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Sample records for hybrid city bus

  1. Hybrid Electric Transit Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    A government, industry, and university cooperative is developing an advanced hybrid electric city transit bus. Goals of this effort include doubling the fuel economy compared to current buses and reducing emissions to one-tenth of current EPA standards. Unique aspects of the vehicle's power system include the use of ultra-capacitors as an energy storage system, and a planned natural gas fueled turbogenerator developed from a small jet engine. Power from both the generator and energy storage system is provided to a variable speed electric motor attached to the rear axle. At over 15000 kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle of its kind ever built using ultra-capacitor energy storage. This paper describes the overall power system architecture, the evolution of the control strategy, and its performance over industry standard drive cycles.

  2. FUEL CELL BUS DEMONSTRATION IN MEXICO CITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the performance of a cull-size, zero-emission, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel-cell-powered transit bus in the atmospheric environment of Mexico City. To address the air quality problems caused by vehicle emissions in Mexico City, a seminar on clean vehic...

  3. COMPARISON OF PARALLEL AND SERIES HYBRID POWERTRAINS FOR TRANSIT BUS APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C Stuart; Smith, David E; Jones, Perry T; LaClair, Tim J; Parks, II, James E

    2016-01-01

    The fuel economy and emissions of both conventional and hybrid buses equipped with emissions aftertreatment were evaluated via computational simulation for six representative city bus drive cycles. Both series and parallel configurations for the hybrid case were studied. The simulation results indicate that series hybrid buses have the greatest overall advantage in fuel economy. The series and parallel hybrid buses were predicted to produce similar CO and HC tailpipe emissions but were also predicted to have reduced NOx tailpipe emissions compared to the conventional bus in higher speed cycles. For the New York bus cycle (NYBC), which has the lowest average speed among the cycles evaluated, the series bus tailpipe emissions were somewhat higher than they were for the conventional bus, while the parallel hybrid bus had significantly lower tailpipe emissions. All three bus powertrains were found to require periodic active DPF regeneration to maintain PM control. Plug-in operation of series hybrid buses appears to offer significant fuel economy benefits and is easily employed due to the relatively large battery capacity that is typical of the series hybrid configuration.

  4. Comparison of Parallel and Series Hybrid Power Trains for Transit Bus Applications

    DOE PAGES

    Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C. Stuart; Smith, David E.; ...

    2016-08-01

    The fuel economy and emissions of conventional and hybrid buses equipped with emissions after treatment were evaluated via computational simulation for six representative city bus drive cycles. Both series and parallel configurations for the hybrid case were studied. The simulation results indicated that series hybrid buses have the greatest overall advantage in fuel economy. The series and parallel hybrid buses were predicted to produce similar carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon tailpipe emissions but were also predicted to have reduced tailpipe emissions of nitrogen oxides compared with the conventional bus in higher speed cycles. For the New York bus cycle, which hasmore » the lowest average speed among the cycles evaluated, the series bus tailpipe emissions were somewhat higher than they were for the conventional bus; the parallel hybrid bus had significantly lower tailpipe emissions. All three bus power trains were found to require periodic active diesel particulate filter regeneration to maintain control of particulate matter. Finally, plug-in operation of series hybrid buses appears to offer significant fuel economy benefits and is easily employed because of the relatively large battery capacity that is typical of the series hybrid configuration.« less

  5. Comparison of Parallel and Series Hybrid Power Trains for Transit Bus Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C. Stuart; Smith, David E.; LaClair, Tim J.; Parks, James E.; Jones, Perry T.

    2016-08-01

    The fuel economy and emissions of conventional and hybrid buses equipped with emissions after treatment were evaluated via computational simulation for six representative city bus drive cycles. Both series and parallel configurations for the hybrid case were studied. The simulation results indicated that series hybrid buses have the greatest overall advantage in fuel economy. The series and parallel hybrid buses were predicted to produce similar carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon tailpipe emissions but were also predicted to have reduced tailpipe emissions of nitrogen oxides compared with the conventional bus in higher speed cycles. For the New York bus cycle, which has the lowest average speed among the cycles evaluated, the series bus tailpipe emissions were somewhat higher than they were for the conventional bus; the parallel hybrid bus had significantly lower tailpipe emissions. All three bus power trains were found to require periodic active diesel particulate filter regeneration to maintain control of particulate matter. Finally, plug-in operation of series hybrid buses appears to offer significant fuel economy benefits and is easily employed because of the relatively large battery capacity that is typical of the series hybrid configuration.

  6. A fuel cell city bus with three drivetrain configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junping; Chen, Yong; Chen, Quanshi

    Three fuel cell city buses of the energy hybrid- and power hybrid-type were re-engineered with three types of drivetrain configuration to optimize the structure and improve the performance. The energy distribution, hydrogen consumption, state of charge (SOC) and the power variation rate were analyzed when different drivetrain configurations and parameters were used. When powered only by a fuel cell, the bus cannot recover the energy through regenerative braking. The variation of the fuel cell power is large and frequent, which is not good for the fuel cell. When the fuel cell is linked to a battery pack in parallel, the bus can recover the energy through regenerative braking. The energy distribution is determined by the parameters of the fuel cell and the battery pack in the design stage to reduce the power variation rate of the fuel cell. When the fuel cell and DC/DC converter connected in series links the battery pack in parallel, energy can be recovered and the energy distribution can be adjusted online. The power variation rate of both the fuel cell and the battery pack are reduced.

  7. Baseline Testing of the Hybrid Electric Transit Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Jeffrey C.; Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Thompson, William K.

    1999-01-01

    A government, industry and academic cooperative has developed a Hybrid Electric Transit Bus (HETB). Goals of the program include doubling the fuel economy of city transit buses currently in service, and reducing emissions to one-tenth of EPA standards. Unique aspects of the vehicle's power system include the use of ultra-capacitors for the energy storage system and the planned use of a natural gas fueled turbogenerator, to be developed from a small jet engine. At over 17000 kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle to use ultra-capacitor energy storage. A description of the HETB, the results of performance testing, and future vehicle development plans are the subject of this report.

  8. Extracting potential bus lines of Customized City Bus Service based on public transport big data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yibin; Chen, Ge; Han, Yong; Zheng, Huangcheng

    2016-11-01

    Customized City Bus Service (CCBS) can reduce the traffic congestion and environmental pollution that caused by the increasing in private cars, effectively. This study aims to extract the potential bus lines and each line's passenger density of CCBS by mining the public transport big data. The datasets used in this study are mainly Smart Card Data (SCD) and bus GPS data of Qingdao, China, from October 11th and November 7th 2015. Firstly, we compute the temporal-origin-destination (TOD) of passengers by mining SCD and bus GPS data. Compared with the traditional OD, TOD not only has the spatial location, but also contains the trip's boarding time. Secondly, based on the traditional DBSCAN algorithm, we put forwards an algorithm, named TOD-DBSCAN, combined with the spatial-temporal features of TOD.TOD-DBSCAN is used to cluster the TOD trajectories in peak hours of all working days. Then, we define two variables P and N to describe the possibility and passenger destiny of a potential CCBS line. P is the probability of the CCBS line. And N represents the potential passenger destiny of the line. Lastly, we visualize the potential CCBS lines extracted by our procedure on the map and analyse relationship between potential CCBS lines and the urban spatial structure.

  9. Bus application of oxygen-enrichment technology and diesel-electric hybrid systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sekar, R.R.; Marr, W.W.

    1993-10-01

    The amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA) mandate very strict limits on particulate, smoke, and other emissions from city buses. The use of alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas (CNG) or methanol, can help transit operators, such as the Chicago Transit Authority (CTA), meet the mandated limits. However, the capital investment needed to convert the fueling infrastructure and buses is large, as is the expense of training personnel. If a {open_quotes}clean diesel{close_quotes} bus can be implemented with the help of oxygen-enrichment technology or a diesel-electric hybrid system, this large investment could be postponed for many years. The Regional Transportation Authority (RTA) initiated this project to evaluate the possibility of applying these technologies to CTA buses. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a limited number of engine tests and computer analyses and concluded that both concepts are practical and will help in a {open_quotes}clean diesel{close_quotes} bus that can meet the mandated limits of the CAA amendments. The oxygen enrichment of combustion air depends on the availability of a compact and economical membrane separator. Because the technology for this critical component is still under development, it is recommended that an actual bus demonstration be delayed until prototype membranes are available. The hybrid propulsion system is ready for the demonstration phase, and it is recommended that the CTA and RTA commence planning for a bus demonstration.

  10. Real life testing of a Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folkesson, Anders; Andersson, Christian; Alvfors, Per; Alaküla, Mats; Overgaard, Lars

    Fuel cells produce low quantities of local emissions, if any, and are therefore one of the most promising alternatives to internal combustion engines as the main power source in future vehicles. It is likely that urban buses will be among the first commercial applications for fuel cells in vehicles. This is due to the fact that urban buses are highly visible for the public, they contribute significantly to air pollution in urban areas, they have small limitations in weight and volume and fuelling is handled via a centralised infrastructure. Results and experiences from real life measurements of energy flows in a Scania Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Concept Bus are presented in this paper. The tests consist of measurements during several standard duty cycles. The efficiency of the fuel cell system and of the complete vehicle are presented and discussed. The net efficiency of the fuel cell system was approximately 40% and the fuel consumption of the concept bus is between 42 and 48% lower compared to a standard Scania bus. Energy recovery by regenerative braking saves up 28% energy. Bus subsystems such as the pneumatic system for door opening, suspension and brakes, the hydraulic power steering, the 24 V grid, the water pump and the cooling fans consume approximately 7% of the energy in the fuel input or 17% of the net power output from the fuel cell system. The bus was built by a number of companies in a project partly financed by the European Commission's Joule programme. The comprehensive testing is partly financed by the Swedish programme "Den Gröna Bilen" (The Green Car). A 50 kW el fuel cell system is the power source and a high voltage battery pack works as an energy buffer and power booster. The fuel, compressed hydrogen, is stored in two high-pressure stainless steel vessels mounted on the roof of the bus. The bus has a series hybrid electric driveline with wheel hub motors with a maximum power of 100 kW. Hybrid Fuel Cell Buses have a big potential, but there are

  11. Economical launching and accelerating control strategy for a single-shaft parallel hybrid electric bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chao; Song, Jian; Li, Liang; Li, Shengbo; Cao, Dongpu

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an economical launching and accelerating mode, including four ordered phases: pure electrical driving, clutch engagement and engine start-up, engine active charging, and engine driving, which can be fit for the alternating conditions and improve the fuel economy of hybrid electric bus (HEB) during typical city-bus driving scenarios. By utilizing the fast response feature of electric motor (EM), an adaptive controller for EM is designed to realize the power demand during the pure electrical driving mode, the engine starting mode and the engine active charging mode. Concurrently, the smoothness issue induced by the sequential mode transitions is solved with a coordinated control logic for engine, EM and clutch. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed launching and accelerating mode and its control methods are effective in improving the fuel economy and ensure the drivability during the fast transition between the operation modes of HEB.

  12. An interactive wireless communication system for visually impaired people using city bus transport.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsiao-Lan; Chen, Ya-Ping; Rau, Chi-Lun; Yu, Chung-Huang

    2014-04-25

    Visually impaired people have difficulty accessing information about public transportation systems. Several systems have been developed for assisting visually impaired and blind people to use the city bus. Most systems provide only one-way communication and require high-cost and complex equipment. The purpose of this study is to reduce the difficulties faced by visually impaired people when taking city buses, using an interactive wireless communication system. The system comprised a user module and a bus module to establish a direct one-to-one connection. When the user inputs 4-digit numbers, the user module immediately sends out the information. If the bus module receives the matched bus number, it buzzes and the warning LED flashes to notify the bus driver that someone is waiting to board on the bus. User tests were conducted by two visually impaired people in a simulated vehicle and a city bus. The success rate of interactive wireless communication, recognizing the arrival of the bus and boarding the correct bus reached 100% in all of the tests. The interactive wireless communication aid system is a valid and low-cost device for assisting visually impaired people to use city buses.

  13. An Interactive Wireless Communication System for Visually Impaired People Using City Bus Transport

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hsiao-Lan; Chen, Ya-Ping; Rau, Chi-Lun; Yu, Chung-Huang

    2014-01-01

    Visually impaired people have difficulty accessing information about public transportation systems. Several systems have been developed for assisting visually impaired and blind people to use the city bus. Most systems provide only one-way communication and require high-cost and complex equipment. The purpose of this study is to reduce the difficulties faced by visually impaired people when taking city buses, using an interactive wireless communication system. The system comprised a user module and a bus module to establish a direct one-to-one connection. When the user inputs 4-digit numbers, the user module immediately sends out the information. If the bus module receives the matched bus number, it buzzes and the warning LED flashes to notify the bus driver that someone is waiting to board on the bus. User tests were conducted by two visually impaired people in a simulated vehicle and a city bus. The success rate of interactive wireless communication, recognizing the arrival of the bus and boarding the correct bus reached 100% in all of the tests. The interactive wireless communication aid system is a valid and low-cost device for assisting visually impaired people to use city buses. PMID:24776720

  14. Factors associated with self-reported driver sleepiness and incidents in city bus drivers.

    PubMed

    Anund, Anna; Ihlström, Jonas; Fors, Carina; Kecklund, Göran; Filtness, Ashleigh

    2016-08-05

    Driver fatigue has received increased attention during recent years and is now considered to be a major contributor to approximately 15-30% of all crashes. However, little is known about fatigue in city bus drivers. It is hypothesized that city bus drivers suffer from sleepiness, which is due to a combination of working conditions, lack of health and reduced sleep quantity and quality. The overall aim with the current study is to investigate if severe driver sleepiness, as indicated by subjective reports of having to fight sleep while driving, is a problem for city based bus drivers in Sweden and if so, to identify the determinants related to working conditions, health and sleep which contribute towards this. The results indicate that driver sleepiness is a problem for city bus drivers, with 19% having to fight to stay awake while driving the bus 2-3 times each week or more and nearly half experiencing this at least 2-4 times per month. In conclusion, severe sleepiness, as indicated by having to fight sleep during driving, was common among the city bus drivers. Severe sleepiness correlated with fatigue related safety risks, such as near crashes.

  15. Factors associated with self-reported driver sleepiness and incidents in city bus drivers

    PubMed Central

    ANUND, Anna; IHLSTRÖM, Jonas; FORS, Carina; KECKLUND, Göran; FILTNESS, Ashleigh

    2016-01-01

    Driver fatigue has received increased attention during recent years and is now considered to be a major contributor to approximately 15–30% of all crashes. However, little is known about fatigue in city bus drivers. It is hypothesized that city bus drivers suffer from sleepiness, which is due to a combination of working conditions, lack of health and reduced sleep quantity and quality. The overall aim with the current study is to investigate if severe driver sleepiness, as indicated by subjective reports of having to fight sleep while driving, is a problem for city based bus drivers in Sweden and if so, to identify the determinants related to working conditions, health and sleep which contribute towards this. The results indicate that driver sleepiness is a problem for city bus drivers, with 19% having to fight to stay awake while driving the bus 2–3 times each week or more and nearly half experiencing this at least 2–4 times per month. In conclusion, severe sleepiness, as indicated by having to fight sleep during driving, was common among the city bus drivers. Severe sleepiness correlated with fatigue related safety risks, such as near crashes. PMID:27098307

  16. Ultra-Capacitor Energy Storage in a Large Hybrid Electric Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, L. A.

    1997-01-01

    The power requirements for inner city transit buses are characterized by power peaks about an order of magnitude larger than the average power usage of the vehicle. For these vehicles, hybrid power trains can offer significantly improved fuel economy and exhaust emissions. A critical design challenge, however, has been developing the energy storage and power management system to respond to these rapid power variations. Most hybrid vehicles today use chemical energy storage batteries to supplement the power from the fuel burning generator unit. Chemical storage batteries however, present several difficulties in power management and control. These difficulties include (1) inadequate life, (2) limited current delivery as well as absorption during regenerative braking, (3) inaccurate measurement of state of charge, and (4) stored energy safety issues. Recent advances in ultra-capacitor technology create an opportunity to address these concerns. The NASA Lewis Research Center, in cooperation with industry and academia, has developed an advanced hybrid electric transit bus using ultra-capacitors as the primary energy storage system. At over 15,000-kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle of its kind ever built using this advanced energy storage technology. Results of analyses show that the vehicle will match the performance of an equivalent conventionally powered vehicle over typical inner city drive cycles. This paper describes the overall power system architecture, the evolution of the control strategy, and analysis of power flow and vehicle performance.

  17. City of Chula Vista hydrogen fuel cell bus demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafson, B.; Bamberger, B.

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen as an energy carrier and fuel has potential for various uses including electricity, commercial, residential, transportation, and industrial. It is an energy carrier that can be produced from a variety of primary sources and potentially can accomplish these various uses while significantly reducing pollution by substituting for or reducing the use of fossil fuels. One of the most immediate and potentially viable roles for hydrogen as an energy carrier will be its use as a transportation fuel, especially in densely populated urban areas where automotive emissions contribute significantly to air pollution. The Department of Energy`s commitment to research and development of hydrogen as an alternative fuel, and California`s Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) requirements, both provide the impetus and favorable circumstance for demonstrating hydrogen as a transportation fuel on an urban bus system. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of using solid polymer fuel cells in a hydrogen-powered electric drive system for an urban transit bus application. Fuel cell buses use hydrogen fuel and oxygen from the air to produce electrical power with the only byproduct being pure water. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells are proposed for this project. Current evidence suggests that fuel cells, which rely on hydrogen and a process known as proton exchange to generate their power, appear to have an infinite life span. All exhaust pollution is completely eliminated, resulting in a Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV). An urban bus system offers the potential for developing a market for the production of hydrogen propulsion technology due to extensive vehicular use in densely populated areas experiencing pollution from numerous sources, and because the central garaging facilities or the bus system facilitates fueling and maintenance functions.

  18. An observational comparison of the older and younger bus passenger experience in a developing world city.

    PubMed

    Aceves-González, Carlos; May, Andrew; Cook, Sharon

    2016-06-01

    This study was an unobtrusive observational analysis of 333 older and younger bus passengers in Guadalajara, Mexico. A set of data were collected for each observed passenger, as well as more general observations related to driver behaviour, bus design and bus service characteristics. There were significant differences between older and younger passengers in terms of boarding and alighting times, use of handrails, seat location preferences, passenger stability and coping strategies in order to maintain postural stability. The conditions of travel are conducive to a poor passenger experience for the older passengers in particular. Although the problems may be attributed to bus design and driver behaviour typical of that in developing countries, they are also influenced by the wider transport infrastructure, and a lack of a regulatory regime which places drivers under time pressure and in direct competition with each other. Practitioner Summary: Bus services must cater for all ages of passengers, including the elderly. This unobtrusive observational study investigated the passenger experience in a developing world city. Bus and wider service design were found to compromise the journey experience, with the older users being particularly negatively impacted. Design recommendations are provided.

  19. Energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic for a fuel cell hybrid bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Dawei; Jin, Zhenhua; Lu, Qingchun

    Fuel cell vehicles, as a substitute for internal-combustion-engine vehicles, have become a research hotspot for most automobile manufacturers all over the world. Fuel cell systems have disadvantages, such as high cost, slow response and no regenerative energy recovery during braking; hybridization can be a solution to these drawbacks. This paper presents a fuel cell hybrid bus which is equipped with a fuel cell system and two energy storage devices, i.e., a battery and an ultracapacitor. An energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic, which is employed to control the power flow of the vehicular power train, is described. This strategy is capable of determining the desired output power of the fuel cell system, battery and ultracapacitor according to the propulsion power and recuperated braking power. Some tests to verify the strategy were developed, and the results of the tests show the effectiveness of the proposed energy management strategy and the good performance of the fuel cell hybrid bus.

  20. Analysis, operation and maintenance of a fuel cell/battery series-hybrid bus for urban transit applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubna, Piyush; Brunner, Doug; Gangloff, John J.; Advani, Suresh G.; Prasad, Ajay K.

    The fuel cell hybrid bus (FCHB) program was initiated at the University of Delaware in 2005 to demonstrate the viability of fuel cell vehicles for transit applications and to conduct research and development to facilitate the path towards their eventual commercialization. Unlike other fuel cell bus programs, the University of Delaware's FCHB design features a battery-heavy hybrid which offers multiple advantages in terms of cost, performance and durability. The current fuel cell hybrid bus is driven on a regular transit route at the University of Delaware. The paper describes the baseline specifications of the bus with a focus on the fuel cell and the balance of plant. The fuel cell/battery series-hybrid design is well suited for urban transit routes and provides key operational advantages such as hydrogen fuel economy, efficient use of the fuel cell for battery recharging, and regenerative braking. The bus is equipped with a variety of sensors including a custom-designed cell voltage monitoring system which provide a good understanding of bus performance under normal operation. Real-time data collection and analysis have yielded key insights for fuel cell bus design optimization. Results presented here illustrate the complex flow of energy within the various subsystems of the fuel cell hybrid bus. A description of maintenance events has been included to highlight the issues that arise during general operation. The paper also describes several modifications that will facilitate design improvements in future versions of the bus. Overall, the fuel cell hybrid bus demonstrates the viability of fuel cells for urban transit applications in real world conditions.

  1. Fuzzy control based engine sizing optimization for a fuel cell/battery hybrid mini-bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Minjin; Sohn, Young-Jun; Lee, Won-Yong; Kim, Chang-Soo

    The fuel cell/battery hybrid vehicle has been focused for the alternative engine of the existing internal-combustion engine due to the following advantages of the fuel cell and the battery. Firstly, the fuel cell is highly efficient and eco-friendly. Secondly, the battery has the fast response for the changeable power demand. However, the competitive efficiency of the hybrid fuel cell vehicle is necessary to successfully alternate the conventional vehicles with the fuel cell hybrid vehicle. The most relevant factor which affects the overall efficiency of the hybrid fuel cell vehicle is the relative engine sizing between the fuel cell and the battery. Therefore the design method to optimize the engine sizing of the fuel cell hybrid vehicle has been proposed. The target system is the fuel cell/battery hybrid mini-bus and its power distribution is controlled based on the fuzzy logic. The optimal engine sizes are determined based on the simulator developed in this paper. The simulator includes the several models for the fuel cell, the battery, and the major balance of plants. After the engine sizing, the system efficiency and the stability of the power distribution are verified based on the well-known driving schedule. Consequently, the optimally designed mini-bus shows good performance.

  2. Heavy Duty Diesel Truck and Bus Hybrid Powertrain Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    developed by GM, DaimlerChrysler and BMW in a consortium is also a power-split design with two electric machines and two planetary gear sets plus coupling...Architecture .................................................. 41 Figure 7: Planetary Type Power-Split Parallel-Series Full Hybrid...partially compensated for with transmissions having more gears in order to multiply the engine power for greater tractive effort. The remaining

  3. High voltage bus and auxiliary heater control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Murty, Balarama Vempaty

    2000-01-01

    A control system for an electric or hybrid electric vehicle includes a vehicle system controller and a control circuit having an electric immersion heater. The heater is electrically connected to the vehicle's high voltage bus and is thermally coupled to a coolant loop containing a heater core for the vehicle's climate control system. The system controller responds to cabin heat requests from the climate control system by generating a pulse width modulated signal that is used by the control circuit to operate the heater at a duty cycle appropriate for the amount of cabin heating requested. The control system also uses the heater to dissipate excess energy produced by an auxiliary power unit and to provide electric braking when regenerative braking is not desirable and manual braking is not necessary. The control system further utilizes the heater to provide a safe discharge of a bank of energy storage capacitors following disconnection of the battery or one of the high voltage connectors used to transmit high voltage operating power to the various vehicle systems. The control circuit includes a high voltage clamping circuit that monitors the voltage on the bus and operates the heater to clamp down the bus voltage when it exceeds a pre-selected maximum voltage. The control system can also be used to phase in operation of the heater when the bus voltage exceeds a lower threshold voltage and can be used to phase out the auxiliary power unit charging and regenerative braking when the battery becomes fully charged.

  4. High voltage bus and auxiliary heater control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Murty, B.V.

    2000-03-21

    A control system for an electric or hybrid electric vehicle includes a vehicle system controller and a control circuit having an electric immersion heater. The heater is electrically connected to the vehicle's high voltage bus and is thermally coupled to a coolant loop containing a heater core for the vehicle's climate control system. The system controller responds to cabin heat requests from the climate control system by generating a pulse width modulated signal that is used by the control circuit to operate the heater at a duty cycle appropriate for the amount of cabin heating requested. The control system also uses the heater to dissipate excess energy produced by an auxiliary power unit and to provide electric braking when regenerative braking is not desirable and manual braking is not necessary. The control system further utilizes the heater to provide a safe discharge of a bank of energy storage capacitors following disconnection of the battery or one of the high voltage connectors used to transmit high voltage operating power to the various vehicle systems. The control circuit includes a high voltage clamping circuit that monitors the voltage on the bus and operates the heater to clamp down the bus voltage when it exceeds a pre-selected maximum voltage. The control system can also be used to phase in operation of the heater when the bus voltage exceeds a lower threshold voltage and can be used to phase out the auxiliary power unit charging and regenerative braking when the battery becomes fully charged.

  5. Power-balancing instantaneous optimization energy management for a novel series-parallel hybrid electric bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Dongye; Lin, Xinyou; Qin, Datong; Deng, Tao

    2012-11-01

    Energy management(EM) is a core technique of hybrid electric bus(HEB) in order to advance fuel economy performance optimization and is unique for the corresponding configuration. There are existing algorithms of control strategy seldom take battery power management into account with international combustion engine power management. In this paper, a type of power-balancing instantaneous optimization(PBIO) energy management control strategy is proposed for a novel series-parallel hybrid electric bus. According to the characteristic of the novel series-parallel architecture, the switching boundary condition between series and parallel mode as well as the control rules of the power-balancing strategy are developed. The equivalent fuel model of battery is implemented and combined with the fuel of engine to constitute the objective function which is to minimize the fuel consumption at each sampled time and to coordinate the power distribution in real-time between the engine and battery. To validate the proposed strategy effective and reasonable, a forward model is built based on Matlab/Simulink for the simulation and the dSPACE autobox is applied to act as a controller for hardware in-the-loop integrated with bench test. Both the results of simulation and hardware-in-the-loop demonstrate that the proposed strategy not only enable to sustain the battery SOC within its operational range and keep the engine operation point locating the peak efficiency region, but also the fuel economy of series-parallel hybrid electric bus(SPHEB) dramatically advanced up to 30.73% via comparing with the prototype bus and a similar improvement for PBIO strategy relative to rule-based strategy, the reduction of fuel consumption is up to 12.38%. The proposed research ensures the algorithm of PBIO is real-time applicability, improves the efficiency of SPHEB system, as well as suite to complicated configuration perfectly.

  6. Advanced Intelligent System Application to Load Forecasting and Control for Hybrid Electric Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momoh, James; Chattopadhyay, Deb; Elfayoumy, Mahmoud

    1996-01-01

    The primary motivation for this research emanates from providing a decision support system to the electric bus operators in the municipal and urban localities which will guide the operators to maintain an optimal compromise among the noise level, pollution level, fuel usage etc. This study is backed up by our previous studies on study of battery characteristics, permanent magnet DC motor studies and electric traction motor size studies completed in the first year. The operator of the Hybrid Electric Car must determine optimal power management schedule to meet a given load demand for different weather and road conditions. The decision support system for the bus operator comprises three sub-tasks viz. forecast of the electrical load for the route to be traversed divided into specified time periods (few minutes); deriving an optimal 'plan' or 'preschedule' based on the load forecast for the entire time-horizon (i.e., for all time periods) ahead of time; and finally employing corrective control action to monitor and modify the optimal plan in real-time. A fully connected artificial neural network (ANN) model is developed for forecasting the kW requirement for hybrid electric bus based on inputs like climatic conditions, passenger load, road inclination, etc. The ANN model is trained using back-propagation algorithm employing improved optimization techniques like projected Lagrangian technique. The pre-scheduler is based on a Goal-Programming (GP) optimization model with noise, pollution and fuel usage as the three objectives. GP has the capability of analyzing the trade-off among the conflicting objectives and arriving at the optimal activity levels, e.g., throttle settings. The corrective control action or the third sub-task is formulated as an optimal control model with inputs from the real-time data base as well as the GP model to minimize the error (or deviation) from the optimal plan. These three activities linked with the ANN forecaster proving the output to the

  7. Hybrid propulsion technologies for urban bus transit. Final report, January-June 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Gunderson, R.; Wychorski, H.

    1984-11-01

    This report presents overview information on hybrid propulsion technologies (also called dual propulsion) in order to increase the transit community's awareness and understanding of bus-propulsion designs that offer extended-use capability for trolley-emergency, short-range, and back-up propulsion for trolley buses or offer some overall energy or fuel savings. Technical material is provided to a greater extent on systems that are novel or appear to offer the greatest potential for future commercial development. This information is provided to make the transit community aware of advancements in hybrid technology that could help them better utilize their existing equipment or help them in decisions regarding the procurement of new vehicles.

  8. An Optimization Model for the Selection of Bus-Only Lanes in a City.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qun

    2015-01-01

    The planning of urban bus-only lane networks is an important measure to improve bus service and bus priority. To determine the effective arrangement of bus-only lanes, a bi-level programming model for urban bus lane layout is developed in this study that considers accessibility and budget constraints. The goal of the upper-level model is to minimize the total travel time, and the lower-level model is a capacity-constrained traffic assignment model that describes the passenger flow assignment on bus lines, in which the priority sequence of the transfer times is reflected in the passengers' route-choice behaviors. Using the proposed bi-level programming model, optimal bus lines are selected from a set of candidate bus lines; thus, the corresponding bus lane network on which the selected bus lines run is determined. The solution method using a genetic algorithm in the bi-level programming model is developed, and two numerical examples are investigated to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed model.

  9. An Optimization Model for the Selection of Bus-Only Lanes in a City

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qun

    2015-01-01

    The planning of urban bus-only lane networks is an important measure to improve bus service and bus priority. To determine the effective arrangement of bus-only lanes, a bi-level programming model for urban bus lane layout is developed in this study that considers accessibility and budget constraints. The goal of the upper-level model is to minimize the total travel time, and the lower-level model is a capacity-constrained traffic assignment model that describes the passenger flow assignment on bus lines, in which the priority sequence of the transfer times is reflected in the passengers’ route-choice behaviors. Using the proposed bi-level programming model, optimal bus lines are selected from a set of candidate bus lines; thus, the corresponding bus lane network on which the selected bus lines run is determined. The solution method using a genetic algorithm in the bi-level programming model is developed, and two numerical examples are investigated to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed model. PMID:26214001

  10. NASA's Involvement in Technology Development and Transfer: The Ohio Hybrid Bus Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    A government and industry cooperative is using advanced power technology in a city transit bus that will offer double the fuel economy, and reduce emissions to one tenth of government standards. The heart of the vehicle's power system is a natural gas fueled generator unit. Power from both the generator and an advanced energy storage system is provided to a variable speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. A unique aspect of the vehicle's design is its use of "super" capacitors for recovery of energy during braking. This is the largest vehicle ever built using this advanced energy recovery technology. This paper describes the project goals and approach, results of its system performance modeling, and the status of the development team's effort.

  11. Modeling and energy management control design for a fuel cell hybrid passenger bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Kyle; Guezennec, Yann; Onori, Simona

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling and supervisory energy management design of a hybrid fuel cell/battery-powered passenger bus. With growing concerns about petroleum usage and greenhouse gas emissions in the transportation sector, finding alternative methods for vehicle propulsion is necessary. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems are viable possibilities for energy converters due to their high efficiencies and zero emissions. It has been shown that the benefits of PEM fuel cell systems can be greatly improved through hybridization. In this work, the challenge of developing an on-board energy management strategy with near-optimal performance is addressed by a two-step process. First, an optimal control based on Pontryagin's Minimum Principle (PMP) is implemented to find the global optimal solution which minimizes fuel consumption, for different drive cycles, with and without grade. The optimal solutions are analyzed in order to aid in development of a practical controller suitable for on-board implementation, in the form of an Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) regulator. Simulation results show that the ARMA controller is capable of achieving fuel economy within 3% of the PMP controller while being able to limit the transient demand on the fuel cell system.

  12. Ergonomic work analysis of urban bus drivers in Rio de Janeiro city.

    PubMed

    Querido, Aloá; Nogueira, Tainan; Gama, Rafael; Orlando, José

    2012-01-01

    This article is the result of a case study on ergonomic work analysis carried out in an urban bus company located in Ilha do Governador, Rio de Janeiro. The methodology used in this work follows the French-tradition Ergonomic Analysis of the Work (EWA) combined with the best tradition from anglo-saxon ergonomic work analysis. The situated diagnosis was performed to provide relevant information about the work conditions of a bus driver.

  13. City bus driving and low back pain: a study of the exposures to posture demands, manual materials handling and whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Okunribido, Olanrewaju O; Shimbles, Steven J; Magnusson, Marianne; Pope, Malcolm

    2007-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate worker exposure to posture demands, manual materials handling (MMH) and whole body vibration as risks for low back pain (LBP). Using validated questionnaire, information about driving experience, driving (sitting) posture MMH, and health history was obtained from 80 city bus drivers. Twelve drivers were observed during their service route driving (at least one complete round trip) and vibration measurements were obtained at the seat and according to the recommendations of ISO 2631 (1997), for three models of bus (a mini-bus, a single-decker bus, a double-decker bus). The results showed that city bus drivers spend about 60% of the daily work time actually driving, often with the torso straight or unsupported, perform occasional and light MMH, and experience discomforting shock/jerking vibration events. Transient and mild LBP (not likely to interfere with work or customary levels of activity) was found to be prevalent among the drivers and a need for ergonomic evaluation of the drivers' seat was suggested.

  14. Texas Hydrogen Highway Fuel Cell Hybrid Bus and Fueling Infrastructure Technology Showcase - Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hitchcock, David

    2012-06-29

    The Texas Hydrogen Highway project has showcased a hydrogen fuel cell transit bus and hydrogen fueling infrastructure that was designed and built through previous support from various public and private sector entities. The aim of this project has been to increase awareness among transit agencies and other public entities on these transportation technologies, and to place such technologies into commercial applications, such as a public transit agency. The initial project concept developed in 2004 was to show that a skid-mounted, fully-integrated, factory-built and tested hydrogen fueling station could be used to simplify the design, and lower the cost of fueling infrastructure for fuel cell vehicles. The approach was to design, engineer, build, and test the integrated fueling station at the factory then install it at a site that offered educational and technical resources and provide an opportunity to showcase both the fueling station and advanced hydrogen vehicles. The two primary technology components include: Hydrogen Fueling Station: The hydrogen fueling infrastructure was designed and built by Gas Technology Institute primarily through a funding grant from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. It includes hydrogen production, clean-up, compression, storage, and dispensing. The station consists of a steam methane reformer, gas clean-up system, gas compressor and 48 kilograms of hydrogen storage capacity for dispensing at 5000 psig. The station is skid-mounted for easy installation and can be relocated if needed. It includes a dispenser that is designed to provide temperaturecompensated fills using a control algorithm. The total station daily capacity is approximately 50 kilograms. Fuel Cell Bus: The transit passenger bus built by Ebus, a company located in Downey, CA, was commissioned and acquired by GTI prior to this project. It is a fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle which is ADA compliant, has air conditioning sufficient for Texas operations

  15. Available Alternative Fuel School Bus Products--2004

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-04-01

    This 4-page Clean Cities fact sheet provides a list of the currently available (and soon to be available) model year 2004 alternative fuel school bus and school bus engine products. It includes information from Blue Bird Corporation, Collins Bus Corporation, Corbeil Bus, Ford Motor Company, General Motors Corporation, Thomas Built Buses, Inc., Clean Air Partners, Cummins Westport, and Deere & Company.

  16. A hybrid algorithm combining EKF and RLS in synchronous estimation of road grade and vehicle' mass for a hybrid electric bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yong; Li, Liang; Yan, Bingjie; Yang, Chao; Tang, Gongyou

    2016-02-01

    This paper proposes a novel hybrid algorithm for simultaneously estimating the vehicle mass and road grade for hybrid electric bus (HEB). First, the road grade in current step is estimated using extended Kalman filter (EKF) with the initial state including velocity and engine torque. Second, the vehicle mass is estimated twice, one with EKF and the other with recursive least square (RLS) using the estimated road grade. A more accurate value of the estimated mass is acquired by weighting the trade-off between EKF and RLS. Finally, the road grade and vehicle mass thus obtained are used as the initial states for the next step, and two variables could be decoupled from the nonlinear vehicle dynamics by performing the above procedure repeatedly. Simulation results show that in different starting conditions, the proposed algorithm provides higher accuracy and faster convergence speed, compared with the results using EKF or RLS alone.

  17. King County Metro Transit: Allison Hybrid Electric Transit Bus Laboratory Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, R. R.; Williams, A.; Ireland, J.; Walkowicz, K.

    2006-09-01

    Paper summarizes chassis dynamometer testing of two 60-foot articulated transit buses, one conventional and one hybrid, at NREL's ReFUEL Laboratory. It includes experimental setup, test procedures, and results from vehicle testing performed at the NREL ReFUEL laboratory.

  18. City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    2013-12-31

    The City of Las Vegas was awarded Department of Energy (DOE) project funding in 2009, for the City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program. This project allowed the City of Las Vegas to purchase electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and associated electric vehicle charging infrastructure. The City anticipated the electric vehicles having lower overall operating costs and emissions similar to traditional and hybrid vehicles.

  19. Savannah River bus project

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, W.A.

    1998-08-01

    The H2Fuel Bus is the world`s first hybrid hydrogen electric transit bus. It was developed through a public/private partnership involving several leading technology and industrial organizations in the Southeast, with primary funding and program management provided by the Department of Energy. The primary goals of the project are to gain valuable information on the technical readiness and economic viability of hydrogen buses and to enhance the public awareness and acceptance of emerging hydrogen technologies. The bus has been operated by the transit agency in Augusta, Georgia since April, 1997. It employs a hybrid IC engine/battery/electric drive system, with onboard hydrogen fuel storage based on the use of metal hydrides. Initial operating results have demonstrated an overall energy efficiency (miles per Btu) of twice that of a similar diesel-fueled bus and an operating range twice that of an all-battery powered electric bus. Tailpipe emissions are negligible, with NOx less than 0.2 ppm. Permitting, liability and insurance issues were addressed on the basis of extensive risk assessment and safety analyses, with the inherent safety characteristic of metal hydride storage playing a major role in minimizing these concerns. Future plans for the bus include continued transit operation and use as a national testbed, with potential modifications to demonstrate other hydrogen technologies, including fuel cells.

  20. Comparative study of two different powertrains for a fuel cell hybrid bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Dawei; Jin, Zhenhua; Zhang, Junzhi; Li, Jianqiu; Ouyang, Minggao

    2016-07-01

    The powertrain plays an essential role in improving the tractive performance and the fuel consumption of fuel cell hybrid vehicles. This paper presents a comparative study of two different powertrains for fuel cell hybrid buses. The significant difference between the two powertrains lies in the types and arrangements of the electrical motor. One powertrain employs an induction motor to drive the vehicle, while the other powertrain adopts two permanent magnetic synchronous motors for near-wheel propulsion. Besides, the tiny difference between the proposed powertrain is the supply path of the fuel cell accessories, which can have an effect on the powertrain efficiency. The component parameters and energy management strategies for the two powertrain are determined. The fuel cell hybrid buses equipped with the two powertrains are developed, and some road tests are achieved, according to the chosen procedures or driving cycles. The paper focuses on the tractive performance and energy analysis of the powertrains based on the testing results. Finally, the paper summarizes the relative merits of the proposed powertrains.

  1. Predictive-model-based dynamic coordination control strategy for power-split hybrid electric bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xiaohua; Yang, Nannan; Wang, Junnian; Song, Dafeng; Zhang, Nong; Shang, Mingli; Liu, Jianxin

    2015-08-01

    Parameter-matching methods and optimal control strategies of the top-selling hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), namely, power-split HEV, are widely studied. In particular, extant research on control strategy focuses on the steady-state energy management strategy to obtain better fuel economy. However, given that multi-power sources are highly coupled in power-split HEVs and influence one another during mode shifting, conducting research on dynamic coordination control strategy (DCCS) to achieve riding comfort is also important. This paper proposes a predictive-model-based DCCS. First, the dynamic model of the objective power-split HEV is built and the mode shifting process is analyzed based on the developed model to determine the reason for the system shock generated. Engine torque estimation algorithm is then designed according to the principle of the nonlinear observer, and the prediction model of the degree of shock is established based on the theory of model predictive control. Finally, the DCCS with adaptation for a complex driving cycle is realized by combining the feedback control and the predictive model. The presented DCCS is validated on the co-simulation platform of AMESim and Simulink. Results show that the shock during mode shifting is well controlled, thereby improving riding comfort.

  2. Hybrid Taxis Give Fuel Economy a Lift, Clean Cities, Fleet Experiences, April 2009 (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-04-01

    Clean Cities helped Boston, San Antonio, and Cambridge create hybrid taxi programs. The hybrid taxis are able to achieve about twice the gas mileage of a conventional taxi while helping cut gasoline use and fuel costs. Tax credits and other incentives are helping both company owners and drivers make the switch to hybrids. Program leaders have learned some important lessons other cities can benefit from including learning a city's taxi structure, relaying benefits to drivers, and understanding the needs of owners.

  3. A New Destination for "The Flying Bus"?: The Implications of Orlando-Rican Migration for Luis Rafael Sanchez's "La guagua aerea"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barreneche, Gabriel Ignacio; Lombardi, Jane; Ramos-Flores, Hector

    2012-01-01

    Puerto Rican author Luis Rafael Sanchez's "La guagua aerea" explores the duality, hybridity, and fluidity of US-Puerto Rican identity through the frequent travel of migrants between New York City (the traditional destination city for Puerto Rican migrants) and the island. In recent years, however, the "flying bus" has adopted a…

  4. Method for in-use measurement and evaluation of the activity, fuel use, electricity use, and emissions of a plug-in hybrid diesel-electric school bus.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyung-Wook; Frey, H Christopher

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate a methodology for characterizing at high resolution the energy use and emissions of a plug-in parallel-hybrid diesel-electric school bus (PHSB) to support assessments of sensitivity to driving cycles and comparisons to a conventional diesel school bus (CDSB). Data were collected using onboard instruments for a first-of-a-kind prototype PHSB and a CDSB of the same chassis and engine, operated on actual school bus routes. The engine load was estimated on the basis of vehicle specific power (VSP) and an empirically derived relationship between VSP and engine manifold absolute pressure (MAP). VSP depends on speed, acceleration, and road grade. For the PHSB, the observed electrical discharge or recharge to the traction motor battery was characterized on the basis of VSP. The energy use and emission rates of the PHSB from tailpipe and electricity use were estimated for five real-world driving cycles and compared to the engine fuel use and emissions of the CDSB. The PHSB had the greatest advantage on arterial routes and less advantage on highway or local routes. The coupled VSP-MAP modeling approach enables assessment of a wide variety of driving conditions and comparisons of vehicles with different propulsion technologies.

  5. Correlation of Occupational Stress Index with 24-hour Urine Cortisol and Serum DHEA Sulfate among City Bus Drivers: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mia Chihya; Lu, Luo; Tai, John Jen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The questionnaire of occupational stress index (OSI) has been popular in the workplace, and it has been tailored for bus drivers in Taiwan. Nevertheless, its outcomes for participants are based on self-evaluations, thus validation by their physiological stress biomarker is warranted and this is the main goal of this study. Methods A cross-sectional study of sixty-three city bus drivers and fifty-four supporting staffs for comparison was conducted. Questionnaire surveys, 24-hour urine cortisol testing, and blood draws for dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) testing were performed. The measured concentrations of these biological measures were logarithmically transformed before the statistical analysis where various scores of stressor factors, moderators, and stress effects of each OSI domain were analyzed by applying multiple linear regression models. Results For drivers, the elevated 24-hour urine cortisol level was associated with a worker's relationship with their supervisor and any life change events in the most recent 3 months. The DHEA-S level was higher in drivers of younger age as well as drivers with more concerns relating to their salary and bonuses. Non-drivers showed no association between any stressor or satisfaction and urine cortisol and blood DHEA-S levels. Conclusion Measurements of biomarkers may offer additional stress evaluations with OSI questionnaires for bus drivers. Increased DHEA-S and cortisol levels may result from stressors like income security. Prevention efforts towards occupational stress and life events and health promotional efforts for aged driver were important anti-stress remedies. PMID:22953199

  6. Analysis of robustness of urban bus network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Ren; Yi-Fan, Wang; Miao-Miao, Liu; Yan-Jie, Xu

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, the invulnerability and cascade failures are discussed for the urban bus network. Firstly, three static models(bus stop network, bus transfer network, and bus line network) are used to analyse the structure and invulnerability of urban bus network in order to understand the features of bus network comprehensively. Secondly, a new way is proposed to study the invulnerability of urban bus network by modelling two layered networks, i.e., the bus stop-line network and the bus line-transfer network and then the interactions between different models are analysed. Finally, by modelling a new layered network which can reflect the dynamic passenger flows, the cascade failures are discussed. Then a new load redistribution method is proposed to study the robustness of dynamic traffic. In this paper, the bus network of Shenyang City which is one of the biggest cities in China, is taken as a simulation example. In addition, some suggestions are given to improve the urban bus network and provide emergency strategies when traffic congestion occurs according to the numerical simulation results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61473073, 61374178, 61104074, and 61203329), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant Nos. N130417006, L1517004), and the Program for Liaoning Excellent Talents in University (Grant No. LJQ2014028).

  7. Total Costing for School Transportation Service: How the San Diego City Schools Missed the Bus. Policy Study No. 199.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beales, Janet R.

