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Sample records for hybrid composites aged

  1. Effect of accelerated environmental aging on tensile properties of oil palm/jute hybrid composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jawaid, M.; Saba, N.; Alothman, O.; Paridah, M. T.

    2016-11-01

    Recently natural fibre based hybrid composites are receiving growing consideration due to environmental and biodegradability properties. In order to look behaviour of hybrid composites in outdoor applications, its environmental degradation properties such as UV accelerated weathering properties need to analyze. In this study oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and jute fibres reinforced hybrid composites, pure EFB, pure jute and epoxy composites were fabricated through hand lay-up techniques. Hybrid composites with different layering pattern (EFB/jute/EFB and Jute/EFB/jute) while maintaining 40 wt. % total fibre loading were fabricates to compared with EFB and jute composites. Effect of UV accelerated environmental aging on tensile properties of epoxy, pure EFB, pure jute, and hybrid composites were assessed and evaluate under UV exposure. Tensile samples of all composites were subjected to accelerated weathering for 100h, at temperature (75°C), relative humidity (35%), Light (125 W/m2), and water spray off. Obtained results indicated that there is reduction in tensile strength, modulus and elongation at break values of hybrid and pure composites due to degradation of lignin and fibre-matrix interfacial bonding.

  2. Isothermal and hygrothermal agings of hybrid glass fiber/carbon fiber composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barjasteh, Ehsan

    anhydride/epoxy network used in composite-reinforced conductor cables was investigated to determine the extent of thermal oxidative (surface effect) and non-oxidative (bulk effect) degradation. Thermal oxidation tests were performed in air-circulating and vacuum ovens at 180°C and 200ºC (the maximum emergency temperature for ACCC conductors). The extent of oxidation during aging was determined by monitoring the thickness of the oxidized layer. Results showed that the oxidized layer thickness did not increase monotonically as a function of exposure time, and even decreased for a limited period of time. A phenomenological reaction-diffusion model was implemented to predict the thickness of oxidized layer, and the calculated results were compared with measurements for aging times up to 10,000 hours. The accuracy of the reaction-diffusion-based thickness values for the isothermally aged epoxy specimen was affected by the permeability properties of the oxidized material, and to a lesser extent by the degree of oxidation. The diffusivity varied because of changes in the density of the oxidized layer, the macro-void content, crack formation, and the molecular structures. To investigate the effects on diffusivity, the morphology of the oxidized layer and the void content was monitored over time. In addition, the density of the oxidized specimens was calculated by direct measurements of volume and weight during exposure. An empirically based volume-loss model was developed to predict the changes in volume of the specimen as a function of aging times and hence to predict the effects on the oxidized layer thickness. Volume-loss measurements provide an indication of material degradation by demonstrating a direct measurement of shrinkage rates and insight into crack initiation, as opposed to typical weight-loss measurements that provide no insight into material failure. Thermal oxidation of a unidirectional carbon-fiber/glass-fiber hybrid composite was also investigated in this study

  3. Intraply Hybrid Composite Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    Several theoretical approaches combined in program. Intraply hybrid composites investigated theoretically and experimentally at Lewis Research Center. Theories developed during investigations and corroborated by attendant experiments used to develop computer program identified as INHYD (Intraply Hybrid Composite Design). INHYD includes several composites micromechanics theories, intraply hybrid composite theories, and integrated hygrothermomechanical theory. Equations from theories used by program as appropriate for user's specific applications.

  4. Hybridized polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, E. E.; Hoggatt, J. T.; Symonds, W. A.

    1980-01-01

    The extent to which graphite fibers are released from resin matrix composites that are exposed to fire and impact conditions was determined. Laboratory simulations of those conditions that could exist in the event of an aircraft crash and burn situation were evaluated. The effectiveness of various hybridizing concepts in preventing this release of graphite fibers were also evaluated. The baseline (i.e., unhybridized) laminates examined were prepared from commercially available graphite/epoxy, graphite/polyimide, and graphite/phenolic materials. Hybridizing concepts investigated included resin fillers, laminate coatings, resin blending, and mechanical interlocking of the graphite reinforcement. The baseline and hybridized laminates' mechanical properties, before and after isothermal and humidity aging, were also compared. It was found that a small amount of graphite fiber was released from the graphite/epoxy laminates during the burn and impact conditions used in this program. However, the extent to which the fibers were released is not considered a severe enough problem to preclude the use of graphite reinforced composites in civil aircraft structure. It also was found that several hybrid concepts eliminated this fiber release. Isothermal and humidity aging did not appear to alter the fiber release tendencies.

  5. Shear-bond-strength of orthodontic brackets to aged nano-hybrid composite-resin surfaces using different surface preparation.

    PubMed

    Demirtas, Hatice Kubra; Akin, Mehmet; Ileri, Zehra; Basciftci, Faruk Ayhan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different surface preparation methods on the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic metal brackets to aged nano-hybrid resin composite surfaces in vitro. A total of 100 restorative composite resin discs, 6 mm in diameter and 3 mm thick, were obtained and treated with an ageing procedure. After ageing, the samples were randomly divided as follows according to surface preparation methods: (1)Control, (2)37% phosphoric acid gel, (3)Sandblasting, (4)Diamond bur, (5)Air-flow and 20 central incisor teeth were used for the control etched group. SBS test were applied on bonded metal brackets to all samples. SBS values and residual adhesives were evaluated. Analysis of variance showed a significant difference (p<0.001) between the groups. Sandblasted group had the highest SBS value (12.85 MPa) in experimental groups. The sandblasting surface treatment is recommended as an effective method of bonding orthodontic metal brackets to nano-hybrid composite resin surfaces.

  6. Hybrid matrix fiber composites

    DOEpatents

    Deteresa, Steven J.; Lyon, Richard E.; Groves, Scott E.

    2003-07-15

    Hybrid matrix fiber composites having enhanced compressive performance as well as enhanced stiffness, toughness and durability suitable for compression-critical applications. The methods for producing the fiber composites using matrix hybridization. The hybrid matrix fiber composites include two chemically or physically bonded matrix materials, whereas the first matrix materials are used to impregnate multi-filament fibers formed into ribbons and the second matrix material is placed around and between the fiber ribbons that are impregnated with the first matrix material and both matrix materials are cured and solidified.

  7. Microstructure changes of polyimide/MMT-AlN composite hybrid films under corona aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Bu, W. B.; Liu, X. X.; Su, B.; Lei, Q. Q.

    2012-12-01

    A novel method using montmorillonite-AlN (MMT-AlN) composite particles as dopants in polyimide (PI) has been proposed and tested. We choose MMT-AlN as dopants in PI for lamellar structure of MMT and globular structure of AlN and hope such mixed micro- and nano-particles can enhance PI's resistance to corona aging. Our corona aging test result has confirmed our method and a 7% doped PI/MMT-AlN film has corona aging time extended more than 40 times compared with pure PI film. The microstructure changes of PI/MMT-AlN films due to corona aging have been analyzed by multiple surface analysis techniques. The analysis result shows coexistence of mass fractal and surface fractal in the sample films of PI/MMT-AlN. A dense inorganic block layer of MMT-AlN formed on the surface of doped PI films during corona aging is believed to be the mechanism of providing the protection against further corona aging.

  8. Hybridized polymer matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, B. A.; Visser, T.

    1981-01-01

    Under certain conditions of combined fire and impact, graphite fibers are released to the atmosphere by graphite fiber composites. The retention of graphite fibers in these situations is investigated. Hybrid combinations of graphite tape and cloth, glass cloth, and resin additives are studied with resin systems. Polyimide resins form the most resistant composites and resins based on simple novolac epoxies the least resistant of those tested. Great improvement in the containment of the fibers is obtained in using graphite/glass hybrids, and nearly complete prevention of individual fiber release is made possible by the use of resin additives.

  9. Hybridized polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    London, A.

    1981-01-01

    Design approaches and materials are described from which are fabricated pyrostatic graphite/epoxy (Gr/Ep) laminates that show improved retention of graphite particulates when subjected to burning. Sixteen hybridized plus two standard Gr/Ep laminates were designed, fabricated, and tested in an effort to eliminate the release of carbon (graphite) fiber particles from burned/burning, mechanically disturbed samples. The term pyrostatic is defined as meaning mechanically intact in the presence of fire. Graphite particulate retentive laminates were constructed whose constituent materials, cost of fabrication, and physical and mechanical properties were not significantly different from existing Gr/Ep composites. All but one laminate (a Celion graphite/bis-maleimide polyimide) were based on an off-the-shelf Gr/Ep, the AS-1/3501-5A system. Of the 16 candidates studied, four thin (10-ply) and four thick (50-ply) hybridized composites are recommended.

  10. Effect of aging on lignin content, composition and enzymatic saccharification in Corymbia hybrids and parental taxa between years 9 and 12

    SciTech Connect

    Healey, Adam L.; Lupoi, Jason S.; Lee, David J.; Sykes, Robert W.; Guenther, Joel M.; Tran, Kim; Decker, Stephen R.; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A.; Henry, Robert J.

    2016-10-01

    Corymbia (a eucalypt) is an important forestry genus and a potential lignocellulosic bioenergy feedstock. The composition of the lignocellulosic cell wall significantly impacts pretreatment efficiency and conversion to biofuel but is variable and changes with age. In this study, we estimated Klason lignin content, composition, and monosaccharide (glucose and xylose) release after enzymatic saccharification of untreated and hydrothermally pretreated biomass from Corymbia parental species Corymbia torelliana (CT), Corymbia citriodora subsp. variegata (spotted gum; CCV), and interspecific F1 hybrids (CT x CCV) at ages 9 and 12 years from planting. Analysis of lignin composition derived from syringyl/guaiacyl monolignols (S/G) found significant differences among taxa, with CT S/G ratios (2.2 and 2.0) being significantly lower than CCV (2.6 and 2.3) or hybrids (2.5 and 2.3) at ages 9 and 12 respectively. In general, enzymatic saccharification yields from untreated biomass were significantly different among taxa, with CT (113 and 75 mg g-1) and hybrids (108 and 81 mg g-1) yielding significantly higher glucose from untreated biomass than CCV (82 and 56 mg g-1) at ages 9 and 12 respectively. Comparison of traits within taxa between ages 9 and 12 found S/G ratios and glucose yields from untreated biomass were significantly lower in CT, CCV and hybrid taxa. In conclusion, the formation of lignocellulosic cell walls is complex, influenced by genetics and age of material, requiring optimization of rotation age for biofuel production and other industrial processes.

  11. Hybridized polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henshaw, J.

    1983-01-01

    Methods of improving the fire resistance of graphite epoxy composite laminates were investigated with the objective of reducing the volume of loose graphite fibers disseminated into the airstream as the result of a high intensity aircraft fuel fire. Improvements were sought by modifying the standard graphite epoxy systems without significantly negating their structural effectiveness. The modifications consisted primarily of an addition of a third constituent material such as glass fibers, glass flakes, carbon black in a glassy resin. These additions were designed to encourage coalescense of the graphite fibers and thereby reduce their aerodynamic float characteristics. A total of 38 fire tests were conducted on thin (1.0 mm) and thick (6.0 mm) hybrid panels.

  12. Fracture Resistance of Hybrid Glass Matrix Composite and Its Degradation Due to Thermal Ageing and Thermal Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dlouhý, Ivo; Chlup, Zdenêk; Atiq, Shabbar; Boccaccini, Aldo R.

    In brittle matrix composites reinforced by continuous ceramic fibres, the favourable fracture behaviour is provided by the presence of weak fibre/matrix interfaces, which lead to the fibre pullout effect [1]. The thermal stability and high temperature mechanical properties of silicate matrix composites reinforced by carbon and SiC based fibres in oxidising environments have been investigated quite extensively in the past by conducting thermal aging and thermal cycling experiments over a wide range of temperatures [2-5]. A common result of investigations conducted at temperatures in the range 500-700°C is that there is a decrease of tensile and flexural strength of the composites. It has been shown that this is the consequence of oxidation of the fibres, in case of carbon fibre reinforced composites, or of degradation of the fibre/matrix interphase, which is in fact a carbon-rich nanometric interfacial layer, in SiC fibre reinforced composites [2-5].

  13. Damage of hybrid composite laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haery, Haleh A.; Kim, Ho Sung

    2013-08-01

    Hybrid laminates consisting of woven glass fabric/epoxy composite plies and woven carbon fabric/epoxy composite plies are studied for fatigue damage and residual strength. A theoretical framework based on the systems approach is proposed as a guide to deal with the complexity involving uncertainties and a large number of variables in the hybrid composite system. A relative damage sensitivity factor expression was developed for quantitative comparisons between non-hybrid and hybrid composites. Hypotheses derived from the theoretical framework were tested and verified. The first hypothesis was that the difference between two different sets of properties produces shear stress in interface between carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CRP) and glass fibre reinforced plastics (GRP), and eventually become a source for CRP/GRP interfacial delamination or longitudinal cracking. The second hypothesis was that inter-fibre bundle delamination occurs more severely to CRP sub-system than GRP sub-system.

  14. Intercalated hybrid graphite fiber composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The invention is directed to a highly conductive lightweight hybrid material and methods of producing the same. The hybrid composite is obtained by weaving strands of a high strength carbon or graphite fiber into a fabric-like structure, depositing a layer of carbon onto the structure, heat treating the structure to graphitize the carbon layer, and intercalating the graphitic carbon layer structure. A laminate composite material useful for protection against lightning strikes comprises at least one layer of the hybrid material over at least one layer of high strength carbon or graphite fibers. The composite material of the present invention is compatible with matrix compounds, has a coefficient of thermal expansion which is the same as underlying fiber layers, and is resistant to galvanic corrosion in addition to being highly conductive. These materials are useful in the aerospace industry, in particular as lightning strike protection for airplanes.

  15. Hybrid composite laminate structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Lark, R. F. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An invention which relates to laminate structures and specifically to essentially anisotropic fiber composite laminates is described. Metal foils are selectively disposed within the laminate to produce increased resistance to high velocity impact, fracture, surface erosion, and other stresses within the laminate.

  16. Shape Memory Composite Hybrid Hinge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, Houfei; Im, Eastwood; Lin, John; Scarborough, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    There are two conventional types of hinges for in-space deployment applications. The first type is mechanically deploying hinges. A typical mechanically deploying hinge is usually composed of several tens of components. It is complicated, heavy, and bulky. More components imply higher deployment failure probability. Due to the existence of relatively moving components among a mechanically deploying hinge, it unavoidably has microdynamic problems. The second type of conventional hinge relies on strain energy for deployment. A tape-spring hinge is a typical strain energy hinge. A fundamental problem of a strain energy hinge is that its deployment dynamic is uncontrollable. Usually, its deployment is associated with a large impact, which is unacceptable for many space applications. Some damping technologies have been experimented with to reduce the impact, but they increased the risks of an unsuccessful deployment. Coalescing strain energy components with shape memory composite (SMC) components to form a hybrid hinge is the solution. SMCs are well suited for deployable structures. A SMC is created from a high-performance fiber and a shape memory polymer resin. When the resin is heated to above its glass transition temperature, the composite becomes flexible and can be folded or packed. Once cooled to below the glass transition temperature, the composite remains in the packed state. When the structure is ready to be deployed, the SMC component is reheated to above the glass transition temperature, and it returns to its as-fabricated shape. A hybrid hinge is composed of two strain energy flanges (also called tape-springs) and one SMC tube. Two folding lines are placed on the SMC tube to avoid excessive strain on the SMC during folding. Two adapters are used to connect the hybrid hinge to its adjacent structural components. While the SMC tube is heated to above its glass transition temperature, a hybrid hinge can be folded and stays at folded status after the temperature

  17. Computer code for intraply hybrid composite design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program has been developed and is described herein for intraply hybrid composite design (INHYD). The program includes several composite micromechanics theories, intraply hybrid composite theories and a hygrothermomechanical theory. These theories provide INHYD with considerable flexibility and capability which the user can exercise through several available options. Key features and capabilities of INHYD are illustrated through selected samples.

  18. Computer code for intraply hybrid composite design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program is described for intraply hybrid composite design (INHYD). The program includes several composite micromechanics theories, intraply hybrid composite theories, and a hygrothermomechanical theory. These theories provide INHYD with considerable flexibility and capability which the user can exercise through several available options. Key features and capabilities of INHYD are illustrated through selected samples.

  19. Hybrid Composite Cryogenic Tank Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid lightweight composite tank has been created using specially designed materials and manufacturing processes. The tank is produced by using a hybrid structure consisting of at least two reinforced composite material systems. The inner composite layer comprises a distinct fiber and resin matrix suitable for cryogenic use that is a braided-sleeve (and/or a filamentwound layer) aramid fiber preform that is placed on a removable mandrel (outfitted with metallic end fittings) and is infused (vacuum-assisted resin transfer molded) with a polyurethane resin matrix with a high ductility at low temperatures. This inner layer is allowed to cure and is encapsulated with a filamentwound outer composite layer of a distinct fiber resin system. Both inner and outer layer are in intimate contact, and can also be cured at the same time. The outer layer is a material that performs well for low temperature pressure vessels, and it can rely on the inner layer to act as a liner to contain the fluids. The outer layer can be a variety of materials, but the best embodiment may be the use of a continuous tow of carbon fiber (T-1000 carbon, or others), or other high-strength fibers combined with a high ductility epoxy resin matrix, or a polyurethane matrix, which performs well at low temperatures. After curing, the mandrel can be removed from the outer layer. While the hybrid structure is not limited to two particular materials, a preferred version of the tank has been demonstrated on an actual test tank article cycled at high pressures with liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen, and the best version is an inner layer of PBO (poly-pphenylenebenzobisoxazole) fibers with a polyurethane matrix and an outer layer of T-1000 carbon with a high elongation epoxy matrix suitable for cryogenic temperatures. A polyurethane matrix has also been used for the outer layer. The construction method is ideal because the fiber and resin of the inner layer has a high strain to failure at cryogenic

  20. Flexural performance of woven hybrid composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslinda, A. B.; Majid, M. S. Abdul; Dan-mallam, Y.; Mazawati, M.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the experimental investigation of the flexural performance of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites. Hybrid composites consist of interwoven kenaf/jute and kenaf/hemp fibers was prepared by infusion process using epoxy as polymer matrix. Woven kenaf, jute and hemp composites were also prepared for comparison. Both woven and hybrid composites were subjected to three point flexural test. From the result, bending resistance of hybrid kenaf/jute and kenaf/hemp composites was higher compared to their individual fiber. Hybridization with high strength fiber such as kenaf enhanced the capability of jute and hemp fibers to withstand bending load. Interlocking between yarns in woven fabric make pull out fibers nearly impossible and increase the flexural performance of the hybrid composites.

  1. Hybrid composites prepared from Industrial waste: Mechanical and swelling behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Khalil

    2013-01-01

    In this assessment, hybrid composites were prepared from the combination of industrial waste, as marble waste powder (MWP) with conventional fillers, carbon black (CB) as well as silica as reinforcing material, incorporated with natural rubber (NR). The properties studied were curing, mechanical and swelling behavior. Assimilation of CB as well as silica into MWP containing NR compound responded in decreasing the scorch time and cure time besides increasing in the torque. Additionally, increasing the CB and silica in their respective NR hybrid composite increases the tensile, tear, modulus, hardness, and cross-link density, but decreases the elongation and swelling coefficient. The degradation property e.g., thermal aging of the hybrid composite was also estimated. The overall behavior at 70 °C aging temperature signified that the replacement of MS by CB and silica improved the aging performance. PMID:25750756

  2. Mechanical property characterization of intraply hybrid composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Lark, R. F.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    An investigation of the mechanical properties of intraply hybrids made from graphite fiber/epoxy matrix hybridized with secondary S-glass or Kevlar 49 fiber composites is presented. The specimen stress-strain behavior was determined, showing that mechanical properties of intraply hybrid composites can be measured with available methods such as the ten-degree off-axis test for intralaminar shear, and conventional tests for tensile, flexure, and Izod impact properties. The results also showed that combinations of high modulus graphite/S-glass/epoxy matrix composites exist which yield intraply hybrid laminates with the best 'balanced' properties, and that the translation efficiency of mechanical properties from the constituent composites to intraply hybrids may be assessed with a simple equation.

  3. Aging Effects in Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Chistos C.; McManus, Hugh L.

    1999-01-01

    Simulation of composites degradation due to aging are described. Laminate geometry, material properties, and matrix degradation states are specified as functions of position and time. Matrix shrinkage and property changes are modeled as functions of the degradation states. Aging effects at the laminate, ply, and micro levels are evaluated, to determine failure of any kind. The results obtained show substantial ply stress built up as a result of aging accompanied by comparable laminate strength degradation in matrix dominated composite strengths.

  4. A General Study of Hybrid Composite Laminates.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-01

    appeared to have little effect on the overall properties of a laminate. Hybrid composite laminates obey classical laminate theory and can, in certain ply configurations, develop considerable free edge effect stresses. (Author)

  5. Mechanical property characterization of intraply hybrid composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Lark, R. F.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to characterize the mechanical properties of intraply hybrids made from graphite fiber/epoxy matrix (primary composites) hybridized with varying amounts of secondary composites made from S-glass or Kevlar 49 fibers. The tests were conducted using thin laminates having the same thickness. The specimens for these tests were instrumented with strain gages to determine stress-strain behavior. Significant results are included.

  6. Intraply Hybrid Composites Would Contain Control Strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Shiao, Chi-Yu

    1996-01-01

    "Smart" structural components with sensors and/or actuators distributed throughout their volumes made of intraply hybrid composite materials, according to proposal. Strips of hybrid control material interspersed with strips of ordinary (passive) composite material in some layers, providing distributed control capability. For example, near and far edges of plate bent upward by commanding bottom control strips to expand and simultaneously commanding upper control strips to contract.

  7. Prediction of properties of intraply hybrid composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    Equations based on the mixtures rule are presented for predicting the physical, thermal, hygral, and mechanical properties of unidirectional intraply hybrid composites (UIHC) from the corresponding properties of their constituent composites. Bounds were derived for uniaxial longitudinal strengths, tension, compression, and flexure of UIHC. The equations predict shear and flexural properties which agree with experimental data from UIHC. Use of these equations in a composites mechanics computer code predicted flexural moduli which agree with experimental data from various intraply hybrid angleplied laminates (IHAL). It is indicated, briefly, how these equations can be used in conjunction with composite mechanics and structural analysis during the analysis/design process.

  8. Dry sliding wear of heat treated hybrid metal matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naveed, Mohammed; Khan, A. R. Anwar

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, there has been an ever-increasing demand for enhancing mechanical properties of Aluminum Matrix Composites (AMCs), which are finding wide applications in the field of aerospace, automobile, defence etc,. Among all available aluminium alloys, Al6061 is extensively used owing to its excellent wear resistance and ease of processing. Newer techniques of improving the hardness and wear resistance of Al6061 by dispersing an appropriate mixture of hard ceramic powder and whiskers in the aluminium alloy are gaining popularity. The conventional aluminium based composites possess only one type of reinforcements. Addition of hard reinforcements such as silicon carbide, alumina, titanium carbide, improves hardness, strength and wear resistance of the composites. However, these composites possessing hard reinforcement do posses several problems during their machining operation. AMCs reinforced with particles of Gr have been reported to be possessing better wear characteristics owing to the reduced wear because of formation of a thin layer of Gr particles, which prevents metal to metal contact of the sliding surfaces. Further, heat treatment has a profound influence on mechanical properties of heat treatable aluminium alloys and its composites. For a solutionising temperature of 5500C, solutionising duration of 1hr, ageing temperature of 1750C, quenching media and ageing duration significantly alters mechanical properties of both aluminium alloy and its composites. In the light of the above, the present paper aims at developing aluminium based hybrid metal matrix composites containing both silicon carbide and graphite and characterize their mechanical properties by subjecting it to heat treatment. Results indicate that increase of graphite content increases wear resistance of hybrid composites reinforced with constant SiC reinforcement. Further heat treatment has a profound influence on the wear resistance of the matrix alloy as well as its hybrid composites

  9. Clinical applications of preheated hybrid resin composite.

    PubMed

    Rickman, L J; Padipatvuthikul, P; Chee, B

    2011-07-22

    This clinical article describes and discusses the use of preheated nanohybrid resin composite for the placement of direct restorations and luting of porcelain laminate veneers. Two clinical cases are presented. Preheating hybrid composite decreases its viscosity and film thickness offering the clinician improved handling. Preheating also facilitates the use of nanohybrid composite as a veneer luting material with relatively low polymerisation shrinkage and coefficient of thermal expansion compared to currently available resin luting cements.

  10. Hybrid Ceramic Matrix Fibrous Composites: an Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naslain, R.

    2011-10-01

    Ceramic-Matrix Composites (CMCs) consist of a ceramic fiber architecture in a ceramic matrix, bonded together through a thin interphase. The present contribution is limited to non-oxide CMCs. Their constituents being oxidation-prone, they are protected by external coatings. We state here that CMCs display a hybrid feature, when at least one of their components is not homogeneous from a chemical or microstructural standpoint. Hybrid fiber architectures are used to tailor the mechanical or thermal CMC-properties whereas hybrid interphases, matrices and coatings to improve CMC resistance to aggressive environments.

  11. Polymer hybrid nano/micro composites

    SciTech Connect

    Dzenis, Y.A.; Reneker, D.H.

    1994-12-31

    Nanocomposites based on ceramic and metal matrices attracted considerable attention during the past decade. Polymer based nanocomposites are much less well-known. Recently, a method of electrospinning of thin polymer fibers has been developed. Continuous, oriented fibers with diameters ranging from 50 nanometers to several microns have been prepared from over 30 different synthetic and natural polymers, including high temperature high modulus polyimide and polyaramid (Kevlar) fibers. The possible applications of these small fibers in hybrid polymer hierarchical composites are discussed. Micromechanics models of hybrid composites are developed based on the models for two component composites and on the principle of effective homogeneity. Effective thermoviscoelastic characteristics of nano and microfiber composite as well as nanofiber and microparticulate composites are calculated. ``Strong`` hybrid effects are observed in the dependence of effective moduli, loss factor, creep factor, and thermal expansion coefficient on fractional content of fibers of different diameters. The extrema are located at the higher fractions of larger reinforcing elements. Similarities of composite microstructures having synergistic ``extremal`` properties with some biological composites are noted.

  12. Probabilistic assessment of uncertain adaptive hybrid composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiao, Michael C.; Singhal, Surendra N.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1994-01-01

    Adaptive composite structures using actuation materials, such as piezoelectric fibers, were assessed probabilistically utilizing intraply hybrid composite mechanics in conjunction with probabilistic composite structural analysis. Uncertainties associated with the actuation material as well as the uncertainties in the regular (traditional) composite material properties were quantified and considered in the assessment. Static and buckling analyses were performed for rectangular panels with various boundary conditions and different control arrangements. The probability density functions of the structural behavior, such as maximum displacement and critical buckling load, were computationally simulated. The results of the assessment indicate that improved design and reliability can be achieved with actuation material.

  13. Characterization of Hybrid CNT Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimsley, Brian W.; Cano, Roberto J.; Kinney, Megan C.; Pressley, James; Sauti, Godfrey; Czabaj, Michael W.; Kim, Jae-Woo; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been studied extensively since their discovery and demonstrated at the nanoscale superior mechanical, electrical and thermal properties in comparison to micro and macro scale properties of conventional engineering materials. This combination of properties suggests their potential to enhance multi-functionality of composites in regions of primary structures on aerospace vehicles where lightweight materials with improved thermal and electrical conductivity are desirable. In this study, hybrid multifunctional polymer matrix composites were fabricated by interleaving layers of CNT sheets into Hexcel® IM7/8552 prepreg, a well-characterized toughened epoxy carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite. The resin content of these interleaved CNT sheets, as well as ply stacking location were varied to determine the effects on the electrical, thermal, and mechanical performance of the composites. The direct-current electrical conductivity of the hybrid CNT composites was characterized by in-line and Montgomery four-probe methods. For [0](sub 20) laminates containing a single layer of CNT sheet between each ply of IM7/8552, in-plane electrical conductivity of the hybrid laminate increased significantly, while in-plane thermal conductivity increased only slightly in comparison to the control IM7/8552 laminates. Photo-microscopy and short beam shear (SBS) strength tests were used to characterize the consolidation quality of the fabricated laminates. Hybrid panels fabricated without any pretreatment of the CNT sheets resulted in a SBS strength reduction of 70 percent. Aligning the tubes and pre-infusing the CNT sheets with resin significantly improved the SBS strength of the hybrid composite To determine the cause of this performance reduction, Mode I and Mode II fracture toughness of the CNT sheet to CFRP interface was characterized by double cantilever beam (DCB) and end notch flexure (ENF) testing, respectively. Results are compared to the

  14. Fiber release characteristics of graphite hybrid composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henshaw, J.

    1980-01-01

    The paper considers different material concepts that can be fabricated of hybridized composites which demonstrate improved graphite fiber retention capability in a severe fire without significant reduction to the composite properties. More than 30 panels were fabricated for mechanical and fire tests, the details and results of which are presented. Methods of composite hybridization investigated included the addition of oxidation resistant fillers to the resin, mechanically interlocking the graphite fibers by the use of woven fabrics, and the addition of glass fibers and glass additives designed to melt and fuse the graphite fibers together. It is concluded that a woven fabric with a serving of glass around each graphite tow is by far the superior of those evaluated: not only is there a coalescing effect in each graphite layer, but there is also a definite adhesion of each layer to its neighbor.

  15. Development and characterization of hybrid thermoplastic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karkhanis, Priyanka Chandrashekhar

    This work is aimed at studying the possibility of using interply hybrid woven thermoplastic semi-pregs in secondary structures in aircrafts at TenCate Advanced Composites, Netherlands and Purdue University. Three different interply hybrids were designed from combination of Cetex(c) carbon-PPS semi-preg, Owen corning's woven glass with PPS sheets and discontinuous chopped Cetex(c) carbon-PPS semi-preg to get desired flexural, out of plane and bearing properties. The design calculations are done based on classical laminate theory and the selection of materials to be used with carbon-PPS was done based on cost and availability. The Hybrid laminate performances are analyzed and compared to the conventional Cetex (c) Carbon-PPS semi-preg laminates. Observations are reported on three point bend test (European standard 2562), four point bend test(ASTM D6415-99) and bearing test (Airbus standards AITM 1-0009) for the laminates and it was found that hybrid laminates show a reduction of 5-10% in bending stiffness, 20-40% reduction in out-of-plane strength and 2-5%reduction in bearing with a cost reduction of 20-30%. The research identifies and documents the different factors responsible for failures and reduction in strength in the Hybrids.

  16. Manufacturing of aluminium nano hybrid composites: a state of review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhukar, P.; Selvaraj, N.; Rao, CSP

    2016-09-01

    This paper gives the details of hybrid composites, their fabrication methods and evaluation of mechanical, tribological behaviour and machining characteristics. Investigations on the various aspects of Hybrid composites furnish several conclusions regarding the influence of various parameters on the performance of the composites. Mostly micro structures of the hybrid composites fabricated through casting routes have been found to be stable with the distribution of uniformed reinforce particles. therefore, the hybrid composites can be constructed with various combinations of reinforcements to carry out desirable mechanical properties. The density of Hybrid composites increases with increasing reinforcements such as SiC, TiC, B4C....etc, while incorporation of partial reinforcements like fly ash, mica, rice husk, etc. reduces the density of composites. The study also reports that the hybrid composites can be treated as a replacement for regular composite materials in different advanced applications.

  17. Resin infusion of layered metal/composite hybrid and resulting metal/composite hybrid laminate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Grimsley, Brian W. (Inventor); Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method of fabricating a metal/composite hybrid laminate is provided. One or more layered arrangements are stacked on a solid base to form a layered structure. Each layered arrangement is defined by a fibrous material and a perforated metal sheet. A resin in its liquid state is introduced along a portion of the layered structure while a differential pressure is applied across the laminate structure until the resin permeates the fibrous material of each layered arrangement and fills perforations in each perforated metal sheet. The resin is cured thereby yielding a metal/composite hybrid laminate.

  18. Ballistic damage in hybrid composite laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phadnis, Vaibhav A.; Pandya, Kedar S.; Naik, Niranjan K.; Roy, Anish; Silberschmidt, Vadim V.

    2015-07-01

    Ballistic damage of hybrid woven-fabric composites made of plain-weave E-glass- fabric/epoxy and 8H satin-weave T300 carbon-fabric/epoxy is studied using a combination of experimental tests, microstructural studies and finite-element (FE) analysis. Ballistic tests were conducted with a single-stage gas gun. Fibre damage and delamination were observed to be dominating failure modes. A ply-level FE model was developed, with a fabric-reinforced ply modelled as a homogeneous orthotropic material with capacity to sustain progressive stiffness degradation due to fibre/matrix cracking, fibre breaking and plastic deformation under shear loading. Simulated damage patterns on the front and back faces of fabric-reinforced composite plates provided an insight into their damage mechanisms under ballistic loading.

  19. Fabrication and Characterization of SMA Hybrid Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.; Lach, Cynthia L.; Cano, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    Results from an effort to fabrication shape memory alloy hybrid composite (SMAHC) test specimens and characterize the material system are presented in this study. The SMAHC specimens are conventional composite structures with an embedded SMA constituent. The fabrication and characterization work was undertaken to better understand the mechanics of the material system, address fabrication issues cited in the literature, and provide specimens for experimental validation of a recently developed thermomechanical model for SMAHC structures. Processes and hardware developed for fabrication of the SMAHC specimens are described. Fabrication of a SMA14C laminate with quasi-isotropic lamination and ribbon-type Nitinol actuators embedded in the 0' layers is presented. Beam specimens are machined from the laminate and are the focus of recent work, but the processes and hardware are readily extensible to more practical structures. Results of thermomechanical property testing on the composite matrix and Nitinol ribbon are presented. Test results from the Nitinol include stress-strain behavior, modulus versus temperature. and constrained recovery stress versus temperature and thermal cycle. Complex thermomechanical behaviors of the Nitinol and composite matrix are demonstrated, which have significant implications for modeling of SMAHC structures.

  20. PP composites with Hybrid Nanofillers: NTC phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarlin, Juha; Immonen, Kirsi

    2010-06-01

    Electric conductive plastic composites have a wide potential for commercial applications, some examples are EMI shielding housings and components in automotive industry and in consumer electronics, equipments in health care sector and fuel cell components. A phenomenon in conductive composites, especially in composites with carbon based fillers, is change of thermal induced change in conductivity as a result of morphological transitions. Usually the observed changes are practically irreversible. The phenomenon may cause increasing resistivity, usually called as "positive temperature coefficient" (PTC) or decreasing resistivity, called "negative temperature coefficient (NTC), where the new morphology created by heat treatment is more favorable for electric conductivity compared to the original state. The existence of NTC is a sing of the lost potential in material design and processing. Therefore detailed information about the phenomenon gives us tools to develop high performance conductive materials. It this paper we discuss about NTC phenomenon observed in PP composites with CNT or in-situ synthesized CNT-PANi hybrid nanofiller with an amphiphilic dispersing agent. The goal of the paper is not to present a comprehensive model of this phenomenon; we present some experimental results which may be related to polymer-filler interactions. These details are a part of this complicated phenomenon.

  1. Advanced fiber-composite hybrids--A new structural material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Lark, R. F.; Sullivan, T. L.

    1974-01-01

    Introduction of metal foil as part of matrix and fiber composite, or ""sandwich'', improves strength and stiffness for multidirectional loading, improves resistance to cyclic loading, and improves impact and erosion resistance of resultant fiber-composite hybrid structure.

  2. Boron/aluminum graphite/resin advanced fiber composite hybrids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Lark, R. F.; Sullivan, T. L.

    1975-01-01

    Fabrication feasibility and potential of an adhesively bonded metal and resin matrix fiber-composite hybrid are determined as an advanced material for aerospace and other structural applications. The results show that using this hybrid concept makes possible a composite design which, when compared with nonhybrid composites, has greater transverse strength, transverse stiffness, and impact resistance with only a small penalty on density and longitudinal properties. The results also show that laminate theory is suitable for predicting the structural response of such hybrids. The sequence of fracture modes indicates that these types of hybrids can be readily designed to meet fail-safe requirements.

  3. Hybrid composites of xanthan and magnetic nanoparticles for cellular uptake.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Vânia Blasques; Silva, Anielle Martins; Barbosa, Leandro Ramos Souza; Catalani, Luiz Henrique; Teixeira-Neto, Erico; Cornejo, Daniel Reinaldo; Petri, Denise Freitas Siqueira

    2013-11-04

    We describe a fast and simple method to prepare composite films of magnetite nanoparticles and xanthan networks. The particles are distributed close to hybrid film surface, generating a coercivity of 27 ± 2 Oe at 300 K. The proliferation of fibroblast cells on the hybrid composites was successful, particularly when an external magnetic field was applied.

  4. Preliminary evaluation of hybrid titanium composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. L.; Progar, D. J.; Johnson, W. S.; St.clair, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    In this study, the mechanical response of hybrid titanium composite laminates (HTCL) was evaluated at room and elevated temperatures. Also, the use of an elastic-plastic laminate analysis program for predicting the tensile response from constituent properties was verified. The improvement in mechanical properties achieved by the laminates was assessed by comparing the results of static strength and constant amplitude fatigue tests to those for monolithic titanium sheet. Two HTCL were fabricated with different fiber volume fractions, resin layer thicknesses, and resins. One panel was thicker and was more poorly bonded in comparison to other. Consequently, the former had a lower tensile strength, while fewer cracks grew in this panel and at a slower rate. Both panels showed an improvement in fatigue life of almost two orders of magnitude. The model predictions were also in good agreement with the experimental results for both HTCL panels.

  5. Ultra-high modulus organic fiber hybrid composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Champion, A. R.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental organic fiber, designated Fiber D, was characterized, and its performance as a reinforcement for composites was investigated. The fiber has a modulus of 172 GPa, tensile strength of 3.14 GPa, and density of 1.46 gm/cu cm. Unidirectional Fiber D/epoxy laminates containing 60 percent fiber by volume were evaluated in flexure, shear, and compression, at room temperature and 121 C in both the as fabricated condition and after humidity aging for 14 days at 95 percent RH and 82 C. A modulus of 94.1 GPa, flexure strength of 700 MPa, shear strength of 54 MPa, and compressive strength of 232 MPa were observed at room temperature. The as-fabricated composites at elevated temperature and humidity aged material at room temperature had properties 1 to 20 percent below these values. Combined humidity aging plus evaluated temperature testing resulted in even lower mechanical properties. Hybrid composite laminates of Fiber D with Fiber FP alumina or Thornel 300 graphite fiber were also evaluated and significant increases in modulus, flexure, and compressive strengths were observed.

  6. Properties of hybrid resin composite systems containing prepolymerized filler particles.

    PubMed

    Blackham, Jason T; Vandewalle, Kraig S; Lien, Wen

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the properties of newer hybrid resin composites with prepolymerized-filler particles to traditional hybrids and a microfill composite. The following properties were examined per composite: diametral tensile strength, flexural strength/modulus, Knoop microhardness and polymerization shrinkage. Physical properties were determined for each Jason T Blackham, DMD, USAF, General Dentistry, Tyndall composite group (n = 8), showing significant differences between groups per property (p < 0.001). In general, the traditional hybrid composites (Z250, Esthet-X) had higher strength, composites containing pre-polymerized fillers (Gradia Direct Posterior, Premise) performed more moderately and the microfill composite (Durafill VS) had lower strength. Premise and Durafill VS had the lowest polymerization shrinkage.

  7. Method of producing a hybrid matrix fiber composite

    DOEpatents

    Deteresa, Steven J.; Lyon, Richard E.; Groves, Scott E.

    2006-03-28

    Hybrid matrix fiber composites having enhanced compressive performance as well as enhanced stiffness, toughness and durability suitable for compression-critical applications. The methods for producing the fiber composites using matrix hybridization. The hybrid matrix fiber composites comprised of two chemically or physically bonded matrix materials, whereas the first matrix materials are used to impregnate multi-filament fibers formed into ribbons and the second matrix material is placed around and between the fiber ribbons that are impregnated with the first matrix material and both matrix materials are cured and solidified.

  8. Effect of Hybridization on Stiffness Properties of Woven Textile Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejan, Liliana; Taranu, Nicolae; Sîrbu, Adriana

    2013-04-01

    The present study focuses on stiffness properties of woven textile reinforced polymeric composites with respect to hybridization, and geometry of reinforcement. The analyzed composites represent combinations of different fibre materials (E-glass, Kevlar 49, carbon HM) in a predetermined fabric geometry (a plane weave embedded in thermosetting polymeric resin) serving controlled properties and required performance. The effects of hybridization on the stiffness properties of woven textile composites have been studied with respect to the fibres materials, the unbalancing degree of fabrics, and the variation of compactness and undulation of yarns. Some undesirable effects in fabric geometry can be overcome by the combined effects of hybridization and compactness.

  9. Mechanics of hybrid polymer composites: analytical and computational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavares, Rodrigo P.; Melro, António R.; Bessa, Miguel A.; Turon, Albert; Liu, Wing K.; Camanho, Pedro P.

    2016-03-01

    Three different models with increased complexity to study the effects of hybridization on the tensile failure of hybrid composites are proposed. The first model is a model for dry bundles of fibres based on the statistics of fibre strength. The second is a model for composite materials based on the multiple fragmentation phenomenon. Lastly, a micromechanical numerical model is developed that considers a random distribution of fibres and takes into account the stochastic nature of fibre strength. This study aims to understand the controlling factors that lead to pseudo-ductility, as well as establish the sequence of failure mechanisms in hybrid composites under tensile loadings.

  10. Evaluation of tensile strength of hybrid fiber (jute/gongura) reinforced hybrid polymer matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatachalam, G.; Gautham Shankar, A.; Vijay, Kumar V.; Chandan, Byral R.; Prabaharan, G. P.; Raghav, Dasarath

    2015-07-01

    The polymer matrix composites attract many industrial applications due to its light weight, less cost and easy for manufacturing. In this paper, an attempt is made to prepare and study of the tensile strength of hybrid (two natural) fibers reinforced hybrid (Natural + Synthetic) polymer matrix composites. The samples were prepared with hybrid reinforcement consists of two different fibers such as jute and Gongura and hybrid polymer consists of polyester and cashew nut shell resins. The hybrid composites tensile strength is evaluated to study the influence of various fiber parameters on mechanical strength. The parameters considered here are the duration of fiber treatment, the concentration of alkali in fiber treatment and nature of fiber content in the composites.

  11. Environmental effects on the hybrid glass fiber/carbon fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Yun-I.

    2009-12-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer composites (FRPCs) have been widely used to replace conventional metals due to the high specific strength, fatigue resistance, and light weight. In the power distribution industry, an advanced composites rod has been developed to replace conventional steel cable as the load-bearing core of overhead conductors. Such conductors, called aluminum conductor composite core (ACCC) significantly increases the transmitting efficiency of existing power grid system without extensive rebuilding expenses, while meeting future demand for electricity. In general, the service life of such overhead conductors is required to be at least 30 years. Therefore, the long-term endurance of the composite core in various environments must be well-understood. Accelerated aging by hygrothermal exposure was conducted to determine the effect of moisture on the glass fiber (GF)/carbon fiber (CF) hybrid composites. The influence of water immersion and humid air exposure on mechanical properties is investigated. Results indicated that immersion in water is the most severe environment for such hybrid GF/CF composites, and results in greater saturation and degradation of properties. When immersed directly in water, the hybrid GF/CF composites exhibit a moisture uptake behavior that is more complex than composite materials reinforced with only one type of fiber. The unusual diffusion behavior is attributed to a higher packing density of fibers at the annular GF/CF interface, which acts as a temporary moisture barrier. Moisture uptake leads to the mechanical and thermal degradation of such hybrid GF/CF composites. Findings presented here indicate that the degradation is a function of exposure temperature, time, and moisture uptake level. Results also indicate that such hybrid GF/CF composites recover short beam shear (SBS) strength and glass transition temperature (Tg) values comparable to pre-aged samples after removal of the absorbed moisture. In the hygrothermal environment

  12. Super-hybrid composites - An emerging structural material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Lark, R. F.; Sullivan, T. L.

    1975-01-01

    Specimens of super-hybrids and advanced fiber composites were subjected to extensive tests to determine their mechanical properties, including impact and thermal fatigue. The super-hybrids were fabricated by a procedure similar to that reported by Chamis et al., (1975). Super-hybrids subjected to 1000 cycles of thermal fatigue from -100 to 300 F retained over 90% of their longitudinal flexural strength and over 75% of their transverse flexural strength; their transverse flexural strength may be as high as 8 times that of a commercially supplied boron/1100-Al composite. The thin specimen Izod longitudinal impact resistance of the super-hybrids was twice that of the boron/110-Al material. Super-hybrids subjected to transverse tensile loads exhibited nonlinear stress-strain relationships. The experimentally determined initial membrane (in-plane) and bending elastic properties of super-hybrids were predicted adequately by linear laminate analysis.

  13. Design and Ballistic Performance of Hybrid Composite Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćwik, Tomasz K.; Iannucci, Lorenzo; Curtis, Paul; Pope, Dan

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents an initial design assessment of a series of novel, cost-effective, and hybrid composite materials for applications involving high velocity impacts. The proposed hybrid panels were designed in order to investigate various physical phenomenon occurring during high velocity impact on compliant laminates from a previous study on Dyneema® and Spectra®. In the first, screening phase of the study twenty different hybrid composite laminates were impacted with 20 mm Fragment Simulating Projectiles at 1 km/s striking velocity. The best performing concepts were put forward to phase II with other hybrid concepts involving shear thickening fluids, commonly used in low velocity impacts. The results indicated that it is possible to design hybrid laminates of similar ballistic performance as the reference Dyneema® laminate, but with lower material costs. The optimal hybrid concept involves a fibre reinforced Polypropylene front and a Dyneema® backing.

  14. Impact resistance of hybrid composite fan blade materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedrich, L. A.

    1974-01-01

    Improved resistance to foreign object damage was demonstrated for hybrid composite simulated blade specimens. Transply metallic reinforcement offered additional improvement in resistance to gelatin projectile impacts. Metallic leading edge protection permitted equivalent-to-titanium performance of the hybrid composite simulated blade specimen for impacts with 1.27 cm and 2.54 cm (0.50 and 1.00 inch) diameter gelatin spheres.

  15. Buckling analysis of a ring stiffened hybrid composite cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potluri, Rakesh; Eswara Kumar, A.; Navuri, Karteek; Nagaraju, M.; Mojeswara Rao, Duduku

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to understand the response of the ring stiffened cylinders made up of hybrid composites subjected to buckling loads by using the concepts of Design of Experiments (DOE) and optimization by using Finite Element Method (FEM) simulation software Ansys workbench V15. Carbon epoxy and E-glass epoxy composites were used in the hybrid composite. This hybrid composite was analyzed by using different layup angles. Central composite design (CCD) was used to perform design of experiments (D.O.E) and kriging method was used to generate a response surface. The response surface optimization (RSO) was performed by using the method of the multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA). After optimization, the best candidate was chosen and applied to the ring stiffened cylinder and eigenvalue buckling analysis was performed to understand the buckling behavior. Best laminate candidates with high buckling strength have been identified. A generalized procedure of the laminate optimization and analysis have been shown.

  16. Stabilization of composition fluctuations in mixed membranes by hybrid lipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safran, Samuel; Palmieri, Benoit

    2013-03-01

    A ternary mixture model is proposed to describe composition fluctuations in mixed membranes composed of saturated, unsaturated and hybrid lipids. The asymmetric hybrid lipid has one saturated and one unsaturated hydrocarbon chain and it can reduce the packing incompatibility between saturated and unsaturated lipids. A methodology to recast the free-energy of the lattice in terms of a continuous isotropic field theory is proposed and used to analyze composition fluctuations above the critical temperature. The effect of hybrid lipids on fluctuations domains rich in saturated/unsaturated lipids is predicted. The correlation length of such fluctuations decreases significantly with increasing amounts of hybrids even if the temperature is maintained close to the critical temperature. This provides an upper bound for the domain sizes expected in rafts stabilized by hybrids, above the critical temperature. When the hybrid composition of the membrane is increased further, a crossover value is found above which ``stripe-like'' fluctuations are observed. The wavelength of these fluctuations decreases with increasing hybrid fraction and tends toward a molecular size in a membrane that contains only hybrids.

  17. Boron/aluminum-graphite/resin advanced fiber composite hybrids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Lark, R. F.; Sullivan, T. L.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the fabrication feasibility and to assess the potential of adhesively-bonded metal and resin matrix fiber composite hybrids as an advanced material, for aerospace and other structural applications. The results of fabrication studies and of evaluation of physical and mechanical properties show that using this hybrid concept it is possible to design a composite which, when compared to nonhybrid composites, has improved transverse strength, transverse stiffness, and impact resistance with only a small penalty on density and longitudinal properties. The results also show that laminate theory is suitable for perdicting the structural response of such hybrids. The sequence of fracture modes indicates that these types of hybrids can be readily designed to meet fail-safe requirements.

  18. Experimental determination of material constants of a hybrid composite laminate

    SciTech Connect

    Ihekweazu, S.N.; Lari, S.B.; Unanwa, C.O.

    1999-07-01

    This paper discusses the results of the experimental study that was conducted in order to determine the material properties of a hybrid composite laminate made from Fiberite material MXM-7714/120 (a fabric prepreg consisting of woven Kevlar{reg_sign} 49 reinforcement impregnated with Fiberite 250 F (121 C) curing 7714 epoxy resin) and HYE-2448AIE (a 250 F (121 C) curing epoxy resin impregnated unidirectional graphite tape). First, each of the materials that comprise the hybrid laminate was fabricated separately according to ASTM-D-3039 specification in order to determine their material properties. The materials were then hybridized and the properties were determined. Data from this experiment reveal that a new class of material that can meet desired specifications can be created through hybridization. The data also revealed that the properties of the materials bonded together as a hybrid complement the properties of the constituent members of the hybrid.

  19. Multifunctional Hybrid Carbon Nanotube/Carbon Fiber Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, Jin Ho; Cano, Roberto J.; Ratcliffe, James G.; Luong, Hoa; Grimsley, Brian W.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2016-01-01

    For aircraft primary structures, carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites possess many advantages over conventional aluminum alloys due to their light weight, higher strengthand stiffness-to-weight ratio, and low life-cycle maintenance costs. However, the relatively low electrical and thermal conductivities of CFRP composites fail to provide structural safety in certain operational conditions such as lightning strikes. Despite several attempts to solve these issues with the addition of carbon nanotubes (CNT) into polymer matrices, and/or by interleaving CNT sheets between conventional carbon fiber (CF) composite layers, there are still interfacial problems that exist between CNTs (or CF) and the resin. In this study, hybrid CNT/CF polymer composites were fabricated by interleaving layers of CNT sheets with Hexcel® IM7/8852 prepreg. Resin concentrations from 1 wt% to 50 wt% were used to infuse the CNT sheets prior to composite fabrication. The interlaminar properties of the resulting hybrid composites were characterized by mode I and II fracture toughness testing (double cantilever beam and end-notched flexure test). Fractographical analysis was performed to study the effect of resin concentration. In addition, multi-directional physical properties like thermal conductivity of the orthotropic hybrid polymer composite were evaluated. Interleaving CNT sheets significantly improved the in-plane (axial and perpendicular direction of CF alignment) thermal conductivity of the hybrid composite laminates by 50 - 400%.

  20. Impact strength on fiber-reinforced hybrid composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firdaus, S. M.; Nurdina; Azmil Ariff, M.

    2013-12-01

    Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) has been well known composite in automotive players to have light weight with high impact strength material compared to sheet metal material which has high impact strength but heavy in weight. In this project, the impact strength properties of fabricated pure ABS were compared to the eight samples of hybrid ABS composite with different weight percentages of short fibers and particle sizes of ground rubber. The objective was to improve the impact strength in addition of short fibers and ground rubber particles. These samples were then characterized using an un-notched Izod impact test. Results show that the increasing of filler percentage yielded an adverse effect on the impact strength of the hybrid composite. The effect of the ground rubber particulate sizes however are deemed to be marginal than the effect of varying filler percentage based on the collected impact strength data from all physically tested hybrid composites.

  1. Analysis/design of strip reinforced random composites (strip hybrids)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    Advanced analysis methods and composite mechanics were applied to a strip-reinforced random composite square panel with fixed ends to illustrate the use of these methods for the a priori assessment of the composite panel when subjected to complex loading conditions. The panel was assumed to be of E-glass random composite. The strips were assumed to be of three advanced unidirectional composites to cover a range of low, intermediate, and high modulus stiffness. The panels were assumed to be subjected to complex loadings to assess their adequacy as load-carrying members in auto body, aircraft engine nacelle and windmill blade applications. The results show that strip hybrid panels can be several times more structurally efficient than the random composite base materials. Some of the results are presented in graphical form and procedures are described for use of these graphs as guides for preliminary design of strip hybrids.

  2. Analysis/design of strip reinforced random composites /strip hybrids/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    Results are described which were obtained by applying advanced analysis methods and composite mechanics to a strip-reinforced random composite square panel with fixed ends. This was done in order to illustrate the use of these methods for the apriori assessment of the composite panel when subjected to complex loading conditions. The panel was assumed to be of E-Glass/Random Composite. The strips were assumed to be of three advanced unidirectional composites to cover a range of low, intermediate, and high modulus stiffness. The panels were assumed to be subjected to complex loadings to assess their adequacy as load-carrying members in auto body, aircraft engine nacelle, and windmill blade applications. The results show that strip hybrid panels can be several times more structurally efficient than the random composite base materials. Some of the results are presented in graphical form and procedures are described for use of these graphs as guides for preliminary design of strip hybrids.

  3. Computational simulation of intermingled-fiber hybrid composite behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mital, Subodh K.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1992-01-01

    Three-dimensional finite-element analysis and a micromechanics based computer code ICAN (Integrated Composite Analyzer) are used to predict the composite properties and microstresses of a unidirectional graphite/epoxy primary composite with varying percentages of S-glass fibers used as hydridizing fibers at a total fiber volume of 0.54. The three-dimensional finite-element model used in the analyses consists of a group of nine fibers, all unidirectional, in a three-by-three unit cell array. There is generally good agreement between the composite properties and microstresses obtained from both methods. The results indicate that the finite-element methods and the micromechanics equations embedded in the ICAN computer code can be used to obtain the properties of intermingled fiber hybrid composites needed for the analysis/design of hybrid composite structures. However, the finite-element model should be big enough to be able to simulate the conditions assumed in the micromechanics equations.

  4. Probing Compositional Variation within Hybrid Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Yuhas, Benjamin D.; Habas, Susan E.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Mokari, Taleb

    2010-06-22

    We present a detailed analysis of the structural and magnetic properties of solution-grown PtCo-CdS hybrid structures in comparison to similar free-standing PtCo alloy nanoparticles. X-ray absorption spectroscopy is utilized as a sensitive probe for identifying subtle differences in the structure of the hybrid materials. We found that the growth of bimetallic tips on a CdS nanorod substrate leads to a more complex nanoparticle structure composed of a PtCo alloy core and thin CoO shell. The core-shell architecture is an unexpected consequence of the different nanoparticle growth mechanism on the nanorod tip, as compared to free growth in solution. Magnetic measurements indicate that the PtCo-CdS hybrid structures are superparamagnetic despite the presence of a CoO shell. The use of X-ray spectroscopic techniques to detect minute differences in atomic structure and bonding in complex nanosystems makes it possible to better understand and predict catalytic or magnetic properties for nanoscale bimetallic hybrid materials.

  5. Innovative Technologies to Manufacture Hybrid Metal Foam/Composite Components

    SciTech Connect

    Carrino, L.; Durante, M.; Franchitti, S.; Sorrentino, L.; Tersigni, L.

    2011-01-17

    The aim of this paper is to verify the technological feasibility to realize hybrid metal-foam/composite component and the mechanical performances of the final structure. The hybrid component is composed by a cylindrical core in aluminum foam, the most used between those commercially available, and an outer layer in epoxy/S2-glass, manufactured by filament winding technology.A set of experimental tests have been carried out, to the aim to estimate the improvement of the hybrid component characteristics, compared to the sum of the single components (metal foam cylinder and epoxy/S2-glass tube).

  6. Mechanical Tests For Monitoring Aging Of Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1994-01-01

    Experimental study addresses related topics of thermo-oxidative aging of PMR-15 (polyimide matrix/graphite-fiber composite materials) strengths of interfacial bonds, effects of various surface treatments, and relative merits of mechanical tests yielding measures of strengths of materials.

  7. Topologically ordered magnesium-biopolymer hybrid composite structures.

    PubMed

    Oosterbeek, Reece N; Seal, Christopher K; Staiger, Mark P; Hyland, Margaret M

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium and its alloys are intriguing as possible biodegradable biomaterials due to their unique combination of biodegradability and high specific mechanical properties. However, uncontrolled biodegradation of magnesium during implantation remains a major challenge in spite of the use of alloying and protective coatings. In this study, a hybrid composite structure of magnesium metal and a biopolymer was fabricated as an alternative approach to control the corrosion rate of magnesium. A multistep process that combines metal foam production and injection molding was developed to create a hybrid composite structure that is topologically ordered in all three dimensions. Preliminary investigations of the mechanical properties and corrosion behavior exhibited by the hybrid Mg-polymer composite structures suggest a new potential approach to the development of Mg-based biomedical devices.

  8. Micromechanics of intraply hybrid composites: Elastic and thermal properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    Composite micromechanics are used to derive equations for predicting the elastic and thermal properties of unidirectional intraply hybrid composites. The results predicted using these equations are compared with those predicted using approximate equations based on the rule of mixtures, linear laminate theory, finite element analysis and limited experimental data. The comparisons for three different intraply hybrids indicate that all four methods predict approximately the same elastic properties and are in good agreement with measured data. The micromechanics equations and linear laminate theory predict about the same values for thermal expansion coefficients. The micromechanics equations predict through-the-thickness properties which are in good agreement with the finite element results.

  9. Fingerprint composition and aging: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Cadd, Samuel; Islam, Meez; Manson, Peter; Bleay, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    Fingerprints have a key role in criminal investigations and are the most commonly used form of evidence worldwide. Significant gaps remain however, in the understanding of fingerprint chemistry, including enhancement reaction mechanisms and the effect of environmental variables and time on composition. Determining the age of a fingerprint is also a relatively unexplored area. A successful method, with reliable and quantitative estimates, would have numerous advantages. Previous unreliable methods have predominantly focused on enhancement success based on physical and chemical changes. This review explores variations in composition due to donor characteristics and environmental variables, and identifies gaps for further research. We also present a qualitative and quantitative summary of the effect of time on composition. Kinetics are presented where known, with summary schematics for reaction mechanisms. Previous studies exploring methods for determining the age of a fingerprint are also discussed, including their advantages and disadvantages. Lastly we propose a potentially more accurate and reliable methodology for determining fingerprint age based on quantitative kinetic changes to the composition of a fingerprint over time.

  10. Hybrid Composite Response to Hydraulic Ram

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-20

    braided E-Glass 1/8-inch diameter, braided Additional materials Styrofoam 2 lb/ft3 , closed cell Self- vulcanizing rubber 1/8 thick 7 JTCG/AS-86-T-001...conducted under the Survivable Composite Structures program funded by the JTCG/AS Structures and Materials Subcommittee. Under this project, NWC (Naval...Weapons Center), China Lake, Calif. was tasked with developing struc- tural and material techniques for reducing hydraulic ram damage to composite aircraft

  11. Functionally Graded Multifunctional Hybrid Composites for Extreme Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    formation for self- healing   Systematic fabrication of porous metal and shape memory alloys by PM method, which will be used to form high...Ti, Shape Memory Alloys AFOSR-MURI Functionally Graded Hybrid Composites 25 Multi-scale Characterization Characterization of Composite Layers...different amount of pore-formers at different temperatures to obtain MAX phase with controlled porosity for infiltration of metals and shape memory

  12. Hybrid composites that retain graphite fibers on burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, E. E.

    1980-01-01

    A laboratory scale program was conducted to determine fiber release tendencies of graphite reinforced/resinous matrix composites currently used or projected for use in civil aircraft. In the event of an aircraft crash and burn situation, there is concern that graphite fibers will be released from the composites once the resin matrix is thermally decomposed. Hybridizing concepts aimed at preventing fiber release on burning were postulated and their effectiveness evaluated under fire, impact, and air flow during an aircraft crash.

  13. Fracture behavior of hybrid composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    The tensile fracture behavior of 15 center-notched hybrid laminates was studied. Three basic laminate groups were tested: (1) a baseline group with graphite/epoxy plies, (2) a group with the same stacking sequence but where the zero-deg plies were one or two plies of S-glass or Kevlar, and (3) a group with graphite plies but where the zero-deg plies were sandwiched between layers of perforated Mylar. Specimens were loaded linearly with time; load, far field strain, and crack opening displacement (COD) were monitored. The loading was stopped periodically and the notched region was radiographed to reveal the extent and type of damage (failure progression). Results of the tests showed that the hybrid laminates had higher fracture toughnesses than comparable all-graphite laminates. The higher fracture toughness was due primarily to the larger damage region at the ends of the slit; delamination and splitting lowered the stress concentration in the primary load-carrying plies. A linear elastic fracture analysis, which ignored delamination and splitting, underestimated the fracture toughness. For almost all of the laminates, the tests showed that the fracture toughness increased with crack length. The size of the damage region at the ends of the slit and COD measurements also increased with crack length.

  14. Physical aging in graphite epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, E. S. W.

    1981-01-01

    The matrix dominated mechanical behavior of a graphite epoxy composite was found to be affected by sub Tg annealing. Postcured + or - 45 deg 4S specimens of Thornel 300 graphite/Narmco 5208 epoxy were quenched from above Tg and given a sub Tg annealing at 140 C for times up to 10 to the 5th power min. The ultimate tensile strength, strain to break, and toughness of the composite material were found to decrease as functions of sub Tg annealing time. No weight loss was observed during the sub Tg annealing. The time dependent change in mechanical behavior is explained on the basis of free volume changes that are related to the physical aging of the nonequilibrium glassy network epoxy. The results imply possible changes in composite properties with service time.

  15. Analysis of high velocity impact on hybrid composite fan blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    Recent developments in the analysis of high velocity impact of composite blades are described, using a computerized capability which consists of coupling a composites mechanics code with the direct-time integration features of NASTRAN. The application of the capability to determine the linear dynamic response of an interply hybrid composite aircraft engine fan blade is described in detail. The results also show that the impact stresses reach sufficiently high magnitudes to cause failures in the impact region at early times of the impact event.

  16. Analysis of high velocity impact on hybrid composite fan blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes recent developments in the analysis of high velocity impact of composite blades using a computerized capability which consists of coupling a composites mechanics code with the direct-time integration features of NASTRAN. The application of the capability to determine the linear dynamic response of an intraply hybrid composite aircraft engine fan blade is described in detail. The predicted results agree with measured data. The results also show that the impact stresses reach sufficiently high magnitudes to cause failures in the impact region at early times of the impact event.

  17. Mechanics of intraply hybrid composites - Properties, analysis and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    A mechanics theory is developed for predicting the physical thermal, hygral and mechanical properties (including various strengths) of unidirectional intraply hybrid composites (UIHC) based on unidirectional properties of the constituent composites. Procedures are described which can use this theory in conjunction with composite mechanics computer codes and general purpose structural analysis finite element programs for the analysis/design of structural components made from intraply hybrid angleplied laminates (IHAL). Comparisons with limited data show that this theory predicts mechanical properties of UIHC and flexural stiffnesses of IHAL which are in good agreement with experimental data. The theory developed herein makes it possible to design and optimize structural components from IHAL based on a large class of available constituent fibers.

  18. Novel hybrid coatings with controlled wettability by composite nanoparticle aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hritcu, Doina; Dodi, Gianina; Iordache, Mirabela L.; Draganescu, Dan; Sava, Elena; Popa, Marcel I.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate novel hybrid materials as potential candidates for producing coatings with hierarchical roughness and controlled wetting behaviour. Magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles obtained by co-precipitation were embedded in matrices synthesized by radical graft co-polymerization of butyl acrylate (BA), butyl methacrylate (BMA), hexyl acrylate (HA) or styrene (ST) with ethylene glycol di-methacrylate (EGDMA) onto previously modified chitosan bearing surface vinyl groups. The resulting composite particles were characterized regarding their average size, composition and magnetic properties. Hybrid thin films containing suspension of composite particles in ethanol and pre-hydrolysed hexadecyltrimethoxysilane (HDTS) as a coupling/crosslinking agent were deposited by spin coating or spraying. The films were cured by heating and subsequently characterized regarding their morphology (scanning electron microscopy), contact angle with water and adhesion to substrate (scratch test). The structure-property relationship is discussed.

  19. Multifunctional Hybrid Composites for Thermal Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-03

    Morphology 9 Simulation Approach: models of soft and hard carbon structures in metal matrix Metals CNTs Fullerenes M ET A L D EB YE F R EQ U EN C...Y Al Cu In Au •No (or narrow) overlap in fullerene / metal vibrational spectra 10 Conductance for Different Carbon -Metal Interfaces in NEMD...Hierarchical carbon fiber morphology for tailored thermal properties in heterogeneous materials systems – Fiber reinforced composites – Sensors, Heat sink

  20. Development of LaRC 160/NR150B2 polyimide graphite hybrid composites. [for shuttle applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maximovich, M. G.; Bergren, O.; Lockerby, S.

    1980-01-01

    A method for co-curing NR150B2 and LaRC 160 prepregs into hybrid composites was developed. The processing characteristics and the properties of the hybrid composites were compared with those of laminates fabricated from the individual component prepregs. Resin forms were selected and optimized and a new NR150 formulation was investigated. The new formulation greatly facilitated the processing and the performance of this system. Quality control techniques were evaluated and developed, high quality laminates were fabricated from both individual resin systems, and hybrid laminates were successfully co-cured. Optimum hybrid forms were investigated and several novel approaches were explored. An optimum hybrid system was developed that utilizes a LaRC curing schedule but shows no degradation of mechanical properties after aging 500 hr in air at 260 C.

  1. Accelerated Aging of Polymer Composite Bridge Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Nancy Margaret; Blackwood, Larry Gene; Torres, Lucinda Laine; Rodriguez, Julio Gallardo; Yoder, Timothy Scott

    1999-03-01

    Accelerated aging research on samples of composite material and candidate ultraviolet (UV) protective coatings is determining the effects of six environmental factors on material durability. Candidate fastener materials are being evaluated to determine corrosion rates and crevice corrosion effects at load-bearing joints. This work supports field testing of a 30-ft long, 18-ft wide polymer matrix composite (PMC) bridge at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Durability results and sensor data from tests with live loads provide information required for determining the cost/benefit measures to use in life-cycle planning, determining a maintenance strategy, establishing applicable inspection techniques, and establishing guidelines, standards, and acceptance criteria for PMC bridges for use in the transportation infrastructure.

