NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, Z.-W.; Han, Y.-P.; Li, C.-Y.
2012-05-01
A hybrid finite element-boundary integral-characteristic basis function method (FE-BI-CBFM) is proposed for an efficient simulation of electromagnetic scattering by random discrete particles. Specifically, the finite element method (FEM) is used to obtain the solution of the vector wave equation inside each particle and the boundary integral equation (BIE) using Green's functions is applied on the surfaces of all the particles as a global boundary condition. The coupling system of equations is solved by employing the characteristic basis function method (CBFM) based on the use of macro-basis functions constructed according to the Foldy-Lax multiple scattering equations. Due to the flexibility of FEM, the proposed hybrid technique can easily deal with the problems of multiple scattering by randomly distributed inhomogeneous particles that are often beyond the scope of traditional numerical methods. Some numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the validity and capability of the proposed method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moteki, N.
2015-12-01
Black carbon (BC) is a light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosol emitted from combustions of fossil fuels and biomasses and is estimated as the second most important contributor to positive climate forcing after the carbon dioxide. In the atmosphere, the fractal aggregate of BC-spherules may be mixed with non-absorbing (or weakly absorbing) compounds that forms morphologically complex "BC-containing particle". A reliable scattering code for BC-containing particles is necessary for predicting mass absorption efficiency of BC and designing/evaluating optical techniques for estimating microphysical properties (i.e., size distribution, mixing state, shape, refractive index) of BC-containing particles. The computational methods that derived from the volume-integral form of the Maxwell equation, such as discrete dipole approximation (DDA), are method of choice for morphologically complex object like BC-containing particles. In ordinary DDA, the entire particle volume is approximated as a collection of tiny cubical dipoles (with side length d) placed on a 3D cubic lattice. For several model BC-containing particles, the comparisons with numerically exact T-matrix method reveals that the ordinary DDA suffered from persistent positive systematic error (up to +30%) in absorption even under d <<λ. The cause of this DDA error is identified to be the shape error in BC-spherules. To eliminate the shape error in BC-spherules, we propose a new DDA methodology which may be called hybrid DDA (h-DDA): each primary BC sphere is assumed as a spherical dipole, while remaining particle volume of coating material is approximated by a collection of tiny cubical dipoles on a 3D cubic lattice. Positive absorption bias up to +30% in ordinary DDA is suppressed to within 3% in h-DDA. In h-DDA code, an efficient FFT-based algorithm for solving the matrix equation has been implemented, by utilizing the multilevel block-Toeplitz property of the submatrix corresponding to inter-dipole interaction within
Electrolytic plating apparatus for discrete microsized particles
Mayer, Anton
1976-11-30
Method and apparatus are disclosed for electrolytically producing very uniform coatings of a desired material on discrete microsized particles. Agglomeration or bridging of the particles during the deposition process is prevented by imparting a sufficiently random motion to the particles that they are not in contact with a powered cathode for a time sufficient for such to occur.
Electroless plating apparatus for discrete microsized particles
Mayer, Anton
1978-01-01
Method and apparatus are disclosed for producing very uniform coatings of a desired material on discrete microsized particles by electroless techniques. Agglomeration or bridging of the particles during the deposition process is prevented by imparting a sufficiently random motion to the particles that they are not in contact with each other for a time sufficient for such to occur.
Discrete Element Modeling of Triboelectrically Charged Particles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hogue, Michael D.; Calle, Carlos I.; Weitzman, Peter S.; Curry, David R.
2008-01-01
Tribocharging of particles is common in many processes including fine powder handling and mixing, printer toner transport and dust extraction. In a lunar environment with its high vacuum and lack of water, electrostatic forces are an important factor to consider when designing and operating equipment. Dust mitigation and management is critical to safe and predictable performance of people and equipment. The extreme nature of lunar conditions makes it difficult and costly to carry out experiments on earth which are necessary to better understand how particles gather and transfer charge between each other and with equipment surfaces. DEM (Discrete Element Modeling) provides an excellent virtual laboratory for studying tribocharging of particles as well as for design of devices for dust mitigation and for other purposes related to handling and processing of lunar regolith. Theoretical and experimental work has been performed pursuant to incorporating screened Coulombic electrostatic forces into EDEM, a commercial DEM software package. The DEM software is used to model the trajectories of large numbers of particles for industrial particulate handling and processing applications and can be coupled with other solvers and numerical models to calculate particle interaction with surrounding media and force fields. While simple Coulombic force between two particles is well understood, its operation in an ensemble of particles is more complex. When the tribocharging of particles and surfaces due to frictional contact is also considered, it is necessary to consider longer range of interaction of particles in response to electrostatic charging. The standard DEM algorithm accounts for particle mechanical properties and inertia as a function of particle shape and mass. If fluid drag is neglected, then particle dynamics are governed by contact between particles, between particles and equipment surfaces and gravity forces. Consideration of particle charge and any tribocharging and
Hybrid particles and associated methods
Fox, Robert V; Rodriguez, Rene; Pak, Joshua J; Sun, Chivin
2015-02-10
Hybrid particles that comprise a coating surrounding a chalcopyrite material, the coating comprising a metal, a semiconductive material, or a polymer; a core comprising a chalcopyrite material and a shell comprising a functionalized chalcopyrite material, the shell enveloping the core; or a reaction product of a chalcopyrite material and at least one of a reagent, heat, and radiation. Methods of forming the hybrid particles are also disclosed.
Hybrid Discrete-Continuous Markov Decision Processes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Feng, Zhengzhu; Dearden, Richard; Meuleau, Nicholas; Washington, Rich
2003-01-01
This paper proposes a Markov decision process (MDP) model that features both discrete and continuous state variables. We extend previous work by Boyan and Littman on the mono-dimensional time-dependent MDP to multiple dimensions. We present the principle of lazy discretization, and piecewise constant and linear approximations of the model. Having to deal with several continuous dimensions raises several new problems that require new solutions. In the (piecewise) linear case, we use techniques from partially- observable MDPs (POMDPS) to represent value functions as sets of linear functions attached to different partitions of the state space.
Hybrid discrete/continuum algorithms for stochastic reaction networks
Safta, Cosmin Sargsyan, Khachik Debusschere, Bert Najm, Habib N.
2015-01-15
Direct solutions of the Chemical Master Equation (CME) governing Stochastic Reaction Networks (SRNs) are generally prohibitively expensive due to excessive numbers of possible discrete states in such systems. To enhance computational efficiency we develop a hybrid approach where the evolution of states with low molecule counts is treated with the discrete CME model while that of states with large molecule counts is modeled by the continuum Fokker–Planck equation. The Fokker–Planck equation is discretized using a 2nd order finite volume approach with appropriate treatment of flux components. The numerical construction at the interface between the discrete and continuum regions implements the transfer of probability reaction by reaction according to the stoichiometry of the system. The performance of this novel hybrid approach is explored for a two-species circadian model with computational efficiency gains of about one order of magnitude.
Hybrid discrete/continuum algorithms for stochastic reaction networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Safta, Cosmin; Sargsyan, Khachik; Debusschere, Bert; Najm, Habib N.
2015-01-01
Direct solutions of the Chemical Master Equation (CME) governing Stochastic Reaction Networks (SRNs) are generally prohibitively expensive due to excessive numbers of possible discrete states in such systems. To enhance computational efficiency we develop a hybrid approach where the evolution of states with low molecule counts is treated with the discrete CME model while that of states with large molecule counts is modeled by the continuum Fokker-Planck equation. The Fokker-Planck equation is discretized using a 2nd order finite volume approach with appropriate treatment of flux components. The numerical construction at the interface between the discrete and continuum regions implements the transfer of probability reaction by reaction according to the stoichiometry of the system. The performance of this novel hybrid approach is explored for a two-species circadian model with computational efficiency gains of about one order of magnitude.
Hybrid discrete/continuum algorithms for stochastic reaction networks
Safta, Cosmin; Sargsyan, Khachik; Debusschere, Bert; Najm, Habib N.
2014-10-22
Direct solutions of the Chemical Master Equation (CME) governing Stochastic Reaction Networks (SRNs) are generally prohibitively expensive due to excessive numbers of possible discrete states in such systems. To enhance computational efficiency we develop a hybrid approach where the evolution of states with low molecule counts is treated with the discrete CME model while that of states with large molecule counts is modeled by the continuum Fokker-Planck equation. The Fokker-Planck equation is discretized using a 2nd order finite volume approach with appropriate treatment of flux components to avoid negative probability values. The numerical construction at the interface between the discrete and continuum regions implements the transfer of probability reaction by reaction according to the stoichiometry of the system. As a result, the performance of this novel hybrid approach is explored for a two-species circadian model with computational efficiency gains of about one order of magnitude.
Efficient entanglement criteria for discrete, continuous, and hybrid variables
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gessner, Manuel; Pezzè, Luca; Smerzi, Augusto
2016-08-01
We develop a method to construct entanglement criteria for arbitrary multipartite systems of discrete or continuous variables and hybrid combinations of both. While any set of local operators generates a sufficient condition for entanglement of arbitrary quantum states, a suitable set leads to a necessary and sufficient criterion for pure states. The criteria are readily implementable with existing technology and reveal entanglement that remains undetected by the respective state-of-the-art methods for discrete and continuous variables.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moteki, Nobuhiro
2016-07-01
An accurate and efficient simulation of light scattering by an atmospheric black carbon (BC)-containing aerosol-a fractal-like cluster of hundreds of carbon monomers that is internally mixed with other aerosol compounds such as sulfates, organics, and water-remains challenging owing to the enormous diversities of such aerosols' size, shape, and mixing state. Although the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) is theoretically an exact numerical method that is applicable to arbitrary non-spherical inhomogeneous targets, in practice, it suffers from severe granularity-induced error and degradation of computational efficiency for such extremely complex targets. To solve this drawback, we propose herein a hybrid DDA method designed for arbitrary BC-containing aerosols: the monomer-dipole assumption is applied to a cluster of carbon monomers, whereas the efficient cubic-lattice discretization is applied to the remaining particle volume consisting of other materials. The hybrid DDA is free from the error induced by the surface granularity of carbon monomers that occurs in conventional cubic-lattice DDA. In the hybrid DDA, we successfully mitigate the artifact of neglecting the higher-order multipoles in the monomer-dipole assumption by incorporating the magnetic dipole in addition to the electric dipole into our DDA formulations. Our numerical experiments show that the hybrid DDA method is an efficient light-scattering solver for BC-containing aerosols in arbitrary mixing states. The hybrid DDA could be also useful for a cluster of metallic nanospheres associated with other dielectric materials.
Hybrid discrete- and continuous-variable quantum information
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andersen, Ulrik L.; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas S.; van Loock, Peter; Furusawa, Akira
2015-09-01
Research in quantum information processing has followed two different directions: the use of discrete variables (qubits) and that of high-dimensional, continuous-variable Gaussian states (coherent and squeezed states). Recently, these two approaches have been converging in potentially more powerful hybrid protocols.
Hybrid discrete/continuum algorithms for stochastic reaction networks
Safta, Cosmin; Sargsyan, Khachik; Debusschere, Bert; Najm, Habib N.
2014-10-22
Direct solutions of the Chemical Master Equation (CME) governing Stochastic Reaction Networks (SRNs) are generally prohibitively expensive due to excessive numbers of possible discrete states in such systems. To enhance computational efficiency we develop a hybrid approach where the evolution of states with low molecule counts is treated with the discrete CME model while that of states with large molecule counts is modeled by the continuum Fokker-Planck equation. The Fokker-Planck equation is discretized using a 2nd order finite volume approach with appropriate treatment of flux components to avoid negative probability values. The numerical construction at the interface between the discretemore » and continuum regions implements the transfer of probability reaction by reaction according to the stoichiometry of the system. As a result, the performance of this novel hybrid approach is explored for a two-species circadian model with computational efficiency gains of about one order of magnitude.« less
Discrete elements method of neutral particle transport
Mathews, K.A.
1983-01-01
A new discrete elements (L/sub N/) transport method is derived and compared to the discrete ordinates S/sub N/ method, theoretically and by numerical experimentation. The discrete elements method is more accurate than discrete ordinates and strongly ameliorates ray effects for the practical problems studied. The discrete elements method is shown to be more cost effective, in terms of execution time with comparable storage to attain the same accuracy, for a one-dimensional test case using linear characteristic spatial quadrature. In a two-dimensional test case, a vacuum duct in a shield, L/sub N/ is more consistently convergent toward a Monte Carlo benchmark solution than S/sub N/, using step characteristic spatial quadrature. An analysis of the interaction of angular and spatial quadrature in xy-geometry indicates the desirability of using linear characteristic spatial quadrature with the L/sub N/ method.
Hybrid discrete choice models: Gained insights versus increasing effort.
Mariel, Petr; Meyerhoff, Jürgen
2016-10-15
Hybrid choice models expand the standard models in discrete choice modelling by incorporating psychological factors as latent variables. They could therefore provide further insights into choice processes and underlying taste heterogeneity but the costs of estimating these models often significantly increase. This paper aims at comparing the results from a hybrid choice model and a classical random parameter logit. Point of departure for this analysis is whether researchers and practitioners should add hybrid choice models to their suite of models routinely estimated. Our comparison reveals, in line with the few prior studies, that hybrid models gain in efficiency by the inclusion of additional information. The use of one of the two proposed approaches, however, depends on the objective of the analysis. If disentangling preference heterogeneity is most important, hybrid model seems to be preferable. If the focus is on predictive power, a standard random parameter logit model might be the better choice. Finally, we give recommendations for an adequate use of hybrid choice models based on known principles of elementary scientific inference. PMID:27310534
Nanorice Particles: Hybrid Plasmonic Nanostructures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Hui (Inventor); Brandl, Daniel (Inventor); Le, Fei (Inventor); Nordlander, Peter (Inventor); Halas, Nancy J. (Inventor)
2010-01-01
A new hybrid nanoparticle, i.e., a nanorice particle, which combines the intense local fields of nanorods with the highly tunable plasmon resonances of nanoshells, is described herein. This geometry possesses far greater structural tunability than previous nanoparticle geometries, along with much larger local field enhancements and far greater sensitivity as a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) nanosensor than presently known dielectric-conductive material nanostructures. In an embodiment, a nanoparticle comprises a prolate spheroid-shaped core having a first aspect ratio. The nanoparticle also comprises at least one conductive shell surrounding said prolate spheroid-shaped core. The nanoparticle has a surface plasmon resonance sensitivity of at least 600 nm RIU(sup.-1). Methods of making the disclosed nanorice particles are also described herein.
DelGrande, J. Mark; Mathews, Kirk A.
2001-09-15
Conventional discrete ordinates transport calculations often produce negative fluxes due to unphysical negative scattering cross sections and/or as artifacts of spatial differencing schemes such as diamond difference. Inherently nonnegative spatial methods, such as the nonlinear, exponential characteristic spatial quadrature, eliminate negative fluxes while providing excellent accuracy, presuming the group-to-group, ordinate-to-ordinate cross sections are all nonnegative. A hybrid approach is introduced in which the flow from spatial cell to spatial cell uses discrete ordinates spatial quadratures, while anisotropic scattering of flux from one energy-angle bin (energy group and discrete element of solid angle) to another such bin is modeled using a Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the bin-to-bin cross sections. The directional elements tile the sphere of directions; the ordinates for the spatial quadrature are at the centroids of the elements. The method is developed and contrasted with previous schemes for positive cross sections. An algorithm for evaluating the Monte Carlo (MC)-discrete elements (MC-DE) cross sections is described, and some test cases are presented. Transport calculations using MC-DE cross sections are compared with calculations using conventional cross sections and with MCNP calculations. In this testing, the new method is about as accurate as the conventional approach, and often is more accurate. The exponential characteristic spatial quadrature, using the MC-DE cross sections, is shown to provide useful results where linear characteristic and spherical harmonics provide negative scalar fluxes in every cell in a region.
Controlling seepage in discrete particle simulations of biological systems.
Gardiner, Bruce S; Joldes, Grand R; Wong, Kelvin K L; Tan, Chin Wee; Smith, David W
2016-08-01
It is now commonplace to represent materials in a simulation using assemblies of discrete particles. Sometimes, one wishes to maintain the integrity of boundaries between particle types, for example, when modelling multiple tissue layers. However, as the particle assembly evolves during a simulation, particles may pass across interfaces. This behaviour is referred to as 'seepage'. The aims of this study were (i) to examine the conditions for seepage through a confining particle membrane and (ii) to define some simple rules that can be employed to control seepage. Based on the force-deformation response of spheres with various sizes and stiffness, we develop analytic expressions for the force required to move a 'probe particle' between confining 'membrane particles'. We analyse the influence that particle's size and stiffness have on the maximum force that can act on the probe particle before the onset of seepage. The theoretical results are applied in the simulation of a biological cell under unconfined compression. PMID:26629728
Discrete particle noise in a nonlinearly saturated plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jenkins, Thomas; Lee, W. W.
2006-04-01
Understanding discrete particle noise in an equilibrium plasma has been an important topic since the early days of particle-in- cell (PIC) simulation [1]. In this paper, particle noise in a nonlinearly saturated system is investigated. We investigate the usefulness of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT) in a regime where drift instabilities are nonlinearly saturated. We obtain excellent agreement between the simulation results and our theoretical predictions of the noise properties. It is found that discrete particle noise always enhances the particle and thermal transport in the plasma, in agreement with the second law of thermodynamics. [1] C.K. Birdsall and A.B. Langdon, Plasma Physics via Computer Simulation, McGraw-Hill, New York (1985).
Evolutionary design of discrete controllers for hybrid mechatronic systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dupuis, Jean-Francois; Fan, Zhun; Goodman, Erik
2015-01-01
This paper investigates the issue of evolutionary design of controllers for hybrid mechatronic systems. Finite State Automaton (FSA) is selected as the representation for a discrete controller due to its interpretability, fast execution speed and natural extension to a statechart, which is very popular in industrial applications. A case study of a two-tank system is used to demonstrate that the proposed evolutionary approach can lead to a successful design of an FSA controller for the hybrid mechatronic system, represented by a hybrid bond graph. Generalisation of the evolved FSA controller to unknown control targets is also tested. Further, a comparison with another type of controller, a lookahead controller, is conducted, with advantages and disadvantages of each discussed. The comparison sheds light on which type of controller representation is a better choice to use in various stages of the evolutionary design of controllers for hybrid mechatronic systems. Finally, some important future research directions are pointed out, leading to the major work of the succeeding part of the research.
Hybrid Automated Diagnosis of Discrete/Continuous Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Park, Han; James, Mark; MacKey, Ryan; Cannon, Howard; Bajwa, Anapa; Maul, William
2007-01-01
A recently conceived method of automated diagnosis of a complex electromechanical system affords a complete set of capabilities for hybrid diagnosis in the case in which the state of the electromechanical system is characterized by both continuous and discrete values (as represented by analog and digital signals, respectively). The method is an integration of two complementary diagnostic systems: (1) beacon-based exception analysis for multi-missions (BEAM), which is primarily useful in the continuous domain and easily performs diagnoses in the presence of transients; and (2) Livingstone, which is primarily useful in the discrete domain and is typically restricted to quasi-steady conditions. BEAM has been described in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles: "Software for Autonomous Diagnosis of Complex Systems" (NPO-20803), Vol. 26, No. 3 (March 2002), page 33; "Beacon-Based Exception Analysis for Multimissions" (NPO-20827), Vol. 26, No. 9 (September 2002), page 32; "Wavelet-Based Real-Time Diagnosis of Complex Systems" (NPO-20830), Vol. 27, No. 1 (January 2003), page 67; and "Integrated Formulation of Beacon-Based Exception Analysis for Multimissions" (NPO-21126), Vol. 27, No. 3 (March 2003), page 74. Briefly, BEAM is a complete data-analysis method, implemented in software, for real-time or off-line detection and characterization of faults. The basic premise of BEAM is to characterize a system from all available observations and train the characterization with respect to normal phases of operation. The observations are primarily continuous in nature. BEAM isolates anomalies by analyzing the deviations from nominal for each phase of operation. Livingstone is a model-based reasoner that uses a model of a system, controller commands, and sensor observations to track the system s state, and detect and diagnose faults. Livingstone models a system within the discrete domain. Therefore, continuous sensor readings, as well as time, must be discretized. To reason about
A local adaptive discretization algorithm for Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spreng, Fabian; Schnabel, Dirk; Mueller, Alexandra; Eberhard, Peter
2014-06-01
In this paper, an extension to the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method is proposed that allows for an adaptation of the discretization level of a simulated continuum at runtime. By combining a local adaptive refinement technique with a newly developed coarsening algorithm, one is able to improve the accuracy of the simulation results while reducing the required computational cost at the same time. For this purpose, the number of particles is, on the one hand, adaptively increased in critical areas of a simulation model. Typically, these are areas that show a relatively low particle density and high gradients in stress or temperature. On the other hand, the number of SPH particles is decreased for domains with a high particle density and low gradients. Besides a brief introduction to the basic principle of the SPH discretization method, the extensions to the original formulation providing such a local adaptive refinement and coarsening of the modeled structure are presented in this paper. After having introduced its theoretical background, the applicability of the enhanced formulation, as well as the benefit gained from the adaptive model discretization, is demonstrated in the context of four different simulation scenarios focusing on solid continua. While presenting the results found for these examples, several properties of the proposed adaptive technique are discussed, e.g. the conservation of momentum as well as the existing correlation between the chosen refinement and coarsening patterns and the observed quality of the results.
Transport and discrete particle noise in gyrokinetic simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jenkins, Thomas; Lee, W. W.
2006-10-01
We present results from our recent investigations regarding the effects of discrete particle noise on the long-time behavior and transport properties of gyrokinetic particle-in-cell simulations. It is found that the amplitude of nonlinearly saturated drift waves is unaffected by discreteness-induced noise in plasmas whose behavior is dominated by a single mode in the saturated state. We further show that the scaling of this noise amplitude with particle count is correctly predicted by the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, even though the drift waves have driven the plasma from thermal equilibrium. As well, we find that the long-term behavior of the saturated system is unaffected by discreteness-induced noise even when multiple modes are included. Additional work utilizing a code with both total-f and δf capabilities is also presented, as part of our efforts to better understand the long- time balance between entropy production, collisional dissipation, and particle/heat flux in gyrokinetic plasmas.
Determining Trajectory of Triboelectrically Charged Particles, Using Discrete Element Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2008-01-01
The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory is participating in an Innovative Partnership Program (IPP) project with an industry partner to modify a commercial off-the-shelf simulation software product to treat the electrodynamics of particulate systems. Discrete element modeling (DEM) is a numerical technique that can track the dynamics of particle systems. This technique, which was introduced in 1979 for analysis of rock mechanics, was recently refined to include the contact force interaction of particles with arbitrary surfaces and moving machinery. In our work, we endeavor to incorporate electrostatic forces into the DEM calculations to enhance the fidelity of the software and its applicability to (1) particle processes, such as electrophotography, that are greatly affected by electrostatic forces, (2) grain and dust transport, and (3) the study of lunar and Martian regoliths.
Preece, D.S. Perkins, E.D.
1999-02-10
Techniques for modeling oil well sand production have been developed using the formulations for superquadric discrete elements and Darcy fluid flow. Discrete element models are generated using the new technique of particle cloning. Discrete element sources and sinks allow simulation of sand production from the initial state through the transition to an equilibrium state where particles are created and removed at the same rate.
Entrainment of coarse grains using a discrete particle model
Valyrakis, Manousos; Arnold, Roger B. Jr.
2014-10-06
Conventional bedload transport models and incipient motion theories relying on a time-averaged boundary shear stress are incapable of accounting for the effects of fluctuating near-bed velocity in turbulent flow and are therefore prone to significant errors. Impulse, the product of an instantaneous force magnitude and its duration, has been recently proposed as an appropriate criterion for quantifying the effects of flow turbulence in removing coarse grains from the bed surface. Here, a discrete particle model (DPM) is used to examine the effects of impulse, representing a single idealized turbulent event, on particle entrainment. The results are classified according to the degree of grain movement into the following categories: motion prior to entrainment, initial dislodgement, and energetic displacement. The results indicate that in all three cases the degree of particle motion depends on both the force magnitude and the duration of its application and suggest that the effects of turbulence must be adequately accounted for in order to develop a more accurate method of determining incipient motion. DPM is capable of simulating the dynamics of grain entrainment and is an appropriate tool for further study of the fundamental mechanisms of sediment transport.
Generation of Random Particle Packings for Discrete Element Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abe, S.; Weatherley, D.; Ayton, T.
2012-04-01
An important step in the setup process of Discrete Element Model (DEM) simulations is the generation of a suitable particle packing. There are quite a number of properties such a granular material specimen should ideally have, such as high coordination number, isotropy, the ability to fill arbitrary bounding volumes and the absence of locked-in stresses. An algorithm which is able to produce specimens fulfilling these requirements is the insertion based sphere packing algorithm originally proposed by Place and Mora, 2001 [2] and extended in this work. The algorithm works in two stages. First a number of "seed" spheres are inserted into the bounding volume. In the second stage the gaps between the "seed" spheres are filled by inserting new spheres in a way so they have D+1 (i.e. 3 in 2D, 4 in 3D) touching contacts with either other spheres or the boundaries of the enclosing volume. Here we present an implementation of the algorithm and a systematic statistical analysis of the generated sphere packings. The analysis of the particle radius distribution shows that they follow a power-law with an exponent ≈ D (i.e. ≈3 for a 3D packing and ≈2 for 2D). Although the algorithm intrinsically guarantees coordination numbers of at least 4 in 3D and 3 in 2D, the coordination numbers realized in the generated packings can be significantly higher, reaching beyond 50 if the range of particle radii is sufficiently large. Even for relatively small ranges of particle sizes (e.g. Rmin = 0.5Rmax) the maximum coordination number may exceed 10. The degree of isotropy of the generated sphere packing is also analysed in both 2D and 3D, by measuring the distribution of orientations of vectors joining the centres of adjacent particles. If the range of particle sizes is small, the packing algorithm yields moderate anisotropy approaching that expected for a face-centred cubic packing of equal-sized particles. However, once Rmin < 0.3Rmax a very high degree of isotropy is demonstrated in
Discrete Particle Noise in Particle-in-Cell Simulations of Plasma Microturbulence
Nevins, W M; Dimits, A; Hammett, G
2005-05-24
Recent gyrokinetic simulations of electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence with flux-tube continuum codes vs. the global particle-in-cell (PIC) code GTC yielded different results despite similar plasma parameters. Differences between the simulations results were attributed to insufficient phase-space resolution and novel physics associated with toroidicity and/or global simulations. We have reproduced the results of the global PIC code using the flux-tube PIC code PG3EQ, thereby eliminating global effects as the cause of the discrepancy. We show that the late-time decay of ETG turbulence and the steady-state heat transport observed in these PIC simulations results from discrete particle noise. Discrete particle noise is a numerical artifact, so both these PG3EQ simulations and the previous GTC simulations have nothing to say about steady-state ETG turbulence and the associated anomalous heat transport. In the course of this work we develop three diagnostics which can help to determine if a particular PIC simulation has become dominated by discrete particle noise.
Hybrid Ty virus-like particles.
Adams, S E; Burns, N R; Layton, G T; Kingsman, A J
1994-01-01
Vaccines need to activate antigen presenting cells, overcome genetic restriction in T-cell responses and elicit both T and B memory cells. In order to produce recombinant vaccines which can do this, considerable effort has been put into developing particulate antigen presentation systems to generate polyvalent, high molecular weight antigens which should maximally stimulate the immune system. One such antigen-carrier system is based on the ability of a protein encoded by the yeast retrotransposon, Ty, to self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs). Ty-fusion proteins retain this ability to form particles and a range of hybrid VLPs carrying a variety of heterologous antigens have been produced and shown to elicit potent immune responses. Hybrid VLPs carrying human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antigens stimulate the three main components of the immune system, namely antibody synthesis, T-cell proliferative responses and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses. PMID:8046274
Discrete elements method of neutral particle transport. Doctoral thesis
Mathews, K.A.
1983-10-01
A new 'discrete elements' (LN) transport method is derived and compared to the discrete ordinates SN method, theoretically and by numerical experimentation. The discrete elements method is more accurate than discrete ordinates and strongly ameliorates ray effects for the practical problems studied. The discrete elements method is shown to be more cost effective in terms of execution time with comparable storage to attain the same accuracy, for a one-dimensional test case using linear characteristic spatial quadrature. In a two-dimensional test case, a vacuum duct in a shield, LN is more consistently convergent toward a Monte Carlo benchmark solution than SN, using step characteristic spatial quadrature. An analysis of the interaction of angular and spatial quadrature in xy-geometry indicates the desirability of using linear characteristic spatial quadrature with the LN method. The discrete elements method is based on discretizing the Boltzmann equation over a set of elements of angle. The zeroth and first angular moments of the directional flux, over each element, are estimated by numerical quadrature and yield a flux-weighted average streaming direction for the element. (Data for this estimation are fluxes in fixed directions calculated as in SN.)
The ESyS_Particle: A New 3-D Discrete Element Model with Single Particle Rotation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yucang; Mora, Peter
In this paper, the Discrete Element Model (DEM) is reviewed, and the ESyS_Particle, our new version of DEM, is introduced. We particularly highlight some of the major physical concerns about DEMs and major differences between our model and most current DEMs. In the new model, single particle rotation is introduced and represented by a unit quaternion. For each 3-D particle, six degrees of freedom are employed: three for translational motion, and three for orientation. Six kinds of relative motions are permitted between two neighboring particles, and six interactions are transferred, i.e., radial, two shearing forces, twisting and two bending torques. The relative rotation between two particles is decomposed into two sequence-independent rotations such that all interactions due to the relative motions between interactive rigid bodies can be uniquely determined. This algorithm can give more accurate results because physical principles are obeyed. A theoretical analysis about how to choose the model parameters is presented. Several numerical tests have been carried out, the results indicate that most laboratory tests can be well reproduced using our model.
Dynamic hybrid algorithms for MAP inference in discrete MRFs.
Alahari, Karteek; Kohli, Pushmeet; Torr, Philip H S
2010-10-01
In this paper, we present novel techniques that improve the computational and memory efficiency of algorithms for solving multilabel energy functions arising from discrete mrfs or crfs. These methods are motivated by the observations that the performance of minimization algorithms depends on: 1) the initialization used for the primal and dual variables and 2) the number of primal variables involved in the energy function. Our first method (dynamic alpha-expansion) works by "recycling" results from previous problem instances. The second method simplifies the energy function by "reducing" the number of unknown variables present in the problem. Further, we show that it can also be used to generate a good initialization for the dynamic alpha-expansion algorithm by "reusing" dual variables. We test the performance of our methods on energy functions encountered in the problems of stereo matching and color and object-based segmentation. Experimental results show that our methods achieve a substantial improvement in the performance of alpha-expansion, as well as other popular algorithms such as sequential tree-reweighted message passing and max-product belief propagation. We also demonstrate the applicability of our schemes for certain higher order energy functions, such as the one described in [1], for interactive texture-based image and video segmentation. In most cases, we achieve a 10-15 times speed-up in the computation time. Our modified alpha-expansion algorithm provides similar performance to Fast-PD, but is conceptually much simpler. Both alpha-expansion and Fast-PD can be made orders of magnitude faster when used in conjunction with the "reduce" scheme proposed in this paper. PMID:20724761
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oishi, Meeko; Tomlin, Claire; Degani, Asaf
2003-01-01
Human interaction with complex hybrid systems involves the user, the automation's discrete mode logic, and the underlying continuous dynamics of the physical system. Often the user-interface of such systems displays a reduced set of information about the entire system. In safety-critical systems, how can we identify user-interface designs which do not have adequate information, or which may confuse the user? Here we describe a methodology, based on hybrid system analysis, to verify that a user-interface contains information necessary to safely complete a desired procedure or task. Verification within a hybrid framework allows us to account for the continuous dynamics underlying the simple, discrete representations displayed to the user. We provide two examples: a car traveling through a yellow light at an intersection and an aircraft autopilot in a landing/go-around maneuver. The examples demonstrate the general nature of this methodology, which is applicable to hybrid systems (not fully automated) which have operational constraints we can pose in terms of safety. This methodology differs from existing work in hybrid system verification in that we directly account for the user's interactions with the system.
Addendum to 'A new hybrid algorithm for computing a fast discrete Fourier transform'
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reed, I. S.; Truong, T. K.; Benjauthrit, B.
1981-01-01
The reported investigation represents a continuation of a study conducted by Reed and Truong (1979), who proposed a hybrid algorithm for computing the discrete Fourier transform (DFT). The proposed technique employs a Winograd-type algorithm in conjunction with the Mersenne prime-number theoretic transform to perform a DFT. The implementation of the technique involves a considerable number of additions. The new investigation shows an approach which can reduce the number of additions significantly. It is proposed to use Winograd's algorithm for computing the Mersenne prime-number theoretic transform in the transform portion of the hybrid algorithm.
Toccafondo, Iacopo; Taki, Mohammad; Signorini, Alessandro; Zaidi, Farhan; Nannipieri, Tiziano; Faralli, Stefano; Di Pasquale, Fabrizio
2012-11-01
We propose and experimentally demonstrate a hybrid fiber optic sensing technique that effectively combines Raman optical time domain reflectometry and in-line time-division-multiplexing for fiber Bragg grating (FBG) dynamic interrogation. The highly integrated proposed scheme employs broadband apodized low reflectivity FBGs with a single narrowband optical source and a shared receiver block, allowing for simultaneous measurements of distributed static temperature and discrete dynamic strain, over the same sensing fiber. PMID:23114320
Discrete Element Modeling (DEM) of Triboelectrically Charged Particles: Revised Experiments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hogue, Michael D.; Calle, Carlos I.; Curry, D. R.; Weitzman, P. S.
2008-01-01
In a previous work, the addition of basic screened Coulombic electrostatic forces to an existing commercial discrete element modeling (DEM) software was reported. Triboelectric experiments were performed to charge glass spheres rolling on inclined planes of various materials. Charge generation constants and the Q/m ratios for the test materials were calculated from the experimental data and compared to the simulation output of the DEM software. In this paper, we will discuss new values of the charge generation constants calculated from improved experimental procedures and data. Also, planned work to include dielectrophoretic, Van der Waals forces, and advanced mechanical forces into the software will be discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1978-01-01
The practicability of using a classical light-scattering technique, involving comparison of angular scattering intensity patterns with theoretically determined Mie and Rayleight patterns, to detect discrete soot particles (diameter less than 50 nm) in premixed propane/air and propane/oxygen-helium flames is considered. The experimental apparatus employed in this investigation included a laser light source, a flat-flame burner, specially coated optics, a cooled photomultiplier detector, and a lock-in voltmeter readout. Although large, agglomerated soot particles were detected and sized, it was not possible to detect small, discrete particles. The limiting factor appears to be background scattering by the system's optics.
A hybrid group method of data handling with discrete wavelet transform for GDP forecasting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isa, Nadira Mohamed; Shabri, Ani
2013-09-01
This study is proposed the application of hybridization model using Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH) and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) in time series forecasting. The objective of this paper is to examine the flexibility of the hybridization GMDH in time series forecasting by using Gross Domestic Product (GDP). A time series data set is used in this study to demonstrate the effectiveness of the forecasting model. This data are utilized to forecast through an application aimed to handle real life time series. This experiment compares the performances of a hybrid model and a single model of Wavelet-Linear Regression (WR), Artificial Neural Network (ANN), and conventional GMDH. It is shown that the proposed model can provide a promising alternative technique in GDP forecasting.
Zoican Loebick, C.; Majewska, M; Ren, F; Haller, G; Pfefferle, L
2010-01-01
Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) with encapsulated nanosized cobalt particles have been synthesized by a facile and scalable method. In this approach, SWNT were filled with a cobalt acetylacetonate solution in dichloromethane by ultrasonication. In a second step, exposure to hydrogen at different temperatures released discrete cobalt particles of controllable size inside the SWNT cavity. The SWNT-Co particles systems were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and thermal gravimetric analysis.
A hybrid method with deviational particles for spatial inhomogeneous plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Bokai
2016-03-01
In this work we propose a Hybrid method with Deviational Particles (HDP) for a plasma modeled by the inhomogeneous Vlasov-Poisson-Landau system. We split the distribution into a Maxwellian part evolved by a grid based fluid solver and a deviation part simulated by numerical particles. These particles, named deviational particles, could be both positive and negative. We combine the Monte Carlo method proposed in [31], a Particle in Cell method and a Macro-Micro decomposition method [3] to design an efficient hybrid method. Furthermore, coarse particles are employed to accelerate the simulation. A particle resampling technique on both deviational particles and coarse particles is also investigated and improved. This method is applicable in all regimes and significantly more efficient compared to a PIC-DSMC method near the fluid regime.
Mesoscale dynamic coupling of finite- and discrete-element methods for fluid-particle interactions.
Srivastava, S; Yazdchi, K; Luding, S
2014-08-01
A new method for two-way fluid-particle coupling on an unstructured mesoscopically coarse mesh is presented. In this approach, we combine a (higher order) finite-element method (FEM) on the moving mesh for the fluid with a soft sphere discrete-element method for the particles. The novel feature of the proposed scheme is that the FEM mesh is a dynamic Delaunay triangulation based on the positions of the moving particles. Thus, the mesh can be multi-purpose: it provides (i) a framework for the discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations, (ii) a simple tool for detecting contacts between moving particles, (iii) a basis for coarse-graining or upscaling, and (iv) coupling with other physical fields (temperature, electromagnetic, etc.). This approach is suitable for a wide range of dilute and dense particulate flows, because the mesh resolution adapts with particle density in a given region. Two-way momentum exchange is implemented using semi-empirical drag laws akin to other popular approaches; for example, the discrete particle method, where a finite-volume solver on a coarser, fixed grid is used. We validate the methodology with several basic test cases, including single- and double-particle settling with analytical and empirical expectations, and flow through ordered and random porous media, when compared against finely resolved FEM simulations of flow through fixed arrays of particles. PMID:24982251
Ionospheric convection associated with discrete levels of particle precipitation
Foster, J.C.; Holt, J.M.; Musgrove, R.G.; Evans, D.S.
1986-07-01
A precipitation index is described which quantifies the intensity and spatial extent of high-latitude particle precipitation based on observations made along individual satellite passes. By sorting plasma-convection data according to this index, average patterns of the ionospheric convection electric field were derived from a data set consisting of five years' observations by the Millstone Hill radar. Reference to the instantaneous precipitation index, and the average patterns keyed to it, provides a means of characterizing the global precipitation and convection patterns throughout an event.
Novel Discrete Element Method for 3D non-spherical granular particles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seelen, Luuk; Padding, Johan; Kuipers, Hans
2015-11-01
Granular materials are common in many industries and nature. The different properties from solid behavior to fluid like behavior are well known but less well understood. The main aim of our work is to develop a discrete element method (DEM) to simulate non-spherical granular particles. The non-spherical shape of particles is important, as it controls the behavior of the granular materials in many situations, such as static systems of packed particles. In such systems the packing fraction is determined by the particle shape. We developed a novel 3D discrete element method that simulates the particle-particle interactions for a wide variety of shapes. The model can simulate quadratic shapes such as spheres, ellipsoids, cylinders. More importantly, any convex polyhedron can be used as a granular particle shape. These polyhedrons are very well suited to represent non-rounded sand particles. The main difficulty of any non-spherical DEM is the determination of particle-particle overlap. Our model uses two iterative geometric algorithms to determine the overlap. The algorithms are robust and can also determine multiple contact points which can occur for these shapes. With this method we are able to study different applications such as the discharging of a hopper or silo. Another application the creation of a random close packing, to determine the solid volume fraction as a function of the particle shape.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nassauer, Benjamin; Liedke, Thomas; Kuna, Meinhard
2016-03-01
In the present paper, the direct coupling of a discrete element method (DEM) with polyhedral particles and smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is presented. The two simulation techniques are fully coupled in both ways through interaction forces between the solid DEM particles and the fluid SPH particles. Thus this simulation method provides the possibility to simulate the individual movement of polyhedral, sharp-edged particles as well as the flow field around these particles in fluid-saturated granular matter which occurs in many technical processes e.g. wire sawing, grinding or lapping. The coupled method is exemplified and validated by the simulation of a particle in a shear flow, which shows good agreement with analytical solutions.
The Discrete Multi-Hybrid System for the Simulation of Solid-Liquid Flows
Alexiadis, Alessio
2015-01-01
This study proposes a model based on the combination of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics, Coarse Grained Molecular Dynamics and the Discrete Element Method for the simulation of dispersed solid-liquid flows. The model can deal with a large variety of particle types (non-spherical, elastic, breakable, melting, solidifying, swelling), flow conditions (confined, free-surface, microscopic), and scales (from microns to meters). Various examples, ranging from biological fluids to lava flows, are simulated and discussed. In all cases, the model captures the most important features of the flow. PMID:25961561
Preliminary discrete element modeling of a falling particle curtain for CSP central tower receivers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zanino, R.; Ho, C. K.; Romano, D.; Savoldi, L.
2016-05-01
Current methods used to simulate the curtain thickness in a falling particle receiver lead to a poor agreement with the experiments. Here the Discrete Element Method (DEM) is proposed to address the problem, including both the top hopper and the interactions between particles in the model. Some first promising results are presented, showing an acceptable agreement between simulation and experiment for an ad-hoc set of input parameters. A sensitivity study provides a first assessment of the effects of the main input parameters of the model (boundary conditions at the release, particle Young's modulus, restitution coefficients and effective particle diameter) on the predicted curtain thickness.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Narasimhan, Sriram; Dearden, Richard; Benazera, Emmanuel
2004-01-01
Fault detection and isolation are critical tasks to ensure correct operation of systems. When we consider stochastic hybrid systems, diagnosis algorithms need to track both the discrete mode and the continuous state of the system in the presence of noise. Deterministic techniques like Livingstone cannot deal with the stochasticity in the system and models. Conversely Bayesian belief update techniques such as particle filters may require many computational resources to get a good approximation of the true belief state. In this paper we propose a fault detection and isolation architecture for stochastic hybrid systems that combines look-ahead Rao-Blackwellized Particle Filters (RBPF) with the Livingstone 3 (L3) diagnosis engine. In this approach RBPF is used to track the nominal behavior, a novel n-step prediction scheme is used for fault detection and L3 is used to generate a set of candidates that are consistent with the discrepant observations which then continue to be tracked by the RBPF scheme.
Particle models for discrete element modeling of bulk grain properties of wheat kernels
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Recent research has shown the potential of discrete element method (DEM) in simulating grain flow in bulk handling systems. Research has also revealed that simulation of grain flow with DEM requires establishment of appropriate particle models for each grain type. This research completes the three-p...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, W. Michael; Kohlmeyer, Axel; Plimpton, Steven J.; Tharrington, Arnold N.
2012-03-01
The use of accelerators such as graphics processing units (GPUs) has become popular in scientific computing applications due to their low cost, impressive floating-point capabilities, high memory bandwidth, and low electrical power requirements. Hybrid high-performance computers, machines with nodes containing more than one type of floating-point processor (e.g. CPU and GPU), are now becoming more prevalent due to these advantages. In this paper, we present a continuation of previous work implementing algorithms for using accelerators into the LAMMPS molecular dynamics software for distributed memory parallel hybrid machines. In our previous work, we focused on acceleration for short-range models with an approach intended to harness the processing power of both the accelerator and (multi-core) CPUs. To augment the existing implementations, we present an efficient implementation of long-range electrostatic force calculation for molecular dynamics. Specifically, we present an implementation of the particle-particle particle-mesh method based on the work by Harvey and De Fabritiis. We present benchmark results on the Keeneland InfiniBand GPU cluster. We provide a performance comparison of the same kernels compiled with both CUDA and OpenCL. We discuss limitations to parallel efficiency and future directions for improving performance on hybrid or heterogeneous computers.
Brown, W Michael; Kohlmeyer, Axel; Plimpton, Steven J; Tharrington, Arnold N
2012-01-01
The use of accelerators such as graphics processing units (GPUs) has become popular in scientific computing applications due to their low cost, impressive floating-point capabilities, high memory bandwidth, and low electrical power requirements. Hybrid high-performance computers, machines with nodes containing more than one type of floating-point processor (e.g. CPU and GPU), are now becoming more prevalent due to these advantages. In this paper, we present a continuation of previous work implementing algorithms for using accelerators into the LAMMPS molecular dynamics software for distributed memory parallel hybrid machines. In our previous work, we focused on acceleration for short-range models with an approach intended to harness the processing power of both the accelerator and (multi-core) CPUs. To augment the existing implementations, we present an efficient implementation of long-range electrostatic force calculation for molecular dynamics. Specifically, we present an implementation of the particle-particle particle-mesh method based on the work by Harvey and De Fabritiis. We present benchmark results on the Keeneland InfiniBand GPU cluster. We provide a performance comparison of the same kernels compiled with both CUDA and OpenCL. We discuss limitations to parallel efficiency and future directions for improving performance on hybrid or heterogeneous computers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konopka, Ladislav; Kosek, Juraj
2015-10-01
Polyethylene particles of various sizes are present in industrial gas-dispersion reactors and downstream processing units. The contact of the particles with a device wall as well as the mutual particle collisions cause electrons on the particle surface to redistribute in the system. The undesirable triboelectric charging results in several operational problems and safety risks in industrial systems, for example in the fluidized-bed polymerization reactor. We studied the charging of polyethylene particles caused by the particle-particle interactions in gas. Our model employs the Discrete Element Method (DEM) describing the particle dynamics and incorporates the ‘Trapped Electron Approach’ as the physical basis for the considered charging mechanism. The model predicts the particle charge distribution for systems with various particle size distributions and various level of segregation. Simulation results are in a qualitative agreement with experimental observations of similar particulate systems specifically in two aspects: 1) Big particles tend to gain positive charge and small particles the negative one. 2) The wider the particle size distribution is, the more pronounced is the charging process. Our results suggest that not only the size distribution, but also the effect of the spatial segregation of the polyethylene particles significantly influence the resulting charge distribution ‘generated’ in the system. The level of particle segregation as well as the particle size distribution of polyethylene particles can be in practice adjusted by the choice of supported catalysts, by the conditions in the fluidized-bed polymerization reactor and by the fluid dynamics. We also attempt to predict how the reactor temperature affects the triboelectric charging of particles.