    In December 1994, San Diego City Schools' (California) Board of Education voted to discontinue competitive contracting for busing and expand its in-house transportation department, believing the new arrangement would save money. This report argues that the decision was based on a flawed financial analysis prepared by the district's in-house…

  8. BAE/Orion Hybrid Electric Buses at New York City Transit: A Generational Comparison (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Barnitt, R.

    2008-03-01

    Paper describes the evaluation of hybrid-electric transit buses purchased by New York City Transit (NYCT) in an order group of 200 (Gen II) and compares their performance to those of similar hybrid-electric transit buses purchased by NYCT in an order group of 125 (Gen I).

  9. A new bus lane on urban expressway with no-bay bus stop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zhao; Jia, Limin

    2016-01-01

    The sharp increase in residents and vehicles causes heavy traffic pressure in many cities. To ease traffic congestion, it has been the common sense that we should develop public transit system. The priority of the bus appears particularly necessary with the rapid development of the public transport system. The bus lane is an important embodiment of the bus priority. Focusing on the problem of the unreasonable dedicated bus lane (DBL) under the lower ratio of buses, this paper proposed a new bus lane with limited physical length. And this bus lane can reduce the lane-changing conflict caused by the buses and cars running on roads without bus lanes. Based on the cellular automata (CA) traffic flow model and the lane-changing behavior of the vehicle including the optional lane-changing and the mandatory lane-changing, a three-lane traffic model with an isolated no-bay bus stop is proposed. The ordinary three-lane traffic without a bus lane and the cases of traffic with a DBL or the proposed bus lane are simulated, and the comparisons in the form of the fundamental diagrams are made among them. It is shown that the no-bay bus stop can act as a bottleneck on the traffic flow because of the mandatory lane-changing behavior. Under a certain ratio of the bus number to the total vehicles number, (1) the traffic with the proposed bus lane has less lane-changing conflict and can provide higher traffic capacity than the ordinary traffic without a bus lane, (2) compared with the DBL, the proposed bus lane is advantageous in easing congestion on the ordinary lanes when the traffic flow is high and can avoid unreasonable allocation of the road resources.

  10. A demand-centered, hybrid life-cycle methodology for city-scale greenhouse gas inventories.

    PubMed

    Ramaswami, Anu; Hillman, Tim; Janson, Bruce; Reiner, Mark; Thomas, Gregg

    2008-09-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting for individual cities is confounded by spatial scale and boundary effects that impact the allocation of regional material and energy flows. This paper develops a demand-centered, hybrid life-cycle-based methodology for conducting city-scale GHG inventories that incorporates (1) spatial allocation of surface and airline travel across colocated cities in larger metropolitan regions, and, (2) life-cycle assessment (LCA) to quantify the embodied energy of key urban materials--food, water, fuel, and concrete. The hybrid methodology enables cities to separately report the GHG impact associated with direct end-use of energy by cities (consistent with EPA and IPCC methods), as well as the impact of extra-boundary activities such as air travel and production of key urban materials (consistent with Scope 3 protocols recommended by the World Resources Institute). Application of this hybrid methodology to Denver, Colorado, yielded a more holistic GHG inventory that approaches a GHG footprint computation, with consistency of inclusions across spatial scale as well as convergence of city-scale per capita GHG emissions (approximately 25 mt CO2e/person/year) with state and national data. The method is shown to have significant policy impacts, and also demonstrates the utility of benchmarks in understanding energy use in various city sectors.

  11. Bus Training Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorny, Audrea; Cole, ChiKay

    This manual presents guidelines for teaching students with disabilities necessary skills for safe and independent travel on public buses. Six guidelines for teachers include: (1) participate in bus training; (2) use wise and intelligent judgment; (3) utilize the bus checklist; (4) know and teach bus rules; (5) know bus routes; and (6) know bus…

  12. Fuel Cell Bus Takes a Starring Role in the BurbankBus Fleet (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-05-01

    This fact sheet reports on the City of Burbank, California's fuel cell bus demonstration project and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) involvement. Included are specifications for the fuel cell bus and information about its operation. BurbankBus, the city's mass transit entity, received a grant from the California Air Resources Board to fund its zero-emission bus demonstration and is collaborating with DOE's Fuel Cell Technologies Program to evaluate the bus performance. DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory will collect and analyze performance and operations data for at least one year. Researchers will use the data to better understand the technology and determine future development work. In addition, demonstration information will help fleets make informed purchase decisions.

  13. 2.3-MW Medium-Voltage, Three-Level Wind Energy Inverter Applying a Unique Bus Structure and 4.5-kV Si/SiC Hybrid Isolated Power Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Erdman, W.; Keller, J.; Grider, D.; VanBrunt, E.

    2014-11-01

    A high-efficiency, 2.3-MW, medium-voltage, three-level inverter utilizing 4.5-kV Si/SiC (silicon carbide) hybrid modules for wind energy applications is discussed. The inverter addresses recent trends in siting the inverter within the base of multimegawatt turbine towers. A simplified split, three-layer laminated bus structure that maintains low parasitic inductances is introduced along with a low-voltage, high-current test method for determining these inductances. Feed-thru bushings, edge fill methods, and other design features of the laminated bus structure provide voltage isolation that is consistent with the 10.4-kV module isolation levels. Inverter efficiency improvement is a result of the (essential) elimination of the reverse recovery charge present in 4.5-kV Si PIN diodes, which can produce a significant reduction in diode turn-off losses as well as insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) turn-on losses. The hybrid modules are supplied in industry-standard 140 mm x 130 mm and 190 mm x 130 mm packages to demonstrate direct module substitution into existing inverter designs. A focus on laminated bus/capacitor-bank/module subassembly level switching performance is presented.

  14. Neurosimulation modeling of a scheduled bus route

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.G.; Khoo, L.P.

    1997-05-01

    In a densely built-up urban society, operators of public bus services are faced with the recurrent problem of providing timely and reliable service. Wile they have no control over dynamically changing extraneous factors (such as passenger loads or road conditions) that may suddenly degrade the quality of the service provided, it is nonetheless desirable for management to study the extent to which these factors affect their business, and what measures, if any, can be adopted to neutralize them. This paper discusses how a simulation model of a bus route, embellished by a neural network, was created to model the historical pattern of the inputs (namely, passenger loads and road conditions) that affect the overall scheduled terminus-to-terminus time. Thus, in a case study of a bus route running from a suburb to the city center, it was found that the neurosimulation model could predict the cumulative terminus-to-terminus times better than a conventional simulation model could. A software module, embedded into the neurosimulation model for the purposes of speed regulation, was able to minimize the deviation of the bus service from schedule. When intentional delays were further introduced into the bus route, it was discovered that the speed regulator was more effective the longer the delay, and the further the bus traveled into the bus route. There is potential in applying neural computing in a dynamic bus scheduling problem such as the one discussed here.

  15. 75 FR 52054 - Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... Federal Transit Administration Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Bus and Bus Facilities Livability program announcement of project selections... selection of projects funded with Bus and Bus Facilities program funds in support of DOT's...

  16. Riding the Bus: Symbol and Vehicle for Boundary Spanning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    In this reflective essay I examine the activity of a bus tour, organized as the result of an ongoing university and city partnership. I illustrate how riding the bus is not only symbolic for positionality in our society, but also how it can be a viable mechanism for initiating boundary spanning and promoting opportunities for place-based learning…

  17. Computer-Based Video Instruction to Teach Students with Intellectual Disabilities to Use Public Bus Transportation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechling, Linda; O'Brien, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of computer-based video instruction (CBVI) to teach three young adults with moderate intellectual disabilities to push a "request to stop bus signal" and exit a city bus in response to target landmarks. A multiple probe design across three students and one bus route was used to evaluate effectiveness of…

  18. Analysis of U.S. School Bus Populations and Alternative Fuel Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Laughlin, M.

    2004-04-01

    This Clean Cities final report provides information concerning different school bus types, school bus populations, school bus miles and fuel use, school bus emissions, alternative fuel school buses, and potential for alternative fuel school bus use through 2010. It is intended to provide general information concerning the size of the school bus market in the U.S., as well as to provide some quantification of the potential for alternative fuel use in school buses in the U.S., and what that might mean for petroleum displacement and emissions reductions.

  19. Hydrogen powered bus

    SciTech Connect

    2011-04-07

    Take a ride on a new type of bus, fueled by hydrogen. These hydrogen taxis are part of a Department of Energy-funded deployment of hydrogen powered vehicles and fueling infrastructure at nine federal facilities across the country to demonstrate this market-ready advanced technology. Produced and leased by Ford Motor Company , they consist of one 12- passenger bus and one nine-passenger bus. More information at: http://go.usa.gov/Tgr

  20. Hydrogen powered bus

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Take a ride on a new type of bus, fueled by hydrogen. These hydrogen taxis are part of a Department of Energy-funded deployment of hydrogen powered vehicles and fueling infrastructure at nine federal facilities across the country to demonstrate this market-ready advanced technology. Produced and leased by Ford Motor Company , they consist of one 12- passenger bus and one nine-passenger bus. More information at: http://go.usa.gov/Tgr

  1. 76 FR 37184 - Discretionary Bus and Bus Facilities Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... Federal Transit Administration Discretionary Bus and Bus Facilities Program AGENCY: Federal Transit... initiative funds: Solicitation of project proposals. SUMMARY: The Federal Transit Administration (FTA... this initiative. The SGR Bus initiative will make funds available to public transit providers...

  2. Research in bus and rail transit operations

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, A.; Wegmann, F.J.; Ceder, A.; Levinson, H.S.; Hollander, A.

    1989-01-01

    The 10 papers in the report deal with the following areas: Private Sector Involvement in Sponsoring Sunday Bus Service; Optimal Design of Transit Short-Turn Trips; New York City's Unfranchised Buses: Case Study in Deregulation; Critical Factors in Planning Multimodal Passenger Terminals; Use of Travelers' Attitudes in Rail Service Design; Driven, Attended, and Fully Automated Transit; Qualitative Comparison; Impact on Transit Patronage of Cessation or Inauguration of Rail Service; Use of Productivity Factors in Estimating LRT Operating Costs; Simulation Study To Evaluate Spare Ratios in Bus Transit Systems; Statistical Evaluation of Spare Ratio in Transit Rolling Stock.

  3. School Bus Safety Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This publication provides a summary and update of school bus-safety activities conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). This report discusses Congressional mandates and NHTSA's actions to improve school-bus safety (which include programs that affect human behavior and motor-vehicle safety performance), the magnitude…

  4. An evaluation of the hybrid car technology for the Mexico Mega City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jazcilevich, Aron D.; Reynoso, Agustin Garcia; Grutter, Michel; Delgado, Javier; Ayala, Ulises Diego; Lastra, Manuel Suarez; Zuk, Miriam; Oropeza, Rogelio Gonzalez; Lents, Jim; Davis, Nicole

    The introduction of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) technology in the private car fleet of Mexico City is evaluated in terms of private costs, energy, public health and CO 2 emission benefits. In addition to constructing plausible scenarios for urban expansion, emission, car fleet, and fuel consumption for year 2026 and comparing them with a 2004 base case, a time series is built to obtain accumulated economic benefits. Experimental techniques were used to build a vehicle library for a car simulator that included a Prius 2002, chosen as the HEV technology representative for this work. The simulator is used to estimate the emissions and fuel consumption of the car fleet scenarios. In the context of an urban scenario for year 2026, a complex air quality model obtains the concentrations of criterion pollutants corresponding to these scenarios. Using a technology penetration model, the hybridized fleet starts unfolding in year 2009 reaching to 20% in 2026. In this year, the hybridized fleet resulted in reductions of about 10% of CO 2 emissions, and yielded reductions in daytime mean concentrations of up to 7% in ozone and 3.4% in PM 2.5 compared to the 2004 base case. These reductions are concentrated in the densely populated areas of Mexico City. By building a time series of costs and benefits it is shown that, depending on fuel prices and using a 5% return rate, positive accumulated benefits (CO 2 benefits + energy benefits + public health benefits - private costs) will start generating in year 2015 reaching between 2.8 and 4.5 billion US Dlls in 2026. Another modernized private fleet consisting exclusively of Tier I and II cars did not yield appreciable results, signaling that a change in private car technology towards HEV's is needed to obtain significant accumulated benefits.

  5. A hybrid model for short-term bacillary dysentery prediction in Yichang City, China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Weirong; Xu, Yong; Yang, Xiaobing; Zhou, Yikai

    2010-07-01

    Bacillary dysentery is still a common and serious public health problem in China. This paper is aimed at developing and evaluating an innovative hybrid model, which combines the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) and the generalized regression neural network (GRNN) models, for bacillary dysentery forecasting. Data of monthly bacillary dysentery incidence in Yichang City from 2000-2007 was obtained from Yichang Disease Control and Prevention Center. The SARIMA and SARIMA-GRNN model were developed and validated by dividing the data file into two data sets: data from the past 5 years was used to construct the models, and data from January to June of the 6th year was used to validate them. Simulation and forecasting performance was evaluated and compared between the two models. The hybrid SARIMA-GRNN model was found to outperform the SARIMA model with the lower mean square error, mean absolute error, and mean absolute percentage error in simulation and prediction results. Developing and applying the SARIMA-GRNN hybrid model is an effective decision supportive method for producing reliable forecasts of bacillary dysentery for the study area.

  6. Emission inventory estimation of an intercity bus terminal.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhaowen; Li, Xiaoxia; Hao, Yanzhao; Deng, Shunxi; Gao, H Oliver

    2016-06-01

    Intercity bus terminals are hotspots of air pollution due to concentrated activities of diesel buses. In order to evaluate the bus terminals' impact on air quality, it is necessary to estimate the associated mobile emission inventories. Since the vehicles' operating condition at the bus terminal varies significantly, conventional calculation of the emissions based on average emission factors suffers the loss of accuracy. In this study, we examined a typical intercity bus terminal-the Southern City Bus Station of Xi'an, China-using a multi-scale emission model-(US EPA's MOVES model)-to quantity the vehicle emission inventory. A representative operating cycle for buses within the station is constructed. The emission inventory was then estimated using detailed inputs including vehicle ages, operating speeds, operating schedules, and operating mode distribution, as well as meteorological data (temperature and humidity). Five functional areas (bus yard, platforms, disembarking area, bus travel routes within the station, and bus entrance/exit routes) at the terminal were identified, and the bus operation cycle was established using the micro-trip cycle construction method. Results of our case study showed that switching to compressed natural gas (CNG) from diesel fuel could reduce PM2.5 and CO emissions by 85.64 and 6.21 %, respectively, in the microenvironment of the bus terminal. When CNG is used, tail pipe exhaust PM2.5 emission is significantly reduced, even less than brake wear PM2.5. The estimated bus operating cycles can also offer researchers and policy makers important information for emission evaluation in the planning and design of any typical intercity bus terminals of a similar scale.

  7. Managing Student Behavior on the School Bus: A Key to Bus Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Federation of Teachers (NJ), 2007

    2007-01-01

    School buses are the safest form of mass transit in America. Every day, school buses travel through congested city traffic and on isolated country roads in all types of weather, safely transporting millions of children to and from school and school-related activities. Federal and state standards for school bus construction and maintenance and…

  8. Statistical Analysis of Bus Networks in India

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we model the bus networks of six major Indian cities as graphs in L-space, and evaluate their various statistical properties. While airline and railway networks have been extensively studied, a comprehensive study on the structure and growth of bus networks is lacking. In India, where bus transport plays an important role in day-to-day commutation, it is of significant interest to analyze its topological structure and answer basic questions on its evolution, growth, robustness and resiliency. Although the common feature of small-world property is observed, our analysis reveals a wide spectrum of network topologies arising due to significant variation in the degree-distribution patterns in the networks. We also observe that these networks although, robust and resilient to random attacks are particularly degree-sensitive. Unlike real-world networks, such as Internet, WWW and airline, that are virtual, bus networks are physically constrained. Our findings therefore, throw light on the evolution of such geographically and constrained networks that will help us in designing more efficient bus networks in the future. PMID:27992590

  9. Statistical Analysis of Bus Networks in India.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Atanu; Manohar, Manju; Ramadurai, Gitakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we model the bus networks of six major Indian cities as graphs in L-space, and evaluate their various statistical properties. While airline and railway networks have been extensively studied, a comprehensive study on the structure and growth of bus networks is lacking. In India, where bus transport plays an important role in day-to-day commutation, it is of significant interest to analyze its topological structure and answer basic questions on its evolution, growth, robustness and resiliency. Although the common feature of small-world property is observed, our analysis reveals a wide spectrum of network topologies arising due to significant variation in the degree-distribution patterns in the networks. We also observe that these networks although, robust and resilient to random attacks are particularly degree-sensitive. Unlike real-world networks, such as Internet, WWW and airline, that are virtual, bus networks are physically constrained. Our findings therefore, throw light on the evolution of such geographically and constrained networks that will help us in designing more efficient bus networks in the future.

  10. Genetic algorithm for multiple bus line coordination on urban arterial.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen; Wang, Wei; Chen, Shuyan; Ding, Haoyang; Li, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    Bus travel time on road section is defined and analyzed with the effect of multiple bus lines. An analytical model is formulated to calculate the total red time a bus encounters when travelling along the arterial. Genetic algorithm is used to optimize the offset scheme of traffic signals to minimize the total red time that all bus lines encounter in two directions of the arterial. The model and algorithm are applied to the major part of Zhongshan North Street in the city of Nanjing. The results show that the methods in this paper can reduce total red time of all the bus lines by 31.9% on the object arterial and thus improve the traffic efficiency of the whole arterial and promote public transport priority.

  11. Creative Bus Financing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Wade

    1982-01-01

    Alternative ways of financing school bus purchases include financing privately through contractors or commercial banks, financing through sources such as insurance companies and pension funds, leasing the buses, or contracting for transportation services. (Author/MLF)

  12. SCSI Communication Test Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Chanh V.; D'Ambrose, John J.; Jaworski, Richard C.; Halula, Elaine M.; Thornton, David N.; Heligman, Robert L.; Turner, Michael R.

    1990-01-01

    Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) communication test bus provides high-data-rate, standard interconnection enabling communication among International Business Machines (IBM) Personal System/2 Micro Channel, other devices connected to Micro Channel, test equipment, and host computer. Serves primarily as nonintrusive input/output attachment to PS/2 Micro Channel bus, providing rapid communication for debugger. Opens up possibility of using debugger in real-time applications.

  13. Bus.py

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Timothy; Palmintier, Bryan; Hale, Elaine; Jones, Wesley

    2014-07-21

    GridLAB-D is an agent? based distribution system simulation environment that allows fine-grained end-user models, including geospatial and network topology detail. GridLAB-D addresses the lack of runtime interaction by designing a flexible communication interface, Bus.py (pronounced bus-dot-pie), that uses Python to pass messages between one or more GridLAB-D instances and a Smart Grid simulator.

  14. A hybrid procedure for MSW generation forecasting at multiple time scales in Xiamen City, China

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Lilai; Gao, Peiqing; Cui, Shenghui; Liu, Chun

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► We propose a hybrid model that combines seasonal SARIMA model and grey system theory. ► The model is robust at multiple time scales with the anticipated accuracy. ► At month-scale, the SARIMA model shows good representation for monthly MSW generation. ► At medium-term time scale, grey relational analysis could yield the MSW generation. ► At long-term time scale, GM (1, 1) provides a basic scenario of MSW generation. - Abstract: Accurate forecasting of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation is crucial and fundamental for the planning, operation and optimization of any MSW management system. Comprehensive information on waste generation for month-scale, medium-term and long-term time scales is especially needed, considering the necessity of MSW management upgrade facing many developing countries. Several existing models are available but of little use in forecasting MSW generation at multiple time scales. The goal of this study is to propose a hybrid model that combines the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model and grey system theory to forecast MSW generation at multiple time scales without needing to consider other variables such as demographics and socioeconomic factors. To demonstrate its applicability, a case study of Xiamen City, China was performed. Results show that the model is robust enough to fit and forecast seasonal and annual dynamics of MSW generation at month-scale, medium- and long-term time scales with the desired accuracy. In the month-scale, MSW generation in Xiamen City will peak at 132.2 thousand tonnes in July 2015 – 1.5 times the volume in July 2010. In the medium term, annual MSW generation will increase to 1518.1 thousand tonnes by 2015 at an average growth rate of 10%. In the long term, a large volume of MSW will be output annually and will increase to 2486.3 thousand tonnes by 2020 – 2.5 times the value for 2010. The hybrid model proposed in this paper can enable decision makers to

  15. 7. YOSEMITE VALLEY SHUTTLE BUS AT SENTINEL BRIDGE SHUTTLE BUS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. YOSEMITE VALLEY SHUTTLE BUS AT SENTINEL BRIDGE SHUTTLE BUS AND PARKING LOT AREA. LOOKING WNW. GIS: N-37 40 36.2 / W-119 44 45.0 - Yosemite National Park Roads & Bridges, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  16. 77 FR 48592 - Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... Livability (BLIV) initiatives funded under the Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities program, which is... used consistent with the competitive proposal and for the eligible purposes defined under 49 U.S.C... under 49 U.S.C. 5309(b)(3). In selecting projects for funding using Bus Program funds, FTA ensured...

  17. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Fourth Results Report

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2013-01-01

    SunLine Transit Agency, which provides public transit services to the Coachella Valley area of California, has demonstrated hydrogen and fuel cell bus technologies for more than 10 years. In May 2010, SunLine began demonstrating the advanced technology (AT) fuel cell bus with a hybrid electric propulsion system, fuel cell power system, and lithium-based hybrid batteries. This report describes operations at SunLine for the AT fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas buses. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working with SunLine to evaluate the bus in real-world service to document the results and help determine the progress toward technology readiness. NREL has previously published three reports documenting the operation of the fuel cell bus in service. This report provides a summary of the results with a focus on the bus operation from February 2012 through November 2012.

  18. Personal Computer Monitors Instrumentation Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conroy, Bruce L.

    1994-01-01

    IBM-compatible personal computer used instead of logic analyzer or other special instrument to monitor IEEE-488 interface data bus that interconnects various pieces of laboratory equipment. Needed is short program for computer, commercial general-purpose interface bus circuit card, and adapter cable to link card to bus. Software available in Ada or Quick Basic language.

  19. Common Traffic Violations of Bus Drivers in Urban China: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Rendong; Huang, Yuanxiu; Zhang, Lin; Ning, Peishan; Cheng, Xunjie; Schwebel, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To report common traffic violations in bus drivers and the factors that influence those violations in urban China. Methods We conducted an observational study to record three types of traffic violations among bus drivers in Changsha City, China: illegal stopping at bus stations, violating traffic light signals, and distracted driving. The behaviors of bus drivers on 32 routes (20% of bus routes in the city) were observed. A two-level Poisson regression examined factors that predicted bus driver violations. Results The incidence of illegal stopping at bus stations was 20.2%. Illegal stopping was less frequent on weekends, sunny days, and at stations with cameras, with adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of 0.81, 0.65 and 0.89, respectively. The incidence of violating traffic light signals was 2.2%, and was lower on cloudy than sunny days (adjusted IRR: 0.60). The incidence of distracted driving was 3.3%. The incidence of distracted driving was less common on cloudy days, rainy or snowy days, and foggy/windy/dusty days compared to sunny days, with adjusted IRRs of 0.54, 0.55 and 0.07, respectively. Conclusion Traffic violations are common in bus drivers in urban China and they are associated with the date, weather, and presence of traffic cameras at bus station. Further studies are recommended to understand the behavioral mechanisms that may explain bus driver violations and to develop feasible prevention measures. PMID:26372105

  20. Augmented Thermal Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrage, Dean S. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an augmented thermal bus. In the present design a plurality of thermo-electric heat pumps are used to couple a source plate to a sink plate. Each heat pump is individually controlled by a model based controller. The controller coordinates the heat pumps to maintain isothermality in the source.

  1. Augmented thermal bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrage, Dean S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an augmented thermal bus. In the present design a plurity of thermo-electric heat pumps are used to couple a source plate to a sink plate. Each heat pump is individually controlled by a model based controller. The controller coordinates the heat pump to maintain isothermality in the source.

  2. Simulated Fuel Economy and Emissions Performance during City and Interstate Driving for a Heavy-Duty Hybrid Truck

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, C. Stuart; Gao, Zhiming; Smith, David E.; Laclair, Tim J.; Pihl, Josh A.; Edwards, K. Dean

    2013-04-08

    We compare simulated fuel economy and emissions for both conventional and hybrid class 8 heavy-duty diesel trucks operating over multiple urban and highway driving cycles. Both light and heavy freight loads were considered, and all simulations included full aftertreatment for NOx and particulate emissions controls. The aftertreatment components included a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), urea-selective catalytic NOx reduction (SCR), and a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). Our simulated hybrid powertrain was configured with a pre-transmission parallel drive, with a single electric motor between the clutch and gearbox. A conventional HD truck with equivalent diesel engine and aftertreatment was also simulated for comparison. Our results indicate that hybridization can significantly increase HD fuel economy and improve emissions control in city driving. However, there is less potential hybridization benefit for HD highway driving. A major factor behind the reduced hybridization benefit for highway driving is that there are fewer opportunities to utilize regenerative breaking. Our aftertreatment simulations indicate that opportunities for passive DPF regeneration are much greater for both hybrid and conventional trucks during highway driving due to higher sustained exhaust temperatures. When passive DPF regeneration is extensively utilized, the fuel penalty for particulate control is virtually eliminated, except for the 0.4%-0.9% fuel penalty associated with the slightly higher exhaust backpressure.

  3. Shared Bus Garage Serves District, City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delude, Rita

    1996-01-01

    Through a joint venture between the school district and the municipality of Scarsdale (New York), the district's buses are serviced in a $2 million maintenance and ground facility. The arrangement has reduced vehicle down time, saved wear and tear on the buses, and reduced fuel consumption. (MLF)

  4. Design of a hybrid (wired/wireless) acquisition data system for monitoring of cultural heritage physical parameters in Smart Cities.

    PubMed

    García Diego, Fernando-Juan; Esteban, Borja; Merello, Paloma

    2015-03-25

    Preventive conservation represents a working method and combination of techniques which helps in determining and controlling the deterioration process of cultural heritage in order to take the necessary actions before it occurs. It is acknowledged as important, both in terms of preserving and also reducing the cost of future conservation measures. Therefore, long-term monitoring of physical parameters influencing cultural heritage is necessary. In the context of Smart Cities, monitoring of cultural heritage is of interest in order to perform future comparative studies and load information into the cloud that will be useful for the conservation of other heritage sites. In this paper the development of an economical and appropriate acquisition data system combining wired and wireless communication, as well as third party hardware for increased versatility, is presented. The device allows monitoring a complex network of points with high sampling frequency, with wired sensors in a 1-wire bus and a wireless centralized system recording data for monitoring of physical parameters, as well as the future possibility of attaching an alarm system or sending data over the Internet. This has been possible with the development of three board's designs and more than 5000 algorithm lines. System tests have shown an adequate system operation.

  5. Design of a Hybrid (Wired/Wireless) Acquisition Data System for Monitoring of Cultural Heritage Physical Parameters in Smart Cities

    PubMed Central

    García Diego, Fernando-Juan; Esteban, Borja; Merello, Paloma

    2015-01-01

    Preventive conservation represents a working method and combination of techniques which helps in determining and controlling the deterioration process of cultural heritage in order to take the necessary actions before it occurs. It is acknowledged as important, both in terms of preserving and also reducing the cost of future conservation measures. Therefore, long-term monitoring of physical parameters influencing cultural heritage is necessary. In the context of Smart Cities, monitoring of cultural heritage is of interest in order to perform future comparative studies and load information into the cloud that will be useful for the conservation of other heritage sites. In this paper the development of an economical and appropriate acquisition data system combining wired and wireless communication, as well as third party hardware for increased versatility, is presented. The device allows monitoring a complex network of points with high sampling frequency, with wired sensors in a 1-wire bus and a wireless centralized system recording data for monitoring of physical parameters, as well as the future possibility of attaching an alarm system or sending data over the Internet. This has been possible with the development of three board’s designs and more than 5000 algorithm lines. System tests have shown an adequate system operation. PMID:25815447

  6. Research of intelligent bus coin box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Shihao

    2017-03-01

    In the energy-saving emission reduction of the social context, in response to low-carbon travel, buses become the majority of people choose. We have designed this sorting machine for the present situation that the bus company has received a large amount of mixed zero coins and employed a large amount of manpower to sort out and lower the efficiency. Its function is to separate the coins and notes mixed, and the coins sort storage, the display shows the value of the received coins, so that the whole mechanized inventory classification, reduce the cost of clearing up and improve the efficiency of zero cash recycling, use Simple mechanical principles for classification, to be efficient, accurate and practical. Really meet the current city bus companies, commerce and banking and other industries in order to zero notes, zero coins in the actual demand. The size and specification of this machine are designed according to the size of the bus coin box. It is suitable for almost all buses. It can be installed in the coin box directly, real-time sorting and real-time counting. The difficulty of clearing change.

  7. BBIS: Beacon Bus Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasim, Shahreen; Hafit, Hanayanti; Pei Juin, Kong; Afizah Afif, Zehan; Hashim, Rathiah; Ruslai, Husni; Jahidin, Kamaruzzaman; Syafwan Arshad, Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Lack of bus information for example bus timetable, status of the bus and messy advertisement on bulletin board at the bus stop will give negative impact to tourist. Therefore, a real-time update bus information bulletin board provides all information needed so that passengers can save their bus information searching time. Supported with Android or iOS, Beacon Bus Information System (BBIS) provides bus information between Batu Pahat and Kluang area. BBIS is a system that implements physical web technology and interaction on demand. It built on Backend-as-a-Service, a cloud solution and Firebase non relational database as data persistence backend and syncs between user client in the real-time. People walk through bus stop with smart device and do not require any application. Bluetooth Beacon is used to achieve smart device's best performance of data sharing. Intellij IDEA 15 is one of the tools that that used to develop the BBIS system. Multi-language included front end and backend supported Integration development environment (IDE) helped to speed up integration process.

  8. Improving Semantic Updating Method on 3d City Models Using Hybrid Semantic-Geometric 3d Segmentation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkawi, K.-H.; Abdul-Rahman, A.

    2013-09-01

    to LoD4. The accuracy and structural complexity of the 3D objects increases with the LoD level where LoD0 is the simplest LoD (2.5D; Digital Terrain Model (DTM) + building or roof print) while LoD4 is the most complex LoD (architectural details with interior structures). Semantic information is one of the main components in CityGML and 3D City Models, and provides important information for any analyses. However, more often than not, the semantic information is not available for the 3D city model due to the unstandardized modelling process. One of the examples is where a building is normally generated as one object (without specific feature layers such as Roof, Ground floor, Level 1, Level 2, Block A, Block B, etc). This research attempts to develop a method to improve the semantic data updating process by segmenting the 3D building into simpler parts which will make it easier for the users to select and update the semantic information. The methodology is implemented for 3D buildings in LoD2 where the buildings are generated without architectural details but with distinct roof structures. This paper also introduces hybrid semantic-geometric 3D segmentation method that deals with hierarchical segmentation of a 3D building based on its semantic value and surface characteristics, fitted by one of the predefined primitives. For future work, the segmentation method will be implemented as part of the change detection module that can detect any changes on the 3D buildings, store and retrieve semantic information of the changed structure, automatically updates the 3D models and visualize the results in a userfriendly graphical user interface (GUI).

  9. Euro Data Bus

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, H.E.; Hall, J.R. II; Schrock, C.B.

    1995-12-31

    With the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the opening of the Iron Curtain, a downsizing of the Defense Establishment in the West is occurring, causing industry to look for opportunities where technology used for military applications can be applied to meet former East Block countries. Among these requirements has been the urgent desire of the people in former East Block countries for access to Western media which had been denied them, and has led to numerous opportunities for the implementation of Cable Television (CATV) systems. In addition, there are also requirements for utility metering for electricity, gas, water, heat, etc. which had previously been provided to the population by the Government at little or no cost. EWT of Augsburg, Germany, previously a subcontractor to ASEC on military security system projects, who has a subsidiary, TSS, which is a prominent CATV systems house, requested ASEC to provide a system which can provide utility meter reading and other control and monitoring services utilizing CATV. Working with CableBus Systems Corporation, a CATV data communications supplier and various utility meter manufacturers, ASEC, as the System Integrator, has developed a utilities monitoring system. This system. in cooperation with EWT, is being marketed and sold in Europe as EURO DATA BUS. This paper describes EURO DATA BUS and its applications, as well as the actual system designs for two pilot applications. One system is oriented at Utility Meter Reading and Demand side Management primarily, but will also be used to demonstrate other system capabilities such as security and fire alarm monitoring, etc. The design is therefore quite straightforward and {open_quotes}standard{close_quotes}. The second system has more of an industrial orientation and involves the monitoring and load control for a Municipal Electric Utility. While well within the capabilities of the system to accomplish, a more customized design was required to meet these requirements.

  10. Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Spanish Version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    This is a Spanish-language brochure about hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles, which use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to cut U.S. petroleum use and vehicle emissions.

  11. Test Bus Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    4.2.2-1. F-22 Vehicle Management System Architecture This discussion will concentrate on the Processor Interface Control and Communications ( PICC ...module which is used in multiple locations in the F-22 avionics. The PICC module is based on a MIL-STD-1750A processor and supporting chip set. External...differential discrete I/O signals. Each of the PICC ASICs implement the IEEE 1149.1 test bus which is routed to the module connector. 4-12 The

  12. Tennessee Minimum School Bus Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee State Board of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The School Bus Specifications and Procedures adopted by the 2000 National Conference on School Transportation and the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) were used as guides by the Tennessee State Board of Education Pupil Transportation Advisory Committee in developing the revised minimum specifications for school bus chassis and school…

  13. Hybrid Taxis Give Fuel Economy a Lift -Clean Cities Fleet Experiences -

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-01

    The hybrid taxis are able to achieve about twice the gas mileage of a conventional taxi while helping cut gasoline use and fuel costs. Tax credits and other incentives are helping both company owners and drivers make the switch to hybrids.

  14. Bus accident analysis of routes with/without bus priority.

    PubMed

    Goh, Kelvin Chun Keong; Currie, Graham; Sarvi, Majid; Logan, David

    2014-04-01

    This paper summarises findings on road safety performance and bus-involved accidents in Melbourne along roads where bus priority measures had been applied. Results from an empirical analysis of the accident types revealed significant reduction in the proportion of accidents involving buses hitting stationary objects and vehicles, which suggests the effect of bus priority in addressing manoeuvrability issues for buses. A mixed-effects negative binomial (MENB) regression and back-propagation neural network (BPNN) modelling of bus accidents considering wider influences on accident rates at a route section level also revealed significant safety benefits when bus priority is provided. Sensitivity analyses done on the BPNN model showed general agreement in the predicted accident frequency between both models. The slightly better performance recorded by the MENB model results suggests merits in adopting a mixed effects modelling approach for accident count prediction in practice given its capability to account for unobserved location and time-specific factors. A major implication of this research is that bus priority in Melbourne's context acts to improve road safety and should be a major consideration for road management agencies when implementing bus priority and road schemes.

  15. Analyzing the Relationship Between Bus Pollution Policies and Morbidity Using a Quasi-Experiment.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Nicole S

    2015-09-01

    Transit buses are used by millions of commuters every day, but they emit toxic diesel fumes. In 1988, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency implemented emission standards for transit buses, which have been continually updated. Yet there is no quantitative evidence of the health benefits from these bus pollution policies due to data constraints and confounding variables. In this study, a quasi-experiment is used to exploit the geographic and temporal variation in emission standards by using bus vintage as a proxy for bus emissions. This is accomplished using a unique, rich panel data set, which includes daily information on bus vintage and route for the New York City Transit bus fleet between 2006 and 2009. This information is merged with daily data on emergency department (ED) visits for respiratory illnesses, which include patients' residences at the census block level and exact admission date. Economic benefits resulting from these bus pollution policies are then estimated. Results show that stricter transit bus emission standards by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for particulate matter are associated with reduced ED visits for respiratory diseases for patients living within a few hundred feet of a bus route. These findings demonstrate that bus pollution policies have made critical improvements to public health.

  16. Hybrid modelling for ATES planning and operation in the Utrecht city centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaxa-Rozen, Marc; Bloemendal, Martin; Kwakkel, Jan; Rostampour, Vahab

    2016-04-01

    Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) systems can significantly reduce the energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of buildings in temperate climates. However, the rapid adoption of these systems has evidenced a number of emergent issues with the operation and management of urban ATES systems, which require careful spatial planning to avoid thermal interferences or conflicts with other subsurface functions. These issues have become particularly relevant in the Netherlands, which are currently the leading market for ATES (Bloemendal et al., 2015). In some urban areas of the country, the adoption of ATES technology is thus becoming limited by the available subsurface space. This scarcity is partly caused by current approaches to ATES planning; as such, static permits tend to overestimate pumping rates and yield excessive safety margins, which in turn hamper the energy savings which could be realized by new systems. These aspects are strongly influenced by time-dependent dynamics for the adoption of ATES systems by building owners and operators, and by the variation of ATES well flows under uncertain conditions for building energy demand. In order to take these dynamics into account, previous research (Jaxa-Rozen et al., 2015) introduced a hybrid simulation architecture combining an agent-based model of ATES adoption, a Matlab control design, and a MODFLOW/SEAWAT aquifer model. This architecture was first used to study an idealized case of urban ATES development. This case evidenced a trade-off between the thermal efficiency of individual systems and the collective energy savings realized by ATES systems within a given area, which had already been suggested by other research (e.g. Sommer et al., 2015). These results also indicated that current layout guidelines may be overly conservative, and limit the adoption of new systems. The present study extends this approach to a case study of ATES planning in the city centre of Utrecht, in the Netherlands. This case is

  17. High-Speed Ring Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wysocky, Terry; Kopf, Edward, Jr.; Katanyoutananti, Sunant; Steiner, Carl; Balian, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The high-speed ring bus at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) allows for future growth trends in spacecraft seen with future scientific missions. This innovation constitutes an enhancement of the 1393 bus as documented in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1393-1999 standard for a spaceborne fiber-optic data bus. It allows for high-bandwidth and time synchronization of all nodes on the ring. The JPL ring bus allows for interconnection of active units with autonomous operation and increased fault handling at high bandwidths. It minimizes the flight software interface with an intelligent physical layer design that has few states to manage as well as simplified testability. The design will soon be documented in the AS-1393 standard (Serial Hi-Rel Ring Network for Aerospace Applications). The framework is designed for "Class A" spacecraft operation and provides redundant data paths. It is based on "fault containment regions" and "redundant functional regions (RFR)" and has a method for allocating cables that completely supports the redundancy in spacecraft design, allowing for a complete RFR to fail. This design reduces the mass of the bus by incorporating both the Control Unit and the Data Unit in the same hardware. The standard uses ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) packets, standardized by ITU-T, ANSI, ETSI, and the ATM Forum. The IEEE-1393 standard uses the UNI form of the packet and provides no protection for the data portion of the cell. The JPL design adds optional formatting to this data portion. This design extends fault protection beyond that of the interconnect. This includes adding protection to the data portion that is contained within the Bus Interface Units (BIUs) and by adding to the signal interface between the Data Host and the JPL 1393 Ring Bus. Data transfer on the ring bus does not involve a master or initiator. Following bus protocol, any BIU may transmit data on the ring whenever it has data received from its host. There

  18. 75 FR 74134 - State of Good Repair Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... Federal Transit Administration State of Good Repair Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: State of Good Repair Bus and Bus Facilities... Transit Administration (FTA) announces the selection of projects funded with Section 5309 Bus and...

  19. SCHOOL BUS GARAGES, 1966 REVISION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JOHNSON, HERBERT F.

    STANDARDS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ARE GIVEN FOR THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF SCHOOL BUS GARAGES INCLUDING BRIEF DISCUSSIONS OF--(1) SITE DEVELOPMENT, (2) DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION, AND (3) MECHANICAL (HEATING, PLUMBING, AND VENTILATION) AND ELECTRICAL FACTORS. (JT)

  20. Ring Buffered Network Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the research effort to demonstrate the integration of a data sharing technology, Ring Buffered Network Bus, in development by Dryden Flight Research Center, with an engine simulation application, the Java Gas Turbine Simulator, in development at the University of Toledo under a grant from the Glenn Research Center. The objective of this task was to examine the application of the RBNB technologies as a key component in the data sharing, health monitoring and system wide modeling elements of the NASA Aviation Safety Program (AVSP) [Golding, 1997]. System-wide monitoring and modeling of aircraft and air safety systems will require access to all data sources which are relative factors when monitoring or modeling the national airspace such as radar, weather, aircraft performance, engine performance, schedule and planning, airport configuration, flight operations, etc. The data sharing portion of the overall AVSP program is responsible for providing the hardware and software architecture to access and distribute data, including real-time flight operations data, among all of the AVSP elements. The integration of an engine code capable of numerically "flying" through recorded flight paths and weather data using a software tool that allows for distributed access of data to this engine code demonstrates initial steps toward building a system capable of monitoring and modeling the National Airspace.

  1. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Third Evaluation Report and Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes operations at Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) in Hartford for one prototype fuel cell bus and three new diesel buses operating from the same location. The prototype fuel cell bus was manufactured by Van Hool and ISE Corp. and features an electric hybrid drive system with a UTC Power PureMotion 120 Fuel Cell Power System and ZEBRA batteries for energy storage. The fuel cell bus started operation in April 2007, and evaluation results through October 2009 are provided in this report.

  2. Drive Cycle Analysis, Measurement of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of a PHEV School Bus: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Barnitt, R.; Gonder, J.

    2011-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) collected and analyzed real-world school bus drive cycle data and selected similar standard drive cycles for testing on a chassis dynamometer. NREL tested a first-generation plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) school bus equipped with a 6.4L engine and an Enova PHEV drive system comprising a 25-kW/80 kW (continuous/peak) motor and a 370-volt lithium ion battery pack. A Bluebird 7.2L conventional school bus was also tested. Both vehicles were tested over three different drive cycles to capture a range of driving activity. PHEV fuel savings in charge-depleting (CD) mode ranged from slightly more than 30% to a little over 50%. However, the larger fuel savings lasted over a shorter driving distance, as the fully charged PHEV school bus would initially operate in CD mode for some distance, then in a transitional mode, and finally in a charge-sustaining (CS) mode for continued driving. The test results indicate that a PHEV school bus can achieve significant fuel savings during CD operation relative to a conventional bus. In CS mode, the tested bus showed small fuel savings and somewhat higher nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions than the baseline comparison bus.

  3. Forecast analysis of optical waveguide bus performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledesma, R.; Rourke, M. D.

    1979-01-01

    Elements to be considered in the design of a data bus include: architecture; data rate; modulation, encoding, detection; power distribution requirements; protocol, work structure; bus reliability, maintainability; interterminal transmission medium; cost; and others specific to application. Fiber- optic data bus considerations for a 32 port transmissive star architecture, are discussed in a tutorial format. General optical-waveguide bus concepts, are reviewed. The electrical and optical performance of a 32 port transmissive star bus, and the effects of temperature on the performance of optical-waveguide buses are examined. A bibliography of pertinent references and the bus receiver test results are included.

  4. Aids to School Bus Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Navistar International Transportation Corporation, Chicago, IL, used three separate NASA-developed technologies in the design and testing of their 3000 Series Bus Chassis which was developed expressly for school bus applications. For structural analysis, they used the MSC/NASTRAN program which mathematically analyzes a design and predicts how it will hold up under stress. They also used the SPATE 9000 system for non-contact measurement of stress, load transfer mechanisms, detection of hidden flaws, and monitoring structural changes during fatigue testing. SPATE 9000 was based on infrared stress measurement technology developed by Langley Research Center. They also employed the Wyle Ride Quality Meter, which was developed by Langley to aid in passenger aircraft design by providing an accurate measurement of ride vibration and sound level. These numbers translate into a subjective discomfort level index. These technologies contribute to the company's 45-48 percent share of the school bus chassis market.

  5. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-Static Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lijuan; Gonder, Jeff; Burton, Evan; Brooker, Aaron; Meintz, Andrew; Konan, Arnaud

    2015-11-11

    This study evaluates the costs and benefits associated with the use of a plug-in hybrid electric bus and determines the cost effectiveness relative to a conventional bus and a hybrid electric bus. A sensitivity sweep analysis was performed over a number of a different battery sizes, charging powers, and charging stations. The net present value was calculated for each vehicle design and provided the basis for the design evaluation. In all cases, given present day economic assumptions, the conventional bus achieved the lowest net present value while the optimal plug-in hybrid electric bus scenario reached lower lifetime costs than the hybrid electric bus. The study also performed parameter sensitivity analysis under low market potential assumptions and high market potential assumptions. The net present value of plug-in hybrid electric bus is close to that of conventional bus.

  6. Simulations of the Fuel Economy and Emissions of Hybrid Transit Buses over Planned Local Routes

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming; LaClair, Tim J; Daw, C Stuart; Smith, David E; Franzese, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    We present simulated fuel economy and emissions city transit buses powered by conventional diesel engines and diesel-hybrid electric powertrains of varying size. Six representative city drive cycles were included in the study. In addition, we included previously published aftertreatment device models for control of CO, HC, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Our results reveal that bus hybridization can significantly enhance fuel economy by reducing engine idling time, reducing demands for accessory loads, exploiting regenerative braking, and shifting engine operation to speeds and loads with higher fuel efficiency. Increased hybridization also tends to monotonically reduce engine-out emissions, but trends in the tailpipe (post-aftertreatment) emissions involve more complex interactions that significantly depend on motor size and drive cycle details.

  7. 75 FR 23843 - Discretionary Bus and Bus Facilities Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... initiative. The SGR Bus initiative will make funds available to public transit providers to finance capital... Americans who depend on it daily. Transit not only provides mobility options for the American public, but... Highways, Bridges, and Transit Conditions and Performance Report to Congress, over 36 percent of urban...