  2. Physical aging in graphite/epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, E. S. W.

    1983-01-01

    Sub-Tg annealing has been found to affect the properties of graphite/epoxy composites. The network epoxy studied was based on the chemistry of tetraglycidyl 4,4'-diamino-diphenyl methane (TGDDM) crosslinked by 4,4'-diamino-diphenyl sulfone (DDS). Differential scanning calorimetry, thermal mechanical analysis, and solid-state cross-polarized magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been utilized in order to characterize this process of recovery towards thermodynamic equilibrium. The volume and enthalpy recovery as well as the 'thermoreversibility' aspects of the physical aging are discussed. This nonequilibrium and time-dependent behavior of network epoxies are considered in view of the increasingly wide applications of TGDDM-DDS epoxies as matrix materials of structural composites in the aerospace industry.

  3. Reconciling Urgency and Variable Abstraction in a Hybrid Compositional Setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beek, D. A.; Cuijpers, P. J. L.; Markovski, J.; Nadales Agut, D. E.; Rooda, J. E.

    The extension of timed formalisms to a hybrid setting with urgency, has been carried out in a rather straightforward manner, seemingly without difficulty. However, in this paper, we show that the combination of urgency with abstraction from continuous variables leads to undesired behavior. Abstraction from continuous variables ultimately leads to a timed system again, but with a much richer set of possible branching behaviors than a timed system that comprises only clocks. As it turns out, the formal definition of urgency, as defined for timed systems with clocks, does not fit our intuition of urgency anymore when applied to a timed system that is an abstraction of a hybrid system. Therefore, we propose to extend the formal semantics of timed and hybrid systems with guard trajectories. In this way, the continuous branching behavior introduced by hybrid systems remains visible even after abstraction from continuous variables. The practical applicability of the introduction of guard trajectories is illustrated by our revision of the structured operational semantics of the CIF language. The interplay between urgency and abstraction now adheres to our intuition, while compositionality with respect to urgency, variable abstraction, and parallel composition, is retained. In the future, symbolic elimination of urgency can be used to ensure that guard trajectories do not need to be actually calculated.

  4. Genetic composition of yield heterosis in an elite rice hybrid.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Gang; Chen, Ying; Yao, Wen; Zhang, Chengjun; Xie, Weibo; Hua, Jinping; Xing, Yongzhong; Xiao, Jinghua; Zhang, Qifa

    2012-09-25

    Heterosis refers to the superior performance of hybrids relative to the parents. Utilization of heterosis has contributed tremendously to the increased productivity in many crops for decades. Although there have been a range of studies on various aspects of heterosis, the key to understanding the biological mechanisms of heterotic performance in crop hybrids is the genetic basis, much of which is still uncharacterized. In this study, we dissected the genetic composition of yield and yield component traits using data of replicated field trials of an "immortalized F(2)" population derived from an elite rice hybrid. On the basis of an ultrahigh-density SNP bin map constructed with population sequencing, we calculated single-locus and epistatic genetic effects in the whole genome and identified components pertaining to heterosis of the hybrid. The results showed that the relative contributions of the genetic components varied with traits. Overdominance/pseudo-overdominance is the most important contributor to heterosis of yield, number of grains per panicle, and grain weight. Dominance × dominance interaction is important for heterosis of tillers per plant and grain weight and has roles in yield and grain number. Single-locus dominance has relatively small contributions in all of the traits. The results suggest that cumulative effects of these components may adequately explain the genetic basis of heterosis in the hybrid.

  5. Water absorption behavior and residual strength assessment of glass/epoxy and glass-carbon/epoxy hybrid composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, S. C.; Singh, B. P.; Mahato, K. K.; Rathore, D. K.; Prusty, R. K.; Ray, B. C.

    2016-02-01

    Present investigation is aimed to study the water absorption behaviour and evaluation of residual strength of glass fibre/epoxy (GE) and alternate plies of glass- carbon/epoxy (GCE) hybrid composite. Both the composite systems were exposed to water at 70°C. Specimens were weighed after certain time periods to study the water uptake kinetic. Flexural tests were conducted after 4, 100 and 450 hours of ageing to evaluate the effect of hot water ageing on the mechanical properties of these potential materials. The water uptake kinetic was found to follow Fickian diffusion kinetic for GE as well as GCE hybrid composite but the rate of diffusion was higher for GE composite over GCE composite. The water content was also higher in GE composite over GCE composite after 450 hours of ageing. Significant decrement in flexural strength was observed with the increase in ageing time. Presence of water in the composite also imparted significant embrittlement to the matrix as reflected in the decrease in strain at peak for both the composite systems.

  6. Adaptive, Active and Multifunctional Composite and Hybrid Materials Program: Composite and Hybrid Materials ERA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    were exposed to a spray of polar solvent or polar solvent/ water absorbing polymer . When compared to the control, the doped yarns doubled in... Polymer Nanocomposite Synthesis ................................25 4.6.2 Polymeric Nanocomposite Battery Materials...merged into the ERA bridge program: in-house polymer synthesis and processing projects of graded preceramic polymeric hybrid materials, a laser

  7. Nanocarbon composites and hybrids in sustainability: a review.

    PubMed

    Vilatela, Juan J; Eder, Dominik

    2012-03-12

    There is an ever-growing need to protect our environment by increasing energy efficiency and developing "clean" energy sources. These are global challenges, and their resolution is vital to our energy security. Although many conventional materials, such as metals, ceramics, and plastics, cannot fulfil all requirements for these new technologies, many material combinations can offer synergistic effects that create improved and even new properties. The implementation of nanocarbons, such as graphene and carbon nanotubes, into nanocomposites and, more recently, into the new class of hybrids, are very promising examples. In contrast to classical nanocomposites, where a low volume fraction of the carbon component is mixed into a polymer or ceramic matrix, hybrids are materials in which nanocarbon is coated with a thin layer of the functional compound, which introduces the interface as a powerful new parameter. Based on interfacial charge and energy transfer processes, nanocarbon hybrids have shown increased sensitivities in gas sensors, improved efficiencies in photovoltaics, superior activities in photocatalysts, and enhanced capacities in supercapacitors. This review compares the characteristics and potentials of both nanocarbon composites and hybrids, highlights recent developments in their synthesis and discusses key challenges for their use in various energy applications.

  8. Photoresponsive Self-Healing Polymer Composite with Photoabsorbing Hybrid Microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lei; He, Jinliang; Hu, Jun; Wang, Chao

    2015-11-18

    Microcapsule-based self-healing polymer materials are highly desirable because they can heal large-volume cracks without changing the original chemical structures of polymers. However, they are limited by processing difficulties and inhomogeneous distributions of two components. Herein, we report a one-component photoresponsive self-healing polymer composite with photoabsorbing hybrid microcapsules (PAHM), which gives the microcapsules photoabsorbing properties by introducing nano-TiO2 particles as photoabsorbing and emulsified agents in the poly(urea-formaldehyde)/TiO2 hybrid shells. Upon mechanical damage and then exposure to light, the photoresponsive healing agents in the cracks will be solidified to allow for self-healing, while the healing agents in the unbroken PAHM will be protected and remain unreacted, which endows this photoresponsive microcapsule-based self-healing composite with self-healing properties like those found in the conventional two-component microcapsule-based systems. Given the universality of this hybrid polymerization method, incorporation of the photoabsorbing particles to conventional polymer shells may further broaden the scope of applications of these widely used materials.

  9. On the development of an intrinsic hybrid composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kießling, R.; Ihlemann, J.; Riemer, M.; Drossel, W.-G.; Scharf, I.; Lampke, T.; Sharafiev, S.; Pouya, M.; F-X Wagner, M.

    2016-03-01

    Hybrid parts, which combine low weight with high strength, are moving into the focus of the automotive industry, due to their high potential for usage in the field of crash-relevant structures. In this contribution, the development of an intrinsic hybrid composite is presented, with a focus on the manufacturing process, complex simulations of the material behaviour and material testing. The hybrid composite is made up of a continuous fibre- reinforced plastic (FRP), in which a metallic insert is integrated. The mechanical behaviour of the individual components is characterised. For material modelling, an approach is pointed out that enables modelling at large strains by directly connected rheological elements. The connection between the FRP and the metallic insert is realised by a combination of form fit and adhesive bonds. On the one hand, adhesive bonds are generated within a sol gel process. On the other hand, local form elements of the metallic insert are pressed into the FRP. We show how these form elements are generated during the macroscopic forming process. In addition, the applied sol gel process is explained. Finally, we consider design concepts for a specimen type for high strain testing of the resulting interfaces.

  10. Hybrid Titanium Composite Laminates: A New Aerospace Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.; Cobb, Ted Q.; Lowther, Sharon; St.Clair, T. L.

    1998-01-01

    In the realm of aerospace design and performance, there are few boundaries in the never-ending drive for increased performance. This thirst for ever-increased performance of aerospace equipment has driven the aerospace and defense industries into developing exotic, extremely high-performance composites that are pushing the envelope in terms of strength-to-weight ratios, durability, and several other key measurements. To meet this challenge of ever-increasing improvement, engineers and scientists at NASA-Langley Research Center (NASA-LaRC) have developed a high-temperature metal laminate based upon titanium, carbon fibers, and a thermoplastic resin. This composite, known as the Hybrid Titanium Composite Laminate, or HTCL, is the latest chapter in a significant, but relatively short, history of metal laminates.

  11. Low and high velocity impact response of thick hybrid composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiel, Clement; Ishai, Ori

    1993-01-01

    The effects of low and high velocity impact on thick hybrid composites (THC's) were experimentally compared. Test Beams consisted of CFRP skins which were bonded onto an interleaved syntactic foam core and cured at 177 C (350 F). The impactor tip for both cases was a 16 mm (0.625 inch) steel hemisphere. In spite of the order of magnitude difference in velocity ranges and impactor weights, similar relationships between impact energy, damage size, and residual strength were found. The dependence of the skin compressive strength on damage size agree well with analytical open hole models for composite laminates and may enable the prediction of ultimate performance for the damaged composite, based on visual inspection.

  12. The mechanical behavior of a hybrid metal matrix composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zok, F.; Jansson, S.; Evans, A. G.; Nardone, V.

    1991-09-01

    The mechanical behavior of a unidirectionally reinforced hybrid metal matrix composite in two different states has been studied: one with a “weakly bonded” interface and the other with a “strong” interface. Similarities and contrasts in mechanical behavior have been related to the properties of the interface. The longitudinal tensile strength and the crack growth initiation resistance are found to be insensitive to the condition of the interface. However, the material with the “weak” interface exhibits extensive debonding, resulting in a steeply increasing resistance curve and a large work of rupture. Furthermore, the weak interface reduces the transverse and torsional strength of the composite. This study illustrates how the tailoring of interfacial properties can improve the mechanical performance of composites for certain structural applications.

  13. Evaluation of hybrid composite materials in cylindrical specimen geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liber, T.; Daniel, I. M.

    1976-01-01

    Static and fatigue properties of three composite materials and hybrids were examined. The materials investigated were graphite/epoxy, S-glass/epoxy, PRD-49 (Kevlar 49)/epoxy, and hybrids in angle-ply configurations. A new type of edgeless cylindrical specimen was developed. It is a flattened tube with two flat sides connected by curved sections and it is handled much like the standard flat coupon. Special specimen fabrication, tabbing, and tab region reinforcing techniques were developed. Axial modulus, Poisson's ratio, strength, and ultimate strain were obtained under static loading from flattened tube specimens of nine laminate configurations. In the case of graphite/epoxy the tubular specimens appeared to yield somewhat higher strength and ultimate strain values than flat specimens. Tensile fatigue tests were conducted with all nine types of specimens and S-N curves obtained. Specimens surviving 10 million cycles of tensile loading were subsequently tested statically to failure to determine residual properties.

  14. Molecular design for moisture insensitivity of compositionally graded hybrid films.

    PubMed

    Giachino, Marta; Dubois, Geraud; Dauskardt, Reinhold H

    2015-04-01

    Effective bonding of organic/inorganic interfaces especially in high humidity environments is paramount to the structural reliability of modern multilayer device technologies, such as flexible electronics, photovoltaics, microelectronic devices, and fiber-metal laminates used in aerospace applications. We demonstrate the ability to design compositionally graded hybrid organic/inorganic films with an inorganic zirconium network capable of forming a moisture-insensitive bond at the interface between an oxide and organic material. By controlling the chemistry of the deposited films and utilizing time-dependent debonding studies, we were able to correlate the behavior of the hybrid films at high humidity to their underlying molecular structure. As a result, an outstanding threefold improvement in adhesion of silicon/epoxy interfaces can be obtained with the introduction of these films even in high humidity environments.

  15. Hybrid Composites for LH2 Fuel Tank Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimsley, Brian W.; Cano, Roberto J.; Johnston, Norman J.; Loos, Alfred C.; McMahon, William M.

    2001-01-01

    The application of lightweight carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) as structure for cryogenic fuel tanks is critical to the success of the next generation of Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV). The recent failure of the X-33 composite fuel tank occurred in part due to microcracking of the polymer matrix, which allowed cryogen to permeate through the inner skin to the honeycomb core. As part of an approach to solve these problems, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) are working to develop and investigate polymer films that will act as a barrier to the permeation of LH2 through the composite laminate. In this study two commercially available films and eleven novel LaRC films were tested in an existing cryogenics laboratory at MSFC to determine the permeance of argon at room temperature. Several of these films were introduced as a layer in the composite to form an interleaved, or hybrid, composite to determine the effects on permeability. In addition, the effects of the interleaved layer thickness, number, and location on the mechanical properties of the composite laminate were investigated. In this initial screening process, several of the films were found to exhibit lower permeability to argon than the composite panels tested.

  16. Fabrication and adsorption properties of hybrid fly ash composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Mengfan; Ma, Qingliang; Lin, Qingwen; Chang, Jiali; Ma, Hongzhu

    2017-02-01

    In order to realize the utilization of fly ash (FA) as industrial solid waste better, high-efficient inorganic/organic hybrid composite adsorbents derived from (Ca(OH)2/Na2FeO4) modified FA (MF) was fabricated. The hydrophilic cationic polymer (P(DMDAAC-co-AAM) or hydrophobic modifier (KH-570) were used. The prepared composites were characterized by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, and contact angle test. The adsorption of cationic composites MF/P(DMDAAC-co-AAM) towards Orange II in wastewater was investigated. The results show that: adsorption amount of 24.8 mg/g with 2000 mg/L of composites, 50 mg/L Orange II, original pH (6-8), at 40 min and room temperature, was obtained. Meanwhile, oil adsorption ratio Q(g/g) of hydrophobic composites MF/KH-570 was also evaluated. The maximum Q of 17.2 g/g to kerosene was obtained at 40 min. The isotherm and kinetics of these two adsorption processes were also studied. The results showed that the fabricated MF composites modified with hydrophilic or hydrophobic group can be used to adsorb dye in wastewater or oil effectively.

  17. Elastic properties of hybrid composites by the effective field approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanaun, S. K.; Jeulin, D.

    2001-10-01

    The work is dedicated to the calculation of the overall elastic properties of matrix composite materials containing two different populations of inclusions (three phase hybrid composites). The application of the well known Mori-Tanaka method or self-consistent effective medium method to the solution of this problem gives overall elastic moduli tensors of such composites that do not have the necessary symmetry (the symmetry with respect to the first and second pairs of indices). In this work, a new version of the effective field method that takes into account specific features of the microstructure of three phase composites is developed. In this version, the field that acts on every inclusion in the composite is assumed to be different for inclusions of different populations. It is shown that the modified effective field method gives a correct symmetry of the overall elastic moduli tensors of three phase composites. The method allows us to describe the influence of the peculiarities in spatial distributions of inclusions on the overall elastic constants. The cases of media containing infinite cylindrical fibers and thin ellipsoidal disks or spherical pores are considered. Various boolean type probabilistic models of random sets of such inclusions are proposed and the elastic moduli tensors of the corresponding three phase composites are obtained and analyzed. It turns out that these tensors strongly depend on statistical properties of the random fields of inclusions. It is shown that for two phase composites, the Mori-Tanaka method is a particular case of the effective field method. In the case of three phase composites, the formulas of the Mori-Tanaka method follow from the equations of the effective field method if a general property of the symmetry of cross-correlation functions of different populations of inclusions is violated. As a result, the overall elastic moduli tensors obtained by Mori-Tanaka method lose their natural symmetry.

  18. Influence of boar breeds or hybrid genetic composition on semen quality and seminal plasma biochemical variables.

    PubMed

    Žaja, Ivona Žura; Samardžija, Marko; Vince, Silvijo; Majić-Balić, Ivanka; Vilić, Marinko; Đuričić, Dražen; Milinković-Tur, Suzana

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme concentrations of seminal plasma are important for spermatozoa metabolism and function in boars. The need has arisen for introducing a biochemical evaluation of semen, along with the usual standard semen analyses. There are no data on the influence of boar breeds on the seminal plasma biochemical variables investigated in this study. Therefore, the objective was to determine the influence of breed and hybrid genetic composition of boars on semen quality and seminal plasma biochemical variables. Semen samples of 27 boars (Swedish Landrace, German Landrace, Large White, Pietrain and Pig Improvement Company hybrid-PIC-hybrid), aged between 1.5 and 3 years, were collected. After evaluation of semen quality, the seminal plasma was separated from the spermatozoa by centrifugation of semen. The seminal plasma was subjected to spectrophotometric analysis to determine alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and to atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis to measure the concentration of calcium and magnesium. Conventional semen quality variables differed depending on breed and PIC-hybrid genetic composition, though these differences were typically insignificant. In the seminal plasma, significant differences were determined in enzyme activity (ALP, GGT, CK and LDH) and in calcium concentration among boars of different breeds. There are, therefore, differences in semen quality and significant differences in the seminal plasma biochemical variables among boars of different breeds and PIC-hybrid genetic composition. The data and differences in semen variables detected in the present study provide knowledge for enhancing evaluation and monitoring of boar reproductive potential, semen quality and explain the potential causes of boar infertility.

  19. Aging and quality assurance of Kevlar 49-epoxy composites

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, R.J.

    1981-05-15

    The aging of Kevlar 49-epoxy composites under the service environment conditions expected by ESA will be insignificant to the best of our knowledge at this time. However, certain precautions in materials acceptance criteria and composite fabrication should be followed.

  20. MoSi2-Base Hybrid Composites from Aeroengine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, Mohan G.

    2000-01-01

    Addition of about 30 to 50 vol % of Si3N4 particulate to MoSi2 improved low temperature accelerated oxidation resistance by forming a Si2ON2 protective scale and thereby eliminated catastrophic 'pest failure'. The Si3N4 addition also improved the high temperature creep strength by nearly five orders of magnitude, doubled the room temperature toughness, and significantly lowered the CTE of the MoSi2 which eliminated matrix cracking in SCS-6 reinforced composites even after thermal cycling. The SCS-6 fiber reinforcement improved the room temperature fracture toughness by seven times and impact resistance by five times. The composite exhibited this excellent strength and toughness improvement up to 1673 K. More recently, tape casting was adopted as the preferred processing of MoSi2-base composites due to improved fiber spacing, ability to use small diameter fibers, and for lower cost. Good strength and toughness values were also obtained with fine diameter Hi-Nicalon tow fibers. These hybrid composites remain competitive with ceramic matrix composites as a replacement for Ni-base superalloys in aircraft engine applications.

  1. Experimental Validation of a Thermoelastic Model for SMA Hybrid Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.

    2001-01-01

    This study presents results from experimental validation of a recently developed model for predicting the thermomechanical behavior of shape memory alloy hybrid composite (SMAHC) structures, composite structures with an embedded SMA constituent. The model captures the material nonlinearity of the material system with temperature and is capable of modeling constrained, restrained, or free recovery behavior from experimental measurement of fundamental engineering properties. A brief description of the model and analysis procedures is given, followed by an overview of a parallel effort to fabricate and characterize the material system of SMAHC specimens. Static and dynamic experimental configurations for the SMAHC specimens are described and experimental results for thermal post-buckling and random response are presented. Excellent agreement is achieved between the measured and predicted results, fully validating the theoretical model for constrained recovery behavior of SMAHC structures.

  2. Structural Acoustic Response of Shape Memory Alloy Hybrid Composite Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.

    1996-01-01

    A method has been developed to predict the structural acoustic response of shape memory alloy hybrid composite panels subjected to acoustic excitation. The panel is modeled by a finite element analysis and the radiated field is predicted using Rayleigh's integral. Transmission loss predictions for the case of an aluminum panel excited by a harmonic acoustic pressure are shown to compare very well with a classical analysis. Predictions of the normal velocity response and transmitted acoustic pressure for a clamped aluminum panel show excellent agreement with experimental measurements. Predicted transmission loss performance for a composite panel with and without shape memory alloy reinforcement are also presented. The preliminary results demonstrate that the transmission loss can be significantly increased with shape memory alloy reinforcement.

  3. Nonlinear Thermoelastic Model for SMAs and SMA Hybrid Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.

    2004-01-01

    A constitutive mathematical model has been developed that predicts the nonlinear thermomechanical behaviors of shape-memory-alloys (SMAs) and of shape-memory-alloy hybrid composite (SMAHC) structures, which are composite-material structures that contain embedded SMA actuators. SMAHC structures have been investigated for their potential utility in a variety of applications in which there are requirements for static or dynamic control of the shapes of structures, control of the thermoelastic responses of structures, or control of noise and vibrations. The present model overcomes deficiencies of prior, overly simplistic or qualitative models that have proven ineffective or intractable for engineering of SMAHC structures. The model is sophisticated enough to capture the essential features of the mechanics of SMAHC structures yet simple enough to accommodate input from fundamental engineering measurements and is in a form that is amenable to implementation in general-purpose structural analysis environments.

  4. SMA Hybrid Composites for Dynamic Response Abatement Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.

    2000-01-01

    A recently developed constitutive model and a finite element formulation for predicting the thermomechanical response of Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) hybrid composite (SMAHC) structures is briefly described. Attention is focused on constrained recovery behavior in this study, but the constitutive formulation is also capable of modeling restrained or free recovery. Numerical results are shown for glass/epoxy panel specimens with embedded Nitinol actuators subjected to thermal and acoustic loads. Control of thermal buckling, random response, sonic fatigue, and transmission loss are demonstrated and compared to conventional approaches including addition of conventional composite layers and a constrained layer damping treatment. Embedded SMA actuators are shown to be significantly more effective in dynamic response abatement applications than the conventional approaches and are attractive for combination with other passive and/or active approaches.

  5. Flexural analysis of palm fiber reinforced hybrid polymer matrix composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatachalam, G.; Gautham Shankar, A.; Raghav, Dasarath; Santhosh Kiran, R.; Mahesh, Bhargav; Kumar, Krishna

    2015-07-01

    Uncertainty in availability of fossil fuels in the future and global warming increased the need for more environment friendly materials. In this work, an attempt is made to fabricate a hybrid polymer matrix composite. The blend is a mixture of General Purpose Resin and Cashew Nut Shell Liquid, a natural resin extracted from cashew plant. Palm fiber, which has high strength, is used as reinforcement material. The fiber is treated with alkali (NaOH) solution to increase its strength and adhesiveness. Parametric study of flexure strength is carried out by varying alkali concentration, duration of alkali treatment and fiber volume. Taguchi L9 Orthogonal array is followed in the design of experiments procedure for simplification. With the help of ANOVA technique, regression equations are obtained which gives the level of influence of each parameter on the flexure strength of the composite.

  6. Design and Fabrication of E-Glass /carbon/graphite epoxy hybrid composite leaf spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, T.; Raja, M.; Jothi Prakash, V. M.; Gnanavel, C.

    2017-03-01

    The Automobile Industry has shown increase interest for replacement of steel leaf spring with that of composite leaf spring. Substituting composite materials for conventional metallic materials has many advantages because of higher specific stiffness, strength and fatigue resistance etc. This work deals with the replacement of conventional steel leaf spring with a hybrid Composite leaf spring using E -Glass/Carbon/Graphite/Epoxy. The hybrid composite is obtained by introducing more than one fiber in the reinforcement phase. The hybrid composite is fabricated by the vacuum bag technique. The result shows that introduction of carbon and graphite fiber in the reinforcement phase increases the stiffness of the composite.

  7. Influence of Material Distribution on Impact Resistance of Hybrid Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abatan, Ayu; Hu, Hurang

    1998-01-01

    Impact events occur in a wide variety of circumstances. A typical example is a bullet impacting a target made of composite material. These impact events produce time-varying loads on a structure that can result in damage. As a first step to understanding the damage resistance issue in composite laminates, an accurate prediction of the transient response during an impact event is necessary. The analysis of dynamic loadings on laminated composite plates has undergone considerable development recently. Rayleigh-Ritz energy method was used to determine the impact response of laminated plates. The impact response of composite plates using shear deformation plate theory was analyzed. In recent work a closed-form solution was obtained for a rectangular plate with four edges simply supported subjected to a center impact load using classical plate theory. The problem was further investigated and the analysis results compared of both classical plate theory and shear deformation theory, and found that classical plate theory predicts very accurate results for the range of small deformations considered. In this study, the influence of cross sectional material distribution on the comparative impact responses of hybrid metal laminates subjected to low and medium velocity impacts is investigated. A simple linear model to evaluate the magnitude of the impact load is proposed first, and it establishes a relation between the impact velocity and the impact force. Then a closed-form solution for impact problem is presented. The results were compared with the finite element analysis results. For an 11 layer-hybrid laminate, the impact response as a function of material distribution in cross-section is presented. With equal areal weight, the effect of the number of laminate layers on the impact resistance is also investigated. Finally, the significance of the presented results is discussed.

  8. Advanced Ceramic Matrix Composites with Multifunctional and Hybrid Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Morscher, Gregory N.

    2004-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites are leading candidate materials for a number of applications in aeronautics, space, energy, and nuclear industries. Potential composite applications differ in their requirements for thickness. For example, many space applications such as "nozzle ramps" or "heat exchangers" require very thin (< 1 mm) structures whereas turbine blades would require very thick parts (> or = 1 cm). Little is known about the effect of thickness on stress-strain behavior or the elevated temperature tensile properties controlled by oxidation diffusion. In this study, composites consisting of woven Hi-Nicalon (trademark) fibers a carbon interphase and CVI SiC matrix were fabricated with different numbers of plies and thicknesses. The effect of thickness on matrix crack formation, matrix crack growth and diffusion kinetics will be discussed. In another approach, hybrid fiber-lay up concepts have been utilized to "alloy" desirable properties of different fiber types for mechanical properties, thermal stress management, and oxidation resistance. Such an approach has potential for the C(sub I)-SiC and SiC(sub f)-SiC composite systems. CVI SiC matrix composites with different stacking sequences of woven C fiber (T300) layers and woven SiC fiber (Hi-Nicalon (trademark)) layers were fabricated. The results will be compared to standard C fiber reinforced CVI SiC matrix and Hi-Nicalon reinforced CVI SiC matrix composites. In addition, shear properties of these composites at different temperatures will also be presented. Other design and implementation issues will be discussed along with advantages and benefits of using these materials for various components in high temperature applications.

  9. MoSi2-Base Hybrid Composite Passed Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Hebsur, Mohan

    1998-01-01

    The intermetallics compound molybdenum disilicide (MoSi2) is an attractive high-temperature structural material for advanced engine applications. It has excellent oxidation resistance, a high melting point, relatively low density, and high thermal conductivity, and it is easily machined. Past research'at the NASA Lewis Research Center has resulted in the development of a hybrid composite consisting of a MoSi2 matrix reinforced with silicon nitride (Si3N4) Particulate and silicon carbide (SiC) fibers. This composite has demonstrated attractive strength, toughness, thermal fatigue, and oxidation resistance, including resistance to "pest" oxidation. These properties attracted the interest of the Office of Naval Research and Pratt & Whitney, and a joint NASA/Navy/Pratt & Whitney effort was developed to continue to mature the MoSi2 Composite technology. A turbine blade outer air seal, which was part of the Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology (IHPTET) program, was chosen as a first component on which to focus. The first tasks of the materials development effort were to develop improved processing methods to reduce costs and to use fine-diameter fibers that enable the manufacturing of complex shapes. Tape-casting methods were developed to fully infiltrate the fine SiC fibers with matrix powders. The resulting composites were hot pressed to 100-percent density. Composites with cross-plied fiber architectures with 30 vol. % hi-nicalon SiC fibers and 30 vol. % nitride particles are now made routinely and demonstrate a good balance of properties. The next task entailed the measurement of a wide variety of mechanical properties to confirm the suitability of this composite in engines. In particular, participants in this effort demonstrated that composites made with Hi-Nicalon fibers had strength and toughness properties equal to or better than those of the composites made with the large-diameter fibers that had been used previously. Another critically

  10. Optimization of Adaptive Intraply Hybrid Fiber Composites with Reliability Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiao, Michael C.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1994-01-01

    The reliability with bounded distribution parameters (mean, standard deviation) was maximized and the reliability-based cost was minimized for adaptive intra-ply hybrid fiber composites by using a probabilistic method. The probabilistic method accounts for all naturally occurring uncertainties including those in constituent material properties, fabrication variables, structure geometry, and control-related parameters. Probabilistic sensitivity factors were computed and used in the optimization procedures. For actuated change in the angle of attack of an airfoil-like composite shell structure with an adaptive torque plate, the reliability was maximized to 0.9999 probability, with constraints on the mean and standard deviation of the actuation material volume ratio (percentage of actuation composite material in a ply) and the actuation strain coefficient. The reliability-based cost was minimized for an airfoil-like composite shell structure with an adaptive skin and a mean actuation material volume ratio as the design parameter. At a O.9-mean actuation material volume ratio, the minimum cost was obtained.

  11. Hybrid S2/Carbon Epoxy Composite Armours Under Blast Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolce, F.; Meo, Michele; Wright, A.; French, M.; Bernabei, M.

    2012-06-01

    Civil and military structures, such as helicopters, aircrafts, naval ships, tanks or buildings are susceptible to blast loads as terroristic attacks increases, therefore there is the need to design blast resistant structures. During an explosion the peak pressure produced by shock wave is much greater than the static collapse pressure. Metallic structures usually undergo large plastic deformations absorbing blast energy before reaching equilibrium. Due to their high specific properties, fibre-reinforced polymers are being considered for energy absorption applications in blast resistant armours. A deep insight into the relationship between explosion loads, composite architecture and deformation/fracture behaviour will offer the possibility to design structures with significantly enhanced energy absorption and blast resistance performance. This study presents the results of a numerical investigation aimed at understanding the performance of a hybrid composite (glass/carbon fibre) plate subjected to blast loads using commercial LS-DYNA software. In particular, the paper deals with numerical 3D simulations of damages caused by air blast waves generated by C4 charges on two fully clamped rectangular plates made of steel and hybrid (S2/Carbon) composite, respectively. A Multi Materials Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (MMALE) formulation was used to simulate the shock phenomenon. For the steel plates, the Johnson-Cook material model was employed. For the composite plates both in-plane and out-of-plane failure criteria were employed. In particular, a contact tiebreak formulation with a mixed mode failure criteria was employed to simulate delamination failure. As for the steel plates the results showed that excellent correlation with the experimental data for the two blast load conditions in terms of dynamic and residual deflection for two different C4 charges. For the composite plates the numerical results showed that, as expected, a wider delamination damage was observed

  12. Effect of kenaf fiber age on PLLA composite properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The age of the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) fiber dictates its pore architecture. The impact of increasing age of plant fiber on the corresponding composite can impact material selection for enhanced composite performance. Bast fibers stems of kenaf, a warm season tropical herbaceous annual plant ...

  13. Tracking accelerated aging of composites with ultrasonic attenuation measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Chinn, D.J.; Durbin, P.F.; Thomas, G.H.; Groves, S.E.

    1996-10-01

    Composite materials are steadily replacing traditional materials in many industries. For many carbon composite materials, particularly in aerospace applications, durability is a critical design parameter which must be accurately characterized. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Boeing Commercial Airplane Group have established a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) to assist in the high speed research program at Boeing. LLNL`s expertise in fiber composites, computer modeling, mechanical testing, chemical analysis and nondestructive evaluation (ND) will contribute to the study of advanced composite materials in commercial aerospace applications. Through thermo-mechanical experiments with periodic chemical analysis and nondestructive evaluation, the aging mechanisms in several continuous fiber polymer composites will be studied. Several measurement techniques are being studied for their correlation with aging. This paper describes through-transmission ultrasonic attenuation measurements of isothermally aged composite materials and their use as a tracking parameter for accelerated aging.

  14. Fiber-reinforced bioactive and bioabsorbable hybrid composites.

    PubMed

    Huttunen, Mikko; Törmälä, Pertti; Godinho, Pedro; Kellomäki, Minna

    2008-09-01

    Bioabsorbable polymeric bone fracture fixation devices have been developed and used clinically in recent decades to replace metallic implants. An advantage of bioabsorbable polymeric devices is that these materials degrade in the body and the degradation products exit via metabolic routes. Additionally, the strength properties of the bioabsorbable polymeric devices decrease as the device degrades, which promotes bone regeneration (according to Wolff's law) as the remodeling bone tissue is progressively loaded. The most extensively studied bioabsorbable polymers are poly-alpha-hydroxy acids. The major limitation of the first generation of bioabsorbable materials and devices was their relatively low mechanical properties and brittle behavior. Therefore, several reinforcing techniques have been used to improve the mechanical properties. These include polymer chain orientation techniques and the use of fiber reinforcements. The latest innovation for bioactive and fiber-reinforced bioabsorbable composites is to use both bioactive and bioresorbable ceramic and bioabsorbable polymeric fiber reinforcement in the same composite structure. This solution of using bioactive and fiber-reinforced bioabsorbable hybrid composites is examined in this study.

  15. Influence of Stacking Sequence and Notch Angle on the Charpy Impact Behavior of Hybrid Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnia, S.; Daghigh, V.; Nikbin, K.; Fereidoon, A.; Ghorbani, J.

    2016-09-01

    The low-velocity impact behavior of hybrid composite laminates was investigated. The epoxy matrix was reinforced with aramid, glass, basalt, and carbon fabrics using the hand lay-up technique. Different stacking sequences and notch angles were and notch angles considered and tested using a Charpy impact testing machine to study the hybridization and notch angle effects on the impact response of the hybrid composites. The energy absorption capability of specimens with different stacking sequences and notch angles is compared and discussed. It is shown that the hybridization can enhance the mechanical performance of composite materials.

  16. Fatigue Life Analysis of Tapered Hybrid Composite Flexbeams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Gretchen B.; Schaff, Jeffery R.; Dobyns, Alan L.

    2002-01-01

    Nonlinear-tapered flexbeam laminates from a full-size composite helicopter rotor hub flexbeam were tested under combined constant axial tension and cyclic bending loads. The two different graphite/glass hybrid configurations tested under cyclic loading failed by delamination in the tapered region. A 2-D finite element model was developed which closely approximated the flexbeam geometry, boundary conditions, and loading. The analysis results from two geometrically nonlinear finite element codes, ANSYS and ABAQUS, are presented and compared. Strain energy release rates (G) obtained from the above codes using the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT) at a resin crack location in the flexbeams are presented for both hybrid material types. These results compare well with each other and suggest that the initial delamination growth from the resin crack toward the thick region of the flexbeam is strongly mode II. The peak calculated G values were used with material characterization data to calculate fatigue life curves and compared with test data. A curve relating maximum surface strain to number of loading cycles at delamination onset compared reasonably well with the test results.

  17. Fatigue Damage Mechanisms in Advanced Hybrid Titanium Composite Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. Steven; Rhymer, Donald W.; St.Clair, Terry L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Hybrid Titanium Composite Laminates (HTCL) are a type of hybrid composite laminate with promise for high-speed aerospace applications, specifically designed for improved damage tolerance and strength at high-temperature (350 F, 177 C). However, in previous testing, HTCL demonstrated a propensity to excessive delamination at the titanium/PMC interface following titanium cracking. An advanced HTCL has been constructed with an emphasis on strengthening this interface, combining a PETI-5/IM7 PMC with Ti-15-3 foils prepared with an alkaline-perborate surface treatment. This paper discusses how the fatigue capabilities of the "advanced" HTCL compare to the first generation HTCL which was not modified for interface optimization, in both tension-tension (R = 0.1) and tension-compression (R=-0.2). The advanced HTCL under did not demonstrate a significant improvement in fatigue life, in either tension-tension or tension-compression loading. However, the advanced HTCL proved much more damage tolerant. The R = 0.1 tests revealed the advanced HTCL to increase the fatigue life following initial titanium ply damage up to 10X that of the initial HTCL at certain stress levels. The damage progression following the initial ply damage demonstrated the effect of the strengthened PMC/titanium interface. Acetate film replication of the advanced HTCL edges showed a propensity for some fibers in the adjacent PMC layers to fail at the point of titanium crack formation, suppressing delamination at the Ti/PMC interface. The inspection of failure surfaces validated these findings, revealing PMC fibers bonded to the majority of the titanium surfaces. Tension compression fatigue (R = -0.2) demonstrated the same trends in cycles between initial damage and failure, damage progression, and failure surfaces. Moreover, in possessing a higher resistance to delamination, the advanced HTCL did not exhibit buckling following initial titanium ply cracking under compression unlike the initial HTCL.

  18. [Labial aging. Composition and therapeutic principles].

    PubMed

    Simon, E; Stricker, M; Duroure, F

    2002-10-01

    Labial ageing process combining relaxation, distension and ptosis is aggravated by underlying structure modification: dental and bony. If the inferior lip moves back and collapses, the superior lip will go down and widen. The authors analyse the different ageing process components (intrinsic and extrinsic) as well as therapeutic principles.

  19. Sulfur-Containing Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Gel Compositions and Aerogels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Owen R. (Inventor); Dong, Wenting (Inventor); Deshpande, Kiranmayi (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Methods and materials are described for preparing organic-inorganic hybrid gel compositions where a sulfur-containing cross-linking agent covalently links the organic and inorganic components. The gel compositions are further dried to provide porous gel compositions and aerogels. The mechanical and thermal properties of the dried gel compositions are also disclosed.

  20. Analysis of SMA Hybrid Composite Structures using Commercial Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.; Patel, Hemant D.

    2004-01-01

    A thermomechanical model for shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators and SMA hybrid composite (SMAHC) structures has been recently implemented in the commercial finite element codes MSC.Nastran and ABAQUS. The model may be easily implemented in any code that has the capability for analysis of laminated composite structures with temperature dependent material properties. The model is also relatively easy to use and requires input of only fundamental engineering properties. A brief description of the model is presented, followed by discussion of implementation and usage in the commercial codes. Results are presented from static and dynamic analysis of SMAHC beams of two types; a beam clamped at each end and a cantilevered beam. Nonlinear static (post-buckling) and random response analyses are demonstrated for the first specimen. Static deflection (shape) control is demonstrated for the cantilevered beam. Approaches for modeling SMAHC material systems with embedded SMA in ribbon and small round wire product forms are demonstrated and compared. The results from the commercial codes are compared to those from a research code as validation of the commercial implementations; excellent correlation is achieved in all cases.

  1. Development of hybrid composite co-pultruded structural members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honickman, Hart Noah

    Fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) materials offer many advantages over conventional metallic structural materials due to their high specific strength and stiffness, long fatigue life, and resistance to environmental corrosion. However, these materials present some unique engineering challenges due to their anisotropy and heterogeneity. The connection of these composite parts to adjacent components often results in complex and counter-intuitive states of stress that can be quite difficult to model. Furthermore, since these materials are, in a sense, synthesized during the fabrication of the final part, the mechanical properties that can be expected from FRP structures are largely dependent upon highly skilled workmanship. Pultrusion is a manufacturing technique that is intended for the mass-production of long FRP parts having continuous cross-sectional geometry. Although it has not yet been optimized for the aerospace industry, with some qualification research, pultrusion may prove to offer many benefits over conventional methods of manufacturing composite aircraft parts. The present dissertation investigates the possibility of co-pultruding FRP parts with embedded non-FRP materials (such as metallic materials), which could serve as integral hard points to facilitate serviceable mechanical connections to adjacent parts. It is shown that these hybrid co-pultruded members offer substantial light-weighting benefits over conventional metallic components, while retaining the ability to employ serviceable mechanical fasteners. Simple unidimensional beam models are of great value when validating the results of complex finite element analyses of aircraft wing-stringers, or other similar structural members. It is demonstrated in the present dissertation that classical unidimensional beam-type analytical models often yield unconservative predictions (over-predictions) of stiffness and elastic stability when used for the analyses of FRP beams and columns. In fact, specific

  2. Mechanical Properties of Sisal/Coir Fiber Reinforced Hybrid Composites Fabricated by Cold Pressing Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akash; Sreenivasa Rao, K. V.; Venkatesha Gupta, N. S.; kumar, D. S. Arun

    2016-09-01

    Bio-composites have less density and are environmental friendly materials that require less energy during production and subsequent machining. This paper reports the mechanical and water absorption properties of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treated sisal and coir fiber reinforced epoxy resin thermo set hybrid composites. The hybrid composites were prepared by traditional cold pressing method at room temperature with applied pressure of 410.4 kg/cm2 for 3 hours pressurization time. The mechanical properties were characterized according to ASTM standards. Hybrid composites with 40wt% of sisal and coir fiber were found to possess higher tensile strength of 48.2MPa and flexural strength of 76.68 MPa among the fabricated hybrid composite specimens. Absorption of water increases with increasing fiber volume. The experimental result also show that the sisal and coir fibers are promising reinforcement for use in low cost bio-composites which have high strength to weight ratio.

  3. Three-dimensional finite element simulation of intermingled-fiber hybrid composite behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mital, Subodh K.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1992-01-01

    Three-dimensional finite element methods and the intraply hybrid micromechanics equations are used to predict composite properties for a unidirectional graphite-epoxy primary composite with S-glass fibers used as hybridizing fibers. The micromechanics equations are embedded in a computer code ICAN (Integrated Composites Analyzer). The three-dimensional finite element model consists of three-by-three unit cell array, with a total fiber volume ratio of 0.54. There is a good agreement between the composite properties and microstresses obtained from both methods. The results indicate that the finite element methods and micromechanics equations can be used to obtain the properties of intermingled hybrid composites needed for analysis/design of hybrid composite structures.

  4. INHYD: Computer code for intraply hybrid composite design. A users manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1983-01-01

    A computer program (INHYD) was developed for intraply hybrid composite design. A users manual for INHYD is presented. In INHYD embodies several composite micromechanics theories, intraply hybrid composite theories, and an integrated hygrothermomechanical theory. The INHYD can be run in both interactive and batch modes. It has considerable flexibility and capability, which the user can exercise through several options. These options are demonstrated through appropriate INHYD runs in the manual.

  5. Ageing characteristics of aluminium alloy aluminosilicate discontinuous fiber reinforced composites

    SciTech Connect

    Nath, D.; Singh, V.

    1999-03-05

    Development of continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites is aimed at providing high specific strength and stiffness needed for aerospace and some critical high temperature structural applications. Considerable efforts have been made, during the last decade, to improve the strength of age-hardening aluminium alloy matrix composites by suitable heat treatment. It has also been well established that age-hardenable aluminium alloy composites show accelerated ageing behavior because of enhanced dislocation density at the fiber/matrix interface resulting from thermal expansion mismatch between ceramic fiber and the metal matrix. The accelerated ageing of aluminium alloy composites either from dislocation density or the residual stress, as a result of thermal expansion mismatch is dependent on the size of whisker and particulate. Investigations have also been made on the effect of volume fraction of particulate on the ageing behavior of aluminium alloys. The present investigation is concerned with characterization of age-hardening behavior of an Al-Si-Cu-Mg(AA 336) alloy alumino-silicate discontinuous fiber-reinforced composites (referred to as aluminium MMCs in the present text) being developed for automotive pistons. An effort is made to study the effect of volume fraction of the reinforcement on age-hardening behavior of this composite.

  6. Monotonic and fatigue properties of kenaf /glass hybrid composites under fully reversed cyclic loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharba, M. J.; Leman, Z.; Sultan, M. T. H.; Ishak, M. R.; Hanim, M. A. A.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of hybridization of kenaf-glass fibers reinforced unsaturated polyester on fatigue life. Three types of composites were fabricated using hands lay-up method, namely, kenaf, glass, and hybrid composites with 30% of weight fraction, the hybrid was mixed with a ratio of kenaf: glass 10:20. Monotonic tests were achieved (Tensile and compression) to determine the fatigue stress levels. Fully reversed fatigue loading was conducted with a stress ratio of -1 and stress levels 55-85% of the ultimate static stresses, all tests were conducted at 10 Hz of frequency. The results proof a positive hybrid composite; also agree with the rule of mixture that can predict the final composite properties. Moreover, it's been observed an improvement in overall mechanical properties of hybrid compared to individual ones.

  7. Flexural strength and microhardness of anterior composites after accelerated aging

    PubMed Central

    Pala, Kanşad; Tuncer, Safa; Demirci, Mustafa; Öznurhan, Fatih; Serim, Merve

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the flexural strength and microhardness of three different anterior composites after 10 000 thermocycles. Material and Methods The mechanical properties of a nano-fill composite (Filtek Ultimate Universal Restorative (FUR) (Enamel)), a nano-hybrid composite (Clearfil Majesty ES2 (ES2) (Enamel)), and a micro-hybrid composite (G Aenial Anterior (GAA)) were investigated in this study. For the microhardness test, 8-mm diameter and 2-mm thickness composite discs were used (n = 10), and for the flexural strength test, 25x2x2 mm bar-shaped specimens were prepared (n = 13). The specimens were tested at 24 h and after 10 000 thermocycles. Data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and the post-hoc Tukey test (p < .05). Correlations between hardness and flexural strength were calculated using Pearson’s correlation analysis. Results There was a significant difference in the microhardness values of the materials (p < .05). FUR exhibited significantly higher microhardness than ES2 and GAA. However, the flexural strength of three composites was statistically similar at 24 h (p > .05). Pearson correlation analysis revealed that there was a negative relationship between the mean hardness and flexural strength values (correlation coefficient = -0.367, p = .043). After 10 000 thermocycles, microhardness values of each material and flexural strength of ES2 and GAA decreased significantly according to 24 h. Conclusions The nano-fill composite FUR displayed significantly higher microhardness values. However, each resin composite was statistically similar for flexural strength values. Ten thousand thermocycles significantly affected microhardness and flexural strength. Key words:Flexural strength, microhardness, anterior composites. PMID:28298986

  8. Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPV) Materials Aging Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the issues concerning the aging of the materials in a Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPV). The basic composition of the COPV is a Boss, a composite overwrap, and a metallic liner. The lifetime of a COPV is affected by the age of the overwrap, the cyclic fatigue of the metallic liner, and stress rupture life, a sudden and catastrophic failure of the overwrap while holding at a stress level below the ultimate strength for an extended time. There is information about the coupon tests that were performed, and a test on a flight COPV.

  9. Fatigue Life Methodology for Tapered Hybrid Composite Flexbeams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    urri, Gretchen B.; Schaff, Jeffery R.

    2006-01-01

    Nonlinear-tapered flexbeam specimens from a full-size composite helicopter rotor hub flexbeam were tested under combined constant axial tension and cyclic bending loads. Two different graphite/glass hybrid configurations tested under cyclic loading failed by delamination in the tapered region. A 2-D finite element model was developed which closely approximated the flexbeam geometry, boundary conditions, and loading. The analysis results from two geometrically nonlinear finite element codes, ANSYS and ABAQUS, are presented and compared. Strain energy release rates (G) associated with simulated delamination growth in the flexbeams are presented from both codes. These results compare well with each other and suggest that the initial delamination growth from the tip of the ply-drop toward the thick region of the flexbeam is strongly mode II. The peak calculated G values were used with material characterization data to calculate fatigue life curves for comparison with test data. A curve relating maximum surface strain to number of loading cycles at delamination onset compared well with the test results.

  10. Evaluation of polymerization of light-curing hybrid composite resins.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yong Hoon; Jeon, Geon-Hoo; Jang, Chang-Min; Seol, Hyo-Joung; Kim, Hyung-Il

    2006-01-01

    The quality of polymerization of hybrid composite resins was tested to explore their feasibility for dental restorations. For this, microhardness, polymerization shrinkage, the coefficient of thermal expansion, and surface morphology were evaluated during or after light curing in conjunction with the thermocycling process. Each product had different microhardness values. The repeated thermal stimulus has no specific effect on the change of microhardness. The difference of microhardness between the thermocycled specimens and specimens stored only in distilled water was minor. The measured microhardness had a linear correlation with the filler content (vol %) of the tested specimens. The polymerization shrinkage had rapidly increased only during the light curing, and then it reached a plateau. Among the specimens, Z250 showed the least amount of shrinkage for all tested thicknesses. Regardless of the product, the shrinkage values increased as the specimens became thick. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the control specimens ranged between 42 and 55 microm/degrees C in the temperature range of 30-80 degrees C. The coefficient showed an inverse correlation with the filler content. Through the thermocycling process, Palfique Estelite showed randomly propagating cracks on the surface. Larger fillers showed a more apparent detachment than the smaller fillers.

  11. Aging of distribution composite insulators under environmental and electrical stresses

    SciTech Connect

    de Oliveira, S.M. ); de Tourreil, C.H

    1990-04-01

    Seven types of commercially available distribution composite insulators with sheds made of EPR or epoxy resin have been subjected to various functional aging tests recommended by the IEC or the IEEE. The influence of UV radiation on the aging of the shed materials was also evaluated. The usefulness of the various aging and diagnostic tests is discussed and a modification of the recommended test procedures is proposed in order to improve the evaluation of the long term performance of these insulators.

  12. Longitudinal changes in body composition associated with healthy ageing: men, aged 20-96 years.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Andrew S; Janssen, Ian; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S; Blair, Steven N

    2012-04-01

    Obesity and sarcopenia are health problems associated with ageing. The present study modelled the longitudinal changes in body composition of healthy men, aged from 20 to 96 years, and evaluated the fidelity of BMI to identify age-dependent changes in fat mass and fat-free mass. The data from 7265 men with multiple body composition determinations (total observations 38,328) were used to model the age-related changes in body mass, fat mass, fat-free mass, BMI and percentage of body fat. Changes in fat mass and fat-free mass were used to evaluate the fidelity of BMI and to detect body composition changes with ageing. Linear mixed regression models showed that all trajectories of body composition with healthy ageing were quadratic. Fat mass, BMI and percentage of body fat increased from age 20 years and levelled off at approximately 80 years. Fat-free mass increased slightly from age 20 to 47 years and then declined at a non-linear rate with ageing. Levels of aerobic exercise had a positive influence on fat mass and a slight negative effect on fat-free mass. BMI and percentage of body fat were sensitive in detecting the increase in fat mass that occurred with healthy ageing, but failed to identify the loss of fat-free mass that started at age 47 years.

  13. Mechanical Properties of Graphene Nanoplatelet Carbon Fiber Epoxy Hybrid Composites: Multiscale Modeling and Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadden, Cameron M.; Klimek-McDonald, Danielle R.; Pineda, Evan J.; King, Julie A.; Reichanadter, Alex M.; Miskioglu, Ibrahim; Gowtham, S.; Odegard, Gregory M.

    2015-01-01

    Because of the relatively high specific mechanical properties of carbon fiber/epoxy composite materials, they are often used as structural components in aerospace applications. Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) can be added to the epoxy matrix to improve the overall mechanical properties of the composite. The resulting GNP/carbon fiber/epoxy hybrid composites have been studied using multiscale modeling to determine the influence of GNP volume fraction, epoxy crosslink density, and GNP dispersion on the mechanical performance. The hierarchical multiscale modeling approach developed herein includes Molecular Dynamics (MD) and micromechanical modeling, and it is validated with experimental testing of the same hybrid composite material system. The results indicate that the multiscale modeling approach is accurate and provides physical insight into the composite mechanical behavior. Also, the results quantify the substantial impact of GNP volume fraction and dispersion on the transverse mechanical properties of the hybrid composite, while the effect on the axial properties is shown to be insignificant.

  14. Mechanical behavior of glass fiber polyester hybrid composite filled with natural fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, G.; Gupta, A.; Dhanola, A.; Raturi, A.

    2016-09-01

    Now-a-days, the natural fibers and fillers from renewable natural resources offer the potential to act as a reinforcing material for polymer composite material alternative to the use of synthetic fiber like as; glass, carbon and other man-made fibers. Among various natural fibers and fillers like banana, wheat straw, rice husk, wood powder, sisal, jute, hemp etc. are the most widely used natural fibers and fillers due to its advantages like easy availability, low density, low production cost and reasonable physical and mechanical properties This research work presents the effect of natural fillers loading with 5%, 10% and 15% on mechanical behavior of polyester based hybrid composites. The result of test depicted that hybrid composite has far better properties than single fibre glass reinforced composite under impact and flexural loads. However it is found that the hybrid composite have better strength as compared to single glass fibre composites.

  15. Mechanical Properties of Graphene Nanoplatelet/Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Hybrid Composites: Multiscale Modeling and Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadden, C. M.; Klimek-McDonald, D. R.; Pineda, E. J.; King, J. A.; Reichanadter, A. M.; Miskioglu, I.; Gowtham, S.; Odegard, G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Because of the relatively high specific mechanical properties of carbon fiber/epoxy composite materials, they are often used as structural components in aerospace applications. Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) can be added to the epoxy matrix to improve the overall mechanical properties of the composite. The resulting GNP/carbon fiber/epoxy hybrid composites have been studied using multiscale modeling to determine the influence of GNP volume fraction, epoxy crosslink density, and GNP dispersion on the mechanical performance. The hierarchical multiscale modeling approach developed herein includes Molecular Dynamics (MD) and micromechanical modeling, and it is validated with experimental testing of the same hybrid composite material system. The results indicate that the multiscale modeling approach is accurate and provides physical insight into the composite mechanical behavior. Also, the results quantify the substantial impact of GNP volume fraction and dispersion on the transverse mechanical properties of the hybrid composite while the effect on the axial properties is shown to be insignificant.

  16. Mechanical Properties of Graphene Nanoplatelet/Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Hybrid Composites: Multiscale Modeling and Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadden, C. M.; Klimek-McDonald, D. R.; Pineda, E. J.; King, J. A.; Reichanadter, A. M.; Miskioglu, I.; Gowtham, S.; Odegard, G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Because of the relatively high specific mechanical properties of carbon fiber/epoxy composite materials, they are often used as structural components in aerospace applications. Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) can be added to the epoxy matrix to improve the overall mechanical properties of the composite. The resulting GNP/carbon fiber/epoxy hybrid composites have been studied using multiscale modeling to determine the influence of GNP volume fraction, epoxy crosslink density, and GNP dispersion on the mechanical performance. The hierarchical multiscale modeling approach developed herein includes Molecular Dynamics (MD) and micromechanical modeling, and it is validated with experimental testing of the same hybrid composite material system. The results indicate that the multiscale modeling approach is accurate and provides physical insight into the composite mechanical behavior. Also, the results quantify the substantial impact of GNP volume fraction and dispersion on the transverse mechanical properties of the hybrid composite, while the effect on the axial properties is shown to be insignificant.

  17. Hybrid Polyvinyl Alcohol and Cellulose Fiber Pulp Instead of Asbestos Fibers in Cement-Based Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokrieh, M. M.; Mahmoudi, A.; Shadkam, H. R.

    2015-05-01

    The Taguchi method was used to determine the optimum content of a four-parameters cellulose fiber pulp, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers, a silica fume, and bentonite for cement-based composite sheets. Then cement composite sheets from the hybrid of PVA and the cellulose fiber pulp were manufactured, and their moduli of rapture were determined experimentally. The result obtained showed that cement composites with a hybrid of PVA and cellulose fiber pulp had a higher flexural strength than cellulose-fiber- reinforced cement ones, but this strength was rather similar to that of asbestos-fiber-reinforced cement composites. Also, using the results of flexural tests and an analytical method, the tensile and compressive moduli of the hybrid of PVA and cement sheet were calculated. The hybrid of PVA and cellulose fiber pulp is proposed as an appropriate alternative for substituting asbestos in the Hatschek process.

  18. Aging behavior and life prediction of graphite composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar; Raasch, David

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents experimental data from two independent tests, designed to determine the long-term reliability of composite materials. The technique of accelerated aging at elevated temperatures is employed. In the first set, graphite fiber, epoxy composites in five ply layups are manufactured and tested in the standard short-beam shear mode. In the second set, Nomex honeycomb, graphite fiber/epoxy composite face and rear sheet sandwich coupons are tested. After satisfying simple consistency checks, data interpretation is attempted within the framework of an Arrhenius degradation model. The elevated temperature is assumed to influence the degradation according to this temperature-dependent rate law. From these tests on five-ply composites and honeycomb sandwiches, it is concluded that aging is not a serious problem.

  19. Biomechanical characteristics of polymeric UHMWPE composites with hybrid matrix and dispersed fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panin, Sergey; Kornienko, Lyudmila; Shilko, Sergey; Thuc, Nguyen Xuan; Korchagin, Mikhail; Chaikina, Marina

    2015-11-01

    In order to develop artificial joint implants some biomechanical properties of composites with UHMWPE and hybrid (polymer-polymeric) "UHMWPE+PTFE" matrix with dispersed fillers were studied. A comparative analysis of the effectiveness of adding hydroxyapatite micron- and nanopowders as a biocompatible filler was carried out. It was shown that under dry sliding friction the wear rate of nanocomposites with the hybrid matrix is lower as compared with composites with the non-hybrid one. Mechanical activation of components further enhances the durability of nano- and microcomposites to almost double it without any significant reduction in the strength characteristics.

  20. Influence of silanization and filler fraction on aged dental composites.

    PubMed

    Lin, C T; Lee, S Y; Keh, E S; Dong, D R; Huang, H M; Shih, Y H

    2000-11-01

    The effect of silanization and filler fraction on the mechanical properties of aged dental composites was investigated. Experimental composites (75/25 Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin reinforced with 0, 12.6, 30.0, and 56.5 vol% 8 microm silanized/unsilanized BaSiO6) were fabricated into 4.7 mm diameter x 2.2 mm thick discs and 3.5 mm diameter x 7.3 mm thick discs for diametral tensile and compressive tests, respectively. The effect of immersion in 75% ethanol at 37 degrees C for 0-30 days on the diametral tensile strength (DTS) and compressive strength (CS) of the samples was evaluated and analysed by ANOVA and Tukey LSD test. The fracture interface between filler and resin matrix was then examined by scanning electron microscope. Results and subsequent statistical evidence from DTS (18.6+/-7.6 MPa, silanized versus 11.7+/-2.6 MPa, unsilanized) and CS (85.1+/-29.7 MPa, silanized versus 56.0+/-11.3 MPa, unsilanized) strongly implies that silanization may greatly enhance the mechanical properties of the resin composites. Furthermore, it also shows that both DTS and CS increased proportionally as the filler fraction of the composites increased. However, in the unsilanized groups, DTS decreased (up to 40%) as the filler fraction increased, and CS showed no relevance to the filler fraction at all. As for the influence of aging, it was found that both DTS and CS showed a significant decrease after immersion in 75% ethanol, and silanization heavily correlated with the filler fraction of aged-resin composites. Microscopic examination of the fractured samples showed that failure primarily occurred within the resin matrix per se for silanized composites and adjacent to the filler particles for unsilanized composites. All the evidence points to the conclusion that mechanical properties of aged-resin composites can be greatly influenced by silanization and the filler fraction.

  1. Optimization of Wear Behavior of Magnesium Alloy AZ91 Hybrid Composites Using Taguchi Experimental Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girish, B. M.; Satish, B. M.; Sarapure, Sadanand; Basawaraj

    2016-06-01

    In the present paper, the statistical investigation on wear behavior of magnesium alloy (AZ91) hybrid metal matrix composites using Taguchi technique has been reported. The composites were reinforced with SiC and graphite particles of average size 37 μm. The specimens were processed by stir casting route. Dry sliding wear of the hybrid composites were tested on a pin-on-disk tribometer under dry conditions at different normal loads (20, 40, and 60 N), sliding speeds (1.047, 1.57, and 2.09 m/s), and composition (1, 2, and 3 wt pct of each of SiC and graphite). The design of experiments approach using Taguchi technique was employed to statistically analyze the wear behavior of hybrid composites. Signal-to-noise ratio and analysis of variance were used to investigate the influence of the parameters on the wear rate.

  2. Hybrid composites - State-of-the-art review: Analysis, design, application and fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Lark, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    The review covers hybrid composites that consist of two or more different types of fibers (or fiber composites) in a frequently repeated pattern in a laminate. The fibers considered are boron, graphite, glass, and Kevlar; the resins considered include mostly structural epoxies, with some utilization of polyimides and thermoplastics. The review shows that considerable data have been generated for the tensile strength properties, as well as tensile and thermal fatigue, of interply hybrids, and for the impact resistance of interply and intraply hybrids. The rule of mixtures appears to be adequate for predicting longitudinal and transverse mechanical properties of unidirectional interply hybrids, and linear laminate theory appears to be adequate for predicting the elastic response of hybrids.

  3. Long-term ageing and materials degradation of hybrid mica compressive seals for solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2009-06-15

    Hybrid phlogopite mica seals with silver interlayers were evaluated in long term isothermal ageing tests in a dual environment consisting of dilute hydrogen vs. air at 800 degrees C. High-temperature leak tests with helium showed very stable leakage of 0.01-0.02 sccm/cm for 28366 hrs under a low applied compressive stress of 82 kPa (12 psi). Post-mortem SEM and EDS analyses of the mica showed minimum degradation in terms of changes in microstructure and chemical composition, although there appeared to be some Ag migration and segregation at interstices between mica flakes. Fluorine was also found to be released from mica. Overall, the low, constant leakage through the hybrid mica/Ag seals clearly demonstrated a very promising candidate for SOFC sealing.

  4. Media composition influences yeast one- and two-hybrid results.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Merchant, Zabeena; Hsiao, Hao-Ching; Gonzalez, Kim L; Matthews, Kathleen S; Bondos, Sarah E

    2011-08-15

    Although yeast two-hybrid experiments are commonly used to identify protein interactions, the frequent occurrence of false negatives and false positives hampers data interpretation. Using both yeast one-hybrid and two-hybrid experiments, we have identified potential sources of these problems: the media preparation protocol and the source of the yeast nitrogen base may not only impact signal range but also effect whether a result appears positive or negative. While altering media preparation may optimize signal differences for individual experiments, media preparation must be reported in detail to replicate studies and accurately compare results from different experiments.

  5. Vibration and Operational Characteristics of a Composite-Steel (Hybrid) Gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; LaBerge, Kelsen E.; DeLuca, Samuel; Pelagalli, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid gears have been tested consisting of metallic gear teeth and shafting connected by composite web. Both free vibration and dynamic operation tests were completed at the NASA Glenn Spur Gear Fatigue Test Facility, comparing these hybrid gears to their steel counterparts. The free vibration tests indicated that the natural frequency of the hybrid gear was approximately 800 Hz lower than the steel test gear. The dynamic vibration tests were conducted at five different rotational speeds and three levels of torque in a four square test configuration. The hybrid gears were tested both as fabricated (machined, composite layup, then composite cure) and after regrinding the gear teeth to the required aerospace tolerance. The dynamic vibration tests indicated that the level of vibration for either type of gearing was sensitive to the level of load and rotational speed.

  6. Nuclear and cytoplasmic genome composition of Solanum bulbocastanum (+) S. tuberosum somatic hybrids.

    PubMed

    Iovene, Marina; Savarese, Salvatore; Cardi, Teodoro; Frusciante, Luigi; Scotti, Nunzia; Simon, Philipp W; Carputo, Domenico

    2007-05-01

    Somatic hybrids between the wild incongruent species Solanum bulbocastanum (2n = 2x = 24) and S. tuberosum haploids (2n = 2x = 24) have been characterized for their nuclear and cytoplasmic genome composition. Cytologic observations revealed the recovery of 8 (near-)tetraploid and 3 hexaploid somatic hybrids. Multicolor genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analysis was carried out to study the genomic dosage of the parental species in 5 somatic hybrids with different ploidy. The GISH procedure used was effective in discriminating parental genomes in the hybrids; most chromosomes were unambiguously colored. Two (near-)tetraploid somatic hybrids showed the expected 2:2 cultivated-to-wild genomic dosage; 2 hexaploids revealed a 4:2 cultivated-to-wild genomic dosage, and 1 hexaploid had a 2:4 cultivated-to-wild genomic dosage. Characterization of hybrid cytoplasmic genomes was performed using gene-specific primers that detected polymorphisms between the fusion parents in the intergenic regions. The analysis showed that most of the somatic hybrids inherited the plastidial and mitochondrial DNA of the cultivated parent. A few hybrids, with a rearranged mitochondrial genome (showing fragments derived from both parents), were also identified. These results confirmed the potential of somatic hybridization in producing new variability for genetic studies and breeding.

  7. Piezoelectric properties of the new generation active matrix hybrid (micro-nano) composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parali, Levent; Şabikoğlu, İsrafil; Kurbanov, Mirza A.

    2014-11-01

    A hybrid piezoelectric composite structure is obtained by addition of nano-sized BaTiO3, SiO2 to the micro-sized PZT and polymers composition. Although the PZT material itself has excellent piezoelectric properties, PZT-based composite variety is limited. Piezoelectric properties of PZT materials can be varied with an acceptor or a donor added to the material. In addition, varieties of PZT-based sensors can be increased with doping polymers which have physical-mechanical, electrophysical, thermophysical and photoelectrical properties. The active matrix hybrid structure occurs when bringing together the unique piezoelectric properties of micro-sized PZT with electron trapping properties of nano-sized insulators (BaTiO3 or SiO2), and their piezoelectric, mechanic and electromechanic properties significantly change. In this study, the relationship between the piezoelectric constant and the coupling factor values of microstructure (PZT-PVDF) and the hybrid structure (PZT-PVDF-BaTiO3) composite are compared. The d33 value and the coupling factor of the hybrid structure have shown an average of 54 and 62% increase according to microstructure composite, respectively. In addition, the d33 value and the coupling factor of the hybrid structure (PZT-HDPE-SiO2) have exhibited about 68 and 52% increase according to microstructure composite (PZT-HDPE), respectively.

