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Sample records for hybrid city bus

  1. Study on emission characteristics of hybrid bus under driving cycles in typical Chinese city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yongdong; Xu, Guangju

    2017-09-01

    In this study, hybrid city bus was taken as the research object, through the vehicle drum test, the vehicle emissions of hybrid bus, the transient emissions of gas pollutants, as well as the particle size and number distribution were surveyed. The results of the studies are listed as follows: First, compared to traditional fuel bus, hybrid bus could reduce about 44% of the NOx emissions, 33% of the total hydrocarbon emissions, and 51% of the particles emissions. Furthermore, the distribution of particles number concentration of test vehicle became high in middle and low in both sides. More specifically, the particle number concentration was mainly concentrated in the range from 0.021 to 0.755μm, the maximum was 0.2μm, and particle size of particulate matter (PM) less than 1.2μm accounted for 95% of the total number concentration. Particulate mass concentration was increased with increment of particle size, and the maximum of particulate mass (PM) concentration was 6.2μm. On average, whether traditional fuel bus or hybrid bus, the particle size of particulate matter(PM) less than 2.5μm accounted for more than 98% in the particles emission. It is found that the particles are more likely to deposit to the lung, respiratory bronchioles and alveoli, causing respiratory and lung diseases. Therefore, how to control the PM emissions of hybrid bus is the key factor of the study.

  2. Development and realization of a hydrogen range extender hybrid city bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergi, F.; Andaloro, L.; Napoli, G.; Randazzo, N.; Antonucci, V.

    2014-03-01

    Electric vehicles, equipped with electrochemical batteries, are expected to significantly penetrate the automotive market in the next few years. Though, the recharge time for battery pack and the autonomy range can constitute a limit. An appropriate use of fuel cell technology in electric vehicles can now represent an advantageous choice both from a technical and economic point of view. This paper reports the results of the development of a hybrid electric city bus, performed by the synergy between fuel cell and batteries. A pure electric city bus, equipped with eight Zebra batteries, was acquired and modified in a fuel cell and batteries hybrid vehicle. In the final version the bus was equipped with six batteries and a hydrogen plant with a proton exchange membrane fuel cell system. In particular an innovative powertrain management, where even the time required for the terminal stops is used to charge the batteries by the fuel cell, is described. Set-up tests on the fuel cell system acquired are presented. Further, tests were conducted also on the battery pack working on board in a real route to demonstrate the capability of the reduced battery pack to drive the vehicle.

  3. Hybrid Electric Transit Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    A government, industry, and university cooperative is developing an advanced hybrid electric city transit bus. Goals of this effort include doubling the fuel economy compared to current buses and reducing emissions to one-tenth of current EPA standards. Unique aspects of the vehicle's power system include the use of ultra-capacitors as an energy storage system, and a planned natural gas fueled turbogenerator developed from a small jet engine. Power from both the generator and energy storage system is provided to a variable speed electric motor attached to the rear axle. At over 15000 kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle of its kind ever built using ultra-capacitor energy storage. This paper describes the overall power system architecture, the evolution of the control strategy, and its performance over industry standard drive cycles.

  4. FUEL CELL BUS DEMONSTRATION IN MEXICO CITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the performance of a cull-size, zero-emission, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel-cell-powered transit bus in the atmospheric environment of Mexico City. To address the air quality problems caused by vehicle emissions in Mexico City, a seminar on clean vehic...

  5. FUEL CELL BUS DEMONSTRATION IN MEXICO CITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the performance of a cull-size, zero-emission, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel-cell-powered transit bus in the atmospheric environment of Mexico City. To address the air quality problems caused by vehicle emissions in Mexico City, a seminar on clean vehic...

  6. Analysis and simulation of a city bus route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, Leow Soo

    2014-12-01

    Public transport in crowded cities, in particular bus services play an essential role in the mobility of its citizenry. However, an efficient, reliable and safe bus system is still a distant dream of many cities. This paper uses a simulation approach to provide some insight into the factors that contribute to the service quality of a bus system. SAS Simulation Studio is used to model a city bus route. The simulation model consists of a bus depot, bus stops, terminal station and a bus route. Parameters used in the simulation include the number of buses serving the route, maximum bus capacity, inter departure time of buses, travel time between stops, number of passengers boarding and alighting. The simulation is applied to a real bus route in Kuala Lumpur city center and a sensitivity analysis is performed to evaluate how the different variables affect the service quality of the bus system.

  7. Analysis of a diesel-electric hybrid urban bus system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marr, W. W.; Sekar, R. R.; Ahlheim, M. C.

    A hybrid bus powered by a diesel engine and a battery pack was analyzed over an idealized bus-driving cycle in Chicago. Three hybrid configurations, two parallel and one series, were evaluated. The results indicate that the fuel economy of a hybrid bus, taking into account the regenerative braking, is comparable with that of a conventional diesel bus. Life-cycle costs are slightly higher because of the added weight and cost of the battery.

  8. COMPARISON OF PARALLEL AND SERIES HYBRID POWERTRAINS FOR TRANSIT BUS APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C Stuart; Smith, David E; Jones, Perry T; LaClair, Tim J; Parks, II, James E

    2016-01-01

    The fuel economy and emissions of both conventional and hybrid buses equipped with emissions aftertreatment were evaluated via computational simulation for six representative city bus drive cycles. Both series and parallel configurations for the hybrid case were studied. The simulation results indicate that series hybrid buses have the greatest overall advantage in fuel economy. The series and parallel hybrid buses were predicted to produce similar CO and HC tailpipe emissions but were also predicted to have reduced NOx tailpipe emissions compared to the conventional bus in higher speed cycles. For the New York bus cycle (NYBC), which has the lowest average speed among the cycles evaluated, the series bus tailpipe emissions were somewhat higher than they were for the conventional bus, while the parallel hybrid bus had significantly lower tailpipe emissions. All three bus powertrains were found to require periodic active DPF regeneration to maintain PM control. Plug-in operation of series hybrid buses appears to offer significant fuel economy benefits and is easily employed due to the relatively large battery capacity that is typical of the series hybrid configuration.

  9. Comparison of Parallel and Series Hybrid Power Trains for Transit Bus Applications

    DOE PAGES

    Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C. Stuart; Smith, David E.; ...

    2016-08-01

    The fuel economy and emissions of conventional and hybrid buses equipped with emissions after treatment were evaluated via computational simulation for six representative city bus drive cycles. Both series and parallel configurations for the hybrid case were studied. The simulation results indicated that series hybrid buses have the greatest overall advantage in fuel economy. The series and parallel hybrid buses were predicted to produce similar carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon tailpipe emissions but were also predicted to have reduced tailpipe emissions of nitrogen oxides compared with the conventional bus in higher speed cycles. For the New York bus cycle, which hasmore » the lowest average speed among the cycles evaluated, the series bus tailpipe emissions were somewhat higher than they were for the conventional bus; the parallel hybrid bus had significantly lower tailpipe emissions. All three bus power trains were found to require periodic active diesel particulate filter regeneration to maintain control of particulate matter. Finally, plug-in operation of series hybrid buses appears to offer significant fuel economy benefits and is easily employed because of the relatively large battery capacity that is typical of the series hybrid configuration.« less

  10. Comparison of Parallel and Series Hybrid Power Trains for Transit Bus Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C. Stuart; Smith, David E.; LaClair, Tim J.; Parks, James E.; Jones, Perry T.

    2016-08-01

    The fuel economy and emissions of conventional and hybrid buses equipped with emissions after treatment were evaluated via computational simulation for six representative city bus drive cycles. Both series and parallel configurations for the hybrid case were studied. The simulation results indicated that series hybrid buses have the greatest overall advantage in fuel economy. The series and parallel hybrid buses were predicted to produce similar carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon tailpipe emissions but were also predicted to have reduced tailpipe emissions of nitrogen oxides compared with the conventional bus in higher speed cycles. For the New York bus cycle, which has the lowest average speed among the cycles evaluated, the series bus tailpipe emissions were somewhat higher than they were for the conventional bus; the parallel hybrid bus had significantly lower tailpipe emissions. All three bus power trains were found to require periodic active diesel particulate filter regeneration to maintain control of particulate matter. Finally, plug-in operation of series hybrid buses appears to offer significant fuel economy benefits and is easily employed because of the relatively large battery capacity that is typical of the series hybrid configuration.

  11. Comparison of Parallel and Series Hybrid Power Trains for Transit Bus Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C. Stuart; Smith, David E.; LaClair, Tim J.; Parks, James E.; Jones, Perry T.

    2016-08-01

    The fuel economy and emissions of conventional and hybrid buses equipped with emissions after treatment were evaluated via computational simulation for six representative city bus drive cycles. Both series and parallel configurations for the hybrid case were studied. The simulation results indicated that series hybrid buses have the greatest overall advantage in fuel economy. The series and parallel hybrid buses were predicted to produce similar carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon tailpipe emissions but were also predicted to have reduced tailpipe emissions of nitrogen oxides compared with the conventional bus in higher speed cycles. For the New York bus cycle, which has the lowest average speed among the cycles evaluated, the series bus tailpipe emissions were somewhat higher than they were for the conventional bus; the parallel hybrid bus had significantly lower tailpipe emissions. All three bus power trains were found to require periodic active diesel particulate filter regeneration to maintain control of particulate matter. Finally, plug-in operation of series hybrid buses appears to offer significant fuel economy benefits and is easily employed because of the relatively large battery capacity that is typical of the series hybrid configuration.

  12. Does Bus Rapid Transit promote walking? An examination of New York City's Select Bus Service.

    PubMed

    Day, Kristen; Loh, Lawrence; Ruff, Ryan Richard; Rosenblum, Randi; Fischer, Sean; Lee, Karen K

    2014-11-01

    Cities across the U.S. and internationally are adopting Bus Rapid Transit to improve transit services for residents. Features of Bus Rapid Transit include fewer stops, dedicated bus lanes, and expedited systems for boarding busses, compared with regular bus service. This study examines whether Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) ridership is associated with increased rates of walking, because of the greater distance between BRT stops compared with regular bus service. Surveys were conducted with riders of local and BRT buses for New York City's M15 Select Bus Service line. Surveys examined bus ridership, health status and physical activity, walking rates, and demographic information. BRT riders reported walking approximately half a block more than did local bus riders. The average number of blocks walked decreased for BRT riders who previously used the subway before the implementation of the BRT. BRT may be a useful tool to support walking for some groups. Depending on where it is implemented, BRT may also be associated with reduced walking among users who switch to BRT from other active transportation modes. Future research should examine associations between walking and BRT ridership with a larger sample and more sites.

  13. A fuel cell city bus with three drivetrain configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junping; Chen, Yong; Chen, Quanshi

    Three fuel cell city buses of the energy hybrid- and power hybrid-type were re-engineered with three types of drivetrain configuration to optimize the structure and improve the performance. The energy distribution, hydrogen consumption, state of charge (SOC) and the power variation rate were analyzed when different drivetrain configurations and parameters were used. When powered only by a fuel cell, the bus cannot recover the energy through regenerative braking. The variation of the fuel cell power is large and frequent, which is not good for the fuel cell. When the fuel cell is linked to a battery pack in parallel, the bus can recover the energy through regenerative braking. The energy distribution is determined by the parameters of the fuel cell and the battery pack in the design stage to reduce the power variation rate of the fuel cell. When the fuel cell and DC/DC converter connected in series links the battery pack in parallel, energy can be recovered and the energy distribution can be adjusted online. The power variation rate of both the fuel cell and the battery pack are reduced.

  14. Baseline Testing of the Hybrid Electric Transit Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Jeffrey C.; Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Thompson, William K.

    1999-01-01

    A government, industry and academic cooperative has developed a Hybrid Electric Transit Bus (HETB). Goals of the program include doubling the fuel economy of city transit buses currently in service, and reducing emissions to one-tenth of EPA standards. Unique aspects of the vehicle's power system include the use of ultra-capacitors for the energy storage system and the planned use of a natural gas fueled turbogenerator, to be developed from a small jet engine. At over 17000 kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle to use ultra-capacitor energy storage. A description of the HETB, the results of performance testing, and future vehicle development plans are the subject of this report.

  15. Heavy Duty Diesel Truck and Bus Hybrid Powertrain Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    technologies with declining cost Medium-duty delivery vehicles are presently one of the largest markets for hybrid trucks, while other popular applications ...urban bus and delivery vehicle applications , but have fallen short in others. Route selection for hybrid delivery vehicles plays a big role in...significantly better than expected across most applications . • Drivers generally like the hybrids, finding that they are easy to drive, offer equivalent

  16. Extracting potential bus lines of Customized City Bus Service based on public transport big data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yibin; Chen, Ge; Han, Yong; Zheng, Huangcheng

    2016-11-01

    Customized City Bus Service (CCBS) can reduce the traffic congestion and environmental pollution that caused by the increasing in private cars, effectively. This study aims to extract the potential bus lines and each line's passenger density of CCBS by mining the public transport big data. The datasets used in this study are mainly Smart Card Data (SCD) and bus GPS data of Qingdao, China, from October 11th and November 7th 2015. Firstly, we compute the temporal-origin-destination (TOD) of passengers by mining SCD and bus GPS data. Compared with the traditional OD, TOD not only has the spatial location, but also contains the trip's boarding time. Secondly, based on the traditional DBSCAN algorithm, we put forwards an algorithm, named TOD-DBSCAN, combined with the spatial-temporal features of TOD.TOD-DBSCAN is used to cluster the TOD trajectories in peak hours of all working days. Then, we define two variables P and N to describe the possibility and passenger destiny of a potential CCBS line. P is the probability of the CCBS line. And N represents the potential passenger destiny of the line. Lastly, we visualize the potential CCBS lines extracted by our procedure on the map and analyse relationship between potential CCBS lines and the urban spatial structure.

  17. Replacement model of city bus: A dynamic programming approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arifin, Dadang; Yusuf, Edhi

    2017-06-01

    This paper aims to develop a replacement model of city bus vehicles operated in Bandung City. This study is driven from real cases encountered by the Damri Company in the efforts to improve services to the public. The replacement model propounds two policy alternatives: First, to maintain or keep the vehicles, and second is to replace them with new ones taking into account operating costs, revenue, salvage value, and acquisition cost of a new vehicle. A deterministic dynamic programming approach is used to solve the model. The optimization process was heuristically executed using empirical data of Perum Damri. The output of the model is to determine the replacement schedule and the best policy if the vehicle has passed the economic life. Based on the results, the technical life of the bus is approximately 20 years old, while the economic life is an average of 9 (nine) years. It means that after the bus is operated for 9 (nine) years, managers should consider the policy of rejuvenation.

  18. Hybrid electric 40 foot heavy duty transit bus

    SciTech Connect

    Rezza, P. Jr.; Wu, A.

    1994-12-31

    The authors describe the development of an advanced hybrid electric drive system for a ULEV transit bus. In transit applications, hybrid electric drive systems enjoy distinct advantages over all battery powered electric and conventional diesel drive systems. These advantages include reduced weight, high efficiency, extended range, and reduced emissions. For this application a conventional RTS T80208 transit bus was converted from diesel to hybrid electric drive, consisting of a 190 kW brushless DC permanent magnet traction motor, a propane fueled rotary engine generator set, nickel cadmium batteries, and control and power conditioning electronics. The 120 kW generator set was sized to supply the auxiliary power and mean propulsion power with the engine running at nearly constant speed at its highest efficiency and lowest emission operating point. The nominal 270 volt battery pack was sized to supply peak power of up to 120 kW; battery charging was achieved either through regenerative braking or the generator set. Passenger capacity and operational capability remain unchanged as a result of the conversion. The hybrid electric bus can run urban routes over a ten hour day without refueling or external battery charging. A detailed description of the system is provided in this paper.

  19. Bus application of oxygen-enrichment technology and diesel-electric hybrid systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sekar, R.R.; Marr, W.W.

    1993-10-01

    The amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA) mandate very strict limits on particulate, smoke, and other emissions from city buses. The use of alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas (CNG) or methanol, can help transit operators, such as the Chicago Transit Authority (CTA), meet the mandated limits. However, the capital investment needed to convert the fueling infrastructure and buses is large, as is the expense of training personnel. If a {open_quotes}clean diesel{close_quotes} bus can be implemented with the help of oxygen-enrichment technology or a diesel-electric hybrid system, this large investment could be postponed for many years. The Regional Transportation Authority (RTA) initiated this project to evaluate the possibility of applying these technologies to CTA buses. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a limited number of engine tests and computer analyses and concluded that both concepts are practical and will help in a {open_quotes}clean diesel{close_quotes} bus that can meet the mandated limits of the CAA amendments. The oxygen enrichment of combustion air depends on the availability of a compact and economical membrane separator. Because the technology for this critical component is still under development, it is recommended that an actual bus demonstration be delayed until prototype membranes are available. The hybrid propulsion system is ready for the demonstration phase, and it is recommended that the CTA and RTA commence planning for a bus demonstration.

  20. Real life testing of a Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folkesson, Anders; Andersson, Christian; Alvfors, Per; Alaküla, Mats; Overgaard, Lars

    Fuel cells produce low quantities of local emissions, if any, and are therefore one of the most promising alternatives to internal combustion engines as the main power source in future vehicles. It is likely that urban buses will be among the first commercial applications for fuel cells in vehicles. This is due to the fact that urban buses are highly visible for the public, they contribute significantly to air pollution in urban areas, they have small limitations in weight and volume and fuelling is handled via a centralised infrastructure. Results and experiences from real life measurements of energy flows in a Scania Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Concept Bus are presented in this paper. The tests consist of measurements during several standard duty cycles. The efficiency of the fuel cell system and of the complete vehicle are presented and discussed. The net efficiency of the fuel cell system was approximately 40% and the fuel consumption of the concept bus is between 42 and 48% lower compared to a standard Scania bus. Energy recovery by regenerative braking saves up 28% energy. Bus subsystems such as the pneumatic system for door opening, suspension and brakes, the hydraulic power steering, the 24 V grid, the water pump and the cooling fans consume approximately 7% of the energy in the fuel input or 17% of the net power output from the fuel cell system. The bus was built by a number of companies in a project partly financed by the European Commission's Joule programme. The comprehensive testing is partly financed by the Swedish programme "Den Gröna Bilen" (The Green Car). A 50 kW el fuel cell system is the power source and a high voltage battery pack works as an energy buffer and power booster. The fuel, compressed hydrogen, is stored in two high-pressure stainless steel vessels mounted on the roof of the bus. The bus has a series hybrid electric driveline with wheel hub motors with a maximum power of 100 kW. Hybrid Fuel Cell Buses have a big potential, but there are

  1. A PRACTICAL STUDY ON APPLICABILITY OF THE INCENTIVE SUBSIDY TO BUS NETWORK IN KUMAMOTO CITY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizokami, Shoshi; Fujimi, Toshio; Hirano, Toshihiko

    Recently, the number of passenger of public bus services in Japan tends to decrease due to the motorization. This condition leads to a severe management situation, including in Kumamoto City. Since 1984, the deficit of bus companies operation in provision of bus services in Kumamoto has been covered by Kumamoto City Government on the basis of lines subsidy, and the city allocated a number of subsidy of about 200 million yen in 2007. Currently, The Kumamoto city government plans to reduce the amount of subsidy to bus companies by introducing the giving of incentive to bus companies in order to trim bus company deficit. This study aims to construct the mathematical model of the incentive reward and apply the model to realignment of buses lines networks in Kumamoto Metropolitan Area.

  2. Economical launching and accelerating control strategy for a single-shaft parallel hybrid electric bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chao; Song, Jian; Li, Liang; Li, Shengbo; Cao, Dongpu

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an economical launching and accelerating mode, including four ordered phases: pure electrical driving, clutch engagement and engine start-up, engine active charging, and engine driving, which can be fit for the alternating conditions and improve the fuel economy of hybrid electric bus (HEB) during typical city-bus driving scenarios. By utilizing the fast response feature of electric motor (EM), an adaptive controller for EM is designed to realize the power demand during the pure electrical driving mode, the engine starting mode and the engine active charging mode. Concurrently, the smoothness issue induced by the sequential mode transitions is solved with a coordinated control logic for engine, EM and clutch. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed launching and accelerating mode and its control methods are effective in improving the fuel economy and ensure the drivability during the fast transition between the operation modes of HEB.

  3. An Interactive Wireless Communication System for Visually Impaired People Using City Bus Transport

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hsiao-Lan; Chen, Ya-Ping; Rau, Chi-Lun; Yu, Chung-Huang

    2014-01-01

    Visually impaired people have difficulty accessing information about public transportation systems. Several systems have been developed for assisting visually impaired and blind people to use the city bus. Most systems provide only one-way communication and require high-cost and complex equipment. The purpose of this study is to reduce the difficulties faced by visually impaired people when taking city buses, using an interactive wireless communication system. The system comprised a user module and a bus module to establish a direct one-to-one connection. When the user inputs 4-digit numbers, the user module immediately sends out the information. If the bus module receives the matched bus number, it buzzes and the warning LED flashes to notify the bus driver that someone is waiting to board on the bus. User tests were conducted by two visually impaired people in a simulated vehicle and a city bus. The success rate of interactive wireless communication, recognizing the arrival of the bus and boarding the correct bus reached 100% in all of the tests. The interactive wireless communication aid system is a valid and low-cost device for assisting visually impaired people to use city buses. PMID:24776720

  4. An interactive wireless communication system for visually impaired people using city bus transport.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsiao-Lan; Chen, Ya-Ping; Rau, Chi-Lun; Yu, Chung-Huang

    2014-04-25

    Visually impaired people have difficulty accessing information about public transportation systems. Several systems have been developed for assisting visually impaired and blind people to use the city bus. Most systems provide only one-way communication and require high-cost and complex equipment. The purpose of this study is to reduce the difficulties faced by visually impaired people when taking city buses, using an interactive wireless communication system. The system comprised a user module and a bus module to establish a direct one-to-one connection. When the user inputs 4-digit numbers, the user module immediately sends out the information. If the bus module receives the matched bus number, it buzzes and the warning LED flashes to notify the bus driver that someone is waiting to board on the bus. User tests were conducted by two visually impaired people in a simulated vehicle and a city bus. The success rate of interactive wireless communication, recognizing the arrival of the bus and boarding the correct bus reached 100% in all of the tests. The interactive wireless communication aid system is a valid and low-cost device for assisting visually impaired people to use city buses.

  5. MIL-STD-1553 dynamic bus controller/remote terminal hybrid set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, S. N.

    This paper describes the performance, physical and electrical requirements of a Dual Redundant BUS Interface Unit (BIU) acting as a BUS Controller Interface Unit (BCIU) or Remote Terminal Unit (RTU) between a Motorola 68000 VME BUS and MIL-STD-1553B Multiplex Data Bus. A discussion of how the BIU Hybrid set is programmed, and operates as a BCIU or RTU, will be included. This paper will review Dynamic Bus Control and other Mode Code capabilities. The BIU Hybrid Set interfaces to a 68000 Microprocessor with a VME Bus using programmed I/O transfers. This special interface will be discussed along with the internal Dual Access Memory (4K x 16) used to support the data exchanges between the CPU and the BIU Hybrid Set. The hybrid set's physical size and power requirements will be covered. This includes the present Double Eurocard the BIU function is presently being offered on.

  6. Evaluation of Orion/BAE Hybrid Buses and Orion CNG Buses at New York City Transit: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, L.; Barnitt, R.; Chandler, K.

    2005-05-01

    This paper prepared for the 2005 American Public Transportation Association Bus & Paratransit Conference discusses the NREL/DOE evaluation of hybrid electric transit buses operated by New York City Transit.

  7. Factors associated with self-reported driver sleepiness and incidents in city bus drivers

    PubMed Central

    ANUND, Anna; IHLSTRÖM, Jonas; FORS, Carina; KECKLUND, Göran; FILTNESS, Ashleigh

    2016-01-01

    Driver fatigue has received increased attention during recent years and is now considered to be a major contributor to approximately 15–30% of all crashes. However, little is known about fatigue in city bus drivers. It is hypothesized that city bus drivers suffer from sleepiness, which is due to a combination of working conditions, lack of health and reduced sleep quantity and quality. The overall aim with the current study is to investigate if severe driver sleepiness, as indicated by subjective reports of having to fight sleep while driving, is a problem for city based bus drivers in Sweden and if so, to identify the determinants related to working conditions, health and sleep which contribute towards this. The results indicate that driver sleepiness is a problem for city bus drivers, with 19% having to fight to stay awake while driving the bus 2–3 times each week or more and nearly half experiencing this at least 2–4 times per month. In conclusion, severe sleepiness, as indicated by having to fight sleep during driving, was common among the city bus drivers. Severe sleepiness correlated with fatigue related safety risks, such as near crashes. PMID:27098307

  8. Factors associated with self-reported driver sleepiness and incidents in city bus drivers.

    PubMed

    Anund, Anna; Ihlström, Jonas; Fors, Carina; Kecklund, Göran; Filtness, Ashleigh

    2016-08-05

    Driver fatigue has received increased attention during recent years and is now considered to be a major contributor to approximately 15-30% of all crashes. However, little is known about fatigue in city bus drivers. It is hypothesized that city bus drivers suffer from sleepiness, which is due to a combination of working conditions, lack of health and reduced sleep quantity and quality. The overall aim with the current study is to investigate if severe driver sleepiness, as indicated by subjective reports of having to fight sleep while driving, is a problem for city based bus drivers in Sweden and if so, to identify the determinants related to working conditions, health and sleep which contribute towards this. The results indicate that driver sleepiness is a problem for city bus drivers, with 19% having to fight to stay awake while driving the bus 2-3 times each week or more and nearly half experiencing this at least 2-4 times per month. In conclusion, severe sleepiness, as indicated by having to fight sleep during driving, was common among the city bus drivers. Severe sleepiness correlated with fatigue related safety risks, such as near crashes.

  9. Ultra-Capacitor Energy Storage in a Large Hybrid Electric Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, L. A.

    1997-01-01

    The power requirements for inner city transit buses are characterized by power peaks about an order of magnitude larger than the average power usage of the vehicle. For these vehicles, hybrid power trains can offer significantly improved fuel economy and exhaust emissions. A critical design challenge, however, has been developing the energy storage and power management system to respond to these rapid power variations. Most hybrid vehicles today use chemical energy storage batteries to supplement the power from the fuel burning generator unit. Chemical storage batteries however, present several difficulties in power management and control. These difficulties include (1) inadequate life, (2) limited current delivery as well as absorption during regenerative braking, (3) inaccurate measurement of state of charge, and (4) stored energy safety issues. Recent advances in ultra-capacitor technology create an opportunity to address these concerns. The NASA Lewis Research Center, in cooperation with industry and academia, has developed an advanced hybrid electric transit bus using ultra-capacitors as the primary energy storage system. At over 15,000-kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle of its kind ever built using this advanced energy storage technology. Results of analyses show that the vehicle will match the performance of an equivalent conventionally powered vehicle over typical inner city drive cycles. This paper describes the overall power system architecture, the evolution of the control strategy, and analysis of power flow and vehicle performance.

  10. Hybrid-Electric Transit Buses: NYCT (New York City Transit) Diesel Hybrid-Electric Buses: Final Results (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-07-01

    Final results of the New York City Transit Hybrid-Electric Transit Bus Study. Hybrid buses had lower emissions, higher fuel economy, and higher operating costs compared with diesel buses. New York City Transit (NYCT), part of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority in New York, began operating the first of 10 heavy-duty diesel hybrid-electric transit bus prototypes (Model VI) from Orion Bus Industries in 1998. All 10 buses were in revenue service by mid-2000. The hybrid buses are intended to provide NYCT with increased fuel economy and lower levels of harmful exhaust emissions, compared with NYCT's diesel transit buses. Between 1999 and 2001 (over various predefined fuel and maintenance evaluation periods), these first 10 hybrid buses were part of a data collection and analysis project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The operating costs, efficiency, emissions, and overall performance of these low-floor hybrid buses were compared against those of 14 conventional high-floor diesel transit buses (7 each from NovaBUS Corporation and Orion) operated by NYCT in similar service. Results indicate that the hybrid buses operate with greater fuel efficiency and much lower emissions, compared with the diesel buses. Maintenance costs for the prototype hybrid buses were significantly higher than those of the diesel buses during this evaluation. However, these costs are expected to decline for the next-generation Orion VII buses, currently being procured by NYCT, as repair technicians become more familiar with the advanced hybrid propulsion systems.

  11. City of Chula Vista hydrogen fuel cell bus demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafson, B.; Bamberger, B.

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen as an energy carrier and fuel has potential for various uses including electricity, commercial, residential, transportation, and industrial. It is an energy carrier that can be produced from a variety of primary sources and potentially can accomplish these various uses while significantly reducing pollution by substituting for or reducing the use of fossil fuels. One of the most immediate and potentially viable roles for hydrogen as an energy carrier will be its use as a transportation fuel, especially in densely populated urban areas where automotive emissions contribute significantly to air pollution. The Department of Energy`s commitment to research and development of hydrogen as an alternative fuel, and California`s Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) requirements, both provide the impetus and favorable circumstance for demonstrating hydrogen as a transportation fuel on an urban bus system. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of using solid polymer fuel cells in a hydrogen-powered electric drive system for an urban transit bus application. Fuel cell buses use hydrogen fuel and oxygen from the air to produce electrical power with the only byproduct being pure water. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells are proposed for this project. Current evidence suggests that fuel cells, which rely on hydrogen and a process known as proton exchange to generate their power, appear to have an infinite life span. All exhaust pollution is completely eliminated, resulting in a Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV). An urban bus system offers the potential for developing a market for the production of hydrogen propulsion technology due to extensive vehicular use in densely populated areas experiencing pollution from numerous sources, and because the central garaging facilities or the bus system facilitates fueling and maintenance functions.

  12. An observational comparison of the older and younger bus passenger experience in a developing world city.

    PubMed

    Aceves-González, Carlos; May, Andrew; Cook, Sharon

    2016-06-01

    This study was an unobtrusive observational analysis of 333 older and younger bus passengers in Guadalajara, Mexico. A set of data were collected for each observed passenger, as well as more general observations related to driver behaviour, bus design and bus service characteristics. There were significant differences between older and younger passengers in terms of boarding and alighting times, use of handrails, seat location preferences, passenger stability and coping strategies in order to maintain postural stability. The conditions of travel are conducive to a poor passenger experience for the older passengers in particular. Although the problems may be attributed to bus design and driver behaviour typical of that in developing countries, they are also influenced by the wider transport infrastructure, and a lack of a regulatory regime which places drivers under time pressure and in direct competition with each other. Practitioner Summary: Bus services must cater for all ages of passengers, including the elderly. This unobtrusive observational study investigated the passenger experience in a developing world city. Bus and wider service design were found to compromise the journey experience, with the older users being particularly negatively impacted. Design recommendations are provided.

  13. Particulates and noise exposure during bicycle, bus and car commuting: A study in three European cities.

    PubMed

    Okokon, Enembe O; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Turunen, Anu W; Taimisto, Pekka; Pennanen, Arto; Vouitsis, Ilias; Samaras, Zissis; Voogt, Marita; Keuken, Menno; Lanki, Timo

    2017-04-01

    In order to curb traffic-related air pollution and its impact on the physical environment, contemporary city commuters are encouraged to shift from private car use to active or public transport modes. However, personal exposures to particulate matter (PM), black carbon and noise during commuting may be substantial. Therefore, studies comparing exposures during recommended modes of transport versus car trips are needed. We measured personal exposure to various-sized particulates, soot, and noise during commuting by bicycle, bus and car in three European cities: Helsinki in Finland, Rotterdam in the Netherlands and Thessaloniki in Greece using portable monitoring devices. We monitored commonly travelled routes in these cities. The total number of one-way trips yielding data on any of the measured parameters were 84, 72, 94 and 69 for bicycle, bus, closed-window car and open-window car modes, respectively. The highest mean PM2.5 (85µg/m(3)), PM10 (131µg/m(3)), black carbon (10.9µg/m(3)) and noise (75dBA) levels were recorded on the bus, bus (again), open-window car and bicycle modes, respectively, all in Thessaloniki, PM and soot concentrations were generally higher during biking and taking a bus than during a drive in a a car with closed windows. Ratios of bike:car PM10 ranged from 1.1 in Thessaloniki to 2.6 in Helsinki, while bus:car ratios ranged from in 1.0 in Rotterdam to 5.6 in Thessaloniki. Higher noise levels were mostly recorded during bicycle rides. Based on our study, active- and public-transport commuters are often at risk of higher air pollution and noise exposure than private car users. This should be taken into account in urban transportation planning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cardiovascular Disease Risk of Bus Drivers in a City of Korea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective To prevent the occurrence of CV events such as MI and stroke among professional drivers in Korea, bus drivers were compared to other occupations through the Framingham risk scoring system (FRS) or metabolic syndrome (MS) of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment methods. Methods In October 2012, a health examination survey was conducted for 443 male bus drivers in a big city. Their CVD risk factors were compared to those of a ‘total employed’ (A group) and ‘crafts and machine operators’ (B group) extracted from Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2010) data by using FRS and MS. We calculated proportions of the CVD risk factors distribution between bus drivers and the A, B groups by the bootstrapping method. The Odds ratio (OR) between CV event risk combining MS with CHD equivalent risk of FRS and occupational factors like shift patterns and professional driving duration/age ratios (PDAR) of bus drivers was calculated through multinominal logistic regression. Results The proportion of BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 was 53.9% and waist circumference ≥ 90cm was 40.9% among bus drivers. Hypertension and MS prevalence of bus drivers was 53.3%, 49.9% which is higher than 17.6%, 22.6% in the A group and 19.7%, 23.8% in the B group respectively. OR of high CV event risk in alternate shift was 2.58 (95% CI 1.33~5.00) in comparison with double shift pattern and OR in PDAR ≥ 0.5 was 2.18 (95% CI 1.15~4.14). Conclusion Middle aged male drivers in a big city of Korea stand a higher chance of developing CV event than other professions of the same age. PMID:24472511

  15. Energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic for a fuel cell hybrid bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Dawei; Jin, Zhenhua; Lu, Qingchun

    Fuel cell vehicles, as a substitute for internal-combustion-engine vehicles, have become a research hotspot for most automobile manufacturers all over the world. Fuel cell systems have disadvantages, such as high cost, slow response and no regenerative energy recovery during braking; hybridization can be a solution to these drawbacks. This paper presents a fuel cell hybrid bus which is equipped with a fuel cell system and two energy storage devices, i.e., a battery and an ultracapacitor. An energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic, which is employed to control the power flow of the vehicular power train, is described. This strategy is capable of determining the desired output power of the fuel cell system, battery and ultracapacitor according to the propulsion power and recuperated braking power. Some tests to verify the strategy were developed, and the results of the tests show the effectiveness of the proposed energy management strategy and the good performance of the fuel cell hybrid bus.

  16. Analysis, operation and maintenance of a fuel cell/battery series-hybrid bus for urban transit applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubna, Piyush; Brunner, Doug; Gangloff, John J.; Advani, Suresh G.; Prasad, Ajay K.

    The fuel cell hybrid bus (FCHB) program was initiated at the University of Delaware in 2005 to demonstrate the viability of fuel cell vehicles for transit applications and to conduct research and development to facilitate the path towards their eventual commercialization. Unlike other fuel cell bus programs, the University of Delaware's FCHB design features a battery-heavy hybrid which offers multiple advantages in terms of cost, performance and durability. The current fuel cell hybrid bus is driven on a regular transit route at the University of Delaware. The paper describes the baseline specifications of the bus with a focus on the fuel cell and the balance of plant. The fuel cell/battery series-hybrid design is well suited for urban transit routes and provides key operational advantages such as hydrogen fuel economy, efficient use of the fuel cell for battery recharging, and regenerative braking. The bus is equipped with a variety of sensors including a custom-designed cell voltage monitoring system which provide a good understanding of bus performance under normal operation. Real-time data collection and analysis have yielded key insights for fuel cell bus design optimization. Results presented here illustrate the complex flow of energy within the various subsystems of the fuel cell hybrid bus. A description of maintenance events has been included to highlight the issues that arise during general operation. The paper also describes several modifications that will facilitate design improvements in future versions of the bus. Overall, the fuel cell hybrid bus demonstrates the viability of fuel cells for urban transit applications in real world conditions.

  17. Fuzzy control based engine sizing optimization for a fuel cell/battery hybrid mini-bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Minjin; Sohn, Young-Jun; Lee, Won-Yong; Kim, Chang-Soo

    The fuel cell/battery hybrid vehicle has been focused for the alternative engine of the existing internal-combustion engine due to the following advantages of the fuel cell and the battery. Firstly, the fuel cell is highly efficient and eco-friendly. Secondly, the battery has the fast response for the changeable power demand. However, the competitive efficiency of the hybrid fuel cell vehicle is necessary to successfully alternate the conventional vehicles with the fuel cell hybrid vehicle. The most relevant factor which affects the overall efficiency of the hybrid fuel cell vehicle is the relative engine sizing between the fuel cell and the battery. Therefore the design method to optimize the engine sizing of the fuel cell hybrid vehicle has been proposed. The target system is the fuel cell/battery hybrid mini-bus and its power distribution is controlled based on the fuzzy logic. The optimal engine sizes are determined based on the simulator developed in this paper. The simulator includes the several models for the fuel cell, the battery, and the major balance of plants. After the engine sizing, the system efficiency and the stability of the power distribution are verified based on the well-known driving schedule. Consequently, the optimally designed mini-bus shows good performance.

  18. High voltage bus and auxiliary heater control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Murty, Balarama Vempaty

    2000-01-01

    A control system for an electric or hybrid electric vehicle includes a vehicle system controller and a control circuit having an electric immersion heater. The heater is electrically connected to the vehicle's high voltage bus and is thermally coupled to a coolant loop containing a heater core for the vehicle's climate control system. The system controller responds to cabin heat requests from the climate control system by generating a pulse width modulated signal that is used by the control circuit to operate the heater at a duty cycle appropriate for the amount of cabin heating requested. The control system also uses the heater to dissipate excess energy produced by an auxiliary power unit and to provide electric braking when regenerative braking is not desirable and manual braking is not necessary. The control system further utilizes the heater to provide a safe discharge of a bank of energy storage capacitors following disconnection of the battery or one of the high voltage connectors used to transmit high voltage operating power to the various vehicle systems. The control circuit includes a high voltage clamping circuit that monitors the voltage on the bus and operates the heater to clamp down the bus voltage when it exceeds a pre-selected maximum voltage. The control system can also be used to phase in operation of the heater when the bus voltage exceeds a lower threshold voltage and can be used to phase out the auxiliary power unit charging and regenerative braking when the battery becomes fully charged.

  19. High voltage bus and auxiliary heater control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Murty, B.V.

    2000-03-21

    A control system for an electric or hybrid electric vehicle includes a vehicle system controller and a control circuit having an electric immersion heater. The heater is electrically connected to the vehicle's high voltage bus and is thermally coupled to a coolant loop containing a heater core for the vehicle's climate control system. The system controller responds to cabin heat requests from the climate control system by generating a pulse width modulated signal that is used by the control circuit to operate the heater at a duty cycle appropriate for the amount of cabin heating requested. The control system also uses the heater to dissipate excess energy produced by an auxiliary power unit and to provide electric braking when regenerative braking is not desirable and manual braking is not necessary. The control system further utilizes the heater to provide a safe discharge of a bank of energy storage capacitors following disconnection of the battery or one of the high voltage connectors used to transmit high voltage operating power to the various vehicle systems. The control circuit includes a high voltage clamping circuit that monitors the voltage on the bus and operates the heater to clamp down the bus voltage when it exceeds a pre-selected maximum voltage. The control system can also be used to phase in operation of the heater when the bus voltage exceeds a lower threshold voltage and can be used to phase out the auxiliary power unit charging and regenerative braking when the battery becomes fully charged.

  20. Power-balancing instantaneous optimization energy management for a novel series-parallel hybrid electric bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Dongye; Lin, Xinyou; Qin, Datong; Deng, Tao

    2012-11-01

    Energy management(EM) is a core technique of hybrid electric bus(HEB) in order to advance fuel economy performance optimization and is unique for the corresponding configuration. There are existing algorithms of control strategy seldom take battery power management into account with international combustion engine power management. In this paper, a type of power-balancing instantaneous optimization(PBIO) energy management control strategy is proposed for a novel series-parallel hybrid electric bus. According to the characteristic of the novel series-parallel architecture, the switching boundary condition between series and parallel mode as well as the control rules of the power-balancing strategy are developed. The equivalent fuel model of battery is implemented and combined with the fuel of engine to constitute the objective function which is to minimize the fuel consumption at each sampled time and to coordinate the power distribution in real-time between the engine and battery. To validate the proposed strategy effective and reasonable, a forward model is built based on Matlab/Simulink for the simulation and the dSPACE autobox is applied to act as a controller for hardware in-the-loop integrated with bench test. Both the results of simulation and hardware-in-the-loop demonstrate that the proposed strategy not only enable to sustain the battery SOC within its operational range and keep the engine operation point locating the peak efficiency region, but also the fuel economy of series-parallel hybrid electric bus(SPHEB) dramatically advanced up to 30.73% via comparing with the prototype bus and a similar improvement for PBIO strategy relative to rule-based strategy, the reduction of fuel consumption is up to 12.38%. The proposed research ensures the algorithm of PBIO is real-time applicability, improves the efficiency of SPHEB system, as well as suite to complicated configuration perfectly.

  1. Advanced Intelligent System Application to Load Forecasting and Control for Hybrid Electric Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momoh, James; Chattopadhyay, Deb; Elfayoumy, Mahmoud

    1996-01-01

    The primary motivation for this research emanates from providing a decision support system to the electric bus operators in the municipal and urban localities which will guide the operators to maintain an optimal compromise among the noise level, pollution level, fuel usage etc. This study is backed up by our previous studies on study of battery characteristics, permanent magnet DC motor studies and electric traction motor size studies completed in the first year. The operator of the Hybrid Electric Car must determine optimal power management schedule to meet a given load demand for different weather and road conditions. The decision support system for the bus operator comprises three sub-tasks viz. forecast of the electrical load for the route to be traversed divided into specified time periods (few minutes); deriving an optimal 'plan' or 'preschedule' based on the load forecast for the entire time-horizon (i.e., for all time periods) ahead of time; and finally employing corrective control action to monitor and modify the optimal plan in real-time. A fully connected artificial neural network (ANN) model is developed for forecasting the kW requirement for hybrid electric bus based on inputs like climatic conditions, passenger load, road inclination, etc. The ANN model is trained using back-propagation algorithm employing improved optimization techniques like projected Lagrangian technique. The pre-scheduler is based on a Goal-Programming (GP) optimization model with noise, pollution and fuel usage as the three objectives. GP has the capability of analyzing the trade-off among the conflicting objectives and arriving at the optimal activity levels, e.g., throttle settings. The corrective control action or the third sub-task is formulated as an optimal control model with inputs from the real-time data base as well as the GP model to minimize the error (or deviation) from the optimal plan. These three activities linked with the ANN forecaster proving the output to the

  2. Advanced Intelligent System Application to Load Forecasting and Control for Hybrid Electric Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momoh, James; Chattopadhyay, Deb; Elfayoumy, Mahmoud

    1996-01-01

    The primary motivation for this research emanates from providing a decision support system to the electric bus operators in the municipal and urban localities which will guide the operators to maintain an optimal compromise among the noise level, pollution level, fuel usage etc. This study is backed up by our previous studies on study of battery characteristics, permanent magnet DC motor studies and electric traction motor size studies completed in the first year. The operator of the Hybrid Electric Car must determine optimal power management schedule to meet a given load demand for different weather and road conditions. The decision support system for the bus operator comprises three sub-tasks viz. forecast of the electrical load for the route to be traversed divided into specified time periods (few minutes); deriving an optimal 'plan' or 'preschedule' based on the load forecast for the entire time-horizon (i.e., for all time periods) ahead of time; and finally employing corrective control action to monitor and modify the optimal plan in real-time. A fully connected artificial neural network (ANN) model is developed for forecasting the kW requirement for hybrid electric bus based on inputs like climatic conditions, passenger load, road inclination, etc. The ANN model is trained using back-propagation algorithm employing improved optimization techniques like projected Lagrangian technique. The pre-scheduler is based on a Goal-Programming (GP) optimization model with noise, pollution and fuel usage as the three objectives. GP has the capability of analyzing the trade-off among the conflicting objectives and arriving at the optimal activity levels, e.g., throttle settings. The corrective control action or the third sub-task is formulated as an optimal control model with inputs from the real-time data base as well as the GP model to minimize the error (or deviation) from the optimal plan. These three activities linked with the ANN forecaster proving the output to the

  3. Relationship between musculoskeletal disorders and anthropometric indices among bus drivers in Zahedan city.

    PubMed

    Laal, Fereydoon; Madvari, Rohollah Fallah; Balarak, Davoud; Mohammadi, Mahdi; Dortaj, Elahe; Khammar, Abdolali; Adineh, Hossein Ali

    2017-08-04

    Most work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are associated with improper postures and poorly designed workstations. This study is an attempt to examine the prevalence and severity of MSDs as well as anthropometric dimensions among city bus drivers. This cross-sectional study was carried out on 60 male bus drivers. A body discomfort chart was used to evaluate MSDs. Spearman correlation was employed to examine the relationship between body size and the severity of discomfort. Data analysis showed that discomfort reported in the lower back (33.3%), upper back (18.3%) and knee (15%) was severe and there was a direct and significant correlation between the body mass index and the severity of discomfort in the shoulder, arm and hip (p < 0.05). However, the results showed that eye sitting height and sitting height had significant inverse relationships with discomfort in the ankle and elbow (p < 0.05). The results of the study can be used to address ergonomic risk factors and reduce their associated disorders. The findings of the study can be used in training programs to educate drivers how to decrease the risk associated with work-related MSDs by adopting appropriate behavior strategies.

  4. Hybrid propulsion technologies for urban bus transit. Final report, January-June 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Gunderson, R.; Wychorski, H.

    1984-11-01

    This report presents overview information on hybrid propulsion technologies (also called dual propulsion) in order to increase the transit community's awareness and understanding of bus-propulsion designs that offer extended-use capability for trolley-emergency, short-range, and back-up propulsion for trolley buses or offer some overall energy or fuel savings. Technical material is provided to a greater extent on systems that are novel or appear to offer the greatest potential for future commercial development. This information is provided to make the transit community aware of advancements in hybrid technology that could help them better utilize their existing equipment or help them in decisions regarding the procurement of new vehicles.