Yang, Jin; Liu, Fagui; Cao, Jianneng; Wang, Liangming
2016-01-01
Mobile sinks can achieve load-balancing and energy-consumption balancing across the wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However, the frequent change of the paths between source nodes and the sinks caused by sink mobility introduces significant overhead in terms of energy and packet delays. To enhance network performance of WSNs with mobile sinks (MWSNs), we present an efficient routing strategy, which is formulated as an optimization problem and employs the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) to build the optimal routing paths. However, the conventional PSO is insufficient to solve discrete routing optimization problems. Therefore, a novel greedy discrete particle swarm optimization with memory (GMDPSO) is put forward to address this problem. In the GMDPSO, particle's position and velocity of traditional PSO are redefined under discrete MWSNs scenario. Particle updating rule is also reconsidered based on the subnetwork topology of MWSNs. Besides, by improving the greedy forwarding routing, a greedy search strategy is designed to drive particles to find a better position quickly. Furthermore, searching history is memorized to accelerate convergence. Simulation results demonstrate that our new protocol significantly improves the robustness and adapts to rapid topological changes with multiple mobile sinks, while efficiently reducing the communication overhead and the energy consumption. PMID:27428971
Discrete particle swarm optimization for identifying community structures in signed social networks.
Cai, Qing; Gong, Maoguo; Shen, Bo; Ma, Lijia; Jiao, Licheng
2014-10-01
Modern science of networks has facilitated us with enormous convenience to the understanding of complex systems. Community structure is believed to be one of the notable features of complex networks representing real complicated systems. Very often, uncovering community structures in networks can be regarded as an optimization problem, thus, many evolutionary algorithms based approaches have been put forward. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is an artificial intelligent algorithm originated from social behavior such as birds flocking and fish schooling. PSO has been proved to be an effective optimization technique. However, PSO was originally designed for continuous optimization which confounds its applications to discrete contexts. In this paper, a novel discrete PSO algorithm is suggested for identifying community structures in signed networks. In the suggested method, particles' status has been redesigned in discrete form so as to make PSO proper for discrete scenarios, and particles' updating rules have been reformulated by making use of the topology of the signed network. Extensive experiments compared with three state-of-the-art approaches on both synthetic and real-world signed networks demonstrate that the proposed method is effective and promising. PMID:24856248
Damping of rotating beams with particle dampers: Discrete element method analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Els, D. N. J.
2013-06-01
The performance of particle dampers (PDs) under centrifugal loads was investigated. A test bench consisting of a rotating cantilever beam with a particle damper at the tip was developed (D. N. J. Els, AIAA Journal 49, 2228-2238 (2011)). Equal mass containers with different depths, filled with a range of uniform-sized steel ball bearings, were used as particle dampers. The experiments were duplicated numerically with a discrete element method (DEM) model, calibrated against the experimental data. The DEM model of the rotating beam with a PD at the tip captured the performance of the PD very well over a wide range of tests with different configurations and rotation velocities.
A Review of Discrete Element Method (DEM) Particle Shapes and Size Distributions for Lunar Soil
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lane, John E.; Metzger, Philip T.; Wilkinson, R. Allen
2010-01-01
As part of ongoing efforts to develop models of lunar soil mechanics, this report reviews two topics that are important to discrete element method (DEM) modeling the behavior of soils (such as lunar soils): (1) methods of modeling particle shapes and (2) analytical representations of particle size distribution. The choice of particle shape complexity is driven primarily by opposing tradeoffs with total number of particles, computer memory, and total simulation computer processing time. The choice is also dependent on available DEM software capabilities. For example, PFC2D/PFC3D and EDEM support clustering of spheres; MIMES incorporates superquadric particle shapes; and BLOKS3D provides polyhedra shapes. Most commercial and custom DEM software supports some type of complex particle shape beyond the standard sphere. Convex polyhedra, clusters of spheres and single parametric particle shapes such as the ellipsoid, polyellipsoid, and superquadric, are all motivated by the desire to introduce asymmetry into the particle shape, as well as edges and corners, in order to better simulate actual granular particle shapes and behavior. An empirical particle size distribution (PSD) formula is shown to fit desert sand data from Bagnold. Particle size data of JSC-1a obtained from a fine particle analyzer at the NASA Kennedy Space Center is also fitted to a similar empirical PSD function.
Yang, Jin; Liu, Fagui; Cao, Jianneng; Wang, Liangming
2016-01-01
Mobile sinks can achieve load-balancing and energy-consumption balancing across the wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However, the frequent change of the paths between source nodes and the sinks caused by sink mobility introduces significant overhead in terms of energy and packet delays. To enhance network performance of WSNs with mobile sinks (MWSNs), we present an efficient routing strategy, which is formulated as an optimization problem and employs the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) to build the optimal routing paths. However, the conventional PSO is insufficient to solve discrete routing optimization problems. Therefore, a novel greedy discrete particle swarm optimization with memory (GMDPSO) is put forward to address this problem. In the GMDPSO, particle’s position and velocity of traditional PSO are redefined under discrete MWSNs scenario. Particle updating rule is also reconsidered based on the subnetwork topology of MWSNs. Besides, by improving the greedy forwarding routing, a greedy search strategy is designed to drive particles to find a better position quickly. Furthermore, searching history is memorized to accelerate convergence. Simulation results demonstrate that our new protocol significantly improves the robustness and adapts to rapid topological changes with multiple mobile sinks, while efficiently reducing the communication overhead and the energy consumption. PMID:27428971
Novel hybrid classified vector quantization using discrete cosine transform for image compression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Al-Fayadh, Ali; Hussain, Abir Jaafar; Lisboa, Paulo; Al-Jumeily, Dhiya
2009-04-01
We present a novel image compression technique using a classified vector Quantizer and singular value decomposition for the efficient representation of still images. The proposed method is called hybrid classified vector quantization. It involves a simple but efficient classifier-based gradient method in the spatial domain, which employs only one threshold to determine the class of the input image block, and uses three AC coefficients of discrete cosine transform coefficients to determine the orientation of the block without employing any threshold. The proposed technique is benchmarked with each of the standard vector quantizers generated using the k-means algorithm, standard classified vector quantizer schemes, and JPEG-2000. Simulation results indicate that the proposed approach alleviates edge degradation and can reconstruct good visual quality images with higher peak signal-to-noise ratio than the benchmarked techniques, or be competitive with them.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afshar, M. H.; Rohani, M.
2012-01-01
In this article, cellular automata based hybrid methods are proposed for the optimal design of sewer networks and their performance is compared with some of the common heuristic search methods. The problem of optimal design of sewer networks is first decomposed into two sub-optimization problems which are solved iteratively in a two stage manner. In the first stage, the pipe diameters of the network are assumed fixed and the nodal cover depths of the network are determined by solving a nonlinear sub-optimization problem. A cellular automata (CA) method is used for the solution of the optimization problem with the network nodes considered as the cells and their cover depths as the cell states. In the second stage, the nodal cover depths calculated from the first stage are fixed and the pipe diameters are calculated by solving a second nonlinear sub-optimization problem. Once again a CA method is used to solve the optimization problem of the second stage with the pipes considered as the CA cells and their corresponding diameters as the cell states. Two different updating rules are derived and used for the CA of the second stage depending on the treatment of the pipe diameters. In the continuous approach, the pipe diameters are considered as continuous variables and the corresponding updating rule is derived mathematically from the original objective function of the problem. In the discrete approach, however, an adhoc updating rule is derived and used taking into account the discrete nature of the pipe diameters. The proposed methods are used to optimally solve two sewer network problems and the results are presented and compared with those obtained by other methods. The results show that the proposed CA based hybrid methods are more efficient and effective than the most powerful search methods considered in this work.
Garcia, R.D.M.; Ono, S.
1999-09-01
An improved implementation of the discrete ordinates method for computing neutral particle transport in ducts is presented. The considered one-dimensional model makes use of two basic functions to represent the transverse and azimuthal dependencies of the particle angular flux in the duct. It is shown that if the problem is decomposed into uncollided and collided problems prior to using the discrete ordinates approximation, the number of ordinates necessary to achieve a desired degree of accuracy in the solution can be greatly reduced, especially for long ducts with significant wall absorption. Further savings in computer time can be attained by employing a composite quadrature based on a (nonstandard) half-range quadrature that can be generated in an effective and efficient way with one of the classical methods in the constructive theory of orthogonal polynomials.
The three-dimensional, discrete ordinates neutral particle transport code TORT: An overview
Azmy, Y.Y.
1996-12-31
The centerpiece of the Discrete Ordinates Oak Ridge System (DOORS), the three-dimensional neutral particle transport code TORT is reviewed. Its most prominent features pertaining to large applications, such as adjustable problem parameters, memory management, and coarse mesh methods, are described. Advanced, state-of-the-art capabilities including acceleration and multiprocessing are summarized here. Future enhancement of existing graphics and visualization tools is briefly presented.
Cleary, Paul W; Prakash, Mahesh
2004-09-15
Particle-based simulation methods, such as the discrete-element method and smoothed particle hydrodynamics, have specific advantages in modelling complex three-dimensional (3D) environmental fluid and particulate flows. The theory of both these methods and their relative advantages compared with traditional methods will be discussed. Examples of 3D flows on realistic topography illustrate the environmental application of these methods. These include the flooding of a river valley as a result of a dam collapse, coastal inundation by a tsunami, volcanic lava flow and landslides. Issues related to validation and quality data availability are also discussed. PMID:15306427
Hybrid Gaussian-discrete variable representation for continuum electrons in molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yip, Frank L.; McCurdy, C. William; Rescigno, Thomas N.
2015-05-01
A combined basis of analytic Gaussian functions and grid-based finite element discrete variable representation (FEM-DVR) with spherical harmonic expansion is specialized for description of continuum electron dynamics in the presence of electrons held fixed in core molecular orbitals. The applicability of this hybrid representation designed for general problems involving accurate determination of molecular continua wave functions is illustrated for photoionization of a second-row diatomic molecule, nitric oxide, NO. Accurate descriptions of such electron continuum dynamics are a necessary step towards analyzing correlated double continua photoejections. Examination of this hybrid method in comparison to a more computationally expensive pure grid-based single center expansion reveals several key advantages that by design make it attractive for describing processes involving one or more electrons moved to the continuum. Work supported by supported by the U.S. Dept of Energy, Office of Science, Division of Chemical Sciences of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231.
Discrete particle model for bedload sediment transport in the surf zone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calantoni, Joseph
2002-04-01
Predicting the evolution of nearshore bathymetry from the highest uprush of the swash offshore to the location of wave breaking is a difficult problem of significant importance, with economic, legal, engineering, scientific, and military implications for coastal environments. Despite the apparent accessibility of the phenomena of interest, namely, the motion of sand under the forcing of waves and currents, the predictive capability of existing models for nearshore evolution is poor. A detailed study of the forces exerted on individual sand grains is undertaken in an effort to elucidate sediment transport mechanisms in the surf zone. New results indicate that fluid acceleration is a particularly important feature of surf zone transport; likewise, the processes of particle size segregation and the role of particle shape are newly explored. The study methodology employs computer simulations that describe the collective and individual motions of discrete particles immersed in a Newtonian fluid having essentially arbitrary density and viscosity. In this study all particle properties are those of quartz sand, and the fluid properties correspond to saltwater at 20°C. Such discrete-particle models, having a basis in molecular dynamics studies, have a broad range of applications in addition to the sedimentological one of interest here; for example, similar methodologies have been applied to traffic flow, schooling fish, crowd control, and other problems in which the particulate nature of the phenomenon is of critical importance.
3D Discrete Element Model with 1 Million Particles: an Example of Hydro-fracturing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, C.; Pollard, D. D.
2013-12-01
The Discrete Element Method (DEM) permits large relative motion and breakage of elements, and does not require re-meshing, for example as would the Finite Element Method. DEM has a wide range of applications in the fields of solid-earth geophysics, geomechanics, mining engineering, and structural geology. However, due to the computational cost, particle numbers of discrete element models are generally less than a few tens of thousands, which limits the applications. A new 3D DEM system 'MatDEM' can complete dynamic simulations of one million particles. The conversion formulas between particle parameters and model mechanical properties were derived, and the conversion of energy in DEM can be simulated. In a recent paper (Liu et al., 2013, JGR), the analytical solutions of elastic properties and failure modes of a 2D close-packed discrete element model were proposed. Based on these theoretical results, it is easy to create materials using DEM, which have similar mechanical properties to rock. Given the mechanical properties and state of stress, geologists and engineers can investigate the characteristics of rock deformation and failure under different conditions. MatDEM provides an alternative way to study the micro-macro relationships of rock and soil, and the evolution of geologic structures. As an example, MatDEM was used to investigate the generation and development of fluid driven fractures around a micro pore. The simulation result of fractures of an anisotropic 3D model, which includes 1 million particles, is demonstrated. Via parallel computing technology, MatDEM may handle tens of millions of particles in near future. Left: Fluid pressure is applied in the pore to generate fractures. Right: Simulation results (black segments represent fractures).
Silicon PIN diode array hybrids for charged particle detection
Shapiro, S.L.; Dunwoodie, W.M.; Arens, J.F.; Jernigan, J.G.; Gaalema, S.
1988-09-01
We report on the design of silicon PIN diode array hybrids for use as charged particle detectors. A brief summary of the need for vertex detectors is presented. Circuitry, block diagrams and device specifications are included. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.
Walsh, J. A.; Palmer, T. S.; Urbatsch, T. J.
2013-07-01
A new method for generating discrete scattering cross sections to be used in charged particle transport calculations is investigated. The method of data generation is presented and compared to current methods for obtaining discrete cross sections. The new, more generalized approach allows greater flexibility in choosing a cross section model from which to derive discrete values. Cross section data generated with the new method is verified through a comparison with discrete data obtained with an existing method. Additionally, a charged particle transport capability is demonstrated in the time-dependent Implicit Monte Carlo radiative transfer code package, Milagro. The implementation of this capability is verified using test problems with analytic solutions as well as a comparison of electron dose-depth profiles calculated with Milagro and an already-established electron transport code. An initial investigation of a preliminary integration of the discrete cross section generation method with the new charged particle transport capability in Milagro is also presented. (authors)
DNS with Discrete Element Modeling of Suspended Sediment Particles in an Open Channel Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paksereht, Pedram; Apte, Sourabh; Finn, Justin
2015-11-01
Interactions of glass particles in water in a turbulent open channel flow over a smooth bed with gravity perpendicular to the mean flow is examined using direct numerical simulation (DNS) together with Lagrangian Discrete-Element-Model (DEM) for particles. The turbulent Reynolds number (Reτ) is 710 corresponding to the experimental observations of Righetti & Romano (JFM, 2004). Particles of size 200 microns with volume loading on the order of 10-3 are simulated using four-way coupling with standard models for drag, added mass, lift, pressure, and inter-particle collision forces. The presence of particles affect the outer as well as inner region of the wall layer where particle inertia and concentration are higher. The DNS-DEM is able to capture the fluid-particle interactions in the outer layer accurately. However, in the inner layer, an increase in mean as well as rms fluid velocity, as observed in the experiments, is not predicted by the DNS-DEM model. It is conjectured that particles slide and roll on the bottom wall, creating slip-like condition. Predictions using different models for drag and lift forces, as well as strong torque coupling are explored and compared with experimental data. Funding: NSF project #1133363, Sediment-Bed-Turbulence Coupling in Oscillatory Flows.
Asymptotics of a Discrete-Time Particle System Near a Reflecting Boundary
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuan, Jeffrey
2013-01-01
We examine a discrete-time Markovian particle system on ℕ×ℤ+ introduced in Defosseux (arXiv:
A discrete mesoscopic particle model of the mechanics of a multi-constituent arterial wall.
Witthoft, Alexandra; Yazdani, Alireza; Peng, Zhangli; Bellini, Chiara; Humphrey, Jay D; Karniadakis, George Em
2016-01-01
Blood vessels have unique properties that allow them to function together within a complex, self-regulating network. The contractile capacity of the wall combined with complex mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix enables vessels to adapt to changes in haemodynamic loading. Homogenized phenomenological and multi-constituent, structurally motivated continuum models have successfully captured these mechanical properties, but truly describing intricate microstructural details of the arterial wall may require a discrete framework. Such an approach would facilitate modelling interactions between or the separation of layers of the wall and would offer the advantage of seamless integration with discrete models of complex blood flow. We present a discrete particle model of a multi-constituent, nonlinearly elastic, anisotropic arterial wall, which we develop using the dissipative particle dynamics method. Mimicking basic features of the microstructure of the arterial wall, the model comprises an elastin matrix having isotropic nonlinear elastic properties plus anisotropic fibre reinforcement that represents the stiffer collagen fibres of the wall. These collagen fibres are distributed evenly and are oriented in four directions, symmetric to the vessel axis. Experimental results from biaxial mechanical tests of an artery are used for model validation, and a delamination test is simulated to demonstrate the new capabilities of the model. PMID:26790998
Breier, J. A.; Rauch, C. G.; McCartney, K.; Toner, B. M.; Fakra, S. C.; White, S. N.; German, C. R.
2010-06-22
To enable detailed investigations of early stage hydrothermal plume formation and abiotic and biotic plume processes we developed a new oceanographic tool. The Suspended Particulate Rosette sampling system has been designed to collect geochemical and microbial samples from the rising portion of deep-sea hydrothermal plumes. It can be deployed on a remotely operated vehicle for sampling rising plumes, on a wire-deployed water rosette for spatially discrete sampling of non-buoyant hydrothermal plumes, or on a fixed mooring in a hydrothermal vent field for time series sampling. It has performed successfully during both its first mooring deployment at the East Pacific Rise and its first remotely-operated vehicle deployments along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It is currently capable of rapidly filtering 24 discrete large-water-volume samples (30-100 L per sample) for suspended particles during a single deployment (e.g. >90 L per sample at 4-7 L per minute through 1 {mu}m pore diameter polycarbonate filters). The Suspended Particulate Rosette sampler has been designed with a long-term goal of seafloor observatory deployments, where it can be used to collect samples in response to tectonic or other events. It is compatible with in situ optical sensors, such as laser Raman or visible reflectance spectroscopy systems, enabling in situ particle analysis immediately after sample collection and before the particles alter or degrade.
Pressure calculation in hybrid particle-field simulations.
Milano, Giuseppe; Kawakatsu, Toshihiro
2010-12-01
In the framework of a recently developed scheme for a hybrid particle-field simulation techniques where self-consistent field (SCF) theory and particle models (molecular dynamics) are combined [J. Chem. Phys. 130, 214106 (2009)], we developed a general formulation for the calculation of instantaneous pressure and stress tensor. The expressions have been derived from statistical mechanical definition of the pressure starting from the expression for the free energy functional in the SCF theory. An implementation of the derived formulation suitable for hybrid particle-field molecular dynamics-self-consistent field simulations is described. A series of test simulations on model systems are reported comparing the calculated pressure with those obtained from standard molecular dynamics simulations based on pair potentials. PMID:21142296
Dorn, Martin; Hekmat, Dariusch
2016-03-01
Preparative packed-bed chromatography using polymer-based, compressible, porous resins is a powerful method for purification of macromolecular bioproducts. During operation, a complex, hysteretic, thus, history-dependent packed bed behavior is often observed but theoretical understanding of the causes is limited. Therefore, a rigorous modeling approach of the chromatography column on the particle scale has been made which takes into account interparticle micromechanics and fluid-particle interactions for the first time. A three-dimensional deterministic model was created by applying Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) coupled with the Discrete Element Method (DEM). The column packing behavior during either flow or mechanical compression was investigated in-silico and in laboratory experiments. A pronounced axial compression-relaxation profile was identified that differed for both compression strategies. Void spaces were clearly visible in the packed bed after compression. It was assumed that the observed bed inhomogeneity was because of a force-chain network at the particle scale. The simulation satisfactorily reproduced the measured behavior regarding packing compression as well as pressure-flow dependency. Furthermore, the particle Young's modulus and particle-wall friction as well as interparticle friction were identified as crucial parameters affecting packing dynamics. It was concluded that compaction of the chromatographic bed is rather because of particle rearrangement than particle deformation. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:363-371, 2016. PMID:26588806
Nye, Ben; Kulchitsky, Anton V; Johnson, Jerome B
2014-01-01
This paper describes a new method for representing concave polyhedral particles in a discrete element method as unions of convex dilated polyhedra. This method offers an efficient way to simulate systems with a large number of (generally concave) polyhedral particles. The method also allows spheres, capsules, and dilated triangles to be combined with polyhedra using the same approach. The computational efficiency of the method is tested in two different simulation setups using different efficiency metrics for seven particle types: spheres, clusters of three spheres, clusters of four spheres, tetrahedra, cubes, unions of two octahedra (concave), and a model of a computer tomography scan of a lunar simulant GRC-3 particle. It is shown that the computational efficiency of the simulations degrades much slower than the increase in complexity of the particles in the system. The efficiency of the method is based on the time coherence of the system, and an efficient and robust distance computation method between polyhedra as particles never intersect for dilated particles. PMID:26300584
Digital atom interferometer with single particle control on a discretized space-time geometry
Steffen, Andreas; Alberti, Andrea; Alt, Wolfgang; Belmechri, Noomen; Hild, Sebastian; Karski, Michał; Widera, Artur; Meschede, Dieter
2012-01-01
Engineering quantum particle systems, such as quantum simulators and quantum cellular automata, relies on full coherent control of quantum paths at the single particle level. Here we present an atom interferometer operating with single trapped atoms, where single particle wave packets are controlled through spin-dependent potentials. The interferometer is constructed from a sequence of discrete operations based on a set of elementary building blocks, which permit composing arbitrary interferometer geometries in a digital manner. We use this modularity to devise a space-time analogue of the well-known spin echo technique, yielding insight into decoherence mechanisms. We also demonstrate mesoscopic delocalization of single atoms with a separation-to-localization ratio exceeding 500; this result suggests their utilization beyond quantum logic applications as nano-resolution quantum probes in precision measurements, being able to measure potential gradients with precision 5 × 10-4 in units of gravitational acceleration g. PMID:22665771
Makedonska, Nataliia; Painter, Scott L.; Bui, Quan M.; Gable, Carl W.; Karra, Satish
2015-09-16
The discrete fracture network (DFN) model is a method to mimic discrete pathways for fluid flow through a fractured low-permeable rock mass, and may be combined with particle tracking simulations to address solute transport. However, experience has shown that it is challenging to obtain accurate transport results in three-dimensional DFNs because of the high computational burden and difficulty in constructing a high-quality unstructured computational mesh on simulated fractures. We present a new particle tracking capability, which is adapted to control volume (Voronoi polygons) flow solutions on unstructured grids (Delaunay triangulations) on three-dimensional DFNs. The locally mass-conserving finite-volume approach eliminates massmore » balance-related problems during particle tracking. The scalar fluxes calculated for each control volume face by the flow solver are used to reconstruct a Darcy velocity at each control volume centroid. The groundwater velocities can then be continuously interpolated to any point in the domain of interest. The control volumes at fracture intersections are split into four pieces, and the velocity is reconstructed independently on each piece, which results in multiple groundwater velocities at the intersection, one for each fracture on each side of the intersection line. This technique enables detailed particle transport representation through a complex DFN structure. Verified for small DFNs, the new simulation capability enables numerical experiments on advective transport in large DFNs to be performed. As a result, we demonstrate this particle transport approach on a DFN model using parameters similar to those of crystalline rock at a proposed geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark, Sweden.« less
Makedonska, Nataliia; Painter, Scott L.; Bui, Quan M.; Gable, Carl W.; Karra, Satish
2015-09-16
The discrete fracture network (DFN) model is a method to mimic discrete pathways for fluid flow through a fractured low-permeable rock mass, and may be combined with particle tracking simulations to address solute transport. However, experience has shown that it is challenging to obtain accurate transport results in three-dimensional DFNs because of the high computational burden and difficulty in constructing a high-quality unstructured computational mesh on simulated fractures. We present a new particle tracking capability, which is adapted to control volume (Voronoi polygons) flow solutions on unstructured grids (Delaunay triangulations) on three-dimensional DFNs. The locally mass-conserving finite-volume approach eliminates mass balance-related problems during particle tracking. The scalar fluxes calculated for each control volume face by the flow solver are used to reconstruct a Darcy velocity at each control volume centroid. The groundwater velocities can then be continuously interpolated to any point in the domain of interest. The control volumes at fracture intersections are split into four pieces, and the velocity is reconstructed independently on each piece, which results in multiple groundwater velocities at the intersection, one for each fracture on each side of the intersection line. This technique enables detailed particle transport representation through a complex DFN structure. Verified for small DFNs, the new simulation capability enables numerical experiments on advective transport in large DFNs to be performed. As a result, we demonstrate this particle transport approach on a DFN model using parameters similar to those of crystalline rock at a proposed geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark, Sweden.
Discrete Particle Simulation Techniques for the Analysis of Colliding and Flowing Particulate Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukherjee, Debanjan
Flowing particulate media are ubiquitous in a wide spectrum of applications that include transport systems, fluidized beds, manufacturing and materials processing technologies, energy conversion and propulsion technologies, sprays, jets, slurry flows, and biological flows. The discrete nature of the media, along with their underlying coupled multi-physical interactions can lead to a variety of interesting phenomena, many of which are unique to such media - for example, turbulent diffusion and preferential concentration in particle laden flows, and soliton like excitation patterns in a vibrated pile of granular material. This dissertation explores the utility of numerical simulations based on the discrete element method and collision driven particle dynamics methods for analyzing flowing particulate media. Such methods are well-suited to handle phenomena involving particulate, granular, and discontinuous materials, and often provide abilities to tackle complicated physical phenomena, for which pursuing continuum based approaches might be difficult or sometimes insufficient. A detailed discussion on hierarchically representing coupled, multi-physical phenomena through simple models for underlying physical interactions is presented. Appropriate physical models for mechanical contact, conductive and convective heat exchange, fluid-particle interactions, adhesive and near-field effects, and interaction with applied electromagnetic fields are presented. Algorithmic details on assembling the interaction models into a large-scale simulation framework have been elaborated with illustrations. The assembled frameworks were used to develop a computer simulation library (named `Software Library for Discrete Element Simulations' (SLIDES) for the sake of reference and continued future development efforts) and aspects of the architecture and development of this library have also been addressed. This is an object-oriented discrete particle simulation library developed in Fortran
Coupled discrete element and smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of the die filling process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Breinlinger, Thomas; Kraft, Torsten
2015-08-01
Die filling is an important part of the powder compaction process chain, where defects in the final part can be introduced—or prevented. Simulation of this process is therefore a goal for many part producers and has been studied by some researchers already. In this work, we focus on the influence of the surrounding air on the powder flow. We demonstrate the implementing and coupling of the discrete element method for the granular powder and the smoothed particle hydrodynamics method for the gas flow. Application of the method to the die filling process is demonstrated.
Atomic filtering for hybrid continuous-variable/discrete-variable quantum optics.
Zielińska, Joanna A; Beduini, Federica A; Lucivero, Vito Giovanni; Mitchell, Morgan W
2014-10-20
We demonstrate atomic filtering of frequency-degenerate photon pairs from a sub-threshold optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The filter, a modified Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (FADOF), achieves 70% peak transmission simultaneous with 57 dB out-of-band rejection and a 445 MHz transmission bandwidth. When applied to the OPO output, only the degenerate mode, containing one-mode squeezed vacuum, falls in the filter pass-band; all other modes are strongly suppressed. The high transmission preserves non-classical continuous-variable features, e.g. squeezing or non-gaussianity, while the high spectral purity allows reliable discrete-variable detection and heralding. Correlation and atomic absorption measurements indicate a spectral purity of 96% for the individual photons, and 98% for the photon pairs. These capabilities will enable generation of atom-resonant hybrid states, e.g. "Schrödinger kittens" obtained by photon subtraction from squeezed vacuum, making these exotic states available for quantum networking and atomic quantum metrology applications. PMID:25401564
Particle tracking approach for transport in three-dimensional discrete fracture networks
Makedonska, Nataliia; Painter, Scott L; Bui, Quan M; Gable, Carl; Karra, Satish
2015-01-01
The discrete fracture network (DFN) model is a method to mimic discrete pathways for fluid flow through a fractured low-permeable rock mass, and may be combined with particle tracking simulations to address solute transport. However, experience has shown that it is challenging to obtain accurate transport results in three-dimensional DFNs because of the high computational burden and difficulty in constructing a high-quality unstructured computational mesh on simulated fractures. We present a new particle tracking capability, which is adapted to control volume (Voronoi polygons) flow solutions on unstructured grids (Delaunay triangulations) on three-dimensional DFNs. The locally mass-conserving finite-volume approach eliminates massmore » balance related problems during particle tracking. The scalar fluxes calculated for each control volume face by the flow solver are used to reconstruct a Darcy velocity at each control volume centroid. The groundwater velocities can then be continuously interpolated to any point in the domain of interest. The control volumes at fracture intersections are split into four pieces and the velocity is reconstructed independently on each piece, which results in multiple groundwater velocities at the intersection, one for each fracture on each side of the intersection line. This technique enables detailed particle transport representation through a complex DFN structure. Verified for small DFNs, the new simulation capability enables numerical experiments on advective transport in large DFNs to be performed. We demonstrate this particle transport approach on a DFN model using parameters similar to those of crystalline rock at a proposed geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark, Sweden.« less
Particle tracking approach for transport in three-dimensional discrete fracture networks
Makedonska, Nataliia; Painter, Scott L; Bui, Quan M; Gable, Carl; Karra, Satish
2015-01-01
The discrete fracture network (DFN) model is a method to mimic discrete pathways for fluid flow through a fractured low-permeable rock mass, and may be combined with particle tracking simulations to address solute transport. However, experience has shown that it is challenging to obtain accurate transport results in three-dimensional DFNs because of the high computational burden and difficulty in constructing a high-quality unstructured computational mesh on simulated fractures. We present a new particle tracking capability, which is adapted to control volume (Voronoi polygons) flow solutions on unstructured grids (Delaunay triangulations) on three-dimensional DFNs. The locally mass-conserving finite-volume approach eliminates mass balance related problems during particle tracking. The scalar fluxes calculated for each control volume face by the flow solver are used to reconstruct a Darcy velocity at each control volume centroid. The groundwater velocities can then be continuously interpolated to any point in the domain of interest. The control volumes at fracture intersections are split into four pieces and the velocity is reconstructed independently on each piece, which results in multiple groundwater velocities at the intersection, one for each fracture on each side of the intersection line. This technique enables detailed particle transport representation through a complex DFN structure. Verified for small DFNs, the new simulation capability enables numerical experiments on advective transport in large DFNs to be performed. We demonstrate this particle transport approach on a DFN model using parameters similar to those of crystalline rock at a proposed geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark, Sweden.
Hybrid upwind discretization of nonlinear two-phase flow with gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, S. H.; Efendiev, Y.; Tchelepi, H. A.
2015-08-01
Multiphase flow in porous media is described by coupled nonlinear mass conservation laws. For immiscible Darcy flow of multiple fluid phases, whereby capillary effects are negligible, the transport equations in the presence of viscous and buoyancy forces are highly nonlinear and hyperbolic. Numerical simulation of multiphase flow processes in heterogeneous formations requires the development of discretization and solution schemes that are able to handle the complex nonlinear dynamics, especially of the saturation evolution, in a reliable and computationally efficient manner. In reservoir simulation practice, single-point upwinding of the flux across an interface between two control volumes (cells) is performed for each fluid phase, whereby the upstream direction is based on the gradient of the phase-potential (pressure plus gravity head). This upwinding scheme, which we refer to as Phase-Potential Upwinding (PPU), is combined with implicit (backward-Euler) time discretization to obtain a Fully Implicit Method (FIM). Even though FIM suffers from numerical dispersion effects, it is widely used in practice. This is because of its unconditional stability and because it yields conservative, monotone numerical solutions. However, FIM is not unconditionally convergent. The convergence difficulties are particularly pronounced when the different immiscible fluid phases switch between co-current and counter-current states as a function of time, or (Newton) iteration. Whether the multiphase flow across an interface (between two control-volumes) is co-current, or counter-current, depends on the local balance between the viscous and buoyancy forces, and how the balance evolves in time. The sensitivity of PPU to small changes in the (local) pressure distribution exacerbates the problem. The common strategy to deal with these difficulties is to cut the timestep and try again. Here, we propose a Hybrid-Upwinding (HU) scheme for the phase fluxes, then HU is combined with implicit
Discrete Particle Model for Porous Media Flow using OpenFOAM at Intel Xeon Phi Coprocessors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shang, Zhi; Nandakumar, Krishnaswamy; Liu, Honggao; Tyagi, Mayank; Lupo, James A.; Thompson, Karten
2015-11-01
The discrete particle model (DPM) in OpenFOAM was used to study the turbulent solid particle suspension flows through the porous media of a natural dual-permeability rock. The 2D and 3D pore geometries of the porous media were generated by sphere packing with the radius ratio of 3. The porosity is about 38% same as the natural dual-permeability rock. In the 2D case, the mesh cells reach 5 million with 1 million solid particles and in the 3D case, the mesh cells are above 10 million with 5 million solid particles. The solid particles are distributed by Gaussian distribution from 20 μm to 180 μm with expectation as 100 μm. Through the numerical simulations, not only was the HPC studied using Intel Xeon Phi Coprocessors but also the flow behaviors of large scale solid suspension flows in porous media were studied. The authors would like to thank the support by IPCC@LSU-Intel Parallel Computing Center (LSU # Y1SY1-1) and the HPC resources at Louisiana State University (http://www.hpc.lsu.edu).
Discharge flow of a bidisperse granular media from a silo: Discrete particle simulations.
Zhou, Y; Ruyer, P; Aussillous, P
2015-12-01
Discrete particle simulations are used to study two-dimensional discharge flow from a silo using both monodisperse and bidisperse mixtures. The density and the velocity profiles through the aperture are measured. In the monodisperse case, two particles' diameters are studied for different outlet diameters. In the bidisperse case, we varied the fine mass fraction of the mixture. In all cases, the density and the velocity profiles are found to follow the same self-similar law. Based on these observations and the previous work of Benyamine et al., a physical model is proposed to describe the flow of bidisperse mixtures giving an explicit expression for the flow rate that is in good agreement with the results. PMID:26764679
Nguyen, Jennifer; Hayakawa, Carole K.; Mourant, Judith R.; Venugopalan, Vasan; Spanier, Jerome
2016-01-01
We present a polarization-sensitive, transport-rigorous perturbation Monte Carlo (pMC) method to model the impact of optical property changes on reflectance measurements within a discrete particle scattering model. The model consists of three log-normally distributed populations of Mie scatterers that approximate biologically relevant cervical tissue properties. Our method provides reflectance estimates for perturbations across wavelength and/or scattering model parameters. We test our pMC model performance by perturbing across number densities and mean particle radii, and compare pMC reflectance estimates with those obtained from conventional Monte Carlo simulations. These tests allow us to explore different factors that control pMC performance and to evaluate the gains in computational efficiency that our pMC method provides. PMID:27231642
Nguyen, Jennifer; Hayakawa, Carole K; Mourant, Judith R; Venugopalan, Vasan; Spanier, Jerome
2016-05-01
We present a polarization-sensitive, transport-rigorous perturbation Monte Carlo (pMC) method to model the impact of optical property changes on reflectance measurements within a discrete particle scattering model. The model consists of three log-normally distributed populations of Mie scatterers that approximate biologically relevant cervical tissue properties. Our method provides reflectance estimates for perturbations across wavelength and/or scattering model parameters. We test our pMC model performance by perturbing across number densities and mean particle radii, and compare pMC reflectance estimates with those obtained from conventional Monte Carlo simulations. These tests allow us to explore different factors that control pMC performance and to evaluate the gains in computational efficiency that our pMC method provides. PMID:27231642
GPU accelerated simulations of 3D deterministic particle transport using discrete ordinates method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gong, Chunye; Liu, Jie; Chi, Lihua; Huang, Haowei; Fang, Jingyue; Gong, Zhenghu
2011-07-01
Graphics Processing Unit (GPU), originally developed for real-time, high-definition 3D graphics in computer games, now provides great faculty in solving scientific applications. The basis of particle transport simulation is the time-dependent, multi-group, inhomogeneous Boltzmann transport equation. The numerical solution to the Boltzmann equation involves the discrete ordinates ( Sn) method and the procedure of source iteration. In this paper, we present a GPU accelerated simulation of one energy group time-independent deterministic discrete ordinates particle transport in 3D Cartesian geometry (Sweep3D). The performance of the GPU simulations are reported with the simulations of vacuum boundary condition. The discussion of the relative advantages and disadvantages of the GPU implementation, the simulation on multi GPUs, the programming effort and code portability are also reported. The results show that the overall performance speedup of one NVIDIA Tesla M2050 GPU ranges from 2.56 compared with one Intel Xeon X5670 chip to 8.14 compared with one Intel Core Q6600 chip for no flux fixup. The simulation with flux fixup on one M2050 is 1.23 times faster than on one X5670.
GPU accelerated simulations of 3D deterministic particle transport using discrete ordinates method
Gong Chunye; Liu Jie; Chi Lihua; Huang Haowei; Fang Jingyue; Gong Zhenghu
2011-07-01
Graphics Processing Unit (GPU), originally developed for real-time, high-definition 3D graphics in computer games, now provides great faculty in solving scientific applications. The basis of particle transport simulation is the time-dependent, multi-group, inhomogeneous Boltzmann transport equation. The numerical solution to the Boltzmann equation involves the discrete ordinates (S{sub n}) method and the procedure of source iteration. In this paper, we present a GPU accelerated simulation of one energy group time-independent deterministic discrete ordinates particle transport in 3D Cartesian geometry (Sweep3D). The performance of the GPU simulations are reported with the simulations of vacuum boundary condition. The discussion of the relative advantages and disadvantages of the GPU implementation, the simulation on multi GPUs, the programming effort and code portability are also reported. The results show that the overall performance speedup of one NVIDIA Tesla M2050 GPU ranges from 2.56 compared with one Intel Xeon X5670 chip to 8.14 compared with one Intel Core Q6600 chip for no flux fixup. The simulation with flux fixup on one M2050 is 1.23 times faster than on one X5670.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Peng; Cheng, Wenming; Wang, Yi
2015-11-01
This article considers the parallel machine scheduling problem with step-deteriorating jobs and sequence-dependent setup times. The objective is to minimize the total tardiness by determining the allocation and sequence of jobs on identical parallel machines. In this problem, the processing time of each job is a step function dependent upon its starting time. An individual extended time is penalized when the starting time of a job is later than a specific deterioration date. The possibility of deterioration of a job makes the parallel machine scheduling problem more challenging than ordinary ones. A mixed integer programming model for the optimal solution is derived. Due to its NP-hard nature, a hybrid discrete cuckoo search algorithm is proposed to solve this problem. In order to generate a good initial swarm, a modified Biskup-Hermann-Gupta (BHG) heuristic called MBHG is incorporated into the population initialization. Several discrete operators are proposed in the random walk of Lévy flights and the crossover search. Moreover, a local search procedure based on variable neighbourhood descent is integrated into the algorithm as a hybrid strategy in order to improve the quality of elite solutions. Computational experiments are executed on two sets of randomly generated test instances. The results show that the proposed hybrid algorithm can yield better solutions in comparison with the commercial solver CPLEX® with a one hour time limit, the discrete cuckoo search algorithm and the existing variable neighbourhood search algorithm.
Numerical sedimentation particle-size analysis using the Discrete Element Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bravo, R.; Pérez-Aparicio, J. L.; Gómez-Hernández, J. J.
2015-12-01
Sedimentation tests are widely used to determine the particle size distribution of a granular sample. In this work, the Discrete Element Method interacts with the simulation of flow using the well known one-way-coupling method, a computationally affordable approach for the time-consuming numerical simulation of the hydrometer, buoyancy and pipette sedimentation tests. These tests are used in the laboratory to determine the particle-size distribution of fine-grained aggregates. Five samples with different particle-size distributions are modeled by about six million rigid spheres projected on two-dimensions, with diameters ranging from 2.5 ×10-6 m to 70 ×10-6 m, forming a water suspension in a sedimentation cylinder. DEM simulates the particle's movement considering laminar flow interactions of buoyant, drag and lubrication forces. The simulation provides the temporal/spatial distributions of densities and concentrations of the suspension. The numerical simulations cannot replace the laboratory tests since they need the final granulometry as initial data, but, as the results show, these simulations can identify the strong and weak points of each method and eventually recommend useful variations and draw conclusions on their validity, aspects very difficult to achieve in the laboratory.
A two-dimensional discrete particle model of gravel bed river systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
MacVicar, B. J.; Parrott, L.; Roy, A. G.
2006-09-01
The formation of bed forms in gravel bed rivers acts as a control on stream ecology and the response of rivers to floods. Available models do not reproduce the range of observed bed forms and do not consider interactions between the bed and flow hydraulics. The model presented here considers a gravel bed river as a complex system in which sediment clasts are represented as discrete elements. Simple and local rules describe the sediment and flow dynamics. Using a trimodal sediment distribution, irregular forms that scale with particle diameter develop without explicit feedback mechanisms because of the tendency of large particles to roll along the bed surface and collect into chains. Feedback mechanisms such as imbrication increase the effective entrainment threshold of groups of large particles and increase the stability of these imbricate forms. A second type of bed form is associated with saltating grains and emerges where particles are transported at a preferred distance. The development and maintenance of larger-scale bed forms require feedback between the bed and flow properties. By allowing mean velocity to adjust to bed morphology and considering the effect of acceleration on turbulence generation and mean velocity profiles we demonstrate the emergence of forms similar in morphology to gravel sheets, dunes, and riffle pools. The model is best used to complement field-based studies and is suitable for testing hypotheses of streambed behavior.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shao, Gui-Fang; Wang, Ting-Na; Liu, Tun-Dong; Chen, Jun-Ren; Zheng, Ji-Wen; Wen, Yu-Hua
2015-01-01
Pt-Pd alloy nanoparticles, as potential catalyst candidates for new-energy resources such as fuel cells and lithium ion batteries owing to their excellent reactivity and selectivity, have aroused growing attention in the past years. Since structure determines physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles, the development of a reliable method for searching the stable structures of Pt-Pd alloy nanoparticles has become of increasing importance to exploring the origination of their properties. In this article, we have employed the particle swarm optimization algorithm to investigate the stable structures of alloy nanoparticles with fixed shape and atomic proportion. An improved discrete particle swarm optimization algorithm has been proposed and the corresponding scheme has been presented. Subsequently, the swap operator and swap sequence have been applied to reduce the probability of premature convergence to the local optima. Furthermore, the parameters of the exchange probability and the 'particle' size have also been considered in this article. Finally, tetrahexahedral Pt-Pd alloy nanoparticles has been used to test the effectiveness of the proposed method. The calculated results verify that the improved particle swarm optimization algorithm has superior convergence and stability compared with the traditional one.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bourantas, Georgios; Lavier, Luc; Claus, Susanne; Van Dam, Tonie; Bordas, Stephane
2015-04-01
meshless point collocation Eulerian method, while energy equation are solved using a set of particles, distributed over the spatial domain, with the solution interpolated back to the Eulerian grid at every time step. This hybrid approach allows for the accurate calculation of fine thermal structures, through the ease of adaptivity offered by the flexibility of the particle method. The approximation space is constructed using the Discretization Correction Particle Strength Exchange (DC PSE) method. The proposed scheme gives the capability of solving flow equations (Stokes flow) in fully irregular geometries while particles, "sprinkled" in the spatial domain, are used to solve convection-diffusion problems avoiding the oscillation produced in the Eulerian approach. The resulting algebraic linear systems were solved using direct solvers. Our hybrid approach can capture sharp variations of stresses and thermal gradients in problems with a strongly variable viscosity and thermal conductivity as demonstrated through various benchmarking test cases such as the development of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, viscous heating and flows with non-Newtonian rheology.
Hybrid finite element and Brownian dynamics method for charged particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huber, Gary A.; Miao, Yinglong; Zhou, Shenggao; Li, Bo; McCammon, J. Andrew
2016-04-01
Diffusion is often the rate-determining step in many biological processes. Currently, the two main computational methods for studying diffusion are stochastic methods, such as Brownian dynamics, and continuum methods, such as the finite element method. A previous study introduced a new hybrid diffusion method that couples the strengths of each of these two methods, but was limited by the lack of interactions among the particles; the force on each particle had to be from an external field. This study further develops the method to allow charged particles. The method is derived for a general multidimensional system and is presented using a basic test case for a one-dimensional linear system with one charged species and a radially symmetric system with three charged species.
Hybrid Modeling Method for a DEP Based Particle Manipulation
Miled, Mohamed Amine; Gagne, Antoine; Sawan, Mohamad
2013-01-01
In this paper, a new modeling approach for Dielectrophoresis (DEP) based particle manipulation is presented. The proposed method fulfills missing links in finite element modeling between the multiphysic simulation and the biological behavior. This technique is amongst the first steps to develop a more complex platform covering several types of manipulations such as magnetophoresis and optics. The modeling approach is based on a hybrid interface using both ANSYS and MATLAB to link the propagation of the electrical field in the micro-channel to the particle motion. ANSYS is used to simulate the electrical propagation while MATLAB interprets the results to calculate cell displacement and send the new information to ANSYS for another turn. The beta version of the proposed technique takes into account particle shape, weight and its electrical properties. First obtained results are coherent with experimental results. PMID:23364197
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cil, Mehmet B.; Alshibli, Khalid A.