  8. Development of flax/carbon fibre hybrid composites for enhanced properties.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, H N; Zhang, Z Y; Guthrie, R; Macmullen, J; Bennett, N

    2013-07-01

    Uni-directional (UD) and cross-ply (CP) cellulosic flax fibre epoxy composites were produced by hybridising UD carbon fibre prepreg onto flax system. A compression moulding technique was used to produce both flax and carbon/flax hybridised laminates. The effect of carbon fibre hybridisation on the water absorption behaviour, thermal and mechanical properties of both UD and CP flax specimens were investigated by means of water absorption, tensile, thermogravemetric analysis and flexural testing. The results showed that water absorption behaviour of hybrid samples are markedly improved compared to those without hybridisation. Similarly, the thermal stability, tensile and flexural properties of the hybrid composites are significantly improved in comparison with UD and CP flax composites without hybridisation. The experimental results suggest that cellulosic flax fibre reinforcement contributed to improve the toughness properties by promoting crack propagation whereas the carbon fibre contributed in improving thermal stability, water absorption behaviour and the overall strength and the stiffness of the hybrid composites.

  9. Repairability of aged resin composites mediated by different restorative systems.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Cleidiel Aa; Mauro, Sílvio J; de Campos, Renata A; Dos Santos, Paulo H; Machado, Lucas S; Fagundes, Ticiane C

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of resin composite repairs with and without aging of the surface to be repaired, using different adhesive systems and resin composites. Ninety specimens were prepared: 10 for the Control Group (GC - without repair); 40 for Group I (GI - repairs after 7 days) and 40 for Group II (GII - repairs after 180 days). Groups I and II were divided into 4 subgroups of 10 specimens each, according to the adhesive system and composite resin used: A) Adper Scotch Bond Multipurpose + Filtek Z350 XT; B) Adper Single Bond Plus + Filtek Z350 XT; C) Adper Scotch Bond Multipurpose + Esthet-X; D) Adper Single Bond Plus + Esthet-X. The specimens were tested for shear strength in a universal testing machine. The results were analyzed by two-factor one-way ANOVA and Fisher's post hoc tests (alpha=0.05). The control group had better performance than the other groups. There was no significant difference when comparing different adhesive systems and composite resins. Repairs performed at 7 days were better than those performed at 180 days. The composite repairs decreased the mechanical strength of the restoration. Aging of the resin substrate may decrease repair bond strength over time, regardless of the type of adhesive systems and resin composites used.

  10. Performance Investigation of a Full-Scale Hybrid Composite Bull Gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBerge, Kelsen; Handschuh, Robert; Roberts, Gary; Thorp, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid composite gears have been investigated as a weight saving technology for rotorcraft transmissions. These gears differ from conventional steel gears in that the structural material between the shaft interface and the gear rim is replaced with a lightweight carbon fiber composite. The work discussed here is an extension of previous coupon level hybrid gear tests to a full-scale bull gear. The NASA Glenn Research Center High-Speed Helical Gear Rig was modified for this program allowing several hybrid gear web configurations to be tested while utilizing the same gear rim. Testing was performed on both a baseline (steel) web configuration and a hybrid (steel-composite)configuration. Vibration, orbit and temperature data were recorded and compared between configurations. Vibration levels did not differ greatly between the hybrid and steel configurations, nor did temperature differential between inlet and outlet. While orbit shape displayed differences between the hybrid and baseline configurations, the general overall amplitude was comparable. The hybrid configuration discussed here successfully ran at 3300 hp(2,460 kW), however, progressive growth of the orbit while running at this test condition discontinued the test. Researchers continue to search for the cause of this orbit shift.

  11. Performance Investigation of a Full-Scale Hybrid Composite Bull Gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laberge, Kelsen E.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Roberts, Gary; Thorp, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid composite gears have been investigated as a weight saving technology for rotorcraft transmissions. These gears differ from conventional steel gears in that the structural material between the shaft interface and the gear rim is replaced with a lightweight carbon fiber composite. The work discussed here is an extension of previous coupon level hybrid gear tests to a full-scale bull gear. The NASA Glenn Research Center High-Speed Helical Gear Rig was modified for this program, allowing several hybrid gear web configurations to be tested while utilizing the same gear rim. Testing was performed on both a baseline (steel) web configuration and a hybrid (steel-composite) configuration. Vibration, orbit and temperature data were recorded and compared between configurations. Vibration levels did not differ greatly between the hybrid and steel configurations, nor did temperature differential between inlet and outlet. While orbit shape displayed differences between the hybrid and baseline configurations, the general overall amplitude was comparable. The hybrid configuration discussed here successfully ran at 3300 hp (2,460 kW), however, progressive growth of the orbit while running at this test condition discontinued the test. Further studies are planned to determine the cause of this behavior.

  12. Finite Element Analysis of Adaptive-Stiffening and Shape-Control SMA Hybrid Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Xiu-Jie; Turner, Travis L.; Burton, Deborah; Brinson, L. Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The usage of shape memory materials has extended rapidly to many fields, including medical devices, actuators, composites, structures and MEMS devices. For these various applications, shape memory alloys (SMAs) are available in various forms: bulk, wire, ribbon, thin film, and porous. In this work, the focus is on SMA hybrid composites with adaptive-stiffening or morphing functions. These composites are created by using SMA ribbons or wires embedded in a polymeric based composite panel/beam. Adaptive stiffening or morphing is activated via selective resistance heating or uniform thermal loads. To simulate the thermomechanical behavior of these composites, a SMA model was implemented using ABAQUS user element interface and finite element simulations of the systems were studied. Several examples are presented which show that the implemented model can be a very useful design and simulation tool for SMA hybrid composites.

  13. Evaluation of Relationships between Growth Rate, Tree Size, Lignocellulose Composition, and Enzymatic Saccharification in Interspecific Corymbia Hybrids and Parental Taxa

    PubMed Central

    Healey, Adam L.; Lee, David J.; Lupoi, Jason S.; Papa, Gabriella; Guenther, Joel M.; Corno, Luca; Adani, Fabrizio; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A.; Henry, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    In order for a lignocellulosic bioenergy feedstock to be considered sustainable, it must possess a high rate of growth to supply biomass for conversion. Despite the desirability of a fast growth rate for industrial application, it is unclear what effect growth rate has on biomass composition or saccharification. We characterized Klason lignin, glucan, and xylan content with response to growth in Corymbia interspecific F1 hybrid families (HF) and parental species Corymbia torelliana and C. citriodora subspecies variegata and measured the effects on enzymatic hydrolysis from hydrothermally pretreated biomass. Analysis of biomass composition within Corymbia populations found similar amounts of Klason lignin content (19.7–21.3%) among parental and hybrid populations, whereas glucan content was clearly distinguished within C. citriodora subspecies variegata (52%) and HF148 (60%) as compared to other populations (28–38%). Multiple linear regression indicates that biomass composition is significantly impacted by tree size measured at the same age, with Klason lignin content increasing with diameter breast height (DBH) (+0.12% per cm DBH increase), and glucan and xylan typically decreasing per DBH cm increase (-0.7 and -0.3%, respectively). Polysaccharide content within C. citriodora subspecies variegata and HF-148 were not significantly affected by tree size. High-throughput enzymatic saccharification of hydrothermally pretreated biomass found significant differences among Corymbia populations for total glucose production from biomass, with parental Corymbia torelliana and hybrids HF-148 and HF-51 generating the highest amounts of glucose (~180 mg/g biomass, respectively), with HF-51 undergoing the most efficient glucan-to-glucose conversion (74%). Based on growth rate, biomass composition, and further optimization of enzymatic saccharification yield, high production Corymbia hybrid trees are potentially suitable for fast-rotation bioenergy or biomaterial production

  14. Effect of natural fibers and bio-resins on mechanical properties in hybrid and non-hybrid composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragassa, Cristiano

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present experimental investigation was to perform a comparative analysis concerning the influence on mechanical properties of natural fibers and/or bio-resins in reinforced thermoset composites. Flax and basalt fibers were selected as natural reinforcements, as single constituents or in hybrid combination. Glass synthetic fibers were used for comparison. Eco-friendly matrixes, both epoxy or vinylester, were considered and compared with composites based on traditional resins. Samples were fabricated by hand lay-up and resin infusion techniques. Cures were accelerated and controlled by applying heat and pressure in autoclave. Tensile, flexural and impact tests were carried out according to ASTM standards.

  15. Photo-crosslinkable hybrid material with improved aging stability for integrated optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusevic, Maja; Maaninen, Arto; Hiltunen, Jussi; Hiltunen, Marianne; Tuominen, Jarkko; Karioja, Pentti

    2004-08-01

    In the last decade, the processing of the waveguide structures on various substrates under mild conditions has been an appealing aim. The lithographic patterning of organic-inorganic hybrid materials processed by means of sol-gel technology allows the production of waveguides and other optical components. We describe the synthesis of a new, photo-patternable, organically modified material with an improved ageing stability. Synthesis step does not involve widely used zirconia precursors, but it retains the same possibility of altering the refractive index by tailoring of the material composition. Refractive index values varied from 1.4700 to 1.5100. Measured birefringence values meet the requirements of most integrated planar optic applications. The synthesized material is compatible with silicon, glass and plastic substrates. Material was analyzed using 29Si NMR techniques. The processed slab waveguides were characterized by using the prism coupling technique at various wavelengths. The attenuation in the waveguide was determined by the cut-back method, and it was found to be less than 0.5dB/cm at the wavelength of 830 nm. The morphology of the microstructures was measured by using the interferometer equipment. Slab waveguides rms values were in order of only 2 nm.

  16. Hybrid Gear Preliminary Results-Application of Composites to Dynamic Mechanical Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Roberts Gary D.; Sinnamon, R.; Stringer, David B.; Dykas, Brian D.; Kohlman, Lee W.

    2012-01-01

    Composite spur gears were fabricated and then tested at NASA Glenn Research Center. The composite material served as the web of the gear between the gear teeth and a metallic hub for mounting to the torque-applying shaft. The composite web was bonded only to the inner and outer hexagonal features that were machined from an initially all-metallic aerospace quality spur gear. The Hybrid Gear was tested against an all-steel gear and against a mating Hybrid Gear. As a result of the composite to metal fabrication process used, the concentricity of the gears were reduced from their initial high-precision value. Regardless of the concentricity error, the hybrid gears operated successfully for over 300 million cycles at 10000 rpm and 490 in.*lbs torque. Although the design was not optimized for weight, the composite gears were found to be 20% lighter than the all-steel gears. Free vibration modes and vibration/noise tests were also conduct to compare the vibration and damping characteristic of the Hybrid Gear to all-steel gears. The initial results indicate that this type of hybrid design may have a dramatic effect on drive system weight without sacrificing strength.

  17. Finite element analysis when orthogonal cutting of hybrid composite CFRP/Ti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jinyang; El Mansori, Mohamed

    2015-07-01

    Hybrid composite, especially CFRP/Ti stack, is usually considered as an innovative structural configuration for manufacturing the key load-bearing components in modern aerospace industry. This paper originally proposed an FE model to simulate the total chip formation process dominated the hybrid cutting operation. The hybrid composite model was established based on three physical constituents, i.e., Ti constituent, interface and CFRP constituent. Different constitutive models and damage criteria were introduced to replicate the interrelated cutting behaviour of the stack material. The CFRP/Ti interface was modelled as a third phase through the concept of cohesive zone (CZ). Particular attention was made on the comparative studies of the influence of different cutting-sequence strategies on the machining responses induced in hybrid stack cutting. The numerical results emphasized the pivotal role of cutting-sequence strategy on the various machining induced responses including cutting-force generation, machined surface quality and induced interface damage.

  18. Lamination residual stresses in hybrid composites, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, I. M.; Liber, T.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study lamination residual stresses for various material and loading parameters. The effects of hybridization on residual stresses and residual properties after thermal cycling under load were determined in angle-ply graphite/Kevlar/epoxy and graphite/S-glass/epoxy laminates. Residual strains in the graphite plies are not appreciably affected by the type and number of hybridizing plies. Computed residual stresses at room temperature in the S-glass plies reach values up to seventy-five percent of the transverse strength of the material. Computed residual stresses in the graphite plies exceed the static strength by approximately ten percent. In the case of Kevlar plies, computed residual stresses far exceed the static strength indicating possible early failure of these plies. Static testing of the hybrids above indicates that failure is governed by the ultimate strain of the graphite plies. In thermally cycled hybrids, in general, residual moduli were somewhat lower and residual strengths were higher than initial values.

  19. Secondary metabolite composition in Citrus x Poncirus trifoliata hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poncirus trifoliata L.Raf is used as a parent in citrus rootstock breeding because it confers desirable characteristics, such as disease resistance and cold hardiness. However, fruit of P. trifoliata hybrids typically have unpleasant flavor. The objective of this study was to determine the chemical ...

  20. Aging of composite insulators; Simulation by electrical tests

    SciTech Connect

    de Tourreil, C.H. ); Lambeth, P.J.

    1990-07-01

    To assess the long-term performance of 72 kV and 230 kV composite long rod insulators different laboratory aging tests have been developed. This paper reports two principal diagnostic tests used to measure the performance of the insulators, the quick flashover salt fog (QFO SF), and the rapid flashover clean fog (RFO CF) tests. The aging processes were: cement coating and clean fog, salt fog, and cement coating and salt fog. Similar sets of insulators were aged also in the field for over three years, and all the insulators evaluated in the laboratory. The cement/salt fog aging process was found to be the most controllable and realistic, when the results were assessed by means of the RFO CF test.

  1. Insight into octoploid strawberry (Fragaria) subgenome composition revealed by GISH analysis of pentaploid hybrids.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Poulsen, Elizabeth G; Davis, Thomas M

    2016-02-01

    As the product of interspecific hybridization between its two ancestral octoploid (2n = 8x = 56) species (Fragaria chiloensis and F. virginiana), the cultivated strawberry (F. ×ananassa) is among the most genomically complex of crop plants, harboring subgenomic components derived from as many as four different diploid ancestors. To physically visualize the octoploids' subgenome composition(s), we launched molecular cytogenetic studies using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), comparative GISH (cGISH), and rDNA-FISH techniques. First, GISH resolution in Fragaria was tested by using diploid and triploid hybrids with predetermined genome compositions. Then, observation of an octoploid genome was implemented by hybridizing chromosomes of pentaploid (2n = 5x = 35) hybrids from F. vesca × F. virginiana with genomic DNA probes derived from diploids (2n = 2x = 14) F. vesca and F. iinumae, which have been proposed by phylogenetic studies to be closely related to the octoploids yet highly divergent from each other. GISH and cGISH results indicated that octoploid-derived gametes (n = 4x = 28) carried seven chromosomes with hybridization affinities to F. vesca, while the remaining 21 chromosomes displayed varying affinities to F. iinumae, indicating differing degrees of subgenomic contribution to the octoploids by these two putatively ancestral diploids. Combined rDNA-FISH revealed severe 25S rDNA loss in both the F. vesca- and F. iinumae-like chromosome groups, while only the prior group retained its 5S loci.

  2. Thermal, mechanical, and physical properties of seaweed/sugar palm fibre reinforced thermoplastic sugar palm Starch/Agar hybrid composites.

    PubMed

    Jumaidin, Ridhwan; Sapuan, Salit M; Jawaid, Mohammad; Ishak, Mohamad R; Sahari, Japar

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of sugar palm fibre (SPF) on the mechanical, thermal and physical properties of seaweed/thermoplastic sugar palm starch agar (TPSA) composites. Hybridized seaweed/SPF filler at weight ratio of 25:75, 50:50 and 75:25 were prepared using TPSA as a matrix. Mechanical, thermal and physical properties of hybrid composites were carried out. Obtained results indicated that hybrid composites display improved tensile and flexural properties accompanied with lower impact resistance. The highest tensile (17.74MPa) and flexural strength (31.24MPa) was obtained from hybrid composite with 50:50 ratio of seaweed/SPF. Good fibre-matrix bonding was evident in the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrograph of the hybrid composites' tensile fracture. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis showed increase in intermolecular hydrogen bonding following the addition of SPF. Thermal stability of hybrid composites was enhanced, indicated by a higher onset degradation temperature (259°C) for 25:75 seaweed/SPF composites than the individual seaweed composites (253°C). Water absorption, thickness swelling, water solubility, and soil burial tests showed higher water and biodegradation resistance of the hybrid composites. Overall, the hybridization of SPF with seaweed/TPSA composites enhances the properties of the biocomposites for short-life application; that is, disposable tray, plate, etc.

  3. Enhanced thermal-mechanical properties of polymer composites with hybrid boron nitride nanofillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Haiyan; Tang, Yanxia; Su, Juling; Yang, Xiaoyan

    2014-02-01

    The present work focuses on the investigation of the thermal-mechanical properties of the epoxy composites with hybrid boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) and boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs). The stable dispersions of BNNTs-BNNSs were achieved by a noncovalent functionalization with pyrene carboxylic acid. The resulting epoxy/BNNTs-BNNSs composites exhibited homogeneously dispersed BNNTs-BNNSs and a strong filler-matrix interface interaction. The composites showed a 95 % increase in thermal conductivity and a 57 % improvement in Young's modulus by addition of only 1 vol. % BNNTs-BNNSs. Meanwhile, the composites also retained a high electrical resistance of pure epoxy. Our study thus shows the potential for hybrid BNNTs-BNNSs to be successfully used as the nanofillers of polymer composites for applications in electrically insulating thermal interface materials.

  4. Finite Element Analysis of Adaptive-Stiffening and Shape-Control SMA Hybrid Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Xiujie; Burton, Deborah; Turner, Travis L.; Brinson, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Shape memory alloy hybrid composites with adaptive-stiffening or morphing functions are simulated using finite element analysis. The composite structure is a laminated fiber-polymer composite beam with embedded SMA ribbons at various positions with respect to the neutral axis of the beam. Adaptive stiffening or morphing is activated via selective resistance heating of the SMA ribbons or uniform thermal loads on the beam. The thermomechanical behavior of these composites was simulated in ABAQUS using user-defined SMA elements. The examples demonstrate the usefulness of the methods for the design and simulation of SMA hybrid composites. Keywords: shape memory alloys, Nitinol, ABAQUS, finite element analysis, post-buckling control, shape control, deflection control, adaptive stiffening, morphing, constitutive modeling, user element

  5. Properties of glass/carbon fiber reinforced epoxy hybrid polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, R. H.; Sevkani, V. R.; Patel, B. R.; Patel, V. B.

    2016-05-01

    Composite Materials are well known for their tailor-made properties. For the fabrication of composites different types of reinforcements are used for different applications. Sometimes for a particular application, one type of reinforcement may not fulfill the requirements. Therefore, more than one type of reinforcements may be used. Thus, the idea of hybrid composites arises. Hybrid composites are made by joining two or more different reinforcements with suitable matrix system. It helps to improve the properties of composite materials. In the present work glass/carbon fiber reinforcement have been used with a matrix triglycidyl ether of tris(m-hydroxy phenyl) phosphate epoxy resin using amine curing agent. Different physical and mechanical properties of the glass, carbon and glass/carbon fiber reinforced polymeric systems have been found out.

  6. Preliminary burn and impact tests of hybrid polymeric composites. [preventing graphite fiber release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, S. S.; Brewer, W. D.

    1978-01-01

    Free graphite fibers released into the environment from resin matrix composite components, as a result of fire and/or explosion, pose a potential hazard to electrical equipment. An approach to prevent the fibers from becoming airborne is to use hybrid composite materials which retain the fibers at the burn site. Test results are presented for three hybrid composites that were exposed to a simulation of an aircraft fire and explosion. The hybrid systems consisted of 16 plies of graphite-epoxy with two plies of Kevlar-, S-glass-, or boron-epoxy on each face. Two different test environments were used. In one environment, specimens were heated by convection only, and then impacted by a falling mass. In the other environment, specimens were heated by convection and by radiation, but were not impacted. The convective heat flux was about 100-120 kW/m in both environments and the radiative flux was about 110 kW/sq m.

  7. Barium Titanate Film Interfaces for Hybrid Composite Energy Harvesters.

    PubMed

    Bowland, Christopher C; Malakooti, Mohammad H; Sodano, Henry A

    2017-02-01

    Energy harvesting utilizing piezoelectric materials has become an attractive approach for converting mechanical energy into electrical power for low-power electronics. Structural composites are ideally suited for energy scavenging due to the large amount of mechanical energy they are subjected to. Here, a multifunctional composite with embedded sensing and energy harvesting is developed by integrating an active interface into carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites. By modifying the composite matrix, both rigid and flexible multifunctional composites are fabricated. Through electromechanical testing of a cantilever beam of the rigid composite, it reveals a power density of 217 pW/cc from only 1 g root-mean-square acceleration when excited at its resonant frequency of 47 Hz. Electromechanical sensor testing of the flexible multifunctional composite reveals an average voltage generation of 23.5 mV/g at its resonant frequency of 96 Hz. This research introduces a route for integrating nonstructural functionality into structural fiber composites by utilizing BaTiO3 coated woven carbon fiber fabrics with power scavenging and passive sensing capabilities.

  8. Fabrication of LARC 160/NR150B2 hybrid matrix polyimide composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergren, O. D.; Lockerby, S. C.; Maximovich, M. G.

    1980-01-01

    Graphite-polyimide composite materials exhibit high performance, low weight, and good thermal-oxidative stability, making them promising candidates for Space Shuttle applications. However, no single material is excellent in all respects: processibility, thermal-oxidative stability, toughness, and mechanical properties. This paper describes the development of hybrid matrix composite laminates that combine the attributes of two polyimide resins, NR150B2 and LARC 160, while avoiding their drawbacks. High quality laminates were fabricated from each resin system, and hybrid laminates were successfully co-cured, evaluated, and optimized.

  9. The cyclic strength of carbon nanotube/glass fiber hybrid composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimmer, Christopher Stephen

    Recent trends in engineering design have involved a shift towards increasingly lighter structures, especially in transportation and primarily due to the rising cost of energy. This shift has placed further emphasis on the importance of fiber-reinforced composites as a lighter alternative to other engineering materials. Glass-fiber reinforced composites, while a low-cost alternative to the higher performance carbon-fiber based composites, are susceptible to fatigue loading in service, precluding their use in many applications. The present work explores the use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in conventional glass fiber composites as an additive that can improve the fatigue strength. The research described here is focused on the development, testing and modeling of CNT/glass-fiber hybrid composites, a novel material exhibiting both low cost and improved properties under fatigue loading. A manufacturing process for small-scale production of these hybrid composites was developed for the purpose of evaluating their relative benefits. The hybrid composites were subjected to uniaxial fatigue and cyclic delamination tests and their performance was compared to that of traditional glass-fiber composites. A solid mechanics-based model was developed as a means for predicting the energetic differences in the formation and propagation of damage in the polymer matrix of the two composite types under cyclic loading. The model was then compared to the experimental results and found to be in relative agreement. The hybrid composites were found to have fatigue lifetimes in the high-cycle regime of up to two and a half times greater than the traditional composites, with this improvement diminishing slightly at higher loads. Additionally, resistance to both critical and sub-critical delamination crack propagation was improved in the hybrid composites. These improvements have been attributed here to the dissipative mechanisms of CNT fracture and pull-out during matrix cracking, which result

  10. A Hybrid Template-Based Composite Classification System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    5.5.1 OOL Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 5.5.2 OOL Methodology Improvements . . . . . . . 133 5.5.3 Artificial Neural Networks as OOL...a combined system that composes the hybrid clas- sifier with an out-of-library OOL detector. This OOL detector uses artificial neural networks as a...the in-library classes. 5.5.3 Artificial Neural Networks as OOL Detectors The main idea of the Leap OOL Detector, that of finding a reasonably low

  11. Mechanical performance of hybrid polyester composites reinforced Cloisite 30B and kenaf fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnia, N. N.; Surip, S. N.; Ratim, S.; Mahat, M. M.

    2012-06-01

    Hybridization of rubber toughened polyester-kenaf nanocomposite was prepared by adding various percentage of kenaf fiber with 4% Cloisite 30B in unsaturated polyester resin. Composite were prepared by adding filler to modified polyester resin subsequently cross-linked using methyl ethyl ketone peroxide and the accelerator cobalt octanoate 1%. Three per hundred rubbers (phr) of liquid natural rubber (LNR) were added in producing this composite. This composite expected to be applied in the interior of passenger cars and truck cabins. This is a quality local product from a combination of good properties polyester and high performance natural fiber, kenaf that is suitable for many applications such as in automotive sector and construction sector. The mechanical and thermal properties of composite were characterized using Durometer Shore-D hardness test, Izod impact test, Scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Result shows that addition of LNR give good properties on impact, flexural and hardness compare to without LNR composite. DSC curve shows that all composition of composites is fully cured and good in thermal properties. Addition of higher percentage of kenaf will lead the composite to elastic behavior and decrease the toughened properties of the composite. Hybrid system composite showed the flexural properties within the flexural properties of kenaf - polyester and Cloisite 30B.

  12. Silica-graphene oxide hybrid composite particles and their electroresponsive characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen Ling; Choi, Hyoung Jin

    2012-05-01

    Silica-graphene oxide (Si-GO) hybrid composite particles were prepared by the hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) in the presence of hydrophilic GO obtained from a modified Hummers method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images provided visible evidence of the silica nanoparticles grafted on the surface of GO, resulting in Si-GO hybrid composite particles. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra indicated the coexistence of silica and GO in the composite particles. The Si-GO hybrid composite particles showed better thermal stability than that of GO according to thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The electrorheological (ER) characteristics of the Si-GO hybrid composite based ER fluid were examined further by optical microscopy and a rotational rheometer in controlled shear rate mode under various electric field strengths. Shear stress curves were fitted using both conventional Bingham model and a constitutive Cho-Choi-Jhon model. The polarizability and relaxation time of the ER fluid from dielectric spectra measured using an LCR meter showed a good correlation with its ER characteristics.

  13. Polylactide-based renewable green composites from agricultural residues and their hybrids.

    PubMed

    Nyambo, Calistor; Mohanty, Amar K; Misra, Manjusri

    2010-06-14

    Agricultural natural fibers like jute, kenaf, sisal, flax, and industrial hemp have been extensively studied in green composites. The continuous supply of biofibers in high volumes to automotive part makers has raised concerns. Because extrusion followed by injection molding drastically reduces the aspect ratio of biofibers, the mechanical performance of injection molded agricultural residue and agricultural fiber-based composites are comparable. Here, the use of inexpensive agricultural residues and their hybrids that are 8-10 times cheaper than agricultural fibers is demonstrated to be a better way of getting sustainable materials with better performance. Green renewable composites from polylactide (PLA), agricultural residues (wheat straw, corn stover, soy stalks, and their hybrids) were successfully prepared through twin-screw extrusion, followed by injection molding. The effect on mechanical properties of varying the wheat straw amount from 10 to 40 wt % in PLA-wheat straw composites was studied. Tensile moduli were compared with theoretical calculations from the rule of mixture (ROM). Combination of agricultural residues as hybrids is proved to reduce the supply chain concerns for injection molded green composites. Densities of the green composites were found to be lower than those of conventional glass fiber composites.

  14. Mechanical behavior of polyester-based woven jute/glass hybrid composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahsan, Q.; Tanju, S.

    2012-06-01

    In polymer composite fabrication system, hybridization of jute fibers with synthetic fibers is one of the techniques adopted to overcome some of the limitations (poor mechanical properties and moisture resistance) that have been identified for jute fiber reinforced composites. In the present study, the effect of hybridization on mechanical properties of jute and glass mat reinforced polyester composites has been evaluated experimentally. The composites were made of glass mat, jute mat and varying layers of jute and glass mat in the polyester matrix by applying hand lay-up technique at room temperature (250C). The values of mechanical properties obtained from tensile, flexural and interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) tests show significant improvement with the increase of glass fiber content in hybrid composites. But the positive contribution from glass mat in increasing of ILSS of composite is limited to some extent and the optimum ILSS is achieved when glass-jute incorporated in composite as 50-50 weight basis. SEM images were used to study the modes of fracture, fiber-matrix adhesion, and jute-glass layer adhesion. The fracture surfaces resulted from different tests clearly show that cracks propagate throughout the polyester matrix by tearing the jute mat and delaminating the glass mat.

  15. Properties of Multifunctional Hybrid Carbon Nanotube/Carbon Fiber Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cano, Roberto J.; Kang, Jin Ho; Grimsley, Brian W.; Ratcliffe, James G.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2016-01-01

    For aircraft primary structures, carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites possess many advantages over conventional aluminum alloys due to their light weight, higher strength- and stiffness-to-weight ratios, and low life-cycle maintenance costs. However, the relatively low electrical and thermal conductivities of CFRP composites fail to provide structural safety in certain operational conditions such as lightning strikes. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) offer the potential to enhance the multi-functionality of composites with improved thermal and electrical conductivity. In this study, hybrid CNT/carbon fiber (CF) polymer composites were fabricated by interleaving layers of CNT sheets with Hexcel® IM7/8852 prepreg. Resin concentrations from 1 wt% to 50 wt% were used to infuse the CNT sheets prior to composite fabrication. The interlaminar properties of the resulting hybrid composites were characterized by mode I and II fracture toughness testing. Fractographical analysis was performed to study the effect of resin concentration. In addition, multi-directional physical properties like thermal conductivity of the orthotropic hybrid polymer composite were evaluated.

  16. Sensing and actuating capabilities of a shape memory polymer composite integrated with hybrid filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Haibao; Yu, Kai; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, hybrid fillers, including carbon black (CB) and chopped short carbon fibers (SCF), are integrated into a styrene-based shape memory polymer (SMP) with sensing and actuating capabilities. The hybrid filler is expected to transform insulating SMP into conducting. Static mechanical properties of the SMP composites containing various filler concentrations of hybrid filler reinforcement are studied first, and it is theoretically and experimentally confirmed that the mechanical properties are significantly improved by a factor of filler content of SCF. The excellent electrical properties of this novel type of SMP composite are determined by a four-point-probe method. As a consequence, the sensing properties of SMP composite filled with 5 wt% CB and 2 wt% SCF are characterized by functions of temperature and strain. These two experimental results both aid the use of SMP composites as sensors that respond to changes in temperature or mechanical loads. On the other hand, the actuating capability of SMP composites is also validated and demonstrated. The dynamic mechanical analysis result reveals that the output strength of SMP composites is improved with an increase in filler content of SCF. The actuating capability of SMP composites is subsequently demonstrated in a series of photographs.

  17. The high velocity impact loading on symmetrical and woven hybrid composite laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Martin; Richardson, Mel; Zhang, Zhong Yi

    2007-07-01

    Space structures use fibre composite materials, due to their lightweight. This paper examines the impact response of symmetrical and hybrid composite laminates. Special attention is given to the stacking sequences used. The experimental study of structures has always provided a major contribution to our understanding. Even with the formidable growth in the use and capacity of computing power the need for experimental measurement is as compelling as ever. The design of hybrid composite structures is complicated by the number of design variables and the interaction of the constituents is the composite system. Since it is desirable to experimentally test the design and it is not practical to test a full scale model, the structural/material similitude concept is used to create a small scale model with a similar structural response. In the current study, experimental investigations were carried out to determine the response of four different combinations of hybrid laminates to low-velocity impact loading using an instrumented impact testing machine. Hybrid laminates were fabricated with twill weave carbon fabric and plain weave S2-glass fabric using vacuum assisted resin molding process with SC-15 epoxy resin system. Response of carbon/epoxy and glass/epoxy laminates was also investigated to compare with that of hybrid samples. Square laminates of size 100 mm and nominal thickness of 3 mm were subjected to low-velocity impact loading at four energy levels of 10, 20, 30 and 40 J. Results of the study indicate that there is considerable improvement in the load carrying capability of hybrid composites as compared to carbon/epoxy laminates with slight reduction in stiffness.

  18. Algorithm of constructing hybrid effective modules for elastic isotropic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svetashkov, A. A.; Miciński, J.; Kupriyanov, N. A.; Barashkov, V. N.; Lushnikov, A. V.

    2017-02-01

    The algorithm of constructing of new effective elastic characteristics of two-component composites based on the superposition of the models of Reiss and Voigt, Hashin and Strikman, as well as models of the geometric average for effective modules. These effective characteristics are inside forks Voigt and Reiss. Additionally, the calculations of the stress-strain state of composite structures with new effective characteristics give more accurate prediction than classical models do.

  19. Mechanical characterization of coir/palmyra waste fiber hybrid composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arumugaprabu, V.; Uthayakumar, M.; Cardona, F.; Sultan, M. T. H.

    2016-10-01

    In the present days, the utilization of palmyra fiber in automotive and aerospace applications has increased drastically due to its high strength and low weight. This research focuses on the development of composite materials using palmyra waste and coir fiber with polyester as a matrix. The mechanical properties such as tensile, flexural and impact strength of composites were investigated. Palmyra waste fiber and coir fiber with relative varying weight percentage in the ratio of 50:50, 40:60, 30:70 and 20:80 had been considered for the study. The composites were prepared by the compression moulding method. In addition, the prepared composites were subjected to moisture studies for 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours to know the composite resistance to water absorption. The results showed an increase in all the mechanical properties from the addition of palmyra waste. After analysing the results obtained from the study, a suitable application in the automobile and aerospace industries is suggested for the new developed composite.

  20. Effect of fiber loading on flexural strength of hybrid sisal/hemp-HDPE composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Lakshya; Sinha, Shishir; Gupta, V. K.

    2015-05-01

    The continuing demand for sustainable materials and increasing environmental concerns have led to intense research in the field of natural fiber reinforced composites. Natural fibers are favored over synthetic fibers as reinforcement due to positive environmental benefits such as raw material utilization at source and easy disposable of the biodegradable fiber. In the present work, we have investigated flexural behavior of hybrid natural fiber reinforced HDPE composites. The matrix comprises of 50-50 ratio of virgin and recycled HDPE and the content of fibers (sisal and hemp) in the composite is varied from 10 to 30%. The natural fibers were mercerized with NaOH solution and chemically treated with maleic anhydride. The flexural specimens were prepared by injection moulding process and the testing was conducted in accordance to ASTM D790 standards. It is revealed that the flexural strength of the hybrid composite increases with the increase in fibers content when compared to specimen containing 100% HDPE.

  1. Predicting the tensile modulus and strength of single and hybrid natural fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facca, Angelo George

    Natural fibre reinforced thermoplastics (NFRT) are used in a variety of commercial applications, but there is little theoretical modeling of structure/property relationships in these materials. In this thesis, micromechanical models available in the short-fibre literature were adapted to predict the tensile modulus and strength of some NFRT formulations. Hemp, 20 and 40-mesh hardwood, rice hulls and E-glass fibres were blended into HDPE to produce single and hybrid composites. Changes in fibre density and moisture content that occur during composite manufacturing were included in the micromechanical models. To account for fibre densification, the Young's modulus of the natural fibres was determined on a cell wall basis. A modified hybrid rule of mixtures (HROM) equation that uses experimental data from single NFRT was developed and found to adequately predict the tensile modulus of the hybrid composites. The tensile modulus for both the single and hybrid composites was found to linearly increase with an increase in fibre loading. The failure mechanism for all composite specimens was due to fibre pullout followed by matrix failure. Consequently the tensile strength of the NFRT was predicted using a ROM strength equation, which was modified with a derived semi-empirical fibre clustering parameter. The clustering parameter correctly predicted that as fibre loading increased, the average fibre stress would decrease. By assuming no contact between different types of fibres it was possible to use a modified HROM strength equation to predict the tensile strength of the hybrid composites. As a result parameters taken from the respective single fibre systems could be applied directly to the HROM equation. The modified ROM and HROM strength equations adequately predicted the tensile strength of various single and hybrid fibre reinforced composites over a wide range of composite loading. In this study experiments were conducted to shed light on the effect of a coupling agent

  2. Thermally conductive polyamide 6/carbon filler composites based on a hybrid filler system

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Sung Min; Kwon, O Hwan; Oh, Yu Gyeong; Kim, Yong Seok; Lee, Sung-Goo; Won, Jong Chan; Cho, Kwang Soo; Kim, Byoung Gak; Yoo, Youngjae

    2015-01-01

    We explored the use of a hybrid filler consisting of graphite nanoplatelets (GNPs) and single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in a polyamide 6 (PA 6) matrix. The composites containing PA 6, powdered GNP, and SWCNT were melt-processed and the effect of filler content in the single filler and hybrid filler systems on the thermal conductivity of the composites was examined. The thermal diffusivities of the composites were measured by the standard laser flash method. Composites containing the hybrid filler system showed enhanced thermal conductivity with values as high as 8.8 W (m · K)−1, which is a 35-fold increase compared to the thermal conductivity of pure PA 6. Thermographic images of heat conduction and heat release behaviors were consistent with the thermal conductivity results, and showed rapid temperature jumps and drops, respectively, for the composites. A composite model based on the Lewis–Nielsen theory was developed to treat GNP and SWCNT as two separate types of fillers. Two approaches, the additive and multiplicative approaches, give rather good quantitative agreement between the predicted values of thermal conductivity and those measured experimentally. PMID:27877843

  3. The Mechanical Properties and Microstructure Characters of Hybrid Composite Geopolymers-Pineapple Fiber Leaves (PFL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amalia, N.; Hidayatullah, S.; Nurfadilla; Subaer

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this research is to study the influence of organic fibers on the mechanical properties and microstructure characters of hybrid composite geopolymers-pineapple fibers (PFL). Geopolymers were synthesized by using alkali activated of class C-fly ash added manually with short pineapple fiber leaves (PFL) and then cured at 60°C for 1 hour. The resulting composites were stored in open air for 28 days prior to mechanical and microstructure characterizations. The samples were subjected to compressive and flexural strength measurements, heat resistance as well as acid attack (1M H2SO4 solution). The microstructure of the composites were examined by using Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The measurement showed that the addition of pineapple fibers was able to improve the compressive and flexural strength of geopolymers. The resulting hybrid composites were able to resist fire to a maximum temperature of 1500°C. SEM examination showed the presence of good bond between geopolymer matrix and pineapple fibers. It was also found that there were no chemical constituents of geopolymers leached out during acid liquid treatment. It is concluded that hybrid composite geopolymers-pineapple fibers are potential composites for wide range applications.

  4. Kenaf-glass fiber reinforced unsaturated polyester hybrid composites: Tensile properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhafer, S. F.; Rozyanty, A. R.; Shahnaz, S. B. S.; Musa, L.; Zuliahani, A.

    2016-07-01

    The use of natural fibers in composite is rising in recent years due their lightweight, non-abrasive, combustible, non-toxic, low cost and biodegradable properties. However, in comparison with synthetic fibers, the mechanical properties of natural fibers are lower. Therefore, the inclusion of synthetic fibers could improve the mechanical performance of natural fiber based composites. In this study, kenaf bast fiber and glass fiber at different weight percentage loading were used as reinforcement to produce hybrid composites. Unsaturated polyester (UP) resin was used as matrix and hand lay-up process was performed to apply the UP resin on the hybrid kenaf bast/glass fiber composite. Effect of different fiber loading on tensile strength, tensile modulus and elongation at break of the hybrid composite was studied. It has been found that the highest value of tensile strength and modulus was achieved at 10 wt.% kenaf/10 wt.% glass fiber loading. It was concluded that addition of glass fiber has improved the tensile properties of kenaf bast fiber based UP composites.

  5. Thermally conductive polyamide 6/carbon filler composites based on a hybrid filler system.

    PubMed

    Ha, Sung Min; Kwon, O Hwan; Oh, Yu Gyeong; Kim, Yong Seok; Lee, Sung-Goo; Won, Jong Chan; Cho, Kwang Soo; Kim, Byoung Gak; Yoo, Youngjae

    2015-12-01

    We explored the use of a hybrid filler consisting of graphite nanoplatelets (GNPs) and single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in a polyamide 6 (PA 6) matrix. The composites containing PA 6, powdered GNP, and SWCNT were melt-processed and the effect of filler content in the single filler and hybrid filler systems on the thermal conductivity of the composites was examined. The thermal diffusivities of the composites were measured by the standard laser flash method. Composites containing the hybrid filler system showed enhanced thermal conductivity with values as high as 8.8 W (m · K)(-1), which is a 35-fold increase compared to the thermal conductivity of pure PA 6. Thermographic images of heat conduction and heat release behaviors were consistent with the thermal conductivity results, and showed rapid temperature jumps and drops, respectively, for the composites. A composite model based on the Lewis-Nielsen theory was developed to treat GNP and SWCNT as two separate types of fillers. Two approaches, the additive and multiplicative approaches, give rather good quantitative agreement between the predicted values of thermal conductivity and those measured experimentally.

  6. Enhanced dielectric performance in polymer composite films with carbon nanotube-reduced graphene oxide hybrid filler.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Young; Kim, TaeYoung; Suk, Ji Won; Chou, Harry; Jang, Ji-Hoon; Lee, Jong Ho; Kholmanov, Iskandar N; Akinwande, Deji; Ruoff, Rodney S

    2014-08-27

    The electrical conductivity and the specific surface area of conductive fillers in conductor-insulator composite films can drastically improve the dielectric performance of those films through changing their polarization density by interfacial polarization. We have made a polymer composite film with a hybrid conductive filler material made of carbon nanotubes grown onto reduced graphene oxide platelets (rG-O/CNT). We report the effect of the rG-O/CNT hybrid filler on the dielectric performance of the composite film. The composite film had a dielectric constant of 32 with a dielectric loss of 0.051 at 0.062 wt% rG-O/CNT filler and 100 Hz, while the neat polymer film gave a dielectric constant of 15 with a dielectric loss of 0.036. This is attributed to the increased electrical conductivity and specific surface area of the rG-O/CNT hybrid filler, which results in an increase in interfacial polarization density between the hybrid filler and the polymer.

  7. Hybrid composite based on poly(vinyl alcohol) and fillers from renewable resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybrid composite laminates consisting of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as continuous phase (33% by weight) and lignocellulosic fillers, derived from sugarcane bagasse, apple and orange waste (22% by weight) were molded in a carver press in the presence of water and glycerol such as platicizers agents. Cor...

  8. Hybrid composite based on poly(vinyl alcohol) and fillers from renewable resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybrid composite laminates consisting of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as continuous phase and lignocellulosic fibres, derived from sugarcane bagasse, apple and orange waste were moulded in a carver press in the presence of water and glycerol such as platicizers agents. Corn starch was introduced as a bio...

  9. Multiscale Modeling of Graphite/CNT/Epoxy Hybrid Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-09

    A - Approved for Public Release 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Incorporation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into epoxy-based composites for...materials with higher moduli and strength characteristics. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Molecular Dynamics, Carbon Nanotubes , Multi-scale Modeling, Micromechanics...Gregory M. Odegard Michigan Technological University Introduction This project was inspired from the AFOSR-sponsored workshop “ Nanotube

  10. Learning science in small multi-age groups: the role of age composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallery, Maria; Loupidou, Thomais

    2016-06-01

    The present study examines how the overall cognitive achievements in science of the younger children in a class where the students work in small multi-age groups are influenced by the number of older children in the groups. The context of the study was early-years education. The study has two parts: The first part involved classes attended by pre-primary children aged 4-6. The second part included one primary class attended by students aged 6-8 in addition to the pre-primary classes. Students were involved in inquiry-based science activities. Two sources of data were used: Lesson recordings and children's assessments. The data from both sources were separately analyzed and the findings plotted. The resulting graphs indicate a linear relationship between the overall performance of the younger children in a class and the number of older ones participating in the groups in each class. It seems that the age composition of the groups can significantly affect the overall cognitive achievements of the younger children and preferentially determines the time within which this factor reaches its maximum value. The findings can be utilized in deciding the age composition of small groups in a class with the aim of facilitating the younger children's learning in science.

  11. Tensile stress-strain behavior of hybrid composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    A study was made of the stress-strain response of several hybrid laminates, and the damage was correlated with nonlinear stress-strain response and ultimate strength. The fibers used in the laminates were graphite, S-glass, and Kevlar. Some laminates with graphite fibers had perforated Mylar film between plies, which lowered the interlaminar bond strength. The laminate configurations were chosen to be like those of buffer strips in large panels and fracture coupons. Longitudinal and transverse specimens were loaded in tension to failure. Some specimens were radiographed to reveal damage due to edge effects. Stress-strain response is discussed in terms of damage shown by the radiographs. Ultimate strengths are compared with simple failure criteria, one of which account for damage.

  12. Three-dimensional hybrid-stress finite element analysis of composite laminates with cracks and cutouts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, S. S.

    1985-01-01

    A three-dimensional hybrid-stress finite element analysis of composite laminates containing cutouts and cracks is presented. Fully three-dimensional, hexahedral isoparametric elements of the hybrid-stress model are formulated on the basis of the Hellinger-Reissner variational principle. Traction-free edges, cutouts, and crack surfaces are modeled by imposition of exact traction boundary conditions along element surfaces. Special boundary and surface elements are constructed by introducing proper constraints on assumed stress functions. The Lagrangian multiplier technique is used to enforce ply-interface continuity conditions in hybrid bimaterial composite elements for modeling the interface region in a composite laminate. Two examples are given to illustrate the capability of the present method of approach: (1) the well-known delamination problem in an angle-ply laminate, and (2) the important problem of a composite laminate containing a circular hole. Results are presented in detail for each case. Implications of interlaminar and intralaminar crack initiation, growth and fracture in composites containing cracks and cutouts are discussed.

  13. Fabrication and evaluation of mechanical properties of alkaline treated sisal/hemp fiber reinforced hybrid composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesha Gupta, N. S.; Akash; Sreenivasa Rao, K. V.; kumar, D. S. Arun

    2016-09-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer composite have acquired a dominant place in variety of applications because of higher specific strength and modulus, the plant based natural fiber are partially replacing currently used synthetic fiber as reinforcement for polymer composites. In this research work going to develop a new material which posses a strength to weight ratio that for exceed any of the present material. The hybrid composite sisal/hemp reinforced with epoxy matrix has been developed by compression moulding technique according to ASTM standards. Sodium hydroxide (NAOH) was used as alkali for treating the fibers. The amount of reinforcement was varied from 10% to 50% in steps of 10%. Prepared specimens were examined for mechanical properties such as tensile strength, flexural strength, and hardness. Hybrid composite with 40wt% sisal/hemp fiber were found to posses higher strength (tensile strength = 53.13Mpa and flexural strength = 82.07Mpa) among the fabricated hybrid composite specimens. Hardness value increases with increasing the fiber volume. Morphological examinations are carried out to analyze the interfacial characteristics, internal structure and fractured surfaces by using scanning electron microscope.

  14. Three-year randomised clinical trial to evaluate the clinical performance, quantitative and qualitative wear patterns of hybrid composite restorations.

    PubMed

    Palaniappan, Senthamaraiselvi; Elsen, Liesbeth; Lijnen, Inge; Peumans, Marleen; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Lambrechts, Paul

    2010-08-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the clinical performance, quantitative and qualitative wear patterns of conventional hybrid (Tetric Ceram), micro-filled hybrid (Gradia Direct Posterior) and nano-hybrid (Tetric EvoCeram, TEC) posterior composite restorations in a 3-year randomised clinical trial. Sixteen Tetric Ceram, 17 TEC and 16 Gradia Direct Posterior restorations were placed in human molars and evaluated at baseline, 6, 12, 24 and 36 months of clinical service according to US Public Health Service criteria. The gypsum replicas at each recall were used for 3D laser scanning to quantify wear, and the epoxy resin replicas were observed under scanning electron microscope to study the qualitative wear patterns. After 3 years of clinical service, the three hybrid restorative materials performed clinically well in posterior cavities. Within the observation period, the nano-hybrid and micro-hybrid restorations evolved better in polishability with improved surface gloss retention than the conventional hybrid counterpart. The three hybrid composites showed enamel-like vertical wear and cavity-size dependant volume loss magnitude. Qualitatively, while the micro-filled and nano-hybrid composite restorations exhibited signs of fatigue similar to the conventional hybrid composite restorations at heavy occlusal contact area, their light occlusal contact areas showed less surface pitting after 3 years of clinical service.

  15. Three-year randomised clinical trial to evaluate the clinical performance, quantitative and qualitative wear patterns of hybrid composite restorations

    PubMed Central

    Palaniappan, Senthamaraiselvi; Elsen, Liesbeth; Lijnen, Inge; Peumans, Marleen; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the clinical performance, quantitative and qualitative wear patterns of conventional hybrid (Tetric Ceram), micro-filled hybrid (Gradia Direct Posterior) and nano-hybrid (Tetric EvoCeram, TEC) posterior composite restorations in a 3-year randomised clinical trial. Sixteen Tetric Ceram, 17 TEC and 16 Gradia Direct Posterior restorations were placed in human molars and evaluated at baseline, 6, 12, 24 and 36 months of clinical service according to US Public Health Service criteria. The gypsum replicas at each recall were used for 3D laser scanning to quantify wear, and the epoxy resin replicas were observed under scanning electron microscope to study the qualitative wear patterns. After 3 years of clinical service, the three hybrid restorative materials performed clinically well in posterior cavities. Within the observation period, the nano-hybrid and micro-hybrid restorations evolved better in polishability with improved surface gloss retention than the conventional hybrid counterpart. The three hybrid composites showed enamel-like vertical wear and cavity-size dependant volume loss magnitude. Qualitatively, while the micro-filled and nano-hybrid composite restorations exhibited signs of fatigue similar to the conventional hybrid composite restorations at heavy occlusal contact area, their light occlusal contact areas showed less surface pitting after 3 years of clinical service. PMID:19669176

  16. Behaviour of hybrid jute-glass/epoxy composite tubes subjected to lateral loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Experimental work on hybrid and non-hybrid composite tubes subjected to lateral loading has been carried out using jute, glass and hybrid jute-glass/epoxy materials. Tubes of 200 mm length with 110 mm inner diameter were fabricated by hand lay-up method to investigate the effect of material used and the number of layers on lateral-load-displacement relations and on the failure mode. Crush force efficiency and the specific energy absorption of the composite tubes were calculated. Results show that the six layers glass/epoxy tubes supported load higher 10.6% than that of hybrid jute-glass/ epoxy made of two layers of jute/epoxy four layers of glass/epoxy. It has been found that the specific energy absorption of the glass/epoxy tubes is found higher respectively 11.6% and 46% than hybrid jute-glass/epoxy and jute/epoxy tubes. The increase in the number of layers from two to six increases the maximum lateral load from 0.53KN to 1.22 KN for jute/epoxy and from 1.35 KN to 3.87 KN for the glass/epoxy tubes. The stacking sequence of the hybrid tubes influenced on the maximum lateral load and the absorbed energy. The maximum load obtained for the six layers jute-glass/epoxy tubes of different staking sequence varies between 1.88 KN to 3.46 KN. Failure mechanisms of the laterally loaded composite tubes were also observed and discussed.

  17. Hybrid local FEM/global LISA modeling of damped guided wave propagation in complex composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yanfeng; Cesnik, Carlos E. S.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a new hybrid modeling technique for the efficient simulation of guided wave generation, propagation, and interaction with damage in complex composite structures. A local finite element model is deployed to capture the piezoelectric effects and actuation dynamics of the transmitter, while the global domain wave propagation and interaction with structural complexity (structure features and damage) are solved utilizing a local interaction simulation approach (LISA). This hybrid approach allows the accurate modeling of the local dynamics of the transducers and keeping the LISA formulation in an explicit format, which facilitates its readiness for parallel computing. The global LISA framework was extended through the 3D Kelvin-Voigt viscoelasticity theory to include anisotropic damping effects for composite structures, as an improvement over the existing LISA formulation. The global LISA framework was implemented using the compute unified device architecture running on graphic processing units. A commercial preprocessor is integrated seamlessly with the computational framework for grid generation and material property allocation to handle complex structures. The excitability and damping effects are successfully captured by this hybrid model, with experimental validation using the scanning laser doppler vibrometry. To demonstrate the capability of our hybrid approach for complex structures, guided wave propagation and interaction with a delamination in a composite panel with stiffeners is presented.

  18. Morphology-controlled ZnO nanowire arrays for tailored hybrid composites with high damping.

    PubMed

    Malakooti, Mohammad H; Hwang, Hyun-Sik; Sodano, Henry A

    2015-01-14

    Hybrid fiber reinforced composites using a nanoscale reinforcement of the interface have not reached their optimal performance in practical applications due to their complex design and the challenging assembly of their multiscale components. One promising approach to the fabrication of hybrid composites is the growth of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire arrays on the surface of carbon fibers to provide improved interfacial strength and out of plane reinforcement. However, this approach has been demonstrated mainly on fibers and thus still requires complex processing conditions. Here we demonstrate a simple approach to the fabrication of such composites through the growth of the nanowires on the fabric. The fabricated composites with nanostructured graded interphase not only exhibit remarkable damping enhancement but also stiffness improvement. It is demonstrated that these two extremely important properties of the composite can be controlled by tuning the morphology of the ZnO nanowires at the interface. Higher damping and flexural rigidity of these composites over traditional ones offer practical high-performance composites.

  19. Effect of Moisture Absorption on the Mechanical Properties of Ceramic Filled Jute/Epoxy Hybrid Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapas Ranjan Swain, Priyadarshi; Biswas, Sandhyarani

    2017-02-01

    The present work emphasizes on the mechanical properties such as micro-hardness, flexural and impact strength of jute fiber and Al2O3 filler based polymer composites at dry and wet conditions. Composite samples reinforced with different wt.% of fibers and filler were prepared by hand lay-up technique. To improve the mechanical properties, jute fiber was hybridized with Al2O3 filler. The maximum flexural strength of 72.94 MPa and impact strength of 1.902 J is obtained for composites with 30 wt.% fiber content and 10 wt.% of filler content. The hardness of composite increases with increase in fiber and filler loading i.e 40 wt.% fiber content and 10 wt.% of filler content. The maximum hardness value is obtained 29.9 Hv. The effect of water absorption on mechanical properties of jute reinforced hybrid polymer composites is also investigated. To determine the influence of water absorption on the mechanical properties, specimens were immersed in distilled water for 10 days before testing. For reference purpose, dry specimens were tested. It is observed that the rate of water absorption depends on the fiber content as well as filler content. All the mechanical properties of composites are decreased after water absorption. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to characterise the microstructure and failure mechanisms of dry and wet jute fiber reinforced polymer composites.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid silica/PMMA nanoparticles and their use as filler in dental composites.

    PubMed

    Canché-Escamilla, G; Duarte-Aranda, S; Toledano, M

    2014-09-01

    The effect of hybrid silica/poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) nanoparticles on the properties of composites for dental restoration was evaluated. Hybrid nanoparticles with silica as core and PMMA as shell were obtained by a seeded emulsion polymerization process. Fourier transform infrared spectrum of the hybrid nanoparticles shows an intense peak at 1,730 cm(-1), corresponding to carbonyl groups (CO) of the ester. The thermal stability of the hybrid particles decreases with increasing amounts of PMMA and the residual mass at 700°C corresponds to the silica content in the hybrid particles. Composites were obtained by dispersing nanoparticles (silica or hybrid), as fillers, in a resin-bis glycidyl dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA)/triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) (40%/60% (w/w)). The paste was then placed in a mold and polymerized under light irradiation. During the preparation of the composites, with the hybrid nanoparticles, the monomers swell the PMMA shell and after photo-curing, a semi-interpenetrating network (semi-IPN) is obtained around the silica core. The properties of the composites, obtained using the hybrid nanoparticles, depend on the filler content and the amount of PMMA in the semi-IPN matrix. For composites with similar inorganic filler contents, the composites with low amounts of PMMA shell had higher modulus than those in which silica was used as the filler.

  1. Impact Strength and Flexural Properties Enhancement of Methacrylate Silane Treated Oil Palm Mesocarp Fiber Reinforced Biodegradable Hybrid Composites

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Ariffin, Hidayah; Yunus, Wan Md. Zin Wan

    2014-01-01

    Natural fiber as reinforcement filler in polymer composites is an attractive approach due to being fully biodegradable and cheap. However, incompatibility between hydrophilic natural fiber and hydrophobic polymer matrix restricts the application. The current studies focus on the effects of incorporation of silane treated OPMF into polylactic acid (PLA)/polycaprolactone (PCL)/nanoclay/OPMF hybrid composites. The composites were prepared by melt blending technique and characterize the composites with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). FTIR spectra indicated that peak shifting occurs when silane treated OPMF was incorporated into hybrid composites. Based on mechanical properties results, incorporation of silane treated OPMF enhances the mechanical properties of unmodified OPMF hybrid composites with the enhancement of flexural and impact strength being 17.60% and 48.43%, respectively, at 10% fiber loading. TGA thermogram shows that incorporation of silane treated OPMF did not show increment in thermal properties of hybrid composites. SEM micrographs revealed that silane treated OPMF hybrid composites show good fiber/matrix adhesion as fiber is still embedded in the matrix and no cavity is present on the surface. Water absorption test shows that addition of less hydrophilic silane treated OPMF successfully reduces the water uptake of hybrid composites. PMID:25254230

  2. Impact strength and flexural properties enhancement of methacrylate silane treated oil palm mesocarp fiber reinforced biodegradable hybrid composites.

    PubMed

    Eng, Chern Chiet; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Zainuddin, Norhazlin; Ariffin, Hidayah; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan

    2014-01-01

    Natural fiber as reinforcement filler in polymer composites is an attractive approach due to being fully biodegradable and cheap. However, incompatibility between hydrophilic natural fiber and hydrophobic polymer matrix restricts the application. The current studies focus on the effects of incorporation of silane treated OPMF into polylactic acid (PLA)/polycaprolactone (PCL)/nanoclay/OPMF hybrid composites. The composites were prepared by melt blending technique and characterize the composites with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). FTIR spectra indicated that peak shifting occurs when silane treated OPMF was incorporated into hybrid composites. Based on mechanical properties results, incorporation of silane treated OPMF enhances the mechanical properties of unmodified OPMF hybrid composites with the enhancement of flexural and impact strength being 17.60% and 48.43%, respectively, at 10% fiber loading. TGA thermogram shows that incorporation of silane treated OPMF did not show increment in thermal properties of hybrid composites. SEM micrographs revealed that silane treated OPMF hybrid composites show good fiber/matrix adhesion as fiber is still embedded in the matrix and no cavity is present on the surface. Water absorption test shows that addition of less hydrophilic silane treated OPMF successfully reduces the water uptake of hybrid composites.

  3. Optical properties of supra-nano spherical filled resin composites compared to nanofilled, nano-hybrid and micro-hybrid composites.

    PubMed

    Perez, María M; Hita-Iglesias, Cristina; Ghinea, Razvan; Yebra, Ana; Pecho, Oscar E; Ionescu, Ana M; Crespo, Almudena; Hita, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate and compare the optical properties of supra-nano spherical filled resin composites and the nanofilled, nano-hybrid and microhybrid composites using the Kubelka-Munk Theory. Diffuse reflectance of samples (Shade A2) was measured against white and black backgrounds, using a spectroradiometer, using a viewing booth with D65 illuminant and d/0º geometry. S and K coefficients and T were calculated using Kubelka-Munk's equations. The spectral behavior of S, K and T was similar for all dental resin composites analyzed (VAF close to 100%), even though they were, generally, statistically different (p≤0.05). The K-M T values overestimate the real value of Transmittance of the resin composites. Supra-nano spherical filled resin composites show the highest scattering and Transmittance when compared with the others materials, probably due to the shape and size of the filler. Such difference should be taken into consideration in a clinical situation to reproduce natural esthetic restorations.

  4. [Meiosis passing age dependence in Solanum linnaeum L. x solanum incanum L. F1 interspecific hybrid].

    PubMed

    Montvid, P Iu

    2011-01-01

    Meiosis passing in the first- and second-year-plants of F1 interspecific hybrid Solanum linnaeum L. x Solanum incanum L. has been carried out. Fruit with seeds were formed during a second year of vegetation. The quantities of uni- and tetravalents and main disorders frequency lowered with plant age. Meiosis in parental forms was normal. The conclusion was drawn about F1 Solanum linnaeum L. x Solanum incanum L. meiosis regularity connection with heterozygous genotype, influence of environmental factors and plant age.

  5. Studies on Effective Elastic Properties of CNT/Nano-Clay Reinforced Polymer Hybrid Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Arvind Kumar; Kumar, Puneet; Srinivas, J.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a computational approach to predict elastic propertiesof hybrid nanocomposite material prepared by adding nano-clayplatelets to conventional CNT-reinforced epoxy system. In comparison to polymers alone/single-fiber reinforced polymers, if an additional fiber is added to the composite structure, it was found a drastic improvement in resultant properties. In this regard, effective elastic moduli of a hybrid nano composite are determined by using finite element (FE) model with square representative volume element (RVE). Continuum mechanics based homogenization of the nano-filler reinforced composite is considered for evaluating the volumetric average of the stresses and the strains under different periodic boundary conditions.A three phase Halpin-Tsai approach is selected to obtain the analytical result based on micromechanical modeling. The effect of the volume fractions of CNTs and nano-clay platelets on the mechanical behavior is studied. Two different RVEs of nano-clay platelets were used to investigate the influence of nano-filler geometry on composite properties. The combination of high aspect ratio of CNTs and larger surface area of clay platelets contribute to the stiffening effect of the hybrid samples. Results of analysis are validated with Halpin-Tsai empirical formulae.

  6. Tribological performance of Graphene/Carbon nanotube hybrid reinforced Al2O3 composites

    PubMed Central

    Yazdani, Bahareh; Xu, Fang; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Hou, Xianghui; Xia, Yongde; Zhu, Yanqiu

    2015-01-01

    Tribological performance of the hot-pressed pure Al2O3 and its composites containing various hybrid contents of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were investigated under different loading conditions using the ball-on-disc method. Benchmarked against the pure Al2O3, the composite reinforced with a 0.5 wt% GNP exhibited a 23% reduction in the friction coefficient along with a promising 70% wear rate reduction, and a hybrid reinforcement consisting of 0.3 wt.% GNPs + 1 wt.% CNTs resulted in even better performance, with a 86% reduction in the wear rate. The extent of damage to the reinforcement phases caused during wear was studied using Raman spectroscopy. The wear mechanisms for the composites were analysed based on the mechanical properties, brittleness index and microstructural characterizations. The excellent coordination between GNPs and CNTs contributed to the excellent wear resistance property in the hybrid GNT-reinforced composites. GNPs played the important role in the formation of a tribofilm on the worn surface by exfoliation; whereas CNTs contributed to the improvement in fracture toughness and prevented the grains from being pulled out during the tribological test. PMID:26100097

  7. Effect of different bleaching regimens on the flexural strength of hybrid composite resin

    PubMed Central

    Feiz, Atiyeh; Samanian, Noushmehr; Davoudi, Amin; Badrian, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background: The entire effects of different bleaching regimens on the mechanical properties of composite resins have remained unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of different bleaching regimens on the flexural strength (FS) of hybrid composite resins. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 80 bar-shaped specimens of hybrid composite resins were fabricated and randomly divided into four groups, 20 specimens in each group. First group (C) was considered as control. The other groups were treated by home bleaching (HB) agent, in-office bleaching (IB) agent, and the combination regimens (HIB), respectively. The FS was evaluated by three-point bending test by using a Universal Testing Machine. All data were analyzed by using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 18, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Turkey's post hoc statistical tests (α = 0.05). Results: The maximum mean value of FS was seen in HB group with significant differences to other groups (P < 0.05). Also, the minimum FS was observed in group HIB. Conclusion: Application of different bleaching regimens does not have any adverse effect on the FS of hybrid composite resins. However, the administration of HB regimens seemed to have lesser negative impact on the FS. PMID:27099423

  8. Quantifying Alumina Nanoparticle Dispersion in Hybrid Carbon Fiber Composites Using Photoluminescent Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hanhan, Imad; Selimov, Alex; Carolan, Declan; Taylor, Ambrose C; Raghavan, Seetha

    2017-02-01

    Composites modified with nanoparticles are of interest to many researchers due to the large surface-area-to-volume ratio of nano-scale fillers. One challenge with nanoscale materials that has received significant attention is the dispersion of nanoparticles in a matrix material. A random distribution of particles often ensures good material properties, especially as it relates to the thermal and mechanical performance of composites. Typical methods to quantify particle dispersion in a matrix material include optical, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopy. These utilize images and a variety of analysis methods to describe particle dispersion. This work describes how photoluminescent spectroscopy can serve as an additional technique capable of quickly and comprehensively quantifying particle dispersion of photoluminescent particles in a hybrid composite. High resolution 2D photoluminescent maps were conducted on the front and back surfaces of a hybrid carbon fiber reinforced polymer containing varying contents of alumina nanoparticles. The photoluminescent maps were analyzed for the intensity of the alumina R1 fluorescence peak, and therefore yielded alumina particle dispersion based on changes in intensity from the embedded nanoparticles. A method for quantifying particle sedimentation is also proposed that compares the photoluminescent data of the front and back surfaces of each hybrid composite and assigns a single numerical value to the degree of sedimentation in each specimen. The methods described in this work have the potential to aid in the manufacturing processes of hybrid composites by providing on-site quality control options, capable of quickly and noninvasively providing feedback on nanoparticle dispersion and sedimentation.

  9. Ductility of nonmetallic hybrid fiber composite reinforcement for concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tepfers, R.; Tamužs, V.; Apinis, R.; Vilks, U.; Modniks, J.

    1996-03-01

    Reinforcing units, FRP, of unidirectional fiber composites for concrete have elastic behavior up to tensile failure. For safety reasons an elongation of 3% at maximum load is usually required for the reinforcement. Ductile behavior with the necessary elongation and stress hardening could be obtained with braided fiber strands around a core of foam plastic, thin glass fiber cylindrical shell, or unidirectional carbon fibers. Braids around a porous core reveal the ductility when epoxy resin breaks up and collapse of core enables the braids to rotate. The same seems to happen at that cross section, where carbon fiber core breaks in tension. The best result is obtained using a cylindrical glass fiber reinforced core shell surrounded with aramid fiber braid.

  10. Charge transport in hybrid nanorod-polymer composite photovoltaiccells

    SciTech Connect

    Huynh, Wendy U.; Dittmer, Janke J.; Teclemariam, Nerayo; Milliron, Delia; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Barnham, Keith W.J.

    2002-06-21

    Charge transport in composites of inorganic nanorods and aconjugated polymer is investigated using a photovoltaic device structure.We show that the current-voltage (I-V) curves in the dark can be modelledusing the Shockley equation modified to include series and shuntresistance at low current levels, and using an improved model thatincorporates both the Shockley equation and the presence of a spacecharge limited region at high currents. Under illumination, theefficiency of photocurrent generation is found to be dependent on appliedbias. Furthermore, the photocurrent-light intensity dependence was foundto be sublinear. An analysis of the shunt resistance as a function oflight intensity suggests that the photocurrent as well as the fill factoris diminished as a result of increased photoconductivity of the activelayer at high light intensity. By studying the intensity dependence ofthe open circuit voltage for nanocrystals with different diameters andthus ! band gaps, it was inferred that Fermi-level pinning occurs at theinterface between the aluminum electrode and the nanocrystal.

