Science.gov

Sample records for hybrid biothermal conversion

  1. A process study of the biothermal conversion of water hyacinths to methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butner, R. S.; Elliott, D. C.; Sealock, L. J., Jr.; Chynoweth, D. P.

    1987-05-01

    A hybrid process employing both biological and thermochemical conversion of biomass to methane was studied. A unique high-moisture catalytic gasifier concept was used to gasify the effluent from an anaerobic digester. An ASPEN-PLUS/sup tm/ simulation of the process concept was based upon experimental data obtained from individual process components. An overall process efficiency of 78.1 to 94.1 percent was determined, depending upon the process configuration. Extensive use of heat and power recovery is required to achieve the high efficiencies reported for the process.

  2. Biothermal simulation of scuba divers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, L. D.

    1975-01-01

    A biothermal model of the immersed man is presented and validated. Comparisons are made between analytic and experimental values of temperature-vs-time profiles for neck-immersed seminude and wet-suited subjects. An engineering example is presented to demonstrate how the model may be used to evaluate proposed life-support system designs.

  3. Biothermal gasification of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Chynoweth, D.P.; Srivastava, V.J.; Henry, M.P.; Tarman, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    The BIOTHERMGAS Process is described for conversion of biomass, organic residues, and peat to substitute natural gas (SNG). This new process, under development at IGT, combines biological and thermal processes for total conversion of a broad variety of organic feeds (regardless of water or nutrient content). The process employs thermal gasification for conversion of refractory digester residues. Ammonia and other inorganic nutrients are recycled from the thermal process effluent to the bioconversion unit. Biomethanation and catalytic methanation are presented as alternative processes for methanation of thermal conversion product gases. Waste heat from the thermal component is used to supply the digester heat requirements of the bioconversion component. The results of a preliminary systems analysis of three possible applications of this process are presented: (1) 10,000 ton/day Bermuda grass plant with catalytic methanation; (2) 10,000 ton/day Bermuda grass plant with biomethanation; and (3) 1000 ton/day municipal solid waste (MSW) sewage sludge plant with biomethanation. The results indicate that for these examples, performance is superior to that expected for biological or thermal processes used separately. The results of laboratory studies presented suggest that effective conversion of thermal product gases can be accomplished by biomethanation.

  4. Biothermal sensing of a torsional artificial muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sung-Ho; Kim, Tae Hyeob; Lima, Márcio D.; Baughman, Ray H.; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2016-02-01

    Biomolecule responsive materials have been studied intensively for use in biomedical applications as smart systems because of their unique property of responding to specific biomolecules under mild conditions. However, these materials have some challenging drawbacks that limit further practical application, including their speed of response and mechanical properties, because most are based on hydrogels. Here, we present a fast, mechanically robust biscrolled twist-spun carbon nanotube yarn as a torsional artificial muscle through entrapping an enzyme linked to a thermally sensitive hydrogel, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), utilizing the exothermic catalytic reaction of the enzyme. The induced rotation reached an equilibrated angle in less than 2 min under mild temperature conditions (25-37 °C) while maintaining the mechanical properties originating from the carbon nanotubes. This biothermal sensing of a torsional artificial muscle offers a versatile platform for the recognition of various types of biomolecules by replacing the enzyme, because an exothermic reaction is a general property accompanying a biochemical transformation.Biomolecule responsive materials have been studied intensively for use in biomedical applications as smart systems because of their unique property of responding to specific biomolecules under mild conditions. However, these materials have some challenging drawbacks that limit further practical application, including their speed of response and mechanical properties, because most are based on hydrogels. Here, we present a fast, mechanically robust biscrolled twist-spun carbon nanotube yarn as a torsional artificial muscle through entrapping an enzyme linked to a thermally sensitive hydrogel, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), utilizing the exothermic catalytic reaction of the enzyme. The induced rotation reached an equilibrated angle in less than 2 min under mild temperature conditions (25-37 °C) while maintaining the mechanical properties

  5. Lower Hybrid to Whistler Wave Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Winske, Dan

    2012-07-16

    In this presentation we discuss recent work concerning the conversion of whistler waves to lower hybrid waves (as well as the inverse process). These efforts have been motivated by the issue of attenuation of upward propagating whistler waves in the ionosphere generated by VLF transmitters on the ground, i.e., the 'Starks 20 db' problem, which affects the lifetimes of energetic electrons trapped in the geomagnetic field at low magnetic altitude (L). We discuss recent fluid and kinetic plasma simulations as well as ongoing experiments at UCLA to quantify linear and nonlinear mode conversion of lower hybrid to whistler waves.

  6. Energy Conversion and Storage Requirements for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Among various options for reducing greenhouse gases in future large commercial aircraft, hybrid electric option holds significant promise. In the hybrid electric aircraft concept, gas turbine engine is used in combination with an energy storage system to drive the fan that propels the aircraft, with gas turbine engine being used for certain segments of the flight cycle and energy storage system being used for other segments. The paper will provide an overview of various energy conversion and storage options for hybrid electric aircraft. Such options may include fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, multifunctional structures with energy storage capability, thermoelectric, thermionic or a combination of any of these options. The energy conversion and storage requirements for hybrid electric aircraft will be presented. The role of materials in energy conversion and storage systems for hybrid electric aircraft will be discussed.

  7. Biothermal Model of Patient for Brain Hypothermia Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi; Gaohua, Lu

    A biothermal model of patient is proposed and verified for the brain hypothermia treatment, since the conventionally applied biothermal models are inappropriate for their unprecedented application. The model is constructed on the basis of the clinical practice of the pertinent therapy and characterized by the mathematical relation with variable ambient temperatures, in consideration of the clinical treatments such as the vital cardiopulmonary regulation. It has geometrically clear representation of multi-segmental core-shell structure, database of physiological and physical parameters with a systemic state equation setting the initial temperature of each compartment. Its step response gives the time constant about 3 hours in agreement with clinical knowledge. As for the essential property of the model, the dynamic temperature of its face-core compartment is realized, which corresponds to the tympanic membrane temperature measured under the practical anesthesia. From the various simulations consistent with the phenomena of clinical practice, it is concluded that the proposed model is appropriate for the theoretical analysis and clinical application to the brain hypothermia treatment.

  8. Vehicle conversion to hybrid gasoline/alternative fuel operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donakowski, T. D.

    1982-01-01

    The alternative fuels considered are compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and methanol; vehicles were required to operate in a hybrid or dual-fuel gasoline/alternative fuel mode. Economic feasibility was determined by comparing the costs of continued use of gasoline fuel with the use of alternative fuel and retrofitted equipment. Differences in the amounts of future expenditures are adjusted by means of a total life-cycle costing. All fuels studied are technically feasible to allow a retrofit conversion to hybrid gasoline/alternative fuel operation except for methanol. Conversion to LPG is not recommended for vehicles with more than 100,000 km (60,000 miles) of prior use. Methanol conversion is not recommended for vehicles with more than 50,00 km (30,000 miles).

  9. Hybrid bioinorganic approach to solar-to-chemical conversion.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Eva M; Gallagher, Joseph J; Liu, Chong; Su, Yude; Resasco, Joaquin; Yu, Yi; Sun, Yujie; Yang, Peidong; Chang, Michelle C Y; Chang, Christopher J

    2015-09-15

    Natural photosynthesis harnesses solar energy to convert CO2 and water to value-added chemical products for sustaining life. We present a hybrid bioinorganic approach to solar-to-chemical conversion in which sustainable electrical and/or solar input drives production of hydrogen from water splitting using biocompatible inorganic catalysts. The hydrogen is then used by living cells as a source of reducing equivalents for conversion of CO2 to the value-added chemical product methane. Using platinum or an earth-abundant substitute, α-NiS, as biocompatible hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) electrocatalysts and Methanosarcina barkeri as a biocatalyst for CO2 fixation, we demonstrate robust and efficient electrochemical CO2 to CH4 conversion at up to 86% overall Faradaic efficiency for ≥ 7 d. Introduction of indium phosphide photocathodes and titanium dioxide photoanodes affords a fully solar-driven system for methane generation from water and CO2, establishing that compatible inorganic and biological components can synergistically couple light-harvesting and catalytic functions for solar-to-chemical conversion.

  10. Hybrid bioinorganic approach to solar-to-chemical conversion

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Eva M.; Gallagher, Joseph J.; Liu, Chong; Su, Yude; Resasco, Joaquin; Yu, Yi; Sun, Yujie; Yang, Peidong; Chang, Michelle C. Y.; Chang, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Natural photosynthesis harnesses solar energy to convert CO2 and water to value-added chemical products for sustaining life. We present a hybrid bioinorganic approach to solar-to-chemical conversion in which sustainable electrical and/or solar input drives production of hydrogen from water splitting using biocompatible inorganic catalysts. The hydrogen is then used by living cells as a source of reducing equivalents for conversion of CO2 to the value-added chemical product methane. Using platinum or an earth-abundant substitute, α-NiS, as biocompatible hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) electrocatalysts and Methanosarcina barkeri as a biocatalyst for CO2 fixation, we demonstrate robust and efficient electrochemical CO2 to CH4 conversion at up to 86% overall Faradaic efficiency for ≥7 d. Introduction of indium phosphide photocathodes and titanium dioxide photoanodes affords a fully solar-driven system for methane generation from water and CO2, establishing that compatible inorganic and biological components can synergistically couple light-harvesting and catalytic functions for solar-to-chemical conversion. PMID:26305947

  11. Studying bio-thermal effects at and around MSW dumps using Satellite Remote Sensing and GIS.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Khalid; Batool, Syeda Adila; Chaudhry, Muhammad Nawaz

    2016-09-01

    Estimating negative impacts of MSW dumps on its surrounding environment is the key requirement for any remedial measures. This study has been undertaken to map bio-thermal effects of MSW dumping at and around dumping facilities (non-engineered) using satellite imagery for Faisalabad, Pakistan. Thirty images of Landsat 8 have been selected after validation for the accuracy of their observational details from April 2013 to October 2015. Land Surface Temperature (LST), NDVI, SAVI and MSAVI have been derived from these images through Digital Image Processing (DIP) and have been subjected to spatio-temporal analysis in GIS environment. MSW dump has been found with average temperature elevation of 4.3K and 2.78K from nearby agriculture land and urban settlement respectively. Vegetation health has been used as the bio-indicator of MSW effects and is implemented through NDVI, SAVI, MSAVI. Spatial analyses have been used to mark boundary of bio-thermally affected zone around dumped MSW and measure 700m. Seasonal fluctuations of elevated temperatures and boundary of the bio-thermally affected zones have also been discussed. Based on the direct relation found between vegetation vigor and the level of deterioration within the bio-thermally affected region, use of crops with heavy vigor is recommended to study MSW hazard influence using bio-indicators of vegetation health.

  12. Hybrid acoustic energy harvesting using combined electromagnetic and piezoelectric conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Farid Ullah; Izhar

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports a novel hybrid acoustic energy harvester. The harvester utilizes both the electromagnetic and piezoelectric conversion mechanisms simultaneously to convert the ambient acoustical noise into electrical power for self-powered wireless sensor nodes. The proposed harvester is comprised of a Helmholtz resonator, two magnets mounted on a piezoelectric plate, and a wound coil located under the magnets. The harvester is characterized both under harmonic and real random acoustical excitations. In-lab, under harmonic acoustical excitation at a sound pressure level of 130 dB and frequency of 2.1 kHz, an optimum power of 2.86 μW (at 114 Ω optimum load) is obtained from electromagnetic conversion and 50 μW (at 1000 Ω optimum load) is generated by the piezoelectric harvester's part. Moreover, in real acoustical environment of a domestic electric generator the peak voltages of 40 and 123 mV are produced by the electromagnetic and piezoelectric portions of the acoustic energy harvester.

  13. Biothermal modeling of transurethral ultrasound applicators for MR-guided prostate thermal therapy (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Anthony B.; Diederich, Chris J.; Nau, William H.; Tyreus, Per D.; Gill, Harcharan; Bouley, Donna; Butts, R. K.; Rieke, Viola; Daniel, Bruce; Sommer, Graham

    2005-04-01

    Thermal ablation is a minimally-invasive treatment option for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and localized prostate cancer. Accurate spatial control of thermal dose delivery is paramount to improving thermal therapy efficacy and avoiding post-treatment complications. We have recently developed three types of transurethral ultrasound applicators, each with different degrees of heating selectivity. These applicators have been evaluated in vivo in coordination with magnetic resonance temperature imaging, and demonstrated to accurately ablate specific regions of the canine prostate. A finite difference biothermal model of the three types of transurethral ultrasound applicators (sectored tubular, planar, and curvilinear transducer sections) was developed and used to further study the performance and heating capabilities of each these devices. The biothermal model is based on the Pennes bioheat equation. The acoustic power deposition pattern corresponding to each applicator type was calculated using the rectangular radiator approximation to the Raleigh Sommerfield diffraction integral. In this study, temperature and thermal dose profiles were calculated for different treatment schemes and target volumes, including single shot and angular scanning procedures. This study also demonstrated the ability of the applicators to conform the cytotoxic thermal dose distribution to a predefined target area. Simulated thermal profiles corresponded well with MR temperature images from previous in vivo experiments. Biothermal simulations presented in this study reinforce the potential of improved efficacy of transurethral ultrasound thermal therapy of prostatic disease.

  14. On-chip optical mode conversion based on dynamic grating in photonic-phononic hybrid waveguide

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guodong; Zhang, Ruiwen; Sun, Junqiang

    2015-01-01

    We present a scheme for reversible and tunable on-chip optical mode conversion based on dynamic grating in a hybrid photonic-phononic waveguide. The dynamic grating is built up through the acousto-optic effect and the theoretical model of the optical mode conversion is developed by considering the geometrical deformation and refractive index change. Three kinds of mode conversions are able to be realized using the same hybrid waveguide structure in a large bandwidth by only changing the launched acoustic frequency. The complete mode conversion can be achieved by choosing a proper acoustic power under a given waveguide length. PMID:25996236

  15. 2010 Honda Civic Hybrid UltraBattery Conversion 5577 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Honda Civic HEV UltraBattery Conversion (VIN JHMFA3F24AS005577). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  16. Biothermal Model of Patient and Automatic Control System of Brain Temperature for Brain Hypothermia Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi; Gaohua, Lu

    Various surface-cooling apparatus such as the cooling cap, muffler and blankets have been commonly used for the cooling of the brain to provide hypothermic neuro-protection for patients of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. The present paper is aimed at the brain temperature regulation from the viewpoint of automatic system control, in order to help clinicians decide an optimal temperature of the cooling fluid provided for these three types of apparatus. At first, a biothermal model characterized by dynamic ambient temperatures is constructed for adult patient, especially on account of the clinical practice of hypothermia and anesthesia in the brain hypothermia treatment. Secondly, the model is represented by the state equation as a lumped parameter linear dynamic system. The biothermal model is justified from their various responses corresponding to clinical phenomena and treatment. Finally, the optimal regulator is tentatively designed to give clinicians some suggestions on the optimal temperature regulation of the patient’s brain. It suggests the patient’s brain temperature could be optimally controlled to follow-up the temperature process prescribed by the clinicians. This study benefits us a great clinical possibility for the automatic hypothermia treatment.

  17. A mathematical model of respiratory and biothermal dynamics in brain hypothermia treatment.

    PubMed

    Gaohua, Lu; Kimura, Hidenori

    2008-04-01

    Brain hypothermia treatment (BHT) requires proper mechanical ventilation and therapeutic cooling. The cooling strategy for BHT has been mainly discussed in the literature while little information is available on the respiratory management. We first developed a mathematical model that integrates the respiratory and biothermal dynamics to discuss the simultaneous managements of mechanical ventilation and therapeutic cooling. The effect of temperature on the linear approximations of hemoglobin-oxygen dissociation, together with temperature dependency of metabolism, is introduced during modeling to combine the respiratory system with the biothermal system. By comparing its transient behavior with published data, the model is verified qualitatively and then quantitatively. Second, model-based simulation of the current respiratory management in BHT suggests reduction of minute ventilation in reference to cooled brain temperature to stabilize the states of blood and brain oxygenation. Lastly, the relationship between cooling temperature and minute ventilation is approximated by a linear first-order transfer function of static gain 0.61min(-1) degrees C(-1) and time constant 8.9 h, which is used to develop a feedforward control to tune the mechanical ventilator in concert with temperature regulation of the cooling blanket. Discussion of the model encourages further studies that provide direct evidence from clinical experiments.

  18. Polymer/Graphene Hybrids for Advanced Energy-Conversion and -Storage Materials.

    PubMed

    Cui, Linfan; Gao, Jian; Xu, Tong; Zhao, Yang; Qu, Liangti

    2016-04-20

    Polymer/graphene-based materials with interesting physical and chemical properties have been attracting considerable attention and have been shown to have great potential as active materials in the field of energy conversion and storage. In this review, we focus on recent significant advances in the fabrication and application of polymer/graphene hybrids as electrocatalysts and electrode materials. Synthetic strategies and application of these materials in energy conversion and storage are presented, particularly in devices such as fuel cells, actuators, and supercapacitors, accompanied with a discussion of the challenges and research directions necessary for the future development of polymer/graphene hybrids.

  19. A novel power conversion circuit for cost-effective battery-fuel cell hybrid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Dae-Kyu; Lee, Byoung-Kuk; Choi, Se-Wan; Won, Chung-Yuen; Yoo, Dong-Wook

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a novel power conversion circuit for cost-effective battery-fuel cell hybrid systems. First of all, the various reduced parts power conversion systems (PCS) are overviewed and an advanced dc-dc boost converter and a bidirectional dc-dc converter are proposed. Theoretical explanation and informative simulation and experimental results are provided, along with the evaluation of the developed topologies in performance points of view.

  20. Hybrid organic/inorganic thin-film multijunction solar cells exceeding 11% power conversion efficiency.

    PubMed

    Roland, Steffen; Neubert, Sebastian; Albrecht, Steve; Stannowski, Bernd; Seger, Mark; Facchetti, Antonio; Schlatmann, Rutger; Rech, Bernd; Neher, Dieter

    2015-02-18

    Hybrid multijunction solar cells comprising hydrogenated amorphous silicon and an organic bulk heterojunction are presented, reaching 11.7% power conversion efficiency. The benefits of merging inorganic and organic subcells are pointed out, the optimization of the cells, including optical modeling predictions and tuning of the recombination contact are described, and an outlook of this technique is given.

  1. Efficient photovoltaic conversion of graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid films grown from solid precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Xin; Lv, Ruitao; Bai, Junfei; Zhang, Zexia; Wei, Jinquan; Huang, Zheng-Hong; Zhu, Hongwei; Kang, Feiyu; Terrones, Mauricio

    2015-09-01

    Large-area (e.g. centimeter size) graphene sheets are usually synthesized via pyrolysis of gaseous carbon precursors (e.g. methane) on metal substrates like Cu using chemical vapor deposition (CVD), but the presence of grain boundaries and the residual polymers during transfer deteriorates significantly the properties of the CVD graphene. If carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be covalently bonded to graphene, the hybrid system could possess excellent electrical conductivity, transparency and mechanical strength. In this work, conducting and transparent CNT-graphene hybrid films were synthesized by a facile solid precursor pyrolysis method. Furthermore, the synthesized CNT-graphene hybrid films display enhanced photovoltaic conversion efficiency when compared to devices based on CNT membranes or graphene sheets. Upon chemical doping, the graphene-CNT/Si solar cells reveal power conversion efficiencies up to 8.50%.

  2. Polarization conversion in plasmonic nanoantennas for metasurfaces using structural asymmetry and mode hybridization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiecha, Peter R.; Black, Leo-Jay; Wang, Yudong; Paillard, Vincent; Girard, Christian; Muskens, Otto L.; Arbouet, Arnaud

    2017-01-01

    Polarization control using single plasmonic nanoantennas is of interest for subwavelength optical components in nano-optical circuits and metasurfaces. Here, we investigate the role of two mechanisms for polarization conversion by plasmonic antennas: Structural asymmetry and plasmon hybridization through strong coupling. As a model system we investigate L-shaped antennas consisting of two orthogonal nanorods which lengths and coupling strength can be independently controlled. An analytical model based on field susceptibilities is developed to extract key parameters and to address the influence of antenna morphology and excitation wavelength on polarization conversion efficiency and scattering intensities. Optical spectroscopy experiments performed on individual antennas, further supported by electrodynamical simulations based on the Green Dyadic Method, confirm the trends extracted from the analytical model. Mode hybridization and structural asymmetry allow address-ing different input polarizations and wavelengths, providing additional degrees of freedom for agile polarization conversion in nanophotonic devices.

  3. Polarization conversion in plasmonic nanoantennas for metasurfaces using structural asymmetry and mode hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Wiecha, Peter R.; Black, Leo-Jay; Wang, Yudong; Paillard, Vincent; Girard, Christian; Muskens, Otto L.; Arbouet, Arnaud

    2017-01-01

    Polarization control using single plasmonic nanoantennas is of interest for subwavelength optical components in nano-optical circuits and metasurfaces. Here, we investigate the role of two mechanisms for polarization conversion by plasmonic antennas: Structural asymmetry and plasmon hybridization through strong coupling. As a model system we investigate L-shaped antennas consisting of two orthogonal nanorods which lengths and coupling strength can be independently controlled. An analytical model based on field susceptibilities is developed to extract key parameters and to address the influence of antenna morphology and excitation wavelength on polarization conversion efficiency and scattering intensities. Optical spectroscopy experiments performed on individual antennas, further supported by electrodynamical simulations based on the Green Dyadic Method, confirm the trends extracted from the analytical model. Mode hybridization and structural asymmetry allow address-ing different input polarizations and wavelengths, providing additional degrees of freedom for agile polarization conversion in nanophotonic devices. PMID:28102320

  4. Mode hybridization and conversion in silicon-on-insulator nanowires with angled sidewalls.

    PubMed

    Dai, Daoxin; Zhang, Ming

    2015-12-14

    The mode property and light propagation in a tapered silicon-on-insulator (SOI) nanowire with angled sidewalls is analyzed. Mode hybridization is observed and mode conversion between the TM fundamental mode and higher-order TE modes happens when light propagates in a waveguide taper which is used very often in the design of photonic integrated devices. This mode conversion ratio is possible to be very high (even close to 100%) when the taper is long enough to be adiabatic, which might be useful for some applications of multimode photonics. When the mode conversion is undesired to avoid any excess loss as well as crosstalk for photonic integrated circuits, one can depress the mode conversion by compensating the vertical asymmetry in the way of reducing the sidewall angle or introducing an optimal refractive index for the upper-cladding. It is also possible to eliminate the undesired mode conversion almost and improve the desired mode conversion greatly by introducing an abrupt junction connecting two sections with different widths to jump over the mode hybridization region.

  5. Mode conversion of fast Alfvén waves at the ion-ion hybrid resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, A. K.; Bers, A.; Schultz, S. D.; Fuchs, V.

    1996-05-01

    Substantial radio-frequency power in the ion-cyclotron range of frequencies can be effectively coupled to a tokamak plasma from poloidal current strap antennas at the plasma edge. If there exists an ion-ion hybrid resonance inside the plasma, then some of the power from the antenna, delivered into the plasma by fast Alfvén waves, can be mode converted to ion-Bernstein waves. In tokamak confinement fields the mode-converted ion-Bernstein waves can damp effectively and locally on electrons [A. K. Ram and A. Bers, Phys. Fluids B 3, 1059 (1991)]. The usual mode-conversion analysis that studies the propagation of fast Alfvén waves in the immediate vicinity of the ion-ion hybrid resonance is extended to include the propagation and reflection of the fast Alfvén waves on the high magnetic-field side of the ion-ion hybrid resonance. It is shown that there exist plasma conditions for which the entire fast Alfvén wave power incident on the ion-ion hybrid resonance can be converted to ion-Bernstein waves. In this extended analysis of the mode conversion process, the fast Alfvén waves can be envisioned as being coupled to an internal plasma resonator. This resonator extends from the low magnetic-field cutoff near the ion-ion hybrid resonance to the high magnetic-field cutoff. The condition for 100% mode conversion corresponds to a critical coupling of the fast Alfvén waves to this internal resonator. As an example, the appropriate plasma conditions for 100% mode conversion are determined for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [R. Majeski et al., Proceedings of the 11th Topical Conference on RF Power in Plasmas, Palm Springs (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1995), Vol. 355, p. 63] experimental parameters.

  6. Reversible conversion of dominant polarity in ambipolar polymer/graphene oxide hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ye; Han, Su -Ting; Sonar, Prashant; Ma, Xinlei; Chen, Jihua; Zheng, Zijian; Roy, V. A. L.

    2015-03-24

    The possibility to selectively modulate the charge carrier transport in semiconducting materials is extremely challenging for the development of high performance and low-power consuming logic circuits. Systematical control over the polarity (electrons and holes) in transistor based on solution processed layer by layer polymer/graphene oxide hybrid system has been demonstrated. The conversion degree of the polarity is well controlled and reversible by trapping the opposite carriers. Basically, an electron device is switched to be a hole only device or vice versa. Finally, a hybrid layer ambipolar inverter is demonstrated in which almost no leakage of opposite carrier is found. We conclude that this hybrid material has wide range of applications in planar p-n junctions and logic circuits for high-throughput manufacturing of printed electronic circuits.

  7. Reversible conversion of dominant polarity in ambipolar polymer/graphene oxide hybrids

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Ye; Han, Su -Ting; Sonar, Prashant; ...

    2015-03-24

    The possibility to selectively modulate the charge carrier transport in semiconducting materials is extremely challenging for the development of high performance and low-power consuming logic circuits. Systematical control over the polarity (electrons and holes) in transistor based on solution processed layer by layer polymer/graphene oxide hybrid system has been demonstrated. The conversion degree of the polarity is well controlled and reversible by trapping the opposite carriers. Basically, an electron device is switched to be a hole only device or vice versa. Finally, a hybrid layer ambipolar inverter is demonstrated in which almost no leakage of opposite carrier is found. Wemore » conclude that this hybrid material has wide range of applications in planar p-n junctions and logic circuits for high-throughput manufacturing of printed electronic circuits.« less

  8. Reversible Conversion of Dominant Polarity in Ambipolar Polymer/Graphene Oxide Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ye; Han, Su-Ting; Sonar, Prashant; Ma, Xinlei; Chen, Jihua; Zheng, Zijian; Roy, V. A. L.

    2015-01-01

    The possibility to selectively modulate the charge carrier transport in semiconducting materials is extremely challenging for the development of high performance and low-power consuming logic circuits. Systematical control over the polarity (electrons and holes) in transistor based on solution processed layer by layer polymer/graphene oxide hybrid system has been demonstrated. The conversion degree of the polarity is well controlled and reversible by trapping the opposite carriers. Basically, an electron device is switched to be a hole only device or vice versa. Finally, a hybrid layer ambipolar inverter is demonstrated in which almost no leakage of opposite carrier is found. This hybrid material has wide range of applications in planar p-n junctions and logic circuits for high-throughput manufacturing of printed electronic circuits. PMID:25801827

  9. Hexagonal mesoporous titanium tetrasulfonates with large conjugated hybrid framework for photoelectric conversion.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tian-Yi; Wei, Yan-Shuang; Ren, Tie-Zhen; Liu, Lei; Guo, Qiang; Yuan, Zhong-Yong

    2010-12-01

    Ordered hexagonal mesoporous titanium tetrasulfonate materials (CuPcS4-Ti) were synthesized through a hydrothermal process with the assistance of surfactant F127, by using the copper(II) phthalocyanine-tetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt (CuPcS4) as coupling molecules. It was confirmed by TEM, IR, UV-vis, TGA-DSC, and XRD analysis that the CuPcS4 groups were homogenously incorporated into the hybrid framework, and the synthesized materials could be stable to around 328 °C with the hybrid framework and ordered mesopores well-preserved. A high dye content of Ti/CuPcS4 molar ratio at around 50 was achieved, which could be useful in the photoelectric conversion applications. A novel model of isolated dye centers surrounded by semiconductor oligomers was set, which could effectively suppress the aggregation of dye molecules that may decrease the conversion efficiency in some traditional dye-sensitized solar cells. It was proved that the synthesized CuPcS4-Ti exhibited a relatively high conversion efficiency of 0.53%. It was very valuable to access such a high conversion efficiency by using low-cost and commercially available dye molecules instead of using the expensive unsymmetrical phthalocyanines synthesized by the time-consuming methods in the literature.

  10. Restoration of the Conversion of Desmosterol to Cholesterol in L-Cells after Hybridization with Human Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Croce, C. M.; Kieba, I.; Koprowski, H.; Molino, M.; Rothblat, G. H.

    1974-01-01

    Hybrids between different human cells (which synthesize cholesterol) and mouse cells (whose end-product of sterol synthesis is desmosterol) were analyzed for the ability to convert desmosterol to cholesterol. Conversion of [14C]desmosterol to cholesterol and incorporation of [14C]acetate into the end-product sterol were studied in the parental and hybrid cells. Concordant segregation of the conversion of desmosterol to cholesterol and the human chromosome F-20 was observed. Images PMID:4359325

  11. A parameter study of mode conversion at ion-ion hybrid resonances for ICRF-heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alava, M. J.; Heikkinen, J. A.

    1992-04-01

    By solving the wave equation for the radial electric field with constant poloidal electric field around the resonance layer of the fast Alfvén wave, various complex characteristics of mode conversion physics can be elucidated and analyzed for ion cyclotron heating of tokamaks. The validity of the Budden and tunnelling model [Ngan, Y. C. and Swanson, D. G., Phys. Fluids 20, 1920 (1977)] for the conversion studies is explored, and the conversion coefficient for the ion-ion hybrid resonance in the presence of cyclotron damping is found in closed form. The analytical results are compared with the numerical solution of the full wave equations expanded to second order in ion Larmor radius. It is found that the standard tunnelling solutions can be erroneous, not only in the case of strong damping, but also when the linearization of the plasma parameters around the resonance, peculiar to the tunnelling model, becomes inaccurate. The effects of the damping and cavity resonances on the conversion are separated in the derived analytical estimates, and the limits of the local theory of conversion are determined.

  12. Magnetic flux conversion in the DIII-D high-beta hybrid scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, N. Z.; Luce, T. C.; La Haye, R. J.; Petty, C. C.; Piovesan, P.

    2016-10-01

    In DIII-D hybrid scenario discharges, the rate of poloidal magnetic energy consumption is more than the rate of energy flow from the poloidal field coils. This is evidence that there is a conversion of toroidal flux to poloidal flux, which may account for a process known as flux pumping that leads to anomalous broadening of the current profile. The hybrid is a promising high confinement scenario for ITER. The broader current profile aids discharge sustainment by raising the minimum safety factor above unity thereby avoiding sawtooth-triggered 2/1 tearing modes that spoil energy confinement. During long ( 1.5s) stationary intervals with constant stored magnetic energy, a significant flux state deficit rate >10 mV was observed. This anomalous consumption of poloidal flux only occurred in discharges with βN > 2.5 and when a relatively benign 3/2 tearing mode was present. This suggests the tearing mode plays a critical role in flux conversion. Studies have shown that 3D core displacements can lead to flux conversion, suggesting that the 3/2 tearing mode and its 2/2 side band produce helical perturbations in the core velocity and magnetic field capable of producing a dynamo EMF that drives the observed current redistribution. Supported by the US DOE under DE-AC05-06OR23100 and DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  13. Thermodynamic limits for solar energy conversion by a quantum-thermal hybrid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byvik, C. E.; Buoncristiani, A. M.; Smith, B. T.

    1981-11-01

    The limits are presented fo air mass 1.5 conditions. A maximum conversion efficiency of 74 percent is thermodynamically achievable for the quantum device operating at 3500 K and the heat engine in contact with a reservoir at 0 K. The efficiency drops to 56 percent for a cold reservoir at approximately room temperature conditions. Hybrid system efficiencies exceed 50 percent over receiver temperatures ranging from 1400 K to 4000 K, suggesting little benefit is gained in operating the system above 1400 K. The results are applied to a system consisting of a photovoltaic solar cell in series with a heat engine.

  14. Thermodynamic limits for solar energy conversion by a quantum-thermal hybrid system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byvik, C. E.; Buoncristiani, A. M.; Smith, B. T.

    1981-01-01

    The limits are presented fo air mass 1.5 conditions. A maximum conversion efficiency of 74 percent is thermodynamically achievable for the quantum device operating at 3500 K and the heat engine in contact with a reservoir at 0 K. The efficiency drops to 56 percent for a cold reservoir at approximately room temperature conditions. Hybrid system efficiencies exceed 50 percent over receiver temperatures ranging from 1400 K to 4000 K, suggesting little benefit is gained in operating the system above 1400 K. The results are applied to a system consisting of a photovoltaic solar cell in series with a heat engine.

  15. Squeezed mode conversion in hybrid plasmon polariton waveguide using spin-coated silver film.

    PubMed

    Ha, Thi-Vu-Anh; Park, Hae-Ryeong; Son, Jung-Han; Lee, Myung-Hyun

    2012-07-01

    We designed, fabricated, and characterized a hybrid surface plasmon polariton waveguide (SPP_wg) for mode conversion. The 20-nm-thick silver SPP_wg was fabricated via spin-coating with an aqueous silver ionic complex solution. The structure of the SPP_wg consists of a straight Insulator-Metal-Insulator waveguide (IMl_wg), a lateral tapered Insulator-Metal-Insulator-Metal-Insulator waveguide (tapered_IMIMI_wg), and a straight IMIMI waveguide (IMIMI_wg). An s0 mode size of 12.90 microm x 8.08 microm at a 6-microm-wide IMI_wg was excited by a butt-coupling method at a wavelength of 1550 nm. The s0 mode was converted into an Ss0 mode size of 8.08 microm x 5.65 microm at a 3-microm-wide IMIMI_wg. The mode size was squeezed by approximately 2/3 via a 15-microm-long lateral tapered_IMIMI_wg with a 500-nm-thick central insulator. The coupling loss for mode conversion between the straight IMI_wg and the straight IMIMI_wg was 5.49 dB. The hybrid SPP_wg for mode conversion has the potential to bridge the gap between micron and sub-micron scales in nano plasmonic integrated circuits. In addition, the use of the spin coating method is very cost-effective because films are formed at a low temperature in a short period of time without the need for a vacuum system.

  16. Hybrid photovoltaic-thermoelectric system for concentrated solar energy conversion: Experimental realization and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beeri, Ofer; Rotem, Oded; Hazan, Eden; Katz, Eugene A.; Braun, Avi; Gelbstein, Yaniv

    2015-09-01

    An experimental demonstration of the combined photovoltaic (PV) and thermoelectric conversion of concentrated sunlight (with concentration factor, X, up to ˜300) into electricity is presented. The hybrid system is based on a multi-junction PV cell and a thermoelectric generator (TEG). The latter increases the electric power of the system and dissipates some of the excessive heat. For X ≤ 200, the system's maximal efficiency, ˜32%, was mostly due to the contribution from the PV cell. With increasing X and system temperature, the PV cell's efficiency decreased while that of the TEG increased. Accordingly, the direct electrical contribution of the TEG started to dominate in the total system power, reaching ˜20% at X ≈ 290. Using a simple steady state finite element modeling, the cooling effect of the TEG on the hybrid system's efficiency was proved to be even more significant than its direct electrical contribution for high solar concentrations. As a result, the total efficiency contribution of the TEG reached ˜40% at X ≈ 200. This suggests a new system optimization concept that takes into account the PV cell's temperature dependence and the trade-off between the direct electrical generation and cooling capabilities of the TEG. It is shown that the hybrid system has a real potential to exceed 50% total efficiency by using more advanced PV cells and TE materials.

  17. Global particle simulation of lower hybrid wave propagation and mode conversion in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, J.; Lin, Z.; Kuley, A.

    2015-12-10

    Particle-in-cell simulation of lower hybrid (LH) waves in core plasmas is presented with a realistic electron-to-ion mass ratio in toroidal geometry. Due to the fact that LH waves mainly interact with electrons to drive the current, ion dynamic is described by cold fluid equations for simplicity, while electron dynamic is described by drift kinetic equations. This model could be considered as a new method to study LH waves in tokamak plasmas, which has advantages in nonlinear simulations. The mode conversion between slow and fast waves is observed in the simulation when the accessibility condition is not satisfied, which is consistent with the theory. The poloidal spectrum upshift and broadening effects are observed during LH wave propagation in the toroidal geometry.

  18. Carbon nanotube-amorphous silicon hybrid solar cell with improved conversion efficiency.

    PubMed

    Funde, Adinath M; Nasibulin, Albert G; Syed, Hashmi Gufran; Anisimov, Anton S; Tsapenko, Alexey; Lund, Peter; Santos, J D; Torres, I; Gandía, J J; Cárabe, J; Rozenberg, A D; Levitsky, Igor A

    2016-05-06

    We report a hybrid solar cell based on single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) interfaced with amorphous silicon (a-Si). The high quality carbon nanotube network was dry transferred onto intrinsic a-Si forming Schottky junction for metallic SWNT bundles and heterojunctions for semiconducting SWNT bundles. The nanotube chemical doping and a-Si surface treatment minimized the hysteresis effect in current-voltage characteristics allowing an increase in the conversion efficiency to 1.5% under an air mass 1.5 solar spectrum simulator. We demonstrated that the thin SWNT film is able to replace a simultaneously p-doped a-Si layer and transparent conductive electrode in conventional amorphous silicon thin film photovoltaics.

  19. Thin-Film Multilayer Filter Designs For Hybrid Solar Energy Conversion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeSandre, L.; Song, D. Y.; Macleod, H. A.; Jacobson, M. R.; Osborn, D. E.

    1985-12-01

    The efficiency of hybrid photothermal/photovoltaic energy conversion can be increased by separating the solar spectrum into portions matched to the photothermal and photovoltaic processes. Thin-film multilayer filters can implement this concept; five such filters consisting of all-dielectric or metal-dielectric layers have been designed. The transmission profile of each design is calculated by computer, considering dispersion, absorption, and angle of incidence effects. These profiles are compared and evaluated with respect to the desired spectral performance. The most successful candidate design is an optical minus filter consisting of Ti02, Zr02, and Si02. Results show very sharp selection of the targeted photovoltaic spectral region and low ripple in the transmission region outside the bandstop.

  20. Hybrid chromophore/template nanostructures: a customizable platform material for solar energy storage and conversion.

    PubMed

    Kolpak, Alexie M; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2013-01-21

    Challenges with cost, cyclability, and/or low energy density have largely prevented the development of solar thermal fuels, a potentially attractive alternative energy technology based on molecules that can capture and store solar energy as latent heat in a closed cycle. In this paper, we present a set of novel hybrid photoisomer/template solar thermal fuels that can potentially circumvent these challenges. Using first-principles computations, we demonstrate that these fuels, composed of organic photoisomers bound to inexpensive carbon-based templates, can reversibly store solar energy at densities comparable to Li-ion batteries. Furthermore, we show that variation of the template material in combination with the photoisomer can be used to optimize many of the key performance metrics of the fuel-i.e., the energy density, the storage lifetime, the temperature of the output heat, and the efficiency of the solar-to-heat conversion. Our work suggests that the solar thermal fuels concept can be translated into a practical and highly customizable energy storage and conversion technology.

  1. Analysis Of Spectrally Selective Liquid Absorption Filters For Hybrid Solar Energy Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chendo, M. A. C.; Osborn, D. E.; Swenson, Rick

    1985-12-01

    Various techniques have been proposed to convert solar energy to both electric power and heat in hybrid systems. Many of these approaches are designed to utilize spectral selectivity to improve the overall conversion efficiency. Examples include spectrally selective beamsplitters and arrangements of long-wave or short-wave-pass glass filters that divide the spectrum so that photon energies are roughly matched to the energies corresponding to the solar-cell bandgaps or to efficient photothermal convertors. This paper describes the analysis of liquid optical filters that have high transmittance in the visible spectrum and high absorptance in the infrared. These qualities make it possible to capture that portion of the spectrum useful to a quantum convertor, such as a photovoltaic cell, while channeling the "excess heat" of the photons with energies below the bandgap to a thermal convertor, thereby enhancing the overall conversion efficiency of the system. The preliminary studies show that spectral responses of the tested solutions (salts in water) are primarily influenced by the cation component of the salt solution. By changing the solutions and concentrations, a variety of spectrally selective filters can be tailored to match system requirements.

  2. Lamb mode conversion at edges. A hybrid boundary element-finite-element solution.

    PubMed

    Galán, José M; Abascal, Ramón

    2005-04-01

    Two general and flexible numerical techniques based on the finite-element and boundary element methods developed by the authors in a previous paper are applied to study Lamb wave propagation in multilayered plates and Lamb mode conversion at free edges for frequencies beyond the first cutoff frequency. Both techniques are supported by a meshing criterion which guarantees the accuracy of the results when a condition is fulfilled. A finite-element formulation is directly applicable to study Lamb wave propagation and reflection by simple obstacles such as a flat edge. In order to tackle Lamb wave diffraction problems by defects with more complex geometries, a hybrid boundary element-finite-element formulation is used. This technique provides a major improvement with respect to the only previous boundary element application on Lamb waves: the connecting boundary might be placed as close to the reflector as desired, reducing greatly the requirement on mesh size. Two main application problems on practical metallic plates are studied and compared with reported numerical, theoretical, and experimental results: (1) Lamb wave propagation in degraded titanium diffusion bonds, and (2) Lamb mode conversion at inclined or perpendicular free edges of steel plates for frequencies beyond the first cutoff frequency.

  3. Construction of hybrid Chinese reference adult phantoms and estimation of dose conversion coefficients for muons.

    PubMed

    Dong, Liang; Li, Taosheng; Liu, Chunyu

    2015-04-01

    A set of fluence-to-effective dose conversion coefficients of external exposure to muons were investigated for Chinese hybrid phantom references, which include both male and female. Both polygon meshes and Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) surfaces were used to descried the boundary of the organs and tissues in these phantoms. The 3D-DOCTOR and Rhinoceros software were used to polygonise the colour slice images and generate the NURBS surfaces, respectively. The voxelisation is completed using the BINVOX software and the assembly finished by using MATLAB codes. The voxel resolutions were selected to be 0.22 × 0.22 × 0.22 cm(3) and 0.2 × 0.2 × 0.2 cm(3) for male and female phantoms, respectively. All parts of the final phantoms were matched to their reference organ masses within a tolerance of ±5%. The conversion coefficients for negative and positive muons were calculated with the FLUKA transport code. There were 21 external monoenergetic beams ranging from 0.01 GeV to 100 TeV in 5 different geometrical conditions of irradiation.

  4. Hybrid chromophore/template nanostructures: A customizable platform material for solar energy storage and conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Kolpak, AM; Grossman, JC

    2013-01-21

    Challenges with cost, cyclability, and/or low energy density have largely prevented the development of solar thermal fuels, a potentially attractive alternative energy technology based on molecules that can capture and store solar energy as latent heat in a closed cycle. In this paper, we present a set of novel hybrid photoisomer/template solar thermal fuels that can potentially circumvent these challenges. Using first-principles computations, we demonstrate that these fuels, composed of organic photoisomers bound to inexpensive carbon-based templates, can reversibly store solar energy at densities comparable to Li-ion batteries. Furthermore, we show that variation of the template material in combination with the photoisomer can be used to optimize many of the key performance metrics of the fuel-i.e., the energy density, the storage lifetime, the temperature of the output heat, and the efficiency of the solar-to-heat conversion. Our work suggests that the solar thermal fuels concept can be translated into a practical and highly customizable energy storage and conversion technology. (C) 2013 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4773306

  5. Hybrid chromophore/template nanostructures: A customizable platform material for solar energy storage and conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolpak, Alexie M.; Grossman, Jeffrey C.

    2013-01-01

    Challenges with cost, cyclability, and/or low energy density have largely prevented the development of solar thermal fuels, a potentially attractive alternative energy technology based on molecules that can capture and store solar energy as latent heat in a closed cycle. In this paper, we present a set of novel hybrid photoisomer/template solar thermal fuels that can potentially circumvent these challenges. Using first-principles computations, we demonstrate that these fuels, composed of organic photoisomers bound to inexpensive carbon-based templates, can reversibly store solar energy at densities comparable to Li-ion batteries. Furthermore, we show that variation of the template material in combination with the photoisomer can be used to optimize many of the key performance metrics of the fuel—i.e., the energy density, the storage lifetime, the temperature of the output heat, and the efficiency of the solar-to-heat conversion. Our work suggests that the solar thermal fuels concept can be translated into a practical and highly customizable energy storage and conversion technology.

  6. Somatic generation of hybrid antibody H chain genes in transgenic mice via interchromosomal gene conversion

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    We have constructed lines of mice with transgenes containing an antibody heavy (H) chain variable region (VHDJH) gene and various amounts of natural immunoglobulin (Ig) and plasmid flanking DNA. In these lines, recombination of the transgene and the endogenous Igh locus takes place in B cells, leading to the expression of functional H chains partially encoded by the transgenic VHDJH gene. Here, we demonstrate that the transgenic VHDJH gene, and various amounts of flanking sequence are recombined with Igh locus DNA via interchromosomal gene conversion. The structures of the resulting "hybrid" transgene-Igh H chain loci are consistent with the 3' end of the conversion occurring in regions of sequence identity, and the 5' end taking place between regions of little or no homology. This mode of antibody transgene recombination with the Igh locus is fundamentally different from the previously reported "trans H chain class switching" that results in reciprocal translocations. In contrast, this recombination resembles events previously observed in mammalian tissue culture cells between adjacent homologous chromosomal sequences, or transfected DNA and a homologous chromosomal target. Our data indicate that this recombination takes place at a low frequency, and that the frequency is influenced by both the length and extent of homology between the transgene and the Igh locus, but is not greatly affected by transgene copy number. This recombination pathway provides a novel approach for the subtle alteration of the clonal composition of the mouse B cell compartment in vivo using VH genes with defined structures and functions. PMID:8270869

  7. A preliminary study on improving the recognition of esophageal speech using a hybrid system based on statistical voice conversion.

    PubMed

    Lachhab, Othman; Di Martino, Joseph; Elhaj, Elhassane Ibn; Hammouch, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid system based on a modified statistical GMM voice conversion algorithm for improving the recognition of esophageal speech. This hybrid system aims to compensate for the distorted information present in the esophageal acoustic features by using a voice conversion method. The esophageal speech is converted into a "target" laryngeal speech using an iterative statistical estimation of a transformation function. We did not apply a speech synthesizer for reconstructing the converted speech signal, given that the converted Mel cepstral vectors are used directly as input of our speech recognition system. Furthermore the feature vectors are linearly transformed by the HLDA (heteroscedastic linear discriminant analysis) method to reduce their size in a smaller space having good discriminative properties. The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed system provides an improvement of the phone recognition accuracy with an absolute increase of 3.40 % when compared with the phone recognition accuracy obtained with neither HLDA nor voice conversion.

  8. Designing interfaces of hydrogenase-nanomaterial hybrids for efficient solar conversion.

    PubMed

    King, Paul W

    2013-01-01

    The direct conversion of sunlight into biofuels is an intriguing alternative to a continued reliance on fossil fuels. Natural photosynthesis has long been investigated both as a potential solution, and as a model for utilizing solar energy to drive a water-to-fuel cycle. The molecules and organizational structure provide a template to inspire the design of efficient molecular systems for photocatalysis. A clear design strategy is the coordination of molecular interactions that match kinetic rates and energetic levels to control the direction and flow of energy from light harvesting to catalysis. Energy transduction and electron-transfer reactions occur through interfaces formed between complexes of donor-acceptor molecules. Although the structures of several of the key biological complexes have been solved, detailed descriptions of many electron-transfer complexes are lacking, which presents a challenge to designing and engineering biomolecular systems for solar conversion. Alternatively, it is possible to couple the catalytic power of biological enzymes to light harvesting by semiconductor nanomaterials. In these molecules, surface chemistry and structure can be designed using ligands. The passivation effect of the ligand can also dramatically affect the photophysical properties of the semiconductor, and energetics of external charge-transfer. The length, degree of bond saturation (aromaticity), and solvent exposed functional groups of ligands can be manipulated to further tune the interface to control molecular assembly, and complex stability in photocatalytic hybrids. The results of this research show how ligand selection is critical to designing molecular interfaces that promote efficient self-assembly, charge-transfer and photocatalysis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Metals in Bioenergetics and Biomimetics Systems.

  9. Seasonal variation in food consumption, assimilation, and conversion efficiency of Indian bivoltine hybrid silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Rahmathulla, V K; Suresh, H M

    2012-01-01

    Food consumption and utilization is influenced by various biotic and abiotic factors. Under different environmental, feeding, and nutritional conditions, and with ingestion of the same amount of mulberry leaves, the silkworm shows significant difference in its ability to digest, absorb, and convert food to body matter. Here, influences of season, temperature, and humidity on food intake, assimilation, and conversion efficiency of the Indian bivoltine hybrid (CSR2 × CSR4) Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) were studied. The results indicated that food ingestion and assimilation were significantly higher among silkworm batches where optimum temperature and humidity were maintained compared with silkworm batches exposed to natural climatic conditions of the respective season. However, during summer the nutritional efficiency parameters were significantly higher among silkworms reared under natural temperature and humidity conditions when compared with the control. During the winter and rainy season, the nutritional efficiency parameters were significantly higher in control batches, where optimum temperature and humidity were maintained. Ingesta and digesta required to produce one gram of cocoon/shell were also lower in control batches for all seasons except summer. This may be due to the physiological adaptation of silkworms to overcome stress during the summer season.

  10. Design of hybrid nanoheterostructure systems for enhanced quantum and solar conversion efficiencies in dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kılıç, Bayram E-mail: kbayramkilic@gmail.com; Telli, Hakan; Başaran, Ali; Pirge, Gursev; Tüzemen, Sebahattin

    2015-04-07

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with an innovative design involving controlled-morphology vertically aligned (VA) ZnO nanowires within mesoporous TiO{sub 2} structures with ultrahigh surface area for implementation as photoanodes are herein reported. Although TiO{sub 2} nanostructures exhibit excellent power conversion efficiency, the electron transport rate is low owing to low electron mobility. To overcome this, ZnO nanowires with high electron mobility have been investigated as potential candidates for photoanodes. However, the power conversion efficiency of ZnO nanowires is still lower than that of TiO{sub 2} owing to their low internal surface area. Consequently, in this work, vertical growth of ZnO nanowires within mesoporous TiO{sub 2} structures is carried out to increase their solar power conversion efficiency. The photovoltaic performance of solar cells using ZnO nanowires, mesoporous TiO{sub 2}, and TiO{sub 2}/ZnO hybrid structures are compared. The VA TiO{sub 2}/ZnO hybrid structures are found to provide direct electron transfer compared with the tortuous pathway of zero-dimensional nanostructures, resulting in an increased conversion efficiency. It is demonstrated that the light scattering of the photoanode film is increased and electron recombination is decreased when an appropriate amount of mesoporous TiO{sub 2} is used as a substrate for ZnO nanowires. The DSSC fabricated with the TiO{sub 2}/ZnO hybrid photoanode prepared with 15.8 wt. % TiO{sub 2} showed the highest conversion efficiency of 7.30%, approximately 5%, 18%, and 40% higher than that of DSSCs fabricated with 3.99 wt. % TiO{sub 2}, pure TiO{sub 2}, and pure ZnO photoanodes, respectively.

