spotted fever group rickettsiae was found in ticks in Israel. The findings include evidence for the existence of Rickettsia africae and Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae in ticks in Israel. The DNA of R. africae was detected in a Hyalomma detritum tick from a wild boar and DNA of C. Rickettsia barbariae was detected in Rhipicephalus turanicus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus collected from vegetation. The DNA of Rickettsia massiliae was found in Rh. sanguineus and Haemaphysalis erinacei, whereas DNA of Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae was detected in a Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus. Clinicians should be aware that diseases caused by a variety of rickettsiae previously thought to be present only in other countries outside of the Middle East may infect residents of Israel who have not necessarily traveled overseas. Furthermore, this study reveals again that the epidemiology of the spotted fever group rickettsiae may not only involve Rickettsia conorii but may include other rickettsiae. PMID:24615133

  17. Molecular detection and characterization of spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks from Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Scarpulla, M; Barlozzari, G; Marcario, A; Salvato, L; Blanda, V; De Liberato, C; D'Agostini, C; Torina, A; Macrì, G

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of rickettsial pathogens in ticks from Central Italy. A total of 113 ticks hailed from Latium and Tuscany regions were identified and tested by PCR to detect gltA, ompA, ompB genes of Rickettsia. Positive amplicons were sequenced and identified at species level. Ticks were analyzed individually or in pools. The percentage of positivity for SFG rickettsiae was 12.4%, expressed as minimum infection rate (MIR) assuming that one tick was positive in each positive pool. Rickettsia aeschlimannii was detected in Hyalomma marginatum, Rickettsia monacensis in Ixodes ricinus and Rickettsia massiliae and Rickettsia conorii in Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato. These findings confirm the circulation of pathogenic rickettsiae in Latium and Tuscany regions. To our knowledge this is the first report of R. massiliae in Latium region. PMID:27365155

  18. Genetic Analysis of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Yashina, Lyudmila; Vyshemirskii, Oleg; Seregin, Sergei; Petrova, Irina; Samokhvalov, Evgeny; Lvov, Dmitry; Gutorov, Valery; Kuzina, Irina; Tyunnikov, Georgy; Tang, Yi-Wei; Netesov, Sergei; Petrov, Vladimir

    2003-01-01

    Genetic analysis of wild-type Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus strains recovered in the European part of Russia was performed. Reverse transcriptase PCR followed by direct sequencing was used to recover partial sequences of the CCHF virus medium (M) genome segment (M segment) from four pools of Hyalomma marginatum ticks and six human patients. Phylogenetic analysis of the M-segment sequences from Russian strains revealed a close relatedness of the strains (nucleotide sequence diversity, ≤5.0%). The strains differed significantly from CCHF viruses from other regions of the world (nucleotide sequence diversity, 10.3 to 20.4%), suggesting that CCHF virus strains recovered in the European part of Russia form a distinct group. PMID:12574301

  19. Detection of Rickettsia africae in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus ticks from the Republic of Botswana, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Portillo, Aránzazu; Pérez-Martínez, Laura; Santibáñez, Sonia; Blanco, José R; Ibarra, Valvanera; Oteo, José A

    2007-08-01

    A total of 53 engorged adult ticks belonging to the species Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (N = 9), Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (N = 27), Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (N = 9), Amblyomma hebraeum (N = 5), and Hyalomma marginatum turanicum (N = 3), were removed from oryx in Botswana (South Africa). They were tested for the presence of spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia and Anaplasma phagocytophilum using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Seventy-seven percent of R. decoloratus as well as twenty percent of A. hebraeum were positive for ompA, gltA and 16S rRNA SFG Rickettsia PCR assays. All nucleotide sequences were homologous to Rickettsia africae, the agent of African tick-bite fever (ATBF). None of the tested ticks was positive for 16S rRNA A. phagocytophilum PCR assays. These results suggest for the first time that R. decoloratus ticks may be reservoirs of R. africae, and support the ATBF risk in this area. PMID:17690416

  20. Rickettsia africae and Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae in ticks in Israel.

    PubMed

    Waner, Trevor; Keysary, Avi; Eremeeva, Marina E; Din, Adi Beth; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; King, Roni; Atiya-Nasagi, Yafit

    2014-05-01

    DNA of several spotted fever group rickettsiae was found in ticks in Israel. The findings include evidence for the existence of Rickettsia africae and Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae in ticks in Israel. The DNA of R. africae was detected in a Hyalomma detritum tick from a wild boar and DNA of C. Rickettsia barbariae was detected in Rhipicephalus turanicus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus collected from vegetation. The DNA of Rickettsia massiliae was found in Rh. sanguineus and Haemaphysalis erinacei, whereas DNA of Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae was detected in a Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus. Clinicians should be aware that diseases caused by a variety of rickettsiae previously thought to be present only in other countries outside of the Middle East may infect residents of Israel who have not necessarily traveled overseas. Furthermore, this study reveals again that the epidemiology of the spotted fever group rickettsiae may not only involve Rickettsia conorii but may include other rickettsiae.

  1. Rickettsia conorii israelensis in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Chisu, Valentina; Masala, Giovanna; Foxi, Cipriano; Socolovschi, Cristina; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2014-06-01

    The presence of tick-borne Rickettsia spp. was examined by PCR using DNA samples extracted from 254 ticks collected from mammals originating from northern and eastern Sardinia, Italy. The spotted fever group rickettsial agent Rickettsia conorii israelensis was detected in 3 Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks from a dog for the first time in this geographical area. In addition, Ri. massiliae, Ri. slovaca, and Ri. aeschlimannii were detected in Rh. turanicus, Rh. sanguineus, Dermacentor marginatus, and Hyalomma marginatum marginatum ticks from dogs, goats, wild boar, and horse. Moreover, Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae was detected in 2 Rh. turanicus ticks from goats. The detection of Ri. conorii israelensis, an emergent agent which causes Israeli spotted fever, increases our knowledge on tick-borne rickettsioses in Sardinia.

  2. Rickettsia species in ticks removed from humans in Istanbul, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gargili, Aysen; Palomar, Ana M; Midilli, Kenan; Portillo, Aránzazu; Kar, Sırrı; Oteo, José A

    2012-11-01

    A total of 167 ticks collected from humans in Istanbul (Turkey) in 2006 were screened for Rickettsia species, and nested PCRs targeting gltA and ompA rickettsial fragment genes were carried out. Rickettsia monacensis (51), R. aeschlimannii (8), R. conorii subsp. conorii (3), R. helvetica (2), R. raoultii (1), R. africae (1), R. felis (1), and other Rickettsia spp. (2), were detected. To our knowledge, these Rickettsia species (except R. conorii) had never been reported in ticks removed from humans in Turkey. The presence of R. africae also had not been previously described, either in Hyalomma ticks or in any European tick species. In addition, R. aeschlimannii and R. felis had not been found associated with Rhipicephalus bursa specimens. The presence of human pathogenic Rickettsia in ticks removed from humans provides information about the risk of tick-borne rickettsioses in Turkey.

  3. Migratory birds, ticks, and Bartonella

    PubMed Central

    Molin, Ylva; Lindeborg, Mats; Nyström, Fredrik; Madder, Maxime; Hjelm, Eva; Olsen, Björn; Jaenson, Thomas G.T.; Ehrenborg, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Bartonella spp. infections are considered to be vector-borne zoonoses; ticks are suspected vectors of bartonellae. Migratory birds can disperse ticks infected with zoonotic pathogens such as Rickettsia and tick-borne encephalitis virus and possibly also Bartonella. Thus, in the present study 386 tick specimens collected in spring 2009 from migratory birds on the Mediterranean islands Capri and Antikythera were screened for Bartonella spp. RNA. One or more ticks were found on 2.7% of the birds. Most ticks were Hyalomma rufipes nymphs and larvae with mean infestation rates of 1.7 nymphs and 0.6 larvae per infested bird. Bartonella spp. RNA was not detected in any of the tick specimens. PMID:22957116

  4. Ixodid tick infestation in cattle and wild animals in Maswa and Iringa, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kwak, You Shine; Kim, Tae Yun; Nam, Sung-Hyun; Lee, In-Yong; Kim, Hyung-Pyo; Mduma, Simon; Keyyu, Julius; Fyumagwa, Robert; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2014-10-01

    Ticks and tick-borne diseases are important in human and livestock health worldwide. In November 2012, ixodid ticks were collected and identified morphologically from cattle and wild animals in the Maswa district and Iringa urban, Tanzania. Amblyomma gemma, A. lepidum, and A. variegatum were identified from Maswa cattle, and A. variegatum was the predominant species. A. marmoreum, Hyalomma impeltatum, and Rhipicephalus pulchellus were identified from Iringa cattle in addition to the above 3 Amblyomma species, and A. gemma was the most abundant species. Total 4 Amblyomma and 6 Rhipicephalus species were identified from wild animals of the 2 areas. A. lepidum was predominant in Maswa buffaloes, whereas A. gemma was predominant in Iringa buffaloes. Overall, A. variegatum in cattle was predominant in the Maswa district and A. gemma was predominant in Iringa, Tanzania.

  5. A survey of ticks (Acari: Ixodida) infesting some wild animals from Sivas, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bursali, Ahmet; Keskin, Adem; Şimşek, Eray; Keskin, Aysun; Tekin, Saban

    2015-06-01

    In order to determine the species composition of infesting ticks, between 2011 and 2012 a total of 1118 wild animals were captured from various regions of Zara, Sivas province, Turkey. A total of 138 ticks were obtained from the 58 host animals. Ticks were identified as Dermacentor marginatus (Sulzer), Haemaphysalis erinacei taurica Pospelova-Shtrom, Haemaphysalis parva (Neumann), Haemaphysalis punctata Canestrini and Fanzago, Haemaphysalis sulcata Canestrini and Fanzago, Hyalomma marginatum Koch, Ixodes laguri Olenev, Ixodes ricinus (L.), Ixodes vespertilionis Koch and Rhipicephalus turanicus Pomerantzev. To the best of our knowledge, there are several new host records for D. marginatus, H. e. taurica and I. laguri. In addition, I. vespertilionis was recorded for the first time in the Central Anatolian Region in Turkey, whereas I. laguri and H. e. taurica are firstly reported in Sivas.

  6. Ticks from the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in Ngamiland, Botswana.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, I H

    1976-03-01

    In November 1972, 93 out of 100 African buffalo from 3 areas in Ngamiland, Botswana, were found to be infested with ticks. The tick species present and the percentage of buffalo infested by each were: Hyalomma truncatum (63%), H. rufipes (54%), Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (68%), R. tricuspis (11%), R. simus (4%) and Boophilus decoloratus (1%). The mean number of ticks per animal was 8,6 (standard deviation +/-4,1), representing a mean of 6,5+/-3,4 male and 2,1+/-1,9 female ticks. The incidence of infestation with H. truncatum and the number of ticks of this species on infested animals were lowest in areas where plentiful surface water was responsible for an increase in humidity.

  7. Nososcomial transmission of viral haemorrhagic fever in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Richards, Guy A

    2015-09-01

    Recent events in West Africa have highlighted the potential for the viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) to cause considerable mortality and morbidity among heathcare workers. However, this is not a new threat as, although the risk is currently increased, it has always been present. In South Africa (SA) the only endemic haemorrhagic fever is Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, transmitted by the Hyalomma tick, which is ubiquitous in cattle farming areas. Johannesburg, the commercial and transport hub of SA, is unusual in that all cases of VHF seen there are imported, either from rural areas in SA or from countries to the north. Johannesburg functions as the gateway to and from the rest of Africa, and as a destination for more affluent residents of neighbouring countries seeking medical attention. Numerous outbreaks of nosocomial infection have occurred in SA, and these are described in the form of brief case reports. PMID:26428962

  8. Interaction between ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and pathogenic nematodes (Nematoda): susceptibility of tick species at various developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Samish, M; Alekseev, E; Glazer, I

    1999-11-01

    The virulence of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) to tick species under laboratory conditions is reported. The susceptibility of larval, nymphal, and adult stages of the ticks Hyalomma excavatum (Koch), Rhipicephalus bursa (Canestrini & Fanz), and R. sanguineus (Latereille) to 2 strains of Steinernema carpocapsae and 3 strains of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora were compared in laboratory assays. Preimaginal stages of ticks were found to be more resistant to the nematodes than were adult ticks which exhibited 80-100% mortality in a dish containing 5,000 infective juveniles of H. bacteriophora IS-3 or IS-5 strains isolated in Israel. These 2 strains were found to be much more virulent to unfed adult ticks than were the other isolates. No marked difference was found between engorged ticks and unfed adults of R. sanguineus or H. excavatum in terms of mortality, whereas engorged males and unfed females of R. bursa were significantly more susceptible than unfed males or engorged females. PMID:10593074

  9. Ecology of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever endemic area in Albania.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna; Velo, Enkelejda; Papadimitriou, Evangelia; Cahani, Gjyle; Kota, Majlinda; Bino, Silvia

    2009-12-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is endemic in Albania. Ticks collected from cattle grazing in the endemic areas of Albania were tested for presence of CCHFV RNA, while serum samples collected from goats, cattle, hares, and birds were tested for the presence of specific IgG antibodies to CCHFV. One of the 31 pools prepared, consisting of four female Hyalomma spp. ticks, was found to carry CCHFV RNA with 99.2-100% homology to sequences detected in patients from the same region. Antibodies were not detected in cattle, hares, and birds, but 2/10 goats presented high titers of IgG antibodies. The shepherd of that flock was a member of a family affected by CCHF 10 days before the collection of goats' sera, and he presented a mild form of the disease.