  11. Dry Process for Manufacturing Hybridized Boron Fiber/Carbon Fiber Thermoplastic Composite Materials from a Solution Coated Precursor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belvin, Harry L. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus for producing a hybrid boron reinforced polymer matrix composite from precursor tape and a linear array of boron fibers. The boron fibers are applied onto the precursor tapes and the precursor tape processed within a processing component having an impregnation bar assembly. After passing through variable-dimension forming nip-rollers, the precursor tape with the boron fibers becomes a hybrid boron reinforced polymer matrix composite. A driving mechanism is used to pulled the precursor tape through the method and a take-up spool is used to collect the formed hybrid boron reinforced polymer matrix composite.

  12. Impact performance characteristics and modeling failure mechanisms of pultruded glass-graphite/epoxy hybrid composite beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowsika, Murthy V. S. L. N.

    In this study, investigation was performed to comprehend the influence of hybridization on the impact performance in terms of the energy absorption characteristics and delamination fracture toughness of pultruded uni-directional composite materials. In order to evaluate the improvements/changes in the impact performance as a result of hybridization, apart from considering mono-fiber reinforced all-graphite and all-glass composites, several types of sandwich hybrid composites comprising of both graphite as well as glass fibers were included in the investigation. By keeping a constant overall fiber content, the lay-up sequence and the volume fraction of each type of fiber are altered in these pultruded composites to determine the trend in the mechanical behavior as a result of hybridization. The response of pultruded all-graphite, all-glass and glass-graphite hybrid composites is evaluated under two different incident impact energy conditions. A high incident energy (HIE) and a low incident energy (LIE) of impact are chosen to cause either complete fracture or induce delamination, respectively, for assessing the energy absorption characteristics (crashworthiness) and delamination fracture toughness of these composites. Finite element modeling is performed under static as well as dynamic loading conditions to simulate the stress distribution and to predict the energy absorption behavior of composites. Progressive damage due to sequential ply failure was modeled by utilizing the failure strain data obtained from static and HTE impact tests for analyzing the post-initial ply failure characteristics of pultruded composites. Finite element modeling was also performed to simulate delamination crack propagation at various levels through the thickness. The strain energy release rate computed using the virtual crack closure technique was monitored to determine the likelihood of delamination crack propagation with increment in crack growth for the pultruded composites under

  13. North-Polar Lunar Light Plains: Ages and Compositional Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehler, U.; Head, J. W., III; Neukum, G.; Wolf, U.

    1999-01-01

    Varying surface ages of lunar light plains in northern-nearside latitudes indicate an origin of these smooth terrae units not exclusively related to Imbrium and/or Orientale impact ejecta. and subsequent processes. Multispectral data seem to support a more diversified history for many of these plains. The nature, ages, stratigraphic position, composition, and mode of emplacement of lunar light plains have been discussed with controversy for more than three decades. Covering about 5% of the lunar terra surface, the relatively low albedo plains are the most distinctive terra landforms after the more crater-like ejecta of the fresh basins. Morphological properties, like their smoothness, lower crater densities, their superposition on the "Imbrian Sculpture," and frequent occurence as crater fill, are mare-like. Other features, such as relative (compared to mare basalts) high-albedo and geological/stratigraphical setting, are more highland-like. Not surprisingly, light plains were seen as both volcanic and impact related deposits. The Cayley Plains, a type locality in the central-nearside highlands, has been chosen as the landing site of the Apollo XVI mission partly to help resolve these interpretations. The astronauts collected samples - highly brecciated rocks - and concluded that the Cayley was indeed of impact origin. These findings have been extrapolated to stratigraphically similar plains units on the nearside, focusing on the Imbrium and Orientale impacts as responsible events for resurfacing terrae environment to form light plains. In addition, theoretical modeling mechanisms have been provided that could explain how basin and crater ejecta were able to make up for the smoothness of light plains by stirring up local material through secondary-impact related processes, or mega impact induced seismic shaking. However, subsequent age determinations showed that some light plains cannot be correlated to the Imbrium or Orientale event, the last two basin

  14. Alteration of lunar optical properties: age and composition effects.

    PubMed

    Adams, J B; McCord, T B

    1971-02-12

    A model for lunar surface processes is presented which explains the main albedo and color contrasts and the temporal changes in these optical properties. Evidence from Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 samples and telescopic spectral reflectivity measurements indicates that the maria are similar in mineralogy on a regional scale and that the highlands are consistent with an anorthositic-gabbro composition. Bright craters and rays in both regions expose materials that are relatively crystalline compared with their backgrounds, which are richer in dark glass. With age, bright craters and rays in the maria darken in place by meteorite impact-induced vitrification and mixing with the surrounding material. Highland bright craters and rays may, however, darken primarily through regional contamination by iron- and titanium-rich mare material.

  15. Edge crack growth of thermally aged graphite/polyimide composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    Laminates of Celion 6000/LARC-160 and Celion 6000/PMR-15 graphite/polyimide composite materials were aged in air at temperatures of 202, 232, 260 and 288 C for various times up to 15,000 hours. Three unidirectional specimen types were studied: short beam shear (SBS), flexure, and 153 mm square panels. The interior region of the square panels exhibited little or no property degradation, whereas both laminate materials degraded and cracked preferentially at the specimen edge perpendicular to the fibers. Using a dye penetrant, the specimens were X-rayed and the crack depth measured as a function of time and temperature. A time temperature superposition of the crack data was successfully performed using an Arrhenius form for the shift factor. A direct correlation was found for edge crack depth and SBS strength for the LARC-160 laminates but the correlation for PMR-15 laminates was more complex.

  16. Applications of multifunctional polymer-matrix composites in hybrid heat sinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Siu N.; Khan, Omer M.; Naguib, Hani E.; Dawson, Francis; Adinkrah, Vincent

    2012-04-01

    Designers of electronic devices and telecommunications equipment have used three-dimensional chip architecture, comprised of a vertically integrated stack of chips, to increase the number of transistors on integrated circuits. These latest chips generate excessive amount of heat, and thus can reach unacceptably high temperatures. In this context, this research aims to develop thermally conductive liquid crystal polymer (LCP)/hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) composite films to replace the traditionally-used Kapton films that satisfy the electrical insulation requirements for the attachment of heat sinks to the chips without compromising the heat dissipation performance. Parametric study was conducted to elucidate the effects of hBN contents on the heat dissipation ability of the composite. The performance of the hybrid heat sinks were experimentally simulated by measuring the temperature distribution of the hybrid heat sinks attached to a 10 W square-faced (i.e., 10 cm by 10 cm) heater. Experimental simulation show that the maximum temperature of the heater mounted with a hybrid heat sink reduced with increased hBN content. It is believed the fibrillation of LCP matrix leads to highly ordered structure, promoting heat dissipation ability of the electrically insulating pad of the hybrid heat sink.

  17. Sensory properties of hybrid composites based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-porous silicon-carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olenych, Igor B.; Aksimentyeva, Olena I.; Monastyrskii, Liubomyr S.; Horbenko, Yulia Yu; Yarytska, Lidia I.

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we have prepared film sensor elements based on a hybrid system poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-porous silicon nanocrystals-carbon nanotubes on flexible polymer substrates. Our FTIR spectroscopy-based studies for the molecular structure of the materials obtained suggest some interaction of their components in the hybrid layer. The influence of adsorption of water molecules on the conductivity and capacitance of the hybrid composites has been investigated in the temperature range of 20°C to 40°C. We have detected essential changes in the electrical conductivity and capacitance which depend on the humidity of the surrounding atmosphere. For estimating the sensing properties of our composites, we have analyzed the sensing abilities of the hybrid systems and their dynamic characteristics. The hybrid composites as working materials for the sensors provide improved performance of the latter. In particular, the response time is reduced by 3 to 5 times.

  18. Flexural Properties of E Glass and TR50S Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Hybrid Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Chensong; Sudarisman; Davies, Ian J.

    2013-01-01

    A study on the flexural properties of E glass and TR50S carbon fiber reinforced hybrid composites is presented in this paper. Specimens were made by the hand lay-up process in an intra-ply configuration with varying degrees of glass fibers added to the surface of a carbon laminate. These specimens were then tested in the three-point bend configuration in accordance with ASTM D790-07 at three span-to-depth ratios: 16, 32, and 64. The failure modes were examined under an optical microscope. The flexural behavior was also simulated by finite element analysis, and the flexural modulus, flexural strength, and strain to failure were calculated. It is shown that although span-to-depth ratio shows an influence on the stress-strain relationship, it has no effect on the failure mode. The majority of specimens failed by either in-plane or out-of-plane local buckling followed by kinking and splitting at the compressive GFRP side and matrix cracking combined with fiber breakage at the CFRP tensile face. It is shown that positive hybrid effects exist for the flexural strengths of most of the hybrid configurations. The hybrid effect is noted to be more obvious when the hybrid ratio is small, which may be attributed to the relative position of the GFRP layer(s) with respect to the neutral plane. In contrast to this, flexural modulus seems to obey the rule of mixtures equation.

  19. In vivo animal models of body composition in aging

    SciTech Connect

    Yasumura, S. |; Jones, K.; Spanne, P.; Schidlovsky, G.; Wielopolski, L.; Ren, X.; Glaros, D.; Xatzikonstantinou, Y. |

    1992-12-31

    We developed several techniques that provide data on body elemental composition from in vivo measurements in rats. These methods include total body potassium by whole-body counting of endogenous {sup 40}K; total body calcium (TBCa), sodium and chloride by in vivo neutron activation analysis and total body phosphorus (TBP) and nitrogen (TBN) by photon activation analysis. These elements provide information on total body fat, total body protein and skeletal mass. Measurements were made in 6-, 12- and 24-month-old rats. TBN Increased slightly between 6 and 12 months but was significantly lower by 24 months, indicating a substantial loss in total body protein. Working at the National Synchrotron light Source, we studied rat femurs by computed microtomography (CMT), and the elemental profile of the femur cortex by synchrotron-radiation induced X-ray emission (SRIXE). Although there were no significant changes in TBCA and TBP, indices of skeletal mass, CMT revealed a marked increase in the size and number of cavities in the endosteal region of the femur cortex with increasing age. The SRIXE analysis of this cortical bone revealed a parallel decrease in the endosteal Ca/P ratio. Thus, there are major alterations in bone morphology and regional elemental composition despite only modest changes in total skeletal mass.

  20. A review of composite material applications in the automotive industry for the electric and hybrid vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    A review is made of the state-of-the-art in regard to the use of composite materials for reducing the structural mass of automobiles. Reduction of mass provides, in addition to other engineering improvements, increased performance/range advantages that are particularly needed in the electric and hybrid vehicle field. Problems encountered include the attainment of mass production techniques and the prevention of environmental hazards.

  1. Chemical composition and in situ dry matter and fiber disappearance of sorghum x Sudangrass hybrids.

    PubMed

    Beck, P A; Hutchison, S; Gunter, S A; Losi, T C; Stewart, C B; Capps, P K; Phillips, J M

    2007-02-01

    Three sorghum x Sudangrass hybrids were planted in twelve 0.2-ha plots to test the effect of date of harvest and hybrid on plant maturity, DM yield, chemical composition, and in situ DM and fiber disappearance. Sweet Sunny Sue (a non-brown midrib (BMR) hybrid; nonBMR), NutriPlus BMR (a BMR hybrid; NP-BMR), and Dry Stalk BMR (a BMR hybrid; DS-BMR) were planted on 26 June 2003 at 22.4 kg of seed/ha. Beginning 34 d after planting, plant height and phenological growth stage were assessed weekly in 10 random, 0.5-m(2) quadrats per plot. Plants were clipped to 2.5 cm in height and analyzed for CP, NDF, and ADF using near-infrared spectroscopy. Composite samples harvested from each plot on d 34, 48, and 63 were incubated in the rumen of 3 steers to determine the in situ disappearance of DM and NDF in a 3 x 3 Latin square. Forage yield was greater (P < or =0.02) for nonBMR than NP-BMR on d 41 and 55 and tended (P = 0.08) to be greater on d 48. The DS-BMR hybrid produced more (P = 0.04) forage DM than the NP-BMR on d 48. When DM yield was regressed on growth stage at harvest, BMR hybrids were predicted to produce 265 kg/ha more DM (P < 0.01) than nonBMR, at the late-boot stage. At all harvest dates, NDF concentrations were less (P < or =0.02) for BMR than nonBMR. The DS-BMR had greater (P < or =0.02) NDF concentrations than NP-BMR on d 41, 48, 55, and 63. Detergent fiber concentrations were predicted to be greater (P < 0.01) in nonBMR than BMR when regressed on growth stage at harvest, but the magnitude of the differences in fiber concentration diminished with growth stage. The A fractions of DM and NDF were greater (P < 0.01) and the C fraction was less (P < 0.01) for BMR hybrids than nonBMR. The B fraction of DM was not affected (P = 0.15) by hybrid type. The B fraction of NDF was not different (P = 0.28) on d 34 but was greater (P < 0.01) on d 48 and 63 for BMR than nonBMR. Effective degradability of NDF and DM was greater (P < 0.02) for BMR than nonBMR on all harvest

  2. Physico-mechanical and tribological properties of Grewia Optiva fiber/bio-particulates hybrid polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Gangil, Brijesh; Patel, Vinay Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Lack of resources and increasing environmental issues has received widespread attention for the development of natural fiber/ particulate reinforced hybrid polymer composites. In the present investigation the authors use (GO) Grewia Optiva as the main reinforcement and rice husk/wheat straw as additional particulates for improving the mechanical and wear properties of polymer composites. The samples were prepared by hand layup technique according to ASTM standards. The results indicated that incorporation of wheat straw with GO polymer materials exhibited better hardness (2.5 times harder) and less wear (0.85 times) than mono GO fiber polymer composites (GOFRP). Moreover, Rice husk filled GOFRP shows superior impact energy among the all set of composites. Water absorption behavior was also discussed in this investigation.

  3. Graphene-Based Hybrid Composites for Efficient Thermal Management of Electronic Devices.

    PubMed

    Shtein, Michael; Nadiv, Roey; Buzaglo, Matat; Regev, Oren

    2015-10-28

    Thermal management has become a critical aspect in next-generation miniaturized electronic devices. Efficient heat dissipation reduces their operating temperatures and insures optimal performance, service life, and efficacy. Shielding against shocks, vibrations, and moisture is also imperative when the electronic circuits are located outdoors. Potting (or encapsulating) them in polymer-based composites with enhanced thermal conductivity (TC) may provide a solution for both thermal management and shielding challenges. In the current study, graphene is employed as a filler to fabricate composites with isotropic ultrahigh TC (>12 W m(-1) K(-1)) and good mechanical properties (>30 MPa flexural and compressive strength). To avoid short-circuiting the electronic assemblies, a dispersion of secondary ceramic-based filler reduces the electrical conductivity and synergistically enhances the TC of composites. When utilized as potting materials, these novel hybrid composites effectively dissipate the heat from electronic devices; their operating temperatures decrease from 110 to 37 °C, and their effective thermal resistances are drastically reduced, by up to 90%. The simple filler dispersion method and the precise manipulation of the composite transport properties via hybrid filling offer a universal approach to the large-scale production of novel materials for thermal management and other applications.

  4. A study on flexural and water absorption of surface modified rice husk flour/E-glass/polypropylene hybrid composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rassiah, K.; Sin, T. W.; Ismail, M. Z.

    2016-10-01

    This work is to study the effects of rice husk (RH)/E-Glass (EG)/polypropylene (PP) hybrid composites in terms of flexural and water absorption properties. The tests conducted are the flexural test and also the water absorption test using two types of water: distilled and sea water. The hybrid composites are prepared with various ratios of fibre weight fractions and the rice husk is treated using 2% Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) to improve interaction and adhesion between the non-polar matrix and the polar lignocellulosic fibres. It was found that the content of rice husk/E-Glass fillers affected the structural integrity and flexural properties of hybrid composites. In addition, a higher ratio of rice husk contributes to higher water absorption in the hybrid composites.

  5. Effect of winding layer and speed on kenaf/glass fiber hybrid reinforced acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoni, Norizzahthul Ainaa Abdul; Sharifah Shahnaz S., B.; Ghazali, Che Mohd Ruzaidi

    2016-07-01

    The usage of natural fiber is becoming significant in composite industries due to their good performance. Single and continuous natural fibers have relatively high mechanical properties; especially their young modulus can be as high as glass fibers. Filament winding is a method to produce technically aligned composites which have high fibers content. The properties of filament winding can be tailored to meet the end product requirements. This research studied the compression properties of kenaf/glass fibers hybrid reinforced composites. Kenaf/glass fibers hybrid composite samples were fabricated by filament winding technique and their properties were compared with the properties of neat kenaf fiber and glass fibers composites. The kenaf/glass fiber hybrid composites exhibited higher strength compared to the neat glass fibers composites. Composites of helical pattern, which produced at low winding speed showed better compression resistance than hoop pattern winding, which produced at high winding speed. As predicted, kenaf composite showed highest water absorption; followed by kenaf/glass fiber hybrid composites while neat glass fiber has lowest water absorption capability.

  6. Effects of biomass type, blend composition, and co-pyrolysis temperature on hybrid coal quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasongko, Dwiwahju; Wulandari, Winny; Rubani, Inga Shaffira; Rusydiansyah, Rifqi

    2017-01-01

    An experimental study on co-pyrolysis of coal with biomass wastes to produce hybrid coal was conducted to investigate the effects of important process variables, namely biomass type (rice husk and sawdust), blend composition, and co-pyrolysis temperature on the quality of hybrid coal. The experiments were carried out using a vertical tubular furnace equipped with temperature controller to maintain the co-pyrolysis reactor at a given temperature. Nitrogen gas was introduced into the furnace to create an inert environment preventing the sample from burning. A known mass of solid sample consisting of manually granulated blend of coal and biomass with binder in spherical shape was contained in a basket made of stainless sieve. After a given residence time, the sample was taken from the furnace. The blend sample prior to experiment and the produced hybrid coal were then characterized for its proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and calorific value. Experimental findings suggested that by increasing co-pyrolysis temperature from 200 to 400 °C, the calorific value of hybrid coal will increase by 14.5-17.7% to be 5585-7060 kcal/kg. It was also showed that 30% increase in the biomass content in the fuel blend would produce a hybrid coal that emitting up to 25.9% less in CO2 when used for combustion, although its calorific value decreased down to 8% compared to the biomass blend. It is shown that hybrid coal obtained from this study is comparable in calorific value to bituminous coal, thus suitable for power plant while being more environmentally friendly.

  7. Age-dependent morphological and compositional variations on Ceres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Extended smooth plains cover the interior of a number of craters on Ceres. Smooth plains appear on different topographic levels associated with pits and flow-like features that overrun crater rims. The material forming these plains also ponds in depressions and smaller craters and cover the pre-existing surface creating distinct geological boundaries. Ikapati crater shows smooth plains on different topographic levels associated with pits and flow-like features that overrun crater rims. The material forming these plains, ponds in depressions and smaller craters and cover the pre-existing surface creating a distinct geological boundary. The interior of Occator also exhibits extended plains of ponded material, multiple flows originating from the center overwhelming the mass wasting deposits from the rim, dome-like features, vents cracks and fissures. Furthermore, crater densities on Occator's floor are lower than those on the ejecta blanket indicating a post-impact formation age of the flows. The flows to the northeast appear to originate from the central region and move slightly uphill. This indicates either a feeding zone that pushes the flows forward by supplying low-viscosity material or a depression of the crater center, possibly after discharging a subsurface reservoir. The plains and flows as well as some areas surrounding the craters appear spectrally blue. Both plains and flow material are characterized in camera and spectrometer visible spectra by a slightly negative slope with a gradual drop off up to 10% in reflectance from 0.5μm to 1μm. Although the spectral variations in the visible are subtle, they are clearly expressed in the color ratio composite. The crater densities of 20 locations across the surface of Ceres with different spectral behavior were analyzed in order to investigate the age dependence of spectral surface features. The results indicate that bluish material is mainly associated with the youngest impact craters on Ceres (< 0.5 Ga) while

  8. Sex chromosome loss and aging: In situ hybridization studies on human interphase nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Guttenbach, M.; Koschorz, B.; Bernthaler, U.

    1995-11-01

    A total of 1,000 lymphocyte interphase nuclei per proband from 90 females and 138 males age 1 wk to 93 years were analyzed by in situ hybridization for loss of the X and Y chromosomes, respectively. Both sex chromosomes showed an age-dependent loss. In males, Y hypoploidy was very low up to age 15 years (0.05%) but continuously increased to a frequency of 1.34% in men age 76-80 years. In females, the baseline level for X chromosome loss is much higher than that seen for the Y chromosome in males. Even prepubertal females show a rate of X chromosome loss on the order of 1.5%-2.5%, rising to {approximately}4.5%-5% in women older than 75 years. Dividing the female probands into three biological age groups on the basis of sex hormone function (<13 years, 13-51 years, and >51 years), a significant correlation of X chromosome loss versus age could clearly be demonstrated in women beyond age 51 years. Females age 51-91 years showed monosomy X at a rate from 3.2% to 5.1%. In contrast to sex chromosomal loss, the frequency of autosomal monosomies does not change during the course of aging: chromosome 1 and chromosome 17 monosomic cells were found with a constant incidence of 1.2% and 1%, respectively. These data also indicate that autosome loss in interphase nuclei is not a function of chromosome size. 34 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Sex chromosome loss and aging: in situ hybridization studies on human interphase nuclei.

    PubMed Central

    Guttenbach, M; Koschorz, B; Bernthaler, U; Grimm, T; Schmid, M

    1995-01-01

    A total of 1,000 lymphocyte interphase nuclei per proband from 90 females and 138 males age 1 wk to 93 years were analyzed by in situ hybridization for loss of the X and Y chromosomes, respectively. Both sex chromosomes showed an age-dependent loss. In males, Y hypoploidy was very low up to age 15 years (0.05%) but continuously increased to a frequency of 1.34% in men age 76-80 years. In females, the baseline level for X chromosome loss is much higher than that seen for the Y chromosome in males. Even prepubertal females show a rate of X chromosome loss, on the order of 1.5%-2.5%, rising to approximately 4.5%-5% in women older than 75 years. Dividing the female probands into three biological age groups on the basis of sex hormone function (< 13 years, 13-51 years, and > 51 years), a significant correlation of X chromosome loss versus age could clearly be demonstrated in women beyond age 51 years. Females age 51-91 years showed monosomy X at a rate from 3.2% to 5.1%. In contrast to sex chromosomal loss, the frequency of autosomal monosomies does not change during the course of aging: Chromosome 1 and chromosome 17 monosomic cells were found with a constant incidence of 1.2% and 1%, respectively. These data also indicate that autosome loss in interphase nuclei is not a function of chromosome size. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7485166

  10. In vitro performance of lipid-PLGA hybrid nanoparticles as an antigen delivery system: lipid composition matters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yun; Ehrich, Marion; Fuhrman, Kristel; Zhang, Chenming

    2014-08-01

    Due to the many beneficial properties combined from both poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) and liposomes, lipid-PLGA hybrid NPs have been intensively studied as cancer drug delivery systems, bio-imaging agent carriers, as well as antigen delivery vehicles. However, the impact of lipid composition on the performance of lipid-PLGA hybrid NPs as a delivery system has not been well investigated. In this study, the influence of lipid composition on the stability of the hybrid NPs and in vitro antigen release from NPs under different conditions was examined. The uptake of hybrid NPs with various surface charges by dendritic cells (DCs) was carefully studied. The results showed that PLGA NPs enveloped by a lipid shell with more positive surface charges could improve the stability of the hybrid NPs, enable better controlled release of antigens encapsulated in PLGA NPs, as well as enhance uptake of NPs by DC.

  11. Hybrid composites made from recycled materials: moisture absorption and thickness swelling behavior.

    PubMed

    Ashori, Alireza; Sheshmani, Shabnam

    2010-06-01

    In this research, hybrid composite materials were made from the combination of recycled newspaper fiber (RNF) and poplar wood flour (PWF) as reinforcement, recycled polypropylene (RPP) as polymer matrix, and maleated polypropylene (MAPP) as coupling agent, by using injection molding. The effects of weight fractions of fibers and coupling agent concentration on the physical properties of the composites in terms of water absorption and thickness were studied. Composites containing more fraction of RNF exhibited maximum water absorption during the whole duration of immersion. This effect can be explained by the presence of a high amount of holocellulose present in the RNF, compared to the PWF. The addition of MAPP exhibited a beneficial effect on both the water absorption and thickness swelling by improving the quality of adhesion between polymer and fibers.

  12. Influence of Stacking Sequence on the Impact and Postimpact Bending Behavior of Hybrid Sandwich Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özen, M.

    2017-01-01

    A new hybrid sandwich structure was developed by using carbon, e-glass, and s-glass fabrics as reinforcement materials, an epoxy resin as the matrix material for face sheets, and a PVC foam as the core material. Six different configurations were prepared. Sandwich composites plates with different stacking sequences were subjected to low-speed impacts will energies of 7.5, 15, and 22.5 J. Their impact response is analyzed and reported in terms of the peak load as a function of impact energy. After impact tests, 3-point bending tests were conducted to determine the bending behavior of the sandwich composites after impacts in terms of their flexural strength. The results obtained showed that the use of carbon fabrics in the face sheets increased the peak loads for all the impact energies considered. The presence of carbon fibers in skin regions increased the flexural strength of the composites, but e-glass fibers decreased this strength.

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of the Graphene-Fe3O4 Hybrid Composite.

    PubMed

    Myekhlai, Munkhshur; Lee, Taejin; Lee, Sinil; Kim, Junhyo; Kang, Donghoon; Noh, Jungpil; Huh, Sunchul; Chung, Hanshik; Jeong, Hyomin

    2015-03-01

    Graphene and iron oxide composites have attracted huge attention in the fields of nanoelectronics and nanodevices due to their superior magnetic and electric characteristics. However, their synthesis methods are composed of many steps and use toxic chemical reactants. Accordingly, in this study, a GN-Fe3O4 NP hybrid composite was prepared using an eco-friendly and facile method. Its morphological and structural characteristics were then investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometer and UV-visible spectroscopy. The results indicated that the GN structures as well as Fe3O4 NPs were significantly associated with the composite of GN-Fe3O4 NPs.

  14. Finite-Element Analysis of Jute- and Coir-Fiber-Reinforced Hybrid Composite Multipanel Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nirbhay, M.; Misra, R. K.; Dixit, A.

    2015-09-01

    Natural-fiber-reinforced polymer composite materials are rapidly gaining interest worldwide both in terms of research and industrial applications. The present work includes the characterization and modeling of jute- and coir-fiber-reinforced hybrid composite materials. The mechanical behavior of a two-panel plate and a sixpanel box structure is analyzed under various loading regimes by using the finite-element software ABAQUS®. Exhaustive parametric studies are also performed to obtain a clear insight into the relationships between various parameters and deflections of the panels and stress distributions in them. Deflections of both the structures are compared and found to be in good agreement with published results. To determine the mechanical behavior of natural-fiber-reinforced composite panels, a finite-element analysis is performed.

  15. Hybrids between chum Oncorhynchus keta and pink Oncorhynchus gorbuscha salmon: age, growth and morphology and effects on salmon production.

    PubMed

    Zhivotovsky, L A; Tochilina, T G; Shaikhaev, E G; Pogodin, V P; Malinina, T V; Gharrett, A J

    2016-10-01

    Mature hybrids between chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, which were identified by an intermediate colour pattern, were caught at the Kurilsky Hatchery, Iturup Island, Russia. Most of them were female and 3 years old (a partial freshwater year and 2 marine years), which is intermediate between the ages of maturity of the parental species. The hybrids exceed both parental species in the rate of growth, are large in size and robust and might successfully compete for mating in the wild or be chosen for artificial reproduction. The ratio of the scale length over width, R, is oblate (R < 1), whereas scales of the parental species are prolate (R > 1). From scale analyses, the c.v. in body size of hybrid females at the second marine year is twice that of O. keta, which suggests developmental instability in the hybrid. A dynamic model predicted that continuing hybridization at a low rate does not produce a substantial hybrid load due to selection against advanced-generation hybrids and backcrosses. A high hybridization rate, however, may be an additional risk for genetic management and should be taken into account in programmes of artificial reproduction of Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp., although such hybrids might have commercial use in confined production systems.

  16. Spatial reference memory in normal aging Fischer 344 × Brown Norway F1 hybrid rats.

    PubMed

    McQuail, Joseph A; Nicolle, Michelle M

    2015-01-01

    Fischer 344 × Brown Norway F1 (F344 × BN-F1) hybrid rats express greater longevity with improved health relative to aging rodents of other strains; however, few behavioral reports have thoroughly evaluated cognition across the F344 × BN-F1 lifespan. Consequently, this study evaluated spatial reference memory in F344 × BN-F1 rats at 6, 18, 24, or 28 months of age in the Morris water maze. Reference memory decrements were observed between 6 and 18 months and 18 and 24 months. At 28 months, spatial learning was not worse than 24 months, but swim speed was significantly slower. Reliable individual differences revealed that ∼50% of 24- to 28-month-old rats performed similarly to 6 months, whereas others were spatial learning impaired. Aged rats were impaired at learning within daily training sessions but not impaired at retaining information between days of training. Aged rats were also slower to learn to escape onto the platform, regardless of strategy. In summary, these data clarify the trajectory of cognitive decline in aging F344 × BN-F1 rats and elucidate relevant behavioral parameters.

  17. Hydrogen storage behaviors of Ni-doped graphene Oxide/MIL-101 hybrid composites.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seul-Yi; Park, Soo-Jin

    2013-01-01

    In this work, Ni-doped graphene oxide/MIL-101 hybrid composites (Ni--GO/MIL) were prepared to investigate their hydrogen storage behaviors. Ni--GO/MIL was synthesized by adding Ni--GO in situ during the synthesis of MIL-101 using a hydrothermal process, which was conducted by conventional convection heating with Cr(III) ion as a metal center and telephthalic acid as organic ligands. The crystalline structures and morphologies were measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The specific surface area and micropore volume were investigated by N2/77 K adsorption isotherms using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method and Dubinin-Radushkevic (D-R) equation, respectively. The hydrogen storage capacity was investigated by BEL-HP at 77 K and 1 bar. The obtained results show that Ni--GO/MIL presents new directions for achieving novel hybrid materials with higher hydrogen storage capacity.

  18. A hybrid method based upon nonlinear Lamb wave response for locating a delamination in composite laminates.

    PubMed

    Yelve, Nitesh P; Mitra, Mira; Mujumdar, P M; Ramadas, C

    2016-08-01

    A new hybrid method based upon nonlinear Lamb wave response in time and frequency domains is introduced to locate a delamination in composite laminates. In Lamb wave based nonlinear method, the presence of damage is shown by the appearance of higher harmonics in the Lamb wave response. The proposed method not only uses this spectral information but also the corresponding temporal response data, for locating the delamination. Thus, the method is termed as a hybrid method. The paper includes formulation of the method and its application to locate a Barely Visible Impact Damage (BVID) induced delamination in a Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) laminate. The method gives the damage location fairly well. It is a baseline free method, as it does not need data from the pristine specimen.

  19. Projected equations of motion approach to hybrid quantum/classical dynamics in dielectric-metal composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Ryan J.; Stella, Lorenzo; Grüning, Myrta

    2016-09-01

    We introduce a hybrid method for dielectric-metal composites that describes the dynamics of the metallic system classically while retaining a quantum description of the dielectric. The time-dependent dipole moment of the classical system is mimicked by the introduction of projected equations of motion (PEOM), and the coupling between the two systems is achieved through an effective dipole-dipole interaction. To benchmark this method, we model a test system (semiconducting quantum dot-metal nanoparticle hybrid). We begin by examining the energy absorption rate, showing agreement between the PEOM method and the analytical rotating wave approximation (RWA) solution. We then investigate population inversion and show that the PEOM method provides an accurate model for the interaction under ultrashort pulse excitation where the traditional RWA breaks down.

  20. Simulation of ultrasonic inspection of curved composites using a hybrid semi-analytical/numerical code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reverdy, Frédéric; Mahaut, Steve; Dominguez, Nicolas; Dubois, Philippe

    2015-03-01

    Carbon Fiber reinforced composites are increasingly used in structural parts in the aeronautics industry, as they allow to reduce the weight of aircrafts while maintaining high mechanical performances. However, such structures can be complicated to inspect due to their complex geometries and complex composite properties, leading to highly heterogeneous and anisotropic materials. Different potential damages and manufacturing flaws related to these parts are to be detected: porosities, ply waviness, delaminations after impact. Ultrasonic inspection, which is commonly used to test the full volume of composite panels, thus has to cope with both complex wave propagation (within anisotropic parts whose crystallographic orientation varies according to the layers structure) and flaw interaction (local distortion of plies such as ply waviness, small pores, structural noise due to periodicity patterns…). Developing NDT procedures for those parts therefore requires simulation tools to help for understanding those phenomena, and to optimize probes and techniques. Within the CIVA multi-techniques platform, CEA-LIST has developed semi-analytical tools for ultrasonic techniques, which have the advantages of high computational efficiency (fast calculations), but with limited range of application due to some hypothesis (for instance, homogenization approaches which don't allow to take account of structural noise). On the other hand, numerical methods such as finite element (FEM) or finite difference in time domain (FDTD) are more suitable to compute ultrasonic wave propagation and defect scattering in complex materials such as composite but require more computational efforts. Hybrid methods couple semi-analytical solutions and numerical computations in limited spatial domains to handle complex cases with high computation performances. In CIVA we have integrated a hybrid model that combines the semi-analytical methods developed at CEA to FDTD codes developed at Airbus Group

  1. Laser induction hybrid rapid cladding of WC particles reinforced NiCrBSi composite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shengfeng; Dai, Xiaoqin

    2010-05-01

    In order to investigate the microstructure characteristics and properties of Ni-based WC composite coatings containing a relatively large amount of WC particles by laser induction hybrid rapid cladding (LIHRC) and compare to the individual laser cladding without preheating, Ni60A + 35 wt.% WC composite coatings are deposited on A3 steel plates by LIHRC and the individual laser cladding without preheating. The composite coating produced by the individual laser cladding without preheating exhibits many cracks and pores, while the smooth composite coating without cracks and pores is obtained by LIHRC. Moreover, the cast WC particles take on the similar dissolution characteristics in Ni60A + 35 wt.% WC composite coatings by LIHRC and the individual laser cladding without preheating. Namely, the completely dissolved WC particles interact with Ni-based alloy solvent to precipitate the blocky and herringbone carbides, while the partially dissolved WC particles still preserve the primary lamellar eutectic structure. A few WC particles are split at the interface of WC and W 2C, and then interact with Ni-based alloy solvent to precipitate the lamellar carbides. Compared with the individual laser cladding without preheating, LIHRC has the relatively lower temperature gradient and the relatively higher laser scanning speed. Therefore, LIHRC can produce the crack-free composite coating with relatively higher microhardness and relatively more homogeneous distribution of WC particles and is successfully applied to strengthen the corrugated roller, showing that LIHRC process has a higher efficiency and good cladding quality.

  2. SimConcept: a hybrid approach for simplifying composite named entities in biomedical text.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chih-Hsuan; Leaman, Robert; Lu, Zhiyong

    2015-07-01

    One particular challenge in biomedical named entity recognition (NER) and normalization is the identification and resolution of composite named entities, where a single span refers to more than one concept (e.g., BRCA1/2). Previous NER and normalization studies have either ignored composite mentions, used simple ad hoc rules, or only handled coordination ellipsis, making a robust approach for handling multitype composite mentions greatly needed. To this end, we propose a hybrid method integrating a machine-learning model with a pattern identification strategy to identify the individual components of each composite mention. Our method, which we have named SimConcept, is the first to systematically handle many types of composite mentions. The technique achieves high performance in identifying and resolving composite mentions for three key biological entities: genes (90.42% in F-measure), diseases (86.47% in F-measure), and chemicals (86.05% in F-measure). Furthermore, our results show that using our SimConcept method can subsequently improve the performance of gene and disease concept recognition and normalization. SimConcept is available for download at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Lu/Demo/SimConcept/.

  3. SimConcept: A Hybrid Approach for Simplifying Composite Named Entities in Biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chih-Hsuan; Leaman, Robert; Lu, Zhiyong

    Many text-mining studies have focused on the issue of named entity recognition and normalization, especially in the field of biomedical natural language processing. However, entity recognition is a complicated and difficult task in biomedical text. One particular challenge is to identify and resolve composite named entities, where a single span refers to more than one concept(e.g., BRCA1/2). Most bioconcept recognition and normalization studies have either ignored this issue, used simple ad-hoc rules, or only handled coordination ellipsis, which is only one of the many types of composite mentions studied in this work. No systematic methods for simplifying composite mentions have been previously reported, making a robust approach greatly needed. To this end, we propose a hybrid approach by integrating a machine learning model with a pattern identification strategy to identify the antecedent and conjuncts regions of a concept mention, and then reassemble the composite mention using those identified regions. Our method, which we have named SimConcept, is the first method to systematically handle most types of composite mentions. Our method achieves high performance in identifying and resolving composite mentions for three fundamental biological entities: genes (89.29% in F-measure), diseases (85.52% in F-measure) and chemicals (84.04% in F-measure). Furthermore, our results show that, using our SimConcept method can subsequently help improve the performance of gene and disease concept recognition and normalization.

  4. Hybrid carbon-glass fiber/toughened epoxy thick composites subject to drop-weight and ballistic impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevkat, Ercan

    The goals of this study are to investigate the low velocity and ballistic impact response of thick-section hybrid fiber composites at room temperature. Plain-woven S2-Glass and IM7 Graphite fabrics are chosen as fiber materials reinforcing the SC-79 epoxy. Four different types of composites consisting of alternating layers of glass and graphite woven fabric sheets are considered. Tensile tests are conducted using 98 KN (22 kip) MTS testing machine equipped with environmental chamber. Low-velocity impact tests are conducted using an Instron-Dynatup 8250 impact test machine equipped with an environmental chamber. Ballistic impact tests are performed using helium pressured high-speed gas-gun. Tensile tests results were used to define the material behavior of the hybrid and non-hybrid composites in Finite Element modeling. The low velocity and ballistic impact tests showed that hybrid composites performance was somewhere between non-hybrid woven composites. Using woven glass fabrics as outer skin improved the impact performance of woven graphite composite. However hybrid composites are prone to delamination especially between dissimilar layers. The ballistic limit velocity V50 hybrid composites were higher that of woven graphite composite and lower than that of woven glass composite. Both destructive cross-sectional micrographs and nondestructive ultrasonic techniques are used to evaluate the damage created by impact. The Finite Element code LS-DYNA is chosen to perform numerical simulations of low velocity and ballistic impact on thick-section hybrid composites. The damage progression in these composites shows anisotropic nonlinearity. The material model to describe this behavior is not available in LS-DYNA material library. Initially, linear orthotropic material with damage (Chan-Chan Model) is employed to simulate some of the experimental results. Then, user-defined material subroutine is incorporated into LS-DYNA to simulate the nonlinear behavior. The

  5. Parametric Study of Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of Hybrid Metal Matrix Composite Produced by a Novel Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Pardeep; Sharma, Satpal; Khanduja, Dinesh

    2015-07-01

    In the present research work, silicon nitride (Si3N4) and graphite (Gr) ceramic powders are ball milled to obtain homogeneous mixing and consistent density of combined powder. The ball-milled powder is used as reinforcement for hybrid composite development by stir casting process in the inert atmosphere. After mixing by ball milling for 100 hours, the density of ball-milled (Si3N4 + Gr) powder is measured as 2.81 g/cm3, which is approximately equal to the density of aluminum (2.7 g/cm3). The microstructures and hardness of the manufactured hybrid composites are analyzed and compared with Si3N4- and Gr-reinforced composites. Scanning electron micrograph reveals a reasonably uniform dispersion of ball-milled (Si3N4 + Gr) reinforcement in the metal matrix composites. Hardness results reveal that hybrid composites have more hardness than Gr-reinforced and lower hardness than Si3N4-reinforced composites. The dry sliding wear behavior of aluminum matrix hybrid composites has also been investigated. Response surface methodology is used to develop wear model of hybrid composites using reinforcement percentage ( R), load ( L), sliding speed ( S), and sliding distance ( D) as the process parameters. The results of wear investigation show that increase in sliding speed ( S) and percentage reinforcement ( R) reduce the wear, while increase in sliding distance ( D) or load ( L) increases the wear of the hybrid composites. Further, the load-sliding distance and load-sliding speed interactions increase the wear, while the wear reduces due to sliding speed-sliding distance interaction in the high range. The errors between the modeled and experimental results are found within 3 to 7 pct.

  6. A finite element modeling of a multifunctional hybrid composite beam with viscoelastic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ya; Inman, Daniel J.

    2013-04-01

    The multifunctional hybrid composite structure studied here consists of a ceramic outer layer capable of withstanding high temperatures, a functionally graded ceramic layer combining shape memory alloy (SMA) properties of NiTi together with Ti2AlC (called Graded Ceramic/Metal Composite, or GCMeC), and a high temperature sensor patch, followed by a polymer matrix composite laced with vascular cooling channels all held together with various epoxies. Due to the recoverable nature of SMA and adhesive properties of Ti2AlC, the damping behavior of the GCMeC is largely viscoelastic. This paper presents a finite element formulation for this multifunctional hybrid structure with embedded viscoelastic material. In order to implement the viscoelastic model into the finite element formulation, a second order three parameter Golla-Hughes-McTavish (GHM) method is used to describe the viscoelastic behavior. Considering the parameter identification, a strategy to estimate the fractional order of the time derivative and the relaxation time is outlined. The curve-fitting aspects of both GHM and ADF show good agreement with experimental data obtained from dynamic mechanics analysis. The performance of the finite element of the layered multifunctional beam is verified through experimental model analysis.

  7. Investigation of the mechanical properties and failure modes of hybrid natural fiber composites for potential bone fracture fixation plates.

    PubMed

    Manteghi, Saeed; Mahboob, Zia; Fawaz, Zouheir; Bougherara, Habiba

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanical feasibility of a hybrid Glass/Flax/Epoxy composite material for bone fracture fixation such as fracture plates. These hybrid composite plates have a sandwich structure in which the outer layers are made of Glass/Epoxy and the core from Flax/Epoxy. This configuration resulted in a unique structure compared to prior composites proposed for similar clinical applications. In order to evaluate the mechanical properties of this hybrid composite, uniaxial tension, compression, three-point bending and Rockwell Hardness tests were conducted. In addition, water absorption tests were performed to investigate the rate of water absorption for the specimens. This study confirms that the proposed hybrid composite plates are significantly more flexible axially compared to conventional metallic plates. Furthermore, they have considerably higher ultimate strength in tension, compression and flexion. Such high strength will ensure good stability of bone-implant construct at the fracture site, immobilize adjacent bone fragments and carry clinical-type forces experienced during daily normal activities. Moreover, this sandwich structure with stronger and stiffer face sheets and more flexible core can result in a higher stiffness and strength in bending compared to tension and compression. These qualities make the proposed hybrid composite an ideal candidate for the design of an optimized fracture fixation system with much closer mechanical properties to human cortical bone.

  8. Comprehensive embryo analysis of advanced maternal age-related aneuploidies and mosaicism by short comparative genomic hybridization.

    PubMed

    Rius, Mariona; Daina, Gemma; Obradors, Albert; Ramos, Laia; Velilla, Esther; Fernández, Sílvia; Martínez-Passarell, Olga; Benet, Jordi; Navarro, Joaquima

    2011-01-01

    The short comparative genomic hybridization (short-CGH) method was used to perform a comprehensive cytogenetic study of isolated blastomeres from advanced maternal age embryos, discarded after fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) preimplantation genetic screening (PGS), detecting aneuploidies (38.5% of which corresponded to chromosomes not screened by 9-chromosome FISH), structural aberrations (31.8%), and mosaicism (77.3%). The short-CGH method was subsequently applied in one PGS, achieving a twin pregnancy.

  9. Hybrid Finite Element Analysis of Free Edge Effect in Symmetric Composite Laminates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    ANALYSIS OF FREE EDGE EFFECT IN L AUTHOR(S 61102F S.W. Lee237B J.J. Rhiu S.C. Won,, I ~ 7. PENOAMnG ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADORES4 S) L. PERFORMING...ANALYSIS OF FREE EDGE EFFECT IN SYMMETRIC COMPOSITE LAMINATES S. W. Lee I 3. Phi S. C. Wong Department of Aerospace Engineering University of Maryland...collocation method. In this report, we present an efficient hybrid finite element method for analysis of interlaminar stress or free edge effect in

  10. A Gallium Oxide-Graphene Oxide Hybrid Composite for Enhanced Photocatalytic Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seungdu; Han, Kook In; Lee, In Gyu; Park, Won Kyu; Yoon, Yeojoon; Yoo, Chan Sei; Yang, Woo Seok; Hwang, Wan Sik

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid composites (HCs) made up of gallium oxide (GaO) and graphene oxide (GO) were investigated with the intent of enhancing a photocatalytic reaction under ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The material properties of both GaO and GO were preserved, even after the formation of the HCs. The incorporation of the GO into the GaO significantly enhanced the photocatalytic reaction, as indicated by the amount of methylene blue (MB) degradation. The improvements in the reaction were discussed in terms of increased surface area and the retarded recombination of generated charged carriers. PMID:28335255

  11. A hybrid state vector approach to aeroelastic analysis with application to composite lifting surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehman, L. L.

    1981-01-01

    A computational technique has been developed for performing preliminary design aeroelastic analyses of large aspect ratio lifting surfaces. This technique, applicable to both fixed and rotating wing configurations, is based upon a formulation of the structural equilibrium equations in terms of a hybrid state vector containing generalized force and displacement variables. An integrating matrix is employed to solve these equations for divergence and flutter eigenvalues and steady aeroelastic deformation. Results are presented for simple examples which verify the technique and demonstrate how it can be applied to analyze lifting surfaces, including those constructed from composite materials.

  12. Effects of surface conditioning on repair bond strengths of non-aged and aged microhybrid, nanohybrid, and nanofilled composite resins.

    PubMed

    Rinastiti, Margareta; Özcan, Mutlu; Siswomihardjo, Widowati; Busscher, Henk J

    2011-10-01

    This study evaluates effects of aging on repair bond strengths of microhybrid, nanohybrid, and nanofilled composite resins and characterizes the interacting surfaces after aging. Disk-shaped composite specimens were assigned to one of three aging conditions: (1) thermocycling (5,000 ×, 5-55 °C), (2) storage in water at 37 °C for 6 months, or (3) immersion in citric acid at 37 °C, pH 3 for 1 week; a non-aged group acted as the control. Two surface conditionings were selected: intermediate adhesive resin application (IAR-application) and chairside silica coating followed by silanization and its specific IAR-application (SC-application). Composite resins, of the same kind as their substrate, were adhered onto the substrates, and repair shear bond strengths were determined, followed by failure type evaluation. Filler particle exposure was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and surface roughness analyzed using scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. Surface roughness increased in all composite resins after aging, but filler particle exposure at the surface only increased after thermocycling and citric acid immersion. Composite resin type, surface conditioning, and aging method significantly influenced the repair bond strengths (p < 0.05, three-way analysis of variance) with the least severe effects of water storage. Repair bond strengths in aged composite resins after IAR-application were always lower in non-aged ones, while SC-application led to higher bond strengths than IAR-application after thermocycling and water storage. In addition, SC-application led to more cohesive failures than after IAR-application, regardless the aging method.

  13. Self-powered pH sensor based on a flexible organic-inorganic hybrid composite nanogenerator.

    PubMed

    Saravanakumar, Balasubramaniam; Soyoon, Shin; Kim, Sang-Jae

    2014-08-27

    In this study, we developed an innovative, flexible, organic-inorganic hybrid composite nanogenerator, which was used to drive a self-powered microwire-based pH sensor. The hybrid composite nanogenerator was fabricated using ZnO nanowire and piezoelectric polymer poly(vinylidene fluoride), through a simple, inexpensive solution-casting technique. The fabricated hybrid composite nanogenerator delivered a maximum open-circuit voltage of 6.9 V and a short-circuit current of 0.96 μA, with an output power of 6.624 μW under uniaxial compression. This high-performance, electric poling free composite nanogenerator opens up the possibility of industrial-scale fabrication. The hybrid nanogenerator demonstrated its ability to drive five green LEDs simultaneously, without using an energy-storage device. Additionally, we constructed a self-powered pH sensor, using a ZnO microwire powered with our hybrid nanogenerator. The output voltage varied according to changes in the pH level. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using a hybrid nanogenerator as a self-powered device that can be extended for use as a biosensor for environmental monitoring and/or as a smart, wearable, vibration sensor in future applications.

  14. Preparation and characterization of phosphorylated Zr-doped hybrid silica/PSF composite membrane.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuqing; Jin, Zhenhua; Shan, Xing; Sunarso, Jaka; Cui, Ping

    2011-02-15

    Polysulfone (PSF) membranes are broadly applied in many fields owing to good physicochemical stability, resistance to oxidation and chlorine. But when treated with wastewater containing oil, PSF membranes are easy to be contaminated for its hydrophobicity, which can result in the declining of flux and lifespan of the membrane and limit their application in large scale. To enhance the capability of PSF membrane in the above circumstances, phosphorylated Zr-doped hybrid silica particles (SZP particles) were firstly prepared. SZP particles have various point defects inside their structure and lots of hydroxide radicals on their surface. SZP particles were added to the porous matrix of PSF to prepare a novel composite membrane (SZP/PSF) through a phase inversion process. Finally, the optimum preparation conditions of SZP/PSF composite membranes were determined. The optimum conditions are: the mass ratio of PSF, PEG400 and SZP is 12:10:10; ultrasound 10 min inside each 30 min; the pre-evaporating time is 10s. Optimized SZP/PSF composite membrane was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and ultrafiltration experiment. The results indicate that SZP particles can be uniformly dispersed in SZP/PSF composite membranes with excellent hydrophilic property, antifouling capability and tensile strength. Therefore, it can be concluded that the optimized SZP/PSF composite membrane is desirable in the treatment of wastewater containing oil and wastewater.

  15. Thermoplastic impact property improvement in hybrid natural fibre epoxy composite bumper beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davoodi, M. M.; Sapuan, S. M.; Ali, Aidy; Ahmad, D.; Khalina, A.

    2010-05-01

    Utilization of thermoset resin as a bumper beam composite matrix is currently more dominated in car manufacturer suppliers, because of availability, easy processing, low material cost and production equipment investment. Moreover, low viscosity, shrinkage and excellent flow facilitate better fibre impregnation and proper surface resin wetting. Three-dimensional cross linking curing increase impact, creep and environmental stress cracking resistance properties. Low impact properties of natural fibre epoxy composite, are main issues in its employment for automotive structural components. Impact properties in epoxy composite bumper beam could be increased by modifying the resin, reinforcement and manufacturing process as well as geometry parameters such as cross section, thickness, added ribs and fixing method optimizations could strengthen impact resistance. There are two main methods, flexibilisation and toughening, as modifying the resin in order to improve the impact properties of epoxy composite, which form single phase or two-phase morphology to make modifier as epoxy or from separate phase to keep the thermo-mechanical properties. Liquid rubber, thermoplastic, core shell particle and rigid particle are different methods of toughening improvements. In this research, thermoplastic toughening has used to improve impact properties in hybrid natural fibre epoxy composite for automotive bumper beam and has achieved reasonable impact improvements.

  16. Composition of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays Observed by Telescope Array in Hybrid Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanlon, William; Telescope Array Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The energy spectrum of cosmic rays exhibits several important features such as the knee (E ~10 15 . 5 eV), ankle (E ~10 18 . 7 eV), and high energy suppression (E ~10 19 . 8 eV). Cosmic ray chemical composition is the key to understanding their galactic and extragalactic sources as well as the origin of particle production and acceleration mechanisms. Energy dependent chemical composition is a fundamental input for models of cosmic ray sources and interstellar transport which may lead to competing explanations of the observed spectral features. Understanding composition will therefore allow one to distinguish between the different scenarios of cosmic ray origin, a decades old problem in astrophysics. In this talk we will describe measurements of ultra high energy cosmic ray composition performed by Telescope Array (TA) using Xmax measured in extended air showers (EAS) simultaneously observed by the TA surface array and TA fluorescence stations (called hybrid mode). Showers with primary energies above 1018 eV will be considered. We will also discuss improved methods of comparing the measured composition to EAS models.

  17. Design of stiff, tough and stretchy hydrogel composites via nanoscale hybrid crosslinking and macroscale fiber reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shaoting; Cao, Changyong; Wang, Qiming; Gonzalez, Mark; Dolbow, John E; Zhao, Xuanhe

    2014-10-14

    Hydrogels' applications are usually limited by their weak mechanical properties. Despite recent great progress in developing tough hydrogels, it is still challenging to achieve high values of , toughness and modulus all together in synthetic hydrogels. In this paper, we designed highly stretchable, tough, yet stiff hydrogel composites via a combination of nanoscale hybrid crosslinking and macroscale fiber reinforcement. The hydrogel composites were constructed by impregnating a 3D-printed thermoplastic-fiber mesh with a tough hydrogel crosslinked both covalently and ionically. The hydrogel composites can achieve a fracture energy of over 30,000 J m(-2), a modulus of over 6 MPa, and can be stretched over 2.8 times even in the presence of large structural defects. The enhancement of toughness in the new hydrogel composites relies on multiple pairs of toughening mechanisms which span over multiple length scales. A theoretical model is further developed to predict the toughness and modulus of the hydrogel composites and guide the design of future materials.

  18. Ferroelectric/ferromagnetic ceramic composite and its hybrid permittivity stemming from hopping charge and conductivity inhomogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hui; Li, Lu; Xu, Zhaojun; Weng, Wenjian; Han, Gaorong; Ma, Ning; Du, Piyi

    2013-01-01

    Exploring the nature of multiferroic ceramic composite with dual high performances is much important to take full advantage of its novel dielectric properties. In this paper, Ni0.5Zn0.5291Fe2O4/BaTiO3 ceramic composite is proposed and successfully prepared from BTO and NZFO powders which are obtained by sol-gel process and citric acid combustion method, respectively. Results show that with increasing BTO content from 0 to 25 vol. % in the matrix of NZFO, the permittivity of the composite decreases from 220 k to 100 k at low frequencies (˜40 Hz) and contrarily from 20 to 100 at high frequencies (˜100 MHz). It is mainly ascribed to the instant polarization in NZFO at low frequencies and the polarization in the perovskite phase of BTO at sufficiently high frequencies. The permittivity of the ferrite and composite is shown to be compatible with a hybrid model proposed, which concerns hopping charges between Fe2+ and Fe3+, conductivity heterogeneity at the grain boundaries of the ferrite, and changes in the conductivities of the two phases induced by interdiffusion of the ions between the two phases. The composition dependence of the permittivity is agreeable with Kirkpatrick's compound law with the percolation threshold of NZFO to be about 55 vol. %.

  19. Computational investigation on thermal expansivity behavior of Al 6061-SiC-Gr hybrid metal matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan Krishna, S. A.; Shridhar, T. N.; Krishnamurthy, L.

    2015-08-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMCs) have been regarded as one of the most principal classifications in composite materials. The thermal characterization of hybrid MMCs has been increasingly important in a wide range of applications. The coefficient of thermal expansion is one of the most important properties of MMCs. Since nearly all MMCs are used in various temperature ranges, measurement of coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) as a function of temperature is necessary in order to know the behavior of the material. In this research paper, the evaluation of thermal expansivity has been accomplished for Al 6061, silicon carbide (SiC) and Graphite (Gr) hybrid MMCs from room temperature to 300°C. Aluminum (Al)-based composites reinforced with SiC and Gr particles have been prepared by stir casting technique. The thermal expansivity behavior of hybrid composites with different percentage compositions of reinforcements has been investigated. The results have indicated that the thermal expansivity of the different compositions of hybrid MMCs decreases by the addition of Gr with SiC and Al 6061. Few empirical models have been validated for the evaluation of thermal expansivity of composites. Using the experimental values namely modulus of elasticity, Poisson's ratio and thermal expansivity, computational investigation has been carried out to evaluate the thermal parameters namely thermal displacement, thermal strain and thermal stress.

  20. Computational investigation on thermal conductivity behavior of Al 6061-SiC-Gr hybrid metal matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, S. A. Mohan; Shridhar, T. N.; Krishnamurthy, L.

    2015-10-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMCs) are regarded to be one of the most principal classifications in composite materials. The thermal characterization of hybrid MMCs has become increasingly important in a wide range of applications. Thermal conductivity is one of the most important properties of MMCs. Since nearly all MMCs are used in various temperature ranges, measurement of thermal conductivity as a function of temperature is necessary in order to know the behavior of the material. In the present research, evaluation of thermal conductivity has been accomplished for aluminum alloy (Al) 6061, silicon carbide (SiC) and graphite (Gr) hybrid MMCs from room temperature to 300∘C. Al-based composites reinforced with SiC and Gr particles have been prepared by stir casting technique. The thermal conductivity behavior of hybrid composites with different percentage compositions of reinforcements has been investigated using laser flash technique. The results have indicated that the thermal conductivity of the different compositions of hybrid MMCs decreases by the addition of Gr with SiC and Al 6061. Few empirical models have been validated concerning with the evaluation of thermal conductivity of composites. Using the experimental values namely density, thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity and enthalpy at varying temperature ranges, computational investigation has been carried out to evaluate the thermal gradient and thermal flux.

  1. Classroom Age Composition and Developmental Change in 70 Urban Preschool Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, Arlen C.; Forbes-Jones, Emma; Hightower, A. Dirk

    2008-01-01

    A multilevel modeling approach was used to investigate the influence of age composition in 70 urban preschool classrooms. A series of hierarchical linear models demonstrated that greater variance in classroom age composition was negatively related to development on the Child Observation Record (COR) Cognitive, Motor, and Social subscales. This was…

  2. Synthesis and characterization of insulin/zirconium phosphate@TiO2 hybrid composites for enhanced oral insulin delivery applications.

    PubMed

    Safari, Mostafa; Kamari, Younes; Ghiaci, Mehran; Sadeghi-Aliabadi, Hojjat; Mirian, Mina

    2017-05-01

    In this work, a series of composites of insulin (Ins)/zirconium phosphate (ZrP) were synthesized by intercalation method, then, these composites were coated with TiO2 by sol-gel method to prepare Ins/ZrP@TiO2 hybrid composites and the drug release of the composites was investigated by using UV-Vis spectroscopy. Ins/ZrP (10, 30, 60 wt%) composites were prepared by intercalation of insulin into the ZrP layers in water. Then Ins/ZrP composites were coated with different amounts of TiO2 (30, 50, 100 wt %) by using titanium tetra n-butoxide, as precursor. Formation of intercalated Ins/ZrP and Ins/ZrP@TiO2 hybrid composites was characterized by FT-IR, FE-SEM, BET and XRD analysis. Zeta potential of the optimized Ins/ZrP@TiO2 hybrid composite was determined -27.2 mV. Cytotoxic effects of the optimized Ins/ZrP@TiO2 hybrid composite against HeLa and Hek293T cell lines were evaluated using MTT assay and the results showed that designed drug delivery system was not toxic in biological environment. Compared to the Ins/ZrP composites, incorporation of TiO2 coating enhanced the drug entrapment considerably, and reduced the drug release. The Ins/ZrP composites without TiO2 coating released the whole drug after 30 min in pH 7.4 (phosphate buffer solution) while the TiO2-coated composites released the entrapped drug after 20 h. In addition to increasing the shelf life of hormone, this nanoencapsulation and nanocoating method can convert the insulin utilization from injection to oral and present a painless and more comfortable treatment for diabetics.

  3. Optimization of process parameters in drilling of fibre hybrid composite using Taguchi and grey relational analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijaya Ramnath, B.; Sharavanan, S.; Jeykrishnan, J.

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays quality plays a vital role in all the products. Hence, the development in manufacturing process focuses on the fabrication of composite with high dimensional accuracy and also incurring low manufacturing cost. In this work, an investigation on machining parameters has been performed on jute-flax hybrid composite. Here, the two important responses characteristics like surface roughness and material removal rate are optimized by employing 3 machining input parameters. The input variables considered are drill bit diameter, spindle speed and feed rate. Machining is done on CNC vertical drilling machine at different levels of drilling parameters. Taguchi’s L16 orthogonal array is used for optimizing individual tool parameters. Analysis Of Variance is used to find the significance of individual parameters. The simultaneous optimization of the process parameters is done by grey relational analysis. The results of this investigation shows that, spindle speed and drill bit diameter have most effect on material removal rate and surface roughness followed by feed rate.

  4. Measurement and Prediction of the Thermomechanical Response of Shape Memory Alloy Hybrid Composite Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Brian; Turner, Travis L.; Seelecke, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    An experimental and numerical investigation into the static and dynamic responses of shape memory alloy hybrid composite (SMAHC) beams is performed to provide quantitative validation of a recently commercialized numerical analysis/design tool for SMAHC structures. The SMAHC beam specimens consist of a composite matrix with embedded pre-strained SMA actuators, which act against the mechanical boundaries of the structure when thermally activated to adaptively stiffen the structure. Numerical results are produced from the numerical model as implemented into the commercial finite element code ABAQUS. A rigorous experimental investigation is undertaken to acquire high fidelity measurements including infrared thermography and projection moire interferometry for full-field temperature and displacement measurements, respectively. High fidelity numerical results are also obtained from the numerical model and include measured parameters, such as geometric imperfection and thermal load. Excellent agreement is achieved between the predicted and measured results of the static and dynamic thermomechanical response, thereby providing quantitative validation of the numerical tool.

  5. On the Design, Characterization and Simulation of Hybrid Metal-Composite Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kießling, R.; Ihlemann, J.; Pohl, M.; Stommel, M.; Dammann, C.; Mahnken, R.; Bobbert, M.; Meschut, G.; Hirsch, F.; Kästner, M.

    2017-02-01

    Multi-material lightweight designs are a key feature for the development of innovative and resource-efficient products. In the development of a hybrid composite, the interface between the joined components has to be considered in detail as it represents a typical location of the initialization of failure. This contribution gives an overview of the simulative engineering of metal-composite interfaces. To this end, several design aspects on the microscale and macroscale are explained and methods to model the mechanical behavior of the interface within finite element simulations. This comprises the utilization of cohesive elements with a continuum description of the interface. Likewise, traction-separation based cohesive elements, i.e. a zero-thickness idealization of the interface, are outlined and applied to a demonstration example. Within these finite element simulations, the constitutive behavior of the connected components has to be described by suitable material models. Therefore, inelastic material models at large strains are formulated based on rheological models.

  6. In vitro microleakage of glass-ionomer composite resin hybrid materials.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, J A; De Magalhães, C S; Serra, M C; Rodrigues Júnior, A L

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microleakage of six glass-ionomer composite resin hybrid materials compared with a glass-ionomer cement and a composite resin. Standardized class 5 dentin cavities were prepared on root surfaces of 240 extracted human teeth that were randomly assigned to eight groups and restored using the following restorative systems: (I) Vitremer, (II) Compoglass, (III) Photac-Fil Aplicap, (IV) Variglass, (V) Dyract, (VI) Fuji II LC, (VII) Ketac-Fil Aplicap, and (VIII) Z100. The teeth were thermocycled, placed in a 2% methylene blue solution, and sectioned with diamond disks. Dye penetration was scored on a scale of 0-3. Results showed no significant differences among groups VIII, IV, I, V, VI, III, and II. There were also no significant differences among groups VI, III, II, and VII.

  7. Investigation of the Thermomechanical Response of Shape Memory Alloy Hybrid Composite Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Brian A.

    2005-01-01

    Previous work at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) involved fabrication and testing of composite beams with embedded, pre-strained shape memory alloy (SMA) ribbons. That study also provided comparison of experimental results with numerical predictions from a research code making use of a new thermoelastic model for shape memory alloy hybrid composite (SMAHC) structures. The previous work showed qualitative validation of the numerical model. However, deficiencies in the experimental-numerical correlation were noted and hypotheses for the discrepancies were given for further investigation. The goal of this work is to refine the experimental measurement and numerical modeling approaches in order to better understand the discrepancies, improve the correlation between prediction and measurement, and provide rigorous quantitative validation of the numerical model. Thermal buckling, post-buckling, and random responses to thermal and inertial (base acceleration) loads are studied. Excellent agreement is achieved between the predicted and measured results, thereby quantitatively validating the numerical tool.

  8. Development of SnS2/RGO nanosheet composite for cost-effective aqueous hybrid supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Himani; Singh, Manoj K.; Kumar, Praveen; Hashmi, Safir Ahmad; Deka, Sasanka

    2017-01-01

    The development of low cost supercapacitor cells with unique capacitive properties is essential for many domestic and industrial purposes. Here we report the first ever application of SnS2-reduced graphene oxide (SnS2/RGO) layered nanocomposite as a superior electrode material for symmetric aqueous hybrid supercapacitors. We synthesized SnS2/RGO nanocomposite comprised of nanosheets of SnS2 and graphene oxide via a one-pot hydrothermal approach. in situ as-synthesized SnS2/RGO is devised for the first time to give high specific capacitance 500 Fg-1, energy density 16.67 Wh kg-1 and power density 488 W kg-1. The cell retains 95% charge/discharge cycle stability up to 1000 cycles. In-short, the SnS2/RGO nanosheet composite presented is a novel and advanced material for application in high stability moderate value hybrid supercapacitors. All the currently available surveys in literature state the potential applicability of SnS2 as the anode material for reversible lithium/sodium ion batteries (LIBs/NIBs) but there is a lack of equivalent studies on electrochemical capacitors. We filled up this knowledge gap by the use of the same material in a cost-effective, highly active hybrid supercapacitor application by utilizing its pseudocapacitance property combined with the layered capacitance property of graphene sheets.

  9. Development of SnS2/RGO nanosheet composite for cost-effective aqueous hybrid supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Himani; Singh, Manoj K; Kumar, Praveen; Hashmi, Safir Ahmad; Deka, Sasanka

    2017-01-13

    The development of low cost supercapacitor cells with unique capacitive properties is essential for many domestic and industrial purposes. Here we report the first ever application of SnS2-reduced graphene oxide (SnS2/RGO) layered nanocomposite as a superior electrode material for symmetric aqueous hybrid supercapacitors. We synthesized SnS2/RGO nanocomposite comprised of nanosheets of SnS2 and graphene oxide via a one-pot hydrothermal approach. in situ as-synthesized SnS2/RGO is devised for the first time to give high specific capacitance 500 Fg(-1), energy density 16.67 Wh kg(-1) and power density 488 W kg(-1). The cell retains 95% charge/discharge cycle stability up to 1000 cycles. In-short, the SnS2/RGO nanosheet composite presented is a novel and advanced material for application in high stability moderate value hybrid supercapacitors. All the currently available surveys in literature state the potential applicability of SnS2 as the anode material for reversible lithium/sodium ion batteries (LIBs/NIBs) but there is a lack of equivalent studies on electrochemical capacitors. We filled up this knowledge gap by the use of the same material in a cost-effective, highly active hybrid supercapacitor application by utilizing its pseudocapacitance property combined with the layered capacitance property of graphene sheets.