  5. An Optimization Model for the Selection of Bus-Only Lanes in a City

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qun

    2015-01-01

    The planning of urban bus-only lane networks is an important measure to improve bus service and bus priority. To determine the effective arrangement of bus-only lanes, a bi-level programming model for urban bus lane layout is developed in this study that considers accessibility and budget constraints. The goal of the upper-level model is to minimize the total travel time, and the lower-level model is a capacity-constrained traffic assignment model that describes the passenger flow assignment on bus lines, in which the priority sequence of the transfer times is reflected in the passengers’ route-choice behaviors. Using the proposed bi-level programming model, optimal bus lines are selected from a set of candidate bus lines; thus, the corresponding bus lane network on which the selected bus lines run is determined. The solution method using a genetic algorithm in the bi-level programming model is developed, and two numerical examples are investigated to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed model. PMID:26214001

  6. An Optimization Model for the Selection of Bus-Only Lanes in a City.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qun

    2015-01-01

    The planning of urban bus-only lane networks is an important measure to improve bus service and bus priority. To determine the effective arrangement of bus-only lanes, a bi-level programming model for urban bus lane layout is developed in this study that considers accessibility and budget constraints. The goal of the upper-level model is to minimize the total travel time, and the lower-level model is a capacity-constrained traffic assignment model that describes the passenger flow assignment on bus lines, in which the priority sequence of the transfer times is reflected in the passengers' route-choice behaviors. Using the proposed bi-level programming model, optimal bus lines are selected from a set of candidate bus lines; thus, the corresponding bus lane network on which the selected bus lines run is determined. The solution method using a genetic algorithm in the bi-level programming model is developed, and two numerical examples are investigated to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed model.

  7. NASA's Involvement in Technology Development and Transfer: The Ohio Hybrid Bus Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    A government and industry cooperative is using advanced power technology in a city transit bus that will offer double the fuel economy, and reduce emissions to one tenth of government standards. The heart of the vehicle's power system is a natural gas fueled generator unit. Power from both the generator and an advanced energy storage system is provided to a variable speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. A unique aspect of the vehicle's design is its use of "super" capacitors for recovery of energy during braking. This is the largest vehicle ever built using this advanced energy recovery technology. This paper describes the project goals and approach, results of its system performance modeling, and the status of the development team's effort.

  8. Modeling and energy management control design for a fuel cell hybrid passenger bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Kyle; Guezennec, Yann; Onori, Simona

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling and supervisory energy management design of a hybrid fuel cell/battery-powered passenger bus. With growing concerns about petroleum usage and greenhouse gas emissions in the transportation sector, finding alternative methods for vehicle propulsion is necessary. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems are viable possibilities for energy converters due to their high efficiencies and zero emissions. It has been shown that the benefits of PEM fuel cell systems can be greatly improved through hybridization. In this work, the challenge of developing an on-board energy management strategy with near-optimal performance is addressed by a two-step process. First, an optimal control based on Pontryagin's Minimum Principle (PMP) is implemented to find the global optimal solution which minimizes fuel consumption, for different drive cycles, with and without grade. The optimal solutions are analyzed in order to aid in development of a practical controller suitable for on-board implementation, in the form of an Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) regulator. Simulation results show that the ARMA controller is capable of achieving fuel economy within 3% of the PMP controller while being able to limit the transient demand on the fuel cell system.

  9. Student's exposure to volatile organic compounds while commuting by motorcycle and bus in Taipei City

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, C.C.; Lin, S.H.; Her, G.R. )

    1993-09-01

    This study examined student's exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) while commuting by bus and motorcycle in Taipei, Taiwan in the winter of 1992. A total of 19 target C5-C10 VOCs on three most frequently used commuting routes were collected on Tenax-GC adsorbent tubes. The VOCs were desorbed by thermal desorption method and analyzed by GC-MS. The most abundant VOC exposure experienced by commuters was to toluene. Several alkylated benzenes, such as propyl benzenes, ethyl-methyl-benzenes and trimethyl-benzenes, were relatively abundant on the roads in Taipei. The mean benzene concentration measured in buses was 173 micrograms/m3 and motorcycles. On the average, the commuters in Taipei experienced about three to eight times higher VOC concentrations than the commuters in Los Angeles, California. Higher VOC concentrations were measured on motorcycles than in buses. The VOC concentrations were not significantly different between morning and afternoon commutes, nor among the three commuting routes. VOC concentrations measured in classroom at three schools in downtown Taipei did not vary significantly on each sampling day. However, at each school the in-classroom VOC concentrations varied significantly over the six consecutive sampling days. The VOC concentrations measured on the roads were about five times higher than those measured in the school classrooms in the city. Moderate to high correlations were found among most of the measurements of the 19 VOCs. The survey questionnaire indicated that daily commuting time ranged from 45 minutes for elementary school students to 95 minutes for vocational school students.

  10. Ergonomic work analysis of urban bus drivers in Rio de Janeiro city.

    PubMed

    Querido, Aloá; Nogueira, Tainan; Gama, Rafael; Orlando, José

    2012-01-01

    This article is the result of a case study on ergonomic work analysis carried out in an urban bus company located in Ilha do Governador, Rio de Janeiro. The methodology used in this work follows the French-tradition Ergonomic Analysis of the Work (EWA) combined with the best tradition from anglo-saxon ergonomic work analysis. The situated diagnosis was performed to provide relevant information about the work conditions of a bus driver.

  11. City bus driving and low back pain: a study of the exposures to posture demands, manual materials handling and whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Okunribido, Olanrewaju O; Shimbles, Steven J; Magnusson, Marianne; Pope, Malcolm

    2007-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate worker exposure to posture demands, manual materials handling (MMH) and whole body vibration as risks for low back pain (LBP). Using validated questionnaire, information about driving experience, driving (sitting) posture MMH, and health history was obtained from 80 city bus drivers. Twelve drivers were observed during their service route driving (at least one complete round trip) and vibration measurements were obtained at the seat and according to the recommendations of ISO 2631 (1997), for three models of bus (a mini-bus, a single-decker bus, a double-decker bus). The results showed that city bus drivers spend about 60% of the daily work time actually driving, often with the torso straight or unsupported, perform occasional and light MMH, and experience discomforting shock/jerking vibration events. Transient and mild LBP (not likely to interfere with work or customary levels of activity) was found to be prevalent among the drivers and a need for ergonomic evaluation of the drivers' seat was suggested.

  12. Texas Hydrogen Highway Fuel Cell Hybrid Bus and Fueling Infrastructure Technology Showcase - Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hitchcock, David

    2012-06-29

    The Texas Hydrogen Highway project has showcased a hydrogen fuel cell transit bus and hydrogen fueling infrastructure that was designed and built through previous support from various public and private sector entities. The aim of this project has been to increase awareness among transit agencies and other public entities on these transportation technologies, and to place such technologies into commercial applications, such as a public transit agency. The initial project concept developed in 2004 was to show that a skid-mounted, fully-integrated, factory-built and tested hydrogen fueling station could be used to simplify the design, and lower the cost of fueling infrastructure for fuel cell vehicles. The approach was to design, engineer, build, and test the integrated fueling station at the factory then install it at a site that offered educational and technical resources and provide an opportunity to showcase both the fueling station and advanced hydrogen vehicles. The two primary technology components include: Hydrogen Fueling Station: The hydrogen fueling infrastructure was designed and built by Gas Technology Institute primarily through a funding grant from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. It includes hydrogen production, clean-up, compression, storage, and dispensing. The station consists of a steam methane reformer, gas clean-up system, gas compressor and 48 kilograms of hydrogen storage capacity for dispensing at 5000 psig. The station is skid-mounted for easy installation and can be relocated if needed. It includes a dispenser that is designed to provide temperaturecompensated fills using a control algorithm. The total station daily capacity is approximately 50 kilograms. Fuel Cell Bus: The transit passenger bus built by Ebus, a company located in Downey, CA, was commissioned and acquired by GTI prior to this project. It is a fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle which is ADA compliant, has air conditioning sufficient for Texas operations

  13. Research on Bus Stop Design in Modern Cities Based on Concept of Harmony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.

    The urbanization process and expansion have brought about the traffic growth and promoted the continuous development of urban traffic, making traffic become the principal component of urban function as the key factor maintaining the urban vitality. The traffic harmony acts as the effective approach to solve all the problems. The development of harmonious public transport, endeavor to construct the harmonious bus stations in urban areas are the inevitable paths to relieve the difficulties of urban traffic.

  14. Available Alternative Fuel School Bus Products--2004

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-04-01

    This 4-page Clean Cities fact sheet provides a list of the currently available (and soon to be available) model year 2004 alternative fuel school bus and school bus engine products. It includes information from Blue Bird Corporation, Collins Bus Corporation, Corbeil Bus, Ford Motor Company, General Motors Corporation, Thomas Built Buses, Inc., Clean Air Partners, Cummins Westport, and Deere & Company.

  15. A hybrid algorithm combining EKF and RLS in synchronous estimation of road grade and vehicle' mass for a hybrid electric bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yong; Li, Liang; Yan, Bingjie; Yang, Chao; Tang, Gongyou

    2016-02-01

    This paper proposes a novel hybrid algorithm for simultaneously estimating the vehicle mass and road grade for hybrid electric bus (HEB). First, the road grade in current step is estimated using extended Kalman filter (EKF) with the initial state including velocity and engine torque. Second, the vehicle mass is estimated twice, one with EKF and the other with recursive least square (RLS) using the estimated road grade. A more accurate value of the estimated mass is acquired by weighting the trade-off between EKF and RLS. Finally, the road grade and vehicle mass thus obtained are used as the initial states for the next step, and two variables could be decoupled from the nonlinear vehicle dynamics by performing the above procedure repeatedly. Simulation results show that in different starting conditions, the proposed algorithm provides higher accuracy and faster convergence speed, compared with the results using EKF or RLS alone.

  16. Bus, minibus, metro inter-comparison of commuters' exposure to air pollution in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Perales, J. E.; Colvile, R. N.; Fernández-Bremauntz, A. A.; Gutiérrez-Avedoy, V.; Páramo-Figueroa, V. H.; Blanco-Jiménez, S.; Bueno-López, E.; Bernabé-Cabanillas, R.; Mandujano, F.; Hidalgo-Navarro, M.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J.

    Commuters' exposure measurements were taken for PM 2.5, carbon monoxide (CO) and benzene in minibuses, buses and metro during morning and evening rush hours during January-March 2003 in Mexico City. For PM 2.5, the chemical composition was characterized. Total carbon was the most abundant species in fine particles (approximately 50%). Minibuses (49 μg m -3) and buses had similar concentrations of exposure for PM 2.5 (53 μg m -3). For CO and benzene the concentrations were higher in minibuses. Morning rush hour was the commuting period with the highest concentrations for minibuses and buses. Metro was the mode of transport with lower concentrations for all pollutants. Carbon monoxide concentrations were similar to those identified in a previous campaign in 2002 and approximately 3.5 times lower than those in a study conducted in 1991. Benzene was characterized systematically in the selected modes of transport. A strong association was observed between wind speed and pollutant concentrations in buses.

  17. A historical mortality study among bus drivers and bus maintenance workers exposed to urban air pollutants in the city of Genoa, Italy.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Domenico Franco; Stagi, Elena; Fontana, Vincenzo; Consonni, Dario; Gozza, Claudia; Garrone, Elsa; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia

    2010-09-01

    A historical mortality cohort study was conducted in Genoa, Italy among public transport workers ever employed between 1949 and 1980, to estimate overall and cause-specific mortality from January 1970 to December 2005 and to examine associations between exposure to urban air pollutants and overall and cause-specific mortality. Causes of death for 9267 males (6510 bus drivers, 2073 maintenance workers and 601 white collar workers) were coded according to ICD-9. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and 95% CIs were computed by applying Italian and regional male death rates to person-years of observation for the entire cohort and following stratification by longest held job title and length of and time since first employment using the Poisson regression model. There were 2916 deaths and 230,009 person-years of observation; 17 subjects were lost to follow-up. SMRs for all causes, diseases of the circulatory, respiratory, digestive and genitourinary systems, and for accidents were lower than expected. SMRs (95% CI) were increased for lung cancer (1.16, 1.05 to 1.28), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (1.23, 0.85 to 1.78), Hodgkin's lymphoma (2.14, 1.19 to 3.87) and diabetes mellitus (1.16, 1.05 to 1.28). The SMR for leukaemia was 0.77 (0.51 to 1.16). Hodgkin's lymphoma mortality was significantly increased among bus drivers (1.62, 1.37 to 5.04). Lung cancer risk was significantly increased among all workers after 30 years' employment and among maintenance workers. The study failed to show any increased risk for leukaemias. The increased mortality from Hodgkin's lymphoma and lung cancer may be associated with long-term exposure to urban air pollution.

  18. King County Metro Transit: Allison Hybrid Electric Transit Bus Laboratory Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, R. R.; Williams, A.; Ireland, J.; Walkowicz, K.

    2006-09-01

    Paper summarizes chassis dynamometer testing of two 60-foot articulated transit buses, one conventional and one hybrid, at NREL's ReFUEL Laboratory. It includes experimental setup, test procedures, and results from vehicle testing performed at the NREL ReFUEL laboratory.

  19. Savannah River bus project

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, W.A.

    1998-08-01

    The H2Fuel Bus is the world`s first hybrid hydrogen electric transit bus. It was developed through a public/private partnership involving several leading technology and industrial organizations in the Southeast, with primary funding and program management provided by the Department of Energy. The primary goals of the project are to gain valuable information on the technical readiness and economic viability of hydrogen buses and to enhance the public awareness and acceptance of emerging hydrogen technologies. The bus has been operated by the transit agency in Augusta, Georgia since April, 1997. It employs a hybrid IC engine/battery/electric drive system, with onboard hydrogen fuel storage based on the use of metal hydrides. Initial operating results have demonstrated an overall energy efficiency (miles per Btu) of twice that of a similar diesel-fueled bus and an operating range twice that of an all-battery powered electric bus. Tailpipe emissions are negligible, with NOx less than 0.2 ppm. Permitting, liability and insurance issues were addressed on the basis of extensive risk assessment and safety analyses, with the inherent safety characteristic of metal hydride storage playing a major role in minimizing these concerns. Future plans for the bus include continued transit operation and use as a national testbed, with potential modifications to demonstrate other hydrogen technologies, including fuel cells.

  20. Comparative study of two different powertrains for a fuel cell hybrid bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Dawei; Jin, Zhenhua; Zhang, Junzhi; Li, Jianqiu; Ouyang, Minggao

    2016-07-01

    The powertrain plays an essential role in improving the tractive performance and the fuel consumption of fuel cell hybrid vehicles. This paper presents a comparative study of two different powertrains for fuel cell hybrid buses. The significant difference between the two powertrains lies in the types and arrangements of the electrical motor. One powertrain employs an induction motor to drive the vehicle, while the other powertrain adopts two permanent magnetic synchronous motors for near-wheel propulsion. Besides, the tiny difference between the proposed powertrain is the supply path of the fuel cell accessories, which can have an effect on the powertrain efficiency. The component parameters and energy management strategies for the two powertrain are determined. The fuel cell hybrid buses equipped with the two powertrains are developed, and some road tests are achieved, according to the chosen procedures or driving cycles. The paper focuses on the tractive performance and energy analysis of the powertrains based on the testing results. Finally, the paper summarizes the relative merits of the proposed powertrains.

  1. City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    2013-12-31

    The City of Las Vegas was awarded Department of Energy (DOE) project funding in 2009, for the City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program. This project allowed the City of Las Vegas to purchase electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and associated electric vehicle charging infrastructure. The City anticipated the electric vehicles having lower overall operating costs and emissions similar to traditional and hybrid vehicles.

  2. Predictive-model-based dynamic coordination control strategy for power-split hybrid electric bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xiaohua; Yang, Nannan; Wang, Junnian; Song, Dafeng; Zhang, Nong; Shang, Mingli; Liu, Jianxin

    2015-08-01

    Parameter-matching methods and optimal control strategies of the top-selling hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), namely, power-split HEV, are widely studied. In particular, extant research on control strategy focuses on the steady-state energy management strategy to obtain better fuel economy. However, given that multi-power sources are highly coupled in power-split HEVs and influence one another during mode shifting, conducting research on dynamic coordination control strategy (DCCS) to achieve riding comfort is also important. This paper proposes a predictive-model-based DCCS. First, the dynamic model of the objective power-split HEV is built and the mode shifting process is analyzed based on the developed model to determine the reason for the system shock generated. Engine torque estimation algorithm is then designed according to the principle of the nonlinear observer, and the prediction model of the degree of shock is established based on the theory of model predictive control. Finally, the DCCS with adaptation for a complex driving cycle is realized by combining the feedback control and the predictive model. The presented DCCS is validated on the co-simulation platform of AMESim and Simulink. Results show that the shock during mode shifting is well controlled, thereby improving riding comfort.

  3. A New Destination for "The Flying Bus"?: The Implications of Orlando-Rican Migration for Luis Rafael Sanchez's "La guagua aerea"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barreneche, Gabriel Ignacio; Lombardi, Jane; Ramos-Flores, Hector

    2012-01-01

    Puerto Rican author Luis Rafael Sanchez's "La guagua aerea" explores the duality, hybridity, and fluidity of US-Puerto Rican identity through the frequent travel of migrants between New York City (the traditional destination city for Puerto Rican migrants) and the island. In recent years, however, the "flying bus" has adopted a…

  4. A New Destination for "The Flying Bus"?: The Implications of Orlando-Rican Migration for Luis Rafael Sanchez's "La guagua aerea"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barreneche, Gabriel Ignacio; Lombardi, Jane; Ramos-Flores, Hector

    2012-01-01

    Puerto Rican author Luis Rafael Sanchez's "La guagua aerea" explores the duality, hybridity, and fluidity of US-Puerto Rican identity through the frequent travel of migrants between New York City (the traditional destination city for Puerto Rican migrants) and the island. In recent years, however, the "flying bus" has adopted a…

  5. Method for in-use measurement and evaluation of the activity, fuel use, electricity use, and emissions of a plug-in hybrid diesel-electric school bus.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyung-Wook; Frey, H Christopher

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate a methodology for characterizing at high resolution the energy use and emissions of a plug-in parallel-hybrid diesel-electric school bus (PHSB) to support assessments of sensitivity to driving cycles and comparisons to a conventional diesel school bus (CDSB). Data were collected using onboard instruments for a first-of-a-kind prototype PHSB and a CDSB of the same chassis and engine, operated on actual school bus routes. The engine load was estimated on the basis of vehicle specific power (VSP) and an empirically derived relationship between VSP and engine manifold absolute pressure (MAP). VSP depends on speed, acceleration, and road grade. For the PHSB, the observed electrical discharge or recharge to the traction motor battery was characterized on the basis of VSP. The energy use and emission rates of the PHSB from tailpipe and electricity use were estimated for five real-world driving cycles and compared to the engine fuel use and emissions of the CDSB. The PHSB had the greatest advantage on arterial routes and less advantage on highway or local routes. The coupled VSP-MAP modeling approach enables assessment of a wide variety of driving conditions and comparisons of vehicles with different propulsion technologies.

  6. Hybrid Taxis Give Fuel Economy a Lift, Clean Cities, Fleet Experiences, April 2009 (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-04-01

    Clean Cities helped Boston, San Antonio, and Cambridge create hybrid taxi programs. The hybrid taxis are able to achieve about twice the gas mileage of a conventional taxi while helping cut gasoline use and fuel costs. Tax credits and other incentives are helping both company owners and drivers make the switch to hybrids. Program leaders have learned some important lessons other cities can benefit from including learning a city's taxi structure, relaying benefits to drivers, and understanding the needs of owners.

  7. Development of hybrid genetic-algorithm-based neural networks using regression trees for modeling air quality inside a public transportation bus.

    PubMed

    Kadiyala, Akhil; Kaur, Devinder; Kumar, Ashok

    2013-02-01

    The present study developed a novel approach to modeling indoor air quality (IAQ) of a public transportation bus by the development of hybrid genetic-algorithm-based neural networks (also known as evolutionary neural networks) with input variables optimized from using the regression trees, referred as the GART approach. This study validated the applicability of the GART modeling approach in solving complex nonlinear systems by accurately predicting the monitored contaminants of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), 0.3-0.4 microm sized particle numbers, 0.4-0.5 microm sized particle numbers, particulate matter (PM) concentrations less than 1.0 microm (PM10), and PM concentrations less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5) inside a public transportation bus operating on 20% grade biodiesel in Toledo, OH. First, the important variables affecting each monitored in-bus contaminant were determined using regression trees. Second, the analysis of variance was used as a complimentary sensitivity analysis to the regression tree results to determine a subset of statistically significant variables affecting each monitored in-bus contaminant. Finally, the identified subsets of statistically significant variables were used as inputs to develop three artificial neural network (ANN) models. The models developed were regression tree-based back-propagation network (BPN-RT), regression tree-based radial basis function network (RBFN-RT), and GART models. Performance measures were used to validate the predictive capacity of the developed IAQ models. The results from this approach were compared with the results obtained from using a theoretical approach and a generalized practicable approach to modeling IAQ that included the consideration of additional independent variables when developing the aforementioned ANN models. The hybrid GART models were able to capture majority of the variance in the monitored in-bus contaminants. The genetic

  8. Correlation of Occupational Stress Index with 24-hour Urine Cortisol and Serum DHEA Sulfate among City Bus Drivers: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mia Chihya; Lu, Luo; Tai, John Jen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The questionnaire of occupational stress index (OSI) has been popular in the workplace, and it has been tailored for bus drivers in Taiwan. Nevertheless, its outcomes for participants are based on self-evaluations, thus validation by their physiological stress biomarker is warranted and this is the main goal of this study. Methods A cross-sectional study of sixty-three city bus drivers and fifty-four supporting staffs for comparison was conducted. Questionnaire surveys, 24-hour urine cortisol testing, and blood draws for dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) testing were performed. The measured concentrations of these biological measures were logarithmically transformed before the statistical analysis where various scores of stressor factors, moderators, and stress effects of each OSI domain were analyzed by applying multiple linear regression models. Results For drivers, the elevated 24-hour urine cortisol level was associated with a worker's relationship with their supervisor and any life change events in the most recent 3 months. The DHEA-S level was higher in drivers of younger age as well as drivers with more concerns relating to their salary and bonuses. Non-drivers showed no association between any stressor or satisfaction and urine cortisol and blood DHEA-S levels. Conclusion Measurements of biomarkers may offer additional stress evaluations with OSI questionnaires for bus drivers. Increased DHEA-S and cortisol levels may result from stressors like income security. Prevention efforts towards occupational stress and life events and health promotional efforts for aged driver were important anti-stress remedies. PMID:22953199

  9. Analysis of robustness of urban bus network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Ren; Yi-Fan, Wang; Miao-Miao, Liu; Yan-Jie, Xu

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, the invulnerability and cascade failures are discussed for the urban bus network. Firstly, three static models(bus stop network, bus transfer network, and bus line network) are used to analyse the structure and invulnerability of urban bus network in order to understand the features of bus network comprehensively. Secondly, a new way is proposed to study the invulnerability of urban bus network by modelling two layered networks, i.e., the bus stop-line network and the bus line-transfer network and then the interactions between different models are analysed. Finally, by modelling a new layered network which can reflect the dynamic passenger flows, the cascade failures are discussed. Then a new load redistribution method is proposed to study the robustness of dynamic traffic. In this paper, the bus network of Shenyang City which is one of the biggest cities in China, is taken as a simulation example. In addition, some suggestions are given to improve the urban bus network and provide emergency strategies when traffic congestion occurs according to the numerical simulation results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61473073, 61374178, 61104074, and 61203329), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant Nos. N130417006, L1517004), and the Program for Liaoning Excellent Talents in University (Grant No. LJQ2014028).

  10. Total Costing for School Transportation Service: How the San Diego City Schools Missed the Bus. Policy Study No. 199.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beales, Janet R.

    In December 1994, San Diego City Schools' (California) Board of Education voted to discontinue competitive contracting for busing and expand its in-house transportation department, believing the new arrangement would save money. This report argues that the decision was based on a flawed financial analysis prepared by the district's in-house…

  11. The impact of a Bus Rapid Transit system on commuters' exposure to Benzene, CO, PM 2.5 and PM 10 in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wöhrnschimmel, Henry; Zuk, Miriam; Martínez-Villa, Gerardo; Cerón, Julia; Cárdenas, Beatriz; Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; Fernández-Bremauntz, Adrián

    Carbon monoxide (CO), benzene and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and suspended particles PM 2.5 and PM 10 were measured inside public transportation vehicles, before and after a new Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system was implemented in Mexico City in June 2005. The objective was to evaluate the BRT system's impact on commuters' exposure to these air pollutants. The BRT system replaced conventional transport modes along 20 km of Insurgentes Avenue, and features confined corridors and new articulated diesel buses. We assessed the impact of the transportation mode on commuters' exposure using least squares regression models. We also analyzed the chemical composition of VOCs to evaluate the possible origin of these species. The implementation of the BRT system resulted in reductions in commuters' exposure to CO, benzene and PM 2.5 ranging between 20% and 70%. No significant reductions in PM 10 exposure were observed. Lower commuting times further reduced total commuters' exposure. Major sources affecting VOCs inside all transport modes are likely to be related to traffic and to emissions from the use of Liquefied Petroleum Gas. The results suggest that BRT systems could in general be an effective means of reducing human exposure to traffic related air pollutants and associated health impacts.

  12. BAE/Orion Hybrid Electric Buses at New York City Transit: A Generational Comparison (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Barnitt, R.

    2008-03-01

    Paper describes the evaluation of hybrid-electric transit buses purchased by New York City Transit (NYCT) in an order group of 200 (Gen II) and compares their performance to those of similar hybrid-electric transit buses purchased by NYCT in an order group of 125 (Gen I).

  13. Power sources for hybrid buses: comparative evaluation of the state of the art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van den Bossche, Peter

    Due to their beneficial effect on environment, electric vehicles are an important factor for the improvement of urban traffic and, more particularly, for a healthier living environment. A particularly promising field of application is the hybrid-electric city bus, which offers unprecedented opportunities for reducing energy consumption and emissions. Nowadays, various hybrid bus configurations are being proposed and are being demonstrated in several European cities with the support of the European Union's `Thermie' programme. The most important hybrid bus project within Thermie is the Sagittaire project [EU Thermie Project Sagittaire, Newsletter 2, September 1998; EU Thremie project Sagittaire, unpublished documents], aiming to introduce hybrid buses in nine European cities: Luxembourg, Besançon, Alicante, Sintra, Stavanger, Trento, Savona, Athens and Bruges.

  14. A new bus lane on urban expressway with no-bay bus stop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zhao; Jia, Limin

    2016-01-01

    The sharp increase in residents and vehicles causes heavy traffic pressure in many cities. To ease traffic congestion, it has been the common sense that we should develop public transit system. The priority of the bus appears particularly necessary with the rapid development of the public transport system. The bus lane is an important embodiment of the bus priority. Focusing on the problem of the unreasonable dedicated bus lane (DBL) under the lower ratio of buses, this paper proposed a new bus lane with limited physical length. And this bus lane can reduce the lane-changing conflict caused by the buses and cars running on roads without bus lanes. Based on the cellular automata (CA) traffic flow model and the lane-changing behavior of the vehicle including the optional lane-changing and the mandatory lane-changing, a three-lane traffic model with an isolated no-bay bus stop is proposed. The ordinary three-lane traffic without a bus lane and the cases of traffic with a DBL or the proposed bus lane are simulated, and the comparisons in the form of the fundamental diagrams are made among them. It is shown that the no-bay bus stop can act as a bottleneck on the traffic flow because of the mandatory lane-changing behavior. Under a certain ratio of the bus number to the total vehicles number, (1) the traffic with the proposed bus lane has less lane-changing conflict and can provide higher traffic capacity than the ordinary traffic without a bus lane, (2) compared with the DBL, the proposed bus lane is advantageous in easing congestion on the ordinary lanes when the traffic flow is high and can avoid unreasonable allocation of the road resources.

  15. 77 FR 6178 - FY 2012 Discretionary Funding Opportunities: Bus and Bus Facilities Programs (State of Good...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... facilities or electrical recharging facilities and related equipment for such buses; or (3) Projects relating to clean fuel, biodiesel, hybrid electric, or zero emissions technology buses that exhibit equivalent... Federal Transit Administration FY 2012 Discretionary Funding Opportunities: Bus and Bus Facilities...

  16. A demand-centered, hybrid life-cycle methodology for city-scale greenhouse gas inventories.

    PubMed

    Ramaswami, Anu; Hillman, Tim; Janson, Bruce; Reiner, Mark; Thomas, Gregg

    2008-09-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting for individual cities is confounded by spatial scale and boundary effects that impact the allocation of regional material and energy flows. This paper develops a demand-centered, hybrid life-cycle-based methodology for conducting city-scale GHG inventories that incorporates (1) spatial allocation of surface and airline travel across colocated cities in larger metropolitan regions, and, (2) life-cycle assessment (LCA) to quantify the embodied energy of key urban materials--food, water, fuel, and concrete. The hybrid methodology enables cities to separately report the GHG impact associated with direct end-use of energy by cities (consistent with EPA and IPCC methods), as well as the impact of extra-boundary activities such as air travel and production of key urban materials (consistent with Scope 3 protocols recommended by the World Resources Institute). Application of this hybrid methodology to Denver, Colorado, yielded a more holistic GHG inventory that approaches a GHG footprint computation, with consistency of inclusions across spatial scale as well as convergence of city-scale per capita GHG emissions (approximately 25 mt CO2e/person/year) with state and national data. The method is shown to have significant policy impacts, and also demonstrates the utility of benchmarks in understanding energy use in various city sectors.

  17. Bus Training Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorny, Audrea; Cole, ChiKay

    This manual presents guidelines for teaching students with disabilities necessary skills for safe and independent travel on public buses. Six guidelines for teachers include: (1) participate in bus training; (2) use wise and intelligent judgment; (3) utilize the bus checklist; (4) know and teach bus rules; (5) know bus routes; and (6) know bus…

  18. MIL-STD-1553 programmable dual redundant remote terminal, bus controller, bus monitor, unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, S. N.

    The performance, physical and electrical characteristics of the BUS-65600 Superhybrid are described. The Superhybrid is a programmable, fully compliant MIL-STD-1553 Dual Redundant Remote Terminal Unit (RTU), BUS Controller (BC) or BUS Monitor (BM). It requires the BUS-63125 Dual Redundant Monolithic Hybrid Transceiver or two BUS-63102 Universal Transceivers for MIL-STD-1553B or McAir sinusoidal applications. A discussion of the custom Monolithic LSI components implemented in the Superhybrid is included. The special features and capabilities are highlighted, along with special programming options which facilitate a broad array of applications. The BUS-65600 Superhybrid has a Direct Memory Access (DMA) Computer Interface plus necessary control lines which are also described in detail.

  19. Fuel Cell Bus Takes a Starring Role in the BurbankBus Fleet (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-05-01

    This fact sheet reports on the City of Burbank, California's fuel cell bus demonstration project and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) involvement. Included are specifications for the fuel cell bus and information about its operation. BurbankBus, the city's mass transit entity, received a grant from the California Air Resources Board to fund its zero-emission bus demonstration and is collaborating with DOE's Fuel Cell Technologies Program to evaluate the bus performance. DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory will collect and analyze performance and operations data for at least one year. Researchers will use the data to better understand the technology and determine future development work. In addition, demonstration information will help fleets make informed purchase decisions.

  20. 2.3-MW Medium-Voltage, Three-Level Wind Energy Inverter Applying a Unique Bus Structure and 4.5-kV Si/SiC Hybrid Isolated Power Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Erdman, W.; Keller, J.; Grider, D.; VanBrunt, E.

    2014-11-01

    A high-efficiency, 2.3-MW, medium-voltage, three-level inverter utilizing 4.5-kV Si/SiC (silicon carbide) hybrid modules for wind energy applications is discussed. The inverter addresses recent trends in siting the inverter within the base of multimegawatt turbine towers. A simplified split, three-layer laminated bus structure that maintains low parasitic inductances is introduced along with a low-voltage, high-current test method for determining these inductances. Feed-thru bushings, edge fill methods, and other design features of the laminated bus structure provide voltage isolation that is consistent with the 10.4-kV module isolation levels. Inverter efficiency improvement is a result of the (essential) elimination of the reverse recovery charge present in 4.5-kV Si PIN diodes, which can produce a significant reduction in diode turn-off losses as well as insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) turn-on losses. The hybrid modules are supplied in industry-standard 140 mm x 130 mm and 190 mm x 130 mm packages to demonstrate direct module substitution into existing inverter designs. A focus on laminated bus/capacitor-bank/module subassembly level switching performance is presented.

  1. Neurosimulation modeling of a scheduled bus route

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.G.; Khoo, L.P.

    1997-05-01

    In a densely built-up urban society, operators of public bus services are faced with the recurrent problem of providing timely and reliable service. Wile they have no control over dynamically changing extraneous factors (such as passenger loads or road conditions) that may suddenly degrade the quality of the service provided, it is nonetheless desirable for management to study the extent to which these factors affect their business, and what measures, if any, can be adopted to neutralize them. This paper discusses how a simulation model of a bus route, embellished by a neural network, was created to model the historical pattern of the inputs (namely, passenger loads and road conditions) that affect the overall scheduled terminus-to-terminus time. Thus, in a case study of a bus route running from a suburb to the city center, it was found that the neurosimulation model could predict the cumulative terminus-to-terminus times better than a conventional simulation model could. A software module, embedded into the neurosimulation model for the purposes of speed regulation, was able to minimize the deviation of the bus service from schedule. When intentional delays were further introduced into the bus route, it was discovered that the speed regulator was more effective the longer the delay, and the further the bus traveled into the bus route. There is potential in applying neural computing in a dynamic bus scheduling problem such as the one discussed here.

  2. Hybrid Engine Powered City Car: Fuzzy Controlled Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Ataur; Mohiuddin, AKM; Hawlader, MNA; Ihsan, Sany

    2017-03-01

    This study describes a fuzzy controlled hybrid engine powered car. The car is powered by the lithium ion battery capacity of 1000 Wh is charged by the 50 cc hybrid engine and power regenerative mode. The engine is operated with lean mixture at 3000 rpm to charge the battery. The regenerative mode that connects with the engine generates electrical power of 500-600 W for the deceleration of car from 90 km/h to 20 km/h. The regenerated electrical power has been used to power the air-conditioning system and to meet the other electrical power. The battery power only used to propel the car. The regenerative power also found charging the battery for longer operation about 40 minutes and more. The design flexibility of this vehicle starts with whole-vehicle integration based on radical light weighting, drag reduction, and accessory efficiency. The energy efficient hybrid engine cut carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxides (N2O) emission about 70-80% as the loads on the crankshaft such as cam-follower and its associated rotating components are replaced by electromagnetic systems, and the flywheel, alternator and starter motor are replaced by a motor generator. The vehicle was tested and found that it was able to travel 70 km/litre with the power of hybrid engine.

  3. 76 FR 37184 - Discretionary Bus and Bus Facilities Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... Federal Transit Administration Discretionary Bus and Bus Facilities Program AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of availability of FTA state of good repair bus and bus facilities...) announces the availability of discretionary Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities grant funds in support of...

  4. The Bus Stops Here.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milshtein, Amy

    1999-01-01

    Explores some of the factors to consider before school planners decide to buy new school buses. Provides a checklist to help build and maintain a bus fleet. Concludes by addressing bus safety and advertising. (GR)

  5. Fuss on the Bus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Katherine L.

    1995-01-01

    Approaches to maintaining order and discipline in school transportation include revoking or suspending a student's bus-riding privileges, using radios and video cameras, and using bus monitors. School leaders must demonstrate support for their school-bus drivers. A sidebar lists 17 suggested rules for student behavior to ensure safe…

  6. Riding the Bus: Symbol and Vehicle for Boundary Spanning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    In this reflective essay I examine the activity of a bus tour, organized as the result of an ongoing university and city partnership. I illustrate how riding the bus is not only symbolic for positionality in our society, but also how it can be a viable mechanism for initiating boundary spanning and promoting opportunities for place-based learning…

  7. A Conceptual Approach for Optimising Bus Stop Spacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johar, Amita; Jain, S. S.; Garg, P. k.

    2017-06-01

    An efficient public transportation system is essential of any country. The growth, development and shape of the urban areas are mainly due to availability of good transportation (Shah et al. in Inst Town Plan India J 5(3):50-59, 1). In developing countries, like India, travel by local bus in a city is very common. The accidents, congestion, pollution and appropriate location of bus stops are the major problems arising in metropolitan cities. Among all the metropolitan cities in India, Delhi has highest percentage of growth of population and vehicles. Therefore, it is important to adopt efficient and effective ways to improve mobility in different metropolitan cities in order to overcome the problem and to reduce the number of private vehicles on the road. The primary objective of this paper is to present a methodology for developing a model for optimum bus stop spacing (OBSS). It describes the evaluation of existing urban bus route, data collection, development of model for optimizing urban bus route and application of model. In this work, the bus passenger generalized cost method is used to optimize the spacing between bus stops. For the development of model, a computer program is required to be written. The applicability of the model has been evaluated by taking the data of urban bus route of Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) in Excel sheet in first phase. Later on, it is proposed to develop a programming in C++ language. The developed model is expected to be useful to transport planner for rational design of the spacing of bus stops to save travel time and to generalize operating cost. After analysis it is found that spacing between the bus stop comes out to be between 250 and 500 m. The Proposed Spacing of bus stops is done considering the points that they don't come nearer to metro/rail station, entry or exit of flyover and near traffic signal.

  8. Computer-Based Video Instruction to Teach Students with Intellectual Disabilities to Use Public Bus Transportation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechling, Linda; O'Brien, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of computer-based video instruction (CBVI) to teach three young adults with moderate intellectual disabilities to push a "request to stop bus signal" and exit a city bus in response to target landmarks. A multiple probe design across three students and one bus route was used to evaluate effectiveness of…

  9. Computer-Based Video Instruction to Teach Students with Intellectual Disabilities to Use Public Bus Transportation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechling, Linda; O'Brien, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of computer-based video instruction (CBVI) to teach three young adults with moderate intellectual disabilities to push a "request to stop bus signal" and exit a city bus in response to target landmarks. A multiple probe design across three students and one bus route was used to evaluate effectiveness of…

  10. The application of a band variable-inertia flywheel to an urban transit bus

    SciTech Connect

    Moosavi-Rad, H.

    1988-01-01

    By means of computer simulation, the potential of a Band Variable-Inertia Flywheel (BVIF) to store energy for an urban transit bus was studied. Replacing both a fixed-inertia flywheel (FIF) and a continuously variable transmission (CVT), the Band Variable-Inertia Flywheel is capable of accelerating a vehicle from rest to a nearly-constant speed, while recovering part of the kinetic energy normally dissipated through braking during the deceleration of the vehicle. After each stop, the stored energy is released to accelerate the vehicle during its next cycle of motion. This type of hybrid propulsion is regarded as particularly suitable for large buses with regular stop-start operation in city traffic. The performance of the BVIF-integrated bus was evaluated with respect to a comparable conventionally-powered bus. Three alternative designs for a BVIF-integrated bus are proposed and discussed with regard to potential and limitations; the most feasible and efficient design is subjected to computer performance evaluation. The results of this computer simulation show a fuel saving of up to 30 percent with the BVIF-integrated system. The regenerative braking system is shown to reduce brake wear by a factor of five in comparison with the conventional vehicle, and brake maintenance costs were also projected to decrease significantly.

  11. Analysis of U.S. School Bus Populations and Alternative Fuel Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Laughlin, M.

    2004-04-01

    This Clean Cities final report provides information concerning different school bus types, school bus populations, school bus miles and fuel use, school bus emissions, alternative fuel school buses, and potential for alternative fuel school bus use through 2010. It is intended to provide general information concerning the size of the school bus market in the U.S., as well as to provide some quantification of the potential for alternative fuel use in school buses in the U.S., and what that might mean for petroleum displacement and emissions reductions.

  12. Hydrogen powered bus

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Take a ride on a new type of bus, fueled by hydrogen. These hydrogen taxis are part of a Department of Energy-funded deployment of hydrogen powered vehicles and fueling infrastructure at nine federal facilities across the country to demonstrate this market-ready advanced technology. Produced and leased by Ford Motor Company , they consist of one 12- passenger bus and one nine-passenger bus. More information at: http://go.usa.gov/Tgr

  13. Hydrogen powered bus

    SciTech Connect

    2011-04-07

    Take a ride on a new type of bus, fueled by hydrogen. These hydrogen taxis are part of a Department of Energy-funded deployment of hydrogen powered vehicles and fueling infrastructure at nine federal facilities across the country to demonstrate this market-ready advanced technology. Produced and leased by Ford Motor Company , they consist of one 12- passenger bus and one nine-passenger bus. More information at: http://go.usa.gov/Tgr

  14. School Bus Safety Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This publication provides a summary and update of school bus-safety activities conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). This report discusses Congressional mandates and NHTSA's actions to improve school-bus safety (which include programs that affect human behavior and motor-vehicle safety performance), the magnitude…

  15. Integrated sensor bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutka, M. J.

    1994-03-01

    In this thesis an integrated sensor bus interface is presented. The proposed bus offers a number of interface procedures to enhance the system flexibility. It enables a 13-bit data exchange per message frame, automatic addressing, device clearing and resetting, and handling of service-request and polling procedures. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the existing data transmission technologies. It presents the most popular digital buses along with their application fields. Also other research activities on sensor buses are described. Chapter 2 deals with the requirements which have to be imposed on the desired sensor bus. It shows both communication and compatibility requirements. Chapter 3 introduces the proposed sensor bus. It presents the interface structure together with implemented bus procedures. The detailed description of the proposed sensor bus protocol is given in Chapter 4. It is divided into two parts; a logical layer description (i.e., sensor bus protocol) and a physical layer description (i.e., transmission medium and electrical characteristics). Chapter 5 deals with the compatibility issue. It investigates differences between typical processes used for sensors and digital circuits. Chapter 6 shows the design of a sensor bus interface prototype. In Chapter 7 the performance of the fabricated interface is discussed.

  16. Research in bus and rail transit operations

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, A.; Wegmann, F.J.; Ceder, A.; Levinson, H.S.; Hollander, A.

    1989-01-01

    The 10 papers in the report deal with the following areas: Private Sector Involvement in Sponsoring Sunday Bus Service; Optimal Design of Transit Short-Turn Trips; New York City's Unfranchised Buses: Case Study in Deregulation; Critical Factors in Planning Multimodal Passenger Terminals; Use of Travelers' Attitudes in Rail Service Design; Driven, Attended, and Fully Automated Transit; Qualitative Comparison; Impact on Transit Patronage of Cessation or Inauguration of Rail Service; Use of Productivity Factors in Estimating LRT Operating Costs; Simulation Study To Evaluate Spare Ratios in Bus Transit Systems; Statistical Evaluation of Spare Ratio in Transit Rolling Stock.

  17. Emission inventory estimation of an intercity bus terminal.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhaowen; Li, Xiaoxia; Hao, Yanzhao; Deng, Shunxi; Gao, H Oliver

    2016-06-01

    Intercity bus terminals are hotspots of air pollution due to concentrated activities of diesel buses. In order to evaluate the bus terminals' impact on air quality, it is necessary to estimate the associated mobile emission inventories. Since the vehicles' operating condition at the bus terminal varies significantly, conventional calculation of the emissions based on average emission factors suffers the loss of accuracy. In this study, we examined a typical intercity bus terminal-the Southern City Bus Station of Xi'an, China-using a multi-scale emission model-(US EPA's MOVES model)-to quantity the vehicle emission inventory. A representative operating cycle for buses within the station is constructed. The emission inventory was then estimated using detailed inputs including vehicle ages, operating speeds, operating schedules, and operating mode distribution, as well as meteorological data (temperature and humidity). Five functional areas (bus yard, platforms, disembarking area, bus travel routes within the station, and bus entrance/exit routes) at the terminal were identified, and the bus operation cycle was established using the micro-trip cycle construction method. Results of our case study showed that switching to compressed natural gas (CNG) from diesel fuel could reduce PM2.5 and CO emissions by 85.64 and 6.21 %, respectively, in the microenvironment of the bus terminal. When CNG is used, tail pipe exhaust PM2.5 emission is significantly reduced, even less than brake wear PM2.5. The estimated bus operating cycles can also offer researchers and policy makers important information for emission evaluation in the planning and design of any typical intercity bus terminals of a similar scale.

  18. Statistical Analysis of Bus Networks in India

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we model the bus networks of six major Indian cities as graphs in L-space, and evaluate their various statistical properties. While airline and railway networks have been extensively studied, a comprehensive study on the structure and growth of bus networks is lacking. In India, where bus transport plays an important role in day-to-day commutation, it is of significant interest to analyze its topological structure and answer basic questions on its evolution, growth, robustness and resiliency. Although the common feature of small-world property is observed, our analysis reveals a wide spectrum of network topologies arising due to significant variation in the degree-distribution patterns in the networks. We also observe that these networks although, robust and resilient to random attacks are particularly degree-sensitive. Unlike real-world networks, such as Internet, WWW and airline, that are virtual, bus networks are physically constrained. Our findings therefore, throw light on the evolution of such geographically and constrained networks that will help us in designing more efficient bus networks in the future. PMID:27992590

  19. Statistical Analysis of Bus Networks in India.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Atanu; Manohar, Manju; Ramadurai, Gitakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we model the bus networks of six major Indian cities as graphs in L-space, and evaluate their various statistical properties. While airline and railway networks have been extensively studied, a comprehensive study on the structure and growth of bus networks is lacking. In India, where bus transport plays an important role in day-to-day commutation, it is of significant interest to analyze its topological structure and answer basic questions on its evolution, growth, robustness and resiliency. Although the common feature of small-world property is observed, our analysis reveals a wide spectrum of network topologies arising due to significant variation in the degree-distribution patterns in the networks. We also observe that these networks although, robust and resilient to random attacks are particularly degree-sensitive. Unlike real-world networks, such as Internet, WWW and airline, that are virtual, bus networks are physically constrained. Our findings therefore, throw light on the evolution of such geographically and constrained networks that will help us in designing more efficient bus networks in the future.