  8. Bus Stops Location and Bus Route Planning Using Mean Shift Clustering and Ant Colony in West Jakarta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supangat, Kenny; Eko Soelistio, Yustinus

    2017-03-01

    Traffic Jam has been a daily problem for people in Jakarta which is one of the busiest city in Indonesia up until now. Even though the official government has tried to reduce the impact of traffic issues by developing a new public transportation which takes up a lot of resources and time, it failed to diminish the problem. The actual concern to this problem actually lies in how people move between places in Jakarta where they always using their own vehicle like cars, and motorcycles that fill most of the street in Jakarta. Among much other public transportations that roams the street of Jakarta, Buses is believed to be an efficient transportation that can move many people at once. However, the location of the bus stop is now have moved to the middle of the main road, and its too far for the nearby residence to access to it. This paper proposes an optimal location of optimal bus stops in West Jakarta that is experimentally proven to have a maximal distance of 350 m. The optimal location is estimated by means of mean shift clustering method while the optimal routes are calculated using Ant Colony algorithm. The bus stops locations rate of error is 0.07% with overall route area of 32 km. Based on our experiments, we believe our proposed bus stop plan can be an interesting alternative to reduce traffic congestion in West Jakarta.

  9. Data Bus Adapts to Changing Traffic Level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lew, Eugene; Deruiter, John; Varga, Mike

    1987-01-01

    Access becomes timed when collisions threaten. Two-mode scheme used to grant terminals access to data bus. Causes bus to alternate between random accessibility and controlled accessibility to optimize performance and adapt to changing data-traffic conditions. Bus is part of 100-Mb/s optical-fiber packet data system.

  10. The NASA bus communications listening device software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    The development of the bus listener is presented. Special software was developed to control the 'bus interface units' (BIU) connecting each of these devices to a communications cable to form the bus communication network. The code used in the BTU is described.

  11. "Don't Miss the Bus!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberth, Jane A.

    1999-01-01

    Presents observations from the director of the National Association of Pupil Transportation concerning school bus safety, seat belts, and the state of the $15-billion school transportation industry. Increasing student use of bus transportation and delivering the school bus safety message to all concerned are addressed. (GR)

  12. Pybus -- A Python Software Bus

    SciTech Connect

    Lavrijsen, Wim T.L.P.

    2004-10-14

    A software bus, just like its hardware equivalent, allows for the discovery, installation, configuration, loading, unloading, and run-time replacement of software components, as well as channeling of inter-component communication. Python, a popular open-source programming language, encourages a modular design on software written in it, but it offers little or no component functionality. However, the language and its interpreter provide sufficient hooks to implement a thin, integral layer of component support. This functionality can be presented to the developer in the form of a module, making it very easy to use. This paper describes a Pythonmodule, PyBus, with which the concept of a ''software bus'' can be realized in Python. It demonstrates, within the context of the ATLAS software framework Athena, how PyBus can be used for the installation and (run-time) configuration of software, not necessarily Python modules, from a Python application in a way that is transparent to the end-user.

  13. HERMES travels by CAN bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, Lewis G.; Shortridge, Keith; Farrell, Tony J.; Vuong, Minh; Muller, Rolf; Sheinis, Andrew I.

    2014-07-01

    The new HERMES spectrograph represents the first foray by AAO into the use of commercial off-the-shelf industrial field bus technology for instrument control, and we regard the final system, with its relatively simple wiring requirements, as a great success. However, both software and hardware teams had to work together to solve a number of problems integrating the chosen CANopen/CAN bus system into our normal observing systems. A Linux system running in an industrial PC chassis ran the HERMES control software, using a PCI CAN bus interface connected to a number of distributed CANopen/CAN bus I/O devices and servo amplifiers. In the main, the servo amplifiers performed impressively, although some experimentation with homing algorithms was required, and we hit a significant hurdle when we discovered that we needed to disable some of the encoders used during observations; we learned a lot about how servo amplifiers respond when their encoders are turned off, and about how encoders react to losing power. The software was based around a commercial CANopen library from Copley Controls. Early worries about how this heavily multithreaded library would work with our standard data acquisition system led to the development of a very low-level CANopen software simulator to verify the design. This also enabled the software group to develop and test almost all the control software well in advance of the construction of the hardware. In the end, the instrument went from initial installation at the telescope to successful commissioning remarkably smoothly.

  14. Research development and demonstration of a fuel cell/battery powered bus system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, S.; Wimmer, R.

    1993-02-01

    During 1992, the design of the three test bed buses evolved. Georgetown participated in all the working meetings and the preliminary design review of the Test Bed Bus (TBB). Throughout the Year, Georgetown provided input on system design and integration issues, transit industry requirements, and bus performance. GU also attended technical seminars, presenting papers at two. The computer simulation 'HYBRID', developed by Georgetown, was used to assess performance of different bus designs and system control algorithms. GU also modified the simulation to be more flexible and allow easier evaluation of designs. Georgetown had Exhibitgroup design and construct, to our specifications, a fuel cell bus display with a 1/10 scale model of the TBB for use at trade shows and exhibits. Energy Partners of West Palm Beach, Florida completed their subcontract for the engineering design study of a hydrogen fueled, fuel-cell-powered multi-passenger vehicle. Georgetown performed a study to determine the size of the US bus fleet and expected new bus deliveries over the next 10 years. Trojan Battery Company of Santa Fe Springs, California conducted a study to determine the specific design characteristics required of a lead acid battery to meet the special requirements posed by hybrid vehicle operation. Finally, GU assisted the prime contractor with the design of the system controller and its control algorithms.

  15. Psychosocial Work Factors, Blood Pressure and Psychological Strain in Male Bus Operators

    PubMed Central

    CENDALES, Boris; USECHE, Sergio; GÓMEZ, Viviola

    2014-01-01

    The research aim was to predict the bus operators’ blood pressure (BP) and psychological strain using a combination of the Job-Demand Control (JDC) and Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) models. The study was conducted with a sample of 139 bus operators in the city of Bogotá (Colombia), who answered a questionnaire that included the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), the ERI Questionnaire, and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Four consecutive BP readings taken in the workplace were averaged to calculate an estimation of the bus operators’ BP. By conducting multiple linear regressions it was found that, taken together, JDC and ERI models explain 10% (F(11,139)=2,502; p=0.00) of systolic BP variance, and 34% (F(6,139)=8,638; p=0.00) of psychological strain variance. These results suggest that the JDC and ERI predictors provide complementary information which increases the probability of accurately model the bus operators’ health. PMID:24869893

  16. Long term application of bus monitoring system to short and medium span bridges and damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Ayaho; Lúcio, Válter J. G.; Emoto, Hisao; Tanaka, Hideaki

    2015-07-01

    In this study, as one solution to the problem for condition assessment of existing short and medium span reinforced/prestressed concrete bridges, a new monitoring method using a public bus as part of a public transit system (bus monitoring system) is proposed, along with safety indices, namely, characteristic deflection, which is relatively free from the influence of dynamic disturbances due to such factors as the roughness of the road surface, and a structural anomaly parameter. A basic study was conducted by using the results of technical verification experiments and numerical analysis simulation. This paper describes the details of not only how to assess the bridge condition by public bus vibration measured in operating on Ube City bus network as a specific example for verify the system but also what kind of consideration we need to apply the system to existing bridges in overseas country.

  17. Electrical system architecture having high voltage bus

    DOEpatents

    Hoff, Brian Douglas [East Peoria, IL; Akasam, Sivaprasad [Peoria, IL

    2011-03-22

    An electrical system architecture is disclosed. The architecture has a power source configured to generate a first power, and a first bus configured to receive the first power from the power source. The architecture also has a converter configured to receive the first power from the first bus and convert the first power to a second power, wherein a voltage of the second power is greater than a voltage of the first power, and a second bus configured to receive the second power from the converter. The architecture further has a power storage device configured to receive the second power from the second bus and deliver the second power to the second bus, a propulsion motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus, and an accessory motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus.

  18. High Energy Batteries for Hybrid Buses

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Lu

    2010-12-31

    EnerDel batteries have already been employed successfully for electric vehicle (EV) applications. Compared to EV applications, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) bus applications may be less stressful, but are still quite demanding, especially compared to battery applications for consumer products. This program evaluated EnerDel cell and pack system technologies with three different chemistries using real world HEV-Bus drive cycles recorded in three markets covering cold, hot, and mild climates. Cells were designed, developed, and fabricated using each of the following three chemistries: (1) Lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) - hard carbon (HC); (2) Lithium manganese oxide (LMO) - HC; and (3) LMO - lithium titanium oxide (LTO) cells. For each cell chemistry, battery pack systems integrated with an EnerDel battery management system (BMS) were successfully constructed with the following features: real time current monitoring, cell and pack voltage monitoring, cell and pack temperature monitoring, pack state of charge (SOC) reporting, cell balancing, and over voltage protection. These features are all necessary functions for real-world HEV-Bus applications. Drive cycle test data was collected for each of the three cell chemistries using real world drive profiles under hot, mild, and cold climate conditions representing cities like Houston, Seattle, and Minneapolis, respectively. We successfully tested the battery packs using real-world HEV-Bus drive profiles under these various climate conditions. The NMC-HC and LMO-HC based packs successfully completed the drive cycles, while the LMO-LTO based pack did not finish the preliminary testing for the drive cycles. It was concluded that the LMO-HC chemistry is optimal for the hot or mild climates, while the NMC-HC chemistry is optimal for the cold climate. In summary, the objectives were successfully accomplished at the conclusion of the project. This program provided technical data to DOE and the public for assessing

  19. PinBus Interface Design

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Adgerson, Jewel D.; Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Richard M.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2009-12-30

    On behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, PNNL has explored and expanded upon a simple control interface that might have merit for the inexpensive communication of smart grid operational objectives (demand response, for example) to small electric end-use devices and appliances. The approach relies on bi-directional communication via the electrical voltage states of from one to eight shared interconnection pins. The name PinBus has been suggested and adopted for the proposed interface protocol. The protocol is defined through the presentation of state diagrams and the pins’ functional definitions. Both simulations and laboratory demonstrations are being conducted to demonstrate the elegance and power of the suggested approach. PinBus supports a very high degree of interoperability across its interfaces, allowing innumerable pairings of devices and communication protocols and supporting the practice of practically any smart grid use case.

  20. Avionic Data Bus Integration Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    address the hardware-software interaction between a digital data bus and an avionic system. Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) ICs and multiversion ...the SCP. In 1984, the Sperry Corporation developed a fault tolerant system which employed multiversion programming, voting, and monitoring for error... MULTIVERSION PROGRAMMING. N-version programming. 226 N-VERSION PROGRAMMING. The independent coding of a number, N, of redundant computer programs that

  1. Perceptions of heat risk to health: a qualitative study of professional bus drivers and their managers in Jinan, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lin; Xin, Zheng; Bai, Li; Wan, Fangjun; Wang, Yongming; Sang, Shaowei; Liu, Shouqin; Zhang, Ji; Liu, Qiyong

    2014-01-28

    Summer extreme heat threatens the health of individuals, especially persons who are involved in outdoor activities. Ensuring the normal function of a city, bus drivers are among those who participate in outdoor physical activities and are exposed to excessive heat in hot summer weather. This qualitative study was performed to explore professional bus drivers' in-depth views of extreme heat risks to their health, and ultimately develop targeted advice and policy interventions for city bus drivers. An interview-based study was performed among professional bus drivers in Jinan, China, including four focus groups with professional bus drivers (n = 37) and three interviews with their managers (n = 14). Five central themes or categories from the bus driver interviews were found: concerns about summer heat; health effects related to extreme heat; adaptive measures; barriers in implementing these adaptive measures; and suggested interventions. The beneficial role of cooling facilities (particularly air-conditioning) during extreme heat are addressed. The barriers not only impede the implementation of behavioral adaptive measures but also enhance the negative attitudes of bus drivers towards their effectiveness. The responsibilities of managers in promoting preventive actions are addressed.

  2. Perceptions of Heat Risk to Health: A Qualitative Study of Professional Bus Drivers and Their Managers in Jinan, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lin; Xin, Zheng; Bai, Li; Wan, Fangjun; Wang, Yongming; Sang, Shaowei; Liu, Shouqin; Zhang, Ji; Liu, Qiyong

    2014-01-01

    Summer extreme heat threatens the health of individuals, especially persons who are involved in outdoor activities. Ensuring the normal function of a city, bus drivers are among those who participate in outdoor physical activities and are exposed to excessive heat in hot summer weather. This qualitative study was performed to explore professional bus drivers’ in-depth views of extreme heat risks to their health, and ultimately develop targeted advice and policy interventions for city bus drivers. An interview-based study was performed among professional bus drivers in Jinan, China, including four focus groups with professional bus drivers (n = 37) and three interviews with their managers (n = 14). Five central themes or categories from the bus driver interviews were found: concerns about summer heat; health effects related to extreme heat; adaptive measures; barriers in implementing these adaptive measures; and suggested interventions. The beneficial role of cooling facilities (particularly air-conditioning) during extreme heat are addressed. The barriers not only impede the implementation of behavioral adaptive measures but also enhance the negative attitudes of bus drivers towards their effectiveness. The responsibilities of managers in promoting preventive actions are addressed. PMID:24477213

  3. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-Static Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lijuan; Gonder, Jeff; Burton, Evan; Brooker, Aaron; Meintz, Andrew; Konan, Arnaud

    2015-10-19

    This study evaluates the costs and benefits associated with the use of a stationary-wireless- power-transfer-enabled plug-in hybrid electric bus and determines the cost effectiveness relative to a conventional bus and a hybrid electric bus. A sensitivity sweep was performed over many different battery sizes, charging power levels, and number/location of bus stop charging stations. The net present cost was calculated for each vehicle design and provided the basis for design evaluation. In all cases, given the assumed economic conditions, the conventional bus achieved the lowest net present cost while the optimal plug-in hybrid electric bus scenario beat out the hybrid electric comparison scenario. The study also performed parameter sensitivity analysis under favorable and high unfavorable market penetration assumptions. The analysis identifies fuel saving opportunities with plug-in hybrid electric bus scenarios at cumulative net present costs not too dissimilar from those for conventional buses.

  4. STUDY OF BUS TRANSPORTATION FOR RELIEF OF OVERCROWDEDNESS IN THE ST. LOUIS SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Louis Board of Education, MO.

    PRESENTED IS A REPORT ON WHAT ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI, AND 15 OTHER CITIES HAVING MORE THAN A 300,000 POPULATION ARE DOING WITH RESPECT TO THE USE OF BUS TRANSPORTATION IN RELIEVING OVERCROWDEDNESS RELATIVE TO THE PROCESS OF DESEGREGATION AND INTEGRATION OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS. THE REPORT CONTAINS FOUR SECTIONS--(1) BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE PROBLEM OF BUS…

  5. Efficiency and robustness of different bus network designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, John Zhen Fu; Bin Othman, Nasri; Ng, Keng Meng; Monterola, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    We compare the efficiencies and robustness of four transport networks that can be possibly formed as a result of deliberate city planning. The networks are constructed based on their spatial resemblance to the cities of Manhattan (lattice), Sudan (random), Beijing (single-blob) and Greater Cairo (dual-blob). For a given type, a genetic algorithm is employed to obtain an optimized set of the bus routes. We then simulate how commuter travels using Yen's algorithms for k shortest paths on an adjacency matrix. The cost of traveling such as walking between stations is captured by varying the weighted sums of matrices. We also consider the number of transfers a posteriori by looking at the computed shortest paths. With consideration to distances via radius of gyration, redundancies of travel and number of bus transfers, our simulations indicate that random and dual-blob are more efficient than single-blob and lattice networks. Moreover, dual-blob type is least robust when node removals are targeted but is most resilient when node failures are random. The work hopes to guide and provide technical perspectives on how geospatial distribution of a city limits the optimality of transport designs.

  6. 75 FR 5847 - Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities Livability Initiative and Urban Circulator Program Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... Federal Transit Administration Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities Livability Initiative and Urban Circulator Program Grants AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice to Extend.... SUMMARY: The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) announced on December 8, 2009, the availability...

  7. Just Right Vehicle Network (Data Bus) Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-16

    this network to research; however, I shall concentrate on defining a precise method to define and assist in properly selecting the network (data bus...recommended – Simple Mathematical selection method used Vehicle Network Selection Conducted 2003-2005 – CAN Data Bus recommended for lower speed hard...real time control – IEEE 1394b Data Bus recommended for high speed hard real time control – Formal Trade Study Process w/ software assisted method used

  8. Pilot Survey of Subway and Bus Stop Noise Levels

    PubMed Central

    Neitzel, Richard; Barrera, Marissa A.; Akram, Muhammad

    2006-01-01

    Excessive noise exposure is a serious global urban health problem, adversely affecting millions of people. One often cited source of urban noise is mass transit, particularly subway systems. As a first step in determining risk within this context, we recently conducted an environmental survey of noise levels of the New York City transit system. Over 90 noise measurements were made using a sound level meter. Average and maximum noise levels were measured on subway platforms, and maximum levels were measured inside subway cars and at several bus stops for comparison purposes. The average noise level measured on the subway platforms was 86 ± 4 dBA (decibel-A weighting). Maximum levels of 106, 112, and 89 dBA were measured on subway platforms, inside subway cars, and at bus stops, respectively. These results indicate that noise levels in subway and bus stop environments have the potential to exceed recommended exposure guidelines from the World Health Organization (WHO) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), given sufficient exposure duration. Risk reduction strategies following the standard hierarchy of control measures should be applied, where feasible, to reduce subway noise exposure. PMID:16802179

  9. Violence against metropolitan bus drivers and fare collectors in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Assunção, Ada Ávila; de Medeiros, Adriane Mesquita

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the correlation between sociodemographic factors and working conditions of bus workers in a metropolitan area and violence against them. METHODS This cross-sectional study used a nonprobabilistic sample estimated according to the number of workers employed in bus companies located in three cities in the Belo Horizonte metropolitan region in 2012 (N = 17,470). Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a digital questionnaire. The factors associated with violence were analyzed in two stages using Poisson regression, according to each level. The magnitude of the association was evaluated using prevalence ratios with robust variance and a statistical significance of 5%, and 95% confidence intervals were obtained. RESULTS The study sample comprised 782 drivers and 691 fare collectors; 45.0% participants reported at least one act of violence in the workplace in the last 12 months, with passengers being predominantly responsible. The age of the bus workers was inversely associated with violence. Chronic diseases, sickness absenteeism, and working conditions were also associated with violence. CONCLUSIONS The findings on the correlation between violence and working conditions are essential for implementing prevention strategies by transportation service managers. PMID:25741657

  10. Analysis of non-regulated vehicular emissions by extractive FTIR spectrometry: tests on a hybrid car in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, F.; Grutter, M.; Jazcilevich, A.; González-Oropeza, R.

    2006-07-01

    A methodology to acquire valuable information on the chemical composition and evolution of vehicular emissions is presented. The analysis of the gases is performed by passing a constant flow of a sample gas from the tail-pipe into a 10 L multi-pass cell. The absorption spectra within the cell are obtained using an FTIR spectrometer at 0.5 cm-1 resolution along a 13.1 m optical path. Additionally, the total flow from the exhaust is continuously measured from a differential pressure sensor on a Pitot tube installed at the exit of the exhaust. This configuration aims to obtain a good speciation capability by coadding spectra during 30 s and reporting the emission (in g/km) of key and non-regulated pollutants, such as CO2, CO, NO, SO2, NH3, HCHO, NMHC, during predetermined driving routines. The advantages and disadvantages of increasing the acquisition frequency, as well as the effect of other parameters such as spectral resolution, cell volume and flow rate, are discussed. With the aim of testing and evaluating the proposed technique, experiments were performed on a dynamometer running FTP-75 and typical driving cycles of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) on a Toyota Prius hybrid vehicle. This car is an example of recent automotive technology to reach the market dedicated to reduce emissions and therefore pressing the need of low detection techniques. This study shows the potential of the proposed technique to measure and report in real time the emissions of a large variety of pollutants, even from a super ultra-low emission vehicle (SULEV). The emissions of HC's, NOx, CO and CO2 obtained here are similar to experiments performed in other locations with the same vehicle model. Some differences suggest that an inefficient combustion process and type of gasoline used in the MCMA may be partly responsible for lower CO2 and higher CO and NO emission factors. Also, a fast reduction of NO emission to very low values is observed after cold ignition, giving rise to

  11. Road safety issues for bus transport management.

    PubMed

    Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Giuseppina

    2013-11-01

    Because of the low percentage of crashes involving buses and the assumption that public transport improves road safety by reducing vehicular traffic, public interest in bus safety is not as great as that in the safety of other types of vehicles. It is possible that less attention is paid to the significance of crashes involving buses because the safety level of bus systems is considered to be adequate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of bus managers with respect to safety issues and the potential effectiveness of various technologies in achieving higher safety standards. Bus managers were asked to give their opinions on safety issues related to drivers (training, skills, performance evaluation and behaviour), vehicles (maintenance and advanced devices) and roads (road and traffic safety issues) in response to a research survey. Kendall's algorithm was used to evaluate the level of concordance. The results showed that the majority of the proposed items were considered to have great potential for improving bus safety. The data indicated that in the experience of the participants, passenger unloading and pedestrians crossing near bus stops are the most dangerous actions with respect to vulnerable users. The final results of the investigation showed that start inhibition, automatic door opening, and the materials and internal architecture of buses were considered the items most strongly related to bus passenger safety. Brake assistance and vehicle monitoring systems were also considered to be very effective. With the exception of driver assistance systems for passenger and pedestrian safety, the perceptions of the importance of other driver assistance systems for vehicle monitoring and bus safety were not unanimous among the bus company managers who participated in this survey. The study results showed that the introduction of new technologies is perceived as an important factor in improving bus safety, but a better understanding

  12. Connecting Separate Computers to a Common Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawan, A. K.; Mullen, P. G.; Vadakan, V. V.

    1984-01-01

    Network bus adapter (NBA) handles protocols for computer-tocomputer communications. NBA does all protocol handling and communications with bus for its host computer, that processor of different speeds sends data to each other continuously at maximum speed. Any host can communicate with any other, or several or with all.

  13. California's Bus Driver's Training Course. Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This instructor's manual was designed to help graduates of the California Bus Driver Instructor Course provide effective instruction to school bus driver trainees. It contains enough material for 20-30 hours of classroom training. The information is organized in 12 instructional units that cover the following topics: introduction to the course;…

  14. Hiding Solar-Array Bus Bars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hufnagel, W. F.

    1983-01-01

    End terminals mounted under cells, maximizing usable illuminated area. Reconfigured solar panel bus bars placed under cells, reducing portion of module area not occupied by active silicon. Underside of last cell in string of cells serves as contact for positive bus. Negative tab of last cell in string is wrapped around from top of cell. Tabs are connected to output boards mounted under cells.

  15. Controlling Multiple Registers on a Computer Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brokl, Stanley S.

    1987-01-01

    Number of addressable registers increased. Monitoring and controlling interface circuit expands capabilities of DR11-C (or equivalent) input/output port for computer that communicates with peripheral equipment via UNIBUS (or equivalent) data bus. Using only three address locations on bus, unit enables any number of external registers to be addressed, read, or written.

  16. Hidden Savings in your Bus Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newby, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    School transportation industry statistics show the annual average costs for operating and maintaining a single school bus range from $34,000 to $38,000. Operating a school bus fleet at high efficiency has a real impact on the dollars saved for a school district and the reliability of transportation service to students. In this article, the author…

  17. School Bus Maintenance. Bulletin, 1948, No. 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Featherston, E. Glenn

    1948-01-01

    This bulletin is one in the series on pupil transportation issued by the Office of Education. Its purpose is to furnish information and guidance for local school administrators and others who are concerned with school bus maintenance. Programs of school bus maintenance vary among the 48 States. Presumably all contract vehicles are maintained by…

  18. Priority Queuing On A Parallel Data Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallis, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    Queuing strategy for communications along shared data bus minimizes number of data lines while always assuring user of highest priority given access to bus. New system handles up to 32 user demands on 17 data lines that previously serviced only 17 demands.

  19. Interprocessor bus switching system for simultaneous communication in plural bus parallel processing system

    DOEpatents

    Atac, R.; Fischler, M.S.; Husby, D.E.

    1991-01-15

    A bus switching apparatus and method for multiple processor computer systems comprises a plurality of bus switches interconnected by branch buses. Each processor or other module of the system is connected to a spigot of a bus switch. Each bus switch also serves as part of a backplane of a modular crate hardware package. A processor initiates communication with another processor by identifying that other processor. The bus switch to which the initiating processor is connected identifies and secures, if possible, a path to that other processor, either directly or via one or more other bus switches which operate similarly. If a particular desired path through a given bus switch is not available to be used, an alternate path is considered, identified and secured. 11 figures.

  20. Interprocessor bus switching system for simultaneous communication in plural bus parallel processing system

    DOEpatents

    Atac, Robert; Fischler, Mark S.; Husby, Donald E.

    1991-01-01

    A bus switching apparatus and method for multiple processor computer systems comprises a plurality of bus switches interconnected by branch buses. Each processor or other module of the system is connected to a spigot of a bus switch. Each bus switch also serves as part of a backplane of a modular crate hardware package. A processor initiates communication with another processor by identifying that other processor. The bus switch to which the initiating processor is connected identifies and secures, if possible, a path to that other processor, either directly or via one or more other bus switches which operate similarly. If a particular desired path through a given bus switch is not available to be used, an alternate path is considered, identified and secured.

  1. Application of gravity model on the Korean urban bus network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Inho; Jung, Woo-Sung

    2016-11-01

    Mobility models have been studied to describe the underlying mechanism of human mobility. The mobility patterns in various transportation systems were understood with the gravity model by estimating the traffic as a simple function of population and distance. Compared to most studies on large-scale systems, we focused on the validity and characteristics of gravity model for intraurban mobility. Several variations of gravity model are applied on the urban bus systems of five medium-sized cities in Korea. The gravity model successfully estimates the intraurban traffic without universal exponents for cities. From the change of exponents by predictor types, we figure out the effect by a non-trivial relation between traffic and population in the urban areas.

  2. Analog bus driver and multiplexer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Hancock, Bruce (Inventor); Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    For a source-follower signal chain, the ohmic drop in the selection switch causes unacceptable voltage offset, non-linearity, and reduced small signal gain. For an op amp signal chain, the required bias current and the output noise rises rapidly with increasing the array format due to a rapid increase in the effective capacitance caused by the Miller effect boosting up the contribution of the bus capacitance. A new switched source-follower signal chain circuit overcomes limitations of existing op-amp based or source follower based circuits used in column multiplexers and data readout. This will improve performance of CMOS imagers, and focal plane read-out integrated circuits for detectors of infrared or ultraviolet light.

  3. Smoking close to others and butt littering at bus stops: pilot observational study.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Nick; Oliver, Jane; Thomson, George

    2014-01-01

    Background. Transportation settings such as bus stops and train station platforms are increasingly the target for new smokefree legislation. Relevant issues include secondhand smoke exposure, nuisance, litter, fire risks and the normalization of smoking. We therefore aimed to pilot study aspects of smoking behavior and butt disposal at bus stops. Methods. Systematic observation of smoking and butt disposal by smokers at bus stops. The selection of 11 sites was a mix of convenience and purposeful (bus stops on main routes) in two New Zealand cities. Results. During 27 h of observation, a total of 112 lit cigarettes were observed being smoked. Smoking occurred in the presence of: just adults (46%), both young people and adults (44%), just young people (6%) and alone (5%). An average of 6.3 adults and 3.8 young people were present at the bus stops while smoking occurred, at average minimum distances of 1.7 and 2.2 m respectively. In bus stops that included an enclosed shelter, 33% of the cigarettes were smoked inside the shelter with others present. Littering was the major form of cigarette disposal with 84% of cigarettes smoked being littered (95% CI; 77%-90%). Also, 4% of disposals were into vegetation, which may pose a fire risk. Conclusions. This pilot study is limited by its small size and various methodological aspects but it appears to be a first attempt to provide observational evidence around smoking at bus stops. The issues described could be considered by policy makers who are investigating national smokefree laws or by-laws covering transportation settings.

  4. Radiation-Tolerant Dual Data Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinstler, Gary A.

    2007-01-01

    An architecture, and a method of utilizing the architecture, have been proposed to enable error-free operation of a data bus that includes, and is connected to, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) circuits and components that are inherently susceptible to singleevent upsets [SEUs (bit flips caused by impinging high-energy particles and photons)]. The architecture and method are applicable, more specifically, to data-bus circuitry based on the Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1394b standard for a high-speed serial bus.

  5. 32 CFR 935.138 - Motor bus operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Motor bus operation. 935.138 Section 935.138... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.138 Motor bus operation. Each person operating a motor bus on Wake Island shall— (a) Keep its doors closed while the bus is moving with passengers on...

  6. 32 CFR 935.138 - Motor bus operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Motor bus operation. 935.138 Section 935.138... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.138 Motor bus operation. Each person operating a motor bus on Wake Island shall— (a) Keep its doors closed while the bus is moving with passengers on...

  7. 49 CFR 605.19 - Approval of school bus operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Approval of school bus operations. 605.19 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS School Bus Agreements § 605.19 Approval of school bus operations. (a) The Administrator will consider the comments filed by private school...

  8. 49 CFR 605.19 - Approval of school bus operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Approval of school bus operations. 605.19 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS School Bus Agreements § 605.19 Approval of school bus operations. (a) The Administrator will consider the comments filed by private school...

  9. 32 CFR 935.138 - Motor bus operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Motor bus operation. 935.138 Section 935.138... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.138 Motor bus operation. Each person operating a motor bus on Wake Island shall— (a) Keep its doors closed while the bus is moving with passengers on...

  10. 49 CFR 605.19 - Approval of school bus operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval of school bus operations. 605.19 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS School Bus Agreements § 605.19 Approval of school bus operations. (a) The Administrator will consider the comments filed by private school...

  11. 49 CFR 605.19 - Approval of school bus operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Approval of school bus operations. 605.19 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS School Bus Agreements § 605.19 Approval of school bus operations. (a) The Administrator will consider the comments filed by private school...

  12. 49 CFR 605.19 - Approval of school bus operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Approval of school bus operations. 605.19 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS School Bus Agreements § 605.19 Approval of school bus operations. (a) The Administrator will consider the comments filed by private school...

  13. A bi-objective optimization approach for exclusive bus lane selection and scheduling design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoo, Hooi Ling; Eng Teoh, Lay; Meng, Qiang

    2014-07-01

    This study proposes a methodology to solve the integrated problems of selection and scheduling of the exclusive bus lane. The selection problem intends to determine which roads (links) should have a lane reserved for buses while the scheduling problem intends to find the time period of the application. It is formulated as a bi-objective optimization model that aims to minimize the total travel time of non-bus traffic and buses simultaneously. The proposed model formulation is solved by the hybrid non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm with Paramics. The results show that the proposed methodology is workable. Sets of Pareto solutions are obtained indicating that a trade-off between buses and non-bus traffic for the improvement of the bus transit system is necessary when the exclusive bus lane is applied. This allows the engineer to choose the best solutions that could balance the performance of both modes in a multimode transport system environment to achieve a sustainable transport system.

  14. Effect of periodic inflow on speed-controlled shuttle bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the dynamic behavior of a shuttle bus controlled the speed when passengers come periodically at the origin. We propose the nonlinear-map model for the dynamics of the speed-controlled bus with the periodic inflow. The bus schedule is closely connected to the motion. The motion of the speed-controlled bus is affected by the periodic inflow. The motion of the shuttle bus depends highly on both speed control and periodic inflow. The shuttle bus displays the periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic motions by varying both periodic inflow and speed control. We clarify the dependence of the bus motion on both speed control and periodic inflow.

  15. Effect of speedup delay on shuttle bus schedule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    We study the bus schedule in the shuttle bus transportation system controlled by speedup. The bus schedule is closely related to the dynamic motion of the bus. The motion of a shuttle bus depends on the inflow rate of passengers and the delayed speedup control. The delayed speedup control has an important effect on the dynamic motion of the bus. We present the delayed map model for the dynamics of the shuttle bus with the delayed speedup control. The bus motion changes from a stable state, through a periodic state, to a quasi-periodic state by the delayed speedup control. The return map of the tour time displays a smooth closed curve and the bus motion is quasi-periodic. The dynamic transition to the quasi-periodic motion changes greatly with the delay time. We clarify the effect of the delayed speedup control on the bus schedule.

  16. TMS communications software. Volume 2: Bus interface unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregor, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    A data bus communication system to support the space shuttle's Trend Monitoring System (TMS) and to provide a basis for evaluation of the bus concept is described. Installation of the system included developing both hardware and software interfaces between the bus and the specific TMS computers and terminals. The software written for the microprocessor-based bus interface units is described. The software implements both the general bus communications protocol and also the specific interface protocols for the TMS computers and terminals.

  17. The Impact on Traffic Safety in Bus Stop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kailun; Guang, Xiaoping; Qian, Yongsheng

    The article improves the attraction of public transportation system when the safety is taken into account during the selection of bus stops. In this paper, the characteristics of traffic conflict at bus stops is analyzed from various types of bus stops and the applicability of bus stations is proposed in comply with provisions of security. It has a certain reference value on selection of bus stops.

  18. An Interconnect Bus Power Optimization Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    En, Yun-Fei; Zhu, Zhang-Ming; Hao, Yue

    2010-07-01

    A simple yet accurate interconnect parasitical capacitance model is presented. Based on this model a novel interconnect bus optimization methodology is proposed. Combining wire spacing with wire ordering, this methodology focuses on bus dynamic power optimization with consideration of bus performance requirements. The optimization methodology is verified under a 65 nm technology node and it shows that with 50% slack in the routing space, a 33.03% power saving can be provided by the proposed optimization methodology for an intermediate video bus compared to the 27.68% power saving provided by uniform spacing technology. The proposed methodology is especially suitable for computer-aided design of nanometer scale on-chip buses.

  19. Systems evaluation of thermal bus concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalmach, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal bus concepts, to provide a centralized thermal utility for large, multihundred kilowatt space platforms, were studied and the results are summarized. Concepts were generated, defined, and screened for inclusion in system level thermal bus trades. Parametric trade studies were conducted in order to define the operational envelope, performance, and physical characteristics of each. Two concepts were selected as offering the most promise for thermal bus development. All of four concepts involved two phase flow in order to meet the required isothermal nature of the thermal bus. Two of the concepts employ a mechanical means to circulate the working fluid, a liquid pump in one case and a vapor compressor in another. Another concept utilizes direct osmosis as the driving force of the thermal bus. The fourth concept was a high capacity monogroove heat pipe. After preliminary sizing and screening, three of these concepts were selected to carry into the trade studies. The monogroove heat pipe concept was deemed unsuitable for further consideration because of its heat transport limitations. One additional concept utilizing capillary forces to drive the working fluid was added. Parametric system level trade studies were performed. Sizing and weight calculations were performed for thermal bus sizes ranging from 5 to 350 kW and operating temperatures in the range of 4 to 120 C. System level considerations such as heat rejection and electrical power penalties and interface temperature losses were included in the weight calculations.

  20. A software bus for thread objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John R.; Li, Dehuai

    1995-01-01

    The authors have implemented a software bus for lightweight threads in an object-oriented programming environment that allows for rapid reconfiguration and reuse of thread objects in discrete-event simulation experiments. While previous research in object-oriented, parallel programming environments has focused on direct communication between threads, our lightweight software bus, called the MiniBus, provides a means to isolate threads from their contexts of execution by restricting communications between threads to message-passing via their local ports only. The software bus maintains a topology of connections between these ports. It routes, queues, and delivers messages according to this topology. This approach allows for rapid reconfiguration and reuse of thread objects in other systems without making changes to the specifications or source code. A layered approach that provides the needed transparency to developers is presented. Examples of using the MiniBus are given, and the value of bus architectures in building and conducting simulations of discrete-event systems is discussed.

  1. GENERAL: Connectivity correlations in three topological spaces of urban bus-transport networks in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yong-Zhou; Fu, Chun-Hua; Chang, Hui; Li, Nan; He, Da-Ren

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, an empirical investigation is presented, which focuses on unveiling the universality of connectivity correlations in three spaces (the route space, the stop geographical space and bus-transferring space) of urban bus-transport networks (BTNs) in four major cities of China. The underlying features of the connectivity correlations are shown in two statistical ways. One is the correlation between the (weighted) average degree of all the nearest neighbouring vertices with degree k, (Knnw (k)) Knn(k), and k, and the other is the correlations between the assortativity coefficient r and, respectively, the network size N, the network diameter D, the averaged clustering coefficient C, and the averaged distance . The obtained results show qualitatively the same connectivity correlations of all the considered cities under all the three spaces.

  2. Urban air quality comparison for bus, tram, subway and pedestrian commutes in Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Teresa; Reche, Cristina; Rivas, Ioar; Cruz Minguillón, Maria; Martins, Vânia; Vargas, Concepción; Buonanno, Giorgio; Parga, Jesus; Pandolfi, Marco; Brines, Mariola; Ealo, Marina; Sofia Fonseca, Ana; Amato, Fulvio; Sosa, Garay; Capdevila, Marta; de Miguel, Eladio; Querol, Xavier; Gibbons, Wes

    2015-10-01

    Access to detailed comparisons in air quality variations encountered when commuting through a city offers the urban traveller more informed choice on how to minimise personal exposure to inhalable pollutants. In this study we report on an experiment designed to compare atmospheric contaminants inhaled during bus, subway train, tram and walking journeys through the city of Barcelona. Average number concentrations of particles 10-300 nm in size, N, are lowest in the commute using subway trains (N<2.5×10(4) part. cm(-3)), higher during tram travel and suburban walking (2.5×10(4) cm(-3)bus or walking in the city centre (N>5.0×10(4) cm(-3)), with extreme transient peaks at busy traffic crossings commonly exceeding 1.0×10(5) cm(-3) and accompanied by peaks in Black Carbon and CO. Subway particles are coarser (mode 90 nm) than in buses, trams or outdoors (<70 nm), and concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and Black Carbon are lower in the tram when compared to both bus and subway. CO2 levels in public transport reflect passenger numbers, more than tripling from outdoor levels to >1200 ppm in crowded buses and trains. There are also striking differences in inhalable particle chemistry depending on the route chosen, ranging from aluminosiliceous at roadsides and near pavement works, ferruginous with enhanced Mn, Co, Zn, Sr and Ba in the subway environment, and higher levels of Sb and Cu inside the bus. We graphically display such chemical variations using a ternary diagram to emphasise how "air quality" in the city involves a consideration of both physical and chemical parameters, and is not simply a question of measuring particle number or mass.

  3. Dynamic Bus Travel Time Prediction Models on Road with Multiple Bus Routes

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Cong; Peng, Zhong-Ren; Lu, Qing-Chang; Sun, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and real-time travel time information for buses can help passengers better plan their trips and minimize waiting times. A dynamic travel time prediction model for buses addressing the cases on road with multiple bus routes is proposed in this paper, based on support vector machines (SVMs) and Kalman filtering-based algorithm. In the proposed model, the well-trained SVM model predicts the baseline bus travel times from the historical bus trip data; the Kalman filtering-based dynamic algorithm can adjust bus travel times with the latest bus operation information and the estimated baseline travel times. The performance of the proposed dynamic model is validated with the real-world data on road with multiple bus routes in Shenzhen, China. The results show that the proposed dynamic model is feasible and applicable for bus travel time prediction and has the best prediction performance among all the five models proposed in the study in terms of prediction accuracy on road with multiple bus routes. PMID:26294903

  4. 76 FR 68819 - State of Good Repair Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2011-28774] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration State of Good Repair Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA.... SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Transportation's (DOT) Federal Transit Administration (FTA) announces...

  5. Dynamic Bus Travel Time Prediction Models on Road with Multiple Bus Routes.

    PubMed

    Bai, Cong; Peng, Zhong-Ren; Lu, Qing-Chang; Sun, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and real-time travel time information for buses can help passengers better plan their trips and minimize waiting times. A dynamic travel time prediction model for buses addressing the cases on road with multiple bus routes is proposed in this paper, based on support vector machines (SVMs) and Kalman filtering-based algorithm. In the proposed model, the well-trained SVM model predicts the baseline bus travel times from the historical bus trip data; the Kalman filtering-based dynamic algorithm can adjust bus travel times with the latest bus operation information and the estimated baseline travel times. The performance of the proposed dynamic model is validated with the real-world data on road with multiple bus routes in Shenzhen, China. The results show that the proposed dynamic model is feasible and applicable for bus travel time prediction and has the best prediction performance among all the five models proposed in the study in terms of prediction accuracy on road with multiple bus routes.

  6. Sexual Harassment on the School Bus: Supporting and Preparing Bus Drivers to Respond Appropriately

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Melissa; Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.; Heaton, Emily; Parkinson, Marisa

    2003-01-01

    Sexual harassment is commonplace in schools, particularly among adolescents. Although information on this topic is typically gathered from students and teachers, this study collected information from school bus drivers. Based on feedback from 58 school bus drivers, 39 (67%) reported observing students making sexual comments or jokes. Almost half…

  7. Bullying and Aggression on the School Bus: School Bus Drivers' Observations and Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deLara, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Every school day bus drivers are responsible for transporting children safely over many miles, yet they are rarely polled for their opinions or contributions to school safety. School bus drivers are in a unique position to inform the discussion on aggressive behavior during the school day. This exploratory study collected information from school…

  8. School Bus and School Pupil Activity Bus Inspection and Maintenance Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowash, Fred W.

    This publication deals with suggested maintenance standards that apply to vehicles used for pupil transportation in California and covers all the safety-related systems that are common to most buses. The guide has been prepared to help all school bus and school pupil activity bus operators set up an inspection and preventive maintenance program…

  9. Characterisation of vibration input to flywheel used on urban bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Kanarachos, S.; Christensen, J.

    2016-09-01

    Vibration induced from road surface has an impact on the durability and reliability of electrical and mechanical components attached on the vehicle. There is little research published relevant to the durability assessment of a flywheel energy recovery system installed on city and district buses. Relevant international standards and legislations were reviewed and large discrepancy was found among them, in addition, there are no standards exclusively developed for kinetic energy recovery systems on vehicles. This paper describes the experimentation of assessment of road surface vibration input to the flywheel on a bus as obtained at the MIRA Proving Ground. Power density spectra have been developed based on the raw data obtained during the experimentation. Validation of this model will be carried out using accelerated life time tests that will be carried out on a shaker rig using an accumulated profile based on the theory of fatigue damage equivalence in time and frequency domain aligned with the model predictions.

  10. Modeling a bus through a sequence of traffic lights.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Jorge; Muñoz, Víctor; Rogan, José; Zarama, Roberto; Penagos, Juan Felipe; Toledo, Benjamín; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro

    2015-07-01

    We propose a model of a bus traveling through a sequence of traffic lights, which is required to stop between the traffic signals to pick up passengers. A two dimensional model, of velocity and traveled time at each traffic light, is constructed, which shows non-trivial and chaotic behaviors for realistic city traffic parameters. We restrict the parameter values where these non-trivial and chaotic behaviors occur, by following analytically and numerically the fixed points and period 2 orbits. We define conditions where chaos may arise by determining regions in parameter space where the maximum Lyapunov exponent is positive. Chaos seems to occur as long as the ratio of the braking and accelerating capacities are greater than about ∼3.

  11. A comparison study of different semi-active hybrid energy storage system topologies for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ziyou; Hofmann, Heath; Li, Jianqiu; Han, Xuebing; Zhang, Xiaowu; Ouyang, Minggao

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, four different semi-active hybrid energy storage systems (HESSs), which use both supercapacitors (SCs) and batteries, are compared based on an electric city bus running the China Bus Driving Cycle (CBDC). The SC sizes of the different HESS topologies are optimized by using the dynamic programming (DP) approach, based on a dynamic degradation model of the LiFePO4 battery. The operation costs of different HESSs, including the electricity and the battery degradation costs over a whole CBDC, are minimized in the optimization process. Based on the DP results, near-optimal control strategies of different HESSs for on-line uses are proposed. Finally, the four HESS topologies are comprehensively compared from different aspects, including operation cost, initial cost, and DC bus voltage variation. Simulation results show that all HESS topologies have their merits and drawbacks, and can be used in different applications with different requirements. In addition, about 50% of the operation cost of the energy storage system is reduced by the semi-active HESSs when compared to the battery-only topology. Thus the effectiveness of adopting the SC in the HESS is verified.

  12. In-use fuel economy of hybrid-electric school buses in Iowa.

    PubMed

    Hallmark, Shauna; Sperry, Bob; Mudgal, Abhisek

    2011-05-01

    Although it is much safer and more fuel-efficient to transport children to school in buses than in private vehicles, school buses in the United States still consume 822 million gal of diesel fuel annually, and school transportation costs can account for a significant portion of resource-constrained school district budgets. Additionally, children in diesel-powered school buses may be exposed to higher levels of particulates and other pollutants than children in cars. One solution to emission and fuel concerns is use of hybrid-electric school buses, which have the potential to reduce emissions and overall lifecycle costs compared with conventional diesel buses. Hybrid-electric technologies are available in the passenger vehicle market as well as the transit bus market and have a track record indicating fuel economy and emissions benefits. This paper summarizes the results of an in-use fuel economy evaluation for two plug-in hybrid school buses deployed in two different school districts in Iowa. Each school district selected a control bus with a route similar to that of the hybrid bus. Odometer readings, fuel consumption, and maintenance needs were recorded for each bus. The buses were deployed in 2008 and data were collected through May 2010. Fuel consumption was calculated for each school district. In Nevada, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.23 mpg for the hybrid and 6.35 mpg for the control bus. In Sigourney, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.94 mpg for the hybrid and 6.42 mpg for the control bus. The fuel consumption data were compared for the hybrid and control buses using a Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results indicate that fuel economy for the Nevada hybrid bus was 29.6% better than for the Nevada control bus, and fuel economy for the Sigourney hybrid bus was 39.2% higher than for the Sigourney control bus. Both differences were statistically significant.