  10. Crashworthiness characteristics of a carbon fiber reinforced dual-phase epoxy–polyurea hybrid matrix composite

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Hongyu; Attard, Thomas L.; Dhiradhamvit, Kittinan; ...

    2014-11-07

    In this paper, the crashworthiness characteristics of rectangular tubes made from a Carbon-fiber reinforced Hybrid-Polymeric Matrix (CHMC) composite were investigated using quasi-static and impact crush tests. The hybrid matrix formulation of the CHMC was created by combining an epoxy-based thermosetting polymer with a lightly crosslinked polyurea elastomer at various cure-time intervals and volumetric ratios. The load–displacement responses of both CHMC and carbon-fiber reinforced epoxy (CF/epoxy) specimens were obtained under various crushing speeds; and crashworthiness parameters, such as the average crushing force and specific energy absorption (SEA), were calculated using subsequent load–displacement relationships. The CHMC maintained a high level of structuralmore » integrity and post-crush performance, relative to traditional CF/epoxy. The influence of the curing time and volumetric ratios of the polyurea/epoxy dual-hybridized matrix system on the crashworthiness parameters was also investigated. The results reveal that the load carrying capacity and total energy absorption tend to increase with greater polyurea thickness and lower elapsed reaction curing time of the epoxy although this is typically a function of the loading rate. In conclusion, the mechanism by which the CHMC provides increased damage tolerance was also investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).« less

  11. Crashworthiness characteristics of a carbon fiber reinforced dual-phase epoxy–polyurea hybrid matrix composite

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Hongyu; Attard, Thomas L.; Dhiradhamvit, Kittinan; Wang, Yanli; Erdman, Donald

    2014-11-07

    In this paper, the crashworthiness characteristics of rectangular tubes made from a Carbon-fiber reinforced Hybrid-Polymeric Matrix (CHMC) composite were investigated using quasi-static and impact crush tests. The hybrid matrix formulation of the CHMC was created by combining an epoxy-based thermosetting polymer with a lightly crosslinked polyurea elastomer at various cure-time intervals and volumetric ratios. The load–displacement responses of both CHMC and carbon-fiber reinforced epoxy (CF/epoxy) specimens were obtained under various crushing speeds; and crashworthiness parameters, such as the average crushing force and specific energy absorption (SEA), were calculated using subsequent load–displacement relationships. The CHMC maintained a high level of structural integrity and post-crush performance, relative to traditional CF/epoxy. The influence of the curing time and volumetric ratios of the polyurea/epoxy dual-hybridized matrix system on the crashworthiness parameters was also investigated. The results reveal that the load carrying capacity and total energy absorption tend to increase with greater polyurea thickness and lower elapsed reaction curing time of the epoxy although this is typically a function of the loading rate. In conclusion, the mechanism by which the CHMC provides increased damage tolerance was also investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  12. The development, fabrication, and material characterization of polypropylene composites reinforced with carbon nanofiber and hydroxyapatite nanorod hybrid fillers.

    PubMed

    Liao, Cheng Zhu; Wong, Hoi Man; Yeung, Kelvin Wai Kwok; Tjong, Sie Chin

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the design, fabrication, microstructural and property characterization, and biocompatibility evaluation of polypropylene (PP) reinforced with carbon nanofiber (CNF) and hydroxyapatite nanorod (HANR) fillers. The purpose is to develop advanced PP/CNF-HANR hybrids with good mechanical behavior, thermal stability, and excellent biocompatibility for use as craniofacial implants in orthopedics. Several material-examination techniques, including X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, tensile tests, and impact measurement are used to characterize the microstructural, mechanical, and thermal properties of the hybrids. Furthermore, osteoblastic cell cultivation and colorimetric assay are also employed for assessing their viability on the composites. The CNF and HANR filler hybridization yields an improvement in Young's modulus, impact strength, thermal stability, and biocompatibility of PP. The PP/2% CNF-20% HANR hybrid composite is found to exhibit the highest elastic modulus, tensile strength, thermal stability, and biocompatibility.

  13. Niobium oxide-polydimethylsiloxane hybrid composite coatings for tuning primary fibroblast functions.

    PubMed

    Young, Matthew D; Tran, Nhiem; Tran, Phong A; Jarrell, John D; Hayda, Roman A; Born, Chistopher T

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluates the potential of niobium oxide-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composites for tuning cellular response of fibroblasts, a key cell type of soft tissue/implant interfaces. In this study, various hybrid coatings of niobium oxide and PDMS with different niobium oxide concentrations were synthesized and characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), and contact angle goniometry. The coatings were then applied to 96-well plates, on which primary fibroblasts were seeded. Fibroblast viability, proliferation, and morphology were assessed after 1, 2, and 3 days of incubation using WST-1 and calcein AM assays along with fluorescent microscopy. The results showed that the prepared coatings had distinct surface features with submicron spherical composites covered in a polymeric layer. The water contact angle measurement demonstrated that the hybrid surfaces were much more hydrophobic than the original pure niobium oxide and PDMS. The combination of surface roughness and chemistry resulted in a biphasic cellular response with maximum fibroblast density on substrate with 40 wt % of niobium oxide. The results of the current study indicate that by adjusting the concentration of niobium oxide in the coating, a desirable cell response can be achieved to improve tissue/implant interfaces.

  14. Fe3O4/carbon coated silicon ternary hybrid composite as supercapacitor electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Ilgeun; Kim, Myeongjin; Kim, Jooheon

    2015-02-01

    In this study, Fe3O4/carbon-coated Si ternary hybrid composites were fabricated. A carbon layer was directly formed on the surface of Si by the thermal vapor deposition. The carbon-coating layer not only prevented the contact between Si and reactive electrolyte but also provided anchoring sites for the deposition of Fe3O4. Fe3O4 nanoparticles were deposited on the surface of carbon-coated Si by the hydrazine reducing method. The morphology and structure of Fe3O4 and carbon layer were characterized via X-ray diffractometry, field emission scanning electron microscopy, field emission transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analyses. These characterizations indicate that a carbon layer was fully coated on the Si particles, and Fe3O4 particles were homogeneously deposited on the carbon-coated Si particles. The Fe3O4/carbon-coated Si electrode exhibited enhanced electrochemical performance, attributed to the high conductivity and stability of carbon layer and pseudocapacitive reaction of Fe3O4. The proposed ternary-hybrid composites may be potentially useful for the fabrication of high-performance electrodes.

  15. α MnMoO₄/graphene hybrid composite: high energy density supercapacitor electrode material.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debasis; Giri, Soumen; Moniruzzaman, Md; Basu, Tanya; Mandal, Manas; Das, Chapal Kumar

    2014-07-28

    A unique and cost effective hydrothermal procedure has been carried out for the synthesis of hexahedron shaped α MnMoO4 and its hybrid composite with graphene using three different weight percentages of graphene. Characterization techniques, such as XRD, Raman and FTIR analysis, established the phase and formation of the composite. The electrochemical characterization of the pseudocapacitive MnMoO4 and the MnMoO4/graphene composites in 1 M Na2SO4 displayed highest specific capacitances of 234 F g(-1) and 364 F g(-1), respectively at a current density of 2 A g(-1). Unlike many other pseudocapacitive electrode materials our prepared materials responded in a wide range of working potentials of (-)1 V to (+)1 V, which indeed resulted in a high energy density without substantial loss of power density. The highest energy densities of 130 Wh kg(-1) and 202.2 Wh kg(-1) were achieved, respectively for the MnMoO4 and the MnMoO4/graphene composite at a constant power delivery rate of 2000 W kg(-1). The synergistic effect of the graphene with the pseudocapacitive MnMoO4 caused an increased cycle stability of 88% specific capacitance retention after 1000 consecutive charge discharge cycles at 8 A g(-1) constant current density, which was higher than the virgin MnMoO4 with 84% specific capacitance retention.

  16. Composition-dependent buckling behaviour of hybrid boron nitride-carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Meguid, S A

    2015-05-21

    The buckling of hybrid boron nitride-carbon nanotubes (BN-CNTs) with various BN compositions and locations of the BN domain is investigated using molecular dynamics. We find that BN-CNTs with large BN composition (>38%) only undergo local shell-like buckling in their BN domain. Although similar local shell-like buckling can occur in BN-CNTs with a relatively small BN composition, it can transfer to the global column-like buckling of the whole BN-CNT with increasing strains. The critical strains for local shell-like and global column-like buckling decrease with increasing BN composition. In addition, critical strains and buckling modes of the global column-like buckling of BN-CNTs also strongly depend on the location of their BN domain. As a possible application of the buckling of BN-CNTs, we demonstrate that the BN-CNT can serve as a water channel integrated with a local natural valve using the local buckling of its BN domain.

  17. Repair bond strength of resin composite to a novel CAD/CAM hybrid ceramic using different repair systems.

    PubMed

    Elsaka, Shaymaa E

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the repair bond strength of a nanohybrid resin composite to a novel CAD/CAM hybrid ceramic based on four intraoral ceramic repair systems. Vita Enamic (VE) CAD/CAM hybrid ceramic was used in this study. Specimens were divided into five test groups according to the repair method performed on the ceramic surface: Gr C (No treatment; control); Gr CZ (Cimara Zircon); Gr PR (Porcelain Repair); Gr CR (Clearfil Repair); and Gr CS (CoJet system). Nanohybrid resin composite (GrandioSO) was packed onto treated ceramic surfaces for adhesion testing using microtensile bond strength test. Debonded specimens were examined with a stereomicroscope and SEM to determine the fracture mode. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test. PR and CZ repair systems significantly enhanced the bond strength of nanohybrid resin composite to VE CAD/CAM hybrid ceramic when compared with the other tested repair systems.

  18. Mechanical properties and production quality of hand-layup and vacuum infusion processed hybrid composite materials for GFRP marine structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Young; Shim, Chun Sik; Sturtevant, Caleb; Kim, Dave (Dae-Wook); Song, Ha Cheol

    2014-09-01

    Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) structures are primarily manufactured using hand lay-up or vacuum infusion techniques, which are cost-effective for the construction of marine vessels. This paper aims to investigate the mechanical properties and failure mechanisms of the hybrid GFRP composites, formed by applying the hand lay-up processed exterior and the vacuum infusion processed interior layups, providing benefits for structural performance and ease of manufacturing. The hybrid GFRP composites contain one, two, and three vacuum infusion processed layer sets with consistent sets of hand lay-up processed layers. Mechanical properties assessed in this study include tensile, compressive and in-plane shear properties. Hybrid composites with three sets of vacuum infusion layers showed the highest tensile mechanical properties while those with two sets had the highest mechanical properties in compression. The batch homogeneity, for the GFRP fabrication processes, is evaluated using the experimentally obtained mechanical properties

  19. Analysis of the mechanical and thermal properties of jute and glass fiber as reinforcement epoxy hybrid composites.

    PubMed

    Braga, R A; Magalhaes, P A A

    2015-11-01

    This work describes the study to investigate and compare the mechanical and thermal properties of raw jute and glass fiber reinforced epoxy hybrid composites. To improve the mechanical properties, jute fiber was hybridized with glass fiber. Epoxy resin, jute and glass fibers were laminated in three weight ratios (69/31/0, 68/25/7 and 64/18/19) respectively to form composites. The tensile, flexural, impact, density, thermal and water absorption tests were carried out using hybrid composite samples. This study shows that the addition of jute fiber and glass fiber in epoxy, increases the density, the impact energy, the tensile strength and the flexural strength, but decreases the loss mass in function of temperature and the water absorption. Morphological analysis was carried out to observe fracture behavior and fiber pull-out of the samples using scanning electron microscope.

  20. TiO2 micro-nano-hybrid surface to alleviate biological aging of UV-photofunctionalized titanium.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Fuminori; Tsukimura, Naoki; Sugita, Yoshihiko; Kanuru, Rajita Kodali; Kubo, Katsutoshi; Hasnain, Hafiz; Att, Wael; Ogawa, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    Bioactivity and osteoconductivity of titanium degrade over time after surface processing. This time-dependent degradation is substantial and defined as the biological aging of titanium. UV treatment has shown to reactivate the aged surfaces, a process known as photofunctionalization. This study determined whether there is a difference in the behavior of biological aging for titanium with micro-nano-hybrid topography and titanium with microtopography alone, following functionalization. Titanium disks were acid etched to create micropits on the surface. Micro-nano-hybrid surfaces were created by depositioning 300-nm diameter TiO(2) nodules onto the micropits using a previously established self-assembly protocol. These disks were stored for 8 weeks in the dark to allow sufficient aging, then treated with UV light for 48 hours. Rat bone marrow-derived osteoblasts were cultured on fresh disks (immediately after UV treatment), 3-day-old disks (disks stored for 3 days after UV treatment), and 7-day- old disks. The rates of cell attachment, spread, proliferation, and levels of alkaline phosphatase activity, and calcium deposition were reduced by 30%-50% on micropit surfaces, depending on the age of the titanium. In contrast, 7-day-old hybrid surfaces maintained equivalent levels of bioactivity compared with the fresh surfaces. Both micropit and micro-nano-hybrid surfaces were superhydrophilic immediately after UV treatment. However, after 7 days, the micro-nano- hybrid surfaces became hydrorepellent, while the micropit surfaces remained hydrophilic. The sustained bioactivity levels of the micro-nano-hybrid surfaces were nullified by treating these surfaces with Cl(-)anions. A thin TiO(2) coating on the micropit surface without the formation of nanonodules did not result in the prevention or alleviation of the time-dependent decrease in biological activity. In conclusion, the micro-nano-hybrid titanium surfaces may slow the rate of time-dependent degradation of titanium

  1. The effect of mouthrinses on salivary sorption, solubility and surface degradation of a nanofilled and a hybrid resin composite.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Giselle Soares; Poskus, Laiza Tatiana; Guimarães, José Guilherme Antunes; da Silva, Eduardo Moreira

    2010-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of mouth rinses on salivary sorption (Sp), solubility (Sl) and surface degradation of a nanofilled (Z350) and hybrid (P60) resin composite. Specimens (6 mm in diameter and 1 mm thick) of a nanofilled and hybrid resin composite were immersed in artificial saliva at 37 degrees C for seven days. Twice a day, the samples (n = 5) were immersed in 20 ml of three mouth rinses: Listerine, Plax Mint and Plax. A control group was maintained in artificial saliva. Sp and Sl were evaluated based on ISO 4049:2000(E) and surface degradation by scanning electron microscopy-SEM. The degree of conversion (DC%) of resin composites was obtained by using an FT-IR spectrometer equipped with an attenuated total reflectance crystal (ATR). The data were analyzed using the Student's t-test, ANOVA and Tukey test for multiple comparisons. No significant difference in DC% was found between the two resin composites (p < 0.05). The highest sorption rate was presented by the nanofilled composite exposed to Listerine (p < 0.05). The hybrid composite in the control group (artificial saliva) and Plax presented the lowest sorption (p < 0.05). The highest solubility was presented by the two resin composites exposed to Listerine (p < 0.05). SEM analysis showed that mouth rinses produced more severe surface degradation in the nanofilled composite.

  2. Computational modeling and relevance of numerical convergence for the investigation of thermal expansion behavior for aluminium hybrid composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, S. A. Mohan; Shridhar, T. N.; Krishnamurthy, L.

    2016-06-01

    The thermal characterization and analysis of composite materials has been increasingly important in a wide range of applications. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is one of the most important properties of metal matrix composites (MMCs). Since nearly all MMCs are used in various temperature ranges, measurement of CTE as a function of temperature is necessary in order to know the behavior of the material. In this research paper, the evaluation of CTE or thermal expansivity has been accomplished for Al 6061, silicon carbide and graphite hybrid MMCs from room temperature to 300∘C. Aluminium-based composites reinforced with silicon carbide and graphite particles have been prepared by stir casting technique. The thermal expansivity behavior of hybrid composites with different percentage compositions of reinforcements has been investigated. The results have indicated that the thermal expansivity of different compositions of hybrid MMCs decrease by the addition of graphite with silicon carbide and Al 6061. Empirical models have been validated for the evaluation of thermal expansivity of composites. Numerical convergence test has been accomplished to investigate the thermal expansion behavior of composites.

  3. Influence of weave structures on the tribological properties of hybrid Kevlar/PTFE fabric composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Dapeng; Yang, Yulin; Qi, Xiaowen; Deng, Wei; Shi, Lei

    2012-09-01

    The existing research of the woven fabric self-lubricating liner mainly focus on the tribological performance improvements and the service life raised by changing different fiber type combinations, adding additive modification, and performing fiber surface modification. As fabric composites, the weave structures play an important role in the mechanical and tribological performances of the liners. However, hardly any literature is available on the friction and wear behavior of such composites with different weave structures. In this paper, three weave structures (plain, twill 1/3 and satin 8/5) of hybrid Kevlar/PTFE fabric composites are selected and pin-on-flat linear reciprocating wear studies are done on a CETR tester under different pressures and different frequencies. The relationship between the tensile strength and the wear performance are studied. The morphologies of the worn surfaces under the typical test conditions are analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The analysis results show that at 10 MPa, satin 8/5 performs the best in friction-reduction and antiwear performance, and plain is the worst. At 30 MPa, however, the antiwear performance is reversed and satin 8/5 does not even complete the 2 h wear test at 16 Hz. There is no clear evidence proving that the tensile strength has an influence on the wear performance. So the different tribological performance of the three weave structures of fabric composites may be attributed to the different PTFE proportions in the fabric surface and the different wear mechanisms. The fabric composites are divided into three regions: the lubrication region, the reinforced region and the bonding region. The major mechanisms are fatigue wear and the shear effects of the friction force in the lubrication region. In the reinforced region fiber-matrix de-bonding and fiber breakage are involved. The proposed research proposes a regional wear model and further indicates the wear process and the wear mechanism

  4. The influence of interfaces on the dielectric properties of MnZn-based hybrid polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moučka, R.; Vilčáková, J.; Kazantseva, N. E.; Lopatin, A. V.; Sáha, P.

    2008-11-01

    In the present paper we report on the specific features of the dielectric properties of a MnZn ferrite/Al based composite. Previously, it has been shown that high-frequency magnetic losses in such hybrid composites (HCs) can be enhanced due to the formation of a core-shell-like structure of a composite, in which ferrite particles are immersed into a conducting medium formed by a continuous network of conducting particles that spans throughout the polymer matrix. Simultaneously, one can vary the dielectric properties of HCs by changing the type and the concentration of conducting particles. Dielectric constant and ac conductivity measurements of MnZn-based composites have been made over the frequency range of 10 Hz-100 kHz in temperature interval from -30 to 100 °C and at ambient temperature up to 3 GHz. The results obtained show that addition of aluminum into the MnZn ferrite/polyurethane composite leads to a decrease in the dc conductivity due to the insulating barrier of Al-Al2O3. On the other hand, ac conductivity of MnZn ferrite and aluminum/polyurethane composite is greater than that of a two-component system due to the occurrence of Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars relaxation processes with a rather low value of activation energy and significantly higher relaxation time. Thus, on one side, aluminum provides sufficient conductivity of the "shell" and thus leads to the enhancement of effective permeability, but, on other side, it does not significantly contribute to the total conductivity (effective permittivity) of HCs. The analysis of the efficiency of HCs with different types of conducting filler as electromagnetic wave absorbers (EWAs) has shown that the matching frequency of EWAs can be effectively controlled in the radio-frequency range through an appropriate choice of the type of conducting filler.

  5. Age- and sex-dependent thymic abnormalities in NZB × SJL F1 hybrid mice

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, F.; Robert, F.

    1980-01-01

    The cellular organization of the thymus was investigated in 3- and 12-month-old NZB × SJL F1 hybrid (NS) mice. Age-dependent alterations were demonstrated which differed strikingly according to the sex of the animals. In female mice, marked abnormalities of the thymus developed during ageing. They consisted of a more or less pronounced hypertrophy accompanied by histological changes and modifications in the nature of the lymphocyte populations. Three types of qualitative changes were found at 12 months of age: (1) depletion of cortical thymocytes as evidenced by histology, by the evaluation of peanut-agglutinin (PNA) binding and by cell electrophoresis; (2) hyperplasia of the medullary lymphoid tissue, probably reflecting the expansion of a population of mature T lymphocytes. This was further suggested by a rise (up to 60%) in the frequency of lymphocytes lacking both PNA receptor and B cell markers, by an increased proportion (57%) of high electrophoretic mobility (EPM) lymphocytes and by an augmentation of in vitro reactivities to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and, although to a lesser extent, to concanavalin A (Con A). (3) The appearance of significant numbers of B lymphocytes (up to 20%) as assessed by surface immunoglobulin (sIg) and complement receptor (CR) detection which was accompanied by a vigorous responsiveness of thymus cells to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). None of these abnormalities was seen in the male mice. Instead, the thymus of NS males displayed a nearly normal age-related involution without major change in the proportions of its lymphocyte subpopulations. NS mice thus provide an interesting model of thymic disease influenced by sex-linked factors. ImagesFig. 3 PMID:7438550

  6. Effect of different polishing systems on the surface roughness of nano-hybrid composites

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Brijesh; Chhabra, Naveen; Jain, Disha

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The study aimed to investigate the influence of different polishing systems on the surface roughness of nano-hybrid composite resins. Background: Different shapes of polishing systems are available according to the site of work. To minimize variability, a new system with single shape is developed that can be utilized in both anterior as well as posterior teeth. Materials and Methods: Seventy composite discs were fabricated using Teflon well (10 mm × 3 mm). Two main group of nano-hybrid composite Group I — Filtek Z350 and Group II — Tetric N-Ceram were used (n = 35 for each group). Both groups were further divided into four subgroups. Subgroup a — OneGloss (n = 10), Subgroup b - PoGo (n = 10), Subgroup c — Sof-Lex spiral (n = 10), Subgroup d - Mylar strip (control, n = 5). Samples were polished according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Surface roughness test was performed using contact profilometer. The obtained data were analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance test. Result: Tetric N-Ceram produced smoother surfaces than Filtek Z350 (P < 0.05). Mylar strip and “PoGo” created equally smooth surfaces, while significantly rougher surfaces were obtained after applications of “Sof-Lex spiral” and “OneGloss” (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Polishing ability of Tetric N-Ceram is better than Filtek Z350 XT. “PoGo” seems to be a better polishing system than “OneGloss” and “Sof-Lex Spiral.” PMID:26957791

  7. Hybrid carbon fiber/carbon nanotube composites for structural damping applications.

    PubMed

    Tehrani, M; Safdari, M; Boroujeni, A Y; Razavi, Z; Case, S W; Dahmen, K; Garmestani, H; Al-Haik, M S

    2013-04-19

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were grown on the surface of carbon fibers utilizing a relatively low temperature synthesis technique; graphitic structures by design (GSD). To probe the effects of the synthesis protocols on the mechanical properties, other samples with surface grown CNTs were prepared using catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD). The woven graphite fabrics were thermally shielded with a thin film of SiO2 and CNTs were grown on top of this film. Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy revealed the grown species to be multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The damping performance of the hybrid CNT-carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy composite was examined using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Mechanical testing confirmed that the degradations in the strength and stiffness as a result of the GSD process are far less than those encountered through using the CCVD technique and yet are negligible compared to the reference samples. The DMA results indicated that, despite the minimal degradation in the storage modulus, the loss tangent (damping) for the hybrid composites utilizing GSD-grown MWCNTs improved by 56% compared to the reference samples (based on raw carbon fibers with no surface treatment or surface grown carbon nanotubes) over the frequency range 1-60 Hz. These results indicated that the energy dissipation in the GSD-grown MWCNTs composite can be primarily attributed to the frictional sliding at the nanotube/epoxy interface and to a lesser extent to the stiff thermal shielding SiO2 film on the fiber/matrix interface.

  8. High-precision CTE measurement of hybrid C/SiC composite for cryogenic space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enya, K.; Yamada, N.; Imai, T.; Tange, Y.; Kaneda, H.; Katayama, H.; Kotani, M.; Maruyama, K.; Naitoh, M.; Nakagawa, T.; Onaka, T.; Suganuma, M.; Ozaki, T.; Kume, M.; Krödel, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents highly precise measurements of thermal expansion of a "hybrid" carbon-fiber reinforced silicon carbide composite, HB-Cesic® - a trademark of ECM, in the temperature region of ˜310-10 K. Whilst C/SiC composites have been considered to be promising for the mirrors and other structures of space-borne cryogenic telescopes, the anisotropic thermal expansion has been a potential disadvantage of this material. HB-Cesic® is a newly developed composite using a mixture of different types of chopped, short carbon-fiber, in which one of the important aims of the development was to reduce the anisotropy. The measurements indicate that the anisotropy was much reduced down to 4% as a result of hybridization. The thermal expansion data obtained are presented as functions of temperature using eighth-order polynomials separately for the horizontal (XY-) and vertical (Z-) directions of the fabrication process. The average CTEs and their dispersion (1σ) in the range 293-10 K derived from the data for the XY- and Z-directions were 0.805 ± 0.003 × 10-6 K-1 and 0.837 ± 0.001 × 10-6 K-1, respectively. The absolute accuracy and the reproducibility of the present measurements are suggested to be better than 0.01 × 10-6 K-1 and 0.001 × 10-6 K-1, respectively. The residual anisotropy of the thermal expansion was consistent with our previous speculation regarding carbon-fiber, in which the residual anisotropy tended to lie mainly in the horizontal plane.

  9. Proposition of an Accelerated Ageing Method for Natural Fibre/Polylactic Acid Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandvliet, Clio; Bandyopadhyay, N. R.; Ray, Dipa

    2015-10-01

    Natural fibre composite based on polylactic acid (PLA) composite is of special interest because it is entirely from renewable resources and biodegradable. Some samples of jute/PLA composite and PLA alone made 6 years ago and kept in tropical climate on a shelf shows too fast ageing degradation. In this work, an accelerated ageing method for natural fibres/PLA composite is proposed and tested. Experiment was carried out with jute and flax fibre/PLA composite. The method was compared with the standard ISO 1037-06a. The residual flexural strength after ageing test was compared with the one of common wood-based panels and of real aged samples prepared 6 years ago.

  10. Influence of light-polymerization modes on the degree of conversion and mechanical properties of resin composites: a comparative analysis between a hybrid and a nanofilled composite.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Eduardo Moreira; Poskus, Laiza Tatiana; Guimarães, José Guilherme Antunes

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzed the influence of the light polymerization mode on the degree of conversion (DC) and mechanical properties of two resin composites: a hybrid (Filtek P60) and a nanofilled composite (Filtek Supreme). The composites were light activated by three light polymerization modes (Standard-S: 650 mW/cm2 for 30 seconds; High intensity-H: 1000 mW/cm2 for 20 seconds and Gradual-G: 100 up to 1000 mW/cm2 for 10 seconds + 1000 mW/cm2 for 10 seconds). The DC (%) was measured by FT-Raman spectroscopy. Flexural strength and flexural modulus were obtained from bar-shaped specimens (1 x 2 x 10 mm) submitted to the three-point bending test. Microhardness was evaluated by Knoop indentation (KHN). Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls multiple range test and linear regression analysis. The results showed the following DC: H > S > G (p < 0.0001) and hybrid > nanofilled (p < 0.005). Correlation was found between DC and the radiant exposure (R2 = 0.92). With respect to mechanical properties, only KHN was significantly influenced by the light polymerization mode, as follow: H > S = G (p < 0.0001). The hybrid composite presented higher flexural strength and flexural modulus than the nanofilled composite (p < 0.0001). No significant difference was found in KHN between thetwo composites (p = 0.1605). The results suggest that nanofilled composites may present a lower degree of conversion and reduced mechanical properties compared to hybrid composites.

  11. Enhanced thermal conductivity of novel multifunctional polyphenylene sulfide composites embedded with heat transfer networks of hybrid fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Siu N.; Khan, Omer M.; Chan, Ellen; Naguib, Hani E.; Dawson, Francis; Adinkrah, Vincent; Lakatos-Hayward, Laszlo

    2011-04-01

    Today's smaller, more powerful electronic devices, communications equipment, and lighting apparatus required optimum heat dissipation solutions. Traditionally, metals are widely known for their superior thermal conductivity; however, their good electrical conductivity has limited their applications in heat management components for microelectronic applications. This prompts the requirement to develop novel plastic composites that satisfy multifunctional requirements thermally, electrically, and mechanically. Furthermore, the moldability of polymer composites would make them ideal for manufacturing three-dimensional, net-shape enclosures and/or heat management assembly. Using polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) as the matrix, heat transfer networks were developed and structured by embedding hexagonal boron nitride (BN) alone, blending BN fillers of different shapes and sizes, as well as hybridizing BN fillers with carbonaceous nano- and micro-fillers. Parametric studies were conducted to elucidate the effects of types, shapes, sizes, and hybridization of fillers on the composite's thermal and electrical properties. The use of hybrid fillers, with optimized material formulations, was found to effectively promote a composite's thermal conductivity. This was achieved by optimizing the development of an interconnected thermal conductive network through structuring hybrid fillers with appropriate shapes and sizes. The thermal conductive composite affords unique opportunities to injection mold three-dimensional, net-shape microelectronic enclosures with superior heat dissipation performance.

  12. Some Exploitation Properties of Wood Plastic Hybrid Composites Based on Polypropylene and Plywood Production Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajaks, Janis; Kalnins, Karlis; Uzulis, Sandris; Matvejs, Juris

    2015-12-01

    polypropylenewood hybrid composites (WPHC) physical-mechanical and other exploitation properties.

  13. Interlocked graphene-Prussian blue hybrid composites enable multifunctional electrochemical applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Minwei; Hou, Chengyi; Halder, Arnab; Ulstrup, Jens; Chi, Qijin

    2017-03-15

    There has been increasing interest recently in mixed-valence inorganic nanostructure functionalized graphene composites, represented by Prussian blue, because they can cost-effectively apply to biosensors and energy devices. In this work, we present a one-pot green method to synthesize interlocked graphene-Prussian Blue hybrid composites as high-performance materials for biosensors and supercapacitor electrodes. Given the fact that graphene oxide (GO) can act as an electron acceptor, we used iron(II) and glucose as co-reducing agents to reduce GO under mild reaction conditions without introducing toxic agents. High quality Prussian blue nanocubes with no or little coordinated water were generated simultaneously. Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was thus functionalized by Prussian blue nanocubes via chemical bonding to form a kind of interlocked microstructure with high stability and good conductivity. The as-synthesized composites were tested for biosensing of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and as supercapacitor electrode materials. The specific capacitance of the microcomposite based electrodes can reach 428Fg(-1), with good cycling stability. The microcomposite also displays high performance catalysis towards electroreduction of H2O2 with a high sensitivity of 1.5Acm(-2)M(-1).

  14. Effects of mechanical and thermal cycling on composite and hybrid laminates with residual stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, I. M.; Liber, T.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of tensile load cycling and thermal cycling on residual stiffness and strength properties of the following composite and hybrid angle-ply laminates were studied: boron/epoxy, boron/polyimide, graphite/low-modulus epoxy, graphite/high-modulus epoxy, graphite/polyimide, S-glass/epoxy, graphite/Kevlar 49/epoxy, and graphite/S-glass/epoxy. Specimens of the first six types were mechanically cycled up to 90% of static strength. Those that survived 10 million cycles were tested statically to failure, and no significant changes in residual strength and modulus were noted. Specimens of all types were subjected to thermal cycling between room temperature and 411 K for the epoxy-matrix composites and 533 K for the polyimide-matrix composites. The residual strength and stiffness remained largely unchanged, except for the graphite/low-modulus epoxy, which showed reductions in both of approximately 35%. When low-temperature thermal cycling under tensile load was applied, there was a noticeable reduction in modulus and strength in the graphite/low-modulus epoxy and some strength reduction in the S-glass/epoxy.

  15. Rheological, microstructural, and in vitro characterization of hybrid chitosan-polylactic acid/hydroxyapatite composites.

    PubMed

    Araújo, A B A; Lemos, A F; Ferreira, J M F

    2009-03-15

    In this work, hybrid chitosan/hydroxyapatite composites material were developed and characterized. The polymer matrix was first dissolved in polylactic acid, and then hydroxyapatite (HA) was added as filler material. The effects of the added amounts of a crosslinking agent (genipin) and of the concentrations of lactic acid, and of the presence of HA powder on the evolution of rheological properties were evaluated. A significant decrease of gelation time with increasing amounts of crosslinking agent was observed, the effect being even more pronounced in the presence of HA. The chitosan matrix and the composites with a chitosan/HA weight ratio of 2/5 were characterized using microstructural analysis and in vitro tests. The formation of large pore sizes in the chitosan-based scaffolds was favored by low concentrations of lactic acid and genipin. The in vitro tests in synthetic body fluid revealed an extensive formation of an apatitic layer onto the surface of the chitosan/HA composite scaffolds crosslinked with genipin.

  16. Dependence of SERS enhancement on the chemical composition and structure of Ag/Au hybrid nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaffin, Elise; O'Connor, Ryan T.; Barr, James; Huang, Xiaohua; Wang, Yongmei

    2016-08-01

    Noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) such as silver (Ag) and gold (Au) have unique plasmonic properties that give rise to surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Generally, Ag NPs have much stronger plasmonic properties and, hence, provide stronger SERS signals than Au NPs. However, Ag NPs lack the chemical stability and biocompatibility of comparable Au NPs and typically exhibit the most intense plasmonic resonance at wavelengths much shorter than the optimal spectral region for many biomedical applications. To overcome these issues, various experimental efforts have been devoted to the synthesis of Ag/Au hybrid NPs for the purpose of SERS detections. However, a complete understanding on how the SERS enhancement depends on the chemical composition and structure of these nanoparticles has not been achieved. In this study, Mie theory and the discrete dipole approximation have been used to calculate the plasmonic spectra and near-field electromagnetic enhancements of Ag/Au hybrid NPs. In particular, we discuss how the electromagnetic enhancement depends on the mole fraction of Au in Ag/Au alloy NPs and how one may use extinction spectra to distinguish between Ag/Au alloyed NPs and Ag-Au core-shell NPs. We also show that for incident laser wavelengths between ˜410 nm and 520 nm, Ag/Au alloyed NPs provide better electromagnetic enhancement than pure Ag, pure Au, or Ag-Au core-shell structured NPs. Finally, we show that silica-core Ag/Au alloy shelled NPs provide even better performance than pure Ag/Au alloy or pure solid Ag and pure solid Au NPs. The theoretical results presented will be beneficial to the experimental efforts in optimizing the design of Ag/Au hybrid NPs for SERS-based detection methods.

  17. Effect of CNT volume fraction on wear properties of hybrid CNT+SiCsf/AS52 Mg matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byoung Woo; Cho, Dae Hyun; Nam, Ji Hoon; Park, Ik Min

    2016-07-01

    The effect of the carbon nanotube (CNT) volume fraction on the wear properties of hybrid Mg composites was investigated. The hybrid x vol% CNT + 15 vol% SiCsf-reinforced Mg-5Al-2Si alloy (AS52) matrix composites (x=0, 5 and 10 vol%) were fabricated in two steps involving preform fabrication and squeeze infiltration. The wear rate of the hybrid CNT+SiCsf/AS52 Mg metal matrix composites (MMCs) was evaluated using ballon-disk wear testing, and the roughness was measured using confocal laser 3D microscopy. Additionally, the worn surfaces were examined using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The adhesive wear and worn surface roughness of the hybrid CNT+SiCsf/AS52 Mg MMCs were reduced with increasing CNT addition. The CNTs hindered pull-out or cracking of the SiCsfs and matrix deformation. The wear resistance of the hybrid CNT+SiCsf/AS52 Mg MMCs was improved by the CNT additions, causing self-lubricant and strengthening effects compared with the single SiCsf/AS52 Mg MMCs.

  18. Bioinspired synthesis of fluorescent calcium carbonate/carbon dot hybrid composites.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shanshan; Yang, Miao; Chen, Min; Zhang, Juan; Liu, Kang; Ye, Ling; Gu, Wei

    2015-05-07

    Herein, we report a novel method to synthesise fluorescent calcium carbonate/carbon dots (CaCO3/CDs) by simply mixing CaCl2 and Na2CO3 solutions in the presence of CDs. There are two roles of CDs in this easy and cost-effective biomimetic strategy, that is as the template to direct the formation and assembly of calcite nanocrystals into hierarchical spheres with diameters in the range of 200-300 nm and simultaneously as the phosphor to enable the CaCO3 to emit blue fluorescence under UV (365 nm) irradiation with a quantum yield of 56.2%. The CaCO3/CD hybrid composites possessing unique fluorescence properties are potentially useful in various applications.

  19. Structural Acoustic Response of a Shape Memory Alloy Hybrid Composite Panel (Lessons Learned)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.

    2002-01-01

    This study presents results from an effort to fabricate a shape memory alloy hybrid composite (SMAHC) panel specimen and test the structure for dynamic response and noise transmission characteristics under the action of thermal and random acoustic loads. A method for fabricating a SMAHC laminate with bi-directional SMA reinforcement is described. Glass-epoxy unidirectional prepreg tape and Nitinol ribbon comprise the material system. Thermal activation of the Nitinol actuators was achieved through resistive heating. The experimental hardware required for mechanical support of the panel/actuators and for establishing convenient electrical connectivity to the actuators is presented. Other experimental apparatus necessary for controlling the panel temperature and acquiring structural acoustic data are also described. Deficiency in the thermal control system was discovered in the process of performing the elevated temperature tests. Discussion of the experimental results focuses on determining the causes for the deficiency and establishing means for rectifying the problem.

  20. Titanium Layer Influence on the Strength of a Hybrid Titanium Composite Laminate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veazie, David R.; Grover, Ronald O., Jr.; Bryant, Genine I.

    1997-01-01

    An experimental study was undertaken to investigate the mechanical response of four hybrid titanium composite laminate (HTCL) systems, each prepared using a graphite fiber reinforced thermoplastic polyimide as the adhesive in a unidirectional prepreg. Two of the four HTCL systems were fabricated with the titanium Ti-15-3 alloy, while the other two systems were fabricated with the titanium Timetal Beta-21S alloy. Each HTCL system consisted of either three plies or four plies of the titanium alloy. Systems with only three plies of titanium had plies measuring 10 mils thick, whereas systems consisting of four plies of titanium had plies measuring 5 mils thick. The improvement in mechanical properties achieved by comparing the uniaxial tensile results of static strength at room temperature. Results included stress-strain curves, ultimate strength, strain-to-failure, initial modulus of the HTCL's, and the description of the observed modes of failure.

  1. Shear-lag analysis of a hybrid, unidirectional composite with fiber damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goree, J. G.; Dharani, L. R.

    1983-01-01

    Development of a method of analysis capable of predicting accurately the fracture behavior of unidirectional hybrid (buffer strip) composite laminates was studied. Three particular solutions are discussed in detail: broken fibers in a unidirectional half-plane; adjoined half planes of different fiber and matrix properties; and the solution of two half planes bounding a third distinct region of finite width. This finite width region represents a buffer strip and primary attention is given to the potential of this strip to arrest a crack that originates in one of the half planes. A materials modeling approach using the classical shear lag assumption to describe the stress transfer between fibers was analyzed. Explicit fiber and matrix properties of the three regions are retained, and changes in the laminate behavior as a function of the relative material properties, buffer strip width, and initial crack length are discussed.

  2. Effect of Impact Damage and Open Hole on Compressive Strength of Hybrid Composite Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiel, Clement; Brinson, H. F.

    1993-01-01

    Impact damage tolerance is a frequently listed design requirement for composites hardware. The effect of impact damage and open hole size on laminate compressive strength was studied on sandwich beam specimens which combine CFRP-GFRP hybrid skins and a syntactic foam core. Three test specimen configurations have been investigated for this study. The first two were sandwich beams which were loaded in pure bending (by four point flexure). One series had a skin damaged by impact, and the second series had a circular hole machined through one of the skins. The reduction of compressive strength with increasing damage (hole) size was compared. Additionally a third series of uniaxially loaded open hole compression coupons were tested to generate baseline data for comparison with both series of sandwich beams.

  3. Effect of Circular Hole Notch Size on Strength Characteristics of CFRP/AL7075 Hybrid Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Han Ki; Park, Joon Soo; Lee, Sang Pill; Park, Yi Hyun; Kong, Yu Sik; Park, Won Jo

    As for the properties on both the aluminum and the CFRP which are used to make CFRP/AL7075 hybrid composites, CARALL (carbon reinforced aluminum laminate). In the CARALL specimen for rule of mixture, we were analyzed notched strength by finite element method. The results obtained from FEM notched strength analysis and experimental are as follows; In the unnotch CARALL specimen, the stresses imposed CFRP, epoxy, A17075 obtained by finite element method strength solution for A/C9991, when strain 0.48%, are 392 Mpa, 26 Mpa and 321 Mpa, respectively. The slope of the stress-strain curve by FEM increase in keeping with the hole size and the yield strain decrease to 36% and 55% for A/C9993 and A/C9991 respectively. And an agreement is found between the experimental results and the FEM analytical prediction results.

  4. Mechanical properties of hybrid (medium modulus graphite, Thornel P-55 Kevlar/Epoxy) composites

    SciTech Connect

    Raghava, R.S.; Peters, S.T.

    1987-01-01

    This paper treats the mechanical behavior of hybrid (Thornel P-55-Kevlar/Epoxy) composites under ambient conditions and under hostile environments. Interply (core/shell) and intraply tubes (5.75'' I.D.) were filament wound and NOL rings were machined from them. Apparently modulus and apparent strength were measured using the split D (ASTM D2290) test. The influence of boiling water exposure (2 hrs and 24 hrs) on short beam shear strength, apparent modulus, and apparent strength was also evaluated at room temperature and the fracture toughness for above configurations was measured at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine failure modes. 6 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  5. Hybrid composite laminates reinforced with Kevlar/carbon/glass woven fabrics for ballistic impact testing.

    PubMed

    Randjbaran, Elias; Zahari, Rizal; Jalil, Nawal Aswan Abdul; Majid, Dayang Laila Abang Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Current study reported a facile method to investigate the effects of stacking sequence layers of hybrid composite materials on ballistic energy absorption by running the ballistic test at the high velocity ballistic impact conditions. The velocity and absorbed energy were accordingly calculated as well. The specimens were fabricated from Kevlar, carbon, and glass woven fabrics and resin and were experimentally investigated under impact conditions. All the specimens possessed equal mass, shape, and density; nevertheless, the layers were ordered in different stacking sequence. After running the ballistic test at the same conditions, the final velocities of the cylindrical AISI 4340 Steel pellet showed how much energy was absorbed by the samples. The energy absorption of each sample through the ballistic impact was calculated; accordingly, the proper ballistic impact resistance materials could be found by conducting the test. This paper can be further studied in order to characterise the material properties for the different layers.

  6. Effect of Impact Damage and Open Hole on Compressive Strength of Hybrid Composite Laminates

    SciTech Connect

    Hiel, C.; Brinson, H.F.

    1993-05-01

    Impact damage tolerance is a frequently listed design requirement for composites hardware. The effect of impact damage and open hole size on laminate compressive strength was studied on sandwich beam specimens which combine CFRP-GFRP hybrid skins and a syntactic foam core. Three test specimen configurations have been investigated for this study. The first two were sandwich beams which were loaded in pure bending (by four point flexure). One series had a skin damaged by impact, and the second series had a circular hole machined through one of the skins. The reduction of compressive strength with increasing damage (hole) size was compared. Additionally a third series of uniaxially loaded open hole compression coupons were tested to generate baseline data for comparison with both series of sandwich beams.

  7. The effects of stress and physical aging on the creep compliance of a polymeric composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, Thomas E.; Feldman, Mark

    1993-01-01

    An experimental study was performed to determine the effects of stress and physical aging on the matrix dominated viscoelastic properties of IM7/8320, a high temperature fiber reinforced thermoplastic composite. Established creep/aging test techniques developed for polymers were adapted for testing of the composite material. The transverse and shear compliance for an orthotropic plate were found from creep compliance measurements at constant, sub-Tg temperatures. These compliance terms were shown to be effected by physical aging. Aging time shift factors and shift rates were found to be a function of applied stress.

  8. Composit, Nanoparticle-Based Anode material for Li-ion Batteries Applied in Hybrid Electric (HEV's)

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Malgorzata Gulbinska

    2009-08-24

    Lithium-ion batteries are promising energy storage devices in hybrid and electric vehicles with high specific energy values ({approx}150 Wh/kg), energy density ({approx}400 Wh/L), and long cycle life (>15 years). However, applications in hybrid and electric vehicles require increased energy density and improved low-temperature (<-10 C) performance. Silicon-based anodes are inexpensive, environmentally benign, and offer excellent theoretical capacity values ({approx}4000 mAh/g), leading to significantly less anode material and thus increasing the overall energy density value for the complete battery (>500 Wh/L). However, tremendous volume changes occur during cycling of pure silicon-based anodes. The expansion and contraction of these silicon particles causes them to fracture and lose electrical contact to the current collector ultimately severely limiting their cycle life. In Phase I of this project Yardney Technical Products, Inc. proposed development of a carbon/nano-silicon composite anode material with improved energy density and silicon's cycleability. In the carbon/nano-Si composite, silicon nanoparticles were embedded in a partially-graphitized carbonaceous matrix. The cycle life of anode material would be extended by decreasing the average particle size of active material (silicon) and by encapsulation of silicon nanoparticles in a ductile carbonaceous matrix. Decreasing the average particle size to a nano-region would also shorten Li-ion diffusion path and thus improve rate capability of the silicon-based anodes. Improved chemical inertness towards PC-based, low-temperature electrolytes was expected as an additional benefit of a thin, partially graphitized coating around the active electrode material.

  9. Forest Age and Plant Species Composition Determine the Soil Fungal Community Composition in a Chinese Subtropical Forest

    PubMed Central

    Trogisch, Stefan; Both, Sabine; Scholten, Thomas; Bruelheide, Helge; Buscot, François

    2013-01-01

    Fungal diversity and community composition are mainly related to soil and vegetation factors. However, the relative contribution of the different drivers remains largely unexplored, especially in subtropical forest ecosystems. We studied the fungal diversity and community composition of soils sampled from 12 comparative study plots representing three forest age classes (Young: 10–40 yrs; Medium: 40–80 yrs; Old: ≥80 yrs) in Gutianshan National Nature Reserve in South-eastern China. Soil fungal communities were assessed employing ITS rDNA pyrotag sequencing. Members of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota dominated the fungal community, with 22 putative ectomycorrhizal fungal families, where Russulaceae and Thelephoraceae were the most abundant taxa. Analysis of similarity showed that the fungal community composition significantly differed among the three forest age classes. Forest age class, elevation of the study plots, and soil organic carbon (SOC) were the most important factors shaping the fungal community composition. We found a significant correlation between plant and fungal communities at different taxonomic and functional group levels, including a strong relationship between ectomycorrhizal fungal and non-ectomycorrhizal plant communities. Our results suggest that in subtropical forests, plant species community composition is the main driver of the soil fungal diversity and community composition. PMID:23826151

  10. Influence of Sea Water Aging on the Mechanical Behaviour of Acrylic Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, P.; Le Gac, P.-Y.; Le Gall, M.

    2016-07-01

    A new matrix resin was recently introduced for composite materials, based on acrylic resin chemistry allowing standard room temperature infusion techniques to be used to produce recyclable thermoplastic composites. This is a significant advance, particularly for more environmentally-friendly production of large marine structures such as boats. However, for such applications it is essential to demonstrate that composites produced with these resins resist sea water exposure in service. This paper presents results from a wet aging study of unreinforced acrylic and glass and carbon fibre reinforced acrylic composites. It is shown that the acrylic matrix resin is very stable in seawater, showing lower property losses after seawater aging than those of a commonly-used epoxy matrix resin. Carbon fibre reinforced acrylic also shows good property retention after aging, while reductions in glass fibre reinforced composite strengths suggest that specific glass fibre sizing may be required for optimum durability.

  11. Influence of Sea Water Aging on the Mechanical Behaviour of Acrylic Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, P.; Le Gac, P.-Y.; Le Gall, M.

    2017-02-01

    A new matrix resin was recently introduced for composite materials, based on acrylic resin chemistry allowing standard room temperature infusion techniques to be used to produce recyclable thermoplastic composites. This is a significant advance, particularly for more environmentally-friendly production of large marine structures such as boats. However, for such applications it is essential to demonstrate that composites produced with these resins resist sea water exposure in service. This paper presents results from a wet aging study of unreinforced acrylic and glass and carbon fibre reinforced acrylic composites. It is shown that the acrylic matrix resin is very stable in seawater, showing lower property losses after seawater aging than those of a commonly-used epoxy matrix resin. Carbon fibre reinforced acrylic also shows good property retention after aging, while reductions in glass fibre reinforced composite strengths suggest that specific glass fibre sizing may be required for optimum durability.

  12. A comparative study of the mechanical performance of Glass and Glass/Carbon hybrid polymer composites at different temperature environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, M. J.; Kumar, D. S.; Mahato, K. K.; Rathore, D. K.; Prusty, R. K.; Ray, B. C.

    2015-02-01

    Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) composites have been widely accepted as high strength, low weight structural material as compared to their metallic counterparts. Some specific advanced high performance applications such as aerospace components still require superior specific strength and specific modulus. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) composites exhibit superior specific strength and modulus but have a lower failure strain and high cost. Hence, the combination of both glass and carbon fiber in polymer composite may yield optimized mechanical properties. Further the in-service environment has a significant role on the mechanical performance of this class of materials. Present study aims to investigate the mechanical property of GFRP and Glass/Carbon (G/C hybrid) composites at room temperature, in-situ and ex-situ temperature conditions. In-situ testing at +70°C and +100°C results in significant loss in inter-laminar shear strength (ILSS) for both the composites as compared to room temperature. The ILSS was nearly equal for both the composite systems tested in-situ at +100°C and effect of fiber hybridisation was completely diminished there. At low temperature ex-situ conditioning significant reduction in ILSS was observed for both the systems. Further at -60°C G/C hybrid exhibited 32.4 % higher ILSS than GFRP. Hence this makes G/C hybrid a better choice of material in low temperature environmental applications.

  13. Essential oil composition of Citrus meyerii Y. Tan. and Citrus medica L. cv. Diamante and their lemon hybrids.

    PubMed

    Verzera, Antonella; Trozzi, Alessandra; Zappalá, Mario; Condurso, Cettina; Cotroneo, Antonella

    2005-06-15

    In this paper we report the volatile fraction composition of Citrus meyerii Y. Tan. and Citrus medica L. cv. Diamante and two new lemon hybrids obtained by cross-breeding them with the tetraploid Citrus limon Burm. cv. Cavone. Both parent and hybrid oils were laboratory-extracted from the peel fruits and analyzed by HRGC-MS and HRGC-FID. Sixty-three components were fully characterized by mass spectra, linear retention indices, and injection of standards. The average composition as single components for all the oils analyzed is reported. Moreover, the data obtained were statistically analyzed. Since limonene is by far the main component of all the essential oils examined, analysis of variance and multivariate analysis gave interesting information on the similarities and differences between the oils analyzed. The new hybrid oils analyzed have potential commercial value because they could be an acceptable alternative to the valuable lemon oil.

  14. Direct electrochemistry of horseradish peroxidase immobilized on the layered calcium carbonate-gold nanoparticles inorganic hybrid composite.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Feng, Yan; Wang, Zhen; Yang, Limin; Zhuo, Linhai; Tang, Bo

    2010-06-15

    A mediator-free hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) biosensor was fabricated based on immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) on layered calcium carbonate-gold nanoparticles (CaCO(3)-AuNPs) inorganic hybrid composite. The proposed biosensor showed a strong electrocatalytic activity toward the reduction of H(2)O(2), which could be attributed to the favored orientation of HRP in the well-confined surface as well as the high electrical conductivity of the resulting CaCO(3)-AuNPs inorganic hybrid composite. The hybrid composite was obtained by the adsorption of AuNPs onto the surfaces of layered CaCO(3) through electrostatic interaction. The key analytical parameters relative to the biosensor performance such as pH and applied potential were optimized. The developed biosensor also exhibited a fast amperometric response (3s), a good linear response toward H(2)O(2) over a wide range of concentration from 5.0x10(-7) to 5.2x10(-3)M, and a low detection limit of 1.0x10(-7)M. The facile, inexpensive and reliable sensing platform based on layered CaCO(3)-AuNPs inorganic hybrid composite should hold a huge potential for the fabrication of more other biosensors.

  15. Hypoxia affects performance traits and body composition of juvenile hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Performance traits and body composition of juvenile hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis) in response to hypoxia were evaluated in replicate tanks maintained at constant dissolved oxygen concentrations that averaged 23.0 +/- 2.3%, 39.7 +/- 3.0%, and 105.5 +/- 9.5% dissolved oxygen sat...

  16. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Different Involvement of Embryo and Endosperm Proteins during Aging of Yliangyou 2 Hybrid Rice Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying-Xue; Xu, Heng-Heng; Liu, Shu-Jun; Li, Ni; Wang, Wei-Qing; Møller, Ian M.; Song, Song-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Seed aging is a process that results in a delayed germination, a decreased germination percentage, and finally a total loss of seed viability. However, the mechanism of seed aging is poorly understood. In the present study, Yliangyou 2 hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds were artificially aged at 100% relative humidity and 40°C, and the effect of artificial aging on germination, germination time course and the change in protein profiles of embryo and endosperm was studied to understand the molecular mechanism behind seed aging. With an increasing duration of artificial aging, the germination percentage and germination rate of hybrid rice seeds decreased. By comparing the protein profiles from the seeds aged for 0, 10 and 25 days, a total of 91 and 100 protein spots were found to show a significant change of more than 2-fold (P < 0.05) in abundance, and 71 and 79 protein spots were identified, in embryos and endosperms, respectively. The great majority of these proteins increased in abundance in embryos (95%) and decreased in abundance in endosperms (99%). In embryos, most of the identified proteins were associated with energy (30%), with cell defense and rescue (28%), and with storage protein (18%). In endosperms, most of the identified proteins were involved in metabolism (37%), in energy (27%), and in protein synthesis and destination (11%). The most marked change was the increased abundance of many glycolytic enzymes together with the two fermentation enzymes pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase in the embryos during aging. We hypothesize that the decreased viability of hybrid rice seeds during artificial aging is caused by the development of hypoxic conditions in the embryos followed by ethanol accumulation. PMID:27708655

  17. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Different Involvement of Embryo and Endosperm Proteins during Aging of Yliangyou 2 Hybrid Rice Seeds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Xue; Xu, Heng-Heng; Liu, Shu-Jun; Li, Ni; Wang, Wei-Qing; Møller, Ian M; Song, Song-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Seed aging is a process that results in a delayed germination, a decreased germination percentage, and finally a total loss of seed viability. However, the mechanism of seed aging is poorly understood. In the present study, Yliangyou 2 hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds were artificially aged at 100% relative humidity and 40°C, and the effect of artificial aging on germination, germination time course and the change in protein profiles of embryo and endosperm was studied to understand the molecular mechanism behind seed aging. With an increasing duration of artificial aging, the germination percentage and germination rate of hybrid rice seeds decreased. By comparing the protein profiles from the seeds aged for 0, 10 and 25 days, a total of 91 and 100 protein spots were found to show a significant change of more than 2-fold (P < 0.05) in abundance, and 71 and 79 protein spots were identified, in embryos and endosperms, respectively. The great majority of these proteins increased in abundance in embryos (95%) and decreased in abundance in endosperms (99%). In embryos, most of the identified proteins were associated with energy (30%), with cell defense and rescue (28%), and with storage protein (18%). In endosperms, most of the identified proteins were involved in metabolism (37%), in energy (27%), and in protein synthesis and destination (11%). The most marked change was the increased abundance of many glycolytic enzymes together with the two fermentation enzymes pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase in the embryos during aging. We hypothesize that the decreased viability of hybrid rice seeds during artificial aging is caused by the development of hypoxic conditions in the embryos followed by ethanol accumulation.

  18. Variability in fatty acid and triacylglycerol composition of the oil of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) hybrids and their parentals.

    PubMed

    Laureles, Lucita R; Rodriguez, Felicito M; Reaño, Consorcia E; Santos, Gerardo A; Laurena, Antonio C; Mendoza, Evelyn Mae Tecson

    2002-03-13

    The fatty acid profiles and triacylglycerol (TAG) compositions of oils from the solid endosperm of different Philippine coconut hybrids and their parentals were determined by using gas chromatography (GC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In general, varietal differences in fatty acid composition were observed. Lauric acid (C12) content was significantly higher in the hybrids PCA 15-8 (50.45%) and PCA 15-9 (50.26%) by about 3.16% points as compared to other hybrids, and higher in Tacunan Green Dwarf (50.50%) among the parentals. Among the fatty acids, lauric acid exhibited the least variation. In general, none of the hybrids had higher fatty acid content than their parentals. The HPLC chromatogram of triacylglycerols (TAG) showed 8 major peaks which differ in carbon number (CN) by two: identified as TAG CN 30, 32, 34, 36, 38, 40, 42, and 44. TAGs CN 30 (4.08%) and CN 34 (19.20%) were found to be significantly higher in PCA 15-9 than in the other hybrids. CN 36 was highest (21.94-23.66%) in all hybrids and parentals. The TAG CNs varied significantly among hybrids and parents, i.e., in CN 30, 32, and 34, which are high in medium chain triacylglycerols (MCTs), and in CN 30 (for parentals only), 40, 42, and 44 (the latter two for parentals only), and none in CN 36. MCTs calculated for two hybrids and their parents ranged from 13.81% to 20.55%.

  19. Relationship between the degree of conversion, solubility and salivary sorption of a hybrid and a nanofilled resin composite.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Eduardo Moreira; Almeida, Giselle Soares; Poskus, Laiza Tatiana; Guimarães, José Guilherme Antunes

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzed the relationship between the degree of conversion (DC), solubility, and salivary sorption of a hybrid (Filtek P 60) and a nanofilled resin composite (Filtek Supreme), and evaluated the influence of the light-activation mode on these properties. Two light-activation modes were used: Conventional (C; 850 mW/cm(2) for 20 s) and Soft-start (SS; 100-1,000 mW/cm(2) for 10 s + 1,000 mW/cm(2) for 10 s). The DC (%) was evaluated by FT-Raman spectroscopy. The solubility and salivary sorption were measured after immersion in artificial saliva for 7 days. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls' test and linear regression analysis (a = 0.05). The DC varied from 50.52% (nanofilled composite) to 57.15% (hybrid composite), and was influenced by the light-activation mode: C > SS. The solubility (0.45 microg/mm(3)) and salivary sorption (8.04 microg/mm(3)) of the nanofilled composite were greater than those of the hybrid composite (0.40 microg/mm(3) / 6.87 microg/mm(3)), and were influenced by the light-activation mode: SS > C. Correlation was found between DC and solubility (r = - 0.89, p<0.05), as well as between solubility and salivary sorption (r = 0.95). These findings suggest that nanofilled composites may present higher degradation in the oral environment than hybrid ones. Soft-start light-activation mode may increase the solubility of resin composites.

  20. Hybrid-Wing-Body Vehicle Composite Fuselage Analysis and Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in the structural analysis of a Hybrid Wing-Body (HWB) fuselage concept is presented with the objective of structural weight reduction under a set of critical design loads. This pressurized efficient HWB fuselage design is presently being investigated by the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project in collaboration with the Boeing Company, Huntington Beach. The Pultruded Rod-Stiffened Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) composite concept, developed at the Boeing Company, is approximately modeled for an analytical study and finite element analysis. Stiffened plate linear theories are employed for a parametric case study. Maximum deflection and stress levels are obtained with appropriate assumptions for a set of feasible stiffened panel configurations. An analytical parametric case study is presented to examine the effects of discrete stiffener spacing and skin thickness on structural weight, deflection and stress. A finite-element model (FEM) of an integrated fuselage section with bulkhead is developed for an independent assessment. Stress analysis and scenario based case studies are conducted for design improvement. The FEM model specific weight of the improved fuselage concept is computed and compared to previous studies, in order to assess the relative weight/strength advantages of this advanced composite airframe technology

  1. Measurement and Prediction of the Thermomechanical Response of Shape Memory Alloy Hybrid Composite Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Brian; Turner, Travis L.; Seelecke, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    Previous work at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) involved fabrication and testing of composite beams with embedded, pre-strained shape memory alloy (SMA) ribbons within the beam structures. That study also provided comparison of experimental results with numerical predictions from a research code making use of a new thermoelastic model for shape memory alloy hybrid composite (SMAHC) structures. The previous work showed qualitative validation of the numerical model. However, deficiencies in the experimental-numerical correlation were noted and hypotheses for the discrepancies were given for further investigation. The goal of this work is to refine the experimental measurement and numerical modeling approaches in order to better understand the discrepancies, improve the correlation between prediction and measurement, and provide rigorous quantitative validation of the numerical analysis/design tool. The experimental investigation is refined by a more thorough test procedure and incorporation of higher fidelity measurements such as infrared thermography and projection moire interferometry. The numerical results are produced by a recently commercialized version of the constitutive model as implemented in ABAQUS and are refined by incorporation of additional measured parameters such as geometric imperfection. Thermal buckling, post-buckling, and random responses to thermal and inertial (base acceleration) loads are studied. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of SMAHC structures in controlling static and dynamic responses by adaptive stiffening. Excellent agreement is achieved between the predicted and measured results of the static and dynamic thermomechanical response, thereby providing quantitative validation of the numerical tool.

  2. Design, fabrication, and testing of a SMA hybrid composite jet engine chevron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.; Cabell, Randolph H.; Cano, Roberto J.; Fleming, Gary A.

    2006-01-01

    Control of jet noise continues to be an important research topic. Exhaust nozzle chevrons have been shown to reduce jet noise, but parametric effects are not well understood. Additionally, thrust loss due to chevrons at cruise suggests significant benefit from deployable chevrons. The focus of this study is development of an active chevron concept for the primary purpose of parametric studies for jet noise reduction in the laboratory and technology development to leverage for full scale systems. The active chevron concept employed in this work consists of a laminated composite structure with embedded shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators, termed a SMA hybrid composite (SMAHC). The actuators are embedded on one side of the middle surface such that thermal excitation generates a moment and deflects the structure. A brief description of the chevron design is given followed by details of the fabrication approach. Results from bench top tests are presented and correlated with numerical predictions from a model for such structures that was recently implemented in MSC.Nastran and ABAQUS. Excellent performance and agreement with predictions is demonstrated. Results from tests in a representative flow environment are also presented. Excellent performance is again achieved for both open- and closed-loop tests, the latter demonstrating control to a specified immersion into the flow. The actuation authority and immersion performance is shown to be relatively insensitive to nozzle pressure ratio (NPR). Very repeatable immersion control with modest power requirements is demonstrated.

  3. Analysis of SMA Hybrid Composite Structures in MSC.Nastran and ABAQUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.; Patel, Hemant D.

    2005-01-01

    A thermoelastic constitutive model for shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators and SMA hybrid composite (SMAHC) structures was recently implemented in the commercial finite element codes MSC.Nastran and ABAQUS. The model may be easily implemented in any code that has the capability for analysis of laminated composite structures with temperature dependent material properties. The model is also relatively easy to use and requires input of only fundamental engineering properties. A brief description of the model is presented, followed by discussion of implementation and usage in the commercial codes. Results are presented from static and dynamic analysis of SMAHC beams of two types; a beam clamped at each end and a cantilever beam. Nonlinear static (post-buckling) and random response analyses are demonstrated for the first specimen. Static deflection (shape) control is demonstrated for the cantilever beam. Approaches for modeling SMAHC material systems with embedded SMA in ribbon and small round wire product forms are demonstrated and compared. The results from the commercial codes are compared to those from a research code as validation of the commercial implementations; excellent correlation is achieved in all cases.

  4. The Effect of Lamina Intraply Hybrid Composites on the Tensile Properties of Various Weave Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuhazri, M. Y.; Amirhafizan, M. H.; Abdullah, A.; Sihombing, H.; Nirmal, U.; Saarah, A. B.; Fadzol, O. M.

    2016-11-01

    The topic of natural fiber is one of the most active areas in thermoset composite research today. This paper will focuses on the effect of weave designs on the mechanical behaviour of lamina intraply hybrid composites. Twelve specimens were used and they were made of kenaf fibre and glass fibre as a reinforcement and unsaturated polyester resin as a matrix in various weave designs which were plain, twill, satin, basket, mock leno, and leno weave. Vacuum infusion technique was used due to its superior advantages over hand lay-up. The specimens were produced in two types which were kenaf fibre in warp direction interlace with glass fibre in weft direction (WK-WG) and glass fibre in warp direction interlace with kenaf fibre in weft direction (WG-WK). Various weave designs were found to affect the tensile properties. Glass fibre in warp direction has a greater effect on tensile strength compared to kenaf fibre in warp direction. Mock leno weave exhibited better mechanical properties for WK-WG and WG-WK, about 54.74 MPa and 99.46 MPa respectively.

  5. Preparation and characterization of functional material based on hybrid polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agusu, La; Amiruddin; Taswito, Chen Chen; Herdianto; Zamrun, Muh.

    2016-08-01

    The microstructures and properties of hybrid polymer composites based on polyaniline (PANi)/γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles/TiO2/carbon have been investigated for multifunctional applications such as heavy metal removal and initial study for radar absorbing material application. γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles with spherical shape were synthetized by a coprecipitation method from iron sand. By activating the polyethylene glycol (PEG-400) coated carbon of coconut shell, the homogenous shape and size of carbon was achieved. Then, γ- Fe2O3, TiO2, and carbon were mixed with PANi by an in situ polymerization method at low temperature 0-5 oC. Characterization process involved XRD, SEM, FTIR, VSM, and DC conductivity measurements. For radar absorber application, the functionalized polymer composites showed good electrical conductivity 0.45 S/cm to absorb the incoming electromagnetic energy. An efficient and effective reduction of Pb2+ ion from the water has been achieved by using this material.

  6. Spin-triplet electron transport in hybrid superconductor heterostructures with a composite ferromagnetic interlayer

    SciTech Connect

    Sheyerman, A. E. Constantinian, K. Y.; Ovsyannikov, G. A.; Kislinskii, Yu. V.; Shadrin, A. V.; Kalabukhov, A. V.; Khaydukov, Yu. N.

    2015-06-15

    Hybrid YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−x}/SrRuO{sub 3}/La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/Au-Nb superconductor mesastructures with a composite manganite-ruthenate ferromagnetic interlayer are studied using electrophysical, magnetic, and microwave methods. The supercurrent in the mesastructure is observed when the interlayer thickness is much larger than the coherence length of ferromagnetic materials. The peak on the dependence of the critical current density on the interlayer material thickness corresponds to the coherence length, which is in qualitative agreement with theoretical predictions for a system with spit-triplet superconducting correlations. The magnetic-field dependence of the critical current is determined by penetration of magnetic flux quanta and by the magnetic domain structure, as well as by the field dependence of disorientation of the magnetization vectors of the layers in the composite magnetic interlayer. It is found that the supercurrent exists in magnetic fields two orders of magnitude stronger than the field corresponding to entry of a magnetic flux quantum into the mesastructure. The current-phase relation (CPR) of the supercurrent of mesastructures is investigated upon a change in the magnetic field from zero to 30 Oe; the ratio of the second CPR harmonic to the first, determined from the dependence of the Shapiro steps on the microwave radiation amplitude, does not exceed 50%.