  10. Ticks and the city: ectoparasites of the Northern white-breasted hedgehog (Erinaceus roumanicus) in an urban park.

    PubMed

    Földvári, Gábor; Rigó, Krisztina; Jablonszky, Mónika; Biró, Nóra; Majoros, Gábor; Molnár, Viktor; Tóth, Mária

    2011-12-01

    The European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) is known to host several ectoparasites and also tick-borne pathogens, but there is scant information on its eastern relative, the Northern white-breasted hedgehog (Erinaceus roumanicus). We have studied an urban population of E. roumanicus in a city park of central Budapest, Hungary, for 2 years to investigate their tick and flea species. A total of 5063 ticks and 818 fleas were collected from 247 hedgehogs (including 46 recaptures). Ectoparasite prevalence and intensity differed significantly (p<0.001) between the 2 study years attributable to the enhanced tick removal rate due to anaesthesia used in the second year. The most common tick species was Ixodes ricinus (93.7%) followed by unidentified Ixodes larvae (5%). Only 57 hedgehog ticks (I. hexagonus) were removed from 22 hedgehogs. One I. acuminatus and one Hyalomma marginatum nymph were also collected. Mean intensity of tick infestation was 26.5 (range: 0-155 ticks/host) and mean intensity of flea infestation was 6.6 (range: 0-78 fleas/host). Most fleas (99.4%) collected were hedgehog fleas (Archaeopsylla erinacei), dog fleas (Ctenocephalides canis) were found on 2 hedgehogs. Hyalomma marginatum has previously not been found in Hungary, and I. acuminatus was only reported sporadically before. The large number of ectoparasites and the 2 imported tick species may thus survive in close proximity to humans if hedgehogs are present. This calls attention to the risk of possible tick-borne human infections that urban hedgehogs can pose. PMID:22108019

  11. Prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi as well as the identification of associated ticks in sympatric Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi) and donkeys (Equus africanus asinus) in northern Kenya.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Elaine; Kock, Richard; McKeever, Declan; Gakuya, Francis; Musyoki, Charles; Chege, Stephen M; Mutinda, Mathew; Kariuki, Edward; Davidson, Zeke; Low, Belinda; Skilton, Robert A; Njahira, Moses N; Wamalwa, Mark; Maina, Elsie

    2015-01-01

    The role of equine piroplasmosis as a factor in the population decline of the Grevy's zebra is not known. We determined the prevalence of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi in cograzing Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi) and donkeys (Equus africanus asinus) in northern Kenya and identified the associated tick vectors. Blood samples were taken from 71 donkeys and 16 Grevy's zebras from March to May 2011. A nested PCR reaction using 18s ribosomal (r)RNA primers on 87 blood spots showed 72% (51/71; 95% confidence interval [CI] 60.4-81.0%) of donkeys and 100% (16/16; 95% CI, 77.3-100%) of Grevy's zebras were T. equi positive. No samples were positive for B. caballi. Sequence comparison using the National Center for Biotechnology Information's basic local alignment search tool identified homologous 18s rRNA sequences with a global geographic spread. The T. equi-derived sequences were evaluated using Bayesian approaches with independent Metropolis-coupled Markov chain Monte Carlo runs. The sequences clustered with those found in Sudan, Croatia, Mongolia, and the US, with statistical support greater than 80% for the two main clades. Hyalomma tick species were found on both donkeys and Grevy's zebras, whereas Rhipicephalus pulchellus was found exclusively on Grevy's zebras and Hyalomma marginatum rupfipes on donkeys. The prevalence of T. equi was 100% in Grevy's zebras and 72% in donkeys with common tick vectors identified. Our results suggest that donkeys and Grevy's zebras can be asymptomatic carriers and that piroplasmosis is endemic in the study area. PMID:25380362

  12. Isolation of tick and mosquito-borne arboviruses from ticks sampled from livestock and wild animal hosts in Ijara District, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Lwande, Olivia Wesula; Lutomiah, Joel; Obanda, Vincent; Gakuya, Francis; Mutisya, James; Mulwa, Francis; Michuki, George; Chepkorir, Edith; Fischer, Anne; Venter, Marietjie; Sang, Rosemary

    2013-09-01

    Tick-borne viruses infect humans through the bite of infected ticks during opportunistic feeding or through crushing of ticks by hand and, in some instances, through contact with infected viremic animals. The Ijara District, an arid to semiarid region in northern Kenya, is home to a pastoralist community for whom livestock keeping is a way of life. Part of the Ijara District lies within the boundaries of a Kenya Wildlife Service-protected conservation area. Arbovirus activity among mosquitoes, animals, and humans is reported in the region, mainly because prevailing conditions necessitate that people continuously move their animals in search of pasture, bringing them in contact with ongoing arbovirus transmission cycles. To identify the tick-borne viruses circulating among these communities, we analyzed ticks sampled from diverse animal hosts. A total of 10,488 ticks were sampled from both wildlife and livestock hosts and processed in 1520 pools of up to eight ticks per pool. The sampled ticks were classified to species, processed for virus screening by cell culture using Vero cells and RT-PCR (in the case of Hyalomma species), followed by amplicon sequencing. The tick species sampled included Rhipicephalus pulchellus (76.12%), Hyalomma truncatum (8.68%), Amblyomma gemma (5.00%), Amblyomma lepidum (4.34%), and others (5.86%). We isolated and identified Bunyamwera (44), Dugbe (5), Ndumu (2), Semliki forest (25), Thogoto (3), and West Nile (3) virus strains. This observation constitutes a previously unreported detection of mosquito-borne Semliki forest and Bunyamwera viruses in ticks, and association of West Nile virus with A. gemma and Rh. pulchellus ticks. These findings provide additional evidence on the potential role of ticks and associated animals in the circulation of diverse arboviruses in northeastern Kenya, including viruses previously known to be essentially mosquito borne.

  13. Growth of Ehrlichia canis, the causative agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, in vector and non-vector ixodid tick cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ferrolho, Joana; Simpson, Jennifer; Hawes, Philippa; Zweygarth, Erich; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley

    2016-06-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis is caused by Ehrlichia canis, a small gram-negative coccoid bacterium that infects circulating monocytes. The disease is transmitted by the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. and is acknowledged as an important infectious disease of dogs and other members of the family Canidae worldwide. E. canis is routinely cultured in vitro in the canine monocyte-macrophage cell line DH82 and in non-vector Ixodes scapularis tick cell lines, but not in cells derived from its natural vector. Here we report infection and limited propagation of E. canis in the tick cell line RSE8 derived from the vector R. sanguineus s.l., and successful propagation through six passages in a cell line derived from the experimental vector Dermacentor variabilis. In addition, using bacteria semi-purified from I. scapularis cells we attempted to infect a panel of cell lines derived from non-vector species of the tick genera Amblyomma, Dermacentor, Hyalomma, Ixodes and Rhipicephalus with E. canis and, for comparison, the closely-related Ehrlichia ruminantium, causative agent of heartwater in ruminants. Amblyomma and non-vector Dermacentor spp. cell lines appeared refractory to infection with E. canis but supported growth of E. ruminantium, while some, but not all, cell lines derived from Hyalomma, Ixodes and Rhipicephalus spp. ticks supported growth of both pathogens. We also illustrated and compared the ultrastructural morphology of E. canis in DH82, RSE8 and I. scapularis IDE8 cells. This study confirms that E. canis, like E. ruminantium, is able to grow not only in cell lines derived from natural and experimental tick vectors but also in a wide range of other cell lines derived from tick species not known to transmit this pathogen. PMID:26837859

  14. Prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi as well as the identification of associated ticks in sympatric Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi) and donkeys (Equus africanus asinus) in northern Kenya.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Elaine; Kock, Richard; McKeever, Declan; Gakuya, Francis; Musyoki, Charles; Chege, Stephen M; Mutinda, Mathew; Kariuki, Edward; Davidson, Zeke; Low, Belinda; Skilton, Robert A; Njahira, Moses N; Wamalwa, Mark; Maina, Elsie

    2015-01-01

    The role of equine piroplasmosis as a factor in the population decline of the Grevy's zebra is not known. We determined the prevalence of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi in cograzing Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi) and donkeys (Equus africanus asinus) in northern Kenya and identified the associated tick vectors. Blood samples were taken from 71 donkeys and 16 Grevy's zebras from March to May 2011. A nested PCR reaction using 18s ribosomal (r)RNA primers on 87 blood spots showed 72% (51/71; 95% confidence interval [CI] 60.4-81.0%) of donkeys and 100% (16/16; 95% CI, 77.3-100%) of Grevy's zebras were T. equi positive. No samples were positive for B. caballi. Sequence comparison using the National Center for Biotechnology Information's basic local alignment search tool identified homologous 18s rRNA sequences with a global geographic spread. The T. equi-derived sequences were evaluated using Bayesian approaches with independent Metropolis-coupled Markov chain Monte Carlo runs. The sequences clustered with those found in Sudan, Croatia, Mongolia, and the US, with statistical support greater than 80% for the two main clades. Hyalomma tick species were found on both donkeys and Grevy's zebras, whereas Rhipicephalus pulchellus was found exclusively on Grevy's zebras and Hyalomma marginatum rupfipes on donkeys. The prevalence of T. equi was 100% in Grevy's zebras and 72% in donkeys with common tick vectors identified. Our results suggest that donkeys and Grevy's zebras can be asymptomatic carriers and that piroplasmosis is endemic in the study area.

  15. Climate niches of tick species in the Mediterranean region: modeling of occurrence data, distributional constraints, and impact of climate change.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Venzal, José M

    2007-11-01

    In this study, we used ecological niche factor analysis (ENFA) and principal components analysis (PCA) of climate variables to define the climate niches and areas of potential colonization of six species of ticks in the Mediterranean region: Dermacentor marginatus Sulzer, Rhipicephalus bursa Canestrini & Fanzago, Rhipicephalus turanicus Pomerantsev, Matikashvili & Lototsky, Hyalomma marginatum Koch, Hyalomma excavatum Koch, and Boophilus annulatus (Say). ENFA generated distribution models that varied in accuracy from high to very high (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.87-0.97), with the lowest AUC obtained for B. annulatus. PCA provided an adequate separation of the climate niches of different species in the reduced space of the variables. Climate scenarios and factorial consensus analysis were used to evaluate the geographic impact of climate change (as turnover in habitat suitability) on the niches of the ticks and net variations in habitat availability. The scenario that was most compatible with estimates of future climate in the Mediterranean region (increase in temperature and decrease in rainfall) was predicted to produce a sharp increase in the extent of suitable habitat for R. bursa, R. turanicus, and H. marginatum. This scenario would result in a northward expansion of suitable habitat areas for these three species. The highest impact (highest species turnover) would be recorded at the margin of the current distribution range of the three species. A sensitivity analysis of the ecological response of the ticks to the climate change scenarios showed that the response is statistically different in different regions of the PCA-derived niche. These results outline the need to further investigate the potential of bioclimate models to obtain accurate estimations of tick species turnover under conditions of climate change over wide areas.

  16. Tick burden and prevalence of Theileria parva infection in Tarime zebu cattle in the lake zone of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Laisser, Emmanuel Levillal Katamboi; Kipanyula, Maulilio John; Msalya, George; Mdegela, Robinson Hammerthon; Karimuribo, Esron Daniel; Mwilawa, Anjello Joseph; Mwega, Elisa Daniel; Kusiluka, Lughano; Chenyambuga, Sebastian Wilson

    2014-12-01

    This study was carried out to assess the distribution, abundance of different tick genera and prevalence of Theileria parva infection in Tarime zebu cattle kept in selected wards of Serengeti and Tarime districts in Mara region. Adult ticks were identified and counted from half body parts of 360 animals which were extensively managed in communal land with natural pastures. Concurrently, blood samples were collected and thereafter DNA extracted and a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) was done using primers specific for p104 gene to detect the presence of T. parva DNA. Ticks were identified into four groups: Amblyomma genus, Boophilus sub-genus of Rhipicephalus genus, other species of Rhipicephalus, and Hyalomma genus. Rhipicephalus genus accounted for 71.8 % of the total ticks, whereas Amblyomma, Boophilus sub-genus of Rhipicephalus genus and Hyalomma constituted 14.1, 14.0 and 0.1 %, respectively. There were more animals (p < 0.05) infested with ticks in Tarime district (96.1 %) than in Serengeti (61.7 %). The average counts of ticks were higher in adult animals (p < 0.05) than in young animals. The overall prevalence of T. parva was 27.7 % and was higher (p < 0.05) in Serengeti (38.3 %) than in Tarime district (16.7 %). However, all animals tested positive for T. parva did not show any clinical signs of East Coast fever (ECF), suggesting the existence of subclinical infection in Tarime zebu. These results suggest that Tarime cattle can tolerate ECF infection and are likely to serve as potential carriers of T. parva to other less-tolerant cattle breeds in mixed herds. Since Tarime cattle are preferred by most farmers with mixed herds, routine screening for T. parva is highly recommended to minimize introduction of infected cattle into an immunologically naive population. PMID:25092591

  17. Diversity and distribution of tick species (Acari: Ixodidae) associated with human otoacariasis and socio-ecological risk factors of tick infestations in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Ariyarathne, S; Apanaskevich, D A; Amarasinghe, P H; Rajakaruna, R S

    2016-09-01

    Tick infestation in humans is a major public health concern. The diversity and distribution of tick species associated with human otoacariasis was studied in five districts: Anuradhapura, Kandy, Kurunegala, Nuwara Eliya and Ratnapura in the main agro-climatic zones of Sri Lanka. Ticks from patients attending the ear, nose and throat clinics of the General Hospitals were collected during a 3 year period. In total 426 ticks were collected. Most human otoacariasis cases were reported from Kandy (33.8 %) and the fewest from Nuwara Eliya (8.2 %). Of the five tick species identified, nymphs of Dermacentor auratus constituted 90.6 % of the collection. Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Hyalomma isaaci, Haemaphysalis bispinosa and Otobius megnini were found rarely infesting humans possibly as an accidental host; H. bispinosa and O. megnini in the human ear canal were first time records in Sri Lanka. Females and children under 10 years were identified as risk groups of human otoacariasis. Subsequently, a field study was carried out to determine socio-ecological risk factors of human tick infestations in the five districts. Based on hospital data, eight villages with high prevalence of otoacariasis were selected from each district. A total 40 villages were visited and 1674 household members were interviewed. Involvement in outdoor activities, presence of wild animals around the house, location of the house in close proximity to a forest and occupation were identified as major risk factors.