  20. Managing Student Behavior on the School Bus: A Key to Bus Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Federation of Teachers (NJ), 2007

    2007-01-01

    School buses are the safest form of mass transit in America. Every day, school buses travel through congested city traffic and on isolated country roads in all types of weather, safely transporting millions of children to and from school and school-related activities. Federal and state standards for school bus construction and maintenance and…

  1. Creative Bus Financing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Wade

    1982-01-01

    Alternative ways of financing school bus purchases include financing privately through contractors or commercial banks, financing through sources such as insurance companies and pension funds, leasing the buses, or contracting for transportation services. (Author/MLF)

  2. School Bus Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittner-Heir, Robbin M.

    2001-01-01

    Explains why fewer school students are injured are killed while being transported in school buses than any other mode of transportation. Political and community action in school bus transportation safety is addressed. (GR)

  3. Genetic algorithm for multiple bus line coordination on urban arterial.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen; Wang, Wei; Chen, Shuyan; Ding, Haoyang; Li, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    Bus travel time on road section is defined and analyzed with the effect of multiple bus lines. An analytical model is formulated to calculate the total red time a bus encounters when travelling along the arterial. Genetic algorithm is used to optimize the offset scheme of traffic signals to minimize the total red time that all bus lines encounter in two directions of the arterial. The model and algorithm are applied to the major part of Zhongshan North Street in the city of Nanjing. The results show that the methods in this paper can reduce total red time of all the bus lines by 31.9% on the object arterial and thus improve the traffic efficiency of the whole arterial and promote public transport priority.

  4. Genetic Algorithm for Multiple Bus Line Coordination on Urban Arterial

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhen; Wang, Wei; Chen, Shuyan; Ding, Haoyang; Li, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    Bus travel time on road section is defined and analyzed with the effect of multiple bus lines. An analytical model is formulated to calculate the total red time a bus encounters when travelling along the arterial. Genetic algorithm is used to optimize the offset scheme of traffic signals to minimize the total red time that all bus lines encounter in two directions of the arterial. The model and algorithm are applied to the major part of Zhongshan North Street in the city of Nanjing. The results show that the methods in this paper can reduce total red time of all the bus lines by 31.9% on the object arterial and thus improve the traffic efficiency of the whole arterial and promote public transport priority. PMID:25663837

  5. An evaluation of the hybrid car technology for the Mexico Mega City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jazcilevich, Aron D.; Reynoso, Agustin Garcia; Grutter, Michel; Delgado, Javier; Ayala, Ulises Diego; Lastra, Manuel Suarez; Zuk, Miriam; Oropeza, Rogelio Gonzalez; Lents, Jim; Davis, Nicole

    The introduction of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) technology in the private car fleet of Mexico City is evaluated in terms of private costs, energy, public health and CO 2 emission benefits. In addition to constructing plausible scenarios for urban expansion, emission, car fleet, and fuel consumption for year 2026 and comparing them with a 2004 base case, a time series is built to obtain accumulated economic benefits. Experimental techniques were used to build a vehicle library for a car simulator that included a Prius 2002, chosen as the HEV technology representative for this work. The simulator is used to estimate the emissions and fuel consumption of the car fleet scenarios. In the context of an urban scenario for year 2026, a complex air quality model obtains the concentrations of criterion pollutants corresponding to these scenarios. Using a technology penetration model, the hybridized fleet starts unfolding in year 2009 reaching to 20% in 2026. In this year, the hybridized fleet resulted in reductions of about 10% of CO 2 emissions, and yielded reductions in daytime mean concentrations of up to 7% in ozone and 3.4% in PM 2.5 compared to the 2004 base case. These reductions are concentrated in the densely populated areas of Mexico City. By building a time series of costs and benefits it is shown that, depending on fuel prices and using a 5% return rate, positive accumulated benefits (CO 2 benefits + energy benefits + public health benefits - private costs) will start generating in year 2015 reaching between 2.8 and 4.5 billion US Dlls in 2026. Another modernized private fleet consisting exclusively of Tier I and II cars did not yield appreciable results, signaling that a change in private car technology towards HEV's is needed to obtain significant accumulated benefits.

  6. SCSI Communication Test Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Chanh V.; D'Ambrose, John J.; Jaworski, Richard C.; Halula, Elaine M.; Thornton, David N.; Heligman, Robert L.; Turner, Michael R.

    1990-01-01

    Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) communication test bus provides high-data-rate, standard interconnection enabling communication among International Business Machines (IBM) Personal System/2 Micro Channel, other devices connected to Micro Channel, test equipment, and host computer. Serves primarily as nonintrusive input/output attachment to PS/2 Micro Channel bus, providing rapid communication for debugger. Opens up possibility of using debugger in real-time applications.

  7. Bus.py

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Timothy; Palmintier, Bryan; Hale, Elaine; Jones, Wesley

    2014-07-21

    GridLAB-D is an agent? based distribution system simulation environment that allows fine-grained end-user models, including geospatial and network topology detail. GridLAB-D addresses the lack of runtime interaction by designing a flexible communication interface, Bus.py (pronounced bus-dot-pie), that uses Python to pass messages between one or more GridLAB-D instances and a Smart Grid simulator.

  8. A hybrid model for short-term bacillary dysentery prediction in Yichang City, China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Weirong; Xu, Yong; Yang, Xiaobing; Zhou, Yikai

    2010-07-01

    Bacillary dysentery is still a common and serious public health problem in China. This paper is aimed at developing and evaluating an innovative hybrid model, which combines the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) and the generalized regression neural network (GRNN) models, for bacillary dysentery forecasting. Data of monthly bacillary dysentery incidence in Yichang City from 2000-2007 was obtained from Yichang Disease Control and Prevention Center. The SARIMA and SARIMA-GRNN model were developed and validated by dividing the data file into two data sets: data from the past 5 years was used to construct the models, and data from January to June of the 6th year was used to validate them. Simulation and forecasting performance was evaluated and compared between the two models. The hybrid SARIMA-GRNN model was found to outperform the SARIMA model with the lower mean square error, mean absolute error, and mean absolute percentage error in simulation and prediction results. Developing and applying the SARIMA-GRNN hybrid model is an effective decision supportive method for producing reliable forecasts of bacillary dysentery for the study area.

  9. Final Report for the H2Fuel Bus

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, W.D.

    1998-11-25

    The H2Fuel Bus is the world's first hydrogen-fueled electric hybrid transit bus. It was a project developed through a public/private partnership involving several leading technological and industrial organizations, with primary funding by the Department of Energy (DOE). The primary goals of the project are to gain valuable information on the technical readiness and economic viability of hydrogen fueled buses and to enhance the public awareness and acceptance of emerging hydrogen technologies.

  10. A complete geothermal energy cycle with heat pumps and hybrid HVAC systems for the city of Denizli, Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Eltez, M.; Kilkis, I.B. |

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses general aspects of maximizing geofluid effectiveness by employing hybrid cycle plants coupled to district HVAC systems. Alternative and new techniques in space heating and cooling are also discussed. A case study is presented for the district HVAC system for the city of Denizli in Turkey. Results are compared with an open-cycle, open-loop system.

  11. A hybrid procedure for MSW generation forecasting at multiple time scales in Xiamen City, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lilai; Gao, Peiqing; Cui, Shenghui; Liu, Chun

    2013-06-01

    Accurate forecasting of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation is crucial and fundamental for the planning, operation and optimization of any MSW management system. Comprehensive information on waste generation for month-scale, medium-term and long-term time scales is especially needed, considering the necessity of MSW management upgrade facing many developing countries. Several existing models are available but of little use in forecasting MSW generation at multiple time scales. The goal of this study is to propose a hybrid model that combines the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model and grey system theory to forecast MSW generation at multiple time scales without needing to consider other variables such as demographics and socioeconomic factors. To demonstrate its applicability, a case study of Xiamen City, China was performed. Results show that the model is robust enough to fit and forecast seasonal and annual dynamics of MSW generation at month-scale, medium- and long-term time scales with the desired accuracy. In the month-scale, MSW generation in Xiamen City will peak at 132.2 thousand tonnes in July 2015 - 1.5 times the volume in July 2010. In the medium term, annual MSW generation will increase to 1518.1 thousand tonnes by 2015 at an average growth rate of 10%. In the long term, a large volume of MSW will be output annually and will increase to 2486.3 thousand tonnes by 2020 - 2.5 times the value for 2010. The hybrid model proposed in this paper can enable decision makers to develop integrated policies and measures for waste management over the long term. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 7. YOSEMITE VALLEY SHUTTLE BUS AT SENTINEL BRIDGE SHUTTLE BUS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. YOSEMITE VALLEY SHUTTLE BUS AT SENTINEL BRIDGE SHUTTLE BUS AND PARKING LOT AREA. LOOKING WNW. GIS: N-37 40 36.2 / W-119 44 45.0 - Yosemite National Park Roads & Bridges, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  13. Multipurpose satellite bus (MPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School Advanced Design Project sponsored by the Universities Space Research Association Advanced Design Program is a multipurpose satellite bus (MPS). The design was initiated from a Statement of Work (SOW) developed by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The SOW called for a 'proposal to design a small, low-cost, lightweight, general purpose spacecraft bus capable of accommodating any of a variety of mission payloads. Typical payloads envisioned include those associated with meteorological, communication, surveillance and tracking, target location, and navigation mission areas.' The design project investigates two dissimilar missions, a meteorological payload and a communications payload, mated with a single spacecraft bus with minimal modifications. The MPS is designed for launch aboard the Pegasus Air Launched Vehicle (ALV) or the Taurus Standard Small Launch Vehicle (SSLV).

  14. 77 FR 48592 - Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... Livability (BLIV) initiatives funded under the Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities program, which is... used consistent with the competitive proposal and for the eligible purposes defined under 49 U.S.C... under 49 U.S.C. 5309(b)(3). In selecting projects for funding using Bus Program funds, FTA ensured...

  15. A hybrid procedure for MSW generation forecasting at multiple time scales in Xiamen City, China

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Lilai; Gao, Peiqing; Cui, Shenghui; Liu, Chun

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► We propose a hybrid model that combines seasonal SARIMA model and grey system theory. ► The model is robust at multiple time scales with the anticipated accuracy. ► At month-scale, the SARIMA model shows good representation for monthly MSW generation. ► At medium-term time scale, grey relational analysis could yield the MSW generation. ► At long-term time scale, GM (1, 1) provides a basic scenario of MSW generation. - Abstract: Accurate forecasting of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation is crucial and fundamental for the planning, operation and optimization of any MSW management system. Comprehensive information on waste generation for month-scale, medium-term and long-term time scales is especially needed, considering the necessity of MSW management upgrade facing many developing countries. Several existing models are available but of little use in forecasting MSW generation at multiple time scales. The goal of this study is to propose a hybrid model that combines the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model and grey system theory to forecast MSW generation at multiple time scales without needing to consider other variables such as demographics and socioeconomic factors. To demonstrate its applicability, a case study of Xiamen City, China was performed. Results show that the model is robust enough to fit and forecast seasonal and annual dynamics of MSW generation at month-scale, medium- and long-term time scales with the desired accuracy. In the month-scale, MSW generation in Xiamen City will peak at 132.2 thousand tonnes in July 2015 – 1.5 times the volume in July 2010. In the medium term, annual MSW generation will increase to 1518.1 thousand tonnes by 2015 at an average growth rate of 10%. In the long term, a large volume of MSW will be output annually and will increase to 2486.3 thousand tonnes by 2020 – 2.5 times the value for 2010. The hybrid model proposed in this paper can enable decision makers to

  16. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Fourth Results Report

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2013-01-01

    SunLine Transit Agency, which provides public transit services to the Coachella Valley area of California, has demonstrated hydrogen and fuel cell bus technologies for more than 10 years. In May 2010, SunLine began demonstrating the advanced technology (AT) fuel cell bus with a hybrid electric propulsion system, fuel cell power system, and lithium-based hybrid batteries. This report describes operations at SunLine for the AT fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas buses. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working with SunLine to evaluate the bus in real-world service to document the results and help determine the progress toward technology readiness. NREL has previously published three reports documenting the operation of the fuel cell bus in service. This report provides a summary of the results with a focus on the bus operation from February 2012 through November 2012.

  17. Personal Computer Monitors Instrumentation Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conroy, Bruce L.

    1994-01-01

    IBM-compatible personal computer used instead of logic analyzer or other special instrument to monitor IEEE-488 interface data bus that interconnects various pieces of laboratory equipment. Needed is short program for computer, commercial general-purpose interface bus circuit card, and adapter cable to link card to bus. Software available in Ada or Quick Basic language.

  18. Bus-Programmable Slave Card

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, William A.

    1990-01-01

    Slave microprocessors in multimicroprocessor computing system contains modified circuit cards programmed via bus connecting master processor with slave microprocessors. Enables interactive, microprocessor-based, single-loop control. Confers ability to load and run program from master/slave bus, without need for microprocessor development station. Tristate buffers latch all data and information on status. Slave central processing unit never connected directly to bus.

  19. Augmented thermal bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrage, Dean S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an augmented thermal bus. In the present design a plurity of thermo-electric heat pumps are used to couple a source plate to a sink plate. Each heat pump is individually controlled by a model based controller. The controller coordinates the heat pump to maintain isothermality in the source.

  20. Augmented Thermal Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrage, Dean S. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an augmented thermal bus. In the present design a plurality of thermo-electric heat pumps are used to couple a source plate to a sink plate. Each heat pump is individually controlled by a model based controller. The controller coordinates the heat pumps to maintain isothermality in the source.

  1. SCHOOL BUS GARAGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PALLIDINO, STEVE; STRIPLING, CHARLES W.

    COUNTY BOARDS, COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS, SCHOOL PERSONNEL, AND ARCHITECTS PLANNING BUS GARAGE FACILITIES WILL FIND THIS PUBLICATION USEFUL. DECISIONS NEED TO BE MADE IN REGARD TO WHO WILL USE THE GARAGE, WHAT PURPOSE IT SHOULD SERVE, AND WHAT KIND OF SPACES ARE NEEDED. SITE SELECTION FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED ARE LOCATION, PARKING SPACE, MANEUVERING…

  2. Common Traffic Violations of Bus Drivers in Urban China: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Rendong; Huang, Yuanxiu; Zhang, Lin; Ning, Peishan; Cheng, Xunjie; Schwebel, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To report common traffic violations in bus drivers and the factors that influence those violations in urban China. Methods We conducted an observational study to record three types of traffic violations among bus drivers in Changsha City, China: illegal stopping at bus stations, violating traffic light signals, and distracted driving. The behaviors of bus drivers on 32 routes (20% of bus routes in the city) were observed. A two-level Poisson regression examined factors that predicted bus driver violations. Results The incidence of illegal stopping at bus stations was 20.2%. Illegal stopping was less frequent on weekends, sunny days, and at stations with cameras, with adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of 0.81, 0.65 and 0.89, respectively. The incidence of violating traffic light signals was 2.2%, and was lower on cloudy than sunny days (adjusted IRR: 0.60). The incidence of distracted driving was 3.3%. The incidence of distracted driving was less common on cloudy days, rainy or snowy days, and foggy/windy/dusty days compared to sunny days, with adjusted IRRs of 0.54, 0.55 and 0.07, respectively. Conclusion Traffic violations are common in bus drivers in urban China and they are associated with the date, weather, and presence of traffic cameras at bus station. Further studies are recommended to understand the behavioral mechanisms that may explain bus driver violations and to develop feasible prevention measures. PMID:26372105

  3. Common Traffic Violations of Bus Drivers in Urban China: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiqi; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Rendong; Huang, Yuanxiu; Zhang, Lin; Ning, Peishan; Cheng, Xunjie; Schwebel, David C; Hu, Guoqing; Yao, Hongyan

    2015-01-01

    To report common traffic violations in bus drivers and the factors that influence those violations in urban China. We conducted an observational study to record three types of traffic violations among bus drivers in Changsha City, China: illegal stopping at bus stations, violating traffic light signals, and distracted driving. The behaviors of bus drivers on 32 routes (20% of bus routes in the city) were observed. A two-level Poisson regression examined factors that predicted bus driver violations. The incidence of illegal stopping at bus stations was 20.2%. Illegal stopping was less frequent on weekends, sunny days, and at stations with cameras, with adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of 0.81, 0.65 and 0.89, respectively. The incidence of violating traffic light signals was 2.2%, and was lower on cloudy than sunny days (adjusted IRR: 0.60). The incidence of distracted driving was 3.3%. The incidence of distracted driving was less common on cloudy days, rainy or snowy days, and foggy/windy/dusty days compared to sunny days, with adjusted IRRs of 0.54, 0.55 and 0.07, respectively. Traffic violations are common in bus drivers in urban China and they are associated with the date, weather, and presence of traffic cameras at bus station. Further studies are recommended to understand the behavioral mechanisms that may explain bus driver violations and to develop feasible prevention measures.

  4. Bus network redesign for inner southeast suburbs of Melbourne, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandangwati, S. T.; Milyanab, N. A.

    2017-06-01

    Public transport is the most effective mode of transport in the era of climate change and oil depletion. It can address climate change issues by reducing urban greenhouse gas emission and oil consumption while at the same time improving mobility. However, many public transport networks are not effective and instead create high operating costs with low frequencies and occupancy. Melbourne is one example of a metropolitan area that faces this problem. Even though the city has well-integrated train and tram networks, Melbourne’s bus network still needs to be improved. This study used network planning approach to redesign the bus network in the City of Glen Eira, a Local Government Area (LGA) in the southeastern part of Metropolitan Melbourne. The study area is the area between Gardenvale North and Oakleigh Station, as well as between Caulfield and Patterson Stations. This area needs network improvement mainly because of the meandering bus routes that run within it. This study aims to provide recommendations for improving the performance of bus services by reducing meandering routes, improving transfer point design and implementing coordinated timetables. The recommendations were formulated based on a ‘ready-made’ concept to increase bus occupancy. This approach can be implemented in other cities with similar problems and characteristics including those in Indonesia.

  5. Bus annunciator system

    SciTech Connect

    Carver, D.W.; Duncan, M.G.

    1981-06-09

    As a means of saving energy while minimizing the need for passenger cars, vans, and trucks in the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, buses are provided which operate along approximately 6 miles of in-plant roads. A bus annunciator system was developed, fabricated, and installed which reduces the waiting time to near zero. The system consists of three separate devices: (1) an ultrasonic transmitter attached to the side of the bus, (2) a solar-powered ultrasonic receiver and radio-frequency transmitter at roadside, and (3) a receiver-annuciator interfaced with building public address systems. The prototype has been tested in only two areas of the Y-12 Plant, but a coded transmitter and receiver make it possible to cover the entire plant. In full operation, approximately 12 roadside units would be employed to give an average of about 2 to 3 min advance notice to personnel in buildings and offices along the two bus routes inside the Y-12 Plant.

  6. Simulated Fuel Economy and Emissions Performance during City and Interstate Driving for a Heavy-Duty Hybrid Truck

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, C. Stuart; Gao, Zhiming; Smith, David E.; Laclair, Tim J.; Pihl, Josh A.; Edwards, K. Dean

    2013-04-08

    We compare simulated fuel economy and emissions for both conventional and hybrid class 8 heavy-duty diesel trucks operating over multiple urban and highway driving cycles. Both light and heavy freight loads were considered, and all simulations included full aftertreatment for NOx and particulate emissions controls. The aftertreatment components included a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), urea-selective catalytic NOx reduction (SCR), and a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). Our simulated hybrid powertrain was configured with a pre-transmission parallel drive, with a single electric motor between the clutch and gearbox. A conventional HD truck with equivalent diesel engine and aftertreatment was also simulated for comparison. Our results indicate that hybridization can significantly increase HD fuel economy and improve emissions control in city driving. However, there is less potential hybridization benefit for HD highway driving. A major factor behind the reduced hybridization benefit for highway driving is that there are fewer opportunities to utilize regenerative breaking. Our aftertreatment simulations indicate that opportunities for passive DPF regeneration are much greater for both hybrid and conventional trucks during highway driving due to higher sustained exhaust temperatures. When passive DPF regeneration is extensively utilized, the fuel penalty for particulate control is virtually eliminated, except for the 0.4%-0.9% fuel penalty associated with the slightly higher exhaust backpressure.

  7. 76 FR 37393 - FY 2011 Discretionary Livability Funding Opportunity; Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... Federal Transit Administration FY 2011 Discretionary Livability Funding Opportunity; Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities Livability Initiative Program Grants and Section 5339 Alternatives Analysis Program... in support of the Department of Transportation's (DOT) Livability Initiative: the Bus and Bus...

  8. Shared Bus Garage Serves District, City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delude, Rita

    1996-01-01

    Through a joint venture between the school district and the municipality of Scarsdale (New York), the district's buses are serviced in a $2 million maintenance and ground facility. The arrangement has reduced vehicle down time, saved wear and tear on the buses, and reduced fuel consumption. (MLF)

  9. Shared Bus Garage Serves District, City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delude, Rita

    1996-01-01

    Through a joint venture between the school district and the municipality of Scarsdale (New York), the district's buses are serviced in a $2 million maintenance and ground facility. The arrangement has reduced vehicle down time, saved wear and tear on the buses, and reduced fuel consumption. (MLF)

  10. BBIS: Beacon Bus Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasim, Shahreen; Hafit, Hanayanti; Pei Juin, Kong; Afizah Afif, Zehan; Hashim, Rathiah; Ruslai, Husni; Jahidin, Kamaruzzaman; Syafwan Arshad, Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Lack of bus information for example bus timetable, status of the bus and messy advertisement on bulletin board at the bus stop will give negative impact to tourist. Therefore, a real-time update bus information bulletin board provides all information needed so that passengers can save their bus information searching time. Supported with Android or iOS, Beacon Bus Information System (BBIS) provides bus information between Batu Pahat and Kluang area. BBIS is a system that implements physical web technology and interaction on demand. It built on Backend-as-a-Service, a cloud solution and Firebase non relational database as data persistence backend and syncs between user client in the real-time. People walk through bus stop with smart device and do not require any application. Bluetooth Beacon is used to achieve smart device's best performance of data sharing. Intellij IDEA 15 is one of the tools that that used to develop the BBIS system. Multi-language included front end and backend supported Integration development environment (IDE) helped to speed up integration process.

  11. NYCT Diesel Hybrid-Electric Buses Program Status Update

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-03-01

    Program status update focuses on the experiences gathered during New York City Transit's deployment of hybrid electric buses in its fleet. This report is part of an ongoing Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies program to study heavy-duty alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles in the United States. DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is conducting the Transit Bus Evaluation Project to compare alternative fuel or advanced technology and diesel fuel buses. Information for the comparison comes from data collected on the operational, maintenance, performance, and emissions characteristics of alternative fuel or advanced technology buses currently being used in vehicle fleets and comparable diesel fuel buses serving as controls within the same fleet. This report highlights the New York City Transit (NYCT) alternative fuel and advanced technology programs including its diesel hybrid-electric buses. As part of the NREL Transit Bus Evaluation Project, data collection and evaluation of the Orion VI diesel hybrid-electric buses at NYCT are nearly complete. Final reports from the evaluation are being prepared by NREL and Battelle (NREL's support contractor for the project) and will be available in early 2002. If you want to know more about this transit bus program, its components, advanced technology vehicles, or incentive programs, contact any of the following personnel or visit the Web sites listed.

  12. Research of intelligent bus coin box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Shihao

    2017-03-01

    In the energy-saving emission reduction of the social context, in response to low-carbon travel, buses become the majority of people choose. We have designed this sorting machine for the present situation that the bus company has received a large amount of mixed zero coins and employed a large amount of manpower to sort out and lower the efficiency. Its function is to separate the coins and notes mixed, and the coins sort storage, the display shows the value of the received coins, so that the whole mechanized inventory classification, reduce the cost of clearing up and improve the efficiency of zero cash recycling, use Simple mechanical principles for classification, to be efficient, accurate and practical. Really meet the current city bus companies, commerce and banking and other industries in order to zero notes, zero coins in the actual demand. The size and specification of this machine are designed according to the size of the bus coin box. It is suitable for almost all buses. It can be installed in the coin box directly, real-time sorting and real-time counting. The difficulty of clearing change.

  13. Euro Data Bus

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, H.E.; Hall, J.R. II; Schrock, C.B.

    1995-12-31

    With the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the opening of the Iron Curtain, a downsizing of the Defense Establishment in the West is occurring, causing industry to look for opportunities where technology used for military applications can be applied to meet former East Block countries. Among these requirements has been the urgent desire of the people in former East Block countries for access to Western media which had been denied them, and has led to numerous opportunities for the implementation of Cable Television (CATV) systems. In addition, there are also requirements for utility metering for electricity, gas, water, heat, etc. which had previously been provided to the population by the Government at little or no cost. EWT of Augsburg, Germany, previously a subcontractor to ASEC on military security system projects, who has a subsidiary, TSS, which is a prominent CATV systems house, requested ASEC to provide a system which can provide utility meter reading and other control and monitoring services utilizing CATV. Working with CableBus Systems Corporation, a CATV data communications supplier and various utility meter manufacturers, ASEC, as the System Integrator, has developed a utilities monitoring system. This system. in cooperation with EWT, is being marketed and sold in Europe as EURO DATA BUS. This paper describes EURO DATA BUS and its applications, as well as the actual system designs for two pilot applications. One system is oriented at Utility Meter Reading and Demand side Management primarily, but will also be used to demonstrate other system capabilities such as security and fire alarm monitoring, etc. The design is therefore quite straightforward and {open_quotes}standard{close_quotes}. The second system has more of an industrial orientation and involves the monitoring and load control for a Municipal Electric Utility. While well within the capabilities of the system to accomplish, a more customized design was required to meet these requirements.

  14. Test Bus Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    4.2.2-1. F-22 Vehicle Management System Architecture This discussion will concentrate on the Processor Interface Control and Communications ( PICC ...module which is used in multiple locations in the F-22 avionics. The PICC module is based on a MIL-STD-1750A processor and supporting chip set. External...differential discrete I/O signals. Each of the PICC ASICs implement the IEEE 1149.1 test bus which is routed to the module connector. 4-12 The

  15. Design of a Hybrid (Wired/Wireless) Acquisition Data System for Monitoring of Cultural Heritage Physical Parameters in Smart Cities

    PubMed Central

    García Diego, Fernando-Juan; Esteban, Borja; Merello, Paloma

    2015-01-01

    Preventive conservation represents a working method and combination of techniques which helps in determining and controlling the deterioration process of cultural heritage in order to take the necessary actions before it occurs. It is acknowledged as important, both in terms of preserving and also reducing the cost of future conservation measures. Therefore, long-term monitoring of physical parameters influencing cultural heritage is necessary. In the context of Smart Cities, monitoring of cultural heritage is of interest in order to perform future comparative studies and load information into the cloud that will be useful for the conservation of other heritage sites. In this paper the development of an economical and appropriate acquisition data system combining wired and wireless communication, as well as third party hardware for increased versatility, is presented. The device allows monitoring a complex network of points with high sampling frequency, with wired sensors in a 1-wire bus and a wireless centralized system recording data for monitoring of physical parameters, as well as the future possibility of attaching an alarm system or sending data over the Internet. This has been possible with the development of three board’s designs and more than 5000 algorithm lines. System tests have shown an adequate system operation. PMID:25815447

  16. Design of a hybrid (wired/wireless) acquisition data system for monitoring of cultural heritage physical parameters in Smart Cities.

    PubMed

    García Diego, Fernando-Juan; Esteban, Borja; Merello, Paloma

    2015-03-25

    Preventive conservation represents a working method and combination of techniques which helps in determining and controlling the deterioration process of cultural heritage in order to take the necessary actions before it occurs. It is acknowledged as important, both in terms of preserving and also reducing the cost of future conservation measures. Therefore, long-term monitoring of physical parameters influencing cultural heritage is necessary. In the context of Smart Cities, monitoring of cultural heritage is of interest in order to perform future comparative studies and load information into the cloud that will be useful for the conservation of other heritage sites. In this paper the development of an economical and appropriate acquisition data system combining wired and wireless communication, as well as third party hardware for increased versatility, is presented. The device allows monitoring a complex network of points with high sampling frequency, with wired sensors in a 1-wire bus and a wireless centralized system recording data for monitoring of physical parameters, as well as the future possibility of attaching an alarm system or sending data over the Internet. This has been possible with the development of three board's designs and more than 5000 algorithm lines. System tests have shown an adequate system operation.

  17. Tennessee Minimum School Bus Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee State Board of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The School Bus Specifications and Procedures adopted by the 2000 National Conference on School Transportation and the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) were used as guides by the Tennessee State Board of Education Pupil Transportation Advisory Committee in developing the revised minimum specifications for school bus chassis and school…

  18. Data bus system development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, J. S. J.

    1973-01-01

    Two data bus systems were designed fabricated, Data Bus System I and Data Bus System II. The technical features of the delivered hardware include the following: (1) 5 MHz selfclocking data bus; (2) bidirectional communications utilizing Manchester Code at data rates in excess of 20,000 words per second; (3) utilization of MSI COS/MOS technology (4) probability of accepting an erroneous data bit less than 1 in 10 to the 25th power (5) low power consumption (50 to 1 reduction in quiescent current over P/MOS) (6) compatibility with projected high density packaging. Three distinct types of data bus remote terminals were developed: the subsystem interface unit, the combination of an electronic interface unit and a standard interface unit-serial, and an SIU/Preprocessor.

  19. Improving Semantic Updating Method on 3d City Models Using Hybrid Semantic-Geometric 3d Segmentation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkawi, K.-H.; Abdul-Rahman, A.

    2013-09-01

    to LoD4. The accuracy and structural complexity of the 3D objects increases with the LoD level where LoD0 is the simplest LoD (2.5D; Digital Terrain Model (DTM) + building or roof print) while LoD4 is the most complex LoD (architectural details with interior structures). Semantic information is one of the main components in CityGML and 3D City Models, and provides important information for any analyses. However, more often than not, the semantic information is not available for the 3D city model due to the unstandardized modelling process. One of the examples is where a building is normally generated as one object (without specific feature layers such as Roof, Ground floor, Level 1, Level 2, Block A, Block B, etc). This research attempts to develop a method to improve the semantic data updating process by segmenting the 3D building into simpler parts which will make it easier for the users to select and update the semantic information. The methodology is implemented for 3D buildings in LoD2 where the buildings are generated without architectural details but with distinct roof structures. This paper also introduces hybrid semantic-geometric 3D segmentation method that deals with hierarchical segmentation of a 3D building based on its semantic value and surface characteristics, fitted by one of the predefined primitives. For future work, the segmentation method will be implemented as part of the change detection module that can detect any changes on the 3D buildings, store and retrieve semantic information of the changed structure, automatically updates the 3D models and visualize the results in a userfriendly graphical user interface (GUI).

  20. Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Spanish Version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    This is a Spanish-language brochure about hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles, which use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to cut U.S. petroleum use and vehicle emissions.

  1. Bus accident analysis of routes with/without bus priority.

    PubMed

    Goh, Kelvin Chun Keong; Currie, Graham; Sarvi, Majid; Logan, David

    2014-04-01

    This paper summarises findings on road safety performance and bus-involved accidents in Melbourne along roads where bus priority measures had been applied. Results from an empirical analysis of the accident types revealed significant reduction in the proportion of accidents involving buses hitting stationary objects and vehicles, which suggests the effect of bus priority in addressing manoeuvrability issues for buses. A mixed-effects negative binomial (MENB) regression and back-propagation neural network (BPNN) modelling of bus accidents considering wider influences on accident rates at a route section level also revealed significant safety benefits when bus priority is provided. Sensitivity analyses done on the BPNN model showed general agreement in the predicted accident frequency between both models. The slightly better performance recorded by the MENB model results suggests merits in adopting a mixed effects modelling approach for accident count prediction in practice given its capability to account for unobserved location and time-specific factors. A major implication of this research is that bus priority in Melbourne's context acts to improve road safety and should be a major consideration for road management agencies when implementing bus priority and road schemes.

  2. Analyzing the Relationship Between Bus Pollution Policies and Morbidity Using a Quasi-Experiment.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Nicole S

    2015-09-01

    Transit buses are used by millions of commuters every day, but they emit toxic diesel fumes. In 1988, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency implemented emission standards for transit buses, which have been continually updated. Yet there is no quantitative evidence of the health benefits from these bus pollution policies due to data constraints and confounding variables. In this study, a quasi-experiment is used to exploit the geographic and temporal variation in emission standards by using bus vintage as a proxy for bus emissions. This is accomplished using a unique, rich panel data set, which includes daily information on bus vintage and route for the New York City Transit bus fleet between 2006 and 2009. This information is merged with daily data on emergency department (ED) visits for respiratory illnesses, which include patients' residences at the census block level and exact admission date. Economic benefits resulting from these bus pollution policies are then estimated. Results show that stricter transit bus emission standards by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for particulate matter are associated with reduced ED visits for respiratory diseases for patients living within a few hundred feet of a bus route. These findings demonstrate that bus pollution policies have made critical improvements to public health.

  3. Analyzing the Relationship Between Bus Pollution Policies and Morbidity Using a Quasi-Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Nicole S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Transit buses are used by millions of commuters every day, but they emit toxic diesel fumes. In 1988, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency implemented emission standards for transit buses, which have been continually updated. Yet there is no quantitative evidence of the health benefits from these bus pollution policies due to data constraints and confounding variables. In this study, a quasi-experiment is used to exploit the geographic and temporal variation in emission standards by using bus vintage as a proxy for bus emissions. This is accomplished using a unique, rich panel data set, which includes daily information on bus vintage and route for the New York City Transit bus fleet between 2006 and 2009. This information is merged with daily data on emergency department (ED) visits for respiratory illnesses, which include patients’ residences at the census block level and exact admission date. Economic benefits resulting from these bus pollution policies are then estimated. Results show that stricter transit bus emission standards by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for particulate matter are associated with reduced ED visits for respiratory diseases for patients living within a few hundred feet of a bus route. These findings demonstrate that bus pollution policies have made critical improvements to public health. PMID:26376392

  4. Hybrid Taxis Give Fuel Economy a Lift -Clean Cities Fleet Experiences -

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-01

    The hybrid taxis are able to achieve about twice the gas mileage of a conventional taxi while helping cut gasoline use and fuel costs. Tax credits and other incentives are helping both company owners and drivers make the switch to hybrids.

  5. Whole-body vibration exposure in metropolitan bus drivers.

    PubMed

    Lewis, C A; Johnson, P W

    2012-10-01

    Back injuries are common in transit drivers, and can result in substantial direct and indirect cost to the employer and employee. Whole-body vibration (WBV) is one risk factor for drivers. Standards have been adopted (ISO 2631-1) to guide researchers in measuring and analysing WBV levels. Lately, a new standard has been added (ISO 2631-5) that takes impulsive exposures into account. The aims of this study were to determine the levels of vibration for bus drivers using both ISO 2631-1 and 2631-5 standards, and whether there are differences in vibration levels and seat transmissibility between different road types. Thirteen bus drivers drove a 7-year-old bus, instrumented to measure WBV in the seat and floor. The 52 km long test route included freeway, city streets and speed humps. Additionally, for comparison, a subset of five drivers also drove a car over the same route. Road type had a significant effect on all the vibration parameters. Based on exposure limit values in the standards, the continuous z-A (w)(8) exposures exceeded the limit value on freeways, and the impulsive z-VDV(8) and S (ed) exposures were above limit values in city streets and speed humps. Bus WBV exposures were about twice as high relative to the car and the bus seat amplified rather than attenuated WBV exposures. Bus drivers are potentially being exposed to daily vibration levels higher than recommended especially on certain road types. The current seat in this study does not attenuate the vibration.

  6. High-Speed Ring Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wysocky, Terry; Kopf, Edward, Jr.; Katanyoutananti, Sunant; Steiner, Carl; Balian, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The high-speed ring bus at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) allows for future growth trends in spacecraft seen with future scientific missions. This innovation constitutes an enhancement of the 1393 bus as documented in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1393-1999 standard for a spaceborne fiber-optic data bus. It allows for high-bandwidth and time synchronization of all nodes on the ring. The JPL ring bus allows for interconnection of active units with autonomous operation and increased fault handling at high bandwidths. It minimizes the flight software interface with an intelligent physical layer design that has few states to manage as well as simplified testability. The design will soon be documented in the AS-1393 standard (Serial Hi-Rel Ring Network for Aerospace Applications). The framework is designed for "Class A" spacecraft operation and provides redundant data paths. It is based on "fault containment regions" and "redundant functional regions (RFR)" and has a method for allocating cables that completely supports the redundancy in spacecraft design, allowing for a complete RFR to fail. This design reduces the mass of the bus by incorporating both the Control Unit and the Data Unit in the same hardware. The standard uses ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) packets, standardized by ITU-T, ANSI, ETSI, and the ATM Forum. The IEEE-1393 standard uses the UNI form of the packet and provides no protection for the data portion of the cell. The JPL design adds optional formatting to this data portion. This design extends fault protection beyond that of the interconnect. This includes adding protection to the data portion that is contained within the Bus Interface Units (BIUs) and by adding to the signal interface between the Data Host and the JPL 1393 Ring Bus. Data transfer on the ring bus does not involve a master or initiator. Following bus protocol, any BIU may transmit data on the ring whenever it has data received from its host. There

  7. Hybrid modelling for ATES planning and operation in the Utrecht city centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaxa-Rozen, Marc; Bloemendal, Martin; Kwakkel, Jan; Rostampour, Vahab

    2016-04-01

    Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) systems can significantly reduce the energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of buildings in temperate climates. However, the rapid adoption of these systems has evidenced a number of emergent issues with the operation and management of urban ATES systems, which require careful spatial planning to avoid thermal interferences or conflicts with other subsurface functions. These issues have become particularly relevant in the Netherlands, which are currently the leading market for ATES (Bloemendal et al., 2015). In some urban areas of the country, the adoption of ATES technology is thus becoming limited by the available subsurface space. This scarcity is partly caused by current approaches to ATES planning; as such, static permits tend to overestimate pumping rates and yield excessive safety margins, which in turn hamper the energy savings which could be realized by new systems. These aspects are strongly influenced by time-dependent dynamics for the adoption of ATES systems by building owners and operators, and by the variation of ATES well flows under uncertain conditions for building energy demand. In order to take these dynamics into account, previous research (Jaxa-Rozen et al., 2015) introduced a hybrid simulation architecture combining an agent-based model of ATES adoption, a Matlab control design, and a MODFLOW/SEAWAT aquifer model. This architecture was first used to study an idealized case of urban ATES development. This case evidenced a trade-off between the thermal efficiency of individual systems and the collective energy savings realized by ATES systems within a given area, which had already been suggested by other research (e.g. Sommer et al., 2015). These results also indicated that current layout guidelines may be overly conservative, and limit the adoption of new systems. The present study extends this approach to a case study of ATES planning in the city centre of Utrecht, in the Netherlands. This case is

  8. SCHOOL BUS GARAGES, 1966 REVISION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JOHNSON, HERBERT F.

    STANDARDS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ARE GIVEN FOR THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF SCHOOL BUS GARAGES INCLUDING BRIEF DISCUSSIONS OF--(1) SITE DEVELOPMENT, (2) DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION, AND (3) MECHANICAL (HEATING, PLUMBING, AND VENTILATION) AND ELECTRICAL FACTORS. (JT)

  9. Development of the Simulator for the On-demand Bus Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsubouchi, Kota; Yamato, Hiroyuki; Hiekata, Kazuo

    This paper reports the development of the simulator which helps for the introduction of On-demand Bus service. On-demand bus system is new convenient transportation system that passengers will be transported by the vehicles after they reserve a seat. The design of the introduction of On-demand Bus service is very important for the efficient operation, but there is no established theory because it is a new transportation system. The developed simulator performs well to design the On-demand Bus introduction. The result of the real field test in Moriyama City shows the answer from the simulator is realistic and it is useful information for designing efficient On-demand Bus introduction.

  10. Ring Buffered Network Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the research effort to demonstrate the integration of a data sharing technology, Ring Buffered Network Bus, in development by Dryden Flight Research Center, with an engine simulation application, the Java Gas Turbine Simulator, in development at the University of Toledo under a grant from the Glenn Research Center. The objective of this task was to examine the application of the RBNB technologies as a key component in the data sharing, health monitoring and system wide modeling elements of the NASA Aviation Safety Program (AVSP) [Golding, 1997]. System-wide monitoring and modeling of aircraft and air safety systems will require access to all data sources which are relative factors when monitoring or modeling the national airspace such as radar, weather, aircraft performance, engine performance, schedule and planning, airport configuration, flight operations, etc. The data sharing portion of the overall AVSP program is responsible for providing the hardware and software architecture to access and distribute data, including real-time flight operations data, among all of the AVSP elements. The integration of an engine code capable of numerically "flying" through recorded flight paths and weather data using a software tool that allows for distributed access of data to this engine code demonstrates initial steps toward building a system capable of monitoring and modeling the National Airspace.

  11. Drive Cycle Analysis, Measurement of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of a PHEV School Bus: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Barnitt, R.; Gonder, J.

    2011-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) collected and analyzed real-world school bus drive cycle data and selected similar standard drive cycles for testing on a chassis dynamometer. NREL tested a first-generation plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) school bus equipped with a 6.4L engine and an Enova PHEV drive system comprising a 25-kW/80 kW (continuous/peak) motor and a 370-volt lithium ion battery pack. A Bluebird 7.2L conventional school bus was also tested. Both vehicles were tested over three different drive cycles to capture a range of driving activity. PHEV fuel savings in charge-depleting (CD) mode ranged from slightly more than 30% to a little over 50%. However, the larger fuel savings lasted over a shorter driving distance, as the fully charged PHEV school bus would initially operate in CD mode for some distance, then in a transitional mode, and finally in a charge-sustaining (CS) mode for continued driving. The test results indicate that a PHEV school bus can achieve significant fuel savings during CD operation relative to a conventional bus. In CS mode, the tested bus showed small fuel savings and somewhat higher nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions than the baseline comparison bus.

  12. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Third Evaluation Report and Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes operations at Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) in Hartford for one prototype fuel cell bus and three new diesel buses operating from the same location. The prototype fuel cell bus was manufactured by Van Hool and ISE Corp. and features an electric hybrid drive system with a UTC Power PureMotion 120 Fuel Cell Power System and ZEBRA batteries for energy storage. The fuel cell bus started operation in April 2007, and evaluation results through October 2009 are provided in this report.

  13. Alternative fuel developments and overseas design influences on North American bus operations

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The continuing demands of transit agencies for solutions to reduce emissions, increase efficiency, and improve services are driving developments in the transit bus industry. This publication addresses these demands and is the first of its kind focused exclusively on bus issues. Tentative/Partial contents include: Development of a New Line of Axles for Low Floor Buses; Hybrid Electric Propulsion System for a Low Floor Bus; A Review of Natural Gas Engine Development for the Fleet Operator; High Purity LNG for Alternately-Fueled Vehicles; and A Review of Remanufactured Engine Technology for the Fleet Operator.

  14. Forecast analysis of optical waveguide bus performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledesma, R.; Rourke, M. D.

    1979-01-01

    Elements to be considered in the design of a data bus include: architecture; data rate; modulation, encoding, detection; power distribution requirements; protocol, work structure; bus reliability, maintainability; interterminal transmission medium; cost; and others specific to application. Fiber- optic data bus considerations for a 32 port transmissive star architecture, are discussed in a tutorial format. General optical-waveguide bus concepts, are reviewed. The electrical and optical performance of a 32 port transmissive star bus, and the effects of temperature on the performance of optical-waveguide buses are examined. A bibliography of pertinent references and the bus receiver test results are included.

  15. Aids to School Bus Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-01-01

    Navistar International Transportation Corporation, Chicago, IL, used three separate NASA-developed technologies in the design and testing of their 3000 Series Bus Chassis which was developed expressly for school bus applications. For structural analysis, they used the MSC/NASTRAN program which mathematically analyzes a design and predicts how it will hold up under stress. They also used the SPATE 9000 system for non-contact measurement of stress, load transfer mechanisms, detection of hidden flaws, and monitoring structural changes during fatigue testing. SPATE 9000 was based on infrared stress measurement technology developed by Langley Research Center. They also employed the Wyle Ride Quality Meter, which was developed by Langley to aid in passenger aircraft design by providing an accurate measurement of ride vibration and sound level. These numbers translate into a subjective discomfort level index. These technologies contribute to the company's 45-48 percent share of the school bus chassis market.

  16. Aids to School Bus Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Navistar International Transportation Corporation, Chicago, IL, used three separate NASA-developed technologies in the design and testing of their 3000 Series Bus Chassis which was developed expressly for school bus applications. For structural analysis, they used the MSC/NASTRAN program which mathematically analyzes a design and predicts how it will hold up under stress. They also used the SPATE 9000 system for non-contact measurement of stress, load transfer mechanisms, detection of hidden flaws, and monitoring structural changes during fatigue testing. SPATE 9000 was based on infrared stress measurement technology developed by Langley Research Center. They also employed the Wyle Ride Quality Meter, which was developed by Langley to aid in passenger aircraft design by providing an accurate measurement of ride vibration and sound level. These numbers translate into a subjective discomfort level index. These technologies contribute to the company's 45-48 percent share of the school bus chassis market.

  17. 77 FR 6172 - Discretionary Bus and Bus Facilities Program and National Research Program Funds.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... applicant will need to apply separately in TEAM for these funds. Research funds must adhere to the... Federal Transit Administration Discretionary Bus and Bus Facilities Program and National Research Program...) of FTA Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities Program and Section 5312 National Research Program Funds...

  18. School Bus Accidents and Driver Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMichael, Judith

    The study examines the rates and types of school bus accidents according to the age of the school bus driver. Accident rates in North Carolina for the school year 1971-72 were analyzed using three sources of data: accident reports, driver and mileage data, and questionnaires administered to a sample of school bus drivers. Data were obtained on…

  19. The NASA bus communications listening device software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    The development of the bus listener is presented. Special software was developed to control the 'bus interface units' (BIU) connecting each of these devices to a communications cable to form the bus communication network. The code used in the BTU is described.

  20. "Don't Miss the Bus!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberth, Jane A.

    1999-01-01

    Presents observations from the director of the National Association of Pupil Transportation concerning school bus safety, seat belts, and the state of the $15-billion school transportation industry. Increasing student use of bus transportation and delivering the school bus safety message to all concerned are addressed. (GR)

  1. Data Bus Adapts to Changing Traffic Level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lew, Eugene; Deruiter, John; Varga, Mike

    1987-01-01

    Access becomes timed when collisions threaten. Two-mode scheme used to grant terminals access to data bus. Causes bus to alternate between random accessibility and controlled accessibility to optimize performance and adapt to changing data-traffic conditions. Bus is part of 100-Mb/s optical-fiber packet data system.

  2. "Don't Miss the Bus!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberth, Jane A.