  13. ORION II bus demonstration. Demonstration report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Shanley, J.

    1989-02-01

    The Central New York Regional Transportation Authority conducted an 18-month demonstration to determine how the ORION II bus operates in actual service. The ORION II vehicle is a small low floor, accessible heavy duty, diesel-powered transit bus designed to meet the needs of the elderly and handicapped. It has the capacity to seat 26 passengers with 4 wheelchair lockdowns. Side and rear doors are equipped with electrically powered ramps. Eight Thomas vehicles (22-foot, 11,500 lbs, wheelchair equipped, gasoline fueled) were also tested during the demonstration period. Operations (fuel and oil usage) and maintenance (scheduled and unscheduled) data were collected and charted-out in the report as well as driver, passenger, and maintenance surveys. This report provides descriptions, photographs, and comparison charts of both the diesel-fueled ORION II transit bus and the gasoline-fueled Thomas vehicles along with the demonstration test plan, evaluations, conclusions, and survey results.

  14. Factors affecting the probability of bus drivers being at-fault in bus-involved accidents.

    PubMed

    Goh, Kelvin; Currie, Graham; Sarvi, Majid; Logan, David

    2014-05-01

    Previous research has provided little insight into factors that influence the probability of bus drivers being at-fault in bus-involved accidents. In this study, an analysis was conducted on accident data compiled by a bus company that include an assessment on whether the bus driver was deemed by the company to hold primary responsibility for accident occurrence. Using a mixed logit modelling approach, roadway/environmental, vehicle and driver related variables that were identified to be influential were road type, speed limit, traffic/lighting conditions, bus priority, bus age/length and driver's age/gender/experience/historic at-fault accident record. Results were indicative of possible confined road-space issues that bus drivers face along routes with roadside traffic friction and point to the provision of exclusive right of way for buses as a possible way to address this. Results also suggest benefits in assigning routes comprising mainly divided roads as well as newer and shorter buses to less experienced drivers.

  15. Risk factors affecting fatal bus accident severity: Their impact on different types of bus drivers.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Ci, Yusheng; Zhang, Guohui

    2016-01-01

    While the bus is generally considered to be a relatively safe means of transportation, the property losses and casualties caused by bus accidents, especially fatal ones, are far from negligible. The reasons for a driver to incur fatalities are different in each case, and it is essential to discover the underlying risk factors of bus fatality severity for different types of drivers in order to improve bus safety. The current study investigates the underlying risk factors of fatal bus accident severity to different types of drivers in the U.S. by estimating an ordered logistic model. Data for the analysis are retrieved from the Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA) database from the USA for the years 2006-2010. Accidents are divided into three levels by counting their equivalent fatalities, and the drivers are classified into three clusters by the K-means cluster analysis. The analysis shows that some risk factors have the same impact on different types of drivers, they are: (a) season; (b) day of week; (c) time period; (d) number of vehicles involved; (e) land use; (f) manner of collision; (g) speed limit; (h) snow or ice surface condition; (i) school bus; (j) bus type and seating capacity; (k) driver's age; (l) driver's gender; (m) risky behaviors; and (n) restraint system. Results also show that some risk factors only have impact on the "young and elder drivers with history of traffic violations", they are: (a) section type; (b) number of lanes per direction; (c) roadway profile; (d) wet road surface; and (e) cyclist-bus accident. Notably, history of traffic violations has different impact on different types of bus drivers.

  16. The crew activity planning system bus interface unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    The hardware and software designs used to implement a high speed parallel communications interface to the MITRE 307.2 kilobit/second serial bus communications system are described. The primary topic is the development of the bus interface unit.

  17. Lightweight power bus for a baseload nuclear reactor in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massie, Lowell D.; Hoffman, Dennis J.; Oberly, Charles E.

    Metallic superconductors requiring refrigeration in the range of 4 to 10 K are of no benefit to the baseload space power system bus because the refrigeration and insulation constraints are too severe. The ceramic superconductors that can operate in the range of 20 to 100 K alleviate a great deal of the refrigeration problem and can compete with conventional hot bus distribution systems on the basis of mass for a bus exceeding a few meters in length. The ultimate benefit of the superconducting bus to the space power system will not be the mass savings. The great benefit of the superconducting bus will be the enormous reduction in bus voltage requirements due to the zero voltage drop along the bus. Low bus voltage (less than 100 Vdc) will permit a conventional dielectric insulation technology to be utilized as baseload powers are forced above 10 kW on spacecraft.

  18. 214. RUSTIC BUS SHELTER, GUARDRAILS AND LAMP POST BELLE HAVEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    214. RUSTIC BUS SHELTER, GUARDRAILS AND LAMP POST BELLE HAVEN BUS STOP WIDENING, 1932. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  19. 24. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF GENERATOR BUS POTENTIAL FOR UNIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF GENERATOR BUS POTENTIAL FOR UNIT NO 1 IN BUS CELL GALLERY ON LEVEL +77 OF POWERHOUSE #1. - Bonneville Project, Powerhouse No.1, Spanning Bradford Slough, from Bradford Island, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  20. Bus training for developmentally disabled adults.

    PubMed

    Robinson, D; Griffith, J; McComish, K; Swasbrook, K

    1984-07-01

    The effectiveness of a program combining classroom and community training in the teaching of bus-riding skills to developmentally disabled adults. These skills were taught sequentially using questions about a slide presentation, role playing, and performance in the natural environment. The experimental design was based upon the work of Neef, Iwata, and Page (1978). Test trials were conducted after each phase of training. Results showed that all subjects learned the necessary bus-riding skills and maintained their performance throughout the follow-up period of at least 1 year. The combination training method proved to be efficient and cost effective.

  1. SunLine Test Drives Hydrogen Bus: Hydrogen Fuel Cell& Infrastructure Technologies Program, Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Projects (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, L.

    2003-08-01

    Fact sheet describes the ThunderPower hydrogen fuel cell bus that was demonstrated at SunLine Transit Agency from November 2002 to February 2003. The bus was evaluated by DOE's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity.

  2. Staying Safe in the Car and on the Bus

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the Operating Room? Staying Safe in the Car and on the Bus KidsHealth > For Kids > Staying Safe in the Car and on the Bus A A A What's ... re probably getting there by riding in a car or a school bus. Most kids spend some ...

  3. Information management advanced development. Volume 3: Digital data bus breadboard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerber, C. R.

    1972-01-01

    The design, development, and evaluation of the digital data bus breadboard for the modular space station are discussed. Subjects presented are: (1) requirements summary, (2) parametric data for bus design, (3) redundancy concepts, and (4) data bus breadboard performance and interface requirements.

  4. 49 CFR 374.317 - Identification-bus and driver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Identification-bus and driver. 374.317 Section 374.317 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER...—bus and driver. Each bus and driver providing service shall be identified in a manner visible...

  5. 49 CFR 374.317 - Identification-bus and driver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Identification-bus and driver. 374.317 Section 374.317 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER...—bus and driver. Each bus and driver providing service shall be identified in a manner visible...

  6. 49 CFR 374.317 - Identification-bus and driver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Identification-bus and driver. 374.317 Section 374.317 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER...—bus and driver. Each bus and driver providing service shall be identified in a manner visible...

  7. 49 CFR 374.317 - Identification-bus and driver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Identification-bus and driver. 374.317 Section 374.317 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER...—bus and driver. Each bus and driver providing service shall be identified in a manner visible...

  8. 49 CFR 374.317 - Identification-bus and driver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Identification-bus and driver. 374.317 Section 374.317 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER...—bus and driver. Each bus and driver providing service shall be identified in a manner visible...

  9. Developing a Computer Program for Bus Routing. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Rita M.; Thomas, Warren H.

    A computer-based method was developed that can translate available data about schools, students, and bus facilities into a set of bus routes and schedules prior to the start of the school year. Each route can be so designed via the computer model that student riding time and bus capacity constraints are satisfied at the same time that total bus…

  10. Development and Implementation of a Bus Driver Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchovecky, John G.

    A bus driver training program was developed and implemented in a rural school district in an effort to improve the driving skills of the bus drivers. The program was tailored to meet the needs of the bus drivers and utilized various community agencies for demonstration and teaching purposes. The subject areas included in the program were driver…

  11. Ashford Conn. Gets Funds for New Cleaner School Bus

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Town of Ashford, Conn. will receive $20,000 from the USEPA to help pay for a new school bus that emits less pollution than its older bus. The new bus will help reduce pollution linked to health problems such as asthma and lung damage.

  12. Repeater For A Digital-Communication Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres-Guzman, Esteban; Olson, Stephen; Heaps, Tim

    1993-01-01

    Digital repeater circuit designed to extend range of communication on MIL-STD-1553 bus beyond original maximum allowable length of 300 ft. Circuit provides two-way communication, one way at time, and conforms to specifications of MIL-STD-1553. Crosstalk and instability eliminated.

  13. EPA Love the Bus in Texas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (Feb. 11, 2015) Texas' school bus drivers safely transport children to and from school every day and they should not have to worry about pollutants emitted from buses. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is awarding a total of $

  14. School Bus Accidents: Reducing Incidents and Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The number of children injured in nonfatal school bus accidents annually is more than double the number previously estimated. In Ohio alone, approximately 20,800 children younger than 18 were occupants of school buses that were involved in crashes in 2003 and 2004 (McGeehan 2007). Among those children, most had minor or no injuries. However, there…

  15. SDRAM bus schedule of HDTV video decoder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; He, Yan L.; Yu, Lu

    2001-12-01

    In this paper, a time division multiplexed task scheduling (TDM) is designed for HDTV video decoder is proposed. There are three tasks: to fetch decoded data from SDRAM for displaying (DIS), read the reference data from SDRAM for motion compensating (REF) and write the motion compensated data back to SDRAM (WB) on the bus. The proposed schedule is based on the novel 4 banks interlaced SDRAM storage structure which results in less overhead on read/write time. Two SDRAM of 64M bits (4Bank×512K×32bit) are used. Compared with two banks, the four banks storage strategy read/write data with 45% less time. Therefore the process data rates for those three tasks are reduced. TDM is developed by round robin scheduling and fixed slot allocating. There are both MB slot and task slot. As a result the conflicts on bus are avoided, and the buffer size is reduced 48% compared with the priority bus scheduling. Moreover, there is a compacted bus schedule for the worst case of stuffing owning to the reduced executing time on tasks. The size of buffer is reduced and the control logic is simplified.

  16. Energy DataBus (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-07-01

    NREL has developed the Energy DataBus, an open-sourced software that collects massive amounts of energy-related data at second-to-second intervals; stores it in a massive, scalable database; and turns it into useful information.

  17. Mission Services Evolution Center Message Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayorga, Arturo; Bristow, John O.; Butschky, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) Message Bus is a robust, lightweight, fault-tolerant middleware implementation that supports all messaging capabilities of the GMSEC API. This architecture is a distributed software system that routes messages based on message subject names and knowledge of the locations in the network of the interested software components.

  18. Prevalence of and factors associated with distraction among public transit bus drivers

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Russell; Huisingh, Carrie; McGwin, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Objective Recent research has suggested that driver distraction is a major cause of driving performance impairment and motor vehicle collisions. Research on the topic has focused on passenger vehicles, with studies suggesting that drivers may be distracted nearly 33% of the time spent driving. To date, no study has examined the prevalence of distraction specifically among public transit bus drivers. Methods Over a three-month period, trained investigators observed and recorded distraction behaviors of bus drivers. Distraction prevalence was compared by route characteristics (e.g., geographic area, travel speed) using chi-square test. A general estimating equation logistic regression was used to estimate p-values for distraction prevalence by driver demographics. Results Overall, there was a 39% prevalence of distraction. The most prevalent distractions were due to interactions with another passenger. Distractions were more prevalent among drivers <30 years of age or ≥50 years of age, on city streets or highways (relative to residential streets), and when there were more than 20 passengers. Distractions were the least prevalent in suburban areas, with the highest prevalence observed in city centers and rural areas. Conclusions Driver distraction is a common problem for public transit bus drivers, mainly due to other passengers. Drivers should be educated on the hazards of distracted driving and on ways to avoid distraction. PMID:24433192

  19. Bus 54 -- Where are you? A school bus intelligent information system

    SciTech Connect

    Truett, L.F.; Moore, S.; Tonn, B.; Conley, T.

    1998-07-01

    Although major accidents involving school buses are rare (only about 0.3% of all fatal crashes since 1986 are classified as school-bus-related), even minor accidents and breakdowns cause a great deal of parental anxiety. The objective of this research is to design an efficient, cost-effective, accurate, and secure system that will track individual school buses and communicate appropriate information to the school system`s central administration unit, to the school transportation administrator, and to parents of children on the bus. The greatest benefit of the proposed information system is that parents and officials can always know the location and condition (these conditions would vary depending on the needs of a particular school system) of the school buses. In case of an accident or mechanical problem, when emergency crews are needed, they can be dispatched almost immediately with a good understanding of the problem and the exact location of the bus. In addition to being able to track the bus while the child is on board, parents will be able to determine the location of their child`s bus prior to its arrival in the morning in order to prevent the child from needing to wait outside in inclement weather. The information available to parents can also be expanded to include maps of limited routes (e.g., snow routes). Basically, the Bus 54 concept consists of a bus component and a central data processing unit. Each bus will be outfitted with a global positioning satellite (GPS) device, a wireless communication device, and wireless data communication service. The central data processing unit will receive and process information from the buses and provide information access to parents and officials via an Internet link.

  20. Analysis and forecasting of the particulate matter (PM) concentration levels over four major cities of China using hybrid models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Shanshan; Liu, Feng; Wang, Jianzhou; Sun, Beibei

    2014-12-01

    The analysis and forecasting of PM concentrations play a significant role in regulatory planning on the reduction and control of PM emission and precautionary strategies. However, accurate PM forecasting, which is needed to establish an early warning system, is still a huge challenge and a critical issue. Determining how to address the accurate forecasting problem becomes an even more significant and urgent task. Based on gray correlation analysis (GCA), Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD), Cuckoo search (CS) and Back-propagation artificial neutral networks (BPANN), this paper proposes the CS-EEMD-BPANN model for forecasting PM concentrations. Prior to establishing this model, gray correlation has been uniquely used to search for possible predictors of PM among other air pollutants (CO, NO2, O3 and SO2) and meteorological environments (wind speed, wind direction, temperature, humidity and pressure). The proposed method was investigated in four major cities of China (Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Lanzhou) with different characteristics of climatic, terrain and emission sources. The results of the gray correlation analysis indicate that CO, NO2 and SO2 are more related to PM and that the incorporation of these predictors can significantly improve the model performance predictability, suggesting the effectiveness of our developed method.

  1. Numerical study of urban traffic flow with dedicated bus lane and intermittent bus lane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, H. B.

    2010-08-01

    Based on the cellular automaton traffic flow model and the concept of public transport priority, a two-lane traffic model with an intermittent bus lane is proposed and the properties of urban traffic flow are studied. The cases of traffic with a dedicated bus lane (DBL), an intermittent bus lane (IBL) and an ordinary two-lane traffic are simulated, and comparisons in the form of the fundamental diagrams and the velocity-density profiles are made between them. It is shown that the DBL has the advantage of freeing buses from traffic interference and also has the disadvantage of disrupting traffic, the IBL is more efficient in improving the bus flow than ordinary two-lane traffic and maintaining the car flow at a higher level at the same time than the DBL, while the ordinary two-lane traffic suppresses public transportation and is not advantageous in easing urban traffic congestion. Also it is indicated that the DBL is only appropriate for low traffic flow in a two-lane traffic system, and this limitation can be partly overcome by opening the bus lane to general traffic intermittently when the bus lane is not in use by buses.

  2. [Sleep habits and traffic accidents in inter-provincial bus drivers of Arequipa, Peru].

    PubMed

    Caso, Alex; Rey de Castro, Jorge; Rosales-Mayor, Edmundo

    2014-01-01

    In order to determine sleep habits in bus drivers and their relationship to accidents in the city of Arequipa, Peru, a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in a non-probabilistic sample of 166 drivers. Driving hours per day were 9.4 ± 3.7. 54% (89) drive over 4 hours without stopping; 74% (123) drive at night; and 87% (145) sleep on the bus. 75% reported fatigue while driving (124). 27% (45) had drowsiness; 24% (40) reported having been in or on the verge of an accident while driving. Sleepiness or fatigue while driving was common in this population and their driving and rest habits could contribute to this.

  3. 58. VIEW OF SIGNAL BUS SECTION NUMBER 2 LOCATED OVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. VIEW OF SIGNAL BUS SECTION NUMBER 2 LOCATED OVER THE CONTROL ROOM MEZZANINE IN THE SIGNAL POWER CONDITIONING ROOM. BUS IS A HEAVY COPPER BAR APPROXIMATELY 1/2" BY 4" WHICH CONDUCTS POWER THROUGHOUT THE POWER PLANT. BUS ARE PROTECTED BY A BRICK AND SOAPSTONE HOUSING. OPENINGS FOR INSPECTION AND ACCESS WOULD NORMALLY BE PROTECTED BY GLASS DOORS. THE BUS WOULD BE SUPPORTED ON INSULATORS WITHIN THE BRICK CHAMBER. BUS WAS REMOVED AND SALVAGED WHEN THE STATION WAS ABANDONED. THE OBJECT IN THE TOP CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH IS A POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER USED TO REDUCE BUS POTENTIAL OF 2200 VOLTS TO LOW VOLTAGES SAFE FOR USE IN CONTROL ROOM CIRCUITRY. POTENTIAL TRANSFORMERS ARE PRECISION DEVICES WHICH PRODUCE AN ACCURATE LOW VOLTAGE ANALOG OF THE HIGH VOLTAGE ON THE BUS. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  4. Integer programming model for optimizing bus timetable using genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wihartiko, F. D.; Buono, A.; Silalahi, B. P.

    2017-01-01

    Bus timetable gave an information for passengers to ensure the availability of bus services. Timetable optimal condition happened when bus trips frequency could adapt and suit with passenger demand. In the peak time, the number of bus trips would be larger than the off-peak time. If the number of bus trips were more frequent than the optimal condition, it would make a high operating cost for bus operator. Conversely, if the number of trip was less than optimal condition, it would make a bad quality service for passengers. In this paper, the bus timetabling problem would be solved by integer programming model with modified genetic algorithm. Modification was placed in the chromosomes design, initial population recovery technique, chromosomes reconstruction and chromosomes extermination on specific generation. The result of this model gave the optimal solution with accuracy 99.1%.

  5. Priorities for an age-friendly bus system.

    PubMed

    Broome, Kieran; Worrall, Linda; McKenna, Kryss; Boldy, Duncan

    2010-09-01

    This article presents the results of a study on the barriers and facilitators to bus use for people aged 60 or older. Two complementary methodologies, nominal group technique and focussed ethnography, were used to identify barriers and facilitators and rank their importance. Two sample sites from Queensland, Australia, were selected, with 227 people participating in the nominal group technique and 40 people participating in the focussed ethnography component. Seven priorities for age-friendly bus systems emerged from the data: vehicle entrance/exit; bus driver friendliness and helpfulness; timetables and scheduling of buses; bus stop locations; pedestrian infrastructure; information and training for older people; and bus routes and destinations. These findings will assist researchers, policy makers, and transport providers to set evidence-based strategic directions for creating age-friendly bus systems. Both methods provide complementary perspectives on bus usability, which could not be gained from either method alone.

  6. Spacecraft design project multipurpose satellite bus MPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellman, Lyle; Riley, John; Szostak, Michael; Watkins, Joseph; Willhelm, Joseph; Yale, Gary

    1990-01-01

    The thrust of this project was to design not a single spacecraft, but to design a multimission bus capable of supporting several current payloads and unnamed, unspecified future payloads. Spiraling costs of spacecraft and shrinking defense budgets necessitated a fresh look at the feasibility of a multimission spacecraft bus. The design team chose two very diverse and different payloads, and along with them two vastly different orbits, to show that multimission spacecraft buses are an area where indeed more research and effort needs to be made. Tradeoffs, of course, were made throughout the design, but optimization of subsystem components limited weight and volume penalties, performance degradation, and reliability concerns. Simplicity was chosen over more complex, sophisticated and usually more efficient designs. Cost of individual subsystem components was not a primary concern in the design phase, but every effort was made to chose flight tested and flight proven hardware. Significant cost savings could be realized if a standard spacecraft bus was indeed designed and purchased in finite quantities.

  7. Tecnical Note: Analysis of non-regulated vehicular emissions by extractive FTIR spectrometry: tests on a hybrid car in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, F.; Grutter, M.; Jazcilevich, A.; González-Oropeza, R.

    2006-11-01

    A methodology to acquire valuable information on the chemical composition and evolution of vehicular emissions is presented. The analysis of the gases is performed by passing a constant flow of a sample gas from the tail-pipe into a 10 L multi-pass cell. The absorption spectra within the cell are obtained using an FTIR spectrometer at 0.5 cm-1 resolution along a 13.1 m optical path. Additionally, the total flow from the exhaust is continuously measured from a differential pressure sensor on a textit{Pitot} tube installed at the exit of the exhaust. This configuration aims to obtain a good speciation capability by coadding spectra during 30 s and reporting the emission (in g/km) of both criteria and non-regulated pollutants, such as CO2, CO, NO, SO2, NH3, HCHO and some NMHC, during predetermined driving cycles. The advantages and disadvantages of increasing the measurement frequency, as well as the effect of other parameters such as spectral resolution, cell volume and flow rate, are discussed. To test and evaluate the proposed technique, experiments were performed on a dynamometer running FTP-75 and typical driving cycles for the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) on a Toyota Prius hybrid vehicle. This car is an example of recent marketed automotive technology dedicated to reduced emissions, increasing the need for sensitive detection techniques. This study shows the potential of the proposed technique to measure and report in real time the emissions of a large variety of pollutants, even from a super ultra-low emission vehicle (SULEV). The emissions of HC's, NOx, CO and CO2 obtained here were compared to experiments performed in other locations with the same model vehicle. The proposed technique provides a tool for future studies comparing in detail the emissions of vehicles using alternative fuels and emission control systems.

  8. Communication design for multi-boards based on VME bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Song, Fazhi; Wei, Kai; Fu, Zhenxian

    2015-02-01

    As a widely used open-architecture computer bus ,VME bus is increasingly applied in military, aerospace, transportation and other large-scale control systems. Lithography, a very delicate and complicated integrated circuit manufacturing equipment, uses many circuit boards with VME interface in its control system, including one single-board computer, many movement control boards and one data acquisition board. This paper designs communication modules which include VME bus module and VME user-defined bus module for multi-boards in Lithography control system. VME bus module is designed for the communication between the single-board computer and movement control boards and VME user-defined bus is designed for the communication between movement control boards and data acquisition board. The experimental results demonstrate its effectiveness.

  9. 49 CFR 605.18 - Comments by private school bus operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Comments by private school bus operators. 605.18... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS School Bus Agreements § 605.18 Comments by private school bus operators. Private school bus operators may file written comments on an...

  10. 49 CFR 605.18 - Comments by private school bus operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Comments by private school bus operators. 605.18... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS School Bus Agreements § 605.18 Comments by private school bus operators. Private school bus operators may file written comments on an...

  11. 49 CFR 605.18 - Comments by private school bus operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Comments by private school bus operators. 605.18... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS School Bus Agreements § 605.18 Comments by private school bus operators. Private school bus operators may file written comments on an...

  12. 49 CFR 605.18 - Comments by private school bus operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Comments by private school bus operators. 605.18... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS School Bus Agreements § 605.18 Comments by private school bus operators. Private school bus operators may file written comments on an...

  13. 49 CFR 605.18 - Comments by private school bus operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Comments by private school bus operators. 605.18... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS School Bus Agreements § 605.18 Comments by private school bus operators. Private school bus operators may file written comments on an...

  14. TMS communications hardware. Volume 2: Bus interface unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. S.; Hopkins, G. T.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype coaxial cable bus communication system used in the Trend Monitoring System to interconnect intelligent graphics terminals to a host minicomputer is described. The terminals and host are connected to the bus through a microprocessor-based RF modem termed a Bus Interface Unit (BIU). The BIU hardware and the Carrier Sense Multiple Access Listen-While-Talk protocol used on the network are described.

  15. Pipelined asynchronous time-division multiplexing optical bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, S. Q.; Li, Yueming

    1997-12-01

    We propose a pipelined asynchronous time-division multiplexing optical bus. Such a bus can use one of two hardwared priority schemes: the linear priority scheme and the round-robin priority scheme. Our simulation results show that the performance of the proposed bus is significantly better than the performances of known pipelined synchronous time-division multiplexing optical buses. The possibilities of using our buses to construct multichannel switches and multidimensional processor arrays are also discussed.

  16. The SMART MIL-STD-1553 bus adapter hardware manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ton, T. T.

    1981-01-01

    The SMART Multiplexer Interface Adapter, (SMIA) a complete system interface for message structure of the MIL-STD-1553, is described. It provides buffering and storage for transmitted and received data and handles all the necessary handshaking to interface between parallel 8-bit data bus and a MIL-STD serial bit stream. The bus adapter is configured as either a bus controller of a remote terminal interface. It is coupled directly to the multiplex bus, or stub coupled through an additional isolation transformer located at the connection point. Fault isolation resistors provide short circuit protection.

  17. Bus transport network model with ideal n-depth clique network topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xu-Hua; Chen, Guang; Sun, Bao; Chen, Sheng-Yong; Wang, Wan-Liang

    2011-11-01

    We propose an ideal n-depth clique network model. In this model, the original network is composed of cliques (maximal complete subgraphs) that overlap with each other. The network expands continuously by the addition of new cliques. The final diameter of the network can be set in advance, namely, it is controllable. Assuming that the diameter of the network is n, the network exhibits a logistic structure with (n+1) layers. In this structure, the 0th layer represents the original network and each node of the (m)th layer (1≤m≤n) corresponds to a clique in the (m-1)th layer. In the growth process of the network, we ensure that any (m)th layer network is composed of overlapping cliques. Any node in an (m)th layer network corresponds to an m-depth community in the original network, and the diameter of an m-depth community is m. Therefore, the (n-1)th layer network will contain only one clique, the (n)th layer network will contain only one node, and the diameter of the corresponding original network is n. Then an ideal n-depth clique network will be obtained. Based on the ideal n-depth clique network model, we construct a bus transport network model with an ideal n-depth clique network topology (ICNBTN). Moreover, our study compares this model with the real bus transport network (RealBTN) of three major cities in China and a recently introduced bus transport network model (BTN) whose network properties correspond well with those of real BTNs. The network properties of the ICNBTN are much closer to those of the RealBTN than those of the BTN are. At the same time, the ICNBTN has higher clustering extent of bus routes, smaller network diameter, which corresponds to shorter maximum transfer times in a bus network, and lower average shortest path time coefficient than the BTN and the RealBTN. Therefore, the ICNBTN can achieve higher transfer efficiency for a bus transport system.

  18. Development of dual-rate MIL-STD-1773A data bus transceiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonebright, Rodney K.; Kim, Jae H.; Hughes, Rod; Clement, Jay W.; Bocek, Thomas M.; Chan, Eric Y.; Nitardy, John H.; Hong, Chi-Shain

    1996-10-01

    Boeing has first developed a space-qualifiable, radiation- hardened, dual-rate MIL-STD-1773A fiber-optic transceiver for military command/response time division multiplexed data bus applications. This will provide an enhancement path from a fixed low data rate MIL-STD-1553 bus to a high data rate MIL-STD-1773 bus with minor modification of terminals supporting the existing function. The transceiver operates at dual-rates of both 1 and 20 Mbps over temperature (minus 25 to plus 85 degrees Celsius), and it shows a large dynamic range of greater than 20 dB in support of 32-node star network; a sensitivity of up to minus 38.7 dBm and a saturation of minus 16.1 dBm (limited mainly by test source power) at BER less than or equal to 1 multiplied by 10-10. These transceivers are currently being utilized for space and military applications at DARPA, NASA, and JPL. In this paper we describe the dual-rate transceiver design requirements, ASIC and hybrid design, and performance test results.

  19. When the Wheels on the Bus Go Round: Social Interactions on the School Bus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galliger, Courtney C.; Tisak, Marie S.; Tisak, John

    2009-01-01

    Children's social interactions are often dependent upon the setting or context in which they occur. The current study explored the school bus as a unique context for social interaction. One hundred and fifty-seven elementary school students (78 males and 79 females), in grades 3, 4, and 5, completed a questionnaire concerning the rate and types of…

  20. Effect of stoppage time on motion of a bus through a sequence of signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    We study the dynamic motion of a bus moving through the series of traffic signals where the bus stops at bus stops during a time. The dynamic state of the bus depends highly on both stoppage time at the bus stop and cycle time of the signal. It is found that the bus motion has two kinds of dynamic states: the one is the normal state and the other is the offset state. In the normal state, the bus stops normally at both bus stops and signals. In the offset state, the bus passes timely through the signal sometimes and the stoppage time at the bus stop is offset against the stopping time at the signal. If the bus speed has the same value as the car speed, the travel time of the bus is consistent with that of the car in the offset state. The region map (phase diagram) is shown for two kinds of dynamic states: the normal and offset states.

  1. Interface Provides Standard-Bus Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culliton, William G.

    1995-01-01

    Microprocessor-controlled interface (IEEE-488/LVABI) incorporates service-request and direct-memory-access features. Is circuit card enabling digital communication between system called "laser auto-covariance buffer interface" (LVABI) and compatible personal computer via general-purpose interface bus (GPIB) conforming to Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standard 488. Interface serves as second interface enabling first interface to exploit advantages of GPIB, via utility software written specifically for GPIB. Advantages include compatibility with multitasking and support of communication among multiple computers. Basic concept also applied in designing interfaces for circuits other than LVABI for unidirectional or bidirectional handling of parallel data up to 16 bits wide.

  2. Spaceborne Fiber Optic Data Bus (SFODB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bretthauer, Joy W.; Chalfant, Chuck H.; Orlando, Fred J.; Parkerson, P.; Rezek, Ed; Sawyer, Marc

    1999-01-01

    Spaceborne Fiber Optic Data Bus (SFODB) is an IEEE 1393 compliant, gigabit per second, fiber optic network specifically designed to support the real-time, on-board data handling requirements of remote sensing spacecraft. The network is fault tolerant highly reliable, and capable of withstanding the rigors of launch and the harsh space environment. SFODB achieves this operational and environmental performance while maintaining the small size, light weight, and low power necessary for spaceborne applications. On December 9, 1998, SFODB was successfully demonstrated at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC).

  3. An SAE high speed ring bus overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroeger, Brian W.; Shih, Hubert

    An overview of the protocols and important features of the SAE high-speed ring bus (HSRB) standard is presented here, along with the functional design of a typical ring interface unit architecture. The counterrotating ring topology, with both loopback and bypass mechanisms, provides the high degree of fault tolerance desirable in many military and avionic systems. The error-detection, fault-detection, and recovery mechanisms are briefly described to illustrate the robustness of the HSRB system. The reserved-priority token-passing protocol is shown to provide efficient and deterministic performance, uselful in real-time applications where messages must be transmitted predictably, quickly, and reliably.

  4. Redesign of Transjakarta Bus Driver's Cabin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardi Safitri, Dian; Azmi, Nora; Singh, Gurbinder; Astuti, Pudji

    2016-02-01

    Ergonomic risk at work stations with type Seated Work Control was one of the problems faced by Transjakarta bus driver. Currently “Trisakti” type bus, one type of bus that is used by Transjakarta in corridor 9, serving route Pinang Ranti - Pluit, gained many complaints from drivers. From the results of Nordic Body Map questionnaires given to 30 drivers, it was known that drivers feel pain in the neck, arms, hips, and buttocks. Allegedly this was due to the seat position and the button/panel bus has a considerable distance range (1 meter) to be achieved by drivers. In addition, preliminary results of the questionnaire using Workstation Checklist identified their complaints about uncomfortable cushion, driver's seat backrest, and the exact position of the AC is above the driver head. To reduce the risk level of ergonomics, then did research to design the cabin by using a generic approach to designing products. The risk analysis driver posture before the design was done by using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA), and Quick Exposure Checklist (QEC), while the calculation of the moment the body is done by using software Mannequin Pro V10.2. Furthermore, the design of generic products was done through the stages: need metric-matrix, house of quality, anthropometric data collection, classification tree concept, concept screening, scoring concept, design and manufacture of products in the form of two-dimensional. While the design after design risk analysis driver posture was done by using RULA, REBA, and calculation of moments body as well as the design visualized using software 3DMax. From the results of analysis before the draft design improvements cabin RULA obtained scores of 6, REBA 9, and the result amounted to 57.38% QEC and moment forces on the back is 247.3 LbF.inch and on the right hip is 72.9 LbF.in. While the results of the proposed improvements cabin design RULA obtained scores of 3, REBA 4, and the moment of force on

  5. Using the Mil. Std 1553B data bus in future spacecraft onboard applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plummer, Chris; Bordes, Yves

    2002-07-01

    This paper discusses the use of the Mil. Std 1553B data bus as the principal onboard data handling bus for future spacecraft applications. The paper takes a pragmatic approach by: Identifying the characteristics of the onboard bus traffic and its characteristics; Looking at future trends in onboard bus traffic; Describing the characteristics of the Mil. Std 1553B data bus; Proposing techniques that can be used on the Mil. Std 1553B data bus in future spacecraft application.

  6. School Bus Driver Instructional Program. Instructor's Guide--Advanced Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. National Highway Safety Bureau.

    Geared to behavioral objectives, the instruction is organized into programed units on emergency driving techniques, first aid, field trips, transporting exceptional students, detecting hazards, controlling the position of the bus, driving under special conditions, and preventive maintenance of the bus. Each unit is constructed around content…

  7. Preliminary Investigation of Workload on Intrastate Bus Traffic Controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen Bin, Teo; Azlis-Sani, Jalil; Nur Annuar Mohd Yunos, Muhammad; Ismail, S. M. Sabri S. M.; Tajedi, Noor Aqilah Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    The daily routine of bus traffic controller which involves high mental processes would have a direct impact on the level of workload. To date, the level of workload on the bus traffic controllers in Malaysia is relatively unknown. Excessive workload on bus traffic controllers would affect the control and efficiency of the system. This paper served to study the workload on bus traffic controllers and justify the needs to conduct further detailed research on this field. The objectives of this research are to identify the level of workload on the intrastate bus traffic controllers. Based on the results, recommendations will be proposed for improvements and future studies. The level of workload for the bus traffic controllers is quantified using questionnaire adapted from NASA TLX. Interview sessions were conducted for validation of workload. Sixteen respondents were involved and it was found that the average level of workload based on NASA TLX was 6.91. It was found that workload is not affected by gender and marital status. This study also showed that the level of workload and working experience of bus traffic controllers has a strong positive linear relationship. This study would serve as a guidance and reference related to this field. Since this study is a preliminary investigation, further detailed studies could be conducted to obtain a better comprehension regarding the bus traffic controllers.

  8. A decentralized software bus based on IP multicas ting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John R.; Montgomery, Todd

    1995-01-01

    We describe decentralized reconfigurable implementation of a conference management system based on the low-level Internet Protocol (IP) multicasting protocol. IP multicasting allows low-cost, world-wide, two-way transmission of data between large numbers of conferencing participants through the Multicasting Backbone (MBone). Each conference is structured as a software bus -- a messaging system that provides a run-time interconnection model that acts as a separate agent (i.e., the bus) for routing, queuing, and delivering messages between distributed programs. Unlike the client-server interconnection model, the software bus model provides a level of indirection that enhances the flexibility and reconfigurability of a distributed system. Current software bus implementations like POLYLITH, however, rely on a centralized bus process and point-to-point protocols (i.e., TCP/IP) to route, queue, and deliver messages. We implement a software bus called the MULTIBUS that relies on a separate process only for routing and uses a reliable IP multicasting protocol for delivery of messages. The use of multicasting means that interconnections are independent of IP machine addresses. This approach allows reconfiguration of bus participants during system execution without notifying other participants of new IP addresses. The use of IP multicasting also permits an economy of scale in the number of participants. We describe the MULITIBUS protocol elements and show how our implementation performs better than centralized bus implementations.

  9. Network Extender for MIL-STD-1553 Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcus, Julius; Hanson, T. David

    2003-01-01

    An extender system for MIL-STD-1553 buses transparently couples bus components at multiple developer sites. The bus network extender is a relatively inexpensive system that minimizes the time and cost of integration of avionic systems by providing a convenient mechanism for early testing without the need to transport the usual test equipment and personnel to an integration facility. This bus network extender can thus alleviate overloading of the test facility while enabling the detection of interface problems that can occur during the integration of avionic systems. With this bus extender in place, developers can correct and adjust their own hardware and software before products leave a development site. Currently resident at Johnson Space Center, the bus network extender is used to test the functionality of equipment that, although remotely located, is connected through a MILSTD- 1553 bus. Inasmuch as the standard bus protocol for avionic equipment is that of MIL-STD-1553, companies that supply MIL-STD-1553-compliant equipment to government or industry and that need long-distance communication support might benefit from this network bus extender

  10. Parents' Perceptions of the Rural School Bus Ride

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramage, Rob; Howley, Aimee

    2005-01-01

    This article reports findings from a study of the perceptions of parents about the experience of long bus rides on their children. Twenty-six parents, whose homes were located on the longest bus route in a rural Midwestern school district, provided interviews regarding the experiences of a total of 37 students. In the analysis of the interview…

  11. A High Efficiency DC Bus Regulator / RPC for Spacecraft Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2004-02-01

    DC bus voltage regulation may be required in future high powered spacecraft due to the length of the busses or because they are not generated at precise voltage levels. In these cases the regulation range is often only a few percent increase or decrease, but conventional DC voltage regulators switch all the power passing through them, and this level of power switched determines the size and losses in the regulator. A recently developed concept uses a low power DC-DC converter in series with the bus to raise or lower the bus voltage over a small range. This partial power processing technique combines the small size and power losses of the low power converter with the ability to regulate, (over a small range) a high power bus. The Series Connected Buck Boost Regulator (SCBBR) described herein provides bus regulation with an efficiency of 98%. The circuit also provides bus switching and overcurrent limiting functions of a Remote Power Controller (RPC). This paper describes the circuit design and performance of a breadboard SCBBR configured as a bus voltage regulator providing +/- 40% voltage regulation range, bus switching, and overload limiting.

  12. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project: Evaluation Results Report

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    ... Apr-12 May-12 Jun-12 Jul-12 Aug-12 Sep-12 Oct-12 Nov-12 Dec-12 Jan-13 Feb-13 Mar-13 Miles Kilometers Bus Propulsion System FC System FC System MBRC 2016 Target Bus MBRC 2016 Target ...

  13. 16. Bus Room (also known as Switch Gear Room), view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Bus Room (also known as Switch Gear Room), view to the southeast. An air circuit breaker compressor (visible in photograph number 2) was once attached to the main bus relay visible in the background of the photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  14. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2008-10-01

    This report provides preliminary results from a National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluation of a protoptye fuel cell transit bus operating at Connecticut Transit in Hartford. Included are descriptions of the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment; early results and agency experience are also provided.

  15. Application of CAN-bus Network in Intelligent parking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jianjun, WU; Juan, Hu

    Convenient life makes intelligent parking every- where. This paper describes how to connect the various separate modern terminal of intelligent parking with CAN-bus network, and the competitive advantage of the system by using the CAN-bus network. From a technical point of view, this paper describes the development trend of intelligent parking in next few years.

  16. 32 CFR 935.138 - Motor bus operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Motor bus operation. 935.138 Section 935.138 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.138 Motor bus operation. Each person operating a...

  17. 32 CFR 935.138 - Motor bus operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor bus operation. 935.138 Section 935.138 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.138 Motor bus operation. Each person operating a...

  18. Quantifying the Benefits of Transportation Controls in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas-Bracho, L.; Fernández-Bremauntz, A.; Zuk, M.; Garibay, V.; Iniestra, R.; Franco, P.

    2004-12-01

    Similar to most large cities, the transportation sector in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) constitutes the largest source of air pollution emissions, which result in significant impacts on human health. Although the majority of MCMA residents use public transportation, the share of trips in private vehicles is rising and these vehicles have become the largest contributor to mobile emissions. To reduce these emissions, there is an urgent need to improve the current fleet, improve the quality of fuels, and modify the paradigm of private car use, by providing clean, safe, efficient and comfortable public transportation options. Here we present the potential human health benefits of a set of five mobile source control measures that span public and private transportation options: Taxi fleet renovation, Hybrid buses, Metro Expansion, and the introduction of low sulfur gasoline and Tier II vehicles. We also discuss the methodology and preliminary results of the analysis of the implementation of the project for a Bus Rapid Transit system in Mexico City, in terms of its impacts on personal exposures, emissions, and public health.

  19. Study of High-Performance Satellite Bus System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, Tatsuya; Noda, Atsushi; Tsuiki, Atsuo

    2002-01-01

    Speaking of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites like earth observation satellites, the light-weighing and high performance bus system will make an great contribution to mission components development.Also, the rising ratio of payload to total mass will reduce the launch cost.Office of Research and Development in National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is studying such a sophisticated satellite bus system.The system is expected to consist of the following advanced components and subsystems which in parallel have been developed from the element level by the Office. (a) Attitude control system (ACS) This subsystem will provide function to very accurately determine and control the satellite attitude with a next generation star tracker, a GPS receiver, and the onboard software to achieve this function. (b) Electric power system (EPS) This subsystem will be getting much lighter and powerful by utilizing the more efficient solar battery cell, power MOS FET, and DC/DC converter.Besides, to cumulate and supply the power, the Office will also study a Litium battery for space which is light and small enough to contribute to reducing size and weight of the EPS. (c) Onboard computing system (OCS) This computing system will provide function of high speed processing.The MPU (Multi Processing Unit) cell in the OCS is capable of executing approximately 200 MIPS (Mega Instructions Per Second).The OCS will play an important role not only enough for the ACS to function well but also enough for the image processing data to be handled. (d) Thermal control system (TCS) As a thermal control system, mission-friendly system is under study.A small hybrid fluid thermal control system that the Office is studying with a combination of mechanical pump loop and capillary pump loop will be robust to change of thermal loads and facilitate the system to control the temperature. (e) Communications system (CS) In order to transmit high rate data, the office is studying an optical link system

  20. Method and systems for a radiation tolerant bus interface circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinstler, Gary A. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A bus management tool that allows communication to be maintained between a group of nodes operatively connected on two busses in the presence of radiation by transmitting periodically a first message from one to another of the nodes on one of the busses, determining whether the first message was received by the other of the nodes on the first bus, and when it is determined that the first message was not received by the other of the nodes, transmitting a recovery command to the other of the nodes on a second of the of busses. Methods, systems, and articles of manufacture consistent with the present invention also provide for a bus recovery tool on the other node that re-initializes a bus interface circuit operatively connecting the other node to the first bus in response to the recovery command.

  1. The Wheels on the Bus Go “Buy Buy Buy”: School Bus Advertising Laws

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    School buses, a practical necessity for millions of children, are at the center of new efforts to raise revenue. School bus advertising laws bring public health and commercialization concerns to the school setting. In doing so, they potentially expose school districts to First Amendment lawsuits. I examined various school bus advertising bills and laws. I reviewed First Amendment “forum analysis” as applied in the transit and school settings to clarify how this legal test may affect school districts subject to such laws. I have made recommendations for school districts to enact appropriate policies to ensure that such advertising does not undermine public health and to enable the districts to maintain control over their property. PMID:22742065

  2. The wheels on the bus go "buy buy buy": school bus advertising laws.

    PubMed

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2012-09-01

    School buses, a practical necessity for millions of children, are at the center of new efforts to raise revenue. School bus advertising laws bring public health and commercialization concerns to the school setting. In doing so, they potentially expose school districts to First Amendment lawsuits. I examined various school bus advertising bills and laws. I reviewed First Amendment "forum analysis" as applied in the transit and school settings to clarify how this legal test may affect school districts subject to such laws. I have made recommendations for school districts to enact appropriate policies to ensure that such advertising does not undermine public health and to enable the districts to maintain control over their property.

  3. Bus industry market study. Report -- Task 3.2: Fuel cell/battery powered bus system

    SciTech Connect

    Zalbowitz, M.

    1992-06-02

    In support of the commercialization of fuel cells for transportation, Georgetown University, as a part of the DOE/DOT Fuel Cell Transit Bus Program, conducted a market study to determine the inventory of passenger buses in service as of December, 1991, the number of buses delivered in 1991 and an estimate of the number of buses to be delivered in 1992. Short term and long term market projections of deliveries were also made. Data was collected according to type of bus and the field was divided into the following categories which are defined in the report: transit buses, school buses, commercial non-transit buses, and intercity buses. The findings of this study presented with various tables of data collected from identified sources as well as narrative analysis based upon interviews conducted during the survey.

  4. Bus bar electrical feedthrough for electrorefiner system

    DOEpatents

    Williamson, Mark; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Willit, James L; Barnes, Laurel A; Blaskovitz, Robert J

    2013-12-03

    A bus bar electrical feedthrough for an electrorefiner system may include a retaining plate, electrical isolator, and/or contact block. The retaining plate may include a central opening. The electrical isolator may include a top portion, a base portion, and a slot extending through the top and base portions. The top portion of the electrical isolator may be configured to extend through the central opening of the retaining plate. The contact block may include an upper section, a lower section, and a ridge separating the upper and lower sections. The upper section of the contact block may be configured to extend through the slot of the electrical isolator and the central opening of the retaining plate. Accordingly, relatively high electrical currents may be transferred into a glovebox or hot-cell facility at a relatively low cost and higher amperage capacity without sacrificing atmosphere integrity.