2015-02-01
The constitutive behavior and deformation characteristics of uncemented granular materials are to a large extent derived from the fabric or geometry of the particle structure and the interparticle friction resulting from normal forces acting on particles or groups of particles. Granular materials consist of discrete particles with a fabric (microstructure) that changes under loading. Synchrotron micro-computed tomography (SMT) has emerged as a powerful non-destructive 3D scanning technique to study geomaterials. In this paper, SMT was used to acquire in situ scans of the oedometry test of a column of three silica sand particles. The sand is known as ASTM 20-30 Ottawa sand, and has a grain size between US sieves #20 (0.841 mm) and #30 (0.595 mm). The characteristics and evolution of particle fracture in sand were examined using SMT images, and a 3D discrete element method (DEM) was used to model the fracture behavior of sand particles. It adopts the bonded particle model to generate a crushable agglomerate that consists of a large number of small spherical sub-particles. The agglomerate shape matches the 3D physical shape of the tested sand particles by mapping the particle morphology from the SMT images. The paper investigates and discusses the influence of agglomerate packing (i.e., the number and size distribution of spherical sub-particles that constitute the agglomerate) and agglomerate shape on the fracture behavior of crushable particles.
Effects of small particle numbers on long-term behaviour in discrete biochemical systems
Ibrahim, Bashar; Dittrich, Peter
2014-01-01
Motivation: The functioning of many biological processes depends on the appearance of only a small number of a single molecular species. Additionally, the observation of molecular crowding leads to the insight that even a high number of copies of species do not guarantee their interaction. How single particles contribute to stabilizing biological systems is not well understood yet. Hence, we aim at determining the influence of single molecules on the long-term behaviour of biological systems, i.e. whether they can reach a steady state. Results: We provide theoretical considerations and a tool to analyse Systems Biology Markup Language models for the possibility to stabilize because of the described effects. The theory is an extension of chemical organization theory, which we called discrete chemical organization theory. Furthermore we scanned the BioModels Database for the occurrence of discrete chemical organizations. To exemplify our method, we describe an application to the Template model of the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint mechanism. Availability and implementation: http://www.biosys.uni-jena.de/Services.html. Contact: bashar.ibrahim@uni-jena.de or dittrich@minet.uni-jena.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25161236
Ruiz-Cruz, Riemann; Sanchez, Edgar N; Ornelas-Tellez, Fernando; Loukianov, Alexander G; Harley, Ronald G
2013-12-01
In this paper, the authors propose a particle swarm optimization (PSO) for a discrete-time inverse optimal control scheme of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG). For the inverse optimal scheme, a control Lyapunov function (CLF) is proposed to obtain an inverse optimal control law in order to achieve trajectory tracking. A posteriori, it is established that this control law minimizes a meaningful cost function. The CLFs depend on matrix selection in order to achieve the control objectives; this matrix is determined by two mechanisms: initially, fixed parameters are proposed for this matrix by a trial-and-error method and then by using the PSO algorithm. The inverse optimal control scheme is illustrated via simulations for the DFIG, including the comparison between both mechanisms. PMID:24273145
Vertical Modes and Discrete Instabilities in Two-Dimensional Dust Particle Clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiao, Ke; Carmona-Reyes, Jorge; Kong, Jie; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell
2013-10-01
The coupling observed between horizontal and vertical wave modes in large plasma crystals and their resulting instability formation are current topics of interest, both theoretically and experimentally. Similarly, horizontal and vertical normal modes in finite dust clusters have been examined theoretically but to date, only horizontal modes have been experimentally observed. In this research, dust clusters are formed within a modified GEC rf reference cell, using a glass box placed on the lower powered electrode to provide horizontal confinement. The resulting thermal motion of the dust particles is tracked and analyzed. Using the power spectra obtained, both horizontal and vertical normal modes are identified and discrete instabilities as predicted theoretically are shown to be induced due to the coupling between the horizontal and vertical modes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rocha, M. C.; Saraiva, J. T.
2012-10-01
The basic objective of Transmission Expansion Planning (TEP) is to schedule a number of transmission projects along an extended planning horizon minimizing the network construction and operational costs while satisfying the requirement of delivering power safely and reliably to load centres along the horizon. This principle is quite simple, but the complexity of the problem and the impact on society transforms TEP on a challenging issue. This paper describes a new approach to solve the dynamic TEP problem, based on an improved discrete integer version of the Evolutionary Particle Swarm Optimization (EPSO) meta-heuristic algorithm. The paper includes sections describing in detail the EPSO enhanced approach, the mathematical formulation of the TEP problem, including the objective function and the constraints, and a section devoted to the application of the developed approach to this problem. Finally, the use of the developed approach is illustrated using a case study based on the IEEE 24 bus 38 branch test system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lai, Po-Yen; Chen, Liu; Lin-Liu, Y. R.; Chen, Shih-Hung
2015-09-01
The thermal relaxation time of a one-dimensional plasma has been demonstrated to scale with ND2 due to discrete particle effects by collisionless particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, where ND is the particle number in a Debye length. The ND2 scaling is consistent with the theoretical analysis based on the Balescu-Lenard-Landau kinetic equation. However, it was found that the thermal relaxation time is anomalously shortened to scale with ND while externally introducing the Krook type collision model in the one-dimensional electrostatic PIC simulation. In order to understand the discrete particle effects enhanced by the Krook type collision model, the superposition principle of dressed test particles was applied to derive the modified Balescu-Lenard-Landau kinetic equation. The theoretical results are shown to be in good agreement with the simulation results when the collisional effects dominate the plasma system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, T.; Fleck, N. A.; Wadley, H. N. G.; Deshpande, V. S.
2013-08-01
The impact of a slug of dry sand particles against a metallic sandwich beam or circular sandwich plate is analysed in order to aid the design of sandwich panels for shock mitigation. The sand particles interact via a combined linear-spring-and-dashpot law whereas the face sheets and compressible core of the sandwich beam and plate are treated as rate-sensitive, elastic-plastic solids. The majority of the calculations are performed in two dimensions and entail the transverse impact of end-clamped monolithic and sandwich beams, with plane strain conditions imposed. The sand slug is of rectangular shape and comprises a random loose packing of identical, circular cylindrical particles. These calculations reveal that loading due to the sand is primarily inertial in nature with negligible fluid-structure interaction: the momentum transmitted to the beam is approximately equal to that of the incoming sand slug. For a slug of given incoming momentum, the dynamic deflection of the beam increases with decreasing duration of sand-loading until the impulsive limit is attained. Sandwich beams with thick, strong cores significantly outperform monolithic beams of equal areal mass. This performance enhancement is traced to the "sandwich effect" whereby the sandwich beams have a higher bending strength than that of the monolithic beams. Three-dimensional (3D) calculations are also performed such that the sand slug has the shape of a circular cylindrical column of finite height, and contains spherical sand particles. The 3D slug impacts a circular monolithic plate or sandwich plate and we show that sandwich plates with thick strong cores again outperform monolithic plates of equal areal mass. Finally, we demonstrate that impact by sand particles is equivalent to impact by a crushable foam projectile. The calculations on the equivalent projectile are significantly less intensive computationally, yet give predictions to within 5% of the full discrete particle calculations for the
Particle/Continuum Hybrid Simulation in a Parallel Computing Environment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baganoff, Donald
1996-01-01
The objective of this study was to modify an existing parallel particle code based on the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method to include a Navier-Stokes (NS) calculation so that a hybrid solution could be developed. In carrying out this work, it was determined that the following five issues had to be addressed before extensive program development of a three dimensional capability was pursued: (1) find a set of one-sided kinetic fluxes that are fully compatible with the DSMC method, (2) develop a finite volume scheme to make use of these one-sided kinetic fluxes, (3) make use of the one-sided kinetic fluxes together with DSMC type boundary conditions at a material surface so that velocity slip and temperature slip arise naturally for near-continuum conditions, (4) find a suitable sampling scheme so that the values of the one-sided fluxes predicted by the NS solution at an interface between the two domains can be converted into the correct distribution of particles to be introduced into the DSMC domain, (5) carry out a suitable number of tests to confirm that the developed concepts are valid, individually and in concert for a hybrid scheme.
Assembly of Hybrid Bacteriophage Qβ Virus-Like Particles
Brown, Steven D.; Fiedler, Jason D.; Finn, M.G.
2009-01-01
Bacteriophage Qβ coat protein forms uniform virus-like particles when expressed recombinantly in a variety of organisms. We have inserted the IgG-binding Z domain at the carboxy terminus of the coat protein and coexpressed this chimeric subunit with native coat protein to create hybrid, IgG-binding virus-like particles. Extracellular osmolytes were found to have an effect on the incorporation efficiency of fusion proteins into VLPs in E. coli when a carbenicillin, but not a kanamycin, selection marker was used. The addition of sucrose to the growth media decreased incorporation efficiency; the osmoprotectant glycine betaine eliminated this effect. The decrease in efficiency was not observed when carbenicillin was omitted from the final expression culture. The addition of sodium chloride instead of sucrose gave rise to particles with a larger number of fusion proteins than the standard conditions. These results illustrate that cellular conditions should be taken into account even in apparently simple systems when natural or engineered protein nanoparticles are made. PMID:19848414
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bibee, M. A.; Calantoni, J.; Sclater, J. G.
2005-05-01
Experiments on sandboxes provide a useful tool for understanding the deformation of both sedimentary sequences and the continental crust. Boerner and Sclater (1992) have shown that the deformation under extension of assemblies of steel balls can reproduce many of the basic features of these experiments. We use a discrete particle model (DPM) to simulate previously performed physical experiments, which consisted of extending close-packed assemblies of steel balls placed on a rubber sheet attached to moveable boundaries. Steel balls are modeled with spherical elements in the DPM where normal and tangential forces generated at contact points are modeled with springs and friction, respectively. The simulations allow for a quantitative examination of the displacement and rotation of each steel ball as well as provide estimates of the contact forces between them. We perform a suite of simulations to explore the behavior of the model due to variations in the material properties of the balls and rate of extension of the assembly. Qualitative visual analysis shows that the simulations reproduce the qualitative features from the physical experiments such as dilation, rotation, and fault formation. Our success in matching most of the major features of the experiment indicates that the DPM may have a real future in improving our understanding of the deformation of both sedimentary sequences and the continental crust.
Understanding the mechanisms of sickle cell disease by simulations with a discrete particle model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hui, Katrina; Lin, Guang; Pan, Wenxiao
2013-01-01
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited blood disorder characterized by rigid, sickle-shaped red blood cells (RBCs). Because of their rigidity and shape, sickle cells can get stuck in smaller blood vessels, causing blockages and depriving oxygen to tissues. This study develops and applies mathematical models to better understand the mechanism of SCD. Two-dimensional models of RBCs and blood vessels have been constructed by representing them as discrete particles interacting with different forces. The nonlinear, elastic property of healthy RBCs could be adequately reproduced using a cosine angle bending force and a worm-like chain spring force. With the ability to deform, RBCs can squeeze through narrow blood vessels. In modeling sickle cells as rigid bodies and applying repelling and friction forces from the blood vessel, this study shows that geometrical factors (dimensions of the sickle cell and blood vessels) as well as rigidity and adhesiveness of the sickle cell all play an important role in determining how, and if, sickle cells become trapped within narrow blood capillaries. With lack of data to validate the model, this study primarily provides a sensitivity analysis of factors influencing sickle cell occlusion and identified critical data to support future modeling.
Robust Tracking Using Particle Filter with a Hybrid Feature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Xinyue; Satoh, Yutaka; Takauji, Hidenori; Kaneko, Shun'ichi
This paper presents a novel method for robust object tracking in video sequences using a hybrid feature-based observation model in a particle filtering framework. An ideal observation model should have both high ability to accurately distinguish objects from the background and high reliability to identify the detected objects. Traditional features are better at solving the former problem but weak in solving the latter one. To overcome that, we adopt a robust and dynamic feature called Grayscale Arranging Pairs (GAP), which has high discriminative ability even under conditions of severe illumination variation and dynamic background elements. Together with the GAP feature, we also adopt the color histogram feature in order to take advantage of traditional features in resolving the first problem. At the same time, an efficient and simple integration method is used to combine the GAP feature with color information. Comparative experiments demonstrate that object tracking with our integrated features performs well even when objects go across complex backgrounds.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ratushnaya, V. I.; Bedeaux, D.; Kulinskii, V. L.; Zvelindovsky, A. V.
2007-07-01
In two papers we proposed a continuum model for the dynamics of systems of self propelling particles with kinematic constraints on the velocities and discussed some of its properties. The model aims to be analogous to a discrete algorithm used in works by T. Vicsek et al. In this paper we derive the continuous hydrodynamic model from the discrete description. The similarities and differences between the resulting model and the hydrodynamic model postulated in our previous papers are discussed. The results clarify the assumptions used to obtain a continuous description.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leonardi, Christopher R.; McCullough, Jon W. S.; Jones, Bruce D.; Williams, John R.
2016-04-01
This paper describes the development of a computational framework that can be used to describe the electromagnetic excitation of rigid, spherical particles in suspension. In this model the mechanical interaction and kinematic behaviour of the particles is modelled using the discrete element method, while the surrounding fluid mechanics is modelled using the lattice Boltzmann method. Electromagnetic effects are applied to the particles as an additional set of discrete element forces, and the implementation of these effects was validated by comparison to the theoretical equations of point charges for Coulomb's law and the Lorentz force equation. Oscillating single and multiple particle tests are used to investigate the sensitivity of particle excitation to variations in particle charge, field strength, and frequency. The further capabilities of the model are then demonstrated by a numerical illustration, in which a hydraulic fracture fluid is excited and monitored within a hydraulic fracture. This modelling explores the feasibility of using particle vibrations within the fracture fluid to aid in the monitoring of fracture propagation in unconventional gas reservoirs.
Bonnat, Laureen; Dejeu, Jérôme; Bonnet, Hugues; Génnaro, Béatrice; Jarjayes, Olivier; Thomas, Fabrice; Lavergne, Thomas; Defrancq, Eric
2016-02-24
G-rich RNA and DNA oligonucleotides derived from the human telomeric sequence were assembled onto addressable cyclopeptide platforms through oxime ligations and copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAc) reactions. The resulting conjugates were able to fold into highly stable RNA and DNA:RNA hybrid G-quadruplex (G4) architectures as demonstrated by UV, circular dichroism (CD), and NMR spectroscopic analysis. Whereas rationally designed parallel RNA and DNA:RNA hybrid G4 topologies could be obtained, we could not force the formation of an antiparallel RNA G4 structure, thus supporting the idea that this topology is strongly disfavored. The binding affinities of four representative G4 ligands toward the discrete RNA and DNA:RNA hybrid G4 topologies were compared to the one obtained with the corresponding DNA G4 structure. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) binding analysis suggests that the accessibility to G4 recognition elements is different among the three structures and supports the idea that G4 ligands might be shaped to achieve structure selectivity in a biological context. PMID:26808196
Hybrid particle-field molecular dynamics simulation for polyelectrolyte systems.
Zhu, You-Liang; Lu, Zhong-Yuan; Milano, Giuseppe; Shi, An-Chang; Sun, Zhao-Yan
2016-04-14
To achieve simulations on large spatial and temporal scales with high molecular chemical specificity, a hybrid particle-field method was proposed recently. This method is developed by combining molecular dynamics and self-consistent field theory (MD-SCF). The MD-SCF method has been validated by successfully predicting the experimentally observable properties of several systems. Here we propose an efficient scheme for the inclusion of electrostatic interactions in the MD-SCF framework. In this scheme, charged molecules are interacting with the external fields that are self-consistently determined from the charge densities. This method is validated by comparing the structural properties of polyelectrolytes in solution obtained from the MD-SCF and particle-based simulations. Moreover, taking PMMA-b-PEO and LiCF3SO3 as examples, the enhancement of immiscibility between the ion-dissolving block and the inert block by doping lithium salts into the copolymer is examined by using the MD-SCF method. By employing GPU-acceleration, the high performance of the MD-SCF method with explicit treatment of electrostatics facilitates the simulation study of many problems involving polyelectrolytes. PMID:27001709
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verma, Harish Kumar; Jain, Cheshta
2015-07-01
In this article, a hybrid algorithm of particle swarm optimization (PSO) with statistical parameter (HSPSO) is proposed. Basic PSO for shifted multimodal problems have low searching precision due to falling into a number of local minima. The proposed approach uses statistical characteristics to update the velocity of the particle to avoid local minima and help particles to search global optimum with improved convergence. The performance of the newly developed algorithm is verified using various standard multimodal, multivariable, shifted hybrid composition benchmark problems. Further, the comparative analysis of HSPSO with variants of PSO is tested to control frequency of hybrid renewable energy system which comprises solar system, wind system, diesel generator, aqua electrolyzer and ultra capacitor. A significant improvement in convergence characteristic of HSPSO algorithm over other variants of PSO is observed in solving benchmark optimization and renewable hybrid system problems.
A new hybrid algorithm for computing a fast discrete Fourier transform
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reed, I. S.; Truong, T. K.
1979-01-01
In this paper for certain long transform lengths, Winograd's algorithm for computing the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is extended considerably. This is accomplished by performing the cyclic convolution, required by Winograd's method, with the Mersenne prime number-theoretic transform developed originally by Rader. This new algorithm requires fewer multiplications than either the standard fast Fourier transform (FFT) or Winograd's more conventional algorithm. However, more additions are required.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, Edward; Konopka, Uwe; Lynch, Brian; Adams, Stephen; LeBlanc, Spencer; Merlino, Robert L.; Rosenberg, Marlene
2015-11-01
Dusty plasmas have been studied in argon, radio frequency (rf) glow discharge plasmas at magnetic fields up to 2.5 T where the electrons and ions are strongly magnetized. Plasmas are generated between two parallel plate electrodes where the lower, powered electrode is solid and the upper electrode supports a dual mesh consisting of #24 brass and #30 aluminum wire cloth. In this experiment, we study the formation of imposed ordered structures and particle dynamics as a function of magnetic field. Through observations of trapped particles and the quasi-discrete (i.e., "hopping") motion of particles between the trapping locations, it is possible to make a preliminary estimate of the potential structure that confines the particles to a grid structure in the plasma. This information is used to gain insight into the formation of the imposed grid pattern of the dust particles in the plasma.
Thomas, Edward Konopka, Uwe; Lynch, Brian; Adams, Stephen; LeBlanc, Spencer; Merlino, Robert L.; Rosenberg, Marlene
2015-11-15
Dusty plasmas have been studied in argon, radio frequency (rf) glow discharge plasmas at magnetic fields up to 2.5 T where the electrons and ions are strongly magnetized. Plasmas are generated between two parallel plate electrodes where the lower, powered electrode is solid and the upper electrode supports a dual mesh consisting of #24 brass and #30 aluminum wire cloth. In this experiment, we study the formation of imposed ordered structures and particle dynamics as a function of magnetic field. Through observations of trapped particles and the quasi-discrete (i.e., “hopping”) motion of particles between the trapping locations, it is possible to make a preliminary estimate of the potential structure that confines the particles to a grid structure in the plasma. This information is used to gain insight into the formation of the imposed grid pattern of the dust particles in the plasma.
Robustness properties of discrete time regulators, LOG regulators and hybrid systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stein, G.; Athans, M.
1979-01-01
Robustness properites of sample-data LQ regulators are derived which show that these regulators have fundamentally inferior uncertainty tolerances when compared to their continuous-time counterparts. Results are also presented in stability theory, multivariable frequency domain analysis, LQG robustness, and mathematical representations of hybrid systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Hongxun; Cao, Minna; Gao, Shuiying; Cao, Rong
2014-01-01
A new organic-inorganic hybrid polyoxotungstates, [Cu2Cl(H2O)3(phen)2]2[H3SbW18O60]·7H2O (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, 1), has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, FTIR, TG, UV-DRS, XRPD, magnetic property and X-ray single crystal diffraction. The structure analyses reveal that complex 1 based on Dawson-like polyoxoanions and dicopper coordination cations exhibits 3D supramolecular network via hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking containing a new discrete tridecameric water cluster. The magnetic property of 1 was also investigated between 2 and 300 K, indicating the existence of antiferromagnetic exchange interaction between the Cu(II) centres.
2012-01-01
The fast and accurate computation of the electric forces that drive the motion of charged particles at the nanometer scale represents a computational challenge. For this kind of system, where the discrete nature of the charges cannot be neglected, boundary element methods (BEM) represent a better approach than finite differences/finite elements methods. In this article, we compare two different BEM approaches to a canonical electrostatic problem in a three-dimensional space with inhomogeneous dielectrics, emphasizing their suitability for particle-based simulations: the iterative method proposed by Hoyles et al. and the Induced Charge Computation introduced by Boda et al. PMID:22338640
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Børvik, T.; Olovsson, L.; Hanssen, A. G.; Dharmasena, K. P.; Hansson, H.; Wadley, H. N. G.
2011-05-01
The structural response of a stainless steel plate subjected to the combined blast and sand impact loading from a buried charge has been investigated using a fully coupled approach in which a discrete particle method is used to determine the load due to the high explosive detonation products, the air shock and the sand, and a finite element method predicts the plate deflection. The discrete particle method is based on rigid, spherical particles that transfer forces between each other during collisions. This method, which is based on a Lagrangian formulation, has several advantages over coupled Lagrangian-Eulerian approaches as both advection errors and severe contact problems are avoided. The method has been validated against experimental tests where spherical 150 g C-4 charges were detonated at various stand-off distances from square, edge-clamped 3.4 mm thick AL-6XN stainless steel plates. The experiments were carried out for a bare charge, a charge enclosed in dry sand and a charge enclosed in fully saturated wet sand. The particle-based method is able to describe the physical interactions between the explosive reaction products and soil particles leading to a realistic prediction of the sand ejecta speed and momentum. Good quantitative agreement between the experimental and predicted deformation response of the plates is also obtained.
Lai, Po-Yen; Chen, Liu; Lin-Liu, Y. R.; Chen, Shih-Hung
2015-09-15
The thermal relaxation time of a one-dimensional plasma has been demonstrated to scale with N{sub D}{sup 2} due to discrete particle effects by collisionless particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, where N{sub D} is the particle number in a Debye length. The N{sub D}{sup 2} scaling is consistent with the theoretical analysis based on the Balescu-Lenard-Landau kinetic equation. However, it was found that the thermal relaxation time is anomalously shortened to scale with N{sub D} while externally introducing the Krook type collision model in the one-dimensional electrostatic PIC simulation. In order to understand the discrete particle effects enhanced by the Krook type collision model, the superposition principle of dressed test particles was applied to derive the modified Balescu-Lenard-Landau kinetic equation. The theoretical results are shown to be in good agreement with the simulation results when the collisional effects dominate the plasma system.
Yi, Deliang; Xu, Chenglong; Tang, Ruidie; Zhang, Xuehua; Caruso, Frank; Wang, Yajun
2016-07-11
We report the synthesis of highly flexible and mechanically robust hybrid silica nanowires (NWs) which can be used as novel building blocks to construct superhydrophobic functional materials with three-dimensional macroporous networks. The hybrid silica NWs, with an average diameter of 80 nm and tunable length of up to 12 μm, are prepared by anisotropic deposition of the hydrolyzed tetraethylorthosilicate in water/n-pentanol emulsions. A mechanistic investigation reveals that the trimethoxy(octadecyl)silane introduced to the water-oil interface in the synthesis plays key roles in stabilizing the water droplets to sub-100 nm and also growing a layer of octadecyl groups on the NW surface. This work opens a solution-based route for the one-pot preparation of monodisperse, hydrophobic silica NWs and represents an important step toward the bottom-up construction of 3D superhydrophobic materials and macroporous membranes. PMID:27278242
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, Xiaofeng; Wong, Kwok-Wo
2003-04-01
In this paper, the dynamical characteristics of hybrid bidirectional associative memory neural networks with constant transmission delays are investigated. Without assuming symmetry of synaptic connection weights and monotonicity and differentiability of activation functions, Halanay-type inequalities (which are different from the approach of constructing Lyapunov functionals) are employed to derive the delay-independent sufficient conditions under which the networks converge exponentially to the equilibria associated with temporally uniform external inputs. Our results are less conservative and restrictive than previously known results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yip, F. L.; McCurdy, C. W.; Rescigno, T. N.
2008-08-01
We describe an approach for studying molecular photoionization with a hybrid basis that combines the functionality of analytic basis sets to represent electronic coordinates near the nuclei of a molecule with numerically defined grid-based functions. We discuss the evaluation of the various classes of two-electron integrals that occur in a hybrid basis consisting of Gaussian-type orbitals and discrete-variable representation functions. This combined basis is applied to calculate single photoionization cross sections for molecular Li2+ , which has a large equilibrium bond distance (R=5.86a0) . The highly nonspherical nature of Li2+ molecules causes higher angular momentum components to contribute significantly to the cross section even at low photoelectron energies, resulting in angular distributions that appear to be f -wave dominated near the photoionization threshold. At higher energies, where the de Broglie wavelength of the photoelectron becomes comparable with the bond distance, interference effects appear in the photoionization cross section. These interference phenomena appear at much lower energies than would be expected for diatomic targets with shorter internuclear separations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de la Rosa, José M.; Morgado, Alonso; del Río, Rocío
2009-05-01
This paper presents innovative architectures of hybrid Continuous-Time/Discrete-Time (CT/DT) cascade ΣΔ Modulators (ΣΔMs) made up of a front-end CT stage and a back-end DT stage. In addition to increasing the digitized signal bandwidth as compared to conventional ΣΔMs, the proposed topologies take advantage of the CT nature of the front-end ΣΔM stage, by embedding anti-aliasing filtering as well as their suitability to operate up to the GHz range. Moreover, the presented modulators include multi-bit quantization and Unity Signal Transfer Function (USTF) in both stages to reduce the integrator output swings, and programmable resonation to optimally distribute the zeroes of the overall Noise Transfer Function (NTF), such that the in-band quantization noise is minimized for each operation mode. Both local and inter-stage (global) based resonation architectures are synthesized and compared in terms of their circuit complexity, resolution-bandwidth programmability and robustness with respect to circuit non-ideal effects. The combination of all mentioned characteristics results in novel hybrid ΣΔMs, very suited for the implementation of adaptive/reconfigurable Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs) intended for the 4th Generation (4G) of wireless telecom systems.
Rescigno, Thomas N; Yip, Frank L.; McCurdy, C. William; Rescigno, Thomas N.
2008-08-01
We describe an approach for studying molecular photoionization with a hybrid basis that combines the functionality of analytic basis sets to represent electronic coordinates near the nuclei of a molecule with numerically-defined grid-based functions. We discuss the evaluation of the various classes of two-electron integrals that occur in a hybrid basis consisting of Gaussian type orbitals (GTOs) and discrete variable representation (DVR) functions. This combined basis is applied to calculate single photoionization cross sections for molecular Li_2+, which has a large equilibrium bond distance (R=5.86a_0). The highly non-spherical nature of Li_2+ molecules causes higher angular momentum components to contribute significantly to the cross section even at low photoelectron energies, resulting in angular distributions that appear to be f-wave dominated near the photoionization threshold. At higher energies, where the de Broglie wavelength of the photoelectron becomes comparable with the bond distance, interference effects appear in the photoionization cross section. These interference phenomena appear at much lower energies than would be expected for diatomic targets with shorter internuclear separations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ataeefard, Maryam; Shadman, Alireza; Saeb, Mohammad Reza; Mohammadi, Yousef
2016-08-01
A mathematical modeling approach was proposed combining the capabilities of response surface methodology (RSM) and desirability function (DF) and implemented successfully in production of printing toner particles. Toner powders were systematically synthesized through suspension copolymerization process. Applying RSM, a series of experiments were designed and toner particles were prepared and the effects of monomer ratio, colorant and surfactant content on the particle size (PS), particle size distribution (PSD), thermal and colorimetric properties (∆ E) of the resulting toner were monitored and discussed. The second-order models corresponding to each target characteristic, i.e., PS, PSD, and ∆ E of different types of toner powders, were obtained by individual optimization to express variation of each property in terms of polymerization parameters. Applying statistical calculations, the best reduced models were identified to be fed in the second step of optimization. Since toners with appropriate PS, PSD, and CP were needed, we applied multi-objective optimization based on DF approach. The results show that exact tuning of toner properties is closely possible with the aid of hybrid mathematical model developed in this work. Noticeably, desirabilities are very close to 100 %.
Hodges, Emily; Rooks, Michelle; Xuan, Zhenyu; Bhattacharjee, Arindam; Gordon, D Benjamin; Brizuela, Leonardo; McCombie, W Richard; Hannon, Gregory J
2010-01-01
Complementary techniques that deepen information content and minimize reagent costs are required to realize the full potential of massively parallel sequencing. Here, we describe a resequencing approach that directs focus to genomic regions of high interest by combining hybridization-based purification of multi-megabase regions with sequencing on the Illumina Genome Analyzer (GA). The capture matrix is created by a microarray on which probes can be programmed as desired to target any non-repeat portion of the genome, while the method requires only a basic familiarity with microarray hybridization. We present a detailed protocol suitable for 1–2 µg of input genomic DNA and highlight key design tips in which high specificity (>65% of reads stem from enriched exons) and high sensitivity (98% targeted base pair coverage) can be achieved. We have successfully applied this to the enrichment of coding regions, in both human and mouse, ranging from 0.5 to 4 Mb in length. From genomic DNA library production to base-called sequences, this procedure takes approximately 9–10 d inclusive of array captures and one Illumina flow cell run. PMID:19478811
Hybrid pathwise sensitivity methods for discrete stochastic models of chemical reaction systems
Wolf, Elizabeth Skubak; Anderson, David F.
2015-01-21
Stochastic models are often used to help understand the behavior of intracellular biochemical processes. The most common such models are continuous time Markov chains (CTMCs). Parametric sensitivities, which are derivatives of expectations of model output quantities with respect to model parameters, are useful in this setting for a variety of applications. In this paper, we introduce a class of hybrid pathwise differentiation methods for the numerical estimation of parametric sensitivities. The new hybrid methods combine elements from the three main classes of procedures for sensitivity estimation and have a number of desirable qualities. First, the new methods are unbiased for a broad class of problems. Second, the methods are applicable to nearly any physically relevant biochemical CTMC model. Third, and as we demonstrate on several numerical examples, the new methods are quite efficient, particularly if one wishes to estimate the full gradient of parametric sensitivities. The methods are rather intuitive and utilize the multilevel Monte Carlo philosophy of splitting an expectation into separate parts and handling each in an efficient manner.
Polystyrene-Core-Silica-Shell Hybrid Particles Containing Gold and Magnetic Nanoparticles.
Tian, Jia; Vana, Philipp
2016-02-18
Polystyrene-core-silica-shell hybrid particles were synthesized by combining the self-assembly of nanoparticles and the polymer with a silica coating strategy. The core-shell hybrid particles are composed of gold-nanoparticle-decorated polystyrene (PS-AuNP) colloids as the core and silica particles as the shell. PS-AuNP colloids were generated by the self-assembly of the PS-grafted AuNPs. The silica coating improved the thermal stability and dispersibility of the AuNPs. By removing the "free" PS of the core, hollow particles with a hydrophobic cage having a AuNP corona and an inert silica shell were obtained. Also, Fe3O4 nanoparticles were encapsulated in the core, which resulted in magnetic core-shell hybrid particles by the same strategy. These particles have potential applications in biomolecular separation and high-temperature catalysis and as nanoreactors. PMID:26639677
A discrete ``three-particle'' Schrödinger operator in the Hubbard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eshkabilov, Yu. Kh.
2006-11-01
In the space L 2(T ν ×T ν ), where T ν is a ν-dimensional torus, we study the spectral properties of the “three-particle” discrete Schrödinger operator Ĥ = H0 + H1 + H2, where H0 is the operator of multiplication by a function and H1 and H2 are partial integral operators. We prove several theorems concerning the essential spectrum of Ĥ. We study the discrete and essential spectra of the Hamiltonians Ht and
1-D EQUILIBRIUM DISCRETE DIFFUSION MONTE CARLO
T. EVANS; ET AL
2000-08-01
We present a new hybrid Monte Carlo method for 1-D equilibrium diffusion problems in which the radiation field coexists with matter in local thermodynamic equilibrium. This method, the Equilibrium Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo (EqDDMC) method, combines Monte Carlo particles with spatially discrete diffusion solutions. We verify the EqDDMC method with computational results from three slab problems. The EqDDMC method represents an incremental step toward applying this hybrid methodology to non-equilibrium diffusion, where it could be simultaneously coupled to Monte Carlo transport.
Isolation of Discrete Nanoparticle-DNA Conjugates for Plasmonic Applications
Alivisatos, Paul; Claridge, Shelley A.; Liang, Huiyang W.; Basu, Sourav Roger; Frechet, Jean M.J.; Alivisatos, A. Paul
2008-04-11
Discrete DNA-gold nanoparticle conjugates with DNA lengths as short as 15 bases for both 5 nm and 20 nm gold particles have been purified by anion-exchange HPLC. Conjugates comprising short DNA (<40 bases) and large gold particles (>_ 20 nm) are difficult to purify by other means, and are potential substrates for plasmon coupling experiments. Conjugate purity is demonstrated by hybridizing complementary conjugates to form discrete structures, which are visualized by TEM.
Material and interaction properties of selected grains and oilseeds for modeling discrete particles
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Experimental investigations of grain flow can be expensive and time-consuming, but computer simulations can reduce the large effort required to evaluate the flow of grain in handling operations. Published data on material and interaction properties of selected grains and oilseeds relevant to Discret...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Senegačnik, Jure; Tavčar, Gregor; Katrašnik, Tomaž
2015-03-01
The paper presents a computationally efficient method for solving the time dependent diffusion equation in a granule of the Li-ion battery's granular solid electrode. The method, called Discrete Temporal Convolution method (DTC), is based on a discrete temporal convolution of the analytical solution of the step function boundary value problem. This approach enables modelling concentration distribution in the granular particles for arbitrary time dependent exchange fluxes that do not need to be known a priori. It is demonstrated in the paper that the proposed method features faster computational times than finite volume/difference methods and Padé approximation at the same accuracy of the results. It is also demonstrated that all three addressed methods feature higher accuracy compared to the quasi-steady polynomial approaches when applied to simulate the current densities variations typical for mobile/automotive applications. The proposed approach can thus be considered as one of the key innovative methods enabling real-time capability of the multi particle electrochemical battery models featuring spatial and temporal resolved particle concentration profiles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brake, M. R.
2011-06-01
The analysis of continuous systems with piecewise-linear constraints in their domains have previously been limited to either numerical approaches, or analytical methods that are constrained in the parameter space, boundary conditions, or order of the system. The present analysis develops a robust method for studying continuous systems with arbitrary boundary conditions and discrete piecewise-linear constraints. A superposition method is used to generate homogeneous boundary conditions, and modal analysis is used to find the displacement of the system in each state of the piecewise-linear constraint. In order to develop a mapping across each slope discontinuity in the piecewise-linear force-deflection profile, a variational calculus approach is taken that minimizes the L 2 energy norm between the previous and current states. An approach for calculating the finite-time Lyapunov exponents is presented in order to determine chaotic regimes. To illustrate this method, two examples are presented: a pinned-pinned beam with a deadband constraint, and a leaf spring coupled with a connector pin immersed in a viscous fluid. The pinned-pinned beam example illustrates the method for a non-operator based analysis. Results are used to show that the present method does not necessitate the need of a large number of basis functions to adequately map the displacement and velocity of the system across states. In the second example, the leaf spring is modeled as a clamped-free beam. The interaction between the beam and the connector pin is modeled with a preload and a penalty stiffness. Several experiments are conducted in order to validate aspects of the leaf spring model. From the results of the convergence and parameter studies, a high correlation between the finite-time Lyapunov exponents and the contact time per period of the excitation is observed. The parameter studies also indicate that when the system's parameters are changed in order to reduce the magnitude of the impact
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamon, F. P.; Mallison, B.; Tchelepi, H.
2015-12-01
The systems of algebraic equations arising from implicit (backward-Euler) finite-volume discretization of the conservation laws governing multiphase flow in porous media are quite challenging for nonlinear solvers. In the presence of counter-current flow due to buoyancy, the coupling between flow (pressure) and transport (saturations) is often the cause of nonlinear problems when single-point Phase-Potential Upwinding (PPU) is used. To overcome such convergence problems in practice, the time step is reduced and Newton's method is restarted from the solution at the previous converged time step. Here, we generalize the work of Lee, Efendiev and Tchelepi [Advances in Water Resources, 2015] to propose an Implicit Hybrid Upwinding (IHU) scheme for coupled flow and transport. In the pure transport problem, we show that the numerical flux obtained with IHU is differentiable, monotone and consistent for two and three-phase flow. For coupled flow and transport, we prove saturation physical bounds as well as the existence of a solution to our scheme. Challenging two- and three-phase heterogeneous multi-dimensional numerical tests confirm that the new scheme is non-oscillatory and convergent, and illustrate the superior convergence rate of our IHU-based Newton solver for large time steps.
Lattice Boltzmann Method for Liquid-Gas-Particle Systems with Compact Discretization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Taehun; Farokhirad, Samaneh
2015-11-01
We have developed a liquid-gas-particle (LGP) lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) that utilizes only the nearest neighbor lattice sites for the computation of intermolecular forcing terms. Previous LGP-LBM requires larger number of lattice sites to model the interaction of fluid interfaces with immersed solid particles. This makes the treatment of contact line on a particle cumbersome when the partially wetting particle interacts with liquid-gas interface. The new model is capable of suppressing spurious currents at equilibrium. Many existing multi-component solvers suffer from spurious currents and the inability to employ components with sufficiently large density differences due to stability issues. Due to their finite size and wetting properties, particles deform an interface locally, which can lead to capillary interactions that dramatically alter the behavior of the system, relative to the particle-free case. We will present the liquid-gas-particle algorithm and its validations, which include two-particles on a flat liquid-gas interface approaching each other due to capillary effects, and a particle-laden drop impact with various impaction velocities.
Minor, B.M.
1993-09-01
The exponential characteristic spatial quadrature for discrete ordinates neutral particle transport with rectangular cells is developed. Numerical problems arising in the derivation required the development of exponential moment functions. These functions are used to remove indeterminant forms which can cause catastrophic cancellations. The EC method is positive and nonlinear. It conserves particles and satisfies first moment balance. Comparisons of the EC method's performance to other methods in optically thin and thick spatial cells were performed. For optically thin cells, the EC method was shown to converge to the correct answer, with third order truncation error in the thin cell limit. In deep penetration problems, the EC method attained its highest computational efficiencies compared to the other methods. For all the deep penetration problems examined, the number of spatial cells required by the EC method to attain a desired accuracy was less than the other methods.... Mathematics functions, Nuclear radiation, Nuclear engineering, Radiation attenuation, Radiation shielding, Transport theory, Radiation transport.
Feng, Rui; Xenos, Michalis; Girdhar, Gaurav; Kang, Wei; Davenport, James W; Deng, Yuefan; Bluestein, Danny
2012-01-01
Flow and stresses induced by blood flow acting on the blood cellular constituents can be represented to a certain extent by a continuum mechanics approach down to the order of the μm level. However, the molecular effects of, e.g., adhesion/aggregation bonds of blood clotting can be on the order of nm. The coupling of the disparate length and timescales between such molecular levels and macroscopic transport represents a major computational challenge. To address this challenge, a multiscale numerical approach based on discrete particle dynamics (DPD) methodology derived from molecular dynamics (MD) principles is proposed. The feasibility of the approach was firstly tested for its ability to simulate viscous flow conditions. Simulations were conducted in low Reynolds numbers flows (Re = 25-33) through constricted tubes representing blood vessels with various degrees of stenosis. Multiple discrete particles interacting with each other were simulated, with 1.24-1.36 million particles representing the flow domain and 0.4 million particles representing the vessel wall. The computation was carried out on the massive parallel supercomputer NY BlueGene/L employing NAMD-a parallel MD package for high performance computing (HPC). Typical recirculation zones were formed distal to the stenoses. The velocity profiles and recirculation zones were in excellent agreement with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) 3D Navier-Stokes viscous fluid flow simulations and with classic numerical and experimental results by YC Fung in constricted tubes. This feasibility analysis demonstrates the potential of a methodology that widely departs from a continuum approach to simulate multiscale phenomena such as flow induced blood clotting. PMID:21369918
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Linyi; Chen, Yun; Yu, Xin; Liu, Rui; Huang, Chang
2015-03-01
The study of flood inundation is significant to human life and social economy. Remote sensing technology has provided an effective way to study the spatial and temporal characteristics of inundation. Remotely sensed images with high temporal resolutions are widely used in mapping inundation. However, mixed pixels do exist due to their relatively low spatial resolutions. One of the most popular approaches to resolve this issue is sub-pixel mapping. In this paper, a novel discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO) based sub-pixel flood inundation mapping (DPSO-SFIM) method is proposed to achieve an improved accuracy in mapping inundation at a sub-pixel scale. The evaluation criterion for sub-pixel inundation mapping is formulated. The DPSO-SFIM algorithm is developed, including particle discrete encoding, fitness function designing and swarm search strategy. The accuracy of DPSO-SFIM in mapping inundation at a sub-pixel scale was evaluated using Landsat ETM + images from study areas in Australia and China. The results show that DPSO-SFIM consistently outperformed the four traditional SFIM methods in these study areas. A sensitivity analysis of DPSO-SFIM was also carried out to evaluate its performances. It is hoped that the results of this study will enhance the application of medium-low spatial resolution images in inundation detection and mapping, and thereby support the ecological and environmental studies of river basins.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Chuan; Botto, Lorenzo
2015-11-01
The adsorption of solid particles to fluid interfaces is exploited in several multiphase flow technologies, and plays a fundamental role in the dynamics of particle-laden drops. A fundamental question is how the particles modify the effective mechanical properties of the interface. Using a fast Eulerian-Lagrangian model for interfacial colloids, we have simulated a pendant drop whose surface is covered with spherical particles having short-range repulsion. The interface curvature induces non-uniform and anisotropic interfacial stresses, which we calculate by an interfacial extension of the Irving-Kirkwood formula. The isotropic component of this stress, related to the effective surface tension, is in good agreement with that calculated by fitting the drop shape to the Young-Laplace equation. The anisotropic component, related to the interfacial shear elasticity, is highly non uniform: small at the drop apex, significant along the drop sides. The reduction in surface tension can be substantial even below maximum surface packing. We illustrate this point by simulating phase-coarsening of a two-phase mixture in which the presence of interfacial particles ``freezes'' the coarsening process, for surface coverage well below maximum packing This work is supported by the EU through the Marie Curie Grant FLOWMAT (618335).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mares, J. O.; Miller, J. K.; Gunduz, I. E.; Rhoads, J. F.; Son, S. F.
2014-11-01
High-frequency mechanical excitation can induce heating within energetic materials and may lead to advances in explosives detection and defeat. In order to examine the nature of this mechanically induced heating, samples of an elastic binder (Sylgard 184) were embedded with inert and energetic particles placed in a fixed spatial pattern and were subsequently excited with an ultrasonic transducer at discrete frequencies from 100 kHz to 20 MHz. The temperature and velocity responses of the sample surfaces suggest that heating due to frictional effects occurred near the particles at excitation frequencies near the transducer resonance of 215 kHz. An analytical solution involving a heat point source was used to estimate heating rates and temperatures at the particle locations in this frequency region. Heating located near the sample surface at frequencies near and above 1 MHz was attributed to viscoelastic effects related to the surface motion of the samples. At elevated excitation parameters near the transducer resonance frequency, embedded particles of ammonium perchlorate and cyclotetramethylene-tetranitramine were driven to chemical decomposition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Jizhe; Naraghi, Mohammad
2016-08-01
In this work, a comprehensive multi-resolution two-dimensional (2D) resistor network model is proposed to analyze the electrical conductivity of hybrid nanomaterials made of insulating matrix with conductive particles such as CNT reinforced nanocomposites and thick film resistors. Unlike existing approaches, our model takes into account the impenetrability of the particles and their random placement within the matrix. Moreover, our model presents a detailed description of intra-particle conductivity via finite element analysis, which to the authors’ best knowledge has not been addressed before. The inter-particle conductivity is assumed to be primarily due to electron tunneling. The model is then used to predict the electrical conductivity of electrospun carbon nanofibers as a function of microstructural parameters such as turbostratic domain alignment and aspect ratio. To simulate the microstructure of single CNF, randomly positioned nucleation sites were seeded and grown as turbostratic particles with anisotropic growth rates. Particle growth was in steps and growth of each particle in each direction was stopped upon contact with other particles. The study points to the significant contribution of both intra-particle and inter-particle conductivity to the overall conductivity of hybrid composites. Influence of particle alignment and anisotropic growth rate ratio on electrical conductivity is also discussed. The results show that partial alignment in contrast to complete alignment can result in maximum electrical conductivity of whole CNF. High degrees of alignment can adversely affect conductivity by lowering the probability of the formation of a conductive path. The results demonstrate approaches to enhance electrical conductivity of hybrid materials through controlling their microstructure which is applicable not only to carbon nanofibers, but also many other types of hybrid composites such as thick film resistors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lisjak, Andrea; Tatone, Bryan S. A.; Mahabadi, Omid K.; Grasselli, Giovanni; Marschall, Paul; Lanyon, George W.; Vaissière, Rémi de la; Shao, Hua; Leung, Helen; Nussbaum, Christophe
2016-05-01
The analysis and prediction of the rock mass disturbance around underground excavations are critical components of the performance and safety assessment of deep geological repositories for nuclear waste. In the short term, an excavation damaged zone (EDZ) tends to develop due to the redistribution of stresses around the underground openings. The EDZ is associated with an increase in hydraulic conductivity of several orders of magnitude. In argillaceous rocks, sealing mechanisms ultimately lead to a partial reduction in the effective hydraulic conductivity of the EDZ with time. The goal of this study is to strengthen the understanding of the phenomena involved in the EDZ formation and sealing in Opalinus Clay, an indurated claystone currently being assessed as a host rock for a geological repository in Switzerland. To achieve this goal, hybrid finite-discrete element method (FDEM) simulations are performed. With its explicit consideration of fracturing processes, FDEM modeling is applied to the HG-A experiment, an in situ test carried out at the Mont Terri underground rock laboratory to investigate the hydro-mechanical response of a backfilled and sealed microtunnel. A quantitative simulation of the EDZ formation process around the microtunnel is first carried out, and the numerical results are compared with field observations. Then, the re-compression of the EDZ under the effect of a purely mechanical loading, capturing the increase of swelling pressure from the backfill onto the rock, is considered. The simulation results highlight distinctive rock failure kinematics due to the bedded structure of the rock mass. Also, fracture termination is simulated at the intersection with a pre-existing discontinuity, representing a fault plane oblique to the bedding orientation. Simulation of the EDZ re-compression indicates an overall reduction of the total fracture area as a function of the applied pressure, with locations of ineffective sealing associated with self
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Che, Quande; Yang, Hongxing; Lu, Lin; Wang, Yuanhao; Wang, Hai
2013-05-01
This paper reports a one-step synthesis of hybrid rod-like and spherical silver particles and its application in the silver front contact paste for crystalline silicon solar cells. The hybrid silver particles were synthesized by reducing silver nitrate in ethylene glycol. X-ray diffraction indicated that the hybrid silver particles were well crystallized with no crystallographic impurities. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the rod-like particles in the hybrid particles were 0.2 µm to 0.5 µm in width and 1 µm to 4 µm in length, and that the average size of the spherical particles was 0.5 µm. The fabricated crystalline silicon solar cell based on the as-prepared hybrid silver particles showed good photovoltaic performance.