  7. Clinical Evaluation of Silorane and Nano-hybrid Resin Composite Restorations in Class II Cavities up to 3 Years.

    PubMed

    Öztürk-Bozkurt, F; Toz, T; Kara-Tuncer, A; Gözükara-Bağ, H; Özcan, M

    In this study, the clinical performance of a silorane-based resin composite (SC) vs a nano-hybrid resin composite (NHC) was evaluated in Class II cavities. From January 2012 to February 2013, a total of 29 patients (eight men, 21 women; mean age, 24 ± 5 years) received 29 pairs of restorations using both SC (Filtek Silorane, 3M ESPE) and NHC (Filtek Z550, 3M ESPE) materials. Patients were followed until February 2015. One operator performed all restorations using the corresponding adhesive resins according to the manufacturers' instructions. Two calibrated independent examiners evaluated the restorations at one week, six months, and then annually using the modified United States Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria for anatomic form, marginal adaptation, color match, surface roughness, marginal discoloration, secondary caries, and postoperative sensitivity. Changes in the USPHS parameters were analyzed with the McNemar test (α=0.05). The mean observation period was 31.2 months. Marginal adaptation was the only parameter that showed a significant difference and was worse for SC than NHC (p=0.012). At the final recall, 17 restorations from the SC group and five from the NHC group received a score of 1 (explorer catches). These scores were significantly different between baseline and final recall for SC (p<0.001) but not for NHC (p>0.05). Both NHC and SC performed similarly in Class II restorations up to three years except for marginal adaptation, for which the latter demonstrated significant deterioration at the final recall compared with baseline.

  8. Continuous Carbon Nanotube-Ultrathin Graphite Hybrid Foams for Increased Thermal Conductivity and Suppressed Subcooling in Composite Phase Change Materials.

    PubMed

    Kholmanov, Iskandar; Kim, Jaehyun; Ou, Eric; Ruoff, Rodney S; Shi, Li

    2015-12-22

    Continuous ultrathin graphite foams (UGFs) have been actively researched recently to obtain composite materials with increased thermal conductivities. However, the large pore size of these graphitic foams has resulted in large thermal resistance values for heat conduction from inside the pore to the high thermal conductivity graphitic struts. Here, we demonstrate that the effective thermal conductivity of these UGF composites can be increased further by growing long CNT networks directly from the graphite struts of UGFs into the pore space. When erythritol, a phase change material for thermal energy storage, is used to fill the pores of UGF-CNT hybrids, the thermal conductivity of the UGF-CNT/erythritol composite was found to increase by as much as a factor of 1.8 compared to that of a UGF/erythritol composite, whereas breaking the UGF-CNT bonding in the hybrid composite resulted in a drop in the effective room-temperature thermal conductivity from about 4.1 ± 0.3 W m(-1) K(-1) to about 2.9 ± 0.2 W m(-1) K(-1) for the same UGF and CNT loadings of about 1.8 and 0.8 wt %, respectively. Moreover, we discovered that the hybrid structure strongly suppresses subcooling of erythritol due to the heterogeneous nucleation of erythritol at interfaces with the graphitic structures.

  9. TiN films fabricated by reactive gas pulse sputtering: A hybrid design of multilayered and compositionally graded structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jijun; Zhang, Feifei; Wan, Qiang; Lu, Chenyang; Peng, Mingjing; Liao, Jiali; Yang, Yuanyou; Wang, Lumin; Liu, Ning

    2016-12-01

    Reactive gas pulse (RGP) sputtering approach was used to prepare TiN thin films through periodically changing the N2/Ar gas flow ratio. The obtained RGPsbnd TiN film possessed a hybrid architecture containing compositionally graded and multilayered structures, composed of hcp Ti-phase and fcc TiN-phase sublayers. Meanwhile, the RGP-TiN film exhibited a composition-oscillation along the film thickness direction, where the Ti-phase sublayer had a compositional gradient and the TiN-phase retained a constant stoichiometric ratio of Ti:N ≈ 1. The film modulation ratio λ (the thicknesses ratio of the Ti and TiN-phase sublayer) can be effectively tuned by controlling the undulation behavior of the N2 partial flow rate. Detailed analysis showed that this hybrid structure originated from a periodic transition of the film growth mode during the reactive sputtering process.

  10. A review on the fabrication method of bio-sourced hybrid composites for aerospace and automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zin, M. H.; Razzi, M. F.; Othman, S.; Liew, K.; Abdan, K.; Mazlan, N.

    2016-10-01

    Development of bio-sourced materials over the recent years has shown growing interests due to their eco-friendly characteristics. The combination of bio-sourced material such as kenaf, jute, sisal and many more into current synthetic fibres such as glass and carbon fibre, which is also known as hybrid composites, offers several significant benefits including sustainability, cost reduction, product variety and high specific mechanical properties. There are many methods used to fabricate composite parts nowadays. However, each method has its own requirement and usability. This review paper intends to focus on suitable technique to be adopted in order to fabricate bio-sourced hybrid composites. Some of the fabrication methods are customized in order to suit with the application of natural fibres. The selected methods are also highlighted with the application in aerospace and automotive industry. The process and outcomes are presented comparatively.

  11. Evaluation of the bond strength between aged composite cores and luting agent

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate effect of different surface treatment methods on the bond strength between aged composite-resin core and luting agent. MATERIALS AND METHODS Seventy-five resin composites and also seventy-five zirconia ceramic discs were prepared. 60 composite samples were exposed to thermal aging (10,000 cycles, 5 to 55℃) and different surface treatment. All specimens were separated into 5 groups (n=15): 1) Intact specimens 2) Thermal aging-air polishing 3) Thermal aging- Er:YAG laser irradiation 4) Thermal aging- acid etching 5) Thermal-aging. All specimens were bonded to the zirconia discs with resin cement and fixed to universal testing machine and bond strength testing loaded to failure with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The fractured surface was classified as adhesive failure, cohesive failure and adhesive-cohesive failure. The bond strength data was statistically compared by the Kruskal-Wallis method complemented by the Bonferroni correction Mann-Whitney U test. The probability level for statistical significance was set at α=.05. RESULTS Thermal aging and different surface treatment methods have significant effect on the bond strength between composite-resin cores and luting-agent (P<.05). The mean baseline bond strength values ranged between 7.07 ± 2.11 and 26.05 ± 6.53 N. The highest bond strength of 26.05 ± 6.53 N was obtained with Group 3. Group 5 showed the lowest value of bond strength. CONCLUSION Appropriate surface treatment method should be applied to aged composite resin cores or aged-composites restorations should be replaced for the optimal bond strength and the clinical success. PMID:25932308

  12. An Introduced Hybrid Graphene/Polyaniline Composites for Improvement of Supercapacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayel, Mazhar B.; Soliman, Moataz M.; Ebrahim, Shaker; Harb, Mohamed E.

    2016-01-01

    Supercapacitors represent an attractive alternative for portable electronics and automotive applications due to their high capacitance, specific power and extended life. In fact, the growing demand of portable systems and hybrid electric vehicles, memory protection in complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS), logic circuit, videocassette recorders (VCRs), compact disc (CD) players, personal computers (PCs), uninterruptible power supply (UPS) in security alarm systems, remote sensing, smoke detectors, etc. require high power in short-term pulses. Therefore, in the last 20 years, supercapacitors have been required for the development of large and small devices driven by electrical power. In this paper, graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized by improved Hummers method. Two polyaniline (PANI)/graphene oxide nanocomposites electrode materials were prepared from aniline, GO and ammoniumpersulfate (APS) by in situ chemical polymerization with the mass ratios (mGO:mAniline) 10:90 and 30: 70 in ice bath. The crystal structure and the surface topography of all materials were characterized by means of x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical properties of the composites were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), charge-discharge measurements and electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), respectively. The results show that the composites have similar and enhanced cyclic voltammetry performance compared with pure PANI based electrode material. The graphene/PANI composite synthesized with the mass ratio (mANI:mGO) 90:10 possessed good capacitive behavior with a specific capacitance as high as 1509.35 F/g at scan rate of 1 mV/s in scanning potential window from -0.8 V to 0.8 V.

  13. Effect of acidic solutions on the surface degradation of a micro-hybrid composite resin.

    PubMed

    Münchow, Eliseu A; Ferreira, Ana Cláudia A; Machado, Raissa M M; Ramos, Tatiana S; Rodrigues-Junior, Sinval A; Zanchi, Cesar H

    2014-01-01

    Composite resins may undergo wear by the action of chemical substances (e.g., saliva, alcohol, bacterial acids) of the oral environment, which may affect the material's structure and surface properties. This study evaluated the effect of acidic substances on the surface properties of a micro-hybrid composite resin (Filtek Z-250). Eighty specimens were prepared, and baseline hardness and surface roughness (KMN0 and Ra0, respectively) were measured. The specimens were subjected to sorption (SO) and solubility (SL) tests according to ISO 4049:2009, but using different storage solutions: deionized water; 75/25 vol% ethanol/water solution; lactic acid; propionic acid; and acetic acid. The acids were used in two concentrations: PA and 0.02 N. pH was measured for all solutions and final hardness (KMN1) and surface roughness (Ra1) were measured. Data were analyzed with paired t-tests and one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (a=5%). All solutions decreased hardness and increased the Ra values, except for the specimens stored in water and 0.02 N lactic acid, which maintained the hardness. All solutions produced similar SO and SL phenomena, except for the 0.02 N lactic acid, which caused lower solubility than the other solutions. Ethanol showed the highest pH (6.6) and the 0.02 N lactic acid the lowest one (2.5). The solutions affected negatively the surface properties of the composite resin; in addition, an acidic pH did not seem to be a significant factor that intensifies the surface degradation phenomena.

  14. Ultralightweight silver nanowires hybrid polyimide composite foams for high-performance electromagnetic interference shielding.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jingjing; Zhan, Maosheng; Wang, Kai

    2015-01-14

    Ultralightweight silver nanowires (AgNWs) hybrid polyimide (PI) composite foams with microcellular structure and low density of 0.014-0.022 g/cm(3) have been fabricated by a facile and effective one-pot liquid foaming process. The tension flow generated during the cell growth induced the uniform dispersion of AgNWs throughout the cell walls. The interconnected AgNWs network in the cell walls combined with the large 3D AgNWs network caused by 3D structure of foams provided fast electron transport channels inside foams. The electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE) of these foams increased with increasing AgNWs loading as well as the nanowire aspect ratio due to the increasing connections of the conduction AgNWs network. Appropriate surface treatment like etching or spraying facilitated the construction of the seamlessly interconnected 2D AgNWs network on the surface, which could effectively reflect electromagnetic waves. Maximum specific EMI SE of values of 1210 dB·g(-1)·cm(3) at 200 MHz, 957 dB·g(-1)·cm(3) at 600 MHz, and 772 dB·g(-1)·cm(3) at 800-1500 MHz were achieved in sprayed composite foams containing <0.044 vol % AgNWs loading, which far surpasses the best values of other composite materials. The reflections of interconnected AgNWs networks on the surface and inside foams combined with the multiple reflections at interfaces contributed to the shielding effect.

  15. Sea Water Ageing of GFRP Composites and the Dissolved salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraverty, A. P.; Mohanty, U. K.; Mishra, S. C.; Satapathy, A.

    2015-02-01

    This paper houses the effect of sea water immersion on glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites. The major sources of interest are study of sea water absorption, penetration of the dissolved salts, details of chemical and physical bonds at the interface, variations of mechanical properties and study of failure mechanisms as revealed through SEM fractographs. Eighteen ply GFRP composites are immersed in sea water for a period of one year in steps of two months durations. It is revealed that the moisture absorption transforms from a Fickian to non-Fickian behavior with lapse of time. The dissolved salt 'K' shows highest depth of penetration after one year of immersion while 'Na' shows a least depth of penetration, as revealed from the EDS spectra. It is also revealed that 'Ca' seems to have a sudden burst in the rate of penetration even surpassing that of 'K'. This trend can be attributed to the combined effect of ionic mobility of the various dissolved salts and the probable interaction between 'K' and the -OH group of epoxy resin. This interaction between dissolved 'K' and the -OH group in the polymer could have arrested the further advancement of 'K' salts in the polymer, resulting in comparatively high rates of 'Ca' penetration. The mechanical properties such as inter laminar shear stress (ILSS), stress and strain at rupture, glass transition temperature (Tg) and elastic modulus show a decreasing trend with the increased duration of immersion. As revealed from the SEM fractographs pot- holing, fiber pull-out, matrix crack etc. are seen to be the major reason for failure of the immersed samples under load.

  16. Classroom Age Composition and Vocabulary Development Among At-Risk Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ying; Tompkins, Virginia; Justice, Laura; Petscher, Yaacov

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the relationship between classroom age composition and preschoolers’ vocabulary gains over an academic year and also to examine whether these relations were moderated by classroom quality. In this study (N = 130 children in 16 classrooms representing a subset of all children enrolled in these classrooms), results showed a significant cross-level interaction between classroom age composition and children’s age, suggesting positive effects of greater variance in classroom age composition for younger but not older children. The interaction between behavior management (1 dimension of classroom quality) and classroom age composition was also significant, indicating that a wider distribution of classroom age composition was positively related to children’s vocabulary gains within classrooms characterized by better behavior management. Practice or Policy Findings underscore the importance of children’s social interactions with more knowledgeable conversational partners in promoting their vocabulary development and signify the need to help teachers learn how to manage children’s behaviors so as to provide a classroom that is optimal for child learning. PMID:27660399

  17. Effect of LED and Argon Laser on Degree of Conversion and Temperature Rise of Hybrid and Low Shrinkage Composite Resins

    PubMed Central

    Pahlevan, Ayob; Tabatabaei, Masumeh Hasani; Arami, Sakineh; Valizadeh, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Different light curing units are used for polymerization of composite resins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of conversion (DC) and temperature rise in hybrid and low shrinkage composite resins cured by LED and Argon Laser curing lights. Materials and Methods: DC was measured using FTIR spectroscopy. For measuring temperature rise, composite resin samples were placed in Teflon molds and cured from the top. The thermocouple under samples recorded the temperature rise. After initial radiation and specimens reaching the ambient temperature, reirradiation was done and temperature was recorded again. Both temperature rise and DC data submitted to one-way ANOVA and Tukey-HSD tests (5% significance). Results: The obtained results revealed that DC was not significantly different between the understudy composite resins or curing units. Low shrinkage composite resin showed a significantly higher temperature rise than hybrid composite resin. Argon laser caused the lowest temperature rise among the curing units. Conclusion: Energy density of light curing units was correlated with the DC. Type of composite resin and light curing unit had a significant effect on temperature rise due to polymerization and curing unit, respectively. PMID:27843507

  18. Genetic composition and diploid hybrid speciation of a high mountain pine, Pinus densata, native to the Tibetan plateau.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X R; Szmidt, A E; Savolainen, O

    2001-01-01

    Pinus densata has been suggested to have originated from hybridization events involving P. tabulaeformis and P. yunnanensis. In this study, allozyme differentiation at 12 loci was studied in 14 populations of P. tabulaeformis, P. densata, and P. yunnanensis from China. The observed genetic composition of P. densata supported the hybrid hypothesis and showed varying degrees of contribution from P. yunnanensis and P. tabulaeformis among its populations. These data, together with previous chloroplast DNA results, indicated different evolutionary histories among P. densata populations. To examine the possibility of ongoing hybridization among the three species, we analyzed patterns of linkage disequilibria between allozyme loci in ovule, pollen, and zygote pools. None of these tests suggested that there is significant ongoing gene exchange, implying that populations of P. densata have a stabilized hybrid nature. The normal fertility and high fecundity of P. densata indicate that this hybrid is maintained through sexual reproduction. P. densata represents an example of diploid hybrid speciation in an extreme ecological habitat that is both spatially and ecologically separated from that of its parents. PMID:11560909

  19. Body Composition Outcomes of a Qigong Intervention Among Community-Dwelling Aging Adults.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Ying; Chen, Hsiao-Yu

    2016-12-01

    Aging causes various changes in body composition, which are critical implications for health and physical functioning in aging adults. The aim of this study was to explore the body composition outcomes of a qigong intervention among community-dwelling aging adults. This was a quasi-experimental study in which 90 participants were recruited. Forty-eight participants (experimental group) attended a 30-min qigong program 3 times per week for 12 weeks, whereas 42 participants (control group) continued performing their usual daily activities. The experimental group achieved a greater reduction in the fat mass percentage at the posttest, and exhibited increased fat-free mass, lean body mass percentage, and lean body mass to fat mass ratio compared with the controls. No difference between the two groups in body mass index, fat mass, and lean body mass was observed. These results indicated that the qigong intervention showed beneficial outcomes of body composition among community-dwelling aging adults.

  20. Effects of boron and glass hybrid epoxy-composites on graphite-fiber release in an aircraft fire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, S. S.; Brewer, W. D.

    1979-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the benefits gained by using graphite-epoxy composite structures may not be realized without some risk. The graphite fibers are very good electrical conductors and fibers released into the environment during a fire create a possible hazard to electrical equipment. Several graphite-epoxy hybrids were exposed to a fire and simulated explosion and their graphite fiber retention characteristics were examined. Several low melting-temperature glasses which wet and clump graphite-fibers and a glass/graphite fabric which reduced impact damage were identified as promising hybridizing components to minimize graphite fiber release.

  1. Base Composition-Independent Hybridization in Tetramethylammonium Chloride: A Method for Oligonucleotide Screening of Highly Complex Gene Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, William I.; Gitschier, Jane; Lasky, Laurence A.; Lawn, Richard M.

    1985-03-01

    An oligonucleotide hybridization procedure has been developed that eliminates the preferential melting of A\\cdot T versus G\\cdot C base pairs, allowing the stringency of the hybridization to be controlled as a function of probe length only. This technique, which uses tetramethylammonium chloride, is especially helpful whenever a highly complex library is screened with a pool of oligonucleotide probes, which usually vary widely in base composition. The procedure can also be applied advantageously whenever an exact match to an oligonucleotide probe is desired, such as in screening for clones having as little as a single-base alteration generated by in vitro mutagenesis.

  2. Roles of maternal effects and nuclear genetic composition change across the life cycle of crop-wild hybrids.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Helen M; Emry, D Jason; Pace, Brian A; Kost, Matthew A; Sparks, Kathryn A; Mercer, Kristin L

    2014-07-01

    • Premise of the study: The fitness of an offspring may depend on its nuclear genetic composition (via both parental genotypes) as well as on genetic maternal effects (via only the maternal parent). Understanding the relative importance of these two genetic factors is particularly important for research on crop-wild hybridization, since traits with important genetic maternal effects (e.g., seed size) often differ among crops and their relatives. We hypothesized that the effects of these genetic factors on fitness components would change across the life cycle of hybrids.• Methods: We followed seed, plant size, and reproductive traits in field experiments with wild and four crop-wild hybrids of sunflower (Helianthus annuus), which differed in nuclear genetic composition and maternal parent (wild or F1 hybrid).• Key results: We identified strong genetic maternal effects for early life cycle characteristics, with seeds produced on an F1 mother having premature germination, negligible seed dormancy, and greater seedling size. Increased percentages of crop alleles also increased premature germination and reduced dormancy in seeds produced on a wild mother. For mature plants, nuclear genetic composition dominated: greater percentages of crop alleles reduced height, branching, and fecundity.• Conclusions: Particular backcrosses between hybrids and wilds may differentially facilitate movement of crop alleles into wild populations due to their specific features. For example, backcross seeds produced on wild mothers can persist in the seed bank, illustrating the importance of genetic maternal effects, whereas backcross individuals with either wild or F1 mothers have high fecundity, resulting from their wild-like nuclear genetic composition.

  3. In vitro and in vivo toxicity of rinsed and aged nanocellulose-polypyrrole composites.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Natalia; Strømme, Maria; Fellström, Bengt; Pradhan, Sulena; Nyholm, Leif; Mihranyan, Albert

    2012-08-01

    Novel composites of nanocellulose and the conducting polymer polypyrrole (PPy) are herein suggested as potential candidates for active ion-extraction membranes in electrochemically controlled hemodialysis. This study has defined processing parameters to obtain a biocompatible nanocellulose-PPy composite, and for the first time, the effect of the composite aging on cell viability has been studied. The influence of rinsing and extraction process steps, as well as aging under different conditions (i.e. in air, at -20°C and in argon), on the electroactivity and cytotoxicity of a PPy-nanocellulose composite has been investigated. The biocompatibility evaluation was based on indirect toxicity assays with fibroblasts and monocyte cell lines and an acute toxicity test in mice, while the electroactivity was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry experiments. The as-prepared composite did not induce any cytotoxic response in vitro or in vivo. Extensive rinsing and 48 h incubation in biological buffer previous to the preparation of the culture medium extracts were, however, necessary to obtain a noncytotoxic composite. The as-prepared composite was also found to exhibit acceptable electrochemical performance, which was retained upon 4 weeks storage in argon atmosphere. It was shown that aging of the composite had a negative effect on biocompatibility, regardless of the storage condition. Thus, to allow for longtime storage of electroactive nanocellulose-PPy hemodialysis membranes, the degradation of PPy upon storage must be controlled. The present results show that the biocompatibility of PPy composites depends on the rinsing and pretreatment of the composite material as well as the aging of the material.

  4. Gel spinning of PVA composite fibers with high content of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yizhe; Lai, Dengpan; Zou, Liming; Ling, Xinlong; Lu, Hongwei; Xu, Yongjing

    2015-07-01

    In this report, poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) composite fibers with high content of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide (MWCNTs-GO) hybrids were prepared by gel spinning, and were characterized by TGA, DSC, SEM, XL-2 yarn strength tester and electrical conductivity measurement. The total content of MWCNTs-GO hybrids in the PVA composite fibers, which is up to 25 wt%, was confirmed by TGA analysis. The DSC measurement shows that the melting and crystallization peaks decreased after the addition of nano-fillers. This is due to the reason that the motion of PVA chains is completely confined by strong hydrogen bonding interaction between PVA and nano-fillers. After the addtion of GO, the dispersibility of MWCNTs in composite fibers improved slightly. And the tensile strength and Young's modulus increased by 38% and 67%, respectively. This is caused by the increased hydrogen bonding interaction and synergistic effect through hybridization of MWCNTs and GO. More significantly, the electrical conductivity of PVA/MWCNTs/GO composite fibers enhanced by three orders of magnitude with the addition of GO.

  5. One-step in situ synthesis of graphene–TiO{sub 2} nanorod hybrid composites with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Mingxuan Li, Weibin; Sun, Shanfu; He, Jia; Zhang, Qiang; Shi, Yuying

    2015-01-15

    Chemically bonded graphene/TiO{sub 2} nanorod hybrid composites with superior dispersity were synthesized by a one-step in situ hydrothermal method using graphene oxide (GO) and TiO{sub 2} (P25) as the starting materials. The as-prepared samples were characterized by XRD, XPS, TEM, FE-SEM, EDX, Raman, N{sub 2} adsorption, and UV–vis DRS techniques. Enhanced light absorption and a red shift of absorption edge were observed for the composites in the ultraviolet–visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–vis DRS). Their effective photocatalytic activity was evaluated by the photodegradation of methylene blue under visible light irradiation. An enhancement of photocatalytic performance was observed over graphene/TiO{sub 2} nanorod hybrid composite photocatalysts, as 3.7 times larger than that of pristine TiO{sub 2} nanorods. This work demonstrated that the synthesis of TiO{sub 2} nanorods and simultaneous conversion of GO to graphene “without using reducing agents” had shown to be a rapid, direct and clean approach to fabricate chemically bonded graphene/TiO{sub 2} nanorod hybrid composites with enhanced photocatalytic performance.

  6. Effect of in vivo loading on bone composition varies with animal age

    PubMed Central

    Aido, Marta; Kerschnitzki, Michael; Hoerth, Rebecca; Checa, Sara; Spevak, Lyudmila; Boskey, Adele; Fratzl, Peter; Duda, Georg N.; Wagermaier, Wolfgang; Willie, Bettina M.

    2015-01-01

    Loading can increase bone mass and size and this response is reduced with aging. It is unclear, however how loading affects bone mineral and matrix properties. Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging and high resolution synchrotron scanning small angle X-ray scattering were used to study how bone’s microscale and nanoscale compositional properties were altered in the tibial midshaft of young, adult, and elderly female C57Bl/6J mice after two weeks of controlled in vivo compressive loading in comparison to physiological loading. The effect of controlled loading on bone composition varied with animal age, since it predominantly influenced the bone composition of elderly mice. Interestingly, controlled loading led to enhanced collagen maturity in elderly mice. In addition, although the rate of bone formation was increased by controlled loading based on histomorphometry, the newly formed tissue had similar material quality to new bone tissue formed during physiological loading. Similar to previous studies, our data showed that bone composition was animal and tissue age dependent during physiological loading. The findings that the new tissue formed in response to controlled loading and physiological loading had similar bone composition and that controlled loading enhanced bone composition in elderly mice further supports the use of physical activity as a noninvasive treatment to enhance bone quality as well as maintain bone mass in individuals suffering from age-related bone loss. PMID:25639943

  7. Surface and interface properties of carbon fiber composites under cyclical aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Xinying; Wang, Rongguo; Liu, Wenbo; Jiang, Long

    2011-10-01

    Carbon fiber-reinforced BMI composites have been subjected to combination accelerated aging comprising a hygrothermal process, a thermal-oxidative process, and a freezing process in order to simulate their responses under complicated service environments. This cyclical condition, including the freezing process, has not been investigated by other researchers so far. The effects of this combination accelerated aging on the mechanical properties have been characterized by FTIR, SEM/EDXA, XRD, and moisture-uptake determination. The results indicated that combination accelerated aging had great effects on the mechanical properties of the composite, the network structure of the BMI matrix, and the moisture uptake by the composite. After a third cycle of accelerated aging, moisture reached the center layer of the composite and as a result led to an obvious decrease in ILSS due to deterioration of the carbon fiber-BMI interface. Sufficient moisture absorption on the composite surface made the network structure of the BMI matrix more open, which facilitated stress relaxation and the creation of micro-cracks, with a consequent obvious decrease in flexural strength. With increasing number of combined-action accelerated aging cycles, ever more moisture was absorbed during each hygrothermal process due to the plasticizing effect of water, and micro-cracks propagated as a result of internal stresses caused by the hygrothermal process, the thermal-oxidative process, and the freezing process of each cycle. XRD analysis indicated that moisture penetrated through the amorphous region of the BMI matrix.

  8. Environmental Aging of Scotch-Weld(TradeMark) AF-555M Structural Adhesive in Composite to Composite Bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Tan-Hung; Miner, Gilda A.; Lowther, Sharon E.; Connell, John W.; Baughman, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Fiber reinforced resin matrix composites have found increased usage in recent years. Due to the lack of service history of these relatively new material systems, their long-term aging performance is not well established. In this study, adhesive bonds were prepared by the secondary bonding of Scotch-Weld(TradeMark) AF-555M between pre-cured adherends comprised of T800H/3900-2 uni-directional laminate. The adherends were co-cured with wet peel-ply for surface preparation. Each bond-line of single-lap-shear (SLS) specimen was measured to determine thickness and inspected visually for voids. A three-year environmental aging plan for the SLS specimens at 82 C and 85% relative humidity was initiated. SLS strengths were measured for both controls and aged specimens at room temperature and 82 C. The aging results of strength retention and failure modes to date are reported.

  9. Design and analysis of variable-twist tiltrotor blades using shape memory alloy hybrid composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae-Sang; Kim, Seong-Hwan; Jung, Sung Nam; Lee, Myeong-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    The tiltrotor blade, or proprotor, acts as a rotor in the helicopter mode and as a propeller in the airplane mode. For a better performance, the proprotor should have different built-in twist distributions along the blade span, suitable for each operational mode. This paper proposes a new variable-twist proprotor concept that can adjust the built-in twist distribution for given flight modes. For a variable-twist control, the present proprotor adopts shape memory alloy hybrid composites (SMAHC) containing shape memory alloy (SMA) wires embedded in the composite matrix. The proprotor of the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) Smart Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (SUAV), which is based on the tiltrotor concept, is used as a baseline proprotor model. The cross-sectional properties of the variable-twist proprotor are designed to maintain the cross-sectional properties of the original proprotor as closely as possible. However, the torsion stiffness is significantly reduced to accommodate the variable-twist control. A nonlinear flexible multibody dynamic analysis is employed to investigate the dynamic characteristics of the proprotor such as natural frequency and damping in the whirl flutter mode, the blade structural loads in a transition flight and the rotor performance in hover. The numerical results show that the present proprotor is designed to have a strong similarity to the baseline proprotor in dynamic and load characteristics. It is demonstrated that the present proprotor concept could be used to improve the hover performance adaptively when the variable-twist control using the SMAHC is applied appropriately.

  10. Learning Science in Small Multi-Age Groups: The Role of Age Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallery, Maria; Loupidou, Thomais

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines how the overall cognitive achievements in science of the younger children in a class where the students work in small multi-age groups are influenced by the number of older children in the groups. The context of the study was early-years education. The study has two parts: The first part involved classes attended by…

  11. Synthesis, evaluation and preliminary antibacterial testing of hybrid composites based on urethane oligodimethacrylates and Ag nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Buruiana, Tinca; Melinte, Violeta; Chibac, Andreea; Matiut, Simona; Balan, Lavinia

    2012-01-01

    A series of urethane dimethacrylates differing structurally by the nature of the spacer (PTHF, PCL, PEG) and the presence or absence of the carboxylic acid groups was synthesized via an isocyanate route frequently encountered in ionomer chemistry. (1)H-NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy confirmed the structure of the macromers. Subsequently, the progress of photo-polymerization of all dimethacrylates under UV irradiation was investigated by FT-IR spectroscopy and photo-DSC with respect to conversion and polymerization rate using Irgacure as an initiator. The results of spectroscopic analysis suggested the lower reactivity of some non-carboxylic analogues during the formation of cross-linked polymers, the degree of conversion depending on the structure and viscosity. Photo-polymerization may provide many advantages for incorporating silver nanoparticles (2.5 wt%) into macromers in order to obtain hybrid nanocomposite films with controllable thickness and hydrophobicity. Combined analyses of UV spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy confirmed the existence of nanosized silver (mean diameter 12 ± 0.7 nm) uniformly distributed in the polymer matrix. Preliminary results concerning the antibacterial activity of some composite films (thickness approx. 24 μm) showed that the obtained nanomaterial could have an excellent bactericidal effect and effectiveness in reducing bacterial growth (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923).

  12. Stress analysis and damage evaluation of flawed composite laminates by hybrid-numerical methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Yii-Ching

    1992-01-01

    Structural components in flight vehicles is often inherited flaws, such as microcracks, voids, holes, and delamination. These defects will degrade structures the same as that due to damages in service, such as impact, corrosion, and erosion. It is very important to know how a structural component can be useful and survive after these flaws and damages. To understand the behavior and limitation of these structural components researchers usually do experimental tests or theoretical analyses on structures with simulated flaws. However, neither approach has been completely successful. As Durelli states that 'Seldom does one method give a complete solution, with the most efficiency'. Examples of this principle is seen in photomechanics which additional strain-gage testing can only average stresses at locations of high concentration. On the other hand, theoretical analyses including numerical analyses are implemented with simplified assumptions which may not reflect actual boundary conditions. Hybrid-Numerical methods which combine photomechanics and numerical analysis have been used to correct this inefficiency since 1950's. But its application is limited until 1970's when modern computer codes became available. In recent years, researchers have enhanced the data obtained from photoelasticity, laser speckle, holography and moire' interferometry for input of finite element analysis on metals. Nevertheless, there is only few of literature being done on composite laminates. Therefore, this research is dedicated to this highly anisotropic material.

  13. Assumed--stress hybrid elements with drilling degrees of freedom for nonlinear analysis of composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this research project is to develop assumed-stress hybrid elements with rotational degrees of freedom for analyzing composite structures. During the first year of the three-year activity, the effort was directed to further assess the AQ4 shell element and its extensions to buckling and free vibration problems. In addition, the development of a compatible 2-node beam element was to be accomplished. The extensions and new developments were implemented in the Computational Structural Mechanics Testbed COMET. An assessment was performed to verify the implementation and to assess the performance of these elements in terms of accuracy. During the second and third years, extensions to geometrically nonlinear problems were developed and tested. This effort involved working with the nonlinear solution strategy as well as the nonlinear formulation for the elements. This research has resulted in the development and implementation of two additional element processors (ES22 for the beam element and ES24 for the shell elements) in COMET. The software was developed using a SUN workstation and has been ported to the NASA Langley Convex named blackbird. Both element processors are now part of the baseline version of COMET.

  14. Robust plasmonic tips fabricated by the tapering of composite hybrid silicate microfibers with metallic core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropoulou, Afroditi; Antonopoulos, Grigoris; Bastock, Paul; Craig, Christopher; Kakarantzas, Georgios; Hewak, Dan W.; Zervas, Michalis N.; Riziotis, Christos

    2016-11-01

    The development of plasmonic devices for sensing applications can offer high sensitivity and a dramatic improvement to the detection limits due to the high field enhancement at the metal surfaces. The platform proposed here is a tapered hybrid microfiber comprising a metal core and a glass cladding. The existence of a glass cladding not only serves as a mechanical host for the metal core, but also provides ease of handling regarding the tapering process. The advantages of this composite material system over pure metal tips are the absence of impurities and the multiple excitation of the plasmon modes due to the total internal reflection at the glass/air interface. The improved field enhancement at the apex of these tapered microwires was calculated through Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations. Enhancement factors up to 104 were theoretically observed for this type of tapered microwires. The use of different metals having different melting points and thermal expansion coefficients as well as different glass thicknesses can lead to an optimization of the tapering process conditions in order to achieve tapered microwires with the desirable geometrical characteristics.

  15. Antioxidant properties and composition of aqueous extracts from Mentha species, hybrids, varieties, and cultivars.

    PubMed

    Dorman, H J Damien; Koşar, Müberra; Kahlos, Kirsti; Holm, Yvonne; Hiltunen, Raimo

    2003-07-30

    Water-soluble extracts from the Mentha species M. aquatica L. and M. haplocalyx Briq., the hybrids M. x dalmatica L. and M. x verticillata L., the varieties M. arvensis var. japanensis [M. arvensis L. var. piperascens Holmes ex Christ] and M. spicata L. var. crispa Benth, and M. x piperita L. "Frantsila", M. "Morocco", and M. "Native Wilmet" cultivars were screened for potential antioxidative properties. These properties included iron(III) reduction, iron(II) chelation, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, and the ability to inhibit iron(III)-ascorbate-catalyzed hydroxyl radical-mediated brain phospholipid peroxidation. Total phenol content and qualitative and quantitative compositional analyses of each extract were also made. The extracts demonstrated varying degrees of efficacy in each assay, with the M. x piperita "Frantsila" extract being better than the other extracts, except for ferrous iron chelation. With the exception of iron chelation, it appeared that the level of activity identified was strongly associated with the phenolic content.

  16. Enhancement of oil recovery using zirconium-chitosan hybrid composite by adsorptive method.

    PubMed

    Elanchezhiyan, S Sd; Sivasurian, N; Meenakshi, Sankaran

    2016-07-10

    Recovery of oil from oil-in-water emulsion has been investigated by many scientists and it continues to be a challenging task for environmental scientists so far. Among all the techniques, adsorption is found to be an appropriate process for the removal of oil from oil-in-water emulsion owing to its high efficiency and easy operation. A hybrid material, zirconium-chitosan composite (Zr-CS-HC) was prepared to remove the oil from oil-in-water emulsion and oil was measured by extractive gravimetric method. Various parameters viz., agitation time, pH, sorbent dosage and initial oil concentration for maximum sorption were optimized. In this study, the maximum oil removal percentage was found to be at pH 3.0 and a minimum contact time of 50min using prepared sorbent. The pH of the sorption studies revealed that oil sorption was favored in acidic condition. The sorbent was characterized using FTIR, SEM with EDAX, XRD, TGA and DSC; contact angle and heat of combustion. The experimental data were explained using Freundlich, Langmuir, D-R and Tempkin isotherms to find the best fit for the sorption process. Thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° were calculated to understand the nature of sorption process. This work provides a potential platform for the expansion of oil removal technology.

  17. A demodulation scheme for a hybrid fiber sensor system for composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishnan, Manjusha; Rajan, Ginu; Semenova, Yuliya; Woliński, Tomasz; Farrell, Gerald

    2012-04-01

    A demodulation scheme is presented for a hybrid sensing system based on a polarimetric fiber sensor and a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) for composite structural health monitoring (SHM). The demodulation module is comprised of a Thin Film Filter Wavelength Division Demultiplexer (TFF WDM- Demux) and an Electro-optic (EO) modulator. Unlike "laboratory-use" demodulation systems which typically do not need a compact form factor, the proposed miniaturized demodulation system is compact, lightweight and has low power consumption. The bandpass responses of the TFF WDM- Demux are designed to match the peak reflected wavelengths of the FBGs so that the differential wavelength information can be converted to intensity variations recorded by the array of detectors connected to the output channels of the TFF WDM- Demux. In the polarimetric sensor demodulation section of the system, an electrical control voltage is applied to the electro-optic modulator in order to shift the polarimetric sensor output to the maximum sensitive linear response region. Two types of polarimetric fiber sensors are used; a Panda fiber and a polarization maintaining photonic crystal fiber. The polarimetric strain sensors provide the average strain and temperature information, while the fiber Bragg grating sensors give localized strain information. The demodulation system uniquely allows for the multiple outputs of FBG and polarimetric sensors to be converted to a common optical intensity domain, for strain and temperature measurements.

  18. Penetration of carbon-fabric-reinforced composites by edge cracks during thermal aging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.; Kamvouris, John E.

    1994-01-01

    Thermo-oxidative stability (TOS) test results are significantly influenced by the formation and growth or presence of interlaminar and interlaminar cracks in the cut edges of all carbon-fiber-crosslinked high-temperature polymer matrix composites(exp 1-5) (i.e., unidirectional, crossplied, angle-plied, and fabric composites). The thermo-oxidative degradation of these composites is heavily dependent on the surface area that is exposed to the harmful environment and on the surface-to-volume ratio of the structure under study. Since the growth of cracks and voids on the composite surfaces significantly increases the exposed surface areas, it is imperative that the interaction between the aging process and the formation of new surface area as the aging time progresses be understood.

  19. Micromechanics of transformation fields in ageing linear viscoelastic composites: effects of phase dissolution or precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honorio, Tulio

    2017-02-01

    Transformation fields, in an affine formulation characterizing mechanical behavior, describe a variety of physical phenomena regardless their origin. Different composites, notably geomaterials, present a viscoelastic behavior, which is, in some cases of industrial interest, ageing, i.e. it evolves independently with respect to time and loading time. Here, a general formulation of the micromechanics of prestressed or prestrained composites in Ageing Linear Viscoelasticity (ALV) is presented. Emphasis is put on the estimation of effective transformation fields in ALV. The result generalizes Ageing Linear Thermo- and Poro-Viscoelasticity and it can be used in approaches coping with a phase transformation. Additionally, the results are extended to the case of locally transforming materials due to non-coupled dissolution and/or precipitation of a given (elastic or viscoelastic) phase. The estimations of locally transforming composites can be made with respect to different morphologies. As an application, estimations of the coefficient of thermal expansion of a hydrating alite paste are presented.

  20. Preparation and morphological and optical characterization of azo-polymer-based SiO2 sonogel hybrid composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-Saavedra, Omar G.; Ontiveros-Barrera, Fernando G.; Torres-Zúñiga, Vicente; Guadalupe-Bañuelos, José; Ortega-Martínez, Roberto; Rivera, Ernesto; García, Tonatiuh

    2009-08-01

    The well-established catalyst-free sonogel route was successfully implemented to fabricate highly pure, optically active, solid state polymeric azo- dye/SiO2-based hybrid composites. Bulk samples exhibit controllable geometrical shapes and monolithic structure with variable dopant concentrations. Since the implemented azo-dye chromophores exhibit a push-pull structure, hybrid film samples were spin-coated on ITO-covered glass substrates; molecular alignment was then performed via electrical poling in order to explore the quadratic nonlinear optical performance of this kind of composite. Comprehensive morphological, spectroscopic and optical characterization of the samples were performed with several experimental techniques: atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction and infrared, Raman, photoluminescent and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopies. The linear refractive indices of both bulk and thin film samples were measured according to the Brewster angle technique and a numerical analysis of the transmission spectral data, respectively. Regardless of the low glass transition temperatures of the studied polymers, some hybrid film samples were able to display stable nonlinear optical activity such as second harmonic generation. Results show that the chromophores were satisfactorily embedded into the highly pure SiO2 sonogel network without significant guest-host molecular interactions, thus preserving their optical properties and producing sol-gel hybrid glasses suitable for optical applications.

  1. A novel ZnO@Ag@Polypyrrole hybrid composite evaluated as anode material for zinc-based secondary cell

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jianhang; Yang, Zhanhong; Feng, Zhaobin; Xie, Xiaoe; Wen, Xing

    2016-01-01

    A novel ZnO@Ag@Polypyrrole nano-hybrid composite has been synthesized with a one-step approach, in which silver-ammonia complex ion serves as oxidant to polymerize the pyrrole monomer. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) show the existence of metallic silver and polypyrrole. The structure of nano-hybrid composites are characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), which demonstrates that the surface of ZnO is decorated with nano silver grain coated with polypyrrole. When evaluated as anode material, the silver grain and polypyrrole layer not only suppress the dissolution of discharge product, but also helps to uniform electrodeposition due to substrate effect and its good conductivity, thus shows better cycling performance than bare ZnO electrode does. PMID:27074985

  2. Analysis of a hybrid balanced laminate as a structural material for thick composite beams with axial stiffeners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modak, Partha; Hossain, M. Jamil; Ahmed, S. Reaz

    2016-07-01

    An accurate stress analysis has been carried out to investigate the suitability of a hybrid balanced laminate as a structural material for thick composite beams with axial stiffeners. Three different balanced laminates composed of dissimilar ply material as well as fiber orientations are considered for a thick beam on simple supports with stiffened lateral ends. A displacement potential based elasticity approach is used to obtain the numerical solution of the corresponding elastic fields. The overall laminate stresses as well as individual ply stresses are analysed mainly in the perspective of laminate hybridization. Both the fiber material and ply angle of individual laminas are found to play dominant roles in defining the design stresses of the present composite beam.

  3. A novel ZnO@Ag@Polypyrrole hybrid composite evaluated as anode material for zinc-based secondary cell.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianhang; Yang, Zhanhong; Feng, Zhaobin; Xie, Xiaoe; Wen, Xing

    2016-04-14

    A novel ZnO@Ag@Polypyrrole nano-hybrid composite has been synthesized with a one-step approach, in which silver-ammonia complex ion serves as oxidant to polymerize the pyrrole monomer. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) show the existence of metallic silver and polypyrrole. The structure of nano-hybrid composites are characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), which demonstrates that the surface of ZnO is decorated with nano silver grain coated with polypyrrole. When evaluated as anode material, the silver grain and polypyrrole layer not only suppress the dissolution of discharge product, but also helps to uniform electrodeposition due to substrate effect and its good conductivity, thus shows better cycling performance than bare ZnO electrode does.

  4. Composites of hybrids BaTiO3/carbon nanotubes/polyvinylidene fluoride with high dielectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Benhui; Bai, Jinbo

    2015-11-01

    High dielectric composites were prepared based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and hybrids BaTiO3-carbon nanotubes (H-BT-CNTs) with a special structure. The hybrids that BT was a core and CNTs grew outside were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition. Due to the special structure, composite’s dielectric permittivity reached 1777 at 100 Hz and 80 at 1 MHz, while loss tangent maintained as 6 at 100 Hz and 0.56 at 1 MHz, respectively. Moreover, dielectric permittivity and ac conductivity of composite were further enhanced after annealing process at moderate temperature. These improved properties were originated from the reformation of conductive network and BT-CNTs structure inside PVDF matrix.

  5. Effects of physical aging on long-term creep of polymers and polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinson, L. Catherine; Gates, Thomas S.

    1994-01-01

    For many polymeric materials in use below the glass transition temperature, the long term viscoelastic behavior is greatly affected by physical aging. To use polymer matrix composites as critical structural components in existing and novel technological applications, this long term behavior of the material system must be understood. Towards that end, this study applied the concepts governing the mechanics of physical aging in a consistent manner to the study of laminated composite systems. Even in fiber-dominated lay-ups the effects of physical aging are found to be important in the long-term behavior of the composite. The basic concepts describing physical aging of polymers are discussed. Several aspects of physical aging which have not been previously documented are also explored in this study, namely the effects of aging into equilibrium and a relationship to the time-temperature shift factor. The physical aging theory is then extended to develop the long-term compliance/modulus of a single lamina with varying fiber orientation. The latter is then built into classical lamination theory to predict long-time response of general oriented lamina and laminates. It is illustrated that the long term response can be counterintuitive, stressing the need for consistent modeling efforts to make long term predictions of laminates to be used in structural situations.

  6. Composite Hybrid Cluster Built from the Integration of Polyoxometalate and a Metal Halide Cluster: Synthetic Strategy, Structure, and Properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-Xiong; Ma, Xiang; Zheng, Wen-Xu; Qi, Yan-Jie; Zheng, Shou-Tian; Yang, Guo-Yu

    2016-09-06

    A step-by-step synthetic strategy, setting up a bridge between the polyoxometalate (POM) and metal halide cluster (MHC) systems, is demonstrated to construct an unprecedented composite hybrid cluster built up from one high-nuclearity cationic MHC [Cu8I6](2+) and eight Anderson-type anionic POMs [HCrMo6O18(OH)6](2-) cross-linked by a tripodal alcohol derivative.

  7. A general templated method to homogeneous and composition-tunable hybrid TiO2 nanocomposite fibers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ximing; Li, Xiaona; Lin, Pingyong; Chen, Ting; Yuan, Rusheng; Ding, Zhengxin; Wu, Ling; Wang, Xuxu; Li, Zhaohui

    2011-03-07

    Sequential impregnations of metal ions and titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) into activated carbon fibers (ACF) followed by a solvothermal treatment has been found to be a general method in the preparations of homogeneous and composition-tunable hybrid TiO(2) hierarchical nanocomposite fibers like WO(3)/TiO(2), Fe(2)O(3)/TiO(2) and SnO(2)/TiO(2).

  8. Influence of artificial ageing on surface properties and Streptococcus mutans adhesion to dental composite materials.

    PubMed

    Hahnel, Sebastian; Henrich, Anne; Rosentritt, Martin; Handel, Gerhard; Bürgers, Ralf

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the influence of artificial ageing on the surface properties and early Streptococcus mutans adhesion to current dental composites for the direct restoration of class II defects. Three hundred and thirty specimens each were prepared from five dental composites, and were randomly allotted to various artificial ageing protocols (storage in distilled water/ethanol/artificial saliva for 7/90/365 days; thermal cycling, 6,000 cycles 5/55 degrees C). Prior and after each treatment, surface roughness (R(a)) and hydrophobicity were determined, and S. mutans adhesion (ATCC 25175; 2.5 h, 37 degrees C) was simulated with and without prior exposition to human whole saliva (2 h, 37 degrees C). Adherence of S. mutans was determined fluorometrically. Means and standard deviations were calculated, and analyzed using three-way ANOVA and post-hoc analysis (alpha = 0.05). For both R(a) and S. mutans adherence to uncoated and saliva-coated specimens, significant influences of the composite material, the ageing medium and the ageing duration have been observed; for surface hydrophobicity, significant influences of the composite material and the ageing duration were found. For uncoated specimens, significant increases in S. mutans adhesion were observed with prolonged artificial ageing, whereas significant decreases in S. mutans adhesion were found for the saliva-coated specimens. The data indicate influences of the artificial ageing method on surface parameters such as R(a) and hydrophobicity as well as microbial adhesion. The results underline the relevance of saliva coating on the outcome of studies simulating microbial adhesion, and highlight differences in the susceptibility of dental composites for the adhesion of oral bacteria.

  9. Age-specific profiles of tissue-level composition and mechanical properties in murine cortical bone

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Mekhala; Sahar, Nadder D.; Kohn, David H.; Morris, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence that bone composition and tissue-level mechanical properties are significant determinants of skeletal integrity. In the current study, Raman spectroscopy and nanoindentation testing were co-localized to analyze tissue-level compositional and mechanical properties in skeletally mature young (4 or 5 months) and old (19 months) murine femora at similar spatial scales. Standard multivariate linear regression analysis revealed age-dependent patterns in the relationships between mechanical and compositional properties at the tissue scale. However, changes in bone material properties with age are often complex and nonlinear, and can be missed with linear regression and correlation-based methods. A retrospective data mining approach was implemented using non-linear multidimensional visualization and classification to identify spectroscopic and nanoindentation metrics that best discriminated bone specimens of different age-classes. The ability to classify the specimens into the correct age group increased by using combinations of Raman and nanoindentation variables (86–96% accuracy) as compared to using individual measures (59–79% accuracy). Metrics that best classified 4 or 5 month and 19 month specimens (2-age classes) were mineral to matrix ratio, crystallinity, modulus and plasticity index. Metrics that best distinguished between 4, 5 and 19 month specimens (3-age classes) were mineral to matrix ratio, crystallinity, modulus, hardness, cross-linking, carbonate to phosphate ratio, creep displacement and creep viscosity. These findings attest to the complexity of mechanisms underlying bone tissue properties and draw attention to the importance of considering non-linear interactions between tissue-level composition and mechanics that may work together to influence material properties with age. The results demonstrate that a few non-linearly combined compositional and mechanical metrics provide better discriminatory information than a single

  10. Negative permittivity and permeability spectra of Cu/yttrium iron garnet hybrid granular composite materials in the microwave frequency range

    SciTech Connect

    Tsutaoka, Takanori Fukuyama, Koki; Kinoshita, Hideaki; Kasagi, Teruhiro; Yamamoto, Shinichiro; Hatakeyama, Kenichi

    2013-12-23

    The relative complex permittivity and permeability spectra of the coagulated copper and yttrium iron garnet (Cu/YIG) hybrid granular composite materials have been studied in the microwave range. The insulator to metal transition was observed at the percolation threshold of Cu particle content (φ{sub Cu} = 16.0 vol. %) in the electrical conductivity. In the percolation threshold, the low frequency plasmonic state caused by the metallic Cu particle networks was observed. The percolated Cu/YIG granular composites show simultaneous negative permittivity and permeability spectra under external magnetic fields.

  11. A comparison of measured and calculated thermal stresses in a hybrid metal matrix composite spar cap element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, J. M.; Taylor, A. H.; Sakata, I. F.

    1985-01-01

    A hybrid spar of titanium with an integrally brazed composite, consisting of an aluminum matrix reinforced with boron-carbide-coated fibers, was heated in an oven and the resulting thermal stresses were measured. Uniform heating of the spar in an oven resulted in thermal stresses arising from the effects of dissimilar materials and anisotropy of the metal matrix composite. Thermal stresses were calculated from a finite element structural model using anisotropic material properties deduced from constituent properties and rules of mixtures. Comparisons of calculated thermal stresses with measured thermal stresses on the spar are presented. It was shown that failure to account for anisotropy in the metal matrix composite elements would result in large errors in correlating measured and calculated thermal stresses. It was concluded that very strong material characterization efforts are required to predict accurate thermal stresses in anisotropic composite structures.

  12. Nanostructured TiO2-coated activated carbon composite as an electrode material for asymmetric hybrid capacitors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Ok; Lee, Joong Kee

    2012-02-01

    A nanostructured TiO2-coated activated carbon (TAC) composite was synthesized by a modified sol-gel reaction and employed it as a negative electrode active material for an asymmetric hybrid capacitor. The structural characterization showed that the TiO2 nano-layer was deposited on the surface of the activated carbon and the TAC composite has a highly mesoporous structure. The evaluation of electrochemical characteristics of the TAC electrode was carried out by galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The obtained specific capacitance of the TAC composite was 42.87 F/g, which showed by 27.1% higher than that of the activated carbon (AC). The TAC composite also exhibited an excellent cycle performance and kept 95% of initial capacitance over 500 cycles.

  13. Investigating the energy harvesting capabilities of a hybrid ZnO nanowires/carbon fiber polymer composite beam.

    PubMed

    Masghouni, N; Burton, J; Philen, M K; Al-Haik, M

    2015-03-06

    Hybrid piezoelectric composite structures that are able to convert mechanical energy into electricity have gained growing attention in the past few years. In this work, an energy harvesting composite beam is developed by growing piezoelectric zinc oxide nanowires on the surface of carbon fiber prior to forming structural composites. The piezoelectric behavior of the composite beam was demonstrated under different vibration sources such as water bath sonicator and permanent magnet vibration shaker. The beam was excited at its fundamental natural frequency (43.2 Hz) and the open circuit voltage and the short circuit current were measured to be 3.1 mV and 23 nA, respectively. Upon connecting an optimal resistor (1.2 kΩ) in series with the beam a maximum power output 2.5 nW was achieved.

  14. Hybrid magnetic amphiphilic composites based on carbon nanotube/nanofibers and layered silicates fragments as efficient adsorbent for ethynilestradiol.

    PubMed

    Purceno, Aluir D; Teixeira, Ana Paula C; de Souza, Nubia Janaína; Fernandez-Outon, Luis E; Ardisson, José D; Lago, Rochel M

    2012-08-01

    In this work, hybrid magnetic amphiphilic composites were prepared by the catalytic growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and nanofibers CNF on layered silicates fragments. SEM, TEM, Raman, XRD, Mössbauer, TG/DTA showed that CVD with CH(4) at 800°C produced CNF and magnetic Fe cores fixed on the surface of microfragments of silicates layers. Due to the amphiphilic character, the composites can be easily dispersed in water and efficiently adsorb hydrophobic contaminant molecules. For example, the composites showed remarkable adsorption capacities for the hormone ethinylestradiol, e.g. 2-4 mg m(-2), compared to ca. 0.1 mg m(-2) obtained for high surface area activated carbon and multiwall CNT. These results are discussed in terms of a high hydrophobic exposed surface area of the CNT and CNF fixed on the layered silicates fragments surface. Moreover, the composites can be easily removed from water by a simple magnetic separation process.

  15. Preparation and ageing-resistant properties of polyester composites modified with functional nanoscale additives

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated ageing-resistant properties of carboxyl-terminated polyester (polyethylene glycol terephthalate) composites modified with nanoscale titanium dioxide particles (nano-TiO2). The nano-TiO2 was pretreated by a dry coating method, with aluminate coupling agent as a functional grafting additive. The agglomeration resistance was evaluated, which exhibited significant improvement for the modified nanoparticles. Then, the effects of the modified nano-TiO2 on the crosslinking and ageing-resistant properties of the composites were studied. With a real-time Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) measurement, the nano-TiO2 displayed promoting effect on the crosslinking of polyester resin with triglycidyl isocyanurate (TGIC) as crosslinking agent. Moreover, the gloss retention, colour aberration and the surface morphologies of the composites during accelerated UV ageing (1500 hours) were investigated. The results demonstrated much less degree of ageing degradation for the nanocomposites, indicating an important role of the nano-TiO2 in improving the ageing-resistant properties of synthetic polymer composites. PMID:24872802

  16. Characterization of exposures to nanoscale particles and fibers during solid core drilling of hybrid carbon nanotube advanced composites.

    PubMed

    Bello, Dhimiter; Wardle, Brian L; Zhang, Jie; Yamamoto, Namiko; Santeufemio, Christopher; Hallock, Marilyn; Virji, M Abbas

    2010-01-01

    This work investigated exposures to nanoparticles and nanofibers during solid core drilling of two types of advanced carbon nanotube (CNT)-hybrid composites: (1) reinforced plastic hybrid laminates (alumina fibers and CNT); and (2) graphite-epoxy composites (carbon fibers and CNT). Multiple real-time instruments were used to characterize the size distribution (5.6 nm to 20 microm), number and mass concentration, particle-bound polyaromatic hydrocarbons (b-PAHs), and surface area of airborne particles at the source and breathing zone. Time-integrated samples included grids for electron microscopy characterization of particle morphology and size resolved (2 nm to 20 microm) samples for the quantification of metals. Several new important findings herein include generation of airborne clusters of CNTs not seen during saw-cutting of similar composites, fewer nanofibers and respirable fibers released, similarly high exposures to nanoparticles with less dependence on the composite thickness, and ultrafine (< 5 nm) aerosol originating from thermal degradation of the composite material.

  17. Enhancement of Thermoelectric Properties of PEDOT:PSS and Tellurium-PEDOT:PSS Hybrid Composites by Simple Chemical Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin Bae, Eun; Hun Kang, Young; Jang, Kwang-Suk; Yun Cho, Song

    2016-01-01

    The thermoelectric properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and tellurium-PEDOT:PSS (Te-PEDOT:PSS) hybrid composites were enhanced via simple chemical treatment. The performance of thermoelectric materials is determined by their electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and Seebeck coefficient. Significant enhancement of the electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS and Te-PEDOT:PSS hybrid composites from 787.99 and 11.01 to 4839.92 and 334.68 S cm‑1, respectively was achieved by simple chemical treatment with H2SO4. The power factor of the developed materials could be effectively tuned over a very wide range depending on the concentration of the H2SO4 solution used in the chemical treatment. The power factors of the developed thermoelectric materials were optimized to 51.85 and 284 μW m‑1 K‑2, respectively, which represent an increase of four orders of magnitude relative to the corresponding parameters of the untreated thermoelectric materials. Using the Te-PEDOT:PSS hybrid composites, a flexible thermoelectric generator that could be embedded in textiles was fabricated by a printing process. This thermoelectric array generates a thermoelectric voltage of 2 mV using human body heat.

  18. The ternary MnFe2O4/graphene/polyaniline hybrid composite as negative electrode for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankar, Kalimuthu Vijaya; Selvan, Ramakrishnan Kalai

    2015-02-01

    The ternary MnFe2O4/graphene/polyaniline (PANI) composite was successfully prepared for the negative electrode in hybrid supercapacitors. The MnFe2O4 particles are synthesized by polymer assisted solution combustion method without any high temperature calcinations. Similarly, the flexible graphene and PANI are prepared by eco-friendly hydrothermal and in situ polymerization method, respectively. The presence of possible functional groups and the existence of individual constituents in the composite were identified through Fourier transform infra-red spectra (FT-IR) and Raman spectra. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) image reveals that the MnFe2O4 particles are dispersed on the flexible graphene sheet and are wrapped by PANI. The ternary composite electrode delivered a specific capacitance of 241 F g-1 at 0.5 mA cm-2, which was 7.5 times higher than MnFe2O4. The calculated b-value elucidates that the charge storage mechanism in the ternary system is based on the capacitive behavior rather than intercalation. The increase in ratio between capacitive and intercalation current with respect to scan rate corroborates that the pseudocapacitive charge storage mechanism is dominant. Further, the fabricated hybrid supercapacitor provides the maximum specific capacitance and energy density of 48.5 F g-1 at 0.5 mA cm-2 and 17 Wh kg-1, respectively. In addition, the hybrid supercapacitor exhibits excellent cyclic stability of up to 5000 successive cycles.

  19. Reinforcement of natural rubber hybrid composites based on marble sludge/Silica and marble sludge/rice husk derived silica

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Khalil; Nizami, Shaikh Sirajuddin; Riza, Nudrat Zahid

    2013-01-01

    A research has been carried out to develop natural rubber (NR) hybrid composites reinforced with marble sludge (MS)/Silica and MS/rice husk derived silica (RHS). The primary aim of this development is to scrutinize the cure characteristics, mechanical and swelling properties of such hybrid composite. The use of both industrial and agricultural waste such as marble sludge and rice husk derived silica has the primary advantage of being eco-friendly, low cost and easily available as compared to other expensive fillers. The results from this study showed that the performance of NR hybrid composites with MS/Silica and MS/RHS as fillers is extremely better in mechanical and swelling properties as compared with the case where MS used as single filler. The study suggests that the use of recently developed silica and marble sludge as industrial and agricultural waste is accomplished to provide a probable cost effective, industrially prospective, and attractive replacement to the in general purpose used fillers like china clay, calcium carbonate, and talc. PMID:25685484

  20. Reinforcement of natural rubber hybrid composites based on marble sludge/Silica and marble sludge/rice husk derived silica.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Khalil; Nizami, Shaikh Sirajuddin; Riza, Nudrat Zahid

    2014-03-01

    A research has been carried out to develop natural rubber (NR) hybrid composites reinforced with marble sludge (MS)/Silica and MS/rice husk derived silica (RHS). The primary aim of this development is to scrutinize the cure characteristics, mechanical and swelling properties of such hybrid composite. The use of both industrial and agricultural waste such as marble sludge and rice husk derived silica has the primary advantage of being eco-friendly, low cost and easily available as compared to other expensive fillers. The results from this study showed that the performance of NR hybrid composites with MS/Silica and MS/RHS as fillers is extremely better in mechanical and swelling properties as compared with the case where MS used as single filler. The study suggests that the use of recently developed silica and marble sludge as industrial and agricultural waste is accomplished to provide a probable cost effective, industrially prospective, and attractive replacement to the in general purpose used fillers like china clay, calcium carbonate, and talc.

  1. Light-weight sandwich panel honeycomb core with hybrid carbon-glass fiber composite skin for electric vehicle application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahyono, Sukmaji Indro; Widodo, Angit; Anwar, Miftahul; Diharjo, Kuncoro; Triyono, Teguh; Hapid, A.; Kaleg, S.

    2016-03-01

    The carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite is relative high cost material in current manufacturing process of electric vehicle body structure. Sandwich panels consisting polypropylene (PP) honeycomb core with hybrid carbon-glass fiber composite skin were investigated. The aim of present paper was evaluate the flexural properties and bending rigidity of various volume fraction carbon-glass fiber composite skins with the honeycomb core. The flexural properties and cost of panels were compared to the reported values of solid hybrid Carbon/Glass FRP used for the frame body structure of electric vehicle. The finite element model of represented sandwich panel was established to characterize the flexural properties of material using homogenization technique. Finally, simplified model was employed to crashworthiness analysis for engine hood of the body electric vehicle structure. The good cost-electiveness of honeycomb core with hybrid carbon-glass fiber skin has the potential to be used as a light-weight alternative material in body electric vehicle fabricated.

  2. Constitutive Modeling and Testing of Polymer Matrix Composites Incorporating Physical Aging at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veazie, David R.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced polymer matrix composites (PMC's) are desirable for structural materials in diverse applications such as aircraft, civil infrastructure and biomedical implants because of their improved strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios. For example, the next generation military and commercial aircraft requires applications for high strength, low weight structural components subjected to elevated temperatures. A possible disadvantage of polymer-based composites is that the physical and mechanical properties of the matrix often change significantly over time due to the exposure of elevated temperatures and environmental factors. For design, long term exposure (i.e. aging) of PMC's must be accounted for through constitutive models in order to accurately assess the effects of aging on performance, crack initiation and remaining life. One particular aspect of this aging process, physical aging, is considered in this research.

  3. Minor and trace element composition and age of Yukon probable-microtektites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boundy-Sanders, S. Q.; Hervig, R. L.

    1993-01-01

    Major, minor, and trace element composition of the candidate micro tektites from Yukon Territory suggest a possible impact site of hydrothermally altered limestone and sand or chert, or possibly a carbonatite. Their REE/chondrite curve is similar in character to, but higher than, shale composites of North America, Australia, and Europe. Relative to these same composites, the Yukon droplets are enriched in Y, F, S, Sr, P, Mn, Mg, and Ca. They are depleted in Rb, Li, Th, Nb, Ti, K, Na, Fe, Si, and Al. Biostratigraphic constraints on the droplets indicate they are Middle to Late Devonian, more likely Middle Devonian, in age.

  4. Body composition during fetal development and infancy through the age of 5 years

    PubMed Central

    Toro-Ramos, T; Paley, C; Pi-Sunyer, FX; Gallagher, D

    2015-01-01

    Fetal body composition is an important determinant of body composition at birth, and it is likely to be an important determinant at later stages in life. The purpose of this work is to provide a comprehensive overview by presenting data from previously published studies that report on body composition during fetal development in newborns and the infant/child through 5 years of age. Understanding the changes in body composition that occur both in utero and during infancy and childhood, and how they may be related, may help inform evidence-based practice during pregnancy and childhood. We describe body composition measurement techniques from the in utero period to 5 years of age, and identify gaps in knowledge to direct future research efforts. Available literature on chemical and cadaver analyses of fetal studies during gestation is presented to show the timing and accretion rates of adipose and lean tissues. Quantitative and qualitative aspects of fetal lean and fat mass accretion could be especially useful in the clinical setting for diagnostic purposes. The practicality of different pediatric body composition measurement methods in the clinical setting is discussed by presenting the assumptions and limitations associated with each method that may assist the clinician in characterizing the health and nutritional status of the fetus, infant and child. It is our hope that this review will help guide future research efforts directed at increasing the understanding of how body composition in early development may be associated with chronic diseases in later life. PMID:26242725

  5. Aggregation of zinc oxide nanoparticles: from non-aqueous dispersions to composites used as photoactive layers in hybrid solar cells.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, R; Horie, M; Chen, H; Wang, Z; Turner, M L; Saunders, B R

    2010-04-15

    Hybrid solar cells are third-generation solar cells that are colloidal in nature. The composites used as photoactive layers within hybrid solar cells comprise conjugated polymers and inorganic semiconductor nanoparticles (e.g., nanocrystals and nanorods). The composites are usually prepared by spin casting non-aqueous dispersions consisting of polymer, nanoparticles and a co-solvent blend. The factors governing colloidal stability of the dispersions used for composite preparation have not been reported in detail. Here, the factors governing the stability of non-aqueous ZnO nanocrystal and nanorod dispersions as well as the relationship between dispersion stability and the extents of nanoparticle aggregation within model composites are studied. The polymers used are poly[[(2-methyl-4-methoxyphenyl)imino]-9,9-di-(2'-ethylhexyl)-fluorene-2,7-diyl] (PTAA) and poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethyhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta [2,1-b;3,4-b']-dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzo thiadiazole)] (PCPDTBT). FTIR in conjunction with thermogravimetric analysis data showed that up to 30% of the surfaces for the as-prepared ZnO nanocrystals and nanorods were occupied by acetate ligands. 1-Propylamine was found to form covalent coordinate bonds with ZnO and this contributes the ability of this co-solvent to promote enhanced ZnO dispersion stability. The morphologies of the composites were investigated using optical microscopy, AFM and TEM. A strong link was found between colloidal stability of the parent ZnO dispersions, extent of nanoparticle aggregation within the composites and pK(a) for the conjugate acid of the co-solvent. Electrostatic interactions did not control ZnO dispersion stability or composite morphology. Extensive nanometer-scale nanoparticle aggregation was evident within the composites. This was attributed to incompatibility between the polymer and (ligand covered) ZnO nanoparticles. Strategies for reducing uncontrolled nanoparticle aggregation are suggested.