  5. Partial least square method for modelling ergonomic risks factors on express bus accidents in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Yusof bin; Taha, Zahari bin

    2015-02-01

    Public, stake holders and authorities in Malaysian government show great concern towards high numbers of passenger's injuries and passengers fatalities in express bus accident. This paper studies the underlying factors involved in determining ergonomics risk factors towards human error as the reasons in express bus accidents in order to develop an integrated analytical framework. Reliable information about drivers towards bus accident should lead to the design of strategies intended to make the public feel safe in public transport services. In addition there is an analysis of ergonomics risk factors to determine highly ergonomic risk factors which led to accidents. The research was performed in east coast of peninsular Malaysia using variance-based structural equation modeling namely the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression techniques. A questionnaire survey was carried out at random among 65 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuantan in Pahang and among 49 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuala Terengganu in Terengganu to all towns in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia. The ergonomic risks factors questionnaire is based on demographic information, occupational information, organizational safety climate, ergonomic workplace, physiological factors, stress at workplace, physical fatigue and near miss accidents. The correlation and significant values between latent constructs (near miss accident) were analyzed using SEM SmartPLS, 3M. The finding shows that the correlated ergonomic risks factors (occupational information, t=2.04, stress at workplace, t = 2.81, physiological factor, t=2.08) are significant to physical fatigue and as the mediator to near miss accident at t = 2.14 at p<0.05and T-statistics, t>1.96. The results shows that the effects of physical fatigue due to ergonomic risks factors influence the human error as the reasons in express bus accidents.

  6. Partial least square method for modelling ergonomic risks factors on express bus accidents in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Hashim, Yusof bin; Taha, Zahari bin

    2015-02-03

    Public, stake holders and authorities in Malaysian government show great concern towards high numbers of passenger’s injuries and passengers fatalities in express bus accident. This paper studies the underlying factors involved in determining ergonomics risk factors towards human error as the reasons in express bus accidents in order to develop an integrated analytical framework. Reliable information about drivers towards bus accident should lead to the design of strategies intended to make the public feel safe in public transport services. In addition there is an analysis of ergonomics risk factors to determine highly ergonomic risk factors which led to accidents. The research was performed in east coast of peninsular Malaysia using variance-based structural equation modeling namely the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression techniques. A questionnaire survey was carried out at random among 65 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuantan in Pahang and among 49 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuala Terengganu in Terengganu to all towns in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia. The ergonomic risks factors questionnaire is based on demographic information, occupational information, organizational safety climate, ergonomic workplace, physiological factors, stress at workplace, physical fatigue and near miss accidents. The correlation and significant values between latent constructs (near miss accident) were analyzed using SEM SmartPLS, 3M. The finding shows that the correlated ergonomic risks factors (occupational information, t=2.04, stress at workplace, t = 2.81, physiological factor, t=2.08) are significant to physical fatigue and as the mediator to near miss accident at t = 2.14 at p<0.05and T-statistics, t>1.96. The results shows that the effects of physical fatigue due to ergonomic risks factors influence the human error as the reasons in express bus accidents.

  7. Task Analysis Assessment on Intrastate Bus Traffic Controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen Bin, Teo; Azlis-Sani, Jalil; Nur Annuar Mohd Yunos, Muhammad; Ismail, S. M. Sabri S. M.; Tajedi, Noor Aqilah Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    Public transportation acts as social mobility and caters the daily needs of the society for passengers to travel from one place to another. This is true for a country like Malaysia where international trade has been growing significantly over the past few decades. Task analysis assessment was conducted with the consideration of cognitive ergonomic view towards problem related to human factors. Conducting research regarding the task analysis on bus traffic controllers had allowed a better understanding regarding the nature of work and the overall monitoring activities of the bus services. This paper served to study the task analysis assessment on intrastate bus traffic controllers and the objectives of this study include to conduct task analysis assessment on the bus traffic controllers. Task analysis assessment for the bus traffic controllers was developed via Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA). There are a total of five subsidiary tasks on level one and only two were able to be further broken down in level two. Development of HTA allowed a better understanding regarding the work and this could further ease the evaluation of the tasks conducted by the bus traffic controllers. Thus, human error could be reduced for the safety of all passengers and increase the overall efficiency of the system. Besides, it could assist in improving the operation of the bus traffic controllers by modelling or synthesizing the existing tasks if necessary.

  8. Integrated optics bus access module for intramachine communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karioja, Pentti; Tammela, Simo K. T.; Hannula, Tapio

    1991-12-01

    The feasibility of a passive bidirectional fiber optic bus and the packaging considerations of a bus access module have been studied. The bus uses 110/125 micrometers HCS fiber and passive integrated optic couplers for bus access. The access couplers are asymmetric and were fabricated using a Ag-Na ion exchange process. The asymmetry of the coupler was 5 dB, the launch loss to the bus was 6 dB and the tap-off loss to the node was 11 dB. With the integrated optics coupler it is possible to connect 6 nodes to the bidirectional bus. It is also possible to realize a simple, easy-to-use, and reliable bus access module for intramachine communication. The integrated optics coupler, a LED chip, and a PIN-diode chip and transceiver electronics are packaged in an electrical connector with a two-fiber optical cable pigtail. Active and passive components are butt coupled to the coupler. The 0.5 dB alignment tolerances for the fiber pigtails, the LED, and the PIN-diode chips are +/- 5 micrometers .

  9. Fair dynamic arbitration for a multiprocessor communications bus

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, J.D.; Crockett, T.W.

    1982-09-01

    The finite element machine (FEM) is an experimental parallel computer consisting of an array of 36 asynchronous microcomputers. One method of interprocessor communication of FEM is a bi-directional parallel bus which uses a dynamic arbitration scheme to increase bus bandwidth. Testing of this bus revealed an imbalance in transfer rates for individual processors. The imbalance was traced to a defect in arbiter design, and two criteria were identified which must be met to ensure fair dynamic arbitration. These involve (1) priority sequencing, and (2) the efficiency of the arbiter. 3 references.

  10. Rethinking passive transport: bus fare exemptions and young people's wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alasdair; Steinbach, Rebecca; Roberts, Helen; Goodman, Anna; Green, Judith

    2012-05-01

    Much recent public health research has emphasised the health impacts for young people of 'active travel' modes, typically defined as walking and cycling. Less research has focused on public transport modes. Drawing on qualitative data, we examine the links between bus travel and wellbeing in London, where young people currently have free bus travel. Our findings indicate that bus travel can be both a physically and socially active experience for young people. We suggest a more nuanced understanding of 'active travel' is now needed, alongside greater attention to urban public transport networks as key sites that impact on important determinants of wellbeing such as independent mobility and social inclusion.

  11. Intelligent Energy Management in a Two Power-Bus Vehicle System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-09

    Dirty Bus Branch 28V Battery Permanent Magnetic DC Motor Field Controlled DC generator Load Clean Bus Branch 28V Battery Bus Bus 19 DISTRIBUTION...Motor Field Controlled DC generator DC Power Supply Electronic Load DC Power Supply (125V, 3A) Permanent Magnetic DC Motor Field Controlled DC generator...Battery Lithium Battery Load Electronic Load Clean Bus Branch Original System Demo System Hydraulic System Permanent DC Motor Alternator Field

  12. Rfid-Based Automatic Bus Ticketing: Features and Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oudah, A.

    2016-02-01

    Recent advancements in various technologies have made remarkable developments in various fields for public welfare and public transport is one such area. In the near future public bus transport system with advanced technologies like Radio Frequency Identification Device (RFID), GSM, GPS, ZigBee and RF modules will gain spotlight due to their advantage of higher convenience and greater life standards as compared to the conventional bus systems. In this paper, a comprehensive review of all several proposed bus ticketing and bus information methods has been presented in detail. The study brings out improved solution in terms of cost, convenience, user satisfaction and future implementation. The choice of working modules and their efficient performance has been discussed along with the highlighted importance of the need of technology for welfare of common public and visually impaired.

  13. CFD Investigation on Long-Haul Passenger Bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, C. F.; Tee, B. T.; Law, H. C.; Lim, T. L.

    2015-09-01

    Air flow distribution is one of the important factors that will influence the bus passenger comfort during long haul travel. Poor air flow distribution not only cause discomfort to the bus passenger but also influence their travel mode as well. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the air flow performance of the bus air-conditioning system through CFD simulation approach. A 3D CAD model of air ducts was drawn and hence analysed by using CFD software, namely ANSYS Fluent, to determine the airflow rate for every outlets of the air-conditioning system. The simulated result was then validated with experimental data obtained from prototype model of air duct. Based on the findings, new design concepts is proposed with the aim to meet the industry requirement as well as to improve the bus passenger comfort during long haul travel.

  14. 1. VIEW OF PARK FROM NORTHWEST SHOWING BUS RAMP AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF PARK FROM NORTHWEST SHOWING BUS RAMP AND PUBLIC PARKING LOT IN CENTER, HARVARD YARD BUILDINGS IN REAR, HOLYOKE CENTER AT REAR RIGHT. - Flagstaff Park, Massachusetts Avenue & Kirkland Street, Cambridge, Middlesex County, MA

  15. 2. VIEW OF BUS RAMP FROM NORTH LOOKING DOWN INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF BUS RAMP FROM NORTH LOOKING DOWN INTO TUNNEL ENTRANCE, HARVARD YARD IN REAR LEFT, HOLYOKE CENTER IN MIDDLE, FIRST CHURCH ON RIGHT - Flagstaff Park, Massachusetts Avenue & Kirkland Street, Cambridge, Middlesex County, MA

  16. 16. View looking southeast of a bus waiting station, the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. View looking southeast of a bus waiting station, the former filling station and the power station (in the background). - Fort Benjamin Harrison, East Fifty-sixth Street (Aultman Avenue) & Glenn Road, Lawrence, Marion County, IN

  17. 234. Dennis Hill, Photographer July 1998 VIEW OF BUS STOP, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    234. Dennis Hill, Photographer July 1998 VIEW OF BUS STOP, UPPER DECK OF YERBA BUENA EAST VIADUCT, FACING WEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. View of the current distribution "bus" atop switching cabinets within ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the current distribution "bus" atop switching cabinets within the former transformer building. Looking northwest - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Childs Powerhouse, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  19. Analysis of Feeder Bus Network Design and Scheduling Problems

    PubMed Central

    Almasi, Mohammad Hadi; Karim, Mohamed Rehan

    2014-01-01

    A growing concern for public transit is its inability to shift passenger's mode from private to public transport. In order to overcome this problem, a more developed feeder bus network and matched schedules will play important roles. The present paper aims to review some of the studies performed on Feeder Bus Network Design and Scheduling Problem (FNDSP) based on three distinctive parts of the FNDSP setup, namely, problem description, problem characteristics, and solution approaches. The problems consist of different subproblems including data preparation, feeder bus network design, route generation, and feeder bus scheduling. Subsequently, descriptive analysis and classification of previous works are presented to highlight the main characteristics and solution methods. Finally, some of the issues and trends for future research are identified. This paper is targeted at dealing with the FNDSP to exhibit strategic and tactical goals and also contributes to the unification of the field which might be a useful complement to the few existing reviews. PMID:24526890

  20. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Howard Glunt; Andre L. Boehman; Allen Homan; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethylether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. The strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The bulk of the efforts over the past year were focused on the conversion of the campus shuttle bus. This process, started in August 2001, took until April 2002 to complete. The process culminated in an event to celebrate the launching of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel operation on April 19, 2002. The design of the system on the shuttle bus was patterned after the system developed in the engine laboratory, but also was subjected to a rigorous failure modes effects analysis with help from Dr. James Hansel of Air Products. The result of this FMEA was the addition of layers of redundancy and over-pressure protection to the system on the shuttle bus. The system became operation in February 2002. Preliminary emissions tests and basic operation of the shuttle bus took place at the Pennsylvania Transportation institute's test track facility near the University Park airport. After modification and optimization of the system on the bus, operation on the campus shuttle route began in early June 2002. However, the work

  1. Compressed natural gas bus safety: a quantitative risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Samuel; Modarres, Mohammad

    2005-04-01

    This study assesses the fire safety risks associated with compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicle systems, comprising primarily a typical school bus and supporting fuel infrastructure. The study determines the sensitivity of the results to variations in component failure rates and consequences of fire events. The components and subsystems that contribute most to fire safety risk are determined. Finally, the results are compared to fire risks of the present generation of diesel-fueled school buses. Direct computation of the safety risks associated with diesel-powered vehicles is possible because these are mature technologies for which historical performance data are available. Because of limited experience, fatal accident data for CNG bus fleets are minimal. Therefore, this study uses the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) approach to model and predict fire safety risk of CNG buses. Generic failure data, engineering judgments, and assumptions are used in this study. This study predicts the mean fire fatality risk for typical CNG buses as approximately 0.23 fatalities per 100-million miles for all people involved, including bus passengers. The study estimates mean values of 0.16 fatalities per 100-million miles for bus passengers only. Based on historical data, diesel school bus mean fire fatality risk is 0.091 and 0.0007 per 100-million miles for all people and bus passengers, respectively. One can therefore conclude that CNG buses are more prone to fire fatality risk by 2.5 times that of diesel buses, with the bus passengers being more at risk by over two orders of magnitude. The study estimates a mean fire risk frequency of 2.2 x 10(-5) fatalities/bus per year. The 5% and 95% uncertainty bounds are 9.1 x 10(-6) and 4.0 x 10(-5), respectively. The risk result was found to be affected most by failure rates of pressure relief valves, CNG cylinders, and fuel piping.

  2. Effect of passenger position on fear of danger experienced during sudden bus stops.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Takeo; Uetake, Teruo; Shimoda, Masahiro

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of bus passengers' positions on their fear of danger when a bus stopped suddenly. A temporary bus running course with one bus stop was set up on the campus of the Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (TUAT). The bus ran the course 14 times with the bus stopping twice during the course, once at the bus stop and again just after re-starting from the bus stop. The driver was asked to brake more strongly than usual when stopping. Sixteen students (15 males and 1 female) between the ages of 18 and 21 years participated. In turn, all participants were asked to take 14 different postures in the bus. Participants were also asked to report their level of fear on a rating scale each time the bus stopped. The study showed that (1) passengers' fear of danger at the first sudden stop was typically higher than that at the second stop, (2) standing passengers who held hand straps experienced more fear than those who held fixed safety devices, (3) bus passengers sitting on the centre of the rear seat had a great risk of injury if the bus stopped suddenly, and (4) when passengers faced the window and stood transversely with respect to from the moving direction of the bus and the bus stopped suddenly, passengers' fear of danger was affected by the side of the bus on which they stood as well as which hand they used to grasp a safety device.

  3. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Howard Glunt; Andre L. Boehman; Allen Homan; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Their strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The bulk of the efforts over the past year were focused on the conversion of the campus shuttle bus. This process, started in August 2001, took until April 2002 to complete. The process culminated in an event to celebrate the launching of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel operation on April 19, 2002. The design of the system on the shuttle bus was patterned after the system developed in the engine laboratory, but also was subjected to a rigorous failure modes effects analysis (FMEA, referred to by Air Products as a ''HAZOP'' analysis) with help from Dr. James Hansel of Air Products. The result of this FMEA was the addition of layers of redundancy and over-pressure protection to the system on the shuttle bus. The system became operational in February 2002. Preliminary emissions tests and basic operation of the shuttle bus took place at the Pennsylvania Transportation Institute's test track facility near the University Park airport. After modification and optimization of the system on the bus, operation on the

  4. Multi-Scale Visualization Analysis of Bus Flow Average Travel Speed in Qingdao

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, HAN; Man, GAO; Xiao-Lei, ZHANG; Jie, LI; Ge, CHEN

    2016-11-01

    Public transportation is a kind of complex spatiotemporal behaviour. The traffic congestion and environmental pollution caused by the increase in private cars is becoming more and more serious in our city. Spatiotemporal data visualization is an effective tool for studying traffic, transforming non-visual data into recognizable images, which can reveal where/when congestion is formed, developed and disappeared in space and time simultaneously. This paper develops a multi-scale visualization of average travel speed derived from floating bus data, to enable congestion on urban bus networks to be shown and analyzed. The techniques of R language, Echarts, WebGL are used to draw statistical pictures and 3D wall map, which show the congestion in Qingdao from the view of space and time. The results are as follows:(1) There is a more severely delay in Shibei and Shinan areas than Licun and Laoshan areas; (2) The high congestion usually occurs on Hong Kong Middle Road, Shandong Road, Nanjing Road, Liaoyang West Road and Taiping Road;(3) There is a similar law from Monday to Sunday that the congestion is severer in the morning and evening rush hours than other hours; (4) On Monday morning the severity of congestion is higher than on Friday morning, and on Friday evening the severity is higher than on Monday evening. The research results will help to improve the public transportation of Qingdao.

  5. Education Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaked, Haim

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, several cities in Israel have labeled themselves "Education Cities," concentrating on education as their central theme. Employing qualitative techniques, this article aims to describe, define, and conceptualize this phenomenon as it is being realized in three such cities. Findings show that Education Cities differ from…

  6. Air quality and climate impacts of alternative bus technologies in Greater London.

    PubMed

    Chong, Uven; Yim, Steve H L; Barrett, Steven R H; Boies, Adam M

    2014-04-15

    The environmental impact of diesel-fueled buses can potentially be reduced by the adoption of alternative propulsion technologies such as lean-burn compressed natural gas (LB-CNG) or hybrid electric buses (HEB), and emissions control strategies such as a continuously regenerating trap (CRT), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), or selective catalytic reduction with trap (SCRT). This study assessed the environmental costs and benefits of these bus technologies in Greater London relative to the existing fleet and characterized emissions changes due to alternative technologies. We found a >30% increase in CO2 equivalent (CO2e) emissions for CNG buses, a <5% change for exhaust treatment scenarios, and a 13% (90% confidence interval 3.8-20.9%) reduction for HEB relative to baseline CO2e emissions. A multiscale regional chemistry-transport model quantified the impact of alternative bus technologies on air quality, which was then related to premature mortality risk. We found the largest decrease in population exposure (about 83%) to particulate matter (PM2.5) occurred with LB-CNG buses. Monetized environmental and investment costs relative to the baseline gave estimated net present cost of LB-CNG or HEB conversion to be $187 million ($73 million to $301 million) or $36 million ($-25 million to $102 million), respectively, while EGR or SCRT estimated net present costs were $19 million ($7 million to $32 million) or $15 million ($8 million to $23 million), respectively.

  7. Web based hybrid volumetric visualisation of urban GIS data. Integration of 4D Temperature and Wind Fields with LoD-2 CityGML models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Congote, J.; Moreno, A.; Kabongo, L.; Pérez, J.-L.; San-José, R.; Ruiz, O.

    2012-10-01

    City models visualisation, buildings, structures and volumetric information, is an important task in Computer Graphics and Urban Planning. The different formats and data sources involved in the visualisation make the development of applications a big challenge. We present a homogeneous web visualisation framework using X3DOM and MEDX3DOM for the visualisation of these urban objects. We present an integration of different declarative data sources, enabling the utilization of advanced visualisation algorithms to render the models. It has been tested with a city model composed of buildings from the Madrid University Campus, some volumetric datasets coming from Air Quality Models and 2D layers wind datasets. Results show that the visualisation of all the urban models can be performed in real time on the Web. An HTML5 web interface is presented to the users, enabling real time modifications of visualisation parameters.

  8. Battery capacity and recharging needs for electric buses in city transit service

    DOE PAGES

    Gao, Zhiming; Lin, Zhenhong; LaClair, Tim J.; ...

    2017-01-27

    Our paper evaluates the energy consumption and battery performance of city transit electric buses operating on real day-to-day routes and standardized bus drive cycles, based on a developed framework tool that links bus electrification feasibility with real-world vehicle performance, city transit bus service reliability, battery sizing and charging infrastructure. The impacts of battery capacity combined with regular and ultrafast charging over different routes have been analyzed in terms of the ability to maintain city transit bus service reliability like conventional buses. These results show that ultrafast charging via frequent short-time boost charging events, for example at a designated bus stopmore » after completing each circuit of an assigned route, can play a significant role in reducing the battery size and can eliminate the need for longer duration charging events that would cause schedule delays. Furthermore, the analysis presented shows that significant benefits can be realized by employing multiple battery configurations and flexible battery swapping practices in electric buses. These flexible design and use options will allow electric buses to service routes of varying city driving patterns and can therefore enable meaningful reductions to the cost of the vehicle and battery while ensuring service that is as reliable as conventional buses.« less

  9. Comparative study of fuel cell, battery and hybrid buses for renewable energy constrained areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stempien, J. P.; Chan, S. H.

    2017-02-01

    Fuel cell- and battery-based public bus technologies are reviewed and compared for application in tropical urban areas. This paper scrutinizes the reported literature on fuel cell bus, fuel cell electric bus, battery electric bus, hybrid electric bus, internal combustion diesel bus and compressed natural gas bus. The comparison includes the capital and operating costs, fuel consumption and fuel cycle emissions. To the best of authors knowledge, this is the first study to holistically compare hydrogen and battery powered buses, which is the original contribution of this paper. Moreover, this is the first study to focus on supplying hydrogen and electricity from fossil resources, while including the associated emissions. The study shows that compressed natural gas and hybrid electric buses appear to be the cheapest options in terms of total cost of ownership, but they are unable to meet the EURO VI emissions' standard requirement. Only fuel cell based buses have the potential to achieve the emissions' standard when the fuel cycle based on fossil energy was considered. Fuel cell electric buses are identified as a technology allowing for the largest CO2 emission reduction, making ∼61% decrease in annual emissions possible.

  10. Electric-bus life-cycle cost study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    A detailed study of the Santa Barbara Metropolitan Transit District (MTD) electric-bus program was conducted and resulted in a comprehensive set of cost data. These costs are compared with the life cycle costs of diesel buses. Direct comparisons of the life cycle costs of battery-electric buses and of diesel-fueled buses were not found to be meaningful without considering the environmental costs and benefits associated with both vehicle types; some of these factors are discussed in the study. The duty cycles most appropriate to the two bus types are not generally comparable. Electric shuttle-bus life cycle costs with flooded-cell lead-acid battery are 108% of the costs attributable to a diesel shuttle. Costs with the maintenance-free lead-acid and flooded-cell nickel-cadmium batteries are 113% and 117% relative to diesel, respectively. The monetary value attributed to emissions avoided by the use of electric buses depends on the local air quality situation. Labor costs are the major component of electric-bus life cycle costs, incremental advances in the enabling technologies will bring electric-bus costs close to those of diesel-fueled buses. Advances in battery technology will widen the range of duty cycles appropriate to electric buses.

  11. Overview hazard analysis for the H2Fuel Bus Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hovis, G.L.

    1996-06-18

    The H2Fuel Bus project is a joint development effort to produce a safe, near-zero emission, 32 passenger bus that is propelled by electric power with continuous on-board hydrogen powered battery recharging. A key initiative in the hydrogen bus development effort is a rigorous evaluation of operational safety. Westinghouse Savannah River Co., the prime contractor at the Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site, has developed a hazard analysis methodology designed to provide a systematic, comprehensive identification and evaluation of hazards. Although originally developed to support nuclear/chemical facility safety basis documentation, the SRS Methodology has widespread applicability to operations and/or systems that utilize hazardous materials and energy. This methodology was used to perform an overview hazard analysis for the H2Fuel Bus project to focus attention on those hypothetical circumstances that pose the greatest threat to the populace and property. The hazard analysis yields a listing of all known H2Fuel Bus hazards, postulated accident scenarios describing possible hazardous releases or conditions, an assessment of the scenarios in terms of frequency of occurrence and consequence, and binning in frequency-consequence space to assess the relative severity of postulated scenarios.

  12. Bus transport network of Shenyang considering competitive and cooperative relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Baoyu; Feng, Shumin; Nie, Cen

    2017-01-01

    Competition and cooperation is a universal phenomenon in bus transport networks (BTNs) because of the shared stations between bus routes. A measuring method is proposed for competitive and cooperative relationship between bus routes. Based on this measurement, we develop a new representation model for BTNs, namely competitive-cooperative space R. This model is applied to investigate empirically bus transport network of Shenyang (BTN-S) from China. We present the histograms of competitive-cooperative coefficients, competitive coefficients and cooperative coefficients to illustrate that competitive and cooperative relationship plays an important role in transporting passengers. The competitive-cooperative situation shows that cooperative relationship holds an absolutely dominant position in BTN-S. To explore the networked characteristics, we present some empirical distributions, for the number of bus stations on a route, the number of shared stations between two routes, degree and weighted degree, competitive strength, and cooperative strength. We also examine the correlations between degree and competitive strength, and between degree and cooperative strength. Besides, we investigate the diversities of competitive strength and cooperative strength in BTN-S. This study can help us to understand the BTN from a deeper level.

  13. 1393 Ring Bus at JPL: Description and Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wysocky, Terry R.

    2007-01-01

    Completed Ring Bus IC V&V Phase - Ring Bus Test Plan Completed for SIM Project - Applicable to Other Projects Implemented a Avionics Bus Based upon the IEEE 1393 Standard - Excellent Starting Point for a General Purpose High-Speed Spacecraft Bus - Designed to Meet SIM Requirements for - Real-time deterministic, distributed systems. - Control system requirements - Fault detection and recovery Other JPL Projects Considering Implementation F'light Software Ring Bus Driver Module Began in 2006, Continues Participating in Standard Revision. Search for Earth-like planets orbiting nearby stars and measure the masses and orbits of the planets it finds. Survey 2000 nearby stars for planetary systems to learn whether our Solar System is unusual, or typical. Make a new catalog of star position 100 times more accurate than current measurements. Learn how our galaxy formed and will evolve by studying the dynamics of its stars. Critically test models of exactly how stars shine, including exotic objects like black holes, neutron stars and white dwarfs.

  14. Effect of bus size and operation to crash occurrences.

    PubMed

    Chimba, Deo; Sando, Thobias; Kwigizile, Valerian

    2010-11-01

    This paper evaluates roadway and operational factors considered to influence crashes involving buses. Factors evaluated included those related to bus sizes and operation services. Negative binomial (NB) and multinomial logit (MNL) models were used in linearizing and quantifying these factors with respect to crash frequency and injury severities, respectively. The results showed that position of the bus travel lane, presence or absence of on-street shoulder parking, posted speed limit, lane width, median width, number of lanes per direction and number of vehicles per lane has a higher influence on bus crashes compared to other roadway and traffic factors. Wider lanes and medians were found to reduce probability of bus crashes while more lanes and higher volume per lane were found to increase the likelihood of occurrences of bus-related crashes. Roadways with higher posted speed limits excluding freeways were found to have high probability of crashes compared to low speed limit roadways. Buses traveling on the inner lanes and making left turns were found to have higher probability of crashes compared to those traveling on the right most lanes. The same factors were found to influence injury severity though with varying magnitudes compared to crash frequency.

  15. Heuristic Optimization Approach to Selecting a Transport Connection in City Public Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kul'ka, Jozef; Mantič, Martin; Kopas, Melichar; Faltinová, Eva; Kachman, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    The article presents a heuristic optimization approach to select a suitable transport connection in the framework of a city public transport. This methodology was applied on a part of the public transport in Košice, because it is the second largest city in the Slovak Republic and its network of the public transport creates a complex transport system, which consists of three different transport modes, namely from the bus transport, tram transport and trolley-bus transport. This solution focused on examining the individual transport services and their interconnection in relevant interchange points.

  16. American Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation. Second Report

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, Leslie; Post, Matthew

    2015-09-01

    This report presents results of the American Fuel Cell Bus (AFCB) Project, a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses operating in the Coachella Valley area of California. The prototype AFCB was developed as part of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA's) National Fuel Cell Bus Program. Through the non-profit consortia CALSTART, a team led by SunLine Transit Agency and BAE Systems developed a new fuel cell electric bus for demonstration. SunLine added two more AFCBs to its fleet in 2014 and another in 2015. FTA and the AFCB project team are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This report summarizes the performance results for the buses through June 2015.

  17. Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2009 (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.

    2011-08-01

    Document provides Clean Cities coalition metrics about the use of alternative fuels; the deployment of alternative fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and idle reduction initiatives; fuel economy activities; and programs to reduce vehicle miles driven.

  18. Performance Evaluation of UHF RFID Technologies for Real-Time Bus Recognition in the Taipei Bus Station

    PubMed Central

    Own, Chung-Ming; Lee, Da-Sheng; Wang, Ti-Ho; Wang, De-Jun; Ting, Yu-Lun

    2013-01-01

    Transport stations such as airports, ports, and railways have adopted blocked-type pathway management to process and control travel systems in a one-directional manner. However, this excludes highway transportation where large buses have great variability and mobility; thus, an instant influx of numerous buses increases risks and complicates station management. Focusing on Taipei Bus Station, this study employed RFID technology to develop a system platform integrated with modern information technology that has numerous characteristics. This modern information technology comprised the following systems: ultra-high frequency (UHF) radio-frequency identification (RFID), ultrasound and license number identification, and backstage graphic controls. In conclusion, the system enabled management, bus companies, and passengers to experience the national bus station's new generation technology, which provides diverse information and synchronization functions. Furthermore, this technology reached a new milestone in the energy-saving and efficiency-increasing performance of Taiwan's buses. PMID:23778192

  19. Performance evaluation of UHF RFID technologies for real-time bus recognition in the Taipei Bus Station.

    PubMed

    Own, Chung-Ming; Lee, Da-Sheng; Wang, Ti-Ho; Wang, De-Jun; Ting, Yu-Lun

    2013-06-18

    Transport stations such as airports, ports, and railways have adopted blocked-type pathway management to process and control travel systems in a one-directional manner. However, this excludes highway transportation where large buses have great variability and mobility; thus, an instant influx of numerous buses increases risks and complicates station management. Focusing on Taipei Bus Station, this study employed RFID technology to develop a system platform integrated with modern information technology that has numerous characteristics. This modern information technology comprised the following systems: ultra-high frequency (UHF) radio-frequency identification (RFID), ultrasound and license number identification, and backstage graphic controls. In conclusion, the system enabled management, bus companies, and passengers to experience the national bus station's new generation technology, which provides diverse information and synchronization functions. Furthermore, this technology reached a new milestone in the energy-saving and efficiency-increasing performance of Taiwan's buses.

  20. Case Study - Propane School Bus Fleets

    SciTech Connect

    Laughlin, M; Burnham, A.

    2014-08-31

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) effort to deploy transportation technologies that reduce U.S. dependence on imported petroleum, this study examines five school districts, one in Virginia and four in Texas, successful use of propane school buses. These school districts used school buses equipped with the newly developed liquid propane injection system that improves vehicle performance. Some of the school districts in this study saved nearly 50% on a cost per mile basis for fuel and maintenance relative to diesel. Using Argonne National Laboratory’s Alternative Fuel Life-Cycle Environmental and Economic Transportation (AFLEET) Tool developed for the DOE’s Clean Cities program to help Clean Cities stakeholders estimate petroleum use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, air pollutant emissions and cost of ownership of light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles, the results showed payback period ranges from 3—8 years, recouping the incremental cost of the vehicles and infrastructure. Overall, fuel economy for these propane vehicles is close to that of displaced diesel vehicles, on an energy-equivalent basis. In addition, the 110 propane buses examined demonstrated petroleum displacement, 212,000 diesel gallon equivalents per year, and GHG benefits of 770 tons per year.

  1. Bluetooth wireless monitoring, diagnosis and calibration interface for control system of fuel cell bus in Olympic demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Jianfeng; Lin, Xinfan; Xu, Liangfei; Li, Jianqiu; Ouyang, Minggao

    With the worldwide deterioration of the natural environment and the fossil fuel crisis, the possible commercialization of fuel cell vehicles has become a hot topic. In July 2008, Beijing started a clean public transportation plan for the 29th Olympic games. Three fuel cell city buses and 497 other low-emission vehicles are now serving the Olympic core area and Beijing urban areas. The fuel cell buses will operate along a fixed bus line for 1 year as a public demonstration of green energy vehicles. Due to the specialized nature of fuel cell engines and electrified power-train systems, measurement, monitoring and calibration devices are indispensable. Based on the latest Bluetooth wireless technology, a novel Bluetooth universal data interface was developed for the control system of the fuel cell city bus. On this platform, a series of wireless portable control auxiliary systems have been implemented, including wireless calibration, a monitoring system and an in-system programming platform, all of which are ensuring normal operation of the fuel cell buses used in the demonstration.

  2. School Bus Safety: What Can Our Schools Do to Protect Our Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dargan, Thomas J.; Silverstone, Adam H.

    2014-01-01

    School districts and school bus contractors are entrusted with the most important of all road users--our nation's children. In the wake of recent newsworthy accidents and attention grabbing headlines regarding unfit bus drivers, claims premised upon school bus accidents have become increasingly tangential and, in turn, personal injury attorneys…

  3. 46 CFR 112.05-3 - Main-emergency bus-tie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Main-emergency bus-tie. 112.05-3 Section 112.05-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS General § 112.05-3 Main-emergency bus-tie. Each bus-tie between a main...

  4. 75 FR 71792 - National Express Corporation-Control Exemption-Vogel Bus Company, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... Surface Transportation Board National Express Corporation--Control Exemption--Vogel Bus Company, Inc... approval requirements of 49 U.S.C. 14303(a)(5) and 49 CFR 1182 to acquire control of Vogel Bus Company, Inc... also primarily provides transportation of school children, in New Jersey. School bus transportation...

  5. 46 CFR 112.05-3 - Main-emergency bus-tie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Main-emergency bus-tie. 112.05-3 Section 112.05-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS General § 112.05-3 Main-emergency bus-tie. Each bus-tie between a main...

  6. 46 CFR 112.05-3 - Main-emergency bus-tie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Main-emergency bus-tie. 112.05-3 Section 112.05-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS General § 112.05-3 Main-emergency bus-tie. Each bus-tie between a main...

  7. 75 FR 20034 - Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Grants: Corrections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... Federal Transit Administration Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Grants: Corrections AGENCY: Federal..., 2010 Federal Transit Administration (FTA) Notice titled ``Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program... the Special Warranty for the Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program that is most current as of...

  8. SunLine Leads the Way in Demonstrating Hydrogen-Fueled Bus Technologies (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-01-01

    This brochure describes SunLine Transit Agency's newest advanced technology fuel cell electric bus. SunLine is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This bus represents the sixth generation of hydrogen-fueled buses that the agency has operated since 2000.

  9. 49 CFR 383.123 - Requirements for a school bus endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements for a school bus endorsement. 383.123... Requirements for a school bus endorsement. (a) An applicant for the school bus endorsement must satisfy the... for school buses by State or Federal law or regulation. (ii) Emergency exits and procedures for...

  10. 49 CFR 383.123 - Requirements for a school bus endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for a school bus endorsement. 383.123... Requirements for a school bus endorsement. (a) An applicant for the school bus endorsement must satisfy the... for school buses by State or Federal law or regulation. (ii) Emergency exits and procedures for...

  11. 49 CFR 383.123 - Requirements for a school bus endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements for a school bus endorsement. 383.123... Requirements for a school bus endorsement. (a) An applicant for the school bus endorsement must satisfy the... for school buses by State or Federal law or regulation. (ii) Emergency exits and procedures for...

  12. 46 CFR 112.05-3 - Main-emergency bus-tie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Main-emergency bus-tie. 112.05-3 Section 112.05-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS General § 112.05-3 Main-emergency bus-tie. Each bus-tie between a main...

  13. 46 CFR 112.05-3 - Main-emergency bus-tie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main-emergency bus-tie. 112.05-3 Section 112.05-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS General § 112.05-3 Main-emergency bus-tie. Each bus-tie between a main...

  14. 49 CFR 571.220 - Standard No. 220; School bus rollover protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard No. 220; School bus rollover protection... STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.220 Standard No. 220; School bus rollover protection. S1. Scope. This standard establishes performance requirements for school bus rollover protection....

  15. 49 CFR 383.123 - Requirements for a school bus endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements for a school bus endorsement. 383.123... Requirements for a school bus endorsement. (a) An applicant for the school bus endorsement must satisfy the... for school buses by State or Federal law or regulation. (ii) Emergency exits and procedures for...

  16. School Bus Rider Safety Education Modules for Use with Drills on School Buses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Physical Education, Fitness, Health, Nutrition and Safety Services.

    Developed for teachers and members of the pupil transportation staff who conduct school bus drills, these 10 lesson outlines are intended for classroom instruction on school bus safety. Lessons may be adapted to fit the grade level, intelligence, and special needs of students. Topics covered are: preparing to ride the bus, boarding and proceeding…

  17. Instructor's Behind-the-Wheel Guide for California's Bus Driver's Training Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    Intended to help produce safe, competent California school bus drivers, this document contains instructor's materials for a bus driver education course with eight sequential skill levels, including a final appraisal. The first section contains the curriculum's purpose and objectives, the California standards for a state-certified bus driver…

  18. Beware of high stresses in ``A`` frame supported two-level bus structures

    SciTech Connect

    Thaik, A.

    1995-10-01

    Rigid-bus structures in many low profile, high voltage transmission substations consist of two-level bus assemblies of tubular conductors with one bus assembly supporting the other bus assembly with rigid tubular ``A`` frames at the crossover points. The lower-level bus is normally supported by a single porcelain post insulator under the ``A`` frame. Rigid ``A`` frames not only support the upper-level bus assembly, but also make the electrical connections between the two buses. This paper addresses the stress problem in the lower-level bus of the two-level bus structure. It presents the results of the structural analysis of a sample two-level bus structure using a simple structural method based on the Three Moment Theorem and equilibrium equations. A spreadsheet template is used to perform the mathematical calculations. The spreadsheet first calculates the maximum allowable bus span length in accordance with the IEEE Standard 605 and then determines the internal stress on the upper and lower-level bus conductors in the two-level rigid bus structures.

  19. High-Tech School Bus Teaches Students on the Road

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katims, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Last year, kindergarten through high school students in the rural Hector, Arkansas, School District barely had the technology resources that keep kids interested in math and science. This year, they potentially have the most advanced resources in the country--before they even step into the classroom. One school bus in Arkansas' Pope County has…

  20. School Bus Driver Instructional Program. Trainee Study Guide -- Advanced Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. National Highway Safety Bureau.

    A standardized and comprehensive school bus driver instructional program has been developed under contract with the Federal Government. The course has been organized to provide in one package a program for developing the minimum skills and knowledge which the proficient driver might require. This guide contains the materials presented in eight…

  1. Manual of First Aid Practices for School Bus Drivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbitt, William R.

    This manual is intended to assist local school authorities in California in providing the required course in instruction in first aid practices for school bus drivers. While it deals with basic principles of handling serious medical emergencies, major emphasis is on minor injuries or illnesses that are most likely to occur while students are…

  2. Issues in School Bus Safety: Real or Red Herring?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeds, Robin L.

    1999-01-01

    In many states, the greatest threat to safe student transportation is elimination of the school transportation program. Using public transit buses, large vans, smaller vehicles, or specialized equipment can cause major-issue headaches. False issues include controversies over seat belts, bus design, and optional "bells and whistles." (10…

  3. 38. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer unknown. Bus garage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer unknown. Bus garage to left now demolished. Trolley car drivers, maintenance personnel and management staff in 1915. VIEW SOUTH - Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Company, Trolley Barn & Administration Building, 3400 Victoria Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  4. Implementation of a Walking School Bus: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Alberta S.; Sussman, Andrew L.; Negrete, Sylvia; Patterson, Nissa; Mittleman, Rachel; Hough, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity is rapidly becoming the most common chronic medical condition affecting children. To address this crisis, an Albuquerque, New Mexico, elementary school partnered with University of New Mexico researchers and conducted a Walking School Bus (WSB). The purpose of this article is to examine the feasibility of implementing a WSB.…

  5. Fatigue factors affecting metropolitan bus drivers: a qualitative investigation.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Herbert; Dingsdag, Donald; Stenson, Nick

    2009-01-01

    Metropolitan bus drivers daily face work in a stressful and draining work environment, exposing them to the serious risk of driver fatigue. However, there has been a dearth of information exploring the unique antecedents and effects of such fatigue. To date, much of the research into metropolitan bus drivers has been under the umbrella of large heavy vehicle driving studies, which include a disproportionally large population of long-haul drivers, who are likely to face a significantly different set of fatigue factors [1]. The present study aimed to investigate which work and environmental factors may cause fatigue in metropolitan bus drivers by seeking drivers' own perspectives on the issues. To this end, focus groups were held at five bus depots in Sydney and Newcastle, with an effort made to include a stratified sample of drivers at each. Each of the groups were invited to nominate what factors they felt were most salient, with a number of common factors emerging across the depots. Key themes identified were: support from management; ticketing and related issues; interaction with passengers; cabin ergonomics; tight route schedules; turn-around and shift irregularity; extended shift cycles; interactions with other road users; and extended commute times.

  6. The Diagnostic and Predictive Validity of "The Renfrew Bus Story"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankratz, Mary E.; Plante, Elena; Vance, Rebecca; Insalaco, Deborah M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Two studies are presented providing evidence indicating the diagnostic and predictive validity of the American version of "The Renfrew Bus Story" (J. Cowley & C. Glasgow, 1994). Method: Thirty-two children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 32 children with typical language development participated in the first…

  7. Bullying on the School Bus: A Video Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raskauskas, Juliana

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the nature of bullying on the school bus. Videotapes were used to identify occurrences of bullying on buses of elementary school students. Incidents were reviewed for forms of bullying, fullness, presence of friends, and severity of acts. Results indicated that approximately two incidents occurred per bus…

  8. Interface For MIL-STD-1553B Data Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Bryan L.; Osborn, Stephen H.; Sullender, Craig C.

    1993-01-01

    Electronic control-logic subsystem acts as interface between microcontroller and MIL-STD-1553B data bus. Subsystem made of relatively small number of integrated circuits. Advantages include low power, few integrated-circuit chips, and little need for control signals.

  9. Training Needs Analysis for Bus Depot Managers at GSRTC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Hardik; Gopal, Raj

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: With rapid industrialization and population growth in the urban and rural areas in India, the demand for public transport has risen sharply. In the fast changing scenario in the public transit sector, the role of a bus depot manager (DM) has also undergone substantial transformation. This paper aims to identify and gauge the…

  10. Course Guide for School Bus Driver Training in Texas. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Public Safety, Austin.

    The safe and effective transportation of pupils to and from schol is an integral part of a sound educational program. This course guide is a study and reference tool for use in a training course designed to promote the competency of school bus drivers throughout the State of Texas. Unit 1 of the guide provides an overview of the transportation…

  11. Improving School Bus Safety. Transportation Research Board Special Report 222.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Transportation Research Board.

    While school buses transport more passengers per trip, the rate of occupant fatalities per mile driven for school buses is one-quarter that for passenger cars. Nevertheless, the public expects school districts and other school bus operators to take all reasonable precautions to protect children as they travel to and from school. Although a variety…

  12. School Bus Driver Instructor Training Institute. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleven, Arlene M.; Fucigna, Joseph T.

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Association (NHTSA) has supported the development of a training program for school bus drivers in the form of a curriculum package (instructor's, course, and trainee study guides). To assist the States in making the program operational, NHTSA in 1974 supported the conduct of five five-day institutes to explain…

  13. School Bus Safety Advisory Committee: 1999 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazenberry, Dennis; Anderson, Barbara

    This report summarizes the deliberations and recommendations of Minnesota's School Bus Safety Advisory Committee (SBSAC). The committee, which operates under the auspices of the Minnesota Department of Public Safety, is charged to study issues affecting the safety of students on school buses, arrive at consensus on ways to improve student safety…

  14. Augmented thermal bus wih multiple thermoelectric devices individually controlled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrage, Dean S. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an augmented thermal bus. In the present design a plurality of thermo-electric heat pumps are used to couple a source plate to a sink plate. Each heat pump is individually controlled by a model based controller. The controller coordinates the heat pumps to maintain isothermality in the source.

  15. School Bus Safety. An AS&U Roundtable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1985

    1985-01-01

    A roundtable discussion of the issue of seat belts in school buses features United States Representative Peter H. Kostmayer, who has introduced a bill providing incentive grants to states to adopt and enforce laws requiring the use of seat belts in new school buses; three bus manufacturing executives; and two educators. (MLF)

  16. Research Says "No" to School Bus Seat Belts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wineland, Charles L.

    1986-01-01

    Presents factual data on research in school bus safety that shows that seat belts in school buses may actually be detrimental to students. Includes data from surveys and research tests and sources for additional information on seat belts in school buses. (MD)

  17. 45 CFR 1310.17 - Driver and bus monitor training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Driver and bus monitor training. 1310.17 Section 1310.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES,...

  18. 45 CFR 1310.17 - Driver and bus monitor training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Driver and bus monitor training. 1310.17 Section 1310.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES,...

  19. 45 CFR 1310.17 - Driver and bus monitor training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Driver and bus monitor training. 1310.17 Section 1310.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES,...

  20. 45 CFR 1310.17 - Driver and bus monitor training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Driver and bus monitor training. 1310.17 Section 1310.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES,...