    1999-01-01

    Presents observations from the director of the National Association of Pupil Transportation concerning school bus safety, seat belts, and the state of the $15-billion school transportation industry. Increasing student use of bus transportation and delivering the school bus safety message to all concerned are addressed. (GR)

  3. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-Static Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lijuan; Gonder, Jeff; Burton, Evan; Brooker, Aaron; Meintz, Andrew; Konan, Arnaud

    2015-11-11

    This study evaluates the costs and benefits associated with the use of a plug-in hybrid electric bus and determines the cost effectiveness relative to a conventional bus and a hybrid electric bus. A sensitivity sweep analysis was performed over a number of a different battery sizes, charging powers, and charging stations. The net present value was calculated for each vehicle design and provided the basis for the design evaluation. In all cases, given present day economic assumptions, the conventional bus achieved the lowest net present value while the optimal plug-in hybrid electric bus scenario reached lower lifetime costs than the hybrid electric bus. The study also performed parameter sensitivity analysis under low market potential assumptions and high market potential assumptions. The net present value of plug-in hybrid electric bus is close to that of conventional bus.

  4. Bus Stops Location and Bus Route Planning Using Mean Shift Clustering and Ant Colony in West Jakarta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supangat, Kenny; Eko Soelistio, Yustinus

    2017-03-01

    Traffic Jam has been a daily problem for people in Jakarta which is one of the busiest city in Indonesia up until now. Even though the official government has tried to reduce the impact of traffic issues by developing a new public transportation which takes up a lot of resources and time, it failed to diminish the problem. The actual concern to this problem actually lies in how people move between places in Jakarta where they always using their own vehicle like cars, and motorcycles that fill most of the street in Jakarta. Among much other public transportations that roams the street of Jakarta, Buses is believed to be an efficient transportation that can move many people at once. However, the location of the bus stop is now have moved to the middle of the main road, and its too far for the nearby residence to access to it. This paper proposes an optimal location of optimal bus stops in West Jakarta that is experimentally proven to have a maximal distance of 350 m. The optimal location is estimated by means of mean shift clustering method while the optimal routes are calculated using Ant Colony algorithm. The bus stops locations rate of error is 0.07% with overall route area of 32 km. Based on our experiments, we believe our proposed bus stop plan can be an interesting alternative to reduce traffic congestion in West Jakarta.

  5. HERMES travels by CAN bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, Lewis G.; Shortridge, Keith; Farrell, Tony J.; Vuong, Minh; Muller, Rolf; Sheinis, Andrew I.

    2014-07-01

    The new HERMES spectrograph represents the first foray by AAO into the use of commercial off-the-shelf industrial field bus technology for instrument control, and we regard the final system, with its relatively simple wiring requirements, as a great success. However, both software and hardware teams had to work together to solve a number of problems integrating the chosen CANopen/CAN bus system into our normal observing systems. A Linux system running in an industrial PC chassis ran the HERMES control software, using a PCI CAN bus interface connected to a number of distributed CANopen/CAN bus I/O devices and servo amplifiers. In the main, the servo amplifiers performed impressively, although some experimentation with homing algorithms was required, and we hit a significant hurdle when we discovered that we needed to disable some of the encoders used during observations; we learned a lot about how servo amplifiers respond when their encoders are turned off, and about how encoders react to losing power. The software was based around a commercial CANopen library from Copley Controls. Early worries about how this heavily multithreaded library would work with our standard data acquisition system led to the development of a very low-level CANopen software simulator to verify the design. This also enabled the software group to develop and test almost all the control software well in advance of the construction of the hardware. In the end, the instrument went from initial installation at the telescope to successful commissioning remarkably smoothly.

  6. Pybus -- A Python Software Bus

    SciTech Connect

    Lavrijsen, Wim T.L.P.

    2004-10-14

    A software bus, just like its hardware equivalent, allows for the discovery, installation, configuration, loading, unloading, and run-time replacement of software components, as well as channeling of inter-component communication. Python, a popular open-source programming language, encourages a modular design on software written in it, but it offers little or no component functionality. However, the language and its interpreter provide sufficient hooks to implement a thin, integral layer of component support. This functionality can be presented to the developer in the form of a module, making it very easy to use. This paper describes a Pythonmodule, PyBus, with which the concept of a ''software bus'' can be realized in Python. It demonstrates, within the context of the ATLAS software framework Athena, how PyBus can be used for the installation and (run-time) configuration of software, not necessarily Python modules, from a Python application in a way that is transparent to the end-user.

  7. Simulations of the Fuel Economy and Emissions of Hybrid Transit Buses over Planned Local Routes

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming; LaClair, Tim J; Daw, C Stuart; Smith, David E; Franzese, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    We present simulated fuel economy and emissions city transit buses powered by conventional diesel engines and diesel-hybrid electric powertrains of varying size. Six representative city drive cycles were included in the study. In addition, we included previously published aftertreatment device models for control of CO, HC, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Our results reveal that bus hybridization can significantly enhance fuel economy by reducing engine idling time, reducing demands for accessory loads, exploiting regenerative braking, and shifting engine operation to speeds and loads with higher fuel efficiency. Increased hybridization also tends to monotonically reduce engine-out emissions, but trends in the tailpipe (post-aftertreatment) emissions involve more complex interactions that significantly depend on motor size and drive cycle details.

  8. Research development and demonstration of a fuel cell/battery powered bus system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, S.; Wimmer, R.

    1993-02-01

    During 1992, the design of the three test bed buses evolved. Georgetown participated in all the working meetings and the preliminary design review of the Test Bed Bus (TBB). Throughout the Year, Georgetown provided input on system design and integration issues, transit industry requirements, and bus performance. GU also attended technical seminars, presenting papers at two. The computer simulation 'HYBRID', developed by Georgetown, was used to assess performance of different bus designs and system control algorithms. GU also modified the simulation to be more flexible and allow easier evaluation of designs. Georgetown had Exhibitgroup design and construct, to our specifications, a fuel cell bus display with a 1/10 scale model of the TBB for use at trade shows and exhibits. Energy Partners of West Palm Beach, Florida completed their subcontract for the engineering design study of a hydrogen fueled, fuel-cell-powered multi-passenger vehicle. Georgetown performed a study to determine the size of the US bus fleet and expected new bus deliveries over the next 10 years. Trojan Battery Company of Santa Fe Springs, California conducted a study to determine the specific design characteristics required of a lead acid battery to meet the special requirements posed by hybrid vehicle operation. Finally, GU assisted the prime contractor with the design of the system controller and its control algorithms.

  9. High Speed Multiplex Bus Protocol Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-15

    Transaction 42-45 3.3.4.1-1 High Level Bus State Transition Diagram; BC-RT 48 Poll or Transaction Request 3.3.4.1-2 Response Time Out Interval Measurement 49...61 3.4-2 General Message Types 62 3.4.3-1 High Level BC State Transition Diagram - BC-RT 64 Transaction Request 3.4.3-2 High Level RT State Transition...the data base for each bus unit contains the current state of that bus unit with respect to ongoing bus communications. The bus control data base

  10. Long term application of bus monitoring system to short and medium span bridges and damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Ayaho; Lúcio, Válter J. G.; Emoto, Hisao; Tanaka, Hideaki

    2015-07-01

    In this study, as one solution to the problem for condition assessment of existing short and medium span reinforced/prestressed concrete bridges, a new monitoring method using a public bus as part of a public transit system (bus monitoring system) is proposed, along with safety indices, namely, characteristic deflection, which is relatively free from the influence of dynamic disturbances due to such factors as the roughness of the road surface, and a structural anomaly parameter. A basic study was conducted by using the results of technical verification experiments and numerical analysis simulation. This paper describes the details of not only how to assess the bridge condition by public bus vibration measured in operating on Ube City bus network as a specific example for verify the system but also what kind of consideration we need to apply the system to existing bridges in overseas country.

  11. Psychosocial Work Factors, Blood Pressure and Psychological Strain in Male Bus Operators

    PubMed Central

    CENDALES, Boris; USECHE, Sergio; GÓMEZ, Viviola

    2014-01-01

    The research aim was to predict the bus operators’ blood pressure (BP) and psychological strain using a combination of the Job-Demand Control (JDC) and Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) models. The study was conducted with a sample of 139 bus operators in the city of Bogotá (Colombia), who answered a questionnaire that included the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), the ERI Questionnaire, and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Four consecutive BP readings taken in the workplace were averaged to calculate an estimation of the bus operators’ BP. By conducting multiple linear regressions it was found that, taken together, JDC and ERI models explain 10% (F(11,139)=2,502; p=0.00) of systolic BP variance, and 34% (F(6,139)=8,638; p=0.00) of psychological strain variance. These results suggest that the JDC and ERI predictors provide complementary information which increases the probability of accurately model the bus operators’ health. PMID:24869893

  12. Electrical system architecture having high voltage bus

    DOEpatents

    Hoff, Brian Douglas [East Peoria, IL; Akasam, Sivaprasad [Peoria, IL

    2011-03-22

    An electrical system architecture is disclosed. The architecture has a power source configured to generate a first power, and a first bus configured to receive the first power from the power source. The architecture also has a converter configured to receive the first power from the first bus and convert the first power to a second power, wherein a voltage of the second power is greater than a voltage of the first power, and a second bus configured to receive the second power from the converter. The architecture further has a power storage device configured to receive the second power from the second bus and deliver the second power to the second bus, a propulsion motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus, and an accessory motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus.

  13. Magnitude and correlates of bird collisions at glass bus shelters in an urban landscape.

    PubMed

    Barton, Christine M; Riding, Corey S; Loss, Scott R

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife residing in urban landscapes face many human-related threats to their survival. For birds, collision with glass on manmade structures has been identified as a major hazard, causing hundreds of millions of avian fatalities in North America every year. Although research has investigated factors associated with bird-glass collision mortality at buildings, no prior studies have focused on bird fatalities at glass-walled bus shelters. Our objectives in this study were to describe the magnitude of bird-bus shelter collisions in the city of Stillwater, Oklahoma and assess potential predictors of collision risk, including characteristics of shelters (glass area) and surrounding land cover (e.g., vegetative features). We surveyed for bird carcasses and indirect collision evidence at 18 bus shelters over a five-month period. Linear regression and model selection results revealed that the amount of glass on shelters and the area of lawn within 50 m of shelters were both positively related to fatal bird collisions; glass area was also positively associated with observations of collision evidence on glass surfaces. After accounting for scavenger removal of carcasses, we estimate that a minimum of 34 birds are killed each year between May and September by collision with the 36 bus shelters in the city of Stillwater. While our study provides an initial look at bird fatalities at bus shelters, additional research is needed to generate a large-scale estimate of collision mortality and to assess species composition of fatalities at a national scale. Designing new bus shelters to include less glass and retrofitting existing shelters to increase visibility of glass to birds will likely reduce fatal bird collisions at bus shelters and thus reduce the cumulative magnitude of anthropogenic impacts to birds in cities.

  14. PinBus Interface Design

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Adgerson, Jewel D.; Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Richard M.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2009-12-30

    On behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, PNNL has explored and expanded upon a simple control interface that might have merit for the inexpensive communication of smart grid operational objectives (demand response, for example) to small electric end-use devices and appliances. The approach relies on bi-directional communication via the electrical voltage states of from one to eight shared interconnection pins. The name PinBus has been suggested and adopted for the proposed interface protocol. The protocol is defined through the presentation of state diagrams and the pins’ functional definitions. Both simulations and laboratory demonstrations are being conducted to demonstrate the elegance and power of the suggested approach. PinBus supports a very high degree of interoperability across its interfaces, allowing innumerable pairings of devices and communication protocols and supporting the practice of practically any smart grid use case.

  15. Avionic Data Bus Integration Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    address the hardware-software interaction between a digital data bus and an avionic system. Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) ICs and multiversion ...the SCP. In 1984, the Sperry Corporation developed a fault tolerant system which employed multiversion programming, voting, and monitoring for error... MULTIVERSION PROGRAMMING. N-version programming. 226 N-VERSION PROGRAMMING. The independent coding of a number, N, of redundant computer programs that

  16. High Energy Batteries for Hybrid Buses

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Lu

    2010-12-31

    EnerDel batteries have already been employed successfully for electric vehicle (EV) applications. Compared to EV applications, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) bus applications may be less stressful, but are still quite demanding, especially compared to battery applications for consumer products. This program evaluated EnerDel cell and pack system technologies with three different chemistries using real world HEV-Bus drive cycles recorded in three markets covering cold, hot, and mild climates. Cells were designed, developed, and fabricated using each of the following three chemistries: (1) Lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) - hard carbon (HC); (2) Lithium manganese oxide (LMO) - HC; and (3) LMO - lithium titanium oxide (LTO) cells. For each cell chemistry, battery pack systems integrated with an EnerDel battery management system (BMS) were successfully constructed with the following features: real time current monitoring, cell and pack voltage monitoring, cell and pack temperature monitoring, pack state of charge (SOC) reporting, cell balancing, and over voltage protection. These features are all necessary functions for real-world HEV-Bus applications. Drive cycle test data was collected for each of the three cell chemistries using real world drive profiles under hot, mild, and cold climate conditions representing cities like Houston, Seattle, and Minneapolis, respectively. We successfully tested the battery packs using real-world HEV-Bus drive profiles under these various climate conditions. The NMC-HC and LMO-HC based packs successfully completed the drive cycles, while the LMO-LTO based pack did not finish the preliminary testing for the drive cycles. It was concluded that the LMO-HC chemistry is optimal for the hot or mild climates, while the NMC-HC chemistry is optimal for the cold climate. In summary, the objectives were successfully accomplished at the conclusion of the project. This program provided technical data to DOE and the public for assessing

  17. Perceptions of heat risk to health: a qualitative study of professional bus drivers and their managers in Jinan, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lin; Xin, Zheng; Bai, Li; Wan, Fangjun; Wang, Yongming; Sang, Shaowei; Liu, Shouqin; Zhang, Ji; Liu, Qiyong

    2014-01-28

    Summer extreme heat threatens the health of individuals, especially persons who are involved in outdoor activities. Ensuring the normal function of a city, bus drivers are among those who participate in outdoor physical activities and are exposed to excessive heat in hot summer weather. This qualitative study was performed to explore professional bus drivers' in-depth views of extreme heat risks to their health, and ultimately develop targeted advice and policy interventions for city bus drivers. An interview-based study was performed among professional bus drivers in Jinan, China, including four focus groups with professional bus drivers (n = 37) and three interviews with their managers (n = 14). Five central themes or categories from the bus driver interviews were found: concerns about summer heat; health effects related to extreme heat; adaptive measures; barriers in implementing these adaptive measures; and suggested interventions. The beneficial role of cooling facilities (particularly air-conditioning) during extreme heat are addressed. The barriers not only impede the implementation of behavioral adaptive measures but also enhance the negative attitudes of bus drivers towards their effectiveness. The responsibilities of managers in promoting preventive actions are addressed.

  18. Perceptions of Heat Risk to Health: A Qualitative Study of Professional Bus Drivers and Their Managers in Jinan, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lin; Xin, Zheng; Bai, Li; Wan, Fangjun; Wang, Yongming; Sang, Shaowei; Liu, Shouqin; Zhang, Ji; Liu, Qiyong

    2014-01-01

    Summer extreme heat threatens the health of individuals, especially persons who are involved in outdoor activities. Ensuring the normal function of a city, bus drivers are among those who participate in outdoor physical activities and are exposed to excessive heat in hot summer weather. This qualitative study was performed to explore professional bus drivers’ in-depth views of extreme heat risks to their health, and ultimately develop targeted advice and policy interventions for city bus drivers. An interview-based study was performed among professional bus drivers in Jinan, China, including four focus groups with professional bus drivers (n = 37) and three interviews with their managers (n = 14). Five central themes or categories from the bus driver interviews were found: concerns about summer heat; health effects related to extreme heat; adaptive measures; barriers in implementing these adaptive measures; and suggested interventions. The beneficial role of cooling facilities (particularly air-conditioning) during extreme heat are addressed. The barriers not only impede the implementation of behavioral adaptive measures but also enhance the negative attitudes of bus drivers towards their effectiveness. The responsibilities of managers in promoting preventive actions are addressed. PMID:24477213

  19. Riding by the Rules: A Practical Approach to Bus Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neatrour, Paul E.

    1994-01-01

    The Johnstown (Pennsylvania) Middle School has adopted a simple, practical school bus discipline program that refers disruptive students to the bus-duty teacher to discuss the incident. The bus driver's written report activates the bus-rider training program, featuring temporary loss of riding privileges, a simulated bus ride, a safety video, a…

  20. Just Right Vehicle Network (Data Bus) Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-16

    this network to research; however, I shall concentrate on defining a precise method to define and assist in properly selecting the network (data bus...recommended – Simple Mathematical selection method used Vehicle Network Selection Conducted 2003-2005 – CAN Data Bus recommended for lower speed hard...real time control – IEEE 1394b Data Bus recommended for high speed hard real time control – Formal Trade Study Process w/ software assisted method used

  1. STUDY OF BUS TRANSPORTATION FOR RELIEF OF OVERCROWDEDNESS IN THE ST. LOUIS SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Louis Board of Education, MO.

    PRESENTED IS A REPORT ON WHAT ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI, AND 15 OTHER CITIES HAVING MORE THAN A 300,000 POPULATION ARE DOING WITH RESPECT TO THE USE OF BUS TRANSPORTATION IN RELIEVING OVERCROWDEDNESS RELATIVE TO THE PROCESS OF DESEGREGATION AND INTEGRATION OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS. THE REPORT CONTAINS FOUR SECTIONS--(1) BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE PROBLEM OF BUS…

  2. STUDY OF BUS TRANSPORTATION FOR RELIEF OF OVERCROWDEDNESS IN THE ST. LOUIS SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Louis Board of Education, MO.

    PRESENTED IS A REPORT ON WHAT ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI, AND 15 OTHER CITIES HAVING MORE THAN A 300,000 POPULATION ARE DOING WITH RESPECT TO THE USE OF BUS TRANSPORTATION IN RELIEVING OVERCROWDEDNESS RELATIVE TO THE PROCESS OF DESEGREGATION AND INTEGRATION OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS. THE REPORT CONTAINS FOUR SECTIONS--(1) BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE PROBLEM OF BUS…

  3. Efficiency and robustness of different bus network designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, John Zhen Fu; Bin Othman, Nasri; Ng, Keng Meng; Monterola, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    We compare the efficiencies and robustness of four transport networks that can be possibly formed as a result of deliberate city planning. The networks are constructed based on their spatial resemblance to the cities of Manhattan (lattice), Sudan (random), Beijing (single-blob) and Greater Cairo (dual-blob). For a given type, a genetic algorithm is employed to obtain an optimized set of the bus routes. We then simulate how commuter travels using Yen's algorithms for k shortest paths on an adjacency matrix. The cost of traveling such as walking between stations is captured by varying the weighted sums of matrices. We also consider the number of transfers a posteriori by looking at the computed shortest paths. With consideration to distances via radius of gyration, redundancies of travel and number of bus transfers, our simulations indicate that random and dual-blob are more efficient than single-blob and lattice networks. Moreover, dual-blob type is least robust when node removals are targeted but is most resilient when node failures are random. The work hopes to guide and provide technical perspectives on how geospatial distribution of a city limits the optimality of transport designs.

  4. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-Static Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lijuan; Gonder, Jeff; Burton, Evan; Brooker, Aaron; Meintz, Andrew; Konan, Arnaud

    2015-10-19

    This study evaluates the costs and benefits associated with the use of a stationary-wireless- power-transfer-enabled plug-in hybrid electric bus and determines the cost effectiveness relative to a conventional bus and a hybrid electric bus. A sensitivity sweep was performed over many different battery sizes, charging power levels, and number/location of bus stop charging stations. The net present cost was calculated for each vehicle design and provided the basis for design evaluation. In all cases, given the assumed economic conditions, the conventional bus achieved the lowest net present cost while the optimal plug-in hybrid electric bus scenario beat out the hybrid electric comparison scenario. The study also performed parameter sensitivity analysis under favorable and high unfavorable market penetration assumptions. The analysis identifies fuel saving opportunities with plug-in hybrid electric bus scenarios at cumulative net present costs not too dissimilar from those for conventional buses.

  5. Pilot Survey of Subway and Bus Stop Noise Levels

    PubMed Central

    Neitzel, Richard; Barrera, Marissa A.; Akram, Muhammad

    2006-01-01

    Excessive noise exposure is a serious global urban health problem, adversely affecting millions of people. One often cited source of urban noise is mass transit, particularly subway systems. As a first step in determining risk within this context, we recently conducted an environmental survey of noise levels of the New York City transit system. Over 90 noise measurements were made using a sound level meter. Average and maximum noise levels were measured on subway platforms, and maximum levels were measured inside subway cars and at several bus stops for comparison purposes. The average noise level measured on the subway platforms was 86 ± 4 dBA (decibel-A weighting). Maximum levels of 106, 112, and 89 dBA were measured on subway platforms, inside subway cars, and at bus stops, respectively. These results indicate that noise levels in subway and bus stop environments have the potential to exceed recommended exposure guidelines from the World Health Organization (WHO) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), given sufficient exposure duration. Risk reduction strategies following the standard hierarchy of control measures should be applied, where feasible, to reduce subway noise exposure. PMID:16802179

  6. Violence against metropolitan bus drivers and fare collectors in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Assunção, Ada Ávila; de Medeiros, Adriane Mesquita

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the correlation between sociodemographic factors and working conditions of bus workers in a metropolitan area and violence against them. METHODS This cross-sectional study used a nonprobabilistic sample estimated according to the number of workers employed in bus companies located in three cities in the Belo Horizonte metropolitan region in 2012 (N = 17,470). Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a digital questionnaire. The factors associated with violence were analyzed in two stages using Poisson regression, according to each level. The magnitude of the association was evaluated using prevalence ratios with robust variance and a statistical significance of 5%, and 95% confidence intervals were obtained. RESULTS The study sample comprised 782 drivers and 691 fare collectors; 45.0% participants reported at least one act of violence in the workplace in the last 12 months, with passengers being predominantly responsible. The age of the bus workers was inversely associated with violence. Chronic diseases, sickness absenteeism, and working conditions were also associated with violence. CONCLUSIONS The findings on the correlation between violence and working conditions are essential for implementing prevention strategies by transportation service managers. PMID:25741657

  7. Road safety issues for bus transport management.

    PubMed

    Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Giuseppina

    2013-11-01

    Because of the low percentage of crashes involving buses and the assumption that public transport improves road safety by reducing vehicular traffic, public interest in bus safety is not as great as that in the safety of other types of vehicles. It is possible that less attention is paid to the significance of crashes involving buses because the safety level of bus systems is considered to be adequate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of bus managers with respect to safety issues and the potential effectiveness of various technologies in achieving higher safety standards. Bus managers were asked to give their opinions on safety issues related to drivers (training, skills, performance evaluation and behaviour), vehicles (maintenance and advanced devices) and roads (road and traffic safety issues) in response to a research survey. Kendall's algorithm was used to evaluate the level of concordance. The results showed that the majority of the proposed items were considered to have great potential for improving bus safety. The data indicated that in the experience of the participants, passenger unloading and pedestrians crossing near bus stops are the most dangerous actions with respect to vulnerable users. The final results of the investigation showed that start inhibition, automatic door opening, and the materials and internal architecture of buses were considered the items most strongly related to bus passenger safety. Brake assistance and vehicle monitoring systems were also considered to be very effective. With the exception of driver assistance systems for passenger and pedestrian safety, the perceptions of the importance of other driver assistance systems for vehicle monitoring and bus safety were not unanimous among the bus company managers who participated in this survey. The study results showed that the introduction of new technologies is perceived as an important factor in improving bus safety, but a better understanding

  8. Priority Queuing On A Parallel Data Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallis, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    Queuing strategy for communications along shared data bus minimizes number of data lines while always assuring user of highest priority given access to bus. New system handles up to 32 user demands on 17 data lines that previously serviced only 17 demands.

  9. Controlling Multiple Registers on a Computer Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brokl, Stanley S.

    1987-01-01

    Number of addressable registers increased. Monitoring and controlling interface circuit expands capabilities of DR11-C (or equivalent) input/output port for computer that communicates with peripheral equipment via UNIBUS (or equivalent) data bus. Using only three address locations on bus, unit enables any number of external registers to be addressed, read, or written.

  10. California's Bus Driver's Training Course. Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This instructor's manual was designed to help graduates of the California Bus Driver Instructor Course provide effective instruction to school bus driver trainees. It contains enough material for 20-30 hours of classroom training. The information is organized in 12 instructional units that cover the following topics: introduction to the course;…

  11. School Bus Maintenance. Bulletin, 1948, No. 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Featherston, E. Glenn

    1948-01-01

    This bulletin is one in the series on pupil transportation issued by the Office of Education. Its purpose is to furnish information and guidance for local school administrators and others who are concerned with school bus maintenance. Programs of school bus maintenance vary among the 48 States. Presumably all contract vehicles are maintained by…

  12. Connecting Separate Computers to a Common Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawan, A. K.; Mullen, P. G.; Vadakan, V. V.

    1984-01-01

    Network bus adapter (NBA) handles protocols for computer-tocomputer communications. NBA does all protocol handling and communications with bus for its host computer, that processor of different speeds sends data to each other continuously at maximum speed. Any host can communicate with any other, or several or with all.

  13. Hidden Savings in your Bus Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newby, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    School transportation industry statistics show the annual average costs for operating and maintaining a single school bus range from $34,000 to $38,000. Operating a school bus fleet at high efficiency has a real impact on the dollars saved for a school district and the reliability of transportation service to students. In this article, the author…

  14. Hiding Solar-Array Bus Bars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hufnagel, W. F.

    1983-01-01

    End terminals mounted under cells, maximizing usable illuminated area. Reconfigured solar panel bus bars placed under cells, reducing portion of module area not occupied by active silicon. Underside of last cell in string of cells serves as contact for positive bus. Negative tab of last cell in string is wrapped around from top of cell. Tabs are connected to output boards mounted under cells.

  15. School Bus Driver Instructional Program. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. National Highway Safety Bureau.

    A standardized and comprehensive school bus driver instructional program has been developed under contract with the Federal Government. The course has been organized to provide in one package a program for developing the minimum skills and knowledge needed by the school bus driver instructor, as well as those supplemental skills and knowledge…

  16. Connecting Separate Computers to a Common Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawan, A. K.; Mullen, P. G.; Vadakan, V. V.

    1984-01-01

    Network bus adapter (NBA) handles protocols for computer-tocomputer communications. NBA does all protocol handling and communications with bus for its host computer, that processor of different speeds sends data to each other continuously at maximum speed. Any host can communicate with any other, or several or with all.

  17. Interprocessor bus switching system for simultaneous communication in plural bus parallel processing system

    DOEpatents

    Atac, R.; Fischler, M.S.; Husby, D.E.

    1991-01-15

    A bus switching apparatus and method for multiple processor computer systems comprises a plurality of bus switches interconnected by branch buses. Each processor or other module of the system is connected to a spigot of a bus switch. Each bus switch also serves as part of a backplane of a modular crate hardware package. A processor initiates communication with another processor by identifying that other processor. The bus switch to which the initiating processor is connected identifies and secures, if possible, a path to that other processor, either directly or via one or more other bus switches which operate similarly. If a particular desired path through a given bus switch is not available to be used, an alternate path is considered, identified and secured. 11 figures.

  18. Interprocessor bus switching system for simultaneous communication in plural bus parallel processing system

    DOEpatents

    Atac, Robert; Fischler, Mark S.; Husby, Donald E.

    1991-01-01

    A bus switching apparatus and method for multiple processor computer systems comprises a plurality of bus switches interconnected by branch buses. Each processor or other module of the system is connected to a spigot of a bus switch. Each bus switch also serves as part of a backplane of a modular crate hardware package. A processor initiates communication with another processor by identifying that other processor. The bus switch to which the initiating processor is connected identifies and secures, if possible, a path to that other processor, either directly or via one or more other bus switches which operate similarly. If a particular desired path through a given bus switch is not available to be used, an alternate path is considered, identified and secured.

  19. Analysis of non-regulated vehicular emissions by extractive FTIR spectrometry: tests on a hybrid car in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, F.; Grutter, M.; Jazcilevich, A.; González-Oropeza, R.

    2006-07-01

    A methodology to acquire valuable information on the chemical composition and evolution of vehicular emissions is presented. The analysis of the gases is performed by passing a constant flow of a sample gas from the tail-pipe into a 10 L multi-pass cell. The absorption spectra within the cell are obtained using an FTIR spectrometer at 0.5 cm-1 resolution along a 13.1 m optical path. Additionally, the total flow from the exhaust is continuously measured from a differential pressure sensor on a Pitot tube installed at the exit of the exhaust. This configuration aims to obtain a good speciation capability by coadding spectra during 30 s and reporting the emission (in g/km) of key and non-regulated pollutants, such as CO2, CO, NO, SO2, NH3, HCHO, NMHC, during predetermined driving routines. The advantages and disadvantages of increasing the acquisition frequency, as well as the effect of other parameters such as spectral resolution, cell volume and flow rate, are discussed. With the aim of testing and evaluating the proposed technique, experiments were performed on a dynamometer running FTP-75 and typical driving cycles of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) on a Toyota Prius hybrid vehicle. This car is an example of recent automotive technology to reach the market dedicated to reduce emissions and therefore pressing the need of low detection techniques. This study shows the potential of the proposed technique to measure and report in real time the emissions of a large variety of pollutants, even from a super ultra-low emission vehicle (SULEV). The emissions of HC's, NOx, CO and CO2 obtained here are similar to experiments performed in other locations with the same vehicle model. Some differences suggest that an inefficient combustion process and type of gasoline used in the MCMA may be partly responsible for lower CO2 and higher CO and NO emission factors. Also, a fast reduction of NO emission to very low values is observed after cold ignition, giving rise to

  20. Application of gravity model on the Korean urban bus network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Inho; Jung, Woo-Sung

    2016-11-01

    Mobility models have been studied to describe the underlying mechanism of human mobility. The mobility patterns in various transportation systems were understood with the gravity model by estimating the traffic as a simple function of population and distance. Compared to most studies on large-scale systems, we focused on the validity and characteristics of gravity model for intraurban mobility. Several variations of gravity model are applied on the urban bus systems of five medium-sized cities in Korea. The gravity model successfully estimates the intraurban traffic without universal exponents for cities. From the change of exponents by predictor types, we figure out the effect by a non-trivial relation between traffic and population in the urban areas.

  1. 75 FR 52054 - Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... 2-New York, Administrator, Region 7-Kansas One Bowling Green, Room 429, New City, MO, 901 Locust... Metropolitan Office, Region 2-New York, One Bowling Green, Room 428, New York, NY 10004-1415, Tel....

  2. Analog bus driver and multiplexer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Hancock, Bruce (Inventor); Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    For a source-follower signal chain, the ohmic drop in the selection switch causes unacceptable voltage offset, non-linearity, and reduced small signal gain. For an op amp signal chain, the required bias current and the output noise rises rapidly with increasing the array format due to a rapid increase in the effective capacitance caused by the Miller effect boosting up the contribution of the bus capacitance. A new switched source-follower signal chain circuit overcomes limitations of existing op-amp based or source follower based circuits used in column multiplexers and data readout. This will improve performance of CMOS imagers, and focal plane read-out integrated circuits for detectors of infrared or ultraviolet light.

  3. The perception of pleasantness in a product of collective use: the bus shelter.

    PubMed

    Pizzato, Gabriela; Guimarães, Lia; ten Caten, Carla

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a study on the identification of a setting whose arrangement of attributes could lead to the perception of pleasantness of a bus shelter: a product that should welcome people while waiting for the bus. Two different bus shelters typologies in the city of Porto Alegre, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were evaluated, where four attributes were under consideration. The relation between the shelters subject of the study and the surroundings was significant for defining the attributes. The setting with curve shaped cover, bench, rear wall, and surrounding vegetation was considered the most pleasant one. The seats and the rear wall were associated with the practical function of the product while the curve shaped cover and the surrounding vegetation were associated with the aesthetical function according to the participant users.

  4. Smoking close to others and butt littering at bus stops: pilot observational study.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Nick; Oliver, Jane; Thomson, George

    2014-01-01

    Background. Transportation settings such as bus stops and train station platforms are increasingly the target for new smokefree legislation. Relevant issues include secondhand smoke exposure, nuisance, litter, fire risks and the normalization of smoking. We therefore aimed to pilot study aspects of smoking behavior and butt disposal at bus stops. Methods. Systematic observation of smoking and butt disposal by smokers at bus stops. The selection of 11 sites was a mix of convenience and purposeful (bus stops on main routes) in two New Zealand cities. Results. During 27 h of observation, a total of 112 lit cigarettes were observed being smoked. Smoking occurred in the presence of: just adults (46%), both young people and adults (44%), just young people (6%) and alone (5%). An average of 6.3 adults and 3.8 young people were present at the bus stops while smoking occurred, at average minimum distances of 1.7 and 2.2 m respectively. In bus stops that included an enclosed shelter, 33% of the cigarettes were smoked inside the shelter with others present. Littering was the major form of cigarette disposal with 84% of cigarettes smoked being littered (95% CI; 77%-90%). Also, 4% of disposals were into vegetation, which may pose a fire risk. Conclusions. This pilot study is limited by its small size and various methodological aspects but it appears to be a first attempt to provide observational evidence around smoking at bus stops. The issues described could be considered by policy makers who are investigating national smokefree laws or by-laws covering transportation settings.

  5. Smoking close to others and butt littering at bus stops: pilot observational study

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Jane; Thomson, George

    2014-01-01

    Background. Transportation settings such as bus stops and train station platforms are increasingly the target for new smokefree legislation. Relevant issues include secondhand smoke exposure, nuisance, litter, fire risks and the normalization of smoking. We therefore aimed to pilot study aspects of smoking behavior and butt disposal at bus stops. Methods. Systematic observation of smoking and butt disposal by smokers at bus stops. The selection of 11 sites was a mix of convenience and purposeful (bus stops on main routes) in two New Zealand cities. Results. During 27 h of observation, a total of 112 lit cigarettes were observed being smoked. Smoking occurred in the presence of: just adults (46%), both young people and adults (44%), just young people (6%) and alone (5%). An average of 6.3 adults and 3.8 young people were present at the bus stops while smoking occurred, at average minimum distances of 1.7 and 2.2 m respectively. In bus stops that included an enclosed shelter, 33% of the cigarettes were smoked inside the shelter with others present. Littering was the major form of cigarette disposal with 84% of cigarettes smoked being littered (95% CI; 77%–90%). Also, 4% of disposals were into vegetation, which may pose a fire risk. Conclusions. This pilot study is limited by its small size and various methodological aspects but it appears to be a first attempt to provide observational evidence around smoking at bus stops. The issues described could be considered by policy makers who are investigating national smokefree laws or by-laws covering transportation settings. PMID:24688851

  6. Stress and strain of short haul bus drivers: psychophysiology as a design oriented method for analysis.

    PubMed

    Göbel, M; Springer, J; Scherff, J

    1998-05-01

    Psychophysiological measures offer objective information for workplace design according to user requirements. They are, however, rarely applied in industrial practice due to weak points from the designer's point of view, such as the differentiation of various superimposed stressors, inter-individual differences, and the effort required for data acquisition and handling. In this study a set of psychophysiological methods was used to analyse bus driver workplaces as a basis for redesign, and afterwards to evaluate design improvements. During inner-city operation bus drivers are exposed to a particular workload situation, especially due to the high density of traffic and bus stops. Their job is characterized by highly frequent and often simultaneous task execution, performed with a compulsory body posture and under exposure to vibration and noise. To reduce the workload related to the equipment and tasks of bus driving, a research project was initiated to design a new driver workplace that meets the specific ergonomic requirements of the drivers. A detailed workload analysis, consisting of a task analysis, a strain analysis derived from ECG measures and an eye movement analysis was performed during public bus driving in different cities and with different drivers and bus types. Although the results have to be considered as somewhat limited owing to the methodological restraints and conditions of a field study, they provided valuable guidance for design. A new concept for the driver cabin was created based on this database. After installation, this design was evaluated by similar psychophysiological measures. Comparison of the pre- and post results indicates that the redesigned work station reduced workload levels.

  7. Radiation-Tolerant Dual Data Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinstler, Gary A.

    2007-01-01

    An architecture, and a method of utilizing the architecture, have been proposed to enable error-free operation of a data bus that includes, and is connected to, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) circuits and components that are inherently susceptible to singleevent upsets [SEUs (bit flips caused by impinging high-energy particles and photons)]. The architecture and method are applicable, more specifically, to data-bus circuitry based on the Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1394b standard for a high-speed serial bus.

  8. 49 CFR 605.19 - Approval of school bus operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... school bus operations. (a) The Administrator will consider the comments filed by private school bus... the administrator to private school bus operators required to be notified under § 605.16. (e) Private... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval of school bus operations. 605.19 Section...

  9. 49 CFR 605.19 - Approval of school bus operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Approval of school bus operations. 605.19 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS School Bus Agreements § 605.19 Approval of school bus operations. (a) The Administrator will consider the comments filed by private school...

  10. 49 CFR 605.19 - Approval of school bus operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Approval of school bus operations. 605.19 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS School Bus Agreements § 605.19 Approval of school bus operations. (a) The Administrator will consider the comments filed by private school...

  11. 49 CFR 605.19 - Approval of school bus operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Approval of school bus operations. 605.19 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS School Bus Agreements § 605.19 Approval of school bus operations. (a) The Administrator will consider the comments filed by private school...

  12. 49 CFR 605.19 - Approval of school bus operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Approval of school bus operations. 605.19 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS School Bus Agreements § 605.19 Approval of school bus operations. (a) The Administrator will consider the comments filed by private school...

  13. Short-range evaluation of air pollution near bus and railway stations.

    PubMed

    Corfa, E; Maury, F; Segers, P; Fresneau, A; Albergel, A

    2004-12-01

    In the early morning, during workdays, intensive activity is observed at both bus and railway stations. This particular time is critical because of the combination of three factors: (1) simultaneous departure of many buses and trains, (2) cold engines, and, quite frequently, (3) stable meteorological conditions. In our approach, we use ARIA Local, a simulation package applying CFD tools to air pollution modeling, to study different scenarios. The CFD model used in this study is the MERCURE model, developed by Electricite de France. For a bus station, we simulate a typical morning peak hour situation and study in detail how the pollution is accumulated in the station courtyard and the impact on the close vicinity. Two scenarios are presented: one with classical diesel engine and one with buses using AQUAZOL or NGV fuel. The definition of the sources inside the Eulerian grid is described as static linear sources. The total emission is averaged over the mean path driven by the bus from the bus stop to the exit of the bus station. For a railway station, we simulate a situation in a real railway station within the city of Paris. The emission from a diesel "locomotive" and its impact on air quality is computed and compared to the impact of other nonmobile emissions. In this case, the definition of sources is described as mobile point sources following the trajectory of the train. These two scenarios are discussed in an urban context, taking into account the flow around buildings and different meteorological conditions.

  14. A bi-objective optimization approach for exclusive bus lane selection and scheduling design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoo, Hooi Ling; Eng Teoh, Lay; Meng, Qiang

    2014-07-01

    This study proposes a methodology to solve the integrated problems of selection and scheduling of the exclusive bus lane. The selection problem intends to determine which roads (links) should have a lane reserved for buses while the scheduling problem intends to find the time period of the application. It is formulated as a bi-objective optimization model that aims to minimize the total travel time of non-bus traffic and buses simultaneously. The proposed model formulation is solved by the hybrid non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm with Paramics. The results show that the proposed methodology is workable. Sets of Pareto solutions are obtained indicating that a trade-off between buses and non-bus traffic for the improvement of the bus transit system is necessary when the exclusive bus lane is applied. This allows the engineer to choose the best solutions that could balance the performance of both modes in a multimode transport system environment to achieve a sustainable transport system.

  15. Effect of periodic inflow on speed-controlled shuttle bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the dynamic behavior of a shuttle bus controlled the speed when passengers come periodically at the origin. We propose the nonlinear-map model for the dynamics of the speed-controlled bus with the periodic inflow. The bus schedule is closely connected to the motion. The motion of the speed-controlled bus is affected by the periodic inflow. The motion of the shuttle bus depends highly on both speed control and periodic inflow. The shuttle bus displays the periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic motions by varying both periodic inflow and speed control. We clarify the dependence of the bus motion on both speed control and periodic inflow.

  16. Effect of speedup delay on shuttle bus schedule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    We study the bus schedule in the shuttle bus transportation system controlled by speedup. The bus schedule is closely related to the dynamic motion of the bus. The motion of a shuttle bus depends on the inflow rate of passengers and the delayed speedup control. The delayed speedup control has an important effect on the dynamic motion of the bus. We present the delayed map model for the dynamics of the shuttle bus with the delayed speedup control. The bus motion changes from a stable state, through a periodic state, to a quasi-periodic state by the delayed speedup control. The return map of the tour time displays a smooth closed curve and the bus motion is quasi-periodic. The dynamic transition to the quasi-periodic motion changes greatly with the delay time. We clarify the effect of the delayed speedup control on the bus schedule.

  17. MIL-STD-1553 Dual Redundant Remote Terminal Unit, BUS Controller and BUS Monitor Superhybrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Steven N.

    This paper describes the performance, physical, and electrical characteristics of the BUS-65600 Superhybrid. The Superhybrid is a programmable, fully compliant MIL-STD-1553 Dual Redundant Remote Terminal Unit (RTU), BUS Controller (BC) and BUS Monitor (BM). The BUS-65600 requires an external transceiver, clock, and transformers to provide a fully functional terminal interface. A discussion of the next generation CMOS Silicon-On-Sapphire (SOS) single monolithic chip RTU/BC/BM is included. The special features and capabilities, along with special package technologies are highlighted. The Superhybrid has a Direct Memory Access computer interface plus special control lines which are fully described.

  18. An Interconnect Bus Power Optimization Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    En, Yun-Fei; Zhu, Zhang-Ming; Hao, Yue

    2010-07-01

    A simple yet accurate interconnect parasitical capacitance model is presented. Based on this model a novel interconnect bus optimization methodology is proposed. Combining wire spacing with wire ordering, this methodology focuses on bus dynamic power optimization with consideration of bus performance requirements. The optimization methodology is verified under a 65 nm technology node and it shows that with 50% slack in the routing space, a 33.03% power saving can be provided by the proposed optimization methodology for an intermediate video bus compared to the 27.68% power saving provided by uniform spacing technology. The proposed methodology is especially suitable for computer-aided design of nanometer scale on-chip buses.

  19. TMS communications software. Volume 2: Bus interface unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregor, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    A data bus communication system to support the space shuttle's Trend Monitoring System (TMS) and to provide a basis for evaluation of the bus concept is described. Installation of the system included developing both hardware and software interfaces between the bus and the specific TMS computers and terminals. The software written for the microprocessor-based bus interface units is described. The software implements both the general bus communications protocol and also the specific interface protocols for the TMS computers and terminals.

  20. The Impact on Traffic Safety in Bus Stop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kailun; Guang, Xiaoping; Qian, Yongsheng

    The article improves the attraction of public transportation system when the safety is taken into account during the selection of bus stops. In this paper, the characteristics of traffic conflict at bus stops is analyzed from various types of bus stops and the applicability of bus stations is proposed in comply with provisions of security. It has a certain reference value on selection of bus stops.

  1. Systems evaluation of thermal bus concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalmach, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal bus concepts, to provide a centralized thermal utility for large, multihundred kilowatt space platforms, were studied and the results are summarized. Concepts were generated, defined, and screened for inclusion in system level thermal bus trades. Parametric trade studies were conducted in order to define the operational envelope, performance, and physical characteristics of each. Two concepts were selected as offering the most promise for thermal bus development. All of four concepts involved two phase flow in order to meet the required isothermal nature of the thermal bus. Two of the concepts employ a mechanical means to circulate the working fluid, a liquid pump in one case and a vapor compressor in another. Another concept utilizes direct osmosis as the driving force of the thermal bus. The fourth concept was a high capacity monogroove heat pipe. After preliminary sizing and screening, three of these concepts were selected to carry into the trade studies. The monogroove heat pipe concept was deemed unsuitable for further consideration because of its heat transport limitations. One additional concept utilizing capillary forces to drive the working fluid was added. Parametric system level trade studies were performed. Sizing and weight calculations were performed for thermal bus sizes ranging from 5 to 350 kW and operating temperatures in the range of 4 to 120 C. System level considerations such as heat rejection and electrical power penalties and interface temperature losses were included in the weight calculations.

  2. A software bus for thread objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John R.; Li, Dehuai

    1995-01-01

    The authors have implemented a software bus for lightweight threads in an object-oriented programming environment that allows for rapid reconfiguration and reuse of thread objects in discrete-event simulation experiments. While previous research in object-oriented, parallel programming environments has focused on direct communication between threads, our lightweight software bus, called the MiniBus, provides a means to isolate threads from their contexts of execution by restricting communications between threads to message-passing via their local ports only. The software bus maintains a topology of connections between these ports. It routes, queues, and delivers messages according to this topology. This approach allows for rapid reconfiguration and reuse of thread objects in other systems without making changes to the specifications or source code. A layered approach that provides the needed transparency to developers is presented. Examples of using the MiniBus are given, and the value of bus architectures in building and conducting simulations of discrete-event systems is discussed.