  6. Effects of Age, Walking Speed, and Body Composition on Pedometer Accuracy in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, J. Scott; Schofield, Grant; Duncan, Elizabeth K.; Hinckson, Erica A.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of age group, walking speed, and body composition on the accuracy of pedometer-determined step counts in children. Eighty-five participants (43 boys, 42 girls), ages 5-7 and 9-11 years, walked on a treadmill for two-minute bouts at speeds of 42, 66, and 90 m[middle dot]min[superscript -1]…

  7. Reduction of the impact of atmospheric ageing effects on spin coated γ-CuCl nanocrystalline hybrid films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, M. M.; Daniels, S.; McNally, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    γ-CuCl (Eg = 3.395 eV at 4 K) is an ionic I-VII compound semiconductor material with the zincblende structure at room temperature. This is one of the most studied inorganic materials for excitonic related linear/non-linear optical processes due to its large excitonic binding energy. One challenge linked with the use of CuCl is that it is sensitive to moist air i.e. CuCl is not stable in ambient conditions; it forms oxyhalides of Cu++ within a few hours or days of exposure to air. Therefore the use of CuCl for long-term applications is limited. To eliminate this drawback we have investigated the use of spin-coated organic-inorganic CuCl hybrid films. In an organic-inorganic hybrid film, the inorganic material is mixed with organic materials (polymer) to improve its physical, chemical, thermal and electrical properties, process simplicity, and stability. The impacts of atmospheric ageing effects on nanocrystalline CuCl hybrid films were investigated in order to avoid extra capping layer to protect CuCl degradation and extended its use in large scale applications. We show that CuCl-based hybrid films produced in this fashion have useful lifetimes of up to 3 months, which is approximately a two orders of magnitude improvement in the previously published usable lifetimes for optical emission in these materials, opening up the possibility that organic-inorganic CuCl hybrid films can indeed be useful materials for optoelectronic applications.

  8. Effects of water-aging on self-healing dental composite containing microcapsules

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Junling; Weir, Michael D.; Melo, Mary Anne S.; Strassler, Howard E.; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to develop a self-healing dental composite containing poly(urea-formaldehyde) (PUF) shells with triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) and N,N-dihydroxyethyl-p-toluidine (DHEPT) as healing liquid, and to investigate the mechanical properties of the composite and its self-healing efficacy after water-aging for 6 months. Methods PUF microspheres were synthesized encapsulating a TEGDMA-DHEPT healing liquid. Composite containing 30% of a resin matrix and 70% of glass fillers by mass was incorporated with 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10% of microcapsules. A flexural test was used to measure flexural strength and elastic modulus. A single edge V-notched beam method was used to measure fracture toughness (KIC) and self-healing efficacy. Specimens were water-aged at 37 °C for 1 d to 6 months and then tested for self-healing. Fractured specimens were healed while being immersed in water to examine self-healing efficacy, in comparison with that in air. Results Incorporation of up to 7.5% of microcapsules into the resin composite achieved effective self-healing, without adverse effects on the virgin mechanical properties of the composite (p > 0.1). An excellent self-healing efficacy of 64%–77% recovery was obtained (mean ± sd; n = 6). Six months of water-aging did not decrease the self-healing efficacy compared to 1 d (p > 0.1). Exposure to water did not decrease the healing efficacy, compared to that healed in air (p > 0.1). Conclusions A composite was developed with excellent self-healing efficacy even while being immersed in water. The self-healing efficacy did not decrease with increasing water-aging time for 6 months. Clinical significance The novel self-healing composite may be promising for dental applications to heal cracks, resist fracture, and increase the durability and longevity. PMID:26808158

  9. Paternal-age effects on sperm aneuploidy investigated in mice and humans by three-chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrobek, A.J.; Lowe, X.; Holland, N.T.

    1994-09-01

    We conducted a cross-species comparison of the effects of paternal age on sperm aneuploidy in mice and humans. A new murine assay was developed to detect sperm hyperhaploidy and polyploidy for chromosomes X, Y, and 8 using fluorescence in situ hybridization with chromosome-specific DNA probes, to serve as a direct corollate to the three-chromosome method developed early for human sperm. Sperm aneuploidy was evaluated in eight male B6C3F1 male mice (aged 22.5-30.5 mo) and compared to young controls (2.4 mo). The aged group showed significant ({approximately}2.0-fold) increases in hyperhaploidies involving chromosomes X, Y and 8, with the greatest effects seen in the oldest animals. Sperm aneuploidy was also evaluated in two groups of healthy men who differed in mean age [46.8{plus_minus}3.1 (n=4) vs. 28.5{plus_minus}5.0 (n=10) yrs], using the three-chromosome method. The older group showed a statistically significant increase in hyperhaploid sperm for both sex chromosomes. Additional controlled human studies are planned. Taken together, the murine and human data are consistent with a positive effect of paternal age on sperm aneuploidy. In both species, the strongest age effect was observed for hyperhaploidies of chromosome Y. Future studies are needed to investigate the shape of the age-effect curve and to evaluate chromosomal differences, especially for humans in their late reproductive years.

  10. Evaluation of commercial lithium-ion cells based on composite positive electrode for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle applications. Part I: Initial characterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubarry, Matthieu; Truchot, Cyril; Cugnet, Mikaël; Liaw, Bor Yann; Gering, Kevin; Sazhin, Sergiy; Jamison, David; Michelbacher, Christopher

    Evaluating commercial Li-ion batteries presents some unique benefits. One of them is to use cells made from established fabrication process and form factor, such as those offered by the 18650 cylindrical configuration, to provide a common platform to investigate and understand performance deficiency and aging mechanism of target chemistry. Such an approach shall afford us to derive relevant information without influence from processing or form factor variability that may skew our understanding on cell-level issues. A series of 1.9 Ah 18650 lithium ion cells developed by a commercial source using a composite positive electrode comprising {LiMn 1/3Ni 1/3Co 1/3O 2 + LiMn 2O 4} is being used as a platform for the investigation of certain key issues, particularly path-dependent aging and degradation in future plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) applications, under the US Department of Energy's Applied Battery Research (ABR) program. Here we report in Part I the initial characterizations of the cell performance and Part II some aspects of cell degradation in 2C cycle aging. The initial characterizations, including cell-to-cell variability, are essential for life cycle performance characterization in the second part of the report when cell-aging phenomena are discussed. Due to the composite nature of the positive electrode, the features (or signature) derived from the incremental capacity (IC) of the cell appear rather complex. In this work, the method to index the observed IC peaks is discussed. Being able to index the IC signature in details is critical for analyzing and identifying degradation mechanism later in the cycle aging study.

  11. A paper based graphene-nanocauliflower hybrid composite for point of care biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrs, S. L.; Sidhu, R.; Bhargava, M.; Kiernan-Lewis, J.; Schwalb, N.; Rong, Y.; Gomes, C.; Claussen, J.; Vanegas, D. C.; McLamore, E. S.

    2016-05-01

    Graphene paper has diverse applications in printed circuit board electronics, bioassays, 3D cell culture, and biosensing. Although development of nanometal-graphene hybrid composites is commonplace in the sensing literature, to date there are only a few examples of nanometal-decorated graphene paper for use in biosensing. In this manuscript, we demonstrate the synthesis and application of Pt nano cauliflower-functionalized graphene paper for use in electrochemical biosensing of small molecules (glucose, acetone, methanol) or detection of pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli O157:H7). Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used to show that graphene oxide deposited on nanocellulose crystals was partially reduced by both thermal and chemical treatment. Fractal platinum nanostructures were formed on the reduced graphene oxide paper, producing a conductive paper with an extremely high electroactive surface area, confirmed by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. To show the broad applicability of the material, the platinum surface was functionalized with three different biomaterials: 1) glucose oxidase (via chitosan encapsulation); 2) a DNA aptamer (via covalent linking), or 3) a chemosensory protein (via his linking). We demonstrate the application of this device for point of care biosensing. The detection limit for both glucose (0.08 +/- 0.02 μM) and E. coli O157:H7 (1.3 +/- 0.1 CFU mL-1) were competitive with, or superior to, previously reported devices in the biosensing literature. The response time (6 sec for glucose and 10 min for E. coli) were also similar to silicon biochip and commercial electrode sensors. The results demonstrate that the nanocellulose-graphene-nanoplatinum material is an excellent paper-based platform for development of electrochemical biosensors targeting small molecules or whole cells for use in point of care biosensing.

  12. Magneto-rheological response of elastomer composites with hybrid-magnetic fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloui, Sahbi; Klüppel, Manfred

    2015-02-01

    We study the magneto-rheological response of hybrid-magnetic elastomer composites consisting of two different magnetic filler particles at fixed overall concentration. Thereby, we focus on an optimization of mechanical and magnetic properties by combining highly reinforcing magnetic nano-particles (MagSilica) with micro-sized carbonyl-iron particles (CIP), which exhibit high switch ability in a magnetic field. We observe a symbiotic interaction of both filler types, especially in the case when an orientation of the magnetic filler particles is achieved due to curing in an external magnetic field. The orientation effect is significant only for the micro-sized CIP particles with high saturation magnetization, indicating that the induced magnetic moment for the nano-sized particles is too small for delivering sufficient attraction between the particles in an external magnetic field. A pronounced switching behavior is observed for the non-cross-linked melts with 15 and 20 vol.% CIP, whereby the small strain modulus increases by more than 50%. For the sample without the coupling agent silane, one even observes a relative modulus increase of about 140%, which can be related to the combined effect of a higher mobility of the particles without a silane layer and the ability of the particles to come in close contact when they are arranged in strings along the field lines. For the cross-linked samples, a maximum switching effect of about 30% is achieved for the system with pure CIP. This magneto-sensitivity decreases successively if CIP is replaced by MagSilica, while the tensile strength of the systems increases significantly. The use of silane reduces the switching effect, but it is necessary for a good mechanical performance by delivering strong chemical bonding of the magnetic filler particles to the polymer matrix.

  13. Mechanical properties of silorane-based and methacrylate-based composite resins after artificial aging.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Denise Tornavoi; Lepri, César Penazzo; Valente, Mariana Lima da Costa; dos Reis, Andréa Cândido

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the compressive strength of a silorane-based composite resin (Filtek P90) to that of conventional composite resins (Charisma, Filtek Z250, Fill Magic, and NT Premium) before and after accelerated artificial aging (AAA). For each composite resin, 16 cylindrical specimens were prepared and divided into 2 groups. One group underwent analysis of compressive strength in a universal testing machine 24 hours after preparation, and the other was subjected first to 192 hours of AAA and then the compressive strength test. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance, followed by the Tukey HSD post hoc test (α = 0.05). Some statistically significant differences in compressive strength were found among the commercial brands (P < 0.001). The conventional composite resin Fill Magic presented the best performance before (P < 0.05) and after AAA (P < 0.05). Values for compressive strength of the silorane-based composite were among the lowest obtained, both before and after aging. Comparison of each material before and after AAA revealed that the aging process did not influence the compressive strength of the tested resins (P = 0.785).

  14. Fabrication, testing, and analysis of anisotropic carbon/glass hybrid composites: volume 1: technical report.

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, Kyle K. (Wetzel Engineering, Inc. Lawrence, Kansas); Hermann, Thomas M. (Wichita state University, Wichita, Kansas); Locke, James (Wichita state University, Wichita, Kansas)

    2005-11-01

    Anisotropic carbon/glass hybrid composite laminates have been fabricated, tested, and analyzed. The laminates have been fabricated using vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM). Five fiber complexes and a two-part epoxy resin system have been used in the study to fabricate panels of twenty different laminate constructions. These panels have been subjected to physical testing to measure density, fiber volume fraction, and void fraction. Coupons machined from these panels have also been subjected to mechanical testing to measure elastic properties and strength of the laminates using tensile, compressive, transverse tensile, and in-plane shear tests. Interlaminar shear strength has also been measured. Out-of-plane displacement, axial strain, transverse strain, and inplane shear strain have also been measured using photogrammetry data obtained during edgewise compression tests. The test data have been reduced to characterize the elastic properties and strength of the laminates. Constraints imposed by test fixtures might be expected to affect measurements of the moduli of anisotropic materials; classical lamination theory has been used to assess the magnitude of such effects and correct the experimental data for the same. The tensile moduli generally correlate well with experiment without correction and indicate that factors other than end constraints dominate. The results suggest that shear moduli of the anisotropic materials are affected by end constraints. Classical lamination theory has also been used to characterize the level of extension-shear coupling in the anisotropic laminates. Three factors affecting the coupling have been examined: the volume fraction of unbalanced off-axis layers, the angle of the off-axis layers, and the composition of the fibers (i.e., carbon or glass) used as the axial reinforcement. The results indicate that extension/shear coupling is maximized with the least loss in axial tensile stiffness by using carbon fibers oriented 15{sup

  15. Effects of the Changing Age and Sex Composition of College Student Bodies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roelfs, Pamela

    To determine the effects of the increasing enrollment of women and the greater mix in the age composition of student bodies in colleges, questionnaire responses were obtained from approximately 6,500 students in 27 nationally scattered junior and community colleges. Comparisons were made of the college perceptions and experiences of the women and…

  16. Age-related changes in body composition in laboratory rats: Strain and gender comparisons

    EPA Science Inventory

    Long Evans (LE), Sprague Dawley (SD), Fischer 344 (F344), and Brown Norway (BN) rats are all commonly used as laboratory research subjects. These strains have been studied under many conditions, but few studies have measured changes in body composition as the animals age. Underst...

  17. Classroom Age Composition and Vocabulary Development among At-Risk Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Ying; Tompkins, Virginia; Justice, Laura; Petscher, Yaacov

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the relationship between classroom age composition and preschoolers' vocabulary gains over an academic year and also to examine whether these relations were moderated by classroom quality. In this study (N = 130 children in 16 classrooms representing a subset of all children…

  18. Body Composition and Physiological Responses of Masters Female Swimmers 20 to 70 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaccaro, Paul; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Female masters swimmers ranging in age from 20 to 69 were chosen for a study of their body composition and physiological responses at rest and during exercise. Two training groups were formed that differed on the basis of frequency, duration, and intensity of swimming workouts. Results are discussed. (Author/DF)

  19. Grain chemical composition as affected by genetic backgrounds and toxigenic Aspergillus flavus inoculation in corn hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites commonly found in corn and known to cause health issues to human and animals. The relationship between corn grain inoculated with mycotoxins and grain nutrients (protein, oil, fatty acids, sugars, and amino acids) corn hybrids, especially stacked-gene hybrids is...

  20. Researching Hybrid Learning Communities in the Digital Age through Educational Ethnography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Nalita; Busher, Hugh

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the complexities of investigating the experiences of participants in hybrid (online/offline) learning communities through educational ethnography. In these communities, people construct small cultures in the liminal spaces or "border crossings" between the virtually real and "actually" real, using computer-mediated and…

  1. Surface structural changes of naturally aged silicone and EPDM composite insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Vlastos, A.E. ); Gubanski, S.M. )

    1991-04-01

    In a long-term outdoor test with high direct and alternating voltages, silicone and EPDM rubber composite insulators have, at the beginning, shown a superior performance to that of glass and porcelain insulators. In the long-term test, however, the silicone rubber composite insulator has, in spite of the ageing of both insulator types, kept its good performance, while the performance of the EPDM rubber composite insulator was drastically deteriorated. In order to get a better insight into results obtained, the wettability and the surface structural changes of the insulators were studied by the drop deposition method (using a goniometer) and by advanced techniques such as SEM, ESCA, FTIR and SIMS respectively. The results show that the differences in performance have to be found in the differences in the surface structural changes and in the dynamic ability of the surface to compensate the ageing.

  2. Spectrophotometric Evaluation of Colour Stability of Nano Hybrid Composite Resin in Commonly Used Food Colourants in Asian Countries

    PubMed Central

    Sajjan, Girija S; Varma Kanumuri, Madhu

    2017-01-01

    Introduction There is growing interest in colour stability of aesthetic restorations. So far few studies have been reported. Aim This study was designed to investigate the effects of different common food colourants i.e., Turmeric and Carmoisine (orange red dye) consumed by patients in Asian countries on a recent nano hybrid composite resin. Materials and Methods A total of sixty disk shaped specimens measuring 10 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness were prepared. The samples were divided into two groups {Z 100 (Dental restorative composite) Filtek Z 250 XT (Nano hybrid universal restorative)}. Baseline colour measurement of all specimens were made using reflectance spectrophotometer with CIE L*a*b* system. Specimens were immersed in artificial saliva and different experimental solutions containing food colourants (carmoisine solution and turmeric solution) for three hours per day at 37°C. Colour measurements were made after 15 days. Colour difference (ΔE*) was calculated. Mean values were compared by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Multiple range test by Tukey Post-hoc test procedure was employed to identify the significant groups at 5% level. Results Z 100 showed minimum staining capacity when compared to Z 250 XT in both the colourant solutions. Conclusion The nanohybrid composite resin containing TEGDMA showed significant colour change when compared to that of microhybrid composite resin as a result of staining in turmeric and carmoisine solution. PMID:28274047

  3. Modeling of electric resistance of shape memory alloys: self-sensing for temperature and actuation control of active hybrid composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissle, Sebastian; Hübler, Moritz; Gurka, Martin

    2016-04-01

    For actuation purposes active hybrid structures made of fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) and shape memory alloys (SMA) enable substantial savings concerning weight, space and cost. Such structures allow realizing new functions which are more or less impossible with commonly used systems consisting of the structure and the actuator as separated elements, e.g. morphing winglets in aeronautics. But there are also some challenges that still need to be addressed. For the successful application of SMA FRP composites a precise control of temperature is essential, as this is the activating quantity to reach the required deformation of the structure without overloading the active material. However, a direct measurement of the temperature is difficult due to the complete integration of SMA in the hybrid structure. Also the deformation of the structure which depends on the temperature, the stiffness of the hybrid structure and external loads is hard to determine. An opportunity for controlling the activation is provided by the special behavior of the electrical resistance of SMA. During the phase transformation of the SMA - also causing the actuation travel - the resistance drops with rising temperature. This behavior can be exploited for control purposes, especially as the electrical resistance can be easily measured during the activation done by Joule heating. As shown in this contribution, theoretical modelling and experimental tests provide a load-independent self-sensing control-concept of SMA-FRP-hybrid-structures.

  4. Analysis of aging of commercial composite metal oxide - Li4Ti5O12 battery cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svens, Pontus; Eriksson, Rickard; Hansson, Jörgen; Behm, Mårten; Gustafsson, Torbjörn; Lindbergh, Göran

    2014-12-01

    Commercial battery cells with Li4Ti5O12 negative electrode and composite metal oxide positive electrode have been analyzed with respect to aging mechanisms. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), differential capacity analysis (dQ/dV), differential voltage analysis (dV/dQ) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) were used to identify different ageing mechanisms such as lithium inventory loss, loss of active electrode material and surface film growth. The active material of the positive electrode was also examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Aging mechanisms were studied for both calendar-aged and cycle-aged cells. Data from half cells prepared from post mortem harvested electrode material, using lithium foil as negative electrode and pouch material as encapsulation, were used as reference to full cell data. Electrochemical analysis of full and half cells combined with material analysis showed to be a powerful method to identify aging mechanisms in this type of commercial cells. The calendar-aged cell showed insignificant aging while the cycle-aged cell showed noticeable loss of positive electrode active material and loss of cyclable lithium, but only minor loss of negative electrode active material. The results imply that Li4Ti5O12 negative electrode material is a good alternative to other materials if high energy density is not the primary goal.

  5. Conception axiomatique des joints hybrides a recouvrement simple en materiaux composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouellet, Marc

    Minimizing weight is a primary objective in every system design in the aerospace and automotive industry. Therefore, the use of composite materials has become an integral part of the design of mechanical components. However, in composite structure design, their complexity normally makes it impossible to design them as a single part. This leads to the necessity of using joints. Sadly, these joints introduce discontinuities in the stress distribution within the components and are often the sites of stress concentration. Therefore, they may limit the performance of a structure, in addition to increasing the overall mass significantly due to the use of mechanical fasteners such as bolts and rivets. This is why bonded joints are increasingly popular. They are much lighter than bolted or riveted joints and are often more rigid. Unfortunately, it is very difficult to inspect a bonded joint for defects since the presence of cracks in the adhesive cannot be observed with the naked eye. The main objective of this work is to propose a new design methodology for hybrid joints. To accomplish this, it is necessary to establish reliable analysis tools to improve our understanding of the behavior of these joints when subjected to an external force. A better understanding of the interactions between the parameters is also required. To improve our knowledge on the subject, a literature review was conducted. This review was structured as to emphasize on the behavior of hybrid single lap joints when subjected to an external force in tension. Following this literature review, an analysis of the stress distribution within the joint was carried out using a finite element model. The model and the results were compared with those from two papers in order to validate the quality of representation. Subsequently, a modification was made to an existing analytical model in order to add the bolts' preload as a parameter. These two models, namely the finite element model and the analytical model

  6. Effect of surface treatments on shear bond strength of resin composite bonded to CAD/CAM resin-ceramic hybrid materials

    PubMed Central

    Güngör, Merve Bankoğlu; Bal, Bilge Turhan; Ünver, Senem; Doğan, Aylin

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of surface treatments on shear bond strength of resin composite bonded to thermocycled and non-thermocycled CAD/CAM resin-ceramic hybrid materials. MATERIALS AND METHODS 120 specimens (10×10×2 mm) from each material were divided into 12 groups according to different surface treatments in combination with thermal aging procedures. Surface treatment methods were airborne-particle abrasion (abraded with 50 micron alumina particles), dry grinding (grinded with 125 µm grain size bur), and hydrofluoric acid (9%) and silane application. According to the thermocycling procedure, the groups were assigned as non-thermocycled, thermocycled after packing composites, and thermocycled before packing composites. The average surface roughness of the non-thermocycled specimens were measured after surface treatments. After packing composites and thermocycling procedures, shear bond strength (SBS) of the specimens were tested. The results of surface roughness were statistically analyzed by 2-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and SBS results were statistically analyzed by 3-way ANOVA. RESULTS Surface roughness of GC were significantly lower than that of LU and VE (P<.05). The highest surface roughness was observed for dry grinding group, followed by airborne particle abraded group (P<.05). Comparing the materials within the same surface treatment method revealed that untreated surfaces generally showed lower SBS values. The values of untreated LU specimens showed significantly different SBS values compared to those of other surface treatment groups (P<.05). CONCLUSION SBS was affected by surface treatments. Thermocycling did not have any effect on the SBS of the materials except acid and silane applied GC specimens, which were subjected to thermocycling before packing of the composite resin. PMID:27555894

  7. Adjusting Measured Weight Loss of Aged Graphite Fabric/PMR-15 Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1998-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the growth of the surface damage layer in polymer matrix composites (PMC's) fabricated with graphite fabric reinforcement and to determine the effects of the cut-surface degradation on the overall thermo-oxidative (TOS) stability of these materials. Four important conclusions were made about the TOS behavior of T650-35/PNIR- 15 fabric-reinforced composites: (1) Three stages of composite weight loss were seen on the plot of weight loss versus aging time; (2) the depth of the cut-edge damage is related to the composite thickness; (3) the actual weight loss realized by a mechanical test specimen that has had all the aging-induced cut-edge damage removed during the preparation process is significantly less than the weight loss measured using specimens with a high percentage of cut edges exposed to the damaging environment; and (4) an extrapolation of a section of the weight loss curve can be used to obtain a more correct estimate of the actual weight loss after extended periods of aging at elevated temperatures.

  8. Crown-Ether Derived Graphene Hybrid Composite for Membrane-Free Potentiometric Sensing of Alkali Metal Ions.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Gunnar; Ulstrup, Jens; Chi, Qijin

    2016-01-13

    We report the design and synthesis of newly functionalized graphene hybrid material that can be used for selective membrane-free potentiometric detection of alkali metal ions, represented by potassium ions. Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) functionalized covalently by 18-crown[6] ether with a dense surface coverage is achieved by the introduction of a flexible linking molecule. The resulting hybrid composite is highly stable and is capable of detecting potassium ions down to micromolar ranges with a selectivity over other cations (including Ca(2+), Li(+), Na(+), NH4(+)) at concentrations up to 25 mM. This material can be combined further with disposable chips, demonstrating its promise as an effective ion-selective sensing component for practical applications.

  9. Effects of chronic adult dietary restriction on spatial learning in the aged F344 x BN hybrid F1 rat.

    PubMed

    Fitting, Sylvia; Booze, Rosemarie M; Gilbert, Candace A; Mactutus, Charles F

    2008-02-27

    Dietary restriction (DR) has been shown to increase life span and reduce disease incidence across a variety of species. Recent research suggests that chronic adult DR may also alter age-related cognitive decline. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to examine the potential deficits in spatial learning ability in the aged F344 x BN hybrid F1 rat with specific attention to the contributory effects of motoric impairments and (2) to determine the influence of chronic adult DR on any such impairments. The Morris water maze (MWM) task was employed with a 1.8 m diameter tank, 10 cm2 escape platform, 28 degrees C water, and an automated collapsing central starting platform. Spatial learning impairments in the aged rats were evident on all dependent measures during training and the probe test. Motoric function, as reflected in measures of strength and locomotion demonstrated profound age-related performance impairments that were attenuated by chronic adult DR. The present data also replicate previous reports, indicating that DR attenuates the age-related impairments of performance in the MWM as indexed by the latency measure in acquisition, but critically was dissociated from any DR effect on measures of preference and, more critically, accuracy in the probe test. Collectively, the most parsimonious interpretation of DR effects on MWM performance would appear to be the preservation of motoric, and not cognitive, function.

  10. Aging and serum MCP-1 are associated with gut microbiome composition in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Conley, Melissa N; Wong, Carmen P; Duyck, Kyle M; Hord, Norman; Ho, Emily; Sharpton, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Age is the primary risk factor for major human chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disorders, cancer, type 2 diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. Chronic, low-grade, systemic inflammation is associated with aging and the progression of immunosenescence. Immunosenescence may play an important role in the development of age-related chronic disease and the widely observed phenomenon of increased production of inflammatory mediators that accompany this process, referred to as "inflammaging." While it has been demonstrated that the gut microbiome and immune system interact, the relationship between the gut microbiome and age remains to be clearly defined, particularly in the context of inflammation. The aim of our study was to clarify the associations between age, the gut microbiome, and pro-inflammatory marker serum MCP-1 in a C57BL/6 murine model. Results. We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to profile the composition of fecal microbiota associated with young and aged mice. Our analysis identified an association between microbiome structure and mouse age and revealed specific groups of taxa whose abundances stratify young and aged mice. This includes the Ruminococcaceae, Clostridiaceae, and Enterobacteriaceae. We also profiled pro-inflammatory serum MCP-1 levels of each mouse and found that aged mice exhibited elevated serum MCP-1, a phenotype consistent with inflammaging. Robust correlation tests identified several taxa whose abundance in the microbiome associates with serum MCP-1 status, indicating that they may interact with the mouse immune system. We find that taxonomically similar organisms can exhibit differing, even opposite, patterns of association with the host immune system. We also find that many of the OTUs that associate with serum MCP-1 stratify individuals by age. Discussion. Our results demonstrate that gut microbiome composition is associated with age and the pro-inflammatory marker, serum MCP-1. The correlation between age

  11. Dysbiosis and compositional alterations with aging in the gut microbiota of patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Kamo, Takehiro; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Suda, Wataru; Saga-Kamo, Akiko; Shimizu, Yu; Yagi, Hiroki; Liu, Qing; Nomura, Seitaro; Naito, Atsuhiko T; Takeda, Norifumi; Harada, Mutsuo; Toko, Haruhiro; Kumagai, Hidetoshi; Ikeda, Yuichi; Takimoto, Eiki; Suzuki, Jun-Ichi; Honda, Kenya; Morita, Hidetoshi; Hattori, Masahira; Komuro, Issei

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence has suggested a potential impact of gut microbiota on the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF). However, it is still unknown whether HF is associated with dysbiosis in gut microbiota. We investigated the composition of gut microbiota in patients with HF to elucidate whether gut microbial dysbiosis is associated with HF. We performed 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing of fecal samples obtained from 12 HF patients and 12 age-matched healthy control (HC) subjects, and analyzed the differences in gut microbiota. We further compared the composition of gut microbiota of 12 HF patients younger than 60 years of age with that of 10 HF patients 60 years of age or older. The composition of gut microbial communities of HF patients was distinct from that of HC subjects in both unweighted and weighted UniFrac analyses. Eubacterium rectale and Dorea longicatena were less abundant in the gut microbiota of HF patients than in that of HC subjects. Compared to younger HF patients, older HF patients had diminished proportions of Bacteroidetes and larger quantities of Proteobacteria. The genus Faecalibacterium was depleted, while Lactobacillus was enriched in the gut microbiota of older HF patients. These results suggest that patients with HF harbor significantly altered gut microbiota, which varies further according to age. New concept of heart-gut axis has a great potential for breakthroughs in the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic approach for HF.

  12. Dysbiosis and compositional alterations with aging in the gut microbiota of patients with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Kamo, Takehiro; Suda, Wataru; Saga-Kamo, Akiko; Shimizu, Yu; Yagi, Hiroki; Liu, Qing; Nomura, Seitaro; Naito, Atsuhiko T.; Takeda, Norifumi; Harada, Mutsuo; Toko, Haruhiro; Kumagai, Hidetoshi; Ikeda, Yuichi; Takimoto, Eiki; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Honda, Kenya; Morita, Hidetoshi; Hattori, Masahira; Komuro, Issei

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence has suggested a potential impact of gut microbiota on the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF). However, it is still unknown whether HF is associated with dysbiosis in gut microbiota. We investigated the composition of gut microbiota in patients with HF to elucidate whether gut microbial dysbiosis is associated with HF. We performed 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing of fecal samples obtained from 12 HF patients and 12 age-matched healthy control (HC) subjects, and analyzed the differences in gut microbiota. We further compared the composition of gut microbiota of 12 HF patients younger than 60 years of age with that of 10 HF patients 60 years of age or older. The composition of gut microbial communities of HF patients was distinct from that of HC subjects in both unweighted and weighted UniFrac analyses. Eubacterium rectale and Dorea longicatena were less abundant in the gut microbiota of HF patients than in that of HC subjects. Compared to younger HF patients, older HF patients had diminished proportions of Bacteroidetes and larger quantities of Proteobacteria. The genus Faecalibacterium was depleted, while Lactobacillus was enriched in the gut microbiota of older HF patients. These results suggest that patients with HF harbor significantly altered gut microbiota, which varies further according to age. New concept of heart-gut axis has a great potential for breakthroughs in the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic approach for HF. PMID:28328981

  13. Physical aging effects on the compressive linear viscoelastic creep of IM7/K3B composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veazie, David R.; Gates, Thomas S.

    1995-01-01

    An experimental study was undertaken to establish the viscoelastic behavior of 1M7/K3B composite in compression at elevated temperature. Creep compliance, strain recovery and the effects of physical aging on the time dependent response was measured for uniaxial loading at several isothermal conditions below the glass transition temperature (T(g)). The IM7/K3B composite is a graphite reinforced thermoplastic polyimide with a T(g) of approximately 240 C. In a composite, the two matrix dominated compliance terms associated with time dependent behavior occur in the transverse and shear directions. Linear viscoelasticity was used to characterize the creep/recovery behavior and superposition techniques were used to establish the physical aging related material constants. Creep strain was converted to compliance and measured as a function of test time and aging time. Results included creep compliance master curves, physical aging shift factors and shift rates. The description of the unique experimental techniques required for compressive testing is also given.

  14. Hybrid nano-composites made of ss-DNA/wrapped carbon nanotubes and titania.

    PubMed

    Romio, Martina; Mesa, Camillo La

    2017-04-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes, MWCNTs, are stabilized thanks to the surface wrapping of single-strand DNA, ss-DNA; the resulting adducts are kinetically and thermodynamically stable Such entities build up nano-hybrids with titania, TiO2, nano-particles, in presence of surfactant as an adjuvant. The conditions leading to TiO2 adsorption onto ss-DNA/CNTs were investigated, by optimizing the concentration of adducts, nano-particles (NPs), and of the cationic surfactant (CTAB). Controlling the working conditions makes possible to get homogeneously organized hybrids. Characterization by DLS, electro-phoretic mobility, SEM and AFM clarified the surfactant-assisted association modes between adducts and CTAB-functionalized TiO2. Nano-particles' clustering onto DNA-wrapped adducts gives hybrids trough electrostatic interactions. Surface coverage by TiO2 is significant and homogeneous. It is expected that the reported hybrids can be useful for applications in heterogeneous catalysis.

  15. Effects of physical aging on long-term behavior of composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinson, L. Catherine

    1993-01-01

    The HSCT plane, envisioned to have a lifetime of over 60,000 flight hours and to travel at speeds in excess of Mach 2, is the source of intensive study at NASA. In particular, polymer matrix composites are being strongly considered for use in primary and secondary structures due to their high strength to weight ratio and the options of property tailoring. However, an added difficulty in the use of polymer based materials is that their properties change significantly over time, especially at the elevated temperatures that will be experienced during flight, and prediction of properties based on irregular thermal and mechanical loading is extremely difficult. This study focused on one aspect of long-term polymer composite behavior: physical aging. When a polymer is cooled to below its glass transition temperature, the material is not in thermodynamic equilibrium and the free volume and enthalpy evolve over time to approach their equilibrium values. During this time, the mechanical properties change significantly and this change is termed physical aging. This work begins with a review of the concepts of physical aging on a pure polymer system. The effective time theory, which can be used to predict long term behavior based on short term data, is mathematically formalized. The effects of aging to equilibrium are proven and discussed. The theory developed for polymers is then applied first to a unidirectional composite, then to a general laminate. Comparison to experimental data is excellent. It is shown that the effects of aging on the long-term properties of composites can be counter-intuitive, stressing the importance of the development and use of a predictive theory to analyze structures.

  16. Synergistic Effects of Physical Aging and Damage on Long-Term Behavior of Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinson, L. Cate

    1999-01-01

    The research consisted of two major parts, first modeling and simulation of the combined effects of aging and damage on polymer composites and secondly an experimental phase examining composite response at elevated temperatures, again activating both aging and damage. For the simulation, a damage model for polymeric composite laminates operating at elevated temperatures was developed. Viscoelastic behavior of the material is accounted for via the correspondence principle and a variational approach is adopted to compute the temporal stresses within the laminate. Also, the effect of physical aging on ply level stress and on overall laminate behavior is included. An important feature of the model is that damage evolution predictions for viscoelastic laminates can be made. This allows us to track the mechanical response of the laminate up to large load levels though within the confines of linear viscoelastic constitutive behavior. An experimental investigation of microcracking and physical aging effects in polymer matrix composites was also pursued. The goal of the study was to assess the impact of aging on damage accumulation, in ten-ns of microcracking, and the impact of damage on aging and viscoelastic behavior. The testing was performed both at room and elevated temperatures on [+/- 45/903](sub s) and [02/903](sub s) laminates, both containing a set of 90 deg plies centrally located to facilitate investigation of microcracking. Edge replication and X-ray-radiography were utilized to quantify damage. Sequenced creep tests were performed to characterize viscoelastic and aging parameters. Results indicate that while the aging times studied have limited ]Influence on damage evolution, elevated temperature and viscoelastic effects have a profound effect on the damage mode seen. Some results are counterintuitive, including the lower strain to failure for elevated temperature tests and the catastrophic failure mode observed for the [+/- 45/9O3](sub s), specimens. The

  17. Fatigue and Damage Tolerance Analysis of a Hybrid Composite Tapered Flexbeam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Gretchen B.; Schaff, Jeffrey R.; Dobyns, Al

    2001-01-01

    The behavior of nonlinear tapered composite flexbeams under combined axial tension and cyclic bending loading was studied using coupon test specimens and finite element (FE) analyses. The flexbeams used a hybrid material system of graphite/epoxy and glass/epoxy and had internal dropped plies, dropped in an overlapping stepwise pattern. Two material configurations, differing only in the use of glass or graphite plies in the continuous plies near the midplane, were studied. Test specimens were cut from a full-size helicopter tail-rotor flexbeam and were tested in a hydraulic load frame under combined constant axialtension load and transverse cyclic bending loads. The first determination damage observed in the specimens occurred at the area around the tip of the outermost ply-drop group in the tapered region of the flexbeam, near the thick end. Delaminations grew slowly and stably, toward the thick end of the flexbeam, at the interfaces above and below the dropped-ply region. A 2D finite element model of the flexbeam was developed. The model was analyzed using a geometrically non-linear analysis with both the ANSYS and ABAQUS FE codes. The global responses of each analysis agreed well with the test results. The ANSYS model was used to calculate strain energy release rates (G) for delaminations initiating at two different ply-ending locations. The results showed that delaminations were more inclined to grow at the locations where they were observed in the test specimens. Both ANSYS and ABAQUS were used to calculate G values associated with delamination initiating at the observed location but growing in different interfaces, either above or below the ply-ending group toward the thick end, or toward the thin end from the tip of the resin pocket. The different analysis codes generated the same trends and comparable peak values, within 5-11 % for each delamination path. Both codes showed that delamination toward the thick region was largely mode II, and toward the thin

  18. Hybrid solar cells of micro/mesoporous Zn( and its graphite composites sensitized by CdSe quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, SM Z.; Gayen, Taposh; Tint, Naing; Shi, Lingyan; Ebrahim, Amani M.; Seredych, Mykola; Bandosz, Teresa J.; Alfano, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Quantum efficiencies (QEs) of innovative hybrid solar cells fabricated using micro/mesoporous zinc (hydr)oxide and its graphite-based composites sensitized by semiconductor quantum dots (SQDs) are reported. High absorption coefficient of CdSe SQDs and the wide band gap of zinc (hydr)oxide and its composites with graphite oxide (GO) are essential to achieve solar cells of higher QEs. Hybrid solar cells are fabricated from zinc (hydr)oxide and its composites (with 2 and 5 wt.% of graphite oxides, termed as, ZnGO-2 and ZnGO-5, respectively) while using potassium iodide or perovskite as an electrolyte. A two-photon fluorescence (TPF) imaging technique was used to determine the internal structure of the solar cell device. The photocurrent and current-voltage measurements were used to measure short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage to calculate the fill factor and QE of these solar cells. The highest QE (up to ˜10.62%) is realized for a ZnGO-2-based solar cell using potassium iodide as its electrolyte and the CdSe quantum dot as its sensitizer.

  19. Age-Related Changes in Body Composition of Bovine Growth Hormone Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Amanda J.; Chung, Min-Yu; List, Edward O.; Walker, Jennifer; Okada, Shigeru; Kopchick, John J.; Berryman, Darlene E.

    2009-01-01

    GH has a significant impact on body composition due to distinct anabolic and catabolic effects on lean and fat mass, respectively. Several studies have assessed body composition in mice expressing a GH transgene. Whereas all studies report enhanced growth of transgenic mice as compared with littermate controls, there are inconsistencies in terms of the relative proportion of lean mass to fat mass in these animals. The purpose of this study was to characterize the accumulation of adipose and lean mass with age and according to gender in a bovine (b) GH transgenic mouse line. Weight and body composition measurements were assessed in male and female bGH mice with corresponding littermate controls in the C57BL/6J genetic background. Body composition measurements began at 6 wk and continued through 1 yr of age. At the conclusion of the study, tissue weights were determined and triglyceride content was quantified in liver and kidney. Although body weights for bGH mice were significantly greater than their corresponding littermate controls at all time points, body composition measurements revealed an unexpected transition midway through analyses. That is, younger bGH mice had relatively more fat mass than nontransgenic littermates, whereas bGH mice became significantly leaner than controls by 4 months in males and 6 months in females. These results reveal the importance in timing and gender when conducting studies related to body composition or lean and fat tissue in GH transgenic mice or in other genetically manipulated mouse strains in which body composition may be impacted. PMID:18948397

  20. Effect of Accelerated Artificial Aging on Translucency of Methacrylate and Silorane-Based Composite Resins

    PubMed Central

    Shirinzad, Mehdi; Rezaei-Soufi, Loghman; Mirtorabi, Maryam Sadat; Vahdatinia, Farshid

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Composite restorations must have tooth-like optical properties namely color and translucency and maintain them for a long time. This study aimed to compare the effect of accelerated artificial aging (AAA) on the translucency of three methacrylate-based composites (Filtek Z250, Filtek Z250XT and Filtek Z350XT) and one silorane-based composite resin (Filtek P90). Materials and Methods: For this in vitro study, 56 composite discs were fabricated (n=14 for each group). Using scanning spectrophotometer, CIE L*a*b* parameters and translucency of each specimen were measured at 24 hours and after AAA for 384 hours. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Tukey's test and paired t-test at P=0.05 level of significance. Results: The mean (±standard deviation) translucency parameter for Filtek Z250, Filtek Z250XT, Filtek Z350XT and Filtek P90 was 5.67±0.64, 4.59±0.77, 7.87±0.82 and 4.21±0.71 before AAA and 4.25±0.615, 3.53±0.73, 5.94±0.57 and 4.12±0.54 after AAA, respectively. After aging, the translucency of methacrylate-based composites decreased significantly (P<0.05). However, the translucency of Filtek P90 did not change significantly (P>0.05). Conclusions: The AAA significantly decreased the translucency of methacrylate-based composites (Filtek Z250, Filtek Z250XT and Filtek Z350XT) but no change occurred in the translucency of Filtek P90 silorane-based composite. PMID:27928237

  1. Individual Aerosol Particles from Biomass Burning in Southern Africa Compositions and Aging of Inorganic Particles. 2; Compositions and Aging of Inorganic Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jia; Posfai, Mihaly; Hobbs, Peter V.; Buseck, Peter R.

    2003-01-01

    Individual aerosol particles collected over southern Africa during the SAFARI 2000 field study were studied using transmission electron microscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The sizes, shapes, compositions, mixing states, surface coatings, and relative abundances of aerosol particles from biomass burning, in boundary layer hazes, and in the free troposphere were compared, with emphasis on aging and reactions of inorganic smoke particles. Potassium salts and organic particles were the predominant species in the smoke, and most were internally mixed. More KCl particles occur in young smoke, whereas more K2SO4 and KNO3 particles were present in aged smoke. This change indicates that with the aging of the smoke, KCl particles from the fires were converted to K2SO4 and KNO3 through reactions with sulfur- and nitrogen- bearing species from biomass burning as well as other sources. More soot was present in smoke from flaming grass fires than bush and wood fires, probably due to the predominance of flaming combustion in grass fires. The high abundance of organic particles and soluble salts can affect the hygroscopic properties of biomass-burning aerosols and therefore influence their role as cloud condensation nuclei. Particles from biomass burning were important constituents of the regional hazes.

  2. Synthesis of g-C3N4/NaTaO3 Hybrid Composite Photocatalysts and Their Photocatalytic Activity Under Simulated Solar Light Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Ho; Jo, Yong-Hyun; Soo-Wohn; Adhikari, Rajesh; Cho, Sung-Hun

    2015-09-01

    This Paper reports the photocatalytic activity of g-C3N4/NaTaO3 hybrid composite photocatalysts synthesized by ball-mill method. The g-C3N4 and NaTaO3 were individually prepared by Solid state reaction and microwave hydrothermal process, respectively. The g-C3N4/NaTaO3 composite showed the enhanced photocatalytic activity for degradation of rhodamine B dye (Rh. B) under simulated solar light irradiation. The results revealed that the band-gap energy absorption edge of hybrid composite samples was shifted to a longer wavelength as compared to NaTaO3 and the 50 wt% g-C3N4/NaTaO3 hybrid composite exhibited the highest percentage (99.6%) of degradation of Rh. B and the highest reaction rate constant (0.013 min(-1)) in 4 h which could be attributed to the enhanced absorption of the hybrid composite photocatalyst in the UV-Vis region. Hence, these results suggest that the g-C3N4/NaTaO3 hybrid composite exhibits enhanced photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B under simulated solar light irradiation in comparison to the commercial NaTaO3.

  3. Thermo-mechanical characterization of siliconized E-glass fiber/hematite particles reinforced epoxy resin hybrid composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    V. R., Arun prakash; Rajadurai, A.

    2016-10-01

    In this present work hybrid polymer (epoxy) matrix composite has been strengthened with surface modified E-glass fiber and iron(III) oxide particles with varying size. The particle sizes of 200 nm and <100 nm has been prepared by high energy ball milling and sol-gel methods respectively. To enhance better dispersion of particles and improve adhesion of fibers and fillers with epoxy matrix surface modification process has been done on both fiber and filler by an amino functional silane 3-Aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS). Crystalline and functional groups of siliconized iron(III) oxide particles were characterized by XRD and FTIR spectroscopy analysis. Fixed quantity of surface treated 15 vol% E-glass fiber was laid along with 0.5 and 1.0 vol% of iron(III) oxide particles into the matrix to fabricate hybrid composites. The composites were cured by an aliphatic hardener Triethylenetetramine (TETA). Effectiveness of surface modified particles and fibers addition into the resin matrix were revealed by mechanical testing like tensile testing, flexural testing, impact testing, inter laminar shear strength and hardness. Thermal behavior of composites was evaluated by TGA, DSC and thermal conductivity (Lee's disc). The scanning electron microscopy was employed to found shape and size of iron(III) oxide particles adhesion quality of fiber with epoxy matrix. Good dispersion of fillers in matrix was achieved with surface modifier APTMS. Tensile, flexural, impact and inter laminar shear strength of composites was improved by reinforcing surface modified fiber and filler. Thermal stability of epoxy resin was improved when surface modified fiber was reinforced along with hard hematite particles. Thermal conductivity of epoxy increased with increase of hematite content in epoxy matrix.

  4. Dynamic response of laminated composite plates using a three-dimensional hybrid-stress finite-element formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, W. J.; Sun, C. T.

    1987-01-01

    A method of analysis of dynamic response of laminated composite plates is presented. The analysis is carried by using a hybrid-stress finite element numerical technique. By using this approach, the response of simply supported laminated plates subjected to sinusoidal loading are investigated. For the solution of the finite element equations of motion of free vibrations and dynamic response problems, two effective methods of solution, the space iteration method and the Newmark direct integration method are used. These two methods are discussed here.

  5. Enhanced dielectric properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride) composites filled with nano iron oxide-deposited barium titanate hybrid particles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Changhai; Chi, Qingguo; Dong, Jiufeng; Cui, Yang; Wang, Xuan; Liu, Lizhu; Lei, Qingquan

    2016-01-01

    We report enhancement of the dielectric permittivity of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) generated by depositing magnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles on the surface of barium titanate (BT) to fabricate BT–Fe3O4/PVDF composites. This process introduced an external magnetic field and the influences of external magnetic field on dielectric properties of composites were investigated systematically. The composites subjected to magnetic field treatment for 30 min at 60 °C exhibited the largest dielectric permittivity (385 at 100 Hz) when the BT–Fe3O4 concentration is approximately 33 vol.%. The BT–Fe3O4 suppressed the formation of a conducting path in the composite and induced low dielectric loss (0.3) and low conductivity (4.12 × 10−9 S/cm) in the composite. Series-parallel model suggested that the enhanced dielectric permittivity of BT–Fe3O4/PVDF composites should arise from the ultrahigh permittivity of BT–Fe3O4 hybrid particles. However, the experimental results of the BT–Fe3O4/PVDF composites treated by magnetic field agree with percolation theory, which indicates that the enhanced dielectric properties of the BT–Fe3O4/PVDF composites originate from the interfacial polarization induced by the external magnetic field. This work provides a simple and effective way for preparing nanocomposites with enhanced dielectric properties for use in the electronics industry. PMID:27633958

  6. Enhanced dielectric properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride) composites filled with nano iron oxide-deposited barium titanate hybrid particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Changhai; Chi, Qingguo; Dong, Jiufeng; Cui, Yang; Wang, Xuan; Liu, Lizhu; Lei, Qingquan

    2016-09-01

    We report enhancement of the dielectric permittivity of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) generated by depositing magnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles on the surface of barium titanate (BT) to fabricate BT–Fe3O4/PVDF composites. This process introduced an external magnetic field and the influences of external magnetic field on dielectric properties of composites were investigated systematically. The composites subjected to magnetic field treatment for 30 min at 60 °C exhibited the largest dielectric permittivity (385 at 100 Hz) when the BT–Fe3O4 concentration is approximately 33 vol.%. The BT–Fe3O4 suppressed the formation of a conducting path in the composite and induced low dielectric loss (0.3) and low conductivity (4.12 × 10‑9 S/cm) in the composite. Series-parallel model suggested that the enhanced dielectric permittivity of BT–Fe3O4/PVDF composites should arise from the ultrahigh permittivity of BT–Fe3O4 hybrid particles. However, the experimental results of the BT–Fe3O4/PVDF composites treated by magnetic field agree with percolation theory, which indicates that the enhanced dielectric properties of the BT–Fe3O4/PVDF composites originate from the interfacial polarization induced by the external magnetic field. This work provides a simple and effective way for preparing nanocomposites with enhanced dielectric properties for use in the electronics industry.

  7. Enhanced dielectric properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride) composites filled with nano iron oxide-deposited barium titanate hybrid particles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Changhai; Chi, Qingguo; Dong, Jiufeng; Cui, Yang; Wang, Xuan; Liu, Lizhu; Lei, Qingquan

    2016-09-16

    We report enhancement of the dielectric permittivity of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) generated by depositing magnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles on the surface of barium titanate (BT) to fabricate BT-Fe3O4/PVDF composites. This process introduced an external magnetic field and the influences of external magnetic field on dielectric properties of composites were investigated systematically. The composites subjected to magnetic field treatment for 30 min at 60 °C exhibited the largest dielectric permittivity (385 at 100 Hz) when the BT-Fe3O4 concentration is approximately 33 vol.%. The BT-Fe3O4 suppressed the formation of a conducting path in the composite and induced low dielectric loss (0.3) and low conductivity (4.12 × 10(-9) S/cm) in the composite. Series-parallel model suggested that the enhanced dielectric permittivity of BT-Fe3O4/PVDF composites should arise from the ultrahigh permittivity of BT-Fe3O4 hybrid particles. However, the experimental results of the BT-Fe3O4/PVDF composites treated by magnetic field agree with percolation theory, which indicates that the enhanced dielectric properties of the BT-Fe3O4/PVDF composites originate from the interfacial polarization induced by the external magnetic field. This work provides a simple and effective way for preparing nanocomposites with enhanced dielectric properties for use in the electronics industry.

  8. Isotopic composition analysis and age dating of uranium samples by high resolution gamma ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostol, A. I.; Pantelica, A.; Sima, O.; Fugaru, V.

    2016-09-01

    Non-destructive methods were applied to determine the isotopic composition and the time elapsed since last chemical purification of nine uranium samples. The applied methods are based on measuring gamma and X radiations of uranium samples by high resolution low energy gamma spectrometric system with planar high purity germanium detector and low background gamma spectrometric system with coaxial high purity germanium detector. The ;Multigroup γ-ray Analysis Method for Uranium; (MGAU) code was used for the precise determination of samples' isotopic composition. The age of the samples was determined from the isotopic ratio 214Bi/234U. This ratio was calculated from the analyzed spectra of each uranium sample, using relative detection efficiency. Special attention is paid to the coincidence summing corrections that have to be taken into account when performing this type of analysis. In addition, an alternative approach for the age determination using full energy peak efficiencies obtained by Monte Carlo simulations with the GESPECOR code is described.

  9. Effect of mat pilates exercise on postural alignment and body composition of middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Oh, Hyun Ok; Han, Hui Seung; Jin, Kwang Youn; Roh, Hyo Lyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine whether Pilates is an effective exercise for improving the postural alignment and health of middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study were 36 middle-aged women (20 in the experimental group, 16 in the control group). The experimental group participated in Pilates exercise sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Body alignment and composition measurements before and after applying the Pilates exercise program were performed with a body composition analyzer and a three-dimensional scanner. [Results] Postural alignment in the sagittal and horizontal planes was enhanced in the Pilates exercise group. Trunk alignment showed correlations with body fat and muscle mass. [Conclusion] The Pilates exercises are performed symmetrically and strengthen the deep muscles. Moreover, the results showed that muscle mass was correlated with trunk postural alignment and that the proper amount of muscle is critical in maintaining trunk postural alignment. PMID:27390396

  10. Effect of mat pilates exercise on postural alignment and body composition of middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Oh, Hyun Ok; Han, Hui Seung; Jin, Kwang Youn; Roh, Hyo Lyun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine whether Pilates is an effective exercise for improving the postural alignment and health of middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study were 36 middle-aged women (20 in the experimental group, 16 in the control group). The experimental group participated in Pilates exercise sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Body alignment and composition measurements before and after applying the Pilates exercise program were performed with a body composition analyzer and a three-dimensional scanner. [Results] Postural alignment in the sagittal and horizontal planes was enhanced in the Pilates exercise group. Trunk alignment showed correlations with body fat and muscle mass. [Conclusion] The Pilates exercises are performed symmetrically and strengthen the deep muscles. Moreover, the results showed that muscle mass was correlated with trunk postural alignment and that the proper amount of muscle is critical in maintaining trunk postural alignment.

  11. The effect of aging, temperature and brine composition on the mechanical strength of chalk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korsnes, Reidar Inge; Nermoen, Anders; Stødle, Trond; Vika Storm, Eirik; Vadla Madland, Merete

    2014-05-01

    Chalk strength has been of great focus for several research communities since the 1980s when the Ekofisk subsidence problem was discovered. Sea water injection was initiated in 1987 to improve the oil production and to re-pressurize the reservoirs to halt the subsidence. The oil production was improved significantly, but the reservoir compaction in the water saturated regions continued, in contrast to the regions with no water breakthrough. This observation indicates a water weakening effect of the chalk. Extensive studies have been performed during the last decades to enlighten how the brine chemistry alters the rock mechanical properties. These studies have shown that the elastic bulk modulus, yield strength, creep and the deformation rate at constant stress conditions depend on the pore fluid composition. In general, the injected brine is in non-equilibrium with the rock surface inducing alteration of the rock mineralogy. In this study we examined two aspects of the mechanical strength, namely the bulk modulus and the onset of yield during hydrostatic stress loading with 0.7 MPa pore pressure. The test program consisted of aged and un-aged cores, ambient and 130°C test temperature, and four brine compositions: MgCl2, NaCl, Na2SO4, and synthetic sea water (SSW) at ion strengths of 0.657 M. The aging was performed by submerging saturated cores in a closed container with the respective test brine for three weeks at 130°C. Un-aged cores were saturated the same day as they were tested. For each brine composition we present four test setups; (a) aged and tested at 130°C, (b) aged and tested at ambient temperature, (c) un-aged and tested at 130°C, and (d) un-aged and tested at ambient conditions. The main results from our study are: 1. By using NaCl and MgCl2 as saturating brines, neither the test temperature nor the aging procedure affected the yield stress and bulk modulus significantly. 2. Using Na2SO4, the yield point and bulk moduli were reduced if the core

  12. Fructose in Breast Milk Is Positively Associated with Infant Body Composition at 6 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Goran, Michael I.; Martin, Ashley A.; Alderete, Tanya L.; Fujiwara, Hideji; Fields, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Dietary sugars have been shown to promote excess adiposity among children and adults; however, no study has examined fructose in human milk and its effects on body composition during infancy. Twenty-five mother–infant dyads attended clinical visits to the Oklahoma Health Sciences Center at 1 and 6 months of infant age. Infants were exclusively breastfed for 6 months and sugars in breast milk (i.e., fructose, glucose, lactose) were measured by Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and glucose oxidase. Infant body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at 1 and 6 months. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations between breast milk sugars and infant body composition at 6 months of age. Fructose, glucose, and lactose were present in breast milk and stable across visits (means = 6.7 μg/mL, 255.2 μg/mL, and 7.6 g/dL, respectively). Despite its very low concentration, fructose was the only sugar significantly associated with infant body composition. A 1-μg/mL higher breast milk fructose was associated with a 257 g higher body weight (p = 0.02), 170 g higher lean mass (p = 0.01), 131 g higher fat mass (p = 0.05), and 5 g higher bone mineral content (p = 0.03). In conclusion, fructose is detectable in human breast milk and is positively associated with all components of body composition at 6 months of age. PMID:28212335

  13. Fructose in Breast Milk Is Positively Associated with Infant Body Composition at 6 Months of Age.

    PubMed

    Goran, Michael I; Martin, Ashley A; Alderete, Tanya L; Fujiwara, Hideji; Fields, David A

    2017-02-16

    Dietary sugars have been shown to promote excess adiposity among children and adults; however, no study has examined fructose in human milk and its effects on body composition during infancy. Twenty-five mother-infant dyads attended clinical visits to the Oklahoma Health Sciences Center at 1 and 6 months of infant age. Infants were exclusively breastfed for 6 months and sugars in breast milk (i.e., fructose, glucose, lactose) were measured by Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and glucose oxidase. Infant body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at 1 and 6 months. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations between breast milk sugars and infant body composition at 6 months of age. Fructose, glucose, and lactose were present in breast milk and stable across visits (means = 6.7 μg/mL, 255.2 μg/mL, and 7.6 g/dL, respectively). Despite its very low concentration, fructose was the only sugar significantly associated with infant body composition. A 1-μg/mL higher breast milk fructose was associated with a 257 g higher body weight (p = 0.02), 170 g higher lean mass (p = 0.01), 131 g higher fat mass (p = 0.05), and 5 g higher bone mineral content (p = 0.03). In conclusion, fructose is detectable in human breast milk and is positively associated with all components of body composition at 6 months of age.

  14. Hybrid composite membranes based on polyethylene separator and Al2O3 nanoparticles for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Shin, Won-Kyung; Lee, Yoon-Sung; Kim, Dong-Won

    2013-05-01

    A hybrid composite membrane is prepared by coating nano-sized Al2O3 powder (13 and 50 nm) and poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene) (P(VdF-co-HFP)) binder on both sides of polyethylene separator. The composite membrane shows better thermal stability and improved wettability for organic liquid electrolyte than polyethylene separator, due to the presence of heat-resistant Al2O3 particles with high-surface area in the coating layer. By using the composite membrane, the lithium-ion cells composed of carbon anode and LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode are assembled and their cycling performances are evaluated. The cells assembled with the composite membranes are proven to have better capacity retention than the cell prepared with polyethylene separator, due to the enhanced ability to retain the electrolyte solution in the cell. The cell assembled with the composite membrane containing 13 nm-sized Al2O3 particles has an initial discharge capacity of 173.2 mA h g(-1) with good capacity retention.

  15. The Effects of Fiber Surface Modification and Thermal Aging on Composite Toughness And its Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.; Madhukar, Madhu; Papadopoulos, Demetrios; Inghram, Linda; McCorkle, Linda

    1997-01-01

    A detailed experimental study was conducted to establish the structure-property relationships between elevated temperature aging and (I) fiber-matrix bonding, (2) Mode II interlaminar fracture toughness, and (3) failure modes of carbon fiber/PMR-15 composites. The fiber-matrix adhesion was varied by using carbon fibers with different surface treatments. Short beam shear tests were used to quantify the interfacial shear strength afforded by the use of the different fiber surface treatments. The results of the short beam shear tests definitely showed that, for aging times up to 1000 hr, the aging process caused no observable changes in the bulk of the three composite materials that---would degrade the shear properties of the material. Comparisons between the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) measured by the short beam shear tests and the GII c test results, as measured by the ENF test, indicated that the differences in the surface treatments significantly affected the fracture properties while the effect of the aging process was probably limited to changes at the starter crack tip. The fracture properties changed due to a shift in the fracture from an interfacial failure to a failure within the matrix when the fiber was changed from AU-4 to AS-4 or AS-4G. There appears to be an effect of the fiber/matrix bonding on the thermo-oxidative stability of the composites that were tested. The low bonding afforded by the AU-4 fiber resulted in weight losses about twice those experienced by the AS-4 reinforced composites, the ones with the best TOS.

  16. On the Use of Accelerated Aging Methods for Screening High Temperature Polymeric Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, Thomas S.; Grayson, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    A rational approach to the problem of accelerated testing of high temperature polymeric composites is discussed. The methods provided are considered tools useful in the screening of new materials systems for long-term application to extreme environments that include elevated temperature, moisture, oxygen, and mechanical load. The need for reproducible mechanisms, indicator properties, and real-time data are outlined as well as the methodologies for specific aging mechanisms.

  17. Long-term influence of physical aging processes in epoxy matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, E. S. W.

    1981-01-01

    Selected mechanical properties of (plus or minus 45 degree sub 4s) graphite/epoxy composites were found to be affected by sub T sub g annealing. Postcured specimens of Thornel 300 graphite/Narmco 5208 epoxy were sub T sub G annealed at 413 K (140 C) for ca. 10 to the first through 10 to the fifth powers min., with a prior quenching from above T sub g. The ultimate tensile strength, strain-to-break, and toughness of the composite were found to decrease as a function of sub T sub g annealing time. The time-dependent change in properties can be explained on the basis of physical aging which is related to free volume changes in the non-equilibrium glassy state of network epoxies. The results imply possible changes in composite properties with service time.

  18. Age-dependent changes in the sphingolipid composition of CD4+ T cell membranes and immune synapses implicate glucosylceramides in age-related T cell dysfunction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sphingolipid (SL4) composition can influence the biophysical properties of cell membranes. Additionally, specific SL modulate signaling pathways involved in proliferation, senescence, and apoptosis. We investigated age-dependent changes in the SL composition of CD4+ T cells, and the impact of these ...

  19. Body Composition, Sarcopenia, and Suicidal Ideation in Elderly Koreans: Hallym Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Park, Yong Soon

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the relationship between body composition and suicidal ideation among the Korean elderly population (n = 302; ≥ 65 years) who participated in the Hallym Aging Study in 2010. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and obesity was measured by the indices of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and body fat percentage. Sarcopenia was defined as presence of both low muscle mass and low muscle function. Suicidal ideation was assessed using the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation. We found no differences in body composition measures between subjects with suicidal ideation and those without. In the logistic regression analyses, there were no significant relationships for suicidal ideation according to body composition measures, including BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR, and body fat percentage in both sexes. After adjusting for age, smoking status, alcohol drinking, regular exercise, medical comorbidities, monthly income, education level, and presence of depressive symptoms, the odds ratio (OR) of suicidal ideation was higher in elderly men with sarcopenia compared to those without, whereas no significant relationships were observed in elderly women (OR 8.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20-61.34 in men; OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.07-8.43 in women). Sarcopenia is closely associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation in elderly men.

  20. Does Human Milk Modulate Body Composition in Late Preterm Infants at Term-Corrected Age?

    PubMed Central

    Giannì, Maria Lorella; Consonni, Dario; Liotto, Nadia; Roggero, Paola; Morlacchi, Laura; Piemontese, Pasqua; Menis, Camilla; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: Late preterm infants account for the majority of preterm births and are at risk of altered body composition. Because body composition modulates later health outcomes and human milk is recommended as the normal method for infant feeding, we sought to investigate whether human milk feeding in early life can modulate body composition development in late preterm infants; (2) Methods: Neonatal, anthropometric and feeding data of 284 late preterm infants were collected. Body composition was evaluated at term-corrected age by air displacement plethysmography. The effect of human milk feeding on fat-free mass and fat mass content was evaluated using multiple linear regression analysis; (3) Results: Human milk was fed to 68% of the infants. According to multiple regression analysis, being fed any human milk at discharge and at  term-corrected and being fed exclusively human milk at term-corrected age were positively associated with fat-free mass content(β = −47.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = −95.7; −0.18; p = 0.049; β = −89.6, 95% CI = −131.5; −47.7; p < 0.0001; β = −104.1, 95% CI = −151.4; −56.7, p < 0.0001); (4) Conclusion: Human milk feeding appears to be associated with fat-free mass deposition in late preterm infants. Healthcare professionals should direct efforts toward promoting and supporting breastfeeding in these vulnerable infants. PMID:27782098

  1. Does Human Milk Modulate Body Composition in Late Preterm Infants at Term-Corrected Age?

    PubMed

    Giannì, Maria Lorella; Consonni, Dario; Liotto, Nadia; Roggero, Paola; Morlacchi, Laura; Piemontese, Pasqua; Menis, Camilla; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-10-23

    (1) Background: Late preterm infants account for the majority of preterm births and are at risk of altered body composition. Because body composition modulates later health outcomes and human milk is recommended as the normal method for infant feeding, we sought to investigate whether human milk feeding in early life can modulate body composition development in late preterm infants; (2) Methods: Neonatal, anthropometric and feeding data of 284 late preterm infants were collected. Body composition was evaluated at term-corrected age by air displacement plethysmography. The effect of human milk feeding on fat-free mass and fat mass content was evaluated using multiple linear regression analysis; (3) Results: Human milk was fed to 68% of the infants. According to multiple regression analysis, being fed any human milk at discharge and at  term-corrected and being fed exclusively human milk at term-corrected age were positively associated with fat-free mass content(β = -47.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -95.7; -0.18; p = 0.049; β = -89.6, 95% CI = -131.5; -47.7; p < 0.0001; β = -104.1, 95% CI = -151.4; -56.7, p < 0.0001); (4) Conclusion: Human milk feeding appears to be associated with fat-free mass deposition in late preterm infants. Healthcare professionals should direct efforts toward promoting and supporting breastfeeding in these vulnerable infants.

  2. Specimen geometry effects on graphite/PMR-15 composites during thermo-oxidative aging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, K. J.; Meyers, A.

    1986-01-01

    Studies were conducted to establish the effects of specimen geometry on the thermo-oxidative stability and the mechanical properties retention of unidirectional Celion 12000 graphite fiber reinforced PMR-15 polyimide composites. Weight loss, flexural strength and interlaminar shear strength are measured at isothermal aging times as long as 1639 hr at a temperature of 316 C for three different specimen geometries. It is found that the three different types of specimen surfaces exhibit different values of weight loss/unit area. The mechanical properties retention is also found to be dependent on geometry for these composites. The interlaminar shear strength decreases significantly over the complete range of aging times. The flexural strength retention starts showing geometric dependency after about 1000 hr of aging at 316C. Weight loss fluxes, associated with the three different types of exposed surfaces, are calculated and used to develop an empirical mathematical model for predicting the weight loss behavior of unidirectional composites of arbitrary geometries. Data are presented comparing experimentally determined weight loss with weight loss values predicted using the empirical model.