  11. Design of hybrid nanoheterostructure systems for enhanced quantum and solar conversion efficiencies in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kılıç, Bayram; Telli, Hakan; Tüzemen, Sebahattin; Başaran, Ali; Pirge, Gursev

    2015-04-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with an innovative design involving controlled-morphology vertically aligned (VA) ZnO nanowires within mesoporous TiO2 structures with ultrahigh surface area for implementation as photoanodes are herein reported. Although TiO2 nanostructures exhibit excellent power conversion efficiency, the electron transport rate is low owing to low electron mobility. To overcome this, ZnO nanowires with high electron mobility have been investigated as potential candidates for photoanodes. However, the power conversion efficiency of ZnO nanowires is still lower than that of TiO2 owing to their low internal surface area. Consequently, in this work, vertical growth of ZnO nanowires within mesoporous TiO2 structures is carried out to increase their solar power conversion efficiency. The photovoltaic performance of solar cells using ZnO nanowires, mesoporous TiO2, and TiO2/ZnO hybrid structures are compared. The VA TiO2/ZnO hybrid structures are found to provide direct electron transfer compared with the tortuous pathway of zero-dimensional nanostructures, resulting in an increased conversion efficiency. It is demonstrated that the light scattering of the photoanode film is increased and electron recombination is decreased when an appropriate amount of mesoporous TiO2 is used as a substrate for ZnO nanowires. The DSSC fabricated with the TiO2/ZnO hybrid photoanode prepared with 15.8 wt. % TiO2 showed the highest conversion efficiency of 7.30%, approximately 5%, 18%, and 40% higher than that of DSSCs fabricated with 3.99 wt. % TiO2, pure TiO2, and pure ZnO photoanodes, respectively.

  12. Hybrid lead halide perovskites for light energy conversion: Excited state properties and photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manser, Joseph S.

    travel 220 nm over the course of 2 ns after photoexcitation, with an extrapolated diffusion length greater than one micrometer over the full excited state lifetime. The solution-processability of metal halide perovskites necessarily raises questions as to the properties of the solvated precursors and their connection to the final solid-state perovskite phase. Through structural and steady-state and time-resolved absorption studies, the important link between the excited state properties of the precursor components, composed of solvated and solid-state halometallate complexes, and CH3NH3PbI3 is evinced. This connection provides insight into optical nonlinearities and electronic properties of the perovskite phase. Fundamental studies of CH 3NH3PbI3 ultimately serve as a foundation for application of this and other related materials in high-performance devices. In the final chapter, the operation of CH3NH3PbI 3 solar cells in a tandem architecture is presented. The quest for economic, large scale hydrogen production has motivated the search for new materials and device designs capable of splitting water using only energy from the sun. In light of this, we introduce an all solution-processed tandem water splitting assembly composed of a BiVO4 photoanode and a single-junction CH3NH3PbI3 hybrid perovskite solar cell. This unique configuration allows efficient solar photon management, with the metal oxide photoanode selectively harvesting high energy visible photons and the underlying perovskite solar cell capturing lower energy visible-near IR wavelengths in a single-pass excitation. Operating without external bias under standard terrestrial one sun illumination, the photoanode-photovoltaic architecture, in conjunction with an earthabundant cobalt phosphate catalyst, exhibits a solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of 2.5% at neutral pH. The design of low-cost tandem water splitting assemblies employing single-junction hybrid perovskite materials establishes a potentially

  13. Conversion Coefficients for Proton Beams using Standing and Sitting Male Hybrid Computational Phantom Calculated in Idealized Irradiation Geometries.

    PubMed

    Alves, M C; Santos, W S; Lee, C; Bolch, W E; Hunt, J G; Júnior, A B Carvalho

    2016-09-24

    The aim of this study was the calculation of conversion coefficients for absorbed doses per fluence (DT/Φ) using the sitting and standing male hybrid phantom (UFH/NCI) exposure to monoenergetic protons with energy ranging from 2 MeV to 10 GeV. Sex-averaged effective dose per fluence (E/Φ) using the results of DT/Φ for the male and female hybrid phantom in standing and sitting postures were also calculated. Results of E/Φ of UFH/NCI standing phantom were also compared with tabulated effective dose conversion coefficients provided in ICRP publication 116. To develop an exposure scenario implementing the male UFH/NCI phantom in sitting and standing postures was used the radiation transport code MCNPX. Whole-body irradiations were performed using the recommended irradiation geometries by ICRP publication 116 antero-posterior (AP), postero-anterior (PA), right and left lateral, rotational (ROT) and isotropic (ISO). In most organs, the conversion coefficients DT/Φ were similar for both postures. However, relative differences were significant for organs located in the lower abdominal region, such as prostate, testes and urinary bladder, especially in the AP geometry. Results of effective dose conversion coefficients were 18% higher in the standing posture of the UFH/NCI phantom, especially below 100 MeV in AP and PA. In lateral geometry, the conversion coefficients values below 20 MeV were 16% higher in the sitting posture. In ROT geometry, the differences were below 10%, for almost all energies. In ISO geometry, the differences in E/Φ were negligible. The results of E/Φ of UFH/NCI phantom were in general below the results of the conversion coefficients provided in ICRP publication 116.

  14. The influence of patient size on dose conversion coefficients: a hybrid phantom study for adult cardiac catheterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Perry; Lee, Choonsik; Johnson, Kevin; Siragusa, Daniel; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2009-06-01

    In this study, the influence of patient size on organ and effective dose conversion coefficients (DCCs) was investigated for a representative interventional fluoroscopic procedure—cardiac catheterization. The study was performed using hybrid phantoms representing an underweight, average and overweight American adult male. Reference body sizes were determined using the NHANES III database and parameterized based on standing height and total body mass. Organ and effective dose conversion coefficients were calculated for anterior-posterior, posterior-anterior, left anterior oblique and right anterior oblique projections using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX 2.5.0 with the metric dose area product being used as the normalization factor. Results show body size to have a clear influence on DCCs which increased noticeably when body size decreased. It was also shown that if patient size is neglected when choosing a DCC, the organ and effective dose will be underestimated to an underweight patient and will be overestimated to an underweight patient, with errors as large as 113% for certain projections. Results were further compared with those published for a KTMAN-2 Korean patient-specific tomographic phantom. The published DCCs aligned best with the hybrid phantom which most closely matched in overall body size. These results highlighted the need for and the advantages of phantom-patient matching, and it is recommended that hybrid phantoms be used to create a more diverse library of patient-dependent anthropomorphic phantoms for medical dose reconstruction.

  15. Enhanced Optoelectronic Conversion Efficiency of CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dot/Graphene/Silver Nanowire Hybrid Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo-Tau; Wu, Kuan-Han; Lee, Rong-Ho

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we prepared the reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) hybrid films on a three-layer scaffold that the QD layer was sandwiched between the two rGO layers. The photocurrent was induced by virtue of the facts that the rGO quenched the photoluminescence of QDs and transferred the excited energy. The quenching mechanism was attributed to the surface energy transfer, supported in our experimental results. We found that the optoelectronic conversion efficiency of the hybrid films can be significantly improved by incorporating the silver nanowires (AgNWs) into the QD layer. Upon increasing AgNW content, the photocurrent density increased from 22.1 to 80.3 μA cm(-2), reaching a near 3.6-fold enhancement compared to the pristine rGO-QD hybrid films. According to the analyses of photoluminescence spectra, shape effect, and electrochemical impedance spectra, the enhancement on the optoelectronic conversion efficiency arise mainly from the strong quenching ability of silver and the rapid electron transfer of AgNWs.

  16. Enhanced Optoelectronic Conversion Efficiency of CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dot/Graphene/Silver Nanowire Hybrid Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo-Tau; Wu, Kuan-Han; Lee, Rong-Ho

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we prepared the reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) hybrid films on a three-layer scaffold that the QD layer was sandwiched between the two rGO layers. The photocurrent was induced by virtue of the facts that the rGO quenched the photoluminescence of QDs and transferred the excited energy. The quenching mechanism was attributed to the surface energy transfer, supported in our experimental results. We found that the optoelectronic conversion efficiency of the hybrid films can be significantly improved by incorporating the silver nanowires (AgNWs) into the QD layer. Upon increasing AgNW content, the photocurrent density increased from 22.1 to 80.3 μA cm-2, reaching a near 3.6-fold enhancement compared to the pristine rGO-QD hybrid films. According to the analyses of photoluminescence spectra, shape effect, and electrochemical impedance spectra, the enhancement on the optoelectronic conversion efficiency arise mainly from the strong quenching ability of silver and the rapid electron transfer of AgNWs.

  17. Particle simulations of mode conversion between slow mode and fast mode in lower hybrid range of frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Guozhang; Xiang, Nong; Huang, Yueheng; Wang, Xueyi; Lin, Yu

    2016-01-15

    The propagation and mode conversion of lower hybrid waves in an inhomogeneous plasma are investigated by using the nonlinear δf algorithm in a two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation code based on the gyrokinetic electron and fully kinetic ion (GeFi) scheme [Lin et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 47, 657 (2005)]. The characteristics of the simulated waves, such as wavelength, frequency, phase, and group velocities, agree well with the linear theoretical analysis. It is shown that a significant reflection component emerges in the conversion process between the slow mode and the fast mode when the scale length of the density variation is comparable to the local wavelength. The dependences of the reflection coefficient on the scale length of the density variation are compared with the results based on the linear full wave model for cold plasmas. It is indicated that the mode conversion for the waves with a frequency of 2.45 GHz (ω ∼ 3ω{sub LH}, where ω{sub LH} represents the lower hybrid resonance) and within Tokamak relevant amplitudes can be well described in the linear scheme. As the frequency decreases, the modification due to the nonlinear term becomes important. For the low-frequency waves (ω ∼ 1.3ω{sub LH}), the generations of the high harmonic modes and sidebands through nonlinear mode-mode coupling provide new power channels and thus could reduce the reflection significantly.

  18. Particle simulations of mode conversion between slow mode and fast mode in lower hybrid range of frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Guozhang; Xiang, Nong; Wang, Xueyi; Huang, Yueheng; Lin, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The propagation and mode conversion of lower hybrid waves in an inhomogeneous plasma are investigated by using the nonlinear δf algorithm in a two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation code based on the gyrokinetic electron and fully kinetic ion (GeFi) scheme [Lin et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 47, 657 (2005)]. The characteristics of the simulated waves, such as wavelength, frequency, phase, and group velocities, agree well with the linear theoretical analysis. It is shown that a significant reflection component emerges in the conversion process between the slow mode and the fast mode when the scale length of the density variation is comparable to the local wavelength. The dependences of the reflection coefficient on the scale length of the density variation are compared with the results based on the linear full wave model for cold plasmas. It is indicated that the mode conversion for the waves with a frequency of 2.45 GHz (ω ˜ 3ωLH, where ωLH represents the lower hybrid resonance) and within Tokamak relevant amplitudes can be well described in the linear scheme. As the frequency decreases, the modification due to the nonlinear term becomes important. For the low-frequency waves (ω ˜ 1.3ωLH), the generations of the high harmonic modes and sidebands through nonlinear mode-mode coupling provide new power channels and thus could reduce the reflection significantly.

  19. Diffusion-Induced Hydrophilic Conversion of Polydimethylsiloxane/Block-Type Phospholipid Polymer Hybrid Substrate for Temporal Cell-Adhesive Surface.

    PubMed

    Seo, Ji-Hun; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

    2016-08-24

    In this study, diffusion-induced hydrophobic-hydrophilic conversion of the surface of the cross-linked polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate was realized by employing a simple swelling-deswelling process of PDMS substrate in a block-type polymer solution with the aim of development of a temporal cell-adhesive substrate. The ABA block-type polymer composed of poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC) segment and PDMS segment with over 70% of dimethylsiloxane unit composition could be successfully incorporated in the PDMS substrate during the swelling-deswelling process to prepare the PDMS/phospholipid block copolymer hybrid substrates. During the aging process of the PDMS substrate for 4 days in aqueous medium, its surface property changed gradually from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy data provided strong evidence that the time-dependent hydrophilic conversion of the PDMS/block-type phospholipid polymer hybrid substrate was induced by the diffusion of the hydrophilic PMPC segment in the block-type polymer to be tethered on the substrate. During the hydrophilic conversion process, surface-adsorbed fibronectin was gradually desorbed from the substrate surface, and this resulted in successful detachment of two-dimensional connected cell crowds.

  20. Selective CO2 conversion to formate conjugated with H2O oxidation utilizing semiconductor/complex hybrid photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shunsuke; Arai, Takeo; Morikawa, Takeshi; Uemura, Keiko; Suzuki, Tomiko M; Tanaka, Hiromitsu; Kajino, Tsutomu

    2011-10-05

    Photoelectrochemical reduction of CO(2) to HCOO(-) (formate) over p-type InP/Ru complex polymer hybrid photocatalyst was highly enhanced by introducing an anchoring complex into the polymer. By functionally combining the hybrid photocatalyst with TiO(2) for water oxidation, selective photoreduction of CO(2) to HCOO(-) was achieved in aqueous media, in which H(2)O was used as both an electron donor and a proton source. The so-called Z-scheme (or two-step photoexcitation) system operated with no external electrical bias. The selectivity for HCOO(-) production was >70%, and the conversion efficiency of solar energy to chemical energy was 0.03-0.04%.

  1. 2D materials. Graphene, related two-dimensional crystals, and hybrid systems for energy conversion and storage.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorso, Francesco; Colombo, Luigi; Yu, Guihua; Stoller, Meryl; Tozzini, Valentina; Ferrari, Andrea C; Ruoff, Rodney S; Pellegrini, Vittorio

    2015-01-02

    Graphene and related two-dimensional crystals and hybrid systems showcase several key properties that can address emerging energy needs, in particular for the ever growing market of portable and wearable energy conversion and storage devices. Graphene's flexibility, large surface area, and chemical stability, combined with its excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, make it promising as a catalyst in fuel and dye-sensitized solar cells. Chemically functionalized graphene can also improve storage and diffusion of ionic species and electric charge in batteries and supercapacitors. Two-dimensional crystals provide optoelectronic and photocatalytic properties complementing those of graphene, enabling the realization of ultrathin-film photovoltaic devices or systems for hydrogen production. Here, we review the use of graphene and related materials for energy conversion and storage, outlining the roadmap for future applications.

  2. Electromagnetic particle simulation of the effect of toroidicity on linear mode conversion and absorption of lower hybrid waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, J.; Lin, Z.; Kuley, A.; Wang, Z. X.

    2016-06-01

    Effects of toroidicity on linear mode conversion and absorption of lower hybrid (LH) waves in fusion plasmas have been studied using electromagnetic particle simulation. The simulation confirms that the toroidicity induces an upshift of parallel refractive index when LH waves propagate from the tokamak edge toward the core, which affects the radial position for the mode conversion between slow and fast LH waves. Furthermore, moving LH antenna launch position from low field side toward high field side leads to a larger upshift of the parallel refractive index, which helps the slow LH wave penetration into the tokamak core. The broadening of the poloidal spectrum of the wave-packet due to wave diffraction is also verified in the simulation. Both the upshift and broadening effects of the parallel spectrum of the wave-packet modify the parallel phase velocity and thus the linear absorption of LH waves by electron Landau resonance.

  3. Efficient conversion of furfuryl alcohol into alkyl levulinates catalyzed by an organic-inorganic hybrid solid acid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zehui; Dong, Kun; Zhao, Zongbao Kent

    2011-01-17

    A clean, facile, and environment-friendly catalytic method has been developed for the conversion of furfuryl alcohol into alkyl levulinates making use of the novel solid catalyst methylimidazolebutylsulfate phosphotungstate ([MIMBS]₃PW₁₂O₄₀). The solid catalyst is an organic-inorganic hybrid material, which consists of an organic cation and an inorganic anion. A study for optimizing the reaction conditions such as the reaction time, the temperature and the catalyst loading has been performed. Under optimal conditions, a high n-butyl levulinate yield of up to 93 % is obtained. Furthermore, the kinetics of the reaction pathways and the mechanism for the alcoholysis of furfuryl alcohol are discussed. This method is environmentally benign and economical for the conversion of biomass-based derivatives into fine chemicals.

  4. Conversion of cellulose and cellobiose into sorbitol catalyzed by ruthenium supported on a polyoxometalate/metal-organic framework hybrid.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinzhu; Wang, Shengpei; Huang, Jing; Chen, Limin; Ma, Longlong; Huang, Xing

    2013-08-01

    Cellulose and cellobiose were selectively converted into sorbitol over water-tolerant phosphotungstic acid (PTA)/metal- organic-framework-hybrid-supported ruthenium catalysts, Ru-PTA/MIL-100(Cr), under aqueous hydrogenation conditions. The goal was to investigate the relationship between the acid/metal balance of bifunctional catalysts Ru-PTA/MIL-100(Cr) and their performance in the catalytic conversion of cellulose and cellobiose into sugar alcohols. The control of the amount and strength of acid sites in the supported PTA/MIL-100(Cr) was achieved through the effective control of encapsulated-PTA loading in MIL-100(Cr). This design and preparation method led to an appropriately balanced Ru-PTA/MIL-100(Cr) in terms of Ru dispersion and hydrogenation capacity on the one hand, and acid site density of PTA/MIL-100(Cr) (responsible for acid-catalyzed hydrolysis) on the other hand. The ratio of acid site density to the number of Ru surface atoms (nA /nRu ) of Ru-PTA/MIL-100(Cr) was used to monitor the balance between hydrogenation and hydrolysis functions; the optimum balance between the two catalytic functions, that is, 8.84conversion of cellulose and cellobiose into hexitols. Under the applied reaction conditions, optimal results (63.2% yield in hexitols with a selectivity for sorbitol of 57.9% at complete conversion of cellulose, and 97.1% yield in hexitols with a selectivity for sorbitol of 95.1% at complete conversion of cellobiose) were obtained using a Ru-PTA/MIL-100(Cr) catalyst with loadings of 3.2 wt % for Ru and 16.7 wt % for PTA. This research thus opens new perspectives for the rational design of acid/metal bifunctional catalysts for biomass conversion.

  5. Hybrid micro-scale photovoltaics for enhanced energy conversion across all irradiation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Gautam

    A novel hybrid photovoltaics (HPV) architecture is presented that integrates high-performance micro-optics-based concentrator photovoltaics (CPV) array technology with a 1-sun photovoltaic (PV) cell within a low-profile panel structure. The approach simultaneously captures the direct solar radiation components with arrayed high-efficiency CPV cells and the diffuse solar components with an underlying wide-area PV cell. Performance analyses predict that the hybrid approach will significantly enhance the average energy produced per unit area for the full range of diffuse/direct radiation patterns across the USA. Furthermore, cost analyses indicate that the hybrid concept may be financially attractive for a wide range of locations. Indoor and outdoor experimental evaluation of a micro-optical system designed for use in a hybrid architecture verified that a large proportion of the direct radiation component was concentrated onto emulated micro-cell regions while most of the diffuse radiation and the remaining direct radiation was collected in the 1-sun cell area.

  6. Relationship between the degree of conversion, solubility and salivary sorption of a hybrid and a nanofilled resin composite.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Eduardo Moreira; Almeida, Giselle Soares; Poskus, Laiza Tatiana; Guimarães, José Guilherme Antunes

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzed the relationship between the degree of conversion (DC), solubility, and salivary sorption of a hybrid (Filtek P 60) and a nanofilled resin composite (Filtek Supreme), and evaluated the influence of the light-activation mode on these properties. Two light-activation modes were used: Conventional (C; 850 mW/cm(2) for 20 s) and Soft-start (SS; 100-1,000 mW/cm(2) for 10 s + 1,000 mW/cm(2) for 10 s). The DC (%) was evaluated by FT-Raman spectroscopy. The solubility and salivary sorption were measured after immersion in artificial saliva for 7 days. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls' test and linear regression analysis (a = 0.05). The DC varied from 50.52% (nanofilled composite) to 57.15% (hybrid composite), and was influenced by the light-activation mode: C > SS. The solubility (0.45 microg/mm(3)) and salivary sorption (8.04 microg/mm(3)) of the nanofilled composite were greater than those of the hybrid composite (0.40 microg/mm(3) / 6.87 microg/mm(3)), and were influenced by the light-activation mode: SS > C. Correlation was found between DC and solubility (r = - 0.89, p<0.05), as well as between solubility and salivary sorption (r = 0.95). These findings suggest that nanofilled composites may present higher degradation in the oral environment than hybrid ones. Soft-start light-activation mode may increase the solubility of resin composites.

  7. Lower hybrid heating associated with mode conversion on the Wisconsin toroidal octupole

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, T L; Scharer, J E

    1980-09-01

    Wave heating experiments and wave propagation measurements in the lower hybrid range of frequencies are described. A T antenna launches up to 40 kW of wave power at 140 MHz with better than 95% coupling efficiency. Ion temperature increases of ..delta..T/sub i/ = 37 eV are measured with ..delta..T/sub parallel//T/sub io/ = 12. Ion heating is strongly localized near the lower hybrid turning point for a peak value of (k/sub parallel//..omega..)(KT/sub i//m/sub e/)/sup 1/2/ approx. = 0.3 corresponding to an upshifted k/sub parallel/ spectrum. Wavelength measurements indicate that the upshift in k/sub parallel/ occurs in the interior of the plasma. Other wave measurements show the existence of a large amplitude weakly damped fast wave component in addition to the slow wave.

  8. One-step preparation of multiwall carbon nanotube/silicon hybrids for solar energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobiak, Egor V.; Bychanok, Dzmitry S.; Shlyakhova, Elena V.; Kuzhir, Polina P.; Maksimenko, Sergey A.; Bulusheva, Lyubov G.; Okotrub, Alexander V.

    2016-03-01

    The hybrid material consisting of a thin layer of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on an n-doped silicon wafer was obtained in one step using an aerosol-assisted catalytic chemical vapor deposition. The MWCNTs were grown from a mixture of acetone and ethanol with ˜0.2 wt.% of iron polyoxomolybdate nanocluster of the keplerate-type structure. The samples produced at 800°C and 1050°C were tested as a solar energy converter. It was shown that photoresponse of the hybrid material significantly depends on the presence of structural defects in MWCNTs, being much higher in the case of more defective nanotubes. This is because defects lead to p-doping of nanotubes, whereas the p-n heterojunction between MWCNTs and silicon provides a high efficiency of the solar cell.

  9. Enhanced Harmonic Up-Conversion Using a Hybrid HGHG-EEHG Scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Marksteiner, Quinn R.; Bishofberger, Kip A.; Carlsten, Bruce E.; Freund, Henry P.; Yampolsky, Nikolai A.

    2012-04-30

    We introduce a novel harmonic generation scheme which can be used, for a given desired harmonic, to achieve higher bunching factors, weaker chicanes, and/or less final energy spread than can be achieved using Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation. This scheme only requires a single laser with relatively low power, and is a hybrid of High-Gain Harmonic Generation and EEHG. We present a design of this scheme applied to the Next Generation Light Source (NGLS).

  10. Conversion of Isoprenoid Oil by Catalytic Cracking and Hydrocracking over Nanoporous Hybrid Catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Toshiyuki; Liu, Chen; Li, Xiaohong; Maekawa, Takaaki; Asaoka, Sachio

    2012-01-01

    In order to produce petroleum alternatives from biomass, a significant amount of research has been focused on oils from microalgae due to their origin, which would not affect food availability. Nanoporous hybrid catalysts composed of ns Al2O3 and zeolites have been proven to be very useful compared to traditional catalysts in hydrotreating (HT), hydrocracking (HC), and catalytic cracking (CC) of large molecules. To evaluate the reaction scheme and products from model isoprenoid compounds of microalgae oil, nanoporous hybrid catalyst technologies (CC: ns Al2O3/H-USY and ns Al2O3/H-GaAlMFI; HC: [Ni-Mo/γ-Al2O3]/ns Al2O3/H-beta) were studied. The major product from CC on ns Al2O3/H-USY was highly aromatic gasoline, while the product from HC was half-isoparaffinic/olefinic kerosene. Although more than 50 wt% of the products from HT/CC on the USY catalyst was liquefied petroleum gas due to overcracking, the product from HT/CC on the MFI catalyst was high-octane-number gasoline. Delightfully, the product from HT/HC was kerosene and its average number was 11, with more than 80 wt% being isoparaffinic. As a result, it was demonstrated that hydrotreating may convert isoprenoid oil from microalgae over nanoporous hybrid catalysts into a variety of products. PMID:22791962

  11. Effect of LED and Argon Laser on Degree of Conversion and Temperature Rise of Hybrid and Low Shrinkage Composite Resins

    PubMed Central

    Pahlevan, Ayob; Tabatabaei, Masumeh Hasani; Arami, Sakineh; Valizadeh, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Different light curing units are used for polymerization of composite resins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of conversion (DC) and temperature rise in hybrid and low shrinkage composite resins cured by LED and Argon Laser curing lights. Materials and Methods: DC was measured using FTIR spectroscopy. For measuring temperature rise, composite resin samples were placed in Teflon molds and cured from the top. The thermocouple under samples recorded the temperature rise. After initial radiation and specimens reaching the ambient temperature, reirradiation was done and temperature was recorded again. Both temperature rise and DC data submitted to one-way ANOVA and Tukey-HSD tests (5% significance). Results: The obtained results revealed that DC was not significantly different between the understudy composite resins or curing units. Low shrinkage composite resin showed a significantly higher temperature rise than hybrid composite resin. Argon laser caused the lowest temperature rise among the curing units. Conclusion: Energy density of light curing units was correlated with the DC. Type of composite resin and light curing unit had a significant effect on temperature rise due to polymerization and curing unit, respectively. PMID:27843507

  12. Electromagnetic particle simulation of the effect of toroidicity on linear mode conversion and absorption of lower hybrid waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Jian; Lin, Zhihong; Kuley, Animesh; Wang, Zhixuan

    2016-10-01

    Effects of toroidicity on linear mode conversion and absorption of lower hybrid (LH) waves in tokamak have been studied by electromagnetic particle simulation using GTC. The simulation confirms that the toroidicity induces an upshift of parallel refractive index when LH waves propagate from the tokamak edge toward the core, which affects the radial position for the mode conversion between slow and fast LH waves. Furthermore, moving LH antenna launch position from low field side toward high field side leads to a larger upshift of the parallel refractive index, which helps the slow LH wave penetration into the tokamak core. The broadening of the poloidal spectrum of the wave-packet due to wave diffraction is also verified in the simulation. Both the upshift and broadening effects of the parallel spectrum of the wave-packet modify the parallel phase velocity and thus the linear absorption of LH waves by electron Landau resonance. In the nonlinear electromagnetic simulation, nonlinear wave trapping of electrons is verified and a plasma current is nonlinearly driven. Preliminary results of the nonlinear parametric decay of LH waves will be presented.

  13. Synthesis of hybrid organic-inorganic nanocomposite materials based on CdS nanocrystals for energy conversion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laera, A. M.; Resta, V.; Ferrara, M. C.; Schioppa, M.; Piscopiello, E.; Tapfer, L.

    2011-11-01

    Efficient solar energy conversion is strongly related to the development of new materials with enhanced functional properties. In this context, a wide variety of inorganic, organic, or hybrid nanostructured materials have been investigated. In particular, in hybrid organic-inorganic nanocomposites are combined the convenient properties of organic polymers, such as easy manipulation and mechanical flexibility, and the unique size-dependent properties of nanocrystals (NCs). However, applications of hybrid nanocomposites in photovoltaic devices require a homogeneous and highly dense dispersion of NCs in polymer in order to guarantee not only an efficient charge separation, but also an efficient transport of the carriers to the electrodes without recombination. In previous works, we demonstrated that cadmium thiolate complexes are suitable precursors for the in situ synthesis of nanocrystalline CdS. Here, we show that the soluble [Cd(SBz)2]2·(1-methyl imidazole) complex can be efficiently annealed in a conjugated polymer obtaining a nanocomposite with a regular and compact network of NCs. The proposed synthetic strategies require annealing temperatures well below 200 °C and short time for the thermal treatment, i.e., less than 30 min. We also show that the same complex can be used to synthesize CdS NCs in mesoporous TiO2. The adsorption of cadmium thiolate molecule in TiO2 matrix can be obtained by using chemical bath deposition technique and subsequent thermal annealing. The use of NCs, quantum dots, as sensitizers of TiO2 matrices represents a very promising alternative to common dye-sensitized solar cells and an interesting solution for heterogeneous photocatalysis.

  14. Impact of Dissolved Oxygen on Feed Conversion, Feed Consumption, and Growth of Blue Catfish Ictalurus furcatus, Channel Catfish I. punctatus, and Blue X Channel Catfish Hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted in 15 1-acre and six ¼-acre ponds over several years to determine the effect of low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on food conversion ratio (FCR), food consumption, growth, and net production of blue catfish (BC), channel catfish (CC), and their hybrid (BC X CC). Control ...

  15. Advanced Power Conversion Efficiency in Inventive Plasma for Hybrid Toroidal Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hançerlioğullari, Aybaba; Cini, Mesut; Güdal, Murat

    2013-08-01

    Apex hybrid reactor has a good potential to utilize uranium and thorium fuels in the future. This toroidal reactor is a type of system that facilitates the occurrence of the nuclear fusion and fission events together. The most important feature of hybrid reactor is that the first wall surrounding the plasma is liquid. The advantages of utilizing a liquid wall are high power density capacity good power transformation productivity, the magnitude of the reactor's operational duration, low failure percentage, short maintenance time and the inclusion of the system's simple technology and material. The analysis has been made using the MCNP Monte Carlo code and ENDF/B-V-VI nuclear data. Around the fusion chamber, molten salts Flibe (LI2BeF4), lead-lithium (PbLi), Li-Sn, thin-lityum (Li20Sn80) have used as cooling materials. APEX reactor has modeled in the torus form by adding nuclear materials of low significance in the specified percentages between 0 and 12 % to the molten salts. In this study, the neutronic performance of the APEX fusion reactor using various molten salts has been investigated. The nuclear parameters of Apex reactor has been searched for Flibe (LI2BeF4) and Li-Sn, for blanket layers. In case of usage of the Flibe (LI2BeF4), PbLi, and thin-lityum (Li20Sn80) salt solutions at APEX toroidal reactors, fissile material production per source neutron, tritium production speed, total fission rate, energy reproduction factor has been calculated, the results obtained for both salt solutions are compared.

  16. Lignocellulose-degrading enzymes, free-radical transformations during composting of lignocellulosic waste and biothermal phases in small-scale reactors.

    PubMed

    Bohacz, Justyna

    2017-02-15

    Environmentally friendly strategies of waste management are both part of legal solutions currently in place and a focus of interest worldwide. Large-scale composting plants are set up across various regions while home composting is becoming increasingly popular. A variety of microbial groups are successively at work during composting and enzymatic activities detected in the composting mass fluctuate accordingly. Changes in the activities of oxidoreductases and hydrolases, i.e. glucose oxidase, horseradish peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, laccase, xylanase, superoxide dismutase and keratinase, low-molecular weight compounds, i.e. methoxyphenolic and hydroxyphenolic compounds, and the relative level of superoxide radicals and glucose were determined periodically in water extracts of composts to investigate the process of biochemical transformations of ligninocellulose in relation to biothermal phases and to identify a potential priming effect in two composts containing different ratios of lignocellulosic waste and chicken feathers. Composting was conducted for 30weeks. An important aim of the study was to demonstrate that a positive priming effect was induced during composting of a variety of lignocellulosic waste types using native keratin (chicken feathers) as a source of N. The effect was more evident in compost containing grass, which was related to a more rapid depletion of easily available sources of C and energy (glucose) during composting. Ligninolytic enzymes known to biodegrade recalcitrant organic matter were induced in subsequent biothermal phases of composting. Compost I enriched with grass (pine bark, grass, sawdust and chicken feathers) exhibited a higher enzymatic activity than compost II which did not contain any grass but which had a greater number of hardly-degradable components (pine bark, wheat straw, sawdust, chicken feathers). Similar observations were made for the concentrations of low-molecular weight compounds. The enzymes activities and

  17. Toyota Prius Hybrid Plug-in Conversation and Battery Monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unnikannan, Krishnanunni; McIntyre, Michael; Harper, Doug; Kessinger, Robert; Young, Megan; Lantham, Joseph

    2012-03-01

    The objective of the project was to analyze the performance of a Toyota Hybrid. We started off with a stock Toyota Prius and taking data by driving it in city and on the highway in a mixed pre-determined route. The batteries can be charged using standard 120V AC outlets. First phase of the project was to increase the performance of the car by installing 20 Lead (Pb) batteries in a plug-in kit. To improve the performance of the kit, a centralized battery monitoring system was installed. The battery monitoring system has two components, a custom data modules and a National Instruments CompactRIO. Each Pb battery has its own data module and all the data module are connected to the CompactRIO. The CompactRIO records differential voltage, current and temperature from all the 20 batteries. The LabVIEW software is dynamic and can be reconfigured to any number of batteries and real time data from the batteries can be monitored on a LabVIEW enabled machine.

  18. Toyota Prius Hybrid Plug-in Conversation and Battery Monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntyre, Michael; Kessinger, Robert; Young, Maegan; Latham, Joseph; Unnikannan, Krishnanunni

    2012-02-01

    The objective of the project was to analyze the performance of a Toyota Hybrid. We started off with a stock Toyota Prius and taking data by driving it in city and on the highway in a mixed pre-determined route. The batteries can be charged using standard 120V AC outlets. First phase of the project was to increase the performance of the car by installing 20 Lead (Pb) batteries in a plug-in kit. To improve the performance of the kit, a centralized battery monitoring system was installed. The battery monitoring system has two components, a custom data modules and a National Instruments CompactRIO. Each Pb battery has its own data module and all the data module are connected to the CompactRIO. The CompactRIO records differential voltage, current and temperature from all the 20 batteries. The LabVIEW software is dynamic and can be reconfigured to any number of batteries and real time data from the batteries can be monitored on a LabVIEW enabled machine.

  19. Living hybrid materials capable of energy conversion and CO2 assimilation.

    PubMed

    Meunier, Christophe F; Rooke, Joanna C; Léonard, Alexandre; Xie, Hao; Su, Bao-Lian

    2010-06-14

    This paper reviews our work on the fabrication of photobiochemical hybrid materials via immobilisation of photosynthetically active entities within silica materials, summarising the viability and productivity of these active entities post encapsulation and evaluating their efficiency as the principal component of a photobioreactor. Immobilisation of thylakoids extracted from spinach leaves as well as whole cells such as A. thaliana, Synechococcus and C. caldarium was carried out in situ using sol-gel methods. In particular, a comprehensive overview is given of the efforts to find the most biocompatible inorganic precursors that can extend the lifetime of the organisms upon encapsulation. The effect of matrix-cell interactions on cell lifetime and the photosynthetic efficiency of the resultant materials are discussed. Precursors based on alkoxides, commonly used in "Chimie Douce" to form porous silica gel, release by-products which are often cytotoxic. However by controlling the formation of gels from aqueous silica precursors and silica nanoparticles acting as "cements" one can significantly enhance the life span of the entrapped organelles and cells. Adapted characteristic techniques have shown survival times of up to 5 months with the photosynthetic production of oxygen recorded as much as 17 weeks post immobilisation. These results constitute a significant advance towards the final goal, long-lasting semi-artificial photobioreactors that can advantageously exploit solar radiation to convert polluting carbon dioxide into useful biofuels, sugars or medical metabolites.

  20. Nanostructured hybrid materials based on reduced graphene oxide for solar energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morais, Andreia; Amaral Carminati, Saulo do; Nogueira, Ana Flavia

    2016-09-01

    Research on carbon-based photocatalytic nanomaterials has been a field in continuous expansion in the last years. Graphene (or its derivatives) is currently one of the most studied materials due to its high surface area, photodegradation resistance, optical transparency and high charge mobility values. All of these excellent properties are highlighted for applications in various research areas. The incorporation of small amounts of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets in semiconductors matrices is also a strategy widely used to improve the physicochemical properties, which cannot normally be achieved using conventional composites or pristine semiconductors. Most studies suggest that these twodimensional (2D) materials can facilitate electron injection and assist the electron transport in semiconductors. In this context, this manuscript will present examples of graphene-based semiconductor nanocomposites obtained by our research group and their application in the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB), photocatalytic conversion of CO2 to hydrocarbon fuels and photocatalytic water splitting reaction. Our results show the positive effect of coupling the RGO sheets with semiconductors for photocatalysis.

  1. Exact Order Reduction Method for Mode Conversion for Harmonics or Two-Ion Hybrid Resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, S.; Swanson, D. G.

    1996-11-01

    The Exact Order Reduction method(D.G. Swanson, et al., AIP Conference Proceedings 159, 342(1987).) solves the full fourth-order system of equations by taking the numerical solutions of a pair of second-order equations for the fast wave and slow wave, respectively, which are easily obtained, and then uses an associated integral equation to obtain the coupling between the fast and slow waves. In the original method, the integral equations had singularities near the axis which compromised the accuracy and convergence, but by altering the integration path, the numerical problems are resolved. This allows accurate estimates for mode conversion efficiencies in realistic geometries as the integral equation is solved only in a narrow region near resonance, taking the global fast wave solution of the reduced second order equation over the cross section for two of the four basis functions, and the slow wave solutions over the strip for the other basis functions. The method makes virtually no approximations except that it is first order in Larmor radius.

  2. Enhanced Conversion Efficiency for Si Nanowire-Organic Hybrid Solar Cells through the Incorporation of Organic Small Molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lining; Jiang, Changyun; Lai, Donny; Wang, Hao; Rusli

    2012-10-01

    We demonstrate high-efficiency hybrid solar cells based on heterojunctions formed between n-type silicon nanowires (SiNWs) and p-type organic semiconductors fabricated using a simple solution-based approach. Two types of devices have been fabricated with different organic materials used, namely poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and a small molecule, 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis(N,N-di-4-methoxyphenylamino)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (Spiro-OMeTAD). The cells are characterized and compared in terms of their physical characteristics and photovoltaic performance. Using SiNWs of the same length of 0.35 µm, it is found that the SiNWs/Spiro cells exhibit a power conversion efficiency of 10.3%, which is higher than the 7.7% of SiNWs/PEDOT cells. The results are interpreted in terms of the ability of the two organic semiconductors to fill the gaps between the SiNWs and the optical reflectance of the samples. The degradation of the SiNWs/Spiro cells is also studied and presented.

  3. CdSe quantum dot-fullerene hybrid nanocomposite for solar energy conversion: electron transfer and photoelectrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Bang, Jin Ho; Kamat, Prashant V

    2011-12-27

    The development of organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposite systems that enable efficient solar energy conversion has been important for applications in solar cell research. Nanostructured carbon-based systems, in particular C(60), offer attractive strategies to collect and transport electrons generated in a light harvesting assembly. We have assembled CdSe-C(60) nanocomposites by chemically linking CdSe quantum dots (QDs) with thiol-functionalized C(60). The photoinduced charge separation and collection of electrons in CdSe QD-C(60) nanocomposites have been evaluated using transient absorption spectroscopy and photoelectrochemical measurements. The rate constant for electron transfer between excited CdSe QD and C(60) increased with the decreasing size of the CdSe QD (7.9 × 10(9) s(-1) (4.5 nm), 1.7 × 10(10) s(-1) (3.2 nm), and 9.0 × 10(10) s(-1) (2.6 nm)). Slower hole transfer and faster charge recombination and transport events were found to dominate over the forward electron injection process, thus limiting the deliverance of maximum power in CdSe QD-C(60)-based solar cells. The photoinduced charge separation between CdSe QDs and C(60) opens up new design strategies for developing light harvesting assemblies.

  4. Dispersion engineering of a As2Se3-based strip/slot hybrid waveguide for mid-infrared broadband wavelength conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Zhanqiang; Zhang, Lingxuan; Wang, Leiran; Zhang, Wenfu

    2016-10-01

    An arsenic tri-selenide-based strip/slot hybrid waveguide with a single horizontal silica slot is proposed to achieve an extremely low and flat dispersion with three zero dispersion wavelengths. By adjusting the geometrical structural parameters of the hybrid waveguide, dispersion tailoring is fully obtained. The flat group velocity dispersion varying between ±0.08 ps2/(m) is obtained over a 1253 nm bandwidth. The parameters of effective area, nonlinear coefficient, and third-order dispersion are all investigated. Moreover, a compact on-chip all-optical wavelength converter is designed based on degenerate four-wave mixing in this waveguide. The dependencies of conversion efficiency and conversion bandwidth on the pump wavelength are discussed. The impact of pump power and signal power on the conversion efficiency is also investigated. The results show that a maximal conversion efficiency of -0.46 dB, and a 3-dB conversion bandwidth of 830 nm in the mid-infrared is achieved.

  5. Biomineralization-Inspired Preparation of Zinc Hydroxide Carbonate/Polymer Hybrids and Their Conversion into Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Shunichi; Horiguchi, Yoshimasa; Nishimura, Tatsuya; Sakai, Hideki; Kato, Takashi

    2016-05-17

    The development of ZnO thin films has been achieved through the conversion of zinc hydroxide carbonate thin-film crystals. Crystallization of this compound is induced by a biomineralization-inspired method with polymer-stabilized amorphous precursors. The crystals grow radially on polymer matrices, leading to the formation of zinc hydroxide carbonate/polymer thin-film hybrids that fully cover the substrate. These hybrids are converted into ZnO and retain their thin-film morphologies. The resultant ZnO thin films exhibit a preferential crystallographic orientation that is attributed to the alignment of zinc hydroxide carbonate crystals before conversion. In addition, a photocatalytic function of the ZnO thin films has been demonstrated by analyzing the oxidation reaction of 2-propanol. The biomineralization-inspired approach reported herein is a promising way to develop ZnO materials with controlled morphologies and structures for photocatalytic applications.

  6. SnO2-based dye-sensitized hybrid solar cells exhibiting near unity absorbed photon-to-electron conversion efficiency.

    PubMed

    Snaith, Henry J; Ducati, Caterina

    2010-04-14

    Improving the solar light harvesting and photon-to-electron conversion efficiency for hybrid, organic-inorganic photovoltaics are critical challenges. Titania based solid-state hybrid solar cells are moderately efficient at converting visible photons to electrons, but major electrical losses still remain. A material based paradigm shift is required to dramatically enhance the performance of these devices. Here, we present an investigation into solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (SDSCs) incorporating a molecular hole-transporter and mesoporous tin oxide electrodes, in place of titania usually employed. We investigate the influence of treating the surface of the SnO(2) with different oxides and find that MgO "passivated" SnO(2) electrodes demonstrate an unprecedented absorbed photon-to-electron conversion efficiency of near unity across a broad spectral range. A dual surface treatment of TiO(2) followed by MgO enables tuning of the solar cell photovoltage, fill factor, and efficiency with visible light absorbing cells delivering 3% solar-to-electrical full sun power conversion efficiency.

  7. Solid-State Conversion Chemistry of Multicomponent Nanocrystals Cast in a Hollow Silica Nanosphere: Morphology-Controlled Syntheses of Hybrid Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon Jun; Choi, Jung Kyu; Lee, Dong-Gyu; Baek, Kyungjoon; Oh, Sang Ho; Lee, In Su

    2015-11-24

    During thermal transformation of multicomponent nanocrystals in a silica nanosphere, FeAuPd alloy nanocrystals migrate outward and thereby leave a cavity in the silica matrix. Oxidation then converts these nanocrystals back into phase-segregated hybrid nanocrystals, AuPd@Fe3O4, with various morphologies. The FeAuPd-to-AuPd@Fe3O4 transformation was cast by the in situ generated hollow silica mold. Therefore, the morphological parameters of the transformed AuPd@Fe3O4 are defined by the degree of migration of the FeAuPd in the hollow silica nanoshell. This hollow silica-cast nanocrystal conversion was studied to develop a solid state protocol that can be used to produce a range of hybrid nanocrystals and that allows for systematic and sophisticated control of the resulting morphologies.

  8. Synergistic Effects in Nanoengineered HNb3O8/Graphene Hybrids with Improved Photocatalytic Conversion Ability of CO2 into Renewable Fuels.

    PubMed

    Liu, He; Zhang, Haitao; Shen, Peng; Chen, Feixiong; Zhang, Suojiang

    2016-01-12

    Layered HNb3O8/graphene hybrids with numerous heterogeneous interfaces and hierarchical pores were fabricated via the reorganization of exfoliated HNb3O8 nanosheets with graphene nanosheets (GNs). Numerous interfaces and pores were created by the alternative stacking of HNb3O8 nanosheets with limited size and GNs with a buckling and folding feature. The photocatalytic conversation of CO2 into renewable fuels by optimized HNb3O8/G hybrids yields 8.0-fold improvements in CO evolution amounts than that of commercial P25 and 8.6-fold improvements than that of HNb3O8 bulk powders. The investigation on the relationships between microstructures and improved photocatalytic performance demonstrates that the improved photocatalytic performance is attributed to the exotic synergistic effects via the combination of enhanced specific BET surface area, increased strong acid sites and strong acid amounts, narrowed band gap energy, depressed electron-hole recombination rate, and heterogeneous interfaces.

  9. Ultrafast all-optical switching and error-free 10 Gbit/s wavelength conversion in hybrid InP-silicon on insulator nanocavities using surface quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Bazin, Alexandre; Monnier, Paul; Beaudoin, Grégoire; Sagnes, Isabelle; Raj, Rama; Lenglé, Kevin; Gay, Mathilde; Bramerie, Laurent; Braive, Rémy; Raineri, Fabrice

    2014-01-06

    Ultrafast switching with low energies is demonstrated using InP photonic crystal nanocavities embedding InGaAs surface quantum wells heterogeneously integrated to a silicon on insulator waveguide circuitry. Thanks to the engineered enhancement of surface non radiative recombination of carriers, switching time is obtained to be as fast as 10 ps. These hybrid nanostructures are shown to be capable of achieving systems level performance by demonstrating error free wavelength conversion at 10 Gbit/s with 6 mW switching powers.

  10. Influence of light-polymerization modes on the degree of conversion and mechanical properties of resin composites: a comparative analysis between a hybrid and a nanofilled composite.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Eduardo Moreira; Poskus, Laiza Tatiana; Guimarães, José Guilherme Antunes

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzed the influence of the light polymerization mode on the degree of conversion (DC) and mechanical properties of two resin composites: a hybrid (Filtek P60) and a nanofilled composite (Filtek Supreme). The composites were light activated by three light polymerization modes (Standard-S: 650 mW/cm2 for 30 seconds; High intensity-H: 1000 mW/cm2 for 20 seconds and Gradual-G: 100 up to 1000 mW/cm2 for 10 seconds + 1000 mW/cm2 for 10 seconds). The DC (%) was measured by FT-Raman spectroscopy. Flexural strength and flexural modulus were obtained from bar-shaped specimens (1 x 2 x 10 mm) submitted to the three-point bending test. Microhardness was evaluated by Knoop indentation (KHN). Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls multiple range test and linear regression analysis. The results showed the following DC: H > S > G (p < 0.0001) and hybrid > nanofilled (p < 0.005). Correlation was found between DC and the radiant exposure (R2 = 0.92). With respect to mechanical properties, only KHN was significantly influenced by the light polymerization mode, as follow: H > S = G (p < 0.0001). The hybrid composite presented higher flexural strength and flexural modulus than the nanofilled composite (p < 0.0001). No significant difference was found in KHN between thetwo composites (p = 0.1605). The results suggest that nanofilled composites may present a lower degree of conversion and reduced mechanical properties compared to hybrid composites.

  11. All-optical NRZ wavelength conversion based on a single hybrid III-V/Si SOA and optical filtering.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yingchen; Huang, Qiangsheng; Keyvaninia, Shahram; Katumba, Andrew; Zhang, Jing; Xie, Weiqiang; Morthier, Geert; He, Jian-Jun; Roelkens, Gunther

    2016-09-05

    We demonstrate all-optical wavelength conversion (AOWC) of non-return-to-zero (NRZ) signal based on cross-gain modulation in a single heterogeneously integrated III-V-on-silicon semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) with an optical bandpass filter. The SOA is 500 μm long and consumes less than 250 mW electrical power. We experimentally demonstrate 12.5 Gb/s and 40 Gb/s AOWC for both wavelength up and down conversion.

  12. Block copolymer based composition and morphology control in nanostructured hybrid materials for energy conversion and storage: solar cells, batteries, and fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Orilall, M Christopher; Wiesner, Ulrich

    2011-02-01

    The development of energy conversion and storage devices is at the forefront of research geared towards a sustainable future. However, there are numerous issues that prevent the widespread use of these technologies including cost, performance and durability. These limitations can be directly related to the materials used. In particular, the design and fabrication of nanostructured hybrid materials is expected to provide breakthroughs for the advancement of these technologies. This tutorial review will highlight block copolymers as an emerging and powerful yet affordable tool to structure-direct such nanomaterials with precise control over structural dimensions, composition and spatial arrangement of materials in composites. After providing an introduction to materials design and current limitations, the review will highlight some of the most recent examples of block copolymer structure-directed nanomaterials for photovoltaics, batteries and fuel cells. In each case insights are provided into the various underlying fundamental chemical, thermodynamic and kinetic formation principles enabling general and relatively inexpensive wet-polymer chemistry methodologies for the efficient creation of multiscale functional materials. Examples include nanostructured ceramics, ceramic-carbon composites, ceramic-carbon-metal composites and metals with morphologies ranging from hexagonally arranged cylinders to three-dimensional bi-continuous cubic networks. The review ends with an outlook towards the synthesis of multicomponent and hierarchical multifunctional hybrid materials with different nano-architectures from self-assembly of higher order blocked macromolecules which may ultimately pave the way for the further development of energy conversion and storage devices.

  13. Organ and effective dose conversion coefficients for a sitting female hybrid computational phantom exposed to monoenergetic protons in idealized irradiation geometries.

    PubMed

    Alves, M C; Santos, W S; Lee, Choonsik; Bolch, Wesley E; Hunt, John G; Carvalho Júnior, A B

    2014-12-21

    The conversion coefficients (CCs) relate protection quantities, mean absorbed dose (DT) and effective dose (E), with physical radiation field quantities, such as fluence (Φ). The calculation of CCs through Monte Carlo simulations is useful for estimating the dose in individuals exposed to radiation. The aim of this work was the calculation of conversion coefficients for absorbed and effective doses per fluence (DT/ Φ and E/Φ) using a sitting and standing female hybrid phantom (UFH/NCI) exposure to monoenergetic protons with energy ranging from 2 MeV to 10 GeV. The radiation transport code MCNPX was used to develop exposure scenarios implementing the female UFH/NCI phantom in sitting and standing postures. Whole-body irradiations were performed using the recommended irradiation geometries by ICRP publication 116 (AP, PA, RLAT, LLAT, ROT and ISO). In most organs, the conversion coefficients DT/Φ were similar for both postures. However, relative differences were significant for organs located in the abdominal region, such as ovaries, uterus and urinary bladder, especially in the AP, RLAT and LLAT geometries. Anatomical differences caused by changing the posture of the female UFH/NCI phantom led an attenuation of incident protons with energies below 150 MeV by the thigh of the phantom in the sitting posture, for the front-to-back irradiation, and by the arms and hands of the phantom in the standing posture, for the lateral irradiation.

  14. Organ and effective dose conversion coefficients for a sitting female hybrid computational phantom exposed to monoenergetic protons in idealized irradiation geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, M. C.; Santos, W. S.; Lee, Choonsik; Bolch, Wesley E.; Hunt, John G.; Carvalho Júnior, A. B.