  3. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and mutagenicity in bus drivers and mail carriers exposed to urban air pollution in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Ase Marie; Wallin, Håkan; Binderup, Mona Lise; Dybdahl, Marianne; Autrup, Herman; Loft, Steffen; Knudsen, Lisbeth Ehlert

    2004-01-10

    Previous studies in Denmark have shown that bus drivers and tramway employees were at an increased risk for developing several types of cancer and that bus drives from central Copenhagen have high levels of biomarkers of DNA damage. The present study evaluates 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations and mutagenic activity in urine as biomarkers of exposure in non-smoking bus drivers in city and rural areas on a work day and a day off and in non-smoking mail carriers working outdoors (in the streets) and indoors (in the office). Twenty-four hour urine samples were collected on a working day and a day off from 60 non-smoking bus drivers in city and rural areas and from 88 non-smoking mail carriers working outdoors (in the streets) and indoors (in the office). The concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene was measured by means of HPLC and the mutagenic activity was assessed by the Ames assay with Salmonella tester strain YG1021 and S9 mix. The N-acetyltransferase (NAT2) phenotype was used as a biomarker for susceptibility to mutagenic/carcinogenic compounds. Bus drivers excreted more 1-hydroxypyrene in urine than did mail carriers. The differences were slightly smaller when NAT2 phenotype, cooking at home, exposure to vehicle exhaust, and performing physical exercise after work were included. The NAT2 slow acetylators had 29% (1.29 [CI: 1.15-1.98]) higher 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations in urine than the fast acetylators. Male bus drivers had 0.92 revertants/mol creatinine [CI: 0.37-1.47] and female bus drivers 1.90 revertants/mol creatinine [CI: 1.01-2.79] higher mutagenic activity in urine than mail carriers. The present study indicates that bus drivers are more exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and mutagens than mail carriers. Mail carriers who worked outdoors had higher urinary concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene, a marker of exposure to PAH, than those working indoors. The individual levels of urinary mutagenic activity were not correlated to excretion of 1

  4. Accompanied by his wife, ISS Expedition 48-49 crewmember Anatoly Ivanishin of Roscosmos walks to a bus at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia June 24 as he and his crewmates departed for their launch site at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Kate Rubins of NASA, Ivanishin and Takuya Onishi of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency will launch July 7 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on the Soyuz MS-01 spacecraft for a planned four-month mission on the International Space Station...NASA/Stephanie Stoll.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-24

    Accompanied by his wife, ISS Expedition 48-49 crewmember Anatoly Ivanishin of Roscosmos walks to a bus at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia June 24 as he and his crewmates departed for their launch site at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Kate Rubins of NASA, Ivanishin and Takuya Onishi of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency will launch July 7 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on the Soyuz MS-01 spacecraft for a planned four-month mission on the International Space Station. NASA/Stephanie Stoll

  5. GENERAL: Connectivity correlations in three topological spaces of urban bus-transport networks in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yong-Zhou; Fu, Chun-Hua; Chang, Hui; Li, Nan; He, Da-Ren

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, an empirical investigation is presented, which focuses on unveiling the universality of connectivity correlations in three spaces (the route space, the stop geographical space and bus-transferring space) of urban bus-transport networks (BTNs) in four major cities of China. The underlying features of the connectivity correlations are shown in two statistical ways. One is the correlation between the (weighted) average degree of all the nearest neighbouring vertices with degree k, (Knnw (k)) Knn(k), and k, and the other is the correlations between the assortativity coefficient r and, respectively, the network size N, the network diameter D, the averaged clustering coefficient C, and the averaged distance . The obtained results show qualitatively the same connectivity correlations of all the considered cities under all the three spaces.

  6. Dynamic Bus Travel Time Prediction Models on Road with Multiple Bus Routes.

    PubMed

    Bai, Cong; Peng, Zhong-Ren; Lu, Qing-Chang; Sun, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and real-time travel time information for buses can help passengers better plan their trips and minimize waiting times. A dynamic travel time prediction model for buses addressing the cases on road with multiple bus routes is proposed in this paper, based on support vector machines (SVMs) and Kalman filtering-based algorithm. In the proposed model, the well-trained SVM model predicts the baseline bus travel times from the historical bus trip data; the Kalman filtering-based dynamic algorithm can adjust bus travel times with the latest bus operation information and the estimated baseline travel times. The performance of the proposed dynamic model is validated with the real-world data on road with multiple bus routes in Shenzhen, China. The results show that the proposed dynamic model is feasible and applicable for bus travel time prediction and has the best prediction performance among all the five models proposed in the study in terms of prediction accuracy on road with multiple bus routes.

  7. Dynamic Bus Travel Time Prediction Models on Road with Multiple Bus Routes

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Cong; Peng, Zhong-Ren; Lu, Qing-Chang; Sun, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and real-time travel time information for buses can help passengers better plan their trips and minimize waiting times. A dynamic travel time prediction model for buses addressing the cases on road with multiple bus routes is proposed in this paper, based on support vector machines (SVMs) and Kalman filtering-based algorithm. In the proposed model, the well-trained SVM model predicts the baseline bus travel times from the historical bus trip data; the Kalman filtering-based dynamic algorithm can adjust bus travel times with the latest bus operation information and the estimated baseline travel times. The performance of the proposed dynamic model is validated with the real-world data on road with multiple bus routes in Shenzhen, China. The results show that the proposed dynamic model is feasible and applicable for bus travel time prediction and has the best prediction performance among all the five models proposed in the study in terms of prediction accuracy on road with multiple bus routes. PMID:26294903

  8. School Bus and School Pupil Activity Bus Inspection and Maintenance Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowash, Fred W.

    This publication deals with suggested maintenance standards that apply to vehicles used for pupil transportation in California and covers all the safety-related systems that are common to most buses. The guide has been prepared to help all school bus and school pupil activity bus operators set up an inspection and preventive maintenance program…

  9. Sexual Harassment on the School Bus: Supporting and Preparing Bus Drivers to Respond Appropriately

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Melissa; Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.; Heaton, Emily; Parkinson, Marisa

    2003-01-01

    Sexual harassment is commonplace in schools, particularly among adolescents. Although information on this topic is typically gathered from students and teachers, this study collected information from school bus drivers. Based on feedback from 58 school bus drivers, 39 (67%) reported observing students making sexual comments or jokes. Almost half…

  10. Bullying and Aggression on the School Bus: School Bus Drivers' Observations and Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deLara, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Every school day bus drivers are responsible for transporting children safely over many miles, yet they are rarely polled for their opinions or contributions to school safety. School bus drivers are in a unique position to inform the discussion on aggressive behavior during the school day. This exploratory study collected information from school…

  11. Urban air quality comparison for bus, tram, subway and pedestrian commutes in Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Teresa; Reche, Cristina; Rivas, Ioar; Cruz Minguillón, Maria; Martins, Vânia; Vargas, Concepción; Buonanno, Giorgio; Parga, Jesus; Pandolfi, Marco; Brines, Mariola; Ealo, Marina; Sofia Fonseca, Ana; Amato, Fulvio; Sosa, Garay; Capdevila, Marta; de Miguel, Eladio; Querol, Xavier; Gibbons, Wes

    2015-10-01

    Access to detailed comparisons in air quality variations encountered when commuting through a city offers the urban traveller more informed choice on how to minimise personal exposure to inhalable pollutants. In this study we report on an experiment designed to compare atmospheric contaminants inhaled during bus, subway train, tram and walking journeys through the city of Barcelona. Average number concentrations of particles 10-300 nm in size, N, are lowest in the commute using subway trains (N<2.5×10(4) part. cm(-3)), higher during tram travel and suburban walking (2.5×10(4) cm(-3)bus or walking in the city centre (N>5.0×10(4) cm(-3)), with extreme transient peaks at busy traffic crossings commonly exceeding 1.0×10(5) cm(-3) and accompanied by peaks in Black Carbon and CO. Subway particles are coarser (mode 90 nm) than in buses, trams or outdoors (<70 nm), and concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and Black Carbon are lower in the tram when compared to both bus and subway. CO2 levels in public transport reflect passenger numbers, more than tripling from outdoor levels to >1200 ppm in crowded buses and trains. There are also striking differences in inhalable particle chemistry depending on the route chosen, ranging from aluminosiliceous at roadsides and near pavement works, ferruginous with enhanced Mn, Co, Zn, Sr and Ba in the subway environment, and higher levels of Sb and Cu inside the bus. We graphically display such chemical variations using a ternary diagram to emphasise how "air quality" in the city involves a consideration of both physical and chemical parameters, and is not simply a question of measuring particle number or mass. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterisation of vibration input to flywheel used on urban bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Kanarachos, S.; Christensen, J.

    2016-09-01

    Vibration induced from road surface has an impact on the durability and reliability of electrical and mechanical components attached on the vehicle. There is little research published relevant to the durability assessment of a flywheel energy recovery system installed on city and district buses. Relevant international standards and legislations were reviewed and large discrepancy was found among them, in addition, there are no standards exclusively developed for kinetic energy recovery systems on vehicles. This paper describes the experimentation of assessment of road surface vibration input to the flywheel on a bus as obtained at the MIRA Proving Ground. Power density spectra have been developed based on the raw data obtained during the experimentation. Validation of this model will be carried out using accelerated life time tests that will be carried out on a shaker rig using an accumulated profile based on the theory of fatigue damage equivalence in time and frequency domain aligned with the model predictions.

  13. Modeling a bus through a sequence of traffic lights.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Jorge; Muñoz, Víctor; Rogan, José; Zarama, Roberto; Penagos, Juan Felipe; Toledo, Benjamín; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro

    2015-07-01

    We propose a model of a bus traveling through a sequence of traffic lights, which is required to stop between the traffic signals to pick up passengers. A two dimensional model, of velocity and traveled time at each traffic light, is constructed, which shows non-trivial and chaotic behaviors for realistic city traffic parameters. We restrict the parameter values where these non-trivial and chaotic behaviors occur, by following analytically and numerically the fixed points and period 2 orbits. We define conditions where chaos may arise by determining regions in parameter space where the maximum Lyapunov exponent is positive. Chaos seems to occur as long as the ratio of the braking and accelerating capacities are greater than about ∼3.

  14. ORION II bus demonstration. Demonstration report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Shanley, J.

    1989-02-01

    The Central New York Regional Transportation Authority conducted an 18-month demonstration to determine how the ORION II bus operates in actual service. The ORION II vehicle is a small low floor, accessible heavy duty, diesel-powered transit bus designed to meet the needs of the elderly and handicapped. It has the capacity to seat 26 passengers with 4 wheelchair lockdowns. Side and rear doors are equipped with electrically powered ramps. Eight Thomas vehicles (22-foot, 11,500 lbs, wheelchair equipped, gasoline fueled) were also tested during the demonstration period. Operations (fuel and oil usage) and maintenance (scheduled and unscheduled) data were collected and charted-out in the report as well as driver, passenger, and maintenance surveys. This report provides descriptions, photographs, and comparison charts of both the diesel-fueled ORION II transit bus and the gasoline-fueled Thomas vehicles along with the demonstration test plan, evaluations, conclusions, and survey results.

  15. Factors affecting the probability of bus drivers being at-fault in bus-involved accidents.

    PubMed

    Goh, Kelvin; Currie, Graham; Sarvi, Majid; Logan, David

    2014-05-01

    Previous research has provided little insight into factors that influence the probability of bus drivers being at-fault in bus-involved accidents. In this study, an analysis was conducted on accident data compiled by a bus company that include an assessment on whether the bus driver was deemed by the company to hold primary responsibility for accident occurrence. Using a mixed logit modelling approach, roadway/environmental, vehicle and driver related variables that were identified to be influential were road type, speed limit, traffic/lighting conditions, bus priority, bus age/length and driver's age/gender/experience/historic at-fault accident record. Results were indicative of possible confined road-space issues that bus drivers face along routes with roadside traffic friction and point to the provision of exclusive right of way for buses as a possible way to address this. Results also suggest benefits in assigning routes comprising mainly divided roads as well as newer and shorter buses to less experienced drivers.

  16. A comparison study of different semi-active hybrid energy storage system topologies for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ziyou; Hofmann, Heath; Li, Jianqiu; Han, Xuebing; Zhang, Xiaowu; Ouyang, Minggao

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, four different semi-active hybrid energy storage systems (HESSs), which use both supercapacitors (SCs) and batteries, are compared based on an electric city bus running the China Bus Driving Cycle (CBDC). The SC sizes of the different HESS topologies are optimized by using the dynamic programming (DP) approach, based on a dynamic degradation model of the LiFePO4 battery. The operation costs of different HESSs, including the electricity and the battery degradation costs over a whole CBDC, are minimized in the optimization process. Based on the DP results, near-optimal control strategies of different HESSs for on-line uses are proposed. Finally, the four HESS topologies are comprehensively compared from different aspects, including operation cost, initial cost, and DC bus voltage variation. Simulation results show that all HESS topologies have their merits and drawbacks, and can be used in different applications with different requirements. In addition, about 50% of the operation cost of the energy storage system is reduced by the semi-active HESSs when compared to the battery-only topology. Thus the effectiveness of adopting the SC in the HESS is verified.

  17. Risk factors affecting fatal bus accident severity: Their impact on different types of bus drivers.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Ci, Yusheng; Zhang, Guohui

    2016-01-01

    While the bus is generally considered to be a relatively safe means of transportation, the property losses and casualties caused by bus accidents, especially fatal ones, are far from negligible. The reasons for a driver to incur fatalities are different in each case, and it is essential to discover the underlying risk factors of bus fatality severity for different types of drivers in order to improve bus safety. The current study investigates the underlying risk factors of fatal bus accident severity to different types of drivers in the U.S. by estimating an ordered logistic model. Data for the analysis are retrieved from the Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA) database from the USA for the years 2006-2010. Accidents are divided into three levels by counting their equivalent fatalities, and the drivers are classified into three clusters by the K-means cluster analysis. The analysis shows that some risk factors have the same impact on different types of drivers, they are: (a) season; (b) day of week; (c) time period; (d) number of vehicles involved; (e) land use; (f) manner of collision; (g) speed limit; (h) snow or ice surface condition; (i) school bus; (j) bus type and seating capacity; (k) driver's age; (l) driver's gender; (m) risky behaviors; and (n) restraint system. Results also show that some risk factors only have impact on the "young and elder drivers with history of traffic violations", they are: (a) section type; (b) number of lanes per direction; (c) roadway profile; (d) wet road surface; and (e) cyclist-bus accident. Notably, history of traffic violations has different impact on different types of bus drivers.

  18. Design of multi-mission spacecraft bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, Brij N.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary design of a multimission spacecraft bus for meteorological and communications payloads. The meteorological payload uses sun-synchronous circular orbit and the communications payload uses Molniya type orbit to provide communications for areas not covered by geosynchronous communications satellites. The launch vehicles are Pegasus for the meteorological payload and Taurus for the communications payload. The spacecraft bus uses three-axis stabilization consisting of a three reaction wheel system. The electric power system consists of single-axis tracking silicon solar array and Ni2 H2 batteries. The propulsion subsystem consists of six hydrazine thrusters and one propellant tank.

  19. Bus training for developmentally disabled adults.

    PubMed

    Robinson, D; Griffith, J; McComish, K; Swasbrook, K

    1984-07-01

    The effectiveness of a program combining classroom and community training in the teaching of bus-riding skills to developmentally disabled adults. These skills were taught sequentially using questions about a slide presentation, role playing, and performance in the natural environment. The experimental design was based upon the work of Neef, Iwata, and Page (1978). Test trials were conducted after each phase of training. Results showed that all subjects learned the necessary bus-riding skills and maintained their performance throughout the follow-up period of at least 1 year. The combination training method proved to be efficient and cost effective.

  20. Lightweight power bus for a baseload nuclear reactor in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massie, Lowell D.; Hoffman, Dennis J.; Oberly, Charles E.

    Metallic superconductors requiring refrigeration in the range of 4 to 10 K are of no benefit to the baseload space power system bus because the refrigeration and insulation constraints are too severe. The ceramic superconductors that can operate in the range of 20 to 100 K alleviate a great deal of the refrigeration problem and can compete with conventional hot bus distribution systems on the basis of mass for a bus exceeding a few meters in length. The ultimate benefit of the superconducting bus to the space power system will not be the mass savings. The great benefit of the superconducting bus will be the enormous reduction in bus voltage requirements due to the zero voltage drop along the bus. Low bus voltage (less than 100 Vdc) will permit a conventional dielectric insulation technology to be utilized as baseload powers are forced above 10 kW on spacecraft.

  1. 214. RUSTIC BUS SHELTER, GUARDRAILS AND LAMP POST BELLE HAVEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    214. RUSTIC BUS SHELTER, GUARDRAILS AND LAMP POST BELLE HAVEN BUS STOP WIDENING, 1932. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  2. 24. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF GENERATOR BUS POTENTIAL FOR UNIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF GENERATOR BUS POTENTIAL FOR UNIT NO 1 IN BUS CELL GALLERY ON LEVEL +77 OF POWERHOUSE #1. - Bonneville Project, Powerhouse No.1, Spanning Bradford Slough, from Bradford Island, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  3. The crew activity planning system bus interface unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    The hardware and software designs used to implement a high speed parallel communications interface to the MITRE 307.2 kilobit/second serial bus communications system are described. The primary topic is the development of the bus interface unit.

  4. In-use fuel economy of hybrid-electric school buses in Iowa.

    PubMed

    Hallmark, Shauna; Sperry, Bob; Mudgal, Abhisek

    2011-05-01

    Although it is much safer and more fuel-efficient to transport children to school in buses than in private vehicles, school buses in the United States still consume 822 million gal of diesel fuel annually, and school transportation costs can account for a significant portion of resource-constrained school district budgets. Additionally, children in diesel-powered school buses may be exposed to higher levels of particulates and other pollutants than children in cars. One solution to emission and fuel concerns is use of hybrid-electric school buses, which have the potential to reduce emissions and overall lifecycle costs compared with conventional diesel buses. Hybrid-electric technologies are available in the passenger vehicle market as well as the transit bus market and have a track record indicating fuel economy and emissions benefits. This paper summarizes the results of an in-use fuel economy evaluation for two plug-in hybrid school buses deployed in two different school districts in Iowa. Each school district selected a control bus with a route similar to that of the hybrid bus. Odometer readings, fuel consumption, and maintenance needs were recorded for each bus. The buses were deployed in 2008 and data were collected through May 2010. Fuel consumption was calculated for each school district. In Nevada, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.23 mpg for the hybrid and 6.35 mpg for the control bus. In Sigourney, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.94 mpg for the hybrid and 6.42 mpg for the control bus. The fuel consumption data were compared for the hybrid and control buses using a Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results indicate that fuel economy for the Nevada hybrid bus was 29.6% better than for the Nevada control bus, and fuel economy for the Sigourney hybrid bus was 39.2% higher than for the Sigourney control bus. Both differences were statistically significant.

  5. [Prevalance of overweight and obesity among professional bus drivers in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Zinser, José Valente; Irigoyen-Camacho, Maria Esther; Ruiz-García-Rubio, Vanesa; Pérez-Ramírez, Mireya; Guzmán-Carranza, Sandra; Velázquez-Alva, María del Consuelo; Cervantes-Valencia, Luis Manuel

    2007-01-01

    Identify the prevalence of overweight and obesity among professional bus drivers working in the federal public transport system (BDPTS) examined at the Transport Ministry (TM) in Mexico City. Data from 4804 men, who attended the TM for their medical evaluation needed to obtain a driver's license were included in the study. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated for each subject. A linear regression model was constructed to compare BMI of those already working as bus drivers and subjects applying for license expedition (controlling for age). Mean age, weight and height was: 35.7 years-old (+/- 9.3), 78.4 kg (+/- 11.1), 167.3 cm (+/- 5.5), respectively. 10.2% of subjects displayed short stature (< or =160 cm). In the BDPTS, among the 20-29 age range, the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 52.7% and 22.5%, respectively; the age group with the highest prevalence of obesity (33.4%) was the 40-49 years-old. We observed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity among bus drivers examined, with young adults also affected by these conditions. It seems that the prevalence of overweight found in our sample of professional bus drivers was higher than the one of the general Mexican population. Weight control programs are needed for this group of workers.

  6. Design Report for Isolated RS-485 Bus Node

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    The Android-based smartphone or tablet is used in conjunction with a USB to serial bridge to operate as the bus master in the system. The Android device...operates in USB Host mode and communicates to the RS-485 bus as if a single peripheral on the USB bus .

  7. Developing a Computer Program for Bus Routing. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Rita M.; Thomas, Warren H.

    A computer-based method was developed that can translate available data about schools, students, and bus facilities into a set of bus routes and schedules prior to the start of the school year. Each route can be so designed via the computer model that student riding time and bus capacity constraints are satisfied at the same time that total bus…

  8. Development and Implementation of a Bus Driver Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchovecky, John G.

    A bus driver training program was developed and implemented in a rural school district in an effort to improve the driving skills of the bus drivers. The program was tailored to meet the needs of the bus drivers and utilized various community agencies for demonstration and teaching purposes. The subject areas included in the program were driver…

  9. 49 CFR 374.317 - Identification-bus and driver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Identification-bus and driver. 374.317 Section 374.317 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER...—bus and driver. Each bus and driver providing service shall be identified in a manner visible...

  10. 49 CFR 374.317 - Identification-bus and driver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Identification-bus and driver. 374.317 Section 374.317 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER...—bus and driver. Each bus and driver providing service shall be identified in a manner visible...

  11. 49 CFR 374.317 - Identification-bus and driver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Identification-bus and driver. 374.317 Section 374.317 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER...—bus and driver. Each bus and driver providing service shall be identified in a manner visible...

  12. 49 CFR 374.317 - Identification-bus and driver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Identification-bus and driver. 374.317 Section 374.317 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER...—bus and driver. Each bus and driver providing service shall be identified in a manner visible...

  13. 49 CFR 374.317 - Identification-bus and driver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Identification-bus and driver. 374.317 Section 374.317 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER...—bus and driver. Each bus and driver providing service shall be identified in a manner visible...

  14. Ashford Conn. Gets Funds for New Cleaner School Bus

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Town of Ashford, Conn. will receive $20,000 from the USEPA to help pay for a new school bus that emits less pollution than its older bus. The new bus will help reduce pollution linked to health problems such as asthma and lung damage.

  15. Staying Safe in the Car and on the Bus

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the Operating Room? Staying Safe in the Car and on the Bus KidsHealth > For Kids > Staying Safe in the Car and on the Bus A A A What's ... re probably getting there by riding in a car or a school bus. Most kids spend some ...

  16. Information management advanced development. Volume 3: Digital data bus breadboard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerber, C. R.

    1972-01-01

    The design, development, and evaluation of the digital data bus breadboard for the modular space station are discussed. Subjects presented are: (1) requirements summary, (2) parametric data for bus design, (3) redundancy concepts, and (4) data bus breadboard performance and interface requirements.

  17. SunLine Test Drives Hydrogen Bus: Hydrogen Fuel Cell& Infrastructure Technologies Program, Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Projects (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, L.

    2003-08-01

    Fact sheet describes the ThunderPower hydrogen fuel cell bus that was demonstrated at SunLine Transit Agency from November 2002 to February 2003. The bus was evaluated by DOE's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity.

  18. Energy DataBus (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-07-01

    NREL has developed the Energy DataBus, an open-sourced software that collects massive amounts of energy-related data at second-to-second intervals; stores it in a massive, scalable database; and turns it into useful information.

  19. School Bus Accidents: Reducing Incidents and Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The number of children injured in nonfatal school bus accidents annually is more than double the number previously estimated. In Ohio alone, approximately 20,800 children younger than 18 were occupants of school buses that were involved in crashes in 2003 and 2004 (McGeehan 2007). Among those children, most had minor or no injuries. However, there…

  20. EPA Love the Bus in Texas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (Feb. 11, 2015) Texas' school bus drivers safely transport children to and from school every day and they should not have to worry about pollutants emitted from buses. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is awarding a total of $

  1. Repeater For A Digital-Communication Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres-Guzman, Esteban; Olson, Stephen; Heaps, Tim

    1993-01-01

    Digital repeater circuit designed to extend range of communication on MIL-STD-1553 bus beyond original maximum allowable length of 300 ft. Circuit provides two-way communication, one way at time, and conforms to specifications of MIL-STD-1553. Crosstalk and instability eliminated.

  2. Mission Services Evolution Center Message Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayorga, Arturo; Bristow, John O.; Butschky, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) Message Bus is a robust, lightweight, fault-tolerant middleware implementation that supports all messaging capabilities of the GMSEC API. This architecture is a distributed software system that routes messages based on message subject names and knowledge of the locations in the network of the interested software components.

  3. SDRAM bus schedule of HDTV video decoder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; He, Yan L.; Yu, Lu

    2001-12-01

    In this paper, a time division multiplexed task scheduling (TDM) is designed for HDTV video decoder is proposed. There are three tasks: to fetch decoded data from SDRAM for displaying (DIS), read the reference data from SDRAM for motion compensating (REF) and write the motion compensated data back to SDRAM (WB) on the bus. The proposed schedule is based on the novel 4 banks interlaced SDRAM storage structure which results in less overhead on read/write time. Two SDRAM of 64M bits (4Bank×512K×32bit) are used. Compared with two banks, the four banks storage strategy read/write data with 45% less time. Therefore the process data rates for those three tasks are reduced. TDM is developed by round robin scheduling and fixed slot allocating. There are both MB slot and task slot. As a result the conflicts on bus are avoided, and the buffer size is reduced 48% compared with the priority bus scheduling. Moreover, there is a compacted bus schedule for the worst case of stuffing owning to the reduced executing time on tasks. The size of buffer is reduced and the control logic is simplified.

  4. Bus 54 -- Where are you? A school bus intelligent information system

    SciTech Connect

    Truett, L.F.; Moore, S.; Tonn, B.; Conley, T.

    1998-07-01

    Although major accidents involving school buses are rare (only about 0.3% of all fatal crashes since 1986 are classified as school-bus-related), even minor accidents and breakdowns cause a great deal of parental anxiety. The objective of this research is to design an efficient, cost-effective, accurate, and secure system that will track individual school buses and communicate appropriate information to the school system`s central administration unit, to the school transportation administrator, and to parents of children on the bus. The greatest benefit of the proposed information system is that parents and officials can always know the location and condition (these conditions would vary depending on the needs of a particular school system) of the school buses. In case of an accident or mechanical problem, when emergency crews are needed, they can be dispatched almost immediately with a good understanding of the problem and the exact location of the bus. In addition to being able to track the bus while the child is on board, parents will be able to determine the location of their child`s bus prior to its arrival in the morning in order to prevent the child from needing to wait outside in inclement weather. The information available to parents can also be expanded to include maps of limited routes (e.g., snow routes). Basically, the Bus 54 concept consists of a bus component and a central data processing unit. Each bus will be outfitted with a global positioning satellite (GPS) device, a wireless communication device, and wireless data communication service. The central data processing unit will receive and process information from the buses and provide information access to parents and officials via an Internet link.

  5. Numerical study of urban traffic flow with dedicated bus lane and intermittent bus lane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, H. B.

    2010-08-01

    Based on the cellular automaton traffic flow model and the concept of public transport priority, a two-lane traffic model with an intermittent bus lane is proposed and the properties of urban traffic flow are studied. The cases of traffic with a dedicated bus lane (DBL), an intermittent bus lane (IBL) and an ordinary two-lane traffic are simulated, and comparisons in the form of the fundamental diagrams and the velocity-density profiles are made between them. It is shown that the DBL has the advantage of freeing buses from traffic interference and also has the disadvantage of disrupting traffic, the IBL is more efficient in improving the bus flow than ordinary two-lane traffic and maintaining the car flow at a higher level at the same time than the DBL, while the ordinary two-lane traffic suppresses public transportation and is not advantageous in easing urban traffic congestion. Also it is indicated that the DBL is only appropriate for low traffic flow in a two-lane traffic system, and this limitation can be partly overcome by opening the bus lane to general traffic intermittently when the bus lane is not in use by buses.

  6. Prevalence of and factors associated with distraction among public transit bus drivers.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Russell; Huisingh, Carrie; McGwin, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that driver distraction is a major cause of driving performance impairment and motor vehicle collisions. Research on the topic has focused on passenger vehicles, with studies suggesting that drivers may be distracted nearly 33 percent of the time spent driving. To date, no study has examined the prevalence of distraction specifically among public transit bus drivers. Over a 3-month period, trained investigators observed and recorded distraction behaviors of bus drivers. Distraction prevalence was compared by route characteristics (e.g., geographic area, travel speed) using chi-square test. A general estimating equation logistic regression was used to estimate P values for distraction prevalence by driver demographics. Overall, there was a 39 percent prevalence of distraction. The most prevalent distractions were due to interactions with another passenger. Distractions were more prevalent among drivers <30 years of age or ≥ 50 years of age, on city streets or highways (relative to residential streets), and when there were more than 20 passengers. Distractions were the least prevalent in suburban areas, with the highest prevalence observed in city centers and rural areas. Driver distraction is a common problem for public transit bus drivers, mainly due to other passengers. Drivers should be educated on the hazards of distracted driving and on ways to avoid distraction.

  7. Prevalence of and factors associated with distraction among public transit bus drivers

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Russell; Huisingh, Carrie; McGwin, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Objective Recent research has suggested that driver distraction is a major cause of driving performance impairment and motor vehicle collisions. Research on the topic has focused on passenger vehicles, with studies suggesting that drivers may be distracted nearly 33% of the time spent driving. To date, no study has examined the prevalence of distraction specifically among public transit bus drivers. Methods Over a three-month period, trained investigators observed and recorded distraction behaviors of bus drivers. Distraction prevalence was compared by route characteristics (e.g., geographic area, travel speed) using chi-square test. A general estimating equation logistic regression was used to estimate p-values for distraction prevalence by driver demographics. Results Overall, there was a 39% prevalence of distraction. The most prevalent distractions were due to interactions with another passenger. Distractions were more prevalent among drivers <30 years of age or ≥50 years of age, on city streets or highways (relative to residential streets), and when there were more than 20 passengers. Distractions were the least prevalent in suburban areas, with the highest prevalence observed in city centers and rural areas. Conclusions Driver distraction is a common problem for public transit bus drivers, mainly due to other passengers. Drivers should be educated on the hazards of distracted driving and on ways to avoid distraction. PMID:24433192

  8. Powered two-wheeler drivers' crash risk associated with the use of bus lanes.

    PubMed

    Clabaux, Nicolas; Fournier, Jean-Yves; Michel, Jean-Emmanuel

    2014-10-01

    Authorizing powered two-wheeler drivers to drive in lanes reserved to buses is a measure that is sometimes mentioned to improve mobility conditions for these users. But what effect would this measure have on the safety of these users and on the safety of the other users with whom they share the traffic space? The objective of this study is to contribute elements to help answer this question. More precisely, the objective is to estimate the risk of having an accident per kilometer driven by powered two-wheeler drivers who drive in bus lanes and to compare this risk with that of powered two-wheeler drivers who drive in general traffic lanes. Using the bodily injury accidents recorded by the police over two years on 13 roads in the city of Marseille and a campaign of periodical observations of powered two-wheeler traffic, we estimated the risk per kilometer driven by powered two-wheeler drivers who drive in bus lanes and compared it with that of drivers who do not drive in them. The results show that the risk for powered two-wheeler drivers who drive in bus lanes of being involved in a bodily injury accident is significantly higher than the risk run by drivers who drive in general traffic lanes. For the 13 roads studied, it is on average 3.25 times higher (95% CI: 2.03; 5.21). In the current situation, powered two-wheeler drivers who drive in bus lanes are less safe than those who drive in general traffic lanes. The analysis of police reports suggests that part of this increased risk comes from collisions between automobile drivers turning right and powered two-wheelers driving in the bus lane who continue straight ahead. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders in urban bus drivers of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Szeto, Grace P Y; Lam, Peggo

    2007-06-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD) affect workers in many occupations including drivers of large vehicles. Urban bus drivers have been found to have high prevalence rates of back problems in overseas studies. Hong Kong is a densely populated city and has a large number of double-deck buses that constitute a major means of public transportation. The present study aimed at investigating the prevalence and characteristics of WMSD in male and female bus drivers who operate double-deck buses in Hong Kong. Altogether 481 bus drivers (404 males, 77 females) participated in the study that consisted of a questionnaire survey as well as physical assessment. The questionnaire included questions on work, musculoskeletal complaints and perceived occupational risk factors associated with each discomfort. Physical assessment consisted of measurement of lumbar spine mobility, hand grip strength, sit-and-reach test, and observation of standing and sitting postures. The results showed generally the male drivers had longer years of work experience but their daily workloads were similar to the females. On the average drivers worked 9-10 h per day, with 5 days on and 1 day off. Neck, back, shoulder and knee/thigh areas had the highest 12-month prevalence rates ranging from 35% to 60%, and about 90% of the discomfort was related to bus-driving. Occupational factors of prolonged sitting and anthropometric mismatch were perceived to be most related to musculoskeletal discomfort. On physical examination, grip strength was significantly related to neck and shoulder discomfort. The present results showed high prevalence rates of WMSD among bus drivers in Hong Kong which warrants further investigation.

  10. 58. VIEW OF SIGNAL BUS SECTION NUMBER 2 LOCATED OVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. VIEW OF SIGNAL BUS SECTION NUMBER 2 LOCATED OVER THE CONTROL ROOM MEZZANINE IN THE SIGNAL POWER CONDITIONING ROOM. BUS IS A HEAVY COPPER BAR APPROXIMATELY 1/2" BY 4" WHICH CONDUCTS POWER THROUGHOUT THE POWER PLANT. BUS ARE PROTECTED BY A BRICK AND SOAPSTONE HOUSING. OPENINGS FOR INSPECTION AND ACCESS WOULD NORMALLY BE PROTECTED BY GLASS DOORS. THE BUS WOULD BE SUPPORTED ON INSULATORS WITHIN THE BRICK CHAMBER. BUS WAS REMOVED AND SALVAGED WHEN THE STATION WAS ABANDONED. THE OBJECT IN THE TOP CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH IS A POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER USED TO REDUCE BUS POTENTIAL OF 2200 VOLTS TO LOW VOLTAGES SAFE FOR USE IN CONTROL ROOM CIRCUITRY. POTENTIAL TRANSFORMERS ARE PRECISION DEVICES WHICH PRODUCE AN ACCURATE LOW VOLTAGE ANALOG OF THE HIGH VOLTAGE ON THE BUS. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  11. Integer programming model for optimizing bus timetable using genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wihartiko, F. D.; Buono, A.; Silalahi, B. P.

    2017-01-01

    Bus timetable gave an information for passengers to ensure the availability of bus services. Timetable optimal condition happened when bus trips frequency could adapt and suit with passenger demand. In the peak time, the number of bus trips would be larger than the off-peak time. If the number of bus trips were more frequent than the optimal condition, it would make a high operating cost for bus operator. Conversely, if the number of trip was less than optimal condition, it would make a bad quality service for passengers. In this paper, the bus timetabling problem would be solved by integer programming model with modified genetic algorithm. Modification was placed in the chromosomes design, initial population recovery technique, chromosomes reconstruction and chromosomes extermination on specific generation. The result of this model gave the optimal solution with accuracy 99.1%.

  12. Priorities for an age-friendly bus system.

    PubMed

    Broome, Kieran; Worrall, Linda; McKenna, Kryss; Boldy, Duncan

    2010-09-01

    This article presents the results of a study on the barriers and facilitators to bus use for people aged 60 or older. Two complementary methodologies, nominal group technique and focussed ethnography, were used to identify barriers and facilitators and rank their importance. Two sample sites from Queensland, Australia, were selected, with 227 people participating in the nominal group technique and 40 people participating in the focussed ethnography component. Seven priorities for age-friendly bus systems emerged from the data: vehicle entrance/exit; bus driver friendliness and helpfulness; timetables and scheduling of buses; bus stop locations; pedestrian infrastructure; information and training for older people; and bus routes and destinations. These findings will assist researchers, policy makers, and transport providers to set evidence-based strategic directions for creating age-friendly bus systems. Both methods provide complementary perspectives on bus usability, which could not be gained from either method alone.

  13. [Sleep habits and traffic accidents in inter-provincial bus drivers of Arequipa, Peru].

    PubMed

    Caso, Alex; Rey de Castro, Jorge; Rosales-Mayor, Edmundo

    2014-01-01

    In order to determine sleep habits in bus drivers and their relationship to accidents in the city of Arequipa, Peru, a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in a non-probabilistic sample of 166 drivers. Driving hours per day were 9.4 ± 3.7. 54% (89) drive over 4 hours without stopping; 74% (123) drive at night; and 87% (145) sleep on the bus. 75% reported fatigue while driving (124). 27% (45) had drowsiness; 24% (40) reported having been in or on the verge of an accident while driving. Sleepiness or fatigue while driving was common in this population and their driving and rest habits could contribute to this.

  14. Analysis and forecasting of the particulate matter (PM) concentration levels over four major cities of China using hybrid models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Shanshan; Liu, Feng; Wang, Jianzhou; Sun, Beibei

    2014-12-01

    The analysis and forecasting of PM concentrations play a significant role in regulatory planning on the reduction and control of PM emission and precautionary strategies. However, accurate PM forecasting, which is needed to establish an early warning system, is still a huge challenge and a critical issue. Determining how to address the accurate forecasting problem becomes an even more significant and urgent task. Based on gray correlation analysis (GCA), Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD), Cuckoo search (CS) and Back-propagation artificial neutral networks (BPANN), this paper proposes the CS-EEMD-BPANN model for forecasting PM concentrations. Prior to establishing this model, gray correlation has been uniquely used to search for possible predictors of PM among other air pollutants (CO, NO2, O3 and SO2) and meteorological environments (wind speed, wind direction, temperature, humidity and pressure). The proposed method was investigated in four major cities of China (Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Lanzhou) with different characteristics of climatic, terrain and emission sources. The results of the gray correlation analysis indicate that CO, NO2 and SO2 are more related to PM and that the incorporation of these predictors can significantly improve the model performance predictability, suggesting the effectiveness of our developed method.

  15. Prevalence and Pattern of Smoking among Bus Drivers of Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Goon, Shatabdi; Bipasha, Munmun S

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is an increasingly prevalent habit in Bangladesh, particularly among men with low socioeconomic status. The aim of this study was determining the prevalence and pattern of smoking among bus drivers of Dhaka city, Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study was carried out from 15 to 26 March 2013 among four hundred bus drivers of Dhaka city, Bangladesh aged between 18 and 50 determining the prevalence, pattern, and socioeconomic determinants of smoking. Data were input into a pre-designed access database with data management and analysis using standard statistical tools (SPSS-15) to assess significance through cross-tabulation. The overall prevalence of smoking among bus drivers was 93%, and 20% of their daily income was spent on smoking. Though most (32.3%) of the drivers started smoking before involving in driving profession, but excessive smoking had been promoted by occupational and environmental stress experiencing hectic work schedule. Individuals with no education were three times (odds ratio (OR) 2.8; 95% CI 1.2-6.13) more likely to be smoker. Smoking was detected among 53.2% of smokers aged 26 or above (χ (2) = 8.30, P < 0.05), and they showed significantly high prevalence. The reasons behind smoking were almost exclusively habit (38.1%), peer influence (26.8%), and thinking of stress relief (25.3%). Smoking can also worsen poverty among users and their families because most of the drivers reported chest pain (34.4%), heart disease (25.8%), and other health complications caused by smoking depriving families of much-needed income and imposing additional costs of health care. Interventions and preventions by policy makers, public health experts, and other stakeholders should be introduced considering high prevalence of smoking among Bangladeshi bus drivers with detrimental health sequel.

  16. Spacecraft design project multipurpose satellite bus MPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellman, Lyle; Riley, John; Szostak, Michael; Watkins, Joseph; Willhelm, Joseph; Yale, Gary

    1990-01-01

    The thrust of this project was to design not a single spacecraft, but to design a multimission bus capable of supporting several current payloads and unnamed, unspecified future payloads. Spiraling costs of spacecraft and shrinking defense budgets necessitated a fresh look at the feasibility of a multimission spacecraft bus. The design team chose two very diverse and different payloads, and along with them two vastly different orbits, to show that multimission spacecraft buses are an area where indeed more research and effort needs to be made. Tradeoffs, of course, were made throughout the design, but optimization of subsystem components limited weight and volume penalties, performance degradation, and reliability concerns. Simplicity was chosen over more complex, sophisticated and usually more efficient designs. Cost of individual subsystem components was not a primary concern in the design phase, but every effort was made to chose flight tested and flight proven hardware. Significant cost savings could be realized if a standard spacecraft bus was indeed designed and purchased in finite quantities.

  17. Communication design for multi-boards based on VME bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Song, Fazhi; Wei, Kai; Fu, Zhenxian

    2015-02-01

    As a widely used open-architecture computer bus ,VME bus is increasingly applied in military, aerospace, transportation and other large-scale control systems. Lithography, a very delicate and complicated integrated circuit manufacturing equipment, uses many circuit boards with VME interface in its control system, including one single-board computer, many movement control boards and one data acquisition board. This paper designs communication modules which include VME bus module and VME user-defined bus module for multi-boards in Lithography control system. VME bus module is designed for the communication between the single-board computer and movement control boards and VME user-defined bus is designed for the communication between movement control boards and data acquisition board. The experimental results demonstrate its effectiveness.

  18. 49 CFR 605.18 - Comments by private school bus operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Comments by private school bus operators. 605.18... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS School Bus Agreements § 605.18 Comments by private school bus operators. Private school bus operators may file written comments on an applicant's...

  19. 49 CFR 605.18 - Comments by private school bus operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Comments by private school bus operators. 605.18... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS School Bus Agreements § 605.18 Comments by private school bus operators. Private school bus operators may file written comments on an...

  20. 49 CFR 605.18 - Comments by private school bus operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Comments by private school bus operators. 605.18... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS School Bus Agreements § 605.18 Comments by private school bus operators. Private school bus operators may file written comments on an...

  1. 49 CFR 605.18 - Comments by private school bus operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Comments by private school bus operators. 605.18... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS School Bus Agreements § 605.18 Comments by private school bus operators. Private school bus operators may file written comments on an...

  2. 49 CFR 605.18 - Comments by private school bus operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Comments by private school bus operators. 605.18... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS School Bus Agreements § 605.18 Comments by private school bus operators. Private school bus operators may file written comments on an...

  3. TMS communications hardware. Volume 2: Bus interface unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. S.; Hopkins, G. T.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype coaxial cable bus communication system used in the Trend Monitoring System to interconnect intelligent graphics terminals to a host minicomputer is described. The terminals and host are connected to the bus through a microprocessor-based RF modem termed a Bus Interface Unit (BIU). The BIU hardware and the Carrier Sense Multiple Access Listen-While-Talk protocol used on the network are described.

  4. Pipelined asynchronous time-division multiplexing optical bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, S. Q.; Li, Yueming

    1997-12-01

    We propose a pipelined asynchronous time-division multiplexing optical bus. Such a bus can use one of two hardwared priority schemes: the linear priority scheme and the round-robin priority scheme. Our simulation results show that the performance of the proposed bus is significantly better than the performances of known pipelined synchronous time-division multiplexing optical buses. The possibilities of using our buses to construct multichannel switches and multidimensional processor arrays are also discussed.

  5. Tecnical Note: Analysis of non-regulated vehicular emissions by extractive FTIR spectrometry: tests on a hybrid car in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, F.; Grutter, M.; Jazcilevich, A.; González-Oropeza, R.

    2006-11-01

    A methodology to acquire valuable information on the chemical composition and evolution of vehicular emissions is presented. The analysis of the gases is performed by passing a constant flow of a sample gas from the tail-pipe into a 10 L multi-pass cell. The absorption spectra within the cell are obtained using an FTIR spectrometer at 0.5 cm-1 resolution along a 13.1 m optical path. Additionally, the total flow from the exhaust is continuously measured from a differential pressure sensor on a textit{Pitot} tube installed at the exit of the exhaust. This configuration aims to obtain a good speciation capability by coadding spectra during 30 s and reporting the emission (in g/km) of both criteria and non-regulated pollutants, such as CO2, CO, NO, SO2, NH3, HCHO and some NMHC, during predetermined driving cycles. The advantages and disadvantages of increasing the measurement frequency, as well as the effect of other parameters such as spectral resolution, cell volume and flow rate, are discussed. To test and evaluate the proposed technique, experiments were performed on a dynamometer running FTP-75 and typical driving cycles for the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) on a Toyota Prius hybrid vehicle. This car is an example of recent marketed automotive technology dedicated to reduced emissions, increasing the need for sensitive detection techniques. This study shows the potential of the proposed technique to measure and report in real time the emissions of a large variety of pollutants, even from a super ultra-low emission vehicle (SULEV). The emissions of HC's, NOx, CO and CO2 obtained here were compared to experiments performed in other locations with the same model vehicle. The proposed technique provides a tool for future studies comparing in detail the emissions of vehicles using alternative fuels and emission control systems.

  6. The SMART MIL-STD-1553 bus adapter hardware manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ton, T. T.

    1981-01-01

    The SMART Multiplexer Interface Adapter, (SMIA) a complete system interface for message structure of the MIL-STD-1553, is described. It provides buffering and storage for transmitted and received data and handles all the necessary handshaking to interface between parallel 8-bit data bus and a MIL-STD serial bit stream. The bus adapter is configured as either a bus controller of a remote terminal interface. It is coupled directly to the multiplex bus, or stub coupled through an additional isolation transformer located at the connection point. Fault isolation resistors provide short circuit protection.

  7. Research on service bus of network-centric simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Mao, Shao-Jie; Zhang, Hong-Jun; Zhang, You-Liang; Zhu, Yu

    2013-03-01

    When high level architecture is used to build complex systems in support of modeling and simulation, the problems are low level of interoperability and poor reusage. Based on the concept of service-oriented and distributed technologies, a service bus of network-centric simulation is proposed. Definite the concept of community of service and service bus, establish the architecture of simulation service bus and its implementation framework, analyze three key technologies of its implementation process. The primary research and practice show that: the proposed simulation service bus can support to run community simulation tasks based on Internet and provide a reference for building a service-oriented environment of network centric simulation.

  8. Development of dual-rate MIL-STD-1773A data bus transceiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonebright, Rodney K.; Kim, Jae H.; Hughes, Rod; Clement, Jay W.; Bocek, Thomas M.; Chan, Eric Y.; Nitardy, John H.; Hong, Chi-Shain

    1996-10-01

    Boeing has first developed a space-qualifiable, radiation- hardened, dual-rate MIL-STD-1773A fiber-optic transceiver for military command/response time division multiplexed data bus applications. This will provide an enhancement path from a fixed low data rate MIL-STD-1553 bus to a high data rate MIL-STD-1773 bus with minor modification of terminals supporting the existing function. The transceiver operates at dual-rates of both 1 and 20 Mbps over temperature (minus 25 to plus 85 degrees Celsius), and it shows a large dynamic range of greater than 20 dB in support of 32-node star network; a sensitivity of up to minus 38.7 dBm and a saturation of minus 16.1 dBm (limited mainly by test source power) at BER less than or equal to 1 multiplied by 10-10. These transceivers are currently being utilized for space and military applications at DARPA, NASA, and JPL. In this paper we describe the dual-rate transceiver design requirements, ASIC and hybrid design, and performance test results.

  9. Bus transport network model with ideal n-depth clique network topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xu-Hua; Chen, Guang; Sun, Bao; Chen, Sheng-Yong; Wang, Wan-Liang

    2011-11-01

    We propose an ideal n-depth clique network model. In this model, the original network is composed of cliques (maximal complete subgraphs) that overlap with each other. The network expands continuously by the addition of new cliques. The final diameter of the network can be set in advance, namely, it is controllable. Assuming that the diameter of the network is n, the network exhibits a logistic structure with (n+1) layers. In this structure, the 0th layer represents the original network and each node of the (m)th layer (1≤m≤n) corresponds to a clique in the (m-1)th layer. In the growth process of the network, we ensure that any (m)th layer network is composed of overlapping cliques. Any node in an (m)th layer network corresponds to an m-depth community in the original network, and the diameter of an m-depth community is m. Therefore, the (n-1)th layer network will contain only one clique, the (n)th layer network will contain only one node, and the diameter of the corresponding original network is n. Then an ideal n-depth clique network will be obtained. Based on the ideal n-depth clique network model, we construct a bus transport network model with an ideal n-depth clique network topology (ICNBTN). Moreover, our study compares this model with the real bus transport network (RealBTN) of three major cities in China and a recently introduced bus transport network model (BTN) whose network properties correspond well with those of real BTNs. The network properties of the ICNBTN are much closer to those of the RealBTN than those of the BTN are. At the same time, the ICNBTN has higher clustering extent of bus routes, smaller network diameter, which corresponds to shorter maximum transfer times in a bus network, and lower average shortest path time coefficient than the BTN and the RealBTN. Therefore, the ICNBTN can achieve higher transfer efficiency for a bus transport system.