  18. First molecular evidence of [i]Borrelia burgdorferi[/i] sensu lato in goats, sheep, cattle and camels in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ben Said, Mourad; Belkahia, Hanène; Alberti, Alberto; Abdi, Khaoula; Zhioua, Manel; Daaloul-Jedidi, Monia; Messadi, Lilia

    2016-09-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) are tick-transmitted spirochaetes of veterinary and human importance. Molecular epidemiology data on ruminants are still lacking in most countries of the world. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the rate of B. burgdorferi s.l. infection in ruminants from Tunisia. A total of 1,021 ruminants (303 goats, 260 sheep, 232 cattle and 226 camels) from different bioclimatic areas in Tunisia were investigated for the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA in blood by real time PCR. Prevalence rates were 30.4% (92/303) in goats, 6.2% (16/260) in sheep, 1.3% (3/232) in cattle, and 1.8% (4/226) in camels. Only tick species belonging to Rhipicephalus and Hyalomma genera were found on the investigated animals. In small ruminants, the prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. varied significantly according to localities and farms. Goats located in humid areas were statistically more infected than those located in sub-humid areas. Prevalence rates varied significantly according to age and breed in sheep, and age and tick infestation in goats. This study provides the first insight into the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA in ruminants in Tunisia, and demonstrates that host species such as goats and sheep may play an important role in natural Lyme disease cycles in this country.

  19. Diversity and distribution of tick species (Acari: Ixodidae) associated with human otoacariasis and socio-ecological risk factors of tick infestations in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Ariyarathne, S; Apanaskevich, D A; Amarasinghe, P H; Rajakaruna, R S

    2016-09-01

    Tick infestation in humans is a major public health concern. The diversity and distribution of tick species associated with human otoacariasis was studied in five districts: Anuradhapura, Kandy, Kurunegala, Nuwara Eliya and Ratnapura in the main agro-climatic zones of Sri Lanka. Ticks from patients attending the ear, nose and throat clinics of the General Hospitals were collected during a 3 year period. In total 426 ticks were collected. Most human otoacariasis cases were reported from Kandy (33.8 %) and the fewest from Nuwara Eliya (8.2 %). Of the five tick species identified, nymphs of Dermacentor auratus constituted 90.6 % of the collection. Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Hyalomma isaaci, Haemaphysalis bispinosa and Otobius megnini were found rarely infesting humans possibly as an accidental host; H. bispinosa and O. megnini in the human ear canal were first time records in Sri Lanka. Females and children under 10 years were identified as risk groups of human otoacariasis. Subsequently, a field study was carried out to determine socio-ecological risk factors of human tick infestations in the five districts. Based on hospital data, eight villages with high prevalence of otoacariasis were selected from each district. A total 40 villages were visited and 1674 household members were interviewed. Involvement in outdoor activities, presence of wild animals around the house, location of the house in close proximity to a forest and occupation were identified as major risk factors. PMID:27382981

  20. Detection of Microbial Agents in Ticks Collected from Migratory Birds in Central Italy

    PubMed Central

    Toma, Luciano; Mancini, Fabiola; Di Luca, Marco; Cecere, Jacopo G.; Bianchi, Riccardo; Khoury, Cristina; Quarchioni, Elisa; Manzia, Francesca; Rezza, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tick species characterization and molecular studies were performed within ornithological surveys conducted during 2010 and 2011 in the Lazio Region of central Italy. A total of 137 ticks were collected from 41 migratory birds belonging to 17 species (four partial migrants and 13 long-distance migrants). Most ticks were nymphs, with a predominance of Hyalomma marginatum marginatum and H. m. rufipes, and a small portion of Ixodes and Amblyomma species. All tick species analyzed were infected, and the molecular pathogen recognition revealed the presence of Rickettsia aeschlimannii, Rickettsia africae, Erlichia spp., Coxiella burnetii, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group, and Babesia microti, whereas no genomic DNA of Bartonella spp. or Francisella tularensis was detected. The results of the survey show that H. marginatum ticks appear to be a vector of microbial agents that may affect human and animal health and that migratory birds may be an important carrier of these ticks. Additional studies are needed to better investigate the role of migratory birds in the epidemiology of these pathogens. PMID:24576218

  1. Climate change and species distribution: possible scenarios for thermophilic ticks in Romania.

    PubMed

    Domșa, Cristian; Sándor, Attila D; Mihalca, Andrei D

    2016-01-01

    Several zoonotic tick-borne diseases are emerging in Europe due to various factors, including changes of the cultural landscape, increasing human populations, variation of social habits and climate change. We have modelled the potential range changes for two thermophilic tick species (Hyalomma marginatum and Rhipicephalus annulatus) by use of MaxEnt® and 15 climatic predictors, taking into account the aptitude for future climatic change in Romania. Current models predict increased temperatures, both in the short term (up to 2050) and in the long term (up to 2070), together with possible changes also of the other climatic factors (e.g. precipitation), and may lead to higher zoonotic risks associated with an expansion of the range of the target species. Three different models were constructed (the present, 2050 and 2070) for four representative concentration pathways (RCPs) of greenhouse gas scenarios: RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6, and RCP8.5. The most dramatic scenario (RCP8.5) produced the highest increase in the probable distribution range for both species. In concordance with similar continental-wide studies, both tick species displayed a shift of distribution towards previously cooler areas of Romania. In most scenarios, this would lead to wider ranges; from 9.7 to 43.1% for H. marginatum, and from 53.4 to 205.2% for R annulatus. Although the developed models demonstrate a good predictive power, the issue of species ecology should also be considered. PMID:27245802

  2. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) associated with wildlife and vegetation of Haller park along the Kenyan coastline.

    PubMed

    Wanzala, W; Okanga, S

    2006-09-01

    This artcile describes the results obtained from a tick survey conducted in Haller park along the Kenyan coastline. The survey aimed at evaluating tick-host associations, assessing tick population density, and providing baseline information for planning future tick control and management in the park. Ticks (2,968) were collected by handpicking from eight species of wildlife and by dragging in 14 selected sites within the park. A considerable proportion of ticks were also collected from leaves, stems, and bark of most dominant trees, namely, Casuarina equisetifolia L. (Forst. and Forst.), Cocos nucifera L., Adansonia digitata L., Musa paradisiaca L., and Azadiracta indica Adr. Juss. Dragging was conducted in sites predominantly occupied by Cynodon dactylon L. (Pers.), Cenchrus ciliaris L., Stenotaphrum dimidiatum L. (Kuntze.) Brongn., and Brachiaria xantholeuca Hack. Ex Schinz Stapf. and Loudetia kagerensis K. Schum. Hutch. Eight tick species were identified, and the collection included Rhipicephalus pravus Dönitz 1910, Rhipicephalus pulchellus Gerstäcker 1873, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes Koch 1844, Amblyomma gemma Dönitz 1910, Amblyomma hebraeum Koch 1844, Amblyomma sparsum Neumann 1899, Amblyomma nuttalli Dönitz 1909, and Boophilus decoloratus Koch 1844. Given that the identified tick species are known to parasitize humans as well as livestock, there exist risks of emergence of zoonotic infections mediated by tick vectors. In the recreational environment of Haller park, where tick vectors share habitats with hosts, there is a need to develop sustainable and effective tick control and management strategies to minimize economic losses that tick infestation may cause.

  3. Ectoparasites of hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Girisgin, Ahmet Onur; Senlik, Bayram; Aydin, Levent; Cirak, Veli Y

    2015-01-01

    Hedgehogs are small, nocturnal, spiny-coated animals that have been growing in popularity as exotic pets. However, these animals are host to a wide variety of viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites, some of which are of zoonotic character. Thus, because hedgehogs have a potential role to transmit zoonoses including arthropod-borne diseases, we examined them for their ectoparasites. The study was carried out on hedgehogs found dead mainly due to road casualties in the Bursa province of Turkey. The ectoparasites were collected by both insecticide spraying of the body and inspection on a white paper carefully. Totally three species of ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Hyalomma aegyptium, Haemophysalis parvo) and one flea species (Archeopsylla erinacei) were detected. The prevalence of mixed infestation with both ticks and fleas was 45.5%. Haemaphysalis parva was reported for the first time from hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) in Turkey. The occurrence of ectoparasites and their potential role as vectors of certain zoonotic diseases are briefly discussed. PMID:26281445

  4. Retrospective Study of Hemoparasites in Cattle in Southern Italy by Reverse Line Blot Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    CECI, Luigi; IARUSSI, Fabrizio; GRECO, Beatrice; LACINIO, Rosanna; FORNELLI, Stefania; CARELLI, Grazia

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tick-borne diseases are widespread in tropical and temperate regions and are responsible for important economic losses in those areas. In order to assess the presence and prevalence of various pathogens in southern Italy, we retrospectively analyzed cattle blood samples collected for a previous study in 2000 using reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization. The study had been carried out in three regions of southern Italy on 1,500 randomly selected and apparently healthy adult cattle. RLB showed that 43.7% of the cattle were positive for nine different species of hemoparasites with either a single infection or a mixed infection. Theileria buffeli was the most common species found, being present in 27.3% of the animals, followed by Anaplasma marginale in 18.1%, Anaplasma centrale in 13.8%, Babesia bigemina and Anaplasma bovis in 4.2%, Anaplasma phagocytophilum in 1.7%, Babesia bovis in 1.6%, Babesia major in 0.2% and Babesia divergens in 0.1%. Complete blood counts showed different degrees of anemia in 363 animals (24.2%) and of these, 169 were RLB-positive for at least one pathogen. Among the ticks that were collected from the cattle, the following species were identified: Rhipicephalus bursa, Ixodes ricinus, Hyalomma marginatum, Boophilus annulatus, Dermacentor marginatus and Haemaphysalis (sulcata, parva, inermis and punctata). The results obtained confirmed the spread of endemic tick-borne pathogens in the regions studied. PMID:24614604

  5. Sero-epidemiological survey of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Wasfi, Fares; Dowall, Stuart; Ghabbari, Tayssir; Bosworth, Andrew; Chakroun, Mohamed; Varghese, Anitha; Tiouiri, Hanene; Ben Jemaa, Mounir; Znazen, Abir; Hewson, Roger; Zhioua, Elyes; Letaief, Amel

    2016-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease associated with a high case fatality rate and transmitted mainly by Hyalomma marginatum. The geographical distribution of H. marginatum covers most of the Western Mediterranean basin. We aimed to investigate whether CCHF virus (CCHFv) is circulating in Tunisia. Samples from unexplained acute febrile patients (n = 181) and a high risk group of humans, mainly slaughter workers (n = 38), were collected in the summer of 2014 and analyzed for exposure to CCHFv using serological tests and real-time RT-PCR. Ticks were collected from Northern and Southern Tunisia during May–June 2014 and examined for the presence of CCHFv by real-time RT-PCR. Of the 181 febrile patients, 5 showed only high titers of IgM suggesting a recent exposure to CCHFv. Among 38 slaughter workers, 2 had IgG anti-CCHFv responses yielding a seroprevalence of 5.2%. No CCHFv was detected in ticks and sera. Our results provide evidence of human exposure to CCHFv in Tunisia. PMID:26956221

  6. First molecular evidence of [i]Borrelia burgdorferi[/i] sensu lato in goats, sheep, cattle and camels in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ben Said, Mourad; Belkahia, Hanène; Alberti, Alberto; Abdi, Khaoula; Zhioua, Manel; Daaloul-Jedidi, Monia; Messadi, Lilia

    2016-07-15

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) are tick-transmitted spirochaetes of veterinary and human importance. Molecular epidemiology data on ruminants are still lacking in most countries of the world. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the rate of B. burgdorferi s.l. infection in ruminants from Tunisia. A total of 1,021 ruminants (303 goats, 260 sheep, 232 cattle and 226 camels) from different bioclimatic areas in Tunisia were investigated for the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA in blood by real time PCR. Prevalence rates were 30.4% (92/303) in goats, 6.2% (16/260) in sheep, 1.3% (3/232) in cattle, and 1.8% (4/226) in camels. Only tick species belonging to Rhipicephalus and Hyalomma genera were found on the investigated animals. In small ruminants, the prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. varied significantly according to localities and farms. Goats located in humid areas were statistically more infected than those located in sub-humid areas. Prevalence rates varied significantly according to age and breed in sheep, and age and tick infestation in goats. This study provides the first insight into the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA in ruminants in Tunisia, and demonstrates that host species such as goats and sheep may play an important role in natural Lyme disease cycles in this country. PMID:27660865

  7. Molecular detection of Theileria spp. in sheep and vector ticks in the North Khorasan Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Rashidi, Ahmad; Razmi, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    A survey was carried in North Khorasan Province, Iran in 2010-2011, designed to identify Theileria spp. infections of both sheep and ticks. The tick species were also examined. Ninety sheep from different flocks were clinically examined, and blood samples and ixodid ticks were collected. Light microscopy of blood smears revealed Theileria spp. infection in 37 (41.1 %), while 74 (82.2 %) of blood samples were positive using semi-nested PCR. Theileria ovis, Theileria lestoquardi, and mixed infection were detected in 63/90 (70 %), 5/90 (5.5 %), and 6/90 (6.6 %) of samples, respectively. Of the 434 ticks that were collected, the most prevalent species was Rhipicephalus turanicus (69.3 %) followed by Hyalomma marginatum turanicum (18.4 %), Dermacentor marginatus (6.4 %), and Rhipicephalus bursa (5.7 %). The ticks were separated into 42 tick pools, and the salivary glands were dissected out in 0.85 % (w/v) saline under a stereomicroscope and examined using semi-nested PCR. Three pools of H. marginatum turanicum salivary glands were infected with T. ovis and T. lestoquardi, and one pool of R. turanicus was infected with T. ovis. Based on these results, it is concluded that the prevalence of T. ovis is higher than T. lestoquardi and that H. marginatum turanicum and R. turanicus are likely vectors of T. lestoquardi and T. ovis in this area.