Hybrid sensor for metal grade measurement of a falling stream of solid waste particles.
Abdur Rahman, Md; Bakker, M C M
2012-07-01
A hybrid sensor system for accurate detection of the metal grade of a stream of falling solid waste particles is investigated and experimentally verified. The system holds an infrared and an electromagnetic unit around a central tube and counts all the particles and only the metal particles, respectively. The count ratio together with the measured average particle mass ratio (k) of non-metal and metal particles is sufficient for calculation of grade. The performance of the system is accurately verified using synthetic mixtures of sand and metal particles. Towards an application a case study is performed using municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in size fractions 1-6mm, which presents a major challenge for nonferrous metal recovery. The particle count ratio was inherently accurate for particle feed rates up to 13 per second. The average value and spread of k for bottom ash was determined as 0.49 ± 0.07 and used to calculate grade within 2.4% from the manually analysed grade. At higher feed rates the sensors start missing particles which fall simultaneously through the central tube, but the hybrid system still counted highly repeatable. This allowed for implementation of a count correction ratio to eliminate the stationary error. In combination with averaging in measurement intervals for suppression of stochastic variations the hybrid system regained its accuracy for particle feed rates up to 143 per second. This performance and its special design, intended to render it insensitive to external interference and noise when applied in an eddy current separator, make the hybrid sensor suitable for applications such as quality control and sensor controlled separation. PMID:22498575
Global Hybrid Simulations of Energetic Particle-driven Modes in Toroidal Plasmas
G.Y. Fu; J. Breslau; E. Fredrickson; W. Park; H.R. Strauss
2004-12-14
Global hybrid simulations of energetic particle-driven MHD modes have been carried out for tokamaks and spherical tokamaks using the hybrid code M3D. The numerical results for the National Spherical Tokamak Experiments (NSTX) show that Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes are excited by beam ions with their frequencies consistent with the experimental observations. Nonlinear simulations indicate that the n=2 mode frequency chirps down as the mode moves out radially. For ITER, it is shown that the alpha-particle effects are strongly stabilizing for internal kink mode when central safety factor q(0) is sufficiently close to unity. However, the elongation of ITER plasma shape reduces the stabilization significantly.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Draine, Bruce T.; Flatau, Piotr J.
2000-08-01
DDSCAT is a freely available software package which applies the "discrete dipole approximation" (DDA) to calculate scattering and absorption of electromagnetic waves by targets with arbitrary geometries and complex refractive index. The DDA approximates the target by an array of polarizable points. DDSCAT.5a requires that these polarizable points be located on a cubic lattice. DDSCAT allows accurate calculations of electromagnetic scattering from targets with "size parameters" 2 pi a/lambda < 15 provided the refractive index m is not large compared to unity (|m-1| < 1). The DDSCAT package is written in Fortran and is highly portable. The program supports calculations for a variety of target geometries (e.g., ellipsoids, regular tetrahedra, rectangular solids, finite cylinders, hexagonal prisms, etc.). Target materials may be both inhomogeneous and anisotropic. It is straightforward for the user to import arbitrary target geometries into the code, and relatively straightforward to add new target generation capability to the package. DDSCAT automatically calculates total cross sections for absorption and scattering and selected elements of the Mueller scattering intensity matrix for specified orientation of the target relative to the incident wave, and for specified scattering directions. This User Guide explains how to use DDSCAT to carry out EM scattering calculations. CPU and memory requirements are described.
Two-dimensional quasineutral description of particles and fields above discrete auroral arcs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, A. L.; Chiu, Y. T.; Cornwall, J. M.
1985-01-01
Stationary hot and cool particle distributions in the auroral magnetosphere are modelled using adiabatic assumptions of particle motion in the presence of broad-scale electrostatic potential structure. The study has identified geometrical restrictions on the type of broadscale potential structure which can be supported by a multispecies plasma having specified sources and energies. Without energization of cool thermal ionospheric electrons, a substantial parallel potential drop cannot be supported down to altitudes of 2000 km or less. Observed upward-directed field-aligned currents must be closed by return currents along field lines which support little net potential drop. In such regions the plasma density appears significantly enhanced. Model details agree well with recent broad-scale implications of satellite observations.
Mechanism of Methylene Blue adsorption on hybrid laponite-multi-walled carbon nanotube particles.
Manilo, Maryna; Lebovka, Nikolai; Barany, Sandor
2016-04-01
The kinetics of adsorption and parameters of equilibrium adsorption of Methylene Blue (MB) on hybrid laponite-multi-walled carbon nanotube (NT) particles in aqueous suspensions were determined. The laponite platelets were used in order to facilitate disaggregation of NTs in aqueous suspensions and enhance the adsorption capacity of hybrid particles for MB. Experiments were performed at room temperature (298K), and the laponite/NT ratio (Xl) was varied in the range of 0-0.5. For elucidation of the mechanism of MB adsorption on hybrid particles, the electrical conductivity of the system as well as the electrokinetic potential of laponite-NT hybrid particles were measured. Three different stages in the kinetics of adsorption of MB on the surface of NTs or hybrid laponite-NT particles were discovered to be a fast initial stage I (adsorption time t=0-10min), a slower intermediate stage II (up to t=120min) and a long-lasting final stage III (up to t=24hr). The presence of these stages was explained accounting for different types of interactions between MB and adsorbent particles, as well as for the changes in the structure of aggregates of NT particles and the long-range processes of restructuring of laponite platelets on the surface of NTs. The analysis of experimental data on specific surface area versus the value of Xl evidenced in favor of the model with linear contacts between rigid laponite platelets and NTs. It was also concluded that electrostatic interactions control the first stage of adsorption at low MB concentrations. PMID:27090704
Hybrid Particle-Continuum Methods for Nonequilibrium Gas and Plasma Flows
Boyd, Iain D.
2011-05-20
Two different hybrid particle-continuum methods are described for simulation of nonequilibrium gas and plasma dynamics. The first technique, used for nonequilibrium hypersonic gas flows, uses either a continuum description or a particle method throughout a flow domain based on local conditions. This technique is successful in reproducing the results of full particle simulations at a small fraction of the cost. The second method uses a continuum model of the electrons combined with a particle description of the ions and atoms for simulating plasma jets. The physical accuracy of the method is assessed through comparisons with plasma plume measurements obtained in space. These examples illustrate that the complex physical phenomena associated with nonequilibrium conditions can be simulated with physical accuracy and numerical efficiency using such hybrid approaches.
An alpha particle diagnostic based on measurements of lower hybrid wave fluctuations
Wong, K.L.
1989-07-01
It is shown that the one-dimensional alpha particle velocity distribution function can be determined from the fluctuation- dissipation theorem based on measurements of lower hybrid wave fluctuations in an equilibrium plasma. This method uses collective Thomson scattering data with large signal-to-noise ratio, but it is applicable only when the alpha particles have an isotropic velocity distribution. 16 refs., 1 fig.
Cao, Fuming; Bai, Pengli; Li, Haocheng; Ma, Yunli; Deng, Xiaopei; Zhao, Changsheng
2009-03-15
Polyethersulfone (PES)-organophilic montmorillonite (OMMT) hybrid particles, with various proportions of OMMT, were prepared by using a liquid-liquid phase separation technique, and then were used for the removal of bisphenol A (BPA) from aqueous solution. The adsorbed BPA amounts increased significantly when the OMMT were embedded into the particles. The structure of the particle was characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM); and these particles hardly release small molecules below 250 degrees C which was testified by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The experimental data of BPA adsorption were adequately fitted with Langmuir equations. Three simplified kinetics model including the pseudo-first-order (Lagergren equation), the pseudo-second-order, and the intraparticle diffusion model were used to describe the adsorption process. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorbed BPA amount reached an equilibrium value after 300 min, and the experimental data could be expressed by the intraparticular mass transfer diffusion model. Furthermore, the adsorbed BPA could be effectively removed by ethanol, which indicated that the hybrid particles could be reused. These results showed that the PES-OMMT hybrid particles have the potential to be used in the environmental application. PMID:18597933
Surface mode hybridization in the optical response of core-shell particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thiessen, E.; Heinisch, R. L.; Bronold, F. X.; Fehske, H.
2016-03-01
We present an exact rewriting of the Mie coefficients describing the scattering of light by a spherical core-shell particle which enables their interpretation in terms of a hybridization of the two surface modes arising, respectively, at the core-shell and the shell-medium interface. For this particular case, we thus obtain from the Mie theory—analytically for all multipole orders and hence for arbitrarily sized particles—the hybridization scenario, which so far has been employed primarily for small particles in the electrostatic approximation. To demonstrate the strength of the rewriting approach, we also extract the hybridization scenario for a stratified sphere directly from the expansion coefficients for the electromagnetic fields.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cvetkovic, V.; Frampton, A.; Painter, S.; Selroos, J.
2008-12-01
An important challenge in subsurface hydrology is predictive modeling of tracer transport in sparsely fractured rock. A particular issue relevant for applications is how to accurately account for retention processes that are due to exchange (diffusion-sorption) of tracers between mobile fluid in fractures and immobile fluid in the rock matrix. Typically, tracers are subject to decay processes which may involve chains and in-growth (e.g., for radionuclides and some classes of hydrocarbons). Recently, a comprehensive particle-based methodology for upscaling transport with emphasis on tracer retention has been presented and applied to stochastic 2D discrete fracture networks (Frampton and Cvetkovic 2007, WRR, 43, W10429). Furthermore, a time domain random walk method has also recently been presented that effectively accounts for different exchange mechanisms and in-growth (Painter et al. 2008, WRR, 44, W01406). Now we present further advances in coupling these novel methodologies for solving radionuclide transport, and apply them to realistic 3D fracture networks, based on comprehensive data sets obtained from site characterization of the Laxemar area in south-east Sweden. Site measurements have revealed at least five fracture sets based on statistically significant orientation data, exhibiting power-law behaviour for fracture size and inferred transmissivity distributions. A few equally probable DFN realizations are generated based on these interpretations of the field data, in which advective fluid flow is solved using boundary conditions that mimic natural conditions. Thereafter, many particles are injected and tracked through the system, providing first- passage distributions of particle residence time and of the transport resistance parameter (quantifying the hydrodynamic control of retention). These distributions are then used as a basis for implementing the particle time-domain random walk model for radionuclide transport with retention and in-growth. Also, an
Hybrid sensor for metal grade measurement of a falling stream of solid waste particles
Abdur Rahman, Md. Bakker, M.C.M.
2012-07-15
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new sensor system is developed for metal grade measurement of falling bottom ash particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The system is hybrid, consisting of an optical and an electromagnetic sensor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Grade of ECS concentrated bottom ash in 1-6 mm sieve size accurately measured up to 143 p/s feed rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Accuracy reached was 2.4% with respect to manual analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Measures for elimination of both stationary and stochastic errors are discussed. - Abstract: A hybrid sensor system for accurate detection of the metal grade of a stream of falling solid waste particles is investigated and experimentally verified. The system holds an infrared and an electromagnetic unit around a central tube and counts all the particles and only the metal particles, respectively. The count ratio together with the measured average particle mass ratio (k) of non-metal and metal particles is sufficient for calculation of grade. The performance of the system is accurately verified using synthetic mixtures of sand and metal particles. Towards an application a case study is performed using municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in size fractions 1-6 mm, which presents a major challenge for nonferrous metal recovery. The particle count ratio was inherently accurate for particle feed rates up to 13 per second. The average value and spread of k for bottom ash was determined as 0.49 {+-} 0.07 and used to calculate grade within 2.4% from the manually analysed grade. At higher feed rates the sensors start missing particles which fall simultaneously through the central tube, but the hybrid system still counted highly repeatable. This allowed for implementation of a count correction ratio to eliminate the stationary error. In combination with averaging in measurement intervals for suppression of stochastic variations the hybrid system regained its accuracy for particle feed
Joyce, Paul; Whitby, Catherine P; Prestidge, Clive A
2015-08-12
Biodegradable and bioactive hybrid particles composed of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles and medium-chain triglycerides were prepared by spray drying lipid-in-water emulsions stabilized by PLGA nanoparticles, to form PLGA-lipid hybrid (PLH) microparticles approximately 5 μm in mean diameter. The nanoparticle stabilizer was varied and mannitol was also incorporated during the preparation to investigate the effect of stabilizer charge and cryoprotectant content on the particle microstructure. An in vitro lipolysis model was used to demonstrate the particles' bioactivity by manipulating the digestion kinetics of encapsulated lipid by pancreatic lipase in simulated gastrointestinal fluid. Lipid digestion kinetics were enhanced in PLH and PLGA-lipid-mannitol hybrid (PLMH) microparticles for both stabilizers, compared to a coarse emulsion, in biorelevant media. An optimal digestion rate was observed for the negatively charged PLMH system, evidenced by a 2-fold increase in the pseudo-first-order rate constant compared to a coarse emulsion. Improved microparticle redispersion, probed by dual dye confocal fluorescence microscopy, increased the available surface area of lipid for lipase adsorption, enhancing digestion kinetics. Thereby, lipase action was controlled in hybrid microparticles by altering the surface charge and carbohydrate content. Our results demonstrate that bioactive microparticles composed of versatile and biodegradable polymeric particles and oil droplets have great potential for use in smart food and nutrient delivery, as well as safer and more efficacious oral delivery of drugs and drug combinations. PMID:26181279
Silica-graphene oxide hybrid composite particles and their electroresponsive characteristics.
Zhang, Wen Ling; Choi, Hyoung Jin
2012-05-01
Silica-graphene oxide (Si-GO) hybrid composite particles were prepared by the hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) in the presence of hydrophilic GO obtained from a modified Hummers method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images provided visible evidence of the silica nanoparticles grafted on the surface of GO, resulting in Si-GO hybrid composite particles. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra indicated the coexistence of silica and GO in the composite particles. The Si-GO hybrid composite particles showed better thermal stability than that of GO according to thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The electrorheological (ER) characteristics of the Si-GO hybrid composite based ER fluid were examined further by optical microscopy and a rotational rheometer in controlled shear rate mode under various electric field strengths. Shear stress curves were fitted using both conventional Bingham model and a constitutive Cho-Choi-Jhon model. The polarizability and relaxation time of the ER fluid from dielectric spectra measured using an LCR meter showed a good correlation with its ER characteristics. PMID:22486527
Dendrimer-like hybrid particles with tunable hierarchical pores
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Xin; Li, Xiaoyu; Huang, Hongwei; He, Junhui; Zhang, Xueji
2015-03-01
Dendrimer-like silica particles with a center-radial dendritic framework and a synergistic hierarchical porosity have attracted much attention due to their unique open three-dimensional superstructures with high accessibility to the internal surface areas; however, the delicate regulation of the hierarchical porosity has been difficult to achieve up to now. Herein, a series of dendrimer-like amino-functionalized silica particles with tunable hierarchical pores (HPSNs-NH2) were successfully fabricated by carefully regulating and optimizing the various experimental parameters in the ethyl ether emulsion systems via a one-pot sol-gel reaction. Interestingly, the simple adjustment of the stirring rate or reaction temperature was found to be an easy and effective route to achieve the controllable regulation towards center-radial large pore sizes from ca. 37-267 (148 +/- 45) nm to ca. 8-119 (36 +/- 21) nm for HPSNs-NH2 with particle sizes of 300-700 nm and from ca. 9-157 (52 +/- 28) nm to ca. 8-105 (30 +/- 16) nm for HPSNs-NH2 with particle sizes of 100-320 nm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first successful regulation towards center-radial large pore sizes in such large ranges. The formation of HPSNs-NH2 may be attributed to the complex cross-coupling of two processes: the dynamic diffusion of ethyl ether molecules and the self-assembly of partially hydrolyzed TEOS species and CTAB molecules at the dynamic ethyl ether-water interface of uniform small quasi-emulsion droplets. Thus, these results regarding the elaborate regulation of center-radial large pores and particle sizes not only help us better understand the complicated self-assembly at the dynamic oil-water interface, but also provide a unique and ideal platform as carriers or supports for adsorption, separation, catalysis, biomedicine, and sensor.Dendrimer-like silica particles with a center-radial dendritic framework and a synergistic hierarchical porosity have attracted much attention due to their
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarkar, Soham; Das, Swagatam
In recent years particle swarm optimization emerges as one of the most efficient global optimization tools. In this paper, a hybrid particle swarm with differential evolution operator, termed DEPSO, is applied for the synthesis of linear array geometry. Here, the minimum side lobe level and null control, both are obtained by optimizing the spacing between the array elements by this technique. Moreover, a statistical comparison is also provided to establish its performance against the results obtained by Genetic Algorithm (GA), classical Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Tabu Search Algorithm (TSA), Differential Evolution (DE) and Memetic Algorithm (MA).
Hybrid metal organic scintillator materials system and particle detector
Bauer, Christina A.; Allendorf, Mark D.; Doty, F. Patrick; Simmons, Blake A.
2011-07-26
We describe the preparation and characterization of two zinc hybrid luminescent structures based on the flexible and emissive linker molecule, trans-(4-R,4'-R') stilbene, where R and R' are mono- or poly-coordinating groups, which retain their luminescence within these solid materials. For example, reaction of trans-4,4'-stilbenedicarboxylic acid and zinc nitrate in the solvent dimethylformamide (DMF) yielded a dense 2-D network featuring zinc in both octahedral and tetrahedral coordination environments connected by trans-stilbene links. Similar reaction in diethylformamide (DEF) at higher temperatures resulted in a porous, 3-D framework structure consisting of two interpenetrating cubic lattices, each featuring basic to zinc carboxylate vertices joined by trans-stilbene, analogous to the isoreticular MOF (IRMOF) series. We demonstrate that the optical properties of both embodiments correlate directly with the local ligand environments observed in the crystal structures. We further demonstrate that these materials produce high luminescent response to proton radiation and high radiation tolerance relative to prior scintillators. These features can be used to create sophisticated scintillating detection sensors.
Hybrid molecular-continuum simulations using smoothed dissipative particle dynamics
Petsev, Nikolai D.; Leal, L. Gary; Shell, M. Scott
2015-01-28
We present a new multiscale simulation methodology for coupling a region with atomistic detail simulated via molecular dynamics (MD) to a numerical solution of the fluctuating Navier-Stokes equations obtained from smoothed dissipative particle dynamics (SDPD). In this approach, chemical potential gradients emerge due to differences in resolution within the total system and are reduced by introducing a pairwise thermodynamic force inside the buffer region between the two domains where particles change from MD to SDPD types. When combined with a multi-resolution SDPD approach, such as the one proposed by Kulkarni et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 138, 234105 (2013)], this method makes it possible to systematically couple atomistic models to arbitrarily coarse continuum domains modeled as SDPD fluids with varying resolution. We test this technique by showing that it correctly reproduces thermodynamic properties across the entire simulation domain for a simple Lennard-Jones fluid. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this approach is also suitable for non-equilibrium problems by applying it to simulations of the start up of shear flow. The robustness of the method is illustrated with two different flow scenarios in which shear forces act in directions parallel and perpendicular to the interface separating the continuum and atomistic domains. In both cases, we obtain the correct transient velocity profile. We also perform a triple-scale shear flow simulation where we include two SDPD regions with different resolutions in addition to a MD domain, illustrating the feasibility of a three-scale coupling.
Hybrid molecular-continuum simulations using smoothed dissipative particle dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petsev, Nikolai D.; Leal, L. Gary; Shell, M. Scott
2015-01-01
We present a new multiscale simulation methodology for coupling a region with atomistic detail simulated via molecular dynamics (MD) to a numerical solution of the fluctuating Navier-Stokes equations obtained from smoothed dissipative particle dynamics (SDPD). In this approach, chemical potential gradients emerge due to differences in resolution within the total system and are reduced by introducing a pairwise thermodynamic force inside the buffer region between the two domains where particles change from MD to SDPD types. When combined with a multi-resolution SDPD approach, such as the one proposed by Kulkarni et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 138, 234105 (2013)], this method makes it possible to systematically couple atomistic models to arbitrarily coarse continuum domains modeled as SDPD fluids with varying resolution. We test this technique by showing that it correctly reproduces thermodynamic properties across the entire simulation domain for a simple Lennard-Jones fluid. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this approach is also suitable for non-equilibrium problems by applying it to simulations of the start up of shear flow. The robustness of the method is illustrated with two different flow scenarios in which shear forces act in directions parallel and perpendicular to the interface separating the continuum and atomistic domains. In both cases, we obtain the correct transient velocity profile. We also perform a triple-scale shear flow simulation where we include two SDPD regions with different resolutions in addition to a MD domain, illustrating the feasibility of a three-scale coupling.
Gonçalves, V S S; Rodríguez-Rojo, S; Matias, A A; Nunes, A V M; Nogueira, I D; Nunes, D; Fortunato, E; de Matos, A P Alves; Cocero, M J; Duarte, C M M
2015-01-15
Hybrid lipid-polymer particles are gaining increasing interest to be applied as drug delivery systems due to their greater stability in biological fluids and enhanced cellular uptake of drugs. However, a major drawback is the fact that these particles are usually produced through techniques that use organic solvents. This work studies the possibility of producing for the first time hybrid particles composed by lipid multicores enveloped in a polymeric layer through Particles from Gas Saturated Solutions (PGSS(®)), without using organic solvents. An oil-in-water emulsion, composed by Gelucire 43/01™ (GEL) as the discontinuous phase and by an aqueous polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG) solution as the continuous phase, was successfully precipitated by PGSS(®). Operating conditions that ensured the stability of the CO2 saturated emulsion were previously evaluated. The resulting PEG-GEL particles present a spherical-like morphology constituted by several lipid cores encapsulated into a polymeric shell. The applicability of these structured particles to be used as drug delivery system (DDS) was studied by using ketoprofen, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), as model drug. The particles provided an initial burst release of the drug due to the progressive dissolution of the external layer of PEG, followed by a controlled release of the NSAID from the GEL cores. PMID:25445975
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tkachenko, M. V.; Kamzin, A. S.
2016-04-01
Hybrid ceramics consisting of hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 and ferrite Fe3O4 were synthesized using a two-stage procedure. The first stage included the synthesis of Fe3O4 ferrite particles by co-precipitation and the synthesis of hydroxyapatite. In the second stage, the magnetic hybrid hydroxyapatite-ferrite bioceramics were synthesized by a thorough mixing of the obtained powders of carbonated hydroxyapatite and Fe3O4 ferrite taken in a certain proportion, pressing into tablets, and annealing in a carbon dioxide atmosphere for 30 min at a temperature of 1200°C. The properties of the components and hybrid particles were investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The saturation magnetization of the hybrid ceramic composite containing 20 wt % Fe3O4 was found to be 12 emu/g. The hybrid hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2)-ferrite Fe3O4 ceramics, which are promising for the use in magnetotransport and hyperthermia treatment, were synthesized and investigated for the first time.
Solving constrained optimization problems with hybrid particle swarm optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zahara, Erwie; Hu, Chia-Hsin
2008-11-01
Constrained optimization problems (COPs) are very important in that they frequently appear in the real world. A COP, in which both the function and constraints may be nonlinear, consists of the optimization of a function subject to constraints. Constraint handling is one of the major concerns when solving COPs with particle swarm optimization (PSO) combined with the Nelder-Mead simplex search method (NM-PSO). This article proposes embedded constraint handling methods, which include the gradient repair method and constraint fitness priority-based ranking method, as a special operator in NM-PSO for dealing with constraints. Experiments using 13 benchmark problems are explained and the NM-PSO results are compared with the best known solutions reported in the literature. Comparison with three different meta-heuristics demonstrates that NM-PSO with the embedded constraint operator is extremely effective and efficient at locating optimal solutions.
Sjoden, G.E.
1992-03-01
A new discrete ordinates spatial quadrature scheme is presented for solving neutral particle transport problems. This new scheme, called the exponential characteristic method, is developed here in slab geometry with isotropic scattering. This method uses a characteristic integration of the Boltzmann transport equation with an exponential function as the assumed from of the source distribution, continuous across each spatial cell. The exponential source function is constructed to globally conserve zeroth and first spatial source moments and is non-negative. Characteristic integration ensures non-negative fluxes and flux moments. Numerical testing indicates that convergence of the exponential characteristic scheme is fourth order in the limit of vanishingly thin cells. Highly accurate solutions to optically thick problems can result using this scheme with very coarse meshes. Comparing accuracy and computational cost with existing spatial quadrature schemes (diamond difference, linear discontinuous, linear characteristic, linear adaptive, etc.), the exponential characteristic scheme typically performed best. This scheme is expected to be expandable to two dimensions in a straight forward manner. Due to the high accuracies achievable using coarse meshes, this scheme may allow researchers to obtain solutions to transport problems once thought too large or too difficult to be adequately solved conventional computer systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herman, Agnieszka
2016-04-01
This paper presents theoretical foundations, numerical implementation and examples of application of the two-dimensional Discrete-Element bonded-particle Sea Ice model - DESIgn. In the model, sea ice is represented as an assemblage of objects of two types: disk-shaped "grains" and semi-elastic bonds connecting them. Grains move on the sea surface under the influence of forces from the atmosphere and the ocean, as well as interactions with surrounding grains through direct contact (Hertzian contact mechanics) and/or through bonds. The model has an experimental option of taking into account quasi-three-dimensional effects related to the space- and time-varying curvature of the sea surface, thus enabling simulation of ice breaking due to stresses resulting from bending moments associated with surface waves. Examples of the model's application to simple sea ice deformation and breaking problems are presented, with an analysis of the influence of the basic model parameters ("microscopic" properties of grains and bonds) on the large-scale response of the modeled material. The model is written as a toolbox suitable for usage with the open-source numerical library LIGGGHTS. The code, together with full technical documentation and example input files, is freely available with this paper and on the Internet.
Advanced 3D electromagnetic and particle-in-cell modeling on structured/unstructured hybrid grids
Seidel, D.B.; Pasik, M.F.; Kiefer, M.L.; Riley, D.J.; Turner, C.D.
1998-01-01
New techniques have been recently developed that allow unstructured, free meshes to be embedded into standard 3-dimensional, rectilinear, finite-difference time-domain grids. The resulting hybrid-grid modeling capability allows the higher resolution and fidelity of modeling afforded by free meshes to be combined with the simplicity and efficiency of rectilinear techniques. Integration of these new methods into the full-featured, general-purpose QUICKSILVER electromagnetic, Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code provides new modeling capability for a wide variety of electromagnetic and plasma physics problems. To completely exploit the integration of this technology into QUICKSILVER for applications requiring the self-consistent treatment of charged particles, this project has extended existing PIC methods for operation on these hybrid unstructured/rectilinear meshes. Several technical issues had to be addressed in order to accomplish this goal, including the location of particles on the unstructured mesh, adequate conservation of charge, and the proper handling of particles in the transition region between structured and unstructured portions of the hybrid grid.
(Bio)hybrid materials based on optically active particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reitzig, Manuela; Härtling, Thomas; Opitz, Jörg
2014-03-01
In this contribution we provide an overview of current investigations on optically active particles (nanodiamonds, upconversion phospors) for biohybrid and sensing applications. Due to their outstanding properties nanodiamonds gain attention in various application elds such as microelectronics, optical monitoring, medicine, and biotechnology. Beyond the typical diamond properties such as high thermal conductivity and extreme hardness, the carbon surface and its various functional groups enable diverse chemical and biological surface functionalization. At Fraunhofer IKTS-MD we develop a customization of material surfaces via integration of chemically modi ed nanodiamonds at variable surfaces, e.g bone implants and pipelines. For the rst purpose, nanodiamonds are covalently modi ed at their surface with amino or phosphate functionalities that are known to increase adhesion to bone or titanium alloys. The second type of surface is approached via mechanical implementation into coatings. Besides nanodiamonds, we also investigate the properties of upconversion phosphors. In our contribution we show how upconversion phosphors are used to verify sterilization processes via a change of optical properties due to sterilizing electron beam exposure.
Li, Chuan; Peng, Juan; Liang, Ming
2014-01-01
Oil debris sensors are effective tools to monitor wear particles in lubricants. For in situ applications, surrounding noise and vibration interferences often distort the oil debris signature of the sensor. Hence extracting oil debris signatures from sensor signals is a challenging task for wear particle monitoring. In this paper we employ the maximal overlap discrete wavelet transform (MODWT) with optimal decomposition depth to enhance the wear particle monitoring capability. The sensor signal is decomposed by the MODWT into different depths for detecting the wear particle existence. To extract the authentic particle signature with minimal distortion, the root mean square deviation of kurtosis value of the segmented signal residue is adopted as a criterion to obtain the optimal decomposition depth for the MODWT. The proposed approach is evaluated using both simulated and experimental wear particles. The results show that the present method can improve the oil debris monitoring capability without structural upgrade requirements. PMID:24686730
Shock Injection Problem and Beyond in Hybrid/Particle-in-Cell Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoshino, Masahiro
Collisionless shocks are a rich repository of nonlinear plasma instabilities and the self-regulated system of plasma waves, and provide not only quick thermalization but also nonthermal particle acceleration. One of the most widely accepted models of the nonthermal particle acceleration is the diffusive shock acceleration (DSA), which was established in the late seventies. In order that DSA operates effectively, however, the pre-acceleration of particles - the acceleration from the thermal into the suprathermal energies - is needed, namely, the so-called "shock injection problem" remains elusive. The transition from the thermal energies, the suprathermal energies, and the high energy nothermal particles are not well understood yet. With the recent advance of supper computer technology, kinetic plasma modeling by hybrid/particle-in-cell simulations are widely used for understanding the shock dynamics and the particle acceleration mechanisms etc. The modern computer capability is not enough to demonstrate DAS or other strong particle acceleration processes yet, but a great progress is now obtained. In this review talk, we discuss several important progresses: the pre-acceleration at the shock front as the particle injection problem, the turbulent wave generation in the shock transition/upstream as the particle scatterers of DAS, and the magnetic field amplification and so on. We will also give a perspective of the shock acceleration in the future simulation study.
A Fast Induction Motor Speed Estimation based on Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization (HPSO)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aryza, Solly; Abdallah, Ahmed N.; Khalidin, Zulkeflee bin; Lubis, Zulkarnain; Jie, Ma
Intelligent control and estimation of power electronic systems by fuzzy logic and neural network techniques with fast torque and flux show tremendous promise in future. This paper proposed the application of Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization (HPSO) for losses and operating cost minimization control in the induction motor drives. The main advantages of the proposed technique are; its simple structure and its straightforward maximization of induction motor efficiency and its operating cost for a given load torque. As will be demonstrated, Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization (HPSO) is so efficient in finding the optimum operating machine's flux level. The results demonstrate the good quality and robustness in the system dynamic response and reduction in the steady-state and transient motor ripple torque.
MTX/LDHs hybrids synthesized from reverse microemulsions: particle control and bioassay study.
Liu, Zhen-Lei; Tian, De-Ying; Li, Shu-Ping; Li, Xiao-Dong; Lu, Tian-Hong
2014-10-01
Reverse microemulsions have been used to control the growth of methotrexatum intercalated layered double hydroxides (MTX/LDHs) hybrids, and the influence of reaction temperature, water content (noted as ω) and MTX content (noted as R) on the properties of MTX/LDHs was systematically investigated. The synthesized hybrids were then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), etc. XRD and FTIR investigations manifest the successful intercalation of MTX anions into the interlayer of LDHs. The process of particle control has been explored emphatically, and it was found that temperature, water content, and addition of solutes can determine the structural evolution as well as the size of the "water pools" in the reverse microemulsions, while ω plays a critical role in the particle growth. Then in vitro release tests of all hybrids in pH 7.4 phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were explored, and the parabolic diffusion model simulate the release progress best, showing that the release process belongs to multi phase diffusion process via ion exchange. At last, the anticancer efficacy of all MTX/LDHs hybrids was also estimated by MTT assay with the human lung cancer (A549). It is found for the first time that the drug efficacy is closely associated with dispersion coefficient (noted as ϵ). PMID:25089502
Particle pinch with fully noninductive lower hybrid current drive in Tore Supra.
Hoang, G T; Bourdelle, C; Pégourié, B; Schunke, B; Artaud, J F; Bucalossi, J; Clairet, F; Fenzi-Bonizec, C; Garbet, X; Gil, C; Guirlet, R; Imbeaux, F; Lasalle, J; Loarer, T; Lowry, C; Travère, J M; Tsitrone, E
2003-04-18
Recently, plasmas exceeding 4 min have been obtained with lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) in Tore Supra. These LHCD plasmas extend for over 80 times the resistive current diffusion time with zero loop voltage. Under such unique conditions the neoclassical particle pinch driven by the toroidal electric field vanishes. Nevertheless, the density profile remains peaked for more than 4 min. For the first time, the existence of an inward particle pinch in steady-state plasma without toroidal electric field, much larger than the value predicted by the collisional neoclassical theory, is experimentally demonstrated. PMID:12732041
Hybrid three-dimensional variation and particle filtering for nonlinear systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leng, Hong-Ze; Song, Jun-Qiang
2013-03-01
This work addresses the problem of estimating the states of nonlinear dynamic systems with sparse observations. We present a hybrid three-dimensional variation (3DVar) and particle piltering (PF) method, which combines the advantages of 3DVar and particle-based filters. By minimizing the cost function, this approach will produce a better proposal distribution of the state. Afterwards the stochastic resampling step in standard PF can be avoided through a deterministic scheme. The simulation results show that the performance of the new method is superior to the traditional ensemble Kalman filtering (EnKF) and the standard PF, especially in highly nonlinear systems.
Well-defined plate and hollow disk shaped particles of silica-dialkyldimethylammonium hybrids.
Machida, Shingo; Yoshida, Takaaki; Hashimoto, Ryouya; Ogawa, Makoto
2014-04-15
Well-defined plate and hollow disk of silica-dioctadecyldimethylammonium hybrid particles were obtained by the sol-gel reaction of tetraethoxysilane in the presence of dioctadecyldimethylammonium chloride, where synthetic condition was determined based on the Stöber synthesis for micron size silica sphere. The particle size was several hundreds of nm in the radius and several tens of nm in the thickness. X-ray powder diffraction patterns indicated that the products possess layered mesostructures, which were thought to be directed by the lamellar aggregates of dioctadecyldimethylammonium. PMID:24559701
Holod, I.; Lin, Z.
2013-03-15
The fluid-kinetic hybrid electron model is verified in global gyrokinetic particle simulation of linear electromagnetic drift-Alfvenic instabilities in tokamak. In particular, we have recovered the {beta}-stabilization of the ion temperature gradient mode, transition to collisionless trapped electron mode, and the onset of kinetic ballooning mode as {beta}{sub e} (ratio of electron kinetic pressure to magnetic pressure) increases.
A Hybrid Navier-Stokes/Particle Method for Simulating Rarefied Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duttweiler, Craig R.; Baganoff, Donald; Feiereisen, William J.
1997-11-01
A particle method such as the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method (DSMC) simulates a gas flow by statistically modeling the behavior of a large number of virtual particles and is necessary for the simulation of rarefied flows for which the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations become invalid due to failure of the constituent relations upon which they are based. Unfortunately, while more versatile than NS, DSMC is also computationally much more intensive. Even on a parallel computer, simulation times can become large, and so a less computationally intensive method is desirable. Luckily, in a high-enthalpy flow, most of the particles, and hence computational intensity, are contained in a relatively small, dense region of the domain in which NS is often viable. A logical approach, then, is to hybridize NS and DSMC, allowing the former to handle regions of higher density and the latter to handle regions of greater rarefaction. A robust hybrid method has been developed and successfully applied to several problems, including a blunt body in Mach 10 flow and a lid-driven cavity. In these and other cases, the hybrid method takes less time to produce solutions whose quality is equal to or greater than that of solutions produced by DSMC alone.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Na, Hyuntaek; Bae, Gyuyeol; Kang, Kicheol; Kim, Hyungjun; Kim, Jay-Jung; Lee, Changhee
2010-09-01
In our previous study (Na et al., Compos Sci Technol 69:463-468, 2009), optimized thickness of protective nickel film was proposed for smaller diamond feedstock to obtain reduced impact stress and uniform flight behavior of particles during kinetic (or cold) spraying. However, in this study, nickel-coated diamond particles were severely fractured with increasing particle size due to high kinetic energy. Hence, an innovative hybrid spraying technique (a combination of kinetic and thermal spraying) was introduced to embed relatively large diamond particles into the bronze matrix. Size distributions of the diamond particles in the composite coatings were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, an electron probe micro analyzer, and image analysis methods. In addition, impact behaviors of diamond particles in kinetic and hybrid gas flows were simulated through finite element analysis (ABAQUS/Explicit 6.7-2). Diamond fracturing was significantly minimized by the reduced impact energy afforded by the thermally softened bronze matrix through hybrid spraying.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amano, Y.; Nanbu, H.; Kameyama, Y.; Komotori, J.
2010-06-01
In order to improve the adhesiveness of the DLC coating, Fine Particle Peening (FPP) treatment was employed as pre-treatment of the DLC coating process. FPP treatment was performed using SiC shot particles, and then AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy was DLC-coated. A SiC-rich layer was formed around the surface of the aluminum alloy by the FPP treatment because small chips of shot particles were embedded into the substrate surface. Reciprocating sliding tests were conducted to measure the friction coefficients. While the DLC coated specimen without FPP treatment showed a sudden increase in friction coefficient at the early stage of the wear cycles, the FPP/DLC hybrid treated specimen maintained a low friction coefficient value during the test period. Further investigation revealed that the tribological properties of the substrate after the DLC coating were improved with an increase in the amount of Si at the surface.
3D hybrid simulations with gyrokinetic particle ions and fluid electrons
Belova, E.V.; Park, W.; Fu, G.Y.; Strauss, H.R.; Sugiyama, L.E.
1998-12-31
The previous hybrid MHD/particle model (MH3D-K code) represented energetic ions as gyrokinetic (or drift-kinetic) particles coupled to MHD equations using the pressure or current coupling scheme. A small energetic to bulk ion density ratio was assumed, n{sub h}/n{sub b} {much_lt} 1, allowing the neglect of the energetic ion perpendicular inertia in the momentum equation and the use of MHD Ohm`s law E = {minus}v{sub b} {times} B. A generalization of this model in which all ions are treated as gyrokinetic/drift-kinetic particles and fluid description is used for the electron dynamics is considered in this paper.
Izzet, Guillaume; Abécassis, Benjamin; Brouri, Dalil; Piot, Madeleine; Matt, Benjamin; Serapian, Stefano Artin; Bo, Carles; Proust, Anna
2016-04-20
The metal-driven self-assembly processes of a covalent polyoxometalate (POM)-based hybrid bearing remote terpyridine binding sites have been investigated. In a strongly dissociating solvent, a discrete metallomacrocycle, described as a molecular triangle, is formed and characterized by 2D diffusion NMR spectroscopy (DOSY), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and molecular modeling. In a less dissociating solvent, the primary supramolecular structure, combining negatively charged POMs and cationic metal linkers, further self-assemble through intermolecular electrostatic interactions in a reversible process. The resulting hierarchical assemblies are dense monodisperse nanoparticles composed of ca. 50 POMs that were characterized by SAXS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This multiscale organized system directed by metal coordination and electrostatic interactions constitutes a promising step for the future design of POM self-assemblies with controllable structure-directing factors. PMID:27019075
Laser induction hybrid rapid cladding of WC particles reinforced NiCrBSi composite coatings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Shengfeng; Dai, Xiaoqin
2010-05-01
In order to investigate the microstructure characteristics and properties of Ni-based WC composite coatings containing a relatively large amount of WC particles by laser induction hybrid rapid cladding (LIHRC) and compare to the individual laser cladding without preheating, Ni60A + 35 wt.% WC composite coatings are deposited on A3 steel plates by LIHRC and the individual laser cladding without preheating. The composite coating produced by the individual laser cladding without preheating exhibits many cracks and pores, while the smooth composite coating without cracks and pores is obtained by LIHRC. Moreover, the cast WC particles take on the similar dissolution characteristics in Ni60A + 35 wt.% WC composite coatings by LIHRC and the individual laser cladding without preheating. Namely, the completely dissolved WC particles interact with Ni-based alloy solvent to precipitate the blocky and herringbone carbides, while the partially dissolved WC particles still preserve the primary lamellar eutectic structure. A few WC particles are split at the interface of WC and W 2C, and then interact with Ni-based alloy solvent to precipitate the lamellar carbides. Compared with the individual laser cladding without preheating, LIHRC has the relatively lower temperature gradient and the relatively higher laser scanning speed. Therefore, LIHRC can produce the crack-free composite coating with relatively higher microhardness and relatively more homogeneous distribution of WC particles and is successfully applied to strengthen the corrugated roller, showing that LIHRC process has a higher efficiency and good cladding quality.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Victoria E.; Prud'Homme, Robert K.; Priestley, Rodney D.
Polymer Janus particles, containing two or more distinct domains, can act as supports for inorganic nanoparticles, stabilizing them against aggregation and templating anisotropic functionalization of the microparticles. This anisotropy can be advantageous for applications such as biofuel upgrading, bionanosensors, and responsive materials. Here, we introduce flash nanoprecipitation (FNP) as a scalable, fast process to create hybrid polymer-inorganic Janus particles with control of particle size and anisotropy. During FNP, polymer Janus particles form by rapid intermixing of a polymer solution with a poor solvent, inducing polymer precipitation and phase separation. Inorganic nanoparticles are then adsorbed selectively onto one domain of the polymer support by exploiting electrostatic interactions between the charged particles. By tuning polymer concentration and ratio in the feed stream, the particle size and anisotropy can be controlled. We further demonstrate that these hybrid particles can simultaneously stabilize emulsions and selectively catalyze the degradation of dye in one phase. With support from the Princeton Imaging Analysis Center.
2012-01-01
The fabrication of well-defined one-dimensional (1D) arrays is becoming a challenge for the development of the next generation of advanced nanodevices. Herein, a simple concept is proposed for the in situ synthesis and self-assembly of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) into 1D arrays via a one-step process. The results demonstrated the formation of nanoparticle chains (NPC) with high aspect ratio based on discrete Au nanoparticles stabilized by short thiol ligands. A model was proposed to explain the self-assembly based on the investigation of several parameters such as pH, solvent, temperature, and nature of the ligand on the 1D assembly formation. Hydrogen bonding was identified as a key factor to direct the self-assembly of the hybrid organic–inorganic nanomaterials into the well-defined 1D nanostructures. This simple and cost-effective concept could potentially be extended to the fabrication of a variety of hybrid 1D nanostructures possessing unique physical properties leading to a wide range of applications including catalysis, bionanotechnology, nanoelectronics, and photonics. PMID:22432448
Null Extinction of Ceria@silica Hybrid Particles: Transparent Polystyrene Composites.
İncel, Anıl; Güner, Tuğrul; Parlak, Onur; Demir, Mustafa M
2015-12-16
Scattering of light in optical materials, particularly in composites based on transparent polymer and inorganic pigment nanoparticles, is a chronic problem. It might originate mainly from light scattering because of a refractive index mismatch between the particles and transparent polymer matrix. Thus, the intensity of light is rapidly diminished and optical transparency is reduced. Refractive index matching between the pigment core and the surrounding transparent matrix using a secondary component at the interface (shell) has recently appeared as a promising approach to alter light scattering. Here, CeO2 (ceria) nanoparticles with a diameter of 25 nm are coated with a SiO2 (silica) shell with various thicknesses in a range of 6.5-67.5 nm using the Stöber method. When the hybrid core-shell particles are dispersed into transparent polystyrene (PS), the transmission of the freestanding PS composite films increases over both the ultraviolet (UV) and visible region as the shell thickness increases particularly at 37.5 nm. The increase of transmission can be attributed to the reduction in the scattering coefficient of the hybrid particles. On the other hand, the particles in tetrahydrofuran (THF) absorb over UV and the intensity of absorption shows a systematic decrease as the shell thickness increases. Thus, the silica shell suppresses not only the scattering coefficient but also the molar absorptivity of the core ceria particles. The experimental results regarding the target shell thickness to develop low extinction (scattering + absorption) composites show a qualitative agreement with the predictions of Effective Medium Theory. PMID:26594909
Wieselquist, William A.; Anistratov, Dmitriy Y.; Morel, Jim E.
2014-09-15
We present a quasidiffusion (QD) method for solving neutral particle transport problems in Cartesian XY geometry on unstructured quadrilateral meshes, including local refinement capability. Neutral particle transport problems are central to many applications including nuclear reactor design, radiation safety, astrophysics, medical imaging, radiotherapy, nuclear fuel transport/storage, shielding design, and oil well-logging. The primary development is a new discretization of the low-order QD (LOQD) equations based on cell-local finite differences. The accuracy of the LOQD equations depends on proper calculation of special non-linear QD (Eddington) factors from a transport solution. In order to completely define the new QD method, a proper discretization of the transport problem is also presented. The transport equation is discretized by a conservative method of short characteristics with a novel linear approximation of the scattering source term and monotonic, parabolic representation of the angular flux on incoming faces. Analytic and numerical tests are used to test the accuracy and spatial convergence of the non-linear method. All tests exhibit O(h{sup 2}) convergence of the scalar flux on orthogonal, random, and multi-level meshes.