  10. TACSAT-spacecraft bus concept and design: Application of a multimission bus for TACSAT in LEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Georges

    1993-02-01

    Some details as to what is a tactical satellite, as far as such satellites are very often associated with the notion of cheap small satellites, are analyzed. The design process of a low earth orbit multimission bus for tactical application is described.

  11. When the Wheels on the Bus Go Round: Social Interactions on the School Bus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galliger, Courtney C.; Tisak, Marie S.; Tisak, John

    2009-01-01

    Children's social interactions are often dependent upon the setting or context in which they occur. The current study explored the school bus as a unique context for social interaction. One hundred and fifty-seven elementary school students (78 males and 79 females), in grades 3, 4, and 5, completed a questionnaire concerning the rate and types of…

  12. Interface Provides Standard-Bus Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culliton, William G.

    1995-01-01

    Microprocessor-controlled interface (IEEE-488/LVABI) incorporates service-request and direct-memory-access features. Is circuit card enabling digital communication between system called "laser auto-covariance buffer interface" (LVABI) and compatible personal computer via general-purpose interface bus (GPIB) conforming to Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standard 488. Interface serves as second interface enabling first interface to exploit advantages of GPIB, via utility software written specifically for GPIB. Advantages include compatibility with multitasking and support of communication among multiple computers. Basic concept also applied in designing interfaces for circuits other than LVABI for unidirectional or bidirectional handling of parallel data up to 16 bits wide.

  13. Redesign of Transjakarta Bus Driver's Cabin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardi Safitri, Dian; Azmi, Nora; Singh, Gurbinder; Astuti, Pudji

    2016-02-01

    Ergonomic risk at work stations with type Seated Work Control was one of the problems faced by Transjakarta bus driver. Currently “Trisakti” type bus, one type of bus that is used by Transjakarta in corridor 9, serving route Pinang Ranti - Pluit, gained many complaints from drivers. From the results of Nordic Body Map questionnaires given to 30 drivers, it was known that drivers feel pain in the neck, arms, hips, and buttocks. Allegedly this was due to the seat position and the button/panel bus has a considerable distance range (1 meter) to be achieved by drivers. In addition, preliminary results of the questionnaire using Workstation Checklist identified their complaints about uncomfortable cushion, driver's seat backrest, and the exact position of the AC is above the driver head. To reduce the risk level of ergonomics, then did research to design the cabin by using a generic approach to designing products. The risk analysis driver posture before the design was done by using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA), and Quick Exposure Checklist (QEC), while the calculation of the moment the body is done by using software Mannequin Pro V10.2. Furthermore, the design of generic products was done through the stages: need metric-matrix, house of quality, anthropometric data collection, classification tree concept, concept screening, scoring concept, design and manufacture of products in the form of two-dimensional. While the design after design risk analysis driver posture was done by using RULA, REBA, and calculation of moments body as well as the design visualized using software 3DMax. From the results of analysis before the draft design improvements cabin RULA obtained scores of 6, REBA 9, and the result amounted to 57.38% QEC and moment forces on the back is 247.3 LbF.inch and on the right hip is 72.9 LbF.in. While the results of the proposed improvements cabin design RULA obtained scores of 3, REBA 4, and the moment of force on

  14. An SAE high speed ring bus overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroeger, Brian W.; Shih, Hubert

    An overview of the protocols and important features of the SAE high-speed ring bus (HSRB) standard is presented here, along with the functional design of a typical ring interface unit architecture. The counterrotating ring topology, with both loopback and bypass mechanisms, provides the high degree of fault tolerance desirable in many military and avionic systems. The error-detection, fault-detection, and recovery mechanisms are briefly described to illustrate the robustness of the HSRB system. The reserved-priority token-passing protocol is shown to provide efficient and deterministic performance, uselful in real-time applications where messages must be transmitted predictably, quickly, and reliably.

  15. Spaceborne Fiber Optic Data Bus (SFODB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bretthauer, Joy W.; Chalfant, Chuck H.; Orlando, Fred J.; Parkerson, P.; Rezek, Ed; Sawyer, Marc

    1999-01-01

    Spaceborne Fiber Optic Data Bus (SFODB) is an IEEE 1393 compliant, gigabit per second, fiber optic network specifically designed to support the real-time, on-board data handling requirements of remote sensing spacecraft. The network is fault tolerant highly reliable, and capable of withstanding the rigors of launch and the harsh space environment. SFODB achieves this operational and environmental performance while maintaining the small size, light weight, and low power necessary for spaceborne applications. On December 9, 1998, SFODB was successfully demonstrated at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC).

  16. Interface Provides Standard-Bus Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culliton, William G.

    1995-01-01

    Microprocessor-controlled interface (IEEE-488/LVABI) incorporates service-request and direct-memory-access features. Is circuit card enabling digital communication between system called "laser auto-covariance buffer interface" (LVABI) and compatible personal computer via general-purpose interface bus (GPIB) conforming to Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standard 488. Interface serves as second interface enabling first interface to exploit advantages of GPIB, via utility software written specifically for GPIB. Advantages include compatibility with multitasking and support of communication among multiple computers. Basic concept also applied in designing interfaces for circuits other than LVABI for unidirectional or bidirectional handling of parallel data up to 16 bits wide.

  17. Effect of stoppage time on motion of a bus through a sequence of signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    We study the dynamic motion of a bus moving through the series of traffic signals where the bus stops at bus stops during a time. The dynamic state of the bus depends highly on both stoppage time at the bus stop and cycle time of the signal. It is found that the bus motion has two kinds of dynamic states: the one is the normal state and the other is the offset state. In the normal state, the bus stops normally at both bus stops and signals. In the offset state, the bus passes timely through the signal sometimes and the stoppage time at the bus stop is offset against the stopping time at the signal. If the bus speed has the same value as the car speed, the travel time of the bus is consistent with that of the car in the offset state. The region map (phase diagram) is shown for two kinds of dynamic states: the normal and offset states.

  18. Interim Evaluation Results from New Flyer/Allison Hybrid Buses at King County Metro: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Eberts, E.; Eudy, L.

    2005-05-01

    This paper prepared for the 2005 American Public Transportation Association Bus & Paratransit Conference discusses NREL/DOE evaluation of hybrid electric articulated transit buses operated by King County Metro.

  19. Using the Mil. Std 1553B data bus in future spacecraft onboard applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plummer, Chris; Bordes, Yves

    2002-07-01

    This paper discusses the use of the Mil. Std 1553B data bus as the principal onboard data handling bus for future spacecraft applications. The paper takes a pragmatic approach by: Identifying the characteristics of the onboard bus traffic and its characteristics; Looking at future trends in onboard bus traffic; Describing the characteristics of the Mil. Std 1553B data bus; Proposing techniques that can be used on the Mil. Std 1553B data bus in future spacecraft application.

  20. 32 CFR 935.138 - Motor bus operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Motor bus operation. 935.138 Section 935.138 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.138 Motor bus operation. Each person operating a motor...

  1. 32 CFR 935.138 - Motor bus operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Motor bus operation. 935.138 Section 935.138 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.138 Motor bus operation. Each person operating a motor...

  2. 32 CFR 935.138 - Motor bus operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Motor bus operation. 935.138 Section 935.138 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.138 Motor bus operation. Each person operating a motor...

  3. Preliminary Investigation of Workload on Intrastate Bus Traffic Controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen Bin, Teo; Azlis-Sani, Jalil; Nur Annuar Mohd Yunos, Muhammad; Ismail, S. M. Sabri S. M.; Tajedi, Noor Aqilah Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    The daily routine of bus traffic controller which involves high mental processes would have a direct impact on the level of workload. To date, the level of workload on the bus traffic controllers in Malaysia is relatively unknown. Excessive workload on bus traffic controllers would affect the control and efficiency of the system. This paper served to study the workload on bus traffic controllers and justify the needs to conduct further detailed research on this field. The objectives of this research are to identify the level of workload on the intrastate bus traffic controllers. Based on the results, recommendations will be proposed for improvements and future studies. The level of workload for the bus traffic controllers is quantified using questionnaire adapted from NASA TLX. Interview sessions were conducted for validation of workload. Sixteen respondents were involved and it was found that the average level of workload based on NASA TLX was 6.91. It was found that workload is not affected by gender and marital status. This study also showed that the level of workload and working experience of bus traffic controllers has a strong positive linear relationship. This study would serve as a guidance and reference related to this field. Since this study is a preliminary investigation, further detailed studies could be conducted to obtain a better comprehension regarding the bus traffic controllers.

  4. Network Extender for MIL-STD-1553 Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcus, Julius; Hanson, T. David

    2003-01-01

    An extender system for MIL-STD-1553 buses transparently couples bus components at multiple developer sites. The bus network extender is a relatively inexpensive system that minimizes the time and cost of integration of avionic systems by providing a convenient mechanism for early testing without the need to transport the usual test equipment and personnel to an integration facility. This bus network extender can thus alleviate overloading of the test facility while enabling the detection of interface problems that can occur during the integration of avionic systems. With this bus extender in place, developers can correct and adjust their own hardware and software before products leave a development site. Currently resident at Johnson Space Center, the bus network extender is used to test the functionality of equipment that, although remotely located, is connected through a MILSTD- 1553 bus. Inasmuch as the standard bus protocol for avionic equipment is that of MIL-STD-1553, companies that supply MIL-STD-1553-compliant equipment to government or industry and that need long-distance communication support might benefit from this network bus extender

  5. Parents' Perceptions of the Rural School Bus Ride

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramage, Rob; Howley, Aimee

    2005-01-01

    This article reports findings from a study of the perceptions of parents about the experience of long bus rides on their children. Twenty-six parents, whose homes were located on the longest bus route in a rural Midwestern school district, provided interviews regarding the experiences of a total of 37 students. In the analysis of the interview…

  6. A decentralized software bus based on IP multicas ting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John R.; Montgomery, Todd

    1995-01-01

    We describe decentralized reconfigurable implementation of a conference management system based on the low-level Internet Protocol (IP) multicasting protocol. IP multicasting allows low-cost, world-wide, two-way transmission of data between large numbers of conferencing participants through the Multicasting Backbone (MBone). Each conference is structured as a software bus -- a messaging system that provides a run-time interconnection model that acts as a separate agent (i.e., the bus) for routing, queuing, and delivering messages between distributed programs. Unlike the client-server interconnection model, the software bus model provides a level of indirection that enhances the flexibility and reconfigurability of a distributed system. Current software bus implementations like POLYLITH, however, rely on a centralized bus process and point-to-point protocols (i.e., TCP/IP) to route, queue, and deliver messages. We implement a software bus called the MULTIBUS that relies on a separate process only for routing and uses a reliable IP multicasting protocol for delivery of messages. The use of multicasting means that interconnections are independent of IP machine addresses. This approach allows reconfiguration of bus participants during system execution without notifying other participants of new IP addresses. The use of IP multicasting also permits an economy of scale in the number of participants. We describe the MULITIBUS protocol elements and show how our implementation performs better than centralized bus implementations.

  7. School Bus Driver Instructional Program. Instructor's Guide--Advanced Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. National Highway Safety Bureau.

    Geared to behavioral objectives, the instruction is organized into programed units on emergency driving techniques, first aid, field trips, transporting exceptional students, detecting hazards, controlling the position of the bus, driving under special conditions, and preventive maintenance of the bus. Each unit is constructed around content…

  8. Read This Before You Buy Your Next School Bus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Paul

    1981-01-01

    To avoid losing money when buying a bus, a school board should know its district's needs, use the district transportation officer's expertise, investigate local dealers' credentials, learn about differences in bus quality, follow detailed specifications, and pay promptly upon purchase. (RW)

  9. A High Efficiency DC Bus Regulator / RPC for Spacecraft Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2004-02-01

    DC bus voltage regulation may be required in future high powered spacecraft due to the length of the busses or because they are not generated at precise voltage levels. In these cases the regulation range is often only a few percent increase or decrease, but conventional DC voltage regulators switch all the power passing through them, and this level of power switched determines the size and losses in the regulator. A recently developed concept uses a low power DC-DC converter in series with the bus to raise or lower the bus voltage over a small range. This partial power processing technique combines the small size and power losses of the low power converter with the ability to regulate, (over a small range) a high power bus. The Series Connected Buck Boost Regulator (SCBBR) described herein provides bus regulation with an efficiency of 98%. The circuit also provides bus switching and overcurrent limiting functions of a Remote Power Controller (RPC). This paper describes the circuit design and performance of a breadboard SCBBR configured as a bus voltage regulator providing +/- 40% voltage regulation range, bus switching, and overload limiting.

  10. Incidence and characteristics of school bus crashes and injuries.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingzhen; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Cheng, Gang; Heiden, Erin; Falb, Scott; Ramirez, Marizen

    2009-03-01

    Studies of school bus crashes have focused on the biomechanics of catastrophic collisions, with very few examining crash incidence. Crashes in the state of Iowa were examined from January 2002 through December 2005. School bus crashes were identified through the Iowa Crash Data, a comprehensive database of all reported crashes in the State of Iowa. School bus mileage data were provided by the Iowa Department of Education. School bus crash, fatality, and injury rates were calculated and differences in crash and injury characteristics between school buses and other vehicles were examined. The school bus crash, fatality and non-fatal injury rates were 320.7, 0.4 and 13.6 per 100 million bus miles travelled, respectively. School bus crash fatality and injury rates were 3.5 and 5.4 times lower than overall all vehicle crash fatality and injury rates, respectively. Drivers of other vehicles were more likely to have caused the crash than the bus driver (P<0.001). School buses experience low crash rates, and the majority of crashes do not lead to injury. Buses are among the safest forms of road transportation, and efforts to educate drivers of other vehicles may help reduce crashes with buses.

  11. 32 CFR 935.138 - Motor bus operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Motor bus operation. 935.138 Section 935.138 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.138 Motor bus operation. Each person operating a...

  12. 32 CFR 935.138 - Motor bus operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor bus operation. 935.138 Section 935.138 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.138 Motor bus operation. Each person operating a...

  13. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2008-10-01

    This report provides preliminary results from a National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluation of a protoptye fuel cell transit bus operating at Connecticut Transit in Hartford. Included are descriptions of the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment; early results and agency experience are also provided.

  14. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project: Evaluation Results Report

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    ... Apr-12 May-12 Jun-12 Jul-12 Aug-12 Sep-12 Oct-12 Nov-12 Dec-12 Jan-13 Feb-13 Mar-13 Miles Kilometers Bus Propulsion System FC System FC System MBRC 2016 Target Bus MBRC 2016 Target ...

  15. Application of CAN-bus Network in Intelligent parking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jianjun, WU; Juan, Hu

    Convenient life makes intelligent parking every- where. This paper describes how to connect the various separate modern terminal of intelligent parking with CAN-bus network, and the competitive advantage of the system by using the CAN-bus network. From a technical point of view, this paper describes the development trend of intelligent parking in next few years.

  16. 16. Bus Room (also known as Switch Gear Room), view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Bus Room (also known as Switch Gear Room), view to the southeast. An air circuit breaker compressor (visible in photograph number 2) was once attached to the main bus relay visible in the background of the photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  17. Study of High-Performance Satellite Bus System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, Tatsuya; Noda, Atsushi; Tsuiki, Atsuo

    2002-01-01

    Speaking of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites like earth observation satellites, the light-weighing and high performance bus system will make an great contribution to mission components development.Also, the rising ratio of payload to total mass will reduce the launch cost.Office of Research and Development in National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is studying such a sophisticated satellite bus system.The system is expected to consist of the following advanced components and subsystems which in parallel have been developed from the element level by the Office. (a) Attitude control system (ACS) This subsystem will provide function to very accurately determine and control the satellite attitude with a next generation star tracker, a GPS receiver, and the onboard software to achieve this function. (b) Electric power system (EPS) This subsystem will be getting much lighter and powerful by utilizing the more efficient solar battery cell, power MOS FET, and DC/DC converter.Besides, to cumulate and supply the power, the Office will also study a Litium battery for space which is light and small enough to contribute to reducing size and weight of the EPS. (c) Onboard computing system (OCS) This computing system will provide function of high speed processing.The MPU (Multi Processing Unit) cell in the OCS is capable of executing approximately 200 MIPS (Mega Instructions Per Second).The OCS will play an important role not only enough for the ACS to function well but also enough for the image processing data to be handled. (d) Thermal control system (TCS) As a thermal control system, mission-friendly system is under study.A small hybrid fluid thermal control system that the Office is studying with a combination of mechanical pump loop and capillary pump loop will be robust to change of thermal loads and facilitate the system to control the temperature. (e) Communications system (CS) In order to transmit high rate data, the office is studying an optical link system

  18. Mechanical and embedded systems design for Generic Nanosatellite Bus spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armitage, Scott Edward

    The adaptation of the University of Toronto Space Flight Laboratory Generic Nanosatellite Bus (GNB) mechanical design to Earth-observation and communications applications is investigated. The ability of this bus to expand the capabilities of low-cost nanosatellites by accommodating large pre-deployed payload appendages, such as antennas, is demonstrated. In addition, the operational architecture of a cold-gas nanosatellite propulsion system, enabling small satellite constellations and formation flying, is described. Component testing of this system has validated compliance with subsystem requirements. Lastly, the design and development of a multi-mission embedded systems generic firmware is described. This firmware consolidates common and critical software functionality, greatly reducing both the risk and cost of developing software for new embedded systems. The firmware has been designed for a distributed-node microcontroller bus architecture in general, and the Nanosatellite for Earth Monitoring and Observation (NEMO) bus and Generic Nanosatellite Bus in particular.

  19. Method and systems for a radiation tolerant bus interface circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinstler, Gary A. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A bus management tool that allows communication to be maintained between a group of nodes operatively connected on two busses in the presence of radiation by transmitting periodically a first message from one to another of the nodes on one of the busses, determining whether the first message was received by the other of the nodes on the first bus, and when it is determined that the first message was not received by the other of the nodes, transmitting a recovery command to the other of the nodes on a second of the of busses. Methods, systems, and articles of manufacture consistent with the present invention also provide for a bus recovery tool on the other node that re-initializes a bus interface circuit operatively connecting the other node to the first bus in response to the recovery command.

  20. Bus industry market study. Report -- Task 3.2: Fuel cell/battery powered bus system

    SciTech Connect

    Zalbowitz, M.

    1992-06-02

    In support of the commercialization of fuel cells for transportation, Georgetown University, as a part of the DOE/DOT Fuel Cell Transit Bus Program, conducted a market study to determine the inventory of passenger buses in service as of December, 1991, the number of buses delivered in 1991 and an estimate of the number of buses to be delivered in 1992. Short term and long term market projections of deliveries were also made. Data was collected according to type of bus and the field was divided into the following categories which are defined in the report: transit buses, school buses, commercial non-transit buses, and intercity buses. The findings of this study presented with various tables of data collected from identified sources as well as narrative analysis based upon interviews conducted during the survey.

  1. The Wheels on the Bus Go “Buy Buy Buy”: School Bus Advertising Laws

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    School buses, a practical necessity for millions of children, are at the center of new efforts to raise revenue. School bus advertising laws bring public health and commercialization concerns to the school setting. In doing so, they potentially expose school districts to First Amendment lawsuits. I examined various school bus advertising bills and laws. I reviewed First Amendment “forum analysis” as applied in the transit and school settings to clarify how this legal test may affect school districts subject to such laws. I have made recommendations for school districts to enact appropriate policies to ensure that such advertising does not undermine public health and to enable the districts to maintain control over their property. PMID:22742065

  2. The wheels on the bus go "buy buy buy": school bus advertising laws.

    PubMed

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2012-09-01

    School buses, a practical necessity for millions of children, are at the center of new efforts to raise revenue. School bus advertising laws bring public health and commercialization concerns to the school setting. In doing so, they potentially expose school districts to First Amendment lawsuits. I examined various school bus advertising bills and laws. I reviewed First Amendment "forum analysis" as applied in the transit and school settings to clarify how this legal test may affect school districts subject to such laws. I have made recommendations for school districts to enact appropriate policies to ensure that such advertising does not undermine public health and to enable the districts to maintain control over their property.

  3. Using field bus for optical gas monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xiangyin; Seah, Leong K.; Ong, Lin S.; Asundi, Anand K.

    1999-05-01

    This paper presents a proposal for an optical gas monitoring system based on fieldbus. With the help of the advanced signal processing system more than one hundred gas detectors can be connected to a host system by a single shared bus cable over which the gas detectors, now incorporating with their own intelligence, communicate digitally with the host system. The new system supplies not only about the gas level but also about the physical condition of each sensor. Planed maintenance can be performed to ensure that gas monitor system is maintained in full working order. Integrating fieldbus with optical gas sensor will also have dramatic saving in field wiring and the man-hours for system verification and configuration.

  4. Status of the FASTBUS standard data bus

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.S.

    1980-11-01

    FASTBUS is a new laboratory standard data bus intended for use in experimental data acquisition and control. The development of FASTBUS began with a feasibility study in 1976, and is presently at the development prototyping stage. The principal aims of the standard are to provide a factor of ten or more improvement in speed of data transfers over present systems, as well as to provide an architecture for systems containing multiple processors. Developmental prototypes now in progress include crates, backplanes, cooling devices, power supplies, test and diagnostic modules, and user modules. A sizeable software development effort is also underway. Several experiments have made commitments to use FASTBUS. A review of current work and potential applications is given. 10 figures.

  5. Bus bar electrical feedthrough for electrorefiner system

    DOEpatents

    Williamson, Mark; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Willit, James L; Barnes, Laurel A; Blaskovitz, Robert J

    2013-12-03

    A bus bar electrical feedthrough for an electrorefiner system may include a retaining plate, electrical isolator, and/or contact block. The retaining plate may include a central opening. The electrical isolator may include a top portion, a base portion, and a slot extending through the top and base portions. The top portion of the electrical isolator may be configured to extend through the central opening of the retaining plate. The contact block may include an upper section, a lower section, and a ridge separating the upper and lower sections. The upper section of the contact block may be configured to extend through the slot of the electrical isolator and the central opening of the retaining plate. Accordingly, relatively high electrical currents may be transferred into a glovebox or hot-cell facility at a relatively low cost and higher amperage capacity without sacrificing atmosphere integrity.

  6. Quantifying the Benefits of Transportation Controls in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas-Bracho, L.; Fernández-Bremauntz, A.; Zuk, M.; Garibay, V.; Iniestra, R.; Franco, P.

    2004-12-01

    Similar to most large cities, the transportation sector in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) constitutes the largest source of air pollution emissions, which result in significant impacts on human health. Although the majority of MCMA residents use public transportation, the share of trips in private vehicles is rising and these vehicles have become the largest contributor to mobile emissions. To reduce these emissions, there is an urgent need to improve the current fleet, improve the quality of fuels, and modify the paradigm of private car use, by providing clean, safe, efficient and comfortable public transportation options. Here we present the potential human health benefits of a set of five mobile source control measures that span public and private transportation options: Taxi fleet renovation, Hybrid buses, Metro Expansion, and the introduction of low sulfur gasoline and Tier II vehicles. We also discuss the methodology and preliminary results of the analysis of the implementation of the project for a Bus Rapid Transit system in Mexico City, in terms of its impacts on personal exposures, emissions, and public health.

  7. Integrated optics bus access module for intramachine communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karioja, Pentti; Tammela, Simo K. T.; Hannula, Tapio

    1991-12-01

    The feasibility of a passive bidirectional fiber optic bus and the packaging considerations of a bus access module have been studied. The bus uses 110/125 micrometers HCS fiber and passive integrated optic couplers for bus access. The access couplers are asymmetric and were fabricated using a Ag-Na ion exchange process. The asymmetry of the coupler was 5 dB, the launch loss to the bus was 6 dB and the tap-off loss to the node was 11 dB. With the integrated optics coupler it is possible to connect 6 nodes to the bidirectional bus. It is also possible to realize a simple, easy-to-use, and reliable bus access module for intramachine communication. The integrated optics coupler, a LED chip, and a PIN-diode chip and transceiver electronics are packaged in an electrical connector with a two-fiber optical cable pigtail. Active and passive components are butt coupled to the coupler. The 0.5 dB alignment tolerances for the fiber pigtails, the LED, and the PIN-diode chips are +/- 5 micrometers .

  8. Task Analysis Assessment on Intrastate Bus Traffic Controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen Bin, Teo; Azlis-Sani, Jalil; Nur Annuar Mohd Yunos, Muhammad; Ismail, S. M. Sabri S. M.; Tajedi, Noor Aqilah Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    Public transportation acts as social mobility and caters the daily needs of the society for passengers to travel from one place to another. This is true for a country like Malaysia where international trade has been growing significantly over the past few decades. Task analysis assessment was conducted with the consideration of cognitive ergonomic view towards problem related to human factors. Conducting research regarding the task analysis on bus traffic controllers had allowed a better understanding regarding the nature of work and the overall monitoring activities of the bus services. This paper served to study the task analysis assessment on intrastate bus traffic controllers and the objectives of this study include to conduct task analysis assessment on the bus traffic controllers. Task analysis assessment for the bus traffic controllers was developed via Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA). There are a total of five subsidiary tasks on level one and only two were able to be further broken down in level two. Development of HTA allowed a better understanding regarding the work and this could further ease the evaluation of the tasks conducted by the bus traffic controllers. Thus, human error could be reduced for the safety of all passengers and increase the overall efficiency of the system. Besides, it could assist in improving the operation of the bus traffic controllers by modelling or synthesizing the existing tasks if necessary.

  9. Modeling level-of-safety for bus stops in China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhirui; Wang, Chao; Yu, Yongbo; Shi, Xiaomeng; Wang, Wei

    2016-08-17

    Safety performance at bus stops is generally evaluated by using historical traffic crash data or traffic conflict data. However, in China, it is quite difficult to obtain such data mainly due to the lack of traffic data management and organizational issues. In light of this, the primary objective of this study is to develop a quantitative approach to evaluate bus stop safety performance. The concept of level-of-safety for bus stops is introduced and corresponding models are proposed to quantify safety levels, which consider conflict points, traffic factors, geometric characteristics, traffic signs and markings, pavement conditions, and lighting conditions. Principal component analysis and k-means clustering methods were used to model and quantify safety levels for bus stops. A case study was conducted to show the applicability of the proposed model with data collected from 46 samples for the 7 most common types of bus stops in China, using 32 of the samples for modeling and 14 samples for illustration. Based on the case study, 6 levels of safety for bus stops were defined. Finally, a linear regression analysis between safety levels and the number of traffic conflicts showed that they had a strong relationship (R(2) value of 0.908). The results indicated that the method was well validated and could be practically used for the analysis and evaluation of bus stop safety in China. The proposed model was relatively easy to implement without the requirement of traffic crash data and/or traffic conflict data. In addition, with the proposed method, it was feasible to evaluate countermeasures to improve bus stop safety (e.g., exclusive bus lanes).

  10. Partial least square method for modelling ergonomic risks factors on express bus accidents in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Yusof bin; Taha, Zahari bin

    2015-02-01

    Public, stake holders and authorities in Malaysian government show great concern towards high numbers of passenger's injuries and passengers fatalities in express bus accident. This paper studies the underlying factors involved in determining ergonomics risk factors towards human error as the reasons in express bus accidents in order to develop an integrated analytical framework. Reliable information about drivers towards bus accident should lead to the design of strategies intended to make the public feel safe in public transport services. In addition there is an analysis of ergonomics risk factors to determine highly ergonomic risk factors which led to accidents. The research was performed in east coast of peninsular Malaysia using variance-based structural equation modeling namely the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression techniques. A questionnaire survey was carried out at random among 65 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuantan in Pahang and among 49 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuala Terengganu in Terengganu to all towns in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia. The ergonomic risks factors questionnaire is based on demographic information, occupational information, organizational safety climate, ergonomic workplace, physiological factors, stress at workplace, physical fatigue and near miss accidents. The correlation and significant values between latent constructs (near miss accident) were analyzed using SEM SmartPLS, 3M. The finding shows that the correlated ergonomic risks factors (occupational information, t=2.04, stress at workplace, t = 2.81, physiological factor, t=2.08) are significant to physical fatigue and as the mediator to near miss accident at t = 2.14 at p<0.05and T-statistics, t>1.96. The results shows that the effects of physical fatigue due to ergonomic risks factors influence the human error as the reasons in express bus accidents.

  11. Partial least square method for modelling ergonomic risks factors on express bus accidents in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Hashim, Yusof bin; Taha, Zahari bin

    2015-02-03

    Public, stake holders and authorities in Malaysian government show great concern towards high numbers of passenger’s injuries and passengers fatalities in express bus accident. This paper studies the underlying factors involved in determining ergonomics risk factors towards human error as the reasons in express bus accidents in order to develop an integrated analytical framework. Reliable information about drivers towards bus accident should lead to the design of strategies intended to make the public feel safe in public transport services. In addition there is an analysis of ergonomics risk factors to determine highly ergonomic risk factors which led to accidents. The research was performed in east coast of peninsular Malaysia using variance-based structural equation modeling namely the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression techniques. A questionnaire survey was carried out at random among 65 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuantan in Pahang and among 49 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuala Terengganu in Terengganu to all towns in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia. The ergonomic risks factors questionnaire is based on demographic information, occupational information, organizational safety climate, ergonomic workplace, physiological factors, stress at workplace, physical fatigue and near miss accidents. The correlation and significant values between latent constructs (near miss accident) were analyzed using SEM SmartPLS, 3M. The finding shows that the correlated ergonomic risks factors (occupational information, t=2.04, stress at workplace, t = 2.81, physiological factor, t=2.08) are significant to physical fatigue and as the mediator to near miss accident at t = 2.14 at p<0.05and T-statistics, t>1.96. The results shows that the effects of physical fatigue due to ergonomic risks factors influence the human error as the reasons in express bus accidents.

  12. Rethinking passive transport: bus fare exemptions and young people's wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alasdair; Steinbach, Rebecca; Roberts, Helen; Goodman, Anna; Green, Judith

    2012-05-01

    Much recent public health research has emphasised the health impacts for young people of 'active travel' modes, typically defined as walking and cycling. Less research has focused on public transport modes. Drawing on qualitative data, we examine the links between bus travel and wellbeing in London, where young people currently have free bus travel. Our findings indicate that bus travel can be both a physically and socially active experience for young people. We suggest a more nuanced understanding of 'active travel' is now needed, alongside greater attention to urban public transport networks as key sites that impact on important determinants of wellbeing such as independent mobility and social inclusion.

  13. Fair dynamic arbitration for a multiprocessor communications bus

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, J.D.; Crockett, T.W.

    1982-09-01

    The finite element machine (FEM) is an experimental parallel computer consisting of an array of 36 asynchronous microcomputers. One method of interprocessor communication of FEM is a bi-directional parallel bus which uses a dynamic arbitration scheme to increase bus bandwidth. Testing of this bus revealed an imbalance in transfer rates for individual processors. The imbalance was traced to a defect in arbiter design, and two criteria were identified which must be met to ensure fair dynamic arbitration. These involve (1) priority sequencing, and (2) the efficiency of the arbiter. 3 references.

  14. Classroom Activities in School Bus and Pedestrian Safety Education. Bulletin No. 93138.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Transportation, Madison.

    School bus and related pedestrian safety education is prevention-oriented so that students will learn how to avoid bus-related accidents. This manual provides lesson plans emphasizing the school bus stop, loading and unloading zones, emergency evacuation drills, and appropriate behavior on the school bus. The guide also recognizes demographic…

  15. Analysis of Feeder Bus Network Design and Scheduling Problems

    PubMed Central

    Almasi, Mohammad Hadi; Karim, Mohamed Rehan

    2014-01-01

    A growing concern for public transit is its inability to shift passenger's mode from private to public transport. In order to overcome this problem, a more developed feeder bus network and matched schedules will play important roles. The present paper aims to review some of the studies performed on Feeder Bus Network Design and Scheduling Problem (FNDSP) based on three distinctive parts of the FNDSP setup, namely, problem description, problem characteristics, and solution approaches. The problems consist of different subproblems including data preparation, feeder bus network design, route generation, and feeder bus scheduling. Subsequently, descriptive analysis and classification of previous works are presented to highlight the main characteristics and solution methods. Finally, some of the issues and trends for future research are identified. This paper is targeted at dealing with the FNDSP to exhibit strategic and tactical goals and also contributes to the unification of the field which might be a useful complement to the few existing reviews. PMID:24526890

  16. Staying Safe in the Car and on the Bus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lifesaver Kids Talk About: Coaches Staying Safe in the Car and on the Bus KidsHealth > For Kids > Staying Safe in the ... to ride safely without a booster! Get in the Back Here's another important safety rule: Sit in ...

  17. 1. VIEW OF PARK FROM NORTHWEST SHOWING BUS RAMP AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF PARK FROM NORTHWEST SHOWING BUS RAMP AND PUBLIC PARKING LOT IN CENTER, HARVARD YARD BUILDINGS IN REAR, HOLYOKE CENTER AT REAR RIGHT. - Flagstaff Park, Massachusetts Avenue & Kirkland Street, Cambridge, Middlesex County, MA

  18. 2. VIEW OF BUS RAMP FROM NORTH LOOKING DOWN INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF BUS RAMP FROM NORTH LOOKING DOWN INTO TUNNEL ENTRANCE, HARVARD YARD IN REAR LEFT, HOLYOKE CENTER IN MIDDLE, FIRST CHURCH ON RIGHT - Flagstaff Park, Massachusetts Avenue & Kirkland Street, Cambridge, Middlesex County, MA

  19. 16. View looking southeast of a bus waiting station, the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. View looking southeast of a bus waiting station, the former filling station and the power station (in the background). - Fort Benjamin Harrison, East Fifty-sixth Street (Aultman Avenue) & Glenn Road, Lawrence, Marion County, IN

  20. 234. Dennis Hill, Photographer July 1998 VIEW OF BUS STOP, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    234. Dennis Hill, Photographer July 1998 VIEW OF BUS STOP, UPPER DECK OF YERBA BUENA EAST VIADUCT, FACING WEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. View of the current distribution "bus" atop switching cabinets within ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the current distribution "bus" atop switching cabinets within the former transformer building. Looking northwest - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Childs Powerhouse, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  2. Rfid-Based Automatic Bus Ticketing: Features and Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oudah, A.

    2016-02-01

    Recent advancements in various technologies have made remarkable developments in various fields for public welfare and public transport is one such area. In the near future public bus transport system with advanced technologies like Radio Frequency Identification Device (RFID), GSM, GPS, ZigBee and RF modules will gain spotlight due to their advantage of higher convenience and greater life standards as compared to the conventional bus systems. In this paper, a comprehensive review of all several proposed bus ticketing and bus information methods has been presented in detail. The study brings out improved solution in terms of cost, convenience, user satisfaction and future implementation. The choice of working modules and their efficient performance has been discussed along with the highlighted importance of the need of technology for welfare of common public and visually impaired.

  3. 2. VIEW OF SOUTHWEST APPROACH, SHOWING BUS STAGING AREA IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF SOUTHWEST APPROACH, SHOWING BUS STAGING AREA IN FRONT OF THE PASSENGER STATION AND RELATIONSHIP OF PARKING LOT UNDER VIADUCT - Pennsylvania Railroad, Harrisburg Station & Trainshed, Market & South Fourth Streets, Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

  4. Analysis of feeder bus network design and scheduling problems.

    PubMed

    Almasi, Mohammad Hadi; Mirzapour Mounes, Sina; Koting, Suhana; Karim, Mohamed Rehan

    2014-01-01

    A growing concern for public transit is its inability to shift passenger's mode from private to public transport. In order to overcome this problem, a more developed feeder bus network and matched schedules will play important roles. The present paper aims to review some of the studies performed on Feeder Bus Network Design and Scheduling Problem (FNDSP) based on three distinctive parts of the FNDSP setup, namely, problem description, problem characteristics, and solution approaches. The problems consist of different subproblems including data preparation, feeder bus network design, route generation, and feeder bus scheduling. Subsequently, descriptive analysis and classification of previous works are presented to highlight the main characteristics and solution methods. Finally, some of the issues and trends for future research are identified. This paper is targeted at dealing with the FNDSP to exhibit strategic and tactical goals and also contributes to the unification of the field which might be a useful complement to the few existing reviews.

  5. CFD Investigation on Long-Haul Passenger Bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, C. F.; Tee, B. T.; Law, H. C.; Lim, T. L.

    2015-09-01

    Air flow distribution is one of the important factors that will influence the bus passenger comfort during long haul travel. Poor air flow distribution not only cause discomfort to the bus passenger but also influence their travel mode as well. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the air flow performance of the bus air-conditioning system through CFD simulation approach. A 3D CAD model of air ducts was drawn and hence analysed by using CFD software, namely ANSYS Fluent, to determine the airflow rate for every outlets of the air-conditioning system. The simulated result was then validated with experimental data obtained from prototype model of air duct. Based on the findings, new design concepts is proposed with the aim to meet the industry requirement as well as to improve the bus passenger comfort during long haul travel.

  6. Spin-bus concept of spin quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehring, Michael; Mende, Jens

    2006-05-01

    We present a spin-bus concept of quantum computing where an electron spin S=1/2 acts as a bus qubit connected to a finite number N of nuclear spins I=1/2 serving as client qubits. Spin-bus clusters are considered as local processing units and may be interconnected with other spin-bus clusters via electron-electron coupling in a scaled up version. Here we lay the ground for the basic functional unit with long qubit registers, provide the theory and experimental verification of correlated qubit states, and demonstrate the Deutsch algorithm. Experiments were performed on a qubyte plus one nuclear spin in a solid state system.

  7. Intelligent Energy Management in a Two Power-Bus Vehicle System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-09

    Dirty Bus Branch 28V Battery Permanent Magnetic DC Motor Field Controlled DC generator Load Clean Bus Branch 28V Battery Bus Bus 19 DISTRIBUTION...Motor Field Controlled DC generator DC Power Supply Electronic Load DC Power Supply (125V, 3A) Permanent Magnetic DC Motor Field Controlled DC generator...Battery Lithium Battery Load Electronic Load Clean Bus Branch Original System Demo System Hydraulic System Permanent DC Motor Alternator Field

  8. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Howard Glunt; Andre L. Boehman; Allen Homan; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethylether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. The strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The bulk of the efforts over the past year were focused on the conversion of the campus shuttle bus. This process, started in August 2001, took until April 2002 to complete. The process culminated in an event to celebrate the launching of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel operation on April 19, 2002. The design of the system on the shuttle bus was patterned after the system developed in the engine laboratory, but also was subjected to a rigorous failure modes effects analysis with help from Dr. James Hansel of Air Products. The result of this FMEA was the addition of layers of redundancy and over-pressure protection to the system on the shuttle bus. The system became operation in February 2002. Preliminary emissions tests and basic operation of the shuttle bus took place at the Pennsylvania Transportation institute's test track facility near the University Park airport. After modification and optimization of the system on the bus, operation on the campus shuttle route began in early June 2002. However, the work

  9. Digital bus technology in new coal-fired plants

    SciTech Connect

    Blaney, J.; Murray, J.

    2007-10-15

    The main issues associated with including digital bus technology such as Foundation fieldbus, Profibus-DP or DeviceNet, in a coal-fired power plant are deciding which systems to install and determining how to implement it. Although still new, digital bus experiences to date have shown that the technology performs solidly and when wiring best practices are followed a significantly shorted commissioning cycle can be achieved. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  10. Intramodule Multielement Microsystem (IM2) Bus and Interface Circuit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-07-01

    multiple devices on a single digital bus. An alternative choice is the so-called fieldbus concept which provides a single bus with multiple nodes. However... fieldbus is designed for communication between microcontrollers and is not appropriate for less sophisticated sensors. This means it is necessary...smart sensor but a complete microcontroller-based system. As a result, a fieldbus “smart sensor” like this suffers from unnecessary complexity and size

  11. Compressed natural gas bus safety: a quantitative risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Samuel; Modarres, Mohammad

    2005-04-01

    This study assesses the fire safety risks associated with compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicle systems, comprising primarily a typical school bus and supporting fuel infrastructure. The study determines the sensitivity of the results to variations in component failure rates and consequences of fire events. The components and subsystems that contribute most to fire safety risk are determined. Finally, the results are compared to fire risks of the present generation of diesel-fueled school buses. Direct computation of the safety risks associated with diesel-powered vehicles is possible because these are mature technologies for which historical performance data are available. Because of limited experience, fatal accident data for CNG bus fleets are minimal. Therefore, this study uses the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) approach to model and predict fire safety risk of CNG buses. Generic failure data, engineering judgments, and assumptions are used in this study. This study predicts the mean fire fatality risk for typical CNG buses as approximately 0.23 fatalities per 100-million miles for all people involved, including bus passengers. The study estimates mean values of 0.16 fatalities per 100-million miles for bus passengers only. Based on historical data, diesel school bus mean fire fatality risk is 0.091 and 0.0007 per 100-million miles for all people and bus passengers, respectively. One can therefore conclude that CNG buses are more prone to fire fatality risk by 2.5 times that of diesel buses, with the bus passengers being more at risk by over two orders of magnitude. The study estimates a mean fire risk frequency of 2.2 x 10(-5) fatalities/bus per year. The 5% and 95% uncertainty bounds are 9.1 x 10(-6) and 4.0 x 10(-5), respectively. The risk result was found to be affected most by failure rates of pressure relief valves, CNG cylinders, and fuel piping.

  12. Data Latency in Time Multiplexed Bus Systems for Missile Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-11

    examines the performances of three computer communication bus protocols: round robin passing protocol ( RRPP ), modified round robin passing protocol (MRRPP...Entered) ’ Under these performance measures, the CSMA/CD protocol is clearly superior, wit average message waiting time as low as 22% of that for RRPP and...performances of three computer communication bus protocols: round robin passing protocol ( RRPP ), modified round robin passing protocol (MRKPP), and carrier

  13. A Modular Twin Bus Microprocessor System for Laboratory Automation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-15

    hardware driven bus used for high speed data aquisition , and the local bus of -7 -2F .%6 k7. * * PAGE 3 another microprocessor system acting as an...developed, the name of the program becomes a command in the language . Thus the language develops naturally to a higher and...i ; _- PAGE 13 higher level as more code is written. The high-level language produced is specific to the functions needed by the

  14. Effect of passenger position on fear of danger experienced during sudden bus stops.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Takeo; Uetake, Teruo; Shimoda, Masahiro

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of bus passengers' positions on their fear of danger when a bus stopped suddenly. A temporary bus running course with one bus stop was set up on the campus of the Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (TUAT). The bus ran the course 14 times with the bus stopping twice during the course, once at the bus stop and again just after re-starting from the bus stop. The driver was asked to brake more strongly than usual when stopping. Sixteen students (15 males and 1 female) between the ages of 18 and 21 years participated. In turn, all participants were asked to take 14 different postures in the bus. Participants were also asked to report their level of fear on a rating scale each time the bus stopped. The study showed that (1) passengers' fear of danger at the first sudden stop was typically higher than that at the second stop, (2) standing passengers who held hand straps experienced more fear than those who held fixed safety devices, (3) bus passengers sitting on the centre of the rear seat had a great risk of injury if the bus stopped suddenly, and (4) when passengers faced the window and stood transversely with respect to from the moving direction of the bus and the bus stopped suddenly, passengers' fear of danger was affected by the side of the bus on which they stood as well as which hand they used to grasp a safety device.

  15. School bus crash rates on routine and nonroutine routes.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Elizabeth; Ramirez, Marizen; Hamann, Cara; Young, Tracy; Stahlhut, Mary; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2014-09-01

    Although prior research has established that school buses are a safe form of transportation, crashes can produce catastrophic consequences. School buses have 2 types of routes: predictable, routine routes that take children to and from school and less predictable, nonroutine routes for school events. No studies have examined school bus crash incidence and characteristics by these route types. School bus crashes were identified from the Iowa Department of Transportation Crash Database from mid-2005 through mid-2010. Crash reports did not identify whether the bus was on a routine or nonroutine route, so a protocol to assign these based on day and time was developed. Bus mileage was provided by the Iowa Department of Education. The school bus crash rate was 2.1 times higher on nonroutine routes than on routine routes (95% CI = 1.8-2.3). Most crashes involved an improper action by the driver of another vehicle. In crashes attributed to improper actions of school buses, failure to yield the right-of-way and disregarding traffic signs were more common on routine routes, while losing control, speeding, reckless, or aggressive driving were more common on nonroutine routes. School bus crashes are more likely to occur on nonroutine routes. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  16. [Tuberculosis prevalence in municipality bus drivers in our dispensary region].

    PubMed

    Cakar, Beyhan; Bilgin, Gülden; Yavuz Şumnulu, Selda; Karnak, Demet

    2013-01-01

    Our study was designed to determine pulmonary tuberculosis rate in municipality bus drivers in our dispensary region and to determine whether or not the job is a risk factor for the disease. Micro chest X-rays were taken of municipality bus drivers working in our region. The ones who had suspicious radiology were re-invited to dispensary; their health background was questioned and advanced investigation was performed. Totally 498 (97%) of 512 bus drivers working in our region came to our dispensary for the study survey. All of the attendants were male and between 19 and 57. In radiologic assessment, among 12 cases were suspected to have tuberculosis. Two of them had ARB smear positive tuberculosis and, five had inactive tuberculosis. Tuberculosis prevalence in bus drivers in our dispensary region was 0.4% (2/498). This value corresponded to 400 in 100.000 populations. Examining the statistics tuberculosis prevalence in our region was only 20 in 100.000 in 2006. This meant that, pulmonary tuberculosis is seen 20 times greater among municipality bus drivers. Taking this conclusion into consideration, we think that being a public bus driver may be accepted as a risk factor for tuberculosis.