  8. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: Risk factors and control measures for the infection abatement

    PubMed Central

    ASLAM, SAADIA; LATIF, MUHAMMAD SHAHZAD; DAUD, MUHAMMAD; RAHMAN, ZIA UR; TABASSUM, BUSHRA; RIAZ, MUHAMMAD SOHAIL; KHAN, ANWAR; TARIQ, MUHAMMAD; HUSNAIN, TAYYAB

    2016-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a vector-borne viral disease, widely distributed in different regions of the world. The fever is caused by the CCHF virus (CCHFV), which belongs to the Nairovirus genus and Bunyaviridae family. The virus is clustered in seven genotypes, which are Africa-1, Africa-2, Africa-3, Europe-1, Europe-2, Asia-1 and Asia-2. The virus is highly pathogenic in nature, easily transmissible and has a high case fatality rate of 10–40%. The reservoir and vector of CCHFV are the ticks of the Hyalomma genus. Therefore, the circulation of this virus depends upon the distribution of the ticks. The virus can be transmitted from tick to animal, animal to human and human to human. The major symptoms include headache, high fever, abdominal pain, myalgia, hypotension and flushed face. As the disease progresses, severe symptoms start appearing, which include petechiae, ecchymosis, epistaxis, bleeding gums and emesis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, antigen detection, serum neutralization and isolation of the virus by cell culture are the diagnostic techniques used for this viral infection. There is no specific antiviral therapy available thus far. However, ribavirin has been approved by the World Health Organization for the treatment of CCHFV infection. Awareness campaigns regarding the risk factors and control measures can aid in reducing the spread of this disease to a greater extent, particularly in developing countries. PMID:26870327

  9. Epidemiology and phylogenetic analysis of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever viruses in xinjiang, china.

    PubMed

    Sun, Surong; Dai, Xiang; Aishan, Muhetaer; Wang, Xinhui; Meng, Weiwei; Feng, Conghui; Zhang, Fuchun; Hang, Changshou; Hu, Zhihong; Zhang, Yujiang

    2009-08-01

    In 2004 and 2005, an epidemiological survey of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) was conducted in Xinjiang, China. A total of 5,629 serum samples of human and livestock were collected and tested for the CCHFV antibody, and 17,319 ticks were collected for viral identification. Reverse passive hemagglutination inhibition assays showed that the average prevalence of CCHFV antibody was 1.7% for the humans and 12.7% for the livestock. A relatively high antibody prevalence, ranging from 19.1% to 23.4%, was found in the livestock of the northwest, southwest, and northeast parts of the Tarim Basin. When the ticks were pooled to inoculate suckling mice, followed by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) to detect CCHFV RNA, the average RT-PCR-positive rates for Hyalomma asiaticum kozlovi and H. asiaticum asiaticum were 12.9% and 2.6%, respectively. A significant correlation was found between the antibody prevalence in the livestock and the CCHFV prevalence in H. asiaticum of the same geographic region. No CCHFV RNA was detected in Dermacentor nivenus, Rhipicephalus turanius, or Rhipicephalus sanguineus. A total of 27 partial S segments of CCHFVs were sequenced and used for phylogeny analysis. All but one Chinese isolate grouped into the Asia 1 clade, which contains the strains from Xinjiang and Uzbekistan, while the other strain, Fub90009, grouped with strains from the Middle East.

  10. Tick-borne rickettsiae in Guinea and Liberia.

    PubMed

    Mediannikov, Oleg; Diatta, Georges; Zolia, Yah; Balde, Mamadou Cellou; Kohar, Henry; Trape, Jean-François; Raoult, Didier

    2012-02-01

    While the high seroprevalence for the rickettsiae that cause spotted fevers and the multiple pathogenic rickettsiae is known, the data on the distribution of rickettsial diseases in Africa are often incomplete. We collected ticks from domestic or wild animals (generally a source of bushmeat) that were in contact with humans in 2 neighboring countries of tropical West Africa, Guinea and Liberia. In total, 382 ticks representing 6 species were collected in Liberia and 655 ticks representing 7 species were collected in Guinea. We found rickettsiae in 9 different species of ticks from both countries. Rickettsia africae was found in 93-100% of Amblyomma variegatum, in 14-93% of Rhipicephalus (B.) geigyi, Rh. (B.) annulatus, and Rh. (B.) decoloratus, and in several Hyalomma marginatum rufipes and Haemaphysalis paraleachi. A genetic variant of R. africae was found in Amblyomma compressum. R. massiliae was found in 10/61 (16%) of Rh. senegalensis ticks and in 2% of Haemaphysalis paraleachi ticks collected from dogs. We identified a new rickettsia in one of 44 (2%) Ixodes muniensis collected from a dog in Liberia. As this rickettsia is not yet isolated, we propose the provisional name "Candidatus Rickettsia liberiensis" (for the West African country where the host tick was collected). PMID:22309858

  11. Tick-borne rickettsiae in Guinea and Liberia.

    PubMed

    Mediannikov, Oleg; Diatta, Georges; Zolia, Yah; Balde, Mamadou Cellou; Kohar, Henry; Trape, Jean-François; Raoult, Didier

    2012-02-01

    While the high seroprevalence for the rickettsiae that cause spotted fevers and the multiple pathogenic rickettsiae is known, the data on the distribution of rickettsial diseases in Africa are often incomplete. We collected ticks from domestic or wild animals (generally a source of bushmeat) that were in contact with humans in 2 neighboring countries of tropical West Africa, Guinea and Liberia. In total, 382 ticks representing 6 species were collected in Liberia and 655 ticks representing 7 species were collected in Guinea. We found rickettsiae in 9 different species of ticks from both countries. Rickettsia africae was found in 93-100% of Amblyomma variegatum, in 14-93% of Rhipicephalus (B.) geigyi, Rh. (B.) annulatus, and Rh. (B.) decoloratus, and in several Hyalomma marginatum rufipes and Haemaphysalis paraleachi. A genetic variant of R. africae was found in Amblyomma compressum. R. massiliae was found in 10/61 (16%) of Rh. senegalensis ticks and in 2% of Haemaphysalis paraleachi ticks collected from dogs. We identified a new rickettsia in one of 44 (2%) Ixodes muniensis collected from a dog in Liberia. As this rickettsia is not yet isolated, we propose the provisional name "Candidatus Rickettsia liberiensis" (for the West African country where the host tick was collected).

  12. Acaricide efficiency of amitraz/cypermethrin and abamectin pour-on preparations in game.

    PubMed

    Van Der Merwe, J S; Smit, F J; Durand, A M; Krüger, L P; Michael, L M

    2005-12-01

    The efficacy of an amitraz/cypermethrin pour-on preparation (1% w/v each) was tested against natural tick infestations of buffaloes, eland and blesbok in three separate trials. The eland were also treated with a 0.02% abamectin (w/v) acaricidal pour-on preparation. The amitraz/cypermethrin pour-on was effective against Amblyomma hebraeum, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Hyalomma marginatum rufipes on the buffaloes. Both acaricides were effective against R. appendiculatus and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus in the eland. The amitraz/cypermethrin acaricide was effective against R. (Boophilus) decoloratus in the blesbok. Ticks can cause damage to the skins, secondary infections, abscesses, anaemia, loss of condition, tick toxicosis and act as vectors of infectious diseases. Introduction of hosts and/or ticks from endemic to non-endemic areas because of translocation of game, may lead to severe losses. The pouron acaricides tested were effective against natural tick infestations and should always be used according to the manufacturer's instructions and efficacy claims.

  13. Transport of ticks by migratory passerine birds to Norway.

    PubMed

    Hasle, Gunnar; Bjune, Gunnar; Edvardsen, Erik; Jakobsen, Christer; Linnehol, Bjørn; Røer, Jan Erik; Mehl, Reidar; Røed, Knut H; Pedersen, Jon; Leinaas, Hans Petter

    2009-12-01

    Ticks can be transported over large distances and across geographical barriers by avian hosts. During the spring migrations of 2003 to 2005, 9,768 passerine birds from 4 bird observatories along the southern coastline of Norway were examined for ticks. Altogether, 713 birds carried a total of 517 larvae and 1,440 nymphs. The highest prevalence of tick infestation was observed in thrushes and dunnock (Prunella modularis). The degree of tick infestation varied during each season, between localities, and from year to year. Blackbirds (Turdus merula) caught in localities with many ticks had greater infestation than those from localities with few or no ticks, suggesting local tick recruitment. A similar study performed during 1965–1970 involving 2 of the bird observatories in the present study found ticks on 4.2% of birds, while we found infestation of 6.9% at the same localities (P < 0.001). With the exception of 10 nymphs and 1 larva, the predominant tick was Ixodes ricinus. Seven nymphs of Hyalomma rufipes and 1 larva of Dermacentor sp. were also found. No species of Dermacentor had previously been found in Norway. PMID:19658452

  14. Molecular evidence for bacterial and protozoan pathogens in hard ticks from Romania.

    PubMed

    Ionita, Mariana; Mitrea, Ioan Liviu; Pfister, Kurt; Hamel, Dietmar; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to provide a preliminary insight into the diversity of tick-borne pathogens circulating at the domestic host-tick interface in Romania. For this, feeding and questing ticks were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu latu, and by PCR and subsequent sequencing for Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. A total of 382 ticks, encompassing 5 species from 4 genera, were collected in April-July 2010 from different areas of Romania; of them, 40 were questing ticks and the remainder was collected from naturally infested cattle, sheep, goats, horses or dogs. Tick species analyzed included Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor marginatus, Hyalomma marginatum, Rhipicephalus bursa, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Four rickettsiae of the spotted fever group of zoonotic concern were identified for the first time in Romania: Rickettsia monacensis and Rickettsia helvetica in I. ricinus, and Rickettsia slovaca and Rickettsia raoultii in D. marginatus. Other zoonotic pathogens such as A. phagocytophilum, Borrelia afzelii, and Babesia microti were found in I. ricinus. Pathogens of veterinary importance were also identified, including Theileria equi in H. marginatum, Babesia occultans in D. marginatus and H. marginatum, Theileria orientalis/sergenti/buffeli-group in I. ricinus and in H. marginatum and E. canis in R. sanguineus. These findings show a wide distribution of very diverse bacterial and protozoan pathogens at the domestic host-tick interface in Romania, with the potential of causing both animal and human diseases.

  15. Sero-epidemiological survey of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Wasfi, Fares; Dowall, Stuart; Ghabbari, Tayssir; Bosworth, Andrew; Chakroun, Mohamed; Varghese, Anitha; Tiouiri, Hanene; Ben Jemaa, Mounir; Znazen, Abir; Hewson, Roger; Zhioua, Elyes; Letaief, Amel

    2016-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease associated with a high case fatality rate and transmitted mainly by Hyalomma marginatum. The geographical distribution of H. marginatum covers most of the Western Mediterranean basin. We aimed to investigate whether CCHF virus (CCHFv) is circulating in Tunisia. Samples from unexplained acute febrile patients (n = 181) and a high risk group of humans, mainly slaughter workers (n = 38), were collected in the summer of 2014 and analyzed for exposure to CCHFv using serological tests and real-time RT-PCR. Ticks were collected from Northern and Southern Tunisia during May-June 2014 and examined for the presence of CCHFv by real-time RT-PCR. Of the 181 febrile patients, 5 showed only high titers of IgM suggesting a recent exposure to CCHFv. Among 38 slaughter workers, 2 had IgG anti-CCHFv responses yielding a seroprevalence of 5.2%. No CCHFv was detected in ticks and sera. Our results provide evidence of human exposure to CCHFv in Tunisia.

  16. Epidemiology and phylogenetic analysis of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever viruses in xinjiang, china.

    PubMed

    Sun, Surong; Dai, Xiang; Aishan, Muhetaer; Wang, Xinhui; Meng, Weiwei; Feng, Conghui; Zhang, Fuchun; Hang, Changshou; Hu, Zhihong; Zhang, Yujiang

    2009-08-01

    In 2004 and 2005, an epidemiological survey of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) was conducted in Xinjiang, China. A total of 5,629 serum samples of human and livestock were collected and tested for the CCHFV antibody, and 17,319 ticks were collected for viral identification. Reverse passive hemagglutination inhibition assays showed that the average prevalence of CCHFV antibody was 1.7% for the humans and 12.7% for the livestock. A relatively high antibody prevalence, ranging from 19.1% to 23.4%, was found in the livestock of the northwest, southwest, and northeast parts of the Tarim Basin. When the ticks were pooled to inoculate suckling mice, followed by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) to detect CCHFV RNA, the average RT-PCR-positive rates for Hyalomma asiaticum kozlovi and H. asiaticum asiaticum were 12.9% and 2.6%, respectively. A significant correlation was found between the antibody prevalence in the livestock and the CCHFV prevalence in H. asiaticum of the same geographic region. No CCHFV RNA was detected in Dermacentor nivenus, Rhipicephalus turanius, or Rhipicephalus sanguineus. A total of 27 partial S segments of CCHFVs were sequenced and used for phylogeny analysis. All but one Chinese isolate grouped into the Asia 1 clade, which contains the strains from Xinjiang and Uzbekistan, while the other strain, Fub90009, grouped with strains from the Middle East. PMID:19553586

  17. Consensus report: Preventive measures for Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever during Eid-al-Adha festival.