    2014-12-01

    The conversion coefficients (CCs) relate protection quantities, mean absorbed dose (DT) and effective dose (E), with physical radiation field quantities, such as fluence (Φ). The calculation of CCs through Monte Carlo simulations is useful for estimating the dose in individuals exposed to radiation. The aim of this work was the calculation of conversion coefficients for absorbed and effective doses per fluence (DT/ Φ and E/Φ) using a sitting and standing female hybrid phantom (UFH/NCI) exposure to monoenergetic protons with energy ranging from 2 MeV to 10 GeV. The radiation transport code MCNPX was used to develop exposure scenarios implementing the female UFH/NCI phantom in sitting and standing postures. Whole-body irradiations were performed using the recommended irradiation geometries by ICRP publication 116 (AP, PA, RLAT, LLAT, ROT and ISO). In most organs, the conversion coefficients DT/Φ were similar for both postures. However, relative differences were significant for organs located in the abdominal region, such as ovaries, uterus and urinary bladder, especially in the AP, RLAT and LLAT geometries. Anatomical differences caused by changing the posture of the female UFH/NCI phantom led an attenuation of incident protons with energies below 150 MeV by the thigh of the phantom in the sitting posture, for the front-to-back irradiation, and by the arms and hands of the phantom in the standing posture, for the lateral irradiation.

  15. Hybridizing Conversational and Clear Speech to Investigate the Source of Increased Intelligibility in Speakers with Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tjaden, Kris; Kain, Alexander; Lam, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: A speech analysis-resynthesis paradigm was used to investigate segmental and suprasegmental acoustic variables explaining intelligibility variation for 2 speakers with Parkinson's disease (PD). Method: Sentences were read in conversational and clear styles. Acoustic characteristics from clear sentences were extracted and applied to…

  16. Thermal conversion of core-shell metal-organic frameworks: a new method for selectively functionalized nanoporous hybrid carbon.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jing; Salunkhe, Rahul R; Liu, Jian; Torad, Nagy L; Imura, Masataka; Furukawa, Shuhei; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2015-02-04

    Core-shell structured ZIF-8@ZIF-67 crystals are well-designed and prepared through a seed-mediated growth method. After thermal treatment of ZIF-8@ZIF-67 crystals, we obtain selectively functionalized nanoporous hybrid carbon materials consisting of nitrogen-doped carbon (NC) as the cores and highly graphitic carbon (GC) as the shells. This is the first example of the integration of NC and GC in one particle at the nanometer level. Electrochemical data strongly demonstrate that this nanoporous hybrid carbon material integrates the advantageous properties of the individual NC and GC, exhibiting a distinguished specific capacitance (270 F·g(-1)) calculated from the galvanostatic charge-discharge curves at a current density of 2 A·g(-1). Our study not only bridges diverse carbon-based materials with infinite metal-organic frameworks but also opens a new avenue for artificially designed nanoarchitectures with target functionalities.

  17. Reaction Kinetics of Monomeric Anthocyanin Conversion to Polymeric Pigments and Their Significance to Color in Interspecific Hybrid Wines.

    PubMed

    Burtch, Claire E; Mansfield, Anna Katharine; Manns, David C

    2017-02-15

    The color stability of red wines produced from interspecific hybrid grapes, which is partially dependent on anthocyanin diglucosides, is not well understood. In this study, the rate of decrease of monomeric anthocyanins as they polymerized to polymeric pigments due to the presence of excess catechin and acetaldehyde was measured in model wine using HPLC. Colorimetry was used to measure L*, a*, and b* values, hue angle, and change in color (ΔE). Concentrations of individual diglucosides decreased more slowly than monoglucosides. When monoglucosides and diglucosides were combined, the reaction rate of monoglucosides was slower than that of monoglucosides alone. Hue angles described transitions from red to red-orange, orange, or orange-yellow as anthocyanin-specific changes occurred. The evolution in color represents dynamic reactions between anthocyanins, catechin, and acetaldehyde. Consequently, wines containing high concentrations of diglucosides, such as those produced from interspecific hybrid grapes, will form less polymeric pigment than wines containing primarily monoglucosides.

  18. Size- and shape-controlled conversion of tungstate-based inorganic-organic hybrid belts to WO3 nanoplates with high specific surface areas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Deliang; Gao, Lian; Yasumori, Atsuo; Kuroda, Kazuyuki; Sugahara, Yoshiyuki

    2008-10-01

    Two-dimensional monoclinic WO(3) nanoplates with high specific surface areas are synthesized through a novel conversion process using tungstate-based inorganic-organic hybrid micro/nanobelts as precursors. The process developed involves a topochemical transformation of tungstate-based inorganic-organic hybrid belts into WO(3) nanoplates via an intermediate product of H(2)WO(4) nanoplates, utilizing the similarity of the W-O octahedral layers in both H(2)WO(4) and WO(3). The as-obtained WO(3) nanoplates show a single-crystalline nanostructure with the smallest side along the [001] direction. The WO(3) nanoplates are 200-500 nm x 200-500 nm x 10-30 nm in size, and their specific surface areas are up to 180 m(2) g(-1). Photocatalytic measurements of visible-light-driven oxidation of water for O(2) generation in the presence of Ag(+) ions indicate that the activity of the as-obtained WO(3) nanoplates is one order of magnitude higher than that of commercially available WO(3) powders.

  19. Toward direct light-to-digital conversion using a pulse-driven hybrid MOS-PN photodetector.

    PubMed

    Sallin, Denis; Koukab, Adil; Kayal, Maher

    2015-02-15

    In this Letter, a direct light-to-digital converter based on an MOS-PN photodetector driven by pulsed voltage is presented. The objective is to avoid any analog-to-digital or time-to-digital conversion and, thereby, to pave the way for a new generation of fully digital imaging sensors with reduced complexity, area, and power consumption. Moreover, the pulsed voltage operation allows for a significant reduction of the dark level. The concept is validated by a theoretical study and TCAD simulations. A first prototype fabricated in 0.18 μm CMOS technology is presented. The experimental results under various light conditions show that the pulsed voltage improves the light sensitivity by several orders of magnitude.

  20. Bio-template route for facile fabrication of Cd(OH){sub 2}@yeast hybrid microspheres and their subsequent conversion to mesoporous CdO hollow microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Bo; Guan, Weisheng; Li, Ziyan; Li Puma, Gianluca

    2011-01-15

    Cadmium oxide (CdO) microspheres with a porous hollow microstructure were prepared by a facile yeast mediated bio-template route. The yeast provides a solid scaffold for the deposition of cadmium hydroxide (Cd(OH){sub 2}) from cadmium acetate and sodium hydroxide solutions to form the hybrid Cd(OH){sub 2}@yeast precursor. Thermal conversions of this at above 500 {sup o}C in air have produced hollow CdO microspheres. The products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface analysis respectively. The obtained CdO microspheres have uniform size (length = 2.6 {+-} 0.4 {mu}m; width = 2.0 {+-} 0.2 {mu}m) and a well defined, continuous, mesoporous hollow microstructure. The shell is about 250-280 nm in thickness. The mechanism of formation of Cd(OH){sub 2}@yeast precursor and its conversion to CdO hollow microspheres is discussed. In comparison with traditional template-directed method, the present strategy represents a general, economical and environmentally benign route for the formation of metal oxide hollow microspheres. These materials have potential applications in different fields such as encapsulation, drug delivery, efficient catalysis, battery materials and photonic crystals. The method presented can be extended to the synthesis of other inorganic hollow microstructures of different sizes and shapes by pre-selecting suitable bio-templates.

  1. Hybrid chromophore/template nanostructures: a customizable platform material for emissions-free solar energy storage and conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolpak, Alexie

    2012-03-01

    By reversibly storing solar energy in the conformations of molecular photo-isomers, solar thermal fuels (STFs) provide a mechanism for emissions-free, renewable energy storage and conversion, all in a single system. Development of STFs as a large-scale clean energy technology, however, has been hampered by a number of technical challenges that beset many of the photo-isomers of interest. These challenges include low energy density, short storage lifetime, and low quantum yield of the photoisomerization reaction; a small overlap with the solar spectrum; and the irreversible degradation of the photo-active molecules upon repeated cycling. In this talk, I will discuss my work using first-principles computations to design new STFs that overcome these technical hurdles. I will present computational results on a range of novel STFs based on our recently proposed photo-isomer/template nanostructure concept [Kolpak and Grossman, Nano Letters 11, 3156 (2011)], illustrating that this approach enables enormous improvements with respect to the potential STFs studied in the past, leading to STFs with energy densities in the range of Li-ion batteries, storage lifetimes of up to a year, and increased quantum yield and absorption efficiency. I will also discuss preliminary experimental results on the synthesis and characterization of one of the predicted STFs based on azobenzene-derivitized carbon nanotubes. With a large range of the photo-isomer/template phase space yet to be explored, there are numerous exciting possibilites for further property enhancement and customization, suggesting that STFs could become a competitive renewable energy technology.

  2. Novel light-conversion hybrids of SBA-16 functionalized with rare earth (Eu3+, Nd3+, Yb3+) complexes of modified 2-methyl-9-hydroxyphenalenone and 1,10-phenanthroline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yan-Jing; Yan, Bing; Qiao, Xiao-Fei

    2013-03-01

    Novel rare earth complex-functionalized mesoporous SBA-16-type hybrid materials are synthesized by the co-condensation of modified 2-methyl-9-hydroxyphenalenone (MHPOSi), from modified 3-(triethoxysilyl)-propyl isocyanate (TEPIC), and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in the presence of Pluronic F127 as a template. These inorganic-organic mesoporous hybrids are characterized by FT-IR spectra, small-angle X-ray diffraction (SAXRD), N2 adsorption-desorption measurements, thermal analysis and spectroscopy. Their photophysical properties, which show novel light conversion properties, are discussed in detail. The Eu3+ hybrid system shows ultraviolet excitation and visible emission, and the Nd+ and Yb3+ hybrids exhibit visible excitation and NIR emission.

  3. Planar CH3NH3PbBr3 hybrid solar cells with 10.4% power conversion efficiency, fabricated by controlled crystallization in the spin-coating process.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jin Hyuck; Song, Dae Ho; Im, Sang Hyuk

    2014-12-23

    A power conversion efficiency of 10.4% is demonstrated in planar CH3 NH3 PbBr3 hybrid solar cells without hysteresis of the J-V curve, by way of controlled crystallization in the spin-coating process. The high efficiency is attributed to the formation of a dense CH3 NH3 PbBr3 thin film by the introduction of HBr solution because the HBr increases the solubility of the CH3 NH3 PbBr3 and forms a thinner CH3 NH3 PbBr3 layer with full surface coverage.

  4. Up-conversion cell imaging and pH-induced thermally controlled drug release from NaYF4/Yb3+/Er3+@hydrogel core-shell hybrid microspheres.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yunlu; Ma, Ping'an; Cheng, Ziyong; Kang, Xiaojiao; Zhang, Xiao; Hou, Zhiyao; Li, Chunxia; Yang, Dongmei; Zhai, Xuefeng; Lin, Jun

    2012-04-24

    In this study, we report a new controlled release system based on up-conversion luminescent microspheres of NaYF(4):Yb(3+)/Er(3+) coated with the smart hydrogel poly[(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-(methacrylic acid)] (P(NIPAM-co-MAA)) (prepared using 5 mol % of MAA) shell. The hybrid microspheres show bright up-conversion fluorescence under 980 nm laser excitation, and turbidity measurements show that the low critical solution temperature of the polymer shell is thermo- and pH-dependent. We have exploited the hybrid microspheres as carriers for Doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) due to its stimuli-responsive property as well as good biocompatibility via MTT assay. It is found that the drug release behavior is pH-triggered thermally sensitive. Changing the pH to mildly acidic condition at physiological temperature deforms the structure of the shell, causing the release of a large number of DOX from the microspheres. The drug-loaded microspheres exhibit an obvious cytotoxic effect on SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells. The endocytosis process of drug-loaded microspheres is observed using confocal laser scanning microscopy and up-conversion luminescence microscopy. Meanwhile, the as-prepared NaYF(4):Yb(3+)/Er(3+)@SiO(2)@P(NIPAM-co-MAA) microspheres can be used as a luminescent probe for cell imaging. In addition, the extent of drug release can be monitored by the change of up-conversion emission intensity. These pH-induced thermally controlled drug release systems have potential to be used for in vivo bioimaging and cancer therapy by the pH of the microenvironment changing from 7.4 (normal physiological environment) to acidic microenvironments (such as endosome and lysosome compartments) owing to endocytosis.

  5. A comparison study of aliphatic and aromatic structure directing agents influencing the crystal and electronic structures, and properties of iodoplumbate hybrids: water induced structure conversion and visible light photocatalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guang-Ning; Shi, Jian-Ru; Han, Xiao-Jiang; Zhang, Xiao; Li, Ke; Li, Jie; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Qi-Sheng; Zhang, Zhen-Wei; Li, Cuncheng

    2015-07-28

    The introduction of the aliphatic amines en (ethylenediamine), aep (N-(2-aminoethyl)piperazine) and tepa (tetraethylenepentamine), and the aromatic species 2,2'-bipy (2,2'-bipyridine) and dpe (1,2-di(4-pyridyl)ethylene) as structure directing agents (SDAs) into inorganic iodoplumbates affords six hybrids, namely [(Hen)4(H2.5O)2I](PbI6) (1), Cs2n[Pb3I8(en)2]n (2), (H3tepa)n(PbI5)n (3), (H2aep)n(PbI4)n (4), (Et22,2'-bipy)n(Pb2I6)n (5) and (Et2dpe)n(Pb2I6)n (6). 1 contains a discrete octahedral (PbI6)(4-) anion generated under the direction of a novel co-template, [(Hen)4(H2.5O)2I](4+). 2 contains inorganic Cs(+) ions and a novel hybrid anionic layer [Pb3I8(en)2]n(2n-) that has never been encountered in iodoplumbate hybrids. 3 features a zigzag (PbI5)(3-) chain with the charge being compensated by a triprotonated tepa cation. 4 is composed of perovskite sheets of lead(ii) octahedra and aep cations that are generated from tepa via an unprecedented in situ ligand reaction. Both 5 and 6 have (Pb2I6)n(2n-) chains and represent the first example of introducing a 2,2'-bipy or dpe derivative cation in iodoplumbate hybrids, respectively. The comparative study reveals that aliphatic amines and aromatic species contribute differently to the crystal and electronic structures, and the properties of the hybrids. Importantly, 1-4 exhibit interesting water induced structure conversions, while 5 and 6 can be used as heterogeneous photocatalysts for dye wastewater treatment under visible light irradiation.

  6. Chemical reactions in TiO2/SnO2/TiCl4 hybrid electrodes and their impacts to power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Chuen-Shii; Jhang, Jhih-Wei; Chou, Sheng-Wei; Wu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the applicability of TiO2/SnO2/TiCl4 hybrid electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) by combining chemical modeling with experimentation. The interfacial chemical reactions in a TiO2/SnO2/TiCl4 system were simulated using a thermochemistry software package, which led to the design and testing of hybrid working electrodes. Chemical thermodynamic modeling proved that TiCl4 is an effective agent in removing Tin+ (n<4) and Snm+ (m<4) ion impurities from dry-mixed TiO2/SnO2 composite particles. Our results demonstrate that the power conversion efficiency of DSSC with a TiO2/SnO2/TiCl4 hybrid electrode exceeds that of the conventional DSSC with a TiO2 electrode due to the effects of light-scattering and the formation of additional absorbance (SnCl2), which is an unexpected side effect of TiCl4 treatment enabling the absorption of visible light. The proposed approach is ideally suited to establishing relationships between chemistry theory and the structure and performance of advanced DSSCs as well as photo-electro-chemical systems.

  7. A hybrid geothermal energy conversion technology: Auxiliary heating of geothermally preheated water or CO2 - a potential solution for low-temperature resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saar, Martin; Garapati, Nagasree; Adams, Benjamin; Randolph, Jimmy; Kuehn, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Safe, sustainable, and economic development of deep geothermal resources, particularly in less favourable regions, often requires employment of unconventional geothermal energy extraction and utilization methods. Often "unconventional geothermal methods" is synonymously and solely used as meaning enhanced geothermal systems, where the permeability of hot, dry rock with naturally low permeability at greater depths (4-6 km), is enhanced. Here we present an alternative unconventional geothermal energy utilization approach that uses low-temperature regions that are shallower, thereby drastically reducing drilling costs. While not a pure geothermal energy system, this hybrid approach may enable utilization of geothermal energy in many regions worldwide that can otherwise not be used for geothermal electricity generation, thereby increasing the global geothermal resource base. Moreover, in some realizations of this hybrid approach that generate carbon dioxide (CO2), the technology may be combined with carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) and CO2-based geothermal energy utilization, resulting in a high-efficiency (hybrid) geothermal power plant with a negative carbon footprint. Typically, low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resources are more effectively used for direct heat energy applications. However, due to high thermal losses during transport, direct use requires that the heat resource is located near the user. Alternatively, we show here that if such a low-temperature geothermal resource is combined with an additional or secondary energy resource, the power production is increased compared to the sum from two separate (geothermal and secondary fuel) power plants (DiPippo et al. 1978) and the thermal losses are minimized because the thermal energy is utilized where it is produced. Since Adams et al. (2015) found that using CO2 as a subsurface working fluid produces more net power than brine at low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resource conditions, we

  8. Contentious Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuidema, Leah A.

    2011-01-01

    The idea of joining a conversation through reading and writing is not new; in his 1941 book "The Philosophy of Literary Form: Studies in Symbolic Action," Kenneth Burke suggests that the acts of reading and writing are like entering a parlor where others are already conversing. The author explores the place of professional debate within NCTE and…

  9. Facile One-Step Synthesis of Hybrid Graphitic Carbon Nitride and Carbon Composites as High-Performance Catalysts for CO2 Photocatalytic Conversion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yangang; Bai, Xia; Qin, Hengfei; Wang, Fei; Li, Yaguang; Li, Xi; Kang, Shifei; Zuo, Yuanhui; Cui, Lifeng

    2016-07-13

    Utilizing and reducing carbon dioxide is a key target in the fight against global warming. The photocatalytic performance of bulk graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) is usually limited by its low surface area and rapid charge carrier recombination. To develop g-C3N4 more suitable for photocatalysis, researchers have to enlarge its surface area and accelerate the charge carrier separation. In this work, novel hybrid graphitic carbon nitride and carbon (H-g-C3N4/C) composites with various carbon contents have been developed for the first time by a facile one-step pyrolysis method using melamine and natural soybean oil as precursors. The effect of carbon content on the structure of H-g-C3N4/C composites and the catalytic activity for the photoreduction of CO2 with H2O were investigated. The results indicated that the introduction of carbon component can effectively improve the textural properties and electronic conductivity of the composites, which exhibited imporved photocatalytic activity for the reduction of CO2 with H2O in comparison with bulk g-C3N4. The highest CO and CH4 yield of 22.60 μmol/g-cat. and 12.5 μmol/g-cat., respectively, were acquired on the H-g-C3N4/C-6 catalyst with the carbon content of 3.77 wt % under 9 h simulated solar irradiation, which were more than twice as high as that of bulk g-C3N4. The remarkably increased photocatalytic performance arises from the synergistic effect of hybrid carbon and g-C3N4.

  10. Manipulation of Amorphous-to-Crystalline Transformation: Towards the Construction of Covalent Organic Framework Hybrid Microspheres with NIR Photothermal Conversion Ability.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jing; Namuangruk, Supawadee; Kong, Weifu; Kungwan, Nawee; Guo, Jia; Wang, Changchun

    2016-11-02

    An approach to transforming amorphous organic networks into crystalline covalent organic frameworks (COFs) with retention of the colloidal nanosize and uniform morphology is presented. Specifically, Fe3 O4 nanoclusters are encapsulated by a disordering polyimine network via the Schiff-base reaction. The formed imine bonds could be reconstructed under thermodynamic control to reform the polyimine networks into imine-linked COFs in situ. Such a core-shell microsphere exhibits the uniform size and spherical shape, controllable COF shell thickness, accessible surface modification, and improved solution dispersibility as well as maintenance of high surface area, periodic micropores, and superior magnetic responsiveness. Additionally, the photothermal conversion effect is demonstrated for the first time on the nanoCOF layers upon exposure to near infrared light, providing convincing evidence for potential use in phototherapy.

  11. Metric Conversion

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-12

    ... petabyte = one quadrillion bytes The Bureau International Poids et Measures (BIPM) brochure on the International System ... For accurate conversions, see the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Special Publications: NIST Guide to ...

  12. Conversion Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recent significant stress or emotional trauma Being female — women are much more likely to develop conversion disorder Having a mental health condition, such as mood or anxiety disorders, dissociative disorder or certain personality disorders Having ...

  13. Hybrid photocathodes for solar fuel production: coupling molecular fuel-production catalysts with solid-state light harvesting and conversion technologies.

    PubMed

    Cedeno, Diana; Krawicz, Alexandra; Moore, Gary F

    2015-06-06

    Artificial photosynthesis is described as the great scientific and moral challenge of our time. We imagine a future where a significant portion of our energy is supplied by such technologies. However, many scientific, engineering and policy challenges must be addressed for this realization. Scientific challenges include the development of effective strategies to couple light absorption, electron transfer and catalysis for efficient conversion of light energy to chemical energy as well as the construction and study of structurally diverse assemblies to carry out these processes. In this article, we review recent efforts from our own research to develop a modular approach to interfacing molecular fuel-production catalysts to visible-light-absorbing semiconductors and discuss the role of the interfacing material as a protection layer for the catalysts as well as the underpinning semiconductor. In concluding, we briefly discuss the potential benefits of a globally coordinated project on artificial photosynthesis that interfaces teams of scientists, engineers and policymakers. Further, we offer cautions that such a large interconnected organization should consider. This article is inspired by, and draws largely from, an invited presentation given by the corresponding author at the Royal Society at Chicheley Hall, home of the Kavli Royal Society International Centre, Buckinghamshire on the themed meeting topic: 'Do we need a global project on artificial photosynthesis?'

  14. Hybrid photocathodes for solar fuel production: coupling molecular fuel-production catalysts with solid-state light harvesting and conversion technologies

    PubMed Central

    Cedeno, Diana; Krawicz, Alexandra; Moore, Gary F.

    2015-01-01

    Artificial photosynthesis is described as the great scientific and moral challenge of our time. We imagine a future where a significant portion of our energy is supplied by such technologies. However, many scientific, engineering and policy challenges must be addressed for this realization. Scientific challenges include the development of effective strategies to couple light absorption, electron transfer and catalysis for efficient conversion of light energy to chemical energy as well as the construction and study of structurally diverse assemblies to carry out these processes. In this article, we review recent efforts from our own research to develop a modular approach to interfacing molecular fuel-production catalysts to visible-light-absorbing semiconductors and discuss the role of the interfacing material as a protection layer for the catalysts as well as the underpinning semiconductor. In concluding, we briefly discuss the potential benefits of a globally coordinated project on artificial photosynthesis that interfaces teams of scientists, engineers and policymakers. Further, we offer cautions that such a large interconnected organization should consider. This article is inspired by, and draws largely from, an invited presentation given by the corresponding author at the Royal Society at Chicheley Hall, home of the Kavli Royal Society International Centre, Buckinghamshire on the themed meeting topic: ‘Do we need a global project on artificial photosynthesis?’ PMID:26052422

  15. Strong Enhancement of Photoelectric Conversion Efficiency of Co-hybridized Polymer Solar Cell by Silver Nanoplates and Core-Shell Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wenfei; Tang, Jianguo; Wang, Yao; Liu, Jixian; Huang, Linjun; Chen, Weichao; Yang, Lanlan; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yanxin; Yang, Renqiang; Yun, Jungheum; Belfiore, Laurence A

    2017-02-15

    A new way was meticulously designed to utilize the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect and the light scattering effect of silver nanoplate (Ag-nPl) and core-shell Ag@SiO2 nanoparticles (Ag@SiO2-NPs) to enhance the photovoltaic performances of polymer solar cells (PSCs). To prevent direct contact between silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) and photoactive materials which will cause electrons quenching, bare Ag-nPl were spin-coated on indium tin oxide and silica capsulated Ag-NPs were incorporated to a PBDTTT-C-T:PC71BM active layer. As a result, the devices incorporated with Ag-nPl and Ag@SiO2-NPs showed great enhancements. With the dual effects of Ag-nPl and Ag@SiO2-NPs in devices, all wavelength sensitization in the visible range was realized; therefore, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of PSCs showed a great enhancement of 14.0% to 8.46%, with an increased short-circuit current density of 17.23 mA·cm(-2). The improved photovoltaic performances of the devices were ascribed to the LSPR effect and the light scattering effect of metallic nanoparticles. Apart from optical effects, the charge collection efficiency of PSCs was improved after the incorporation of Ag-nPl.

  16. Comprehensive analysis of photonic effects on up-conversion of β-NaYF4:Er3+ nanoparticles in an organic-inorganic hybrid 1D photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, C. L. M.; Fischer, S.; Reitz, C.; Richards, B. S.; Goldschmidt, J. C.

    2016-04-01

    Upconversion (UC) presents a possibility to exploit sub-bandgap photons for current generation in solar cells by creating one high-energy photon out of at least two lower-energy photons. Photonic structures can enhance UC by two effects: a locally increased irradiance and a modified local density of photon states (LDOS). Bragg stacks are promising photonic structures for this application, because they are straightforward to optimize and overall absorption can be increased by adding more layers. In this work, we present a comprehensive simulation-based analysis of the photonic effects of a Bragg stack on UC luminescence. The investigated organic-inorganic hybrid Bragg stack consists of alternating layers of Poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), containing purpose-built β-NaYF4:25% Er3+ core-shell nanoparticles and titanium dioxide (TiO2). From optical characterization of single thin layers, input parameters for simulations of the photonic effects are generated. The local irradiance enhancement and modulated LDOS are first simulated separately. Subsequently they are coupled in a rate equation model of the upconversion dynamics. Using the integrated model, UC luminescence is maximized by adapting the Bragg stack design. For a Bragg stack of only 5 bilayers, UC luminescence is enhanced by a factor of 3.8 at an incident irradiance of 2000 W/m2. Our results identify the Bragg stack as promising for enhancing UC, especially in the low-irradiance regime, relevant for the application in photovoltaics. Therefore, we experimentally realized optimized Bragg stack designs. The PMMA layers, containing UC nanoparticles, are produced via spin-coating from a toluene based solution. The TiO2 layers are produced by atomic layer deposition from molecular precursors. The reflectance measurements show that the realized Bragg stacks are in good agreement with predictions from simulation.

  17. Conversational Telugu.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beinstein, Judith; And Others

    The purpose of this text is to develop elementary conversational skills in Telugu. The language materials consist of four types of language learning activities. The first, and most predominant, is the unit microwave cycle. These cycles divide the learning process into two basic phases, the first of which involves mimicry, memorization, and…

  18. Conversational Tamil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beinstein, Judith; And Others

    The purpose of this text is to develop conversational skills in Tamil. It is to be used as a review of what has been learned in class and not as a teaching device. The language materials consist of four types of language learning activities. The unit microwave cycle divides the learning process into two basic phases. The first phase involves…

  19. Energy conversion at dipolarization fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Divin, A.; Vaivads, A.; André, M.; Markidis, S.

    2017-02-01

    We use multispacecraft observations by Cluster in the Earth's magnetotail and 3-D particle-in-cell simulations to investigate conversion of electromagnetic energy at the front of a fast plasma jet. We find that the major energy conversion is happening in the Earth (laboratory) frame, where the electromagnetic energy is being transferred from the electromagnetic field to particles. This process operates in a region with size of the order several ion inertial lengths across the jet front, and the primary contribution to E·j is coming from the motional electric field and the ion current. In the frame of the front we find fluctuating energy conversion with localized loads and generators at sub-ion scales which are primarily related to the lower hybrid drift instability excited at the front; however, these provide relatively small net energy conversion.

  20. Conversational sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preece, Alun; Gwilliams, Chris; Parizas, Christos; Pizzocaro, Diego; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Braines, Dave

    2014-05-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies, mobile devices and context-aware user interfaces have made it pos- sible to represent information fusion and situational awareness for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) activities as a conversational process among actors at or near the tactical edges of a network. Motivated by use cases in the domain of Company Intelligence Support Team (CoIST) tasks, this paper presents an approach to information collection, fusion and sense-making based on the use of natural language (NL) and controlled nat- ural language (CNL) to support richer forms of human-machine interaction. The approach uses a conversational protocol to facilitate a ow of collaborative messages from NL to CNL and back again in support of interactions such as: turning eyewitness reports from human observers into actionable information (from both soldier and civilian sources); fusing information from humans and physical sensors (with associated quality metadata); and assisting human analysts to make the best use of available sensing assets in an area of interest (governed by man- agement and security policies). CNL is used as a common formal knowledge representation for both machine and human agents to support reasoning, semantic information fusion and generation of rationale for inferences, in ways that remain transparent to human users. Examples are provided of various alternative styles for user feedback, including NL, CNL and graphical feedback. A pilot experiment with human subjects shows that a prototype conversational agent is able to gather usable CNL information from untrained human subjects.

  1. Conversational sensemaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preece, Alun; Webberley, Will; Braines, Dave

    2015-05-01

    Recent advances in natural language question-answering systems and context-aware mobile apps create opportunities for improved sensemaking in a tactical setting. Users equipped with mobile devices act as both sensors (able to acquire information) and effectors (able to act in situ), operating alone or in collectives. The currently- dominant technical approaches follow either a pull model (e.g. Apple's Siri or IBM's Watson which respond to users' natural language queries) or a push model (e.g. Google's Now which sends notifications to a user based on their context). There is growing recognition that users need more flexible styles of conversational interaction, where they are able to freely ask or tell, be asked or told, seek explanations and clarifications. Ideally such conversations should involve a mix of human and machine agents, able to collaborate in collective sensemaking activities with as few barriers as possible. Desirable capabilities include adding new knowledge, collaboratively building models, invoking specific services, and drawing inferences. As a step towards this goal, we collect evidence from a number of recent pilot studies including natural experiments (e.g. situation awareness in the context of organised protests) and synthetic experiments (e.g. human and machine agents collaborating in information seeking and spot reporting). We identify some principles and areas of future research for "conversational sensemaking".

  2. Fabrication of Heterostructured g-C3N4/Ag-TiO2 Hybrid Photocatalyst with Enhanced Performance in Photocatalytic Conversion of CO2 Under Simulated Sunlight Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hailong; Gao, Yan; Wu, Xianying; Lee, Po-Heng; Shih, Kaimin

    2017-04-01

    Heterostructured g-C3N4/Ag-TiO2 (CN/AgTi) hybrid catalysts were fabricated through a facile solvent evaporation followed by a calcination process, using graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) and Ag-TiO2 (AgTi) as precursors. The phase compositions, optical properties, and morphologies of the catalysts were systematically characterized. The heterostructured combination of g-C3N4, titania (TiO2) and silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) resulted in significant synergy for catalytic conversion of CO2 in the presence of water vapor under simulated sunlight irradiation. The optimal CN/AgTi composite with a g-C3N4 to AgTi mass ratio of 8% exhibited the maximum CO2 photoreduction activity, achieving a CO2 conversion of 47 μmol, CH4 yield of 28 μmol, and CO yield of 19 μmol per gram of catalyst during a 3 h simulated sunlight irradiation. Under the experimental conditions, the rate of electron consumption was calculated to be 87.3 μmol/g·h, which was 12.7 times, 7.9 times, and 2.0 times higher than those for TiO2, g-C3N4 and AgTi, respectively. The combination of g-C3N4 and AgTi resulted in more sunlight harvesting for electron and hole generations. Photoinduced electrons transferred through the heterjunction between g-C3N4 and TiO2, and further from TiO2 to Ag NPs with lower Fermi level greatly suppressed the recombination of electron-hole pairs, and hence resulted in electron accumulation on Ag NPs deposited on the TiO2 surface in the CN/AgTi. Abundant electrons accumulated on the Ag NPs were further energized by the surface plasmon resonance effect with the aid of visible light. Therefore, the CN/AgTi catalysts exhibited superior catalytic performance in CO2 reduction by water vapor under simulated sunlight irradiation.

  3. Hybrid reactors. [Fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-09-09

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of /sup 233/U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m/sup -2/, and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid.

  4. Pashto Conversation Manual and Pashto Conversation Tapescript.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tegey, Habibullah; Robson, Barbara

    This conversation manual and tapescript are part of a set of materials that have been developed to teach oral and written Afghan Pashto to English speakers. In addition to the conversation manual and tapescript, the set consists of a beginning textbook, an intermediate textbook, a reader, and a set of taped lessons that correlate with the…

  5. Direct Conversion of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corliss, William R.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Direct energy conversion involves energy transformation without moving parts. The concepts of direct and dynamic energy conversion plus the laws governing energy conversion are investigated. Among the topics…

  6. Learning through Conversation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Patricia R.; Klein, Adria F.; Pinnell, Gay Su

    1996-01-01

    Through teacher-child conversation, experts use oral language to help novices take on more complex tasks; and Reading Recovery children, who are obviously having difficulty with school-based learning, are especially in need of significant conversations with adults. Reading and writing processes are supported through conversation with Reading…

  7. NGL data conversion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoji, Masahiro; Horiuchi, Nobuyasu

    2005-06-01

    We are developing a NGL data conversion system for EPL, for LEEPL, and for EBDW, which is based on our established photomask data conversion system, PATACON PC-cluster. For EPL data conversion, it has SF division, Complementary division, Stitching, Proximity effect correction, Alignment mark insertion, EB stepper control data creation, and Mask inspection data creation. For LEEPL data conversion, it has Pattern checking, Complementary division, Stitching, Stress distortion correction, Alignment mark insertion, and Mask inspection data creation. For EB direct-writing data conversion, it has Proximity effect correction and Extraction of aperture pattern for cell projection exposure.

  8. Iterated multidimensional wave conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Brizard, A. J.; Tracy, E. R.; Johnston, D.; Kaufman, A. N.; Richardson, A. S.; Zobin, N.

    2011-12-23

    Mode conversion can occur repeatedly in a two-dimensional cavity (e.g., the poloidal cross section of an axisymmetric tokamak). We report on two novel concepts that allow for a complete and global visualization of the ray evolution under iterated conversions. First, iterated conversion is discussed in terms of ray-induced maps from the two-dimensional conversion surface to itself (which can be visualized in terms of three-dimensional rooms). Second, the two-dimensional conversion surface is shown to possess a symplectic structure derived from Dirac constraints associated with the two dispersion surfaces of the interacting waves.

  9. Power conversion apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Su, Gui-Jia [Knoxville, TN

    2012-02-07

    A power conversion apparatus includes an interfacing circuit that enables a current source inverter to operate from a voltage energy storage device (voltage source), such as a battery, ultracapacitor or fuel cell. The interfacing circuit, also referred to as a voltage-to-current converter, transforms the voltage source into a current source that feeds a DC current to a current source inverter. The voltage-to-current converter also provides means for controlling and maintaining a constant DC bus current that supplies the current source inverter. The voltage-to-current converter also enables the current source inverter to charge the voltage energy storage device, such as during dynamic braking of a hybrid electric vehicle, without the need of reversing the direction of the DC bus current.

  10. Analysis of Linear Conversion to Two Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brizard, Alain J.; Jaun, Andre; Kaufman, Allan N.; Tracy, Eugene R.

    2003-10-01

    Recent experimental observations [1] and computer simulations [2] show that, in a tokamak plasma with multispecies ions, an incident magnetosonic wave converts either to an ion-hybrid Bernstein wave or to an ion-cyclotron wave, depending on the location of the conversion region in the poloidal cross section. We present a cold-plasma model of simultaneous conversion to these two modes, and obtain explicit expressions for transmission and conversion coefficients. Our approach is based on phase-space analysis of multiple conversion [3], in two or four phase-space dimensions (i.e., one or two spatial dimensions).Our ray-tracing algorithm [4], for detection of conversion and for treatment of ray-splitting due to conversion, will be applied to this process. 1.E Nelson-Melby, M Porkolab, P T Bonoli, Y Lin, A Mazurenko, S J Wukitch, Phys Rev Lett 90 (2003) 155004 2.E F Jaeger, L A Berry, J R Myra, D B Batchelor, E D'Azevedo, P T Bonoli, C K Phillips, D N Smithe, D A D'Ippolito, M D Carter, R J Dumont, J C Wright, R W Harvey, Phys Rev Lett 90 (2003) 195001 3. Y-M Liang, J J Morehead, D R Cook, T Fla, A N Kaufman, Physics Letters A193 (1994) 82 4. E R Tracy, A N Kaufman, A Jaun, Physics Letters A290 (2001) 309

  11. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  12. Conversing with Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    I/NET, Inc., is making the dream of natural human-computer conversation a practical reality. Through a combination of advanced artificial intelligence research and practical software design, I/NET has taken the complexity out of developing advanced, natural language interfaces. Conversational capabilities like pronoun resolution, anaphora and ellipsis processing, and dialog management that were once available only in the laboratory can now be brought to any application with any speech recognition system using I/NET s conversational engine middleware.

  13. LH wave absorption by mode conversion near ion cyclotron harmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, K.; Bers, A.; Fuchs, V.

    1981-02-01

    Numerical studies of the dispersion relation near the lower-hybrid frequency in an inhomogeneous plasma (..delta.. n, ..delta.. T, ..delta.. B) show that portions of an incident lower-hybrid wave spectrum undergo successive but partial mode conversions to warm-plasma waves in the presence of ion cyclotron harmonics. Wave absorption beyond the first mode conversion occurs near an ion cyclotron harmonic where ion Landau damping is enhanced. A second-order dispersion relation numerically in good agreement with the full dispersion relation in the mode conversion region is derived using the condition par. delta D/par. delta k = 0. The mode conversion efficiency at each confluence is evaluated by solving the corresponding differential equation.

  14. Conversations in Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardige, Betty; Segal, Marilyn

    2004-01-01

    In this article, Bardige and Segal discuss how teachers can help a toddler's language and literacy development through conversation. They suggest an array of tactics, from asking young children open-ended, intellectually challenging questions to going beyond the here and now when carrying on a conversation. Research has shown that the practice of…

  15. Recording Conversations in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluckman, Ivan B.; Koerner, Thomas J., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    In general, because of varying federal and state legislation and a paucity of court decisions, the law governing the recording of conversations is in considerable flux. School personnel desiring to record conversations in school without the consent or knowledge of all parties involved must proceed with considerable caution. (Author)

  16. Energy conversion alternatives study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shure, L. T.

    1979-01-01

    Comparison of coal based energy systems is given. Study identifies and compares various advanced energy conversion systems using coal or coal derived fuels for baselaoad electric power generation. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) reports provede government, industry, and general public with technically consistent basis for comparison of system's options of interest for fossilfired electric-utility application.

  17. Assessment through Conversation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Danling; Lamme, Linda L.

    2002-01-01

    Presents conversations with parents, teachers, and children around portfolios that provide a better picture of a child's growth and understanding than standardized test scores ever can. Concludes that the involvement of students, teachers, and parents in conversation about children's literacy development brings the potential of a common vision and…

  18. NUCLEAR CONVERSION APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1960-09-13

    A nuclear conversion apparatus is described which comprises a body of neutron moderator, tubes extending therethrough, uranium in the tubes, a fluid- circulating system associated with the tubes, a thorium-containing fluid coolant in the system and tubes, and means for withdrawing the fluid from the system and replacing it in the system whereby thorium conversion products may be recovered.

  19. Content for Conversation Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Kathleen

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that a good strategy for helping English language learners to develop communicative competence in English is by pairing them with native English speakers. In such conversation programs, conversation partners should be provided with topics and activities that incorporate the goals, interests, and experiences of the learners. Recommends…

  20. Solar Thermal Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Kreith, F.; Meyer, R. T.

    1982-11-01

    The thermal conversion process of solar energy is based on well-known phenomena of heat transfer (Kreith 1976). In all thermal conversion processes, solar radiation is absorbed at the surface of a receiver, which contains or is in contact with flow passages through which a working fluid passes. As the receiver heats up, heat is transferred to the working fluid which may be air, water, oil, or a molten salt. The upper temperature that can be achieved in solar thermal conversion depends on the insolation, the degree to which the sunlight is concentrated, and the measures taken to reduce heat losses from the working fluid.

  1. Postoperative conversion disorder.

    PubMed

    Afolabi, Kola; Ali, Sameer; Gahtan, Vivian; Gorji, Reza; Li, Fenghua; Nussmeier, Nancy A

    2016-05-01

    Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder in which psychological stress causes neurologic deficits. A 28-year-old female surgical patient had uneventful general anesthesia and emergence but developed conversion disorder 1 hour postoperatively. She reported difficulty speaking, right-hand numbness and weakness, and right-leg paralysis. Neurologic examination and imaging revealed no neuronal damage, herniation, hemorrhage, or stroke. The patient mentioned failing examinations the day before surgery and discontinuing her prescribed antidepressant medication, leading us to diagnose conversion disorder, with eventual confirmation by neuroimaging and follow-up examinations.

  2. Morphological variation of genetically confirmed Alouatta Pigra × A. palliata hybrids from a natural hybrid zone in Tabasco, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Kelaita, Mary A; Cortés-Ortiz, Liliana

    2013-02-01

    While hybridization has been reported for a large number of primate taxa, there is a general lack of data on hybrid morphology for wild individuals with known genetic ancestry. A confirmed hybrid zone for the closely related Neotropical primates Alouatta palliata and A. pigra has provided a unique opportunity to study primate hybrid morphological variation. Here we used molecular evidence based on mitochondrial, Y-chromosome, and autosomal data to assess hybrid ancestry. We conducted univariate and multivariate statistical comparisons of morphometric data collected from individuals both outside and within the hybrid zone in Tabasco, Mexico. Our results show that of all the hybrids detected (N = 128), only 12% of them were approximately genetically intermediate, and none of them were first generation hybrids. Univariate pairwise comparisons among parental individuals, multigenerational backcrossed hybrids, and intermediate hybrids showed that overall, multigenerational backcrossed hybrids resemble the parental species with which they share most of their alleles. Conversely, intermediates were highly variable. Similarly, principal component analysis depicts an overlap between the parental species and their backcrosses when considering overall morphological differences. Finally, discriminant function analysis of the morphological variables was overall unreliable for classifying individuals into their assigned genotypic classes. Taken together, our results suggest that primate natural hybridization studies should incorporate molecular methods for determining ancestry, because morphology may not always be a reliable indicator of hybrid status. Hybrid zones could comprise a large number of multigenerational backcrossed hybrids that are indistinguishable from the parental species. The implications for studying hybridization in the primate fossil record are discussed.

  3. Biothermal modeling of post-cryoplasty atherosclerosis in restenotic patients.

    PubMed

    Men-Chi, H; Ravigururajan, T S

    2007-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of heart diseases and mortality around the world. Recently, cryoplasty has emerged as a potential alternative method to treat arterial atherosclerosis. Finite element heat transfer and mass transfer models are developed using ANSYS in this study. The model analyzes the heat transfer within the atherosclerotic plaque and arterial wall during the cryoplasty procedure. The model is useful in predicting the transient temperature through the diseased wall tissues. The results may be used to decide required treatment procedure to effectively freeze the plaque with minimal damage to the healthy arterial tissues. Finally, the model investigates the parameters that may effect temperature distribution within the tissues during the ablative procedure.

  4. Stellarator hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Furth, H.P.; Ludescher, C.

    1984-08-01

    The present paper briefly reviews the subject of tokamak-stellarator and pinch-stellarator hybrids, and points to two interesting new possibilities: compact-torus-stellarators and mirror-stellarators.

  5. Responsive Teaching through Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dozier, Cheryl; Garnett, Susan; Tabatabai, Simeen

    2011-01-01

    Conversations are the heart of responsive teaching. By talking with struggling learners, teachers can find out about their interests in order to design effective, personalized instruction; build relationships; work through complexities in teaching and learning; and celebrate successes.

  6. Structured luminescence conversion layer

    DOEpatents

    Berben, Dirk; Antoniadis, Homer; Jermann, Frank; Krummacher, Benjamin Claus; Von Malm, Norwin; Zachau, Martin

    2012-12-11

    An apparatus device such as a light source is disclosed which has an OLED device and a structured luminescence conversion layer deposited on the substrate or transparent electrode of said OLED device and on the exterior of said OLED device. The structured luminescence conversion layer contains regions such as color-changing and non-color-changing regions with particular shapes arranged in a particular pattern.

  7. Survey of lower hybrid experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Porkolab, M.

    1983-05-01

    Recent developments in lower hybrid experiments are discussed. While a decade ago there were many small scale experiments which verified the fundamental aspects of wave propagation near and above the lower hybrid frequency, more recently the greatest interest has been in using lower hybrid waves to heat the plasma, and to drive currents in toroidal devices. While in the mid 70's lower hybrid heating experiments in tokamaks were carried out at the 100 to 200 kW level, in recent experiments powers up to 1 MW have been injected in the Alcator C tokamak at MIT. Also, while the earlier lower hybrid experiments concentrated on the ion heating regime (..omega.. approx. = ..omega../sub LH/), in the more recent experiments the electron heating regime (..omega.. greater than or equal to 2..omega../sub LH/) and the current drive regime (..omega.. > 2..omega../sub LH/) has been explored to a greater extent. The reason for this is that bulk ion heating near the mode conversion layer appears to be less reproducible and more difficult to achieve than electron heating (and concommitant collisional bulk ion heating). While the reason for this is not well understood, it is likely that as the wave frequency gets closer to the lower hybrid frequency the shorter wavelength waves may be more effectively absorbed and/or scattered near the plasma surface by nonlinear effects (parametric instabilities, low frequency fluctuations, etc.). Toroidal effects may further enhance such mechanisms.

  8. Conversational flow promotes solidarity.

    PubMed

    Koudenburg, Namkje; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H

    2013-01-01

    Social interaction is fundamental to the development of various aspects of "we-ness". Previous research has focused on the role the content of interaction plays in establishing feelings of unity, belongingness and shared reality (a cluster of variables referred to as solidarity here). The present paper is less concerned with content, but focuses on the form of social interaction. We propose that the degree to which conversations flow smoothly or not is, of itself, a cue to solidarity. We test this hypothesis in samples of unacquainted and acquainted dyads who communicate via headsets. Conversational flow is disrupted by introducing a delay in the auditory feedback (vs. no delay). Results of three studies show that smoothly coordinated conversations (compared with disrupted conversations and a control condition) increase feelings of belonging and perceptions of group entitativity, independently of conversation content. These effects are driven by the subjective experience of conversational flow. Our data suggest that this process occurs largely beyond individuals' control. We conclude that the form of social interaction is a powerful cue for inferring group solidarity. Implications for the impact of modern communication technology on developing a shared social identity are discussed.

  9. Bidirectional conversion between microwave and light via ferromagnetic magnons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisatomi, R.; Osada, A.; Tabuchi, Y.; Ishikawa, T.; Noguchi, A.; Yamazaki, R.; Usami, K.; Nakamura, Y.

    2016-05-01

    Coherent conversion of microwave and optical photons in the single quantum level can significantly expand our ability to process signals in various fields. Efficient up-conversion of a feeble signal in the microwave domain to the optical domain will lead to quantum-noise-limited microwave amplifiers. Coherent exchange between optical photons and microwave photons will also be a stepping stone to realize long-distance quantum communication. Here we demonstrate bidirectional and coherent conversion between microwave and light using collective spin excitations in a ferromagnet. The converter consists of two harmonic oscillator modes, a microwave cavity mode and a magnetostatic mode called the Kittel mode, where microwave photons and magnons in the respective modes are strongly coupled and hybridized. An itinerant microwave field and a traveling optical field can be coupled through the hybrid system, where the microwave field is coupled to the hybrid system through the cavity mode, while the optical field addresses the hybrid system through the Kittel mode via Faraday and inverse Faraday effects. The conversion efficiency is theoretically analyzed and experimentally evaluated. The possible schemes for improving the efficiency are also discussed.

  10. Approaches for biological and biomimetic energy conversion

    PubMed Central

    LaVan, David A.; Cha, Jennifer N.

    2006-01-01

    This article highlights areas of research at the interface of nanotechnology, the physical sciences, and biology that are related to energy conversion: specifically, those related to photovoltaic applications. Although much ongoing work is seeking to understand basic processes of photosynthesis and chemical conversion, such as light harvesting, electron transfer, and ion transport, application of this knowledge to the development of fully synthetic and/or hybrid devices is still in its infancy. To develop systems that produce energy in an efficient manner, it is important both to understand the biological mechanisms of energy flow for optimization of primary structure and to appreciate the roles of architecture and assembly. Whether devices are completely synthetic and mimic biological processes or devices use natural biomolecules, much of the research for future power systems will happen at the intersection of disciplines. PMID:16567648

  11. Microbatteries for self-sustained hybrid micropower supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harb, John N.; LaFollette, Rodney M.; Selfridge, Richard H.; Howell, Larry L.

    This paper describes the characteristics of microbatteries suitable for use in a hybrid micropower supply for powering autonomous MEMS and other microsystems. The hybrid power supply includes an energy conversion device, microscopic batteries for energy storage, and control/interface circuitry. Comparison of the hybrid approach with single power sources (either a battery or energy conversion device alone) shows that it offers several potential advantages including reduced size, increased flexibility, long lifetime and increased reliability. Such an approach is well suited to the expected duty cycles of remote microsensors. Realization of the advantages of a hybrid system depends on the availability of a battery with the required characteristics. Initial experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating microbatteries with the proper characteristics and the use of these batteries as part of a hybrid micropower supply. It is anticipated that hybrid micropower supplies with suitable microbatteries will play a critical role in the successful implementation of a wide variety of autonomous microsystems.

  12. Isomolybdate conversion coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minevski, Zoran (Inventor); Maxey, Jason (Inventor); Nelson, Carl (Inventor); Eylem, Cahit (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A conversion coating solution and process forms a stable and corrosion-resistant layer on metal substrates or layers or, more preferably, on a boehmite layer or other base conversion coating. The conversion coating process involves contacting the substrate, layer or coating with an aqueous alkali metal isomolybdate solution in order to convert the surface of the substrate, layer or coating to a stable conversion coating. The aqueous alkali metal molybdates are selected from sodium molybdate (Na.sub.2 MoO.sub.4), lithium molybdate (Li.sub.2 MoO.sub.4), potassium molybdate (K.sub.2 MoO.sub.4), or combinations thereof, with the most preferred alkali metal molybdate being sodium molybdate. The concentration of alkali metal molybdates in the solution is preferably less than 5% by weight. In addition to the alkali metal molybdates, the conversion coating solution may include alkaline metal passivators selected from lithium nitrate (LiNO.sub.3), sodium nitrate (NaNO.sub.3), ammonia nitrate (NH.sub.4 NO.sub.3), and combinations thereof; lithium chloride, potassium hexafluorozirconate (K.sub.2 ZrF.sub.6) or potassium hexafluorotitanate (K.sub.2 TiF.sub.6).

  13. Laser energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalufka, N. W.

    1989-01-01

    The conversion of laser energy to other, more useful, forms is an important element of any space power transmission system employing lasers. In general the user, at the receiving sight, will require the energy in a form other than laser radiation. In particular, conversion to rocket power and electricity are considered to be two major areas where one must consider various conversion techniques. Three systems (photovoltaic cells, MHD generators, and gas turbines) have been identified as the laser-to-electricity conversion systems that appear to meet most of the criteria for a space-based system. The laser thruster also shows considerable promise as a space propulsion system. At this time one cannot predict which of the three laser-to-electric converters will be best suited to particular mission needs. All three systems have some particular advantages, as well as disadvantages. It would be prudent to continue research on all three systems, as well as the laser rocket thruster. Research on novel energy conversion systems, such as the optical rectenna and the reverse free-electron laser, should continue due to their potential for high payoff.