Delta-doped hybrid advanced detector for low energy particle detection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor); Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Soli, George A. (Inventor)
2000-01-01
A delta-doped hybrid advanced detector (HAD) is provided which combines at least four types of technologies to create a detector for energetic particles ranging in energy from hundreds of electron volts (eV) to beyond several million eV. The detector is sensitive to photons from visible light to X-rays. The detector is highly energy-sensitive from approximately 10 keV down to hundreds of eV. The detector operates with milliwatt power dissipation, and allows non-sequential readout of the array, enabling various advanced readout schemes.
Delta-doped hybrid advanced detector for low energy particle detection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor); Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Soli, George A. (Inventor)
2002-01-01
A delta-doped hybrid advanced detector (HAD) is provided which combines at least four types of technologies to create a detector for energetic particles ranging in energy from hundreds of electron volts (eV) to beyond several million eV. The detector is sensitive to photons from visible light to X-rays. The detector is highly energy-sensitive from approximately 10 keV down to hundreds of eV. The detector operates with milliwatt power dissipation, and allows non-sequential readout of the array, enabling various advanced readout schemes.
Enhancement of hybrid rocket combustion performance using nano-sized energetic particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Risha, Grant Alexander
Until now, the regression rate of classical hybrid rocket engines have typically been an order of magnitude lower than solid propellant motors; thus, hybrids require a relatively large fuel surface area for a given thrust level. In addition to low linear regression rates, relatively low combustion efficiency (87 to 92%), low mass burning rates, varying oxidizer-to-fuel ratio during operation, and lack of scaling laws have been reported. These disadvantages can be ameliorated by introducing nano-sized energetic powder additives into the solid fuel. The addition of nano-sized energetic particles into the solid fuel enhances performance as measured by parameters such as: density specific impulse, mass and linear burning rates, and thrust. Thermophysical properties of the solid fuel such as density, heat of combustion, thermal diffusivity, and thermal conductivity are also enhanced. The types of nano-sized energetic particles used in this study include aluminum, boron, boron carbide, and some Viton-A coated particles. Since the combustion process of solid fuels in a hybrid rocket engine is governed by the mass flux of the oxidizer entering the combustion chamber, the rate-limiting process is the mixing and reacting of the pyrolysis products of the fuel grain with the incoming oxidizer. The overall goal of this research was to determine the relative propulsive and combustion behavior for a family of newly-developed HTPB-based solid-fuel formulations containing various nano-sized energetic particles. Seventeen formulations contained 13% additive by weight, one formulation (SF4) contained 6.5% additive by weight, and one formulation (SF19) contained 5.65% boron by weight. The two hybrid rocket engines which were used in this investigation were the Long Grain Center-Perforated (LGCP) rocket engine and the X-Ray Transparent Casing (XTC) rocket engine. The smaller scale LGCP rocket engine was used to evaluate all of the formulations because conducting experiments using the
Nanometer fluorescent hybrid silica particle as ultrasensitive and photostable biological labels.
Yang, Huang-Hao; Qu, Hui-Ying; Lin, Peng; Li, Shun-Hua; Ding, Ma-Tai; Xu, Jin-Gou
2003-05-01
Nanometer-sized fluorescent hybrid silica (NFHS) particles were prepared for use as sensitive and photostable fluorescent probes in biological staining and diagnostics. The first step of the synthesis involves the covalent modification of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane with an organic fluorophore, such as fluorescein isothiocyanate, under N2 atmosphere for getting a fluorescent silica precursor. Then the NFHS particles, with a diameter of well below 40 nm, were prepared by controlled hydrolysis of the fluorescent silica precursor with tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) using the reverse micelle technique. The fluorophores are dispersed homogeneously in the silica network of the NFHS particles and well protected from the environmental oxygen. Furthermore, since the fluorophores are covalently bound to the silica network, there is no migration, aggregation and leakage of the fluorophores. In comparison with common single organic fluorophores, these particle probes are brighter, more stable against photobleaching and do not suffer from intermittent on/off light emission (blinking). We have used these newly developed NFHS particles as a fluorescent marker to label antibodies, using silica immobilization method, for the immunoassay of human alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). The detection limit of this method was down to 0.05 ng mL(-1) under our current experimental conditions. We think this material would attract much attention and be applied widely in biotechnology. PMID:12790198
Safaei, M. R.; Mahian, O.; Garoosi, F.; Hooman, K.; Karimipour, A.; Kazi, S. N.; Gharehkhani, S.
2014-01-01
This paper addresses erosion prediction in 3-D, 90° elbow for two-phase (solid and liquid) turbulent flow with low volume fraction of copper. For a range of particle sizes from 10 nm to 100 microns and particle volume fractions from 0.00 to 0.04, the simulations were performed for the velocity range of 5–20 m/s. The 3-D governing differential equations were discretized using finite volume method. The influences of size and concentration of micro- and nanoparticles, shear forces, and turbulence on erosion behavior of fluid flow were studied. The model predictions are compared with the earlier studies and a good agreement is found. The results indicate that the erosion rate is directly dependent on particles' size and volume fraction as well as flow velocity. It has been observed that the maximum pressure has direct relationship with the particle volume fraction and velocity but has a reverse relationship with the particle diameter. It also has been noted that there is a threshold velocity as well as a threshold particle size, beyond which significant erosion effects kick in. The average friction factor is independent of the particle size and volume fraction at a given fluid velocity but increases with the increase of inlet velocities. PMID:25379542
Simulation of charged-particle beam transport in a gas using a hybrid particle-fluid plasma model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Welch, D. R.; Olson, C. L.; Sanford, T. W. L.
1994-03-01
The simulation of charged-particle beam transport in a ˜1 Torr gas requires accurate plasma-electron modeling. A simple resistive model, which assumes local energy deposition and a thermal plasma-electron distribution, is inadequate. A hybrid model has been implemented into the particle-in-cell simulation code, iprop (The iprop Three-Dimensional Beam Propagation Code, AMRC-R-966, available from D. Welch, Mission Research Corporation, 1720 Randolph Road SE, Albuquerque, NM 87106, September 1987), in which plasma electrons are divided into high-energy macroparticle and thermal-fluid components. This model, which includes ``knock-on'' bound-electron collision and runaway sources for high-energy electrons, is then used in the simulation of relativistic electron-beam and ion-beam experiments. Results are found to be in agreement with HERMES III [Performance of the HERMES III Gamma Ray Simulator, in Digest of Technical Papers, 7th IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, Monterey, CA, 11 June 1989 (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1989), pp. 26-31] and GAMBLE II [Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2573 (1993)] experimental observables.
A hybrid particle-mesh method for incompressible active polar viscous gels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramaswamy, Rajesh; Bourantas, George; Jülicher, Frank; Sbalzarini, Ivo F.
2015-06-01
We present a hybrid particle-mesh method for numerically solving the hydrodynamic equations of incompressible active polar viscous gels. These equations model the dynamics of polar active agents, embedded in a viscous medium, in which stresses are induced through constant consumption of energy. The numerical method is based on Lagrangian particles and staggered Cartesian finite-difference meshes. We show that the method is second-order and first-order accurate with respect to grid and time-step sizes, respectively. Using the present method, we simulate the hydrodynamics in rectangular geometries, of a passive liquid crystal, of an active polar film and of active gels with topological defects in polarization. We show the emergence of spontaneous flow due to Fréedericksz transition, and transformation in the nature of topological defects by tuning the activity of the system.
Hybrid Bacterial Foraging and Particle Swarm Optimization for detecting Bundle Branch Block.
Kora, Padmavathi; Kalva, Sri Ramakrishna
2015-01-01
Abnormal cardiac beat identification is a key process in the detection of heart diseases. Our present study describes a procedure for the detection of left and right bundle branch block (LBBB and RBBB) Electrocardiogram (ECG) patterns. The electrical impulses that control the cardiac beat face difficulty in moving inside the heart. This problem is termed as bundle branch block (BBB). BBB makes it harder for the heart to pump blood effectively through the heart circulatory system. ECG feature extraction is a key process in detecting heart ailments. Our present study comes up with a hybrid method combining two heuristic optimization methods: Bacterial Forging Optimization (BFO) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for the feature selection of ECG signals. One of the major controlling forces of BFO algorithm is the chemotactic movement of a bacterium that models a test solution. The chemotaxis process of the BFO depends on random search directions which may lead to a delay in achieving the global optimum solution. The hybrid technique: Bacterial Forging-Particle Swarm Optimization (BFPSO) incorporates the concepts from BFO and PSO and it creates individuals in a new generation. This BFPSO method performs local search through the chemotactic movement of BFO and the global search over the entire search domain is accomplished by a PSO operator. The BFPSO feature values are given as the input for the Levenberg-Marquardt Neural Network classifier. PMID:26361582
Ranganathan, Kamalakannan; Shanmugam, Ilango; Kamruddin, Mohammed; Tyagi, Ashok K
2016-01-01
CVD grown, few walled carbon nanotubes (FWCNTs) were quasi decorated with SnO₂nanoparticles (FWCNTs-SnO₂) and its gas sensing properties were analyzed with ammonia and ethanol. At room temperature FWCNTs-SnO₂show enhanced 'p type' gas sensing response than FWCNTs. Activation of SnO₂at high temperatures led to systematic changes in the sensing behavior towards 'n type' response. Temperature dependent transport behavior was found to be a one dimensional variable range hopping mechanism (1 D-VRH) for the FWCNTs and a 3D-VRH mechanism for the FWCNTs-SnO2. These temperature dependent gas transport and sensing properties elucidate the hybrid nature of the nanocomposite with novel characteristics. This also implies its importance as a potential gas sensor material. PMID:27398589
Hybrid simulation of energetic particle effects on tearing modes in tokamak plasmas
Cai Huishan; Fu Guoyong
2012-07-15
The effects of energetic ions on stability of tearing mode are investigated by global kinetic/MHD hybrid simulations in a low beta tokamak plasma. The kinetic effects of counter circulating energetic ions from the non-adiabatic response are found to be strongly destabilizing while the effects from the adiabatic response are stabilizing. The net effect with both adiabatic and non-adiabatic contributions is destabilizing. On the other hand, the kinetic effects of co-circulating energetic ions from the non-adiabatic response are calculated to be weakly stabilizing while the corresponding adiabatic contribution is destabilizing for small energetic ion beta. The net effect is weakly stabilizing. The dependence of kinetic effects on energetic ion beta, gyroradius, and speed is studied systematically and the results agree in large part with the previous analytic results for the kinetic effects of circulating particles. For trapped energetic ions, their effects on tearing mode stability are dominated by the adiabatic response due to large banana orbit width and strong poloidal variation of particle pressure. The net effect of trapped energetic particles on tearing modes is much more destabilizing as compared to that of counter circulating particles at the same beta value.
A hybrid stochastic-deconvolution model for large-eddy simulation of particle-laden flow
Michałek, W. R.; Kuerten, J. G. M.; Zeegers, J. C. H.; Liew, R.; Pozorski, J.; Geurts, B. J.
2013-12-15
We develop a hybrid model for large-eddy simulation of particle-laden turbulent flow, which is a combination of the approximate deconvolution model for the resolved scales and a stochastic model for the sub-grid scales. The stochastic model incorporates a priori results of direct numerical simulation of turbulent channel flow, which showed that the parameters in the stochastic model are quite independent of Reynolds and Stokes number. In order to correctly predict the flux of particles towards the walls an extra term should be included in the stochastic model, which corresponds to the term related to the well-mixed condition in Langevin models for particle dispersion in inhomogeneous turbulent flow. The model predictions are compared with results of direct numerical simulation of channel flow at a frictional Reynolds number of 950. The inclusion of the stochastic forcing is shown to yield a significant improvement over the approximate deconvolution model for the particles alone when combined with a Stokes dependent weight-factor for the well-mixed term.
Chen, Yang
2012-03-07
At Colorado University-Boulder the primary task is to extend our gyrokinetic Particle-in-Cell simulation of tokamak micro-turbulence and transport to the area of energetic particle physics. We have implemented a gyrokinetic ion/massless fluid electron hybrid model in the global {delta} f-PIC code GEM, and benchmarked the code with analytic results on the thermal ion radiative damping rate of Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE) and with mode frequency and spatial structure from eigenmode analysis. We also performed nonlinear simulations of both a single-n mode (n is the toroidal mode number) and multiple-n modes, and in the case of single-n, benchmarked the code on the saturation amplitude vs. particle collision rate with analytical theory. Most simulations use the f method for both ions species, but we have explored the full-f method for energetic particles in cases where the burst amplitude of the excited instabilities is large as to cause significant re-distribution or loss of the energetic particles. We used the hybrid model to study the stability of high-n TAEs in ITER. Our simulations show that the most unstable modes in ITER lie in the rage of 10 < n < 20. Thermal ion pressure effect and alpha particles non-perturbative effect are important in determining the mode radial location and stability threshold. The thermal ion Landau damping rate and radiative damping rate from the simulations are compared with analytical estimates. The thermal ion Landau damping is the dominant damping mechanism. Plasma elongation has a strong stabilizing effect on the alpha driven TAEs. The central alpha particle pressure threshold for the most unstable n=15 mode is about {beta}{sub {alpha}}(0) = 0.7% for the fully shaped ITER equilibrium. We also carried nonlinear simulations of the most unstable n = 15 mode and found that the saturation amplitude for the nominal ITER discharge is too low to cause large redistribution or loss of alpha particles. To include kinetic electron effects
Directed assembly of discrete gold nanoparticle groupings usingbranched DNA scaffolds
Claridge, Shelley A.; Goh, Sarah L.; Frechet, Jean M.J.; Williams, Shara C.; Micheel, Christine M.; Alivisatos, A. Paul
2004-09-14
The concept of self-assembled dendrimers is explored for the creation of discrete nanoparticle assemblies. Hybridization of branched DNA trimers and nanoparticle-DNA conjugates results in the synthesis of nanoparticle trimer and tetramer complexes. Multiple tetramer architectures are investigated, utilizing Au-DNA conjugates with varying secondary structural motifs. Hybridization products are analyzed by gel electrophoresis, and discrete bands are observed corresponding to structures with increasing numbers of hybridization events. Samples extracted from each band are analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, and statistics compiled from micrographs are used to compare assembly characteristics for each architecture. Asymmetric structures are also produced in which both 5 and 10 nm Au particles are assembled on branched scaffolds.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Aibin; Li, Pei; Zhang, Yefan; Chen, Wei; Yuan, Xiaoyang
2015-04-01
Ultra-high speed machining technology enables high efficiency, high precision and high integrity of machined surface. Previous researches of hybrid bearing rarely consider influences of solid particles in lubricant and ultra-high speed of hybrid bearing, which cannot be ignored under the high speed and micro-space conditions of ultra-high speed water-lubricated hybrid bearing. Considering the impact of solid particles in lubricant, turbulence and temperature viscosity effects of lubricant, the influences of particles on pressure distribution, loading capacity and the temperature rise of the lubricant film with four-step-cavity ultra-high speed water-lubricated hybrid bearing are presented in the paper. The results show that loading capacity of the hybrid bearing can be affected by changing the viscosity of the lubricant, and large particles can improve the bearing loading capacity higher. The impact of water film temperature rise produced by solid particles in lubricant is related with particle diameter and minimum film thickness. Compared with the soft particles, hard particles cause the more increasing of water film temperature rise and loading capacity. When the speed of hybrid bearing increases, the impact of solid particles on hybrid bearing becomes increasingly apparent, especially for ultra-high speed water-lubricated hybrid bearing. This research presents influences of solid particles on the loading capacity and the temperature rise of water film in ultra-high speed hybrid bearings, the research conclusions provide a new method to evaluate the influence of solid particles in lubricant of ultra-high speed water-lubricated hybrid bearing, which is important to performance calculation of ultra-high speed hybrid bearings, design of filtration system, and safe operation of ultra-high speed hybrid bearings.
Exact hybrid particle/population simulation of rule-based models of biochemical systems.
Hogg, Justin S; Harris, Leonard A; Stover, Lori J; Nair, Niketh S; Faeder, James R
2014-04-01
Detailed modeling and simulation of biochemical systems is complicated by the problem of combinatorial complexity, an explosion in the number of species and reactions due to myriad protein-protein interactions and post-translational modifications. Rule-based modeling overcomes this problem by representing molecules as structured objects and encoding their interactions as pattern-based rules. This greatly simplifies the process of model specification, avoiding the tedious and error prone task of manually enumerating all species and reactions that can potentially exist in a system. From a simulation perspective, rule-based models can be expanded algorithmically into fully-enumerated reaction networks and simulated using a variety of network-based simulation methods, such as ordinary differential equations or Gillespie's algorithm, provided that the network is not exceedingly large. Alternatively, rule-based models can be simulated directly using particle-based kinetic Monte Carlo methods. This "network-free" approach produces exact stochastic trajectories with a computational cost that is independent of network size. However, memory and run time costs increase with the number of particles, limiting the size of system that can be feasibly simulated. Here, we present a hybrid particle/population simulation method that combines the best attributes of both the network-based and network-free approaches. The method takes as input a rule-based model and a user-specified subset of species to treat as population variables rather than as particles. The model is then transformed by a process of "partial network expansion" into a dynamically equivalent form that can be simulated using a population-adapted network-free simulator. The transformation method has been implemented within the open-source rule-based modeling platform BioNetGen, and resulting hybrid models can be simulated using the particle-based simulator NFsim. Performance tests show that significant memory savings
Exact Hybrid Particle/Population Simulation of Rule-Based Models of Biochemical Systems
Stover, Lori J.; Nair, Niketh S.; Faeder, James R.
2014-01-01
Detailed modeling and simulation of biochemical systems is complicated by the problem of combinatorial complexity, an explosion in the number of species and reactions due to myriad protein-protein interactions and post-translational modifications. Rule-based modeling overcomes this problem by representing molecules as structured objects and encoding their interactions as pattern-based rules. This greatly simplifies the process of model specification, avoiding the tedious and error prone task of manually enumerating all species and reactions that can potentially exist in a system. From a simulation perspective, rule-based models can be expanded algorithmically into fully-enumerated reaction networks and simulated using a variety of network-based simulation methods, such as ordinary differential equations or Gillespie's algorithm, provided that the network is not exceedingly large. Alternatively, rule-based models can be simulated directly using particle-based kinetic Monte Carlo methods. This “network-free” approach produces exact stochastic trajectories with a computational cost that is independent of network size. However, memory and run time costs increase with the number of particles, limiting the size of system that can be feasibly simulated. Here, we present a hybrid particle/population simulation method that combines the best attributes of both the network-based and network-free approaches. The method takes as input a rule-based model and a user-specified subset of species to treat as population variables rather than as particles. The model is then transformed by a process of “partial network expansion” into a dynamically equivalent form that can be simulated using a population-adapted network-free simulator. The transformation method has been implemented within the open-source rule-based modeling platform BioNetGen, and resulting hybrid models can be simulated using the particle-based simulator NFsim. Performance tests show that significant memory
Vergara-Castañeda, Hayde; Hernandez-Martinez, Angel R; Estevez, Miriam; Mendoza, Sandra; Luna-Barcenas, Gabriel; Pool, Héctor
2016-03-15
The aim of this work is to formulate biofunctional hybrid materials (HMs) with quercetin (QC) and silica particles (SiPs) by simple methods such as sol-gel and QC conjugation. Physicochemical characterization included particle size, zeta potential (ζ), FTIR and SEM imaging. Spherical particles with ca. 115 nm in diameter were produced, ζ and FTIR demonstrated that QC conjugation was successfully achieved. Electrochemical analyses performed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) suggested that potential binding sites between QC and SiPs may be at functional groups from A ring or C ring, affecting the transfer electron of resorcinol moiety. Iron chelating activity and lipid peroxidation assays showed that after conjugation to SiPs, QC decreased its metal chelating activity, but anti-radical properties is maintained. Our results demonstrated that our proposed method is simple and effective to obtain bio-functional HMs. Our findings prove to be useful in the design of protective approaches against lipid oxidation in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics fields. PMID:26704475
Study of the absorption coefficient of alpha particles to lower hybrid waves in tokamak
Wang, Jianbing Zhang, Xianmei Yu, Limin Zhao, Xiang
2014-02-12
Part of the energy of the Lower Hybrid (LH) waves may be absorbed by the α particles via the so-called perpendicular landau damping mechanism, which depends on various parameters of fusion reactors and the LH waves. In this article, we calculate the absorption coefficient γ{sub α} of LH waves due to α particles. Results show that, the γ{sub α} increases with the parallel refraction index n{sub ∥} while deceases with increasing the frequency of LH waves ω{sub LH} over a wide range. Higher background plasma temperature and toroidal magnetic field will increase the absorption, and there is a peak value of γ{sub α} when n{sub e}≈8×10{sup 19}m{sup −3} for ITER-like scenario. The thermal corrections to the cold plasma dispersion relation will change the damping rate to a certain extent under some specific conditions. We have also evaluated the fraction of LH power absorbed by the alpha particles, η ≈ 0.47% and 4.1% for an LH frequency of 5 GHz and 3.7 GHz respectively for ITER-like scenario. This work gives the effective reference for the choice of parameters of future fusion reactors.
McBride, Cory L.; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Musson, Lawrence Cale
2005-01-01
Two methods for creating a hybrid level-set (LS)/particle method for modeling surface evolution during feature-scale etching and deposition processes are developed and tested. The first method supplements the LS method by introducing Lagrangian marker points in regions of high curvature. Once both the particle set and the LS function are advanced in time, minimization of certain objective functions adjusts the LS function so that its zero contour is in closer alignment with the particle locations. It was found that the objective-minimization problem was unexpectedly difficult to solve, and even when a solution could be found, the acquisition of it proved more costly than simply expanding the basis set of the LS function. The second method explored is a novel explicit marker-particle method that we have named the grid point particle (GPP) approach. Although not a LS method, the GPP approach has strong procedural similarities to certain aspects of the LS approach. A key aspect of the method is a surface rediscretization procedure--applied at each time step and based on a global background mesh--that maintains a representation of the surface while naturally adding and subtracting surface discretization points as the surface evolves in time. This method was coded in 2-D, and tested on a variety of surface evolution problems by using it in the ChISELS computer code. Results shown for 2-D problems illustrate the effectiveness of the method and highlight some notable advantages in accuracy over the LS method. Generalizing the method to 3D is discussed but not implemented.
Global particle simulation of lower hybrid wave propagation and mode conversion in tokamaks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bao, J.; Lin, Z.; Kuley, A.
2015-12-01
Particle-in-cell simulation of lower hybrid (LH) waves in core plasmas is presented with a realistic electron-to-ion mass ratio in toroidal geometry. Due to the fact that LH waves mainly interact with electrons to drive the current, ion dynamic is described by cold fluid equations for simplicity, while electron dynamic is described by drift kinetic equations. This model could be considered as a new method to study LH waves in tokamak plasmas, which has advantages in nonlinear simulations. The mode conversion between slow and fast waves is observed in the simulation when the accessibility condition is not satisfied, which is consistent with the theory. The poloidal spectrum upshift and broadening effects are observed during LH wave propagation in the toroidal geometry.
Global particle simulation of lower hybrid wave propagation and mode conversion in tokamaks
Bao, J.; Lin, Z.; Kuley, A.
2015-12-10
Particle-in-cell simulation of lower hybrid (LH) waves in core plasmas is presented with a realistic electron-to-ion mass ratio in toroidal geometry. Due to the fact that LH waves mainly interact with electrons to drive the current, ion dynamic is described by cold fluid equations for simplicity, while electron dynamic is described by drift kinetic equations. This model could be considered as a new method to study LH waves in tokamak plasmas, which has advantages in nonlinear simulations. The mode conversion between slow and fast waves is observed in the simulation when the accessibility condition is not satisfied, which is consistent with the theory. The poloidal spectrum upshift and broadening effects are observed during LH wave propagation in the toroidal geometry.
Shape Analysis of DNA-Au Hybrid Particles by Analytical Ultracentrifugation.
Urban, Maximilan J; Holder, Isabelle T; Schmid, Marius; Fernandez Espin, Vanesa; Garcia de la Torre, Jose; Hartig, Jörg S; Cölfen, Helmut
2016-08-23
Current developments in nanotechnology have increased the demand for nanocrystal assemblies with well-defined shapes and tunable sizes. DNA is a particularly well-suited building block in nanoscale assemblies because of its scalable sizes, conformational variability, and convenient self-assembly capabilities via base pairing. In hybrid materials, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) can be assembled into nanoparticle structures with programmable interparticle distances by applying appropriate DNA sequences. However, the development of stoichiometrically defined DNA/NP structures is still challenging since product mixtures are frequently obtained and their purification and characterization is the rate-limiting step in the development of DNA-NP hybrid assemblies. Improvements in nanostructure fractionation and characterization techniques offer great potential for nanotechnology applications in general. This study reports the application of analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) for the characterization of anisotropic DNA-linked metal-crystal assemblies. On the basis of transmission electron microscopy data and the DNA primary sequence, hydrodynamic bead models are set up for the interpretation of the measured frictional ratios and sedimentation coefficients. We demonstrate that the presence of single DNA strands on particle surfaces as well as the shape factors of multiparticle structures in mixtures can be quantitatively described by AUC. This study will significantly broaden the possibilities to analyze mixtures of shape-anisotropic nanoparticle assemblies. By establishing insights into the analysis of nanostructure mixtures based on fundamental principles of sedimentation, a wide range of potential applications in basic research and industry become accessible. PMID:27459174
Discrete spectrum of a noncompact perturbation of a three-particle Schrödinger operator on a lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muminov, M. E.; Aliev, N. M.
2015-03-01
We consider a system of three arbitrary quantum particles on a three-dimensional lattice interacting via attractive pair-contact potentials and attractive potentials of particles at the nearest-neighbor sites. We prove that the Hamiltonian of the corresponding three-particle system has infinitely many eigenvalues. We also list different types of attractive potentials whose eigenvalues can be to the left of the essential spectrum, in a gap in the essential spectrum, and in the essential spectrum of the considered operator.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fahrenthold, Eric P.; Shivarama, Ravishankar
2004-01-01
The hybrid particle-finite element method of Fahrenthold and Horban, developed for the simulation of hypervelocity impact problems, has been extended to include new formulations of the particle-element kinematics, additional constitutive models, and an improved numerical implementation. The extended formulation has been validated in three dimensional simulations of published impact experiments. The test cases demonstrate good agreement with experiment, good parallel speedup, and numerical convergence of the simulation results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Pawan; Singh, Vishwesh; Tripathi, V. K.
2013-02-01
A kinetic formalism of lower hybrid wave instability, driven by mono-energy α-particles with finite pitch angle spread, is developed. The instability arises through cyclotron resonance interaction with high cyclotron harmonics of α-particles. The α-particles produced in D-T fusion reactions have huge Larmor radii (˜10 cm) as compared to the wavelength of the lower hybrid wave, whereas their speed is an order of magnitude smaller than the speed of light in vacuum. As a result, large parallel phase velocity lower hybrid waves, suitable for current drive in tokamak, are driven unstable via coupling to high cyclotron harmonics. The growth rate decreases with increase in pitch angle spread of the beam. At typical electron density of ˜1019 m-3, magnetic field ˜4 Tesla and α-particle concentration ˜0.1%, the large parallel phase velocity lower hybrid wave grows on the time scale of 20 ion cyclotron periods. The growth rate decreases with plasma density.
Kumar, Pawan; Singh, Vishwesh; Tripathi, V. K.
2013-02-15
A kinetic formalism of lower hybrid wave instability, driven by mono-energy {alpha}-particles with finite pitch angle spread, is developed. The instability arises through cyclotron resonance interaction with high cyclotron harmonics of {alpha}-particles. The {alpha}-particles produced in D-T fusion reactions have huge Larmor radii ({approx}10 cm) as compared to the wavelength of the lower hybrid wave, whereas their speed is an order of magnitude smaller than the speed of light in vacuum. As a result, large parallel phase velocity lower hybrid waves, suitable for current drive in tokamak, are driven unstable via coupling to high cyclotron harmonics. The growth rate decreases with increase in pitch angle spread of the beam. At typical electron density of {approx}10{sup 19} m{sup -3}, magnetic field {approx}4 Tesla and {alpha}-particle concentration {approx}0.1%, the large parallel phase velocity lower hybrid wave grows on the time scale of 20 ion cyclotron periods. The growth rate decreases with plasma density.
Wyndham, Kevin D; O'Gara, John E; Walter, Thomas H; Glose, Kenneth H; Lawrence, Nicole L; Alden, Bonnie A; Izzo, Gary S; Hudalla, Christopher J; Iraneta, Pamela C
2003-12-15
The characterization and evaluation of three novel 5-microm HPLC column packings, prepared using ethyl-bridged hybrid organic/inorganic materials, is described. These highly spherical hybrid particles, which vary in specific surface area (140, 187, and 270 m(2)/g) and average pore diameter (185, 148, and 108 A), were characterized by elemental analysis, SEM, and nitrogen sorption analysis and were chemically modified in a two-step process using octadecyltrichlorosilane and trimethylchlorosilane. The resultant bonded materials had an octadecyl surface concentration of 3.17-3.35 micromol/m(2), which is comparable to the coverage obtained for an identically bonded silica particle (3.44 micromol/m(2)) that had a surface area of 344 m(2)/g. These hybrid materials were shown to have sufficient mechanical strength under conditions normally employed for traditional reversed-phase HPLC applications, using a high-pressure column flow test. The chromatographic properties of the C(18) bonded hybrid phases were compared to a C(18) bonded silica using a variety of neutral and basic analytes under the same mobile-phase conditions. The hybrid phases exhibited similar selectivity to the silica-based column, yet had improved peak tailing factors for the basic analytes. Column retentivity increased with increasing particle surface area. Elevated pH aging studies of these hybrid materials showed dramatic improvement in chemical stability for both bonded and unbonded hybrid materials compared to the C(18) bonded silica phase, as determined by monitoring the loss in column efficiency through 140-h exposure to a pH 10 triethylamine mobile phase at 50 degrees C. PMID:14670036
Pegasus: A new hybrid-kinetic particle-in-cell code for astrophysical plasma dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kunz, Matthew W.; Stone, James M.; Bai, Xue-Ning
2014-02-01
We describe Pegasus, a new hybrid-kinetic particle-in-cell code tailored for the study of astrophysical plasma dynamics. The code incorporates an energy-conserving particle integrator into a stable, second-order-accurate, three-stage predictor-predictor-corrector integration algorithm. The constrained transport method is used to enforce the divergence-free constraint on the magnetic field. A δf scheme is included to facilitate a reduced-noise study of systems in which only small departures from an initial distribution function are anticipated. The effects of rotation and shear are implemented through the shearing-sheet formalism with orbital advection. These algorithms are embedded within an architecture similar to that used in the popular astrophysical magnetohydrodynamics code Athena, one that is modular, well-documented, easy to use, and efficiently parallelized for use on thousands of processors. We present a series of tests in one, two, and three spatial dimensions that demonstrate the fidelity and versatility of the code.
Particle-in-cell simulation study of a lower-hybrid shock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dieckmann, M. E.; Sarri, G.; Doria, D.; Ynnerman, A.; Borghesi, M.
2016-06-01
The expansion of a magnetized high-pressure plasma into a low-pressure ambient medium is examined with particle-in-cell simulations. The magnetic field points perpendicular to the plasma's expansion direction and binary collisions between particles are absent. The expanding plasma steepens into a quasi-electrostatic shock that is sustained by the lower-hybrid (LH) wave. The ambipolar electric field points in the expansion direction and it induces together with the background magnetic field a fast E cross B drift of electrons. The drifting electrons modify the background magnetic field, resulting in its pile-up by the LH shock. The magnetic pressure gradient force accelerates the ambient ions ahead of the LH shock, reducing the relative velocity between the ambient plasma and the LH shock to about the phase speed of the shocked LH wave, transforming the LH shock into a nonlinear LH wave. The oscillations of the electrostatic potential have a larger amplitude and wavelength in the magnetized plasma than in an unmagnetized one with otherwise identical conditions. The energy loss to the drifting electrons leads to a noticeable slowdown of the LH shock compared to that in an unmagnetized plasma.
Protons and alpha particles in the expanding solar wind: Hybrid simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hellinger, Petr; Trávníček, Pavel M.
2013-09-01
We present results of a two‒dimensional hybrid expanding box simulation of a plasma system with three ion populations, beam and core protons, and alpha particles (and fluid electrons), drifting with respect to each other. The expansion with a strictly radial magnetic field leads to a decrease of the ion perpendicular to parallel temperature ratios as well as to an increase of the ratio between the ion relative velocities and the local Alfvén velocity creating a free energy for many different instabilities. The system is most of the time marginally stable with respect to kinetic instabilities mainly due to the ion relative velocities; these instabilities determine the system evolution counteracting some effects of the expansion. Nonlinear evolution of these instabilities leads to large modifications of the ion velocity distribution functions. The beam protons and alpha particles are decelerated with respect to the core protons and all the populations are cooled in the parallel direction and heated in the perpendicular one. On the macroscopic level, the kinetic instabilities cause large departures of the system evolution from the double adiabatic prediction and lead to perpendicular heating and parallel cooling rates which are comparable to the heating rates estimated from the Helios observations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aggarwal, Priyanka; Syed, Zainab; El-Sheimy, Naser
2009-05-01
Navigation includes the integration of methodologies and systems for estimating time-varying position, velocity and attitude of moving objects. Navigation incorporating the integrated inertial navigation system (INS) and global positioning system (GPS) generally requires extensive evaluations of nonlinear equations involving double integration. Currently, integrated navigation systems are commonly implemented using the extended Kalman filter (EKF). The EKF assumes a linearized process, measurement models and Gaussian noise distributions. These assumptions are unrealistic for highly nonlinear systems like land vehicle navigation and may cause filter divergence. A particle filter (PF) is developed to enhance integrated INS/GPS system performance as it can easily deal with nonlinearity and non-Gaussian noises. In this paper, a hybrid extended particle filter (HEPF) is developed as an alternative to the well-known EKF to achieve better navigation data accuracy for low-cost microelectromechanical system sensors. The results show that the HEPF performs better than the EKF during GPS outages, especially when simulated outages are located in periods with high vehicle dynamics.
Williams, Mark; Warren, Nicholas J; Fielding, Lee A; Armes, Steven P; Verstraete, Pierre; Smets, Johan
2014-12-10
A facile route for the preparation of water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) double emulsions is described for three model oils, namely, n-dodecane, isopropyl myristate, and isononyl isononanoate, using fumed silica particles coated with poly(ethylene imine) (PEI). The surface wettability of such hybrid PEI/silica particles can be systematically adjusted by (i) increasing the adsorbed amount of PEI and (ii) addition of 1-undecanal to the oil phase prior to homogenization. In the absence of this long-chain aldehyde, PEI/silica hybrid particles (PEI/silica mass ratio = 0.50) produce o/w Pickering emulsions in all cases. In the presence of 1-undecanal, this reagent reacts with the primary and secondary amine groups on the PEI chains via Schiff base chemistry, which can render the PEI/silica hybrid particles sufficiently hydrophobic to stabilize w/o Pickering emulsions at 20 °C. Gas chromatography, (1)H NMR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy provide compelling experimental evidence for this in situ surface reaction, while a significant increase in the water contact angle indicates markedly greater hydrophobic character for the PEI/silica hybrid particles. However, when PEI/silica hybrid particles are prepared using a relatively low adsorbed amount of PEI (PEI/silica mass ratio = 0.075) only o/w Pickering emulsions are obtained, since the extent of surface modification achieved using this Schiff base chemistry is insufficient. Fluorescence microscopy and laser diffraction studies confirm that highly stable w/o/w double emulsions can be achieved for all three model oils. This is achieved by first homogenizing the relatively hydrophobic PEI/silica hybrid particles (PEI/silica mass ratio = 0.50) with an oil containing 3% 1-undecanal to form an initial w/o emulsion, followed by further homogenization using an aqueous dispersion of relatively hydrophilic PEI/silica particles (PEI/silica mass ratio = 0.075). Dye release from the internal aqueous cores into the aqueous continuous
G.Y. Fu; W. Park; H.R. Strauss; J. Breslau; J. Chen; S. Jardin; L.E. Sugiyama
2005-08-09
Global hybrid simulations of energetic particle effects on the n=1 internal kink mode have been carried out for tokamaks. For the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) [ITER Physics Basis Editors et al., Nucl. Fusion 39:2137 (1999)], it is shown that alpha particle effects are stabilizing for the internal kink mode. However, the elongation of ITER reduces the stabilization effects significantly. Nonlinear simulations of the precessional drift fishbone instability for circular tokamak plasmas show that the mode saturates due to flattening of the particle distribution function near the resonance region. The mode frequency chirps down rapidly as the flattening region expands radially outward. Fluid nonlinearity reduces the saturation level.
Dickmeis, Christina; Honickel, Mareike Michaela Antonia; Fischer, Rainer; Commandeur, Ulrich
2015-01-01
We have generated hybrid chimeric potato virus X (PVX) particles by coexpression of different PVX coat protein fusions utilizing tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and PVX-based expression vectors. Coinfection was achieved with a modified PVX overcoat vector displaying a fluorescent protein and a TMV vector expressing another PVX fluorescent overcoat fusion protein. Coexpression of the PVX-CP fusions in the same cells was confirmed by epifluorescence microscopy. Labeling with specific antibodies and transmission electron microscopy revealed chimeric particles displaying green fluorescent protein and mCherry on the surface. These data were corroborated by bimolecular fluorescence complementation. We used split-mCherry fragments as PVX coat fusions and confirmed an interaction between the split-mCherry fragments in coinfected cells. The presence of assembled split-mCherry on the surface confirmed the hybrid character of the chimeric particles. PMID:26636076
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Baoliang; Li, Peitao; Zhang, Hepeng; Li, Xiangjie; Tian, Lei; Wang, Hai; Chen, Xin; Ali, Nisar; Ali, Zafar; Zhang, Qiuyu
2016-03-01
A novel kind of red-blood-cell-like bovine serum albumin (BSA)/Zn3(PO4)2 hybrid particle is prepared at room temperature by a facile and rapid one-step method based on coordination between BSA and zinc ion. The morphology of the monodisperse hybrid particle shows oblate spheroidal type with a one sided single hole on the surface. The hybrid particle is constructed with BSA/Zn3(PO4)2 nanoplates of 35 nm thick. The average particle size of hybrid particle is 2.3 μm, and its BET specific surface area is 146.64 cm2/g. To clarify the evolution of BSA/Zn3(PO4)2 hybrid particle, SEM and elemental analysis as a function of particle growth time are investigated. The formation mechanism of BSA/Zn3(PO4)2 hybrid particle, which can be described as crystallization, coordination and self-assembly process, is illustrated in detail. The as-prepared BSA/Zn3(PO4)2 hybrid particle is used for adsorption of Cu2+. The hybrid particle displayed excellent adsorption properties on Cu2+. The adsorption efficiency of BSA/Zn3(PO4)2 hybrid particles at 5 min and 30 min are 86.33% and 98.9%, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity is 6.85 mg/g. Thus, this kind of novel adsorbent shows potential application value in ultra-fast and highly efficient removal of Cu2+.
Cho, Seulki; Kim, Nahae; Lee, Soonjae; Lee, Hoseok; Lee, Sang-Hyup; Kim, Juyoung; Choi, Jae-Woo
2016-08-01
In this study, we present new inorganic-organic hybrid particles and their possible application as an adsorbent for simultaneous removal of hydrophobic and hydrophilic pollutants from water. These hybrid particles were prepared using tailor-made alkoxysilane-functionalized amphiphilic polymer precursors (M-APAS), which have amphiphilic polymers and reactive alkoxysilane groups attached to the same backbone. Through a single conventional sol-gel process, the polymerization of M-APAS and the chemical conjugation of M-APAS onto silica nanoparticles was simultaneous, resulting in the formation of hybrid particles (M-APAS-SiO2) comprised of hyperbranch-like amphiphilic polymers bonded onto silica nanoparticles with a relatively high grafting efficiency. A test for the adsorption of water-soluble dye (organe-16) and water insoluble dye (solvent blue-35) onto the hybrid particles was performed to evaluate the possibility of adsorbing hydrophilic and hydrophobic compound within the same particle. The hybrid particle was also evaluated as an adsorbent for the removal of contaminated water containing various pollutants by wastewater treatment test. The hybrid particle could remove phenolic compounds from wastewater and the azo dye reactive orange-16 from aqueous solutions, and it was easily separated from the treated wastewater because of the different densities involved. These results demonstrate that the hybrid particles are a promising sorbent for hydrophilic and/or hydrophobic pollutants in water. PMID:27179430
Tyler, Mitchell; Tumban, Ebenezer; Peabody, David S.; Chackerian, Bryce
2015-01-01
Virus-like particles (VLPs) can serve as a highly immunogenic vaccine platform for the multivalent display of epitopes from pathogens. We have used bacteriophage VLPs to develop vaccines that target a highly conserved epitope from the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) minor capsid protein, L2. VLPs displaying an L2-peptide from HPV16 elicit antibodies that broadly neutralize infection by HPV types associated with the development of cervical cancer. To broaden the cross-neutralization further, we have developed a strategy to display two different peptides on a single, hybrid VLP in a multivalent, highly immunogenic fashion. In general, hybrid VLPs elicited high-titer antibody responses against both targets, although in one case we observed an immunodominant response against only one of the displayed epitopes. Immunization with hybrid particles elicited antibodies that were able to neutralize heterologous HPV types at higher titers than those elicited by particles displaying one epitope alone, indicating that the hybrid VLP approach may be an effective technique to target epitopes that undergo antigenic variation. PMID:24917327
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rasulov, T. Kh.
2010-04-01
We consider a model Schrödinger operator Hμ associated with a system of three particles on the threedimensional lattice ℤ 3 with a functional parameter of special form. We prove that if the corresponding Friedrichs model has a zero-energy resonance, then the operator Hμ has infinitely many negative eigenvalues accumulating at zero (the Efimov effect). We obtain the asymptotic expression for the number of eigenvalues of Hμ below z as z → -0.
Preparation of Porous Chitosan-Siloxane Hybrids Coated with Hydroxyapatite Particles
Shirosaki, Yuki; Okamoto, Kohei; Hayakawa, Satoshi; Osaka, Akiyoshi; Asano, Takuji
2015-01-01
This paper describes the apatite deposition of chitosan-silicate porous hybrids derived from chitosan and γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) in alkaline phosphate solution. The preparation of porous hybrids with needle-like apatite on their surfaces is described. Following apatite deposition the porous hybrids maintained high porosity. The enzymatic degradation rate was low even after 6 months and the porous hybrids were very flexible and cut easily using surgical scissors. PMID:26078948
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1980-01-01
Despite the malfunctioning of the digital portion of the experiment which is encoding the absolute amplitude of the wave spectrum with a fixed bias of approximately 20 dB, the analog portion of the instrument is acquiring excellent data concerning the wave function and relative amplitude. Results obtained over a 2-year period which have important implications for magnetospheric wave-particle interactions are examined in the areas of emission generation by nonconducted coherent waves, and cold plasma distribution in the inner magnetosphere.
a Hybrid Approach of Neural Network with Particle Swarm Optimization for Tobacco Pests Prediction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lv, Jiake; Wang, Xuan; Xie, Deti; Wei, Chaofu
Forecasting pests emergence levels plays a significant role in regional crop planting and management. The accuracy, which is derived from the accuracy of the forecasting approach used, will determine the economics of the operation of the pests prediction. Conventional methods including time series, regression analysis or ARMA model entail exogenous input together with a number of assumptions. The use of neural networks has been shown to be a cost-effective technique. But their training, usually with back-propagation algorithm or other gradient algorithms, is featured with some drawbacks such as very slow convergence and easy entrapment in a local minimum. This paper presents a hybrid approach of neural network with particle swarm optimization for developing the accuracy of predictions. The approach is applied to forecast Alternaria alternate Keissl emergence level of the WuLong Country, one of the most important tobacco planting areas in Chongqing. Traditional ARMA model and BP neural network are investigated as comparison basis. The experimental results show that the proposed approach can achieve better prediction performance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jha, Mayank Shekhar; Dauphin-Tanguy, G.; Ould-Bouamama, B.
2016-06-01
The paper's main objective is to address the problem of health monitoring of system parameters in Bond Graph (BG) modeling framework, by exploiting its structural and causal properties. The system in feedback control loop is considered uncertain globally. Parametric uncertainty is modeled in interval form. The system parameter is undergoing degradation (prognostic candidate) and its degradation model is assumed to be known a priori. The detection of degradation commencement is done in a passive manner which involves interval valued robust adaptive thresholds over the nominal part of the uncertain BG-derived interval valued analytical redundancy relations (I-ARRs). The latter forms an efficient diagnostic module. The prognostics problem is cast as joint state-parameter estimation problem, a hybrid prognostic approach, wherein the fault model is constructed by considering the statistical degradation model of the system parameter (prognostic candidate). The observation equation is constructed from nominal part of the I-ARR. Using particle filter (PF) algorithms; the estimation of state of health (state of prognostic candidate) and associated hidden time-varying degradation progression parameters is achieved in probabilistic terms. A simplified variance adaptation scheme is proposed. Associated uncertainties which arise out of noisy measurements, parametric degradation process, environmental conditions etc. are effectively managed by PF. This allows the production of effective predictions of the remaining useful life of the prognostic candidate with suitable confidence bounds. The effectiveness of the novel methodology is demonstrated through simulations and experiments on a mechatronic system.