    PubMed

    Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Sunbul, Mustafa; Memish, Ziad A; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Bodur, Hurrem; Ozkul, Aykut; Gucukoglu, Ali; Chinikar, Sadegh; Hasan, Zahra

    2015-09-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is endemic in Eurasian countries such as, Turkey, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran. CCHF virus is spread by the Hyalomma tick, which is found mainly on cattle and sheep. Muslim countries, in which these animals are sacrificed during Eid-Al-Adha, are among the countries where CCHF is endemic, and it has been observed that CCHF is associated with practices surrounding the Eid-ad-Adha festival. The dates for Eid-Al-Adha drift 10 days earlier in each year according to Georgian calendar. In previous years Eid-al-Adha occurred in autumn-winter months however in the next 10-15 years it will be take place in the summer months when CCHF is more prevalent. This may lead to a rise in the number of cases due to increased dissemination of CCHF virus with uncontrolled animal movements in and between countries. This consensus report focuses on the variable practices regarding animal handling in different regions and possible preventative measures to reduce the incidence of CCHF. Environmental hygiene and personal protection are essential parts of prevention. There is a need for international collaborative preparedness and response plans for prevention and management of CCHF during Eid-Al-Adha in countries where the disease is prevalent. PMID:26183413

  18. Tick species (Acari: Ixodida) in Antalya City, Turkey: species diversity and seasonal activity.

    PubMed

    Koc, Samed; Aydın, Levent; Cetin, Huseyin

    2015-07-01

    Ticks (Acari: Ixodida) are an important group of ectoparasites of vertebrates. Most species are known vectors of diseases including Lyme disease, Q fever, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. A 3-year research was conducted in Antalya, Turkey, to determine tick species composition, seasonal abundance, and spatial distribution. The study was carried out in five districts (Aksu, Dosemealtı, Kepez, Konyaaltı, and Muratpasa) of Antalya Metropolitan Municipality area in Turkey, between May 2010 and May 2013, where 1393 tick specimens were collected from domestic and wild animals (cattle, goats, sheep, hedgehogs, tortoises, dogs, cats, chickens) and from the environment. The collected ticks were preserved in 70 % alcohol and then were identified. Five genus and eight hard and soft tick species were identified, including Argas persicus, Rhipicephalus annulatus, R. sanguineus, R. turanicus, Hyalomma aegyptium, H. marginatum, Haemaphysalis parva, and Dermacentor niveus. Rhipicephalus sanguineus, R. turanicus, and H. aegyptium were the most common tick species in Antalya city. Rhipicephalus turanicus and R. sanguineus were the most abundant tick species infesting dogs in the city. The hosts of H. aegyptium are primarily tortoises in Antalya. The results of this research will contribute to establishing appropriate measures to control tick infestations on animals and humans and their environment in the city of Antalya. PMID:25869959

  19. A Preliminary Investigation on Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) Infesting Birds in Kızılırmak Delta, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Adem; Erciyas-Yavuz, Kiraz

    2016-01-01

    Ticks are mandatory blood-feeding ectoparasites of mammals, birds, reptiles, and even amphibians. Turkey has a rich bird fauna and is located on the main migration route for many birds. However, information on ticks infesting birds is very limited. In the present study, we aimed to determine ticks infesting birds in Kızılırmak Delta, Turkey. In 2014 autumn bird migration season, a total of 7,452 birds belonging to 79 species, 52 genera, 35 families, and 14 orders were examined for tick infestation. In total, 287 (234 larvae, 47 nymphs, 6♀) ticks were collected from 54 passerine birds (prevalence = 0.72%) belonging to 12 species. Ticks were identified as Amblyomma sp., Dermacentor marginatus (Sulzer), Haemaphysalis concinna Koch, Haemaphysalis punctata Canestrini and Fanzago, Hyalomma sp., Ixodes frontalis (Panzer), and Ixodes ricinus (L). The most common tick species were I. frontalis (223 larvae, 23 nymphs, 6♀) followed by I. ricinus (3 larvae, 12 nymphs) and H. concinna (4 larvae, 6 nymphs). Based on our results, it can be said that Erithacus rubecula (L.) is the main host of immature I. frontalis, whereas Turdus merula L. is the most important carrier of immature stages of some ticks in Kızılırmak Delta, Turkey. To the best of our knowledge, most of the tick-host associations found in this study have never been documented in the literature.

  20. First International External Quality Assessment of Molecular Detection of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus

    PubMed Central

    Escadafal, Camille; Ölschläger, Stephan; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana; Papa, Anna; Vanhomwegen, Jessica; Wölfel, Roman; Mirazimi, Ali; Teichmann, Anette; Donoso-Mantke, Oliver; Niedrig, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a zoonosis caused by a Nairovirus of the family Bunyaviridae. Infection is transmitted to humans mostly by Hyalomma ticks and also by direct contact with the blood or tissues of infected humans or viremic livestock. Clinical features usually include a rapid progression characterized by hemorrhage, myalgia and fever, with a lethality rate up to 30%. CCHF is one of the most widely distributed viral hemorrhagic fevers and has been reported in Africa, the Middle East and Asia, as well as parts of Europe. There is no approved vaccine or specific treatment against CCHF virus (CCHFV) infections. In this context, an accurate diagnosis as well as a reliable surveillance of CCHFV infections is essential. Diagnostic techniques include virus culture, serology and molecular methods, which are now increasingly used. The European Network for the Diagnostics of “Imported” Viral Diseases organized the first international external quality assessment of CCHVF molecular diagnostics in 2011 to assess the efficiency and accurateness of CCHFV molecular methods applied by expert laboratories. A proficiency test panel of 15 samples was distributed to the participants including 10 different CCHFV preparations generated from infected cell cultures, a preparation of plasmid cloned with the nucleoprotein of CCHFV, two CCHFV RNA preparations and two negative controls. Forty-four laboratories worldwide participated in the EQA study and 53 data sets were received. Twenty data sets (38%) met all criteria with optimal performance, 10 (19%) with acceptable performance, while 23 (43%) reported results showing a need for improvement. Differences in performance depended on the method used, the type of strain tested, the concentration of the sample tested and the laboratory performing the test. These results indicate that there is still a need for improving testing conditions and standardizing protocols for the molecular detection of Crimean

  1. New data regarding distribution of cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands.

    PubMed

    Stachurski, Frédéric; Tortosa, Pablo; Rahajarison, Patrick; Jacquet, Stéphanie; Yssouf, Amina; Huber, Karine

    2013-09-09

    Recent studies have produced new insight into the origin and distribution of some cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, introduced from Tanzania in 2002, is now well established on Grande Comore but has not yet reached the other islands of the archipelago (Mohéli, Anjouan and Mayotte). Only one of the two clades identified in Africa has settled so far. Amblyomma variegatum, which was not supposed to be able to persist in the Antananarivo region (1300 m) nor in other Malagasy regions of high altitude without regular introductions of ticks by infested cattle, is now endemic as a general rule up to 1600 m although other regions of lower altitude (1400 m) are still free of the tick. This species remains confined in a small area of the west coast on La Reunion Island. On the contrary, Hyalomma dromedarii could not settle on Madagascar where it was introduced in 2008 and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi is not yet present in Grande Comore despite regular introductions by infested cattle from Tanzania. A phylogeographic approach has been carried out at an intra-specific level for A. variegatum. This study has led to the identification of two main lineages, one covering all species distribution and one restricted to East Africa and the Indian Ocean area. These two lineages are in sympatry in Madagascar where a high genetic diversity has been described, whereas a lower genetic diversity is observed on other islands. These results seem to agree with the historical data concerning the introduction of the tick in the Indian Ocean area.

  2. The comparative host status of red veld rats (Aethomys chrysophilus) and bushveld gerbils (Tatera leucogaster) for epifaunal arthropods in the southern Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Braack, L E; Horak, I G; Jordaan, L C; Segerman, J; Louw, J P

    1996-06-01

    Red veld rats (Aethomys chrysophilus) and bushveld gerbils (Tatera leucogaster) were trapped at monthly intervals, when possible, over a 2-year period, in the southern Kruger National Park, Mpumalanga Province. Forty-six specimens of each species were caught, euthenased and microscopically examined for fleas, lice, ticks and mites. Clear differences existed between the two rodent hosts in infestation intensity and also parasite species. The flea, Xenopsylla brasiliensis, commonly and exclusively utilized red veld rats, whereas Xenopsylla frayi was common and specific to bushveld gerbils. T. leucogaster were commonly infested with the lice Hoplopleura biseriata and Polyplax biseriata, while only a single A. chrysophilus hosted the louse, Hoplopleura patersoni. Red veld rats harboured small numbers of the immature stages of Haemaphysalis leachi/spinulosa and relatively large numbers of Rhipicephalus simus. The larvae of R. simus were irregularly collected from February to September and the nymphs from March to November. Bushveld gerbils hosted fewer ticks than did the rats, with a single specimen of H. leachi/spinulosa and low numbers of immature Hyalomma truncatum, the latter erratically present from June to October. Miles were abundant on both rodent hosts, A. chrysophilus hosting 13 species in six families, and T. leucogaster hosting 12 species representing seven families, with clear differences in mite assemblages between the two rodents. As the rats and gerbils were collected from the same trap lines at the same times, the differences in species composition and infestation intensity of their parasites, suggest that immunological behavioural or other segregating mechanisms are in operation to maintain discrete parasite assemblages.

  3. Altitudinal and seasonal differences of tick communities in dogs from pastoralist tribes of Northern Kenya.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Gianluca; Dumitrache, Mirabela O; Široký, Pavel; Albrechtová, Kateřina; Sloboda, Michal; Domşa, Cristian; Sándor, Attila D; Balázsi, Robert; Kanyari, Paul W N; Modrý, David; Mihalca, Andrei D

    2015-09-15

    Studies regarding the distribution and ecology of ticks in dogs from Eastern Africa are scarce. Our research was based on a long-term screening of ticks parasitising the domestic dogs living with indigenous people around Lake Turkana, Mt. Kulal and Mt. Nyiru areas, Northern Kenya. A total of 9977 ticks were collected from 1464 dogs of all ages and both sexes. Identification was performed using morphological keys and data were analyzed using the Repeated Measures ANOVA, post-hoc Scheffe test and F test, relating independent variables as seasons and regions. Final results were translated to maps using GIS software. Five species of ticks were identified: Rhipicephalus pulchellus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.), Rhipicephalus armatus, Amblyomma gemma and Hyalomma truncatum. Our results suggest a statistical difference of the tick community structure related to seasonal and altitudinal distribution. Parasitism with R. armatus and R. pulchellus was higher in September-October than in January, whereas, R. sanguineus s.l. was not influenced by the season. Rhipicephalus armatus was present exclusively on dogs living in semi-desert areas, while R. sanguineus s.l. was the dominant species present on the shores of Lake Turkana. Although R. pulchellus was present in the all studied areas, this species had a significantly higher abundance in the afromontane region of Mt. Kulal and montane xeromorphic forest of Mt. Nyiru; these regions are characterized by elevated humidity and cooler climate. Similar geo-climatic distribution is typical also for A. gemma, which was found in dogs exclusively in Mt. Kulal afromontane area. The current work represents the most extensive study performed on the tick community structure of dogs in Eastern Africa. The results showed a relatively limited tick species diversity, with clear seasonal differences and altitudinal distribution.

  4. Vaccination with BM86, subolesin and akirin protective antigens for the control of tick infestations in white tailed deer and red deer.

    PubMed

    Carreón, Diana; de la Lastra, José M Pérez; Almazán, Consuelo; Canales, Mario; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Boadella, Mariana; Moreno-Cid, Juan A; Villar, Margarita; Gortázar, Christian; Reglero, Manuel; Villarreal, Ricardo; de la Fuente, José

    2012-01-01

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are hosts for different tick species and tick-borne pathogens and play a role in tick dispersal and maintenance in some regions. These factors stress the importance of controlling tick infestations in deer and several methods such as culling and acaricide treatment have been used. Tick vaccines are a cost-effective alternative for tick control that reduced cattle tick infestations and tick-borne pathogens prevalence while reducing the use of acaricides. Our hypothesis is that vaccination with vector protective antigens can be used for the control of tick infestations in deer. Herein, three experiments were conducted to characterize (1) the antibody response in red deer immunized with recombinant BM86, the antigen included in commercial tick vaccines, (2) the antibody response and control of cattle tick infestations in white-tailed deer immunized with recombinant BM86 or tick subolesin (SUB) and experimentally infested with Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, and (3) the antibody response and control of Hyalomma spp. and Rhipicephalus spp. field tick infestations in red deer immunized with mosquito akirin (AKR), the SUB ortholog and candidate protective antigen against different tick species and other ectoparasites. The results showed that deer produced an antibody response that correlated with the reduction in tick infestations and was similar to other hosts vaccinated previously with these antigens. The overall vaccine efficacy was similar between BM86 (E=76%) and SUB (E=83%) for the control of R. microplus infestations in white-tailed deer. The field trial in red deer showed a 25-33% (18-40% when only infested deer were considered) reduction in tick infestations, 14-20 weeks after the first immunization. These results demonstrated that vaccination with vector protective antigens could be used as an alternative method for the control of tick infestations in deer to reduce tick populations

  5. Detection and identification of putative bacterial endosymbionts and endogenous viruses in tick cell lines.

    PubMed

    Alberdi, M Pilar; Dalby, Matthew J; Rodriguez-Andres, Julio; Fazakerley, John K; Kohl, Alain; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley

    2012-06-01

    As well as being vectors of many viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogens of medical and veterinary importance, ticks harbour a variety of microorganisms which are not known to be pathogenic for vertebrate hosts. Continuous cell lines established from ixodid and argasid ticks could be infected with such endosymbiotic bacteria and endogenous viruses, but to date very few cell lines have been examined for their presence. DNA and RNA extracted from over 50 tick cell lines deposited in the Roslin Wellcome Trust Tick Cell Biobank (http://tickcells.roslin.ac.uk) were screened for presence of bacteria and RNA viruses, respectively. Sequencing of PCR products amplified using pan-16S rRNA primers revealed the presence of DNA sequences from bacterial endosymbionts in several cell lines derived from Amblyomma and Dermacentor spp. ticks. Identification to species level was attempted using Rickettsia- and Francisella-specific primers. Pan-Nairovirus primers amplified PCR products of uncertain specificity in cell lines derived from Rhipicephalus, Hyalomma, Ixodes, Carios, and Ornithodoros spp. ticks. Further characterisation attempted with primers specific for Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus segments confirmed the absence of this arbovirus in the cells. A set of pan-Flavivirus primers did not detect endogenous viruses in any of the cell lines. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of endogenous reovirus-like viruses in many of the cell lines; only 4 of these lines gave positive results with primers specific for the tick Orbivirus St Croix River virus, indicating that there may be additional, as yet undescribed 'tick-only' viruses inhabiting tick cell lines.