  14. Development and Exploration of Nanoparticle Decorated Carbon Supports (Graphene and Graphene Oxide) for Energy Collection, Storage, and Conversion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-17

    hybrid films as an alternative to organic-based photoactive materials in flexible photodetectors and solar cells . Figure 3. Solution...a wide range of metal nanoparticle-decorated (Pt, Au, Ag, Pt/Ru) graphene oxide (GO) hybrids as well as inorganic particle-graphene ( TiO2 /PbSe/G... hybrids . These hybrids were then evaluated for their performance in energy conversion devices and two examples were chosen, namely stacked fuel cells

  15. Digital optical conversion module

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, Dale K.; Rankin, Richard A.

    1991-02-26

    A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer.

  16. Digital optical conversion module

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.

    1988-07-19

    A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer. 2 figs.

  17. Extremely compact slanted waveguide hybrid plasmonic polarization rotator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikoufard, Mahmoud; Hatami, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we proposed a novel slanted waveguide hybrid plasmonic polarization splitter based on mode evolution at 1.55 μm wavelength on silicon-on-insulator technology. The TM polarization is rotated to the TE polarization with a conversion length of 370 nm, polarization conversion efficiency of 85% and polarization extinction ratio larger than 18 dB.

  18. Predictability of Conversation Partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Nobuo; Yano, Kazuo; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-08-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song , ScienceSCIEAS0036-8075 327, 1018 (2010)] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

  19. Power conversion technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Haigh, R E

    1998-01-01

    The Power Conservation Technologies thrust area supports initiatives that enhance the core competencies of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Engineering Directorate in the area of solid-state power electronics. Through partnerships with LLNL programs, projects focus on the development of enabling technologies for existing and emerging programs that have unique power conversion requirements. This year, a multi-disciplinary effort was supported which demonstrated solid-state, high voltage generation by using a dense, monolithic photovoltaic array. This effort builds upon Engineering's strengths in the core technology areas of power conversion, photonics, and microtechnologies.

  20. Hybrid Molten Salt Reactor (HMSR) System Study

    SciTech Connect

    Woolley, Robert D; Miller, Laurence F

    2014-04-01

    Can the hybrid system combination of (1) a critical fission Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) having a thermal spectrum and a high Conversion Ratio (CR) with (2) an external source of high energy neutrons provide an attractive solution to the world's expanding demand for energy? The present study indicates the answer is an emphatic yes.

  1. Teaching Conversation with Trivia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a rationale for utilizing trivia to teach conversation. Shows how trivia-based materials fit into communicative language teaching approaches and provides examples of trivia-based activities and explains how to use them in the classroom. (Author/VWL)

  2. Clinical Linguistics: Conversational Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crystal, David

    2013-01-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference…

  3. Conversations and Collaborations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korpan, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at how a series of conversations contributed to the development of a newly formed role at the University of Victoria--Teaching Assistant Consultants (TACs). TACs act as departmental mentors for teaching assistants (TAs) in their respective departments, charged with providing support in the form of discipline-specific workshops…

  4. Mechanochemical Energy Conversion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pines, E.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes the thermodynamics of macromolecular systems, including theories and experiments of cyclic energy conversion with rubber and collagen as working substances. Indicates that an early introduction into the concept of chemical potential and solution thermodynamics is made possible through the study of the cyclic processes. (CC)

  5. Ocean thermal energy conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, W.H.

    1983-03-17

    A brief explanation of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) concept and an estimate of the amount of energy that can be produced from the ocean resource without introducing environmental concerns are presented. Use of the OTEC system to generate electric power and products which can replace fossil fuels is shown. The OTEC program status and its prospects for the future are discussed.

  6. Electromechanical Energy Conversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LePage, Wilbur R.

    This programed text on electromechanical energy conversion (motors and generators) was developed under contract with the U.S. Office of Education as Number 12 in a series of materials for use in an electrical engineering sequence. It is intended to be used in conjunction with other materials and with other short texts in the series. (DH)

  7. Conversion or New Building?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeley, Phil

    1970-01-01

    Examined first is "the overall problem of housing a TV studio complex to see what particular sorts of buildings are required and how they must be related," and then considered are "the relative merits and particular problems of new studio building or a conversion." (LS)

  8. Planetary image conversion task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, M. D.; Stanley, C. L.; Laughlin, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Planetary Image Conversion Task group processed 12,500 magnetic tapes containing raw imaging data from JPL planetary missions and produced an image data base in consistent format on 1200 fully packed 6250-bpi tapes. The output tapes will remain at JPL. A copy of the entire tape set was delivered to US Geological Survey, Flagstaff, Ariz. A secondary task converted computer datalogs, which had been stored in project specific MARK IV File Management System data types and structures, to flat-file, text format that is processable on any modern computer system. The conversion processing took place at JPL's Image Processing Laboratory on an IBM 370-158 with existing software modified slightly to meet the needs of the conversion task. More than 99% of the original digital image data was successfully recovered by the conversion task. However, processing data tapes recorded before 1975 was destructive. This discovery is of critical importance to facilities responsible for maintaining digital archives since normal periodic random sampling techniques would be unlikely to detect this phenomenon, and entire data sets could be wiped out in the act of generating seemingly positive sampling results. Reccomended follow-on activities are also included.

  9. Evaluating Energy Conversion Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byvik, C. E.; Smith, B. T.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1983-01-01

    Devices that convert solar radiation directly into storable chemical or electrical energy, have characteristic energy absorption spectrum; specifically, each of these devices has energy threshold. The conversion efficiency of generalized system that emcompasses all threshold devices is analyzed, resulting in family of curves for devices of various threshold energies operating at different temperatures.

  10. A Conversation about Observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.; Mao, Minnie Yuan

    2012-01-01

    In the spirit of the Lindau Meeting, we present a dialogue between a Nobel laureate and a young researcher. This interchange started online, where it continues to unfold. Here is a digest of this conversation, which has developed across time and space.

  11. Leadership is a conversation.

    PubMed

    Groysberg, Boris; Slind, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Globalization and new technologies have sharply reduced the efficacy of command-and-control management and its accompanying forms of corporate communication. In the course of a recent research project, the authors concluded that by talking with employees, rather than simply issuing orders, leaders can promote operational flexibility, employee engagement, and tight strategic alignment. Groysberg and Slind have identified four elements of organizational conversation that reflect the essential attributes of interpersonal conversation: intimacy, interactivity, inclusion, and intentionality. Intimacy shifts the focus from a top-down distribution of information to a bottom-up exchange of ideas. Organizational conversation is less corporate in tone and more casual. And it's less about issuing and taking orders than about asking and answering questions. Interactivity entails shunning the simplicity of monologue and embracing the unpredictable vitality of dialogue. Traditional one-way media-print and broadcast, in particular-give way to social media buttressed by social thinking. Inclusion turns employees into full-fledged conversation partners, entitling them to provide their own ideas, often on company channels. They can create content and act as brand ambassadors, thought leaders, and storytellers. Intentionality enables leaders and employees to derive strategically relevant action from the push and pull of discussion and debate.

  12. Solar energy conversion.

    SciTech Connect

    Crabtree, G. W.; Lewis, N. S.

    2008-03-01

    If solar energy is to become a practical alternative to fossil fuels, we must have efficient ways to convert photons into electricity, fuel, and heat. The need for better conversion technologies is a driving force behind many recent developments in biology, materials, and especially nanoscience. The Sun has the enormous untapped potential to supply our growing energy needs. The barrier to greater use of the solar resource is its high cost relative to the cost of fossil fuels, although the disparity will decrease with the rising prices of fossil fuels and the rising costs of mitigating their impact on the environment and climate. The cost of solar energy is directly related to the low conversion efficiency, the modest energy density of solar radiation, and the costly materials currently required. The development of materials and methods to improve solar energy conversion is primarily a scientific challenge: Breakthroughs in fundamental understanding ought to enable marked progress. There is plenty of room for improvement, since photovoltaic conversion efficiencies for inexpensive organic and dye-sensitized solar cells are currently about 10% or less, the conversion efficiency of photosynthesis is less than 1%, and the best solar thermal efficiency is 30%. The theoretical limits suggest that we can do much better. Solar conversion is a young science. Its major growth began in the 1970s, spurred by the oil crisis that highlighted the pervasive importance of energy to our personal, social, economic, and political lives. In contrast, fossil-fuel science has developed over more than 250 years, stimulated by the Industrial Revolution and the promise of abundant fossil fuels. The science of thermodynamics, for example, is intimately intertwined with the development of the steam engine. The Carnot cycle, the mechanical equivalent of heat, and entropy all played starring roles in the development of thermodynamics and the technology of heat engines. Solar-energy science faces

  13. Wind energy conversion system

    DOEpatents

    Longrigg, Paul

    1987-01-01

    The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.

  14. Persuasion Detection in Conversation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    is the first step in developing machine learning systems that can automatically detect persuasion in conversations. This corpus was developed from...requires some form of persuasion. Based on this research, it may be possible to construct a machine learning system that can automatically detect...specific markers, can these markers be learned and identified by annotators? Our research attempted to answer all of these questions by annotating a

  15. Advanced Thermal Conversion Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-18

    BAA09-31 3  Figure 1. (a) Energy diagram of the PETE process. Photo -excitation leads to enhanced...photovoltaic cells at 3000x concentration (~38%). As shown in Fig. 2(b), the highest conversion efficiencies are obtained by using photo -cathodes...p-type 4H-SiC (left) and polycrystalline n-type 3C-SiC (right). The fabrication process for p-type devices used bulk p- doped 4H-SiC wafers from

  16. Session: Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, David; LaSala, Raymond J.; Kukacka, Lawrence E.; Bliem, Carl J.; Premuzic, Eugene T.; Weare, John H.

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five presentations: ''Hydrothermal Energy Conversion Technology'' by David Robertson and Raymond J. LaSala; ''Materials for Geothermal Production'' by Lawrence E. Kukacka; ''Supersaturated Turbine Expansions for Binary Geothermal Power Plants'' by Carl J. Bliem; ''Geothermal Waster Treatment Biotechnology: Progress and Advantages to the Utilities'' by Eugen T. Premuzic; and ''Geothermal Brine Chemistry Modeling Program'' by John H. Weare.

  17. Clinical linguistics: conversational reflections.

    PubMed

    Crystal, David

    2013-04-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference participants during that time.

  18. Direct conversion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massier, P. F.; Bankston, C. P.; Fabris, G.; Kirol, L. D.

    1988-01-01

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct thermal-to-electric energy conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC), and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal MHD Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1988 through December 1988. Research on these concepts was initiated during October 1987. In addition, status reviews and assessments are presented for thermomagnetic converter concepts and for thermoelastic converters (Nitinol heat engines). Reports prepared on previous occasions contain discussions on the following other direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic thermophotovoltaic and thermoacoustic; and also, more complete discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems. A tabulated summary of the various systems which have been reviewed thus far has been prepared. Some of the important technical research needs are listed and a schematic of each system is shown.

  19. Natural gas conversion process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The experimental apparatus was dismantled and transferred to a laboratory space provided by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is already equipped with a high-ventilation fume hood. This will enable us to make tests at higher gas flow rates in a safe environment. Three papers presented at the ACS meeting in San Francisco (Symposium on Natural Gas Upgrading II) April 5--10, 1992 show that the goal of direct catalytic conversion of Methane into heavier Hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere is actively pursued in three other different laboratories. There are similarities in their general concept with our own approach, but the temperature range of the experiments reported in these recent papers is much lower and this leads to uneconomic conversion rates. This illustrates the advantages of Methane activation by a Hydrogen plasma to reach commercial conversion rates. A preliminary process flow diagram was established for the Integrated Process, which was outlined in the previous Quarterly Report. The flow diagram also includes all the required auxiliary facilities for product separation and recycle of the unconverted feed as well as for the preparation and compression of the Syngas by-product.

  20. Conversion of Questionnaire Data

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H

    2011-01-01

    During the survey, respondents are asked to provide qualitative answers (well, adequate, needs improvement) on how well material control and accountability (MC&A) functions are being performed. These responses can be used to develop failure probabilities for basic events performed during routine operation of the MC&A systems. The failure frequencies for individual events may be used to estimate total system effectiveness using a fault tree in a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). Numeric risk values are required for the PRA fault tree calculations that are performed to evaluate system effectiveness. So, the performance ratings in the questionnaire must be converted to relative risk values for all of the basic MC&A tasks performed in the facility. If a specific material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) task is being performed at the 'perfect' level, the task is considered to have a near zero risk of failure. If the task is performed at a less than perfect level, the deficiency in performance represents some risk of failure for the event. As the degree of deficiency in performance increases, the risk of failure increases. If a task that should be performed is not being performed, that task is in a state of failure. The failure probabilities of all basic events contribute to the total system risk. Conversion of questionnaire MPC&A system performance data to numeric values is a separate function from the process of completing the questionnaire. When specific questions in the questionnaire are answered, the focus is on correctly assessing and reporting, in an adjectival manner, the actual performance of the related MC&A function. Prior to conversion, consideration should not be given to the numeric value that will be assigned during the conversion process. In the conversion process, adjectival responses to questions on system performance are quantified based on a log normal scale typically used in human error analysis (see A.D. Swain and H.E. Guttmann

  1. Microbial Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, Merry; Wall, Judy D.

    2006-10-01

    The American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium March 10-12, 2006, in San Francisco, California, to discuss the production of energy fuels by microbial conversions. The status of research into various microbial energy technologies, the advantages and disadvantages of each of these approaches, research needs in the field, and education and training issues were examined, with the goal of identifying routes for producing biofuels that would both decrease the need for fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, the choices for providing energy are limited. Policy makers and the research community must begin to pursue a broader array of potential energy technologies. A diverse energy portfolio that includes an assortment of microbial energy choices will allow communities and consumers to select the best energy solution for their own particular needs. Funding agencies and governments alike need to prepare for future energy needs by investing both in the microbial energy technologies that work today and in the untested technologies that will serve the world’s needs tomorrow. More mature bioprocesses, such as ethanol production from starchy materials and methane from waste digestors, will find applications in the short term. However, innovative techniques for liquid fuel or biohydrogen production are among the longer term possibilities that should also be vigorously explored, starting now. Microorganisms can help meet human energy needs in any of a number of ways. In their most obvious role in energy conversion, microorganisms can generate fuels, including ethanol, hydrogen, methane, lipids, and butanol, which can be burned to produce energy. Alternatively, bacteria can be put to use in microbial fuel cells, where they carry out the direct conversion of biomass into electricity. Microorganisms may also be used some day to make oil and natural gas technologies more efficient by sequestering carbon or by assisting in the recovery of oil and

  2. Crucial Conversations about America's Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, John C.; Protheroe, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    It's up to school leaders to shift the momentum away from conversations based on misperceptions and toward those that study critical issues about school improvement. "Crucial Conversations About America's Schools" talks about how to do this and provides examples of how to reframe conversations on the hot-button but important topics of…

  3. Special Features in Children's Conversations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karjalainen, Merja

    In a study of features that seem to be typical of children's conversations, 10 Finnish preschool children's conversations were videotaped and audiotaped over a period of 10 hours. The children were taped in conversation, play, fairy tale, and eating situations. Among the findings are that all children enjoy playing with language, but some initiate…

  4. Conceptual design and system analysis study for a hybrid solar photovoltaic/solar thermal electric power system. Volume 2: Study results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-07-01

    A hybrid photovoltaic/solar thermal electric conversion system is described. Several types of hybrid systems, photovoltaic only systems, and solar thermal electric systems were compared in performance and cost. It is found that hybrid systems potentially competitive with photovoltaic only or solar thermal electric conversion systems. However, hybrid systems do not appear to have a significant advantage on a levelized cost per kilowatt hour basis.

  5. Conceptual design and system-analysis study for a hybrid solar photovoltaic/solar thermal electric power system. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-07-01

    Studies on hybrid photovoltaic/solar thermal electric conversion systems are summarized. Several types of hybrid systems, photovoltaic only systems, and solar thermal electric systems were compared on performance and cost. Hybrid systems are shown to be competitive with photovoltaic only or solar thermal electric conversion systems, however, hybrid systems do not appear to have a significant advantage on a levelized cost per kilowatt hour basis.

  6. Expanding discourse repertoires with hybridity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Gregory J.

    2012-09-01

    In "Hybrid discourse practice and science learning" Kamberelis and Wehunt present a theoretically rich argument about the potential of hybrid discourses for science learning. These discourses draw from different forms of "talk, social practice, and material practices" to create interactions that are "intertextually complex" and "interactionally dynamic." The hybrid discourse practices are described as involving the dynamic interplay of at least three key elements: "the lamination of multiple cultural frames, the shifting relations between people and their discourse, and the shifting power relations between and among people." Each of these elements requires a respective unit of analysis and are often mutually reinforcing. The authors present a theoretically cogent argument for the study of hybrid discourse practices and identify the potential such discourses may have for science education. This theoretical development leads to an analysis of spoken and written discourse around a set of educational events concerning the investigation of owl pellets by two fifth grade students, their classmates, and teacher. Two discourse segments are presented and analyzed by the authors in detail. The first is a discourse analysis of the dissection of the owl pellet by two students, Kyle and Max. The second analysis examines the science report of these same two students. In this article, I pose a number of questions about the study with the hope that by doing so I expand the conversation around the insightful analysis presented.

  7. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  8. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  9. Hybrid energy harvesting using active thermal backplane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Dong-Gun

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the concept of a new hybrid energy harvesting system by combing solar cells with magneto-thermoelectric generator (MTG, i.e., thermal energy harvesting). The silicon solar cell can easily reach high temperature under normal operating conditions. Thus the heated solar cell becomes rapidly less efficient as the temperature of solar cell rises. To increase the efficiency of the solar cell, air or water-based cooling system is used. To surpass conventional cooling devices requiring additional power as well as large working space for air/water collectors, we develop a new technology of pairing an active thermal backplane (ATB) to solar cell. The ATB design is based on MTG technology utilizing the physics of the 2nd order phase transition of active ferromagnetic materials. The MTG is cost-effective conversion of thermal energy to electrical energy and is fundamentally different from Seebeck TEG devices. The ATB (MTG) is in addition to being an energy conversion system, a very good conveyor of heat through both conduction and convection. Therefore, the ATB can provide dual-mode for the proposed hybrid energy harvesting. One is active convective and conductive cooling for heated solar cell. Another is active thermal energy harvesting from heat of solar cell. These novel hybrid energy harvesting device have potentially simultaneous energy conversion capability of solar and thermal energy into electricity. The results presented can be used for better understanding of hybrid energy harvesting system that can be integrated into commercial applications.

  10. Hybrid Gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  11. Spatial language and converseness.

    PubMed

    Burigo, Michele; Coventry, Kenny R; Cangelosi, Angelo; Lynott, Dermot

    2016-12-01

    Typical spatial language sentences consist of describing the location of an object (the located object) in relation to another object (the reference object) as in "The book is above the vase". While it has been suggested that the properties of the located object (the book) are not translated into language because they are irrelevant when exchanging location information, it has been shown that the orientation of the located object affects the production and comprehension of spatial descriptions. In line with the claim that spatial language apprehension involves inferences about relations that hold between objects it has been suggested that during spatial language apprehension people use the orientation of the located object to evaluate whether the logical property of converseness (e.g., if "the book is above the vase" is true, then also "the vase is below the book" must be true) holds across the objects' spatial relation. In three experiments using sentence acceptability rating tasks we tested this hypothesis and demonstrated that when converseness is violated people's acceptability ratings of a scene's description are reduced indicating that people do take into account geometric properties of the located object and use it to infer logical spatial relations.

  12. Natural gas conversion process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The main objective is to design and operate a laboratory apparatus for the catalytic reforming of natural gas in order to provide data for a large-scale process. To accelerate the assembly and calibration of this equipment, a request has been made to the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for assistance, under the DOE's Industrial Visitor Exchange Program. Pr. Heinz Heinemann (Catalysis), Dr. John Apps (Geochemistry) and Dr. Robert Fulton (Mechanical Engineering) have expressed interest in supporting our request. Pr. Heinemann's recent results on the conversion of Petroleum Coke residues into CO2 and H2 mixtures using highly basic metal oxides catalysts, similar to ours, are very encouraging regarding the possibility of converting the Coke residue on our catalyst into Syngas in the Regenerator/riser, as proposed. To minimize Coke formation in the vapor phase, by the Plasmapyrolytic Methane Conversion reactions, the experimental data of H. Drost et al. (Ref. 12) have been reviewed. Work is underway to design equipment for the safe and non-polluting disposal of the two gaseous product streams of the flow loop. 2 refs.

  13. Energy conversion system

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, L.M.

    1985-09-16

    The energy conversion system includes a photo-voltaic array for receiving solar radiation and converting such radiation to electrical energy. The photo-voltaic array is mounted on a stretched membrane that is held by a frame. Tracking means for orienting the photo-voltaic array in predetermined positions that provide optimal exposure to solar radiation cooperate with the frame. An enclosure formed of a radiation transmissible material includes an inside containment space that accommodates the photo-voltaic array on the stretched membrane, the frame and the tracking means, and forms a protective shield for all such components. The enclosure is preferably formed of a flexible inflatable material and maintains its preferred form, such as a dome, under the influence of a low air pressure furnished to the dome. Under this arrangement the energy conversion system is streamlined for minimizing wind resistance, sufficiently weathproof for providing protection against weather hazards such as hail, capable of using diffused light, lightweight for low-cost construction and operational with a minimal power draw.

  14. Energy conversion system

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Lawrence M.

    1987-01-01

    The energy conversion system includes a photo-voltaic array for receiving solar radiation and converting such radiation to electrical energy. The photo-voltaic array is mounted on a stretched membrane that is held by a frame. Tracking means for orienting the photo-voltaic array in predetermined positions that provide optimal exposure to solar radiation cooperate with the frame. An enclosure formed of a radiation transmissible material includes an inside containment space that accommodates the photo-voltaic array on the stretched membrane, the frame and the tracking means, and forms a protective shield for all such components. The enclosure is preferably formed of a flexible inflatable material and maintains its preferred form, such as a dome, under the influence of a low air pressure furnished to the dome. Under this arrangement the energy conversion system is streamlined for minimizing wind resistance, sufficiently weatherproof for providing protection against weather hazards such as hail, capable of using diffused light, lightweight for low-cost construction, and operational with a minimal power draw.

  15. Direct somatic lineage conversion

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Koji; Haag, Daniel; Wernig, Marius

    2015-01-01

    The predominant view of embryonic development and cell differentiation has been that rigid and even irreversible epigenetic marks are laid down along the path of cell specialization ensuring the proper silencing of unrelated lineage programmes. This model made the prediction that specialized cell types are stable and cannot be redirected into other lineages. Accordingly, early attempts to change the identity of somatic cells had little success and was limited to conversions between closely related cell types. Nuclear transplantation experiments demonstrated, however, that specialized cells even from adult mammals can be reprogrammed into a totipotent state. The discovery that a small combination of transcription factors can reprogramme cells to pluripotency without the need of oocytes further supported the view that these epigenetic barriers can be overcome much easier than assumed, but the extent of this flexibility was still unclear. When we showed that a differentiated mesodermal cell can be directly converted to a differentiated ectodermal cell without a pluripotent intermediate, it was suggested that in principle any cell type could be converted into any other cell type. Indeed, the work of several groups in recent years has provided many more examples of direct somatic lineage conversions. Today, the question is not anymore whether a specific cell type can be generated by direct reprogramming but how it can be induced. PMID:26416679

  16. Mode conversion in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, E. F.; Berry, L. A.; Myra, J. R.

    2006-10-01

    Fast magnetosonic waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) can convert to much shorter wavelength modes such as ion Bernstein waves (IBW) and ion cyclotron waves (ICW) [1]. These modes are potentially useful for plasma control through the generation of localized currents and sheared flows. As part of the SciDAC Center for Simulation of Wave-Plasma Interactions project, the AORSA global-wave solver [2] has been ported to the new, dual-core Cray XT-3 (Jaguar) at ORNL where it demonstrates excellent scaling with the number of processors. Preliminary calculations using 4096 processors have allowed the first full-wave simulations of mode conversion in ITER. Mode conversion from the fast wave to the ICW is observed in mixtures of deuterium, tritium and helium3 at 53 MHz. The resulting flow velocity and electric field shear will be calculated. [1] F.W. Perkins, Nucl. Fusion 17, 1197 (1977). [2] E.F. Jaeger, L.A. Berry, J.R. Myra, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 195001-1 (2003).

  17. Conversion program in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Jonsson, E.B.

    1997-08-01

    The conversion of the Swedish 50 MW R2 reactor from HEU to LEU fuel has been successfully accomplished over a 16 cycles long process. The conversion started in January 1991 with the introduction of 6 LEU assemblies in the 8*8 core. The first all LEU core was loaded in March 1993 and physics measurements were performed for the final licensing reports. A total of 142 LEU fuel assemblies have been irradiated up until September 1994 without any fuel incident. The operating licence for the R2 reactor was renewed in mid 1994 taking into account new fuel type. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) pointed out one crucial problem with the LEU operation, that the back end of the LEU fuel cycle has not yet been solved. For the HEU fuel Sweden had the reprocessing alternative. The country is now relying heavily on the success of the USDOEs Off Site Fuels Policy to take back the spent fuel from the research reactors. They have in the meantime increased their intermediate storage facilities. There is, however, a limit both in time and space for storage of MTR-type of assemblies in water. The penalty of the lower thermal neutron flux in LEU cores has been reduced by improvements of the new irradiation rigs and by fine tuning the core calculations. The Studsvik code package, CASMO-SIMULATE, widely used for ICFM in LWRs has been modified to suit the compact MTR type of core.

  18. Light alkane conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.; Owen, H.

    1991-07-09

    This patent describes a process for the aromatization of an aliphatic feedstream. It comprises fluidizing finely divided solid particles in a combustion zone; charging oxygen-containing combustion gas and fuel to the combustion zone under combustion conditions; withdrawing a stream of finely divided particles from the combustion zone; flowing the withdrawn stream of finely divided particles above to a cracking/dehydrogenation zone; fluidizing the finely divided particles above in an aliphatic feedstream under conditions within the cracking/dehydrogenation zone controlled to at least partially crack and at least partially dehydrogenate the aliphatic feedstream to form an intermediate product stream containing a quantity of C{sub 4}-olefins such that the exothermic catalytic conversion of the C{sub 4}-olefins is sufficient to supply a portion of the endothermic heat of reaction for the endothermic catalytic conversion of paraffins contained in the intermediate feedstream to aromatics; contacting the intermediate product stream with an aromatization catalyst under aromatization conditions sufficient to evolve an aromatics-rich products stream.

  19. Portraits of colloidal hybrid nanostructures: controlled synthesis and potential applications.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh-Dinh

    2013-03-01

    Inorganic hybrid nanostructures containing two or more nanocomponents have been emerging in many areas of materials science in recent years. The particle-particle interactions in a hybrid particle system could significantly improve existing local electronic structure and induce tunable physiochemical responses. The current work reviews the diverse inorganic hybrid nanostructures formed by adhesion of the different single components via seed-mediated method. The hybrid nanomaterials have great potentials for real applications in many other fields. The nanohybrids have been used as efficient heterocatalysts for carbon monoxide conversion and photodegradation of organic contaminants. The enhanced catalytic activity of these hybrid nanocatalysts could be attributed the formation of oxygen vacancies and electron transfer across the structural junction in a hybrid system as a result of the interfacial particle-particle interactions. The synergistic combination of up-converting and semiconducting properties in an up-converting semiconducting hybrid particle results in appearance of sub-band-gap photoconductivity. This behavior has a great significance for the design of photovoltaic devices for effective solar energy conversion. The functionalization and subsequent bioconjugation of the hybrid nanostructures to afford the multifunctional nanomedical platforms for simultaneous diagnosis and therapy are reviewed. The conjugated multifunctional hybrid nanostructures exhibit high biocompatibility and highly selective binding with functional groups-fabricated alive organs through delivering them to the tumor sites. The clever combinations of multifunctional features and antibody conjugation within these vehicles make them to generally offer new opportunities for clinical diagnostics and therapeutics.

  20. Hybrid Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Trujillo, David J.; Sridharan, Srikesh; Weinstock, Irvin

    2005-10-15

    HybSim (short for Hybrid Simulator) is a flexible, easy to use screening tool that allows the user to quanti the technical and economic benefits of installing a village hybrid generating system and simulates systems with any combination of —Diesel generator sets —Photovoltaic arrays -Wind Turbines and -Battery energy storage systems Most village systems (or small population sites such as villages, remote military bases, small communities, independent or isolated buildings or centers) depend on diesel generation systems for their source of energy. HybSim allows the user to determine other "sources" of energy that can greatly reduce the dollar to kilo-watt hour ratio. Supported by the DOE, Energy Storage Program, HybSim was initially developed to help analyze the benefits of energy storage systems in Alaskan villages. Soon after its development, other sources of energy were added providing the user with a greater range of analysis opportunities and providing the village with potentially added savings. In addition to village systems, HybSim has generated interest for use from military institutions in energy provisions and USAID for international village analysis.

  1. Enhancing The Mode Conversion Efficiency In JET Plasmas With Multiple Mode Conversion Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Eester, D.; Lerche, E.; Johnson, T.; Hellsten, T.; Ongena, J.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Frigione, D.; Sozzi, C.; Calabro, G.; Lennholm, M.; Beaumont, P.; Blackman, T.; Brennan, D.; Brett, A.; Cecconello, M.; Coffey, I.; Coyne, A.; Crombe, K.; Czarnecka, A.; Felton, R.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Giroud, C.; Gorini, G.; Hellesen, C.; Jacquet, P.; Kazakov, Y.; Kiptily, V.; Knipe, S.; Krasilnikov, A.; Lin, Y.; Maslov, M.; Monakhov, I.; Noble, C.; Nocente, M.; Pangioni, L.; Proverbio, I.; Stamp, M.; Studholme, W.; Tardocchi, M.; Versloot, T. W.; Vdovin, V.; Whitehurst, A.; Wooldridge, E.; Zoita, V.

    2011-12-01

    The constructive interference effect described by Fuchs et al. [1] shows that the mode conversion and thereby the overall heating efficiency can be enhanced significantly when an integer number of fast wave wavelengths can be folded in between the high field side fast wave cutoff and the ion-ion hybrid layer(s) at which the ion Bernstein or ion cyclotron waves are excited. This effect was already experimentally identified in (3He)-D plasmas [2] and was recently tested in (3He)-H JET plasmas. The latter is an `inverted' scenario, which differs significantly from the (3He)-D scenarios since the mode-conversion layer is positioned between the low field side edge of the plasma and the ion-cyclotron layer of the minority 3He ions (whereas the order in which a wave entering the plasma from the low field side encounters these layers is inverted in a `regular' scenario), and because much lower 3He concentrations are needed to achieve the mode-conversion heating regime. The presence of small amounts of 4He and D in the discharges gave rise to an additional mode conversion layer on top of the expected one associated with 3He-H, which made the interpretation of the results more complex but also more interesting: Three different regimes could be distinguished as a function of X[3He], and the differing dynamics at the various concentrations could be traced back to the presence of these two mode conversion layers and their associated fast wave cutoffs. Whereas (1-D and 2-D) numerical modeling yields quantitative information on the RF absorptivity, recent analytical work by Kazakov [3] permits to grasp the dominant underlying wave interaction physics.

  2. Hybrid piezoelectric energy harvesting transducer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor); Su, Ji (Inventor); Rehrig, Paul W. (Inventor); Hackenberger, Wesley S. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid piezoelectric energy harvesting transducer system includes: (a) first and second symmetric, pre-curved piezoelectric elements mounted separately on a frame so that their concave major surfaces are positioned opposite to each other; and (b) a linear piezoelectric element mounted separately on the frame and positioned between the pre-curved piezoelectric elements. The pre-curved piezoelectric elements and the linear piezoelectric element are spaced from one another and communicate with energy harvesting circuitry having contact points on the frame. The hybrid piezoelectric energy harvesting transducer system has a higher electromechanical energy conversion efficiency than any known piezoelectric transducer.

  3. Laser-accelerated proton conversion efficiency thickness scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Hey, D. S.; Foord, M. E.; Key, M. H.; LePape, S. L.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Patel, P. K.; Ping, Y.; Akli, K. U.; Stephens, R. B.; Bartal, T.; Beg, F. N.; Fedosejevs, R.; Friesen, H.; Tiedje, H. F.; Tsui, Y. Y.

    2009-12-15

    The conversion efficiency from laser energy into proton kinetic energy is measured with the 0.6 ps, 9x10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2} Titan laser at the Jupiter Laser Facility as a function of target thickness in Au foils. For targets thicker than 20 {mu}m, the conversion efficiency scales approximately as 1/L, where L is the target thickness. This is explained by the domination of hot electron collisional losses over adiabatic cooling. In thinner targets, the two effects become comparable, causing the conversion efficiency to scale weaker than 1/L; the measured conversion efficiency is constant within the scatter in the data for targets between 5 and 15 {mu}m, with a peak conversion efficiency of 4% into protons with energy greater than 3 MeV. Depletion of the hydrocarbon contaminant layer is eliminated as an explanation for this plateau by using targets coated with 200 nm of ErH{sub 3} on the rear surface. The proton acceleration is modeled with the hybrid-particle in cell code LSP, which reproduced the conversion efficiency scaling observed in the data.

  4. Power conversion technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, M. A.

    1997-02-01

    The Power Conversion Technologies thrust area identifies and sponsors development activities that enhance the capabilities of engineering at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in the area of solid- state power electronics. Our primary objective is to be a resource to existing and emerging LLNL programs that require advanced solid-state power electronic technologies.. Our focus is on developing and integrating technologies that will significantly impact the capability, size, cost, and reliability of future power electronic systems. During FY-96, we concentrated our research efforts on the areas of (1) Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR); (2) novel solid-state opening switches; (3) advanced modulator technology for accelerators; (4) compact accelerators; and (5) compact pulse generators.

  5. GIM code user's manual for the STAR-100 computer. [for generating numerical analogs of the conversion laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spradley, L.; Pearson, M.

    1979-01-01

    The General Interpolants Method (GIM), a three dimensional, time dependent, hybrid procedure for generating numerical analogs of the conversion laws, is described. The Navier-Stokes equations written for an Eulerian system are considered. The conversion of the GIM code to the STAR-100 computer, and the implementation of 'GIM-ON-STAR' is discussed.

  6. Thermal Energy Conversion Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielozer, Matthew C.; Schreiber, Jeffrey, G.; Wilson, Scott D.

    2004-01-01

    The Thermal Energy Conversion Branch (5490) leads the way in designing, conducting, and implementing research for the newest thermal systems used in space applications at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Specifically some of the most advanced technologies developed in this branch can be broken down into four main areas: Dynamic Power Systems, Primary Solar Concentrators, Secondary Solar Concentrators, and Thermal Management. Work was performed in the Dynamic Power Systems area, specifically the Stirling Engine subdivision. Today, the main focus of the 5490 branch is free-piston Stirling cycle converters, Brayton cycle nuclear reactors, and heat rejection systems for long duration mission spacecraft. All space exploring devices need electricity to operate. In most space applications, heat energy from radioisotopes is converted to electrical power. The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) already supplies electricity for missions such as the Cassini Spacecraft. The focus of today's Stirling research at GRC is aimed at creating an engine that can replace the RTG. The primary appeal of the Stirling engine is its high system efficiency. Because it is so efficient, the Stirling engine will significantly reduce the plutonium fuel mission requirements compared to the RTG. Stirling is also being considered for missions such as the lunar/Mars bases and rovers. This project has focused largely on Stirling Engines of all types, particularly the fluidyne liquid piston engine. The fluidyne was developed by Colin D. West. This engine uses the same concepts found in any type of Stirling engine, with the exception of missing mechanical components. All the working components are fluid. One goal was to develop and demonstrate a working Stirling Fluidyne Engine at the 2nd Annual International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference in Providence, Rhode Island.

  7. The Role of Conversation Policy in Carrying Out Agent Conversations

    SciTech Connect

    Link, Hamilton E.; Phillips, Laurence R.

    1999-05-20

    Structured conversation diagrams, or conversation specifications, allow agents to have predictable interactions and achieve predefined information-based goals, but they lack the flexibility needed to function robustly in an unpredictable environment. We propose a mechanism that combines a typical conversation structure with a separately established policy to generate an actual conversation. The word "policy" connotes a high-level direction external to a specific planned interaction with the environment. Policies, which describe acceptable procedures and influence decisions, can be applied to broad sets of activity. Based on their observation of issues related to a policy, agents may dynamically adjust their communication patterns. The policy object describes limitations, constraints, and requirements that may affect the conversation in certain circumstances. Using this new mechanism of interaction simplifies the description of individual conversations and allows domain-specific issues to be brought to bear more easily during agent communication. By following the behavior of the conversation specification when possible and deferring to the policy to derive behavior in exceptional circumstances, an agent is able to function predictably under normal situations and still act rationally in abnormal situations. Different conversation policies applied to a given conversation specification can change the nature of the interaction without changing the specification.

  8. Hybrid polymer-nanocrystal materials for photovoltaic applications.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Renjia; Xue, Jiangeng

    2012-07-16

    Hybrid polymer-nanocrystal photovoltaic (PV) cells have received much attention during the past decade as promising low-cost solar energy harvesting devices, and showed significant progress with power conversion efficiency reaching 5% recently. This review starts from the introduction of hybrid materials to their application in electronic devices, with particular focus on bulk-heterojunction hybrid polymer-nanocrystal PV devices. The synthesis, surface chemistry, and electronic properties of colloidal inorganic nanocrystals are described. The recent development of hybrid PV devices will be discussed from the perspective of tailoring both inorganic nanocrystals and conjugated polymers, controlling polymer-nanocrystal hybrid morphology, engineering polymer-nanocrystal interface, and optimizing device architecture. Finally, future directions for further advancing hybrid PV technology to potential commercialization are also discussed.

  9. Silicon nanocrystal-noble metal hybrid nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, H.; Fujii, M.; Imakita, K.

    2016-05-01

    We report a novel and facile self-limiting synthesis route of silicon nanocrystal (Si NC)-based colloidally stable semiconductor-metal (gold, silver and platinum) hybrid nanoparticles (NPs). For the formation of hybrid NPs, we employ ligand-free colloidal Si NCs with heavily boron (B) and phosphorus (P) doped shells. By simply mixing B and P codoped colloidal Si NCs with metal salts, hybrid NPs consisting of metal cores and Si NC shells are spontaneously formed. We demonstrate the synthesis of highly uniform and size controllable hybrid NPs. It is shown that codoped Si NCs act as a reducing agent for metal salts and also as a protecting layer to stop metal NP growth. The process is thus self-limiting. The development of a variety of Si NC-based hybrid NPs is a promising first step for the design of biocompatible multifunctional NPs with broad material choices for biosensing, bioimaging and solar energy conversion.We report a novel and facile self-limiting synthesis route of silicon nanocrystal (Si NC)-based colloidally stable semiconductor-metal (gold, silver and platinum) hybrid nanoparticles (NPs). For the formation of hybrid NPs, we employ ligand-free colloidal Si NCs with heavily boron (B) and phosphorus (P) doped shells. By simply mixing B and P codoped colloidal Si NCs with metal salts, hybrid NPs consisting of metal cores and Si NC shells are spontaneously formed. We demonstrate the synthesis of highly uniform and size controllable hybrid NPs. It is shown that codoped Si NCs act as a reducing agent for metal salts and also as a protecting layer to stop metal NP growth. The process is thus self-limiting. The development of a variety of Si NC-based hybrid NPs is a promising first step for the design of biocompatible multifunctional NPs with broad material choices for biosensing, bioimaging and solar energy conversion. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional TEM images and extinction spectra of Si-metal hybrid NPs are shown in Fig. S1

  10. Hybrid system of semiconductor and photosynthetic protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Younghye; Shin, Seon Ae; Lee, Jaehun; Yang, Ki Dong; Nam, Ki Tae

    2014-08-01

    Photosynthetic protein has the potential to be a new attractive material for solar energy absorption and conversion. The development of semiconductor/photosynthetic protein hybrids is an example of recent progress toward efficient, clean and nanostructured photoelectric systems. In the review, two biohybrid systems interacting through different communicating methods are addressed: (1) a photosynthetic protein immobilized semiconductor electrode operating via electron transfer and (2) a hybrid of semiconductor quantum dots and photosynthetic protein operating via energy transfer. The proper selection of materials and functional and structural modification of the components and optimal conjugation between them are the main issues discussed in the review. In conclusion, we propose the direction of future biohybrid systems for solar energy conversion systems, optical biosensors and photoelectric devices.

  11. Hybrid system of semiconductor and photosynthetic protein.

    PubMed

    Kim, Younghye; Shin, Seon Ae; Lee, Jaehun; Yang, Ki Dong; Nam, Ki Tae

    2014-08-29

    Photosynthetic protein has the potential to be a new attractive material for solar energy absorption and conversion. The development of semiconductor/photosynthetic protein hybrids is an example of recent progress toward efficient, clean and nanostructured photoelectric systems. In the review, two biohybrid systems interacting through different communicating methods are addressed: (1) a photosynthetic protein immobilized semiconductor electrode operating via electron transfer and (2) a hybrid of semiconductor quantum dots and photosynthetic protein operating via energy transfer. The proper selection of materials and functional and structural modification of the components and optimal conjugation between them are the main issues discussed in the review. In conclusion, we propose the direction of future biohybrid systems for solar energy conversion systems, optical biosensors and photoelectric devices.

  12. Energy conversion apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, D.R.

    1988-10-18

    This patent describes an energy conversion apparatus comprising: an engine, the engine comprising a cylinder and a piston reciprocally mounted therein, the cylinder defining a combustion chamber on one side of the piston for receiving a fuel mixture and a fluid drive chamber on the other side of the piston for receiving hydraulic fluid, a turbine, the turbine comprising a housing and a vaned turbine wheel rotatably mounted on a drive shaft journalled in the housing, hydraulic means for coupling fluid in the fluid drive chamber of the cylinder with the housing for rotatably driving the turbine wheel and the drive shaft upon a given movement of the piston, means for providing the combustion chamber of the engine with a fuel mixture comprising hydrogen and oxygen, an ignition means for selectively igniting the mixture in the combustion chamber, and purging means for selectively rotating the turbine prior to ignition of the fuel mixture in the engine to remove air therefrom, the purging means comprising a pump means for moving fluid from the reservoir into the fluid drive chambers, the conduit means and the turbine housing, whereby the piston driven by the ignited fuel mixture forces fluid in the fluid drive chamber against the vanes of the turbine wheel to rotate the drive shaft.

  13. Geothermal energy conversion facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, C.F.

    1997-12-31

    With the termination of favorable electricity generation pricing policies, the geothermal industry is exploring ways to improve the efficiency of existing plants and make them more cost-competitive with natural gas. The Geothermal Energy Conversion Facility (GECF) at NREL will allow researchers to study various means for increasing the thermodynamic efficiency of binary cycle geothermal plants. This work has received considerable support from the US geothermal industry and will be done in collaboration with industry members and utilities. The GECF is being constructed on NREL property at the top of South Table Mountain in Golden, Colorado. As shown in Figure 1, it consists of an electrically heated hot water loop that provides heating to a heater/vaporizer in which the working fluid vaporizes at supercritical or subcritical pressures as high as 700 psia. Both an air-cooled and water-cooled condenser will be available for condensing the working fluid. In order to minimize construction costs, available equipment from the similar INEL Heat Cycle Research Facility is being utilized.

  14. Microbial conversion of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Bean, R.M. )

    1989-10-01

    The objectives of this project were to describe in detail the degradation of coals by fungi and microbes, to expand the range of applicability of the process to include new microbes and other coal types, to identify the means by which biosolubilization of coal is accomplished, and to explore means to enhance the rates and extent of coal bioconversion. The project was initiated in a response to the discovery by Dr. Martin Cohen at the University of Hartford, of a fungal strain of Coriolus versicolor that would render a solid coal substance, leonardite, into a liquid product. The project has identified the principal agent of leonardite solubilization as a powerful metal chelator, most likely a fungal-produced siderophore. Another nonlaccase enzyme has also been identified as a unique biosolubilizing agent produced by C. versicolor. Assays were developed for the quantitative determination of biological coal conversion, and for the determination of potency of biosolubilizing agent. Screening studies uncovered several microbial organisms capable of coal biodegradation, and led to the discovery that prolonged heating in air at the moderate temperature of 150{degree}C allowed the biodegradation of Illinois {number sign}6 coal to material soluble in dilute base. Chemical studies showed that leonardite biosolubilization was accompanied by relatively small change in composition, while solubilization of Illinois {number sign}6 coal involves considerable oxidation of the coal. 24 refs., 32 figs., 27 tabs.

  15. Solar energy conversion apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, S.G.

    1983-10-18

    Solar energy conversion apparatus is disclosed including a housing portion, an energy absorbing portion, a fluid directing portion and a cover portion; the housing portion including a molded plastic pan member including a base section with upwardly extending spaced spacer sections, the pan member including outwardly inclined sidewall sections having spaced inner and outer wall sections with a top section including an outwardly extending flange section and an inwardly extending slotted frame section; the energy absorbing portion including a conductive metal liner member positioned within the housing portion and resting on the upper surfaces of the spacer sections, a conductive metal separator section extending between the liner sidewall sections adjacent the upper ends thereof and enclosing the liner member; the fluid directing portion including a plurality of parallel spaced longitudinal baffle members arranged in a staggered relationship to provide a tortuous fluid path through the apparatus, an inlet opening and an outlet opening to the tortuous path, the baffle members extending upwardly from the liner bottom to the separator section; the cover portion including transparent impact resistant flat and dome members, the edges of the flat member being secured to the top section, the dome member being disposed over the flat member with its edges engaged with the flange section slots, the dome member including flat sections extending upwardly at an angle of 20/sup 0/ to 30/sup 0/ and a convex central section joining the flat sections.

  16. Selecting a Retrospective Conversion Vendor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisowski, Andrew; Sessions, Judith

    1984-01-01

    Discussion of using vendors for retrospective conversion of library catalogs rather than in-house projects highlights reasons to consider vendors, four conversion methodologies, and vendor selection criteria (database, non-matches, local data, accuracy, charging, schedule, product delivery time, local system compatibility, MARC format, impact on…

  17. In Conversation with Jim Blair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Jim Blair is the only consultant nurse working with people with learning disabilities in the country. His job helps make people better and saves money. This article shares a conversation with Jim Blair. In the conversation, Blair says he is unhappy Valuing People programme did not do as much as it could have done. Jim is worried all the changes,…

  18. Language Teacher Educators Collaborative Conversations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Francis; Hawkins, Maggie; Irujo, Suzanne; Larsen-Freeman, Diane; Rintell, Ellen; Willett, Jerri

    1998-01-01

    Conveys the power and value of collaborative conversation among a small group of language teacher educators who meet regularly to discuss practice. Excerpts from a discussion are presented to show a sample of real issues the teachers face and illustrate how the conversations allow ongoing feedback about real dilemmas from a supportive community of…

  19. Older Siblings as Conversational Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff-Ginsberg, Erika; Krueger, Wendy M.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses a study of conversational dyadic interaction between children aged 1.5 to 3 years; their 4-, 5-, 7-, or 8-year-old siblings; and their mothers. Mothers were more supportive conversational partners and adapted their level of speech more than siblings. (GH)

  20. Record Conversion at Oregon State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Deane

    1985-01-01

    Describes the conversion of card catalog records at William Jasper Kerr Library, Oregon State University, to an online system. Discussion covers the use of OCLC and student assistants, procedures and specifications, and problems associated with massive retrospective conversion needs and uncertain budget allocations. Eight sources are recommended.…

  1. Faculty Meetings: Hidden Conversational Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    In the everydayness of faculty meetings, collegial conversations mirror distinctive dynamics and practices, which either enhance or undercut organizational effectiveness. A cluster of conversational practices affect how colleagues connect, engage, interact, and influence others during faculty meetings in diverse educational settings. The…

  2. Conversational Competence in Academic Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    Conversational competence is a process, not a state. Ithaca does not exist, only the voyage to Ithaca. Vibrant campuses are a series of productive conversations. At its core, communicative competence in academic settings mirrors a collective search for meaning regarding the purpose and direction of a campus community. Communicative competence…

  3. Hybrid mimics and hybrid vigor in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Greaves, Ian K; Groszmann, Michael; Wu, Li Min; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Peacock, W James

    2015-09-01

    F1 hybrids can outperform their parents in yield and vegetative biomass, features of hybrid vigor that form the basis of the hybrid seed industry. The yield advantage of the F1 is lost in the F2 and subsequent generations. In Arabidopsis, from F2 plants that have a F1-like phenotype, we have by recurrent selection produced pure breeding F5/F6 lines, hybrid mimics, in which the characteristics of the F1 hybrid are stabilized. These hybrid mimic lines, like the F1 hybrid, have larger leaves than the parent plant, and the leaves have increased photosynthetic cell numbers, and in some lines, increased size of cells, suggesting an increased supply of photosynthate. A comparison of the differentially expressed genes in the F1 hybrid with those of eight hybrid mimic lines identified metabolic pathways altered in both; these pathways include down-regulation of defense response pathways and altered abiotic response pathways. F6 hybrid mimic lines are mostly homozygous at each locus in the genome and yet retain the large F1-like phenotype. Many alleles in the F6 plants, when they are homozygous, have expression levels different to the level in the parent. We consider this altered expression to be a consequence of transregulation of genes from one parent by genes from the other parent. Transregulation could also arise from epigenetic modifications in the F1. The pure breeding hybrid mimics have been valuable in probing the mechanisms of hybrid vigor and may also prove to be useful hybrid vigor equivalents in agriculture.

  4. Lossless hybridization between photovoltaic and thermoelectric devices.

    PubMed

    Park, Kwang-Tae; Shin, Sun-Mi; Tazebay, Abdullah S; Um, Han-Don; Jung, Jin-Young; Jee, Sang-Won; Oh, Min-Wook; Park, Su-Dong; Yoo, Bongyoung; Yu, Choongho; Lee, Jung-Ho

    2013-01-01

    The optimal hybridization of photovoltaic (PV) and thermoelectric (TE) devices has long been considered ideal for the efficient harnessing solar energy. Our hybrid approach uses full spectrum solar energy via lossless coupling between PV and TE devices while collecting waste energy from thermalization and transmission losses from PV devices. Achieving lossless coupling makes the power output from the hybrid device equal to the sum of the maximum power outputs produced separately from individual PV and TE devices. TE devices need to have low internal resistances enough to convey photo-generated currents without sacrificing the PV fill factor. Concomitantly, a large number of p-n legs are preferred to drive a high Seebeck voltage in TE. Our simple method of attaching a TE device to a PV device has greatly improved the conversion efficiency and power output of the PV device (~30% at a 15°C temperature gradient across a TE device).

  5. Lossless hybridization between photovoltaic and thermoelectric devices

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kwang-Tae; Shin, Sun-Mi; Tazebay, Abdullah S.; Um, Han-Don; Jung, Jin-Young; Jee, Sang-Won; Oh, Min-Wook; Park, Su-Dong; Yoo, Bongyoung; Yu, Choongho; Lee, Jung-Ho

    2013-01-01

    The optimal hybridization of photovoltaic (PV) and thermoelectric (TE) devices has long been considered ideal for the efficient harnessing solar energy. Our hybrid approach uses full spectrum solar energy via lossless coupling between PV and TE devices while collecting waste energy from thermalization and transmission losses from PV devices. Achieving lossless coupling makes the power output from the hybrid device equal to the sum of the maximum power outputs produced separately from individual PV and TE devices. TE devices need to have low internal resistances enough to convey photo-generated currents without sacrificing the PV fill factor. Concomitantly, a large number of p-n legs are preferred to drive a high Seebeck voltage in TE. Our simple method of attaching a TE device to a PV device has greatly improved the conversion efficiency and power output of the PV device (~30% at a 15°C temperature gradient across a TE device). PMID:23820973

  6. Advanced Electric Distribution, Switching, and Conversion Technology for Power Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soltis, James V.