  1. More than A to B: the role of free bus travel for the mobility and wellbeing of older citizens in London.

    PubMed

    Green, Judith; Jones, Alasdair; Roberts, Helen

    2014-03-01

    This study contributes to the literature on mobility and wellbeing at older ages through an empirical exploration of the meanings of free bus travel for older citizens, addressing the meanings this holds for older people in urban settings, which have been under-researched. Taking London as a case study, where older citizens have free access to a relatively extensive public transport network through a Freedom Pass, we explore from a public health perspective the mechanisms that link this travel benefit to determinants of wellbeing. In addition to the ways in which the Freedom Pass enabled access to health-related goods and services, it provided less tangible benefits. Travelling by bus provided opportunities for meaningful social interaction; travelling as part of the 'general public' provided a sense of belonging and visibility in the public arena - a socially acceptable way of tackling chronic loneliness. The Freedom Pass was described not only as providing access to essential goods and services but also as a widely prized mechanism for participation in life in the city. We argue that the mechanisms linking mobility and wellbeing are culturally, materially and politically specific. Our data suggest that in contexts where good public transport is available as a right, and bus travel not stigmatised, it is experienced as a major contributor to wellbeing, rather than a transport choice of last resort. This has implications for other jurisdictions working on accessible transport for older citizens and, more broadly, improving the sustainability of cities.

  2. GeoBus: sharing science research with schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roper, Kathryn; Robinson, Ruth; Moorhouse, Ben

    2016-04-01

    GeoBus (www.geobus.org.uk) is an educational outreach project that was developed in 2012 by the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of St Andrews, and it is currently sponsored by industry, NERC, The Crown Estate, and the Scottish Government. The aims of GeoBus are to support the teaching of Earth Science in secondary (middle and high) schools by providing teaching support to schools that have little or no experience in teaching this subject. This is, in part, done through the sharing of new science research outcomes and the experiences of young researchers with school pupils to provide a bridge between industry, higher education institutions, research councils and schools. Since its launch, over 40,000 pupils will have been involved in experiential Earth science learning activities in 190 different schools (over 400 separate visits) across the length and breadth of Scotland: many of these schools are in remote and disadvantaged regions. A new GeoBus project is under development within the Department of Earth Sciences at UCL in London. A key aim of GeoBus is to incorporate new research into our workshops with the main challenge being the development of appropriate resources that incorporate the key learning aims and requirements of the science and geography curricula. GeoBus works closely with researchers, teachers and educational practitioners to tailor the research outcomes to the curricula as much as possible. Over the past four years, GeoBus has developed 17 workshops, 5 challenge events and extensive field trips and each of these activities are trialled and evaluated within the university, and adjustments are made before the activities are delivered in schools. Activities are continually reviewed and further developments are made in response to both teacher and pupil feedback. This critical reflection of the project's success and impact is important to insure a positive and significant contribution to the science learning in

  3. Characterisation of an urban bus network for environmental purposes.

    PubMed

    André, Michel; Villanova, André

    2004-12-01

    Since pollutant emissions are closely related to the operating conditions of vehicles, their evaluation usually involves studying these operating conditions (through bus instrumentation and monitoring under actual operation), the design of representative driving or engine test cycles and the measurement of pollutant emissions. A preliminary characterisation of the routes on a bus network should make it possible to identify typical routes, the driving conditions and pollutant emissions of which are then studied. Two approaches are envisaged and applied to the Paris area, for which a wealth of information is available, which should be transferable to other bus networks. Both approaches are based on factorial analysis and automatic clustering, to allow optimum description and the identification of a pertinent typology of the bus routes in several classes. The first attempt at characterisation is based on statistics relating to bus operations: route characteristics (length, dedicated bus lanes, number of stops, location of stops: schools, tourist sites, hospitals, railways or underground stations), travel time, commercial speed, annual statistics (number of passengers, number of vehicles per hour, total kilometres), the irregularity of travel (variation of travel times, injuries, congestion.), as well as information on the problems encountered (congestion, distribution of the passenger load, junctions, bends). A second approach is based on the analysis of the "urban context" in which buses are driven. Population, employment, housing, road network, traffic and places that generate or disturb traffic (schools, railway stations, shopping areas, etc.) are calculated for the Ile de France region, by cells of 100 x 100 m, and collected in a geographical information system (GIS). Statistical analyses enable a typology of these urban cells to be established, the main parameters being density, type of housing, road types and traffic levels. The bus routes are then analysed

  4. Public transit bus ramp slopes measured in situ.

    PubMed

    Bertocci, Gina; Frost, Karen; Smalley, Craig

    2014-05-02

    Abstract Purpose: The slopes of fixed-route bus ramps deployed for wheeled mobility device (WhMD) users during boarding and alighting were assessed. Measured slopes were compared to the proposed Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) maximum allowable ramp slope. Methods: A ramp-embedded inclinometer measured ramp slope during WhMD user boarding and alighting on a fixed-route transit bus. The extent of bus kneeling was determined for each ramp deployment. In-vehicle video surveillance cameras captured ramp deployment level (street versus sidewalk) and WhMD type. Results: Ramp slopes ranged from -4° to 15.5° with means of 4.3° during boarding (n = 406) and 4.2° during alighting (n = 405). Ramp slope was significantly greater when deployed to street level. During boarding, the proposed ADA maximum allowable ramp slope (9.5°) was exceeded in 66.7% of instances when the ramp was deployed to street level, and in 1.9% of instances when the ramp was deployed to sidewalk level. During alighting, the proposed ADA maximum allowable slope was exceeded in 56.8% of instances when the ramp was deployed to street level and in 1.4% of instances when the ramp was deployed to sidewalk level. Conclusions: Deployment level, built environment and extent of bus kneeling can affect slope of ramps ascended/descended by WhMD users when accessing transit buses. Implications for Rehabilitation Since public transportation services are critical for integration of wheeled mobility device (WhMD) users into the community and society, it is important that they, as well as their therapists, are aware of conditions that may be encountered when accessing transit buses. Knowledge of real world ramp slope conditions that may be encountered when accessing transit buses will allow therapists to better access capabilities of WhMD users in a controlled clinical setting. Real world ramp slope conditions can be recreated in a clinical setting to allow WhMD users to develop and practice necessary

  5. Bus water storage tank as a reservoir of Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed

    Jurčev-Savičević, Anamarija; Bradarić, Nikola; Paić, Vlado Ozic; Mulić, Rosanda; Puntarić, Dinko; Miše, Kornelija

    2014-09-01

    Health concerns associated with Legionnaires' disease have been identified as an area of the increasing public and professional interest. Any natural water or man-made water systems worldwide might be reservoirs of Legionellae. We presented a sporadic, community-acquired case of Legionnaires' disease caused by Legionellapneumophila serogroup 1 in a bus driver who used water for hand and face washing from a bus water storage tank. The history of any other usual place of exposure to Legionellae was negative. The water from the tank was dirty, filled with sediment and leaves, at the temperature of 22 degrees C. The water was heavily contaminated with Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolated from each sample with the concentration of 66,000, 16,000, 42,000, 56,000 and 34,000 CFU/L. The disinfection of the bus water storage tank was made using hyperclorination with 50 mg/L of free residual chlorine. The control sampling one week after the disinfection yielded negative results. So far, there are no recommendations on regular management or disinfection of water in bus storage tanks, but it seems to be reasonable to assume that passengers as well as bus drivers may be exposed to Legionella and therefore at risk of acquiring the infection. These recommendations should include regular empting, rinsing and filling the tank with fresh tap water, at least once a week. Finally, we have to be aware that Legionella bacteria are ubiquitous and any potential mode of producing contaminated aerosol should not be overlooked during an epidemiological field investigation and proposed appropriate measures.

  6. Development of the bus joint for the ITER Central Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N; Irick, David Kim; Kenney, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    The terminations of the Central Solenoid (CS) modules are connected to the bus extensions by joints located outside the CS in the gap between the CS and Torodial Field (TF) assemblies. These joints have very strict space limitations. Low resistance is a common requirement for all ITER joints. In addition, the CS bus joints will experience and must be designed to withstand significant variation in the magnetic field of several tenths of a Tesla per second during initiation of plasma. The joint resistance is specified to be less than 4 nOhm. The joints also have to be soldered in the field and designed with the possibility to be installed and dismantled in order to allow cold testing in the cold test facility. We have developed coaxial joints that meet these requirements and have demonstrated the feasibility to fabricate and assemble them in the vertical configuration. We introduced a coupling cylinder with superconducting strands soldered to the surface of the cable that can be installed in the ITER assembly hall and at the Cold Test Facility. This cylinder serves as a transition area between the CS module and the bus extension. We made two racetrack samples and tested four bus joints in our Joint Test Apparatus. Resistance of the bus joints was measured by a decay method and by a microvoltmeter; the value of the current was measured by the Hall probes. This measurement method was verified in the previous tests. The resistance of the joints varied insignificantly from 1.5 to 2 nOhm. One of the challenges associated with a soldered joint is the inability to use corrosive chemicals that are difficult to clean. This paper describes our development work on cable preparation, chrome removal, compaction, soldering, and final assembly and presents the test results.

  7. Effect of B20 and Low Aromatic Diesel on Transit Bus NOx Emissions Over Driving Cycles with a Range of Kinetic Intensity

    SciTech Connect

    Lammert, M. P.; McCormick, R. L.; Sindler, P.; Williams, A.

    2012-10-01

    Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions for transit buses for up to five different fuels and three standard transit duty cycles were compared to establish whether there is a real-world biodiesel NOx increase for transit bus duty cycles and engine calibrations. Six buses representing the majority of the current national transit fleet and including hybrid and selective catalyst reduction systems were tested on a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer with certification diesel, certification B20 blend, low aromatic (California Air Resources Board) diesel, low aromatic B20 blend, and B100 fuels over the Manhattan, Orange County and UDDS test cycles. Engine emissions certification level had the dominant effect on NOx; kinetic intensity was the secondary driving factor. The biodiesel effect on NOx emissions was not statistically significant for most buses and duty cycles for blends with certification diesel, except for a 2008 model year bus. CARB fuel had many more instances of a statistically significant effect of reducing NOx. SCR systems proved effective at reducing NOx to near the detection limit on all duty cycles and fuels, including B100. While offering a fuel economy benefit, a hybrid system significantly increased NOx emissions over a same year bus with a conventional drivetrain and the same engine.

  8. Dynamics of dc bus networks and their stabilization by decentralized delayed feedback.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Keiji; Sugitani, Yoshiki; Hara, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    The present paper deals with the dynamics of bus networks, which consist of several identical dc bus systems connected by resistors. It is analytically guaranteed that the stability of a stand-alone dc bus system is equivalent to that of the networks, independent of the number of bus systems and the network topology. In addition, we show that a decentralized delayed-feedback control can stabilize an unstable operating point embedded within the networks. Moreover, this stabilization does not depend on the number of bus systems or the network topology. A systematic procedure for designing the controller is presented. Finally, the validity of the analytical results is confirmed through numerical examples.

  9. An intelligent fiberoptic data bus for fly-by-light applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoharan, L. C.; Muthuvel, S.

    An active fiberoptic data bus compatible with MIL-STD-1553B, which could be used for fly-by-light, stores management, AEW etc., on an aircraft has been developed. The data bus is considered intelligent because it can automatically sense which station is in the transmit mode and control the active interface accordingly, so that smooth flow of data takes place on the bus. The tests carried out on the bus including those on the Jaguar Avionics Rig to check its validity are also described. As no software is involved in the operation of the bus, this could be used on any aircraft having its own software.

  10. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: First Results Report

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2011-03-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This report provides the early data results and implementation experience of the AT fuel cell bus since it was placed in service.

  11. Determination of an Optimal Commercial Data Bus Architecture for a Flight Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Kevin; Johnson, Martin; Humphries, Rick (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is continually looking for methods to reduce cost and schedule while keeping the quality of work high. MSFC is NASA's lead center for space transportation and microgravity research. When supporting NASA's programs several decisions concerning the avionics system must be made. Usually many trade studies must be conducted to determine the best ways to meet the customer's requirements. When deciding the flight data system, one of the first trade studies normally conducted is the determination of the data bus architecture. The schedule, cost, reliability, and environments are some of the factors that are reviewed in the determination of the data bus architecture. Based on the studies, the data bus architecture could result in a proprietary data bus or a commercial data bus. The cost factor usually removes the proprietary data bus from consideration. The commercial data bus's range from Versa Module Eurocard (VME) to Compact PCI to STD 32 to PC 104. If cost, schedule and size are prime factors, VME is usually not considered. If the prime factors are cost, schedule, and size then Compact PCI, STD 32 and PC104 are the choices for the data bus architecture. MSFC's center director has funded a study from his discretionary fund to determine an optimal low cost commercial data bus architecture. The goal of the study is to functionally and environmentally test Compact PCI, STD 32 and PC 104 data bus architectures. This paper will summarize the results of the data bus architecture study.

  12. Design of a CAN bus interface for photoelectric encoder in the spaceflight camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ying; Wan, Qiu-hua; She, Rong-hong; Zhao, Chang-hai; Jiang, Yong

    2009-05-01

    In order to make photoelectric encoder usable in a spaceflight camera which adopts CAN bus as the communication method, CAN bus interface of the photoelectric encoder is designed in this paper. CAN bus interface hardware circuit of photoelectric encoder consists of CAN bus controller SJA 1000, CAN bus transceiver TJA1050 and singlechip. CAN bus interface controlling software program is completed in C language. A ten-meter shield twisted pair line is used as the transmission medium in the spaceflight camera, and speed rate is 600kbps.The experiments show that: the photoelectric encoder with CAN bus interface which has the advantages of more reliability, real-time, transfer rate and transfer distance overcomes communication line's shortcomings of classical photoelectric encoder system. The system works well in automatic measuring and controlling system.

  13. 40 CFR 85.1404 - Maintenance of records for urban bus operators; submittal of information; right of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maintenance of records for urban bus... SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1404 Maintenance of records for urban bus operators; submittal of information; right of entry. (a) The operator of any urban bus for which this subpart...

  14. 40 CFR 85.1404 - Maintenance of records for urban bus operators; submittal of information; right of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maintenance of records for urban bus... SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1404 Maintenance of records for urban bus operators; submittal of information; right of entry. (a) The operator of any urban bus for which this subpart...

  15. 40 CFR 85.1404 - Maintenance of records for urban bus operators; submittal of information; right of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of records for urban bus... SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1404 Maintenance of records for urban bus operators; submittal of information; right of entry. (a) The operator of any urban bus for which this subpart...

  16. 40 CFR 85.1404 - Maintenance of records for urban bus operators; submittal of information; right of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maintenance of records for urban bus... SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1404 Maintenance of records for urban bus operators; submittal of information; right of entry. (a) The operator of any urban bus for which this subpart...

  17. 40 CFR 85.1404 - Maintenance of records for urban bus operators; submittal of information; right of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maintenance of records for urban bus... SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1404 Maintenance of records for urban bus operators; submittal of information; right of entry. (a) The operator of any urban bus for which this subpart...

  18. An evaluation of a lane support system for bus rapid transit on narrow shoulders and the relation to bus driver mental workload.

    PubMed

    Ward, Nicholas J; Shankwitz, Craig; Gorgestani, Alec; Donath, Max; De Waard, Dick; Boer, Erwin R

    2006-07-15

    The use of dedicated bus shoulders is a key method for implementing bus rapid transit (BRT) in areas that do not have the space for additional infrastructure. However, the narrow width of the bus shoulder and the need to anticipate traffic hazards in the adjacent lane can both be significant stressors for bus drivers. Bus driver mental workload and stress in response to these conditions should be a significant concern both for operational safety and driver health. This pilot study evaluated the potential stressors of traffic density and shoulder width in the context of an express BRT service in a large US metropolitan area. In addition, the study considered the potential role of a prototype lane support system (LSS) to support vehicle control within the narrow shoulder boundaries. Ten experienced bus drivers drove an actual route with an instrumented bus equipped with and without LSS. Self-reported effort was recorded along with performance measures of speed and position control relevant to mobility and safety objectives. Bus drivers did note stressors in the BRT environment and the prototype LSS. However, the use of the shoulder during high-density traffic conditions did improve mobility. Moreover, the LSS did enhance safety on the shoulder when there was high-density traffic in the adjacent lane. However, there was no evidence that the LSS reduced bus driver workload while operating in the narrow shoulder. Future research should consider the impact of BRT operations and support systems on bus driver mental workload and stress, and support the deployment of such devices for bus operations on shoulders during high traffic volumes.

  19. Mexico City

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    ... Two small brighter patches within the hazy area indicate low fog. In the left-hand panel, the city basin appears significantly clearer, but ... very high altitudes, in contrast to the low-lying haze and fog near Mexico City. When the stereo retrieval determines that a location is ...

  20. Atypical Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this creative challenge, Surrealism and one-point perspective combine to produce images that not only go "beyond the real" but also beyond the ubiquitous "imaginary city" assignment often used to teach one-point perspective. Perhaps the difference is that in the "atypical cities challenge," an understanding of one-point perspective is a means…

  1. City Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dargan, Amanda; Zeitlin, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Today, fewer city blocks preserve the confidence of lifestyle and urban geography that sustain traditional games and outdoor play. Large groups of children choosing sides and organizing Red Rover games are no longer commonplace. Teachers must encourage free play; urban planners must build cities that are safe play havens. (MLH)

  2. Bus Vent Design Evolution for the Solar Dynamics Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronowicz, Michael

    2010-01-01

    As a spacecraft undergoes ascent in a launch vehicle, its pressure environment transitions from one atmosphere to high vacuum in a matter of minutes. Venting of internal cavities is necessary to prevent the buildup of pressure differentials across cavity walls. Opposing the need to vent these volumes freely into space are thermal, optical, and electrostatic requirements for limiting or prohibiting the intrusion of unwanted energy into the same cavities. Bus vent design evolution is discussed for the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Design changes were influenced by a number of factors and concerns, such as contamination control, electrostatic discharge, changes in bus material, and driving fairing ascent pressure for a launch vehicle that was just entering service as this satellite project had gotten underway.

  3. Factors contributing to intercity commercial bus drivers' crash involvement risk.

    PubMed

    Besharati, Mohammad Mehdi; Kashani, Ali Tavakoli

    2017-03-20

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of demographic, environmental and occupational factors as well as behavioural characteristics of intercity bus drivers, on their crash involvement risk. A total number of 107 intercity bus drivers from Tehran, Iran were participated in the study. Logistic regression model suggested that smokers, those who drive during night to morning, less experienced drivers as well as those who operate older buses are more likely to be involved in crashes. In addition, one unit increase in the weekly driving hours might significantly increase the drivers' crash involvement risk. The model results also indicated that hazard monitoring, fatigue proneness and thrill seeking might be considered as other significant predictors of crash involvement risk. Implications of results are discussed.

  4. Heat storage for a bus petrol internal-combustion engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, Leonard L.; Burak, Victor S.; Kulakov, Andry G.; Mishkinis, Donatas A.; Bohan, Pavel V.

    The heat storage (HS) system for pre-heating a bus petrol internal combustion engine to starting was mathematically modelled and experimentally investigated. The development of such devices is an extremely urgent problem especially for regions with a cold climate. We discuss how HS works on the effect of absorption and rejection of heat energy at a solid-liquid phase change of a HS substance. In the first part of the paper a numerical method to calculate the HS mass-dimensional parameters and their characteristics are described. In the experimental part of the paper results are given of experiments on the pre-heating device aiding to start a carburettor engine under operational conditions and analysis of data received. Practical confirmation of the theoretical development of HS devices for a bus engine for starting by pre-heating is given.

  5. Discharging a DC bus capacitor of an electrical converter system

    DOEpatents

    Kajouke, Lateef A; Perisic, Milun; Ransom, Ray M

    2014-10-14

    A system and method of discharging a bus capacitor of a bidirectional matrix converter of a vehicle are presented here. The method begins by electrically shorting the AC interface of the converter after an AC energy source is disconnected from the AC interface. The method continues by arranging a plurality of switching elements of a second energy conversion module into a discharge configuration to establish an electrical current path from a first terminal of an isolation module, through an inductive element, and to a second terminal of the isolation module. The method also modulates a plurality of switching elements of a first energy conversion module, while maintaining the discharge configuration of the second energy conversion module, to at least partially discharge a DC bus capacitor.

  6. MIL-STD-1553 Multiplex Data Bus Word Formats.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    RD-Al2i 934 MIL-STD-k553 MULTIPLEX DATA BUS WORD FORMATS(U) BOEING 1/2 MILITARY AIRPLANE CO SEATTLE WA DEC 8i F336i5-80-C-8i24 UNCLASSIFIED F/G 9/2...MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART hAT sUjAL SURCAU of SThNOAROS - I93- A MIL-STD-1553 MULTIPLEX DATA BUS WORD FORMATS FINAL REPORT FOR PERIOD NOVEMBER...Washington 98124 ,::~~~~~ ~ ~~~~ i:i ouc- q . proved] for public elezt - -d tle;distribution is unlimited 82 11 26 054 CHAPTER 11 DATA WORD AND MESSAGE FORMAT

  7. The Research of Message Bus Structure in LAMOST Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ling-Zhe

    2008-09-01

    The LAMOST (Large sky Area Multi-Object fibre Spectroscopic Telescope) has now come to its final completion of R&D stage. Major functions of the telescope have successfully passed serial site tests recently, and various kinds of applications integrated into the automation of the telescope chamber is being under vigorous tests too. The TCS (Telescope Control System) is built on multi-layer distributed network platform with many sub-systems at different levels. How to efficiently process the enormous amount of messages with particular implications running in and out of the TCS is one of the major issues of the TCS software programming. This paper describes the mechanism and methodology of the LAMOST message bus structure. The realisation of message bus structure as a result of years of research and site test is presented in general, and dealing with the message priority and manipulating smallest pieces of message in parallel or in serial sequence are elaborated in particular.

  8. Nearly deterministic Bell measurement using quantum communication bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia-Ming; Zhu, Meng-zheng; Wang, Dong; Ye, Liu

    2017-03-01

    We present a scheme to implement Bell states measurement for an arbitrary number of photons by using robust continuous variable coherent modes, called as quantum communication bus (qubus) and weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities. Remarkably, the success probability of our scheme is close to unity, and our scheme does not require any ancillary resource entanglement. Our scheme is likely to yield versatile applications for quantum computation and quantum teleportation.

  9. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project: Evaluation Results Report

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-02-01

    This report evaluates a fuel cell electric bus demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This evaluation report covers two years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2013.

  10. Development and validation of a self-report measure of bus driver behaviour.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Lisa; Stephen, Lucy; af Wåhlberg, Anders; Gandolfi, Julie

    2010-12-01

    There are likely to be individual differences in bus driver behaviour when adhering to strict schedules under time pressure. A reliable and valid assessment of these individual differences would be useful for bus companies keen to mitigate risk of crash involvement. This paper reports on three studies to develop and validate a self-report measure of bus driver behaviour. For study 1, two principal components analyses of a pilot questionnaire revealed six components describing bus driver behaviour and four bus driver coping components. In study 2, test-retest reliability of the components were tested in a sub-sample and found to be adequate. Further, the 10 components were used to predict bus crash involvement at three levels of culpability with consistently significant associations found for two components. For study 3, avoidance coping was consistently associated with celeration variables in a bus simulator, especially for a time-pressured drive. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The instrument can be used by bus companies for driver stress and fatigue management training to identify at-risk bus driver behaviour. Training to reduce the tendency to engage in avoidance coping strategies, improve evaluative coping strategies and hazard monitoring when under stress may improve bus driver safety.

  11. Fuel cell transit bus development & commercialization programs at Gerogetown University

    SciTech Connect

    Wimmer, R.; Larkins, J.; Romano, S.

    1996-12-31

    Fourteen years ago, Georgetown University (GU) perceived the need for a clean, efficient power systems for transportation that could operate on non-petroleum based fuels. The transit bus application was selected to begin system development. GU recognized the range and recharge constraints of a pure battery powered transit bus. A Fuel Cell power system would circumvent these limitations and, with an on board reformer, accommodate liquid fuel for rapid refueling. Feasibility studies for Fuel Cell power systems for transit buses were conducted with the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1983. Successful results of this investigation resulted in the DOT/DOE Fuel Cell transit bus development program. The first task was to prove that small Fuel Cell power plants were possible. This was achieved with the Phase I development of two 25 kW Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) brassboard systems. A liquid cooled version was selected for the Phase II activity in which three 30-foot Fuel Cell powered Test Bed Buses (TBBs) were fabricated. The first of these TBBs was delivered in the spring of 1994. All three of these development vehicles are now in Phase III of the program to conduct testing and evaluation, is conducting operational testing of the buses. The test will involve two fuel cell-operated buses; one with a proton exchange fuel cell and the other with a phosphoric acid fuel cell.

  12. Measuring job quality: a study with bus drivers.

    PubMed

    Jones, Wendy; Haslam, Roger; Haslam, Cheryl

    2014-11-01

    There is growing interest in the contribution which job design can make to worker health; also a desire to better understand the multidimensional notion of 'job quality' and to develop approaches to measuring this. This paper reviews concepts of 'job quality' and 'good jobs' and examines these issues in the work of bus drivers, an occupational group commonly reported as having poor health and poor working conditions. The DGB-Index (Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund Good Work Index), a tool used recently in Germany for measuring job quality, was translated and administered to a sample of UK bus drivers (n = 381). It found job quality to be significantly lower than that for a group of non-drivers in the same organisation; and better than that for a sample of German bus drivers. We conclude that the DGB-Index is an effective tool for measuring job quality and providing feedback to employers; and could be used to compare job quality between organisations or internationally.

  13. The AI Bus architecture for distributed knowledge-based systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Roger D.; Stobie, Iain

    1991-01-01

    The AI Bus architecture is layered, distributed object oriented framework developed to support the requirements of advanced technology programs for an order of magnitude improvement in software costs. The consequent need for highly autonomous computer systems, adaptable to new technology advances over a long lifespan, led to the design of an open architecture and toolbox for building large scale, robust, production quality systems. The AI Bus accommodates a mix of knowledge based and conventional components, running on heterogeneous, distributed real world and testbed environment. The concepts and design is described of the AI Bus architecture and its current implementation status as a Unix C++ library or reusable objects. Each high level semiautonomous agent process consists of a number of knowledge sources together with interagent communication mechanisms based on shared blackboards and message passing acquaintances. Standard interfaces and protocols are followed for combining and validating subsystems. Dynamic probes or demons provide an event driven means for providing active objects with shared access to resources, and each other, while not violating their security.

  14. Ring Bus Architecture for a Solid-State Recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, W. John; Kopf, Edward; Cox, Brian

    2008-01-01

    A document concisely describes a ring bus architecture for a proposed solid-state recorder (SSR) that would serve as buffer of data to be transmitted from a spacecraft to Earth. This architecture would afford fault tolerance needed for reliable operation in an anticipated high-radiation environment in which traditional SSRs cannot operate reliably. Features of the architecture include one or more controller boards and multiple memory boards interconnected in a ringlike topology. The interconnections would be high-speed serial links complying with the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standard 1393 (which pertains to a spaceborne fiber-optic data bus). Accordingly, each controller and memory board would be equipped with an IEEE-1393-compliant ring-bus-interface unit. The ringlike topology and the multiplicity of memory boards (and, optionally, of controller boards) would afford the redundancy needed for fault tolerance. Each board would be a fault-containment region. The IEEE 1393 links could be routed so that the SSR would continue to function even in the event of multiple failures. This architecture would also support scalability over a wide range. In a fully redundant configuration, it could accommodate between 1 and 125 memory boards.

  15. Safety evaluation of a hydrogen fueled transit bus

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D.A.; Thomas, J.K.; Hovis, G.L.; Wu, T.T.

    1997-12-31

    Hydrogen fueled vehicle demonstration projects must satisfy management and regulator safety expectations. This is often accomplished using hazard and safety analyses. Such an analysis has been completed to evaluate the safety of the H2Fuel bus to be operated in Augusta, Georgia. The evaluation methods and criteria used reflect the Department of Energy`s graded approach for qualifying and documenting nuclear and chemical facility safety. The work focused on the storage and distribution of hydrogen as the bus motor fuel with emphases on the technical and operational aspects of using metal hydride beds to store hydrogen. The safety evaluation demonstrated that the operation of the H2Fuel bus represents a moderate risk. This is the same risk level determined for operation of conventionally powered transit buses in the United States. By the same criteria, private passenger automobile travel in the United States is considered a high risk. The evaluation also identified several design and operational modifications that resulted in improved safety, operability, and reliability. The hazard assessment methodology used in this project has widespread applicability to other innovative operations and systems, and the techniques can serve as a template for other similar projects.

  16. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  17. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Third Results Reports

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2012-05-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. NREL has previously published two reports documenting the operation of the fuel cell bus in service. This report provides a summary of the results with a focus on the bus operation from July 2011 through January 2012.

  18. Hydrogen-oxygen driven Zero Emissions bus draws attention at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    KSC workers, with Center Director Roy Bridges (at right next to bus), head for the open door of the Zero Emissions (ZE) transit bus and a ride around the center. Provided by dbb fuel cell engines inc. of Vancouver, Canada, the ZE bus was brought to KSC as part of the Center's Alternative Fuel Initiatives Program. The bus uses a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell in which hydrogen and oxygen, from atmospheric air, react to produce electricity that powers an electric motor drive system. The by-product 'exhaust' from the fuel cell is water vapor, thus zero harmful emissions. A typical diesel-powered bus emits more than a ton of harmful pollutants from its exhaust every year. Available to employees for viewing and a ride, the ZE bus is also being used on tour routes at the KSC Visitor Complex Oct. 26-27.

  19. Small Explorer Data System MIL-STD-1773 fiber optic bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanegan, Mark; Label, Ken

    1992-01-01

    The MIL-STD-1773 Fiber Optic Data Bus as implemented in the GSFC Small Explorer Data System (SEDS) for the Small Explorer Program is described. It provides an overview of the SEDS MIL-STD-1773 bus components system design considerations, reliability figures, acceptance and qualification testing requirements, radiation requirements and tests, error handling considerations, and component heritage. The first mission using the bus will be launched in June of 1992.

  20. A study of multiplex data bus techniques for the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kearney, R. J.; Kalange, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    A comprehensive technology base for the design of a multiplexed data bus subsystem is provided. Extensive analyses, both analytical and empirical, were performed. Subjects covered are classified under the following headings: requirements identification and analysis; transmission media studies; signal design and detection studies; synchronization, timing, and control studies; user-subsystem interface studies; operational reliability analyses; design of candidate data bus configurations; and evaluation of candidate data bus designs.

  1. The influence of bus stop on traffic flow with velocity-difference-separation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Pengjun; Wang, Wei; Ge, Hongxia

    2016-06-01

    Based on velocity-difference-separation model, the mixed traffic flow on two-lane road is investigated. For a fixed road length, the influence of bus and bus stops on traffic flow is studied with the increasing traffic density. Compared with the result without bus stops given by Li et al., a new traffic state is found, which is valuable for studying the impacts of public transport on urban traffic flow.

  2. Small Explorer Data System MIL-STD-1773 fiber optic bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanegan, Mark; Label, Ken

    1992-06-01

    The MIL-STD-1773 Fiber Optic Data Bus as implemented in the GSFC Small Explorer Data System (SEDS) for the Small Explorer Program is described. It provides an overview of the SEDS MIL-STD-1773 bus components system design considerations, reliability figures, acceptance and qualification testing requirements, radiation requirements and tests, error handling considerations, and component heritage. The first mission using the bus will be launched in June of 1992.

  3. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-In-Motion Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses from Fleet Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lijuan; Gonder, Jeff; Brooker, Aaron; Meintz, Andrew; Konan, Arnaud; Markel, Tony

    2016-05-16

    This study evaluated the costs and benefits associated with the use of stationary-wireless-power-transfer-enabled plug-in hybrid electric buses and determined the cost effectiveness relative to conventional buses and hybrid electric buses. A factorial design was performed over a number of different battery sizes, charging power levels, and f bus stop charging stations. The net present costs were calculated for each vehicle design and provided the basis for design evaluation. In all cases, given the assumed economic conditions, the conventional bus achieved the lowest net present cost while the optimal plug-in hybrid electric bus scenario beat out the hybrid electric comparison scenario. The parameter sensitivity was also investigated under favorable and unfavorable market penetration assumptions.

  4. Whole-body Vibration Exposure Intervention among Professional Bus and Truck Drivers: A Laboratory Evaluation of Seat-suspension Designs.

    PubMed

    Blood, Ryan P; Yost, Michael G; Camp, Janice E; Ching, Randal P

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exposure to seated whole-body vibration (WBV) is one of the leading risk factors for the development of low back disorders. Professional bus and truck drivers are regularly exposed to continuous WBV, since they spend the majority of their working hours driving heavy vehicles. This study measured WBV exposures among professional bus and truck drivers and evaluated the effects of seat-suspension designs using simulated field-collected data on a vibration table. WBV exposures were measured and compared across three different seat designs: an air-ride bus seat, an air-ride truck seat, and an electromagnetically active (EM-active) seat. Air-ride seats use a compressed-air bladder to attenuate vibrations, and they have been in operation throughout the transportation industry for many years. The EM-active seat is a relatively new design that incorporates a microprocessor-controlled actuator to dampen vibration. The vibration table simulated seven WBV exposure scenarios: four segments of vertical vibration and three scenarios that used field-collected driving data on different road surfaces-a city street, a freeway, and a section of rough roadway. The field scenarios used tri-axial WBV data that had been collected at the seat pan and at the driver's sternum, in accordance with ISO 2631-1 and 2631-5. This study found that WBV was significantly greater in the vertical direction (z-axis) than in the lateral directions (x-and y-axes) for each of the three road types and each of the three types of seats. Quantitative comparisons of the results showed that the floor-to-seat-pan transmissibility was significantly lower for the EM-active seat than for either the air-ride bus seat or the air-ride truck seat, across all three road types. This study also demonstrated that seat-suspension designs have a significant effect on the vibrations transmitted to vehicle operators, and the study's results may prove useful in designing future seat suspensions.

  5. Heisenberg spin bus as a robust transmission line for quantum-state transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Sangchul; Hu Xuedong; Wu Lianao; Shim, Yun-Pil; Fei, Jianjia; Friesen, Mark

    2011-08-15

    We study quantum-state transfer (QST) through a strongly coupled antiferromagnetic spin chain (acting as a spin bus), between weakly coupled external qubits. By treating the weak coupling as a perturbation, we find that QST is enabled specifically by the second-order terms in the perturbative expansion. We show that QST is robust against disorder in the couplings, either within the bus or to the external qubits. We find that the protocol works when the qubits are attached to any node on an even-size bus or to the antiferromagnetic nodes on an odd-size bus. The optimal time for QST is found to depend nonmonotonically on qubit separation.

  6. Superconducting link bus design for the accelerator project for upgrade of LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Nobrega, F.; Brandt, J.; Cheban, S.; Feher, S.; Kaducak, M.; Kashikhin, V.; Peterson, T.; /Fermilab

    2010-08-01

    The Accelerator Project for Upgrade of LHC (APUL) is a U.S. project participating in and contributing to CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) upgrade program. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in collaboration with Brookhaven National Laboratory was developing sub-systems for the upgrade of the LHC final focus magnet systems. Part of the upgrade called for various lengths of superconducting power transmission lines known as SC Links which were up to 100 m long. The SC Link electrically connects the current leads in the Distribution Feed Boxes to the interaction region magnets. The SC Link is an extension of the magnet bus housed within a cryostat. The present concept for the bus consists of 22 power cables, 4 x 13 kA, 2 x 7 kA, 8 x 2.5 kA and 8 x 0.6 kA bundled into one bus. Different cable and strand possibilities were considered for the bus design including Rutherford cable. The Rutherford cable bus design potentially would have required splices at each sharp elbow in the SC Link. The advantage of the round bus design is that splices are only required at each end of the bus during installation at CERN. The round bus is very flexible and is suitable for pulling through the cryostat. Development of the round bus prototype and of 2 splice designs is described in this paper. Magnetic analysis and mechanical test results of the 13 kA cable and splices are presented.

  7. Analysis of bus passenger comfort perception based on passenger load factor and in-vehicle time.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xianghao; Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Hu, Baoyu

    2016-01-01

    Although bus comfort is a crucial indicator of service quality, existing studies tend to focus on passenger load and ignore in-vehicle time, which can also affect passengers' comfort perception. Therefore, by conducting surveys, this study examines passengers' comfort perception while accounting for both factors. Then, using the survey data, it performs a two-way analysis of variance and shows that both in-vehicle time and passenger load significantly affect passenger comfort. Then, a bus comfort model is proposed to evaluate comfort level, followed by a sensitivity analysis. The method introduced in this study has theoretical implications for bus operators attempting to improve bus service quality.

  8. Superconducting link bus design for the accelerator project for upgrade of LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Nobrega, F.; Brandt, J.; Cheban, S.; Feher, S.; Kaducak, M.; Kashikhin, V.; Peterson, T.; /Fermilab

    2011-06-01

    The Accelerator Project for Upgrade of LHC (APUL) is a U.S. project participating in and contributing to CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) upgrade program. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in collaboration with Brookhaven National Laboratory was developing sub-systems for the upgrade of the LHC final focus magnet systems. Part of the upgrade called for various lengths of superconducting power transmission lines known as SC Links which were up to 100 m long. The SC Link electrically connects the current leads in the Distribution Feed Boxes to the interaction region magnets. The SC Link is an extension of the magnet bus housed within a cryostat. The present concept for the bus consists of 22 power cables, 4 x 13 kA, 2 x 7 kA, 8 x 2.5 kA and 8 x 0.6 kA bundled into one bus. Different cable and strand possibilities were considered for the bus design including Rutherford cable. The Rutherford cable bus design potentially would have required splices at each sharp elbow in the SC Link. The advantage of the round bus design is that splices are only required at each end of the bus during installation at CERN. The round bus is very flexible and is suitable for pulling through the cryostat. Development of the round bus prototype and of 2 splice designs is described in this paper. Magnetic analysis and mechanical test results of the 13 kA cable and splices are presented.

  9. Asymptotically zero power charge-recycling bus architecture for battery-operated ultrahigh data rate ULSI's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Hiroyuki; Akamatsu, Hironori; Fujita, Tsutomu

    1995-04-01

    An asymptotically zero power charge recycling bus (CRB) architecture, featuring virtual stacking of the individual bus-capacitance into a series configuration between supply voltage and ground, has been proposed. This CRB architecture makes it possible to reduce not only each bus-swing but also a total equivalent bus-capacitance of the ultramultibit buses running in parallel. The voltage swing of each bus is given by the recycled charge-supplying from the upper adjacent bus capacitance, instead of the power line. The dramatical power reduction was verified by the simulated and measured data. According to these data, the ultrahigh data rate of 25.6 Gb/s can be achieved while maintaining the power dissipation to be less than 100 mW, which corresponds to less than 10% that of the previously reported 0.9 V suppressed bus-swing scheme, at V(sub cc) = 3.6 V for the bus width of 512 b with the bus-capacitance of 14 pF per bit operating at 50 MHz.

  10. Structural and robustness properties of smart-city transportation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen-Gang; Ding, Zhuo; Fan, Jing-Fang; Meng, Jun; Ding, Yi-Min; Ye, Fang-Fu; Chen, Xiao-Song

    2015-09-01

    The concept of smart city gives an excellent resolution to construct and develop modern cities, and also demands infrastructure construction. How to build a safe, stable, and highly efficient public transportation system becomes an important topic in the process of city construction. In this work, we study the structural and robustness properties of transportation networks and their sub-networks. We introduce a complementary network model to study the relevance and complementarity between bus network and subway network. Our numerical results show that the mutual supplement of networks can improve the network robustness. This conclusion provides a theoretical basis for the construction of public traffic networks, and it also supports reasonable operation of managing smart cities. Project supported by the Major Projects of the China National Social Science Fund (Grant No. 11 & ZD154).

  11. GENERAL: Mean-field Theory for Some Bus Transport Networks with Random Overlapping Clique Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xu-Hua; Sun, Bao; Wang, Bo; Sun, You-Xian

    2010-04-01

    Transport networks, such as railway networks and airport networks, are a kind of random network with complex topology. Recently, more and more scholars paid attention to various kinds of transport networks and try to explore their inherent characteristics. Here we study the exponential properties of a recently introduced Bus Transport Networks (BTNs) evolution model with random overlapping clique structure, which gives a possible explanation for the observed exponential distribution of the connectivities of some BTNs of three major cities in China. Applying mean-field theory, we analyze the BTNs model and prove that this model has the character of exponential distribution of the connectivities, and develop a method to predict the growth dynamics of the individual vertices, and use this to calculate analytically the connectivity distribution and the exponents. By comparing mean-field based theoretic results with the statistical data of real BTNs, we observe that, as a whole, both of their data show similar character of exponential distribution of the connectivities, and their exponents have same order of magnitude, which show the availability of the analytical result of this paper.

  12. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Andre L. Boehman; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. The strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The laboratory studies have included work with a Navistar V-8 turbodiesel engine, demonstration of engine operation on DME-diesel blends and instrumentation for evaluating fuel properties. The field studies have involved performance, efficiency and emissions measurements with the Champion Motorcoach ''Defender'' shuttle bus which will be converted to DME-fueling. The results include baseline emissions, performance and combustion measurements on the Navistar engine for operation on a federal low sulfur diesel fuel (300 ppm S). Most recently, they have completed engine combustion studies on DME-diesel blends up to 30 wt% DME addition.

  13. [Musculoeskeletal symptoms in bus drivers of a university institution].

    PubMed

    Fernández-D'Pool, Janice; Vélez, Fanny; Brito, Angel; D'Pool, César

    2012-06-01

    Musculoskeletal symptoms (MSDs) in bus drivers have been associated to the inadequate conditions of the work station. The occurrence of MES was determined in the total population of bus drivers of a public university (N = 35), and these were related with the work station, the posture static load, age, BMI, worked days and the number of years in the position. In this study, the age range was between 27 and 56 years. The standardize Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire for the determination of the MSDs, the method of the Regie National Des Usines Renault to measure the static postural load and a questionnaire to collect information of the bus working conditions were applied. The mean (X +/- SD) age was 39 +/- 1.94 years and the body mass index (BMI) was 31 +/- 1.95 Kg/m2. The MSDs were associated significantly to the BMI (rs = 0.895 and p < 0.05). There was a high incidence of MSDs (94%) with more occurrences in neck (69%), lower back (60%), superior back (57%) and knees (43%). Pain of strong intensity, located in the lower back and knees, was the main symptom. These findings can be related with the risks at the work station, such as absence of head support, lumbar support, non sliding seat and inadequate conditions of the labor environment: vibration and noise. There was neither association nor correlation of MSDs and the postural static load, or with the others variables in study. The results suggest that inadequate conditions of the work stations as well as the BMI, dominated the occurrence of MSDs.

  14. Increasing carbonmonoxide blood levels in Bangkok bus drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Saenghirunvattana, S.; Wananukul, W.; Mokkhavesa, C.; Opasi, N.

    1995-05-01

    In order to study the effects of air pollution in Bangkok, 31 bus drivers were examined and blood was drawn for measurement of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) prior to and after work. The COHb level before work was 2.19{+-}2.46% (range 0.7.18). It had increased after work to 5.26{+-}2.52% (range 0-10.4) (p<0.001). Twenty-one drivers complained of chronic headaches, myalgia, and eye irritation during working hours. The COHb level was not statistically different between smokers and nonsmokers.

  15. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation Results: Second Report

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-09-01

    Second report evaluating a fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL published its first report on the demonstration in February 2014. This report is an update to the previous report; it covers 3 full years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2014 and focuses on the final experiences and lessons learned.

  16. DC Bus Regulation with a Flywheel Energy Storage System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Barbara H.; Kascak, Peter E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the DC bus regulation control algorithm for the NASA flywheel energy storage system during charge, charge reduction and discharge modes of operation. The algorithm was experimentally verified with results given in a previous paper. This paper presents the necessary models for simulation with detailed block diagrams of the controller algorithm. It is shown that the flywheel system and the controller can be modeled in three levels of detail depending on the type of analysis required. The three models are explained and then compared using simulation results.

  17. Power and Energy Computational Models for the Design and Simulation of Hybrid-Electric Combat Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-14

    sensors. • Battery Bank - The battery bank sets the bus voltage for the SIL and is also used to provide load leveling for acceleration, hill climb...International AECV Conference, September 1999. 2. An, F., Stodolsky, F., Vyas , A., Cuenca, R., and Eberhardt, J.J., ’Scenario Analysis of Hybrid Class 3-7

  18. [Investigation on events of bus on fire in 6 years in the mainland of China].

    PubMed

    Wang, X G; Liu, Y; Cen, Y; Wu, P; Zhou, H L; Han, C M

    2016-12-20

    Objective: To retrospectively analyze the characteristics of events of bus on fire in 6 years in the mainland of China. Methods: Events of bus on fire happened between January 2009 and December 2014 were retrieved through Baidu search engine, Chinese Journals Full-text Database, and PubMed database in the search strategy with " bus" and " fire" or " arson" as keywords combined with the name of provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities of the mainland of China. The occurrence time, region, cause of fire, casualties of each event were recorded, and the correlative analysis was conducted. Data were processed with Microsoft Excel software. Results: Totally 287 events of bus on fire were retrieved, among which 49 events happened in 2009, 36 events happened in 2010, 35 events happened in 2011, 37 events happened in 2012, and respectively 65 events happened in 2013 and 2014. The events of bus on fire most frequently happened in June and July, respectively 49 and 39 events. Among the distribution of occurrence regions of events of bus on fire, there were 78 events (27.18%) in east China, 52 events (18.12%) in northeast China, 41 events (14.29%) both in north China and south China. Among the causes of events of bus on fire, spontaneous combustion of bus ranked in the first (267 events, accounting for 93.03%), followed by arson (13 events, accounting for 4.53%). Among the 13 events of bus on fire caused by arson, 7 events happened between 16: 00 and 20: 00, and 3 events happened between 8: 00 and 10: 00. Totally 27 events of bus on fire (9.41%) were with casualties, among which 13 events (48.15%) were caused by spontaneous combustion of bus, 10 events (37.04%) were caused by arson, and 4 events (14.81%) were caused by traffic accidents. Arson caused the most severe casualties (at least 88 deaths and 287 injuries), followed by spontaneous combustion of bus (at least 35 deaths and 140 injuries) and traffic accidents (at least 9 deaths and 20 injuries). Conclusions

  19. Unhappy Cities

    PubMed Central

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Gottlieb, Joshua D.; Ziv, Oren

    2016-01-01

    There are persistent differences in self-reported subjective well-being across US metropolitan areas, and residents of declining cities appear less happy than others. Yet some people continue to move to these areas, and newer residents appear to be as unhappy as longer-term residents. While historical data on happiness are limited, the available facts suggest that cities that are now declining were also unhappy in their more prosperous past. These facts support the view that individuals do not maximize happiness alone but include it in the utility function along with other arguments. People may trade off happiness against other competing objectives. PMID:27546979

  20. Long Beach Transit: Two-Year Evaluation of Gasoline-Electric Hybrid Transit Buses

    SciTech Connect

    Lammert, M.