  6. Gene silencing in tick cell lines using small interfering or long double-stranded RNA.

    PubMed

    Barry, Gerald; Alberdi, Pilar; Schnettler, Esther; Weisheit, Sabine; Kohl, Alain; Fazakerley, John K; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley

    2013-03-01

    Gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) is an important research tool in many areas of biology. To effectively harness the power of this technique in order to explore tick functional genomics and tick-microorganism interactions, optimised parameters for RNAi-mediated gene silencing in tick cells need to be established. Ten cell lines from four economically important ixodid tick genera (Amblyomma, Hyalomma, Ixodes and Rhipicephalus including the sub-species Boophilus) were used to examine key parameters including small interfering RNA (siRNA), double stranded RNA (dsRNA), transfection reagent and incubation time for silencing virus reporter and endogenous tick genes. Transfection reagents were essential for the uptake of siRNA whereas long dsRNA alone was taken up by most tick cell lines. Significant virus reporter protein knockdown was achieved using either siRNA or dsRNA in all the cell lines tested. Optimum conditions varied according to the cell line. Consistency between replicates and duration of incubation with dsRNA were addressed for two Ixodes scapularis cell lines; IDE8 supported more consistent and effective silencing of the endogenous gene subolesin than ISE6, and highly significant knockdown of the endogenous gene 2I1F6 in IDE8 cells was achieved within 48 h incubation with dsRNA. In summary, this study shows that gene silencing by RNAi in tick cell lines is generally more efficient with dsRNA than with siRNA but results vary between cell lines and optimal parameters need to be determined for each experimental system.

  7. Detection and identification of putative bacterial endosymbionts and endogenous viruses in tick cell lines☆

    PubMed Central

    Alberdi, M. Pilar; Dalby, Matthew J.; Rodriguez-Andres, Julio; Fazakerley, John K.; Kohl, Alain; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley

    2012-01-01

    As well as being vectors of many viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogens of medical and veterinary importance, ticks harbour a variety of microorganisms which are not known to be pathogenic for vertebrate hosts. Continuous cell lines established from ixodid and argasid ticks could be infected with such endosymbiotic bacteria and endogenous viruses, but to date very few cell lines have been examined for their presence. DNA and RNA extracted from over 50 tick cell lines deposited in the Roslin Wellcome Trust Tick Cell Biobank (http://tickcells.roslin.ac.uk) were screened for presence of bacteria and RNA viruses, respectively. Sequencing of PCR products amplified using pan-16S rRNA primers revealed the presence of DNA sequences from bacterial endosymbionts in several cell lines derived from Amblyomma and Dermacentor spp. ticks. Identification to species level was attempted using Rickettsia- and Francisella-specific primers. Pan-Nairovirus primers amplified PCR products of uncertain specificity in cell lines derived from Rhipicephalus, Hyalomma, Ixodes, Carios, and Ornithodoros spp. ticks. Further characterisation attempted with primers specific for Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus segments confirmed the absence of this arbovirus in the cells. A set of pan-Flavivirus primers did not detect endogenous viruses in any of the cell lines. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of endogenous reovirus-like viruses in many of the cell lines; only 4 of these lines gave positive results with primers specific for the tick Orbivirus St Croix River virus, indicating that there may be additional, as yet undescribed ‘tick-only’ viruses inhabiting tick cell lines. PMID:22743047

  8. Cattle ticks in Cameroon: is Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus absent in Cameroon and the Central African region?

    PubMed

    Awa, D N; Adakal, H; Luogbou, N D D; Wachong, K H; Leinyuy, I; Achukwi, M D

    2015-03-01

    In most parts of the world, ticks are rapidly developing resistance to commonly used acaricides thus rendering control difficult. This constraint is further compounded by the introduction of new species in areas where they did not exist before. Such is the case with the introduction into and rapid spread of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in some countries of West Africa. With the looming threat of its further spread in the region, the objective of the present study was to update knowledge on cattle ticks in Cameroon. Among 19,189 ticks collected monthly from 60 animals in 5 herds from March 2012 to February 2013, Rh. (B.) decoloratus was the most abundant species with a relative prevalence of 62.2%, followed by Amblyomma variegatum (28.4%), Rh. (B.) annulatus (0.2%), Rh. (B.) geigyi (0.03%), other Rhipicephalus spp. (8.4%) and Hyalomma spp. (0.3%). Rh. (B.) decoloratus and A. variegatum were also the most widely distributed in space. Infestation rate was generally high, with average tick count/animal of about 80 during peak periods. Tick distribution and abundance in the different sites was as varied as the underlying factors, among which the most important were management systems and climatic factors. The effects of rainfall and temperature were confounded by other factors and difficult to evaluate. However, it appears tick development depends among other factors, on a humidity threshold, above which there is not much more effect. Rh. microplus was not found during this study, but more extensive tick collections have to be done to confirm this. In conclusion, cattle tick infestation in Cameroon remains an important cause for concern. Farmers need assistance in the use and management of acaricides in order to increase their efficiency and reduce the development of resistance. Although Rh. microplus was not found, its introduction from other West African countries is imminent if adequate measures, especially in the control and limitation of animal movements

  9. Control of Tick Infestations in Oryctolagus cuniculus (Lagomorpha: Leporidae) With Spinosad Under Laboratory and Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    ValcÁrcel, Félix; SÁnchez, J L Pérez; Jaime, J M Tercero; Basco-Basco, P I; Guajardo, S C Cota; Cutuli, M T; GonzÁlez, J; Olmeda, A S

    2015-03-01

    Because of great economic loss in the world's livestock industry, and the serious risks to human health, the control of ticks and tick-borne diseases is one of the most important health management issues today. Current methodology involves integrated tick control for preventing the development of resistance. Rabbits are hosts for immature stages of the three-host tick Hyalomma lusitanicum Koch; so, we focus on this host as a strategy to interrupt the tick life cycle. Spinosad is an insecticide-acaricide, produced by the fermentation of metabolites of the actinomycete bacterium Saccharopolyspora spinosa. We administered spinosad orally by force-feeding naturally and artificially infested rabbits, and under field conditions by administering treated food via a hopper during the period of peak infestation and reinfestation risk for rabbits. No living larvae were recovered from treated laboratory rabbits. In naturally infested rabbits, the number of live ticks collected from treated rabbits (mean = 0.62 ticks per ear) was significantly lower than those recovered from untreated rabbits (mean = 7.27; P < 0.001), whereas the number of dead ticks collected from untreated rabbits (mean = 6.53) was significantly lower than those recovered from treated rabbits (mean = 18.62; P < 0.001). In addition, free and continually reinfested rabbits freely ingested low doses of spinosad, reducing the tick burden from 48.00 (Day 0) to 26.09 ticks per ear in treated rabbits (Day 16), whereas controls maintained the infection (46.64). This strategy could be useful as an alternative or supplement to traditional acaricides in tick control programs. PMID:26336305

  10. Tularemia and plague survey in rodents in an earthquake zone in southeastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Gyuranecz, Miklós

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Earthquakes are one the most common natural disasters that lead to increased mortality and morbidity from transmissible diseases, partially because the rodents displaced by an earthquake can lead to an increased rate of disease transmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of plague and tularemia in rodents in the earthquake zones in southeastern Iran. METHODS: In April 2013, a research team was dispatched to explore the possible presence of diseases in rodents displaced by a recent earthquake magnitude 7.7 around the cities of Khash and Saravan in Sistan and Baluchestan Province. Rodents were trapped near and in the earthquake zone, in a location where an outbreak of tularemia was reported in 2007. Rodent serums were tested for a serological survey using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: In the 13 areas that were studied, nine rodents were caught over a total of 200 trap-days. Forty-eight fleas and 10 ticks were obtained from the rodents. The ticks were from the Hyalomma genus and the fleas were from the Xenopsylla genus. All the trapped rodents were Tatera indica. Serological results were negative for plague, but the serum agglutination test was positive for tularemia in one of the rodents. Tatera indica has never been previously documented to be involved in the transmission of tularemia. CONCLUSIONS: No evidence of the plague cycle was found in the rodents of the area, but evidence was found of tularemia infection in rodents, as demonstrated by a positive serological test for tularemia in one rodent. PMID:26602769

  11. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Clades V and VI (Europe 1 and 2) in Ticks in Kosovo, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Muji, Skender; Robaj, Avni; Ahmeti, Salih; Jakupi, Xhevat; Emmerich, Petra; Krüger, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Despite being a small country, Kosovo represents one of the few foci of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in Europe. The distribution of Kosovar tick vectors and the evolution of CCHF virus in ticks are both as yet unknown. A better description of the extent and the genetic diversity of CCHFV in ticks from endemic settings is essential, in order to be controlled. We investigated the 2012 distribution of Kosovar ticks alongside the prevalence and the phylogeography of tick-derived CCHFV. Hyalomma marginatum dominated in the endemic municipalities with 90.2% versus 24.3% in the non-endemic regions. Of 1,102 tested ticks, 40 (3.6%) were CCHFV-positive, belonging to H. marginatum (29), Rhipicephalus bursa (10), and Ixodes ricinus (1). The virus strains clustered with clade V and VI related sequences. They fell into two lineages: Kosovo I and II. Kosovo I comprised strains recovered exclusively from R. bursa ticks and was closely related to AP92 prototype strain. Kosovo II clustered into Kosovo IIa, including human-derived strains, and IIb including only strains detected in H. marginatum and I. ricinus. Our phylogeographic reconstruction suggests two temporally distinct CCHFV introductions: the most probable location of the most recent common ancestor of Kosovo I lineage was in Greece (63 years ago) and that of lineages IIa-b in Turkey (35 years ago). After each CCHFV introduction into Kosovo, subsequent lineage expansions suggest periods of in situ evolution. The study provides the first insight into the genetic variability and the origin of CCHFV in ticks from Kosovo. Our findings indicate the spreading of CCHFV to non-endemic areas, which underlines the importance of further studies in order to monitor and predict future CCHF outbreaks in Kosovo. The AP92-like strains appear to be more widespread than previously thought and may provide a promising target for experimental studies due to their assumed low pathogenicity. PMID:25255381

  12. Isolation and characterization of Babesia pecorum sp. nov. from farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed

    Jouglin, Maggy; Fernández-de-Mera, Isabel G; de la Cotte, Nathalie; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Gortázar, Christian; Moreau, Emmanuelle; Bastian, Suzanne; de la Fuente, José; Malandrin, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of Babesia species infecting cervids in parts of central and southern Spain was analyzed by collecting blood from farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus). Babesia sp. was isolated in vitro from two red deer herds in Cádiz and Ciudad Real. The number of Babesia sp. carriers differed between the two herds: 36/77 in Cádiz and 1/35 in Ciudad Real. Hyalomma lusitanicum was the most prevalent tick species identified on the Cádiz farm vegetation and on sampled animals, and is therefore a candidate vector. The molecular characteristics of 21 isolates were determined by complete (8 isolates) or partial (13 isolates) 18S rRNA gene sequencing. The sequences were highly similar (over 99.4% identity) and 6 sequence types were identified at the level of one herd only, demonstrating a rather high genetic diversity. They formed a monophyletic clade, and members of the three main sequence types shared a similar morphology and the same erythrocyte susceptibility pattern. This clade also included Babesia sp. Xinjiang isolated from sheep in China and Babesia sp. identified in giraffe in South Africa, with identities higher than 98.3% and statistically relevant phylogenetic support. None of the biological properties analyzed for both Babesia from red deer and Babesia sp. Xinjiang allowed their differentiation (ability to develop in vitro in erythrocytes from cattle and sheep, as well as in erythrocytes from different cervids, unsuccessful infection of calves). We propose the Babesia isolated from red deer as a new species named B. pecorum. Whether Babesia sp. Xinjiang and the Babesia characterized in South Africa belong to the same species is debated. PMID:25155988

  13. Protozoan and bacterial pathogens in tick salivary glands in wild and domestic animal environments in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Berggoetz, M; Schmid, M; Ston, D; Wyss, V; Chevillon, C; Pretorius, A-M; Gern, L

    2014-03-01

    A total of 7364 ticks belonging to 13 species was collected from 64 game animals (belonging to 11 species) and from 64 livestock animals (cattle and sheep) living in close vicinity at 6 localities in 3 South African Provinces (Free State, Mpumalanga, and Limpopo). The geographic distribution of all tick species was congruent with the literature except for Haemaphysalis silacea. From each infested host, a maximum of 10 males and 10 females of each tick species were dissected to isolate the salivary glands. Salivary glands were screened for tick-borne pathogens using polymerase chain reaction followed by reverse line blotting and sequencing. This approach allowed us to evaluate the exposure of wild and domestic hosts to tick-borne pathogens in their respective environments. Among the 2117 examined ticks, 329 (15.5%), belonging to 8 species, were infected and harboured 397 infections. Among those, 57.7% were identified to species level and were assigned to 23 pathogen species of the genera Babesia, Theileria, Anaplasma, and Ehrlichia. In 3 out of 6 localities, salivary glands from ticks infesting wild ruminants displayed significantly higher infection prevalence and pathogen mean density than salivary glands from ticks infesting livestock animals. Four piroplasm species [Theileria bicornis, Babesia sp. (sable), Theileria sp. (giraffe), and Theileria sp. (kudu)] were detected for the first time in ticks. The tick species Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Hyalomma rufipes, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, and Amblyomma hebraeum were associated with a broader pathogen range than previously known, and thus new vector-pathogen combinations are described. In addition, previously unknown coinfection patterns in tick salivary glands are reported. PMID:24378080

  14. Molecular identification of Theileria and Babesia in ticks collected from sheep and goats in the Black Sea region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Mehmet Fatih; Aktas, Munir; Dumanli, Nazir

    2015-01-01

    A molecular survey was undertaken in the Black Sea region of Turkey to determine the presence of Theileria and Babesia species of medical and veterinary importance. The ticks were removed from sheep and goats, pooled according to species and locations, and analyzed by PCR-based reverse line blot (RLB) and sequencing. A total of 2241 ixodid ticks belonging to 5 genus and 12 species were collected and divided into 310 pools. Infection rates were calculated as the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Of the 310 pools tested, 46 (14.83%) were found to be infected with Theileria or Babesia species, and the overall MLE of the infection rate was calculated as 2.27% (CI 1.67-2.99). The MLE of the infection rates were calculated as 0.691% (CI 0.171-1.78) in Haemaphysalis parva, 1.47% (CI 0.081-6.37) in Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 1.84% (CI 0.101-7.87) in Ixodes ricinus, 2.86% (CI 1.68-4.48) in Rhipicephalus turanicus, 5.57% (CI 0.941-16.3) in Hyalomma marginatum, and 6.2% (CI 4.02-9.02) in Rhipicephalus bursa. Pathogens identified in ticks included Theileria ovis, Babesia ovis, Babesia bigemina, and Babesia microti. Most tick pools were infected with a single pathogen. However, five pools displayed mixed infections with T. ovis and B. ovis. This study provides the first molecular evidence for the presence of B. microti in ticks in Turkey.