    1998-01-01

    The Electrical Power Control Unit currently under development by Sundstrand Aerospace for use on the Fluids Combustion Facility of the International Space Station is the precursor of modular power distribution and conversion concepts for future spacecraft and aircraft applications. This unit combines modular current-limiting flexible remote power controllers and paralleled power converters into one package. Each unit includes three 1-kW, current-limiting power converter modules designed for a variable-ratio load sharing capability. The flexible remote power controllers can be used in parallel to match load requirements and can be programmed for an initial ON or OFF state on powerup. The unit contains an integral cold plate. The modularity and hybridization of the Electrical Power Control Unit sets the course for future spacecraft electrical power systems, both large and small. In such systems, the basic hybridized converter and flexible remote power controller building blocks could be configured to match power distribution and conversion capabilities to load requirements. In addition, the flexible remote power controllers could be configured in assemblies to feed multiple individual loads and could be used in parallel to meet the specific current requirements of each of those loads. Ultimately, the Electrical Power Control Unit design concept could evolve to a common switch module hybrid, or family of hybrids, for both converter and switchgear applications. By assembling hybrids of a common current rating and voltage class in parallel, researchers could readily adapt these units for multiple applications. The Electrical Power Control Unit concept has the potential to be scaled to larger and smaller ratings for both small and large spacecraft and for aircraft where high-power density, remote power controllers or power converters are required and a common replacement part is desired for multiples of a base current rating.

  7. Petite fabrique de conversation francaise (Little Factory of French Conversation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubroca, Danielle

    1987-01-01

    A technique using dialogues and realistic prose passages from the works of Georges Simenon and Simone de Beauvoir to teach French conversational skills at the college level is explained and illustrated. (MSE)

  8. Shape Memory Composite Hybrid Hinge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, Houfei; Im, Eastwood; Lin, John; Scarborough, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    is reduced to below its glass transition temperature. After the deployable structure is launched in space, the SMC tube is reheated and the hinge is unfolded to deploy the structure. Based on test results, the hybrid hinge can achieve higher than 99.999% shape recovery. The hybrid hinge inherits all of the good characteristics of a tape-spring hinge such as simplicity, light weight, high deployment reliability, and high deployment precision. Conversely, it eliminates the deployment impact that has significantly limited the applications of a tape-spring hinge. The deployment dynamics of a hybrid hinge are in a slow and controllable fashion. The SMC tube of a hybrid hinge is a multifunctional component. It serves as a deployment mechanism during the deployment process, and also serves as a structural component after the hinge is fully deployed, which makes a hybrid hinge much stronger and stiffer than a tape-spring hinge. Unlike a mechanically deploying hinge that uses relatively moving components, a hybrid hinge depends on material deformation for its packing and deployment. It naturally eliminates the microdynamic phenomenon.

  9. Roadmap on optical energy conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Boriskina, Svetlana V.; Green, Martin A.; Catchpole, Kylie; Yablonovitch, Eli; Beard, Matthew C.; Okada, Yoshitaka; Lany, Stephan; Gershon, Talia; Zakutayev, Andriy; Tahersima, Mohammad H.; Sorger, Volker J.; Naughton, Michael J.; Kempa, Krzysztof; Dagenais, Mario; Yao, Yuan; Xu, Lu; Sheng, Xing; Bronstein, Noah D.; Rogers, John A.; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Gordon, Jeffrey M.; Wu, Di M.; Wisser, Michael D.; Salleo, Alberto; Dionne, Jennifer; Bermel, Peter; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin; Manor, Assaf; Rotschild, Carmel; Raman, Aaswath; Zhu, Linxiao; Fan, Shanhui; Chen, Gang

    2016-06-24

    For decades, progress in the field of optical (including solar) energy conversion was dominated by advances in the conventional concentrating optics and materials design. In recent years, however, conceptual and technological breakthroughs in the fields of nanophotonics and plasmonics combined with a better understanding of the thermodynamics of the photon energy-conversion processes reshaped the landscape of energy-conversion schemes and devices. Nanostructured devices and materials that make use of size quantization effects to manipulate photon density of states offer a way to overcome the conventional light absorption limits. Novel optical spectrum splitting and photon-recycling schemes reduce the entropy production in the optical energy-conversion platforms and boost their efficiencies. Optical design concepts are rapidly expanding into the infrared energy band, offering new approaches to harvest waste heat, to reduce the thermal emission losses, and to achieve noncontact radiative cooling of solar cells as well as of optical and electronic circuitries. Light-matter interaction enabled by nanophotonics and plasmonics underlie the performance of the third- and fourth-generation energy-conversion devices, including up- and down-conversion of photon energy, near-field radiative energy transfer, and hot electron generation and harvesting. Finally, the increased market penetration of alternative solar energy-conversion technologies amplifies the role of cost-driven and environmental considerations. This roadmap on optical energy conversion provides a snapshot of the state of the art in optical energy conversion, remaining challenges, and most promising approaches to address these challenges. Leading experts authored 19 focused short sections of the roadmap where they share their vision on a specific aspect of this burgeoning research field. The roadmap opens up with a tutorial section, which introduces major concepts and terminology. It is our hope that the roadmap

  10. Roadmap on optical energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boriskina, Svetlana V.; Green, Martin A.; Catchpole, Kylie; Yablonovitch, Eli; Beard, Matthew C.; Okada, Yoshitaka; Lany, Stephan; Gershon, Talia; Zakutayev, Andriy; Tahersima, Mohammad H.; Sorger, Volker J.; Naughton, Michael J.; Kempa, Krzysztof; Dagenais, Mario; Yao, Yuan; Xu, Lu; Sheng, Xing; Bronstein, Noah D.; Rogers, John A.; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Gordon, Jeffrey M.; Wu, Di M.; Wisser, Michael D.; Salleo, Alberto; Dionne, Jennifer; Bermel, Peter; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin; Manor, Assaf; Rotschild, Carmel; Raman, Aaswath; Zhu, Linxiao; Fan, Shanhui; Chen, Gang

    2016-07-01

    For decades, progress in the field of optical (including solar) energy conversion was dominated by advances in the conventional concentrating optics and materials design. In recent years, however, conceptual and technological breakthroughs in the fields of nanophotonics and plasmonics combined with a better understanding of the thermodynamics of the photon energy-conversion processes reshaped the landscape of energy-conversion schemes and devices. Nanostructured devices and materials that make use of size quantization effects to manipulate photon density of states offer a way to overcome the conventional light absorption limits. Novel optical spectrum splitting and photon-recycling schemes reduce the entropy production in the optical energy-conversion platforms and boost their efficiencies. Optical design concepts are rapidly expanding into the infrared energy band, offering new approaches to harvest waste heat, to reduce the thermal emission losses, and to achieve noncontact radiative cooling of solar cells as well as of optical and electronic circuitries. Light-matter interaction enabled by nanophotonics and plasmonics underlie the performance of the third- and fourth-generation energy-conversion devices, including up- and down-conversion of photon energy, near-field radiative energy transfer, and hot electron generation and harvesting. Finally, the increased market penetration of alternative solar energy-conversion technologies amplifies the role of cost-driven and environmental considerations. This roadmap on optical energy conversion provides a snapshot of the state of the art in optical energy conversion, remaining challenges, and most promising approaches to address these challenges. Leading experts authored 19 focused short sections of the roadmap where they share their vision on a specific aspect of this burgeoning research field. The roadmap opens up with a tutorial section, which introduces major concepts and terminology. It is our hope that the roadmap

  11. Red long-lasting phosphorescence based on color conversion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhanjun; Zhang, Hongwu; Fu, Haixia

    2013-01-01

    The principle of color conversion process was used to generate red long-lasting phosphorescence (LLP) using SrAl2O4:Eu, Dy (SAO) as primary light source and rhodamine B encapsulated mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MCM-R) as effective color conversion agent. The phosphorescence spectra of MCM-R/SAO hybrid samples show green peaks from 425 nm to 550 nm and red peaks from 550 nm to 700 nm, which can be attributed to the phosphorescence of SAO and the fluorescence of MCM-R, respectively. The phosphorescence color can be adjusted from green to red by changing the mass ratio of MCM-R/SAO. When the mass ratio of MCM-R/SAO increases from 0.05 to 1.5, a blue shift for the green peak and a red shift for the red peak of the phosphorescence spectra can be observed and the intensity of the red emission peak increase relatively towards the green one. The phosphorescence decay curves show that MCM-R and SAO have similar decay dynamics and the MCM-R can inherit the LLP properties of SAO. The phosphorescence decay spectra indicate that the MCM-R/SAO hybrid can retain constant and steady visual phosphorescence color. The red phosphorescence can be seen in the dark with naked eyes for more than 5 h. So, the red LLP can be successfully achieved based on the principle of color conversion process.

  12. Energy conversion and storage program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-12-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemical and chemical engineering principles to solve problems in (1) production of new synthetic fuels; (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy storage; (4) characterization of complex chemical processes; and (5) the application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, and advanced methods of analysis. The following five areas are discussed: electrochemical energy storage and conversion; microstructured materials; biotechnology; fossil fuels; and high temperature superconducting processing. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  13. Dynamic Conversion Working Group Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaffee, N.; Sovie, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    The potential of dynamic conversion devices for use in solar and nuclear dynamic space power systems was addressed. Conversion systems considered were based on the use of Brayton, Stirling and Rankine cycles. Both organic and liquid metal Rankine cycles were included. The basic system considerations were: mission requirements, system attributes, system options, technology issues and constraints, and priorities of needed technology development. Mission requirements, where dynamic conversion was considered enabling technology, were identified along with the associated power levels and potential energy sources. When considering the system options special attention was given to recommend operating temperatures and other significant discriminators. A list of prioritized tasks considered important for the successful development of dynamic conversion systems for 1995 and beyond was compiled.

  14. Conversational topics in transsexual persons.

    PubMed

    Van Borsel, John; Cayzeele, Miet; Heirman, Eva; T'sjoen, Guy

    2014-06-01

    Abstract In general, speech language therapy for transsexual persons focuses on pitch and pitch variation and more recently also on resonance. Other communicative aspects are dealt with far less often, especially language. This study investigated to what extent conversational topics might need attention in therapy for transsexual persons. A total of 111 males, 116 females, 28 male-to-female and 18 female-to-male transsexuals were asked to indicate on a list with 34 topics how often they speak about each topic (never, sometimes, often) in conversations with males, with females and in a gender mixed group. Results showed that transsexual persons behave in accordance with the desired gender. However, they also tend to adopt a position depending on the gender of their conversational partner. It can be concluded that in general it is not necessary to pay attention to conversational topics in therapy for transsexual persons.

  15. Enzymes for improved biomass conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Brunecky, Roman; Himmel, Michael E.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein are enzymes and combinations of the enzymes useful for the hydrolysis of cellulose and the conversion of biomass. Methods of degrading cellulose and biomass using enzymes and cocktails of enzymes are also disclosed.

  16. Virginia Hamilton: Continuing the Conversation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikkelsen, Nina

    1995-01-01

    Relates the latest installment of a continuing conversation between the author and Virginia Hamilton. Discusses ethnicity and identity, environmental issues, the creative process, and the way heritage, history, and family storytelling affect a writer's work. (RS)

  17. NASA thermionic-conversion program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    Technological processes in out-of-core thermionic energy conversion are described. The emphasis was on high temperature electrode materials and system engineering of converter geometries to produce practical power densities.

  18. Effective communication during difficult conversations.

    PubMed

    Polito, Jacquelyn M

    2013-06-01

    A strong interest and need exist in the workplace today to master the skills of conducting difficult conversations. Theories and strategies abound, yet none seem to have found the magic formula with universal appeal and success. If it is such an uncomfortable skill to master is it better to avoid or initiate such conversations with employees? Best practices and evidence-based management guide us to the decision that quality improvement dictates effective communication, even when difficult. This brief paper will offer some suggestions for strategies to manage difficult conversations with employees. Mastering the skills of conducting difficult conversations is clearly important to keeping lines of communication open and productive. Successful communication skills may actually help to avert confrontation through employee engagement, commitment and appropriate corresponding behavior

  19. A Conversation Well Worth Remembering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolven-Allen, John

    2009-01-01

    To mark the 200th anniversary of Charles Darwin's birth, a special event was held at Oxford, which included a "Conversation" between Professor Richard Dawkins and Bishop Richard Harries. Here we present a personal reminiscence of the event.

  20. Development of Geodetic Conversion Routines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    horizontal and vertical datums in the United States. It provides examples to invoke the Dynamic Link Library and use conversion functions in various programming languages, such as Visual Basic , C, and C++.

  1. Hybrid rocket propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzman, Allen L.

    1993-01-01

    Topics addressed are: (1) comparison of the theoretical impulses; (2) comparison of the density-specific impulses; (3) general propulsion system features comparison; (4) hybrid systems, booster applications; and (5) hybrid systems, upper stage propulsion applications.

  2. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The introgression of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals 40,000 YBP after a half-million years of separation, may have led to the best example of a hybrid swarm on earth. Modern trade and transportation in support of the human hybrids has continued to introduce additional species, genotyp...

  3. Frequency conversion of structured light.

    PubMed

    Steinlechner, Fabian; Hermosa, Nathaniel; Pruneri, Valerio; Torres, Juan P

    2016-02-15

    Coherent frequency conversion of structured light, i.e. the ability to manipulate the carrier frequency of a wave front without distorting its spatial phase and intensity profile, provides the opportunity for numerous novel applications in photonic technology and fundamental science. In particular, frequency conversion of spatial modes carrying orbital angular momentum can be exploited in sub-wavelength resolution nano-optics and coherent imaging at a wavelength different from that used to illuminate an object. Moreover, coherent frequency conversion will be crucial for interfacing information stored in the high-dimensional spatial structure of single and entangled photons with various constituents of quantum networks. In this work, we demonstrate frequency conversion of structured light from the near infrared (803 nm) to the visible (527 nm). The conversion scheme is based on sum-frequency generation in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal pumped with a 1540-nm Gaussian beam. We observe frequency-converted fields that exhibit a high degree of similarity with the input field and verify the coherence of the frequency-conversion process via mode projection measurements with a phase mask and a single-mode fiber. Our results demonstrate the suitability of exploiting the technique for applications in quantum information processing and coherent imaging.

  4. Frequency conversion of structured light

    PubMed Central

    Steinlechner, Fabian; Hermosa, Nathaniel; Pruneri, Valerio; Torres, Juan P.

    2016-01-01

    Coherent frequency conversion of structured light, i.e. the ability to manipulate the carrier frequency of a wave front without distorting its spatial phase and intensity profile, provides the opportunity for numerous novel applications in photonic technology and fundamental science. In particular, frequency conversion of spatial modes carrying orbital angular momentum can be exploited in sub-wavelength resolution nano-optics and coherent imaging at a wavelength different from that used to illuminate an object. Moreover, coherent frequency conversion will be crucial for interfacing information stored in the high-dimensional spatial structure of single and entangled photons with various constituents of quantum networks. In this work, we demonstrate frequency conversion of structured light from the near infrared (803 nm) to the visible (527 nm). The conversion scheme is based on sum-frequency generation in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal pumped with a 1540-nm Gaussian beam. We observe frequency-converted fields that exhibit a high degree of similarity with the input field and verify the coherence of the frequency-conversion process via mode projection measurements with a phase mask and a single-mode fiber. Our results demonstrate the suitability of exploiting the technique for applications in quantum information processing and coherent imaging. PMID:26875448

  5. Frequency conversion of structured light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinlechner, Fabian; Hermosa, Nathaniel; Pruneri, Valerio; Torres, Juan P.

    2016-02-01

    Coherent frequency conversion of structured light, i.e. the ability to manipulate the carrier frequency of a wave front without distorting its spatial phase and intensity profile, provides the opportunity for numerous novel applications in photonic technology and fundamental science. In particular, frequency conversion of spatial modes carrying orbital angular momentum can be exploited in sub-wavelength resolution nano-optics and coherent imaging at a wavelength different from that used to illuminate an object. Moreover, coherent frequency conversion will be crucial for interfacing information stored in the high-dimensional spatial structure of single and entangled photons with various constituents of quantum networks. In this work, we demonstrate frequency conversion of structured light from the near infrared (803 nm) to the visible (527 nm). The conversion scheme is based on sum-frequency generation in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal pumped with a 1540-nm Gaussian beam. We observe frequency-converted fields that exhibit a high degree of similarity with the input field and verify the coherence of the frequency-conversion process via mode projection measurements with a phase mask and a single-mode fiber. Our results demonstrate the suitability of exploiting the technique for applications in quantum information processing and coherent imaging.

  6. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    DOEpatents

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  7. Hybrid armature projectile

    DOEpatents

    Hawke, Ronald S.; Asay, James R.; Hall, Clint A.; Konrad, Carl H.; Sauve, Gerald L.; Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Susoeff, Allan R.

    1993-01-01

    A projectile for a railgun that uses a hybrid armature and provides a seed block around part of the outer surface of the projectile to seed the hybrid plasma brush. In addition, the hybrid armature is continuously vaporized to replenish plasma in a plasma armature to provide a tandem armature and provides a unique ridge and groove to reduce plasama blowby.

  8. Intraply Hybrid Composite Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    Several theoretical approaches combined in program. Intraply hybrid composites investigated theoretically and experimentally at Lewis Research Center. Theories developed during investigations and corroborated by attendant experiments used to develop computer program identified as INHYD (Intraply Hybrid Composite Design). INHYD includes several composites micromechanics theories, intraply hybrid composite theories, and integrated hygrothermomechanical theory. Equations from theories used by program as appropriate for user's specific applications.

  9. Hybrid armature projectile

    DOEpatents

    Hawke, R.S.; Asay, J.R.; Hall, C.A.; Konrad, C.H.; Sauve, G.L.; Shahinpoor, M.; Susoeff, A.R.

    1993-03-02

    A projectile for a railgun that uses a hybrid armature and provides a seed block around part of the outer surface of the projectile to seed the hybrid plasma brush. In addition, the hybrid armature is continuously vaporized to replenish plasma in a plasma armature to provide a tandem armature and provides a unique ridge and groove to reduce plasma blowby.

  10. Hybrid quantum information processing

    SciTech Connect

    Furusawa, Akira

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  11. Homoploid hybrid expectations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Homoploid hybrid speciation occurs when a stable, fertile, and reproductively isolated lineage results from hybridization between two distinct species without a change in ploidy level. Reproductive isolation between a homoploid hybrid species and its parents is generally attained via chromosomal re...

  12. Highly efficient frequency conversion with bandwidth compression of quantum light

    PubMed Central

    Allgaier, Markus; Ansari, Vahid; Sansoni, Linda; Eigner, Christof; Quiring, Viktor; Ricken, Raimund; Harder, Georg; Brecht, Benjamin; Silberhorn, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid quantum networks rely on efficient interfacing of dissimilar quantum nodes, as elements based on parametric downconversion sources, quantum dots, colour centres or atoms are fundamentally different in their frequencies and bandwidths. Although pulse manipulation has been demonstrated in very different systems, to date no interface exists that provides both an efficient bandwidth compression and a substantial frequency translation at the same time. Here we demonstrate an engineered sum-frequency-conversion process in lithium niobate that achieves both goals. We convert pure photons at telecom wavelengths to the visible range while compressing the bandwidth by a factor of 7.47 under preservation of non-classical photon-number statistics. We achieve internal conversion efficiencies of 61.5%, significantly outperforming spectral filtering for bandwidth compression. Our system thus makes the connection between previously incompatible quantum systems as a step towards usable quantum networks. PMID:28134242

  13. Mode Conversion Heating Scenarios for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Majeski, R.; Wilson, J.R.; and Zarnstorff, M.

    2001-05-18

    Radio-frequency heating scenarios for the National Compact Stellarator eXperiment (NCSX) are considered. The focus here is on mode conversion from the fast to the slow ion Bernstein wave as either an electron or ''bulk'' ion heating technique, using a high-field side launch to directly access the ion-ion hybrid layer. Modeling for the planned parameters of NCSX [R(subscript ave) {approximately} 1.4 m, a(subscript ave) {approximately} 0.4 m, B(subscript T)(0) {approximately} 1.2-2 T, n(subscript e)(0) {approximately} 2-5 x 10(superscript19) m(superscript -3), T(subscript e)(0) {approximately} T(subscript i)(0) {approximately} 1-2 keV] for mode conversion in D-H and D-3He plasmas is presented. Possible types of high-field side antennas are also briefly discussed.

  14. Thermoelectric Energy Conversion: Future Directions and Technology Development Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleurial, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the process of thermoelectric energy conversion along with key technology needs and challenges. The topics include: 1) The Case for Thermoelectrics; 2) Advances in Thermoelectrics: Investment Needed; 3) Current U.S. Investment (FY07); 4) Increasing Thermoelectric Materials Conversion Efficiency Key Science Needs and Challenges; 5) Developing Advanced TE Components & Systems Key Technology Needs and Challenges; 6) Thermoelectrics; 7) 200W Class Lightweight Portable Thermoelectric Generator; 8) Hybrid Absorption Cooling/TE Power Cogeneration System; 9) Major Opportunities in Energy Industry; 10) Automobile Waste Heat Recovery; 11) Thermoelectrics at JPL; 12) Recent Advances at JPL in Thermoelectric Converter Component Technologies; 13) Thermoelectrics Background on Power Generation and Cooling Operational Modes; 14) Thermoelectric Power Generation; and 15) Thermoelectric Cooling.

  15. Highly efficient frequency conversion with bandwidth compression of quantum light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allgaier, Markus; Ansari, Vahid; Sansoni, Linda; Eigner, Christof; Quiring, Viktor; Ricken, Raimund; Harder, Georg; Brecht, Benjamin; Silberhorn, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid quantum networks rely on efficient interfacing of dissimilar quantum nodes, as elements based on parametric downconversion sources, quantum dots, colour centres or atoms are fundamentally different in their frequencies and bandwidths. Although pulse manipulation has been demonstrated in very different systems, to date no interface exists that provides both an efficient bandwidth compression and a substantial frequency translation at the same time. Here we demonstrate an engineered sum-frequency-conversion process in lithium niobate that achieves both goals. We convert pure photons at telecom wavelengths to the visible range while compressing the bandwidth by a factor of 7.47 under preservation of non-classical photon-number statistics. We achieve internal conversion efficiencies of 61.5%, significantly outperforming spectral filtering for bandwidth compression. Our system thus makes the connection between previously incompatible quantum systems as a step towards usable quantum networks.

  16. Serious Illness Conversations in ESRD.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Ernest I; Bernacki, Rachelle E; Block, Susan D

    2016-12-28

    Dialysis-dependent ESRD is a serious illness with high disease burden, morbidity, and mortality. Mortality in the first year on dialysis for individuals over age 75 years old approaches 40%, and even those with better prognoses face multiple hospitalizations and declining functional status. In the last month of life, patients on dialysis over age 65 years old experience higher rates of hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, procedures, and death in hospital than patients with cancer or heart failure, while using hospice services less. This high intensity of care is often inconsistent with the wishes of patients on dialysis but persists due to failure to explore or discuss patient goals, values, and preferences in the context of their serious illness. Fewer than 10% of patients on dialysis report having had a conversation about goals, values, and preferences with their nephrologist, although nearly 90% report wanting this conversation. Many nephrologists shy away from these conversations, because they do not wish to upset their patients, feel that there is too much uncertainty in their ability to predict prognosis, are insecure in their skills at broaching the topic, or have difficulty incorporating the conversations into their clinical workflow. In multiple studies, timely discussions about serious illness care goals, however, have been associated with enhanced goal-consistent care, improved quality of life, and positive family outcomes without an increase in patient distress or anxiety. In this special feature article, we will (1) identify the barriers to serious illness conversations in the dialysis population, (2) review best practices in and specific approaches to conducting serious illness conversations, and (3) offer solutions to overcome barriers as well as practical advice, including specific language and tools, to implement serious illness conversations in the dialysis population.

  17. Direct hydrogen fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.

    Hybridizing a fuel cell system with an energy storage system offers an opportunity to improve the fuel economy of the vehicle through regenerative braking and possibly to increase the specific power and decrease the cost of the combined energy conversion and storage systems. Even in a hybrid configuration it is advantageous to operate the fuel cell system in a load-following mode and use the power from the energy storage system when the fuel cell alone cannot meet the power demand. This paper discusses an approach for designing load-following fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles and illustrates it by applying it to pressurized, direct hydrogen, polymer-electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems for a mid-size family sedan. The vehicle level requirements relative to traction power, response time, start-up time and energy conversion efficiency are used to select the important parameters for the PEFC stack, air management system, heat rejection system and the water management system.

  18. Polarized gene conversion at the bz locus of maize.

    PubMed

    Dooner, Hugo K; He, Limei

    2014-09-23

    Nucleotide diversity is greater in maize than in most organisms studied to date, so allelic pairs in a hybrid tend to be highly polymorphic. Most recombination events between such pairs of maize polymorphic alleles are crossovers. However, intragenic recombination events not associated with flanking marker exchange, corresponding to noncrossover gene conversions, predominate between alleles derived from the same progenitor. In these dimorphic heterozygotes, the two alleles differ only at the two mutant sites between which recombination is being measured. To investigate whether gene conversion at the bz locus is polarized, two large diallel crossing matrices involving mutant sites spread across the bz gene were performed and more than 2,500 intragenic recombinants were scored. In both diallels, around 90% of recombinants could be accounted for by gene conversion. Furthermore, conversion exhibited a striking polarity, with sites located within 150 bp of the start and stop codons converting more frequently than sites located in the middle of the gene. The implications of these findings are discussed with reference to recent data from genome-wide studies in other plants.

  19. Energy Conversion and Storage Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, E. J.

    1993-06-01

    This report is the 1992 annual progress report for the Energy Conversion and Storage Program, a part of the Energy and Environment Division of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Work described falls into three broad areas: electrochemistry; chemical applications; and materials applications. The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies principles of chemistry and materials science to solve problems in several areas: (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species, and (5) study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Chemical applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing product and waste streams from synfuel plants, coal gasifiers, and biomass conversion processes. Materials applications research includes evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as development of novel preparation techniques. For example, techniques such as sputtering, laser ablation, and poised laser deposition are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  20. Asymptotic cost in document conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blostein, Dorothea; Nagy, George

    2012-01-01

    In spite of a hundredfold decrease in the cost of relevant technologies, the role of document image processing systems is gradually declining due to the transition to an on-line world. Nevertheless, in some high-volume applications, document image processing software still saves millions of dollars by accelerating workflow, and similarly large savings could be realized by more effective automation of the multitude of low-volume personal document conversions. While potential cost savings, based on estimates of costs and values, are a driving force for new developments, quantifying such savings is difficult. The most important trend is that the cost of computing resources for DIA is becoming insignificant compared to the associated labor costs. An econometric treatment of document processing complements traditional performance evaluation, which focuses on assessing the correctness of the results produced by document conversion software. Researchers should look beyond the error rate for advancing both production and personal document conversion.

  1. Conversations with Environmental Educators: A Conversation with Four Classroom Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volk, Trudi L.

    2003-01-01

    This article includes a conversation with four environmental education classroom teachers. The author introduces the four classroom teachers, Marie Marrs, Barb Pietrucha, Vicki Newberry, and Dara Lukonen. In the interview, the four environmental education classroom teachers describe the environmental education in their classrooms. Three of these…

  2. La Conversation par le theatre (Conversation through Theater).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayoff, Marie-Jose

    1986-01-01

    A successful advanced college-level French conversation course using French theater as a basis for students to learn oral skills has six phases: an overview of the history of French theater, reading, adaptation of the text, rehearsal-readings, final rehearsals, and performance. (MSE)

  3. Power conversion in electrical networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Aspects of dc to dc conversion were studied in terms of a class of switching voltage regulators from a stability viewpoint. Background concepts of nonlinear system theory were considered, including the problem of obtaining suitable realizations for a class of positive operators. It is shown that the state evolution equations for a power conversion network are in general of bilinear form, and that the theory of lie groups and lie algebras is useful in analyzing such systems. The feedback stabilization of a class of bilinear systems whose state space is a manifold is also discussed.

  4. Review of betavoltaic energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Larry C.

    1993-01-01

    Betavoltaic energy conversion refers to the generation of power by coupling a beta source to a semiconductor junction device. The theory of betavoltaic energy conversion and some past studies of the subject are briefly reviewed. Calculations of limiting efficiencies for semiconductor cells versus bandgap are presented along with specific studies for Pm-147 and Ni-63 fueled devices. The approach used for fabricating Pm-147 fueled batteries by the author in the early 1970's is reviewed. Finally, the potential performance of advanced betavoltaic power sources is considered.

  5. Pronunciation models for conversational speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Keith

    2005-09-01

    Using a pronunciation dictionary of clear speech citation forms a segment deletion rate of nearly 12% is found in a corpus of conversational speech. The number of apparent segment deletions can be reduced by constructing a pronunciation dictionary that records one or more of the actual pronunciations found in conversational speech; however, the resulting empirical pronunciation dictionary often fails to include the citation pronunciation form. Issues involved in selecting pronunciations for a dictionary for linguistic, psycholinguistic, and ASR research will be discussed. One conclusion is that Ladefoged may have been the wiser for avoiding the business of producing pronunciation dictionaries. [Supported by NIDCD Grant No. R01 DC04330-03.

  6. Recirculation in multiple wave conversions

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, A. N.; Brizard, A.J.; Kaufman, A.N.; Tracy, E.R.

    2008-07-30

    A one-dimensional multiple wave-conversion model is constructed that allows energy recirculation in ray phase space. Using a modular eikonal approach, the connection coefficients for this model are calculated by ray phase-space methods. Analytical results (confirmed numerically) show that all connection coefficients exhibit interference effects that depend on an interference phase, calculated from the coupling constants and the area enclosed by the intersecting rays. This conceptual model, which focuses on the topology of intersecting rays in phase space, is used to investigate how mode conversion between primary and secondary waves is modified by the presence of a tertiary wave.

  7. Calculation Methods and Conversions for Pesticide Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Herbert, Jr.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University consists of conversion tables and formulas for determining concentration and rate of application of pesticides. Contents include: (1) Area and volume conversions; (2) Important conversion formulae; (3) Conversions for rates of application; (4) Quantities of pesticide…

  8. 16 CFR 1012.7 - Telephone conversations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Telephone conversations. 1012.7 Section 1012... AGENCY PERSONNEL AND OUTSIDE PARTIES § 1012.7 Telephone conversations. (a) Telephone conversations... meet with Agency employees. However, because telephone conversations, by their very nature, are...

  9. 16 CFR 1012.7 - Telephone conversations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Telephone conversations. 1012.7 Section 1012... AGENCY PERSONNEL AND OUTSIDE PARTIES § 1012.7 Telephone conversations. (a) Telephone conversations... meet with Agency employees. However, because telephone conversations, by their very nature, are...

  10. 16 CFR 1012.7 - Telephone conversations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Telephone conversations. 1012.7 Section 1012... AGENCY PERSONNEL AND OUTSIDE PARTIES § 1012.7 Telephone conversations. (a) Telephone conversations... meet with Agency employees. However, because telephone conversations, by their very nature, are...

  11. 16 CFR 1012.7 - Telephone conversations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Telephone conversations. 1012.7 Section 1012... AGENCY PERSONNEL AND OUTSIDE PARTIES § 1012.7 Telephone conversations. (a) Telephone conversations... meet with Agency employees. However, because telephone conversations, by their very nature, are...

  12. 16 CFR 1012.7 - Telephone conversations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Telephone conversations. 1012.7 Section 1012... AGENCY PERSONNEL AND OUTSIDE PARTIES § 1012.7 Telephone conversations. (a) Telephone conversations... meet with Agency employees. However, because telephone conversations, by their very nature, are...

  13. Energy Conversion and Storage Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, E.J.

    1992-03-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes, and (5) application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Topics include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced rechargeable batteries, improvements in battery and fuel-cell materials, and the establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Chemical Applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing waste streams from synfuel plants and coal gasifiers. Other research projects seek to identify and characterize the constituents of liquid fuel-system streams and to devise energy-efficient means for their separation. Materials Applications research includes the evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as the development of novel preparation techniques. For example, the use of advanced techniques, such as sputtering and laser ablation, are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  14. Taking the Grading Conversation Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Douglas B.

    2011-01-01

    To manage effective grading reform, education leaders must engage teachers, parents, communities, and policymakers in a rational discussion about grading. Doug Reeves suggests that leaders start the conversation with a discussion of the principles on which all stakeholders can agree; make clear what will not change under the new grading policy; be…

  15. A Conversation with Edwin Shneidman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pestian, John

    2010-01-01

    This article is a transcript of a conversation that took place with Edwin Shneidman, PhD, on August 19, 2008. Recent advances in machine learning, particularly neurocognitive computing, have provided a fresh approach to the idea of using computers to analyze the language of the suicidal person. Here this notion and many others are discussed.

  16. Batteries: Beyond intercalation and conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimaud, Alexis

    2017-01-01

    Conventional positive electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries, such as intercalation and conversion compounds, feature a host structure to reversibly insert and conduct lithium ions. Now, electrochemically activated transition metal oxide-lithium fluoride composite materials are shown to be a promising class of positive electrodes.

  17. Turbulence and energy conversion research

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, R.A.

    1985-07-01

    This report examines the role of fluid mechanics research (particularly turbulence research) in improving energy conversion systems. In this report two of the listed application areas are selected as examples: fluidization and cavitation. Research needs in general, and research possibilities for ECUT in particular, are examined.

  18. A conversation with Edwin Shneidman.

    PubMed

    Pestian, John

    2010-10-01

    This article is a transcript of a conversation that took place with Edwin Shneidman, PhD, on August 19, 2008. Recent advances in machine learning, particularly neurocognitive computing, have provided a fresh approach to the idea of using computers to analyze the language of the suicidal person. Here this notion and many others are discussed.

  19. Technology for satellite power conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, D. P.; Gouker, M. A.; Summers, C.; Gallagher, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques for satellite electromagnetic energy transfer and power conversion at millimeter and infrared wavelengths are discussed. The design requirements for rectenna receiving elements are reviewed for both coherent radiation sources and Earth thermal infrared emission. Potential power transmitters including gyrotrons, free electron lasers, and CO2 lasers are assessed along with the rectification properties of metal-oxide metal diode power converters.

  20. INDOOR EMISSIONS FROM CONVERSION VARNISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conversion varnishes are two-component, acid-catalyzed varnishes that are commonly used to finish cabinets. They are valued for their water- and stain-resistance, as well as their appearance. They have been found, however, to contribute to indoor emissions of organic compounds. F...

  1. Coaching Conversations: Enacting Instructional Scaffolding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Sharan A.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed coaching conversations and interviews of four coach/teacher partnerships for specific ways in which kindergarten and first-grade teachers, and coaches, conceptualized instructional scaffolding for guided reading. Interview transcripts were coded for coaches' and teachers' specific hypotheses/ ideas regarding instructional…

  2. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Lockerby, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is reviewed briefly. The two types of OTEC system (open and closed) are described and limitations are pointed out. A bibliography of 148 references on OTEC is given for the time period 1975 to 1980. Entries are arranged alphabetically according to the author's name. (MJJ)

  3. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavi, A.

    1977-01-01

    Energy Research and Development Administration research progress in Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) is outlined. The development program is being focused on cost effective heat exchangers; ammonia is generally used as the heat exchange fluid. Projected costs for energy production by OTEC vary between $1000 to $1700 per kW.

  4. Conversation at the Intermediate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlop, Ian

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the use of free conversation, especially with regard to vocabulary. Recommends group discussion in the FL, using, at the intermediate level, limited, familiar vocabulary. At a higher level, words from a special technical vocabulary may be introduced, aurally and visually. A teaching example ("Traffic") is given with thorough…

  5. Si/PEDOT:PSS core/shell nanowire arrays for efficient hybrid solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wenhui; Wang, Chengwei; Yue, Wei; Chen, Liwei

    2011-09-01

    A solution filling and drying method has been demonstrated to fabricate Si/PEDOT:PSS core/shell nanowire arrays for hybrid solar cells. The hybrid core/shell nanowire arrays show excellent broadband anti-reflection, and resulting hybrid solar cells absorb about 88% of AM 1.5G photons in the 300-1100 nm range. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the hybrid solar cell reaches 6.35%, and is primarily limited by direct and indirect interfacial recombination of charge carriers.

  6. Conversion of Biomass Syngas to DME Using a Microchannel Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jianli; Wang, Yong; Cao, Chunshe; Elliott, Douglas C.; Stevens, Don J.; White, James F.

    2005-03-01

    The capability of a microchannel reactor for direct synthesis of dimethylether (DME) from biomass syngas was explored. The reactor was operated in conjunction with a hybrid catalyst system consisting of methanol synthesis and dehydration catalysts, and the influence of reaction parameters on syngas conversion was investigated. The activities of different dehydration catalysts were compared under DME synthesis conditions. Reaction temperature and pressure exhibited similar positive effects on DME formation. A catalytic stability test of the hybrid catalyst system was performed for 880 hours, during which CO conversion only decreased from 88% to 81%. In the microchannel reactor, the catalyst deactivation rate appeared to be much slower than in a tubular fixed-bed reactor tested for comparison. Test results also indicated that the dehydration reaction rate and the water depletion rate via a water-gas-shift reaction should be compatible in order to achieve high selectivity to DME. Using the microchannel reactor, it was possible to achieve a space time yield almost three times higher than commercially demonstrated performance results. A side-by-side comparison indicated that the heat removal capability of the microchannel reactor was at least six times greater than that of a commercial slurry reactor under similar reaction conditions.

  7. Self-consistent conversion of a viscous fluid to particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, Denes; Wolff, Zack

    2017-02-01

    Comparison of hydrodynamic and "hybrid" hydrodynamics+transport calculations with heavy-ion data inevitably requires the conversion of the fluid to particles. For dissipative fluids the conversion is ambiguous without additional theory input complementing hydrodynamics. We obtain self-consistent shear viscous phase-space corrections from linearized Boltzmann transport theory for a gas of hadrons. These corrections depend on the particle species, and incorporating them in Cooper-Frye freeze-out affects identified particle observables. For example, with additive quark model cross sections, proton elliptic flow is larger than pion elliptic flow at moderately high pT in Au+Au collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. This is in contrast to Cooper-Frye freeze-out with the commonly used "democratic Grad" ansatz that assumes no species dependence. Various analytic and numerical results are also presented for massless and massive two-component mixtures to better elucidate how species dependence arises. For convenient inclusion in pure hydrodynamic and hybrid calculations, Appendix G contains self-consistent viscous corrections for each species both in tabulated and parametrized form.

  8. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  9. Requirements for Hybrid Cosimulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-16

    hybrid cosimulation version of the Functional Mockup Interface ( FMI ) standard. A cosimulation standard de nes interfaces that enable diverse simulation...This hybrid mixture is not well supported by existing cosimulation standards, and speci cally not by FMI 2.0, for reasons that are explained in this...cosimulation standards, and specifically provides guidance for development of a hybrid cosimulation version of the Functional Mockup Interface ( FMI ) standard

  10. DOE/EPRI hybrid power system

    SciTech Connect

    Stiger, S.G.; Taylor, K.J.; Hughes, E.E.

    1988-01-01

    One of the primary objectives of the DOE Geopressured Geothermal Program is to improve methods for optimum energy extraction from geopressured reservoirs. Hybrid power systems which take advantage of the chemical and thermal energy content of geopressured fluids could improve conversion efficiency by 15 to 20% over the same amount of fuel and geothermal fluid processed separately. In a joint DOE/EPRI effort, equipment from the Direct Contact heat Exchange test facility at East Mesa is being modified for use in a unique geopressured hybrid power plant located at the Pleasant Bayou wellsite in Brazoria County, TX. Natural gas separated at the wellhead will fuel a gas turbine, and exhaust heat from the engine will be used with the geothermal brine to vaporize isobutane in a binary power cycle. The hybrid power system is designed for 10,000 bbl/day brine flow, with estimated power production of 980 kW (net). In addition to evaluating the enhanced performance resulting from the combined power generation cycles, operation of the hybrid unit will provide a demonstration of fuel flexibility in an individual plant. This approach would allow a resource developer to reduce costs and risks by optimizing production for various economic climates and would improve the mix in a utility's generating system. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  11. An Automated Approach to Examining Conversational Dynamics between People with Dementia and Their Carers

    PubMed Central

    Atay, Christina; Conway, Erin R.; Angus, Daniel; Wiles, Janet; Baker, Rosemary; Chenery, Helen J.

    2015-01-01

    The progressive neuropathology involved in dementia frequently causes a gradual decline in communication skills. Communication partners who are unaware of the specific communication problems faced by people with dementia (PWD) can inadvertently challenge their conversation partner, leading to distress and a reduced flow of information between speakers. Previous research has produced an extensive literature base recommending strategies to facilitate conversational engagement in dementia. However, empirical evidence for the beneficial effects of these strategies on conversational dynamics is sparse. This study uses a time-efficient computational discourse analysis tool called Discursis to examine the link between specific communication behaviours and content-based conversational engagement in 20 conversations between PWD living in residential aged-care facilities and care staff members. Conversations analysed here were baseline conversations recorded before staff members underwent communication training. Care staff members spontaneously exhibited a wide range of facilitative and non-facilitative communication behaviours, which were coded for analysis of conversation dynamics within these baseline conversations. A hybrid approach combining manual coding and automated Discursis metric analysis provides two sets of novel insights. Firstly, this study revealed nine communication behaviours that, if used by the care staff member in a given turn, significantly increased the appearance of subsequent content-based engagement in the conversation by PWD. Secondly, the current findings reveal alignment between human- and computer-generated labelling of communication behaviour for 8 out of the total 22 behaviours under investigation. The approach demonstrated in this study provides an empirical procedure for the detailed evaluation of content-based conversational engagement associated with specific communication behaviours. PMID:26658135

  12. Managing hybrid marketing systems.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, R T; Moran, U

    1990-01-01

    As competition increases and costs become critical, companies that once went to market only one way are adding new channels and using new methods - creating hybrid marketing systems. These hybrid marketing systems hold the promise of greater coverage and reduced costs. But they are also hard to manage; they inevitably raise questions of conflict and control: conflict because marketing units compete for customers; control because new indirect channels are less subject to management authority. Hard as they are to manage, however, hybrid marketing systems promise to become the dominant design, replacing the "purebred" channel strategy in all kinds of businesses. The trick to managing the hybrid is to analyze tasks and channels within and across a marketing system. A map - the hybrid grid - can help managers make sense of their hybrid system. What the chart reveals is that channels are not the basic building blocks of a marketing system; marketing tasks are. The hybrid grid forces managers to consider various combinations of channels and tasks that will optimize both cost and coverage. Managing conflict is also an important element of a successful hybrid system. Managers should first acknowledge the inevitability of conflict. Then they should move to bound it by creating guidelines that spell out which customers to serve through which methods. Finally, a marketing and sales productivity (MSP) system, consisting of a central marketing database, can act as the central nervous system of a hybrid marketing system, helping managers create customized channels and service for specific customer segments.

  13. Hybrid nanorod-polymer solar cells.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Wendy U; Dittmer, Janke J; Alivisatos, A Paul

    2002-03-29

    We demonstrate that semiconductor nanorods can be used to fabricate readily processed and efficient hybrid solar cells together with polymers. By controlling nanorod length, we can change the distance on which electrons are transported directly through the thin film device. Tuning the band gap by altering the nanorod radius enabled us to optimize the overlap between the absorption spectrum of the cell and the solar emission spectrum. A photovoltaic device consisting of 7-nanometer by 60-nanometer CdSe nanorods and the conjugated polymer poly-3(hexylthiophene) was assembled from solution with an external quantum efficiency of over 54% and a monochromatic power conversion efficiency of 6.9% under 0.1 milliwatt per square centimeter illumination at 515 nanometers. Under Air Mass (A.M.) 1.5 Global solar conditions, we obtained a power conversion efficiency of 1.7%.

  14. Solution-Processed Two-Dimensional Metal Dichalcogenide-Based Nanomaterials for Energy Storage and Conversion.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiehong; Tan, Chaoliang; Zhang, Xiao; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Hua

    2016-08-01

    The development of renewable energy storage and conversion devices is one of the most promising ways to address the current energy crisis, along with the global environmental concern. The exploration of suitable active materials is the key factor for the construction of highly efficient, highly stable, low-cost and environmentally friendly energy storage and conversion devices. The ability to prepare two-dimensional (2D) metal dichalcogenide (MDC) nanosheets and their functional composites in high yield and large scale via various solution-based methods in recent years has inspired great research interests in their utilization for renewable energy storage and conversion applications. Here, we will summarize the recent advances of solution-processed 2D MDCs and their hybrid nanomaterials for energy storage and conversion applications, including rechargeable batteries, supercapacitors, electrocatalytic hydrogen generation and solar cells. Moreover, based on the current progress, we will also give some personal insights on the existing challenges and future research directions in this promising field.

  15. Hybrid Photovoltaic-Thermal Collectors: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Figueiredo; Cardoso, António; Alcaso, Adérito

    Solar energy can be converted directly into electric and thermal energy through photovoltaic cells and thermal collectors, respectively. However this conversion, in particular the photovoltaic, has a reduced efficiency. A solution proposed to increase this efficiency is with the hybrid solar structure, which consists in the junction of the photovoltaic panel and the thermal collector in a single module. The interest on these solar systems led the International Energy Agency to create a "Task" on this subject. This paper presents a review of the research in this area, presenting the definitions of the related collectors and results of their characteristics, as well as some ideas for future studies.

  16. Conceptual design and system analysis study for a hybrid solar photovoltaic/solar thermal electric power system. Volume 3: Appendices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-07-01

    Hybrid photovoltaic/solar thermal electric conversion systems were analyzed. Several types of hybrid systems, photovoltaic only systems, and solar thermal electric systems in terms of performance and cost were compared. The computer code used in the analyses and background information on heat engines, thermal efficiencies of photovoltaic thermal collectors, and optical considerations for central receiver plants is also described.

  17. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Szalanski, Allen L; Gaskin, John F.; Young, Nicholas E.; West, Amanda; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Tripodi, Amber

    2014-01-01

    Science has shown that the introgression or hybridization of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals up to 40,000 YBP may have led to the swarm of modern humans on earth. However, there is little doubt that modern trade and transportation in support of the humans has continued to introduce additional species, genotypes, and hybrids to every country on the globe. We assessed the utility of species distributions modeling of genotypes to assess the risk of current and future invaders. We evaluated 93 locations of the genus Tamarix for which genetic data were available. Maxent models of habitat suitability showed that the hybrid, T. ramosissima x T. chinensis, was slightly greater than the parent taxa (AUCs > 0.83). General linear models of Africanized honey bees, a hybrid cross of Tanzanian Apis mellifera scutellata and a variety of European honey bee including A. m. ligustica, showed that the Africanized bees (AUC = 0.81) may be displacing European honey bees (AUC > 0.76) over large areas of the southwestern U.S. More important, Maxent modeling of sub-populations (A1 and A26 mitotypes based on mDNA) could be accurately modeled (AUC > 0.9), and they responded differently to environmental drivers. This suggests that rapid evolutionary change may be underway in the Africanized bees, allowing the bees to spread into new areas and extending their total range. Protecting native species and ecosystems may benefit from risk maps of harmful invasive species, hybrids, and genotypes.

  18. Exceeding the solar cell Shockley-Queisser limit via thermal up-conversion of low-energy photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boriskina, Svetlana V.; Chen, Gang

    2014-03-01

    Maximum efficiency of ideal single-junction photovoltaic (PV) cells is limited to 33% (for 1 sun illumination) by intrinsic losses such as band edge thermalization, radiative recombination, and inability to absorb below-bandgap photons. This intrinsic thermodynamic limit, named after Shockley and Queisser (S-Q), can be exceeded by utilizing low-energy photons either via their electronic up-conversion or via the thermophotovoltaic (TPV) conversion process. However, electronic up-conversion systems have extremely low efficiencies, and practical temperature considerations limit the operation of TPV converters to the narrow-gap PV cells. Here we develop a conceptual design of a hybrid TPV platform, which exploits thermal up-conversion of low-energy photons and is compatible with conventional silicon PV cells by using spectral and directional selectivity of the up-converter. The hybrid platform offers sunlight-to-electricity conversion efficiency exceeding that imposed by the S-Q limit on the corresponding PV cells across a broad range of bandgap energies, under low optical concentration (1-300 suns), operating temperatures in the range 900-1700 K, and in simple flat panel designs. We demonstrate maximum conversion efficiency of 73% under illumination by non-concentrated sunlight. A detailed analysis of non-ideal hybrid platforms that allows for up to 15% of absorption/re-emission losses yields limiting efficiency value of 45% for Si PV cells.

  19. Electrocatalysts for carbon dioxide conversion

    DOEpatents

    Masel, Richard I; Salehi-Khojin, Amin

    2015-04-21

    Electrocatalysts for carbon dioxide conversion include at least one catalytically active element with a particle size above 0.6 nm. The electrocatalysts can also include a Helper Catalyst. The catalysts can be used to increase the rate, modify the selectivity or lower the overpotential of electrochemical conversion of CO.sub.2. Chemical processes and devices using the catalysts also include processes to produce CO, HCO.sup.-, H.sub.2CO, (HCO.sub.2).sup.-, H.sub.2CO.sub.2, CH.sub.3OH, CH.sub.4, C.sub.2H.sub.4, CH.sub.3CH.sub.2OH, CH.sub.3COO.sup.-, CH.sub.3COOH, C.sub.2H.sub.6, (COOH).sub.2, or (COO.sup.-).sub.2, and a specific device, namely, a CO.sub.2 sensor.

  20. Complexity matching in dyadic conversation.

    PubMed

    Abney, Drew H; Paxton, Alexandra; Dale, Rick; Kello, Christopher T

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies of dyadic interaction have examined phenomena of synchronization, entrainment, alignment, and convergence. All these forms of behavioral matching have been hypothesized to play a supportive role in establishing coordination and common ground between interlocutors. In the present study, evidence is found for a new kind of coordination termed complexity matching. Temporal dynamics in conversational speech signals were analyzed through time series of acoustic onset events. Timing in periods of acoustic energy was found to exhibit behavioral matching that reflects complementary timing in turn-taking. In addition, acoustic onset times were found to exhibit power law clustering across a range of timescales, and these power law functions were found to exhibit complexity matching that is distinct from behavioral matching. Complexity matching is discussed in terms of interactive alignment and other theoretical principles that lead to new hypotheses about information exchange in dyadic conversation and interaction in general.

  1. Coal conversion products Industrial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, D.; Dunkin, J.

    1980-01-01

    The synfuels economic evaluation model was utilized to analyze cost and product economics of the TVA coal conversion facilities. It is concluded that; (1) moderate yearly future escalations ( 6%) in current natural gas prices will result in medium-Btu gas becoming competitive with natural gas at the plant boundary; (2) utilizing DRI price projections, the alternate synfuel products, except for electricity, will be competitive with their counterparts; (3) central site fuel cell generation of electricity, utilizing MBG, is economically less attractive than the other synthetic fuels, given projected price rises in electricity produced by other means; and (4) because of estimated northern Alabama synfuels market demands, existing conventional fuels, infrastructure and industrial synfuels retrofit problems, a diversity of transportable synfuels products should be produced by the conversion facility.