    2008-06-01

    This report focuses on a gasoline-electric hybrid transit bus propulsion system. The propulsion system is an alternative to standard diesel buses and allows for reductions in emissions (usually focused on reductions of particulate matter and oxides of nitrogen) and petroleum use. Gasoline propulsion is an alternative to diesel fuel and hybrid propulsion allows for increased fuel economy, which ultimately results in reduced petroleum use.

  1. City 2020+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to

  2. 77 FR 35718 - Certain Universal Serial Bus (“USB”) Portable Storage Devices, Including USB Flash Drives and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Universal Serial Bus (``USB'') Portable Storage Devices, Including USB Flash Drives and... importation of certain universal serial bus (``USB'') portable storage devices, including USB flash drives...

  3. NREL's Hydrogen-Powered Bus Serves as Showcase for Advanced Vehicle Technologies (AVT) (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-08-01

    Brochure describes the hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine (H2ICE) shuttle bus at NREL. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is funding the lease of the bus from Ford to demonstrate market-ready advanced technology vehicles to visitors at NREL.

  4. Through Rain, Sleet, Ice, and Snow, the Walking School Bus Still Must Go!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paquette, Kelli R.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the walking school bus--a physically active and safe method in which young learners can travel to and from school while accompanied by adult volunteers. The walking school bus provides a safe and healthy way for elementary-age children to travel to and from school. Many families who live within walking…

  5. A Summary of Selected Nationwide School Bus Crash Statistics in 1989. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document provides a summary of selected school bus crash statistics for 1989. Information was obtained from the following data sources: the Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS), the General Estimates System (GES), and the School Bus Fleet Annual Fact Book. The data are organized into four sections: (1) a summary of national and selected…

  6. Evoking Emotions and Unpacking Layered Histories through Young Children's Illustrations of Racial Bus Segregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuby, Candace R.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on theories of multi-modality and critical visual literacy, this article focuses on images that five-and six year-olds painted in a class-made book, Voice on the Bus, about racial segregation. The article discusses how children used illustrations to convey their understandings of Rosa Parks' bus arrest in Alabama. A post-structural view…

  7. 49 CFR 571.221 - Standard No. 221, School bus body joint strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard No. 221, School bus body joint strength. 571.221 Section 571.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.221 Standard No. 221, School bus body joint...

  8. 49 CFR 571.221 - Standard No. 221, School bus body joint strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard No. 221, School bus body joint strength. 571.221 Section 571.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.221 Standard No. 221, School bus body joint...

  9. 49 CFR 571.221 - Standard No. 221, School bus body joint strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard No. 221, School bus body joint strength. 571.221 Section 571.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.221 Standard No. 221, School bus body joint...

  10. 49 CFR 571.221 - Standard No. 221, School bus body joint strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard No. 221, School bus body joint strength. 571.221 Section 571.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.221 Standard No. 221, School bus body joint...

  11. Using School Bus Discipline Referral Data in Decision Making: Two Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Edward J.; Lewis-Palmer, Teri; Sugai, George; Schnacker, Lance

    2004-01-01

    Public schools are responsible for providing a safe, structured environment that is conducive to learning. This requirement encompasses a variety of settings, including school bus transportation. However, limited research exists to indicate best practices for designing and implementing behavior programs for school bus transportation. The…

  12. Survey on the implementation and reliability of CubeSat electrical bus interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouwmeester, Jasper; Langer, Martin; Gill, Eberhard

    2016-09-01

    This paper provides results and conclusions on a survey on the implementation and reliability aspects of CubeSat bus interfaces, with an emphasis on the data bus and power distribution. It provides recommendations for a future CubeSat bus standard. The survey is based on a literature study and a questionnaire representing 60 launched CubeSats and 44 to be launched CubeSats. It is found that the bus interfaces are not the main driver for mission failures. However, it is concluded that the Inter Integrated Circuit (I2C) data bus, as implemented in a great majority of the CubeSats, caused some catastrophic satellite failures and a vast amount of bus lockups. The power distribution may lead to catastrophic failures if the power lines are not protected against overcurrent. A connector and wiring standard widely implemented in CubeSats is based on the PC/104 standard. Most participants find the 104 pin connector of this standard too large. For a future CubeSat bus interface standard, it is recommended to implement a reliable data bus, a power distribution with overcurrent protection and a wiring harness with smaller connectors compared with PC/104.

  13. Spaceflight qualification of the SEDS MIL-STD-1773 fiber optic data bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanegan, Mark C.

    1993-09-01

    The small explorer (SMEX) project at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) launched the first spaceflight implementation of the MIL-STD-1773 fiber optic data bus on the Solar Anomalous Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) in July of 1992. The Small Explorer Data System (SEDS), of which the MIL-STD-1773 data bus is a part, has been successful. The MIL-STD-1773 bus is the implementation of the MIL-STD-1553 protocol using fiber optics. Advantages of the fiber optic bus over the electrical bus include lower power, lower weight, and immunity from EMI/RFI. It does not radiate electrical or magnetic fields. It is a nonconductor so it cannot conduct electrical noise into or from a subsystem. This is particularly advantageous on a spacecraft with very sensitive instruments which are often susceptible to electrical interference. Although the MIL-STD-1773 bus is a 1 Mbps bus like the MIL-STD-1553 bus, the fiber optics also provide a path to the much higher rate systems required in upcoming NASA missions.

  14. 49 CFR 571.221 - Standard No. 221; School bus body joint strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... reference, see § 571.5), the lowest value of that material's thickness and tensile strength per unit of area... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard No. 221; School bus body joint strength... STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.221 Standard No. 221; School bus body joint...

  15. 49 CFR 571.221 - Standard No. 221; School bus body joint strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... material's thickness and tensile strength per unit of area shown in that source shall be used. (b) If the... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 221; School bus body joint strength... STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.221 Standard No. 221; School bus body joint...

  16. 49 CFR 571.221 - Standard No. 221; School bus body joint strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... reference, see § 571.5), the lowest value of that material's thickness and tensile strength per unit of area... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard No. 221; School bus body joint strength... STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.221 Standard No. 221; School bus body joint...

  17. 49 CFR 571.221 - Standard No. 221; School bus body joint strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... material's thickness and tensile strength per unit of area shown in that source shall be used. (b) If the... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard No. 221; School bus body joint strength... STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.221 Standard No. 221; School bus body joint...

  18. This Could Save Your Child's Life. A School Bus Handrail Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    School-bus handrails have had the same basic design for more than 30 years. However, students' recent propensity to wear oversized and baggy clothing increases the likelihood that clothing or accessories may become snagged on bus handrails. Children across the United States have been injured or killed when their clothing or accessories caught in…

  19. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 665 - Tests To Be Performed at the Bus Testing Facility

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., or other major propulsion system components may require advice from the bus manufacturer. All routine... braking. The bus should be accelerated at full throttle from a full stop to maximum safe speed on the... performance of the service, regenerative (if applicable), and parking brake systems should be evaluated at...

  20. School Bus Routing and Scheduling: When to Use Computer-Assisted Methods and Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walcott, Wayne; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Discusses issues concerning the use of computers in school bus scheduling and routing. Examines the advantages, technical considerations, and costs of changing to a computerized system. Offers a five-point approach toward implementation and includes a table of comparative data for routing and scheduling models for a typical school bus fleet. (IW)

  1. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 665 - Tests To Be Performed at the Bus Testing Facility

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... components that would be expected to require replacement during the bus's normal life cycle. Much of the... operability of all passenger doors, passenger escape mechanisms, windows, and service doors. A water leak test... using duty cycles that simulate transit service. This test should measure the fuel economy of the bus...

  2. 49 CFR 571.221 - Standard No. 221, School bus body joint strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 221, School bus body joint strength. 571.221 Section 571.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.221 Standard No. 221, School bus body joint...

  3. The school bus routing and scheduling problem with transfers

    PubMed Central

    Doerner, Karl F.; Parragh, Sophie N.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we study the school bus routing and scheduling problem with transfers arising in the field of nonperiodic public transportation systems. It deals with the transportation of pupils from home to their school in the morning taking the possibility that pupils may change buses into account. Allowing transfers has several consequences. On the one hand, it allows more flexibility in the bus network structure and can, therefore, help to reduce operating costs. On the other hand, transfers have an impact on the service level: the perceived service quality is lower due to the existence of transfers; however, at the same time, user ride times may be reduced and, thus, transfers may also have a positive impact on service quality. The main objective is the minimization of the total operating costs. We develop a heuristic solution framework to solve this problem and compare it with two solution concepts that do not consider transfers. The impact of transfers on the service level in terms of time loss (or user ride time) and the number of transfers is analyzed. Our results show that allowing transfers reduces total operating costs significantly while average and maximum user ride times are comparable to solutions without transfers. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. NETWORKS, Vol. 65(2), 180–203 2015 PMID:28163329

  4. A programmable systolic trigger processor for FERA-bus data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appelquist, G.; Hovander, B.; Sellden, B.; Bohm, C.

    1992-09-01

    A generic CAMAC based trigger processor module for fast processing of large amounts of Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) data was designed. This module was realized using complex programmable gate arrays. The gate arrays were connected to memories and multipliers in such a way that different gate array configurations can cover a wide range of module applications. Using this module, it is possible to construct complex trigger processors. The module uses both the fast ECL FERA bus and the CAMAC bus for inputs and outputs. The latter is used for set up and control but may also be used for data output. Large numbers of ADC's can be served by a hierarchical arrangement of trigger processor modules which process ADC data with pipeline arithmetics and produce the final result at the apex of the pyramid. The trigger decision is transmitted to the data acquisition system via a logic signal while numeric results may be extracted by the CAMAC controller. The trigger processor was developed for the proposed neutral particle search. It was designed to serve as a second level trigger processor. It was required to correct all ADC raw data for efficiency and pedestal, calculate the total calorimeter energy, obtain the optimal time of flight data, and calculate the particle mass. A suitable mass cut would then deliver the trigger decision.

  5. A Conceptual Design for a Reliable Optical Bus (ROBUS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, Paul S.; Malekpour, Mahyar; Torres, Wilfredo

    2002-01-01

    The Scalable Processor-Independent Design for Electromagnetic Resilience (SPIDER) is a new family of fault-tolerant architectures under development at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). The SPIDER is a general-purpose computational platform suitable for use in ultra-reliable embedded control applications. The design scales from a small configuration supporting a single aircraft function to a large distributed configuration capable of supporting several functions simultaneously. SPIDER consists of a collection of simplex processing elements communicating via a Reliable Optical Bus (ROBUS). The ROBUS is an ultra-reliable, time-division multiple access broadcast bus with strictly enforced write access (no babbling idiots) providing basic fault-tolerant services using formally verified fault-tolerance protocols including Interactive Consistency (Byzantine Agreement), Internal Clock Synchronization, and Distributed Diagnosis. The conceptual design of the ROBUS is presented in this paper including requirements, topology, protocols, and the block-level design. Verification activities, including the use of formal methods, are also discussed.

  6. Reducing transit bus emissions: Alternative fuels or traffic operations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Ahsan; Hatzopoulou, Marianne

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we simulated the operations and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of transit buses along a busy corridor and quantified the effects of two different fuels (conventional diesel and compressed natural gas) as well as a set of driving conditions on emissions. Results indicate that compressed natural gas (CNG) reduces GHG emissions by 8-12% compared to conventional diesel, this reduction could increase to 16% with high levels of traffic congestion. However, the benefits of switching from conventional diesel to CNG are less apparent when the road network is uncongested. We also investigated the effects of bus operations on emissions by applying several strategies such as transit signal priority (TSP), queue jumper lanes, and relocation of bus stops. Results show that in congested conditions, TSP alone can reduce GHG emissions by 14% and when combined with improved technology; a reduction of 23% is achieved. The reduction benefits are even more apparent when other transit operational improvements are combined with TSP. Finally a sensitivity analysis was performed to investigate the effect of operational improvements on emissions under varying levels of network congestion. We observe that under “extreme congestion”, the benefits of TSP decrease.

  7. Building distributed rule-based systems using the AI Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Roger D.; Stobie, Iain C.

    1990-01-01

    The AI Bus software architecture was designed to support the construction of large-scale, production-quality applications in areas of high technology flux, running heterogeneous distributed environments, utilizing a mix of knowledge-based and conventional components. These goals led to its current development as a layered, object-oriented library for cooperative systems. This paper describes the concepts and design of the AI Bus and its implementation status as a library of reusable and customizable objects, structured by layers from operating system interfaces up to high-level knowledge-based agents. Each agent is a semi-autonomous process with specialized expertise, and consists of a number of knowledge sources (a knowledge base and inference engine). Inter-agent communication mechanisms are based on blackboards and Actors-style acquaintances. As a conservative first implementation, we used C++ on top of Unix, and wrapped an embedded Clips with methods for the knowledge source class. This involved designing standard protocols for communication and functions which use these protocols in rules. Embedding several CLIPS objects within a single process was an unexpected problem because of global variables, whose solution involved constructing and recompiling a C++ version of CLIPS. We are currently working on a more radical approach to incorporating CLIPS, by separating out its pattern matcher, rule and fact representations and other components as true object oriented modules.

  8. Indoor air quality and occupational exposures at a bus terminal.

    PubMed

    El-Fadel, Mutasem; El-Hougeiri, Nisrine

    2003-07-01

    This article presents an assessment of indoor air quality at a bus terminal. For this purpose, field surveys were conducted, and air samples were collected and analyzed for the presence of selected indoor air quality indicators. Mathematical modeling was performed to simulate bus emission rates, occupational exposure, and ventilation requirements to maintain acceptable indoor air quality. A sensitivity analysis based on literature-derived emission rates estimates was conducted to evaluate the effect of seasonal temperature changes within the terminal. Control measures to improve indoor air quality at the terminal are also outlined. While carbon monoxide concentrations were below the corresponding American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) standards under normal operating conditions, they exceeded the 8-hr recommended average standard at peak hours and the World Health Organization (WHO) standard at all times. Total suspended particulates levels, on the other hand, were above the 24-hr American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers' (ASHRAE) standard. Carbon monoxide emission rates that were estimated using the transient mass balance model correlated relatively well with those reported in the literature. Modeling results showed that the natural ventilation rate should be at least doubled for acceptable indoor air quality. While pollutant exposure levels depended on the individual activity patterns and the pollutant concentration, pollutant emissions rates within the terminal were affected mostly by the temperature with a 20-25 percent variation in carbon monoxide levels due to changes in seasonal temperatures.

  9. Development of an integrated cryogenic bus for spacecraft applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugby, David C.; Brennan, Patrick J.; Davis, Thomas M.; Tomlinson, Joe; Stoyanof, Marko; Crawford, Larry; Glaister, David S.

    1997-01-01

    To improve the efficiency and reduce the overdesign penalties associated with integrating cryogenic systems into spacecraft, the Integrated Cryogenic Bus (ICB) program was initiated in April 1996. The technical objectives of the program were to develop an integrated, lightweight means of thermally linking a cryogenic cooling source to a cooled satellite component, to commonize the interfaces to the cooling source and cooled component, and to commonize the integration of these systems into spacecraft. The technical plan involves several steps beginning with the definition of requirements, the identification and characterization of potential bus components, the development of new concepts and optimization methods, breadboard testing, and prototype development. Six months into the program, over 25 cryocooler, focal plane, and cryogenic hardware organizations have been interviewed or surveyed to identify requirements, numerous components have been identified and characterized, several preliminary concepts have been developed, an optimization plan has been outlined, and critical breadboard tests have begun. This paper summarizes the progress to date during Phase I of this Phillips Laboratory program funded by the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO).

  10. The Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, Richard P.; Dommel, Paul R.

    Over the past two decades, direct payments from the Federal Government to local governments has increased more than sixfold as a percentage of the revenues local governments raise on their own. Both the Ford budget and the Carter budget revisions for 1977 and 1978 contain policy changes with important implications for cities. In this document…

  11. Contribution analysis of bus pass-by noise based on dynamic transfer path method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haitao; Zheng, Sifa; Hao, Peng; Lian, Xiaomin

    2011-10-01

    Bus pass-by noise has become one of the main noise sources which seriously disturb the mental and physical health of urban residents. The key of reducing bus noise is to identify major noise source. In this paper the dynamic transfer characteristic model in the process of bus acceleration is established, which can quantitatively describe the relationship between the sound source or vibration source of the vehicle and the response points outside the vehicle; also a test method has been designed, which can quickly and easily identify the contribution of the bus pass-by noise. Experimental results show that the dynamic transfer characteristic model can identify the main noise source and their contribution during the acceleration, which has significance for the bus noise reduction.

  12. Hydrogen-oxygen driven Zero Emissions bus draws attention at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    KSC employees, along with Center Director Roy Bridges (second from left), view the hydrogen-oxygen driven engine powering a Zero Emissions (ZE) transit bus. Provided by dbb fuel cell engines inc. of Vancouver, Canada, the ZE bus was brought to KSC as part of the Center's Alternative Fuel Initiatives Program. The bus uses a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell in which hydrogen and oxygen, from atmospheric air, react to produce electricity that powers an electric motor drive system. The by-product 'exhaust' from the fuel cell is water vapor, thus zero harmful emissions. A typical diesel-powered bus emits more than a ton of harmful pollutants from its exhaust every year. Available for viewing by employees, the ZE bus is also being used on tour routes at the KSC Visitor Complex Oct. 26-27.

  13. Hydrogen-oxygen driven Zero Emissions bus draws attention at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In front of the Headquarters Building at KSC, Center Director Roy Bridges (left) looks at the hydrogen-oxygen driven engine powering a Zero Emissions (ZE) transit bus. Provided by dbb fuel cell engines inc. of Vancouver, Canada, the ZE bus was brought to KSC as part of the Center's Alternative Fuel Initiatives Program. The bus uses a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell in which hydrogen and oxygen, from atmospheric air, react to produce electricity that powers an electric motor drive system. The by- product 'exhaust' from the fuel cell is water vapor, thus zero harmful emissions. A typical diesel-powered bus emits more than a ton of harmful pollutants from its exhaust every year. Available for viewing by employees, the ZE bus is also being used on tour routes at the KSC Visitor Complex Oct. 26-27.

  14. Hydrogen-oxygen driven Zero Emissions bus draws attention at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    On view in front of the Headquarters Building, the Zero Emissions (ZE) transit bus attracts an interested group of employees, including Center Director Roy Bridges (second from left in foreground). Provided by dbb fuel cell engines inc. of Vancouver, Canada, the ZE bus was brought to KSC as part of the Center's Alternative Fuel Initiatives Program. The bus uses a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell in which hydrogen and oxygen, from atmospheric air, react to produce electricity that powers an electric motor drive system. The by-product 'exhaust' from the fuel cell is water vapor, thus zero harmful emissions. A typical diesel-powered bus emits more than a ton of harmful pollutants from its exhaust every year. Available for viewing by employees, the ZE bus is also being used on tour routes at the KSC Visitor Complex Oct. 26-27.

  15. Hydrogen-oxygen driven Zero Emissions bus drives around KSC Visitor Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Zero Emissions (ZE) transit bus passes a mock-up orbiter named Explorer on a trek through the KSC Visitor Complex. Provided by dbb fuel cell engines inc. of Vancouver, Canada, the ZE bus was brought to KSC as part of the Center's Alternative Fuel Initiatives Program. The bus uses a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell in which hydrogen and oxygen, from atmospheric air, react to produce electricity that powers an electric motor drive system. The by-product 'exhaust' from the fuel cell is water vapor, thus zero harmful emissions. A typical diesel-powered bus emits more than a ton of harmful pollutants from its exhaust every year. The ZE bus is being used on tour routes at the KSC Visitor Complex for two days to introduce the public to the concept.

  16. Occupational safety conditions of bus drivers in Metro Manila, the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Santos, Jewelle Ann; Lu, Jinky Leilanie

    2016-12-01

    The study looks into the occupational safety and working conditions among bus drivers in Metro Manila, the Philippines. Quantitative data were collected through survey interviews of 95 bus drivers using the stratified sampling technique. Results showed that bus drivers worked an average of 16 h/day and were engaged in risky driving behaviors such as over-speeding and road racing in order to reach their quota for the day. Fifty-nine percent experienced work-related accidents, with a mean of three accidents. The most common accident was hitting another vehicle followed by side swipe. The accidents were blamed on other drivers, followed by vehicle defect, inattentiveness and tiredness/micro-sleep or sudden involuntary sleep while driving. The most common health symptoms experienced by the bus drivers were fatigue, back pain, and cough and colds. This study underlines the need for an occupational health and safety program for bus drivers in the Philippines.

  17. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Second Results Report and Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2011-10-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This is the second results report for the AT fuel cell bus since it was placed in service, and it focuses on the newest data analysis and lessons learned since the previous report. The appendices, referenced in the main report, provide the full background for the evaluation. They will be updated as new information is collected but will contain the original background material from the first report.

  18. Hydrogen-oxygen driven Zero Emissions bus drives around KSC Visitor Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Zero Emissions (ZE) transit bus tours the KSC Visitor Complex for a test ride. In the background are a mock-up orbiter named Explorer (left) and a stack of solid rocket boosters and external tank (right), typically used on Shuttle launches. Provided by dbb fuel cell engines inc. of Vancouver, Canada, the ZE bus was brought to KSC as part of the Center's Alternative Fuel Initiatives Program. The bus uses a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell in which hydrogen and oxygen, from atmospheric air, react to produce electricity that powers an electric motor drive system. The by-product 'exhaust' from the fuel cell is water vapor, thus zero harmful emissions. A typical diesel-powered bus emits more than a ton of harmful pollutants from its exhaust every year. The ZE bus is being used on tour routes at the KSC Visitor Complex for two days to introduce the public to the concept.

  19. Hybrid electric vehicle power management system

    SciTech Connect

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2015-08-25

    Level voltage levels/states of charge are maintained among a plurality of high voltage DC electrical storage devices/traction battery packs that are arrayed in series to support operation of a hybrid electric vehicle drive train. Each high voltage DC electrical storage device supports a high voltage power bus, to which at least one controllable load is connected, and at least a first lower voltage level electrical distribution system. The rate of power transfer from the high voltage DC electrical storage devices to the at least first lower voltage electrical distribution system is controlled by DC-DC converters.

  20. 25 CFR 39.710 - How does a school calculate annual bus transportation miles for day students?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true How does a school calculate annual bus transportation... Miles § 39.710 How does a school calculate annual bus transportation miles for day students? To calculate the total annual bus transportation miles for day students, a school must use the...

  1. 25 CFR 39.710 - How does a school calculate annual bus transportation miles for day students?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How does a school calculate annual bus transportation... Miles § 39.710 How does a school calculate annual bus transportation miles for day students? To calculate the total annual bus transportation miles for day students, a school must use the...

  2. 25 CFR 39.710 - How does a school calculate annual bus transportation miles for day students?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does a school calculate annual bus transportation... Miles § 39.710 How does a school calculate annual bus transportation miles for day students? To calculate the total annual bus transportation miles for day students, a school must use the...

  3. 25 CFR 39.710 - How does a school calculate annual bus transportation miles for day students?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How does a school calculate annual bus transportation... Miles § 39.710 How does a school calculate annual bus transportation miles for day students? To calculate the total annual bus transportation miles for day students, a school must use the...

  4. 25 CFR 39.710 - How does a school calculate annual bus transportation miles for day students?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How does a school calculate annual bus transportation... Miles § 39.710 How does a school calculate annual bus transportation miles for day students? To calculate the total annual bus transportation miles for day students, a school must use the...

  5. An Analysis of an Improved Bus-Based Multiprocessor Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricks, Kenneth G.; Wells, B. Earl

    1998-01-01

    This paper analyses the effectiveness of a hybrid multiprocessing/multicomputing architecture that is based upon a single-board-computer multiprocessor (SBCM) architecture. Based upon empirical analysis using discrete event simulations and Monte Carlo techniques, this hybrid architecture, called the enhanced single-board-computer multiprocessor (ESBCM), is shown to have improved performance and scalability characteristics over current SBCM designs.

  6. Novel low cost standardized Nano-Satellite structure bus for LEO missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anubhav, T.; Sarwesh, P.; Narayan, V.; Varma, P. A.; Prasad, R. A.; Loganathan, M.; Rao, D. N.; Sriram, S.; Venkatesh, M.

    This paper focuses on SRMSAT STRUCTURE BUS which is a standardized Nano-Satellite structure bus. It provides a standard platform for a wide variety of missions in LEO and can be realized in a very short developmental period. The bus was designed and developed for SRMSAT, the SRM University (Sri Ramaswamy Memorial University) student Nano-Satellite, by the undergraduate students and faculty of SRM University in collaboration with Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). The bus can support payloads up to a mass of 20kg. SRMSAT STRUCTURE BUS has a mass of around 6 kg and dimensions 280mm × 280mm × 280mm with an available volume of 11000 cc. Vibration Testing of the bus has been performed upto 6.7 gRMS. This makes the satellite capable of being launched by any launch vehicle in the world. An innovative PCB mounting design has been introduced in this structure bus which facilitates mounting of a maximum 7 PCB trays independently, each tray capable of holding a 250 mm2 PCB. Structural analysis of SRMSAT STRUCTURE BUS was done using NX Nastran. The boundary conditions for each analysis were defined based on the loading conditions as specified by the launcher, PSLV (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle). Optimization of each individual component was performed by maintaining a minimum threshold between the local frequencies of the component and global frequencies of the entire satellite. Static, Modal, Harmonic and Random Vibration analysis of the structure bus was performed. This paper also describes the methodology followed in the static and dynamic analysis of the structure bus to finalize the design. The results have been tested and validated at ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore with around 90% accuracy and the structure has been certified as a standard structure bus for Nano-satellite missions. In terms of expandability, this structure bus is capable of accommodating deployable solar panels. Also, the payload mounting is not only restricted to th- bottom deck but can

  7. Pedestrian navigation data modeling for hybrid travel patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jianghua; Tao, Jianwei; Ding, Jianli; Abuliz, Abudukim; Xiang, Hanyu

    2008-10-01

    At present, navigation data models, such as GDF4.0, KIWI, SDAL and WI 19134, didn't pay attention to form pedestrian transport infrastructure into their models. With the development of navigation, pedestrian navigation has become a hot topic. The research team put forward their pilot research on pedestrian data modeling for hybrid travel patters, mainly including subway, bus and feet. Pedestrian road network modeling was made. Based on this, it carried out the discussion on multi-level navigation data modeling of hybrid travel patterns. It also gave algorithm suggestion to operate the optimal route computing more efficient. The future work is just to focus on demonstrate the algorithm.

  8. STS-98 crew prepares to board bus at SLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    STS-98 Mission Commander Kenneth Cockrell waves to his family at the Shuttle Landing Facility after the crew's arrival Sunday to complete preparations for launch. In the background, Mission Specialist Robert Curbeam (left) and Pilot Mark Polansky are also caught waving. The crew is preparing to board a bus for transport to the Operations and Checkout Building where the crew quarters at KSC is located. Crew members Thomas Jones and Marsha Ivins, both mission specialists, are not in plain view. STS-98 is the seventh construction flight to the International Space Station, carrying as payload the U.S. Lab Destiny, a key element in the construction of the ISS. Launch of STS-98 is scheduled for Feb. 7 at 6:11 p.m. EST.

  9. [Bus drivers' biomechanical risk assessment in two different contexts].

    PubMed

    Baracco, A; Coggiola, M; Perrelli, F; Banchio, M; Martignone, S; Gullino, A; Romano, C

    2012-01-01

    The application of standardize methods for the biomechanical risk assessment in non-industrial cycled activity is not always possible. A typical case is the public transport sector, where workers complain of suffering for shoulder more than elbow and wrist pains. The Authors present the results of two studies involving two public transport companies and the risk of biomechanical overload of upper limbs for bus and tram drivers. The analysis has been made using three different approaches: focus groups; static analysis by using anthropometric manikins; work sampling technique by monitoring worker's activity and posture at each minute, for two hours and for each binomial vehicle-route, considering P5F e P95M drivers and assessing the perceived efforts thorough the Borg's CR10 Scale. The conclusive results show that the ergonomic analysis managed by multiple non-standardized techniques may reach consistent and repeatable results according to the epidemiological evidences.

  10. Proposal for Alzheimer's diagnosis using molecular buffer and bus network.

    PubMed

    Mitatha, S; Moongfangklang, N; Jalil, M A; Suwanpayak, N; Saktioto, T; Ali, J; Yupapin, P P

    2011-01-01

    A novel design of an optical trapping tool for tangle protein (tau tangles, β-amyloid plaques) and molecular motor storage and delivery using a PANDA ring resonator is proposed. The optical vortices can be generated and controlled to form the trapping tools in the same way as the optical tweezers. In theory, the trapping force is formed by the combination between the gradient field and scattering photons, and is reviewed. By using the intense optical vortices generated within the PANDA ring resonator, the required molecular volumes can be trapped and moved dynamically within the molecular buffer and bus network. The tangle protein and molecular motor can transport and connect to the required destinations, enabling availability for Alzheimer's diagnosis.

  11. Error protection capability of space shuttle data bus designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proch, G. E.

    1974-01-01

    Error protection assurance in the reliability of digital data communications is discussed. The need for error protection on the space shuttle data bus system has been recognized and specified as a hardware requirement. The error protection techniques of particular concern are those designed into the Shuttle Main Engine Interface (MEI) and the Orbiter Multiplex Interface Adapter (MIA). The techniques and circuit design details proposed for these hardware are analyzed in this report to determine their error protection capability. The capability is calculated in terms of the probability of an undetected word error. Calculated results are reported for a noise environment that ranges from the nominal noise level stated in the hardware specifications to burst levels which may occur in extreme or anomalous conditions.

  12. Improved blood pressure control among school bus drivers with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Joseph; Severance-Fonte, Tina; Morandi-Matricaria, Elizabeth; Wogen, Jenifer; Frech-Tamas, Feride

    2010-04-01

    The impact of a hypertension awareness and educational program, BP DownShift, was evaluated among school bus drivers in a southern US state. At baseline (August 2007), blood pressure (BP) measurements, self-reported demographics, and hypertension awareness and management practices were collected from drivers who consented to participate in the study. Interventions included 4 educational mailings, installation of BP machines at all bus terminals, and access to free dietitian consultations and gym memberships. BP was evaluated using Department of Transportation guidelines. BP was remeasured and a survey was administered at follow-up (May 2008). At baseline, 208 drivers consented to the BP screening; 120 (58%) returned for a follow-up assessment. Most participants completing the study were female (73%) and African American (72%). Mean age was 50 years and mean body mass index was 32 kg/m(2); 52% of participants were obese. In all, 58% of participants reported a prior diagnosis of hypertension by a physician, and 63% reported taking antihypertensive medication. Both systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP) were lower at follow-up (135/82 mmHg vs. 145/87 mmHg at baseline; P < 0.001, both comparisons); 42% had a reduction in SBP > 10 mmHg, and 44% had a reduction in DBP > 5 mmHg. At follow-up, 58% were controlled to BP < 140/90, compared to 38% at baseline (P < 0.001). At follow-up, an increased proportion of previously diagnosed drivers reported home BP monitoring, healthy diet, and regular exercise as components of hypertension self-management. The implementation of our hypertension education, self-management, and awareness program was associated with an improvement in BP control, which may positively impact commercial driver's license recertification as well as improve employee health.

  13. A High Efficiency DC Bus Regulator/RPC for Spacecraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2003-01-01

    DC bus voltage regulation may be required in future high powered spacecraft due to the length of the busses or because they are not generated at precise voltage levels. In these cases the regulation range is often only a few percent increase or decrease, but conventional DC voltage regulators switch all the power passing through them, and this level of power switched determines the size and losses in the regulator. A recently developed concept used a low power DC-DC converter in series with the bs to raise or lower the bus voltage over a small range. This partial power processing technique combines the small size and power losses of the low power converter with the ability to regulate, (over a small range) a high power bus. The Series Connected Buck Boost Regulator (SCBBR) described herein provides bus regulation with an efficiency of 98%. The circuit also provides bus switching and overcurrent limiting functions of a Remote Power Controller (RPC). This paper described the circuit design and performance of a breadboard SCBBR configured as a bus voltage regulator providing plus of minus 40% voltage regulation range, bus switching, and overload limiting.

  14. Prevalence and factors associated with road traffic crash among bus drivers in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    La, Quang Ngoc; Lee, Andy H; Meuleners, Lynn B; Van Duong, Dat

    2013-01-01

    Bus provides a main mode of public transport in Vietnam, but the risk of road traffic crash for bus drivers is unknown. This retrospective study estimated the crash prevalence among bus drivers in Hanoi, Vietnam, and identified driver characteristics affecting their crashes. Information on bus crashes for the period 2006-2009 was collected by interviewing drivers from five bus companies in Hanoi using a structured questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine pertinent risk factors affecting the crash prevalence for bus drivers. Of the total 365 participants recruited, 73 drivers reported 76 crashes, giving an overall crash prevalence of 20%. Among the crashed group, three drivers (4%) were involved in two crashes during the past 3 years. Crashes mainly occurred on streets or local roads (81%). Migrant worker (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 4.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.20-8.25) and insufficient income perceived (OR 2.60, 95% CI 1.37-4.93) were identified to be significantly associated with the crash risk. Further prospective and qualitative studies are needed to provide detailed crash characteristics as well as behaviour and perception of bus drivers, so that an effective intervention can be developed to improve road safety and to prevent traffic injury of these drivers.

  15. Single Axis Attitude Control and DC Bus Regulation with Two Flywheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, Peter E.; Jansen, Ralph H.; Kenny, Barbara; Dever, Timothy P.

    2002-01-01

    A computer simulation of a flywheel energy storage single axis attitude control system is described. The simulation models hardware which will be experimentally tested in the future. This hardware consists of two counter rotating flywheels mounted to an air table. The air table allows one axis of rotational motion. An inertia DC bus coordinator is set forth that allows the two control problems, bus regulation and attitude control, to be separated. Simulation results are presented with a previously derived flywheel bus regulator and a simple PID attitude controller.

  16. Gas Phase Emission Ratios From In-Use Diesel and CNG Curbside Passenger Buses in New York City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herndon, S. C.; Shorter, J.; Canagaratna, M.; Jayne, J.; Nelson, D. D.; Wormhoudt, J. C.; Williams, P.; Silva, P. J.; Shi, Q.; Ghertner, A.; Zahniser, M.; Worsnop, D.; Kolb, C.; Lanni, T.; Drewnick, F.; Demerjian, K. L.

    2002-12-01

    The Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory simultaneously measured gas phase and particulate emissions from in use vehicles during two campaigns in New York City. The campaigns took place during two weeks in October, 2000 and four weeks in July-August, 2001. Passenger curbside buses were the primary focus of the study, but school buses and several other heavy duty diesel vehicles were also characterized. This paper describes the methodologies used to measure individual in use vehicles and presents the results of the gas phase measurements. Emission ratios for NO, NO2, SO2, N2O, CO, CH4 and H2CO relative to CO2 have been determined across several classes of buses. The gas phase concentrations were measured each second, using Tunable Infrared Laser Direct Absorption Spectroscopy (TILDAS). Some of the categories of buses into which the data has been sorted are; diesel (both 6V92 and Series 50) with and without the Continuous Regenerative Technology (CRT) retrofit, compressed natural gas powered(CNG) and hybrid diesel-electric buses. The New York Metropolitan Transit Authority (MTA) cooperated with this work, providing details about each of their buses followed. In addition to MTA buses, other New York City passenger bus operators were also measured. In September 2000, MTA began to switch to 30 ppm sulfur diesel fuel while it is believed the non MTA operators did not. The measured emission ratios show that low sulfur fuel greatly reduces the amount of SO2 per CO2. Roughly one third of the MTA fleet of diesel buses have been equipped with the CRT retrofit. The gas phase results of interest in this category show increased direct emission of NO2 and companion work (also submitted to the 12th CRC) show the impact the CRT refit has on particulate emissions. CNG buses show increased H2CO and CH4 emission ratios relative to diesel powered motors.

  17. TransMilenio, a Scalable Bus Rapid Transit System for Promoting Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Lemoine, Pablo D; Sarmiento, Olga L; Pinzón, Jose David; Meisel, Jose D; Montes, Felipe; Hidalgo, Dario; Pratt, Michael; Zambrano, Juan Manuel; Cordovez, Juan Manuel; Zarama, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Transport systems can play an important role in increasing physical activity (PA). Bogotá has been recognized for its bus rapid transit (BRT) system, TransMilenio (TM). To date, BRTs have been implemented in over 160 cities worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the association between PA and the use of TM among adults in Bogotá. The study consists of a cross-sectional study conducted from 2010 to 2011 with 1000 adults. PA was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. In a subsample of 250 adults, PA was objectively measured using ActiGraph accelerometers. Analyses were conducted using multilevel logistic regression models. The use of TM was associated with meeting moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). TM users were more likely to complete an average of >22 min a day of MVPA (odds ratio [OR] = 3.1, confidence interval [CI] = 95 % 1.4-7.1) and to walk for transportation for ≥150 min per week (OR = 1.5; CI = 95 % 1.1-2.0). The use of TM was associated with 12 or more minutes of MVPA (95 % CI 4.5-19.4, p < 0.0001). Associations between meeting PA recommendations and use of TM did not differ by socioeconomic status (p value = 0.106) or sex (p value = 0.288). The use of TM is a promising strategy for enhancing public health efforts to reduce physical inactivity through walking for transport. Given the expansion of BRTs, these results could inform the development of transport PA programs in low- to high-income countries.

  18. A Hybrid Differential Invasive Weed Algorithm for Congestion Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, Aniruddha; Pal, Siddharth; Pandi, V. Ravikumar; Panigrahi, B. K.; Das, Swagatam

    This work is dedicated to solve the problem of congestion management in restructured power systems. Nowadays we have open access market which pushes the power system operation to their limits for maximum economic benefits but at the same time making the system more susceptible to congestion. In this regard congestion management is absolutely vital. In this paper we try to remove congestion by generation rescheduling where the cost involved in the rescheduling process is minimized. The proposed algorithm is a hybrid of Invasive Weed Optimization (IWO) and Differential Evolution (DE). The resultant hybrid algorithm was applied on standard IEEE 30 bus system and observed to beat existing algorithms like Simple Bacterial foraging (SBF), Genetic Algorithm (GA), Invasive Weed Optimization (IWO), Differential Evolution (DE) and hybrid algorithms like Hybrid Bacterial Foraging and Differential Evolution (HBFDE) and Adaptive Bacterial Foraging with Nelder Mead (ABFNM).

  19. Survivability design for a hybrid underwater vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Biao; Wu, Chao; Li, Xiang; Zhao, Qingkai; Ge, Tong

    2015-03-10

    A novel hybrid underwater robotic vehicle (HROV) capable of working to the full ocean depth has been developed. The battery powered vehicle operates in two modes: operate as an untethered autonomous vehicle in autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) mode and operate under remote control connected to the surface vessel by a lightweight, fiber optic tether in remotely operated vehicle (ROV) mode. Considering the hazardous underwater environment at the limiting depth and the hybrid operating modes, survivability has been placed on an equal level with the other design attributes of the HROV since the beginning of the project. This paper reports the survivability design elements for the HROV including basic vehicle design of integrated navigation and integrated communication, emergency recovery strategy, distributed architecture, redundant bus, dual battery package, emergency jettison system and self-repairing control system.

  20. Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

  1. Research on urban public traffic network with multi-weights based on single bus transfer junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Xin-lei; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Jian-gang

    2015-10-01

    Regarding single bus transfer junction as a research object, this paper constructs the urban traffic network models with multi-weights taking different bus lines in bus transfer junction as the network nodes, that is, the urban traffic network with multi-weights is given different properties weights at every edge. According to the method of network split, the complex network with multi-weights is split into several different single weighted complex networks. Then, we study the global synchronization of the new network model by changing congestion degrees, transfers coefficient and passenger flow density between different bus lines. Finally, analytical and simulated results are given to show the impact of different properties weights to the public traffic network balance.

  2. Performance analysis of time triggered communication bus based on network calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jiandong; Ma, Lianchuan; Cao, Yuan; Mu, Jiancheng

    2017-03-01

    The time triggered mechanism is the activity of incentive system in the scheduled time. Each node of the time-triggered communication bus knows when the data information can be transmitted, so the behavior of communication nodes is determined and predictable. This feature is very suitable for appling in the industry field of high safety requirement. According to EN50159 standard for railway signal system security related communication, this paper analyzes the reliability of the physical layer of communication bus, and uses the network calculus method to establish the arrival curve model and service curve model which quantitatively calculate the time delay characteristic of time trigger bus to determine the number of retransmissions of data communications. The time-triggered communication bus is proved that it can meet the security requirements of the railway signal transmission system.

  3. Audit of bus service subsidies at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-07

    In September 1995, the Office of Inspector General (OIG) issued the Audit of Subsidized Ancillary Services at the Nevada Test Site which concluded that the Department continued to pay high subsidies for ancillary services, including bus services, that were not used extensively, may no longer be needed, could be more fully supported by its users, or could be operated more efficiently. Consistent with the audit at Nevada, the purpose of this audit was to assess whether bus service subsidies at the Laboratory were still necessary or reasonable. Specifically, the audit determined if the current level of bus services was still needed, if operating costs could be reduced, and if users should bear a greater share of bus operations costs.

  4. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 665 - Tests To Be Performed at the Bus Testing Facility

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... or double-lane change test performed at the test track. Bus speed should be held constant throughout... left- and right-hand lane changes should be tested. 4. Performance The performance test should...

  5. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 665 - Tests To Be Performed at the Bus Testing Facility

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... or double-lane change test performed at the test track. Bus speed should be held constant throughout... left- and right-hand lane changes should be tested. 4. Performance The performance test should...

  6. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 665 - Tests To Be Performed at the Bus Testing Facility

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... or double-lane change test performed at the test track. Bus speed should be held constant throughout... left- and right-hand lane changes should be tested. 4. Performance The performance test should...

  7. Operationally Responsive Space Standard Bus Battery Thermal Balance Testing and Heat Dissipation Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mike

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this paper will be on the thermal balance testing for the Operationally Responsive Space Standard Bus Battery. The Standard Bus thermal design required that the battery be isolated from the bus itself. This required the battery to have its own thermal control, including heaters and a radiator surface. Since the battery was not ready for testing during the overall bus thermal balance testing, a separate test was conducted to verify the thermal design for the battery. This paper will discuss in detail, the test set up, test procedure, and results from this test. Additionally this paper will consider the methods taken to determine the heat dissipation of the battery during charge and discharge. It seems that the heat dissipation for Lithium Ion batteries is relatively unknown and hard to quantify. The methods used during test and the post test analysis to estimate the heat dissipation of the battery will be discussed.

  8. Annoyance evaluation and the effect of noise on the health of bus drivers.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Portela S; Marcos, Queiroga R; Amanda, Constantini; Paulo, Zannin H T

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated annoyance and the effects of noise on the health of bus drivers. For that, 200 bus drivers from a public transport company participated in a cross-sectional study. Annoyance and effects on health was measured with analog scale: Sleep quality, occurrence of tinnitus, headache, irritation, and annoyance from bus engine, traffic, and passengers. Data of age and working time of bus drivers also were obtained. For noise exposure, LA eq was evaluated in 80 buses. Statistical analysis consisted of mean, standard deviation, minimum, and maximum, Kruskal-Wallis test with post-hoc Dunn, one-way ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey and Spearman's correlation coefficient. Results indicate three groups of bus drivers (not annoyed: (N.A.), a little annoyed (L.A.) and highly annoyed (H.A.)). The group H.A. was younger and with less working time in relation to others, with a significant difference only for age. Regarding sleep quality, there was no significant difference. For results on the occurrence of tinnitus, headache and irritation after work, group H.A. had significantly higher means. Result of annoyance to the bus engine was significantly higher in H.A. than in L.A. and N.A. Annoyance to traffic and passengers, no significant differences were found, but the highest results were found for L.A., followed by H.A. and N.A. Equivalent sound pressure level in buses was above of the limit for occupational comfort. It was concluded that bus drivers has considerable level of noise annoyance and some health effects are perceived. The noise is a factor discomfort ergonomic that may cause effects on health of bus drivers. This study aims to evaluate annoyance and the effects of noise on the health of bus drivers. Cross-sectional study with buses and bus drivers. For that, 200 bus drivers from a public transport company participated in a cross-sectional study. Annoyance and effects on health was measured with analog scale: Sleep quality, occurrence of tinnitus

  9. Scheduling bus services in Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Shah Alam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Mawardi; Ismail, Wan Rosmanira; Oughalime, Ahmed

    2014-09-01

    This study deals with bus scheduling problem in a local public university. Given existing bus daily trips, set of buses used and set of policy, the aims of this study are to optimize the use of buses for in-campus trips and to cover the trip demands. This study is conducted at Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM) Shah Alam that involves six-zone trips and a single depot. The bus scheduling problem in UiTM is formulated using the integer programming model and the LINGO 12.0 software is used for solving this bus scheduling model. The results of this model showed that the number of buses can be reduced during off-peak hours. Furthermore, optimal trips can also be identified from the results.