  15. Extensive diversity of Rickettsiales bacteria in two species of ticks from China and the evolution of the Rickettsiales

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacteria of the order Rickettsiales (Alphaproteobacteria) are obligate intracellular parasites that infect species from virtually every major eukaryotic lineage. Several rickettsial genera harbor species that are significant emerging and re-emerging pathogens of humans. As species of Rickettsiales are associated with an extremely diverse host range, a better understanding of the historical associations between these bacteria and their hosts will provide important information on their evolutionary trajectories and, particularly, their potential emergence as pathogens. Results Nine species of Rickettsiales (two in the genus Rickettsia, three in the genus Anaplasma, and four in the genus Ehrlichia) were identified in two species of hard ticks (Dermacentor nuttalli and Hyalomma asiaticum) from two geographic regions in Xinjiang through genetic analyses of 16S rRNA, gltA, and groEL gene sequences. Notably, two lineages of Ehrlichia and one lineage of Anaplasma were distinct from any known Rickettsiales, suggesting the presence of potentially novel species in ticks in Xinjiang. Our phylogenetic analyses revealed some topological differences between the phylogenies of the bacteria and their vectors, which led us to marginally reject a model of exclusive bacteria-vector co-divergence. Conclusions Ticks are an important natural reservoir of many diverse species of Rickettsiales. In this work, we identified a single tick species that harbors multiple species of Rickettsiales, and uncovered extensive genetic diversity of these bacteria in two tick species from Xinjiang. Both bacteria-vector co-divergence and cross-species transmission appear to have played important roles in Rickettsiales evolution. PMID:25073875

  16. Development of three quantitative real-time PCR assays for the detection of Rickettsia raoultii, Rickettsia slovaca, and Rickettsia aeschlimannii and their validation with ticks from the country of Georgia and the Republic of Azerbaijan.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ju; You, Brian J; Liu, Evan; Apte, Anisha; Yarina, Tamasin R; Myers, Todd E; Lee, John S; Francesconi, Stephen C; O'Guinn, Monica L; Tsertsvadze, Nikoloz; Vephkhvadze, Nino; Babuadze, Giorgi; Sidamonidze, Ketevan; Kokhreidze, Maka; Donduashvili, Marina; Onashvili, Tinatin; Ismayilov, Afrail; Agayev, Nigar; Aliyev, Mubariz; Muttalibov, Nizam; Richards, Allen L

    2012-12-01

    A previous surveillance study of human pathogens within ticks collected in the country of Georgia showed a relatively high infection rate for Rickettsia raoultii, R. slovaca, and R. aeschlimannii. These 3 spotted fever group rickettsiae are human pathogens: R. raoultii and R. slovaca cause tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA), and R. aeschlimannii causes an infection characterized by fever and maculopapular rash. Three quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays, Rraoul, Rslov, and Raesch were developed and optimized to detect R. raoultii, R. slovaca, and R. aeschlimannii, respectively, by targeting fragments of the outer membrane protein B gene (ompB) using species-specific molecular beacon or TaqMan probes. The 3 qPCR assays showed 100% specificity when tested against a rickettsiae DNA panel (n=20) and a bacteria DNA panel (n=12). The limit of detection was found to be at least 3 copies per reaction for all assays. Validation of the assays using previously investigated tick nucleic acid preparations, which included Rickettsia-free tick samples, tick samples that contain R. raoultii, R. slovaca, R. aeschlimannii, and other Rickettsia spp., gave 100% sensitivity for all 3 qPCR assays. In addition, a total of 65 tick nucleic acid preparations (representing 259 individual ticks) collected from the country of Georgia and the Republic of Azerbaijan in 2009 was tested using the 3 qPCR assays. R. raoultii, R. slovaca, and R. aeschlimannii were not detected in any ticks (n=31) from the Republic of Azerbaijan, but in the ticks from the country of Georgia (n=228) the minimal infection rate for R. raoultii and R. slovaca in Dermacentor marginatus was 10% and 4%, respectively, and for R. aeschlimannii in Haemaphysalis sulcata and Hyalomma spp. it was 1.9% and 20%, respectively.

  17. Ticks imported to Europe with exotic reptiles.

    PubMed

    Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2015-09-30

    It is known that traded exotic animals carry with them an immense number of associated symbionts, including parasites. Reptiles are no exception. Most of the imported reptiles originate from tropical countries and their possibility to carry potentially dangerous pathogens is high. According to CITES, Europe is currently the main reptile importer in the world. Despite this, there is no review or analysis available for the risk related to the importation of tick-borne diseases with traded reptile to the EU. The main aim of the manuscript is to provide a review on the available literature on ticks introduced to and exchanged between European countries via the live reptile trade. So far, the published reports of ticks imported on reptiles are limited to few European countries: Italy, Poland, Spain, Netherlands, Belgium, Slovenia and UK. The following species have been reported: Hyalomma aegyptium, Amblyomma dissimile, Amblyomma exornatum, Amblyomma flavomaculatum, Amblyomma fuscolineatum, Amblyomma latum, Amblyomma quadricavum, Amblyomma marmoreum, Amblyomma nuttalli, Amblyomma sparsum, Amblyomma sphenodonti, Amblyomma transversale and Amblyomma varanense. The majority of species are of African origin, followed by American and Asian species. All groups of reptiles (chelonians, snakes, lizards, crocodiles, tuataras) were involved. However, it seems that certain groups (i.e. tortoises of genus Testudo, monitor lizards of genus Varanus, snakes of genus Python) are more important as host for imported ticks, but this may be related to higher levels of international trade. Even fewer are the reports of tick-borne pathogens associated with imported reptile ticks. Despite the diversity of tick species reported on imported reptiles, the situations of truly invasive species are atypical and are limited in natural environments to maximum two cases where H. aegyptium was involved. Otherwise, the risk associated with reptile trade for introduction of invasive tick to Europe is low

  18. Impact of Climate Trends on Tick-Borne Pathogen Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Ayllón, Nieves; de la Fuente, José

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in climate research together with a better understanding of tick–pathogen interactions, the distribution of ticks and the diagnosis of tick-borne pathogens raise questions about the impact of environmental factors on tick abundance and spread and the prevalence and transmission of tick-borne pathogens. While undoubtedly climate plays a role in the changes in distribution and seasonal abundance of ticks, it is always difficult to disentangle factors impacting on the abundance of tick hosts from those exerted by human habits. All together, climate, host abundance, and social factors may explain the upsurge of epidemics transmitted by ticks to humans. Herein we focused on tick-borne pathogens that affect humans with epidemic potential. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. (Lyme disease), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (human granulocytic anaplasmosis), and tick-borne encephalitis virus (tick-borne encephalitis) are transmitted by Ixodes spp. Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever) is transmitted by Hyalomma spp. In this review, we discussed how vector tick species occupy the habitat as a function of different climatic factors, and how these factors impact on tick survival and seasonality. How molecular events at the tick–pathogen interface impact on pathogen transmission is also discussed. Results from statistically and biologically derived models are compared to show that while statistical models are able to outline basic information about tick distributions, biologically derived models are necessary to evaluate pathogen transmission rates and understand the effect of climatic variables and host abundance patterns on pathogen transmission. The results of these studies could be used to build early alert systems able to identify the main factors driving the subtle changes in tick distribution and seasonality and the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens. PMID:22470348

  19. Vaccination with BM86, subolesin and akirin protective antigens for the control of tick infestations in white tailed deer and red deer.

    PubMed

    Carreón, Diana; de la Lastra, José M Pérez; Almazán, Consuelo; Canales, Mario; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Boadella, Mariana; Moreno-Cid, Juan A; Villar, Margarita; Gortázar, Christian; Reglero, Manuel; Villarreal, Ricardo; de la Fuente, José

    2012-01-01

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are hosts for different tick species and tick-borne pathogens and play a role in tick dispersal and maintenance in some regions. These factors stress the importance of controlling tick infestations in deer and several methods such as culling and acaricide treatment have been used. Tick vaccines are a cost-effective alternative for tick control that reduced cattle tick infestations and tick-borne pathogens prevalence while reducing the use of acaricides. Our hypothesis is that vaccination with vector protective antigens can be used for the control of tick infestations in deer. Herein, three experiments were conducted to characterize (1) the antibody response in red deer immunized with recombinant BM86, the antigen included in commercial tick vaccines, (2) the antibody response and control of cattle tick infestations in white-tailed deer immunized with recombinant BM86 or tick subolesin (SUB) and experimentally infested with Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, and (3) the antibody response and control of Hyalomma spp. and Rhipicephalus spp. field tick infestations in red deer immunized with mosquito akirin (AKR), the SUB ortholog and candidate protective antigen against different tick species and other ectoparasites. The results showed that deer produced an antibody response that correlated with the reduction in tick infestations and was similar to other hosts vaccinated previously with these antigens. The overall vaccine efficacy was similar between BM86 (E=76%) and SUB (E=83%) for the control of R. microplus infestations in white-tailed deer. The field trial in red deer showed a 25-33% (18-40% when only infested deer were considered) reduction in tick infestations, 14-20 weeks after the first immunization. These results demonstrated that vaccination with vector protective antigens could be used as an alternative method for the control of tick infestations in deer to reduce tick populations

  20. Ticks imported to Europe with exotic reptiles.

    PubMed

    Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2015-09-30

    It is known that traded exotic animals carry with them an immense number of associated symbionts, including parasites. Reptiles are no exception. Most of the imported reptiles originate from tropical countries and their possibility to carry potentially dangerous pathogens is high. According to CITES, Europe is currently the main reptile importer in the world. Despite this, there is no review or analysis available for the risk related to the importation of tick-borne diseases with traded reptile to the EU. The main aim of the manuscript is to provide a review on the available literature on ticks introduced to and exchanged between European countries via the live reptile trade. So far, the published reports of ticks imported on reptiles are limited to few European countries: Italy, Poland, Spain, Netherlands, Belgium, Slovenia and UK. The following species have been reported: Hyalomma aegyptium, Amblyomma dissimile, Amblyomma exornatum, Amblyomma flavomaculatum, Amblyomma fuscolineatum, Amblyomma latum, Amblyomma quadricavum, Amblyomma marmoreum, Amblyomma nuttalli, Amblyomma sparsum, Amblyomma sphenodonti, Amblyomma transversale and Amblyomma varanense. The majority of species are of African origin, followed by American and Asian species. All groups of reptiles (chelonians, snakes, lizards, crocodiles, tuataras) were involved. However, it seems that certain groups (i.e. tortoises of genus Testudo, monitor lizards of genus Varanus, snakes of genus Python) are more important as host for imported ticks, but this may be related to higher levels of international trade. Even fewer are the reports of tick-borne pathogens associated with imported reptile ticks. Despite the diversity of tick species reported on imported reptiles, the situations of truly invasive species are atypical and are limited in natural environments to maximum two cases where H. aegyptium was involved. Otherwise, the risk associated with reptile trade for introduction of invasive tick to Europe is low

  1. New data regarding distribution of cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have produced new insight into the origin and distribution of some cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, introduced from Tanzania in 2002, is now well established on Grande Comore but has not yet reached the other islands of the archipelago (Mohéli, Anjouan and Mayotte). Only one of the two clades identified in Africa has settled so far. Amblyomma variegatum, which was not supposed to be able to persist in the Antananarivo region (1300 m) nor in other Malagasy regions of high altitude without regular introductions of ticks by infested cattle, is now endemic as a general rule up to 1600 m although other regions of lower altitude (1400 m) are still free of the tick. This species remains confined in a small area of the west coast on La Reunion Island. On the contrary, Hyalomma dromedarii could not settle on Madagascar where it was introduced in 2008 and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi is not yet present in Grande Comore despite regular introductions by infested cattle from Tanzania. A phylogeographic approach has been carried out at an intra-specific level for A. variegatum. This study has led to the identification of two main lineages, one covering all species distribution and one restricted to East Africa and the Indian Ocean area. These two lineages are in sympatry in Madagascar where a high genetic diversity has been described, whereas a lower genetic diversity is observed on other islands. These results seem to agree with the historical data concerning the introduction of the tick in the Indian Ocean area. PMID:24016261

  2. [Transfer of exotic ticks (Acari: ixodida) on reptiles (Reptilia) imported to Poland].