  2. Observation of Thermoacoustic Energy Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashiro, Yusuke; Biwa, Tetsushi; Yazaki, Taichi

    In order to understand thermoacoustic phenomena from a point of view of thermodynamics, oscillating pressure, velocity and temperature were measured in the tube having a temperature gradient. By converting the measured Eulerian quantities to the Lagrangian quantities associated with a given gas parcel, we determined the local energy conversion rate per unit volume and time. The obtained data demonstrate the validity of the thermodynamic approach to thermoacoustic phenomena.

  3. Direct Energy Conversion Literature Abstracts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1963-12-01

    for single and multiloop first in handy packages for use anywhere Carnot cycles. Parameters related to on earth or in space, and eventually in...by Various inorganic fluids which may be o F.X. Dobler, and others.306p., Feb.8,1962. potential value for energy conversion or (Prog. Rept.- First Q...during the first three months. background material is discussed, including thermodynamic cycle, heat transfer, compati- 4679 bility, and working

  4. Direct Energy Conversion Literature Abstracts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1962-12-01

    3530-3533 4. Fusion ........................................................ 3534-3536 C. Solar Collection and Concentration...Cooley, W.C. SOLAR DIRECT-CONVERSION. 245p., New York, United Nations, 1961. POWER SYSTEMS. Inst. Radio Engra. Trans. MIL-6: 91-98, illus., Jan. j 1962...In ch.V entitled Fuel and Power Research, nuclear and solar energy are discussed, in A survey is made of the present status of general. technology of

  5. Materials for thermoelectric energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C.

    1988-01-01

    The field of thermoelectric energy conversion is reviewed from both a theoretical and an experimental standpoint. The basic theory is introduced and the thermodynamic and solid state views are compared. An overview of the development of thermoelectric materials is presented with particular emphasis being placed on the most recent developments in high-temperature semiconductors. A number of possible device applications are discussed and the successful use and suitability of these devices for space power is manifest.

  6. Conversion of heavy petroleum oils

    SciTech Connect

    Farcasiu, M.

    1982-03-02

    Heavy petroleum oils, such as vacuum resids, and heavy fractions of tar sands and shale oil, are partially converted to more volatile hydrocarbons by mixing with light aromatic hydrocarbons and treatment of the mixture with a friedel-crafts catalyst such as aluminum chloride. It is believed that the conversion found is essentially a transalkylation, I.E. The resid undergoes dealkylation with concurrent alkylation of the light aromatic hydrocarbon.

  7. Irradiation enhancement of biomass conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, G. S.; Kiesling, H. E.; Galyean, M. L.; Bader, J. R.

    The vast supply of cellulosic agricultural residues and industrial by-products that is produced each year is a prospective resource of biomass suitable for conversion to useful products such as feedstock for the chemicals industry and feedstuffs for the livestock industry. Conversions of such biomass is poor at present, and utilization is inefficient, because of physio-chemical barriers to biological degradation and (or) anti-quality components such as toxicants that restrict biological usages. Improvements in biodegradability of ligno-cellulosic materials have been accomplished by gamma-ray and electron-beam irradiation at intermediate dosage (˜ 50 Mrad; .5 MGy); but applications of the technology have been hampered by questionable interpretations of results. Recent research with organic wastes such as sewage sludge and straw suggests opportunity for important applications of irradiation technology in enhancement of biomass conversion. Data from experiments using irradiated straw as feed for ruminants are presented and discussed in relation to research on prospective usage of sewage products as feed for ruminants. Findings are discussed in regard to prospective applications in industrial fermentation processes. Possible usage of irradiation technology for destruction of toxicants in exotic plants is considered in regard to prospective new feedstuffs.

  8. Hemicellulose conversion by anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.; Henry, M.P.; Christopher, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    The digestibility of an aquatic biomass (water hyacinth), a land-based biomass (Coastal Bermuda grass), and a biomass-waste blend (a mixture of hyacinth, grass, MSW, and sludge) under various digestion conditions was studied. Anaerobic digestion of hemicellulose consists of the steps of enzymatic hydrolysis of hemicellulose to glucans, mannans, galactans, xylans, and arabans, and then to simple hexose and pentose sugars; production of C/sub 2/ and higher fatty acids from the simple sugars; conversion of higher fatty acids to acetate; and finally, production of methane and CO/sub 2/ from acetate, and CO/sub 2/ and hydrogen. The conversion of hemicellulose was higher under mesophilic conditions than those of cellulose or protein for all biomass test feeds, probably because the hemicellulose structure was more vulnerable to enzymatic attack than that of the lignocellulosic component. Cellulose conversion efficiencies at the mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures were about the same. However, hemicellulose was converted at a much lower efficiency than cellulose during thermophilic digestion - a situation that was the reverse of that observed at the mesophilic temperature. Cellulose was utilized in preference to hemicellulose during mesophilic digestion of nitrogen-supplemented Bermuda grass. It was speculated that Bermuda grass cellulose was converted at a higher efficiency than hemicellulose in the presence of external nitrogen because the metabolism of the breakdown product (glucose) of cellulose requires the least investment of enzymes and energy.

  9. Allocation of speech in conversation.

    PubMed

    Simon, Carsta; Baum, William M

    2017-03-01

    In a replication and extension of Conger and Killeen's (1974) widely cited demonstration of matching in conversations, we evaluated nine participants' allocation of speech and gaze to two conversational partners. German speakers participated in two 90-min sessions in which confederates uttered approval on independent variable-interval schedules. In one of the sessions, confederates uttered approval contingent upon and contiguous with eye contact whereas in the other session approval was uttered independent of the participant's gaze. Several measures of participants' verbal behavior were taken, including relative duration and rate of speech and gaze. These were compared to confederates' relative rate of approval and relative duration and rate of talk. The generalized matching equation was fitted to the various relations between participants' behavior and confederates' behavior. Conger and Killeen's results were not replicated; participants' response allocation did not show a systematic relation to the confederates' relative rate of approval. The strongest relations were to overall talk, rather than approval. In both conditions, the participant talked more to the confederate who talked less-inverse or antimatching. Participants' gaze showed the same inverse relation to the confederates' talk. Requiring gaze to be directed toward a confederate for delivery of approval made no difference in the results. The absence of a difference combined with prior research suggests that matching or antimatching in conversations is more likely due to induction than to reinforcement.

  10. Methanol conversion to higher hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Tabak, S.A.

    1994-12-31

    Several indirect options exist for producing chemicals and transportation fuels from coal, natural gas, or biomass. All involve an initial conversion step to synthesis gas (CO and H{sub 2}). Presently, there are two commercial technologies for converting syngas to liquids: Fischer-Tropsch, which yields a range of aliphatic hydrocarbons with molecular weights determined by Schulz-Flory kinetics, and methanol synthesis. Mobil`s diversity of technology for methanol conversion gives the methanol synthesis route flexibility for production of either gasoline, distillate or chemicals. Mobil`s ZSM-5 catalyst is the key in several processes for producing chemicals and transportation fuels from methanol: MTO for light olefins, MTG for gasoline, MOGD for distillates. The MTG process has been commercialized in New Zealand since 1985, producing one-third of the country`s gasoline supply, while MTO and MOGD have been developed and demonstrated at greater than 100 BPD scale. This paper will discuss recent work in understanding methanol conversion chemistry and the various options for its use.

  11. The New Information Hybrid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitan, Karen B.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the creation and existence of "hybrid" organizations, i.e., nonprofit companies sponsored by the government to provide extensive research and development services. Possibilities for hybrids are brought about by government intervention in the information marketplace to produce social benefits. (SW)

  12. Hybrid baryons in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, Jozef J.; Edwards, Robert G.

    2012-03-21

    In this study, we present the first comprehensive study of hybrid baryons using lattice QCD methods. Using a large basis of composite QCD interpolating fields we extract an extensive spectrum of baryon states and isolate those of hybrid character using their relatively large overlap onto operators which sample gluonic excitations. We consider the spectrum of Nucleon and Delta states at several quark masses finding a set of positive parity hybrid baryons with quantum numbers $N_{1/2^+},\\,N_{1/2^+},\\,N_{3/2^+},\\, N_{3/2^+},\\,N_{5/2^+},\\,$ and $\\Delta_{1/2^+},\\, \\Delta_{3/2^+}$ at an energy scale above the first band of `conventional' excited positive parity baryons. This pattern of states is compatible with a color octet gluonic excitation having $J^{P}=1^{+}$ as previously reported in the hybrid meson sector and with a comparable energy scale for the excitation, suggesting a common bound-state construction for hybrid mesons and baryons.

  13. Hybrid propulsion technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Technology was identified which will enable application of hybrid propulsion to manned and unmanned space launch vehicles. Two design concepts are proposed. The first is a hybrid propulsion system using the classical method of regression (classical hybrid) resulting from the flow of oxidizer across a fuel grain surface. The second system uses a self-sustaining gas generator (gas generator hybrid) to produce a fuel rich exhaust that was mixed with oxidizer in a separate combustor. Both systems offer cost and reliability improvement over the existing solid rocket booster and proposed liquid boosters. The designs were evaluated using life cycle cost and reliability. The program consisted of: (1) identification and evaluation of candidate oxidizers and fuels; (2) preliminary evaluation of booster design concepts; (3) preparation of a detailed point design including life cycle costs and reliability analyses; (4) identification of those hybrid specific technologies needing improvement; and (5) preperation of a technology acquisition plan and large scale demonstration plan.

  14. The hybrid BCI.

    PubMed

    Pfurtscheller, Gert; Allison, Brendan Z; Brunner, Clemens; Bauernfeind, Gunther; Solis-Escalante, Teodoro; Scherer, Reinhold; Zander, Thorsten O; Mueller-Putz, Gernot; Neuper, Christa; Birbaumer, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, everybody knows what a hybrid car is. A hybrid car normally has two engines to enhance energy efficiency and reduce CO2 output. Similarly, a hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI) is composed of two BCIs, or at least one BCI and another system. A hybrid BCI, like any BCI, must fulfill the following four criteria: (i) the device must rely on signals recorded directly from the brain; (ii) there must be at least one recordable brain signal that the user can intentionally modulate to effect goal-directed behaviour; (iii) real time processing; and (iv) the user must obtain feedback. This paper introduces hybrid BCIs that have already been published or are in development. We also introduce concepts for future work. We describe BCIs that classify two EEG patterns: one is the event-related (de)synchronisation (ERD, ERS) of sensorimotor rhythms, and the other is the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP). Hybrid BCIs can either process their inputs simultaneously, or operate two systems sequentially, where the first system can act as a "brain switch". For example, we describe a hybrid BCI that simultaneously combines ERD and SSVEP BCIs. We also describe a sequential hybrid BCI, in which subjects could use a brain switch to control an SSVEP-based hand orthosis. Subjects who used this hybrid BCI exhibited about half the false positives encountered while using the SSVEP BCI alone. A brain switch can also rely on hemodynamic changes measured through near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Hybrid BCIs can also use one brain signal and a different type of input. This additional input can be an electrophysiological signal such as the heart rate, or a signal from an external device such as an eye tracking system.

  15. Study of a condition for the mode conversion from purely perpendicular electrostatic waves to electromagnetic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalaee, Mohammad Javad; Katoh, Yuto

    2016-07-01

    One of the mechanisms for generating electromagnetic plasma waves (Z-mode and LO-mode) is mode conversion from electrostatic waves into electromagnetic waves in inhomogeneous plasma. Herein, we study a condition required for mode conversion of electrostatic waves propagating purely perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field, by numerically solving the full dispersion relation. An approximate model is derived describing the coupling between electrostatic waves (hot plasma Bernstein mode) and Z-mode waves at the upper hybrid frequency. The model is used to study conditions required for mode conversion from electrostatic waves (electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic waves, including Bernstein mode) into electromagnetic plasma waves (LO-mode). It is shown that for mode conversion to occur in inhomogeneous plasma, the angle between the boundary surface and the magnetic field vector should be within a specific range. The range of the angle depends on the norm of the k vector of waves at the site of mode conversion in the inhomogeneous region. The present study reveals that inhomogeneity alone is not a sufficient condition for mode conversion from electrostatic waves to electromagnetic plasma waves and that the angle between the magnetic field and the density gradient plays an important role in the conversion process.

  16. Photonic applications based on biological/inorganic nano hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Wu, Pengfei; Yelleswarapu, Chandra

    2016-02-01

    Biological Retinal is an effective and efficient photochromic compounds and one of the best candidates for photon conversion, transmission and storage, from the view of bionics and natural selection. We observed large optical nonlinearity by using new fabricated films of photoactive Retinol hybrid materials. Based on reversible photoinduced anisotropy and transient optical characteristics, the Retinol hybrids can be used to design novel photonic devices, such as holographic elements, all-optical switch and spatial light modulator. Also, the study is important for further understanding the photochemical mechanism of vision process.

  17. Improved laser-to-proton conversion efficiency in isolated reduced mass targets

    SciTech Connect

    Morace, A.; Bellei, C.; Patel, P. K.; Bartal, T.; Kim, J.; Beg, F. N.; Willingale, L.; Maksimchuk, A.; Krushelnick, K.; Wei, M. S.; Batani, D.; Piovella, N.; Stephens, R. B.

    2013-07-29

    We present experimental results of laser-to-proton conversion efficiency as a function of lateral confinement of the refluxing electrons. Experiments were carried out using the T-Cubed laser at the Center for Ultrafast Optical Science, University of Michigan. We demonstrate that the laser-to-proton conversion efficiency increases by 50% with increased confinement of the target from surroundings with respect to a flat target of the same thickness. Three-dimensional hybrid particle-in-cell simulations using LSP code agree with the experimental data. The adopted target design is suitable for high repetition rate operation as well as for Inertial Confinement Fusion applications.

  18. Improved laser-to-proton conversion efficiency in isolated reduced mass targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morace, A.; Bellei, C.; Bartal, T.; Willingale, L.; Kim, J.; Maksimchuk, A.; Krushelnick, K.; Wei, M. S.; Patel, P. K.; Batani, D.; Piovella, N.; Stephens, R. B.; Beg, F. N.

    2013-07-01

    We present experimental results of laser-to-proton conversion efficiency as a function of lateral confinement of the refluxing electrons. Experiments were carried out using the T-Cubed laser at the Center for Ultrafast Optical Science, University of Michigan. We demonstrate that the laser-to-proton conversion efficiency increases by 50% with increased confinement of the target from surroundings with respect to a flat target of the same thickness. Three-dimensional hybrid particle-in-cell simulations using LSP code agree with the experimental data. The adopted target design is suitable for high repetition rate operation as well as for Inertial Confinement Fusion applications.

  19. Molten Slag Would Boost Coal Conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrall, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    Reactor increases residence time of uncovered char. Near-100percent carbon conversion achievable in reactor incorporating moltenslag bath. Slag maintains unconverted carbon impinging on surface at high temperatures for longer period of time, enhancing conversion.

  20. Recent developments of hybrid nanocrystal/polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Aiwei; Qu, Shengchun; Teng, Feng; Hou, Yanbing; Wang, Yongsheng; Wang, Zhanguo

    2011-11-01

    Hybrid nanocrystal/polymer bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells consisting of colloidal inorganic semiconductor nanocrystals as electron acceptors and conjugated polymers as electron donors have been extensively investigated in the past few decades, which take advantage of the strongpoints of the inorganic semiconductor nanocrystals and the conjugated polymers. Currently, power conversion efficiency over 3% for the hybrid nanocrystal/polymer BHJ solar cells has been achieved. Although the development of hybrid nanocrystal/polymer BHJ solar cells lacks behind the international level, great progress in this research field has been made in China. In this article, we first review the general fabrication techniques and general working principles of hybrid nanocrystal/polymer BHJ solar cells. Secondly, we highlight the international and national developments of hybrid nanocrystal/polymer BHJ solar cells based on different types of semiconductor nanocrystals and conjugated polymers. Finally, we give a future outlook for the hybrid nanocrystal/polymer BHJ solar cells in the worldwide.

  1. Fitness of hybrids between rapeseed (Brassica napus) and wild Brassica rapa in natural habitats.

    PubMed

    Allainguillaume, J; Alexander, M; Bullock, J M; Saunders, M; Allender, C J; King, G; Ford, C S; Wilkinson, M J

    2006-04-01

    Fitness of hybrids between genetically modified (GM) crops and wild relatives influences the likelihood of ecological harm. We measured fitness components in spontaneous (non-GM) rapeseed x Brassica rapa hybrids in natural populations. The F1 hybrids yielded 46.9% seed output of B. rapa, were 16.9% as effective as males on B. rapa and exhibited increased self-pollination. Assuming 100% GM rapeseed cultivation, we conservatively predict < 7000 second-generation transgenic hybrids annually in the United Kingdom (i.e. approximately 20% of F1 hybrids). Conversely, whilst reduced hybrid fitness improves feasibility of bio-containment, stage projection matrices suggests broad scope for some transgenes to offset this effect by enhancing fitness.

  2. Interrogative suggestibility in patients with conversion disorders.

    PubMed

    Foong, J; Lucas, P A; Ron, M A

    1997-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that increased interrogative suggestibility may contribute to the shaping and maintaining of conversions symptoms. Interrogative suggestibility was measured in 12 patients with conversion disorder and 10 control patients with confirmed neurological disease matched for age, premorbid intelligence, and as closely as possible in terms of their neurological symptoms to the patients with conversion disorder. Our observations do not support the contention that individual differences in interrogative suggestibility are of importance in the etiology of conversion disorders.

  3. Optimization of levulinic acid from lignocellulosic biomass using a new hybrid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Ya'aini, Nazlina; Amin, Nor Aishah Saidina; Asmadi, Mohd

    2012-07-01

    Conversion of glucose, empty fruit bunch (efb) and kenaf to levulinic acid over a new hybrid catalyst has been investigated in this study. The characterization and catalytic performance results revealed that the physico-chemical properties of the new hybrid catalyst comprised of chromium chloride and HY zeolite increased the levulinic acid production from glucose compared to the parent catalysts. Optimization of the glucose conversion process using two level full factorial designs (2(3)) with two center points reported 55.2% of levulinic acid yield at 145.2 °C, 146.7 min and 12.0% of reaction temperature, reaction time and catalyst loading, respectively. Subsequently, the potential of efb and kenaf for producing levulinic acid at the optimum conditions was established after 53.2% and 66.1% of efficiencies were reported. The observation suggests that the hybrid catalyst has a potential to be used in biomass conversion to levulinic acid.

  4. 47 CFR 80.761 - Conversion graphs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Conversion graphs. 80.761 Section 80.761... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.761 Conversion graphs. The following graphs must be employed where conversion from one to the other of the indicated types of units...

  5. 47 CFR 80.761 - Conversion graphs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Conversion graphs. 80.761 Section 80.761... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.761 Conversion graphs. The following graphs must be employed where conversion from one to the other of the indicated types of units...

  6. 47 CFR 80.761 - Conversion graphs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conversion graphs. 80.761 Section 80.761... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.761 Conversion graphs. The following graphs must be employed where conversion from one to the other of the indicated types of units...

  7. 47 CFR 80.761 - Conversion graphs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conversion graphs. 80.761 Section 80.761... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.761 Conversion graphs. The following graphs must be employed where conversion from one to the other of the indicated types of units...

  8. 47 CFR 80.761 - Conversion graphs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Conversion graphs. 80.761 Section 80.761... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.761 Conversion graphs. The following graphs must be employed where conversion from one to the other of the indicated types of units...

  9. 5 CFR 536.303 - Geographic conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... after geographic conversion is the employee's existing payable rate of basic pay in effect immediately before the action. (b) Geographic conversion when a retained rate employee's official worksite is changed... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Geographic conversion. 536.303...

  10. 5 CFR 536.303 - Geographic conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... after geographic conversion is the employee's existing payable rate of basic pay in effect immediately before the action. (b) Geographic conversion when a retained rate employee's official worksite is changed... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Geographic conversion. 536.303...

  11. Retrospective Conversion of Three Library Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carolyn A.

    1982-01-01

    Reports on the retrospective conversion via OCLC of cataloging for three library collections at the University of South Carolina--the main, rare book, and historical collections. Backgrounds of the collections, conversion procedures, determinants of conversion rates, and cost factors are discussed. (Author/JL)

  12. Adaptive Feedback Improving Learningful Conversations at Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaeta, Matteo; Mangione, Giuseppina Rita; Miranda, Sergio; Orciuoli, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    This work proposes the definition of an Adaptive Conversation-based Learning System (ACLS) able to foster computer-mediated tutorial dialogues at the workplace in order to increase the probability to generate meaningful learning during conversations. ACLS provides a virtual assistant selecting the best partner to involve in the conversation and…

  13. The Teacher and the Conversational Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenn, Peter

    1977-01-01

    Cites a typical classroom "pseudo-conversation," showing how German students of English sound stiff and clumsy when conversing with English-speaking partners. This is blamed partly on the teacher's behavior. The example is then expanded into a "communicative exchange." In teaching conversation, manner is seen as more important…

  14. Teaching Casual Conversation: The Issue of Simplification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slade, Diana; Gardner, Rod

    This paper focuses on the issue of whether pedagogical mediation will facilitate the acquisition of conversational skills. It argues that it is possible to describe casual conversation, that it has a grammatical structure, and that it is of benefit to English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) learners for the structure of conversation to be explicitly…

  15. Alpine radar conversion for LAWR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savina, M.; Burlando, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Local Area Weather Radar (LAWR) is a ship-born weather radar system operating in X-band developed by the DHI Group to detect precipitation in urban areas. To date more than thirty units are installed in different settings around the world. A LAWR was also deployed in the Alps, at 3883 m a.s.l. on the Kl. Matterhorn (Valais, Switzerland). This was the highest LAWR of the world and it led to the development of an Alpine LAWR system that, besides featuring important technological improvements needed to withstand the severe Alpine conditions, required the development of a new Alpine Radar COnversion Model (ARCOM), which is the main focus of this contribution. The LAWR system is equipped with the original FURUNO fan-beam slotted antenna and the original logarithmic receiver, which limits the radar observations to the video signal (L) withour providing the reflectivity (Z). The beam is 0.95 deg wide and 20 deg high. It can detect precipitation to a max range of 60 km. In order to account for the limited availability of raw signal and information and the specific mountain set-up, the conversion model had to be developed differently from the state-of-the-art radar conversion technique used for this class of radars. In particular, the ARCOM is based on a model used to simulate a spatial dependent factor, hereafter called ACF, which is in turn function of parameters that take in account climatological conditions, also used in other conversion methods, but additionally accounting for local radar beam features and for orographic forcings such as the effective sampling power (sP), which is modelled by means of antenna pattern, geometric ground clutter and their interaction. The result is a conversion factor formulated to account for a range correction that is based on the increase of the sampling volume, partial beam blocking and local climatological conditions. The importance of the latter in this study is double with respect to the standard conversion technique for this

  16. Algal Energy Conversion and Capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazendonk, P.

    2015-12-01

    We address the potential for energy conversions and capture for: energy generation; reduction in energy use; reduction in greenhouse gas emissions; remediation of water and air pollution; protection and enhancement of soil fertility. These processes have the potential to sequester carbon at scales that may have global impact. Energy conversion and capture strategies evaluate energy use and production from agriculture, urban areas and industries, and apply existing and emerging technologies to reduce and recapture energy embedded in waste products. The basis of biocrude production from Micro-algal feedstocks: 1) The nutrients from the liquid fraction of waste streams are concentrated and fed into photo bioreactors (essentially large vessels in which microalgae are grown) along with CO2 from flue gasses from down stream processes. 2) The algae are processed to remove high value products such as proteins and beta-carotenes. The advantage of algae feedstocks is the high biomass productivity is 30-50 times that of land based crops and the remaining biomass contains minimal components that are difficult to convert to biocrude. 3) The remaining biomass undergoes hydrothermal liquefaction to produces biocrude and biochar. The flue gasses of this process can be used to produce electricity (fuel cell) and subsequently fed back into the photobioreactor. The thermal energy required for this process is small, hence readily obtained from solar-thermal sources, and furthermore no drying or preprocessing is required keeping the energy overhead extremely small. 4) The biocrude can be upgraded and refined as conventional crude oil, creating a range of liquid fuels. In principle this process can be applied on the farm scale to the municipal scale. Overall, our primary food production is too dependent on fossil fuels. Energy conversion and capture can make food production sustainable.

  17. Conversion disorder: a problematic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Timothy R J; Stone, Jon; Kanaan, Richard A A

    2011-11-01

    The diagnosis of conversion disorder is problematic. Since doctors have conceptually and practically differentiated the symptoms from neurological ('organic') disease it has been presumed to be a psychological disorder, but the psychological mechanism, and how this differs from feigning (conscious simulation), has remained elusive. Although misdiagnosis of neurological disease as conversion disorder is uncommon, it remains a concern for clinicians, particularly for psychiatrists who may be unaware of the positive ways in which neurologists can exclude organic disease. The diagnosis is anomalous in psychiatry in that current diagnostic systems require that feigning is excluded and that the symptoms can be explained psychologically. In practice, feigning is very difficult to either disprove or prove, and a psychological explanation cannot always be found. Studies of childhood and adult psychological precipitants have tended to support the relevance of stressful life events prior to symptom onset at the group level but they are not found in a substantial proportion of cases. These problems highlight serious theoretical and practical issues not just for the current diagnostic systems but for the concept of the disorder itself. Psychology, physiology and functional imaging techniques have been used in attempts to elucidate the neurobiology of conversion disorder and to differentiate it from feigning, but while intriguing results are emerging they can only be considered preliminary. Such work looks to a future that could refine our understanding of the disorder. However, until that time, the formal diagnostic requirement for associated psychological stressors and the exclusion of feigning are of limited clinical value. Simplified criteria are suggested which will also encourage cooperation between neurology and psychiatry in the management of these patients.

  18. Serogroup Conversion of Vibrio cholerae in Aquatic Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Blokesch, Melanie; Schoolnik, Gary K

    2007-01-01

    The environmental reservoirs for Vibrio cholerae are natural aquatic habitats, where it colonizes the chitinous exoskeletons of copepod molts. Growth of V. cholerae on a chitin surface induces competence for natural transformation, a mechanism for intra-species gene exchange. The antigenically diverse O-serogroup determinants of V. cholerae are encoded by a genetically variable biosynthetic cluster of genes that is flanked on either side by chromosomal regions that are conserved between different serogroups. To determine whether this genomic motif and chitin-induced natural transformation might enable the exchange of serogroup-specific gene clusters between different O serogroups of V. cholerae, a strain of V. cholerae O1 El Tor was co-cultured with a strain of V. cholerae O139 Bengal within a biofilm on the same chitin surface immersed in seawater, and O1-to-O139 transformants were obtained. Serogroup conversion of the O1 recipient by the O139 donor was demonstrated by comparative genomic hybridization, biochemical and serological characterization of the O-antigenic determinant, and resistance of O1-to-O139 transformants to bacteriolysis by a virulent O1-specific phage. Serogroup conversion was shown to have occurred as a single-step exchange of large fragments of DNA. Crossovers were localized to regions of homology common to other V. cholerae serogroups that flank serogroup-specific encoding sequences. This result and the successful serogroup conversion of an O1 strain by O37 genomic DNA indicate that chitin-induced natural transformation might be a common mechanism for serogroup conversion in aquatic habitats and for the emergence of V. cholerae variants that are better adapted for survival in environmental niches or more pathogenic for humans. PMID:17559304

  19. Low conversion ratio fuel studies.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M. A.

    2006-02-28

    Recent studies on TRU disposition in fast reactors indicated viable reactor performance for a sodium cooled low conversion ratio reactor design. Additional studies have been initiated to refine the earlier work and consider the feasibility of alternate fuel forms such as nitride and oxide fuel (rather than metal fuel). These alternate fuel forms may have significant impacts upon the burner design and the safety behavior. The work performed thus far has focused on compiling the necessary fuel form property information and refinement of the physics models. For this limited project, the burner design and performance using nitride fuel will be assessed.

  20. Power enhanced frequency conversion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Steven (Inventor); Lang, Robert J. (Inventor); Waarts, Robert G. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A frequency conversion system includes at least one source providing a first near-IR wavelength output including a gain medium for providing high power amplification, such as double clad fiber amplifier, a double clad fiber laser or a semiconductor tapered amplifier to enhance the power output level of the near-IR wavelength output. The NFM device may be a difference frequency mixing (DFM) device or an optical parametric oscillation (OPO) device. Pump powers are gain enhanced by the addition of a rare earth amplifier or oscillator, or a Ra-man/Brillouin amplifier or oscillator between the high power source and the NFM device.

  1. Conversion of raw carbonaceous fuels

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.

    2007-08-07

    Three configurations for an electrochemical cell are utilized to generate electric power from the reaction of oxygen or air with porous plates or particulates of carbon, arranged such that waste heat from the electrochemical cells is allowed to flow upwards through a storage chamber or port containing raw carbonaceous fuel. These configurations allow combining the separate processes of devolatilization, pyrolysis and electrochemical conversion of carbon to electric power into a single unit process, fed with raw fuel and exhausting high BTU gases, electric power, and substantially pure CO.sub.2 during operation.

  2. Raster to Lineal Conversion Software.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    Acceso B-i APPENDIX C NTIS GAIC-i r-l TAB U1nunno~Ced 1 just if icai DistribUtionI _Availabilit oe --- Avail and/or _it Spe ci I pca LIST OF FIGURES...shortcomings of the existing Raster to Lineal Conversion Software, and, secondly, to design and implement output modules to provide multiple output formats...the RAPS scanner and to provide flexibility. This would result in a more useful system, one that could provide multiple types of output from multiple

  3. Formation of alcohol conversion catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping

    2001-01-01

    The method of the present invention involves a composition containing an intimate mixture of (a) metal oxide support particles and (b) a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, its method of manufacture, and its method of use for converting alcohols to aldehydes. During the conversion process, catalytically active metal oxide from the discrete catalytic metal oxide particles migrates to the oxide support particles and forms a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on the oxide support particle to form a catalyst composition having a higher specific activity than the admixed particle composition.

  4. Hybrid matrix fiber composites

    DOEpatents

    Deteresa, Steven J.; Lyon, Richard E.; Groves, Scott E.

    2003-07-15

    Hybrid matrix fiber composites having enhanced compressive performance as well as enhanced stiffness, toughness and durability suitable for compression-critical applications. The methods for producing the fiber composites using matrix hybridization. The hybrid matrix fiber composites include two chemically or physically bonded matrix materials, whereas the first matrix materials are used to impregnate multi-filament fibers formed into ribbons and the second matrix material is placed around and between the fiber ribbons that are impregnated with the first matrix material and both matrix materials are cured and solidified.

  5. Artificial mismatch hybridization

    DOEpatents

    Guo, Zhen; Smith, Lloyd M.

    1998-01-01

    An improved nucleic acid hybridization process is provided which employs a modified oligonucleotide and improves the ability to discriminate a control nucleic acid target from a variant nucleic acid target containing a sequence variation. The modified probe contains at least one artificial mismatch relative to the control nucleic acid target in addition to any mismatch(es) arising from the sequence variation. The invention has direct and advantageous application to numerous existing hybridization methods, including, applications that employ, for example, the Polymerase Chain Reaction, allele-specific nucleic acid sequencing methods, and diagnostic hybridization methods.

  6. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  7. Hybrid Bloch brane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazeia, D.; Lima, Elisama E. M.; Losano, L.

    2017-02-01

    This work reports on models described by two real scalar fields coupled with gravity in the five-dimensional spacetime, with a warped geometry involving one infinite extra dimension. Through a mechanism that smoothly changes a thick brane into a hybrid brane, one investigates the appearance of hybrid branes hosting internal structure, characterized by the splitting on the energy density and the volcano potential, induced by the parameter which controls interactions between the two scalar fields. In particular, we investigate distinct symmetric and asymmetric hybrid brane scenarios.

  8. Biomass conversion processes for energy and fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofer, S. S.; Zaborsky, O. R.

    The book treats biomass sources, promising processes for the conversion of biomass into energy and fuels, and the technical and economic considerations in biomass conversion. Sources of biomass examined include crop residues and municipal, animal and industrial wastes, agricultural and forestry residues, aquatic biomass, marine biomass and silvicultural energy farms. Processes for biomass energy and fuel conversion by direct combustion (the Andco-Torrax system), thermochemical conversion (flash pyrolysis, carboxylolysis, pyrolysis, Purox process, gasification and syngas recycling) and biochemical conversion (anaerobic digestion, methanogenesis and ethanol fermentation) are discussed, and mass and energy balances are presented for each system.

  9. Biomass thermochemical conversion program: 1987 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program is to generate a base of scientific data and conversion process information that will lead to establishment of cost-effective processes for conversion of biomass resources into clean fuels. To accomplish this objective, in fiscal year 1987 the Thermochemical Conversion Program sponsored research activities in the following four areas: Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology; Gasification Technology; Direct Combustion Technology; Program Support Activities. In this report an overview of the Thermochemical Conversion Program is presented. Specific research projects are then described. Major accomplishments for 1987 are summarized.

  10. Biomass thermochemical conversion program. 1985 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research on this conversion technology for renewable energy through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. The Program is part of DOE's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, Office of Renewable Technologies. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1985. 32 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Static conversion systems. [for space power reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewell, R.; Mondt, J.

    1985-01-01

    Historically, all space power systems that have actually flown in space have relied on static energy conversion technology. Thus, static conversion is being considered for space nuclear power systems as well. There are four potential static conversion technologies which should be considered. These include: the alkali metal thermoelectric converter (AMTEC), the thermionic converter, the thermoelectric converter, and the thermophotovoltaic converter (TPV). These four conversion technologies will be described in brief detail along with their current status and development needs. In addition, the systems implications of using each of these conversion technologies with a space nuclear reactor power system will be evaluated and some comparisons made.

  12. Chaotic mixer improves microarray hybridization.

    PubMed

    McQuain, Mark K; Seale, Kevin; Peek, Joel; Fisher, Timothy S; Levy, Shawn; Stremler, Mark A; Haselton, Frederick R

    2004-02-15

    Hybridization is an important aspect of microarray experimental design which influences array signal levels and the repeatability of data within an array and across different arrays. Current methods typically require 24h and use target inefficiently. In these studies, we compare hybridization signals obtained in conventional static hybridization, which depends on diffusional target delivery, with signals obtained in a dynamic hybridization chamber, which employs a fluid mixer based on chaotic advection theory to deliver targets across a conventional glass slide array. Microarrays were printed with a pattern of 102 identical probe spots containing a 65-mer oligonucleotide capture probe. Hybridization of a 725-bp fluorescently labeled target was used to measure average target hybridization levels, local signal-to-noise ratios, and array hybridization uniformity. Dynamic hybridization for 1h with 1 or 10ng of target DNA increased hybridization signal intensities approximately threefold over a 24-h static hybridization. Similarly, a 10- or 60-min dynamic hybridization of 10ng of target DNA increased hybridization signal intensities fourfold over a 24h static hybridization. In time course studies, static hybridization reached a maximum within 8 to 12h using either 1 or 10ng of target. In time course studies using the dynamic hybridization chamber, hybridization using 1ng of target increased to a maximum at 4h and that using 10ng of target did not vary over the time points tested. In comparison to static hybridization, dynamic hybridization reduced the signal-to-noise ratios threefold and reduced spot-to-spot variation twofold. Therefore, we conclude that dynamic hybridization based on a chaotic mixer design improves both the speed of hybridization and the maximum level of hybridization while increasing signal-to-noise ratios and reducing spot-to-spot variation.

  13. High resolution A/D conversion based on piecewise conversion at lower resolution

    DOEpatents

    Terwilliger, Steve [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-06-05

    Piecewise conversion of an analog input signal is performed utilizing a plurality of relatively lower bit resolution A/D conversions. The results of this piecewise conversion are interpreted to achieve a relatively higher bit resolution A/D conversion without sampling frequency penalty.

  14. Photochemical conversion of solar energy.

    PubMed

    Balzani, Vincenzo; Credi, Alberto; Venturi, Margherita

    2008-01-01

    Energy is the most important issue of the 21st century. About 85% of our energy comes from fossil fuels, a finite resource unevenly distributed beneath the Earth's surface. Reserves of fossil fuels are progressively decreasing, and their continued use produces harmful effects such as pollution that threatens human health and greenhouse gases associated with global warming. Prompt global action to solve the energy crisis is therefore needed. To pursue such an action, we are urged to save energy and to use energy in more efficient ways, but we are also forced to find alternative energy sources, the most convenient of which is solar energy for several reasons. The sun continuously provides the Earth with a huge amount of energy, fairly distributed all over the world. Its enormous potential as a clean, abundant, and economical energy source, however, cannot be exploited unless it is converted into useful forms of energy. This Review starts with a brief description of the mechanism at the basis of the natural photosynthesis and, then, reports the results obtained so far in the field of photochemical conversion of solar energy. The "grand challenge" for chemists is to find a convenient means for artificial conversion of solar energy into fuels. If chemists succeed to create an artificial photosynthetic process, "... life and civilization will continue as long as the sun shines!", as the Italian scientist Giacomo Ciamician forecast almost one hundred years ago.

  15. Astrophysicists’ Conversational Connections on Twitter

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, Kim; Bowman, Timothy D.; Haustein, Stefanie; Peters, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Because Twitter and other social media are increasingly used for analyses based on altmetrics, this research sought to understand what contexts, affordance use, and social activities influence the tweeting behavior of astrophysicists. Thus, the presented study has been guided by three research questions that consider the influence of astrophysicists’ activities (i.e., publishing and tweeting frequency) and of their tweet construction and affordance use (i.e. use of hashtags, language, and emotions) on the conversational connections they have on Twitter. We found that astrophysicists communicate with a variety of user types (e.g. colleagues, science communicators, other researchers, and educators) and that in the ego networks of the astrophysicists clear groups consisting of users with different professional roles can be distinguished. Interestingly, the analysis of noun phrases and hashtags showed that when the astrophysicists address the different groups of very different professional composition they use very similar terminology, but that they do not talk to each other (i.e. mentioning other user names in tweets). The results also showed that in those areas of the ego networks that tweeted more the sentiment of the tweets tended to be closer to neutral, connecting frequent tweeting with information sharing activities rather than conversations or expressing opinions. PMID:25153196

  16. Electromagnetic wave energy conversion research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, R. L.; Callahan, P. S.

    1975-01-01

    Known electromagnetic wave absorbing structures found in nature were first studied for clues of how one might later design large area man-made radiant-electric converters. This led to the study of the electro-optics of insect dielectric antennae. Insights were achieved into how these antennae probably operate in the infrared 7-14um range. EWEC theoretical models and relevant cases were concisely formulated and justified for metal and dielectric absorber materials. Finding the electromagnetic field solutions to these models is a problem not yet solved. A rough estimate of losses in metal, solid dielectric, and hollow dielectric waveguides indicates future radiant-electric EWEC research should aim toward dielectric materials for maximum conversion efficiency. It was also found that the absorber bandwidth is a theoretical limitation on radiant-electric conversion efficiency. Ideally, the absorbers' wavelength would be centered on the irradiating spectrum and have the same bandwith as the irradiating wave. The EWEC concept appears to have a valid scientific basis, but considerable more research is needed before it is thoroughly understood, especially for the complex randomly polarized, wide band, phase incoherent spectrum of the sun. Specific recommended research areas are identified.

  17. Radiation energy conversion in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billman, K. W.

    1979-01-01

    Topics discussed at the third NASA conference on radiant energy conversion are reviewed. The unconcentrated-photovoltaic-generation version of a solar power satellite is described, noting that it will consist of a 21.3 x 5.3-sq-km silicon-solar-cell array expected to provide 17 Gw of electrical power, with 1 km in diam transmitters oriented to beam 2.45 GHz microwave power to two receiving/rectifying 'rectennas' on earth. The Solares space-energy-system concept, designed for providing a large fraction of the world's energy needs at costs comparable to those of future coal/nuclear alternative, is considered, as are subsystems for improving the economics of the solar power satellite. A concept proposing the use of relativistic-electron-storage rings for electron-beam energy transmission and storage, and a report on the production of a high temperature plasma with concentrated solar radiation are taken into account. Laser-conversion systems, including the direct-solar-pumped space laser, and the telec-powered spacecraft, are discussed.

  18. [Neurology of hysteria (conversion disorder)].

    PubMed

    Sonoo, Masahiro

    2014-07-01

    Hysteria has served as an important driving force in the development of both neurology and psychiatry. Jean Martin Charcot's devotion to mesmerism for treating hysterical patients evoked the invention of psychoanalysis by Sigmund Freud. Meanwhile, Joseph Babinski took over the challenge to discriminate between organic and hysterical patients from Charcot and found Babinski's sign, the greatest milestone in modern neurological symptomatology. Nowadays, the usage of the term hysteria is avoided. However, new terms and new classifications are complicated and inconsistent between the two representative taxonomies, the DSM-IV and ICD-10. In the ICD-10, even the alternative term conversion disorder, which was becoming familiar to neurologists, has also disappeared as a group name. The diagnosis of hysteria remains important in clinical neurology. Extensive exclusive diagnoses and over investigation, including various imaging studies, should be avoided because they may prolong the disease course and fix their symptoms. Psychological reasons that seem to explain the conversion are not considered reliable. Positive neurological signs suggesting nonorganic etiologies are the most reliable measures for diagnosing hysteria, as Babinski first argued. Hysterical paresis has several characteristics, such as giving-way weakness or peculiar distributions of weakness. Signs to uncover nonorganic paresis utilizing synergy include Hoover's test and the Sonoo abductor test.

  19. Biological conversion of synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, K.T.; Basu, R.; Johnson, E.R.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1992-03-01

    Mass transfer and kinetic studies were carried out for the Rhodospirillum rubrum and Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum bacterial systems. R. rubrum is a photosynthetic anaerobic bacterium which catalyzes the biological water gas shift reaction: CO + H[sub 2]0 [yields] CO[sub 2] + H[sub 2]. C. thiosulfatophilum is also a H[sub 2]S and COS to elemental sulfur. The growth of R. rubrum may be satisfactorily carried out at 25[degree] and 30[degree]C, while CO uptake and thus the conversion of CO best occurs at temperatures of either 30[degree], 32[degree] or 34[degree]C. The rate of conversion of COs and H[sub 2]O to CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2]S may be modeled by a first order rate expression. The rate constant at 30[degree]C was found to be 0.243 h[sup [minus]1]. The growth of C. thiosulfatophilum may be modeled in terms of incoming light intensity using a Monod equation: [mu] = [sub 351] + I[sub o]/[sup 0.152]I[sub o]. Comparisons of the growth of R. rubrum and C. thiosulfatophilum shows that the specific growth rate of C. thiosulfatophilum is much higher at a given light intensity.

  20. Bilingualism Accentuates Children's Conversational Understanding

    PubMed Central

    Siegal, Michael; Surian, Luca; Matsuo, Ayumi; Geraci, Alessandra; Iozzi, Laura; Okumura, Yuko; Itakura, Shoji

    2010-01-01

    Background Although bilingualism is prevalent throughout the world, little is known about the extent to which it influences children's conversational understanding. Our investigation involved children aged 3–6 years exposed to one or more of four major languages: English, German, Italian, and Japanese. In two experiments, we examined the children's ability to identify responses to questions as violations of conversational maxims (to be informative and avoid redundancy, to speak the truth, be relevant, and be polite). Principal Findings In Experiment 1, with increasing age, children showed greater sensitivity to maxim violations. Children in Italy who were bilingual in German and Italian (with German as the dominant language L1) significantly outperformed Italian monolinguals. In Experiment 2, children in England who were bilingual in English and Japanese (with English as L1) significantly outperformed Japanese monolinguals in Japan with vocabulary age partialled out. Conclusions As the monolingual and bilingual groups had a similar family SES background (Experiment 1) and similar family cultural identity (Experiment 2), these results point to a specific role for early bilingualism in accentuating children's developing ability to appreciate effective communicative responses. PMID:20140246

  1. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program: 1986 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. Thermochemical conversion processes can generate a variety of products such as gasoline hydrocarbon fuels, natural gas substitutes, or heat energy for electric power generation. The US Department of Energy is sponsoring research on biomass conversion technologies through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. Pacific Northwest Laboratory has been designated the Technical Field Management Office for the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program with overall responsibility for the Program. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1986. 88 refs., 31 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Gene Conversion in Human Genetic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian-Min; Férec, Claude; Cooper, David N.

    2010-01-01

    Gene conversion is a specific type of homologous recombination that involves the unidirectional transfer of genetic material from a ‘donor’ sequence to a highly homologous ‘acceptor’. We have recently reviewed the molecular mechanisms underlying gene conversion, explored the key part that this process has played in fashioning extant human genes, and performed a meta-analysis of gene-conversion events known to have caused human genetic disease. Here we shall briefly summarize some of the latest developments in the study of pathogenic gene conversion events, including (i) the emerging idea of minimal efficient sequence homology (MESH) for homologous recombination, (ii) the local DNA sequence features that appear to predispose to gene conversion, (iii) a mechanistic comparison of gene conversion and transient hypermutability, and (iv) recently reported examples of pathogenic gene conversion events. PMID:24710102

  3. Hybrid plasmachemical reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lelevkin, V. M. Smirnova, Yu. G.; Tokarev, A. V.

    2015-04-15

    A hybrid plasmachemical reactor on the basis of a dielectric barrier discharge in a transformer is developed. The characteristics of the reactor as functions of the dielectric barrier discharge parameters are determined.

  4. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  5. Hybrid polymer microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, A.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques have been successfully tested for bonding polymeric spheres, typically 0.1 micron in diameter, to spheres with diameter up to 100 microns. Hybrids are being developed as improved packing material for ion-exchange columns, filters, and separators.

  6. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  7. Parallel Hybrid Gas-Electric Geared Turbofan Engine Conceptual Design and Benefits Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lents, Charles; Hardin, Larry; Rheaume, Jonathan; Kohlman, Lee

    2016-01-01

    The conceptual design of a parallel gas-electric hybrid propulsion system for a conventional single aisle twin engine tube and wing vehicle has been developed. The study baseline vehicle and engine technology are discussed, followed by results of the hybrid propulsion system sizing and performance analysis. The weights analysis for the electric energy storage & conversion system and thermal management system is described. Finally, the potential system benefits are assessed.

  8. Triple Hybrid Energy Harvesting Interface Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uluşan, H.; Chamanian, S.; Pathirana, W. M. P. R.; Zorlu, Ö.; Muhtaroğlu, A.; Külah, H.

    2016-11-01

    This study presents a novel triple hybrid system that combines simultaneously generated power from thermoelectric (TE), vibration-based electromagnetic (EM) and piezoelectric (PZT) harvesters for a relatively high power supply capability. In the proposed solution each harvesting source utilizes a distinct power management circuit that generates a DC voltage suitable for combining the three parallel supplies. The circuits are designed and implemented in 180 nm standard CMOS technology, and are terminated with a schottky diode to avoid reverse current flow. The harvested AC signal from the EM harvester is rectified with a self-powered AC-DC doubler, which utilizes active diode structures to minimize the forward- bias voltage drop. The PZT interface electronics utilizes a negative voltage converter as the first stage, followed by synchronous power extraction and DC-to-DC conversion through internal switches, and an external inductor. The ultra-low voltage DC power harvested by the TE generator is stepped up through a charge-pump driven by an LC oscillator with fully- integrated center-tapped differential inductors. Test results indicate that hybrid energy harvesting circuit provides more than 1 V output for load resistances higher than 100 kΩ (10 μW) where the stand-alone harvesting circuits are not able to reach 1 V output. This is the first hybrid harvester circuit that simultaneously extracts energy from three independent sources, and delivers a single DC output.

  9. Hybrid Amyloid Membranes for Continuous Flow Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Bolisetty, Sreenath; Arcari, Mario; Adamcik, Jozef; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2015-12-29

    Amyloid fibrils are promising nanomaterials for technological applications such as biosensors, tissue engineering, drug delivery, and optoelectronics. Here we show that amyloid-metal nanoparticle hybrids can be used both as efficient active materials for wet catalysis and as membranes for continuous flow catalysis applications. Initially, amyloid fibrils generated in vitro from the nontoxic β-lactoglobulin protein act as templates for the synthesis of gold and palladium metal nanoparticles from salt precursors. The resulting hybrids possess catalytic features as demonstrated by evaluating their activity in a model catalytic reaction in water, e.g., the reduction of 4-nitrophenol into 4-aminophenol, with the rate constant of the reduction increasing with the concentration of amyloid-nanoparticle hybrids. Importantly, the same nanoparticles adsorbed onto fibrils surface show improved catalytic efficiency compared to the same unattached particles, pointing at the important role played by the amyloid fibril templates. Then, filter membranes are prepared from the metal nanoparticle-decorated amyloid fibrils by vacuum filtration. The resulting membranes serve as efficient flow catalysis active materials, with a complete catalytic conversion achieved within a single flow passage of a feeding solution through the membrane.

  10. Hybrid ion chains inside an optical cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zichao; Siverns, James; Quraishi, Qudsia

    2016-05-01

    Trapped ions remain a leading candidate for the implementation of large-scale quantum networks. These networks require nodes that can store and process quantum information as well as communicate with each other though photonic flying qubits. We propose to use hybrid ion chains of barium, for communication, and ytterbium, for quantum information processing. We report on progress in setting up a hybrid ion chain in a versatile four-blade trap using high numerical aperture collection optics. Although the visible photons produced from barium ions are more favorable as they are not suitable for long distance fiber communication. With this in mind, we intend to implement frequency conversion to overcome this issue. Also, with the view toward increasing the flying-qubit production rate, we propose a cavity-based system to enhance interactions between the ions and photons. The cavity axis is to be placed along the axial direction of the trap allowing a chain of multiple ions to interact with the cavity at the same time. With this configuration the atom-photon coupling strength can be improved by sqrt(N), where N is the number of ions. Experiments will focus on exploring the dynamics of hybrid ion chain, dual species quantum information processing, two-colour entanglement and phase gates assisted by the ion-cavity coupling are to be explored.

  11. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems FY16 Modeling Efforts at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Cetiner, Sacit M.; Greenwood, Michael Scott; Harrison, Thomas J.; Qualls, A. L.; Guler Yigitoglu, Askin; Fugate, David W.

    2016-09-01

    A nuclear hybrid system uses a nuclear reactor as the basic power generation unit. The power generated by the nuclear reactor is utilized by one or more power customers as either thermal power, electrical power, or both. In general, a nuclear hybrid system will couple the nuclear reactor to at least one thermal power user in addition to the power conversion system. The definition and architecture of a particular nuclear hybrid system is flexible depending on local markets needs and opportunities. For example, locations in need of potable water may be best served by coupling a desalination plant to the nuclear system. Similarly, an area near oil refineries may have a need for emission free hydrogen production. A nuclear hybrid system expands the nuclear power plant from its more familiar central power station role by diversifying its immediately and directly connected customer base. The definition, design, analysis, and optimization work currently performed with respect to the nuclear hybrid systems represents the work of three national laboratories. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is the lead lab working with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Each laboratory is providing modeling and simulation expertise for the integration of the hybrid system.

  12. Systems for hybrid cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitsche, Otmar; Gutmann, Guenter

    Not only sharp competition but also legislation are pushing development of hybrid drive trains. Based on conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, these drive trains offer a wide range of benefits from reduced fuel consumption and emission to multifaceted performance improvements. Hybrid electric drive trains may also facilitate the introduction of fuel cells (FC). The battery is the key component for all hybrid drive trains, as it dominates cost and performance issues. The selection of the right battery technology for the specific automotive application is an important task with an impact on costs of development and use. Safety, power, and high cycle life are a must for all hybrid applications. The greatest pressure to reduce cost is in soft hybrids, where lead-acid embedded in a considerate management presents the cheapest solution, with a considerable improvement in performance needed. From mild to full hybridization, an improvement in specific power makes higher costs more acceptable, provided that the battery's service life is equivalent to the vehicle's lifetime. Today, this is proven for the nickel-metal hydride system. Lithium ion batteries, which make use of a multiple safety concept, and with some development anticipated, provide even better prospects in terms of performance and costs. Also, their scalability permits their application in battery electric vehicles—the basis for better performance and enhanced user acceptance. Development targets for the batteries are discussed with a focus on system aspects such as electrical and thermal management and safety.