  10. The Yellow School Bus Project: Helping Homeless Students Get Ready for School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vissing, Yvonne

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Yellow School Bus Project, a community program jointly sponsored by religious, civic, fraternal, business, and nonprofit organizations in Durham, New Hampshire, to provide homeless children with supplies and clothes to help them succeed in school. (PKP)

  11. Design the developed bus parking area management solution based on fusion technology of things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Ying-long

    2013-07-01

    Taking advantage of the fusion technology of things this paper constructed a combination of hardware and software application, hardware's major function was to collect the bus behavior data of system needed, including basic data of driver and fare bag stored in moving passive RFID tag, and the information of running status of bus on each stage perceived by all kinds of sensors in the parking area. The information which was handled by the middleware was sent to data center. The program solved the problem on the monitoring of the behavior of the bus in the parking area, meanwhile, achieved the data sharing, so as to tackle the defects of the traditional bus parking area management system's non-automated data collection, non-real-time data presenting and poor data sharing.

  12. NREL Showcases Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine Bus, Helps DOE Set Standards for Outreach (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-11-01

    This fact sheet describes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) accomplishments in showcasing a Ford hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine (H2ICE) bus at The Taste of Colorado festival in Denver. NREL started using its U.S. Department of Energy-funded H2ICE bus in May 2010 as the primary shuttle vehicle for VIP visitors, members of the media, and new employees. In September 2010, NREL featured the bus at The Taste of Colorado. This was the first major outreach event for the bus. NREL's educational brochure, vehicle wrap designs, and outreach efforts serve as a model for other organizations with DOE-funded H2ICE buses. Work was performed by the Hydrogen Education Group and Market Transformation Group in the Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center.

  13. Transit-bus fuel economy and performance simulation. Final report, October 1982-February 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Zub, R.

    1984-10-01

    This paper addresses the simulation element of the Urban Mass Transportation Administration's Fuel Economy Program. More specifically, it addresses the development of fuel economy and performance sensitivity information on standard-size transit vehicles using the Heavy-Duty Vehicle Simulation (HEVSIM) Program. HEVSIM provides fuel consumption and performance estimates of a specified bus as it executes a given driving schedule. This report presents the results of bus simulation studies which determined the effects of various design and operating parameters on bus fuel economy and performance. The bus components are first described in terms of how they are modeled. Then a variation of each component is performed and the resulting fuel economy and performance are presented as sensitivities and tradeoffs.

  14. The Design of an Intelligent Multidisk Control Module for VME Bus Based Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    Generalized DC.XI Block Diagram .................................. 27 3.2 DCMI Internal Bus Contention................................... 28 3.3 DCMv Dual...the DCMI must monitor or generate the following V\\IE bus signals: * LWORD* - designates a 32-bit data transfer request, monitored by SLAVEs * D0-15...the CCU arid will tie discussed in the DCMI control sectionl. C. DCNI CONTROL The DCNI control section exercises control over all other sections. 1

  15. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Andre L. Boehman; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. The strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. Within the Combustion Laboratory of the Penn State Energy Institute, they have installed and equipped a Navistar V-8 direct-injection turbodiesel engine for measurement of gaseous and particulate emissions and examination of the impact of fuel composition on diesel combustion. They have also reconfigured a high-pressure viscometer for studies of the viscosity, bulk modulus (compressibility) and miscibility of blends of diesel fuel, dimethyl ether and lubricity additives. The results include baseline emissions, performance and combustion measurements on the Navistar engine for operation on a federal low sulfur diesel fuel (300 ppm S). Most recently, they have examined blends of an oxygenated fuel additive (a liquid fuel called CETANER{trademark}) produced by Air Products, for comparison with dimethyl ether blended at the same weight of oxygen addition, 2 wt.%. While they have not operated the engine on DME yet, they are now preparing to do so. A fuel system for delivery of DME/Diesel blends has been configured

  16. 75 FR 11580 - Florida Power Corporation, City of Alachua, City of Bushnell, City of Gainesville, City of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... Corporation, City of Alachua, City of Bushnell, City of Gainesville, City of Kissimmee, City of Leesburg, City of New Smyrna Beach and Utilities Commission, City of New Smyrna Beach, City of Ocala, Orlando Utilities Commission and City of Orlando, Seminole Electric Cooperative, Inc., Crystal River Unit 3...

  17. Exact and Metaheuristic Approaches for a Bi-Objective School Bus Scheduling Problem

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaopan; Kong, Yunfeng; Dang, Lanxue; Hou, Yane; Ye, Xinyue

    2015-01-01

    As a class of hard combinatorial optimization problems, the school bus routing problem has received considerable attention in the last decades. For a multi-school system, given the bus trips for each school, the school bus scheduling problem aims at optimizing bus schedules to serve all the trips within the school time windows. In this paper, we propose two approaches for solving the bi-objective school bus scheduling problem: an exact method of mixed integer programming (MIP) and a metaheuristic method which combines simulated annealing with local search. We develop MIP formulations for homogenous and heterogeneous fleet problems respectively and solve the models by MIP solver CPLEX. The bus type-based formulation for heterogeneous fleet problem reduces the model complexity in terms of the number of decision variables and constraints. The metaheuristic method is a two-stage framework for minimizing the number of buses to be used as well as the total travel distance of buses. We evaluate the proposed MIP and the metaheuristic method on two benchmark datasets, showing that on both instances, our metaheuristic method significantly outperforms the respective state-of-the-art methods. PMID:26176764

  18. An interconnecting bus power optimization method combining interconnect wire spacing with wire ordering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhang-Ming; Hao, Bao-Tian; En, Yun-Fei; Yang, Yin-Tang; Li, Yue-Jin

    2011-06-01

    On-chip interconnect buses consume tens of percents of dynamic power in a nanometer scale integrated circuit and they will consume more power with the rapid scaling down of technology size and continuously rising clock frequency, therefore it is meaningful to lower the interconnecting bus power in design. In this paper, a simple yet accurate interconnect parasitic capacitance model is presented first and then, based on this model, a novel interconnecting bus optimization method is proposed. Wire spacing is a process for spacing wires for minimum dynamic power, while wire ordering is a process that searches for wire orders that maximally enhance it. The method, i.e., combining wire spacing with wire ordering, focuses on bus dynamic power optimization with a consideration of bus performance requirements. The optimization method is verified based on various nanometer technology parameters, showing that with 50% slack of routing space, 25.71% and 32.65% of power can be saved on average by the proposed optimization method for a global bus and an intermediate bus, respectively, under a 65-nm technology node, compared with 21.78% and 27.68% of power saved on average by uniform spacing technology. The proposed method is especially suitable for computer-aided design of nanometer scale on-chip buses.

  19. Exact and Metaheuristic Approaches for a Bi-Objective School Bus Scheduling Problem.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaopan; Kong, Yunfeng; Dang, Lanxue; Hou, Yane; Ye, Xinyue

    2015-01-01

    As a class of hard combinatorial optimization problems, the school bus routing problem has received considerable attention in the last decades. For a multi-school system, given the bus trips for each school, the school bus scheduling problem aims at optimizing bus schedules to serve all the trips within the school time windows. In this paper, we propose two approaches for solving the bi-objective school bus scheduling problem: an exact method of mixed integer programming (MIP) and a metaheuristic method which combines simulated annealing with local search. We develop MIP formulations for homogenous and heterogeneous fleet problems respectively and solve the models by MIP solver CPLEX. The bus type-based formulation for heterogeneous fleet problem reduces the model complexity in terms of the number of decision variables and constraints. The metaheuristic method is a two-stage framework for minimizing the number of buses to be used as well as the total travel distance of buses. We evaluate the proposed MIP and the metaheuristic method on two benchmark datasets, showing that on both instances, our metaheuristic method significantly outperforms the respective state-of-the-art methods.

  20. Data collection plan for Phase 2 Alternative Fuels Bus Data Collection Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Krenelka, T

    1993-07-01

    This document constitutes the plan for collecting and reporting data associated with a special set of transit bus demonstrations to be conducted under the Urban Bus Program of the Alternative Motor Fuels Act (AMFA) of 1988. This program, called the Phase 2 Bus Data Collection Program, serves as an adjunct to the Phase I Bus Data Collection Program, collecting detailed data on just a few buses to augment and enhance the Phase 1 data in fulfilling the urban bus requirements of AMFA. Demonstrations will be conducted at a few transit system locations throughout the US and will use alternative fuels and associated technologies to reduce undesirable transit bus exhaust emissions. Several organizations will be involved in the data collection; NREL will manage the program, analyze and store vehicle data, and make these data available through the Alternative Fuels Data Center. This information will enable transit agencies, equipment manufacturers, fuel suppliers, and government policy makers to make informed decisions about buying and using alternative fuels.

  1. Notes from the field: elemental mercury spill in school bus and residence - North Carolina, 2013.

    PubMed

    Langley, Ricky; Hirsch, Anne; McDaniel, Jesse; Lott, Valerie; Shehee, Mina; Migit, Samantha; Dulaney, Anna R; Negron, Jose; Fleischauer, Aaron

    2014-02-14

    On September 16, 2013, the North Carolina Division of Public Health was notified of an elemental (metallic and liquid) mercury spill on a school bus. An elementary student boarded the bus with approximately 1 pound (454 g) of elemental mercury contained in a film canister, which the student had taken from an adult relative who had found it in a neighbor's shed. The canister was handled by several students before the contents spilled on the bus floor. Ten passengers aboard the bus were exposed, including eight students and two staff members. Although elemental mercury is not readily absorbed from skin contact or ingestion, it does vaporize at room temperatures and inhalation of the vapor can be harmful. The bus driver promptly notified school officials. Firefighters and a local hazardous materials team directed decontamination procedures (i.e., changing clothes and washing hands and shoes) for the 10 exposed passengers. The bus was immediately taken out of service and sent for disposal because of its age and the cost of decontamination.

  2. Women in Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Liz

    1982-01-01

    Suggesting that women are at a disadvantage in cities and towns, discusses experiences of women at home, working women, women traveling, shopping, and growing old in cities. Includes suggestions for studying women in cities. (JN)

  3. Effects of optical backscattering on silicon photonic hybrid laser performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacradouni, V.; Klein, J.; Pond, J.

    2016-04-01

    We present numerical results on the effect of backscattering at the junctions of double bus ring resonators in a Vernier ring hybrid laser design. The structure is comprised off a pair of III-V gain media evanescently coupled to a silicon on insulator racetrack comprised of a pair of double bus ring resonators coupled together through straight and flared waveguide sections. We show how the small backscattering at the ring resonator junctions has the effect of splitting and shifting the resonances off the clockwise and counter clockwise propagating modes thereby modifying the feedback spectrum from the ideal case. We then simulate results such as light current (LI) curves, relative intensity noise (RIN) and laser spectrum, and compare the laser performance including backscattering effects with the ideal case.

  4. Oxygen Generation System Laptop Bus Controller Flight Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, Chad; Panter, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The Oxygen Generation System Laptop Bus Controller Flight Software was developed to allow the International Space Station (ISS) program to activate specific components of the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) to perform a checkout of key hardware operation in a microgravity environment, as well as to perform preventative maintenance operations of system valves during a long period of what would otherwise be hardware dormancy. The software provides direct connectivity to the OGS Firmware Controller with pre-programmed tasks operated by on-orbit astronauts to exercise OGS valves and motors. The software is used to manipulate the pump, separator, and valves to alleviate the concerns of hardware problems due to long-term inactivity and to allow for operational verification of microgravity-sensitive components early enough so that, if problems are found, they can be addressed before the hardware is required for operation on-orbit. The decision was made to use existing on-orbit IBM ThinkPad A31p laptops and MIL-STD-1553B interface cards as the hardware configuration. The software at the time of this reporting was developed and tested for use under the Windows 2000 Professional operating system to ensure compatibility with the existing on-orbit computer systems.

  5. A bus stop shelter evaluated from the user's perspective.

    PubMed

    Ely, Vera Helena Moro Bins; de Oliveira, Jonara Machado; Logsdon, Louise

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the current bus stop shelter model used in Florianópolis, Brazil, through a functional analysis--focused in the relationship between the shelter, the users and their activities--and also to analyse users' perceptions. The methodology consisted of exploratory visits, anthropometric analysis, observation and interviews. The exploratory visit intended to survey the physical characteristics of the shelter (dimensions, materials, colors, displayed information) and its position on the sidewalk. The anthropometric analysis was made to verify whether the dimensions of the shelters were adequate to users' needs. The observation provided data for the analysis of users' behavior, which involved a biomechanical study of their postures, an ownership/occupancy analysis in terms of territoriality and studies about spatial requirements of interpersonal relations (proxemics). The interviews helped to analyze how the user perceives the quality of some of the main functions of the shelter: to provide physical and psychological comfort and to display information about the public transportation system. As a result, the overall conclusion is that shelters do not meet users' needs. Recommendations are provided in order to improve physical and psychological comfort and to display relevant information about the transportation system.

  6. Thermal design of the Galileo bus and Retro Propulsion Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avila, A.; Cagle, C.; Ledeboer, W.; Stultz, J.

    1989-01-01

    The Galileo spacecraft (S/C) consists of an Orbiter and Probe which have instruments to investigate the chemical composition and physical state of Jupiter's atmosphere, the Jovian satellites and the structure and physical dynamics of the Jovian magnetosphere. Galileo was at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) preparing for a May 1986 launch at the time of the Challenger accident. The delay and an incraease in mission time has decreased the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator power output significantly. A change to the Inertial Upper Stage from the more powerful Centaur G-Prime has resulted in a trajectory that requires gravity assists once by Venus and twice by earth. The resulting peak solar intensity of this roundabout trajectory is more than twice the previous design value for the direct trajectory. Galileo was returned to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) from KSC in February 1987 to begin the rework of the S/C thermal design. Verification of the thermal redesign was completed in the JPL 25' space simulator in August and November of 1988. This paper summarizes the thermal design and redesign of the Bus and Retro Propulsion Model.

  7. Composite Bus Structure for the SMEX/WIRE Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosanova, Giulio G.

    1998-01-01

    In an effort to reduce the weight and optimize the structural design of the Small Explorer (SMEX) Wide-Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE) spacecraft, it has become desirable to change the material and construction from mechanically fastened aluminum structure to a fully bonded fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) structure. GSFC has developed the WIRE spacecraft structural bus design concept, including the instrument and launch vehicle requirements. The WIRE Satellite is the fifth of a series of SMEX satellites to be launched once per year. GSFC has chosen Composite Optics Inc. (COI) as the prime contractor for the development and procurement of the WIRE composite structure. The detailed design of the fully bonded FRC structure is based on COI's Short Notice Accelerated Production SATellite ("SNAPSAT") approach. SNAPSAT is a state of the art design and manufacturing technology for advanced composite materials which utilizes flat-stock detail parts bonded together to produce a final structural assembly. The structural design approach adopted for the WIRE structure provides a very viable alternative to both traditional aluminum construction as well as high tech. molded type composite structures. This approach to composite structure design is much less costly than molded or honeycomb sandwich type composite construction, but may cost slightly more than conventional aluminum construction on the subsystem level. However on the overall program level the weight saving achieved is very cost effective, since the primary objective is to allocate more mass for science payloads.

  8. A synchronous serial bus for multidimensional array acoustic logging tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Men, Baiyong; Ju, Xiaodong; Lu, Junqiang; Qiao, Wenxiao

    2016-12-01

    In high-temperature and spatial borehole applications, a distributed structure is employed in a multidimensional array acoustic logging tool (MDALT) based on a phased array technique for electronic systems. However, new challenges, such as synchronous multichannel data acquisition, multinode real-time control and bulk data transmission in a limited interval, have emerged. To address these challenges, we developed a synchronous serial bus (SSB) in this study. SSB works in a half-duplex mode via a master-slave architecture. It also consists of a single master, several slaves, a differential clock line and a differential data line. The clock line is simplex, whereas the data line is half-duplex and synchronous to the clock line. A reliable communication between the master and the slaves with real-time adjustment of synchronisation is achieved by rationally designing the frame format and protocol of communication and by introducing a scramble code and a Hamming error-correcting code. The control logic of the master and the slaves is realized in field programmable gate array (FPGA) or complex programmable logic device (CPLD). The clock speed of SSB is 10 MHz, the effective data rate of the bulk data transmission is over 99%, and the synchronous errors amongst the slaves are less than 10 ns. Room-temperature test, high-temperature test (175 °C) and field test demonstrate that the proposed SSB is qualified for MDALT.

  9. Evolution of weighted complex bus transit networks with flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ailing; Xiong, Jie; Shen, Jinsheng; Guan, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Study on the intrinsic properties and evolutional mechanism of urban public transit networks (PTNs) has great significance for transit planning and control, particularly considering passengers’ dynamic behaviors. This paper presents an empirical analysis for exploring the complex properties of Beijing’s weighted bus transit network (BTN) based on passenger flow in L-space, and proposes a bi-level evolution model to simulate the development of transit routes from the view of complex network. The model is an iterative process that is driven by passengers’ travel demands and dual-controlled interest mechanism, which is composed of passengers’ spatio-temporal requirements and cost constraint of transit agencies. Also, the flow’s dynamic behaviors, including the evolutions of travel demand, sectional flow attracted by a new link and flow perturbation triggered in nearby routes, are taken into consideration in the evolutional process. We present the numerical experiment to validate the model, where the main parameters are estimated by using distribution functions that are deduced from real-world data. The results obtained have proven that our model can generate a BTN with complex properties, such as the scale-free behavior or small-world phenomenon, which shows an agreement with our empirical results. Our study’s results can be exploited to optimize the real BTN’s structure and improve the network’s robustness.

  10. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  11. Research, development and demonstration of a fuel cell/battery powered bus system. Phase 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1990-02-28

    Purpose of the Phase I effort was to demonstrate feasibility of the fuel cell/battery system for powering a small bus (under 30 ft or 9 m) on an urban bus route. A brassboard powerplant was specified, designed, fabricated, and tested to demonstrate feasibility in the laboratory. The proof-of-concept bus, with a powerplant scaled up from the brassboard, will be demonstrated under Phase II.

  12. Bus Stops and Pedestrian-Motor Vehicle Collisions in Lima, Peru: A Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Quistberg, D. Alex; Koepsell, Thomas D.; Johnston, Brian D.; Boyle, Linda Ng; Miranda, J. Jaime; Ebel, Beth E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the relationship between bus stop characteristics and pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions. Design Matched case-control study where the units of study were pedestrian crossing. Setting Random sample of 11 police commissaries in Lima, Peru. Data collection occurred from February, 2011 to September, 2011. Participants 97 intersection cases representing 1,134 collisions and 40 mid-block cases representing 469 collisions that occurred between October, 2010 and January, 2011 and their matched controls. Main Exposures Presence of a bus stop and specific bus stop characteristics. Main Outcome Occurrence of a pedestrian-motor vehicle collision. Results Intersections with bus stops were three times more likely to have a pedestrian-vehicle collision (OR 3.28, 95% CI 1.53-7.03), relative to intersections without bus stops. Both formal and informal bus stops were associated with a higher odds of a collision at intersections (OR 6.23, 95% CI 1.76-22.0 and OR 2.98, 1.37-6.49). At mid-block sites, bus stops on a bus-dedicated transit lane were also associated with collision risk (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.02-5.42). All bus stops were located prior to the intersection, contrary to practices in most high income countries. Conclusions In urban Lima, the presence of a bus stop was associated with a three-fold increase in risk of a pedestrian collision. The highly competitive environment among bus companies may provide an economic incentive for risky practices such as dropping off passengers in the middle of traffic and jockeying for position with other buses. Bus stop placement should be considered to improve pedestrian safety. PMID:24357516

  13. A new vehicle data bus architecture and IVIS evaluation platform for ITS modulus

    SciTech Connect

    Spelt, P.F.; Kirson, A.M.; Scott, S.

    1998-12-31

    An increasing number of ITS-related after-market systems present a set of in-vehicle installation and use problems relatively unique in the history of automobile use. Many automobile manufacturers would like to offer these new state of the art devices to customers, but are hampered by the current design cycle of new cars. While auto manufacturers are indeed using multiplex buses (the automotive equivalent of a computer local area network), problems remain because manufacturers are not converging on a single bus standard. This paper presents a new dual-bus architecture to address these problems, with an In-Vehicle Information System (IVIS) research platform on which the principles embodied in the ITS Data Bus architecture can be evaluated. The dual-bus architecture has been embodied in a proposed SAE standard, with a ratification vote in December, 1996. The architecture and a reference model for the interfaces and protocols of the new bus are presented and described. The goals of the ITS Data Bus are to be inexpensive and easy to install, and to provide for safe and secure functioning. These high-level goals are embodied in the proposed standard. The IVIS Development Platform comprises a number of personal computers linked via ethernet LAN, with a high-end PC serving as the IVIS computer. In this LAN, actual devices can be inserted in place of the original PC which emulated them. This platform will serve as the development and test bed for an ITS Data Bus Conformity Test, the SAE standard for which has also been developed.

  14. Increased urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine excretion in long-distance bus drivers in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Han, Yueh-Ying; Donovan, Maryann; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2010-05-01

    Professional bus drivers are exposed to environments containing air pollution and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can induce cellular oxidative stress and DNA damage. This study investigated environmental factors associated with oxidative DNA damage in a cohort of long-distance bus drivers. In a comparison study, urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a biomarker of DNA oxidative damage, was examined in 120 male long-distance bus drivers and 58 male office workers in Taiwan. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze association between urinary 8-OHdG levels and environmental factors. Bus drivers had higher urinary 8-OHdG levels (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=9.4, 95% confidence interval (CI)=3.5-28.2) compared with office workers. Increased urinary 8-OHdG level was significantly related to cigarette smoking (aOR=18.0, 95% CI=7.1-52.1), consumption of energy drinks (aOR=5.0, 95% CI=2.1-12.6), and regular exercise (aOR=3.8, 95% CI=1.5-10.2). A strong exposure-response relationship was found between urinary 8-OHdG and urinary cotinine (p<0.0001). Among nonsmokers, bus drivers (aOR=3.9, 95% CI=1.0-17.7) had higher urinary 8-OHdG than office workers. Among both bus drivers and office workers, those who drank energy drinks (aOR=3.7, 95% CI=1.2-12.2) had higher 8-OHdG levels than those who did not drink energy drinks. Adjusted for smoking, levels of 8-OHdG were increased in long-distance bus drivers exposed to traffic exhaust and ingested energy drinks. Future studies should explore what aspects of energy drinks may contribute to increased urinary 8-OHdG.

  15. The ACP (Advanced Computer Program) Branch bus and real-time applications of the ACP multiprocessor system

    SciTech Connect

    Hance, R.; Areti, H.; Atac, R.; Biel, J.; Cook, A.; Fischler, M.; Gaines, I.; Husby, D.; Nash, T.; Zmuda, T.

    1987-05-08

    The ACP Branchbus, a high speed differential bus for data movement in multiprocessing and data acquisition environments, is described. This bus was designed as the central bus in the ACP multiprocessing system. In its full implementation with 16 branches and a bus switch, it will handle data rates of 160 MByte/sec and allow reliable data transmission over inter rack distances. We also summarize applications of the ACP system in experimental data acquisition, triggering and monitoring, with special attention paid to FASTBUS environments.

  16. Determinants of exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) for waiting passengers at bus stops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Daniel Baldwin; Ray, Paul David; Stinson, Anne E.; Park, JiYoung

    2010-12-01

    This research evaluates commuter exposure to particulate matter during pre-journey commute segments for passengers waiting at bus stops by investigating 840 min of simultaneous exposure levels, both inside and outside seven bus shelters in Buffalo, New York. A multivariate regression model is used to estimate the relation between exposure to particulate matter (PM 2.5 measured in μg m -3) and three vectors of determinants: time and location, physical setting and placement, and environmental factors. Four determinants have a statistically significant effect on particulate matter: time of day, passengers' waiting location, land use near the bus shelter, and the presence of cigarette smoking at the bus shelter. Model results suggest that exposure to PM 2.5 inside a bus shelter is 2.63 μg m -3 (or 18 percent) higher than exposure outside a bus shelter, perhaps due in part to the presence of cigarette smoking. Morning exposure levels are 6.51 μg m -3 (or 52 percent) higher than afternoon levels. Placement of bus stops can affect exposure to particulate matter for those waiting inside and outside of shelters: air samples at bus shelters located in building canyons have higher particulate matter than bus shelters located near open space.

  17. Bus Automata For Intelligent Robots And Computer Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothstein, Jerome

    1988-02-01

    Bus automata (BA's) are arrays of automata, each controlling a module of a global interconnection network, an automaton and its module constituting a cell. Connecting modules permits cells to become effectively nearest neighbors even when widely separated. This facilitates parallelism in computation far in excess of that allowed by the "bucket-brigade" communication bottleneck of traditional cellular automata (CA's). Distributed information storage via local automaton states permits complex parallel data processing for rapid pattern recognition, language parsing and other distributed computation at systolic array rates. Global BA architecture can be entirely changed in the time to make one cell state transition. The BA is thus a neural model (cells correspond to neurons) with network plasticity attractive for brain models. Planar (chip) BA's admitting optical input (phototransistors) become powerful retinal models. The distributed input pattern is optically fed directly to distributed local memory, ready for distributed processing, both "retinally" and cooperatively with other BA chips ("brain"). This composite BA can compute control signals for output organs, and sensory inputs other than visual can be utilized similarly. In the BA retina is essentially brain, as in mammals (retina and brain are embryologically the same). The BA can also model opto-motor response (frogs, insects) or sonar response (dolphins, bats), and is proposed as the model of choice for the brains of future intelligent robots and for computer eyes with local parallel image processing capability. Multidimensional formal languages are introduced, corresponding to BA's and patterns the way generative grammars correspond to sequential machines, and applied to fractals and their recognition by BA's.

  18. Conceptual Design of the TPF-O SC Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, Lloyd R.

    2007-01-01

    One option under current study for the Terrestrial Planet Finder-Occulter (TPF-O) observatory shares some key features of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Both are space telescopes with a primary mirror aperture of around 2.4 meters and designed to observe in the visible to near infrared range of wavelengths, with the major difference in science capability being that TPF-O has an areal FOV on the order of 100 times larger than that of HST. This larger FOV, whose science camera is also expected to provide fine guidance, and other mission differences, mean that most TPF-O SC bus subsystems will have very different requirements than those of HST. Unlike HST in LEO, TPF-O is designed to operate in an orbit around the Sun-Earth lagrange 2 (SEL2) point. The longer communications range to SEL2 and the large FOV require much higher performance data processing and communications than HST. Maintaining a SEL2 orbit requires TPF-O, unlike HST, to have a propulsion system. TPF-O will have a specialized tracking system that allows the formation flying occulter to maintain its required position. However, despite these additional features, the velocity required for reaching SEL2 and the limited capabilities of affordable launch vehicles require TPF-O to have a compact and low-mass design relative to HST. Finally, TPF-O may utilize a modular design to reduce development cost and, if it required, allow servicing using approaches different from those of HST.

  19. Hybridized Teacher Education Programs in NYC: A Missed Opportunity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mungal, Angus Shiva

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study describes the development of hybrid teacher preparation programs that emerged as a result of a "forced" partnership between university-based and alternative teacher preparation programs in New York City. This hybrid experiment was a short-lived, yet innovative by-product of a somewhat pragmatic arrangement between…

  20. Stellarator hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Furth, H.P.; Ludescher, C.

    1984-08-01

    The present paper briefly reviews the subject of tokamak-stellarator and pinch-stellarator hybrids, and points to two interesting new possibilities: compact-torus-stellarators and mirror-stellarators.

  1. Epidemiological-environmental study of diesel bus garage workers: chronic effects of diesel exhaust on the respiratory system

    SciTech Connect

    Gamble, J.; Jones, W.; Minshall, S.

    1987-10-01

    Two hundred and eighty-three (283) male diesel bus garage workers from four garages in two cities were examined to determine if there was excess chronic respiratory morbidity related to diesel exposure. The dependent variables were respiratory symptoms, radiographic interpretation for pneumoconiosis, and pulmonary function (FVC, FEV1, and flow rates). Independent variables included race, age, smoking, drinking, height, and tenure (as surrogate measure of exposure). Exposure-effect relationships within the study population showed no detectable associations of symptoms with tenure. There was an apparent association of pulmonary function and tenure. Seven workers (2.5%) had category 1 pneumoconiosis (three rounded opacities, two irregular opacities, and one with both rounded and irregular). The study population was also compared to a nonexposed blue-collar population. After indirect adjustment for age, race, and smoking, the study population had elevated prevalences of cough, phlegm, and wheezing, but there was no association with tenure. Dyspnea showed a dose-response trend but no apparent increase in prevalence. Mean percent predicted pulmonary function of the study population was greater than 100%, i.e., elevated above the comparison population. These data show there is an apparent effect of diesel exhaust on pulmonary function but not chest radiographs. Respiratory symptoms are high compared to blue-collar workers, but there is no relationship with tenure.

  2. Performance of school bus retrofit systems: ultrafine particles and other vehicular pollutants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qunfang; Zhu, Yifang

    2011-08-01

    This study evaluated the performance of retrofit systems for diesel-powered school buses, a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) muffler and a spiracle crankcase filtration system (CFS), regarding ultrafine particles (UFPs) and other air pollutants from tailpipe emissions and inside bus cabins. Tailpipe emissions and in-cabin air pollutant levels were measured before and after retrofitting when the buses were idling and during actual pick-up/drop off routes. Retrofit systems significantly reduced tailpipe emissions with a reduction of 20-94% of total particles with both DOC and CFS installed. However, no unequivocal decrease was observed for in-cabin air pollutants after retrofitting. The AC/fan unit and the surrounding air pollutant concentrations played more important roles for determining the in-cabin air quality of school buses than did retrofit technologies. Although current retrofit systems reduce children's exposure while waiting to board at a bus station, retrofitting by itself does not protect children satisfactorily from in-cabin particle exposures. Turning on the bus engine increased in-cabin UFP levels significantly only when the wind blew from the bus' tailpipe toward its hood with its windows open. This indicated that wind direction and window position are significant factors determining how much self-released tailpipe emissions may penetrate into the bus cabin. The use of an air purifier was found to remove in-cabin particles by up to 50% which might be an alternative short-to-medium term strategy to protect children's health.

  3. Degenerative hairlets on the vestibular sensory cells in mutant bustling (BUS/Idr) mice.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, K; Hashimoto, R; Hanai, A; Yoshizaki, N; Yonezawa, S; Otani, H

    1997-01-01

    The bustling mouse (BUS/Idr: bus) is a mutant mouse strain which exhibits deafness, bustling/hyperkinetic behaviour and functional disorders seemingly related to the vestibular system. This phenotype develops in homozygous (bus/bus) mice and has been shown from cross experiments to be genetically induced by a single autosomal recessive gene. We previously detected, with light and electron microscopy, post-natal degeneration of the inner ear sensory cells in homozygotes. In the present study, we examined, by electron microscopy, the development of pathological changes in the sensory epithelia of the macula acustica and crista ampullaris of homozygous mice of various ages, paying special attention to the detailed morphology of the sensory hairlets. The homozygous mice exhibited specific pathological changes: a decrease in the number of hairs; disarrangement of the kinocilium-stereocilia pattern; and, fused and/or very large stereocilia. Homozygotes also frequently exhibited apical cytoplasmic herniation, or bleb of hair cells, as well as a degenerated kinocilium in the sensory epithelium. Heterozygotes showed similar changes, but to a lesser degree and frequency. As for the vestibular organs, similar pathological changes had developed at day, 17 of gestation. These pathological findings and onset suggest that the BUS mouse may be a mutant mouse strain distinct from other reported strains which display similar behaviour, and may be a useful animal model for the study of human degenerative vestibular disorders.

  4. The Design of a Fault-Tolerant COTS-Based Bus Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chau, Savio N.; Alkalai, Leon; Burt, John B.; Tai, Ann T.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we report our experiences and findings on the design of a fault-tolerant bus architecture comprised of two COTS buses, the IEEE 1394 and the 12C. This fault-tolerant bus is the backbone system bus for the avionics architecture of the X2000 program at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. COTS buses are attractive because of the availability of low cost commercial products. However, they are not specifically designed for highly reliable applications such as long-life deep-space missions. The X2000 design team has devised a multi-level fault tolerance approach to compensate for this shortcoming of COTS buses. First, the approach enhances the fault tolerance capabilities of the IEEE 1394 and 12 C buses by adding a layer of fault handling hardware and software. Second, algorithms are developed to enable the IEEE 1394 and the 12 C buses assist each other to isolate and recovery from faults. Third, the set of IEEE 1394 and 12 C buses is duplicated to further enhance system reliability. The X2000 design team has paid special attention to guarantee that all fault tolerance provisions will not cause the bus design to deviate from the commercial standard specifications. Otherwise, the economic attractiveness of using COTS will be diminished. The hardware and software design of the X2000 fault-tolerant bus are being implemented and flight hardware will be delivered to the ST4 and Europa Orbiter missions.

  5. Variations in exposure to traffic pollution while travelling by different modes in a low density, less congested city.

    PubMed

    Kingham, Simon; Longley, Ian; Salmond, Jenny; Pattinson, Woodrow; Shrestha, Kreepa

    2013-10-01

    This research assessed the comparative risk associated with exposure to traffic pollution when travelling via different transport modes in Christchurch, New Zealand. Concentrations of PM1, UFPs and CO were monitored on pre-defined routes during the morning and evening commute on people travelling concurrently by car, bus and bicycle. It was found that car drivers were consistently exposed to the highest levels of CO; on-road cyclists were exposed to higher levels of all pollutants than off-road cyclists; car and bus occupants were exposed to higher average levels of UFP than cyclists, and travellers were occasionally exposed to very high levels of pollution for short periods of time. PM10 and PM2.5 were found to be poor indicators of exposure to traffic pollution. Studying Christchurch adds to our understanding as it was a lower density city with limited traffic congestion compared most other cities previously studied.

  6. An evaluation plan of bus architectures and protocols using the NASA Ames intelligent redundant actuation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Defeo, P.; Chen, M.

    1987-01-01

    Means for evaluating data bus architectures and protocols for highly integrated flight control system applications are needed. Described are the criteria and plans to do this by using the NASA/Ames Intelligent Redundant Actuation System (IRAS) experimental set-up. Candidate bus architectures differ from one another in terms of: topology, access control, message transfer schemes, message characteristics, initialization. data flow control, transmission rates, fault tolerance, and time synchronization. The evaluation criteria are developed relative to these features. A preliminary, analytical evaluation of four candidate busses (MIL-STD-1553B, DATAC, Ethernet, and HSIS) is described. A bus must be exercised in a real-time environment to evaluate its dynamic characteristics. A plan for real-time evaluation of these four busses using a combination of hardware and simulation techniques is presented.

  7. Implemented Wavelet Packet Tree based Denoising Algorithm in Bus Signals of a Wearable Sensorarray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimmack, M.; Nguyen, S.; Mercorelli, P.

    2015-11-01

    This paper introduces a thermosensing embedded system with a sensor bus that uses wavelets for the purposes of noise location and denoising. From the principle of the filter bank the measured signal is separated in two bands, low and high frequency. The proposed algorithm identifies the defined noise in these two bands. With the Wavelet Packet Transform as a method of Discrete Wavelet Transform, it is able to decompose and reconstruct bus input signals of a sensor network. Using a seminorm, the noise of a sequence can be detected and located, so that the wavelet basis can be rearranged. This particularly allows for elimination of any incoherent parts that make up unavoidable measuring noise of bus signals. The proposed method was built based on wavelet algorithms from the WaveLab 850 library of the Stanford University (USA). This work gives an insight to the workings of Wavelet Transformation.

  8. Research and design of intelligent distributed traffic signal light control system based on CAN bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu

    2007-12-01

    Intelligent distributed traffic signal light control system was designed based on technologies of infrared, CAN bus, single chip microprocessor (SCM), etc. The traffic flow signal is processed with the core of SCM AT89C51. At the same time, the SCM controls the CAN bus controller SJA1000/transceiver PCA82C250 to build a CAN bus communication system to transmit data. Moreover, up PC realizes to connect and communicate with SCM through USBCAN chip PDIUSBD12. The distributed traffic signal light control system with three control styles of Vehicle flux, remote and PC is designed. This paper introduces the system composition method and parts of hardware/software design in detail.

  9. Evacuated FM08 Fuses Carry a Sustained Arc in a Bus over 75 VDC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leidecker, Henning; Slonaker, J.

    1999-01-01

    The FM08 style fuse is specified to interrupt an overcurrent of up to 300 A in a bus of up to 125 VDC, but this applies only when its barrel is filled with air. When placed into a space-grade vacuum, the FM08 style fuse exhausts its air within a year. Then, the probability of an enduring arc is high for all ratings when the bus is above 75 VDC, and the overcurrent is large. The arc endures until something else interrupts the current. The fuse can violently eject metal vapor or other material during the sustained arcing. The evacuated FM08 does not develop a sustained arc when interrupted in a bus of 38 VDC or less, at least when there is little inductance in the circuit. This is consistent with its successful use in many spacecraft having buses in the range 24 to 36 volts.

  10. Increasing throughput of multiplexed electrical bus in pipe-lined architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Asaad, Sameh; Brezzo, Bernard V; Kapur, Mohit

    2014-05-27

    Techniques are disclosed for increasing the throughput of a multiplexed electrical bus by exploiting available pipeline stages of a computer or other system. For example, a method for increasing a throughput of an electrical bus that connects at least two devices in a system comprises introducing at least one signal hold stage in a signal-receiving one of the two devices, such that a maximum frequency at which the two devices are operated is not limited by a number of cycles of an operating frequency of the electrical bus needed for a signal to propagate from a signal-transmitting one of the two devices to the signal-receiving one of the two devices. Preferably, the signal hold stage introduced in the signal-receiving one of the two devices is a pipeline stage re-allocated from the signal-transmitting one of the two devices.

  11. An impurity-induced gap system as a quantum data bus for quantum state transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Bing; Li, Yong; Song, Z.; Sun, C.-P.

    2014-09-15

    We introduce a tight-binding chain with a single impurity to act as a quantum data bus for perfect quantum state transfer. Our proposal is based on the weak coupling limit of the two outermost quantum dots to the data bus, which is a gapped system induced by the impurity. By connecting two quantum dots to two sites of the data bus, the system can accomplish a high-fidelity and long-distance quantum state transfer. Numerical simulations for finite system show that the numerical and analytical results of the effective coupling strength agree well with each other. Moreover, we study the robustness of this quantum communication protocol in the presence of disorder in the couplings between the nearest-neighbor quantum dots. We find that the gap of the system plays an important role in robust quantum state transfer.

  12. Testing of Environmental Satellite Bus-Instrument Interfaces Using Engineering Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagnier, Donald; Hayner, Rick; Nosek, Thomas; Roza, Michael; Hendershot, James E.; Razzaghi, Andrea I.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the formulation and execution of a laboratory test of the electrical interfaces between multiple atmospheric scientific instruments and the spacecraft bus that carries them. The testing, performed in 2002, used engineering models of the instruments and the Aura spacecraft bus electronics. Aura is one of NASA s Earth Observatory System missions. The test was designed to evaluate the complex interfaces in the command and data handling subsystems prior to integration of the complete flight instruments on the spacecraft. A problem discovered during the flight integration phase of the observatory can cause significant cost and schedule impacts. The tests successfully revealed problems and led to their resolution before the full-up integration phase, saving significant cost and schedule. This approach could be beneficial for future environmental satellite programs involving the integration of multiple, complex scientific instruments onto a spacecraft bus.

  13. Urban bus driving: an international arena for the study of occupational health psychology.

    PubMed

    Evans, G W; Johansson, G

    1998-04-01

    This article offers a brief summary of the articles in this special issue, plus it provides a rationale for the scientific study of urban bus operation. Among the reasons to study urban transit operators are the following: Multimethodological, international data show that urban bus driving is an unhealthy occupation; psychosocial and environmental characteristics of the transit work setting portend ill health, plus these characteristics are readily discernible to the public; urban transit workforces well represent blue-collar populations; despite widespread changes in the nature of work related to technological innovations, mass-transit operation is likely to remain stable, and the "health" of the mass-transit industry has important implications for societal well-being; and finally, bus driving illustrates several important methodological challenges. The article concludes with an overview of future research.

  14. IEEE 1394/firewire a low cost, high speed, digital serial bus

    SciTech Connect

    Gaunt, R.

    1997-05-01

    Does the world need yet another 1/0 bus standard? If you need fast and cheap serial video communication, then the answer is yes. As technology advances, so too must data transport mechanisms advance. You can`t expect RS-232 to support real-time digital video, and if you can`t afford expensive professional serial video interfaces, (such as Sony`s Serial Digital Interface), Firewire may be a good solution. IEEE 1394, or commonly known as Firewire, is a general purpose serial bus that meets many of the 1/0 needs of today`s video and multimedia developers. For those of you who only read the first paragraph, here`s Firewire in a nutshell: It provides a guaranteed transfer rate of 10OMbps or 20OMbps of digital data (such as video direct from camera to computer), over an inexpensive, non-proprietary serial bus. Here is a list of its features.

  15. Design of belt conveyor electric control device based on CC-link bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Goufen; Zhan, Minhua; Li, Jiehua

    2016-01-01

    In view of problem of the existing coal mine belt conveyor is no field bus communication function, two levels belt conveyor electric control system design is proposed based on field bus. Two-stage belt conveyor electric control system consists of operation platform, PLC control unit, various sensors, alarm device and the water spraying device. The error protection is realized by PLC programming, made use of CC-Link bus technology, the data share and the cooperative control came true between host station and slave station. The real-time monitor was achieved by the touch screen program. Practical application shows that the system can ensure the coalmine production, and improve the automatic level of the coalmine transport equipment.

  16. A Feeder-Bus Dispatch Planning Model for Emergency Evacuation in Urban Rail Transit Corridors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yun; Yan, Xuedong; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Wenyi

    2016-01-01

    The mobility of modern metropolises strongly relies on urban rail transit (URT) systems, and such a heavy dependence causes that even minor service interruptions would make the URT systems unsustainable. This study aims at optimally dispatching the ground feeder-bus to coordinate with the urban rails’ operation for eliminating the effect of unexpected service interruptions in URT corridors. A feeder-bus dispatch planning model was proposed for the collaborative optimization of URT and feeder-bus cooperation under emergency situations and minimizing the total evacuation cost of the feeder-buses. To solve the model, a concept of dummy feeder-bus system is proposed to transform the non-linear model into traditional linear programming (ILP) model, i.e., traditional transportation problem. The case study of Line #2 of Nanjing URT in China was adopted to illustrate the model application and sensitivity analyses of the key variables. The modeling results show that as the evacuation time window increases, the total evacuation cost as well as the number of dispatched feeder-buses decrease, and the dispatched feeder-buses need operate for more times along the feeder-bus line. The number of dispatched feeder-buses does not show an obvious change with the increase of parking spot capacity and time window, indicating that simply increasing the parking spot capacity would cause huge waste for the emergent bus utilization. When the unbalanced evacuation demand exists between stations, the more feeder-buses are needed. The method of this study will contribute to improving transportation emergency management and resource allocation for URT systems. PMID:27676179

  17. A Feeder-Bus Dispatch Planning Model for Emergency Evacuation in Urban Rail Transit Corridors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Yan, Xuedong; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Wenyi

    The mobility of modern metropolises strongly relies on urban rail transit (URT) systems, and such a heavy dependence causes that even minor service interruptions would make the URT systems unsustainable. This study aims at optimally dispatching the ground feeder-bus to coordinate with the urban rails' operation for eliminating the effect of unexpected service interruptions in URT corridors. A feeder-bus dispatch planning model was proposed for the collaborative optimization of URT and feeder-bus cooperation under emergency situations and minimizing the total evacuation cost of the feeder-buses. To solve the model, a concept of dummy feeder-bus system is proposed to transform the non-linear model into traditional linear programming (ILP) model, i.e., traditional transportation problem. The case study of Line #2 of Nanjing URT in China was adopted to illustrate the model application and sensitivity analyses of the key variables. The modeling results show that as the evacuation time window increases, the total evacuation cost as well as the number of dispatched feeder-buses decrease, and the dispatched feeder-buses need operate for more times along the feeder-bus line. The number of dispatched feeder-buses does not show an obvious change with the increase of parking spot capacity and time window, indicating that simply increasing the parking spot capacity would cause huge waste for the emergent bus utilization. When the unbalanced evacuation demand exists between stations, the more feeder-buses are needed. The method of this study will contribute to improving transportation emergency management and resource allocation for URT systems.

  18. Research development and demonstration of a fuel cell/battery powered bus system. Annual report, January 1--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Wimmer, R.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the progress in the Georgetown University research, development and demonstration project of a fuel cell/battery powered bus system. The topics addressed in the report include demonstrations, vehicle design and application analysis, technology transfer activities, coordination and monitoring of system design and integration contractor, fuel cell bus test program, current problems, work planned, and manpower, cost and schedule reports.

  19. 25 CFR 39.711 - How does a school calculate annual bus transportation miles for residential students?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How does a school calculate annual bus transportation... Transportation Miles § 39.711 How does a school calculate annual bus transportation miles for residential... driven for all buses used to transport students from their homes to the school. If a school...

  20. 49 CFR 37.169 - Interim requirements for over-the-road bus service operated by private entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interim requirements for over-the-road bus service... Interim requirements for over-the-road bus service operated by private entities. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 57936, September 19, 2011. (a) Private entities operating over-the-road buses,...