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    In the of period 2003-2007, a total of 382 specimens of reptiles belonging to the following genera were investigated: Testudo, Iguana, Varanus, Gongylophis, Python, Spalerosophis, Psammophis. The material for the present study was a collection of reptiles owned by the "Animals" Ltd from Swietochłowice (Upper Silesia, Poland), specialising in import of exotic animals to Poland, as well as the reptile collections of private breeders. The reptiles that turned out to be the most heavily infected with ticks were the commonly bred terrarium reptiles: Varanus exanthematicus and Python regius and they were imported to Poland from Ghana, Africa. Exotic reptiles are also imported from Southern Europe, Asia and Central America. The presently reported study helped to confirm the fact of transfer of exotic ticks on reptiles to Poland. A total of 2104 tick specimens, representing all stages of development (males, females, nymphs, larvae), were collected. They represented species of the genera Amblyomma and Hyalomma. The following species were found: Amblyomma exornatum Koch, 1844, Amblyomma flavomaculatum (Lucas, 1846), Amblyomma latum Koch, 1844, Amblyomma nuttalli Dönitz, 1909, Amblyomma quadricavum Schulze, 1941, Amblyomma transversale (Lucas, 1844), Amblyomma varanense (Supino, 1897), Amblyomma spp. Koch, 1844, Hyalomma aegyptium (Linnaeus, 1758). All the species of ticks of genus Ambylomma revealed have been discovered in Poland for the first time. The overall prevalence of infection was 77.6%. The highest prevalence value (81.2%) was observed on pythons (Python regius) and (78.7%) on monitor lizards (Varanus exanthematicus). The highest number of ticks was collected from Python regius and Varanus exanthematicus. The mean infection intensity for V. exanthematicus was 7.6 ticks per host, while for P. regius the intensity reached 4.7 ticks. The most abundant tick transferred to Poland on a host was an African tick, Amblyomma latum. Fifty eight specimens of monitor lizards

  3. Detection of Rickettsia and Ehrlichia spp. in Ticks Associated with Exotic Reptiles and Amphibians Imported into Japan.

    PubMed

    Andoh, Masako; Sakata, Akiko; Takano, Ai; Kawabata, Hiroki; Fujita, Hiromi; Une, Yumi; Goka, Koichi; Kishimoto, Toshio; Ando, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    One of the major routes of transmission of rickettsial and ehrlichial diseases is via ticks that infest numerous host species, including humans. Besides mammals, reptiles and amphibians also carry ticks that may harbor Rickettsia and Ehrlichia strains that are pathogenic to humans. Furthermore, reptiles and amphibians are exempt from quarantine in Japan, thus facilitating the entry of parasites and pathogens to the country through import. Accordingly, in the current study, we examined the presence of Rickettsia and Ehrlichia spp. genes in ticks associated with reptiles and amphibians originating from outside Japan. Ninety-three ticks representing nine tick species (genera Amblyomma and Hyalomma) were isolated from at least 28 animals spanning 10 species and originating from 12 countries (Ghana, Jordan, Madagascar, Panama, Russia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Tanzania, Togo, Uzbekistan, and Zambia). None of the nine tick species are indigenous in Japan. The genes encoding the common rickettsial 17-kDa antigen, citrate synthase (gltA), and outer membrane protein A (ompA) were positively detected in 45.2% (42/93), 40.9% (38/93), and 23.7% (22/93) of the ticks, respectively, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The genes encoding ehrlichial heat shock protein (groEL) and major outer membrane protein (omp-1) were PCR-positive in 7.5% (7/93) and 2.2% (2/93) of the ticks, respectively. The p44 gene, which encodes the Anaplasma outer membrane protein, was not detected. Phylogenetic analysis showed that several of the rickettsial and ehrlichial sequences isolated in this study were highly similar to human pathogen genes, including agents not previously detected in Japan. These data demonstrate the global transportation of pathogenic Rickettsia and Ehrlichia through reptile- and amphibian-associated ticks. These imported animals have potential to transfer pathogens into human life. These results highlight the need to control the international transportation of known and

  4. Detection of Rickettsia and Ehrlichia spp. in Ticks Associated with Exotic Reptiles and Amphibians Imported into Japan

    PubMed Central

    Andoh, Masako; Sakata, Akiko; Takano, Ai; Kawabata, Hiroki; Fujita, Hiromi; Une, Yumi; Goka, Koichi; Kishimoto, Toshio; Ando, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    One of the major routes of transmission of rickettsial and ehrlichial diseases is via ticks that infest numerous host species, including humans. Besides mammals, reptiles and amphibians also carry ticks that may harbor Rickettsia and Ehrlichia strains that are pathogenic to humans. Furthermore, reptiles and amphibians are exempt from quarantine in Japan, thus facilitating the entry of parasites and pathogens to the country through import. Accordingly, in the current study, we examined the presence of Rickettsia and Ehrlichia spp. genes in ticks associated with reptiles and amphibians originating from outside Japan. Ninety-three ticks representing nine tick species (genera Amblyomma and Hyalomma) were isolated from at least 28 animals spanning 10 species and originating from 12 countries (Ghana, Jordan, Madagascar, Panama, Russia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Tanzania, Togo, Uzbekistan, and Zambia). None of the nine tick species are indigenous in Japan. The genes encoding the common rickettsial 17-kDa antigen, citrate synthase (gltA), and outer membrane protein A (ompA) were positively detected in 45.2% (42/93), 40.9% (38/93), and 23.7% (22/93) of the ticks, respectively, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The genes encoding ehrlichial heat shock protein (groEL) and major outer membrane protein (omp-1) were PCR-positive in 7.5% (7/93) and 2.2% (2/93) of the ticks, respectively. The p44 gene, which encodes the Anaplasma outer membrane protein, was not detected. Phylogenetic analysis showed that several of the rickettsial and ehrlichial sequences isolated in this study were highly similar to human pathogen genes, including agents not previously detected in Japan. These data demonstrate the global transportation of pathogenic Rickettsia and Ehrlichia through reptile- and amphibian-associated ticks. These imported animals have potential to transfer pathogens into human life. These results highlight the need to control the international transportation of known and

  5. Ectoparasites of sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Beyecha, Kebede; Geloye, Mesula

    2012-10-23

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ectoparasites infestation in sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia, from October 2009 to April 2010. The study revealed that 637 (48.1%) of the 1325 sheep examined were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The ectoparasites identified were Bovicola ovis (27.2%), Melophagus ovinus (16.4%), Ctenocephalides sp. (2.3%), Linognathus africanus (1.2%), Linognathus ovillus (0.3%), Sarcoptes sp. (1.2%), Amblyomma variegatum (4.4%), Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (1.9%), Rhipicephalus pravus (1.9%), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (1.1%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.9%), Rhipicephalus praetextatus (1.1%) and Hyalomma truncatum (1.6%). Statistically significant difference was observed in prevalence of B. ovis amongst study agroecological zones: highland 36.6%, midland 20.9% and lowland 14.0%. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in highland agroecological zone. A significantly (OR = 0.041, p < 0.001) higher prevalence of M. ovinus in the highland (31.7%) than in both the lowland (0%) and midland (1.9%) was observed. The risk of tick infestation in the lowland and midland was 9.883 times and 13.988 times higher than the risk in the highland, respectively. A significantly higher prevalence of Ctenocephalides species was encountered in both the lowland (OR = 4.738, p = 0.011) and midland (OR = 8.078, p = 0.000) than in the highland agro-ecological zone. However, a significant difference (p = 0.191) amongst agro-ecological zones was not found for the prevalence of Linognathus and Sarcoptes species. Statistically significant variation (p > 0.05) was never recorded in the prevalence of all the identified species of ectoparasites between male and female sheep hosts. However, a significantly (p = 0.006) higher prevalence of B. ovis was recorded between young and adult sheep. The risk of B. ovis infestation was 1.45 times higher in young than the adult

  6. Frequency distribution of hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting bubaline population of district Toba Tek Singh, Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Asif; Sajid, Muhammad Sohail; Khan, Muhammad Nisar; Khan, Muhammad Kasib

    2013-02-01

    The current research was conducted to define the epidemiological parameters related to the prevalence and associated risk factors of tick infestation in buffaloes in the Toba Tek Singh District of central Punjab, Pakistan. The prevalence of ticks on buffaloes was 31.21 % (352/1,128). Among the species of ticks, the prevalence of Hyalomma marginatum (75.56 %; 266/352) was higher (P < 0.05; odd's ratios (OR) = 3.09) than Rhipicephalus microplus (24.44 %; 86/352). Female buffaloes (69.60 %; 245/352) and younger animals (59.09 %; 208/352) were more heavily infested than males (30.40 %; 107/352) and adult animals (40.91 %; 144/352), respectively, whereas breed was not a determinant (P > 0.05). With regard to management and husbandry practices, the prevalence of ticks was higher in animals kept on uncemented flooring (54.55 %; 192/352; OR = 1.90) followed in order by partially cemented (28.69 %; 101/352; OR = 1.71) and fully cemented flooring (16.76 %; 59/352). With regard to feeding systems, grazing animals (64.20 %; 226/352) were more burdened compared to stall-fed animals (35.80 %; 126/352). The highest tick prevalence was recorded in closed housing systems (52.27 %; 184/352), followed by semi-closed (34.09 %; 120/352; OR = 1.53), and open housing systems (13.64 %; 48/352). Rope-tied animals (70.73 %; 249/352) were more parasitized (P > 0.05) than open (29.27 %; 103/352). Prevalence in the study district was highest in tehsil Kamalia followed in order by T.T. Singh and Gojra. The primary body area of infestation by ticks (head, neck, ear, dewlap, back, abdomen, foreleg, shoulder, hind leg, congenital areas, and tail) ranged from highest at inside thigh (17 %) to lowest at rump. In the present survey, the highest prevalence was recorded in July and lowest in December. Comparison of hematological changes showed remarkable differences between infested and non-infested animals, in the form of low values of infested animals, whereas an increment in biochemical parameter

  7. Zoonotic surveillance for rickettsiae in domestic animals in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mutai, Beth K; Wainaina, James M; Magiri, Charles G; Nganga, Joseph K; Ithondeka, Peter M; Njagi, Obadiah N; Jiang, Ju; Richards, Allen L; Waitumbi, John N

    2013-06-01

    Abstract Rickettsiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that cause zoonotic and human diseases. Arthropod vectors, such as fleas, mites, ticks, and lice, transmit rickettsiae to vertebrates during blood meals. In humans, the disease can be life threatening. This study was conducted amidst rising reports of rickettsioses among travelers to Kenya. Ticks and whole blood were collected from domestic animals presented for slaughter at major slaughterhouses in Nairobi and Mombasa that receive animals from nearly all counties in the country. Blood samples and ticks were collected from 1019 cattle, 379 goats, and 299 sheep and were screened for rickettsiae by a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay (Rick17b) using primers and probe that target the genus-specific 17-kD gene (htrA). The ticks were identified using standard taxonomic keys. All Rick17b-positive tick DNA samples were amplified and sequenced with primers sets that target rickettsial outer membrane protein genes (ompA and ompB) and the citrate-synthase encoding gene (gltA). Using the Rick17b qPCR, rickettsial infections in domestic animals were found in 25/32 counties sampled (78.1% prevalence). Infection rates were comparable in cattle (16.3%) and sheep (15.1%) but were lower in goats (7.1%). Of the 596 ticks collected, 139 had rickettsiae (23.3%), and the detection rates were highest in Amblyomma (62.3%; n=104), then Rhipicephalus (45.5%; n=120), Hyalomma (35.9%; n=28), and Boophilus (34.9%; n=30). Following sequencing, 104 out of the 139 Rick17b-positive tick DNA had good reverse and forward sequences for the 3 target genes. On querying GenBank with the generated consensus sequences, homologies of 92-100% for the following spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae were identified: Rickettsia africae (93.%, n=97), Rickettsia aeschlimannii (1.9%, n=2), Rickettsia mongolotimonae (0.96%, n=1), Rickettsia conorii subsp. israelensis (0.96%, n=1), Candidatus Rickettsia kulagini (0.96% n=1), and Rickettsia spp. (1.9% n=2). In

  8. Assessing the effects of variables and background selection on the capture of the tick climate niche

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Modelling the environmental niche and spatial distribution of pathogen-transmitting arthropods involves various quality and methodological concerns related to using climate data to capture the environmental niche. This study tested the potential of MODIS remotely sensed and interpolated gridded covariates to estimate the climate niche of the medically important ticks Ixodes ricinus and Hyalomma marginatum. We also assessed model inflation resulting from spatial autocorrelation (SA) and collinearity (CO) of covariates used as time series of data (monthly values of variables), principal components analysis (PCA), and a discrete Fourier transformation. Performance of the models was measured using area under the curve (AUC), autocorrelation by Moran’s I, and collinearity by the variance inflation factor (VIF). Results The covariate spatial resolution slightly affected the final AUC. Consistently, models for H. marginatum performed better than models for I. ricinus, likely because of a species-derived rather than covariate effect because the former occupies a more limited niche. Monthly series of interpolated climate always better captured the climate niche of the ticks, but the SA was around 2 times higher and the maximum VIF between covariates around 30 times higher in interpolated than in MODIS-derived covariates. Interpolated or remotely sensed monthly series of covariates always had higher SA and CO than their transformations by PCA or Fourier. Regarding the effects of background point selection on AUC, we found that selection based on a set of rules for the distance to the core distribution and the heterogeneity of the landscape influenced model outcomes. The best selection relied on a random selection of points as close as possible to the target organism area of distribution, but effects are variable according to the species modelled. Conclusion Testing for effects of SA and CO is necessary before incorporating these covariates into algorithms