  13. Human hybrid hybridoma

    SciTech Connect

    Tiebout, R.F.; van Boxtel-Oosterhof, F.; Stricker, E.A.M.; Zeijlemaker, W.P.

    1987-11-15

    Hybrid hybridomas are obtained by fusion of two cells, each producing its own antibody. Several authors have reported the construction of murine hybrid hybridomas with the aim to obtain bispecific monoclonal antibodies. The authors have investigated, in a model system, the feasibility of constructing a human hybrid hybridoma. They fused two monoclonal cell lines: an ouabain-sensitive and azaserine/hypoxanthine-resistant Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human cell line that produces an IgG1kappa antibody directed against tetanus toxiod and an azaserine/hypoxanthine-sensitive and ouabain-resistant human-mouse xenohybrid cell line that produces a human IgG1lambda antibody directed against hepatitis-B surface antigen. Hybrid hybridoma cells were selected in culture medium containing azaserine/hypoxanthine and ouabain. The hybrid nature of the secreted antibodies was analyzed by means of two antigen-specific immunoassay. The results show that it is possible, with the combined use of transformation and xenohybridization techniques, to construct human hybrid hybridomas that produce bispecific antibodies. Bispecific antibodies activity was measured by means of two radioimmunoassays.

  14. Thermodynamics fundamentals of energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, Nicolae

    The work reported in the chapters 1-5 focuses on the fundamentals of heat transfer, fluid dynamics, thermodynamics and electrical phenomena related to the conversion of one form of energy to another. Chapter 6 is a re-examination of the fundamental heat transfer problem of how to connect a finite-size heat generating volume to a concentrated sink. Chapter 1 extends to electrical machines the combined thermodynamics and heat transfer optimization approach that has been developed for heat engines. The conversion efficiency at maximum power is 1/2. When, as in specific applications, the operating temperature of windings must not exceed a specified level, the power output is lower and efficiency higher. Chapter 2 addresses the fundamental problem of determining the optimal history (regime of operation) of a battery so that the work output is maximum. Chapters 3 and 4 report the energy conversion aspects of an expanding mixture of hot particles, steam and liquid water. At the elemental level, steam annuli develop around the spherical drops as time increases. At the mixture level, the density decreases while the pressure and velocity increases. Chapter 4 describes numerically, based on the finite element method, the time evolution of the expanding mixture of hot spherical particles, steam and water. The fluid particles are moved in time in a Lagrangian manner to simulate the change of the domain configuration. Chapter 5 describes the process of thermal interaction between the molten material and water. In the second part of the chapter the model accounts for the irreversibility due to the flow of the mixture through the cracks of the mixing vessel. The approach presented in this chapter is based on exergy analysis and represents a departure from the line of inquiry that was followed in chapters 3-4. Chapter 6 shows that the geometry of the heat flow path between a volume and one point can be optimized in two fundamentally different ways. In the "growth" method the

  15. Microturbine Power Conversion Technology Review

    SciTech Connect

    Staunton, R.H.

    2003-07-21

    In this study, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is performing a technology review to assess the market for commercially available power electronic converters that can be used to connect microturbines to either the electric grid or local loads. The intent of the review is to facilitate an assessment of the present status of marketed power conversion technology to determine how versatile the designs are for potentially providing different services to the grid based on changes in market direction, new industry standards, and the critical needs of the local service provider. The project includes data gathering efforts and documentation of the state-of-the-art design approaches that are being used by microturbine manufacturers in their power conversion electronics development and refinement. This project task entails a review of power converters used in microturbines sized between 20 kW and 1 MW. The power converters permit microturbine generators, with their non-synchronous, high frequency output, to interface with the grid or local loads. The power converters produce 50- to 60-Hz power that can be used for local loads or, using interface electronics, synchronized for connection to the local feeder and/or microgrid. The power electronics enable operation in a stand-alone mode as a voltage source or in grid-connect mode as a current source. Some microturbines are designed to automatically switch between the two modes. The information obtained in this data gathering effort will provide a basis for determining how close the microturbine industry is to providing services such as voltage regulation, combined control of both voltage and current, fast/seamless mode transfers, enhanced reliability, reduced cost converters, reactive power supply, power quality, and other ancillary services. Some power quality improvements will require the addition of storage devices; therefore, the task should also determine what must be done to enable the power conversion circuits to

  16. Hybrid Perovskite/Perovskite Heterojunction Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yinghong; Schlipf, Johannes; Wussler, Michael; Petrus, Michiel L; Jaegermann, Wolfram; Bein, Thomas; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Docampo, Pablo

    2016-06-28

    Recently developed organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells combine low-cost fabrication and high power conversion efficiency. Advances in perovskite film optimization have led to an outstanding power conversion efficiency of more than 20%. Looking forward, shifting the focus toward new device architectures holds great potential to induce the next leap in device performance. Here, we demonstrate a perovskite/perovskite heterojunction solar cell. We developed a facile solution-based cation infiltration process to deposit layered perovskite (LPK) structures onto methylammonium lead iodide (MAPI) films. Grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering experiments were performed to gain insights into the crystallite orientation and the formation process of the perovskite bilayer. Our results show that the self-assembly of the LPK layer on top of an intact MAPI layer is accompanied by a reorganization of the perovskite interface. This leads to an enhancement of the open-circuit voltage and power conversion efficiency due to reduced recombination losses, as well as improved moisture stability in the resulting photovoltaic devices.

  17. Large impact of reorganization energy on photovoltaic conversion due to interfacial charge-transfer transitions.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Jun-ichi

    2015-05-14

    Interfacial charge-transfer (ICT) transitions are expected to be a novel charge-separation mechanism for efficient photovoltaic conversion featuring one-step charge separation without energy loss. Photovoltaic conversion due to ICT transitions has been investigated using several TiO2-organic hybrid materials that show organic-to-inorganic ICT transitions in the visible region. In applications of ICT transitions to photovoltaic conversion, there is a significant problem that rapid carrier recombination is caused by organic-inorganic electronic coupling that is necessary for the ICT transitions. In order to solve this problem, in this work, I have theoretically studied light-to-current conversions due to the ICT transitions on the basis of the Marcus theory with density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations. An apparent correlation between the reported incident photon-to-current conversion efficiencies (IPCE) and calculated reorganization energies was clearly found, in which the IPCE increases with decreasing the reorganization energy consistent with the Marcus theory in the inverted region. This activation-energy dependence was systematically explained by the equation formulated by the Marcus theory based on a simple excited-state kinetic scheme. This result indicates that the reduction of the reorganization energy can suppress the carrier recombination and enhance the IPCE. The reorganization energy is predominantly governed by the structural change in the chemical-adsorption moiety between the ground and ICT excited states. This work provides crucial knowledge for efficient photovoltaic conversion due to ICT transitions.

  18. Photoelectrochemical based direct conversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kocha, S.; Arent, D.; Peterson, M.

    1995-09-01

    The goal of this research is to develop a stable, cost effective, photoelectrochemical based system that will split water upon illumination, producing hydrogen and oxygen directly, using sunlight as the only energy input. This type of direct conversion system combines a photovoltaic material and an electrolyzer into a single monolithic device. We report on our studies of two multifunction multiphoton photoelectrochemical devices, one based on the ternary semiconductor gallium indium phosphide, (GaInP{sub 2}), and the other one based on amorphous silicon carbide. We also report on our studies of the solid state surface treatment of GaInP{sub 2} as well as our continuing effort to develop synthetic techniques for the attachment of transition metal complexes to the surface of semiconductor electrodes. All our surface studies are directed at controlling the interface energetics and forming stable catalytic surfaces.

  19. Conversation Simulation and Sensible Surprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchens, Jason L.

    I have entered the Loebner Prize five times, winning the "most humanlike program" category in 1996 with a surly ELIZA-clone named HeX, but failed to repeat the performance in subsequent years with more sophisticated techniques. Whether this is indicative of an unanticipated improvement in "conversation simulation" technology, or whether it highlights the strengths of ELIZA-style trickery, is as an exercise for the reader. In 2000, I was invited to assume the role of Chief Scientist at Artificial Intelligence Ltd. (Ai) on a project inspired by the advice given by Alan Turing in the final section of his classic paper - our quest was to build a "child machine" that could learn and use language from scratch. In this chapter, I will discuss both of these experiences, presenting my thoughts regarding the Chinese Room argument and Artificial Intelligence (AI) in between.

  20. Ocean thermal-energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, G.; Niblett, C.; Walker, L.

    1983-03-01

    The principles underlying ocean thermal-energy conversion (OTEC) are reviewed, and a schematic layout of a system is included. The two systems currently under study, the open system and the closed system, are described. The prospect now, it is noted, is that OTEC plants will not be commercially viable on a widespread basis, even in the tropics. This is especially true of the large-scale plants that have been envisioned. A strong possibility is seen, however, that smaller plants, generating about 40 megawatts of electrical power, can survive commercially. The following conditions would favor their success: placement on land rather than at sea; placement in areas (such as islands) where alternative energy supplies are at a premium; and designing the plant to operate in conjunction with either an aquaculture or a desalination plant.

  1. Degenerate four-wave mixing in silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguides.

    PubMed

    Duffin, Thorin J; Nielsen, Michael P; Diaz, Fernando; Palomba, Stefano; Maier, Stefan A; Oulton, Rupert F

    2016-01-01

    Silicon-based plasmonic waveguides show high confinement well beyond the diffraction limit. Various devices have been demonstrated to outperform their dielectric counterparts at micrometer scales, such as linear modulators, capable of generating high field confinement and improving device efficiency by increasing access to nonlinear processes, limited by ohmic losses. By using hybridized plasmonic waveguide architectures and nonlinear materials, silicon-based plasmonic waveguides can generate strong nonlinear effects over just a few wavelengths. We have theoretically investigated the nonlinear optical performance of two hybrid plasmonic waveguides (HPWG) with three different nonlinear materials. Based on this analysis, the hybrid gap plasmon waveguide (HGPW), combined with the DDMEBT nonlinear polymer, shows a four-wave mixing (FWM) conversion efficiency of -16.4  dB over a 1 μm propagation length, demonstrating that plasmonic waveguides can be competitive with standard silicon photonics structures over distances three orders of magnitude shorter.

  2. High efficiency silicon nanohole/organic heterojunction hybrid solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Lei; Wang, Xincai; Zheng, Hongyu; He, Lining; Wang, Hao; Yu, Hongyu; Rusli

    2014-02-01

    High efficiency hybrid solar cells are fabricated based on silicon with a nanohole (SiNH) structure and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS). The SiNH structure is fabricated using electroless chemical etching with silver catalyst, and the heterojunction is formed by spin coating of PEDOT on the SiNH. The hybrid cells are optimized by varying the hole depth, and a maximum power conversion efficiency of 8.3% is achieved with a hole depth of 1 μm. The SiNH hybrid solar cell exhibits a strong antireflection and light trapping property attributed to the sub-wavelength dimension of the SiNH structure.

  3. Hybrid Si nanocones/PEDOT:PSS solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Jianxiong; Rusli, ᅟ

    2015-04-01

    Periodic silicon nanocones (SiNCs) with different periodicities are fabricated by dry etching of a Si substrate patterned using monolayer polystyrene (PS) nanospheres as a mask. Hybrid Si/PEDOT:PSS solar cells based on the SiNCs are then fabricated and characterized in terms of their optical, electrical, and photovoltaic properties. The optical properties of the SiNCs are also investigated using theoretical simulation based on the finite element method. The SiNCs reveal excellent light trapping ability as compared to a planar Si substrate. It is found that the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the hybrid cells decreases with increasing periodicity of the SiNCs. The highest PCE of 7.1% is achieved for the SiNC hybrid cell with a 400-nm periodicity, due to the strong light trapping near the peak of the solar spectrum and better current collection efficiency.

  4. High efficiency silicon nanohole/organic heterojunction hybrid solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Lei; Wang, Xincai; Zheng, Hongyu; He, Lining; Wang, Hao; Rusli E-mail: erusli@ntu.edu.sg; Yu, Hongyu E-mail: erusli@ntu.edu.sg

    2014-02-03

    High efficiency hybrid solar cells are fabricated based on silicon with a nanohole (SiNH) structure and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS). The SiNH structure is fabricated using electroless chemical etching with silver catalyst, and the heterojunction is formed by spin coating of PEDOT on the SiNH. The hybrid cells are optimized by varying the hole depth, and a maximum power conversion efficiency of 8.3% is achieved with a hole depth of 1 μm. The SiNH hybrid solar cell exhibits a strong antireflection and light trapping property attributed to the sub-wavelength dimension of the SiNH structure.

  5. Introduction to Solar Photon Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Nozik, A.; Miller, J.

    2010-11-10

    The efficient and cost-effective direct conversion of solar photons into solar electricity and solar fuels is one of the most important scientific and technological challenges of this century. It is estimated that at least 20 terawatts of carbon-free energy (1 and 1/2 times the total amount of all forms of energy consumed today globally), in the form of electricity and liquid and gaseous fuels, will be required by 2050 in order to avoid the most serious consequences of global climate change and to ensure adequate global energy supply that will avoid economic chaos. But in order for solar energy to contribute a major fraction of future carbon-free energy supplies, it must be priced competitively with, or perhaps even be less costly than, energy from fossil fuels and nuclear power as well as other renewable energy resources. The challenge of delivering very low-cost solar fuels and electricity will require groundbreaking advances in both fundamental and applied science. This Thematic Issue on Solar Photon Conversion will provide a review by leading researchers on the present status and prognosis of the science and technology of direct solar photoconversion to electricity and fuels. The topics covered include advanced and novel concepts for low-cost photovoltaic (PV) energy based on chemistry (dye-sensitized photoelectrodes, organic and molecular PV, multiple exciton generation in quantum dots, singlet fission), solar water splitting, redox catalysis for water oxidation and reduction, the role of nanoscience and nanocrystals in solar photoconversion, photoelectrochemical energy conversion, and photoinduced electron transfer. The direct conversion of solar photons to electricity via photovoltaic (PV) cells is a vital present-day commercial industry, with PV module production growing at about 75%/year over the past 3 years. However, the total installed yearly averaged energy capacity at the end of 2009 was about 7 GW-year (0.2% of global electricity usage). Thus, there

  6. Survey of EBW Mode-Conversion Characteristics for Various Boundary Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, H.; Maekawa, T.; Igami, H.

    2005-09-26

    A survey of linear mode-conversion characteristics between external transverse electromagnetic (TEM) waves and electron Bernstein waves (EBW) for various plasma and wave parameters has been presented. It is shown that if the wave propagation angle and polarization are adjusted appropriately for each individual case of the plasma parameters, efficient mode conversion occur for wide range of plasma parameters where the conventional 'XB' and 'OXB' scheme cannot cover. It is confirmed that the plasma parameters just at the upper hybrid resonance (UHR) layer strongly affect the mode conversion process and the influence of the plasma profiles distant from the UHR layer is not so much. The results of this survey is useful enough to examine wave injection/detection condition for efficient ECH/ECCD or measurement of emissive TEM waves for each individual experimental condition of overdense plasmas.

  7. Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program 250K Hybrid Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Story, George; Zoladz, Tom; Arves, Joe; Kearney, Darren; Abel, Terry; Park, O.

    2003-01-01

    The Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program (HPDP) program was formed to mature hybrid propulsion technology to a readiness level sufficient to enable commercialization for various space launch applications. The goal of the HPDP was to develop and test a 250,000 pound vacuum thrust hybrid booster in order to demonstrate hybrid propulsion technology and enable manufacturing of large hybrid boosters for current and future space launch vehicles. The HPDP has successfully conducted four tests of the 250,000 pound thrust hybrid rocket motor at NASA's Stennis Space Center. This paper documents the test series.

  8. Hybrid Breakdown in Cichlid Fish

    PubMed Central

    Stelkens, Rike Bahati; Schmid, Corinne; Seehausen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Studies from a wide diversity of taxa have shown a negative relationship between genetic compatibility and the divergence time of hybridizing genomes. Theory predicts the main breakdown of fitness to happen after the F1 hybrid generation, when heterosis subsides and recessive allelic (Dobzhansky-Muller) incompatibilities are increasingly unmasked. We measured the fitness of F2 hybrids of African haplochromine cichlid fish bred from species pairs spanning several thousand to several million years divergence time. F2 hybrids consistently showed the lowest viability compared to F1 hybrids and non-hybrid crosses (crosses within the grandparental species), in agreement with hybrid breakdown. Especially the short- and long-term survival (2 weeks to 6 months) of F2 hybrids was significantly reduced. Overall, F2 hybrids showed a fitness reduction of 21% compared to F1 hybrids, and a reduction of 43% compared to the grandparental, non-hybrid crosses. We further observed a decrease of F2 hybrid viability with the genetic distance between grandparental lineages, suggesting an important role for negative epistatic interactions in cichlid fish postzygotic isolation. The estimated time window for successful production of F2 hybrids resulting from our data is consistent with the estimated divergence time between the multiple ancestral lineages that presumably hybridized in three major adaptive radiations of African cichlids. PMID:25996870

  9. Neural correlates of motor conversion disorder.

    PubMed

    Scott, Rebekah L; Anson, J Gregory

    2009-04-01

    Conversion Disorder affects voluntary motor and sensory function and involves unexplained neurological symptoms without an organic cause. Many researchers have attempted to explain how these symptoms arise but the neural correlates associated with Conversion Disorder remain largely unknown to clinicians and neuroscientists alike. This review focuses on investigations of Conversion Disorder (with motor symptoms) when deficits in voluntary movement occur. No single consistent hypothesis has emerged regarding the underlying cortical mechanisms associated with motor Conversion Disorder. However, findings from electrophysiology, neuroimaging, and behavioral research implicate the involvement of prefrontal networks. With further research using measurement techniques precise in spatial as well as temporal resolution, the conflict associated with two views of the neural correlates of motor Conversion Disorder may be resolved. This will provide a better understanding of the impairment associated with the preparation, generation, and execution of intentional movement in Conversion Disorder.

  10. MULTISCALE MATHEMATICS FOR BIOMASS CONVERSION TO RENEWABLE HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect

    Vlachos, Dionisios; Plechac, Petr; Katsoulakis, Markos

    2013-09-05

    The overall objective of this project is to develop multiscale models for understanding and eventually designing complex processes for renewables. To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first attempt at modeling complex reacting systems, whose performance relies on underlying multiscale mathematics. Our specific application lies at the heart of biofuels initiatives of DOE and entails modeling of catalytic systems, to enable economic, environmentally benign, and efficient conversion of biomass into either hydrogen or valuable chemicals. Specific goals include: (i) Development of rigorous spatio-temporal coarse-grained kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) mathematics and simulation for microscopic processes encountered in biomass transformation. (ii) Development of hybrid multiscale simulation that links stochastic simulation to a deterministic partial differential equation (PDE) model for an entire reactor. (iii) Development of hybrid multiscale simulation that links KMC simulation with quantum density functional theory (DFT) calculations. (iv) Development of parallelization of models of (i)-(iii) to take advantage of Petaflop computing and enable real world applications of complex, multiscale models. In this NCE period, we continued addressing these objectives and completed the proposed work. Main initiatives, key results, and activities are outlined.

  11. Mode conversion in three ion species ICRF heating scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y.; Edlund, E.; Ennever, P.; Porkolab, M.; Wright, J.; Wukitch, S.

    2016-10-01

    Three-ion species ICRF heating has been studied on Alcator C-Mod and on JET. It has been shown to heat the plasma and generate energetic particles. In a typical three-ion scenario, the plasma consists of 60-70% D, 30-40% H and a trace level (1% or less) of 3He. This species mixture creates two hybrid resonances (D-3He and 3He-H) in the plasma, in the vicinity of the 3He IC resonance (on both sides). The fast wave can undergo mode conversion (MC) to ion Bernstein waves and ion cyclotron waves at the two hybrid resonances. A phase contrast imaging (PCI) system has been used to measure the RF waves in the three-ion heating experiment. The experimentally measured MC locations and the separating distance between the two MC regions help to determine the concentration of the three species. The PCI signal amplitudes for the RF waves are found to be sensitive to RF and plasma parameters, including PRF, Te, ne and also the species mix concentration. The parameter dependences found in the experiment will be compared with ICRF code simulations. Supported by USDoE Awards DE-FC02-99ER54512 and DE-FG02-94-ER54235.

  12. The chemistry of energy conversion and storage.

    PubMed

    Su, Dang Sheng

    2014-05-01

    What's in store: The sustainable development of our society requires the conversion and storage of renewable energy, and these should be scaled up to serve the global primary energy consumption. This special issue on "The Chemistry of Energy Conversion and Storage", assembled by guest editor Dangsheng Su, contains papers dealing with these aspects, and highlights important developments in the chemistry of energy conversion and storage during the last two years.

  13. Hybrid baryons in QCD

    DOE PAGES

    Dudek, Jozef J.; Edwards, Robert G.

    2012-03-21

    In this study, we present the first comprehensive study of hybrid baryons using lattice QCD methods. Using a large basis of composite QCD interpolating fields we extract an extensive spectrum of baryon states and isolate those of hybrid character using their relatively large overlap onto operators which sample gluonic excitations. We consider the spectrum of Nucleon and Delta states at several quark masses finding a set of positive parity hybrid baryons with quantum numbersmore » $$N_{1/2^+},\\,N_{1/2^+},\\,N_{3/2^+},\\, N_{3/2^+},\\,N_{5/2^+},\\,$$ and $$\\Delta_{1/2^+},\\, \\Delta_{3/2^+}$$ at an energy scale above the first band of `conventional' excited positive parity baryons. This pattern of states is compatible with a color octet gluonic excitation having $$J^{P}=1^{+}$$ as previously reported in the hybrid meson sector and with a comparable energy scale for the excitation, suggesting a common bound-state construction for hybrid mesons and baryons.« less

  14. Review of solar fuel-producing quantum conversion processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, D. B.; Biddle, J. R.; Fujita, T.

    1984-01-01

    The status and potential of fuel-producing solar photochemical processes are discussed. Research focused on splitting water to produce dihydrogen and is at a relatively early stage of development. Current emphasis is primarily directed toward understanding the basic chemistry underlying such quantum conversion processes. Theoretical analyses by various investigators predict a limiting thermodynamic efficiency of 31% for devices with a single photosystem operating with unfocused sunlight at 300 K. When non-idealities are included, it appears unlikely that actual devices will have efficiencies greater than 12 to 15%. Observed efficiencies are well below theoretical limits. Cyclic homogeneous photochemical processes for splitting water have efficiencies considerably less than 1%. Efficiency can be significantly increased by addition of a sacrificial reagent; however, such systems are no longer cyclic and it is doubtful that they would be economical on a commercial scale. The observed efficiencies for photoelectrochemical processes are also low but such systems appear more promising than homogeneous photochemical systems. Operating and systems options, including operation at elevated temperature and hybrid and coupled quantum-thermal conversion processes, are also considered.

  15. Substrate-induced interfacial plasmonics for photovoltaic conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinxi; Jia, Chuancheng; Ma, Bangjun; Wang, Wei; Fang, Zheyu; Zhang, Guoqing; Guo, Xuefeng

    2015-09-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is widely used as light trapping schemes in solar cells, because it can concentrate light fields surrounding metal nanostructures and realize light management at the nanoscale. SPR in photovoltaics generally occurs at the metal/dielectric interfaces. A well-defined interface is therefore required to elucidate interfacial SPR processes. Here, we designed a photovoltaic device (PVD) with an atomically flat TiO2 dielectric/dye/graphene/metal nanoparticle (NP) interface for quantitatively studying the SPR enhancement of the photovoltaic conversion. Theoretical and experimental results indicated that the graphene monolayer was transparent to the electromagnetic field. This transparency led to significant substrate-induced plasmonic hybridization at the heterostructure interface. Combined with interparticle plasmonic coupling, the substrate-induced plasmonics concentrated light at the interface and enhanced the photo-excitation of dyes, thus improving the photoelectric conversion. Such a mechanistic understanding of interfacial plasmonic enhancement will further promote the development of efficient plasmon-enhanced solar cells and composite photocatalysts.

  16. Substrate-induced interfacial plasmonics for photovoltaic conversion.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinxi; Jia, Chuancheng; Ma, Bangjun; Wang, Wei; Fang, Zheyu; Zhang, Guoqing; Guo, Xuefeng

    2015-09-28

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is widely used as light trapping schemes in solar cells, because it can concentrate light fields surrounding metal nanostructures and realize light management at the nanoscale. SPR in photovoltaics generally occurs at the metal/dielectric interfaces. A well-defined interface is therefore required to elucidate interfacial SPR processes. Here, we designed a photovoltaic device (PVD) with an atomically flat TiO2 dielectric/dye/graphene/metal nanoparticle (NP) interface for quantitatively studying the SPR enhancement of the photovoltaic conversion. Theoretical and experimental results indicated that the graphene monolayer was transparent to the electromagnetic field. This transparency led to significant substrate-induced plasmonic hybridization at the heterostructure interface. Combined with interparticle plasmonic coupling, the substrate-induced plasmonics concentrated light at the interface and enhanced the photo-excitation of dyes, thus improving the photoelectric conversion. Such a mechanistic understanding of interfacial plasmonic enhancement will further promote the development of efficient plasmon-enhanced solar cells and composite photocatalysts.

  17. Mode conversion at the higher ion cyclotron harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, S. C.; Chan, V. S.; Harvey, R. W.; Porkolab, M.

    1989-07-01

    It has been demonstrated that mode conversion of fast waves to ion Bernstein waves can be calculated from a reduced second order differential equation for the wave fields rather than the 4th order equations used in earlier studies near the ion-ion hybrid resonance and the second harmonic resonance. Here the underlying justification of the method is discussed. It is shown that the method works for high harmonic resonances and an analytical formula for the tunneling coefficient is derived. The result is a generalization of a previous result obtained by Ngan and Swanson and is applicable when κ⊥ρi is large. Recently, there is interest in using fast waves for current drive at high ion cyclotron harmonics frequencies in tokamaks. Generally, the fast wave will encounter ion cyclotron harmonics within the plasma cross-section. For efficient current drive, the minimization of the mode conversion processes sets restrictions to the choice of frequencies and magnetic fields. This is discussed using the derived formula.

  18. Nanostructured transition metal oxides for energy storage and conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang

    Lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors and photovoltaic devices have been widely considered as the three major promising alternatives of fossil fuels facing upcoming depletion to power the 21th century. The conventional film configuration of electrochemical electrodes hardly fulfills the high energy and efficiency requirements because heavy electroactive material deposition restricts ion diffusion path, and lowers power density and fault tolerance. In this thesis, I demonstrate that novel nanoarchitectured transition metal oxides (TMOs), e.g. MnO2, V2O 5, and ZnO, and their relevant nanocomposites were designed, fabricated and assembled into devices to deliver superior electrochemical performances such as high energy and power densities, and rate capacity. These improvements could be attributed to the significant enhancement of surface area, shortened ion diffusion distances and facile penetration of electrolyte solution into open structures of networks as well as to the pseudocapacitance domination. The utilization of ForcespinningRTM, a newly developed nanofiber processing technology, for large-scale energy storage and conversion applications is emphasized. This process simplifies the tedious multi-step hybridization synthesis and facilitates the contradiction between the micro-batch production and the ease of large-scale manufacturing. Key Words: Transition metal oxides, energy storage and conversion, ForcespinningRTM, pseudocapacitance domination, high rate capacity

  19. Research on Hybrid Vehicle Drivetrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhongzhi

    Hybrid cars as a solution to energy saving, emission reduction measures, have received widespread attention. Motor drive system as an important part of the hybrid vehicles as an important object of study. Based on the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain control system for permanent magnet synchronous motor as the object of study. Can be applied to hybrid car compares the characteristics of traction motors, chose permanent magnet synchronous Motors as drive motors for hybrid vehicles. Building applications in hybrid cars in MATLAB/Simulink simulation model of permanent-magnet synchronous motor speed control system and analysis of simulation results.

  20. NASA Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology NRA Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David J.

    2005-01-01

    The focus of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Development program is aimed at developing nuclear power and technologies that would improve the effectiveness of space science missions. The Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology (RPCT) NASA Research Announcement (NRA) is an important mechanism through which research and technology activities are supported in the Advanced Power Conversion Research and Technology project of the Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems Development program. The purpose of the RPCT NRA is to advance the development of radioisotope power conversion technologies to provide higher efficiencies and specific powers than existing systems. These advances would enable a factor of two to four decrease in the amount of fuel and a reduction of waste heat required to generate electrical power, and thus could result in more cost effective science missions for NASA. The RPCT NRA selected advanced RPS power conversion technology research and development proposals in the following three areas: innovative RPS power conversion research, RPS power conversion technology development in a nominal 100 W(sub e) scale; and, milliwatt/multi-watt RPS (mWRPS) power conversion research. Ten RPCT NRA contracts were awarded in 2003 in the areas of Brayton, Stirling, thermoelectric (TE), and thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power conversion technologies. This paper will provide an overview of the RPCT NRA, a summary of the power conversion technologies approaches being pursued, and a brief digest of first year accomplishments.

  1. NASA Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology NRA Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David J.

    2005-01-01

    The focus of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Development program is aimed at developing nuclear power and technologies that would improve the effectiveness of space science missions. The Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology (RPCT) NASA Research Announcement (NRA) is an important mechanism through which research and technology activities are supported in the Advanced Power Conversion Research and Technology project of the Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems Development program. The purpose of the RPCT NRA is to advance the development of radioisotope power conversion technologies to provide higher efficiencies and specific powers than existing systems. These advances would enable a factor of 2 to 4 decrease in the amount of fuel and a reduction of waste heat required to generate electrical power, and thus could result in more cost effective science missions for NASA. The RPCT NRA selected advanced RPS power conversion technology research and development proposals in the following three areas: innovative RPS power conversion research, RPS power conversion technology development in a nominal 100We scale; and, milliwatt/multi-watt RPS (mWRPS) power conversion research. Ten RPCT NRA contracts were awarded in 2003 in the areas of Brayton, Stirling, thermoelectric (TE), and thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power conversion technologies. This paper will provide an overview of the RPCT NRA, a summary of the power conversion technologies approaches being pursued, and a brief digest of first year accomplishments.

  2. Solar energy, its conversion and utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farber, E. A.

    1972-01-01

    The work being carried out at the University of Florida Solar Energy and Energy Conversion Laboratory in converting solar energy, our only income, into other needed and useful forms of energy is described. A treatment such as this demonstrates, in proper perspective, how solar energy can benefit mankind with its many problems of shortages and pollution. Descriptions were given of the conversion processes, equipment, and performance. The testing of materials, solar water heating, space heating, cooking and baking, solar distillation, refrigeration and air-conditioning, work with the solar furnace, conversion to mechanical power, hot air engines, solar-heated sewage digestion, conversion to electricity, and other devices will be discussed.

  3. Conversion of epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and hormone receptor expression in breast cancer metastases to the brain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction We investigated the status of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), progesterone receptor (PR), and epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) in primary tumor and in the corresponding brain metastases in a consecutive series of breast cancer patients. Additionally, we studied factors potentially influencing conversion and evaluated its association with survival. Methods The study group included 120 breast cancer patients. ERα, PR, and HER2 status in primary tumors and in matched brain metastases was determined centrally by immunohistochemistry and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization. Results Using the Allred score of ≥ 3 as a threshold, conversion of ERα and PR in brain metastases occurred in 29% of cases for both receptors, mostly from positive to negative. Conversion of HER2 occurred in 14% of patients and was more balanced either way. Time to brain relapse and the use of chemotherapy or trastuzumab did not influence conversion, whereas endocrine therapy induced conversion of ERα (P = 0.021) and PR (P = 0.001), mainly towards their loss. Receptor conversion had no significant impact on survival. Conclusions Receptor conversion, particularly loss of hormone receptors, is a common event in brain metastases from breast cancer, and endocrine therapy may increase its incidence. Receptor conversion does not significantly affect survival. PMID:22898337

  4. Efficient Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cell Integrating Polymer Nanowires and Inorganic Nanotetrapods.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weizhe; Tan, Furui; Liu, Xiansheng; Zhang, Weifeng; Qu, Shengchun; Wang, Zhijie; Wang, Zhanguo

    2017-12-01

    Constructing a highly efficient bulk-heterojunction is of critical importance to the hybrid organic/inorganic solar cells. Here in this work, we introduce a novel hybrid architecture containing P3HT nanowire and CdSe nanotetrapod as bicontinuous charge channels for holes and electrons, respectively. Compared to the traditionally applied P3HT molecules, the well crystallized P3HT nanowires qualify an enhanced light absorption at the long wavelength as well as strengthened charge carrier transport in the hybrid active layer. Accordingly, based on efficient dissociation of photogenerated excitons, the interpercolation of these two nano-building blocks allows a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 1.7% in the hybrid solar cell, up to 42% enhancement compared to the reference solar cell with traditional P3HT molecules as electron donor. Our work provides a promising hybrid structure for efficient organic/inorganic bulk-heterojunction solar cells.

  5. Efficient Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cell Integrating Polymer Nanowires and Inorganic Nanotetrapods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Weizhe; Tan, Furui; Liu, Xiansheng; Zhang, Weifeng; Qu, Shengchun; Wang, Zhijie; Wang, Zhanguo

    2017-01-01

    Constructing a highly efficient bulk-heterojunction is of critical importance to the hybrid organic/inorganic solar cells. Here in this work, we introduce a novel hybrid architecture containing P3HT nanowire and CdSe nanotetrapod as bicontinuous charge channels for holes and electrons, respectively. Compared to the traditionally applied P3HT molecules, the well crystallized P3HT nanowires qualify an enhanced light absorption at the long wavelength as well as strengthened charge carrier transport in the hybrid active layer. Accordingly, based on efficient dissociation of photogenerated excitons, the interpercolation of these two nano-building blocks allows a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 1.7% in the hybrid solar cell, up to 42% enhancement compared to the reference solar cell with traditional P3HT molecules as electron donor. Our work provides a promising hybrid structure for efficient organic/inorganic bulk-heterojunction solar cells.

  6. A novel organic-inorganic hybrid tandem solar cell with inverted structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrami, A.; Faez, R.

    2017-04-01

    A novel organic-inorganic hybrid tandem solar cell with inverted structure is proposed. This efficient double-junction hybrid tandem solar cell consists of a single-junction hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) subcell with n-i-p structure as front cell and a P3HT:PCBM organic subcell with inverted structure as back cell. In order to optimize the hybrid tandem cell, we have performed a simulation based on transfer matrix method. We have compared the characteristics of this novel structure with a conventional structure. As a result, a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.1 and 24% improvement compared to the conventional hybrid tandem cell was achieved. We also discuss the high potential of this novel structure for realizing high-stability organic-inorganic hybrid photovoltaic devices.

  7. Genome-wide transcript analysis of maize hybrids: allelic additive gene expression and yield heterosis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mei; Rupe, Mary A; Yang, Xiaofeng; Crasta, Oswald; Zinselmeier, Christopher; Smith, Oscar S; Bowen, Ben

    2006-09-01

    Heterosis, or hybrid vigor, has been widely exploited in plant breeding for many decades, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the phenomenon remain unknown. In this study, we applied genome-wide transcript profiling to gain a global picture of the ways in which a large proportion of genes are expressed in the immature ear tissues of a series of 16 maize hybrids that vary in their degree of heterosis. Key observations include: (1) the proportion of allelic additively expressed genes is positively associated with hybrid yield and heterosis; (2) the proportion of genes that exhibit a bias towards the expression level of the paternal parent is negatively correlated with hybrid yield and heterosis; and (3) there is no correlation between the over- or under-expression of specific genes in maize hybrids with either yield or heterosis. The relationship of the expression patterns with hybrid performance is substantiated by analysis of a genetically improved modern hybrid (Pioneer hybrid 3394) versus a less improved older hybrid (Pioneer hybrid 3306) grown at different levels of plant density stress. The proportion of allelic additively expressed genes is positively associated with the modern high yielding hybrid, heterosis and high yielding environments, whereas the converse is true for the paternally biased gene expression. The dynamic changes of gene expression in hybrids responding to genotype and environment may result from differential regulation of the two parental alleles. Our findings suggest that differential allele regulation may play an important role in hybrid yield or heterosis, and provide a new insight to the molecular understanding of the underlying mechanisms of heterosis.

  8. Ames Hybrid Combustion Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zilliac, Greg; Karabeyoglu, Mustafa A.; Cantwell, Brian; Hunt, Rusty; DeZilwa, Shane; Shoffstall, Mike; Soderman, Paul T.; Bencze, Daniel P. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The report summarizes the design, fabrication, safety features, environmental impact, and operation of the Ames Hybrid-Fuel Combustion Facility (HCF). The facility is used in conducting research into the scalability and combustion processes of advanced paraffin-based hybrid fuels for the purpose of assessing their applicability to practical rocket systems. The facility was designed to deliver gaseous oxygen at rates between 0.5 and 16.0 kg/sec to a combustion chamber operating at pressures ranging from 300 to 900. The required run times were of the order of 10 to 20 sec. The facility proved to be robust and reliable and has been used to generate a database of regression-rate measurements of paraffin at oxygen mass flux levels comparable to those of moderate-sized hybrid rocket motors.

  9. Hybridization schemes for clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wales, David J.

    The concept of an optimum hybridization scheme for cluster compounds is developed with particular reference to electron counting. The prediction of electron counts for clusters and the interpretation of the bonding is shown to depend critically upon the presumed hybridization pattern of the cluster vertex atoms. This fact has not been properly appreciated in previous work, particularly in applications of Stone's tensor surface harmonic (TSH) theory, but is found to be a useful tool when dealt with directly. A quantitative definition is suggested for the optimum cluster hybridization pattern based directly upon the ease of interpretation of the molecular orbitals, and results are given for a range of species. The relationship of this scheme to the detailed cluster geometry is described using Löwdin's partitioned perturbation theory, and the success and range of application of TSH theory are discussed.

  10. Smart hybrid rotary damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C. S. Walter; DesRoches, Reginald

    2014-03-01

    This paper develops a smart hybrid rotary damper using a re-centering smart shape memory alloy (SMA) material as well as conventional energy-dissipating metallic plates that are easy to be replaced. The ends of the SMA and steel plates are inserted in the hinge. When the damper rotates, all the plates bend, providing energy dissipating and recentering characteristics. Such smart hybrid rotary dampers can be installed in structures to mitigate structural responses and to re-center automatically. The damaged energy-dissipating plates can be easily replaced promptly after an external excitation, reducing repair time and costs. An OpenSEES model of a smart hybrid rotary was established and calibrated to reproduce the realistic behavior measured from a full-scale experimental test. Furthermore, the seismic performance of a 3-story moment resisting model building with smart hybrid rotary dampers designed for downtown Los Angeles was also evaluated in the OpenSEES structural analysis software. Such a smart moment resisting frame exhibits perfect residual roof displacement, 0.006", extremely smaller than 18.04" for the conventional moment resisting frame subjected to a 2500 year return period ground motion for the downtown LA area (an amplified factor of 1.15 on Kobe earthquake). The smart hybrid rotary dampers are also applied into an eccentric braced steel frame, which combines a moment frame system and a bracing system. The results illustrate that adding smart hybrid rotaries in this braced system not only completely restores the building after an external excitation, but also significantly reduces peak interstory drifts.

  11. Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shukla, Kailash; Doyle, Edward; Becker, Frederick

    1998-01-01

    Completely integrated thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power sources in the range of 100 to 500 watts are being developed. The technical approach taken in this project focuses on optimizing the integrated performance of the primary subsystems in order to yield high energy conversion efficiency and cost effectiveness. An important aspect of the approach is the use of a narrow band fibrous emitter radiating to a bandgap matched photovoltaic array to minimize thermal and optical recuperation requirements, as well as the non-recoverable heat losses. For the prototype system, fibrous ytterbia emitters radiating in a narrow band centered at 980 nm are matched with high efficiency silicon photoconverters. The integrated system includes a dielectric stack filter for optical energy recovery and a ceramic recuperator for thermal energy recovery. The prototype TPV system uses a rapid mix distributed fuel delivery system with controlled feeding of the fuel and heated air into a flame at the surface of the emitter. This makes it possible to operate at air preheat temperatures well above the auto-ignition temperature of the fuel thereby substantially increasing the system efficiency. The system has been operated with air preheat temperatures up to 1367 K and has produced a uniform narrow band radiation over the surface of the emitter with this approach. The design of the system is described and test data for the system and some of the key components are presented. The results from a system model, which show the impact of various parameters on system performance, are also discussed.

  12. Clean Fossil Energy Conversion Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, L.-S.

    2007-03-01

    Absolute and per-capita energy consumption is bound to increase globally, leading to a projected increase in energy requirements of 50% by 2020. The primary source for providing a majority of the energy will continue to be fossil fuels. However, an array of enabling technologies needs to be proven for the realization of a zero emission power, fuel or chemical plants in the near future. Opportunities to develop new processes, driven by the regulatory requirements for the reduction or elimination of gaseous and particulate pollutant abound. This presentation describes the chemistry, reaction mechanisms, reactor design, system engineering, economics, and regulations that surround the utilization of clean coal energy. The presentation will cover the salient features of the fundamental and process aspects of the clean coal technologies in practice as well as in development. These technologies include those for the cleaning of SO2, H2S, NOx, and heavy metals, and separation of CO2 from the flue gas or the syngas. Further, new combustion and gasification processes based on the chemical looping concepts will be illustrated in the context of the looping particle design, process heat integration, energy conversion efficiency, and economics.

  13. Conversion of pentoses by yeasts

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, C.S.; Claypool, T.A.; Maun, C.M.; Mccracken, L.D.; Tsao, G.T.; Ueng, P.P.

    1983-01-01

    The utilization and conversion of D-xylose, D-xyulose, L-arabinose, and xylitol by yeast strains have been investigated with the following results: 1) The majority of yeasts tested utilize D-xylose and produce polyols, ethanol, and organic acids. The type and amount of products formed varies with the yeast strains used. The most commonly detected product is xylitol. 2) The majority of yeasts tested utilize D-xylulose aerobically and fermentatively to produce ethanol, xylitol D-arabitol, and organic acids. The type and amount of products varies depending upon the yeast strains used. 3) Xylitol is a poor carbon and energy source for most yeasts tested. Some yeast strains produce small amounts of ethanol from xylitol. 4) Most yeast strains utilize L-arabinose, and L-arabitol is the common product. Small amounts of ethanol are also produced by some yeast strains. 5) Of the four substrates examined, D-xylulose was the preferred substrate, followed by D-xylose, L-arabinose, and xylitol. 6) Mutant yeast strains that exhibit different metabolic product patterns can be induced and isolated from Candida sp. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and other yeasts. These mutant strains can be used for ethanol production from D-xylose as well as for the study of metabolic regulation of pentose utilization in yeasts.

  14. Interdigitated photovoltaic power conversion device

    DOEpatents

    Ward, James Scott; Wanlass, Mark Woodbury; Gessert, Timothy Arthur

    1999-01-01

    A photovoltaic power conversion device has a top surface adapted to receive impinging radiation. The device includes at least two adjacent, serially connected cells. Each cell includes a semi-insulating substrate and a lateral conductivity layer of a first doped electrical conductivity disposed on the substrate. A base layer is disposed on the lateral conductivity layer and has the same electrical charge conductivity thereof. An emitter layer of a second doped electrical conductivity of opposite electrical charge is disposed on the base layer and forms a p-n junction therebetween. A plurality of spaced channels are formed in the emitter and base layers to expose the lateral conductivity layer at the bottoms thereof. A front contact grid is positioned on the top surface of the emitter layer of each cell. A first current collector is positioned along one outside edge of at least one first cell. A back contact grid is positioned in the channels at the top surface of the device for engagement with the lateral conductivity layer. A second current collector is positioned along at least one outside edge of at least one oppositely disposed second cell. Finally, an interdigitation mechanism is provided for serially connecting the front contact grid of one cell to the back contact grid of an adjacent cell at the top surface of the device.

  15. Interdigitated photovoltaic power conversion device

    DOEpatents

    Ward, J.S.; Wanlass, M.W.; Gessert, T.A.

    1999-04-27

    A photovoltaic power conversion device has a top surface adapted to receive impinging radiation. The device includes at least two adjacent, serially connected cells. Each cell includes a semi-insulating substrate and a lateral conductivity layer of a first doped electrical conductivity disposed on the substrate. A base layer is disposed on the lateral conductivity layer and has the same electrical charge conductivity thereof. An emitter layer of a second doped electrical conductivity of opposite electrical charge is disposed on the base layer and forms a p-n junction therebetween. A plurality of spaced channels are formed in the emitter and base layers to expose the lateral conductivity layer at the bottoms thereof. A front contact grid is positioned on the top surface of the emitter layer of each cell. A first current collector is positioned along one outside edge of at least one first cell. A back contact grid is positioned in the channels at the top surface of the device for engagement with the lateral conductivity layer. A second current collector is positioned along at least one outside edge of at least one oppositely disposed second cell. Finally, an interdigitation mechanism is provided for serially connecting the front contact grid of one cell to the back contact grid of an adjacent cell at the top surface of the device. 15 figs.

  16. Tropospheric effects of energy conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Derwent, R.G. )

    1992-01-01

    The tropospheric concentrations of a number of trace gases are increasing due to man's activities. For some trace gases, their atmospheric life cycles are not fully understood and it is difficult to be certain about the role of man's activities. Emissions from the energy industries and energy conversion processes represent an important subset of source terms in these life cycles, along with agriculture, deforestation, cement manufacture, biomass burning, process industries and natural biospheric processes. Global Warming Potentials (GWPs) allow the tropospheric effects of a range of climate forcing trace gases to be assessed on a comparable basis. If a short term view of the commitment to global warming is adopted then the contribution from other trace gases may approach and exceed that of carbon dioxide, itself. Over longer time horizons, the long atmospheric lifetime of carbon dioxide shows through as a major influence and the contributions from the other trace gases appear to be much smaller, representing an additional 13-18[percent] contribution on top of that from CO[sub 2] itself.

  17. Catalytic conversion of light alkanes

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, J.E.

    1992-06-30

    The second Quarterly Report of 1992 on the Catalytic Conversion of Light Alkanes reviews the work done between April 1, 1992 and June 31, 1992 on the Cooperative Agreement. The mission of this work is to devise a new catalyst which can be used in a simple economic process to convert the light alkanes in natural gas to oxygenate products that can either be used as clean-burning, high octane liquid fuels, as fuel components or as precursors to liquid hydrocarbon uwspomdon fuel. During the past quarter we have continued to design, prepare, characterize and test novel catalysts for the mild selective reaction of light hydrocarbons with air or oxygen to produce alcohols directly. These catalysts are designed to form active metal oxo (MO) species and to be uniquely active for the homolytic cleavage of the carbon-hydrogen bonds in light alkanes producing intermediates which can form alcohols. We continue to investigate three molecular environments for the active catalytic species that we are trying to generate: electron-deficient macrocycles (PHASE I), polyoxometallates (PHASE II), and regular oxidic lattices including zeolites and related structures as well as other molecular surface structures having metal oxo groups (PHASE I).

  18. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    ECAS compared various advanced energy conversion systems that can use coal or coal-derived fuels for baseload electric power generation. It was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 consisted of parametric studies. From these results, 11 concepts were selected for further study in Phase 2. For each of the Phase 2 systems and a common set of ground rules, performance, cost, environmental intrusion, and natural resource requirements were estimated. In addition, the contractors defined the state of the associated technology, identified the advances required, prepared preliminary research and development plans, and assessed other factors that would affect the implementation of each type of powerplant. The systems studied in Phase 2 include steam systems with atmospheric- and pressurized-fluidized-bed boilers; combined cycle gas turbine/steam systems with integrated gasifiers or fired by a semiclean, coal derived fuel; a potassium/steam system with a pressurized-fluidized-bed boiler; a closed-cycle gas turbine/organic system with a high-temperature, atmospheric-fluidized-bed furnace; a direct-coal-fired, open- cycle magnetohydrodynamic/steam system; and a molten-carbonate fuel cell/steam system with an integrated gasifier. The sensitivity of the results to changes in the ground rules and the impact of uncertainties in capital cost estimates were also examined.

  19. A conversation with Joseph Lau.

    PubMed

    Lau, Joseph; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Ingerick, Meghan

    2015-03-01

    Dr. Joseph Lau is a world-leading expert in meta-analysis and systematic reviews. Currently a professor in the Department of Health Services, Policy and Practice and co-director of the Center for Evidence-based Medicine at Brown University, Professor Lau has applied evidence-based methods to a variety of clinical, biomedical and healthcare topics; has developed reliable and efficient methods and tools to conduct systematic reviews and meta-analyses; and has advanced an understanding on the impact of factors that may contribute to differences of results in scientific studies. His past research includes cumulative meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, comparison of results from large trials and meta-analyses of small trials, effect of baseline risk in the interpretation of clinical trial results, and empirical evaluation of existing methods of combining data. His current focus is on a Web-based repository of systematic review data, reviews of diagnostic tests, nutrition, clinical practice guidelines, and dissemination of evidence-based methods to varied health-care disciplines. This report is a conversation from an adapted version of an interview, more or less chronologically arranged, between Joseph C. Cappelleri as interviewer and Joseph Lau as interviewee, with Meghan Ingerick recording and transcribing the interview.

  20. Keep meaning in conversational coordination

    PubMed Central

    Cuffari, Elena C.

    2014-01-01

    Coordination is a widely employed term across recent quantitative and qualitative approaches to intersubjectivity, particularly approaches that give embodiment and enaction central explanatory roles. With a focus on linguistic and bodily coordination in conversational contexts, I review the operational meaning of coordination in recent empirical research and related theorizing of embodied intersubjectivity. This discussion articulates what must be involved in treating linguistic meaning as dynamic processes of coordination. The coordination approach presents languaging as a set of dynamic self-organizing processes and actions on multiple timescales and across multiple modalities that come about and work in certain domains (those jointly constructed in social, interactive, high-order sense-making). These processes go beyond meaning at the level that is available to first-person experience. I take one crucial consequence of this to be the ubiquitously moral nature of languaging with others. Languaging coordinates experience, among other levels of behavior and event. Ethical effort is called for by the automatic autonomy-influencing forces of languaging as coordination. PMID:25520693

  1. Fundamentals of solar energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, E. E.

    This textbook strives to strengthen a student's knowledge of the basic sciences as well as to provide a practical background in solar energy conversion. Particular consideration is given to solar geometry, the availability of solar energy, solar concentrators, elements of fluid mechanics and heat transfer in solar systems, flat-plate collectors, and thermal storage of solar energy. The use of solar energy for specific types of loads is then discussed. The application of active solar systems to space and hot-water heating is considered, and a description is given of the empirical f-chart method for thermal-performance analysis. The economics of solar systems is examined along with the application of solar energy to cooling and dehumidification loads as well as the application of solar energy to industrial and other thermal loads. The concept of passive systems is explained, and the evaluation of thermal performance on the basis of the empirical load/collector ratio method is described. Appendixes are presented with such information as solar-position charts, tables of solar radiation and climatic data, and programs for hand-held calculators.

  2. Economic conversion: The US experience

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.C.