  17. School bus’s level of service in Malang City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariyani, S.

    2017-06-01

    School Bus began operated on the 12th of January 2015. Provision of school buses is expected to reduce not only the use of vehicles by students, but it is also to reduce the number of traffic jams. Malang school bus facilities provided by the Department of Transport in cooperation with the Department of Education to serve students in elementary school, junior and senior high schools. After the service running two years, based on the preliminary observation not all students are interested in using the school bus. The research objective was to measure the school bus’s level service. The method to measure school bus’s level of service was used Importance Performance analysis (IPA). The results showed that through IPA, it can be concluded that school bus’s level of service in Malang City have been able to serve students/customers with the mean of degree suitability (Tki) is 111. Meanwhile it must be observed and get more attention to improve by government, attributes which is lies in the first quadrant or concentrate here (attribute Adequate space, Seating capacity, Availability trash can, Passenger facility down in points, The availability of information boards in each bus stop, Availability public telephone in each bus stop, and Availability CCTV in each bus), in order to increase its performance.

  18. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in bus and truck drivers in Kashan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Saberi, Hamid R; Moravveji, Ali R; Fakharian, Esmaeil; Kashani, Masoud Motalebi; Dehdashti, Ali R

    2011-05-19

    Bus and truck drivers are apparently more involved in metabolic syndrome and its complications due to their working conditions. The related impacts are not only harmful for driver's health, but also may endanger others. The present research was carried out to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among bus and truck drivers in Kashan, a city in Iran. In 2007, 429 bus and truck male drivers were enrolled to this cross sectional study to examine the metabolic syndrome using ATPIII criteria. Statistical tests including Chi-Square test, T-student test and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used to analyze the data. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in subjects was 35.9%. Hypertension and diabetes were seen in 42.9% and 7% of the drivers respectively. Body mass index (BMI) in 41% of the drivers within the range of 25-30 was considered overweight and 23% of them were found to be obese. High triglyceride (53.4%) and low HDL-C levels (48.7%) were more common than other components of metabolic syndrome. A significant positive correlation was seen between BMI, diabetes, high blood pressure and metabolic syndrome (p < 0.001); but there was no positive correlation between metabolic syndrome and smoking (p < 0.06). High prevalence of metabolic syndrome and other relevant risk factors for coronary heart diseases (CHD) were detected among the drivers. Based on these findings, it is recommended to consider training programs, establish pertinent health regulations, and focus on the metabolic syndrome complications in high risk group to improve and maintain their quality of life and to promote their public health.

  19. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Howard Glunt; Andre L. Boehman; Allen Homan; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Their strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The bulk of the efforts over the past year were focused on the conversion of the campus shuttle bus. This process, started in August 2001, took until April 2002 to complete. The process culminated in an event to celebrate the launching of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel operation on April 19, 2002. The design of the system on the shuttle bus was patterned after the system developed in the engine laboratory, but also was subjected to a rigorous failure modes effects analysis (FMEA, referred to by Air Products as a ''HAZOP'' analysis) with help from Dr. James Hansel of Air Products. The result of this FMEA was the addition of layers of redundancy and over-pressure protection to the system on the shuttle bus. The system became operational in February 2002. Preliminary emissions tests and basic operation of the shuttle bus took place at the Pennsylvania Transportation Institute's test track facility near the University Park airport. After modification and optimization of the system on the bus, operation on the

  20. Multi-Scale Visualization Analysis of Bus Flow Average Travel Speed in Qingdao

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, HAN; Man, GAO; Xiao-Lei, ZHANG; Jie, LI; Ge, CHEN

    2016-11-01

    Public transportation is a kind of complex spatiotemporal behaviour. The traffic congestion and environmental pollution caused by the increase in private cars is becoming more and more serious in our city. Spatiotemporal data visualization is an effective tool for studying traffic, transforming non-visual data into recognizable images, which can reveal where/when congestion is formed, developed and disappeared in space and time simultaneously. This paper develops a multi-scale visualization of average travel speed derived from floating bus data, to enable congestion on urban bus networks to be shown and analyzed. The techniques of R language, Echarts, WebGL are used to draw statistical pictures and 3D wall map, which show the congestion in Qingdao from the view of space and time. The results are as follows:(1) There is a more severely delay in Shibei and Shinan areas than Licun and Laoshan areas; (2) The high congestion usually occurs on Hong Kong Middle Road, Shandong Road, Nanjing Road, Liaoyang West Road and Taiping Road;(3) There is a similar law from Monday to Sunday that the congestion is severer in the morning and evening rush hours than other hours; (4) On Monday morning the severity of congestion is higher than on Friday morning, and on Friday evening the severity is higher than on Monday evening. The research results will help to improve the public transportation of Qingdao.

  1. Air quality and climate impacts of alternative bus technologies in Greater London.

    PubMed

    Chong, Uven; Yim, Steve H L; Barrett, Steven R H; Boies, Adam M

    2014-04-15

    The environmental impact of diesel-fueled buses can potentially be reduced by the adoption of alternative propulsion technologies such as lean-burn compressed natural gas (LB-CNG) or hybrid electric buses (HEB), and emissions control strategies such as a continuously regenerating trap (CRT), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), or selective catalytic reduction with trap (SCRT). This study assessed the environmental costs and benefits of these bus technologies in Greater London relative to the existing fleet and characterized emissions changes due to alternative technologies. We found a >30% increase in CO2 equivalent (CO2e) emissions for CNG buses, a <5% change for exhaust treatment scenarios, and a 13% (90% confidence interval 3.8-20.9%) reduction for HEB relative to baseline CO2e emissions. A multiscale regional chemistry-transport model quantified the impact of alternative bus technologies on air quality, which was then related to premature mortality risk. We found the largest decrease in population exposure (about 83%) to particulate matter (PM2.5) occurred with LB-CNG buses. Monetized environmental and investment costs relative to the baseline gave estimated net present cost of LB-CNG or HEB conversion to be $187 million ($73 million to $301 million) or $36 million ($-25 million to $102 million), respectively, while EGR or SCRT estimated net present costs were $19 million ($7 million to $32 million) or $15 million ($8 million to $23 million), respectively.

  2. Optical transceiver frontend for high speed bus STANAG 3910 with one fiber only

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilly, Bodo

    The 200/280 micron glass fiber bus system is planned to be installed into the European Fighter Aircraft (EFA). Hybrid integration includes an optical fiber bidirectional T-coupler for aeronautical use. This mode of acting saves 50 percent of the cost intensive glass fiber installation, one reflective star coupler included, and therefore doubles the reliability of the new system. Significant transceiver frontend requirements had to be considered due to the concept of high speed bus STANAG 3910. In particular it is the intertransmission dynamic range on the receiver side: control of 23 dB signal level swing within the short time of 2 microseconds. And the optical power output of 0.5 dBm at the wavelength of 830 nm with the rise and fall times of 10 ns, using a surface emitting light emitting diode on the transmitter side. The data rate is 20 Mbit/s encoded in Manchester 2 format. That requires a wide receiver bandwidth (greater than 30 MHz) and a wide dynamic range (greater than 25 dB) to guarantee a bit error rate less than or equal to 10 (exp -10). The minimum optical power obtained is -37 dBm. Further details with values near to theoretical limits are given.

  3. Improvement of multiprocessing performance by using optical centralized shared bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xuliang; Chen, Ray T.

    2004-06-01

    With the ever-increasing need to solve larger and more complex problems, multiprocessing is attracting more and more research efforts. One of the challenges facing the multiprocessor designers is to fulfill in an effective manner the communications among the processes running in parallel on multiple multiprocessors. The conventional electrical backplane bus provides narrow bandwidth as restricted by the physical limitations of electrical interconnects. In the electrical domain, in order to operate at high frequency, the backplane topology has been changed from the simple shared bus to the complicated switched medium. However, the switched medium is an indirect network. It cannot support multicast/broadcast as effectively as the shared bus. Besides the additional latency of going through the intermediate switching nodes, signal routing introduces substantial delay and considerable system complexity. Alternatively, optics has been well known for its interconnect capability. Therefore, it has become imperative to investigate how to improve multiprocessing performance by utilizing optical interconnects. From the implementation standpoint, the existing optical technologies still cannot fulfill the intelligent functions that a switch fabric should provide as effectively as their electronic counterparts. Thus, an innovative optical technology that can provide sufficient bandwidth capacity, while at the same time, retaining the essential merits of the shared bus topology, is highly desirable for the multiprocessing performance improvement. In this paper, the optical centralized shared bus is proposed for use in the multiprocessing systems. This novel optical interconnect architecture not only utilizes the beneficial characteristics of optics, but also retains the desirable properties of the shared bus topology. Meanwhile, from the architecture standpoint, it fits well in the centralized shared-memory multiprocessing scheme. Therefore, a smooth migration with substantial

  4. Bus transport network of Shenyang considering competitive and cooperative relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Baoyu; Feng, Shumin; Nie, Cen

    2017-01-01

    Competition and cooperation is a universal phenomenon in bus transport networks (BTNs) because of the shared stations between bus routes. A measuring method is proposed for competitive and cooperative relationship between bus routes. Based on this measurement, we develop a new representation model for BTNs, namely competitive-cooperative space R. This model is applied to investigate empirically bus transport network of Shenyang (BTN-S) from China. We present the histograms of competitive-cooperative coefficients, competitive coefficients and cooperative coefficients to illustrate that competitive and cooperative relationship plays an important role in transporting passengers. The competitive-cooperative situation shows that cooperative relationship holds an absolutely dominant position in BTN-S. To explore the networked characteristics, we present some empirical distributions, for the number of bus stations on a route, the number of shared stations between two routes, degree and weighted degree, competitive strength, and cooperative strength. We also examine the correlations between degree and competitive strength, and between degree and cooperative strength. Besides, we investigate the diversities of competitive strength and cooperative strength in BTN-S. This study can help us to understand the BTN from a deeper level.

  5. 1393 Ring Bus at JPL: Description and Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wysocky, Terry R.

    2007-01-01

    Completed Ring Bus IC V&V Phase - Ring Bus Test Plan Completed for SIM Project - Applicable to Other Projects Implemented a Avionics Bus Based upon the IEEE 1393 Standard - Excellent Starting Point for a General Purpose High-Speed Spacecraft Bus - Designed to Meet SIM Requirements for - Real-time deterministic, distributed systems. - Control system requirements - Fault detection and recovery Other JPL Projects Considering Implementation F'light Software Ring Bus Driver Module Began in 2006, Continues Participating in Standard Revision. Search for Earth-like planets orbiting nearby stars and measure the masses and orbits of the planets it finds. Survey 2000 nearby stars for planetary systems to learn whether our Solar System is unusual, or typical. Make a new catalog of star position 100 times more accurate than current measurements. Learn how our galaxy formed and will evolve by studying the dynamics of its stars. Critically test models of exactly how stars shine, including exotic objects like black holes, neutron stars and white dwarfs.

  6. Electric-bus life-cycle cost study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    A detailed study of the Santa Barbara Metropolitan Transit District (MTD) electric-bus program was conducted and resulted in a comprehensive set of cost data. These costs are compared with the life cycle costs of diesel buses. Direct comparisons of the life cycle costs of battery-electric buses and of diesel-fueled buses were not found to be meaningful without considering the environmental costs and benefits associated with both vehicle types; some of these factors are discussed in the study. The duty cycles most appropriate to the two bus types are not generally comparable. Electric shuttle-bus life cycle costs with flooded-cell lead-acid battery are 108% of the costs attributable to a diesel shuttle. Costs with the maintenance-free lead-acid and flooded-cell nickel-cadmium batteries are 113% and 117% relative to diesel, respectively. The monetary value attributed to emissions avoided by the use of electric buses depends on the local air quality situation. Labor costs are the major component of electric-bus life cycle costs, incremental advances in the enabling technologies will bring electric-bus costs close to those of diesel-fueled buses. Advances in battery technology will widen the range of duty cycles appropriate to electric buses.

  7. Overview hazard analysis for the H2Fuel Bus Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hovis, G.L.

    1996-06-18

    The H2Fuel Bus project is a joint development effort to produce a safe, near-zero emission, 32 passenger bus that is propelled by electric power with continuous on-board hydrogen powered battery recharging. A key initiative in the hydrogen bus development effort is a rigorous evaluation of operational safety. Westinghouse Savannah River Co., the prime contractor at the Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site, has developed a hazard analysis methodology designed to provide a systematic, comprehensive identification and evaluation of hazards. Although originally developed to support nuclear/chemical facility safety basis documentation, the SRS Methodology has widespread applicability to operations and/or systems that utilize hazardous materials and energy. This methodology was used to perform an overview hazard analysis for the H2Fuel Bus project to focus attention on those hypothetical circumstances that pose the greatest threat to the populace and property. The hazard analysis yields a listing of all known H2Fuel Bus hazards, postulated accident scenarios describing possible hazardous releases or conditions, an assessment of the scenarios in terms of frequency of occurrence and consequence, and binning in frequency-consequence space to assess the relative severity of postulated scenarios.

  8. Effect of bus size and operation to crash occurrences.

    PubMed

    Chimba, Deo; Sando, Thobias; Kwigizile, Valerian

    2010-11-01

    This paper evaluates roadway and operational factors considered to influence crashes involving buses. Factors evaluated included those related to bus sizes and operation services. Negative binomial (NB) and multinomial logit (MNL) models were used in linearizing and quantifying these factors with respect to crash frequency and injury severities, respectively. The results showed that position of the bus travel lane, presence or absence of on-street shoulder parking, posted speed limit, lane width, median width, number of lanes per direction and number of vehicles per lane has a higher influence on bus crashes compared to other roadway and traffic factors. Wider lanes and medians were found to reduce probability of bus crashes while more lanes and higher volume per lane were found to increase the likelihood of occurrences of bus-related crashes. Roadways with higher posted speed limits excluding freeways were found to have high probability of crashes compared to low speed limit roadways. Buses traveling on the inner lanes and making left turns were found to have higher probability of crashes compared to those traveling on the right most lanes. The same factors were found to influence injury severity though with varying magnitudes compared to crash frequency.

  9. Available Transfer Capability Determination Using Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jirapong, Peeraool; Ongsakul, Weerakorn

    2008-10-01

    This paper proposes a new hybrid evolutionary algorithm (HEA) based on evolutionary programming (EP), tabu search (TS), and simulated annealing (SA) to determine the available transfer capability (ATC) of power transactions between different control areas in deregulated power systems. The optimal power flow (OPF)-based ATC determination is used to evaluate the feasible maximum ATC value within real and reactive power generation limits, line thermal limits, voltage limits, and voltage and angle stability limits. The HEA approach simultaneously searches for real power generations except slack bus in a source area, real power loads in a sink area, and generation bus voltages to solve the OPF-based ATC problem. Test results on the modified IEEE 24-bus reliability test system (RTS) indicate that ATC determination by the HEA could enhance ATC far more than those from EP, TS, hybrid TS/SA, and improved EP (IEP) algorithms, leading to an efficient utilization of the existing transmission system.

  10. Web based hybrid volumetric visualisation of urban GIS data. Integration of 4D Temperature and Wind Fields with LoD-2 CityGML models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Congote, J.; Moreno, A.; Kabongo, L.; Pérez, J.-L.; San-José, R.; Ruiz, O.

    2012-10-01

    City models visualisation, buildings, structures and volumetric information, is an important task in Computer Graphics and Urban Planning. The different formats and data sources involved in the visualisation make the development of applications a big challenge. We present a homogeneous web visualisation framework using X3DOM and MEDX3DOM for the visualisation of these urban objects. We present an integration of different declarative data sources, enabling the utilization of advanced visualisation algorithms to render the models. It has been tested with a city model composed of buildings from the Madrid University Campus, some volumetric datasets coming from Air Quality Models and 2D layers wind datasets. Results show that the visualisation of all the urban models can be performed in real time on the Web. An HTML5 web interface is presented to the users, enabling real time modifications of visualisation parameters.

  11. Battery capacity and recharging needs for electric buses in city transit service

    DOE PAGES

    Gao, Zhiming; Lin, Zhenhong; LaClair, Tim J.; ...

    2017-01-27

    Our paper evaluates the energy consumption and battery performance of city transit electric buses operating on real day-to-day routes and standardized bus drive cycles, based on a developed framework tool that links bus electrification feasibility with real-world vehicle performance, city transit bus service reliability, battery sizing and charging infrastructure. The impacts of battery capacity combined with regular and ultrafast charging over different routes have been analyzed in terms of the ability to maintain city transit bus service reliability like conventional buses. These results show that ultrafast charging via frequent short-time boost charging events, for example at a designated bus stopmore » after completing each circuit of an assigned route, can play a significant role in reducing the battery size and can eliminate the need for longer duration charging events that would cause schedule delays. Furthermore, the analysis presented shows that significant benefits can be realized by employing multiple battery configurations and flexible battery swapping practices in electric buses. These flexible design and use options will allow electric buses to service routes of varying city driving patterns and can therefore enable meaningful reductions to the cost of the vehicle and battery while ensuring service that is as reliable as conventional buses.« less

  12. Education Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaked, Haim

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, several cities in Israel have labeled themselves "Education Cities," concentrating on education as their central theme. Employing qualitative techniques, this article aims to describe, define, and conceptualize this phenomenon as it is being realized in three such cities. Findings show that Education Cities differ from…

  13. Education Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaked, Haim

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, several cities in Israel have labeled themselves "Education Cities," concentrating on education as their central theme. Employing qualitative techniques, this article aims to describe, define, and conceptualize this phenomenon as it is being realized in three such cities. Findings show that Education Cities differ from…

  14. Fiber optic modules for ISO 8802-4 token bus spacecraft data management systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendelberg, Roger; Alping, Arne G.; Wising, Bo

    1995-05-01

    The major part of the studies for introducing photonics in space are performed in the USA, but a few years ago, Saab Ericsson Space AB started a study project under a European Space Agency (ESA) contract with Ericsson Microwave Systems AB as a subcontractor. The main objectives of the project were to investigate the requirements on photonics systems and hardware for space applications and to develop space qualifiable fiber optic hybrids for a spacecraft data network. The system analysis, as well as the specifications for the fiber optic hybrids, was performed to meet the performance and environmental requirements of the Columbus Data Management System (DMS) (the fiber optic version of 10 Mbps ISO 8802-4 Token Bus). The requirements, design, and performance of these fiber optic transmitter and receiver hybrids are presented. The most important characteristics are: optical output peak power of -8.5 dBm, receiver sensitivity of -44 dBm, acquisition time of 2 microsecond(s) and a dynamic range of 27 dB.

  15. Comparative study of fuel cell, battery and hybrid buses for renewable energy constrained areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stempien, J. P.; Chan, S. H.

    2017-02-01

    Fuel cell- and battery-based public bus technologies are reviewed and compared for application in tropical urban areas. This paper scrutinizes the reported literature on fuel cell bus, fuel cell electric bus, battery electric bus, hybrid electric bus, internal combustion diesel bus and compressed natural gas bus. The comparison includes the capital and operating costs, fuel consumption and fuel cycle emissions. To the best of authors knowledge, this is the first study to holistically compare hydrogen and battery powered buses, which is the original contribution of this paper. Moreover, this is the first study to focus on supplying hydrogen and electricity from fossil resources, while including the associated emissions. The study shows that compressed natural gas and hybrid electric buses appear to be the cheapest options in terms of total cost of ownership, but they are unable to meet the EURO VI emissions' standard requirement. Only fuel cell based buses have the potential to achieve the emissions' standard when the fuel cycle based on fossil energy was considered. Fuel cell electric buses are identified as a technology allowing for the largest CO2 emission reduction, making ∼61% decrease in annual emissions possible.

  16. American Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation. Second Report

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, Leslie; Post, Matthew

    2015-09-01

    This report presents results of the American Fuel Cell Bus (AFCB) Project, a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses operating in the Coachella Valley area of California. The prototype AFCB was developed as part of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA's) National Fuel Cell Bus Program. Through the non-profit consortia CALSTART, a team led by SunLine Transit Agency and BAE Systems developed a new fuel cell electric bus for demonstration. SunLine added two more AFCBs to its fleet in 2014 and another in 2015. FTA and the AFCB project team are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This report summarizes the performance results for the buses through June 2015.

  17. Quantum bus of metal nanoring with surface plasmon polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhi-Rong; Guo, Guo-Ping; Tu, Tao; Li, Hai-Ou; Zou, Chang-Ling; Chen, Jun-Xue; Lu, Yong-Hua; Ren, Xi-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2010-12-01

    We develop an architecture for distributed quantum computation using quantum bus of plasmonic circuits and spin qubits in self-assembled quantum dots. Deterministic quantum gates between two distant spin qubits can be reached by using an adiabatic approach in which quantum dots couple with highly detuned plasmon modes in a metallic nanoring. Plasmonic quantum bus offers a robust and scalable platform for quantum optics experiments and the development of on-chip quantum networks composed of various quantum nodes, such as quantum dots, molecules, and nanoparticles.

  18. Public transit 1993: Bus, paratransit, and ridesharing. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    Kassabian, N.C.; Tobias, A.G.; Crayton, L.; Solomon, N.; Brown, S.E.G.

    1993-01-01

    Contents: evaluation of the operating cost consequences of signal preemption as an IVHS strategy; efficient transit priority at intersections; welfare comparison of fixed- and flexible-route bus systems; bus stop accessibility: a guide for virginia transit systems and public entities for complying with the americans with disabilities act of 1990; implications of technological developments for demand responsive transit; impact of nonresponse bias on forecasts of average passenger occupancy; what has happened to carpooling: trends in North Carolina, 1980 to 1990; ridesharing and the consumer: a tale of two marketing strategies; transportation demand management at small employer sites; and state of the commute in Southern California, 1992.

  19. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 665 - Tests To Be Performed at the Bus Testing Facility

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... assessed. (6) With the bus at curb weight possible damages or deformation associated with lifting the bus... power. The emissions test is not a certification test, and is designed only to enable FTA recipients to...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 665 - Tests To Be Performed at the Bus Testing Facility

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... assessed. (6) With the bus at curb weight possible damages or deformation associated with lifting the bus... power. The emissions test is not a certification test, and is designed only to enable FTA recipients to...

  1. 76 FR 68819 - State of Good Repair Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ...--New York, Administrator, Region 7--Kansas One Bowling Green, Room 429, New City, MO, 901 Locust Street... Office, Region 2--New York, One Bowling Green, Room 428, New York, NY 10004-1415, Tel....

  2. 76 FR 78732 - FY 2011 Discretionary Funding Opportunity; Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities Veterans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ...--New York, Administrator, Region 7--Kansas One Bowling Green, Room 429, New City, MO, 901 Locust Street... Office, Region 2--New York, One Bowling Green, Room 428, New York, NY 10004-1415, Tel....

  3. Performance Evaluation of UHF RFID Technologies for Real-Time Bus Recognition in the Taipei Bus Station

    PubMed Central

    Own, Chung-Ming; Lee, Da-Sheng; Wang, Ti-Ho; Wang, De-Jun; Ting, Yu-Lun

    2013-01-01

    Transport stations such as airports, ports, and railways have adopted blocked-type pathway management to process and control travel systems in a one-directional manner. However, this excludes highway transportation where large buses have great variability and mobility; thus, an instant influx of numerous buses increases risks and complicates station management. Focusing on Taipei Bus Station, this study employed RFID technology to develop a system platform integrated with modern information technology that has numerous characteristics. This modern information technology comprised the following systems: ultra-high frequency (UHF) radio-frequency identification (RFID), ultrasound and license number identification, and backstage graphic controls. In conclusion, the system enabled management, bus companies, and passengers to experience the national bus station's new generation technology, which provides diverse information and synchronization functions. Furthermore, this technology reached a new milestone in the energy-saving and efficiency-increasing performance of Taiwan's buses. PMID:23778192

  4. Performance evaluation of UHF RFID technologies for real-time bus recognition in the Taipei Bus Station.

    PubMed

    Own, Chung-Ming; Lee, Da-Sheng; Wang, Ti-Ho; Wang, De-Jun; Ting, Yu-Lun

    2013-06-18

    Transport stations such as airports, ports, and railways have adopted blocked-type pathway management to process and control travel systems in a one-directional manner. However, this excludes highway transportation where large buses have great variability and mobility; thus, an instant influx of numerous buses increases risks and complicates station management. Focusing on Taipei Bus Station, this study employed RFID technology to develop a system platform integrated with modern information technology that has numerous characteristics. This modern information technology comprised the following systems: ultra-high frequency (UHF) radio-frequency identification (RFID), ultrasound and license number identification, and backstage graphic controls. In conclusion, the system enabled management, bus companies, and passengers to experience the national bus station's new generation technology, which provides diverse information and synchronization functions. Furthermore, this technology reached a new milestone in the energy-saving and efficiency-increasing performance of Taiwan's buses.

  5. Heuristic Optimization Approach to Selecting a Transport Connection in City Public Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kul'ka, Jozef; Mantič, Martin; Kopas, Melichar; Faltinová, Eva; Kachman, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    The article presents a heuristic optimization approach to select a suitable transport connection in the framework of a city public transport. This methodology was applied on a part of the public transport in Košice, because it is the second largest city in the Slovak Republic and its network of the public transport creates a complex transport system, which consists of three different transport modes, namely from the bus transport, tram transport and trolley-bus transport. This solution focused on examining the individual transport services and their interconnection in relevant interchange points.

  6. Case Study - Propane School Bus Fleets

    SciTech Connect

    Laughlin, M; Burnham, A.

    2014-08-31

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) effort to deploy transportation technologies that reduce U.S. dependence on imported petroleum, this study examines five school districts, one in Virginia and four in Texas, successful use of propane school buses. These school districts used school buses equipped with the newly developed liquid propane injection system that improves vehicle performance. Some of the school districts in this study saved nearly 50% on a cost per mile basis for fuel and maintenance relative to diesel. Using Argonne National Laboratory’s Alternative Fuel Life-Cycle Environmental and Economic Transportation (AFLEET) Tool developed for the DOE’s Clean Cities program to help Clean Cities stakeholders estimate petroleum use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, air pollutant emissions and cost of ownership of light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles, the results showed payback period ranges from 3—8 years, recouping the incremental cost of the vehicles and infrastructure. Overall, fuel economy for these propane vehicles is close to that of displaced diesel vehicles, on an energy-equivalent basis. In addition, the 110 propane buses examined demonstrated petroleum displacement, 212,000 diesel gallon equivalents per year, and GHG benefits of 770 tons per year.

  7. Outsourcing of Defense Supply Center, Columbus, Bus and Taxi Service Operations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-04-13

    Project No. 8CH -0008.01) Outsourcing of Defense Supply Center, Columbus, Bus and Taxi Service Operations Executive Summary Introduction. We performed the...Outsourcing of Defense Supply Center, Columbus, Bus and Taxi Service Operations (Project No. 8CH -0008.01) This is in response to your December 28...Center, Columbus, Bus and Taxi Service Operations (Project No. 8CH -0008.01) Finding: The decision to contract out the bus and taxi service operations at

  8. School Bus Safety: What Can Our Schools Do to Protect Our Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dargan, Thomas J.; Silverstone, Adam H.

    2014-01-01

    School districts and school bus contractors are entrusted with the most important of all road users--our nation's children. In the wake of recent newsworthy accidents and attention grabbing headlines regarding unfit bus drivers, claims premised upon school bus accidents have become increasingly tangential and, in turn, personal injury attorneys…

  9. Bus Operations for Pupil Transportation. "Chrome-Yellow and Red Lights."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rannels, Morris W.

    This paper is based on a committee report of the last National School Bus Conference on "Minimum Standards for School Buses." Standards for school bus operations are included for (1) administrators, (2) supervisors, (3) school bus drivers, (4) student passengers, and (5) maintenance and service personnel. The report deals also with procedures for…

  10. 49 CFR 571.221 - Standard No. 221; School bus body joint strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... means any part of the bus, of either a mechanical or electrical nature, which is explicitly identified... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 221; School bus body joint strength... STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.221 Standard No. 221; School bus body joint strength...

  11. 46 CFR 112.05-3 - Main-emergency bus-tie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main-emergency bus-tie. 112.05-3 Section 112.05-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS General § 112.05-3 Main-emergency bus-tie. Each bus-tie between a main switchboard...

  12. School Bus Rider Safety Education Modules for Use with Drills on School Buses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Physical Education, Fitness, Health, Nutrition and Safety Services.

    Developed for teachers and members of the pupil transportation staff who conduct school bus drills, these 10 lesson outlines are intended for classroom instruction on school bus safety. Lessons may be adapted to fit the grade level, intelligence, and special needs of students. Topics covered are: preparing to ride the bus, boarding and proceeding…

  13. School Bus Rider Safety Education Modules for Use with Drills on School Buses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Physical Education, Fitness, Health, Nutrition and Safety Services.

    Developed for teachers and members of the pupil transportation staff who conduct school bus drills, these 10 lesson outlines are intended for classroom instruction on school bus safety. Lessons may be adapted to fit the grade level, intelligence, and special needs of students. Topics covered are: preparing to ride the bus, boarding and proceeding…

  14. 49 CFR 571.217 - Standard No. 217; Bus emergency exits and window retention and release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard No. 217; Bus emergency exits and window... VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.217 Standard No. 217; Bus emergency... positions on the bus. At least 40 percent of the total required area of unobstructed openings, computed...

  15. 75 FR 20034 - Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Grants: Corrections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... Federal Transit Administration Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Grants: Corrections AGENCY: Federal..., 2010 Federal Transit Administration (FTA) Notice titled ``Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program... the Special Warranty for the Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program that is most current as of...

  16. SunLine Leads the Way in Demonstrating Hydrogen-Fueled Bus Technologies (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-01-01

    This brochure describes SunLine Transit Agency's newest advanced technology fuel cell electric bus. SunLine is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This bus represents the sixth generation of hydrogen-fueled buses that the agency has operated since 2000.

  17. 49 CFR 383.123 - Requirements for a school bus endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements for a school bus endorsement. 383.123... Requirements for a school bus endorsement. (a) An applicant for the school bus endorsement must satisfy the... for school buses by State or Federal law or regulation. (ii) Emergency exits and procedures for...

  18. 49 CFR 383.123 - Requirements for a school bus endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for a school bus endorsement. 383.123... Requirements for a school bus endorsement. (a) An applicant for the school bus endorsement must satisfy the... for school buses by State or Federal law or regulation. (ii) Emergency exits and procedures for...

  19. 49 CFR 383.123 - Requirements for a school bus endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements for a school bus endorsement. 383.123... Requirements for a school bus endorsement. (a) An applicant for the school bus endorsement must satisfy the... for school buses by State or Federal law or regulation. (ii) Emergency exits and procedures for...

  20. 49 CFR 571.220 - Standard No. 220; School bus rollover protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard No. 220; School bus rollover protection... STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.220 Standard No. 220; School bus rollover protection. S1. Scope. This standard establishes performance requirements for school bus rollover protection....

  1. 49 CFR 383.123 - Requirements for a school bus endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements for a school bus endorsement. 383.123... Requirements for a school bus endorsement. (a) An applicant for the school bus endorsement must satisfy the... for school buses by State or Federal law or regulation. (ii) Emergency exits and procedures for...

  2. Instructor's Behind-the-Wheel Guide for California's Bus Driver's Training Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    Intended to help produce safe, competent California school bus drivers, this document contains instructor's materials for a bus driver education course with eight sequential skill levels, including a final appraisal. The first section contains the curriculum's purpose and objectives, the California standards for a state-certified bus driver…

  3. Beware of high stresses in ``A`` frame supported two-level bus structures

    SciTech Connect

    Thaik, A.

    1995-10-01

    Rigid-bus structures in many low profile, high voltage transmission substations consist of two-level bus assemblies of tubular conductors with one bus assembly supporting the other bus assembly with rigid tubular ``A`` frames at the crossover points. The lower-level bus is normally supported by a single porcelain post insulator under the ``A`` frame. Rigid ``A`` frames not only support the upper-level bus assembly, but also make the electrical connections between the two buses. This paper addresses the stress problem in the lower-level bus of the two-level bus structure. It presents the results of the structural analysis of a sample two-level bus structure using a simple structural method based on the Three Moment Theorem and equilibrium equations. A spreadsheet template is used to perform the mathematical calculations. The spreadsheet first calculates the maximum allowable bus span length in accordance with the IEEE Standard 605 and then determines the internal stress on the upper and lower-level bus conductors in the two-level rigid bus structures.

  4. Fiber optic data bus using Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) and an asymmetric coupler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanger, M.; Webster, L.

    1984-01-01

    A fiber optic data bus, using frequency division multiplexing (FDM) is discussed. The use of FDM is motivated by the need to avoid central control of the bus operation. A major difficulty of such a data bus is introduced by the couplers. An efficient low loss access coupler with an asymmetric structure is presented, and manufacturing processes for the coupler are proposed.

  5. The Role of the Coroner in School Bus Accident Prevention: Some Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Following the deaths of two elementary school students in bus-related accidents in 1992, the Coroner of Quebec held extensive hearings investigating school bus safety and accident prevention. A subsequent report addressed responsibilities of government and school board officials to correct deficiencies in school bus services and provided…

  6. Bluetooth wireless monitoring, diagnosis and calibration interface for control system of fuel cell bus in Olympic demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Jianfeng; Lin, Xinfan; Xu, Liangfei; Li, Jianqiu; Ouyang, Minggao

    With the worldwide deterioration of the natural environment and the fossil fuel crisis, the possible commercialization of fuel cell vehicles has become a hot topic. In July 2008, Beijing started a clean public transportation plan for the 29th Olympic games. Three fuel cell city buses and 497 other low-emission vehicles are now serving the Olympic core area and Beijing urban areas. The fuel cell buses will operate along a fixed bus line for 1 year as a public demonstration of green energy vehicles. Due to the specialized nature of fuel cell engines and electrified power-train systems, measurement, monitoring and calibration devices are indispensable. Based on the latest Bluetooth wireless technology, a novel Bluetooth universal data interface was developed for the control system of the fuel cell city bus. On this platform, a series of wireless portable control auxiliary systems have been implemented, including wireless calibration, a monitoring system and an in-system programming platform, all of which are ensuring normal operation of the fuel cell buses used in the demonstration.

  7. Interface For MIL-STD-1553B Data Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Bryan L.; Osborn, Stephen H.; Sullender, Craig C.

    1993-01-01

    Electronic control-logic subsystem acts as interface between microcontroller and MIL-STD-1553B data bus. Subsystem made of relatively small number of integrated circuits. Advantages include low power, few integrated-circuit chips, and little need for control signals.

  8. School Bus Safety. An AS&U Roundtable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1985

    1985-01-01

    A roundtable discussion of the issue of seat belts in school buses features United States Representative Peter H. Kostmayer, who has introduced a bill providing incentive grants to states to adopt and enforce laws requiring the use of seat belts in new school buses; three bus manufacturing executives; and two educators. (MLF)

  9. Research Says "No" to School Bus Seat Belts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wineland, Charles L.

    1986-01-01

    Presents factual data on research in school bus safety that shows that seat belts in school buses may actually be detrimental to students. Includes data from surveys and research tests and sources for additional information on seat belts in school buses. (MD)

  10. Augmented thermal bus wih multiple thermoelectric devices individually controlled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrage, Dean S. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an augmented thermal bus. In the present design a plurality of thermo-electric heat pumps are used to couple a source plate to a sink plate. Each heat pump is individually controlled by a model based controller. The controller coordinates the heat pumps to maintain isothermality in the source.

  11. How to Cut Costs by Saving School Bus Fuel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiff, Hank

    A program started in Washington County, Maryland in 1980 has been successful in saving school bus fuel and bringing down transportation costs incurred by its fleet of 200 buses. Driver training and motivation, as well as a partial transfer to diesel buses, are at the heart of the program. The drivers are taught five fuel saving techniques: cut…

  12. The Diagnostic and Predictive Validity of "The Renfrew Bus Story"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankratz, Mary E.; Plante, Elena; Vance, Rebecca; Insalaco, Deborah M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Two studies are presented providing evidence indicating the diagnostic and predictive validity of the American version of "The Renfrew Bus Story" (J. Cowley & C. Glasgow, 1994). Method: Thirty-two children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 32 children with typical language development participated in the first…

  13. Bullying on the School Bus: A Video Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raskauskas, Juliana

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the nature of bullying on the school bus. Videotapes were used to identify occurrences of bullying on buses of elementary school students. Incidents were reviewed for forms of bullying, fullness, presence of friends, and severity of acts. Results indicated that approximately two incidents occurred per bus…

  14. High-Tech School Bus Teaches Students on the Road

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katims, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Last year, kindergarten through high school students in the rural Hector, Arkansas, School District barely had the technology resources that keep kids interested in math and science. This year, they potentially have the most advanced resources in the country--before they even step into the classroom. One school bus in Arkansas' Pope County has…

  15. Issues in School Bus Safety: Real or Red Herring?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeds, Robin L.

    1999-01-01

    In many states, the greatest threat to safe student transportation is elimination of the school transportation program. Using public transit buses, large vans, smaller vehicles, or specialized equipment can cause major-issue headaches. False issues include controversies over seat belts, bus design, and optional "bells and whistles." (10…

  16. Improving School Bus Safety. Transportation Research Board Special Report 222.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Transportation Research Board.

    While school buses transport more passengers per trip, the rate of occupant fatalities per mile driven for school buses is one-quarter that for passenger cars. Nevertheless, the public expects school districts and other school bus operators to take all reasonable precautions to protect children as they travel to and from school. Although a variety…

  17. 38. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer unknown. Bus garage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer unknown. Bus garage to left now demolished. Trolley car drivers, maintenance personnel and management staff in 1915. VIEW SOUTH - Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Company, Trolley Barn & Administration Building, 3400 Victoria Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  18. School Bus Driver Instructional Program. Trainee Study Guide -- Advanced Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. National Highway Safety Bureau.

    A standardized and comprehensive school bus driver instructional program has been developed under contract with the Federal Government. The course has been organized to provide in one package a program for developing the minimum skills and knowledge which the proficient driver might require. This guide contains the materials presented in eight…

  19. Manual of First Aid Practices for School Bus Drivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbitt, William R.

    This manual is intended to assist local school authorities in California in providing the required course in instruction in first aid practices for school bus drivers. While it deals with basic principles of handling serious medical emergencies, major emphasis is on minor injuries or illnesses that are most likely to occur while students are…

  20. Course Guide for School Bus Driver Training in Texas. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Public Safety, Austin.

    The safe and effective transportation of pupils to and from schol is an integral part of a sound educational program. This course guide is a study and reference tool for use in a training course designed to promote the competency of school bus drivers throughout the State of Texas. Unit 1 of the guide provides an overview of the transportation…

  1. School Bus Safety. An AS&U Roundtable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1985

    1985-01-01

    A roundtable discussion of the issue of seat belts in school buses features United States Representative Peter H. Kostmayer, who has introduced a bill providing incentive grants to states to adopt and enforce laws requiring the use of seat belts in new school buses; three bus manufacturing executives; and two educators. (MLF)

  2. Implementation of a Walking School Bus: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Alberta S.; Sussman, Andrew L.; Negrete, Sylvia; Patterson, Nissa; Mittleman, Rachel; Hough, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity is rapidly becoming the most common chronic medical condition affecting children. To address this crisis, an Albuquerque, New Mexico, elementary school partnered with University of New Mexico researchers and conducted a Walking School Bus (WSB). The purpose of this article is to examine the feasibility of implementing a WSB.…

  3. Implementation of a Walking School Bus: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Alberta S.; Sussman, Andrew L.; Negrete, Sylvia; Patterson, Nissa; Mittleman, Rachel; Hough, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity is rapidly becoming the most common chronic medical condition affecting children. To address this crisis, an Albuquerque, New Mexico, elementary school partnered with University of New Mexico researchers and conducted a Walking School Bus (WSB). The purpose of this article is to examine the feasibility of implementing a WSB.…

  4. Fatigue factors affecting metropolitan bus drivers: a qualitative investigation.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Herbert; Dingsdag, Donald; Stenson, Nick

    2009-01-01

    Metropolitan bus drivers daily face work in a stressful and draining work environment, exposing them to the serious risk of driver fatigue. However, there has been a dearth of information exploring the unique antecedents and effects of such fatigue. To date, much of the research into metropolitan bus drivers has been under the umbrella of large heavy vehicle driving studies, which include a disproportionally large population of long-haul drivers, who are likely to face a significantly different set of fatigue factors [1]. The present study aimed to investigate which work and environmental factors may cause fatigue in metropolitan bus drivers by seeking drivers' own perspectives on the issues. To this end, focus groups were held at five bus depots in Sydney and Newcastle, with an effort made to include a stratified sample of drivers at each. Each of the groups were invited to nominate what factors they felt were most salient, with a number of common factors emerging across the depots. Key themes identified were: support from management; ticketing and related issues; interaction with passengers; cabin ergonomics; tight route schedules; turn-around and shift irregularity; extended shift cycles; interactions with other road users; and extended commute times.

  5. Training Needs Analysis for Bus Depot Managers at GSRTC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Hardik; Gopal, Raj

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: With rapid industrialization and population growth in the urban and rural areas in India, the demand for public transport has risen sharply. In the fast changing scenario in the public transit sector, the role of a bus depot manager (DM) has also undergone substantial transformation. This paper aims to identify and gauge the…

  6. How to Cut Costs by Saving School Bus Fuel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiff, Hank

    A program started in Washington County, Maryland in 1980 has been successful in saving school bus fuel and bringing down transportation costs incurred by its fleet of 200 buses. Driver training and motivation, as well as a partial transfer to diesel buses, are at the heart of the program. The drivers are taught five fuel saving techniques: cut…

  7. School Bus Driver Instructor Training Institute. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleven, Arlene M.; Fucigna, Joseph T.

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Association (NHTSA) has supported the development of a training program for school bus drivers in the form of a curriculum package (instructor's, course, and trainee study guides). To assist the States in making the program operational, NHTSA in 1974 supported the conduct of five five-day institutes to explain…

  8. Issues in School Bus Safety: Real or Red Herring?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeds, Robin L.

    1999-01-01

    In many states, the greatest threat to safe student transportation is elimination of the school transportation program. Using public transit buses, large vans, smaller vehicles, or specialized equipment can cause major-issue headaches. False issues include controversies over seat belts, bus design, and optional "bells and whistles." (10…

  9. School Bus Safety Advisory Committee: 1999 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazenberry, Dennis; Anderson, Barbara

    This report summarizes the deliberations and recommendations of Minnesota's School Bus Safety Advisory Committee (SBSAC). The committee, which operates under the auspices of the Minnesota Department of Public Safety, is charged to study issues affecting the safety of students on school buses, arrive at consensus on ways to improve student safety…

  10. Analyzing injury severity of bus passengers with different movements.

    PubMed

    Li, Duo; Zhao, Yifei; Bai, Qiang; Zhou, Bei; Ling, Hongbiao

    2017-07-04

    Though public transport vehicles are rarely involved in mass casualty accidents, when they are, the number of injuries and fatalities is usually high due to the high passenger capacity. Of the few studies that have been conducted on bus safety, the majority focused on vehicle safety features, road environmental factors, as well as driver characteristics. Nevertheless, few studies have attempted to investigate the underlying risk factors related to bus occupants. This article presents an investigation aimed at identifying the risk factors affecting injury severity of bus passengers with different movements. Three different passenger movement types including standing, seated, and boarding/alighting were analyzed individually using classification and regression tree (CART) method based on publicly available accident database of Great Britain. According to the results of exploratory analyses, passenger age and vehicle maneuver are associated with passenger injury severity in all 3 types of accidents. Moreover, the variable "skidding and overturning" is associated with injury severity of seated passengers and driver age is correlated with injury severity of standing and boarding/alighting passengers. The CART method shows its ability to identify and easily explain the complicated patterns affecting passenger injury severity. Several countermeasures to reduce bus passenger injury severity are recommended.

  11. Training Needs Analysis for Bus Depot Managers at GSRTC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Hardik; Gopal, Raj

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: With rapid industrialization and population growth in the urban and rural areas in India, the demand for public transport has risen sharply. In the fast changing scenario in the public transit sector, the role of a bus depot manager (DM) has also undergone substantial transformation. This paper aims to identify and gauge the…

  12. 26. DETAIL TO NORTH OF BUS STRUCTURE. NEW POWERHOUSE SECOND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. DETAIL TO NORTH OF BUS STRUCTURE. NEW POWERHOUSE SECOND FLOOR, WITH OIL CIRCUIT BREAKER UNITS (LEFT) AND TANK LIFTER (CENTER) - Trenton Falls Hydroelectric Station, Powerhouse & Substation, On west bank of West Canada Creek, along Trenton Falls Road, 1.25 miles north of New York Route 28, Trenton Falls, Oneida County, NY

  13. The Diagnostic and Predictive Validity of "The Renfrew Bus Story"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankratz, Mary E.; Plante, Elena; Vance, Rebecca; Insalaco, Deborah M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Two studies are presented providing evidence indicating the diagnostic and predictive validity of the American version of "The Renfrew Bus Story" (J. Cowley & C. Glasgow, 1994). Method: Thirty-two children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 32 children with typical language development participated in the first…

  14. 45 CFR 1310.17 - Driver and bus monitor training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Driver and bus monitor training. 1310.17 Section 1310.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES,...

  15. 45 CFR 1310.17 - Driver and bus monitor training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Driver and bus monitor training. 1310.17 Section 1310.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES,...

  16. 45 CFR 1310.17 - Driver and bus monitor training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Driver and bus monitor training. 1310.17 Section 1310.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES,...

  17. 45 CFR 1310.17 - Driver and bus monitor training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Driver and bus monitor training. 1310.17 Section 1310.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES,...

  18. High-Tech School Bus Teaches Students on the Road

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katims, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Last year, kindergarten through high school students in the rural Hector, Arkansas, School District barely had the technology resources that keep kids interested in math and science. This year, they potentially have the most advanced resources in the country--before they even step into the classroom. One school bus in Arkansas' Pope County has…

  19. Training Module for Bus Drivers Working with Emotionally Handicapped Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis. Div. of Special Education.

    The module provides training information for school bus drivers who interact with emotionally handicapped (EH) students. An initial description of characteristics of EH students and support staff responsibilities is followed by a discussion of transportation services for handicapped students. The development of a behavior management plan with four…

  20. Long School Bus Rides: Stealing the Joy of Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Beth

    Every school day, hundreds of West Virginia children ride school buses much longer than state guidelines say they should. Under those guidelines, no elementary student should be on the bus more than 30 minutes one way, middle school students 45 minutes, and high school students 1 hour. In fall 1999, public hearings about school transportation…

  1. Digital transmitter for data bus communications system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proch, G. E. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    An improved digital transmitter for transmitting serial pulse code modulation (pcm) data at high bit rates over a transmission line is disclosed. When not transmitting, the transmitter features a high output impedance which prevents the transmitter from loading the transmission line. The pcm input is supplied to a logic control circuit which produces two discrete logic level signals which are supplied to an amplifier. The amplifier, which is transformer coupled to the output isolation circuitry, converts the discrete logic level signals to two high current level, ground isolated signals in the secondary windings of the coupling transformer. The latter signals are employed as inputs to the isolation circuitry which includes two series transistor pairs operating into a hybrid transformer functioning to isolate the transmitter circuitry from the transmission line.