Christobel, M; Tamil Selvi, S; Benedict, Shajulin
2015-01-01
One of the most significant and the topmost parameters in the real world computing environment is energy. Minimizing energy imposes benefits like reduction in power consumption, decrease in cooling rates of the computing processors, provision of a green environment, and so forth. In fact, computation time and energy are directly proportional to each other and the minimization of computation time may yield a cost effective energy consumption. Proficient scheduling of Bag-of-Tasks in the grid environment ravages in minimum computation time. In this paper, a novel discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO) algorithm based on the particle's best position (pbDPSO) and global best position (gbDPSO) is adopted to find the global optimal solution for higher dimensions. This novel DPSO yields better schedule with minimum computation time compared to Earliest Deadline First (EDF) and First Come First Serve (FCFS) algorithms which comparably reduces energy. Other scheduling parameters, such as job completion ratio and lateness, are also calculated and compared with EDF and FCFS. An energy improvement of up to 28% was obtained when Makespan Conservative Energy Reduction (MCER) and Dynamic Voltage Scaling (DVS) were used in the proposed DPSO algorithm. PMID:26075296
Christobel, M.; Tamil Selvi, S.; Benedict, Shajulin
2015-01-01
One of the most significant and the topmost parameters in the real world computing environment is energy. Minimizing energy imposes benefits like reduction in power consumption, decrease in cooling rates of the computing processors, provision of a green environment, and so forth. In fact, computation time and energy are directly proportional to each other and the minimization of computation time may yield a cost effective energy consumption. Proficient scheduling of Bag-of-Tasks in the grid environment ravages in minimum computation time. In this paper, a novel discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO) algorithm based on the particle's best position (pbDPSO) and global best position (gbDPSO) is adopted to find the global optimal solution for higher dimensions. This novel DPSO yields better schedule with minimum computation time compared to Earliest Deadline First (EDF) and First Come First Serve (FCFS) algorithms which comparably reduces energy. Other scheduling parameters, such as job completion ratio and lateness, are also calculated and compared with EDF and FCFS. An energy improvement of up to 28% was obtained when Makespan Conservative Energy Reduction (MCER) and Dynamic Voltage Scaling (DVS) were used in the proposed DPSO algorithm. PMID:26075296
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albeverio, Sergio; Lakaev, Saidakhmat N.; Djumanova, Ramiza Kh.
2009-06-01
A model operator H associated to a system of three identical quantum particles on the three-dimensional lattice ℤ 3 is considered. The existence of eigenvalues lying below the essential spectrum of a family of Friedrichs models under rank-one perturbations h μα(p) , p∈T , α = 1, 2, is established. The essential spectrum of the operator H is described by the spectrum of the family of the Friedrichs models h μα(p) , p∈T , α = 1, 2. The following results are proven: The operator H has a finite number of eigenvalues lying below zero, if at least one of the Friedrichs models hμα(0), α = 1, 2, has a zero energy resonance. The operator H has infinitely many eigenvalues lying below zero and accumulating at zero, if both operators hμα(0), α = 1,2, have zero energy resonances.
Discrete Newtonian cosmology: perturbations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ellis, George F. R.; Gibbons, Gary W.
2015-03-01
In a previous paper (Gibbons and Ellis 2014 Discrete Newtonian cosmology Class. Quantum Grav. 31 025003), we showed how a finite system of discrete particles interacting with each other via Newtonian gravitational attraction would lead to precisely the same dynamical equations for homothetic motion as in the case of the pressure-free Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker cosmological models of general relativity theory, provided the distribution of particles obeys the central configuration equation. In this paper we show that one can obtain perturbed such Newtonian solutions that give the same linearized structure growth equations as in the general relativity case. We also obtain the Dmitriev-Zel’dovich equations for subsystems in this discrete gravitational model, and show how it leads to the conclusion that voids have an apparent negative mass.
A fluid-particle hybrid framework for the PLUTO code: applications to non-thermal emission in jets.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaidya, B.; Mignone, A.; Bodo, G.; Massaglia, S.
2016-05-01
We present an implementation of a fully parallel hybrid framework for the evolution of Lagrangian particles coupled to a MHD fluid for the PLUTO code. For the applications of interest, particles represent ensembles of electrons whose spectral energy distribution is governed by a kinetic transport equation that takes into account different physical processes such as diffusive shock acceleration, synchrotron emission and adiabatic expansion. An application to model non-thermal emission from extragalactic jets shows the effectiveness and strength of the approach in describing not only the dynamics but also the radiation properties of jets and, in general, of high-energy astrophysical plasma environments.
Christau, Stephanie; Möller, Tim; Yenice, Zuleyha; Genzer, Jan; von Klitzing, Regine
2014-11-01
The effect of the brush grafting density on the loading of 13 nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) into stimuli-responsive poly(N,N-(dimethylamino ethyl) methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) brushes anchored to flat impenetrable substrates is reported. Atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) is used to grow polymer brushes via a "grafting from" approach from a 2-bromo-2-methyl-N-(3-(triethoxysilyl) propyl) propanamide (BTPAm)-covered silicon substrate. The grafting density is varied by using mixtures of initiator and a "dummy" molecule that is not able to initiate polymerization. A systematic study is carried out by varying the brush grafting density while keeping all of the other parameters constant. X-ray reflectivity is a suitable tool for investigating the spatial structure of the hybrid, and it is combined with scanning electron microscopy and UV/vis spectroscopy to study the particle loading and interpenetration of the particles within the polymer brush matrix. The particle uptake increases with decreasing grafting density and is highest for an intermediate grafting density because more space between the polymer chains is available. For very low grafting densities of PDMAEMA brushes, the particle uptake decreases because of a lack of the polymer matrix for the attachment of particles. The structure of the surface-grafted polymer chains changes after particle attachment. More water is incorporated into the brush matrix after particle immobilization, which leads to a swelling of the polymer chains in the hybrid material. Water can be removed from the brush by decreasing the relative humidity, which leads to brush shrinking and forces the AuNPs to get closer to each other. PMID:25275215
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Archer, Philip J.; Bai, Wei
2015-02-01
A novel non-overlapping concept is augmented to the Hybrid Particle Level Set (HPLS) method to improve its accuracy and suitability for the modelling of multi-phase fluid flows. The concept addresses shortcomings in the reseeding algorithm, which maintains resolution of the surface at runtime. These shortcomings result in the misplacement of newly seeded particles in the opposite signed domain and necessitate a restriction on the distance that a particle can escape without deletion, which reduces the effectiveness of the method. The non-overlapping concept judges the suitability of potential new particles based on information already contained within the particle representation of the surface. By preventing the misplacement of particles it is possible to significantly relax the distance restriction thereby increasing the accuracy of the HPLS method in multi-phase flows. To demonstrate its robustness and efficiency, the concept is examined with a number of challenging test cases, including both level-set-only simulations and two-phase fluid flows.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vivaldi, Franco
2015-12-01
The concept of resonance has been instrumental to the study of Hamiltonian systems with divided phase space. One can also define such systems over discrete spaces, which have a finite or countable number of points, but in this new setting the notion of resonance must be re-considered from scratch. I review some recent developments in the area of arithmetic dynamics which outline some salient features of linear and nonlinear stable (elliptic) orbits over a discrete space, and also underline the difficulties that emerge in their analysis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vivaldi, Franco
The concept of resonance has been instrumental to the study of Hamiltonian systems with divided phase space. One can also define such systems over discrete spaces, which have a finite or countable number of points, but in this new setting the notion of resonance must be re-considered from scratch. I review some recent developments in the area of arithmetic dynamics which outline some salient features of linear and nonlinear stable (elliptic) orbits over a discrete space, and also underline the difficulties that emerge in their analysis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaz, Miguel; Luersen, Marco A.; Muñoz-Rojas, Pablo A.; Trentin, Robson G.
2016-04-01
Application of optimization techniques to the identification of inelastic material parameters has substantially increased in recent years. The complex stress-strain paths and high nonlinearity, typical of this class of problems, require the development of robust and efficient techniques for inverse problems able to account for an irregular topography of the fitness surface. Within this framework, this work investigates the application of the gradient-based Sequential Quadratic Programming method, of the Nelder-Mead downhill simplex algorithm, of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), and of a global-local PSO-Nelder-Mead hybrid scheme to the identification of inelastic parameters based on a deep drawing operation. The hybrid technique has shown to be the best strategy by combining the good PSO performance to approach the global minimum basin of attraction with the efficiency demonstrated by the Nelder-Mead algorithm to obtain the minimum itself.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barbosa, D. D.
1986-01-01
A theory of medium-energy (about keV) electrons and heavy ions in Jupiter's magnetosphere is presented. Lower hybrid waves are generated by the combined effects of a ring instability of neutral wind pickup ions and the modified two-stream instability associated with transport of cool Iogenic plasma. The quasi-linear energy diffusion coefficient for lower hybrid wave-particle interactions is evaluated, and several solutions to the diffusion equation are given. Calculations based on measured wave properties show that the noise substantially modifies the particle distribution functions. The effects are to accelerate superthermal ions and electrons to keV energies and to thermalize the pickup ions on time scales comparable to the particle residence time. The S(2+)/S(+) ratio at medium energies is a measure of the relative contribution from Iogenic thermal plasma and neutral wind ions, and this important quantity should be determined from future measurements. The theory also predicts a preferential acceleration of heavy ions with an accleration time that scales inversely with the root of the ion mass. Electrons accelerated by the process contribute to further reionization of the neutral wind by electron impact, thus providing a possible confirmation of Alfven's critical velocity effect in the Jovian magnetosphere.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Wei
Obtaining reliable experimental airflow data within an indoor environment is a challenging task and critical in studying and solving indoor air quality problems. The Hybrid Particle Tracking Velocimetry (HPTV) system is aimed at fulfilling this need. It was developed based on existing Particle Tracking Velocimety (PTV) and Volumetric Particle Tracking Velocimetry (VPTV) techniques. The HPTV system requires three charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras to view the illuminated flow field and capture the trajectories of the seeded particles. By adopting the hybrid spatial matching and object tracking algorithms, this system can acquire the 3-Dimensional velocity components within a large volume with relatively high spatial and temporal resolution. Synthetic images were employed to validate the performance of three components of the system: image processing, camera calibration and 3D velocity reconstruction. These three components are also the main error sources. The accuracy of the whole algorithm was analyzed and discussed through a back projection approach. The results showed that the algorithms performed effectively and accurately. The reconstructed 3D trajectories and streaks agreed well with the simulated streamline of the particles. As an overall testing and application of the system, HPTV was applied to measure the airflow pattern within a full-scale, five-row section of a Boeing 767-300 aircraft cabin mockup. A complete experimental procedure was developed and strictly followed throughout the experiment. Both global flow field at the whole cabin scale and the local flow field at the breathing zone of one passenger were studied. Each test case was also simulated numerically using a commercial computational fluid dynamic (CFD) package. Through comparison between the results from the numerical simulation and the experimental measurement, the potential model validation capability of the system was demonstrated. Possible reasons explaining the difference between
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarukhanyan, Edita; De Nicola, Antonio; Roccatano, Danilo; Kawakatsu, Toshihiro; Milano, Giuseppe
2014-03-01
The processes of CNTs bundle formation and insertion/rearrangement inside lipid bilayers, as models of cellular membranes, is described and analyzed in details using simulations on the microsecond scale. Molecular Dynamics simulations employing hybrid particle-field models (MD-SCF) show that during the insertion process lipid molecules coat bundles surfaces. The distortions of bilayers are more pronounced for systems undergoing to insertion of bundles made of longer CNTs. In particular, when the insertion occurs in perpendicular orientation, adsorption of lipids on CNTs surfaces promotes a transient poration. This result suggests mechanism of membrane disruption operated by bundles causing the formation of solvent-rich pockets.
Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaojian; Li, Yonghong; Wang, Jun; Chen, Chao
2011-01-01
Particles and natural organic matter (NOM) are two major concerns in surface water, which greatly influence the membrane filtration process. The objective of this article is to investigate the effect of particles, NOM and their interaction on the submerged ultrafiltration (UF) membrane flux under conditions of solo UF and coagulation and PAC adsorption as the pretreatment of UF. Particles, NOM and their mixture were spiked in tap water to simulate raw water. Exponential relationship, (J(P)/J(P0) = a x exp{-k[t-(n-1)T]}), was developed to quantify the normalized membrane flux dynamics during the filtration period and fitted the results well. In this equation, coefficient a was determined by the value of J(P)/J(P0) at the beginning of a filtration cycle, reflecting the flux recovery after backwashing, that is, the irreversible fouling. The coefficient k reflected the trend of flux dynamics. Integrated total permeability (SigmaJ(P)) in one filtration period could be used as a quantified indicator for comparison of different hybrid membrane processes or under different scenarios. According to the results, there was an additive effect on membrane flux by NOM and particles during solo UF process. This additive fouling could be alleviated by coagulation pretreatment since particles helped the formation of flocs with coagulant, which further delayed the decrease of membrane flux and benefited flux recovery by backwashing. The addition of PAC also increased membrane flux by adsorbing NOM and improved flux recovery through backwashing. PMID:22432326
Rittikulsittichai, Supparesk; Kolhatkar, Arati G; Sarangi, Subhasis; Vorontsova, Maria A; Vekilov, Peter G; Brazdeikis, Audrius; Randall Lee, T
2016-06-01
The research strategy described in this manuscript harnesses the attractive properties of hydrogels, gold nanorods (Aurods), and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) by synthesizing one unique multi-responsive nanostructure. This novel hybrid structure consists of silica-coated magnetic particles encapsulated within a thermo-responsive P(NIPAM-co-AA) hydrogel network on which Aurods are assembled. Furthermore, this research demonstrates that these composite particles respond to several forms of external stimuli (temperature, pH, light, and/or applied magnetic field) owing to their specific architecture. Exposure of the hybrid particles to external stimuli led to a systematic and reversible variation in the hydrodynamic diameter (swelling-deswelling) and thus in the optical properties of the hybrid particles (red-shifting of the plasmon band). Such stimuli-responsive volume changes can be effectively exploited in drug-delivery applications. PMID:27227963
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rittikulsittichai, Supparesk; Kolhatkar, Arati G.; Sarangi, Subhasis; Vorontsova, Maria A.; Vekilov, Peter G.; Brazdeikis, Audrius; Randall Lee, T.
2016-06-01
The research strategy described in this manuscript harnesses the attractive properties of hydrogels, gold nanorods (Aurods), and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) by synthesizing one unique multi-responsive nanostructure. This novel hybrid structure consists of silica-coated magnetic particles encapsulated within a thermo-responsive P(NIPAM-co-AA) hydrogel network on which Aurods are assembled. Furthermore, this research demonstrates that these composite particles respond to several forms of external stimuli (temperature, pH, light, and/or applied magnetic field) owing to their specific architecture. Exposure of the hybrid particles to external stimuli led to a systematic and reversible variation in the hydrodynamic diameter (swelling-deswelling) and thus in the optical properties of the hybrid particles (red-shifting of the plasmon band). Such stimuli-responsive volume changes can be effectively exploited in drug-delivery applications.The research strategy described in this manuscript harnesses the attractive properties of hydrogels, gold nanorods (Aurods), and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) by synthesizing one unique multi-responsive nanostructure. This novel hybrid structure consists of silica-coated magnetic particles encapsulated within a thermo-responsive P(NIPAM-co-AA) hydrogel network on which Aurods are assembled. Furthermore, this research demonstrates that these composite particles respond to several forms of external stimuli (temperature, pH, light, and/or applied magnetic field) owing to their specific architecture. Exposure of the hybrid particles to external stimuli led to a systematic and reversible variation in the hydrodynamic diameter (swelling-deswelling) and thus in the optical properties of the hybrid particles (red-shifting of the plasmon band). Such stimuli-responsive volume changes can be effectively exploited in drug-delivery applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Contains detailed information about the synthesis of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Md, Rafiquzzaman; Arai, Yoshio
The hybrid effect on the orientation dependence of the composite strength of an aluminum cast alloy reinforced by Al2O3 whiskers and SiC particles is studied experimentally and numerically. Two types of specimens are prepared for monotonic bending tests. The longitudinal specimen orientation (maximum stress direction) is parallel to or normal to randomly oriented whiskers in plane. The monotonic strength is 18% higher when the hybrid metal matrix composite (MMC) is subjected to an external load parallel to the random whisker orientation in plane than when the load is perpendicular to the whisker orientation. The whisker orientation dependence of composite strength in hybrid composite is weaker than that in whisker-reinforced composite. On the fracture surface of the specimen loaded along the direction parallel to the random whisker orientation in plane, most whiskers are broken while many de-bonded interfaces between the whiskers and matrix are observed on the fracture surface of the specimen loaded along the direction perpendicular to the whisker orientation. To characterize the hybrid effect on the whisker orientation dependence of composite strength, a three-dimensional hybrid composite unit cell model including one whisker and a few particles under a periodic boundary condition is developed using the finite element method. The hybrid composites have higher whisker stress than whisker-reinforced composite when subjected to an external load parallel to the whisker orientation if these composites have the same total volume fraction of reinforcement and the particles are distributed randomly. Under an external load perpendicular to the whisker orientation, the interface stress of hybrid composites is lower than that of whisker-reinforced composite. As a result, the strength difference for parallel and perpendicular loading conditions of the hybrid composites is smaller than that of whisker-reinforced composite. Thus, the weak whisker orientation effect in the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharya, Amitabh
2013-11-01
An efficient algorithm for simulating Stokes flow around particles is presented here, in which a second order Finite Difference method (FDM) is coupled to a Boundary Integral method (BIM). This method utilizes the strong points of FDM (i.e. localized stencil) and BIM (i.e. accurate representation of particle surface). Specifically, in each iteration, the flow field away from the particles is solved on a Cartesian FDM grid, while the traction on the particle surface (given the the velocity of the particle) is solved using BIM. The two schemes are coupled by matching the solution in an intermediate region between the particle and surrounding fluid. We validate this method by solving for flow around an array of cylinders, and find good agreement with Hasimoto's (J. Fluid Mech. 1959) analytical results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Wei; Lee, Yih Hong; Pedireddy, Srikanth; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Tianxi; Ling, Xing Yi
2014-04-01
Graphene oxide (GO) is an emerging material for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) due to its strong chemical enhancement. Studying the SERS performance of plasmonic nanoparticle/GO hybrid materials at the single particle level is crucial for direct probing of the chemical effect of GO on plasmonic nanoparticles. In this work, we integrate GO and shape-controlled Ag nanoparticles to create hybrid nanomaterials, and the chemical enhancement arising from GO is investigated using single-particle SERS measurements. Ag nanoparticle@GO hybrid nanostructures are prepared by assembling Ag nanoparticles, including spheres, cubes and octahedra with GO sheets. The SERS behaviors of the hybrid nanostructures are characterized, and 2-3 times enhanced SERS intensities are detected from the Ag nanoparticle@GO hybrid nanostructures as compared to pure Ag nanoparticles. Furthermore, we probe the mechanism of SERS enhancement in the hybrid nanostructures by changing the surface coverage of GO on Ag octahedra, by using reduced GO in place of GO as well as by using probe molecules of different electronegativities. This hybrid system is an excellent candidate for single-particle SERS sensors. Sub-nanomolar levels of aromatic molecules are detected using a single Ag/GO hybrid nanomaterial. This as-prepared GO and shape-controlled Ag nanoparticle hybrid is capable of serving as a high performance SERS platform, providing new opportunities for efficient chemical and biological sensing applications.Graphene oxide (GO) is an emerging material for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) due to its strong chemical enhancement. Studying the SERS performance of plasmonic nanoparticle/GO hybrid materials at the single particle level is crucial for direct probing of the chemical effect of GO on plasmonic nanoparticles. In this work, we integrate GO and shape-controlled Ag nanoparticles to create hybrid nanomaterials, and the chemical enhancement arising from GO is investigated using single-particle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lahmiri, Salim
2016-02-01
Multiresolution analysis techniques including continuous wavelet transform, empirical mode decomposition, and variational mode decomposition are tested in the context of interest rate next-day variation prediction. In particular, multiresolution analysis techniques are used to decompose interest rate actual variation and feedforward neural network for training and prediction. Particle swarm optimization technique is adopted to optimize its initial weights. For comparison purpose, autoregressive moving average model, random walk process and the naive model are used as main reference models. In order to show the feasibility of the presented hybrid models that combine multiresolution analysis techniques and feedforward neural network optimized by particle swarm optimization, we used a set of six illustrative interest rates; including Moody's seasoned Aaa corporate bond yield, Moody's seasoned Baa corporate bond yield, 3-Month, 6-Month and 1-Year treasury bills, and effective federal fund rate. The forecasting results show that all multiresolution-based prediction systems outperform the conventional reference models on the criteria of mean absolute error, mean absolute deviation, and root mean-squared error. Therefore, it is advantageous to adopt hybrid multiresolution techniques and soft computing models to forecast interest rate daily variations as they provide good forecasting performance.
García-González, C A; Sampaio da Sousa, A R; Argemí, A; López Periago, A; Saurina, J; Duarte, C M M; Domingo, C
2009-12-01
The production of particulate hybrid carriers containing a glyceryl monostearate (Lumulse GMS-K), a waxy triglyceride (Cutina HR), silanized TiO(2) and caffeine were investigated with the aim of producing sunscreens with UV-radiation protection properties. Particles were obtained using the supercritical PGSS (Particles from Gas Saturated Solutions) technique. This method takes advantages of the lower melting temperatures of the lipids obtained from the dissolution of CO(2) in the bulk mixture. Experiments were performed at 13 MPa and 345 K, according to previous melting point measurements. Blends containing Lumulse GMS-K and Cutina HR lipids (50 wt%) were loaded with silanized TiO(2) and caffeine in percentile proportions of 6 and 4 wt%, respectively. The particles produced were characterized using several analytical techniques as follows: system crystallinity was checked by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry, thermal stability by thermogravimetric analysis, and morphology by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Further, the UV-shielding ability of TiO(2) after its dispersion in the lipidic matrix was assessed by solid UV-vis spectroscopy. Preliminary results indicated that caffeine-loaded solid lipid particles presented a two-step dissolution profile, with an initial burst of 60 wt% of the loaded active agent. Lipid blends loaded with TiO(2) and caffeine encompassed the UV-filter behavior of TiO(2) and the photoaging prevention properties of caffeine. PMID:19720123
Zhang, Xu; Yao, Xiaohui; Wang, Xiaomei; Feng, Lei; Qu, Jiayan; Liu, Pange
2014-02-14
A novel robust hybrid raspberry-like TiO2/PS hollow particles with complex double-shelled structures have been fabricated in large quantities by a facile swelling polymerization approach based on commercially available hollow polystyrene (PS) spheres. The crosslinked-PS protrusions are wedged firmly into the TiO2 shell, making the resultant particles both chemically and mechanically robust. By simply tuning the monomer concentration, the hierarchical morphology (the size and number of protrusion) of the surfaces can be well-controlled. Due to the dual-sized hierarchical morphology, the particulate coating possesses superhydrophobicity (water contact angle ≈ 161°). Moreover, the well-compartmentalized character is similar to that of typical Janus particles. The special particles with interfacial activity can stabilize water-in-toluene (w/o) emulsions well. Meanwhile, a TiO2 double-shelled hollow sphere with a complex structure is achieved by calcination or solvent treatment. All these unique features derived from a readily available method will endow the products with a broader range of applications. PMID:24837153
Henzler, Katja; Guttmann, Peter; Lu, Yan; Polzer, Frank; Schneider, Gerd; Ballauff, Matthias
2013-02-13
The electronic structure of individual hybrid particles was studied by nanoscale near-edge X-ray absorption spectromicroscopy. The colloidal particles consist of a solid polystyrene core and a cross-linked poly-N-(isopropylacrylamide) shell with embedded crystalline titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) nanoparticles (d = 6 ± 3 nm). The TiO(2) particles are generated in the carrier network by a sol-gel process at room temperature. The hybrid particles were imaged with photon energy steps of 0.1 eV in their hydrated environment with a cryo transmission X-ray microscope (TXM) at the Ti L(2,3)-edge. By analyzing the image stacks, the obtained near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra of our individual hybrid particles show clearly that our synthesis generates TiO(2) in the anastase phase. Additionally, our spectromicroscopy method permits the determination of the density distribution of TiO(2) in single carrier particles. Therefore, NEXAFS spectroscopy combined with TXM presents a unique method to get in-depth insight into the electronic structure of hybrid materials. PMID:23360082
New Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Polysilsesquioxane-Silica Particles as Sunscreens.
Tolbert, Stephanie H; McFadden, Peter D; Loy, Douglas A
2016-02-10
Effectiveness of organic sunscreens is limited by phototoxicity and degradation. Both of which can be significantly reduced by encapsulation in hollow particles or covalent incorporation into the solid structure of particles, but direct comparisons of the two methods have not been reported. In this study, physical encapsulation and covalent incorporation of sunscreens were compared with 1 mol % salicylate and curcumeroid sunscreens. 2-Ethylhexyl salicylate was physically encapsulated in hollow silica nanoparticles prepared by oil-in-water (O/W) microemulsion polymerizations (E-Sal). Some of these particles were coated with an additional shell or cap of silica to reduce leaking of sunscreen (cap-E-Sal). Covalent incorporation involved co-polymerizing tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) with 0.2 mol % of new salicylate and curcuminoid sunscreen monomers with triethoxsilyl groups. Particles were prepared with the salicylate attached to the silica matrix through single silsesquioxane groups (pendant; P-Sal) and two silsesquioxane groups (bridged; B-Sal). Particles based on a new curcuminoid-bridged monomer were also prepared (B-Curc). Sunscreen leaching, photodegradation, and sunscreen performance were determined for the E-Sal, cap-E-Sal, P-Sal, B-Sal, and B-Curc particles. Covalent attachment, particularly with bridged sunscreen monomers, reduced leaching and photodegradation over physical encapsulation, even with capping. PMID:26730573
Characterization of hybrid hydrogel with different shape of particles after gamma-ray radiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Donghyun; Lee, Hoik; Park, Hyemi; Sohn, Daewon
2011-03-01
Due to high specific surface area and the ability to absorb organic molecules, inorganic particles such as silica particle (spherical), imogolite (rodlike), and clay (fan shape) could be used as precursors for hydrogels. The hydrogel which had 3-D network structure was directly prepared by polymerization with acrylic acid (AA) on hydroxide surface of inorganic particles that was irradiated by gamma-ray at ambient condition. Surface of inorganic particles was used as sites of initiator and cross-linker to make hydrogel, so we don't need any additional additives to make hydrogel. The properties of hydrogel were characterized by small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), universal testing machine (UTM), and Raman spectroscopy. By changing the inorganic particles/monomer ratio, the mechanical strength was significantly changed. The synthesized hydrogel can be elongated maximum 1800%. 2D SAXS pattern was different depending on the shape of inorganic particles. And the hydrogel swelled only in basic solutions at pH > 7.
Emergent Ultra-Long-Range Interactions Between Active Particles in Hybrid Active-Inactive Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steimel, Joshua; Aragones, Juan; Hu, Helen; Qureshi, Naser; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo
Particle-particle interactions determine the state of a system. Control over the range and magnitude of such interactions has been an active area of research for decades due to the fundamental challenges it poses in science and technology. Effective interactions between active particles have gathered much attention as they can lead to out-of-equilibrium cooperative states such as flocking. Inspired by nature, where active living cells coexist with lifeless, immobile objects and structures, here we study the effective interactions that appear in systems composed of active and passive mixtures of colloids. Our system is a two dimensional colloidal monolayer composed primarily of passive (inactive) colloids and a very small fraction of active (sinning) ferromagnetic colloids. We find an emergent ultra-long-range attractive interaction between active particles induced by the activity of the spinning particles and mediated by the elasticity of the passive medium. Interestingly, the appearance of such interaction depends on the spinning protocol and has a minimum actuation time scale below which no attraction is observed. Overall, these results clearly show that in the presence of elastic components, active particles can interact across very long distances without any chemical modification of the environment. Such a mechanism might potentially be important for some biological systems and can be harnessed for newer developments in synthetic active soft materials.
Nam, Jeonghun; Tan, Justin Kok Soon; Khoo, Bee Luan; Namgung, Bumseok; Leo, Hwa Liang; Lim, Chwee Teck; Kim, Sangho
2015-11-01
A novel microfluidic device which consists of two stages for particle focusing and separation using a viscoelastic fluid has been developed. A circular capillary tube was used for three-dimensional particle pre-alignment before the separation process, which was inserted in a polydimethylsiloxane microchannel. Particles with diameters of 5 and 10 μm were focused at the centerline in the capillary tube, and the location of particles was initialized at the first bifurcation. Then, 5 and 10 μm particles were successfully separated in the expansion region based on size-dependent lateral migration, with ∼99% separation efficiency. The proposed device was further applied to separation of MCF-7 cells from leukocytes. Based on the cell size distribution, an approximate size cutoff for separation was determined to be 16 μm. At 200 μl/min, 94% of MCF-7 cells were separated with the purity of ∼97%. According to the trypan blue exclusion assay, high viability (∼90%) could be achieved for the separated MCF-7 cells. The use of a commercially available capillary tube enables the device to be highly versatile in dealing with particles in a wide size range by using capillary tubes with different inner diameters. PMID:26734115
Discrete modelling of drapery systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thoeni, Klaus; Giacomini, Anna
2016-04-01
Drapery systems are an efficient and cost-effective measure in preventing and controlling rockfall hazards on rock slopes. The simplest form consists of a row of ground anchors along the top of the slope connected to a horizontal support cable from which a wire mesh is suspended down the face of the slope. Such systems are generally referred to as simple or unsecured draperies (Badger and Duffy 2012). Variations such as secured draperies, where a pattern of ground anchors is incorporated within the field of the mesh, and hybrid systems, where the upper part of an unsecured drapery is elevated to intercept rockfalls originating upslope of the installation, are becoming more and more popular. This work presents a discrete element framework for simulation of unsecured drapery systems and its variations. The numerical model is based on the classical discrete element method (DEM) and implemented into the open-source framework YADE (Šmilauer et al., 2010). The model takes all relevant interactions between block, drapery and slope into account (Thoeni et al., 2014) and was calibrated and validated based on full-scale experiments (Giacomini et al., 2012).The block is modelled as a rigid clump made of spherical particles which allows any shape to be approximated. The drapery is represented by a set of spherical particle with remote interactions. The behaviour of the remote interactions is governed by the constitutive behaviour of the wire and generally corresponds to a piecewise linear stress-strain relation (Thoeni et al., 2013). The same concept is used to model wire ropes. The rock slope is represented by rigid triangular elements where material properties (e.g., normal coefficient of restitution, friction angle) are assigned to each triangle. The capabilities of the developed model to simulate drapery systems and estimate the residual hazard involved with such systems is shown. References Badger, T.C., Duffy, J.D. (2012) Drapery systems. In: Turner, A.K., Schuster R
Wang, J.; Zhang, X. Yu, L.; Zhao, X.
2014-12-15
In tokamaks, fusion generated α particles may absorb lower hybrid (LH) wave energy, thus reducing the LH current drive efficiency. The absorption coefficient γ{sub α} of LH waves due to α particles changing with some typical parameters is calculated in this paper. Results show that γ{sub α} increases with the parallel refraction index n{sub ‖}, while decreases with the frequency of LH waves ω over a wide range. Higher background plasma temperature and toroidal magnetic field will increase the absorption. The absorption coefficient γ{sub α} increases with n{sub e} when n{sub e} ≤ 8 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}, while decreases with n{sub e} when n{sub e} becomes larger, and there is a peak value of γ{sub α} when n{sub e} ≈ 8 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −1} for the ITER-like scenario. The influence of spectral broadening in parametric decay instabilities on the absorption coefficient is evaluated. The value of γ{sub α} with n{sub ‖} being 2.5 is almost two times larger than that with n{sub ‖} being 2.0 and is even lager in the case of 2.9, which will obviously increase the absorption of the LH power by alpha particles.
Noyes, H.P. ); Starson, S. )
1991-03-01
Discrete physics, because it replaces time evolution generated by the energy operator with a global bit-string generator (program universe) and replaces fields'' with the relativistic Wheeler-Feynman action at a distance,'' allows the consistent formulation of the concept of signed gravitational charge for massive particles. The resulting prediction made by this version of the theory is that free anti-particles near the surface of the earth will fall'' up with the same acceleration that the corresponding particles fall down. So far as we can see, no current experimental information is in conflict with this prediction of our theory. The experiment crusis will be one of the anti-proton or anti-hydrogen experiments at CERN. Our prediction should be much easier to test than the small effects which those experiments are currently designed to detect or bound. 23 refs.
Emergent ultra-long-range interactions between active particles in hybrid active-inactive systems.
Steimel, Joshua P; Aragones, Juan L; Hu, Helen; Qureshi, Naser; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo
2016-04-26
Particle-particle interactions determine the state of a system. Control over the range of such interactions as well as their magnitude has been an active area of research for decades due to the fundamental challenges it poses in science and technology. Very recently, effective interactions between active particles have gathered much attention as they can lead to out-of-equilibrium cooperative states such as flocking. Inspired by nature, where active living cells coexist with lifeless objects and structures, here we study the effective interactions that appear in systems composed of active and passive mixtures of colloids. Our systems are 2D colloidal monolayers composed primarily of passive (inactive) colloids, and a very small fraction of active (spinning) ferromagnetic colloids. We find an emergent ultra-long-range attractive interaction induced by the activity of the spinning particles and mediated by the elasticity of the passive medium. Interestingly, the appearance of such interaction depends on the spinning protocol and has a minimum actuation timescale below which no attraction is observed. Overall, these results clearly show that, in the presence of elastic components, active particles can interact across very long distances without any chemical modification of the environment. Such a mechanism might potentially be important for some biological systems and can be harnessed for newer developments in synthetic active soft materials. PMID:27071096
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saha, P.; Sarkar, D.
2016-02-01
Quantum information processing is largely dependent on the robustness of non-classical correlations, such as entanglement and quantum discord. However, all the realistic quantum systems are thermodynamically open and lose their coherence with time through environmental interaction. The time evolution of quantum entanglement, discord, and the respective classical correlation for a single, spin-1/2 particle under spin and energy degrees of freedom, with an initial Werner state, has been investigated in the present study. The present intra-particle system is considered to be easier to produce than its inter-particle counterpart. Experimentally, this type of system may be realized in the well-known Penning trap. The most stable correlation was identified through maximization of a system-specific global objective function. Quantum discord was found to be the most stable, followed by the classical correlation. Moreover, all the correlations were observed to attain highest robustness under initial Bell state, with minimum possible dephasing and decoherence parameters.
Hybrid PIC Simulations of Particle Dynamics in Coaxial Plasma Jet Accelerators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thoma, Carsten; Hughes, Thomas; Welch, Dale; Hakel, Peter
2007-11-01
We describe the results of 1D and 2D simulations of plasma jet accelerators using the particle-in-cell (PIC) code Lsp. Previous studies of 1D cartesian simulations have shown that ion particle dynamics at the plasma-vacuum interface depend critically on the local Hall parameter, which is strongly dependent on electron temperature. In a coaxial accelerator with finite transverse dimensions, large transverse ion motions, predicted at moderate Hall parameters in 1D, can lead to ion loss to the walls. The results of 2D r-z jet simulations are described and compared with the 1D cartesian results. The effects of particle loss and ablation at the wall are considered, as are electron heating mechanisms at the plasma-vacuum interface, including radiation losses. We will apply the results to the plasma jet experiments underway at HyperV Technologies Corp.
Hybrid MHD/particle simulation study of sub-cyclotron Alfvén Eigenmodes in NSTX
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lestz, Jeff; Belova, Elena; Gorelenkov, N. N.
2015-11-01
Low toroidal mode number, high frequency compressional (CAE) and global (GAE) Alfvén Eigenmodes are often driven unstable by super-Alfvénic beam ions in NSTX. These modes have been identified as part of an energy channeling mechanism that may explain observed anomalous electron temperature profile flattening in beam-heated NSTX discharges. 3D hybrid simulations using the HYM code are conducted to study the excitation and stability properties of such CAE and GAE modes in NSTX and NSTX-like plasmas. HYM allows for the self-consistent simulation of these modes with a delta-f particle treatment of the energetic beam ions coupled to a single fluid resistive MHD model of the thermal plasma. Particular attention is paid to the sensitivity of CAE/GAE excitation on parametric changes in the equilibrium beam ion distribution function, among other factors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bao, J.; Lin, Z.; Kuley, A.; Wang, Z. X.
2016-06-01
Effects of toroidicity on linear mode conversion and absorption of lower hybrid (LH) waves in fusion plasmas have been studied using electromagnetic particle simulation. The simulation confirms that the toroidicity induces an upshift of parallel refractive index when LH waves propagate from the tokamak edge toward the core, which affects the radial position for the mode conversion between slow and fast LH waves. Furthermore, moving LH antenna launch position from low field side toward high field side leads to a larger upshift of the parallel refractive index, which helps the slow LH wave penetration into the tokamak core. The broadening of the poloidal spectrum of the wave-packet due to wave diffraction is also verified in the simulation. Both the upshift and broadening effects of the parallel spectrum of the wave-packet modify the parallel phase velocity and thus the linear absorption of LH waves by electron Landau resonance.
Lu, Hai-Feng; Yan, Bing
2008-09-01
A series of potential lanthanide activated fluorescent-whitening hybrid micro-particles has been prepared by sol-gel method. The precursor derived from 2,2'-dipyridylamine derivative modified though hydrogen transfer addition exhibited a self-organization under the coordination to RE(3+) (Eu(3+), Tb(3+), Sm(3+), Dy(3+), respectively) evaluated by SEM (micrometric scale) and X-ray diffraction studies (nanometric scale). The adapting traditional routes used in this paper affected the shape of the materials and can be taken as a new method to control the hydrolysis-polycondensation process. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Diffuse reflectance ultraviolet-visible spectra (DRUVS) and (1)H NMR spectra were used to confirm the modifications. These activated phosphors with lanthanide ions represent a novel way to produce fluorescent whitening agents. PMID:18176781
Han, Fei; Yang, Shanxiu; Guan, Jian
2015-01-01
In this paper, a hybrid approach based on clustering and Particle Swarm Optimisation (PSO) is proposed to perform gene selection and classification for microarray data. In the new method, firstly, genes are partitioned into a predetermined number of clusters by K-means method. Since the genes in each cluster have much redundancy, Max-Relevance Min-Redundancy (mRMR) strategy is used to reduce redundancy of the clustered genes. Then, PSO is used to perform further gene selection from the remaining clustered genes. Because of its better generalisation performance with much faster convergence rate than other learning algorithms for neural networks, Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) is chosen to evaluate candidate gene subsets selected by PSO and perform samples classification in this study. The proposed method selects less redundant genes as well as increases prediction accuracy and its efficiency and effectiveness are verified by extensive comparisons with other classical methods on three open microarray data. PMID:26547970
Shen, Qi; Shi, Wei-Min; Kong, Wei
2008-02-01
Gene expression data are characterized by thousands even tens of thousands of measured genes on only a few tissue samples. This can lead either to possible overfitting and dimensional curse or even to a complete failure in analysis of microarray data. Gene selection is an important component for gene expression-based tumor classification systems. In this paper, we develop a hybrid particle swarm optimization (PSO) and tabu search (HPSOTS) approach for gene selection for tumor classification. The incorporation of tabu search (TS) as a local improvement procedure enables the algorithm HPSOTS to overleap local optima and show satisfactory performance. The proposed approach is applied to three different microarray data sets. Moreover, we compare the performance of HPSOTS on these datasets to that of stepwise selection, the pure TS and PSO algorithm. It has been demonstrated that the HPSOTS is a useful tool for gene selection and mining high dimension data. PMID:18093877
Kramer, G.; Gaalema, S.; Shapiro, S.L.; Dunwoodie, W.M.; Arens, J.F.; Jernigan, J.G.
1989-05-01
Two-dimensional arrays of solid state detectors have long been used in visible and infrared systems. Hybrid arrays with separately optimized detector and readout substrates have been extensively developed for infrared sensors. The characteristics and use of these infrared readout chips with silicon PIN diode arrays produced by MICRON SEMICONDUCTOR for detecting high-energy particles are reported. Some of these arrays have been produced in formats as large as 512 /times/ 512 pixels; others have been radiation hardened to total dose levels beyond 1 Mrad. Data generation rates of 380 megasamples/second have been achieved. Analog and digital signal transmission and processing techniques have also been developed to accept and reduce these high data rates. 9 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brewer, Eli Henry
We study the PM2.5and ultrafine exhaust emissions from a new natural gas-fired turbine power facility to better understand air pollution in California. To characterize the emissions from new natural gas turbines, a series of tests were performed on a GE LMS100 gas turbine. These tests included PM2.5 and wet chemical tests for SO2/SO 3 and NH3, as well as ultrafine (less than 100 nm in diameter) particulate matter measurements. The turbine exhaust had an average particle number concentration that was 2.3x103 times higher than ambient air. The majority of these particles were nanoparticles; at the 100 nm size, stack particle concentrations were about 20 times higher than ambient, and increased to 3.9x104 times higher on average in the 2.5 - 3 nm particle size range. This study also found that ammonia emissions were higher than expected, but in compliance with permit conditions. This was possibly due to an ammonia imbalance entering the catalyst, some flue gas bypassing the catalyst, or not enough catalyst volume. SO3 accounted for an average of 23% of the total sulfur oxides emissions measured. Some of the SO3 is formed in the combustion process, it is likely that the majority formed as the SO2 in the combustion products passed across the oxidizing CO catalyst and SCR catalyst. The 100 MW turbine sampled in this study emitted particle loadings similar to those previously measured from turbines in the SCAQMD area, however, the turbine exhaust contained far more particles than ambient air. The power consumed by an air conditioner accounts for a significant fraction of the total power used by hybrid and electric vehicles especially during summer. This study examined the effect of recirculation of cabin air on power consumption of mobile air conditioners both in-lab and on-road. Real time power consumption and vehicle mileage were recorded by an On Board Diagnostic monitor and carbon balance method. Vehicle mileage improved with increased cabin air recirculation. The
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Kunpeng; Zhou, Tong; Cui, Jiwen; Tan, Jiubin
2014-11-01
This paper presents a novel example-based super-resolution (SR) algorithm with improved k-means cluster. In this algorithm, genetic k-means (GKM) with hybrid particle swarm optimization (HPSO) is employed to improve the reconstruction of high-resolution (HR) images, and a pre-processing of classification in frequency is used to accelerate the procedure. Self-redundancy across different scales of a natural image is also utilized to build attached training set to expand example-based information. Meanwhile, a reconstruction algorithm based on hybrid supervise locally linear embedding (HSLLE) is proposed which uses training sets, high-resolution images and self-redundancy across different scales of a natural image. Experimental results show that patches are classified rapidly in training set processing session and the runtime of reconstruction is half of traditional algorithm at least in super-resolution session. And clustering and attached training set lead to a better recovery of low-resolution (LR) image.
A hybrid multi-objective particle swarm algorithm for a mixed-model assembly line sequencing problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahimi-Vahed, A. R.; Mirghorbani, S. M.; Rabbani, M.
2007-12-01
Mixed-model assembly line sequencing is one of the most important strategic problems in the field of production management where diversified customers' demands exist. In this article, three major goals are considered: (i) total utility work, (ii) total production rate variation and (iii) total setup cost. Due to the complexity of the problem, a hybrid multi-objective algorithm based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) and tabu search (TS) is devised to obtain the locally Pareto-optimal frontier where simultaneous minimization of the above-mentioned objectives is desired. In order to validate the performance of the proposed algorithm in terms of solution quality and diversity level, the algorithm is applied to various test problems and its reliability, based on different comparison metrics, is compared with three prominent multi-objective genetic algorithms, PS-NC GA, NSGA-II and SPEA-II. The computational results show that the proposed hybrid algorithm significantly outperforms existing genetic algorithms in large-sized problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jia, Guozhang; Xiang, Nong; Wang, Xueyi; Huang, Yueheng; Lin, Yu
2016-01-01
The propagation and mode conversion of lower hybrid waves in an inhomogeneous plasma are investigated by using the nonlinear δf algorithm in a two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation code based on the gyrokinetic electron and fully kinetic ion (GeFi) scheme [Lin et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 47, 657 (2005)]. The characteristics of the simulated waves, such as wavelength, frequency, phase, and group velocities, agree well with the linear theoretical analysis. It is shown that a significant reflection component emerges in the conversion process between the slow mode and the fast mode when the scale length of the density variation is comparable to the local wavelength. The dependences of the reflection coefficient on the scale length of the density variation are compared with the results based on the linear full wave model for cold plasmas. It is indicated that the mode conversion for the waves with a frequency of 2.45 GHz (ω ˜ 3ωLH, where ωLH represents the lower hybrid resonance) and within Tokamak relevant amplitudes can be well described in the linear scheme. As the frequency decreases, the modification due to the nonlinear term becomes important. For the low-frequency waves (ω ˜ 1.3ωLH), the generations of the high harmonic modes and sidebands through nonlinear mode-mode coupling provide new power channels and thus could reduce the reflection significantly.