  3. Difference in Leukocyte Composition between Women before and after Menopausal Age, and Distinct Sexual Dimorphism

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chang; Yang, Peixuan; Ye, Shu; Tan, Xuerui

    2016-01-01

    There are sex differences in many inflammatory and immune diseases, and the differences tend to diminish after menopause. The underlying reasons are unclear, but sex hormone levels are likely to be an important factor. Blood leukocyte count and composition provide an indicator of the inflammatory and immune status of an individual. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of blood leukocyte data from 46,879 individuals (26,212 men and 20,667 women, aged 18 to 93 years) who underwent a routine health checkup. In women aged around 50 years, neutrophil percentage (NE%) dropped whilst lymphocyte percentage (LY%) rose. Accordingly, women before age 50 had significantly higher NE%, lower LY%, and higher neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) than women of 51–70 years of age (p = 1.35×10−82, p = 5.32×10−100, and p = 1.25×10−26, respectively). In age groups of <50 years, women had higher NE%, lower LY% and higher NLR than men (p = 1.82×10−206, p = 1.46×10−69, and p = 2.30×10−118, respectively), whereas in age groups of >51 years, it was the reverse (p = 1.92×10−15, p = 1.43×10−84, and p = 1.51×10−48, respectively). These results show that blood leukocyte composition differs between women before and after menopausal age, with distinct sexual dimorphism. PMID:27657912

  4. Sources of variability in peat composition and the role of peat age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leifeld, Jens

    2016-04-01

    During peat formation decaying plant material undergoes partial decomposition that continuously transform its organic matter. As part of this transformation, aromatic moieties such as plant-borne polyphenols are considered to accumulate relative to more labile compounds such as carbohydrates. Here, 13C CPMAS-NMR data from 71 peat samples from sites across Europe (61°48' N - 46°49' N) are analyzed for their variability. Sites differ in their degree of peat disturbance and range from natural to long-term drained and thus strongly degraded. Application of a molecular mixing model to the NMR data indicated that, on average, peat consists by 27, 22, 21, 18, and 11 % of carbohydrates, aliphatics, aromatics, proteins, and char, respectively. Compositional variability was most pronounced for aromatics and carbohydrates. So far, half of the samples was age-dated using 14C. Calibrated 14C ages in the data set range from recent to c. 10000 years BP. Relationships between peat composition and age were non-linear and highly significant. Aromatic moieties accumulated with increasing peat age whereas O-containing moieties relatively declined, in line with a decrease in molar O/C ratios. The relative accumulation of aromatics was 250 % during 10000 years whereas O-containing moieties declined relatively by 65 %. About half of this selective accumulation and degradation occurred during the first 2000 years of peat accumulation, thereby reflecting higher microbial transformation rates during initial phases of built-up. Char content increased with peat age, possibly indicating selective preservation of char during peat formation. C/N ratios correlated significantly but bi-modal with age. The analysis shows that peat age is a reliable proxy for organic matter transformation in peatlands. Because rates and degree of transformation are derived from multiple sites, the found relationships seem to reveal a general pattern, at least for the studied boreal and temperate systems.

  5. Influence of Stress Relaxation in Hybrid Composite/Metal Bolted Connections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    bolted composite connections. Guedes et al. [2000] investigated the long-term behavior of composite materials. The long-term behavior of composites can...Viscoelastic Materials, Dover Publications, Inc., New York Guedes , R. M., Morais, J. J.L., Marques, A. T., and Cardon, A.H.[2000], "Prediction of Long-Term

  6. Reduced leakage current and improved ferroelectricity in magneto-electric composite ceramics prepared with microwave assisted radiant hybrid sintering

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhyay, Sanjay Kumar; Reddy, V. Raghavendra E-mail: vrreddy.ugcdaecsr@nic.in; Gupta, S. M.; Chauhan, N.; Gupta, Ajay

    2015-04-15

    Structural, electrical and magnetic properties of magneto-electric composite ceramics viz., 0.9 BaTi{sub 0.95}Sn{sub 0.05}O{sub 3} (BTSO)- 0.1 Ni{sub 0.8}Zn{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (NZFO) prepared with microwave assisted radiant hybrid sintering (MARH) are reported. Phase purity and isovalent substitution of Ti{sup 4+} by Sn{sup 4+} of the samples is confirmed from x-ray diffraction and {sup 119}Sn Mossbauer measurements respectively. Significant suppression of leakage current and improvement of ferroelectricity is observed for the composites prepared with MARH. The observed results are explained in terms of uniform dispersion of ferrite (NZFO) phase in the ferroelectric (BTSO) matrix as evidenced from back-scattered scanning electron micrographs.

  7. Novel Hybrid Ablative/Ceramic Layered Composite for Earth Re-entry Thermal Protection: Microstructural and Mechanical Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triantou, K.; Mergia, K.; Marinou, A.; Vekinis, G.; Barcena, J.; Florez, S.; Perez, B.; Pinaud, G.; Bouilly, J.-M.; Fischer, W. P. P.

    2015-04-01

    In view of spacecraft re-entry applications into planetary atmospheres, hybrid thermal protection systems based on layered composites of ablative materials and ceramic matrix composites are investigated. Joints of ASTERM™ lightweight ablative material with Cf/SiC (SICARBON™) were fabricated using commercial high temperature inorganic adhesives. Sound joints without defects are produced and very good bonding of the adhesive with both base materials is observed. Mechanical shear tests under ambient conditions and in liquid nitrogen show that mechanical failure always takes place inside the ablative material with no decohesion of the interface of the adhesive layer with the bonded materials. Surface treatment of the ablative surface prior to bonding enhances both the shear strength and the ultimate shear strain by up to about 60%.

  8. Synthesis and properties of poly(methyl methacrylate-2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid)/PbS hybrid composite

    SciTech Connect

    Preda, N.; Rusen, E.; Musuc, A.; Enculescu, M.; Matei, E.; Marculescu, B.; Fruth, V.; Enculescu, I.

    2010-08-15

    The synthesis of a new hybrid composite based on PbS nanoparticles and poly(methyl methacrylate-2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid) [P(MMA-AMPSA)] copolymer is reported. The chemical synthesis consists in two steps: (i) a surfactant-free emulsion copolymerization between methyl methacrylate and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid and (ii) the generation of PbS particles in the presence of the P(MMA-AMPSA) latex, from the reaction between lead nitrate and thiourea. The composite was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The microstructure observed using SEM proves that the PbS nanoparticles are well dispersed in the copolymer matrix. The X-ray diffraction measurements demonstrate that the PbS nanoparticles have a cubic rock salt structure. It was also found that the inorganic semiconductor nanoparticles improve the thermal stability of the copolymer matrix.

  9. Hybrid composite thin films composed of tin oxide nanoparticles and cellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadeva, Suresha K.; Nayak, Jyoti; Kim, Jaehwan

    2013-07-01

    This paper reports the preparation and characterization of hybrid thin films consisting of tin oxide (SnO2) nanoparticles and cellulose. SnO2 nanoparticle loaded cellulose hybrid thin films were fabricated by a solution blending technique, using sodium dodecyl sulfate as a dispersion agent. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy studies revealed uniform dispersion of the SnO2 nanoparticles in the cellulose matrix. Reduction in the crystalline melting transition temperature and tensile properties of cellulose was observed due to the SnO2 nanoparticle loading. Potential application of these hybrid thin films as low cost, flexible and biodegradable humidity sensors is examined in terms of the change in electrical resistivity of the material exposed to a wide range of humidity as well as its response-recovery behavior.

  10. Multifunctional, biocompatible and pH-responsive carbon nanotube- and graphene oxide/tectomer hybrid composites and coatings.

    PubMed

    Garriga, Rosa; Jurewicz, Izabela; Seyedin, Shayan; Bardi, Niki; Totti, Stella; Matta-Domjan, Brigitta; Velliou, Eirini G; Alkhorayef, Mohammed A; Cebolla, Vicente L; Razal, Joselito M; Dalton, Alan B; Muñoz, Edgar

    2017-02-10

    Here we present a route for non-covalent functionalization of carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide with novel two-dimensional peptide assemblies. We show that self-assembled amino-terminated biantennary and tetraantennary oligoglycine peptides (referred to as tectomers) effectively coat carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes and also strongly interact with graphene oxide due to electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonding as the driving force, respectively. The resulting hybrids can be made into free-standing conducting composites or applied in the form of thin, pH-switchable bioadhesive coatings onto graphene oxide fibers. Monitoring of cell viability of pancreatic cell lines, seeded on those CNT hybrids, show that they can be used as two- and three-dimensional scaffolds to tissue engineer tumour models for studying ex vivo the tumour development and response to treatment. This highly versatile method in producing pH-responsive hybrids and coatings offers an attractive platform for a variety of biomedical applications and for the development of functional materials such as smart textiles, sensors and bioelectronic devices.

  11. Hybrid α-Fe2O3@Ni(OH)2 nanosheet composite for high-rate-performance supercapacitor electrode.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hong; Ma, Haifeng; Jin, Ying; Wang, Lanfang; Gao, Feng; Lu, Qingyi

    2016-08-24

    In this study, we report a facile fabrication of ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) nanosheet hybrid composite, α-Fe2O3 nanosheet@Ni(OH)2 nanosheet, by a two-step hydrothermal method to achieve high specific capacitance and good stability performance at high charging/discharging rates when serving as electrode material of supercapacitors. The α-Fe2O3@Ni(OH)2 hybrid electrode not only has a smooth decrease of the specific capacitance with increasing current density, compared with the sharp decline of single component of Ni(OH)2 electrode, but also presents excellent rate capability with a specific capacitance of 356 F/g at a current density of 16 A/g and excellent cycling stability (a capacity retention of 93.3% after 500 cycles), which are superior to the performances of Ni(OH)2 with a lower specific capacitance of 132 F/g and a lower capacity retention of 81.8% at 16 A/g. The results indicate such hybrid structure would be promising as excellent electrode material for good performances at high current densities in the future.

  12. Hybrid α-Fe2O3@Ni(OH)2 nanosheet composite for high-rate-performance supercapacitor electrode

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hong; Ma, Haifeng; Jin, Ying; Wang, Lanfang; Gao, Feng; Lu, Qingyi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report a facile fabrication of ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) nanosheet hybrid composite, α-Fe2O3 nanosheet@Ni(OH)2 nanosheet, by a two-step hydrothermal method to achieve high specific capacitance and good stability performance at high charging/discharging rates when serving as electrode material of supercapacitors. The α-Fe2O3@Ni(OH)2 hybrid electrode not only has a smooth decrease of the specific capacitance with increasing current density, compared with the sharp decline of single component of Ni(OH)2 electrode, but also presents excellent rate capability with a specific capacitance of 356 F/g at a current density of 16 A/g and excellent cycling stability (a capacity retention of 93.3% after 500 cycles), which are superior to the performances of Ni(OH)2 with a lower specific capacitance of 132 F/g and a lower capacity retention of 81.8% at 16 A/g. The results indicate such hybrid structure would be promising as excellent electrode material for good performances at high current densities in the future. PMID:27553663

  13. Preparation and Evaluation of Hybrid Composites of Chemical Fuel and Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes in the Study of Thermopower Waves.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hayoung; Yeo, Taehan; Cho, Yonghwan; Shin, Dongjoon; Choi, Wonjoon

    2015-04-10

    When a chemical fuel at a certain position in a hybrid composite of the fuel and a micro/nanostructured material is ignited, chemical combustion occurs along the interface between the fuel and core materials. Simultaneously, dynamic changes in thermal and chemical potentials across the micro/nanostructured materials result in concomitant electrical energy generation induced by charge transfer in the form of a high-output voltage pulse. We demonstrate the entire procedure of a thermopower wave experiment, from synthesis to evaluation. Thermal chemical vapor deposition and the wet impregnation process are respectively employed for the synthesis of a multi-walled carbon nanotube array and a hybrid composite of picric acid/sodium azide/multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The prepared hybrid composites are used to fabricate a thermopower wave generator with connecting electrodes. The combustion of the hybrid composite is initiated by laser heating or Joule-heating, and the corresponding combustion propagation, direct electrical energy generation, and real-time temperature changes are measured using a high-speed microscopy system, an oscilloscope, and an optical pyrometer, respectively. Furthermore, the crucial strategies to be adopted in the synthesis of hybrid composite and initiation of their combustion that enhance the overall thermopower wave energy transfer are proposed.

  14. Effect of Particles Content on Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, and Electrochemical Behavior of Aluminum-Based Hybrid Composite Processed by Accumulative Roll Bonding Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fattah-Alhosseini, Arash; Naseri, Majid; Alemi, Mohamad Hesam

    2017-03-01

    Effect of B4C/SiC particles content on the microstructure, deformation, and electrochemical behavior of aluminum-based hybrid composite processed by accumulative roll bonding (ARB) was investigated. The ARB process was used to fabricate hybrid composites which consist of 1 and 2.5 wt pct of B4C/SiC mixed particles as reinforcement. The microstructure of the fabricated hybrid composites after the ninth cycle of the ARB process exhibited an excellent distribution of B4C/SiC particles in the aluminum matrix where no porosity was observed. In addition, with increasing the particle content in the aluminum matrix, the hybrid composites demonstrated higher tensile strength and lower elongation. The ARB-processed hybrid composites exhibited 3.12 and 3.37 times higher hardness for samples having 1 and 2.5 wt pct B4C/SiC, respectively, than that of the annealed aluminum. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization curves revealed that the corrosion resistance dropped drastically by increasing the number of ARB cycles from 3 to 5. However, by further ARB processing, the corrosion resistance gradually increased, and finally, after 9 cycles reached to the values higher than those of 3-cycle ARB-processed samples.

  15. Preparation and Evaluation of Hybrid Composites of Chemical Fuel and Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes in the Study of Thermopower Waves

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yonghwan; Shin, Dongjoon; Choi, Wonjoon

    2015-01-01

    When a chemical fuel at a certain position in a hybrid composite of the fuel and a micro/nanostructured material is ignited, chemical combustion occurs along the interface between the fuel and core materials. Simultaneously, dynamic changes in thermal and chemical potentials across the micro/nanostructured materials result in concomitant electrical energy generation induced by charge transfer in the form of a high-output voltage pulse. We demonstrate the entire procedure of a thermopower wave experiment, from synthesis to evaluation. Thermal chemical vapor deposition and the wet impregnation process are respectively employed for the synthesis of a multi-walled carbon nanotube array and a hybrid composite of picric acid/sodium azide/multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The prepared hybrid composites are used to fabricate a thermopower wave generator with connecting electrodes. The combustion of the hybrid composite is initiated by laser heating or Joule-heating, and the corresponding combustion propagation, direct electrical energy generation, and real-time temperature changes are measured using a high-speed microscopy system, an oscilloscope, and an optical pyrometer, respectively. Furthermore, the crucial strategies to be adopted in the synthesis of hybrid composite and initiation of their combustion that enhance the overall thermopower wave energy transfer are proposed. PMID:25938793

  16. Effect of Particles Content on Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, and Electrochemical Behavior of Aluminum-Based Hybrid Composite Processed by Accumulative Roll Bonding Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fattah-Alhosseini, Arash; Naseri, Majid; Alemi, Mohamad Hesam

    2017-01-01

    Effect of B4C/SiC particles content on the microstructure, deformation, and electrochemical behavior of aluminum-based hybrid composite processed by accumulative roll bonding (ARB) was investigated. The ARB process was used to fabricate hybrid composites which consist of 1 and 2.5 wt pct of B4C/SiC mixed particles as reinforcement. The microstructure of the fabricated hybrid composites after the ninth cycle of the ARB process exhibited an excellent distribution of B4C/SiC particles in the aluminum matrix where no porosity was observed. In addition, with increasing the particle content in the aluminum matrix, the hybrid composites demonstrated higher tensile strength and lower elongation. The ARB-processed hybrid composites exhibited 3.12 and 3.37 times higher hardness for samples having 1 and 2.5 wt pct B4C/SiC, respectively, than that of the annealed aluminum. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization curves revealed that the corrosion resistance dropped drastically by increasing the number of ARB cycles from 3 to 5. However, by further ARB processing, the corrosion resistance gradually increased, and finally, after 9 cycles reached to the values higher than those of 3-cycle ARB-processed samples.

  17. Alpha Trianguli Australis (K2 II-III) - Hybrid or composite?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayres, T. R.

    1985-01-01

    The prototype hybrid-spectrum giant Alpha Trianguli Australis exhibits a far-ultraviolet continuum which is considerably bluer than would be expected of a star of its optical colors, suggesting the presence of a previously unrecognized companion. If the K-type primary is as luminous as indicated by the widths of its Ca II and H-alpha lines, the companion could be an early F-type dwarf that only recently has arrived on the main sequence. Indeed, the flux of C IV from Alpha TrA - an important measure of hybridness - would not be inconsistent with that expected from a very young chromospherically active F star.

  18. Mechanism of high dielectric performance of polymer composites induced by BaTiO3-supporting Ag hybrid fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Fang; Yang, Wenhu; Yu, Shuhui; Luo, Suibin; Sun, Rong

    2014-03-01

    BaTiO3-supporting Ag hybrid particles (BT-Ag) with varied fraction of Ag were synthesized by reducing silver nitrate in the glycol solution containing BaTiO3 (BT) suspensions. The Ag nano particles with a size of about 20 nm were discretely grown on the surface of the BT. The dielectric performance of the composites containing the BT-Ag as fillers in the matrix of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) was investigated. The relative permittivity (ɛr) of the BT-Ag/PVDF composites increased prominently with the increase of BT-Ag loading amount, and the typical conductive path of the conductor/polymer system was not observed even with a high loading of BT-Ag. The ɛr at 100 Hz for the three BT-(0.31, 0.49, 0.61)Ag/PVDF composites at room temperature were 283, 350, and 783, respectively. The ɛr of the composites was enhanced by more than 3 times compared with that of the composite containing untreated BT nanoparticles at frequencies over 1 kHz and the loss tangent (tan δ) was less than 0.1 which should be attributed to the low conductivity of the composites. Theoretical calculations based on the effective medium percolation theory model and series-parallel model suggested that the enhanced permittivity of BT-Ag/PVDF composites should arise from the ultrahigh permittivity of BT-Ag fillers, which was over 104 and associated with the content of Ag deposited on the surface of BT.

  19. Long-Term Isothermal Aging Effects on Carbon Fabric-Reinforced PMR-15 Composites: Compression Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.; Roberts, Gary D.; Kamvouris, John E.

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of long-term isothermal thermo-oxidative aging on the compressive properties of T-650-35 fabric reinforced PMR-15 composites. The temperatures that were studied were 204, 260, 288, 316, and 343 C. Specimens of different geometries were evaluated. Cut edge-to-surface ratios of 0.03 to 0.89 were fabricated and aged. Aging times extended to a period in excess of 15,000 hours for the lower temperature runs. The unaged and aged specimens were tested in compression in accordance with ASTM D-695. Both thin and thick (plasma) specimens were tested. Three specimens were tested at each time/temperature/geometry condition. The failure modes appeared to be initiated by fiber kinking with longitudinal, interlaminar splitting. In general, it appears that the thermo-oxidative degradation of the compression strength of the composite material may occur by both thermal (time-dependent) and oxidative (weight-loss) mechanisms. Both mechanisms appear to be specimen-thickness dependent.

  20. Myosin heavy chain composition in the rat diaphragm - Effect of age and exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosselin, Luc E.; Betlach, Michael; Vailas, Arthur C.; Greaser, Marion L.; Thomas, D. P.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of aging and exercise training on the myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition were determined in both the costal and crural diaphragm regions of female Fischer 344 rats. Treadmill running at 75 percent maximal oxygen consumption resulted in similar increases in plantaris muscle citrate synthase activity in both young (5 mo) and old (23mo) trained animals (P less than 0.05). It was found that the ratio of fast to slow MHC was significantly higher (P less than 0.005) in the crural compared with costal diaphragm region in both age groups. A significant age-related increase in persentage of slow MHC was observed in both diaphragm regions. The relative proportion of slow MHC in either costal or crural region was not changed by exercise training.

  1. Changes in composition of ballpoint pen inks on aging in darkness.

    PubMed

    Andrasko, Jan

    2002-03-01

    A method for comparison of the relative age of ink entries written by the same ballpoint pen on documents stored in darkness is presented. Inks were extracted from the document and analyzed by HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography). On aging, changes in the chemical composition of the inks were noted. These changes were similar to those observed when inks were exposed to light or heat. The aging was followed by using ternary diagrams constructed for dyes generally present in blue-colored inks--Crystal Violet, Methyl Violet, and Tetramethyl Para Rosaniline. The procedure is applicable for relative dating of ink entries in diaries, notebooks, etc., where often several ink entries are written by the same ink. However, a prolonged exposure of the document to daylight and/or artificial light (light from fluorescent tubes) as well as to extensive heat will render the whole procedure inapplicable. An example of the use of the proposed method in casework is given.

  2. Compositional dynamics of the human intestinal microbiota with aging: implications for health.

    PubMed

    Lakshminarayanan, B; Stanton, C; O'Toole, P W; Ross, R P

    2014-11-01

    The human gut contains trillions of microbes which form an essential part of the complex ecosystem of the host. This microbiota is relatively stable throughout adult life, but may fluctuate over time with aging and disease. The gut microbiota serves a number of functions including roles in energy provision, nutrition and also in the maintenance of host health such as protection against pathogens. This review summarizes the age-related changes in the microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and the link between the gut microbiota in health and disease. Understanding the composition and function of the gut microbiota along with the changes it undergoes overtime should aid the design of novel therapeutic strategies to counteract such alterations. These strategies include probiotic and prebiotic preparations as well as targeted nutrients, designed to enrich the gut microbiota of the aging population.

  3. Age, education, and earnings in the course of Brazilian development: does composition matter?

    PubMed Central

    de Lima Amaral, Ernesto Friedrich; Potter, Joseph E.; Hamermesh, Daniel S.; Rios-Neto, Eduardo Luiz Goncalves

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The impacts of shifts in the age distribution of the working-age population have been studied in relation to the effect of the baby boom generation on the earnings of different cohorts in the U.S. However, this topic has received little attention in the context of the countries of Asia and Latin America, which are now experiencing substantial shifts in their age-education distributions. OBJECTIVE In this analysis, we estimate the impact of the changing relative size of the adult male population, classified by age and education groups, on the earnings of employed men living in 502 Brazilian local labor markets during four time periods between 1970 and 2000. METHODS Taking advantage of the huge variation across Brazilian local labor markets and demographic census micro-data, we used fixed effects models to demonstrate that age education group size depresses earnings. RESULTS These effects are more detrimental among age-education groups with higher education, but they are becoming less negative over time. The decrease in the share of workers with the lowest level of education has not led to gains in the earnings of these workers in recent years. CONCLUSIONS These trends might be a consequence of technological shifts and increasing demand for labor with either education or experience. Compositional shifts are influential, which suggests that this approach could prove useful in studying this central problem in economic development. PMID:26146484

  4. Hybrid composites made of multiwalled carbon nanotubes functionalized with Fe3O4 nanoparticles for tissue engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, C.; Panseri, S.; Iannazzo, D.; Piperno, A.; Pistone, A.; Fazio, M.; Russo, A.; Marcacci, M.; Galvagno, S.

    2012-11-01

    A straightforward technique for functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles was developed. Iron oxide nanoparticles were deposited on MWCNT surfaces by a deposition-precipitation method using Fe3+/Fe2+ salts precursors in basic solution. The characterizations by HRTEM, XRD, SEM/EDX, AAS and TPR analyses confirmed the successful formation of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on the MWCNT surface. Fe3O4/MWCNT hybrid composites were analysed in vitro by incubation with mesenchymal stem cells for 1, 3 and 7 days, either in the presence or absence of a static magnetic field. Analysis of cell proliferation was performed by the MTT assay, quantification of cellular stress was performed by the Lactate Dehydrogenase assay and analysis of cell morphology was performed by actin immunofluorescence and scanning electron microscopy. Results demonstrate that the introduction of magnetite into the MWCNT structure increases biocompatibility of oxidized MWCNTs. In addition, the presence of a static magnetic field further increases Fe3O4/MWCNT influence on cell behaviour. These results demonstrate this novel Fe3O4/MWCNT hybrid composite has good potential for tissue engineering applications.

  5. Structure and composition of arytenoid cartilage of the bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) during maturation and aging.

    PubMed

    Laureano, Priscila Eliane dos Santos; Oliveira, Kris Daiana Silva; de Aro, Andrea Aparecida; Gomes, Laurecir; Pimentel, Edson Rosa; Esquisatto, Marcelo Augusto Marretto

    2015-10-01

    The aging process induces progressive and irreversible changes in the structural and functional organization of animals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of aging on the structure and composition of the extracellular matrix of the arytenoid cartilage found in the larynx of male bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) kept in captivity for commercial purposes. Animals at 7, 180 and 1080 days post-metamorphosis (n=10/age) were euthanized and the cartilage was removed and processed for structural and biochemical analysis. For the structural analyses, cartilage sections were stained with picrosirius, toluidine blue, Weigert's resorcin-fuchsin and Von Kossa stain. The sections were also submitted to immunohistochemistry for detection of collagen types I and II. Other samples were processed for the ultrastructural and cytochemical analysis of proteoglycans. Histological sections were used to chondrocyte count. The number of positive stainings for proteoglycans was quantified by ultrastructural analysis. For quantification and analysis of glycosaminoglycans were used the dimethyl methylene blue and agarose gel electrophoresis methods. The chloramine T method was used for hydroxyproline quantification. At 7 days, basophilia was observed in the pericellular and territorial matrix, which decreased in the latter over the period studied. Collagen fibers were arranged perpendicular to the major axis of the cartilaginous plate and were thicker in older animals. Few calcification areas were observed at the periphery of the cartilage specimens in 1080-day-old animals. Type II collagen was present throughout the stroma at the different ages. Elastic fibers were found in the stroma and perichondrium and increased with age in the two regions. Proteoglycan staining significantly increased from 7 to 180 days and reduced at 1080 days. The amount of total glycosaminoglycans was higher in 180-day-old animals compared to the other ages, with marked presence of

  6. Facile and straightforward synthesis of superparamagnetic reduced graphene oxide-Fe3O4 hybrid composite by a solvothermal reaction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yue-Wen; Guan, Meng-Xue; Feng, Lan; Deng, Shun-Liu; Bao, Jian-Feng; Xie, Su-Yuan; Chen, Zhong; Huang, Rong-Bin; Zheng, Lan-Sun

    2013-01-18

    A superparamagnetic reduced graphene oxide-Fe(3)O(4) hybrid composite (rGO-Fe(3)O(4)) was prepared via a facile and straightforward method through the solvothermal reaction of iron (III) acetylacetonate (Fe(acac)(3)) and graphene oxide (GO) in ethylenediamine (EDA) and water. By this method, chemical reduction of GO as well as the formation of Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles (NPs) can be achieved in one step. The Fe(3)O(4) NPs are firmly deposited on the surfaces of rGO, avoiding their reassembly to graphite. The rGO sheets prevent the agglomeration of Fe(3)O(4) NPs and enable a uniform dispersion of these metal oxide particles. The size distribution and coverage density of Fe(3)O(4) NPs deposited on rGO can be controlled by varying the initial mass ratio of GO and iron precursor, Fe(acac)(3). With an initial mass ratio of GO and Fe(acac)(3) of 5:5, the surfaces of rGO sheets are densely covered by spherical Fe(3)O(4) NPs with an average size of 19.9 nm. The magnetic-functionalized rGO hybrid exhibits a good magnetic property and the specific saturation magnetization (M(s)) is 13.2 emu g(-1). The adsorption test of methylene blue from aqueous solution demonstrates the potential application of this rGO-Fe(3)O(4) hybrid composite in removing organic dyes from polluted water.

  7. The Effects of Fiber Surface Modification and Thermal Aging on Composite Toughness and Its Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.; Madhukar, Madhu; Papadopolous, Demetrios S.; Inghram, Linda; Mccorkle, Linda

    1995-01-01

    A detailed experimental study was conducted to establish the structure-property relationships between elevated temperature aging and fiber-matrix bonding, Mode 2 interlaminar fracture toughness, and failure modes of carbon fiber/PMR-15 composites. The fiber-matrix adhesion was varied by using carbon fibers with different surface treatments. Short beam shear tests were used to quantify the interfacial shear strength afforded by the use of the different fiber surface treatments. The results of the short beam shear tests showed that, for times up to 1000 hr, the aging process caused no changes in the bulk of the three composite materials that would degrade the shear properties of the material. Comparisons between the interlaminar shear strengths (ILSS) measured by the short beam shear tests and the GIIC test results, as measured by the ENF test, indicated that the differences in the surface treatments significantly affected the fracture properties while the effect of the aging process was probably limited to changes at the starter crack tip. The fracture properties changed due to a shift in the fracture from an interfacial failure to a failure within the matrix when the fiber was changed from AU-4 to AS-4 or AS-4G. There appears to be an effect of the fiber/matrix bonding on the thermo-oxidative stability of the composites that were tested. The low bonding afforded by the AU 1 fiber resulted in weight losses about twice those experienced by the AS 1 reinforced composites, the ones with the best TOS.

  8. Oil productivity and composition of sunflower as a function of hybrid and planting date

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is potential cash crop for the southeastern United States for production of cooking oil or biodiesel. Two years of experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of location (five locations in Mississippi), planting date (April 20, May 20, and June 20), and hybrid...

  9. Biosensor made with organic-inorganic hybrid composite: cellulose-tin oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadeva, Suresha K.; Nayak, Jyoti; Kim, Jaehwan

    2011-04-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant polymer found in nature, inexhaustible, low cost, easy processing, renewable, biodegradable and biocompatible. SnO2, is a known electrical conductor that is optically transparent in the visible spectrum with a wide band gap at room temperature. Thus, a hybrid nanocomposite of cellulose and SnO2can offer a unique property of cellulose combined with electrical properties of SnO2. These unique properties of cellulose- SnO2 hybrid nanocomposite can be capitalized to design flexible, biodegradable and low cost biosensors. Preparation and characterization of cellulose-SnO2 hybrid nanocomposite and its application as a flexible urea biosensor was demonstrated in this paper. It is observed sensitivity of cellulose-SnO2 hybrid nanocomposite urea biosensor was increased linearly with deposition time. As deposition time increased, amount of tin oxide deposited over cellulose surface also increases, so as to increase the amount of enzyme immobilization and attachment of analyte, attributes to large current output and high sensitivity of sensor. Increasing enzyme activity is observed, with increasing urea concentration. Experimental results suggested that, the proposed biosensor under study is suitable for urea detection below 50 mM.

  10. Biosensor made with organic-inorganic hybrid composite: cellulose-tin oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K. Mahadeva, Suresha; Nayak, Jyoti; Kim, Jaehwan

    2011-03-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant polymer found in nature, inexhaustible, low cost, easy processing, renewable, biodegradable and biocompatible. SnO2, is a known electrical conductor that is optically transparent in the visible spectrum with a wide band gap at room temperature. Thus, a hybrid nanocomposite of cellulose and SnO2can offer a unique property of cellulose combined with electrical properties of SnO2. These unique properties of cellulose- SnO2 hybrid nanocomposite can be capitalized to design flexible, biodegradable and low cost biosensors. Preparation and characterization of cellulose-SnO2 hybrid nanocomposite and its application as a flexible urea biosensor was demonstrated in this paper. It is observed sensitivity of cellulose-SnO2 hybrid nanocomposite urea biosensor was increased linearly with deposition time. As deposition time increased, amount of tin oxide deposited over cellulose surface also increases, so as to increase the amount of enzyme immobilization and attachment of analyte, attributes to large current output and high sensitivity of sensor. Increasing enzyme activity is observed, with increasing urea concentration. Experimental results suggested that, the proposed biosensor under study is suitable for urea detection below 50 mM.

  11. Hybrid composites, state-of-the-art review: Analysis, design, application and fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Lark, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    The areas of constituents and types of hybrids, analytical methods, design methods, applications, and fabrication procedures are discussed. The review summarizes significant contributions in each area and points out areas for further research. The description of each significant contribution is supplemented with pertinent illustrations and references.

  12. Composite estimates of physiological stress, age, and diabetes in American Samoans.

    PubMed

    Crews, Douglas E

    2007-07-01

    Composite estimates of physiological stress such as allostatic load (AL) were developed to help assess cumulative impacts of psychosocial and physical stressors on the body. Physiological responses to stress generally accelerate somatic wear-and-tear and chronic degenerative conditions (CDCs). Following McEwen (Neuropsychopharmacology 22 (1999) 108-124) and others, primary physiological mediators of somatic stress responses include glucocorticoids (cortisol), catecholamines (adrenaline and noradrenaline), and serum dihydroepiandosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S). Conversely, blood pressure (BP), serum HDL and total cholesterol, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and waist/hip (w/h) ratio are modulated by such hormones, thereby acting as secondary mediators of stress response. When these risk factors are aggregated into a composite score, higher stress loads are associated with increased risks for days of school/work missed, functional losses, morbidity, and mortality in US samples. To examine stress loads in American Samoans, data on all 6 secondary mediators along with estimates of body habitus (i.e. height, weight, circumferences, skinfolds) and physiology (i.e. fasting insulin, LDLc, triglycerides, fasting glucose) were measured on 273 individuals residing on Tutuila Island in 1992. Four combinations of these physiological factors were used to determine composite estimates of stress. These were then assessed by sex for associations with age and the presence of diabetes. Composite estimates of stress load were higher in Samoan women than men. Associations with age tended to be low and negative in men, but positive in women, appearing to reflect cultural circumstances and population history. Stress load scores also were higher among those with diabetes than those without among both men and women. These results suggest that composite estimates of stress may be useful for assessing future risks of CDC's and the senescent processes that may underlie them in cross-cultural research.

  13. The Anti-Aging and Tumor Suppressor Protein Klotho Enhances Differentiation of a Human Oligodendrocytic Hybrid Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ci-Di; Liang, Jennifer; Hixson, Kathryn; Zeldich, Ella; Abraham, Carmela R.

    2016-01-01

    Klotho functions as an aging suppressor, which, in mice, extends lifespan when overexpressed and accelerates development of aging-like phenotypes when disrupted. Klotho is mainly expressed in brain and kidney and is secreted into the serum and CSF. We have previously shown that Klotho is reduced in brains of old monkeys, rats, and mice. We further reported the ability of Klotho to enhance oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination. Here, we examined the signaling pathways induced by Klotho in MO3.13, a human oligodendrocytic hybrid cell line. We show that exogenous Klotho affects the ERK and Akt signaling pathways, decreases the proliferative abilities and enhances differentiation of MO3.13 cells. Furthermore, microarray analysis of Klotho-treated MO3.13 cells reveals a massive change in gene expression with 80 % of the differentially expressed genes being downregulated. Using gene set enrichment analysis, we predicted potential transcription factors involved in regulating Klotho-treated MO3.13 cells and found that these cells are highly enriched in the gene sets, that are similarly observed in cancer, cardiovascular disease, stress, aging, and hormone-related chemical and genetic perturbations. Since Klotho is downregulated in all brain tumors tested to date, enhancing Klotho has therapeutic potential for treating brain and other malignancies. PMID:24907942

  14. One-year water-ageing of calcium phosphate composite containing nano-silver and quaternary ammonium to inhibit biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lei; Zhang, Ke; Zhou, Chen-Chen; Weir, Michael D; Zhou, Xue-Dong; Xu, Hockin H K

    2016-01-01

    Dental composites are commonly used restorative materials; however, secondary caries due to biofilm acids remains a major problem. The objectives of this study were (1) to develop a composite containing quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM), nanoparticles of silver (NAg), and nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP), and (2) to conduct the first investigation of the mechanical properties, biofilm response and acid production vs water-ageing time from 1 day to 12 months. A 4 × 5 design was utilized, with four composites (NACP-QADM composite, NACP-NAg composite, NACP-QADM-NAg composite, and a commercial control composite), and five water-ageing time periods (1 day, and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months). After each water-ageing period, the mechanical properties of the resins were measured in a three-point flexure, and antibacterial properties were tested via a dental plaque biofilm model using human saliva as an inoculum. After 12 months of water-ageing, NACP-QADM-NAg had a flexural strength and elastic modulus matching those of the commercial control (P>0.1). Incorporation of QADM or NAg into the NACP composite greatly reduced biofilm viability, metabolic activity and acid production. A composite containing both QADM and NAg possessed a stronger antibacterial capability than one with QADM or NAg alone (P<0.05). The anti-biofilm activity was maintained after 12 months of water-ageing and showed no significant decrease with increasing time (P>0.1). In conclusion, the NACP-QADM-NAg composite decreased biofilm viability and lactic acid production, while matching the load-bearing capability of a commercial composite. There was no decrease in its antibacterial properties after 1 year of water-ageing. The durable antibacterial and mechanical properties indicate that NACP-QADM-NAg composites may be useful in dental restorations to combat caries. PMID:27281037

  15. One-year water-ageing of calcium phosphate composite containing nano-silver and quaternary ammonium to inhibit biofilms.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lei; Zhang, Ke; Zhou, Chen-Chen; Weir, Michael D; Zhou, Xue-Dong; Xu, Hockin H K

    2016-09-29

    Dental composites are commonly used restorative materials; however, secondary caries due to biofilm acids remains a major problem. The objectives of this study were (1) to develop a composite containing quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM), nanoparticles of silver (NAg), and nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP), and (2) to conduct the first investigation of the mechanical properties, biofilm response and acid production vs water-ageing time from 1 day to 12 months. A 4 × 5 design was utilized, with four composites (NACP-QADM composite, NACP-NAg composite, NACP-QADM-NAg composite, and a commercial control composite), and five water-ageing time periods (1 day, and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months). After each water-ageing period, the mechanical properties of the resins were measured in a three-point flexure, and antibacterial properties were tested via a dental plaque biofilm model using human saliva as an inoculum. After 12 months of water-ageing, NACP-QADM-NAg had a flexural strength and elastic modulus matching those of the commercial control (P>0.1). Incorporation of QADM or NAg into the NACP composite greatly reduced biofilm viability, metabolic activity and acid production. A composite containing both QADM and NAg possessed a stronger antibacterial capability than one with QADM or NAg alone (P<0.05). The anti-biofilm activity was maintained after 12 months of water-ageing and showed no significant decrease with increasing time (P>0.1). In conclusion, the NACP-QADM-NAg composite decreased biofilm viability and lactic acid production, while matching the load-bearing capability of a commercial composite. There was no decrease in its antibacterial properties after 1 year of water-ageing. The durable antibacterial and mechanical properties indicate that NACP-QADM-NAg composites may be useful in dental restorations to combat caries.

  16. Hybrid nanostructured microporous carbon-mesoporous carbon doped titanium dioxide/sulfur composite positive electrode materials for rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zegeye, Tilahun Awoke; Kuo, Chung-Feng Jeffrey; Wotango, Aselefech Sorsa; Pan, Chun-Jern; Chen, Hung-Ming; Haregewoin, Atetegeb Meazah; Cheng, Ju-Hsiang; Su, Wei-Nien; Hwang, Bing-Joe

    2016-08-01

    Herein, we design hybrid nanostructured microporous carbon-mesoporous carbon doped titanium dioxide/sulfur composite (MC-Meso C-doped TiO2/S) as a positive electrode material for lithium-sulfur batteries. The hybrid MC-Meso C-doped TiO2 host material is produced by a low-cost, hydrothermal and annealing process. The resulting conductive material shows dual microporous and mesoporous behavior which enhances the effective trapping of sulfur and polysulfides. The hybrid MC-Meso C-doped TiO2/S composite material possesses rutile TiO2 nanotube structure with successful carbon doping while sulfur is uniformly distributed in the hybrid MC-Meso C-doped TiO2 composite materials after the melt-infusion process. The electrochemical measurement of the hybrid material also shows improved cycle stability and rate performance with high sulfur loading (61.04%). The material delivers an initial discharge capacity of 802 mAh g-1 and maintains it at 578 mAh g-1 with a columbic efficiency greater than 97.1% after 140 cycles at 0.1 C. This improvement is thought to be attributed to the unique hybrid nanostructure of the MC-Meso C-doped TiO2 host and the good dispersion of sulfur in the narrow pores of the MC spheres and the mesoporous C-doped TiO2 support.

  17. Hybrid Fiber Sizings for Enhanced Energy Absorption in Glass-Reinforced Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Fabrication Composite panels with approximate dimensions of 500 × 500 × 6.35 mm were fabricated using a vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding ( VARTM ...composite panels measured ~6.35 mm in thickness and were processed using the VARTM procedure outlined in the experimental section. While woven fabric...R. W.; Karbhari, V. M. Partitioning Energy During Low-Velocity Impact of RTM Fiber-Reinforced Composites. International Journal of Impact

  18. Effects of precursor thermal aging and fiber arrangement on the properties of carbon/carbon (C/C) composites

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, C.C.M.; Chang, W.C.; Tai, N.H.

    1993-12-31

    Carbon/carbon composites fabricated by the pyrolysis of high strength carbon fiber fabrics reinforced phenolic resin were investigated. A liquid impregnation process has been used to fabricate composite precursor for 2-D carbon/carbon composite and an unique pultrusion process also used to fabricate the 1-D carbon/carbon composite precursor. Effects of thermal aging of the precursor on flexural strength of the resulted carbon/carbon composites are studied. Results shows that suitable thermal aging improves the flexural properties of carbon/carbon composites in this study. And based on the SEM examination and flexural tests, they show that the 2-D plain woven fiber arrangement results the significant degradation of the carbon fiber and the decreasing of composites flexural properties.

  19. The Effects of Hygrothermal Aging on the Impact Penetration Resistance of Triaxially Braided Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pereira, J. Michael; Revilock, Duane M.; Ruggeri, Charles R.; Roberts, Gary D.; Kohlman, Lee W.; Miller, Sandi G.

    2016-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to measure the effects of long term hygrothermal aging on the impact penetration resistance of triaxially braided polymer composites. Flat panels of three different materials were subjected to repeated cycles of high and low temperature and high and low humidity for two years. Samples of the panels were periodically tested under impact loading during the two year time period. The purpose of the study was to identify and quantify any degradation in impact penetration resistance of these composites under cyclic temperature and humidity conditions experienced by materials in the fan section of commercial gas turbine engines for a representative aircraft flight cycle. The materials tested consisted of Toray ® T700S carbon fibers in a 2D triaxial braid with three different resins, Cycom® PR520, a toughened resin, Hercules® 3502, an untoughened resin and EPON 862, intermediate between the two. The fiber preforms consisted of a quasi-isotropic 0/+60/-60 braid with 24K tows in the axial direction and 12K tows in the bias directions. The composite panels were manufactured using a resin transfer molding process producing panels with a thickness of 0.125 inches. The materials were tested in their as-processed condition and again after one year and two years of aging (1.6 years in the case of E862). The aging process involved subjecting the test panels to two cycles per day of high and low temperature and high and low humidity. A temperature range of -60degF to 250degF and a humidity range of 0 to 85% rh was used to simulate extreme conditions for composite components in the fan section of a commercial gas turbine engine. Additional testing was conducted on the as-processed PR520 composite under cryogenic conditions. After aging there was some change in the failure pattern, but there was no reduction in impact penetration threshold for any of the three systems, and in the case of the 3502 system, a significant increase in penetration

  20. U-Pb isotopic ages and Hf isotope composition of zircons in Variscan gabbros from central Spain: evidence of variable crustal contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villaseca, Carlos; Orejana, David; Belousova, Elena; Armstrong, Richard A.; Pérez-Soba, Cecilia; Jeffries, Teresa E.

    2011-03-01

    Ion microprobe U-Pb analyses of zircons from three gabbroic intrusions from the Spanish Central System (SCS) (Talavera, La Solanilla and Navahermosa) yield Variscan ages (300 to 305 Ma) in agreement with recent studies. Only two zircon crystals from La Solanilla massif gave slightly discordant Paleoproterozoic ages (1,848 and 2,010 Ma). Hf isotope data show a relatively large variation with the juvenile end-members showing ɛHfi values as high as +3.6 to +6.9 and +1.5 to +2.9 in the Navahermosa and Talavera gabbros, respectively. These positive ɛHfi values up to +6.9 might represent the composition of the subcontinental mantle which generates these SCS gabbros. This ɛHfi range is clearly below depleted mantle values suggesting the involvement of enriched mantle components on the origin of these Variscan gabbros, and is consistent with previous whole-rock studies. The presence of zircons with negative ɛHfi values suggest variable, but significant, crustal contamination of the gabbros, mainly by mixing with coeval granite magmas. Inherited Paleoproterozoic zircons of La Solanilla gabbros have similar trace element composition (e.g. Th/U ratios), but more evolved Hf-isotope signatures than associated Variscan zircons. Similar inherited ages have been recorded in zircons from coeval Variscan granitoids from the Central Iberian Zone. Granitic rocks have Nd model ages (TDM) predominantly in the range of 1.4 to 1.6 Ga, suggesting a juvenile addition during the Proterozoic. However, Hf crustal model ages of xenocrystic Proterozoic zircons in La Solanilla gabbro indicate the presence of reworked Archean protoliths (TDM2 model ages of 3.0 to 3.2 Ga) incorporated into the hybridized mafic magma.

  1. Synthesis of Cu-Deficient and Zn-Graded Cu-In-Zn-S Quantum Dots and Hybrid Inorganic-Organic Nanophosphor Composite for White Light Emission.

    PubMed

    Ilaiyaraja, P; Mocherla, Pavana S V; Srinivasan, T K; Sudakar, C

    2016-05-18

    Cu-deficient graded-zinc Cu-In-Zn-S (CIZS) quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized by a two-step solvothermal method. These CIZS QDs exhibited size and composition tunable photoluminescence characteristics with emission color tunable from greenish-yellow to orange to red with a relatively high quantum yield between 45 and 60%. Novel white-light-emitting (WLE) hybrid composite is fabricated by integrating the blue-emissive 1,4-bis-2-(5-phenyl oxazolyl)-benzene (POPOP) organic fluorophore and quaternary CIZS inorganic QDs. Integrating CIZS QDs with POPOP fluorophore resulted in series of tunable emission colors with CIE coordinates lying in a straight line between the coordinates of the end member. WLE was shown for hybrid mixture comprising 0.5 nM of POPOP and 3 mg/mL of CIZS QDs with color coordinates (0.3312, 0.3324). Thin films of this hybrid mixture in PMMA matrix coated on UV-LED or on glass substrates with UV backlit light also showed broadband WLE with ideal CIE color coordinates of (0.34, 0.33), high color-rendering index value of 92, and correlated color temperature value of 5143 K. The hybrid composite exhibit Forster resonance energy transfer cascading from POPOP to CIZS which results in emission covering the entire visible spectral range. POPOP and CIZS QDs hybrid composite is a versatile material for WLED applications.

  2. Hybrid local FEM/global LISA modeling of guided wave propagation and interaction with damage in composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yanfeng; Cesnik, Carlos E. S.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a hybrid modeling technique for the efficient simulation of guided wave propagation and interaction with damage in composite structures. This hybrid approach uses a local finite element model (FEM) to compute the excitability of guided waves generated by piezoelectric transducers, while the global domain wave propagation, wave-damage interaction, and boundary reflections are modeled with the local interaction simulation approach (LISA). A small-size multi-physics FEM with non-reflective boundaries (NRB) was built to obtain the excitability information of guided waves generated by the transmitter. Frequency-domain harmonic analysis was carried out to obtain the solution for all the frequencies of interest. Fourier and inverse Fourier transform and frequency domain convolution techniques are used to obtain the time domain 3-D displacement field underneath the transmitter under an arbitrary excitation. This 3-D displacement field is then fed into the highly efficient time domain LISA simulation module to compute guided wave propagation, interaction with damage, and reflections at structural boundaries. The damping effect of composite materials was considered in the modified LISA formulation. The grids for complex structures were generated using commercial FEM preprocessors and converted to LISA connectivity format. Parallelization of the global LISA solution was achieved through Compute Unified Design Architecture (CUDA) running on Graphical Processing Unit (GPU). The multi-physics local FEM can reliably capture the detailed dimensions and local dynamics of the piezoelectric transducers. The global domain LISA can accurately solve the 3-D elastodynamic wave equations in a highly efficient manner. By combining the local FEM with global LISA, the efficient and accurate simulation of guided wave structural health monitoring procedure is achieved. Two numerical case studies are presented: (1) wave propagation in a unidirectional CFRP composite plate

  3. Pedestrian dynamics in single-file movement of crowd with different age compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Shuchao; Zhang, Jun; Salden, Daniel; Ma, Jian; Shi, Chang'an; Zhang, Ruifang

    2016-07-01

    An aging population is bringing new challenges to the management of escape routes and facility design in many countries. This paper investigates pedestrian movement properties of crowd with different age compositions. Three pedestrian groups are considered: young student group, old people group, and mixed group. It is found that traffic jams occur more frequently in mixed group due to the great differences of mobilities and self-adaptive abilities among pedestrians. The jams propagate backward with a velocity 0.4 m /s for global density ρg≈1.75 m-1 and 0.3 m /s for ρg>2.3 m-1 . The fundamental diagrams of the three groups are obviously different from each other and cannot be unified into one diagram by direct nondimensionalization. Unlike previous studies, three linear regimes in mixed group but only two regimes in young student group are observed in the headway-velocity relation, which is also verified in the fundamental diagram. Different ages and mobilities of pedestrians in a crowd cause the heterogeneity of system and influence the properties of pedestrian dynamics significantly. It indicates that the density is not the only factor leading to jams in pedestrian traffic. The composition of crowd has to be considered in understanding pedestrian dynamics and facility design.

  4. Pedestrian dynamics in single-file movement of crowd with different age compositions.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shuchao; Zhang, Jun; Salden, Daniel; Ma, Jian; Shi, Chang'an; Zhang, Ruifang

    2016-07-01

    An aging population is bringing new challenges to the management of escape routes and facility design in many countries. This paper investigates pedestrian movement properties of crowd with different age compositions. Three pedestrian groups are considered: young student group, old people group, and mixed group. It is found that traffic jams occur more frequently in mixed group due to the great differences of mobilities and self-adaptive abilities among pedestrians. The jams propagate backward with a velocity 0.4m/s for global density ρ_{g}≈1.75m^{-1} and 0.3m/s for ρ_{g}>2.3m^{-1}. The fundamental diagrams of the three groups are obviously different from each other and cannot be unified into one diagram by direct nondimensionalization. Unlike previous studies, three linear regimes in mixed group but only two regimes in young student group are observed in the headway-velocity relation, which is also verified in the fundamental diagram. Different ages and mobilities of pedestrians in a crowd cause the heterogeneity of system and influence the properties of pedestrian dynamics significantly. It indicates that the density is not the only factor leading to jams in pedestrian traffic. The composition of crowd has to be considered in understanding pedestrian dynamics and facility design.

  5. Effect of postpolymerization method on the color stability of composite resins submitted to ultraviolet aging.

    PubMed

    Santos, Paulo Henrique dos; Souza, Fernando Isquierdo de; Guedes, Ana Paula Albuquerque; Pavan, Sabrina

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of postpolymerization method on the color stability of resin-based composites. Samples of direct and indirect restorative materials were polymerized with two photo-curing units (Visio photo-curing oven system and LED Elipar Freelight 2). All samples were submitted to an initial chromatic analysis using a spectrometer and submitted to ultraviolet-accelerated artificial aging. The direct material showed less color change than the indirect material, independent of the photo-activation method used. Samples photo cured with the LED system showed less change than those photo cured with the Visio system. The postpolymerization oven did not improve the color stability of direct and indirect resin-based composites.

  6. Testing and Analysis of Hybrid Composite/Metal Connections and Hull Section for the MACH Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    numerous hybrid joints with various geometries, loaded in flexure. The test results showed that for resisting bending loads, joints with doubler plates can...involved when loaded in-plane, the eccentric load path induces undesirable bending moments, commonly known as secondary bending . According to Vangrimde...and Boukhili [2003], secondary bending typically leads to lower strength values. In order to mitigate the moment caused by the load eccentricity, the

  7. Experimental and Numerical Investigations of Textile Hybrid Composites Subjected to Low Velocity Impact Loadings

    PubMed Central

    Chandekar, Gautam S.; Kelkar, Ajit D.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study experimental and numerical investigations were carried out to predict the low velocity impact response of four symmetric configurations: 10 ply E Glass, 10 ply AS4 Carbon, and two Hybrid combinations with 1 and 2 outer plies of E Glass and 8 and 6 inner plies of Carbon. All numerical investigations were performed using commercial finite element software, LS-DYNA. The test coupons were manufactured using the low cost Heated Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (H-VARTM©) technique. Low velocity impact testing was carried out using an Instron Dynatup 8250 impact testing machine. Standard 6 × 6 Boeing fixture was used for all impact experiments. Impact experiments were performed over progressive damage, that is, from incipient damage till complete failure of the laminate in six successive impact energy levels for each configuration. The simulation results for the impact loading were compared with the experimental results. For both nonhybrid configurations, it was observed that the simulated results were in good agreement with the experimental results, whereas, for hybrid configurations, the simulated impact response was softer than the experimental response. Maximum impact load carrying capacity was also compared for all four configurations based on their areal density. It was observed that Hybrid262 configuration has superior impact load to areal density ratio. PMID:24719573

  8. Experimental and numerical investigations of textile hybrid composites subjected to low velocity impact loadings.

    PubMed

    Chandekar, Gautam S; Kelkar, Ajit D

    2014-01-01

    In the present study experimental and numerical investigations were carried out to predict the low velocity impact response of four symmetric configurations: 10 ply E Glass, 10 ply AS4 Carbon, and two Hybrid combinations with 1 and 2 outer plies of E Glass and 8 and 6 inner plies of Carbon. All numerical investigations were performed using commercial finite element software, LS-DYNA. The test coupons were manufactured using the low cost Heated Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (H-VARTM©) technique. Low velocity impact testing was carried out using an Instron Dynatup 8250 impact testing machine. Standard 6 × 6 Boeing fixture was used for all impact experiments. Impact experiments were performed over progressive damage, that is, from incipient damage till complete failure of the laminate in six successive impact energy levels for each configuration. The simulation results for the impact loading were compared with the experimental results. For both nonhybrid configurations, it was observed that the simulated results were in good agreement with the experimental results, whereas, for hybrid configurations, the simulated impact response was softer than the experimental response. Maximum impact load carrying capacity was also compared for all four configurations based on their areal density. It was observed that Hybrid262 configuration has superior impact load to areal density ratio.

  9. Core-shell nanostructured hybrid composites for volatile organic compound detection

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Tran Thanh; Losic, Dusan; Park, Seung Jun; Feller, Jean-Francois; Kim, TaeYoung

    2015-01-01

    We report a high-performance chemiresistive sensor for detection of volatile organic compound (VOC) vapors based on core-shell hybridized nanostructures of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)-conducting polymers. The MNPs were prepared using microwave-assisted synthesis in the presence of polymerized ionic liquids (PILs), which were used as a linker to couple the MNP and PEDOT. The resulting PEDOT–PIL-modified Fe3O4 hybrids were then explored as a sensing channel material for a chemiresistive sensor to detect VOC vapors. The PEDOT–PIL-modified Fe3O4 sensor exhibited a tunable response, with high sensitivity (down to a concentration of 1 ppm) and low noise level, to VOCs; these VOCs include acetone vapor, which is present in the exhaled breath of potential lung cancer patients. The present sensor, based on the hybrid nanostructured sensing materials, exhibited a 38.8% higher sensitivity and an 11% lower noise level than its PEDOT–PIL-only counterpart. This approach of embedding MNPs in conducting polymers could lead to the development of new electronic noses, which have significant potential for the use in the early diagnosis of lung cancer via the detection of VOC biomarkers. PMID:26357471

  10. Lamb Wave Stiffness Characterization of Composites Undergoing Thermal-Mechanical Aging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seale, Michael D.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2004-01-01

    The introduction of new, advanced composite materials into aviation systems requires a thorough understanding of the long term effects of combined thermal and mechanical loading upon those materials. Analytical methods investigating the effects of intense thermal heating combined with mechanical loading have been investigated. The damage mechanisms and fatigue lives were dependent on test parameters as well as stress levels. Castelli, et al. identified matrix dominated failure modes for out-of-phase cycling and fiber dominated damage modes for in-phase cycling. In recent years, ultrasonic methods have been developed that can measure the mechanical stiffness of composites. To help evaluate the effect of aging, a suitably designed Lamb wave measurement system is being used to obtain bending and out-of-plane stiffness coefficients of composite laminates undergoing thermal-mechanical loading. The system works by exciting an antisymmetric Lamb wave and calculating the velocity at each frequency from the known transducer separation and the measured time-of-flight. The same peak in the waveforms received at various distances is used to measure the time difference between the signals. The velocity measurements are accurate and repeatable to within 1% resulting in reconstructed stiffness values repeatable to within 4%. Given the material density and plate thickness, the bending and out-of-plane shear stiffnesses are calculated from a reconstruction of the dispersion curve. A mechanical scanner is used to move the sensors over the surface to map the time-of-flight, velocity, or stiffnesses of the entire specimen. Access to only one side of the material is required and no immersion or couplants are required because the sensors are dry coupled to the surface of the plate. In this study, the elastic stiffnesses D(sub 11), D(sub 22), A(sub 44), and A(sub 55) as well as time-of-flight measurements for composite samples that have undergone combined thermal and mechanical aging for

  11. Time-Dependent Behavior of a Graphite/Thermoplastic Composite and the Effects of Stress and Physical Aging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, Thomas S.; Feldman, Mark

    1995-01-01

    Experimental studies were performed to determine the effects of stress and physical aging on the matrix dominated time dependent properties of IM7/8320 composite. Isothermal tensile creep/aging test techniques developed for polymers were adapted for testing of the composite material. Time dependent transverse and shear compliance's for an orthotropic plate were found from short term creep compliance measurements at constant, sub-T(8) temperatures. These compliance terms were shown to be affected by physical aging. Aging time shift factors and shift rates were found to be a function of temperature and applied stress.

  12. Effects of waste eggshells and SiC addition on specific strength and thermal expansion of hybrid green metal matrix composite.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Satpal; Dwivedi, Shashi Prakash

    2017-03-18

    Chicken eggshell waste is an industrial byproduct, and its disposal constitutes a serious environmental hazard. Chicken eggshell can be used in commercial products to produce new materials with low cost and density. Low density material which can sustain at higher temperature is a remarkable area of research. Keeping these facts in the mind, the present investigation aims to study the physical behaviour, specific strength and thermal expansion of AA2014/SiC/carbonized eggshell hybrid green metal matrix composites. Microstructure of hybrid green metal matrix shows that the reinforcement particles (SiC particulates and carbonized eggshells particles) are uniformly distributed in the matrix AA2014 alloy. Specific strength for the composites containing 2.5wt.% SiC and up to 7.5wt.% carbonized eggshell was observed to be higher than that of the other selected composites. While for the same composition (AA2014/2.5% SiC/7.5% carbonized eggshell composites), porosity was observed lower than other selected composites. The results revealed that sample of AA2014/2.5% SiC/7.5% carbonized eggshell showed minimum cross sectional area reduction after the thermal expansion at 450°C among all the selected samples. Overall costs of hybrid metal matrix composites were also calculated.

  13. Association of Eating Behavior With Nutritional Status and Body Composition in Primary School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Tay, Chee Wee; Chin, Yit Siew; Lee, Shoo Thien; Khouw, Ilse; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    Problematic eating behaviors during childhood may lead to positive energy balance and obesity. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the association of eating behaviors with nutritional status and body composition in Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years. A total of 1782 primary schoolchildren were randomly recruited from 6 regions in Malaysia. The multidimensional Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) was reported by parents to determine the 8 different dimensions of eating styles among children. Body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score, waist circumference, and body fat percentage were assessed. Linear regression analyses revealed that both food responsiveness and desire to drink subscales were positively associated with a child's body adiposity, whereas satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, and emotional undereating subscales were negatively associated with adiposity (all P < .05). A multidimensional eating style approach based on the CEBQ is needed to promote healthy eating behaviors in order to prevent excessive weight gain and obesity problems among Malaysian children.

  14. Experimental investigation of fiberglass sandwich composite bending behaviour after severe aging condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambaro, Carla; Lertora, Enrico; Mandolfino, Chiara

    2016-10-01

    Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) sandwich panels are increasing their application as structural and non-structural components in all kinds of construction. By varying the material and thickness of core and face sheets, it is possible to obtain sandwich structures with different properties and performance. In particular, their advantages as lightweight and high mechanical properties make them extremely suitable for the transport industry. One of the most critical aspects regarding composite materials for engineering application is their performance after hygrothermal aging. The panels used in this study are composed of low density core, made by thermosetting resin foam with microspheres and glass fibers rolled until obtaining the required thickness, and two face sheets of the same material but realized in high density. In this study, the authors focused on the bending behaviour of this kind of sandwich panel, as received and after severe aging cycles.

  15. Light Plains in the South-Pole Aitken Basin: Surface Ages and Mineralogical Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiessen, F.; Hiesinger, H.; van der Bogert, C. H.; Pasckert, J. H.; Robinson, M. S.

    2012-04-01

    We studied light plains in the north-eastern South-Pole Aitken basin to investigate their origin, ages, and mineralogical composition. Light plains, also known as the Cayley Formation, occur on the near- and farside of the Moon. Due to their smooth texture, lower crater densities, and occurrence as crater fills, they were thought to be of volcanic origin [e.g., 1]. However, Apollo 16 samples of light plains deposits were in fact highly brecciated rocks [2]. Therefore, the Imbrium and Orientale impacts were thought to have formed light plains because they reshaped the surface thousands of kilometers from their impact sites. Subsequent studies revealed varying surface ages of light plains [e.g., 3] and different mineralogical compositions, which are in some cases more highland-like and in others more mare-like. Hence, an origin solely from the Imbrium and/or Orientale impacts is unlikely. Thus, the question whether light plains formed due to large impacts or regional cratering, or through endogenic processes remains open. We performed crater size-frequency measurements [e.g., 4] on Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Wide Angle Camera images and obtained absolute model ages between 3.43 and 3.81 Ga. We observed neither a distinctive peak of light plains ages nor clustering of similar ages in any specific regions of the studied area. Due to the fact that the derived ages vary as much as 380 Ma, an origin by a single event seems unlikely. Moreover, some ages even post-date the Imbrium and Orientale impacts, and thus an origin related to those impacts is not likely. Examination of multispectral data from Clementine [5] shows that the Ti abundances vary between 0.2 and 3 wt % and Fe abundances between 12.5 and 19 wt %. We observed a regional difference in distribution: light plains units within the Apollo basin have lower Fe and Ti values and are more highland-like, whereas light plains outside the Apollo basin show higher Fe and Ti values and are more mare-like. Furthermore, M

  16. Characterizing microscale aluminum composite layer properties on silicon solar cells with hybrid 3D scanning force measurements.

    PubMed

    Bae, Sung-Kuk; Choi, Beomjoon; Chung, Haseung; Shin, Seungwon; Song, Hee-eun; Seo, Jung Hwan

    2016-03-07

    This article presents a novel technique to estimate the mechanical properties of the aluminum composite layer on silicon solar cells by using a hybrid 3-dimensional laser scanning force measurement (3-D LSFM) system. The 3-D LSFM system measures the material properties of sub-layers constituting a solar cell. This measurement is critical for realizing high-efficient ultra-thin solar cells. The screen-printed aluminum layer, which significantly affects the bowing phenomenon, is separated from the complete solar cell by removing the silicon (Si) layer with deep reactive ion etching. An elastic modulus of ~15.1 GPa and a yield strength of ~35.0 MPa for the aluminum (Al) composite layer were obtained by the 3-D LSFM system. In experiments performed for 6-inch Si solar cells, the bowing distances decreased from 12.02 to 1.18 mm while the Si layer thicknesses increased from 90 to 190 μm. These results are in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions for ultra-thin Si thickness (90 μm) based on the obtained Al composite layer properties.

  17. Enhanced Electrochemical Performance of Ultracentrifugation-Derived nc-Li3VO4/MWCNT Composites for Hybrid Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Iwama, Etsuro; Kawabata, Nozomi; Nishio, Nagare; Kisu, Kazuaki; Miyamoto, Junichi; Naoi, Wako; Rozier, Patrick; Simon, Patrice; Naoi, Katsuhiko

    2016-05-24

    Nanocrystalline Li3VO4 dispersed within multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was prepared using an ultracentrifugation (uc) process and electrochemically characterized in Li-containing electrolyte. When charged and discharged down to 0.1 V vs Li, the material reached 330 mAh g(-1) (per composite) at an average voltage of about 1.0 V vs Li, with more than 50% capacity retention at a high current density of 20 A g(-1). This current corresponds to a nearly 500C rate (7.2 s) for a porous carbon electrode normally used in electric double-layer capacitor devices (1C = 40 mA g(-1) per activated carbon). The irreversible structure transformation during the first lithiation, assimilated as an activation process, was elucidated by careful investigation of in operando X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption fine structure measurements. The activation process switches the reaction mechanism from a slow "two-phase" to a fast "solid-solution" in a limited voltage range (2.5-0.76 V vs Li), still keeping the capacity as high as 115 mAh g(-1) (per composite). The uc-Li3VO4 composite operated in this potential range after the activation process allows fast Li(+) intercalation/deintercalation with a small voltage hysteresis, leading to higher energy efficiency. It offers a promising alternative to replace high-rate Li4Ti5O12 electrodes in hybrid supercapacitor applications.

  18. Characterizing microscale aluminum composite layer properties on silicon solar cells with hybrid 3D scanning force measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Sung-Kuk; Choi, Beomjoon; Chung, Haseung; Shin, Seungwon; Song, Hee-Eun; Seo, Jung Hwan

    2016-03-01

    This article presents a novel technique to estimate the mechanical properties of the aluminum composite layer on silicon solar cells by using a hybrid 3-dimensional laser scanning force measurement (3-D LSFM) system. The 3-D LSFM system measures the material properties of sub-layers constituting a solar cell. This measurement is critical for realizing high-efficient ultra-thin solar cells. The screen-printed aluminum layer, which significantly affects the bowing phenomenon, is separated from the complete solar cell by removing the silicon (Si) layer with deep reactive ion etching. An elastic modulus of ~15.1 GPa and a yield strength of ~35.0 MPa for the aluminum (Al) composite layer were obtained by the 3-D LSFM system. In experiments performed for 6-inch Si solar cells, the bowing distances decreased from 12.02 to 1.18 mm while the Si layer thicknesses increased from 90 to 190 μm. These results are in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions for ultra-thin Si thickness (90 μm) based on the obtained Al composite layer properties.

  19. Characterizing microscale aluminum composite</