    1994-12-31

    At the end of the Second World War, our country experienced what economists have called {open_quotes}The Great Conversion{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}The Great Disarmament.{close_quotes} Following that period and until the beginning of the Viet-Nam War was a time marked by economic expansion and boom. Since those years, there have been several periods during which bases were closed and defense spending was slowed. For the communities going through these transitions, again there was economic expansion. A recent survey reports that, within the last 25 years, over 100 communities redeveloped their economic base and experienced, not catastrophy as they expected, but a period of economic growth. Jobs were not lost but nearly doubled. Small businesses and educational institutions multiplied. Building starts accelerated. The survey attributed this economic growth to proper planning, increased awareness of the need for job training and education, diversification of economic activity, and an ownership on the part of the citizens in their collective economic future. The lesson for us should be that realigning our community economic priorities away from such a strong emphasis on military spending and toward a diverse and productive civilian economy brings economic health. We are relearning this lesson in the redevelopment of Lowry Air Force Base and the transition of Rocky Flats Nuclear Plant from a weapons manufacturing mission to one of cleanup.

  3. Hybrid Vehicle Simulation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-17

    Driving Sequence," Federal Register, 35(219): 17288-313 (10 November 1970). 7. "Electric Cars : Where Batteries Stand," Automotive Industry, 185(13): 81-83...Storage Systems, November 1979. 11. Hiroyuko, Imai. "Optimal Acceleration Performance and Storage Battery Voltage of an Electric Automobile Viewed from...ARE:,/35X, 16HNOMINAL VOLTAGE=, F4.0 C,/35X13HBATTERY MASS=,F5.0) C C ENTER HYBRID VARIABLES. FIRST CARD- 1 IF HYBRID,0 IF NOT. NEXT CAR C )IF IHYB=1

  4. Diagnostics for hybrid reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsitto, Francesco Paolo

    2012-06-01

    The Hybrid Reactor(HR) can be considered an attractive actinide-burner or a fusion assisted transmutation for destruction of transuranic(TRU) nuclear waste. The hybrid reactor has two important subsystems: the tokamak neutron source and the blanket which includes a fuel zone where the TRU are placed and a tritium breeding zone. The diagnostic system for a HR must be as simple and robust as possible to monitor and control the plasma scenario, guarantee the protection of the machine and monitor the transmutation.

  5. Diagnostics for hybrid reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Orsitto, Francesco Paolo

    2012-06-19

    The Hybrid Reactor(HR) can be considered an attractive actinide-burner or a fusion assisted transmutation for destruction of transuranic(TRU) nuclear waste. The hybrid reactor has two important subsystems: the tokamak neutron source and the blanket which includes a fuel zone where the TRU are placed and a tritium breeding zone. The diagnostic system for a HR must be as simple and robust as possible to monitor and control the plasma scenario, guarantee the protection of the machine and monitor the transmutation.

  6. Hybridized polymer matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, B. A.; Visser, T.

    1981-01-01

    Under certain conditions of combined fire and impact, graphite fibers are released to the atmosphere by graphite fiber composites. The retention of graphite fibers in these situations is investigated. Hybrid combinations of graphite tape and cloth, glass cloth, and resin additives are studied with resin systems. Polyimide resins form the most resistant composites and resins based on simple novolac epoxies the least resistant of those tested. Great improvement in the containment of the fibers is obtained in using graphite/glass hybrids, and nearly complete prevention of individual fiber release is made possible by the use of resin additives.

  7. A Mathematical Approach to Hybridization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, P. S. C.; Thompson, J. J.

    1975-01-01

    Presents an approach to hybridization which exploits the similarities between the algebra of wave functions and vectors. This method will account satisfactorily for the number of orbitals formed when applied to hybrids involving the s and p orbitals. (GS)

  8. Agricultural Land Conversion: Background and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furuseth, Owen J.

    1982-01-01

    Analyzes forces contributing to the conversion of agricultural land for other uses, causes for the depletion of the land, major issues surrounding the loss of farmland, and current policies designed to control haphazard land conversion. Concludes that the United States lacks a national farmland protection policy. (KC)

  9. Caveats of an English Conversation Club.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, JoEllen; Ossa, Carlos E.; Rutter, Frank P.

    1999-01-01

    Describes an English conversation club that was initiated at the Universidad del Valle in Cali, Colombia. Suggests ways in which other university communities can better serve their English-speaking populations by creating a similar English conversation club. (Author/VWL)

  10. Improving Teamwork through Awareness of Conversational Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehling, Louise

    2004-01-01

    Conversational styles can sometimes cause conflicts on problem-solving writing teams. In self-defense, students often resort to blaming and shaming around conversational styles, which can just worsen unproductive group behaviors, limiting idea exchanges and deflecting attention from substantive issues and onto what is often labeled "personality…

  11. Conversion Disorder in Australian Pediatric Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozlowska, Kasia; Nunn, Kenneth P.; Rose, Donna; Morris, Anne; Ouvrier, Robert A.; Varghese, John

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the incidence and clinical features of children presenting to Australian child health specialists with conversion disorder. Method: Active, national surveillance of conversion disorder in children younger than 16 years of age during 2002 and 2003. Results: A total of 194 children were reported on. The average age was 11.8…

  12. An Analysis of Televised Telephone Conversations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skokut, Nina

    1993-01-01

    The structure of televised conversations were compared with theoretical structures of such conversations, based on data drawn from commercial television soap operas. Results show that portions resemble naturally occurring speech as represented in theoretical frameworks, but others do not; implications for language teachers are noted. (17…

  13. Biocatalytic conversion of lignocellulose to platform chemicals.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Gernot; Büchs, Jochen

    2012-09-01

    Naturally occurring lignocellulose can be used as a renewable resource for the sustainable production of platform chemicals that can in turn be converted to valuable fine chemicals, polymers, and fuels. The biocatalytic conversion of lignocellulose is a very promising approach due to its high selectivity, mild conditions, and low exergy loss. However, such biocatalytic processes are still seldom applied at the industrial scale since the single conversion steps (pretreatment, hydrolysis, and fermentation) may exhibit low conversion rates, low efficiencies, or high costs. The biocatalytic conversion of lignocellulose to platform chemicals is reviewed in this work. Structures and production rates of lignocellulose are described, and platform chemicals that may be produced from lignocellulose are summarized. Biocatalytic conversion of lignocellulose is distinguished from conventional non-selective approaches. All essential conversion steps used in biocatalytic approaches (pretreatment, hydrolysis, and fermentation) are reviewed in detail. Finally, potential interactions between these conversion steps are highlighted and the advantages as well as disadvantages of integrated process configurations are elucidated. In conclusion, a comprehensive understanding of the biocatalytic conversion of lignocellulose is provided in this review.

  14. 43 CFR 3140.4 - Conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conversion. 3140.4 Section 3140.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Conversion of...

  15. 43 CFR 3140.4 - Conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Conversion. 3140.4 Section 3140.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Conversion of...

  16. 43 CFR 3140.4 - Conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Conversion. 3140.4 Section 3140.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Conversion of...

  17. 43 CFR 3140.4 - Conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Conversion. 3140.4 Section 3140.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Conversion of...

  18. A Course in Conversation as Cultural Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knutson, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an upper level foreign language course designed to enable students to "learn about conversation" as both a universal and culture-specific form of talk, and to "learn to converse" at an advanced level and in culturally appropriate ways with speakers of French from France and Francophone countries. Students…

  19. Mathematical Conversations to Transform Algebra Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szydlik, Jennifer Earles

    2015-01-01

    Classroom culture is established through both conversations and practices. Traditionally in mathematics class, the focus is primarily on the latter; that is, students are shown what "doing mathematics" looks like, and then asked that they try it themselves. This article discusses three mathematical conversations that help bring…

  20. The Role of Conversation in Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox-Turnbull, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates recent literature in the area of classroom conversation and dialogue with the aim of gaining a better understanding of the role that classroom conversation and dialogue plays in learning. It also investigates literature on the constructivist, collaborative nature of technology education and suggests that to enhance our…

  1. Reflection during Portfolio-Based Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oosterbaan, Anne E.; van der Schaaf, Marieke F.; Baartman, Liesbeth K. J.; Stokking, Karel M.

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to explore the relationship between the occurrence of reflection (and non-reflection) and thinking activities (e.g., orientating, selecting, analysing) during portfolio-based conversations. Analysis of 21 transcripts of portfolio-based conversations revealed that 20% of the segments were made up of reflection (content reflection…

  2. Collective Contexts in Conversation: Grounding by Proxy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshghi, Arash; Healey, Patrick G. T.

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that participants in conversation can sometimes act as a coalition. This implies a level of conversational organization in which groups of individuals form a coherent unit. This paper investigates the implications of this phenomenon for psycholinguistic and semantic models of shared context in dialog. We present a…

  3. Guide to Software Conversion Management. [Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skall, M., Ed.

    Based mainly on interviews conducted at 14 federal agencies that had completed or were involved in software conversion projects, this publication provides guidelines for the entire process of software conversion. This is defined as the transformation, without functional change, of computer programs or data elements to permit their use on a…

  4. 5 CFR 534.506 - Conversion provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... conversion, other than to the minimum rate under 5 U.S.C. 5376, the increase must be approved by the head of... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conversion provisions. 534.506 Section... OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.506...

  5. 5 CFR 534.605 - Conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conversion. 534.605 Section 534.605... Administrative Appeals Judge Positions § 534.605 Conversion. On the first day of the first pay period beginning on or after December 11, 2001, agencies must convert the rate of basic pay of an...

  6. 5 CFR 534.605 - Conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion. 534.605 Section 534.605... Administrative Appeals Judge Positions § 534.605 Conversion. On the first day of the first pay period beginning on or after December 11, 2001, agencies must convert the rate of basic pay of an...

  7. 5 CFR 534.506 - Conversion provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... conversion, other than to the minimum rate under 5 U.S.C. 5376, the increase must be approved by the head of... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion provisions. 534.506 Section... OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.506...

  8. Effects of Conversational Pressures on Speech Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swets, Benjamin; Jacovina, Matthew E.; Gerrig, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    In ordinary conversation, speakers experience pressures both to produce utterances suited to particular addressees and to do so with minimal delay. To document the impact of these conversational pressures, our experiment asked participants to produce brief utterances to describe visual displays. We complicated utterance planning by including…

  9. Biomass thermal conversion research at SERI

    SciTech Connect

    Milne, T. A.; Desrosiers, R. E.; Reed, T. B.

    1980-09-01

    SERI's involvement in the thermochemical conversion of biomass to fuels and chemicals is reviewed. The scope and activities of the Biomass Thermal Conversion and Exploratory Branch are reviewed. The current status and future plans for three tasks are presented: (1) Pyrolysis Mechanisms; (2) High Pressure O/sub 2/ Gasifier; and (3) Gasification Test Facility.

  10. Genetic Effects on Children's Conversational Language Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeThorne, Laura S.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Hart, Sara A.; Channell, Ron W.; Campbell, Rebecca J.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Thompson, Lee Anne; Vanderbergh, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examined the extent of genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in children's conversational language use. Method: Behavioral genetic analyses focused on conversational measures and 2 standardized tests from 380 twins (M = 7.13 years) during the 2nd year of the Western Reserve Reading Project (S. A.…

  11. Provoking Reflective Thinking in Post Observation Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Younhee; Silver, Rita Elaine

    2016-01-01

    We present a micro-analysis of post observation conversations between classroom teachers and mentors. Using the approach of conversation analysis, we show how the sequential organization of an episode (i.e., who initiates the interaction, question format used by mentors) could potentially serve to provoke or hinder teacher reflection. Our analysis…

  12. How to Engage in Effective Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Robin L.

    2009-01-01

    Conversation skills are essential for success in social, school, and business settings. They are foundational to deep relationships and lifelong friendships. Job applicants leave a more favorable impression with good conversation skills. Employees with these skills are more likely to climb the company ladder than those who struggle with…

  13. Retrospective Conversion Manual: University Library Recon Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramage, Pat

    This manual provides a brief description of the procedures employed by the University of South Alabama in converting their library records from print to computerized cataloging. A description of the procedure is followed by detailed instructions and examples. Rules for NOTIS-LCCN Conversion Records, OCLC--Telex Transfer, and Conversion of…

  14. Retrospective Conversion: Investing in the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Richard

    1984-01-01

    Report on developments in the retrospective conversion of manual library files to machine-readable form discusses planning and decision making; accommodating full records; conforming to standards; creating bibliographic records; sources of retrospective conversion support (bibliographic utilities, stand-alone systems); use of microcomputers;…

  15. Mode conversion heating experiments on Tore Supra

    SciTech Connect

    Saoutic, B.; Becoulet, A.; Hutter, T.; Fraboulet, D.; Ram, A.K.; Bers, A.

    1996-02-01

    A new scenario for effeicient mode conversion heating, in the ion cyclotron range of frequency, is proposed. Experiments on Tore Supra demonstrate that this new scheme is quite efficient. A detailed analysis of thes mode conversion scenario is carried out, using a new complete 1-D model and the 3-D full wave code Alcyon. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Mode conversion heating experiments on Tore Supra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saoutic, B.; Bécoulet, A.; Hutter, T.; Fraboulet, D.; Ram, A. K.; Bers, A.

    1996-02-01

    A new scenario for effeicient mode conversion heating, in the ion cyclotron range of frequency, is proposed. Experiments on Tore Supra demonstrate that this new scheme is quite efficient. A detailed analysis of thes mode conversion scenario is carried out, using a new complete 1-D model and the 3-D full wave code Alcyon.

  17. 1982 annual report: Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program

    SciTech Connect

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    This report provides a brief overview of the Thermochemical Conversion Program's activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1982. The objective of the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program is to generate scientific data and fundamental biomass converison process information that, in the long term, could lead to establishment of cost effective processes for conversion of biomass resources into clean fuels and petrochemical substitutes. The goal of the program is to improve the data base for biomass conversion by investigating the fundamental aspects of conversion technologies and exploring those parameters which are critical to these conversion processes. To achieve this objective and goal, the Thermochemical Conversion Program is sponsoring high-risk, long-term research with high payoff potential which industry is not currently sponsoring, nor is likely to support. Thermochemical conversion processes employ elevated temperatures to convert biomass materials into energy. Process examples include: combustion to produce heat, steam, electricity, direct mechanical power; gasification to produce fuel gas or synthesis gases for the production of methanol and hydrocarbon fuels; direct liquefaction to produce heavy oils or distillates; and pyrolysis to produce a mixture of oils, fuel gases, and char. A bibliography of publications for 1982 is included.

  18. Enhancing Classroom Conversation for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, William

    2013-01-01

    The author, a 5th-grade teacher, offers strategies intended to assist and encourage ELL students to participate in academic conversations. They include insisting that children take part in conversations despite their apprehension and teaching them the language they need to communicate their ideas. One strategy is Think, Pair, Share--a simple…

  19. Thin-thick quadrature frequency conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Eimerl, D.

    1985-02-07

    The quadrature conversion scheme is a method of generating the second harmonic. The scheme, which uses two crystals in series, has several advantages over single-crystal or other two crystal schemes. The most important is that it is capable of high conversion efficiency over a large dynamic range of drive intensity and detuning angle.

  20. Energy Conversion: Nano Solar Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahaya, Muhammad; Yap, Chi Chin; Mat Salleh, Muhamad

    2009-09-01

    Problems of fossil-fuel-induced climate change have sparked a demand for sustainable energy supply for all sectors of economy. Most laboratories continue to search for new materials and new technique to generate clean energy at affordable cost. Nanotechnology can play a major role in solving the energy problem. The prospect for solar energy using Si-based technology is not encouraging. Si photovoltaics can produce electricity at 20-30 c//kWhr with about 25% efficiency. Nanoparticles have a strong capacity to absorb light and generate more electrons for current as discovered in the recent work of organic and dye-sensitized cell. Using cheap preparation technique such as screen-printing and self-assembly growth, organic cells shows a strong potential for commercialization. Thin Films research group at National University Malaysia has been actively involved in these areas, and in this seminar, we will present a review works on nanomaterials for solar cells and particularly on hybrid organic solar cell based on ZnO nanorod arrays. The organic layer consisting of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1, 4-phenylenevinylene] (MEHPPV) and [6, 6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid 3-ethylthiophene ester (PCBE) was spin-coated on ZnO nanorod arrays. ZnO nanorod arrays were grown on FTO glass substrates which were pre-coated with ZnO nanoparticles using a low temperature chemical solution method. A gold electrode was used as the top contact. The device gave a short circuit current density of 2.49×10-4 mA/cm2 and an open circuit voltage of 0.45 V under illumination of a projector halogen light at 100 mW/cm2.

  1. Reduction of carbon content in waste-tire combustion ashes by bio-thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.C.; Lee, W.J.; Shih, S.I.; Mou, J.L.

    2009-07-01

    Application of bio-catalyst (NOE-7F) in thermal treatment can adequately dispose dark-black fly ashes from co-combustion of both waste tires and coal. After thermal treatment of fly ashes by adding 10% NOE-7F, the carbon contents reduced by 37.6% and the weight losses increased by 405%, compared with the fly ashes without mixing with NOE-7F. The combustion behaviors of wasted tires combustion fly ashes with NOE-7F were also investigated by both thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The results verify that NOE-7F has positive effects on the combustion of residual carbon and toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) enhance the energy release and reduce the toxicity during the process of thermal treatment. Furthermore, using NOE-7F to dispose high-carbon content fly ashes did improve the compressive strength of fly ashes and concrete mixtures. Therefore, NOE-7F is a promising additive which could decrease treatment cost of high-carbon content fly ashes and reduce the amount of survival toxic PAHs.

  2. Biological Modulation of Upper Ocean Physics: Simulating the Biothermal Feedback Effect in Monterey Bay, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-08

    2 days [Falkowski, 1994]) generates more temporally persistent nonliving organic matter that absorbs substantial quantities of solar energy in the...comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 2014 2 . REPORT TYPE 3. DATES...impact the physics but also a further analysis of how these physical impacts may, in turn, impact the biology. 2 . Methods The Naval Research Laboratory

  3. Measurement of Microscale Bio-Thermal Responses by Means of a Micro-Thermocouple Probe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    sputtering technique. (5) A coating of polyimide/SiO2 was applied. (6) Finally, a coating of MPC (2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine ) copolymers...was put on the tip for good biocompatibility. MPC copolymers have an affinity for phospholipids due to the phosphorylcholine polar groups on the...and N. Nakabayashi, “Inhibition of fibroblast cell adhesion on substrate by coating with 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine polymers,” J

  4. Quantum Frequency Conversion between Infrared and Ultraviolet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rütz, Helge; Luo, Kai-Hong; Suche, Hubertus; Silberhorn, Christine

    2017-02-01

    We report on the implementation of quantum frequency conversion between infrared and ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths by using single-stage up-conversion in a periodically poled potassium-titanyl-phosphate waveguide. Because of the monolithic waveguide design, we manage to transfer a telecommunication-band input photon to the wavelength of the ionic dipole transition of Yb+ at 369.5 nm. The external (internal) conversion efficiency is around 5% (10%). The high-energy pump used in this converter introduces a spontaneous parametric down-conversion process, which is a cause for noise in the UV mode. Using this process, we show that the converter preserves nonclassical correlations in the up-conversion process, rendering this miniaturized interface a source for quantum states of light in the UV.

  5. Conversion Disorder— Mind versus Body: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Jabeen, Shagufta; Pate, Rebecca J.; Shahid, Marwah; Chinala, Sandhya; Nathani, Milankumar; Shah, Rida

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors accentuate the signs and symptoms of conversion disorder and the significance of clinical judgment and expertise in order to reach the right diagnosis. The authors review the literature and provide information on the etiology, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, and the treatment methods currently employed in the management of conversion disorder. Of note, the advancements of neuropsychology and brain imaging have led to emergence of a relatively sophisticated picture of the neuroscientific psychopathology of complex mental illnesses, including conversion disorder. The available evidence suggests new methods with which to test hypotheses about the neural circuits underlying conversion symptoms. In context of this, the authors also explore the neurobiological understanding of conversion disorder. PMID:26155375

  6. [Management of patients with conversion disorder].

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Marinus; Hoekstra, Jan; Kuipers-van Kooten, Mariëtte J; van der Linden, Els A M

    2014-01-01

    The symptoms of conversion disorder are not due to conscious simulation. There should be no doubt that the symptoms of conversion disorder are genuine, even if scans do not reveal any abnormalities. The management of patients with conversion disorder starts with an explanation of the diagnosis. The essence of this explanation is that patients first hear about what the diagnosis actually means and only after this about what they do not have. When explaining the diagnosis it is a good idea to use metaphors. The treatment of patients with conversion disorder is carried out together with a physical therapist. The collaboration of healthcare professionals who are involved in the treatment of a patient with conversion disorder should preferably be coordinated by the patient's general practitioner.

  7. Conversion Disorder- Mind versus Body: A Review.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shahid; Jabeen, Shagufta; Pate, Rebecca J; Shahid, Marwah; Chinala, Sandhya; Nathani, Milankumar; Shah, Rida

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors accentuate the signs and symptoms of conversion disorder and the significance of clinical judgment and expertise in order to reach the right diagnosis. The authors review the literature and provide information on the etiology, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, and the treatment methods currently employed in the management of conversion disorder. Of note, the advancements of neuropsychology and brain imaging have led to emergence of a relatively sophisticated picture of the neuroscientific psychopathology of complex mental illnesses, including conversion disorder. The available evidence suggests new methods with which to test hypotheses about the neural circuits underlying conversion symptoms. In context of this, the authors also explore the neurobiological understanding of conversion disorder.

  8. Hybrid drive for motor vehicles with a preponderantly intermittent method of operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreck, H.

    1977-01-01

    A flywheel hybrid propulsion system is compared with a conventional propulsion system in a test vehicle under intermittent operation. An energy balance is presented for the conventional propulsion system. Results so far indicate especially high energy conversion of the gyro component under dynamic operation along with favorable internal combustion engine conditions.

  9. "Cooking Lunch, That's Swiss": Constructing Hybrid Identities Based on Socio-Cultural Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonçalves, Kellie

    2013-01-01

    This study looks at the discursive construction and negotiation of hybrid identities within binational couples. I analyze conversations produced by Anglophones married to German-speaking Swiss residing in central Switzerland. I employ Bucholtz & Hall's sociocultural linguistic model (2004, 2005, 2010), which views identity as emergent in…

  10. Automatic hybrid electric lumina van

    SciTech Connect

    Ellers, C.W.

    1995-12-31

    A parallel/Series split-drive hybrid system driving a seven passenger Lumina van is described. The series type hybrid uses a heat-engine driven generator to charge the batteries and/or supply power to the electric drive motor. Volvo is now showing the Volvo ECC (Environmental Concept Car) which is one of the best examples of the series hybrid concept.

  11. A Conversation with Adam Heller.

    PubMed

    Heller, Adam; Cairns, Elton J

    2015-01-01

    Adam Heller, Ernest Cockrell Sr. Chair in Engineering Emeritus of the John J. McKetta Department of Chemical Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin, recalls his childhood in the Holocaust and his contributions to science and technology that earned him the US National Medal of Technology and Innovation in a conversation with Elton J. Cairns, Professor of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley. Dr. Heller, born in 1933, describes the enslavement of his father by Hungarians in 1942; the confiscation of his family's home, business, and all its belongings in 1944; and his incarceration in a brick factory with 18,000 Jews who were shipped by the Hungarians to be gassed by Germans in Auschwitz. Dr. Heller and his immediate family survived the Holocaust and arrived in Israel in 1945. He studied under Ernst David Bergmann at the Hebrew University, and then worked at Bell Laboratories and GTE Laboratories, where he headed Bell Lab's Electronic Materials Research Department. At GTE Laboratories, he built in 1966 the first neodymium liquid lasers and in 1973 with Jim Auborn conceived and engineered the lithium thionyl chloride battery, one of the first to be manufactured lithium batteries, which is still in use. After joining the faculty of engineering of The University of Texas at Austin, he cofounded with his son Ephraim Heller TheraSense, now a major part of Abbott Diabetes Care, which produced a microcoulometer that made the monitoring of glucose painless by accurately measuring the blood glucose concentration in 300 nL of blood. He also describes the electrical wiring of enzymes, the basis for Abbott's state-of-the-art continuous glucose monitoring system. He discusses his perspective of reducing the risk of catastrophic global warming in a wealth-accumulating, more-energy-consuming world and provides advice for students entering careers in science or engineering.

  12. Conversion to eslicarbazepine acetate monotherapy

    PubMed Central

    French, Jacqueline; Jacobson, Mercedes P.; Pazdera, Ladislav; Gough, Mallory; Cheng, Hailong; Grinnell, Todd; Blum, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) monotherapy. Methods: This post hoc pooled analysis of 2 randomized double-blind studies (093-045 and -046) included adults with partial-onset seizures medically uncontrolled by 1 or 2 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Following the baseline period (8 weeks), eligible patients were randomized 2:1 to receive ESL 1,600 mg or 1,200 mg once daily for 18 weeks; the primary endpoint was study exit by meeting predefined exit criteria (signifying worsening seizure control). In each study, treatment was considered effective if the upper 95% confidence limit for exit rate was lower than the historical control threshold (65.3%). Results: Pooled exit rates were as follows: ESL 1,600 mg = 20.6% (95% confidence interval: 15.6%–26.8%); ESL 1,200 mg = 30.8% (23.0%–40.5%). Use of 2 baseline AEDs or rescue medication, US location, epilepsy duration ≥20 years, and higher maximum baseline seizure frequency were associated with higher exit risks. Median percent reductions in standardized seizure frequency between baseline and the 18-week double-blind period were as follows: ESL 1,600 mg = 43.2%; ESL 1,200 mg = 35.7%; baseline carbamazepine use was associated with smaller reductions. Safety profiles were similar between ESL doses. Conclusions: Exit rates for ESL monotherapy (1,600 mg and 1,200 mg once daily) were lower than the historical control threshold, irrespective of baseline AED use and region, with no additional safety concerns identified. Clinical factors and location clearly influence treatment responses in conversion-to-monotherapy trials. Classification of evidence: This pooled analysis provides Class IV evidence that for adults with medically uncontrolled partial-onset seizures, ESL monotherapy is well tolerated and effective. PMID:26911639

  13. Organics go hybrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzani, Guglielmo; Petrozza, Annamaria; Caironi, Mario

    2017-01-01

    From displays to solar cells, the field of organic optoelectronics has come a long way over the past 50 years, but the realization of an electrically pumped organic laser remains elusive. The answer may lie with hybrid organic-inorganic materials called perovskites.

  14. Hybridized polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, E. E.; Hoggatt, J. T.; Symonds, W. A.

    1980-01-01

    The extent to which graphite fibers are released from resin matrix composites that are exposed to fire and impact conditions was determined. Laboratory simulations of those conditions that could exist in the event of an aircraft crash and burn situation were evaluated. The effectiveness of various hybridizing concepts in preventing this release of graphite fibers were also evaluated. The baseline (i.e., unhybridized) laminates examined were prepared from commercially available graphite/epoxy, graphite/polyimide, and graphite/phenolic materials. Hybridizing concepts investigated included resin fillers, laminate coatings, resin blending, and mechanical interlocking of the graphite reinforcement. The baseline and hybridized laminates' mechanical properties, before and after isothermal and humidity aging, were also compared. It was found that a small amount of graphite fiber was released from the graphite/epoxy laminates during the burn and impact conditions used in this program. However, the extent to which the fibers were released is not considered a severe enough problem to preclude the use of graphite reinforced composites in civil aircraft structure. It also was found that several hybrid concepts eliminated this fiber release. Isothermal and humidity aging did not appear to alter the fiber release tendencies.

  15. Hybrid Imaging in Oncology.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Nosheen; Zaman, Maseeh uz; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath; Zaman, Unaiza; Shahid, Wajeeha; Zaman, Areeba; Tahseen, Rabia

    2015-01-01

    In oncology various imaging modalities play a crucial role in diagnosis, staging, restaging, treatment monitoring and follow up of various cancers. Stand-alone morphological imaging like computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provide a high magnitude of anatomical details about the tumor but are relatively dumb about tumor physiology. Stand-alone functional imaging like positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission tomography (SPECT) are rich in functional information but provide little insight into tumor morphology. Introduction of first hybrid modality PET/CT is the one of the most successful stories of current century which has revolutionized patient care in oncology due to its high diagnostic accuracy. Spurred on by this success, more hybrid imaging modalities like SPECT/CT and PET/MR were introduced. It is the time to explore the potential applications of the existing hybrid modalities, developing and implementing standardized imaging protocols and train users in nuclear medicine and radiology. In this review we discuss three existing hybrid modalities with emphasis on their technical aspects and clinical applications in oncology.

  16. Rethinking Resources and Hybridity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonsalves, Allison J.; Seiler, Gale; Salter, Dana E.

    2011-01-01

    This review explores Alfred Schademan's "What does playing cards have to do with science? A resource-rich view of African American young men" by examining how he uses two key concepts--hybridity and resources--to propose an approach to science education that counters enduring deficit notions associated with this population. Our response to…

  17. Glueballs, Hybrids and Exotics

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, M. A.; Moreno, G.

    2006-09-25

    We comment on the physics analysis carried out by the Experimental High Energy Physics (EHEP) group of the Instituto de Fisica of the University of Guanajuato (IFUG), Mexico. In particular, this group has been involved in analysis carried out to search for glueball, hybrid and exotic candidates.

  18. Hybridization of biomedical circuitry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinard, G. A.

    1978-01-01

    The design and fabrication of low power hybrid circuits to perform vital signs monitoring are reported. The circuits consist of: (1) clock; (2) ECG amplifier and cardiotachometer signal conditioner; (3) impedance pneumobraph and respiration rate processor; (4) hear/breath rate processor; (5) temperature monitor; and (6) LCD display.

  19. Improved hybrid rocket fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, David L.

    1995-01-01

    McDonnell Douglas Aerospace, as part of its Independent R&D, has initiated development of a clean burning, high performance hybrid fuel for consideration as an alternative to the solid rocket thrust augmentation currently utilized by American space launch systems including Atlas, Delta, Pegasus, Space Shuttle, and Titan. It could also be used in single stage to orbit or as the only propulsion system in a new launch vehicle. Compared to solid propellants based on aluminum and ammonium perchlorate, this fuel is more environmentally benign in that it totally eliminates hydrogen chloride and aluminum oxide by products, producing only water, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon oxides, and trace amounts of nitrogen oxides. Compared to other hybrid fuel formulations under development, this fuel is cheaper, denser, and faster burning. The specific impulse of this fuel is comparable to other hybrid fuels and is between that of solids and liquids. The fuel also requires less oxygen than similar hybrid fuels to produce maximum specific impulse, thus reducing oxygen delivery system requirements.

  20. Hybrid microwave-cavity heat engine.

    PubMed

    Bergenfeldt, Christian; Samuelsson, Peter; Sothmann, Björn; Flindt, Christian; Büttiker, Markus

    2014-02-21

    We propose and analyze the use of hybrid microwave cavities as quantum heat engines. A possible realization consists of two macroscopically separated quantum-dot conductors coupled capacitively to the fundamental mode of a microwave cavity. We demonstrate that an electrical current can be induced in one conductor through cavity-mediated processes by heating up the other conductor. The heat engine can reach Carnot efficiency with optimal conversion of heat to work. When the system delivers the maximum power, the efficiency can be a large fraction of the Carnot efficiency. The heat engine functions even with moderate electronic relaxation and dephasing in the quantum dots. We provide detailed estimates for the electrical current and output power using realistic parameters.

  1. Ultra-broadband hybrid infrared laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budilova, O. V.; Ionin, A. A.; Kinyaevskiy, I. O.; Klimachev, Yu. M.; Kotkov, A. A.; Kozlov, A. Yu.

    2016-03-01

    A hybrid IR laser system consisting of molecular gas lasers with frequency conversion of laser radiation in a solid-state converter (nonlinear crystal) was developed. One of these gas lasers is a carbon monoxide laser operating in multi-line or single-line mode. Another one is a carbon dioxide laser operating in multi-line mode. The two lasers operate under Q-switching with a joint rotating mirror. Due to sum- and difference-frequency generation in nonlinear crystals, the laser system emits within wavelength range from 2.5 to 16.6 μm. The laser system emitting radiation over such an extremely wide wavelength range (2.7 octaves) is of interest for remote sensing and other applications connected with laser beam propagation in the atmosphere.

  2. Forcing continuous reconnection in hybrid simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Laitinen, T. V. Janhunen, P.; Jarvinen, R.; Kallio, E.

    2014-07-15

    We have performed hybrid simulations of driven continuous reconnection with open boundary conditions. Reconnection is started by a collision of two subsonic plasma fronts with opposite magnetic fields, without any specified magnetic field configuration as initial condition. Due to continued forced plasma inflow, a current sheet co-located with a dense and hot plasma sheet develops. The translational symmetry of the current sheet is broken by applying a spatial gradient in the inflow speed. We compare runs with and without localized resistivity: reconnection is initiated in both cases, but localized resistivity stabilizes it and enhances its efficiency. The outflow speed reaches about half of Alfvén speed. We quantify the conversion of magnetic energy to kinetic energy of protons and to Joule heating and show that with localized resistivity, kinetic energy of protons is increased on average five-fold in the reconnection in our simulation case.

  3. Hybrid Solar GHP Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Yavuzturk, Cy; Chiasson, Andrew; Shonder, John

    2012-12-11

    This project provides an easy-to-use, menu-driven, software tool for designing hybrid solar-geothermal heat pump systems (GHP) for both heating- and cooling-dominated buildings. No such design tool currently exists. In heating-dominated buildings, the design approach takes advantage of glazed solar collectors to effectively balance the annual thermal loads on the ground with renewable solar energy. In cooling-dominated climates, the design approach takes advantage of relatively low-cost, unglazed solar collectors as the heat rejecting component. The primary benefit of hybrid GHPs is the reduced initial cost of the ground heat exchanger (GHX). Furthermore, solar thermal collectors can be used to balance the ground loads over the annual cycle, thus making the GHX fully sustainable; in heating-dominated buildings, the hybrid energy source (i.e., solar) is renewable, in contrast to a typical fossil fuel boiler or electric resistance as the hybrid component; in cooling-dominated buildings, use of unglazed solar collectors as a heat rejecter allows for passive heat rejection, in contrast to a cooling tower that consumes a significant amount of energy to operate, and hybrid GHPs can expand the market by allowing reduced GHX footprint in both heating- and cooling-dominated climates. The design tool allows for the straight-forward design of innovative GHP systems that currently pose a significant design challenge. The project lays the foundations for proper and reliable design of hybrid GHP systems, overcoming a series of difficult and cumbersome steps without the use of a system simulation approach, and without an automated optimization scheme. As new technologies and design concepts emerge, sophisticated design tools and methodologies must accompany them and be made usable for practitioners. Lack of reliable design tools results in reluctance of practitioners to implement more complex systems. A menu-driven software tool for the design of hybrid solar GHP systems is

  4. Photoelectrochemical Cell of Hybrid Regioregular POLY(3-HEXYLTHIOPHENE-2,5-DIYL) and Molybdenum Disulfide Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelmola, Fatmaelzahraa M.; Ram, Manoj K.; Takshi, Arash; Stafanakos, Elias; Kumar, Ashok; Goswami, D. Yogi

    The photoelectrochemical cell attracts attention worldwide due to conversion of optical energy into electricity, production of hydrogen through water splitting and use in photodetector and photo-sensor applications. We have been working on the photochemical cell based on regioregular polyhexylthiophenes hybrid-structured films for photoelectrochemical and photovoltaic applications. This paper discusses the hybrid film studies on regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) with 2D molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) for photoelectrochemical cell. The hybrid P3HT/MoS2 films deposited over indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass plate or n-type silicon substrates were characterized using FTIR, UV/vis, electrochemical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The optical measurements showed a higher absorption magnitude with low reflection properties of P3HT/MoS2 hybrid films revealing a superior photocurrent compared to both P3HT and MoS2 films. The P3HT/MoS2 hybrid-based photoelectrochemical cell yielded a short-circuit current (Isc) of 183.16μAṡcm‑2, open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.92V, fill factor (FF) of 25% and power conversion efficiency (η) of 0.18% under the light intensity of 242Wṡm‑2. The estimated power conversion efficiency and fill factor are comparable to organic-based photovoltaic devices.

  5. Fitness consequences of hybridization between ecotypes of Avena barbata: hybrid breakdown, hybrid vigor, and transgressive segregation.

    PubMed

    Johansen-Morris, A D; Latta, R G

    2006-08-01

    Hybridization is an important factor in the evolution of plants; however, many of the studies that have examined hybrid fitness have been concerned with the study of early generation hybrids. We examined the early- and late-generation fitness consequences of hybridization between two ecotypes of the selfing annual Avena barbata in a greenhouse environment as well as in two natural environments. Fitness of early generation (F2) hybrids reflects both the action of dominance effects (hybrid vigor) and recombination (hybrid breakdown) and was not significantly different from that of the midparent in any environment. Fitness of later generation (F6) recombinant inbred lines (RILS) derived from the cross reflect both the loss of early generation heterozygosity as well as disruption of any coadapted gene complexes present in the parents. In all environments, F6 RILs were on average significantly less fit than the (equally homozygous) midparent, indicating hybrid breakdown through the disruption of epistatic interactions. However, the inbred F6 were also less fit than the heterozygous F2, indicating that hybrid vigor also occurs in A. barbata, and counteracts hybrid breakdown in early generation hybrids. Also, although the F6 generation mean is lower than the midparent mean, there are individual genotypes within the F6 generation that are capable of outperforming the parental ecotypes in the greenhouse. Fewer hybrid genotypes are capable of outperforming the parental ecotypes in the field. Overall, these experiments demonstrate how a single hybridization event can result in a number of outcomes including hybrid vigor, hybrid breakdown, and transgressive segregation, which interact to determine long-term hybrid fitness.

  6. Ants exhibit asymmetric hybridization in a mosaic hybrid zone.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Jessica; Zahnd, Sacha; Athanasiades, Anouk; Türler, Rebecca; Chapuisat, Michel; Brelsford, Alan

    2016-10-01

    Research on hybridization between species provides unparalleled insights into the pre- and postzygotic isolating mechanisms that drive speciation. In social organisms, colony-level incompatibilities may provide additional reproductive barriers not present in solitary species, and hybrid zones offer an opportunity to identify these barriers. Here, we use genotyping-by-sequencing to sequence hundreds of markers in a hybrid zone between two socially polymorphic ant species, Formica selysi and Formica cinerea. We characterize the zone, determine the frequency of hybrid workers, infer whether hybrid queens or males are produced and investigate whether hybridization is influenced by colony social organization. We also compare cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and aggression levels between the two species. The hybrid zone exhibits a mosaic structure. The asymmetric distribution of hybrids skewed towards F. cinerea suggests a pattern of unidirectional nuclear gene flow from F. selysi into F. cinerea. The occurrence of backcrossed individuals indicates that hybrid queens and/or males are fertile, and the presence of the F. cinerea mitochondrial haplotype in 97% of hybrids shows that successful F1 hybrids will generally have F. cinerea mothers and F. selysi fathers. We found no evidence that social organization contributes to speciation, because hybrids occur in both single-queen and multiple-queen colonies. Strongly differentiated cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and heightened interspecific aggression further reveal that species recognition cues are both present and perceived. The discovery of fertile hybrids and asymmetrical gene flow is unusual in ants, and this hybrid zone will therefore provide an ideal system with which to investigate speciation in social insects.

  7. The Growing Regulation of Conversion Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Drescher, Jack; Schwartz, Alan; Casoy, Flávio; McIntosh, Christopher A.; Hurley, Brian; Ashley, Kenneth; Barber, Mary; Goldenberg, David; Herbert, Sarah E.; Lothwell, Lorraine E.; Mattson, Marlin R.; McAfee, Scot G.; Pula, Jack; Rosario, Vernon; Tompkins, D. Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Conversion therapies are any treatments, including individual talk therapy, behavioral (e.g. aversive stimuli), group therapy or milieu (e.g. “retreats or inpatient treatments” relying on all of the above methods) treatments, which attempt to change an individual’s sexual orientation from homosexual to heterosexual. However these practices have been repudiated by major mental health organizations because of increasing evidence that they are ineffective and may cause harm to patients and their families who fail to change. At present, California, New Jersey, Oregon, Illinois, Washington, DC, and the Canadian Province of Ontario have passed legislation banning conversion therapy for minors and an increasing number of US States are considering similar bans. In April 2015, the Obama administration also called for a ban on conversion therapies for minors. The growing trend toward banning conversion therapies creates challenges for licensing boards and ethics committees, most of which are unfamiliar with the issues raised by complaints against conversion therapists. This paper reviews the history of conversion therapy practices as well as clinical, ethical and research issues they raise. With this information, state licensing boards, ethics committees and other regulatory bodies will be better able to adjudicate complaints from members of the public who have been exposed to conversion therapies. PMID:27754500

  8. Ownership Conversions and Nursing Home Performance

    PubMed Central

    Grabowski, David C; Stevenson, David G

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of ownership conversions on nursing home performance. Data Source Online Survey, Certification, and Reporting system data from 1993 to 2004, and the Minimum Data Set (MDS) facility reports from 1998 to 2004. Study Design Regression specification incorporating facility fixed effects, with terms to identify trends in the pre- and postconversion periods. Principal Findings The annual rate of nursing home conversions almost tripled between 1994 and 2004. Our regression results indicate converting facilities are generally different throughout the pre/postconversion years, suggesting little causal effect of ownership conversions on nursing home performance. Before and after conversion, nursing homes converting from nonprofit to for-profit status generally exhibit deterioration in their performance, while nursing homes converting from for-profit to nonprofit status generally exhibit improvement. Conclusions Policy makers have expressed concern regarding the implications of ownership conversions for nursing home performance. Our results imply that regulators and policy makers should not only monitor the outcomes of nursing home conversions, but also the targets of these conversions. PMID:18355255

  9. Frequency conversion with nonlinear graphene photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chuantong; Huang, Beiju; Mao, Xurui; Zhang, Zanyun; Zhang, Zan; Geng, Zhaoxin; Xue, Ping; Chen, Hongda

    2017-03-23

    Frequency conversion with nonlinear electronic components, a common approach for signal processing required in various communication applications, has found its operation bandwidth bottleneck due to the limited carrier mobility of the traditional materials. Meanwhile, fiber-optics communications are playing a significant role in communication services due to their excellent signal transmission properties. However, the transmitted optical signals had to be converted to electrical signals with photodetectors before frequency conversion was performed through conventional electronic devices, which make this conversion system very complex and costly. Hence, to develop a compact device that can achieve the photodetection and frequency conversion functions simultaneously is critical and significative. Here, we have proposed a novel concept for frequency conversion and demonstrated a nonlinear graphene photodetector based frequency converter that performs frequency conversion from optical signals directly. With this new concept, a frequency doubling signal at 4 GHz was obtained from a 2 GHz intensity-modulated optical signal. Moreover, using a 10 MHz intensity-modulated optical signal and another 3 GHz intensity-modulated optical signal, we show the frequency up-conversion to 3 ± 0.01 GHz. In particular, the frequency down-conversion to 100 MHz was achieved successfully by using a 2 GHz intensity-modulated optical signal and another 2.1 GHz intensity-modulated optical signal. Considering the broadband optical absorption, strong saturable absorption, high carrier mobility, and short photogenerated carrier lifetime of the graphene material, graphene photodetectors have the potential to achieve the frequency conversion of millimeter-wave band, which will open promising prospects in the domain of microwave photonics for next-gen communication systems.

  10. Flexible Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Memory.

    PubMed

    Gu, Chungwan; Lee, Jang-Sik

    2016-05-24

    Active research has been done on hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite materials for application to solar cells with high power conversion efficiency. However, this material often shows hysteresis, which is undesirable, shift in the current-voltage curve. The hysteresis may come from formation of defects and their movement in perovskite materials. Here, we utilize the defects in perovskite materials to be used in memory operations. We demonstrate flexible nonvolatile memory devices based on hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite as the resistive switching layer on a plastic substrate. A uniform perovskite layer is formed on a transparent electrode-coated plastic substrate by solvent engineering. Flexible nonvolatile memory based on the perovskite layer shows reproducible and reliable memory characteristics in terms of program/erase operations, data retention, and endurance properties. The memory devices also show good mechanical flexibility. It is suggested that resistive switching is done by migration of vacancy defects and formation of conducting filaments under the electric field in the perovskite layer. It is believed that organic-inorganic perovskite materials have great potential to be used in high-performance, flexible memory devices.

  11. Energy conversion & storage program. 1994 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, E.J.

    1995-04-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program investigates state-of-the-art electrochemistry, chemistry, and materials science technologies for: (1) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; (2) development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion; (3) characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species; (4) study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Research projects focus on transport process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis.

  12. Energy Conversion & Storage Program, 1993 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, E.J.

    1994-06-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in: production of new synthetic fuels; development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion; characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species; and the study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis.

  13. Technique for measuring gas conversion factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Sprinkle, D. R. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A method for determining hydrocarbon conversion factors for a flowmeter. A mixture of air, O2 and C sub x H sub y is burned and the partial paressure of O2 in the resulting gas is forced to equal the partial pressure of O2 in air. The flowrate of O2 flowing into the mixture is measured by flowmeter and the flowrate of C sub x H sub y flowing into the mixture is measured by the flowmeter conversion factor is to be determined. These measured values are used to calculate the conversion factor.

  14. Thermionic Energy Conversion (TEC) topping thermoelectrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    Performance expectations for thermionic and thermoelectric energy conversion systems are reviewed. It is noted that internal radiation effects diminish thermoelectric figures of merit significantly at 1000 K and substantially at 2000 K; the effective thermal conductivity contribution of intrathermoelectric radiative dissipation increases with the third power of temperature. It is argued that a consideration of thermoelectric power generation with high temperature heat sources should include utilization of thermionic energy conversion (TEC) topping thermoelectrics. However TEC alone or TEC topping more efficient conversion systems like steam or gas turbines, combined cycles, or Stirling engines would be more desirable generally.

  15. Thermionic energy conversion technology - Present and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimada, K.; Morris, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    Aerospace and terrestrial applications of thermionic direct energy conversion and advances in direct energy conversion (DEC) technology are surveyed. Electrode materials, the cesium plasma drop (the difference between the barrier index and the collector work function), DEC voltage/current characteristics, conversion efficiency, and operating temperatures are discussed. Attention is centered on nuclear reactor system thermionic DEC devices, for in-core or out-of-core operation. Thermionic fuel elements, the radiation shield, power conditions, and a waste heat rejection system are considered among the thermionic DEC system components. Terrestrial applications include topping power systems in fossil fuel and solar power generation.

  16. Hybrid photovoltaics based on semiconductor nanocrystals and amorphous silicon.

    PubMed

    Sun, Baoquan; Findikoglu, Alp T; Sykora, Milan; Werder, Donald J; Klimov, Victor I

    2009-03-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) are promising materials for applications in photovoltaic (PV) structures that could benefit from size-controlled tunability of absorption spectra, the ease of realization of various tandem architectures, and, perhaps, increased conversion efficiency in the ultraviolet region through carrier multiplication. The first practical step toward utilization of the unique properties of NCs in PV technologies could be through their integration into traditional silicon-based solar cells. Here, we demonstrate an example of such hybrid PV structures that combine colloidal NCs with amorphous silicon. In these structures, NCs and silicon are electronically coupled, and the regime of this coupling can be tuned by altering the alignment of NC energy states with regard to silicon band edges. For example, using wide-gap CdSe NCs we demonstrate a photoresponse which is exclusively due to the NCs. On the other hand, in devices comprising narrow-gap PbS NCs, both the NCs and silicon contribute to photocurrent, which results in PV response extending from the visible to the near-infrared region. The hybrid silicon/PbS NC solar cells show external quantum efficiencies of approximately 7% at infrared energies and 50% in the visible and a power conversion efficiency of up to 0.9%. This work demonstrates the feasibility of hybrid PV devices that combine advantages of mature silicon fabrication technologies with the unique electronic properties of semiconductor NCs.

  17. Passenger and Cell Phone Conversations in Simulated Driving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drews, Frank A.; Pasupathi, Monisha; Strayer, David L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how conversing with passengers in a vehicle differs from conversing on a cell phone while driving. We compared how well drivers were able to deal with the demands of driving when conversing on a cell phone, conversing with a passenger, and when driving without any distraction. In the conversation conditions, participants were…

  18. Hybrid high power femtosecond laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trunov, V. I.; Petrov, V. V.; Pestryakov, E. V.; Kirpichnikov, A. V.

    2006-01-01

    Design of a high-power femtosecond laser system based on hybrid chirped pulse amplification (CPA) technique developed by us is presented. The goal of the hybrid principle is the use of the parametric and laser amplification methods in chirped pulse amplifiers. It makes it possible to amplify the low-cycle pulses with a duration of <= fs to terawatt power with a high contrast and high conversion efficiency of the pump radiation. In a created system the Ti:Sapphire laser with 10 fs pulses at 810 nm and output energy about 1-3 nJ will be used like seed source. The oscillator pulses were stretched to duration of about 500 ps by an all-reflective grating stretcher. Then the stretched pulses are injected into a nondegenerate noncollinear optical parametric amplifier (NOPA) on the two BBO crystals. After amplification in NOPA the residual pump was used in a bow-tie four pass amplifier with hybrid active medium (based on Al II0 3:Ti 3+ and BeAl IIO 4:Ti 3+ crystals). The final stage of the amplification system consists of two channels, namely NIR (820 nm) and short-VIS (410 nm). Numerical simulation has shown that the terawatt level of output power can be achieved also in a short-VIS channel at the pumping of the double-crystal BBO NOPA by the radiation of the fourth harmonic of the Nd:YAG laser at 266 nm. Experimentally parametric amplification in BBO crystals of 30-50 fs pulses were investigated and optimized using SPIDER technique and single-shot autocomelator for the realization of shortest duration 40 fs.

  19. Hybrid plasma modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; DeChant, Lawrence Justin.; Piekos, Edward Stanley; Pointon, Timothy David

    2009-02-01

    This report summarizes the work completed during FY2007 and FY2008 for the LDRD project ''Hybrid Plasma Modeling''. The goal of this project was to develop hybrid methods to model plasmas across the non-continuum-to-continuum collisionality spectrum. The primary methodology to span these regimes was to couple a kinetic method (e.g., Particle-In-Cell) in the non-continuum regions to a continuum PDE-based method (e.g., finite differences) in continuum regions. The interface between the two would be adjusted dynamically ased on statistical sampling of the kinetic results. Although originally a three-year project, it became clear during the second year (FY2008) that there were not sufficient resources to complete the project and it was terminated mid-year.

  20. Hybrid superconducting magnetic suspensions

    SciTech Connect

    Tixador, P.; Hiebel, P.; Brunet, Y.

    1996-07-01

    Superconductors, especially high T{sub c} ones, are the most attractive materials to design stable and fully passive magnetic suspensions which have to control five degrees of freedom. The hybrid superconducting magnetic suspensions present high performances and a simple cooling mode. They consist of a permanent magnet bearing, stabilized by a suitable magnet-superconductor structure. Several designs are given and compared in terms of forces and stiffnesses. The design of the magnet bearing plays an important part. The superconducting magnetic bearing participates less in levitation but must provide a high stabilizing stiffness. This is achieved by the magnet configuration, a good material in term of critical current density and field cooling. A hybrid superconducting suspension for a flywheel is presented. This system consists of a magnet thrust bearing stabilized by superconductors interacting with an alternating polarity magnet structure. First tests and results are reported. Superconducting materials are magnetically melt-textured YBaCuO.