Barroso-Bogeat, A; Alexandre-Franco, M; Fernández-González, C; Gómez-Serrano, V
2016-03-01
In catalysis processes, activated carbon (AC) and metal oxides (MOs) are widely used either as catalysts or as catalyst supports because of their unique properties. A combination of AC and a MO in a single hybrid material entails changes not only in the composition, microstructure and texture but also in the morphology, which may largely influence the catalytic behaviour of the resulting product. This work is aimed at investigating the modifications in the morphology and particle size distribution (PSD) for AC-MO hybrid catalysts as a result of their preparation under markedly different heating conditions. From a commercial AC and six MO (Al2 O3 , Fe2 O3 , ZnO, SnO2 , TiO2 and WO3 ) precursors, two series of such catalysts are prepared by wet impregnation, oven-drying at 120ºC, and subsequent heat treatment at 200ºC or 850ºC in inert atmosphere. The resulting samples are characterized in terms of their morphology and PSD by scanning electron microscopy and ImageJ processing program. Obtained results indicate that the morphology, PSD and degree of dispersion of the supported catalysts are strongly dependent both on the MO precursor and the heat treatment temperature. With the temperature rise, trends are towards the improvement of crystallinity, the broadening of the PSD and the increase in the average particle size, thus suggesting the involvement of sintering mechanisms. Such effects are more pronounced for the Fe, Sn and W catalysts due to the reduction of the corresponding MOs by AC during the heat treatment at 850ºC. PMID:26457467
Emergent ultra–long-range interactions between active particles in hybrid active–inactive systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steimel, Joshua P.; Aragones, Juan L.; Hu, Helen; Qureshi, Naser
2016-04-01
Particle–particle interactions determine the state of a system. Control over the range of such interactions as well as their magnitude has been an active area of research for decades due to the fundamental challenges it poses in science and technology. Very recently, effective interactions between active particles have gathered much attention as they can lead to out-of-equilibrium cooperative states such as flocking. Inspired by nature, where active living cells coexist with lifeless objects and structures, here we study the effective interactions that appear in systems composed of active and passive mixtures of colloids. Our systems are 2D colloidal monolayers composed primarily of passive (inactive) colloids, and a very small fraction of active (spinning) ferromagnetic colloids. We find an emergent ultra–long-range attractive interaction induced by the activity of the spinning particles and mediated by the elasticity of the passive medium. Interestingly, the appearance of such interaction depends on the spinning protocol and has a minimum actuation timescale below which no attraction is observed. Overall, these results clearly show that, in the presence of elastic components, active particles can interact across very long distances without any chemical modification of the environment. Such a mechanism might potentially be important for some biological systems and can be harnessed for newer developments in synthetic active soft materials.
Reduced discretization error in HZETRN
Slaba, Tony C.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Tweed, John
2013-02-01
The deterministic particle transport code HZETRN is an efficient analysis tool for studying the effects of space radiation on humans, electronics, and shielding materials. In a previous work, numerical methods in the code were reviewed, and new methods were developed that further improved efficiency and reduced overall discretization error. It was also shown that the remaining discretization error could be attributed to low energy light ions (A < 4) with residual ranges smaller than the physical step-size taken by the code. Accurately resolving the spectrum of low energy light particles is important in assessing risk associated with astronaut radiation exposure. In this work, modifications to the light particle transport formalism are presented that accurately resolve the spectrum of low energy light ion target fragments. The modified formalism is shown to significantly reduce overall discretization error and allows a physical approximation to be removed. For typical step-sizes and energy grids used in HZETRN, discretization errors for the revised light particle transport algorithms are shown to be less than 4% for aluminum and water shielding thicknesses as large as 100 g/cm{sup 2} exposed to both solar particle event and galactic cosmic ray environments.
Lecrenier, M C; Ledoux, Q; Berben, G; Fumière, O; Saegerman, C; Baeten, V; Veys, P
2014-01-01
Molecular biology techniques such as PCR constitute powerful tools for the determination of the taxonomic origin of bones. DNA degradation and contamination by exogenous DNA, however, jeopardise bone identification. Despite the vast array of techniques used to decontaminate bone fragments, the isolation and determination of bone DNA content are still problematic. Within the framework of the eradication of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (including BSE, commonly known as "mad cow disease"), a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) protocol was developed. Results from the described study showed that this method can be applied directly to bones without a demineralisation step and that it allows the identification of bovine and ruminant bones even after severe processing. The results also showed that the method is independent of exogenous contamination and that it is therefore entirely appropriate for this application. PMID:25034259
Orientation control of liquid crystals using carbon-nanotube-magnetic particle hybrid materials.
Jeong, Hyeon Su; Youn, Sang Cheon; Kim, Yun Ho; Jung, Hee-Tae
2013-06-28
We have developed a simple yet versatile method for aligning liquid crystals (LCs) by using magnetic-field oriented single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) that were modified with magnetic particles. A high degree of homeotropic/planar LC alignment was achieved by SWNTs being exposed to a very low strength magnetic field, combined with strong π-π interactions between the biphenyl group in the LCs and the wall of the SWNTs. PMID:23676827
Unsteady Analysis of Particle Transport and Deposition in the Human Lung: A Hybrid 3D/0D Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haworth, Daniel C.; Kunz, Robert F.; Leemhuis, Laura S.; Banks, Syreeta S.; Kriete, Andres
2003-11-01
Three-dimensional CFD meshes including up the sixteenth generation of branching in a human tracheo-bronchial tree have been generated from surface data extracted using novel high-resolution bio-medical imaging and rendering methods. A zero-dimensional model for the deeper generations has been coupled with the three-dimensional model at each of the truncated branches. The 0D model imposes a time-varying volume to simulate realistic breathing cycles; it also includes a simple model for particle deposition. The resulting hybrid 3D/0D model has been exercised to compute the transport and deposition rates of particles of different sizes through full breathing cycles. Results are compared to earlier steady-flow CFD results, to results obtained using one-dimensional functional models of the human lung, and to experimental and modeling results for idealized branching-duct configurations. The aim of the research is to develop a virtual human respiratory system that can be used to address issues in pulmonary health in
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Camporeale, E.; Delzanno, G. L.; Bergen, B. K.; Moulton, J. D.
2016-01-01
We describe a spectral method for the numerical solution of the Vlasov-Poisson system where the velocity space is decomposed by means of an Hermite basis, and the configuration space is discretized via a Fourier decomposition. The novelty of our approach is an implicit time discretization that allows exact conservation of charge, momentum and energy. The computational efficiency and the cost-effectiveness of this method are compared to the fully-implicit PIC method recently introduced by Markidis and Lapenta (2011) and Chen et al. (2011). The following examples are discussed: Langmuir wave, Landau damping, ion-acoustic wave, two-stream instability. The Fourier-Hermite spectral method can achieve solutions that are several orders of magnitude more accurate at a fraction of the cost with respect to PIC.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Convery, P. D.; Schriver, D.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Richard, R. L.
2002-01-01
Nongyrotropic plasma distribution functions can be formed in regions of space where guiding center motion breaks down as a result of strongly curved and weak ambient magnetic fields. Such are the conditions near the current sheet in the Earth's middle and distant magnetotail, where observations of nongyrotropic ion distributions have been made. Here a systematic parameter study of nongyrotropic proton distributions using electromagnetic hybrid simulations is made. We model the observed nongyrotropic distributions by removing a number of arc length segments from a cold ring distribution and find significant differences with the results of simulations that initially have a gyrotropic ring distribution. Model nongyrotropic distributions with initially small perpendicular thermalization produce growing fluctuations that diffuse the ions into a stable Maxwellian-like distribution within a few proton gyro periods. The growing waves produced by nongyrotropic distributions are similar to the electromagnetic proton cyclotron waves produced by a gyrotropic proton ring distribution in that they propagate parallel to the background magnetic field and occur at frequencies on the order of the proton gyrofrequency, The maximum energy of the fluctuating magnetic field increases as the initial proton distribution is made more nongyrotropic, that is, more highly bunched in perpendicular velocity space. This increase can be as much as twice the energy produced in the gyrotropic case.
Capellari, Giovanni; Eftekhar Azam, Saeed; Mariani, Stefano
2015-01-01
Health monitoring of lightweight structures, like thin flexible plates, is of interest in several engineering fields. In this paper, a recursive Bayesian procedure is proposed to monitor the health of such structures through data collected by a network of optimally placed inertial sensors. As a main drawback of standard monitoring procedures is linked to the computational costs, two remedies are jointly considered: first, an order-reduction of the numerical model used to track the structural dynamics, enforced with proper orthogonal decomposition; and, second, an improved particle filter, which features an extended Kalman updating of each evolving particle before the resampling stage. The former remedy can reduce the number of effective degrees-of-freedom of the structural model to a few only (depending on the excitation), whereas the latter one allows to track the evolution of damage and to locate it thanks to an intricate formulation. To assess the effectiveness of the proposed procedure, the case of a plate subject to bending is investigated; it is shown that, when the procedure is appropriately fed by measurements, damage is efficiently and accurately estimated. PMID:26703615
Capellari, Giovanni; Azam, Saeed Eftekhar; Mariani, Stefano
2015-01-01
Health monitoring of lightweight structures, like thin flexible plates, is of interest in several engineering fields. In this paper, a recursive Bayesian procedure is proposed to monitor the health of such structures through data collected by a network of optimally placed inertial sensors. As a main drawback of standard monitoring procedures is linked to the computational costs, two remedies are jointly considered: first, an order-reduction of the numerical model used to track the structural dynamics, enforced with proper orthogonal decomposition; and, second, an improved particle filter, which features an extended Kalman updating of each evolving particle before the resampling stage. The former remedy can reduce the number of effective degrees-of-freedom of the structural model to a few only (depending on the excitation), whereas the latter one allows to track the evolution of damage and to locate it thanks to an intricate formulation. To assess the effectiveness of the proposed procedure, the case of a plate subject to bending is investigated; it is shown that, when the procedure is appropriately fed by measurements, damage is efficiently and accurately estimated. PMID:26703615
Khaled, Sm Z; Cevenini, Armando; Yazdi, Iman K; Parodi, Alessandro; Evangelopoulos, Michael; Corbo, Claudia; Scaria, Shilpa; Hu, Ye; Haddix, Seth G; Corradetti, Bruna; Salvatore, Francesco; Tasciotti, Ennio
2016-05-01
This report describes a novel, one-pot synthesis of hybrid nanoparticles formed by a nanostructured inorganic silica core and an organic pH-responsive hydrogel shell. This easy-to-perform, oil-in-water emulsion process synthesizes fluorescently-doped silica nanoparticles wrapped within a tunable coating of cationic poly(2-diethylaminoethyl methacrylate) hydrogel in one step. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis demonstrated that the hydrogel-coated nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed in the aqueous phase. The formation of covalent chemical bonds between the silica and the polymer increases the stability of the organic phase around the inorganic core as demonstrated by thermogravimetric analysis. The cationic nature of the hydrogel is responsible for the pH buffering properties of the nanostructured system and was evaluated by titration experiments. Zeta-potential analysis demonstrated that the charge of the system was reversed when transitioned from acidic to basic pH and vice versa. Consequently, small interfering RNA (siRNA) can be loaded and released in an acidic pH environment thereby enabling the hybrid particles and their payload to avoid endosomal sequestration and enzymatic degradation. These nanoparticles, loaded with specific siRNA molecules directed towards the transcript of the membrane receptor CXCR4, significantly decreased the expression of this protein in a human breast cancer cell line (i.e., MDA-MB-231). Moreover, intravenous administration of siRNA-loaded nanoparticles demonstrated a preferential accumulation at the tumor site that resulted in a reduction of CXCR4 expression. PMID:26901429
Hybrid particle traps and conditioning procedure for gas insulated transmission lines
Dale, Steinar J.; Cookson, Alan H.
1982-01-01
A gas insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner condor within the outer sheath, insulating supports supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath, and an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath. An apertured particle trapping ring is disposed within the outer sheath, and the trapping ring has a pair of dielectric members secured at each longitudinal end thereof, with the dielectric members extending outwardly from the trapping ring along an arc. A support sheet having an adhesive coating thereon is secured to the trapping ring and disposed on the outer sheath within the low field region formed between the trapping ring and the outer sheath. A conditioning method used to condition the transmission line prior to activation in service comprises applying an AC voltage to the inner conductor in a plurality of voltage-time steps, with the voltage-time steps increasing in voltage magnitude while decreasing in time duration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McKenna-Lawlor, Susan; Kallio, Esa; Dyadechkin, Sergey; Jarvinen, Riku; Janhunen, Pekka
2010-05-01
Energetic particle data recorded by the SLED and LET instruments aboard the Phobos-2 spacecraft while in circular orbit about Mars showed the presence from 6 > 26 March, 1989, in association with an extreme solar event, of intense ambient particle radiation (> 30 MeV) punctuated by traveling interplanetary shocks. The response of the Martian environment to the March 1989 solar disturbances is modeled using a 3-D, self-consistent, hybrid model (HYB-Mars) supplemented by test particle simulations. In HYB-Mars ions are modeled as particles while electrons form a massless, charge neutralizing, fluid. The magnetic and electric fields present during the March 1989 activity are each derived from HYB- Mars while the high energy ion populations are analyzed using test particle simulations. Finally, the predictions of the model are validated by comparing the simulated properties of the disturbed Martian environment with the in situ observations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Todo, Y.; Berk, H. L.; Breizman, B. N.
2012-03-01
A hybrid simulation code for nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and energetic-particle dynamics has been extended to simulate recurrent bursts of Alfvén eigenmodes by implementing the energetic-particle source, collisions and losses. The Alfvén eigenmode bursts with synchronization of multiple modes and beam ion losses at each burst are successfully simulated with nonlinear MHD effects for the physics condition similar to a reduced simulation for a TFTR experiment (Wong et al 1991 Phys. Rev. Lett. 66 1874, Todo et al 2003 Phys. Plasmas 10 2888). It is demonstrated with a comparison between nonlinear MHD and linear MHD simulation results that the nonlinear MHD effects significantly reduce both the saturation amplitude of the Alfvén eigenmodes and the beam ion losses. Two types of time evolution are found depending on the MHD dissipation coefficients, namely viscosity, resistivity and diffusivity. The Alfvén eigenmode bursts take place for higher dissipation coefficients with roughly 10% drop in stored beam energy and the maximum amplitude of the dominant magnetic fluctuation harmonic δBm/n/B ~ 5 × 10-3 at the mode peak location inside the plasma. Quadratic dependence of beam ion loss rate on magnetic fluctuation amplitude is found for the bursting evolution in the nonlinear MHD simulation. For lower dissipation coefficients, the amplitude of the Alfvén eigenmodes is at steady levels δBm/n/B ~ 2 × 10-3 and the beam ion losses take place continuously. The beam ion pressure profiles are similar among the different dissipation coefficients, and the stored beam energy is higher for higher dissipation coefficients.
Hybrid micro-particles as a magnetically-guidable decontaminant for cesium-eluted ash slurry
Namiki, Yoshihisa; Ueyama, Toshihiko; Yoshida, Takayuki; Watanabe, Ryoei; Koido, Shigeo; Namiki, Tamami
2014-01-01
Decontamination of the radioactive cesium that is widely dispersed owing to a nuclear power station accident and concentrated in fly ash requires an effective elimination system. Radioactive fly ash contains large amounts of water-soluble cesium that can cause severe secondary contamination and represents a serious health risk, yet its complete removal is complicated and difficult. Here it is shown that a new fine-powder formulation can be magnetically guided to eliminate cesium after being mixed with the ash slurry. This formulation, termed MagCE, consists of a ferromagnetic porous structure and alkaline- and salt-resistant nickel ferrocyanide. It has potent cesium-adsorption- and magnetic-separation-properties. Because of its resistance against physical and chemical attack such as with ash particles, as well as with the high pH and salt concentration of the ash slurry, MagCE simplifies the decontamination process without the need of the continued presence of the hazardous water-soluble cesium in the treated ash. PMID:25192495
Hybrid micro-particles as a magnetically-guidable decontaminant for cesium-eluted ash slurry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Namiki, Yoshihisa; Ueyama, Toshihiko; Yoshida, Takayuki; Watanabe, Ryoei; Koido, Shigeo; Namiki, Tamami
2014-09-01
Decontamination of the radioactive cesium that is widely dispersed owing to a nuclear power station accident and concentrated in fly ash requires an effective elimination system. Radioactive fly ash contains large amounts of water-soluble cesium that can cause severe secondary contamination and represents a serious health risk, yet its complete removal is complicated and difficult. Here it is shown that a new fine-powder formulation can be magnetically guided to eliminate cesium after being mixed with the ash slurry. This formulation, termed MagCE, consists of a ferromagnetic porous structure and alkaline- and salt-resistant nickel ferrocyanide. It has potent cesium-adsorption- and magnetic-separation-properties. Because of its resistance against physical and chemical attack such as with ash particles, as well as with the high pH and salt concentration of the ash slurry, MagCE simplifies the decontamination process without the need of the continued presence of the hazardous water-soluble cesium in the treated ash.
Hybrid Models: Bridging Particle and Continuum Scales in Hydrodynamic Flow Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flekkoy, Eirik G.; McNamara, Sean; Maloy, Jorgen; Maloy, Knut; Feder, Jens; Wagner, Geri
Different models for the coupling of field and particle descriptions are introduced and examined. For the purpose of establishing how a molecular description may be coupled to a continuum description of the same physical system, we study a molecular dynamics system coupled to a Navier-Stokes description within the same physical space. A simple toy model version of this system is studied as well, i.e., a system of random walkers coupled to the diffusion equation. These coupling schemes are shown to work in the sense that they provide a seamless coupling between the different representations. In order to establish a sufficiently computationally efficient method for the simulation of gas-grain flow, we introduce a model where the grains are described explicitly but where the gas is described only through its continuum pressure field. It is shown that this model easily produces macroscopic structures, such as the bubbles in fluidized beds. The model is also used to study a novel bubble instability observed experimentally in the flow of gas-grain systems in simple tubes.
Shabri, Ani; Samsudin, Ruhaidah
2014-01-01
Crude oil prices do play significant role in the global economy and are a key input into option pricing formulas, portfolio allocation, and risk measurement. In this paper, a hybrid model integrating wavelet and multiple linear regressions (MLR) is proposed for crude oil price forecasting. In this model, Mallat wavelet transform is first selected to decompose an original time series into several subseries with different scale. Then, the principal component analysis (PCA) is used in processing subseries data in MLR for crude oil price forecasting. The particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used to adopt the optimal parameters of the MLR model. To assess the effectiveness of this model, daily crude oil market, West Texas Intermediate (WTI), has been used as the case study. Time series prediction capability performance of the WMLR model is compared with the MLR, ARIMA, and GARCH models using various statistics measures. The experimental results show that the proposed model outperforms the individual models in forecasting of the crude oil prices series. PMID:24895666
Shabri, Ani; Samsudin, Ruhaidah
2014-01-01
Crude oil prices do play significant role in the global economy and are a key input into option pricing formulas, portfolio allocation, and risk measurement. In this paper, a hybrid model integrating wavelet and multiple linear regressions (MLR) is proposed for crude oil price forecasting. In this model, Mallat wavelet transform is first selected to decompose an original time series into several subseries with different scale. Then, the principal component analysis (PCA) is used in processing subseries data in MLR for crude oil price forecasting. The particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used to adopt the optimal parameters of the MLR model. To assess the effectiveness of this model, daily crude oil market, West Texas Intermediate (WTI), has been used as the case study. Time series prediction capability performance of the WMLR model is compared with the MLR, ARIMA, and GARCH models using various statistics measures. The experimental results show that the proposed model outperforms the individual models in forecasting of the crude oil prices series. PMID:24895666
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ghezzi, Patrick M.
2007-01-01
The advantages of emphasizing discrete trials "teaching" over discrete trials "training" are presented first, followed by a discussion of discrete trials as a method of teaching that emerged historically--and as a matter of necessity for difficult learners such as those with autism--from discrete trials as a method for laboratory research. The…
Griffiths, J C; Harris, S J; Layton, G T; Berrie, E L; French, T J; Burns, N R; Adams, S E; Kingsman, A J
1993-06-01
In attempts to increase the immunogenicity of recombinant antigens, a number of particulate antigen presentation systems have been developed. In this study, we used human immunodeficiency virus Gag particles as carriers for the human immunodeficiency virus envelope V3 region. Gag:V3 fusion proteins were expressed from baculovirus expression vectors; they migrated to the insect cell membrane and budded from the cells as hybrid particles. An immunization study carried out with rats showed that the particles elicited a strong anti-Gag antibody response and a weak antibody response to the V3 region. A strong anti-V3 cytolytic T-cell response was elicited in immunized mice. These data show that retroviral Gag particles can be used as antigen presentation vehicles. PMID:8497047
Alaia, Alessandro; Puppo, Gabriella
2011-06-20
In this work we present a hybrid particle-grid Monte Carlo method for the Boltzmann equation, which is characterized by a significant reduction of the stochastic noise in the kinetic regime. The hybrid method is based on a first order splitting in time to separate the transport from the relaxation step. The transport step is solved by a deterministic scheme, while a hybrid DSMC-based method is used to solve the collision step. Such a hybrid scheme is based on splitting the solution in a collisional and a non-collisional part at the beginning of the collision step, and the DSMC method is used to solve the relaxation step for the collisional part of the solution only. This is accomplished by sampling only the fraction of particles candidate for collisions from the collisional part of the solution, performing collisions as in a standard DSMC method, and then projecting the particles back onto a velocity grid to compute a piecewise constant reconstruction for the collisional part of the solution. The latter is added to a piecewise constant reconstruction of the non-collisional part of the solution, which in fact remains unchanged during the relaxation step. Numerical results show that the stochastic noise is significantly reduced at large Knudsen numbers with respect to the standard DSMC method. Indeed in this algorithm, the particle scheme is applied only on the collisional part of the solution, so only this fraction of the solution is affected by stochastic fluctuations. But since the collisional part of the solution reduces as the Knudsen number increases, stochastic noise reduces as well at large Knudsen numbers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Kenneth J.; Chen, Jun
2015-03-01
The extinction spectra and optical coefficients of human cancerous and normal prostate tissues were investigated in the spectral range of 750 nm - 860 nm. The scattering coefficient (μs) was determined from the extinction measurements on thin prostate tissue and Beer's law. The absorption coefficient (μa) and the reduced scattering coefficient (μs') were extracted from integrate sphere intensity measurements on prostate tissue of which the thickness is in the multiple scattering range. The anisotropy factor (g) was calculated using the extracted values of μs and μs'. A micro-optical model of soft biological tissue was introduced to simulate the numerical computation of the absolute magnitudes of its scattering coefficients from the refractive index and a particle distribution function based on the Mie theory. A key assumption of the model is that the refractive index variations caused by microscopic tissue elements can be treated as particles with sizes distributed according to a skewed log-normal distribution function. The particle distribution and mean particle size of the two types of tissues were then calculated. Results show that the mean diameter of the particle size of cancerous tissue is larger than that of the cancerous tissue, which is responsible for larger reduced scattering coefficient of normal tissue in comparison with cancerous tissue. The results can be explained the change of tissue during prostate cancer evolution defined by Gleason Grade. The difference of the particles distribution and optical coefficients of cancerous and normal prostate tissues may present a potential criterion for prostate cancer detection.
Smith, Jovanca J.; Bishop, Joseph E.
2013-11-01
This report summarizes the work performed by the graduate student Jovanca Smith during a summer internship in the summer of 2012 with the aid of mentor Joe Bishop. The projects were a two-part endeavor that focused on the use of the numerical model called the Lattice Discrete Particle Model (LDPM). The LDPM is a discrete meso-scale model currently used at Northwestern University and the ERDC to model the heterogeneous quasi-brittle material, concrete. In the first part of the project, LDPM was compared to the Karagozian and Case Concrete Model (K&C) used in Presto, an explicit dynamics finite-element code, developed at Sandia National Laboratories. In order to make this comparison, a series of quasi-static numerical experiments were performed, namely unconfined uniaxial compression tests on four varied cube specimen sizes, three-point bending notched experiments on three proportional specimen sizes, and six triaxial compression tests on a cylindrical specimen. The second part of this project focused on the application of LDPM to simulate projectile perforation on an ultra high performance concrete called CORTUF. This application illustrates the strengths of LDPM over traditional continuum models.
Adler, S.L.
1999-01-01
We construct extensions of the standard model based on the hypothesis that Higgs bosons also exhibit a family structure and that the flavor weak eigenstates in the three families are distinguished by a discrete Z{sub 6} chiral symmetry that is spontaneously broken by the Higgs sector. We study in detail at the tree level models with three Higgs doublets and with six Higgs doublets comprising two weakly coupled sets of three. In a leading approximation of S{sub 3} cyclic permutation symmetry the three-Higgs-doublet model gives a {open_quotes}democratic{close_quotes} mass matrix of rank 1, while the six-Higgs-doublet model gives either a rank-1 mass matrix or, in the case when it spontaneously violates {ital CP}, a rank-2 mass matrix corresponding to nonzero second family masses. In both models, the CKM matrix is exactly unity in the leading approximation. Allowing small explicit violations of cyclic permutation symmetry generates small first family masses in the six-Higgs-doublet model, and first and second family masses in the three-Higgs-doublet model, and gives a nontrivial CKM matrix in which the mixings of the first and second family quarks are naturally larger than mixings involving the third family. Complete numerical fits are given for both models, flavor-changing neutral current constraints are discussed in detail, and the issues of unification of couplings and neutrino masses are addressed. On a technical level, our analysis uses the theory of circulant and retrocirculant matrices, the relevant parts of which are reviewed. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}
Limitations of Discrete Stereology: Steps Toward a More Functional Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Proussevitch, A. A.; Sahagian, D. L.; Jutzeler, M.
2012-12-01
Stereology is a statistical and mathematical means to obtain 3D information (such as size, shape, and spatial orientation statistical distributions) from observed 2D cross-section cuts through a volume containing many embedded objects. Examples are SEM imagery of voids in a volcanic rock or tephra, objects in an X-ray tomographic slice, a thin section, a polished section of granite, a planar outcrop of welded volcanic pyroclasts, or sizing of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic formations from maps. There are three possible approaches to addressing the stereology formulation: 1. Rough approximation using binned data conversion, i.e. discrete stereology. (BAD) 2. Semi-functional data deconvolution, i.e. hybrid of discrete and functional stereology. (BETTER) 3. Solution with 2D-3D functional transformation, i.e. functional stereology (the next step) (BEST). Discrete Stereology: Historically, stereology has been limited to observations of object sizes grouped into discrete bins, or what we now call "discrete" stereology. This approach suffers from severe limitations when applied to natural materials. The most serious of which are exponential error propagation and bias introduced by small numbers of objects in the extremities of the size distribution, and compounded non-spherical shapes and preferred spatial orientations. These limitations do not allow for accurate size distributions of pyroclastic materials, vesicles, and crystals, except for impractically large sample populations. Semi-Functional Stereology: In order to improve the method, a simple first step already taken is "semi-functional" stereology. It combines both discrete object sizing and pre-defined functions of 2D and 3D distributions. Discrete binned observational data is represented by a histogram from which a best fit function for 2D distribution is assigned. This function is then discretized and a 3D distribution is derived from that as in discrete stereology. This approach eliminates some problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wygant, J. R.; Thaller, S. A.; Breneman, A. W.; Tian, S.; Cattell, C. A.; Chaston, C. C.; Mozer, F.; Bonnell, J. W.; Kistler, L. M.; Mouikis, C.; Hudson, M. K.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Fennell, J. F.; Reeves, G. D.; Baker, D. N.; Donovan, E.; Spanswick, E.; Kletzing, C.
2015-12-01
We present measurements from the Van Allen Probes, in the near Earth tail, at the outer boundary of the plasma sheet, of a magnetic dipolarization/injection event characterized by unusually strong earthward poynting flux flowing along magnetic field lines with amplitudes of 200 mW/m2 lasting ~ 1 minute. The Poynting flux was conjugate to a 30 km wide discrete auroral arc observed by the THEMIS auroral array. The observations were obtained at 5.8 Re in the pre-midnight sector during the main phase of a geomagnetic storm on 5/01/2013. This brief interval transferred more electromagnetic energy (at the spacecraft position) than that transferred during entire remainder of the main phase of the storm. The parallel Poynting flux coincided with a local section of the "cross tail current sheet" which generated the dipolarization signature. The latitudinal width of the arc, mapped along magnetic field lines, provides an estimate of the spatial scale of the Poynting flux, the electric fields, and the current sheets (parallel and perpendicular). It is estimated that the latitudinal width of the Poynting flux "sheet" was ~600 km or ~1-2 H+ inertial lengths. An estimate of the ∫E·dl across the current sheet along the direction normal to the plasma sheet is ~20-40 kilovolts. The "normal" to the plasma sheet component of the electric field (~70 mV/m) strongly dominated the azimuthal component(which is reponsible for drift energetization). The dipolarization event resulted in the local dispersion-less injection of electrons between 50 keV and ~2 MeV at the Van Allen Probe position. The injection event involved brief (factor of two) local spike in ~2 MeV electron fluxes. Measurements from the Los Alamos geosynchronous spacecraft, displaced eastward from the Van Allen probes, provided evidence for dispersive energy-time electron signatures consistent with injection and energization at the RBSP position. The Poynting flux also coincided with the energy peak in the up
Lee, Jiwon; Zhang, Qianpeng; Park, Seungyoung; Choe, Ayoung; Fan, Zhiyong; Ko, Hyunhyub
2016-01-13
Plasmonic systems based on particle-film plasmonic couplings have recently attracted great attention because of the significantly enhanced electric field at the particle-film gaps. Here, we introduce a hybrid plasmonic architecture utilizing combined plasmonic effects of particle-film gap plasmons and silver film over nanosphere (AgFON) substrates. When gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are assembled on AgFON substrates with controllable particle-film gap distances, the AuNP-AgFON system supports multiple plasmonic couplings from interparticle, particle-film, and crevice gaps, resulting in a huge surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) effect. We show that the periodicity of AgFON substrates and the particle-film gaps greatly affects the surface plasmon resonances, and thus, the SERS effects due to the interplay between multiple plasmonic couplings. The optimally designed AuNP-AgFON substrate shows a SERS enhancement of 233 times compared to the bare AgFON substrate. The ultrasensitive SERS sensing capability is also demonstrated by detecting glutathione, a neurochemical molecule that is an important antioxidant, down to the 10 pM level. PMID:26684078
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, B.; Bi, L.; Yang, P.; Kattawar, G. W.
2011-12-01
We investigate the single-scattering properties of optically soft or tenuous particles (i.e., the relative refractive index is close to unity), which are abundant in nature, such as red blood cells in human body and particulate matters in natural waters. When the size parameter is small, a full wave simulation of light scattering is required for accurate modeling. As the size parameter becomes large (>20), the ray-tracing technique based on geometric optics is well suitable for obtaining the approximate solution of the scattering of light by particles. We use the pseudo-spectral time-domain (PSTD) method and a newly developed physical-geometric optics hybrid (PGOH) method for the solution of light scattering in a wide range of the size parameter. The shape of optically soft particles is assumed to be non-symmetric hexahedra, and the refractive index is assumed to be from 1.01 to 1.2. The accuracy of the PGOH solution for this particle is examined in comparison with the PSTD solution for moderate size parameters. An excellent agreement has been found for the 16 elements of the phase matrices. Therefore, a combination of PSTD and PGOH provides an efficient and accurate simulation tool for the interaction of light and optically soft particles. Special features of the optical properties of nonspherical optically soft particles are discussed.
Lin, Kuan-Cheng; Hsieh, Yi-Hsiu
2015-10-01
The classification and analysis of data is an important issue in today's research. Selecting a suitable set of features makes it possible to classify an enormous quantity of data quickly and efficiently. Feature selection is generally viewed as a problem of feature subset selection, such as combination optimization problems. Evolutionary algorithms using random search methods have proven highly effective in obtaining solutions to problems of optimization in a diversity of applications. In this study, we developed a hybrid evolutionary algorithm based on endocrine-based particle swarm optimization (EPSO) and artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithms in conjunction with a support vector machine (SVM) for the selection of optimal feature subsets for the classification of datasets. The results of experiments using specific UCI medical datasets demonstrate that the accuracy of the proposed hybrid evolutionary algorithm is superior to that of basic PSO, EPSO and ABC algorithms, with regard to classification accuracy using subsets with a reduced number of features. PMID:26289628
DNA-Origami-Directed Self-Assembly of Discrete Silver-Nanoparticle Architectures
Pal, Suchetan; Deng, Zhengtao; Ding, Baoquan; Yan, Hao; Liu, Yan
2010-03-16
We report a bottom-up method for the fabrication of discrete, well-ordered AgNP nanoarchitectures on self-assembled DNA origami structures of triangular shape by using AgNPs (20 nm in diameter) conjugated with chimeric phosphorothioated DNA (ps-po DNA) as building blocks. Discrete monomeric, dimeric, and trimeric AgNP structures and a AgNP–AuNP hybrid structure could be constructed reliably in high yield. We demonstrate that the center-to-center distance between adjacent AgNPs can be precisely tuned from 94 to 29 nm, whereby the distance distribution is limited by the size distribution of the nanoparticles. The self-assembly of discrete AgNP and AgNP–AuNP nanoarchitectures by using rationally designed DNA templates enabled us to control some of the properties that are essential for hierarchical nanoparticle assembly. These properties include but are not limited to the spatial relationship between the particles and the identity of the particles. The system described herein could potentially be used to gain better insight into particle–particle interactions. Systematic studies with this objective are underway. Although more systematic investigations (e.g. spectroscopic studies combined with theoretical simulation of the assembled structures) are needed to identify the photonic properties of the spatially controlled AgNP architectures, we see no fundamental limitation now to the assembly of target structures.
Zhu, Yunfeng; Piscitelli, Filomena; Buonocore, Giovanna G; Lavorgna, Marino; Amendola, Eugenio; Ambrosio, Luigi
2012-01-01
A multilayer photoactive coating containing surface fluorinated TiO(2) nanoparticles and hybrid matrices by sol gel approach based on renewable chitosan was applied on poly(lactic acid) (PLA) film by a step wise spin-coating method. The upper photoactive layer contains nano-sized functionalized TiO(2) particles dispersed in a siloxane based matrix. For the purpose of improving TiO(2) dispersion at the air interface coating surface, TiO(2) nanoparticles were modified by silane coupling agent 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane (FTS) with fluoro-organic side chains. An additional hybrid material consisting of chitosan (CS) cross-linked with 3-glycidyloxypropyl trimethoxy silane (GOTMS) was applied as interlayer between the PLA substrate and the upper photoactive coating to increase the adhesion and reciprocal affinity. The multilayer TiO(2)/CS-GOTMS coatings on PLA films showed a thickness of ~4-6 μm and resulted highly transparent. Their structure was exhaustively characterized by SEM, optical microscope, UV-vis spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. The photocatalytic activity of the multilayer coatings were investigated using methyl orange (MeO) as a target pollutant; the results showed that PLA films coated with surface fluorinated particles exhibit higher activity than films with neat particles, because of a better dispersion of TiO(2) particles. The mechanical properties of PLA and films coated with fluorinated particles, irradiated by UV light were also investigated; the results showed that the degradation of PLA substrate was markedly suppressed because of the UV adsorptive action of the multilayer coating. PMID:22117597
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Apalangya, Vitus; Rangari, Vijaya; Tiimob, Boniface; Jeelani, Shaik; Samuel, Temesgen
2014-03-01
Biobased calcium carbonate and silver hybrid nanoparticles were synthesized using a simple mechanochemical milling technique. The XRD spectrum showed that the hybrid materials is composed of crystalline calcite and silver nanoparticles. The TEM results indicated that the silver nanoparticles are discrete, uncapped and well stabilized in the surface of the eggshell derived calcium carbonate particles. The silver nanoparticles are spherical in shape and 5-20 nm in size. The SEM studies indicated that the eggshells are in micron size with the silver nanoparticle embedded in their surface. The hybrid eggshell/silver nanocomposite exhibited superior inhibition of E. coli growth using the Kirby-Bauer discs diffusion assay and comparing the zone of inhibition around the filter paper disc impregnated with the hybrid particles against pristine silver nanoparticles.
Principles of Discrete Time Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaroszkiewicz, George
2014-04-01
1. Introduction; 2. The physics of discreteness; 3. The road to calculus; 4. Temporal discretization; 5. Discrete time dynamics architecture; 6. Some models; 7. Classical cellular automata; 8. The action sum; 9. Worked examples; 10. Lee's approach to discrete time mechanics; 11. Elliptic billiards; 12. The construction of system functions; 13. The classical discrete time oscillator; 14. Type 2 temporal discretization; 15. Intermission; 16. Discrete time quantum mechanics; 17. The quantized discrete time oscillator; 18. Path integrals; 19. Quantum encoding; 20. Discrete time classical field equations; 21. The discrete time Schrodinger equation; 22. The discrete time Klein-Gordon equation; 23. The discrete time Dirac equation; 24. Discrete time Maxwell's equations; 25. The discrete time Skyrme model; 26. Discrete time quantum field theory; 27. Interacting discrete time scalar fields; 28. Space, time and gravitation; 29. Causality and observation; 30. Concluding remarks; Appendix A. Coherent states; Appendix B. The time-dependent oscillator; Appendix C. Quaternions; Appendix D. Quantum registers; References; Index.
Alwee, Razana; Hj Shamsuddin, Siti Mariyam; Sallehuddin, Roselina
2013-01-01
Crimes forecasting is an important area in the field of criminology. Linear models, such as regression and econometric models, are commonly applied in crime forecasting. However, in real crimes data, it is common that the data consists of both linear and nonlinear components. A single model may not be sufficient to identify all the characteristics of the data. The purpose of this study is to introduce a hybrid model that combines support vector regression (SVR) and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) to be applied in crime rates forecasting. SVR is very robust with small training data and high-dimensional problem. Meanwhile, ARIMA has the ability to model several types of time series. However, the accuracy of the SVR model depends on values of its parameters, while ARIMA is not robust to be applied to small data sets. Therefore, to overcome this problem, particle swarm optimization is used to estimate the parameters of the SVR and ARIMA models. The proposed hybrid model is used to forecast the property crime rates of the United State based on economic indicators. The experimental results show that the proposed hybrid model is able to produce more accurate forecasting results as compared to the individual models. PMID:23766729
Densmore, Jeffery D.; Thompson, Kelly G.; Urbatsch, Todd J.
2012-08-15
Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo (DDMC) is a technique for increasing the efficiency of Implicit Monte Carlo radiative-transfer simulations in optically thick media. In DDMC, particles take discrete steps between spatial cells according to a discretized diffusion equation. Each discrete step replaces many smaller Monte Carlo steps, thus improving the efficiency of the simulation. In this paper, we present an extension of DDMC for frequency-dependent radiative transfer. We base our new DDMC method on a frequency-integrated diffusion equation for frequencies below a specified threshold, as optical thickness is typically a decreasing function of frequency. Above this threshold we employ standard Monte Carlo, which results in a hybrid transport-diffusion scheme. With a set of frequency-dependent test problems, we confirm the accuracy and increased efficiency of our new DDMC method.
The discrete regime of flame propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Francois-David; Goroshin, Samuel; Higgins, Andrew
The propagation of laminar dust flames in iron dust clouds was studied in a low-gravity envi-ronment on-board a parabolic flight aircraft. The elimination of buoyancy-induced convection and particle settling permitted measurements of fundamental combustion parameters such as the burning velocity and the flame quenching distance over a wide range of particle sizes and in different gaseous mixtures. The discrete regime of flame propagation was observed by substitut-ing nitrogen present in air with xenon, an inert gas with a significantly lower heat conductivity. Flame propagation in the discrete regime is controlled by the heat transfer between neighbor-ing particles, rather than by the particle burning rate used by traditional continuum models of heterogeneous flames. The propagation mechanism of discrete flames depends on the spa-tial distribution of particles, and thus such flames are strongly influenced by local fluctuations in the fuel concentration. Constant pressure laminar dust flames were observed inside 70 cm long, 5 cm diameter Pyrex tubes. Equally-spaced plate assemblies forming rectangular chan-nels were placed inside each tube to determine the quenching distance defined as the minimum channel width through which a flame can successfully propagate. High-speed video cameras were used to measure the flame speed and a fiber optic spectrometer was used to measure the flame temperature. Experimental results were compared with predictions obtained from a numerical model of a three-dimensional flame developed to capture both the discrete nature and the random distribution of particles in the flame. Though good qualitative agreement was obtained between model predictions and experimental observations, residual g-jitters and the short reduced-gravity periods prevented further investigations of propagation limits in the dis-crete regime. The full exploration of the discrete flame phenomenon would require high-quality, long duration reduced gravity environment
Hwang, D.Q.; Horton, R.D.; Evans, R.W.
1999-06-03
The alpha particles in a fusion reactor play a key role in the sustaining the fusion reaction. It is the heating provided by the alpha particles that help a fusion reactor operating in the ignition regime. It is, therefore, essential to understand the behavior of the alpha population both in real space and velocity space in order to design the optimal confinement device for fusion application. Moreover, the alphas represent a strong source of free energy that may generate plasma instabilities. Theoretical studies has identified the Toroidal Alfven Eigenmode (TAE) as an instability that can be excited by the alpha population in a toroidal device. Since the alpha has an energy of 3.5 MeV, a good confinement device will retain it in the interior of the plasma. Therefore, alpha measurement system need to probe the interior of a high density plasma. Due to the conducting nature of a plasma, wave with frequencies below the plasma frequency can not penetrate into the interior of the plasma where the alphas reside. This project uses a wave that can interact with the perpendicular motion of the alphas to probe its characteristics. However, this wave (the lower hybrid wave) is below the plasma frequency and can not be directly launched from the plasma edge. This project was designed to non-linearly excite the lower hybrid in the interior of a magnetized plasma and measure its interaction with a fast ion population.
Layton, G T; Harris, S J; Gearing, A J; Hill-Perkins, M; Cole, J S; Griffiths, J C; Burns, N R; Kingsman, A J; Adams, S E
1993-07-15
In general, it has proven difficult to induce CTL responses using simple proteins or peptides without resorting to specialized adjuvants. In this study we show that particulate polymeric Ag in the form of hybrid Ty virus-like particles carrying the V3 region of HIV-1 gp120/160 envelope protein (V3:Ty-VLP) induce V3-specific CTL in BALB/c mice in the absence of adjuvant or lipid vehicle. In vitro restimulation of splenocytes with V3 peptide was necessary in order to generate effector CTL. Th cell activation was not required for this in vitro restimulation phase. The CTL induced by the V3:Ty-VLP were CD8+ve, H-2d-restricted, and HIV-1 isolate-specific (IIIB or MN). Co-administration of IIIB V3:Ty-VLP and MN V3:Ty-VLP primed both IIIB and MN V3-specific CTL. However, only IIIB V3-specific CTL were primed by hybrid Ty-VLP carrying IIIB, MN, and RF V3 loop sequences on the same particle indicating that there is intra- but not intermolecular competition between CTL epitopes. In direct comparisons, V3:Ty-VLP were substantially more potent than rgp120. Rgp160 and a 40mer IIIB V3 peptide both failed to prime V3-specific CTL. These data suggest that the particulate nature of hybrid Ty-VLP facilitates uptake into APC with subsequent access to the MHC class I processing pathway and that they may be useful vaccine vehicles for inducing cytolytic immunity against HIV-1 and other intracellular pathogens. PMID:8335892
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McKenna-Lawlor, Susan; Kallio, Esa; Fram, Rudy A.; Alho, Markku; Jarvinen, Riku; Dyadechkin, Sergey; Wedlund, Cyril Simon; Zhang, Tielong; Collinson, Glyn A.; Futaana, Yoshifumi
2013-04-01
Mars and Venus can both be reached by Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs). Such high energy particles (protons, multiply charged heavy ions, electrons) penetrate the upper atmospheres of Mars and Venus because, in contrast to Earth, these bodies do not have a significant, global, intrinsic magnetic field to exclude them. One especially well documented, complex and prolonged SEP took in place in early 1989 (Solar Cycle 23) when the Phobos-2 spacecraft was orbiting Mars. This spacecraft had a dedicated high energy particle instrument onboard (SLED), which measured particles with energies in the keV range up to a few tens of MeV. There was in addition a magnetometer as well as solar wind plasma detectors onboard which together provided complementary data to support contemporaneous studies of the background SEP environment. Currently, while the Sun is displaying maximum activity (Solar Cycle 24), Mars and Venus are being individually monitored by instrumentation flown onboard the Mars Express (MEX) and Venus Express (VEX) spacecraft. Neither of these spacecraft carry a high energy particle instrument but their Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA) experiments (ASPERA-3 on MEX and ASPERA-4 on VEX), can be used to study SEPs integrated over E ≥ ~30 MeV which penetrate the instrument hardware and form background counts in the plasma data. In the present work we present SEP events measured at Mars and Venus based on Phobos-2, 1989 data and on, more recent, MEX and VEX (identified from particle background) observations. We further introduce numerical global SEP simulations of the measured events based on 3-D self-consistent hybrid models (HYB-Mars and HYB-Venus). Through comparing the in situ SEP observations with these simulations, new insights are provided into the properties of the measured SEPs as well as into how their individual planetary bow shocks and magnetospheres affect the characteristics of their ambient Martian and Venusian SEP environments.
Morris, J; Johnson, S
2007-12-03
The Distinct Element Method (also frequently referred to as the Discrete Element Method) (DEM) is a Lagrangian numerical technique where the computational domain consists of discrete solid elements which interact via compliant contacts. This can be contrasted with Finite Element Methods where the computational domain is assumed to represent a continuum (although many modern implementations of the FEM can accommodate some Distinct Element capabilities). Often the terms Discrete Element Method and Distinct Element Method are used interchangeably in the literature, although Cundall and Hart (1992) suggested that Discrete Element Methods should be a more inclusive term covering Distinct Element Methods, Displacement Discontinuity Analysis and Modal Methods. In this work, DEM specifically refers to the Distinct Element Method, where the discrete elements interact via compliant contacts, in contrast with Displacement Discontinuity Analysis where the contacts are rigid and all compliance is taken up by the adjacent intact material.
Synchronous Discrete Harmonic Oscillator
Antippa, Adel F.; Dubois, Daniel M.
2008-10-17
We introduce the synchronous discrete harmonic oscillator, and present an analytical, numerical and graphical study of its characteristics. The oscillator is synchronous when the time T for one revolution covering an angle of 2{pi} in phase space, is an integral multiple N of the discrete time step {delta}t. It is fully synchronous when N is even. It is pseudo-synchronous when T/{delta}t is rational. In the energy conserving hyperincursive representation, the phase space trajectories are perfectly stable at all time scales, and in both synchronous and pseudo-synchronous modes they cycle through a finite number of phase space points. Consequently, both the synchronous and the pseudo-synchronous hyperincursive modes of time-discretization provide a physically realistic and mathematically coherent, procedure for dynamic, background independent, discretization of spacetime. The procedure is applicable to any stable periodic dynamical system, and provokes an intrinsic correlation between space and time, whereby space-discretization is a direct consequence of background-independent time-discretization. Hence, synchronous discretization moves the formalism of classical mechanics towards that of special relativity. The frequency of the hyperincursive discrete harmonic oscillator is ''blue shifted'' relative to its continuum counterpart. The frequency shift has the precise value needed to make the speed of the system point in phase space independent of the discretizing time interval {delta}t. That is the speed of the system point is the same on the polygonal (in the discrete case) and the circular (in the continuum case) phase space trajectories.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davidson, A.; Tableman, A.; An, W.; Tsung, F. S.; Lu, W.; Vieira, J.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.; Mori, W. B.