  2. GeoBus: sharing science research with schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roper, Kathryn; Robinson, Ruth; Moorhouse, Ben

    2016-04-01

    GeoBus (www.geobus.org.uk) is an educational outreach project that was developed in 2012 by the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of St Andrews, and it is currently sponsored by industry, NERC, The Crown Estate, and the Scottish Government. The aims of GeoBus are to support the teaching of Earth Science in secondary (middle and high) schools by providing teaching support to schools that have little or no experience in teaching this subject. This is, in part, done through the sharing of new science research outcomes and the experiences of young researchers with school pupils to provide a bridge between industry, higher education institutions, research councils and schools. Since its launch, over 40,000 pupils will have been involved in experiential Earth science learning activities in 190 different schools (over 400 separate visits) across the length and breadth of Scotland: many of these schools are in remote and disadvantaged regions. A new GeoBus project is under development within the Department of Earth Sciences at UCL in London. A key aim of GeoBus is to incorporate new research into our workshops with the main challenge being the development of appropriate resources that incorporate the key learning aims and requirements of the science and geography curricula. GeoBus works closely with researchers, teachers and educational practitioners to tailor the research outcomes to the curricula as much as possible. Over the past four years, GeoBus has developed 17 workshops, 5 challenge events and extensive field trips and each of these activities are trialled and evaluated within the university, and adjustments are made before the activities are delivered in schools. Activities are continually reviewed and further developments are made in response to both teacher and pupil feedback. This critical reflection of the project's success and impact is important to insure a positive and significant contribution to the science learning in

  3. Public transit bus ramp slopes measured in situ.

    PubMed

    Bertocci, Gina; Frost, Karen; Smalley, Craig

    2014-05-02

    Abstract Purpose: The slopes of fixed-route bus ramps deployed for wheeled mobility device (WhMD) users during boarding and alighting were assessed. Measured slopes were compared to the proposed Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) maximum allowable ramp slope. Methods: A ramp-embedded inclinometer measured ramp slope during WhMD user boarding and alighting on a fixed-route transit bus. The extent of bus kneeling was determined for each ramp deployment. In-vehicle video surveillance cameras captured ramp deployment level (street versus sidewalk) and WhMD type. Results: Ramp slopes ranged from -4° to 15.5° with means of 4.3° during boarding (n = 406) and 4.2° during alighting (n = 405). Ramp slope was significantly greater when deployed to street level. During boarding, the proposed ADA maximum allowable ramp slope (9.5°) was exceeded in 66.7% of instances when the ramp was deployed to street level, and in 1.9% of instances when the ramp was deployed to sidewalk level. During alighting, the proposed ADA maximum allowable slope was exceeded in 56.8% of instances when the ramp was deployed to street level and in 1.4% of instances when the ramp was deployed to sidewalk level. Conclusions: Deployment level, built environment and extent of bus kneeling can affect slope of ramps ascended/descended by WhMD users when accessing transit buses. Implications for Rehabilitation Since public transportation services are critical for integration of wheeled mobility device (WhMD) users into the community and society, it is important that they, as well as their therapists, are aware of conditions that may be encountered when accessing transit buses. Knowledge of real world ramp slope conditions that may be encountered when accessing transit buses will allow therapists to better access capabilities of WhMD users in a controlled clinical setting. Real world ramp slope conditions can be recreated in a clinical setting to allow WhMD users to develop and practice necessary

  4. Characterisation of an urban bus network for environmental purposes.

    PubMed

    André, Michel; Villanova, André

    2004-12-01

    Since pollutant emissions are closely related to the operating conditions of vehicles, their evaluation usually involves studying these operating conditions (through bus instrumentation and monitoring under actual operation), the design of representative driving or engine test cycles and the measurement of pollutant emissions. A preliminary characterisation of the routes on a bus network should make it possible to identify typical routes, the driving conditions and pollutant emissions of which are then studied. Two approaches are envisaged and applied to the Paris area, for which a wealth of information is available, which should be transferable to other bus networks. Both approaches are based on factorial analysis and automatic clustering, to allow optimum description and the identification of a pertinent typology of the bus routes in several classes. The first attempt at characterisation is based on statistics relating to bus operations: route characteristics (length, dedicated bus lanes, number of stops, location of stops: schools, tourist sites, hospitals, railways or underground stations), travel time, commercial speed, annual statistics (number of passengers, number of vehicles per hour, total kilometres), the irregularity of travel (variation of travel times, injuries, congestion.), as well as information on the problems encountered (congestion, distribution of the passenger load, junctions, bends). A second approach is based on the analysis of the "urban context" in which buses are driven. Population, employment, housing, road network, traffic and places that generate or disturb traffic (schools, railway stations, shopping areas, etc.) are calculated for the Ile de France region, by cells of 100 x 100 m, and collected in a geographical information system (GIS). Statistical analyses enable a typology of these urban cells to be established, the main parameters being density, type of housing, road types and traffic levels. The bus routes are then analysed

  5. Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2009 (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.

    2011-08-01

    Document provides Clean Cities coalition metrics about the use of alternative fuels; the deployment of alternative fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and idle reduction initiatives; fuel economy activities; and programs to reduce vehicle miles driven.

  6. Operation management of daily economic dispatch using novel hybrid particle swarm optimization and gravitational search algorithm with hybrid mutation strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Huang, Song; Ji, Zhicheng

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a hybrid particle swarm optimization and gravitational search algorithm based on hybrid mutation strategy (HGSAPSO-M) to optimize economic dispatch (ED) including distributed generations (DGs) considering market-based energy pricing. A daily ED model was formulated and a hybrid mutation strategy was adopted in HGSAPSO-M. The hybrid mutation strategy includes two mutation operators, chaotic mutation, Gaussian mutation. The proposed algorithm was tested on IEEE-33 bus and results show that the approach is effective for this problem.

  7. Development of the bus joint for the ITER Central Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N; Irick, David Kim; Kenney, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    The terminations of the Central Solenoid (CS) modules are connected to the bus extensions by joints located outside the CS in the gap between the CS and Torodial Field (TF) assemblies. These joints have very strict space limitations. Low resistance is a common requirement for all ITER joints. In addition, the CS bus joints will experience and must be designed to withstand significant variation in the magnetic field of several tenths of a Tesla per second during initiation of plasma. The joint resistance is specified to be less than 4 nOhm. The joints also have to be soldered in the field and designed with the possibility to be installed and dismantled in order to allow cold testing in the cold test facility. We have developed coaxial joints that meet these requirements and have demonstrated the feasibility to fabricate and assemble them in the vertical configuration. We introduced a coupling cylinder with superconducting strands soldered to the surface of the cable that can be installed in the ITER assembly hall and at the Cold Test Facility. This cylinder serves as a transition area between the CS module and the bus extension. We made two racetrack samples and tested four bus joints in our Joint Test Apparatus. Resistance of the bus joints was measured by a decay method and by a microvoltmeter; the value of the current was measured by the Hall probes. This measurement method was verified in the previous tests. The resistance of the joints varied insignificantly from 1.5 to 2 nOhm. One of the challenges associated with a soldered joint is the inability to use corrosive chemicals that are difficult to clean. This paper describes our development work on cable preparation, chrome removal, compaction, soldering, and final assembly and presents the test results.

  8. Optimal bus temperature for thermal comfort during a cool day.

    PubMed

    Velt, K B; Daanen, H A M

    2017-07-01

    A challenge for electric buses is to minimize heating and cooling power to maximally extend the driving range, but still provide sufficient thermal comfort for the driver and passengers. Therefore, we investigated the thermal sensation (TS) and thermal comfort (TC) of passengers in buses during a cool day (temperature 13.4 ± 0.5 °C, relative humidity (RH) 60 ± 5.8%) typical for the Dutch temperate maritime climate. 28 Males and 72 females rated TS and TC and gave information on age, stature, body weight and worn garments. The temperature in the bus of 22.5 ± 1.1 °C and RH of 59.9 ± 5.8% corresponded to a slightly warm feeling (TS = 0.85 ± 1.06) and TC of 0.39 ± 0.65. TS related significantly to bus temperature, clothing insulation and age. Linear regression based on these parameters showed that the temperature in the bus corresponding to TC = 0 and TS = 0 would have been 20.9 ± 0.6 °C. In conclusion, a 1.6 °C lower bus temperature during the investigated cool day probably would have led to less thermal discomfort and energy savings of electrical busses. The methodology to relate climatic measurements to subjective assessments is currently employed in a wider climatic range and may prove to be useful to find a better balance between thermal comfort and energy savings of the bus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Bus water storage tank as a reservoir of Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed

    Jurčev-Savičević, Anamarija; Bradarić, Nikola; Paić, Vlado Ozic; Mulić, Rosanda; Puntarić, Dinko; Miše, Kornelija

    2014-09-01

    Health concerns associated with Legionnaires' disease have been identified as an area of the increasing public and professional interest. Any natural water or man-made water systems worldwide might be reservoirs of Legionellae. We presented a sporadic, community-acquired case of Legionnaires' disease caused by Legionellapneumophila serogroup 1 in a bus driver who used water for hand and face washing from a bus water storage tank. The history of any other usual place of exposure to Legionellae was negative. The water from the tank was dirty, filled with sediment and leaves, at the temperature of 22 degrees C. The water was heavily contaminated with Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolated from each sample with the concentration of 66,000, 16,000, 42,000, 56,000 and 34,000 CFU/L. The disinfection of the bus water storage tank was made using hyperclorination with 50 mg/L of free residual chlorine. The control sampling one week after the disinfection yielded negative results. So far, there are no recommendations on regular management or disinfection of water in bus storage tanks, but it seems to be reasonable to assume that passengers as well as bus drivers may be exposed to Legionella and therefore at risk of acquiring the infection. These recommendations should include regular empting, rinsing and filling the tank with fresh tap water, at least once a week. Finally, we have to be aware that Legionella bacteria are ubiquitous and any potential mode of producing contaminated aerosol should not be overlooked during an epidemiological field investigation and proposed appropriate measures.

  10. Bus water storage tank as a reservoir of Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed

    Jurčev-Savičević, Anamarija; Bradarić, Nikola; Paić, Vlado Ozic; Mulić, Rosanda; Puntarić, Dinko; Miše, Kornelija

    2014-09-01

    Health concerns associated with Legionnaires' disease have been identified as an area of the increasing public and professional interest. Any natural water or man-made water systems worldwide might be reservoirs of Legionellae. We presented a sporadic, community-acquired case of Legionnaires' disease caused by Legionellapneumophila serogroup 1 in a bus driver who used water for hand and face washing from a bus water storage tank. The history of any other usual place of exposure to Legionellae was negative. The water from the tank was dirty, filled with sediment and leaves, at the temperature of 22 degrees C. The water was heavily contaminated with Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolated from each sample with the concentration of 66,000, 16,000, 42,000, 56,000 and 34,000 CFU/L. The disinfection of the bus water storage tank was made using hyperclorination with 50 mg/L of free residual chlorine. The control sampling one week after the disinfection yielded negative results. So far, there are no recommendations on regular management or disinfection of water in bus storage tanks, but it seems to be reasonable to assume that passengers as well as bus drivers may be exposed to Legionella and therefore at risk of acquiring the infection. These recommendations should include regular empting, rinsing and filling the tank with fresh tap water, at least once a week. Finally, we have to be aware that Legionella bacteria are ubiquitous and any potential mode of producing contaminated aerosol should not be overlooked during an epidemiological field investigation and proposed appropriate measures.

  11. More than A to B: the role of free bus travel for the mobility and wellbeing of older citizens in London.

    PubMed

    Green, Judith; Jones, Alasdair; Roberts, Helen

    2014-03-01

    This study contributes to the literature on mobility and wellbeing at older ages through an empirical exploration of the meanings of free bus travel for older citizens, addressing the meanings this holds for older people in urban settings, which have been under-researched. Taking London as a case study, where older citizens have free access to a relatively extensive public transport network through a Freedom Pass, we explore from a public health perspective the mechanisms that link this travel benefit to determinants of wellbeing. In addition to the ways in which the Freedom Pass enabled access to health-related goods and services, it provided less tangible benefits. Travelling by bus provided opportunities for meaningful social interaction; travelling as part of the 'general public' provided a sense of belonging and visibility in the public arena - a socially acceptable way of tackling chronic loneliness. The Freedom Pass was described not only as providing access to essential goods and services but also as a widely prized mechanism for participation in life in the city. We argue that the mechanisms linking mobility and wellbeing are culturally, materially and politically specific. Our data suggest that in contexts where good public transport is available as a right, and bus travel not stigmatised, it is experienced as a major contributor to wellbeing, rather than a transport choice of last resort. This has implications for other jurisdictions working on accessible transport for older citizens and, more broadly, improving the sustainability of cities.

  12. Dynamics of dc bus networks and their stabilization by decentralized delayed feedback.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Keiji; Sugitani, Yoshiki; Hara, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    The present paper deals with the dynamics of bus networks, which consist of several identical dc bus systems connected by resistors. It is analytically guaranteed that the stability of a stand-alone dc bus system is equivalent to that of the networks, independent of the number of bus systems and the network topology. In addition, we show that a decentralized delayed-feedback control can stabilize an unstable operating point embedded within the networks. Moreover, this stabilization does not depend on the number of bus systems or the network topology. A systematic procedure for designing the controller is presented. Finally, the validity of the analytical results is confirmed through numerical examples.

  13. An intelligent fiberoptic data bus for fly-by-light applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoharan, L. C.; Muthuvel, S.

    An active fiberoptic data bus compatible with MIL-STD-1553B, which could be used for fly-by-light, stores management, AEW etc., on an aircraft has been developed. The data bus is considered intelligent because it can automatically sense which station is in the transmit mode and control the active interface accordingly, so that smooth flow of data takes place on the bus. The tests carried out on the bus including those on the Jaguar Avionics Rig to check its validity are also described. As no software is involved in the operation of the bus, this could be used on any aircraft having its own software.

  14. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: First Results Report

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2011-03-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This report provides the early data results and implementation experience of the AT fuel cell bus since it was placed in service.

  15. Effect of B20 and Low Aromatic Diesel on Transit Bus NOx Emissions Over Driving Cycles with a Range of Kinetic Intensity

    SciTech Connect

    Lammert, M. P.; McCormick, R. L.; Sindler, P.; Williams, A.

    2012-10-01

    Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions for transit buses for up to five different fuels and three standard transit duty cycles were compared to establish whether there is a real-world biodiesel NOx increase for transit bus duty cycles and engine calibrations. Six buses representing the majority of the current national transit fleet and including hybrid and selective catalyst reduction systems were tested on a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer with certification diesel, certification B20 blend, low aromatic (California Air Resources Board) diesel, low aromatic B20 blend, and B100 fuels over the Manhattan, Orange County and UDDS test cycles. Engine emissions certification level had the dominant effect on NOx; kinetic intensity was the secondary driving factor. The biodiesel effect on NOx emissions was not statistically significant for most buses and duty cycles for blends with certification diesel, except for a 2008 model year bus. CARB fuel had many more instances of a statistically significant effect of reducing NOx. SCR systems proved effective at reducing NOx to near the detection limit on all duty cycles and fuels, including B100. While offering a fuel economy benefit, a hybrid system significantly increased NOx emissions over a same year bus with a conventional drivetrain and the same engine.

  16. Determination of an Optimal Commercial Data Bus Architecture for a Flight Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Kevin; Johnson, Martin; Humphries, Rick (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is continually looking for methods to reduce cost and schedule while keeping the quality of work high. MSFC is NASA's lead center for space transportation and microgravity research. When supporting NASA's programs several decisions concerning the avionics system must be made. Usually many trade studies must be conducted to determine the best ways to meet the customer's requirements. When deciding the flight data system, one of the first trade studies normally conducted is the determination of the data bus architecture. The schedule, cost, reliability, and environments are some of the factors that are reviewed in the determination of the data bus architecture. Based on the studies, the data bus architecture could result in a proprietary data bus or a commercial data bus. The cost factor usually removes the proprietary data bus from consideration. The commercial data bus's range from Versa Module Eurocard (VME) to Compact PCI to STD 32 to PC 104. If cost, schedule and size are prime factors, VME is usually not considered. If the prime factors are cost, schedule, and size then Compact PCI, STD 32 and PC104 are the choices for the data bus architecture. MSFC's center director has funded a study from his discretionary fund to determine an optimal low cost commercial data bus architecture. The goal of the study is to functionally and environmentally test Compact PCI, STD 32 and PC 104 data bus architectures. This paper will summarize the results of the data bus architecture study.

  17. Determination of an Optimal Commercial Data Bus Architecture for a Flight Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Kevin; Johnson, Martin; Humphries, Rick (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is continually looking for methods to reduce cost and schedule while keeping the quality of work high. MSFC is NASA's lead center for space transportation and microgravity research. When supporting NASA's programs several decisions concerning the avionics system must be made. Usually many trade studies must be conducted to determine the best ways to meet the customer's requirements. When deciding the flight data system, one of the first trade studies normally conducted is the determination of the data bus architecture. The schedule, cost, reliability, and environments are some of the factors that are reviewed in the determination of the data bus architecture. Based on the studies, the data bus architecture could result in a proprietary data bus or a commercial data bus. The cost factor usually removes the proprietary data bus from consideration. The commercial data bus's range from Versa Module Eurocard (VME) to Compact PCI to STD 32 to PC 104. If cost, schedule and size are prime factors, VME is usually not considered. If the prime factors are cost, schedule, and size then Compact PCI, STD 32 and PC104 are the choices for the data bus architecture. MSFC's center director has funded a study from his discretionary fund to determine an optimal low cost commercial data bus architecture. The goal of the study is to functionally and environmentally test Compact PCI, STD 32 and PC 104 data bus architectures. This paper will summarize the results of the data bus architecture study.

  18. Design of a CAN bus interface for photoelectric encoder in the spaceflight camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ying; Wan, Qiu-hua; She, Rong-hong; Zhao, Chang-hai; Jiang, Yong

    2009-05-01

    In order to make photoelectric encoder usable in a spaceflight camera which adopts CAN bus as the communication method, CAN bus interface of the photoelectric encoder is designed in this paper. CAN bus interface hardware circuit of photoelectric encoder consists of CAN bus controller SJA 1000, CAN bus transceiver TJA1050 and singlechip. CAN bus interface controlling software program is completed in C language. A ten-meter shield twisted pair line is used as the transmission medium in the spaceflight camera, and speed rate is 600kbps.The experiments show that: the photoelectric encoder with CAN bus interface which has the advantages of more reliability, real-time, transfer rate and transfer distance overcomes communication line's shortcomings of classical photoelectric encoder system. The system works well in automatic measuring and controlling system.

  19. 40 CFR 85.1404 - Maintenance of records for urban bus operators; submittal of information; right of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maintenance of records for urban bus... SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1404 Maintenance of records for urban bus operators; submittal of information; right of entry. (a) The operator of any urban bus for which this subpart...

  20. 40 CFR 85.1404 - Maintenance of records for urban bus operators; submittal of information; right of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maintenance of records for urban bus... SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1404 Maintenance of records for urban bus operators; submittal of information; right of entry. (a) The operator of any urban bus for which this subpart...

  1. 40 CFR 85.1404 - Maintenance of records for urban bus operators; submittal of information; right of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of records for urban bus... SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1404 Maintenance of records for urban bus operators; submittal of information; right of entry. (a) The operator of any urban bus for which this subpart...

  2. 40 CFR 85.1404 - Maintenance of records for urban bus operators; submittal of information; right of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maintenance of records for urban bus... SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1404 Maintenance of records for urban bus operators; submittal of information; right of entry. (a) The operator of any urban bus for which this subpart...

  3. 40 CFR 85.1404 - Maintenance of records for urban bus operators; submittal of information; right of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maintenance of records for urban bus... SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1404 Maintenance of records for urban bus operators; submittal of information; right of entry. (a) The operator of any urban bus for which this subpart...

  4. An evaluation of a lane support system for bus rapid transit on narrow shoulders and the relation to bus driver mental workload.

    PubMed

    Ward, Nicholas J; Shankwitz, Craig; Gorgestani, Alec; Donath, Max; De Waard, Dick; Boer, Erwin R

    2006-07-15

    The use of dedicated bus shoulders is a key method for implementing bus rapid transit (BRT) in areas that do not have the space for additional infrastructure. However, the narrow width of the bus shoulder and the need to anticipate traffic hazards in the adjacent lane can both be significant stressors for bus drivers. Bus driver mental workload and stress in response to these conditions should be a significant concern both for operational safety and driver health. This pilot study evaluated the potential stressors of traffic density and shoulder width in the context of an express BRT service in a large US metropolitan area. In addition, the study considered the potential role of a prototype lane support system (LSS) to support vehicle control within the narrow shoulder boundaries. Ten experienced bus drivers drove an actual route with an instrumented bus equipped with and without LSS. Self-reported effort was recorded along with performance measures of speed and position control relevant to mobility and safety objectives. Bus drivers did note stressors in the BRT environment and the prototype LSS. However, the use of the shoulder during high-density traffic conditions did improve mobility. Moreover, the LSS did enhance safety on the shoulder when there was high-density traffic in the adjacent lane. However, there was no evidence that the LSS reduced bus driver workload while operating in the narrow shoulder. Future research should consider the impact of BRT operations and support systems on bus driver mental workload and stress, and support the deployment of such devices for bus operations on shoulders during high traffic volumes.

  5. The Research of Message Bus Structure in LAMOST Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ling-Zhe

    2008-09-01

    The LAMOST (Large sky Area Multi-Object fibre Spectroscopic Telescope) has now come to its final completion of R&D stage. Major functions of the telescope have successfully passed serial site tests recently, and various kinds of applications integrated into the automation of the telescope chamber is being under vigorous tests too. The TCS (Telescope Control System) is built on multi-layer distributed network platform with many sub-systems at different levels. How to efficiently process the enormous amount of messages with particular implications running in and out of the TCS is one of the major issues of the TCS software programming. This paper describes the mechanism and methodology of the LAMOST message bus structure. The realisation of message bus structure as a result of years of research and site test is presented in general, and dealing with the message priority and manipulating smallest pieces of message in parallel or in serial sequence are elaborated in particular.

  6. Bus Vent Design Evolution for the Solar Dynamics Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronowicz, Michael

    2010-01-01

    As a spacecraft undergoes ascent in a launch vehicle, its pressure environment transitions from one atmosphere to high vacuum in a matter of minutes. Venting of internal cavities is necessary to prevent the buildup of pressure differentials across cavity walls. Opposing the need to vent these volumes freely into space are thermal, optical, and electrostatic requirements for limiting or prohibiting the intrusion of unwanted energy into the same cavities. Bus vent design evolution is discussed for the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Design changes were influenced by a number of factors and concerns, such as contamination control, electrostatic discharge, changes in bus material, and driving fairing ascent pressure for a launch vehicle that was just entering service as this satellite project had gotten underway.

  7. Heat storage for a bus petrol internal-combustion engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, Leonard L.; Burak, Victor S.; Kulakov, Andry G.; Mishkinis, Donatas A.; Bohan, Pavel V.

    The heat storage (HS) system for pre-heating a bus petrol internal combustion engine to starting was mathematically modelled and experimentally investigated. The development of such devices is an extremely urgent problem especially for regions with a cold climate. We discuss how HS works on the effect of absorption and rejection of heat energy at a solid-liquid phase change of a HS substance. In the first part of the paper a numerical method to calculate the HS mass-dimensional parameters and their characteristics are described. In the experimental part of the paper results are given of experiments on the pre-heating device aiding to start a carburettor engine under operational conditions and analysis of data received. Practical confirmation of the theoretical development of HS devices for a bus engine for starting by pre-heating is given.

  8. MIL-STD-1553 Multiplex Data Bus Word Formats.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    RD-Al2i 934 MIL-STD-k553 MULTIPLEX DATA BUS WORD FORMATS(U) BOEING 1/2 MILITARY AIRPLANE CO SEATTLE WA DEC 8i F336i5-80-C-8i24 UNCLASSIFIED F/G 9/2...MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART hAT sUjAL SURCAU of SThNOAROS - I93- A MIL-STD-1553 MULTIPLEX DATA BUS WORD FORMATS FINAL REPORT FOR PERIOD NOVEMBER...Washington 98124 ,::~~~~~ ~ ~~~~ i:i ouc- q . proved] for public elezt - -d tle;distribution is unlimited 82 11 26 054 CHAPTER 11 DATA WORD AND MESSAGE FORMAT

  9. Discharging a DC bus capacitor of an electrical converter system

    SciTech Connect

    Kajouke, Lateef A; Perisic, Milun; Ransom, Ray M

    2014-10-14

    A system and method of discharging a bus capacitor of a bidirectional matrix converter of a vehicle are presented here. The method begins by electrically shorting the AC interface of the converter after an AC energy source is disconnected from the AC interface. The method continues by arranging a plurality of switching elements of a second energy conversion module into a discharge configuration to establish an electrical current path from a first terminal of an isolation module, through an inductive element, and to a second terminal of the isolation module. The method also modulates a plurality of switching elements of a first energy conversion module, while maintaining the discharge configuration of the second energy conversion module, to at least partially discharge a DC bus capacitor.

  10. Factors contributing to intercity commercial bus drivers' crash involvement risk.

    PubMed

    Besharati, Mohammad Mehdi; Kashani, Ali Tavakoli

    2017-03-20

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of demographic, environmental and occupational factors as well as behavioural characteristics of intercity bus drivers, on their crash involvement risk. A total number of 107 intercity bus drivers from Tehran, Iran were participated in the study. Logistic regression model suggested that smokers, those who drive during night to morning, less experienced drivers as well as those who operate older buses are more likely to be involved in crashes. In addition, one unit increase in the weekly driving hours might significantly increase the drivers' crash involvement risk. The model results also indicated that hazard monitoring, fatigue proneness and thrill seeking might be considered as other significant predictors of crash involvement risk. Implications of results are discussed.

  11. Nearly deterministic Bell measurement using quantum communication bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia-Ming; Zhu, Meng-zheng; Wang, Dong; Ye, Liu

    2017-03-01

    We present a scheme to implement Bell states measurement for an arbitrary number of photons by using robust continuous variable coherent modes, called as quantum communication bus (qubus) and weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities. Remarkably, the success probability of our scheme is close to unity, and our scheme does not require any ancillary resource entanglement. Our scheme is likely to yield versatile applications for quantum computation and quantum teleportation.

  12. Deregulation and Intercity Bus Operations in Florida: A Preliminary Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-02

    operations, the three most frequent destinations being Disney World and Sea World in Orlando, and Cypress Gai-dens. Mr. Chapman said that prior to...revenues have been consistent recently, but expenses have risen. The three areas most frequently served by Rabbit Bus Lines are Disney World, Sea World , and...Disney World and Sea World for charters, and New Orleans for tours. Surf Coast is authorized to provide charter service in every State; the carrier has

  13. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project: Evaluation Results Report

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-02-01

    This report evaluates a fuel cell electric bus demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This evaluation report covers two years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2013.

  14. Development and validation of a self-report measure of bus driver behaviour.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Lisa; Stephen, Lucy; af Wåhlberg, Anders; Gandolfi, Julie

    2010-12-01

    There are likely to be individual differences in bus driver behaviour when adhering to strict schedules under time pressure. A reliable and valid assessment of these individual differences would be useful for bus companies keen to mitigate risk of crash involvement. This paper reports on three studies to develop and validate a self-report measure of bus driver behaviour. For study 1, two principal components analyses of a pilot questionnaire revealed six components describing bus driver behaviour and four bus driver coping components. In study 2, test-retest reliability of the components were tested in a sub-sample and found to be adequate. Further, the 10 components were used to predict bus crash involvement at three levels of culpability with consistently significant associations found for two components. For study 3, avoidance coping was consistently associated with celeration variables in a bus simulator, especially for a time-pressured drive. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The instrument can be used by bus companies for driver stress and fatigue management training to identify at-risk bus driver behaviour. Training to reduce the tendency to engage in avoidance coping strategies, improve evaluative coping strategies and hazard monitoring when under stress may improve bus driver safety.

  15. Ring Bus Architecture for a Solid-State Recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, W. John; Kopf, Edward; Cox, Brian

    2008-01-01

    A document concisely describes a ring bus architecture for a proposed solid-state recorder (SSR) that would serve as buffer of data to be transmitted from a spacecraft to Earth. This architecture would afford fault tolerance needed for reliable operation in an anticipated high-radiation environment in which traditional SSRs cannot operate reliably. Features of the architecture include one or more controller boards and multiple memory boards interconnected in a ringlike topology. The interconnections would be high-speed serial links complying with the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standard 1393 (which pertains to a spaceborne fiber-optic data bus). Accordingly, each controller and memory board would be equipped with an IEEE-1393-compliant ring-bus-interface unit. The ringlike topology and the multiplicity of memory boards (and, optionally, of controller boards) would afford the redundancy needed for fault tolerance. Each board would be a fault-containment region. The IEEE 1393 links could be routed so that the SSR would continue to function even in the event of multiple failures. This architecture would also support scalability over a wide range. In a fully redundant configuration, it could accommodate between 1 and 125 memory boards.

  16. Fuel cell transit bus development & commercialization programs at Gerogetown University

    SciTech Connect

    Wimmer, R.; Larkins, J.; Romano, S.

    1996-12-31

    Fourteen years ago, Georgetown University (GU) perceived the need for a clean, efficient power systems for transportation that could operate on non-petroleum based fuels. The transit bus application was selected to begin system development. GU recognized the range and recharge constraints of a pure battery powered transit bus. A Fuel Cell power system would circumvent these limitations and, with an on board reformer, accommodate liquid fuel for rapid refueling. Feasibility studies for Fuel Cell power systems for transit buses were conducted with the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1983. Successful results of this investigation resulted in the DOT/DOE Fuel Cell transit bus development program. The first task was to prove that small Fuel Cell power plants were possible. This was achieved with the Phase I development of two 25 kW Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) brassboard systems. A liquid cooled version was selected for the Phase II activity in which three 30-foot Fuel Cell powered Test Bed Buses (TBBs) were fabricated. The first of these TBBs was delivered in the spring of 1994. All three of these development vehicles are now in Phase III of the program to conduct testing and evaluation, is conducting operational testing of the buses. The test will involve two fuel cell-operated buses; one with a proton exchange fuel cell and the other with a phosphoric acid fuel cell.

  17. Measuring job quality: a study with bus drivers.

    PubMed

    Jones, Wendy; Haslam, Roger; Haslam, Cheryl

    2014-11-01

    There is growing interest in the contribution which job design can make to worker health; also a desire to better understand the multidimensional notion of 'job quality' and to develop approaches to measuring this. This paper reviews concepts of 'job quality' and 'good jobs' and examines these issues in the work of bus drivers, an occupational group commonly reported as having poor health and poor working conditions. The DGB-Index (Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund Good Work Index), a tool used recently in Germany for measuring job quality, was translated and administered to a sample of UK bus drivers (n = 381). It found job quality to be significantly lower than that for a group of non-drivers in the same organisation; and better than that for a sample of German bus drivers. We conclude that the DGB-Index is an effective tool for measuring job quality and providing feedback to employers; and could be used to compare job quality between organisations or internationally.

  18. A Dimensional Bus model for integrating clinical and research data

    PubMed Central

    Hum, Richard C; Murphy, James R

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Many clinical research data integration platforms rely on the Entity–Attribute–Value model because of its flexibility, even though it presents problems in query formulation and execution time. The authors sought more balance in these traits. Materials and Methods Borrowing concepts from Entity–Attribute–Value and from enterprise data warehousing, the authors designed an alternative called the Dimensional Bus model and used it to integrate electronic medical record, sponsored study, and biorepository data. Each type of observational collection has its own table, and the structure of these tables varies to suit the source data. The observational tables are linked to the Bus, which holds provenance information and links to various classificatory dimensions that amplify the meaning of the data or facilitate its query and exposure management. Results The authors implemented a Bus-based clinical research data repository with a query system that flexibly manages data access and confidentiality, facilitates catalog search, and readily formulates and compiles complex queries. Conclusion The design provides a workable way to manage and query mixed schemas in a data warehouse. PMID:21856687

  19. Safety evaluation of a hydrogen fueled transit bus

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D.A.; Thomas, J.K.; Hovis, G.L.; Wu, T.T.

    1997-12-31

    Hydrogen fueled vehicle demonstration projects must satisfy management and regulator safety expectations. This is often accomplished using hazard and safety analyses. Such an analysis has been completed to evaluate the safety of the H2Fuel bus to be operated in Augusta, Georgia. The evaluation methods and criteria used reflect the Department of Energy`s graded approach for qualifying and documenting nuclear and chemical facility safety. The work focused on the storage and distribution of hydrogen as the bus motor fuel with emphases on the technical and operational aspects of using metal hydride beds to store hydrogen. The safety evaluation demonstrated that the operation of the H2Fuel bus represents a moderate risk. This is the same risk level determined for operation of conventionally powered transit buses in the United States. By the same criteria, private passenger automobile travel in the United States is considered a high risk. The evaluation also identified several design and operational modifications that resulted in improved safety, operability, and reliability. The hazard assessment methodology used in this project has widespread applicability to other innovative operations and systems, and the techniques can serve as a template for other similar projects.

  20. Simulating performance impacts of bus lanes and supporting measures

    SciTech Connect

    Shalaby, A.S.

    1999-10-01

    This study used the TRANSYT-7F simulator to examine changes in performance measures of through buses and adjacent traffic following the introduction of reserved lanes in an urban arterial. In addition, the TRANSYT-7F simulator was used to examine the specific impacts on modal performance of two policy measures implemented in conjunction with lane introduction. The results showed that TRANSYT-7F provided relatively accurate estimates of bus delays and auto speeds. However, the study identified one area of improvement for TRANSYT-7F to model priority treatments on arterials more effectively. The simulation results showed that the performance of the average bus improved after project implementation, whereas the performance of the adjacent through traffic deteriorated. However, the deterioration exceeded the improvement. Other aggregate estimates of performance were examined and discussed. The simulations also showed that modifications to left-turn movements would have a minor impact on both bus and adjacent traffic performance, whereas the removal of taxis from the reserved lanes would cause far more performance deterioration to the adjacent traffic than the performance improvement this policy measure would bring to buses.

  1. The AI Bus architecture for distributed knowledge-based systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Roger D.; Stobie, Iain

    1991-01-01

    The AI Bus architecture is layered, distributed object oriented framework developed to support the requirements of advanced technology programs for an order of magnitude improvement in software costs. The consequent need for highly autonomous computer systems, adaptable to new technology advances over a long lifespan, led to the design of an open architecture and toolbox for building large scale, robust, production quality systems. The AI Bus accommodates a mix of knowledge based and conventional components, running on heterogeneous, distributed real world and testbed environment. The concepts and design is described of the AI Bus architecture and its current implementation status as a Unix C++ library or reusable objects. Each high level semiautonomous agent process consists of a number of knowledge sources together with interagent communication mechanisms based on shared blackboards and message passing acquaintances. Standard interfaces and protocols are followed for combining and validating subsystems. Dynamic probes or demons provide an event driven means for providing active objects with shared access to resources, and each other, while not violating their security.

  2. Bunching transition in a time-headway model of a bus route.

    PubMed

    Nagatani, T

    2001-03-01

    A time-headway model is presented to mimic bus behavior on the bus route. The motion of a bus is described in terms of the time headway between its bus and the bus in front. We study the bunching behavior of buses induced by interacting with other buses and passengers. It is shown that the dynamical phase transitions among the inhomogeneous bunching phase, the homogeneous free phase, the coexisting phase, and the homogeneous congested phase occur with varying the initial time headway. We study the effect of not stopping at bus stops on the time-headway profile. It is found that the bunching transition lines are consistent with the neutral stability curves obtained by the linear stability analysis.

  3. Hydrogen-oxygen driven Zero Emissions bus draws attention at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    KSC workers, with Center Director Roy Bridges (at right next to bus), head for the open door of the Zero Emissions (ZE) transit bus and a ride around the center. Provided by dbb fuel cell engines inc. of Vancouver, Canada, the ZE bus was brought to KSC as part of the Center's Alternative Fuel Initiatives Program. The bus uses a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell in which hydrogen and oxygen, from atmospheric air, react to produce electricity that powers an electric motor drive system. The by-product 'exhaust' from the fuel cell is water vapor, thus zero harmful emissions. A typical diesel-powered bus emits more than a ton of harmful pollutants from its exhaust every year. Available to employees for viewing and a ride, the ZE bus is also being used on tour routes at the KSC Visitor Complex Oct. 26-27.

  4. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Third Results Reports

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2012-05-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. NREL has previously published two reports documenting the operation of the fuel cell bus in service. This report provides a summary of the results with a focus on the bus operation from July 2011 through January 2012.

  5. Hydrogen-oxygen driven Zero Emissions bus draws attention at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    KSC workers, with Center Director Roy Bridges (at right next to bus), head for the open door of the Zero Emissions (ZE) transit bus and a ride around the center. Provided by dbb fuel cell engines inc. of Vancouver, Canada, the ZE bus was brought to KSC as part of the Center's Alternative Fuel Initiatives Program. The bus uses a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell in which hydrogen and oxygen, from atmospheric air, react to produce electricity that powers an electric motor drive system. The by-product 'exhaust' from the fuel cell is water vapor, thus zero harmful emissions. A typical diesel-powered bus emits more than a ton of harmful pollutants from its exhaust every year. Available to employees for viewing and a ride, the ZE bus is also being used on tour routes at the KSC Visitor Complex Oct. 26-27.

  6. City Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dargan, Amanda; Zeitlin, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Today, fewer city blocks preserve the confidence of lifestyle and urban geography that sustain traditional games and outdoor play. Large groups of children choosing sides and organizing Red Rover games are no longer commonplace. Teachers must encourage free play; urban planners must build cities that are safe play havens. (MLH)

  7. Atypical Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this creative challenge, Surrealism and one-point perspective combine to produce images that not only go "beyond the real" but also beyond the ubiquitous "imaginary city" assignment often used to teach one-point perspective. Perhaps the difference is that in the "atypical cities challenge," an understanding of one-point perspective is a means…

  8. Atypical Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this creative challenge, Surrealism and one-point perspective combine to produce images that not only go "beyond the real" but also beyond the ubiquitous "imaginary city" assignment often used to teach one-point perspective. Perhaps the difference is that in the "atypical cities challenge," an understanding of one-point perspective is a means…

  9. City Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dargan, Amanda; Zeitlin, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Today, fewer city blocks preserve the confidence of lifestyle and urban geography that sustain traditional games and outdoor play. Large groups of children choosing sides and organizing Red Rover games are no longer commonplace. Teachers must encourage free play; urban planners must build cities that are safe play havens. (MLH)

  10. Evaluation of the concentrations and distribution of carbonyl compounds in selected areas of a Brazilian bus terminal.

    PubMed

    de Mendonça Ochs, Soraya; de Almeida Furtado, Leonardo; Pereira Netto, Annibal Duarte

    2015-06-01

    This study describes the determination of 30 carbonyl compounds (CCs) in three areas (bus boarding platform, passenger circulation area, and a pastry shop) of the Presidente João Goulart Bus Terminal, located at Niterói City, RJ, Brazil, and in an open area 700 m distant from the terminal. Samples were collected using SEP-PAK cartridges impregnated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, during May to July 2012. The hydrazones formed were analyzed using rapid resolution liquid chromatography with UV detection. The studied locations showed distinct profiles of distribution of CC. The circulation area, which is influenced by different pollution sources, presented an intermediate profile between that of the pastry shop and boarding platform. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the most abundant CC, but acetaldehyde predominated in the pastry shop once it is a by-product of baking yeast fermentation. Samples taken in the pastry shop and circulation area showed significant concentrations of hexanaldehyde and nonanaldehyde emitted during cooking. The pastry shop showed the largest level of total CC among the studied areas followed by the circulation area, the boarding platform, and the open area.

  11. Small Explorer Data System MIL-STD-1773 fiber optic bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanegan, Mark; Label, Ken

    1992-06-01

    The MIL-STD-1773 Fiber Optic Data Bus as implemented in the GSFC Small Explorer Data System (SEDS) for the Small Explorer Program is described. It provides an overview of the SEDS MIL-STD-1773 bus components system design considerations, reliability figures, acceptance and qualification testing requirements, radiation requirements and tests, error handling considerations, and component heritage. The first mission using the bus will be launched in June of 1992.

  12. Multi-access fiber optic data bus using FDM/FSK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanger, H.

    1984-01-01

    The major thrust was to develop a T coupler with very low (0.1 0.2dB) in-line loss. This is essential to any multiaccess bus structure where the word multi implies fifteen or more nodes on the bus, and it is tacitly assumed to be a passive bus. (Reliability considerations tend to exclude the use of active nodes - repeater nodes.)

  13. The influence of bus stop on traffic flow with velocity-difference-separation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Pengjun; Wang, Wei; Ge, Hongxia

    2016-06-01

    Based on velocity-difference-separation model, the mixed traffic flow on two-lane road is investigated. For a fixed road length, the influence of bus and bus stops on traffic flow is studied with the increasing traffic density. Compared with the result without bus stops given by Li et al., a new traffic state is found, which is valuable for studying the impacts of public transport on urban traffic flow.

  14. A study of multiplex data bus techniques for the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kearney, R. J.; Kalange, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    A comprehensive technology base for the design of a multiplexed data bus subsystem is provided. Extensive analyses, both analytical and empirical, were performed. Subjects covered are classified under the following headings: requirements identification and analysis; transmission media studies; signal design and detection studies; synchronization, timing, and control studies; user-subsystem interface studies; operational reliability analyses; design of candidate data bus configurations; and evaluation of candidate data bus designs.

  15. Small Explorer Data System MIL-STD-1773 fiber optic bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanegan, Mark; Label, Ken

    1992-01-01

    The MIL-STD-1773 Fiber Optic Data Bus as implemented in the GSFC Small Explorer Data System (SEDS) for the Small Explorer Program is described. It provides an overview of the SEDS MIL-STD-1773 bus components system design considerations, reliability figures, acceptance and qualification testing requirements, radiation requirements and tests, error handling considerations, and component heritage. The first mission using the bus will be launched in June of 1992.

  16. Numerical study of multiple-channel diffusers on the rear bus body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sucipto, Sabdono Abdi; Widodo, Wawan Aries

    2017-01-01

    3D-Simplified bus model (without wheels) is inspected at Reynolds number 2.19×106 (based on the length of bus and velocity inlet). A modification to increase the aerodynamics performance of vehicle is performed by using multiple-channel diffusers on the rear bus body. Diffuser angle (β) 12° is chosen as a constant variable. Two, Three and Four Channels are chosen as a variable. The results show that multiple channel diffuser can increase aerodynamics performance of the bus. Two channel produces optimal negative lift while Four channel produces optimal drag coefficient.

  17. Asymptotically zero power charge-recycling bus architecture for battery-operated ultrahigh data rate ULSI's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Hiroyuki; Akamatsu, Hironori; Fujita, Tsutomu

    1995-04-01

    An asymptotically zero power charge recycling bus (CRB) architecture, featuring virtual stacking of the individual bus-capacitance into a series configuration between supply voltage and ground, has been proposed. This CRB architecture makes it possible to reduce not only each bus-swing but also a total equivalent bus-capacitance of the ultramultibit buses running in parallel. The voltage swing of each bus is given by the recycled charge-supplying from the upper adjacent bus capacitance, instead of the power line. The dramatical power reduction was verified by the simulated and measured data. According to these data, the ultrahigh data rate of 25.6 Gb/s can be achieved while maintaining the power dissipation to be less than 100 mW, which corresponds to less than 10% that of the previously reported 0.9 V suppressed bus-swing scheme, at V(sub cc) = 3.6 V for the bus width of 512 b with the bus-capacitance of 14 pF per bit operating at 50 MHz.

  18. Heisenberg spin bus as a robust transmission line for quantum-state transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Sangchul; Hu Xuedong; Wu Lianao; Shim, Yun-Pil; Fei, Jianjia; Friesen, Mark

    2011-08-15

    We study quantum-state transfer (QST) through a strongly coupled antiferromagnetic spin chain (acting as a spin bus), between weakly coupled external qubits. By treating the weak coupling as a perturbation, we find that QST is enabled specifically by the second-order terms in the perturbative expansion. We show that QST is robust against disorder in the couplings, either within the bus or to the external qubits. We find that the protocol works when the qubits are attached to any node on an even-size bus or to the antiferromagnetic nodes on an odd-size bus. The optimal time for QST is found to depend nonmonotonically on qubit separation.

  19. Superconducting link bus design for the accelerator project for upgrade of LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Nobrega, F.; Brandt, J.; Cheban, S.; Feher, S.; Kaducak, M.; Kashikhin, V.; Peterson, T.; /Fermilab

    2010-08-01

    The Accelerator Project for Upgrade of LHC (APUL) is a U.S. project participating in and contributing to CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) upgrade program. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in collaboration with Brookhaven National Laboratory was developing sub-systems for the upgrade of the LHC final focus magnet systems. Part of the upgrade called for various lengths of superconducting power transmission lines known as SC Links which were up to 100 m long. The SC Link electrically connects the current leads in the Distribution Feed Boxes to the interaction region magnets. The SC Link is an extension of the magnet bus housed within a cryostat. The present concept for the bus consists of 22 power cables, 4 x 13 kA, 2 x 7 kA, 8 x 2.5 kA and 8 x 0.6 kA bundled into one bus. Different cable and strand possibilities were considered for the bus design including Rutherford cable. The Rutherford cable bus design potentially would have required splices at each sharp elbow in the SC Link. The advantage of the round bus design is that splices are only required at each end of the bus during installation at CERN. The round bus is very flexible and is suitable for pulling through the cryostat. Development of the round bus prototype and of 2 splice designs is described in this paper. Magnetic analysis and mechanical test results of the 13 kA cable and splices are presented.

  20. Analysis of bus passenger comfort perception based on passenger load factor and in-vehicle time.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xianghao; Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Hu, Baoyu

    2016-01-01

    Although bus comfort is a crucial indicator of service quality, existing studies tend to focus on passenger load and ignore in-vehicle time, which can also affect passengers' comfort perception. Therefore, by conducting surveys, this study examines passengers' comfort perception while accounting for both factors. Then, using the survey data, it performs a two-way analysis of variance and shows that both in-vehicle time and passenger load significantly affect passenger comfort. Then, a bus comfort model is proposed to evaluate comfort level, followed by a sensitivity analysis. The method introduced in this study has theoretical implications for bus operators attempting to improve bus service quality.