2015-01-01
For many plasma physics problems, three-dimensional and kinetic effects are very important. However, such simulations are very computationally intensive. Fortunately, there is a class of problems for which there is nearly azimuthal symmetry and the dominant three-dimensional physics is captured by the inclusion of only a few azimuthal harmonics. Recently, it was proposed [1] to model one such problem, laser wakefield acceleration, by expanding the fields and currents in azimuthal harmonics and truncating the expansion. The complex amplitudes of the fundamental and first harmonic for the fields were solved on an r-z grid and a procedure for calculating the complex current amplitudes for each particle based on its motion in Cartesian geometry was presented using a Marder's correction to maintain the validity of Gauss's law. In this paper, we describe an implementation of this algorithm into OSIRIS using a rigorous charge conserving current deposition method to maintain the validity of Gauss's law. We show that this algorithm is a hybrid method which uses a particles-in-cell description in r-z and a gridless description in ϕ. We include the ability to keep an arbitrary number of harmonics and higher order particle shapes. Examples for laser wakefield acceleration, plasma wakefield acceleration, and beam loading are also presented and directions for future work are discussed.
Davidson, A.; Tableman, A.; An, W.; Tsung, F.S.; Lu, W.; Vieira, J.; Silva, L.O.
2015-01-15
For many plasma physics problems, three-dimensional and kinetic effects are very important. However, such simulations are very computationally intensive. Fortunately, there is a class of problems for which there is nearly azimuthal symmetry and the dominant three-dimensional physics is captured by the inclusion of only a few azimuthal harmonics. Recently, it was proposed [1] to model one such problem, laser wakefield acceleration, by expanding the fields and currents in azimuthal harmonics and truncating the expansion. The complex amplitudes of the fundamental and first harmonic for the fields were solved on an r–z grid and a procedure for calculating the complex current amplitudes for each particle based on its motion in Cartesian geometry was presented using a Marder's correction to maintain the validity of Gauss's law. In this paper, we describe an implementation of this algorithm into OSIRIS using a rigorous charge conserving current deposition method to maintain the validity of Gauss's law. We show that this algorithm is a hybrid method which uses a particles-in-cell description in r–z and a gridless description in ϕ. We include the ability to keep an arbitrary number of harmonics and higher order particle shapes. Examples for laser wakefield acceleration, plasma wakefield acceleration, and beam loading are also presented and directions for future work are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohammadi-Ghaleni, Mahdi; Asle Zaeem, Mohsen; Smith, Jeffrey D.; O'Malley, Ronald
2016-06-01
Melt flow patterns and turbulence inside a slide-gate throttled submerged entry nozzle (SEN) were studied using Detached-Eddy Simulation (DES) model, which is a combination of Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) models. The DES switching criterion between RANS and LES was investigated to closely reproduce the flow structures of low and high turbulence regions similar to RANS and LES simulations, respectively. The melt flow patterns inside the nozzle were determined by k-ɛ (a RANS model), LES, and DES turbulent models, and convergence studies were performed to ensure reliability of the results. Results showed that the DES model has significant advantages over the standard k-ɛ model in transient simulations and in regions containing flow separation from the nozzle surface. Moreover, due to applying a hybrid approach, DES uses a RANS model at wall boundaries which resolves the extremely fine mesh requirement of LES simulations, and therefore it is computationally more efficient. Investigation of particle distribution inside the nozzle and particle adhesion to the nozzle wall also reveals that the DES model simulations predict more particle-wall interactions compared to LES model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sreesattabud, Tharathip; Gibbons, Brady J.; Watcharapasorn, Anucha; Jiansirisomboon, Sukanda
2013-07-01
Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 or PZT thin films embedded with CuO nano-particles were successfully prepared by a hybrid sol-gel process. In this process, CuO (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 1 wt. %) nanopowder was suspended in an organometallic solution of PZT, and then coated on platinised silicon substrate using a spin-coating technique. The influence of CuO nano-particles' dispersion on the phase of PZT thin films was investigated. XRD results showed a perovskite phase in all films. At the CuO concentration of 0.4-1 wt. %, a second phase was observed. The addition of CuO nano-particles affected the orientation of PZT thin films. The addition was also found to reduce the ferroelectric properties of PZT thin films. However, at 0.2 wt. % CuO concentration, the film exhibited good ferroelectric properties similar to those of PZT films. In addition, the fatigue retention properties of the PZT/CuO system was observed, and it showed 14% fatigue at 108 switching bipolar pulse cycles while the fatigue in PZT thin films was found to be 17% at the same switching bipolar pulse cycles.
Boon, Florian; Moerman, David; Laurencin, Danielle; Richeter, Sébastien; Guari, Yannick; Mehdi, Ahmad; Dubois, Philippe; Lazzaroni, Roberto; Clément, Sébastien
2014-09-30
TiO2/conjugated polymers are promising materials in solar energy conversion where efficient photoinduced charge transfers are required. Here, a "grafting-from" approach for the synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles supported with conjugated polymer brushes is presented. Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), a benchmark material for organic electronics, was selectively grown from TiO2 nanoparticles by surface-initiated Kumada catalyst-transfer polycondensation. The grafting of the polymer onto the surface of the TiO2 nanoparticles by this method was demonstrated by (1)H and (13)C solid-state NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectrometry, thermogravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and UV-visible spectroscopy. Sedimentation tests in tetrahydrofuran revealed improved dispersion stability for the TiO2@P3HT hybrid material. Films were produced by solvent casting, and the quality of the dispersion of the modified TiO2 nanoparticles was evaluated by atomic force microscopy. The dispersion of the P3HT-coated TiO2 NPs in the P3HT matrix was found to be homogeneous, and the fibrillar structure of the P3HT matrix was maintained which is favorable for charge transport. Fluorescence quenching measurements on these hybrid materials in CHCl3 indicated improved photoinduced electron-transfer efficiency. All in all, better physicochemical properties for P3HT/TiO2 hybrid material were reached via the surface-initiated "grafted-from" approach compared to the "grafting-onto" approach. PMID:25188446
A deterministic discrete ordinates transport proxy application
2014-06-03
Kripke is a simple 3D deterministic discrete ordinates (Sn) particle transport code that maintains the computational load and communications pattern of a real transport code. It is intended to be a research tool to explore different data layouts, new programming paradigms and computer architectures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niklas, M.; Zimmermann, F.; Schlegel, J.; Schwager, C.; Debus, J.; Jäkel, O.; Abdollahi, A.; Greilich, S.
2016-09-01
The hybrid technology cell-fluorescent ion track hybrid detector (Cell-Fit-HD) enables the investigation of radiation-related cellular events along single ion tracks on the subcellular scale in clinical ion beams. The Cell-Fit-HD comprises a fluorescent nuclear track detector (FNTD, the physical compartment), a device for individual particle detection and a substrate for viable cell-coating, i.e. the biological compartment. To date both compartments have been imaged sequentially in situ by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). This is yet in conflict with a functional read-out of the Cell-Fit-HD utilizing a fast live-cell imaging of the biological compartment with low phototoxicity on greater time scales. The read-out of the biological from the physical compartment was uncoupled. A read-out procedure was developed to image the cell layer by conventional widefield microscopy whereas the FNTD was imaged by CLSM. Point mapping registration of the confocal and widefield imaging data was performed. Non-fluorescent crystal defects (spinels) visible in both read-outs were used as control point pairs. The accuracy achieved was on the sub-µm scale. The read-out procedure by widefield microscopy does not impair the unique ability of spatial correlation by the Cell-Fit-HD. The uncoupling will enlarge the application potential of the hybrid technology significantly. The registration allows for an ultimate correlation of microscopic physical beam parameters and cell kinetics on greater time scales. The method reported herein will be instrumental for the introduction of a novel generation of compact detectors facilitating biodosimetric research towards high-throughput analysis.
Niklas, M; Zimmermann, F; Schlegel, J; Schwager, C; Debus, J; Jäkel, O; Abdollahi, A; Greilich, S
2016-09-01
The hybrid technology cell-fluorescent ion track hybrid detector (Cell-Fit-HD) enables the investigation of radiation-related cellular events along single ion tracks on the subcellular scale in clinical ion beams. The Cell-Fit-HD comprises a fluorescent nuclear track detector (FNTD, the physical compartment), a device for individual particle detection and a substrate for viable cell-coating, i.e. the biological compartment. To date both compartments have been imaged sequentially in situ by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). This is yet in conflict with a functional read-out of the Cell-Fit-HD utilizing a fast live-cell imaging of the biological compartment with low phototoxicity on greater time scales. The read-out of the biological from the physical compartment was uncoupled. A read-out procedure was developed to image the cell layer by conventional widefield microscopy whereas the FNTD was imaged by CLSM. Point mapping registration of the confocal and widefield imaging data was performed. Non-fluorescent crystal defects (spinels) visible in both read-outs were used as control point pairs. The accuracy achieved was on the sub-µm scale. The read-out procedure by widefield microscopy does not impair the unique ability of spatial correlation by the Cell-Fit-HD. The uncoupling will enlarge the application potential of the hybrid technology significantly. The registration allows for an ultimate correlation of microscopic physical beam parameters and cell kinetics on greater time scales. The method reported herein will be instrumental for the introduction of a novel generation of compact detectors facilitating biodosimetric research towards high-throughput analysis. PMID:27499388
Carlsten, B.E.; Haynes, W.B.
1996-08-01
The authors theoretically and numerically investigate the operation and behavior of the discrete monotron oscillator, a novel high-power microwave source. The discrete monotron differs from conventional monotrons and transit time oscillators by shielding the electron beam from the monotron cavity`s RF fields except at two distinct locations. This makes the discrete monotron act more like a klystron than a distributed traveling wave device. As a result, the oscillator has higher efficiency and can operate with higher beam powers than other single cavity oscillators and has more stable operation without requiring a seed input signal than mildly relativistic, intense-beam klystron oscillators.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lau, Marcus; Niemann, Ralf G.; Bartsch, Mathias; O'Neill, William; Barcikowski, Stephan
2014-03-01
Off-resonant near-field enhancement by gold nanoparticles adsorbed on crystalline zinc oxide significantly increases the energy efficiency of infrared laser sintering. In detail, ten different gold mass loads on zinc oxide were exposed to 1,064 nm cw-laser radiation. Variation of scan speed, laser power, and spot size showed that the energy threshold required for sintering decreases and sintering process window widens compared to laser sintering of pure zinc oxide powder. Transmission electron microscope analysis after focused ion beam cross sectioning of the sintered particles reveals that supported gold nanoparticles homogenously resolidify in the sintered semiconductor matrix. The enhanced sintering process with ligand-free gold nanoparticles gives access to metal-semiconductor hybrid materials with potential application in light harvesting or energy conversion.
PREFACE: 4th Symposium on Prospects in the Physics of Discrete Symmetries (DISCRETE2014)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Domenico, Antonio; Mavromatos, Nick E.; Mitsou, Vasiliki A.; Skliros, Dimitri P.
2015-07-01
The DISCRETE 2014: Fourth Symposium in the Physics of Discrete Symmetries took place at King's College London, Strand Campus, London WC2R 2LS, from Tuesday, December 2 2014 till Saturday, December 6 2014. This is the fourth Edition of the DISCRETE conference series, which is a biannual event, having been held previously in Valencia (Discrete'08), Rome (Discrete2010) and Lisbon (Discrete2012). The topics covered at the DISCRETE series of conferences are: T, C, P, CP symmetries; accidental symmetries (B, L conservation); CPT symmetry, decoherence and entangled states, Lorentz symmetry breaking (phenomenology and current bounds); neutrino mass and mixing; implications for cosmology and astroparticle physics, dark matter searches; experimental prospects at LHC, new facilities. In DISCRETE 2014 we have also introduced two new topics: cosmological aspects of non-commutative space-times as well as PT symmetric Hamiltonians (non-Hermitian but with real eigenvalues), a topic that has wide applications in particle physics and beyond. The conference was opened by the King's College London Vice Principal on Research and Innovation, Mr Chris Mottershead, followed by a welcome address by the Chair of DISCRETE 2014 (Professor Nick E. Mavromatos). After these introductory talks, the scientific programme of the DISCRETE 2014 symposium started. Following the tradition of DISCRETE series of conferences, the talks (138 in total) were divided into plenary-review talks (25), invited research talks (50) and shorter presentations (63) — selected by the conveners of each session in consultation with the organisers — from the submitted abstracts. We have been fortunate to have very high-quality, thought stimulating and interesting talks at all levels, which, together with the discussions among the participants, made the conference quite enjoyable. There were 152 registered participants for the event.
Chen, Guangye; Chacon, Luis; Barnes, Daniel C
2012-01-01
Recently, a fully implicit, energy- and charge-conserving particle-in-cell method has been developed for multi-scale, full-f kinetic simulations [G. Chen, et al., J. Comput. Phys. 230, 18 (2011)]. The method employs a Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) solver and is capable of using very large timesteps without loss of numerical stability or accuracy. A fundamental feature of the method is the segregation of particle orbit integrations from the field solver, while remaining fully self-consistent. This provides great flexibility, and dramatically improves the solver efficiency by reducing the degrees of freedom of the associated nonlinear system. However, it requires a particle push per nonlinear residual evaluation, which makes the particle push the most time-consuming operation in the algorithm. This paper describes a very efficient mixed-precision, hybrid CPU-GPU implementation of the implicit PIC algorithm. The JFNK solver is kept on the CPU (in double precision), while the inherent data parallelism of the particle mover is exploited by implementing it in single-precision on a graphics processing unit (GPU) using CUDA. Performance-oriented optimizations, with the aid of an analytical performance model, the roofline model, are employed. Despite being highly dynamic, the adaptive, charge-conserving particle mover algorithm achieves up to 300 400 GOp/s (including single-precision floating-point, integer, and logic operations) on a Nvidia GeForce GTX580, corresponding to 20 25% absolute GPU efficiency (against the peak theoretical performance) and 50-70% intrinsic efficiency (against the algorithm s maximum operational throughput, which neglects all latencies). This is about 200-300 times faster than an equivalent serial CPU implementation. When the single-precision GPU particle mover is combined with a double-precision CPU JFNK field solver, overall performance gains 100 vs. the double-precision CPU-only serial version are obtained, with no apparent loss of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maneva, Y. G.; Ofman, L.; Viñas, A.
2015-06-01
Context. We perform 2.5D hybrid simulations to investigate the origin and evolution of relative drift speeds between protons and α particles in the collisionless turbulent low- tildeβ solar wind plasma. Aims: We study the generation of differential streaming by wave-particle interactions and absorption of turbulent wave spectra. Next we focus on the role of the relative drifts for the turbulent heating and acceleration of ions in the collisionless fast solar wind streams. Methods: The energy source is given by an initial broad-band spectrum of parallel propagating Alfvén-cyclotron waves, which co-exists with the plasma and is self-consistently coupled to the perpendicular ion bulk velocities. We include the effect of a gradual solar wind expansion, which cools and decelerates the minor ions. We here consider for the first time the combined effect of self-consistently initialized dispersive turbulent Alfvénic spectra with differentially streaming protons and α particles in the expanding solar wind outflows within a 2.5D hybrid simulation study. Results: For differential streaming of Vαp < 0.5VA, the selected initial wave spectrum accelerates the minor ions in the non-expanding wind. At Vαp = 0.5VA the relative drift speed remains nearly steady. For ions that stream below this threshold value, the waves act to increase the magnitude of the relative drift speed. Ions that stream faster than the threshold value become subject to a nonlinear streaming instability, and as the system evolves, their bulk velocities decrease. We find that the solar wind expansion strongly affects the relative drift speed and significantly slows down both ion species for all values of the relative drift speeds considered in this study. The initial nonresonant wave spectra interact with the particles, resulting in preferential and anisotropic heating for the minor ions with a prominent increase of their perpendicular temperature, which overcomes the effect of the double
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zuffada, C.; Crisp, D.
1996-01-01
Reliable descriptions of the optical properties of clouds and aerosols are essential for studies of radiative transfer in the terrestrial atmosphere...Here we explore the utility of two approaches for deriving the single scattering optical properties of particles with sharp corners and large axial ratios.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Peters, James V.
2004-01-01
Using the methods of finite difference equations the discrete analogue of the parabolic and catenary cable are analysed. The fibonacci numbers and the golden ratio arise in the treatment of the catenary.
Discretizations of axisymmetric systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frauendiener, Jörg
2002-11-01
In this paper we discuss stability properties of various discretizations for axisymmetric systems including the so-called cartoon method which was proposed by Alcubierre et al. for the simulation of such systems on Cartesian grids. We show that within the context of the method of lines such discretizations tend to be unstable unless one takes care in the way individual singular terms are treated. Examples are given for the linear axisymmetric wave equation in flat space.
Stojanović, Zoran; Otoničar, Mojca; Lee, Jongwook; Stevanović, Magdalena M; Hwang, Mintai P; Lee, Kwan Hyi; Choi, Jonghoon; Uskoković, Dragan
2013-09-01
We report a simple and green procedure for the preparation of magnetic iron oxide nanocrystals via solvothermal synthesis. The nanocrystal synthesis was carried out under mild conditions in the water-ethanol-oleic acid solvent system with the use of the oleate anion as a surface modifier of nanocrystals and glucose as a reducing agent. Specific conditions for homogenous precipitation achieved in such a reaction system lead to the formation of uniform high-quality nanocrystals down to 5 nm in diameter. The obtained hydrophobic nanocrystals can easily be converted to hydrophilic magnetic nanoparticles by being immobilized in a poly(L-lactide)-polyethyleneimine polymeric matrix. These hybrid nano-constructs may find various biomedical applications, such as magnetic separation, gene transfection and/or magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:23660309
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fındık, Oğuz; Babaoğlu, İsmail; Ülker, Erkan
2010-12-01
In this paper, a novel robust watermarking technique using particle swarm optimization and k-nearest neighbor algorithm is introduced to protect the intellectual property rights of color images in the spatial domain. In the embedding process, the color image is separated into non-overlapping blocks and each bit of the binary watermark is embedded into the individual blocks. Then, in order to extract the embedded watermark, features are obtained from watermark embedded blocks using the symmetric cross-shape kernel. These features are used to generate two centroids belonging to each binary (1 and 0) value of the watermark implementing particle swarm optimization. Subsequently, the embedded watermark is extracted by evaluating these centroids utilizing k-nearest neighbor algorithm. According to the test results, embedded watermark is extracted successfully even if the watermarked image is exposed to various image processing attacks.
Cerutti, David S; Case, David A
2010-01-01
We present a new method for decomposing the one convolution required by standard Particle-Particle Particle-Mesh (P(3)M) electrostatic methods into a series of convolutions over slab-shaped subregions of the original simulation cell. Most of the convolutions derive data from separate regions of the cell and can thus be computed independently via FFTs, in some cases with a small amount of zero padding so that the results of these sub-problems may be reunited with minimal error. A single convolution over the entire cell is also performed, but using a much coarser mesh than the original problem would have required. This "Multi-Level Ewald" (MLE) method therefore requires moderately more FFT work plus the tasks of interpolating between different sizes of mesh and accumulating the results from neighboring sub-problems, but we show that the added expense can be less than 10% of the total simulation cost. We implement MLE as an approximation to the Smooth Particle Mesh Ewald (SPME) style of P(3)M, and identify a number of tunable parameters in MLE. With reasonable settings pertaining to the degree of overlap between the various sub-problems and the accuracy of interpolation between meshes, the errors obtained by MLE can be smaller than those obtained in molecular simulations with typical SPME settings. We compare simulations of a box of water molecules performed with MLE and SPME, and show that the energy conservation, structural, and dynamical properties of the system are more affected by the accuracy of the SPME calculation itself than by the additional MLE approximation. We anticipate that the MLE method's ability to break a single convolution into many independent sub-problems will be useful for extending the parallel scaling of molecular simulations. PMID:22039358
Parhizkar, Maryam; Sofokleous, Panagiotis; Stride, Eleanor; Edirisinghe, Mohan
2014-12-01
The purpose of this research was to produce multi-dimensional scaffolds containing biocompatible particles and fibres. To achieve this, two techniques were combined and used: T-Junction microfluidics and electrohydrodynamic (EHD) processing. The former was used to form layers of monodispersed bovine serum albumin (BSA) bubbles, which upon drying formed porous scaffolds. By altering the T-Junction processing parameters, bubbles with different diameters were produced and hence the scaffold porosity could be controlled. EHD processing was used to spray or spin poly(lactic-co-glycolic) (PLGA), polymethysilsesquioxane (PMSQ) and collagen particles/fibres onto the scaffolds during their production and after drying. As a result, multifunctional BSA scaffolds with controlled porosity containing PLGA, PMSQ and collagen particles/fibres were obtained. Product morphology was studied by optical and scanning electron microscopy. These products have potential applications in many advanced biomedical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields e.g. bone regeneration, drug delivery, cosmetic cream lathers, facial scrubbing creams etc. PMID:25427646
Layton, G T; Harris, S J; Myhan, J; West, D; Gotch, F; Hill-Perkins, M; Cole, J S; Meyers, N; Woodrow, S; French, T J; Adams, S E; Kingsman, A J
1996-02-01
The induction of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses to viral proteins is thought to be an essential component of protective immunity against viral infections. Methods for generating such responses in a reproducible manner would be of great value in vaccine development. We demonstrate here that the recombinant antigen-presentation system based on the yeast transposon (Ty) particle-forming p1 protein is a potent means of inducing CTL responses to a variety of viral CTL epitopes, including influenza virus nucleoprotein (two epitopes), Sendai virus and vesicular stomatitis virus nucleoproteins, and the V3 loop of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) gp120. CTL were primed by hybrid Ty-virus-like particles (VLP) carrying the minimal epitope or as much as 19,000 MW of protein. Ty-VLP carrying two different epitopes (dual-epitope Ty-VLP) were capable of priming CTL responses in two different strains of mice or against two epitopes in the same individual. Furthermore, co-administration of a mixture of two different Ty-VLP carrying single epitopes could induce responses to both epitopes in the same individual. Ty-VLP appear to represent a reproducible and flexible system for inducing CTL responses in mice, and warrant further evaluation in primates. PMID:8698376
Energetically stable discretizations for charge transport and electrokinetic models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Metti, Maximilian S.; Xu, Jinchao; Liu, Chun
2016-02-01
A finite element discretization using a method of lines approached is proposed for approximately solving the Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations. This discretization scheme enforces positivity of the computed solutions, corresponding to particle density functions, and a discrete energy estimate is established that takes the same form as the energy law for the continuous PNP system. This energy estimate is extended to finite element solutions to an electrokinetic model, which couples the PNP system with the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Numerical experiments are conducted to validate convergence of the computed solution and verify the discrete energy estimate.
Zhao, Ying; Byshkin, Maksym; Cong, Yue; Kawakatsu, Toshihiro; Guadagno, Liberata; De Nicola, Antonio; Yu, Naisen; Milano, Giuseppe; Dong, Bin
2016-08-25
Self-assembly processes of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) dispersed in different polymer phases have been investigated using a hybrid particle-field molecular dynamics technique (MD-SCF). This efficient computational method allowed simulations of large-scale systems (up to ∼1 500 000 particles) of flexible rod-like particles in different matrices made of bead spring chains on the millisecond time scale. The equilibrium morphologies obtained for longer CNTs are in good agreement with those proposed by several experimental studies that hypothesized a two level "multiscale" organization of CNT assemblies. In addition, the electrical properties of the assembled structures have been calculated using a resistor network approach. The calculated behaviour of the conductivities for longer CNTs is consistent with the power laws obtained by numerous experiments. In particular, according to the interpretation established by the systematic studies of Bauhofer and Kovacs, systems close to "statistical percolation" show exponents t ∼ 2 for the power law dependence of the electrical conductivity on the CNT fraction, and systems in which the CNTs reach equilibrium aggregation show exponents t close to 1.7 ("kinetic percolation"). The confinement effects on the assembled structures and their corresponding conductivity behaviour in a non-homogeneous matrix, such as the phase separating block copolymer melt, have also been simulated using different starting configurations. The simulations reported herein contribute to a microscopic interpretation of the literature results, and the proposed modelling procedure may contribute meaningfully to the rational design of strategies aimed at optimizing nanomaterials for improved electrical properties. PMID:27463779
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shokry, Hussein; Vanamo, Ulriika; Wiltschka, Oliver; Niinimäki, Jenni; Lerche, Martina; Levon, Kalle; Linden, Mika; Sahlgren, Cecilia
2015-08-01
Instructive materials are expected to revolutionize stem cell based tissue engineering. As many stem cell cues have adverse effects on normal tissue homeostasis, there is a need to develop bioactive scaffolds which offer locally retained and cell-targeted drug delivery for intracellular release in targeted cell populations. Further, the scaffolds need to support vascularization to promote tissue growth and function. We have developed an electrospun PLA-PANI fiber scaffold, and incorporated mesoporous silica nanoparticles within the scaffold matrix to obtain cell-targeted and localized drug delivery. The isotropy of the scaffold can be tuned to find the optimal morphology for a given application and the scaffold is electroactive to support differentiation of contractile tissues. We demonstrate that there is no premature drug release from particles under physiological conditions over a period of one week and that the drug is released upon internalization of particles by cells within the scaffold. The scaffold is biocompatible, supports muscle stem cell differentiation and cell-seeded scaffolds are vascularized in vivo upon transplantation on the chorioallantoic membrane of chicken embryos. The scaffold is a step towards instructive biomaterials for local control of stem cell differentiation, and tissue formation supported by vascularization and without adverse effects on the homeostasis of adjacent tissues due to diffusion of biological cues.Instructive materials are expected to revolutionize stem cell based tissue engineering. As many stem cell cues have adverse effects on normal tissue homeostasis, there is a need to develop bioactive scaffolds which offer locally retained and cell-targeted drug delivery for intracellular release in targeted cell populations. Further, the scaffolds need to support vascularization to promote tissue growth and function. We have developed an electrospun PLA-PANI fiber scaffold, and incorporated mesoporous silica nanoparticles within
A discrete fractional random transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zhengjun; Zhao, Haifa; Liu, Shutian
2005-11-01
We propose a discrete fractional random transform based on a generalization of the discrete fractional Fourier transform with an intrinsic randomness. Such discrete fractional random transform inheres excellent mathematical properties of the fractional Fourier transform along with some fantastic features of its own. As a primary application, the discrete fractional random transform has been used for image encryption and decryption.
Popov, Pavel P. Pope, Stephen B.
2014-01-15
This work addresses the issue of particle mass consistency in Large Eddy Simulation/Probability Density Function (LES/PDF) methods for turbulent reactive flows. Numerical schemes for the implicit and explicit enforcement of particle mass consistency (PMC) are introduced, and their performance is examined in a representative LES/PDF application, namely the Sandia–Sydney Bluff-Body flame HM1. A new combination of interpolation schemes for velocity and scalar fields is found to better satisfy PMC than multilinear and fourth-order Lagrangian interpolation. A second-order accurate time-stepping scheme for stochastic differential equations (SDE) is found to improve PMC relative to Euler time stepping, which is the first time that a second-order scheme is found to be beneficial, when compared to a first-order scheme, in an LES/PDF application. An explicit corrective velocity scheme for PMC enforcement is introduced, and its parameters optimized to enforce a specified PMC criterion with minimal corrective velocity magnitudes.
Discrete artificial bee colony algorithm for lot-streaming flowshop with total flowtime minimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sang, Hongyan; Gao, Liang; Pan, Quanke
2012-09-01
Unlike a traditional flowshop problem where a job is assumed to be indivisible, in the lot-streaming flowshop problem, a job is allowed to overlap its operations between successive machines by splitting it into a number of smaller sub-lots and moving the completed portion of the sub-lots to downstream machine. In this way, the production is accelerated. This paper presents a discrete artificial bee colony (DABC) algorithm for a lot-streaming flowshop scheduling problem with total flowtime criterion. Unlike the basic ABC algorithm, the proposed DABC algorithm represents a solution as a discrete job permutation. An efficient initialization scheme based on the extended Nawaz-Enscore-Ham heuristic is utilized to produce an initial population with a certain level of quality and diversity. Employed and onlooker bees generate new solutions in their neighborhood, whereas scout bees generate new solutions by performing insert operator and swap operator to the best solution found so far. Moreover, a simple but effective local search is embedded in the algorithm to enhance local exploitation capability. A comparative experiment is carried out with the existing discrete particle swarm optimization, hybrid genetic algorithm, threshold accepting, simulated annealing and ant colony optimization algorithms based on a total of 160 randomly generated instances. The experimental results show that the proposed DABC algorithm is quite effective for the lot-streaming flowshop with total flowtime criterion in terms of searching quality, robustness and effectiveness. This research provides the references to the optimization research on lot-streaming flowshop.
Discrete breathers in crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dmitriev, S. V.; Korznikova, E. A.; Baimova, Yu A.; Velarde, M. G.
2016-05-01
It is well known that periodic discrete defect-containing systems, in addition to traveling waves, support vibrational defect-localized modes. It turned out that if a periodic discrete system is nonlinear, it can support spatially localized vibrational modes as exact solutions even in the absence of defects. Since the nodes of the system are all on equal footing, it is only through the special choice of initial conditions that a group of nodes can be found on which such a mode, called a discrete breather (DB), will be excited. The DB frequency must be outside the frequency range of the small-amplitude traveling waves. Not resonating with and expending no energy on the excitation of traveling waves, a DB can theoretically conserve its vibrational energy forever provided no thermal vibrations or other perturbations are present. Crystals are nonlinear discrete systems, and the discovery in them of DBs was only a matter of time. It is well known that periodic discrete defect-containing systems support both traveling waves and vibrational defect-localized modes. It turns out that if a periodic discrete system is nonlinear, it can support spatially localized vibrational modes as exact solutions even in the absence of defects. Because the nodes of the system are all on equal footing, only a special choice of the initial conditions allows selecting a group of nodes on which such a mode, called a discrete breather (DB), can be excited. The DB frequency must be outside the frequency range of small-amplitude traveling waves. Not resonating with and expending no energy on the excitation of traveling waves, a DB can theoretically preserve its vibrational energy forever if no thermal vibrations or other perturbations are present. Crystals are nonlinear discrete systems, and the discovery of DBs in them was only a matter of time. Experimental studies of DBs encounter major technical difficulties, leaving atomistic computer simulations as the primary investigation tool. Despite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arzano, Michele; Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy
2016-09-01
We construct discrete symmetry transformations for deformed relativistic kinematics based on group valued momenta. We focus on the specific example of κ-deformations of the Poincaré algebra with associated momenta living on (a sub-manifold of) de Sitter space. Our approach relies on the description of quantum states constructed from deformed kinematics and the observable charges associated with them. The results we present provide the first step towards the analysis of experimental bounds on the deformation parameter κ to be derived via precision measurements of discrete symmetries and CPT.
Fast mix table construction for material discretization
Johnson, S. R.
2013-07-01
An effective hybrid Monte Carlo-deterministic implementation typically requires the approximation of a continuous geometry description with a discretized piecewise-constant material field. The inherent geometry discretization error can be reduced somewhat by using material mixing, where multiple materials inside a discrete mesh voxel are homogenized. Material mixing requires the construction of a 'mix table,' which stores the volume fractions in every mixture so that multiple voxels with similar compositions can reference the same mixture. Mix table construction is a potentially expensive serial operation for large problems with many materials and voxels. We formulate an efficient algorithm to construct a sparse mix table in O(number of voxels x log number of mixtures) time. The new algorithm is implemented in ADVANTG and used to discretize continuous geometries onto a structured Cartesian grid. When applied to an end-of-life MCNP model of the High Flux Isotope Reactor with 270 distinct materials, the new method improves the material mixing time by a factor of 100 compared to a naive mix table implementation. (authors)
Discrete Nonholonomic Lagrangian Systems on Lie Groupoids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iglesias, David; Marrero, Juan C.; de Diego, David Martín; Martínez, Eduardo
2008-06-01
This paper studies the construction of geometric integrators for nonholonomic systems. We develop a formalism for nonholonomic discrete Euler Lagrange equations in a setting that permits to deduce geometric integrators for continuous nonholonomic systems (reduced or not). The formalism is given in terms of Lie groupoids, specifying a discrete Lagrangian and a constraint submanifold on it. Additionally, it is necessary to fix a vector subbundle of the Lie algebroid associated to the Lie groupoid. We also discuss the existence of nonholonomic evolution operators in terms of the discrete nonholonomic Legendre transformations and in terms of adequate decompositions of the prolongation of the Lie groupoid. The characterization of the reversibility of the evolution operator and the discrete nonholonomic momentum equation are also considered. Finally, we illustrate with several classical examples the wide range of application of the theory (the discrete nonholonomic constrained particle, the Suslov system, the Chaplygin sleigh, the Veselova system, the rolling ball on a rotating table and the two wheeled planar mobile robot).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sharp, Karen Tobey
This paper cites information received from a number of sources, e.g., mathematics teachers in two-year colleges, publishers, and convention speakers, about the nature of discrete mathematics and about what topics a course in this subject should contain. Note is taken of the book edited by Ralston and Young which discusses the future of college…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heo, Jino; Hong, Chang-Ho; Lim, Jong-In; Yang, Hyung-Jin
2015-05-01
We propose an arbitrary controlled-unitary (CU) gate and a bidirectional quantum teleportation (BQTP) scheme. The proposed CU gate utilizes photonic qubits (photons) with cross-Kerr nonlinearities (XKNLs), X-homodyne detectors, and linear optical elements, and consists of the consecutive operation of a controlled-path (C-path) gate and a gathering-path (G-path) gate. It is almost deterministic and feasible with current technology when a strong coherent state and weak XKNLs are employed. Based on the CU gate, we present a BQTP scheme that simultaneously teleports two unknown photons between distant users by transmitting only one photon in a path-polarization intra-particle hybrid entangled state. Consequently, it is possible to experimentally implement BQTP with a certain success probability using the proposed CU gate. Project supported by the Ministry of Science, ICT&Future Planning, Korea, under the C-ITRC (Convergence Information Technology Research Center) Support program (NIPA-2013-H0301-13-3007) supervised by the National IT Industry Promotion Agency.
DOS: the discrete-ordinates system. [LMFBR
Rhoades, W. A.; Emmett, M. B.
1982-09-01
The Discrete Ordinates System determines the flux of neutrons or photons due either to fixed sources specified by the user or to sources generated by particle interaction with the problem materials. It also determines numerous secondary results which depend upon flux. Criticality searches can be performed. Numerous input, output, and file manipulation facilities are provided. The DOS driver program reads the problem specification from an input file and calls various program modules into execution as specified by the input file.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheikhan, Mansour; Abbasnezhad Arabi, Mahdi; Gharavian, Davood
2015-10-01
Artificial neural networks are efficient models in pattern recognition applications, but their performance is dependent on employing suitable structure and connection weights. This study used a hybrid method for obtaining the optimal weight set and architecture of a recurrent neural emotion classifier based on gravitational search algorithm (GSA) and its binary version (BGSA), respectively. By considering the features of speech signal that were related to prosody, voice quality, and spectrum, a rich feature set was constructed. To select more efficient features, a fast feature selection method was employed. The performance of the proposed hybrid GSA-BGSA method was compared with similar hybrid methods based on particle swarm optimisation (PSO) algorithm and its binary version, PSO and discrete firefly algorithm, and hybrid of error back-propagation and genetic algorithm that were used for optimisation. Experimental tests on Berlin emotional database demonstrated the superior performance of the proposed method using a lighter network structure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Show, Bijay Kumar; Mondal, Dipak Kumar; Maity, Joydeep
2014-12-01
In this research work, the dry sliding wear behavior of 6351 Al-(4 vol.% SiC + 4 vol.% Al2O3) hybrid composite was investigated at low sliding speed (1 m/s) against a hardened EN 31 disk at different loads. In general, the wear mechanism involved adhesion (along with associated subsurface cracking and delamination) and microcutting abrasion at lower load. While at higher load, abrasive wear involving microcutting and microploughing along with adherent oxide formation was observed. The overall wear rate increased with increasing normal load. The massive particle clusters as well as individual reinforcement particles were found to stand tall to resist abrasive wear. Besides, at higher load, the generation of adherent nodular tribo-oxide through nucleation and epitaxial growth on existing Al2O3 particles lowered down the wear rate. Accordingly, at any normal load, 6351 Al-(4 vol.% SiC + 4 vol.% Al2O3) hybrid composite exhibited superior wear resistance (lower overall wear rate) than the reported wear resistance of monolithic 6351 Al alloy.
Discreteness induced extinction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
dos Santos, Renato Vieira; da Silva, Linaena Méricy
2015-11-01
Two simple models based on ecological problems are discussed from the point of view of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. It is shown how discrepant may be the results of the models that include spatial distribution with discrete interactions when compared with the continuous analogous models. In the continuous case we have, under certain circumstances, the population explosion. When we take into account the finiteness of the population, we get the opposite result, extinction. We will analyze how these results depend on the dimension d of the space and describe the phenomenon of the "Discreteness Inducing Extinction" (DIE). The results are interpreted in the context of the "paradox of sex", an old problem of evolutionary biology.
A paradigm for discrete physics
Noyes, H.P.; McGoveran, D.; Etter, T.; Manthey, M.J.; Gefwert, C.
1987-01-01
An example is outlined for constructing a discrete physics using as a starting point the insight from quantum physics that events are discrete, indivisible and non-local. Initial postulates are finiteness, discreteness, finite computability, absolute nonuniqueness (i.e., homogeneity in the absence of specific cause) and additivity.
Fluctuations and discreteness in diffusion limited growth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Devita, Jason P.
This thesis explores the effects of fluctuations and discreteness on the growth of physical systems where diffusion plays an important role. It focuses on three related problems, all dependent on diffusion in a fundamental way, but each with its own unique challenges. With diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA), the relationship between noisy and noise-free Laplacian growth is probed by averaging the results of noisy growth. By doing so in a channel geometry, we are able to compare to known solutions of the noise-free problem. We see that while the two are comparable, there are discrepancies which are not well understood. In molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), we create efficient computational algorithms, by replacing random walkers (diffusing atoms) with approximately equivalent processes. In one case, the atoms are replaced by a continuum field. Solving for the dynamics of the field yields---in an average sense---the dynamics of the atoms. In the other case, the atoms are treated as individual random-walking particles, but the details of the dynamics are changed to an (approximately) equivalent set of dynamics. This approach involves allowing adatoms to take long hops. We see approximately an order of magnitude speed up for simulating island dynamics, mound growth, and Ostwald ripening. Some ideas from the study of MBE are carried over to the study of front propagation in reaction-diffusion systems. Many of the analytic results about front propagation are derived from continuum models. It is unclear, however, that these results accurately describe the properties of a discrete system. It is reasonable to think that discrete systems will converge to the continuum results when sufficiently many particles are included. However, computational evidence of this is difficult to obtain, since the interesting properties tend to depend on a power law of the logarithm of the number of particles. Thus, the number of particles included in simulations must be exceedingly large. By
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pericoli Ridolfini, V.
2011-11-01
All the main features of the scrape-off layer turbulence, magnitude, frequency spectrum and perpendicular wave vector, ξt, are strongly affected by the injection of lower hybrid (LH) power into the FTU tokamak. The governing parameters are the local last closed magnetic surface values of density, ne,LCMS, and temperature, Te,LCMS. ne,LCMS determines the perpendicular wave vector of the LH waves, which is a key parameter for the multiple scattering processes, and together with Te,LCMS the collisionality that exerts a stabilizing effect on the fluctuations. This effect, still to be examined in the light of theoretical models, leads to an asymptotic value for the fluctuation relative amplitude in the ohmic phase close to 25%, and ~10% in the LH phase, or even less, since the saturation level is not yet attained. The LH waves also can strongly raise ξt, about 3 times, and double the root mean square frequency. The transfer of momentum and energy in the mutual scattering of LH and turbulence 'waves' drives these changes. An increase also of the cross-correlation between temperature and electric potential fluctuations should occur in order to explain the magnitude of the fluctuation amplitude drop and the large increment of the temperature e-folding decay, by more than a factor of 2.5. Particle transport, however, does not appear to be affected to a large extent—the density e-folding decay length is almost unchanged but the power flow typical length rises by about a factor of 1.5, which is a relevant figure in view of the problem of mitigating the power loads on divertor targets in future reactors. These changes are confined mainly within the flux tube connected with the LH waves launching antenna, but start to spread significantly out of it at high plasma densities.
Forced Oscillations for Hybrid Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheshankov, B.
2009-11-01
The hybrid system in the paper means a mechanical system which consists from two parts with different structure—a part with distributed parameters and a part with discrete parameters. More concrete the forced longitudinal oscillations of a rod connected with a simple oscillator are considered. The oscillations of the separate parts of the system are very well known. It turned out that the oscillations of this hybrid system propose some difficulties when investigating. The paper proposes an approach to overcome these difficulties.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guillaume, Stéphane-Olivier; de Abajo, F. Javier García; Henrard, Luc
2013-12-01
An efficient procedure is introduced for the calculation of the optical response of individual and coupled metallic nanoparticles in the framework of the discrete-dipole approximation (DDA). We introduce a modal expansion in the basis set of discrete dipoles and show that a few suitably selected modes are sufficient to compute optical spectra with reasonable accuracy, thus reducing the required numerical effort relative to other DDA approaches. Our method offers a natural framework for the study of localized plasmon modes, including plasmon hybridization. As a proof of concept, we investigate optical extinction and electron energy-loss spectra of monomers, dimers, and quadrumers formed by flat silver squares. This method should find application to the previously prohibited simulation of complex particle arrays.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kotulski, Zbigniew; Szczepaski, Janusz
In the paper we propose a new method of constructing cryptosystems utilising a nonpredictability property of discrete chaotic systems. We formulate the requirements for such systems to assure their safety. We also give examples of practical realisation of chaotic cryptosystems, using a generalisation of the method presented in [7]. The proposed algorithm of encryption and decryption is based on multiple iteration of a certain dynamical chaotic system. We assume that some part of the initial condition is a plain message. As the secret key we assume the system parameter(s) and additionally another part of the initial condition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wuensche, Andrew
DDLab is interactive graphics software for creating, visualizing, and analyzing many aspects of Cellular Automata, Random Boolean Networks, and Discrete Dynamical Networks in general and studying their behavior, both from the time-series perspective — space-time patterns, and from the state-space perspective — attractor basins. DDLab is relevant to research, applications, and education in the fields of complexity, self-organization, emergent phenomena, chaos, collision-based computing, neural networks, content addressable memory, genetic regulatory networks, dynamical encryption, generative art and music, and the study of the abstract mathematical/physical/dynamical phenomena in their own right.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, Tom; Crew, Geoffrey B.; Retterrer, John M.; Jasperse, John R.
1989-01-01
The exotic phenomenon of energetic ion-conic and counterstreaming electron formation by lower hybrid waves along discrete auroral field lines in the earth magnetosphere is considered. Mean-particle calculations, plasma simulations, and analytical treatments of the acceleration processes are described. It is shown that, in the primary auroral electron-beam region, lower hybrid waves could be an efficient mechanism for the transverse heating of H (+) and O(+) ions of ionospheric origin, as well as for the field-aligned heating of the ambient electrons leading to coincident counterstreaming electron distributions. For O(+) ions to be energized by such a wave-particle interaction process, however, some sort of preheating mechanism is required.
Evaluating the Pedagogical Potential of Hybrid Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Levin, Tzur; Levin, Ilya
2013-01-01
The paper examines how the use of hybrid models--that consist of the interacting continuous and discrete processes--may assist in teaching system thinking. We report an experiment in which undergraduate students were asked to choose between a hybrid and a continuous solution for a number of control problems. A correlation has been found between…
Applied estimation for hybrid dynamical systems using perceptional information
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plotnik, Aaron M.
This dissertation uses the motivating example of robotic tracking of mobile deep ocean animals to present innovations in robotic perception and estimation for hybrid dynamical systems. An approach to estimation for hybrid systems is presented that utilizes uncertain perceptional information about the system's mode to improve tracking of its mode and continuous states. This results in significant improvements in situations where previously reported methods of estimation for hybrid systems perform poorly due to poor distinguishability of the modes. The specific application that motivates this research is an automatic underwater robotic observation system that follows and films individual deep ocean animals. A first version of such a system has been developed jointly by the Stanford Aerospace Robotics Laboratory and Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI). This robotic observation system is successfully fielded on MBARI's ROVs, but agile specimens often evade the system. When a human ROV pilot performs this task, one advantage that he has over the robotic observation system in these situations is the ability to use visual perceptional information about the target, immediately recognizing any changes in the specimen's behavior mode. With the approach of the human pilot in mind, a new version of the robotic observation system is proposed which is extended to (a) derive perceptional information (visual cues) about the behavior mode of the tracked specimen, and (b) merge this dissimilar, discrete and uncertain information with more traditional continuous noisy sensor data by extending existing algorithms for hybrid estimation. These performance enhancements are enabled by integrating techniques in hybrid estimation, computer vision and machine learning. First, real-time computer vision and classification algorithms extract a visual observation of the target's behavior mode. Existing hybrid estimation algorithms are extended to admit this uncertain but discrete
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calogero, Francesco
2011-08-01
The original continuous-time ''goldfish'' dynamical system is characterized by two neat formulas, the first of which provides the N Newtonian equations of motion of this dynamical system, while the second provides the solution of the corresponding initial-value problem. Several other, more general, solvable dynamical systems ''of goldfish type'' have been identified over time, featuring, in the right-hand (''forces'') side of their Newtonian equations of motion, in addition to other contributions, a velocity-dependent term such as that appearing in the right-hand side of the first formula mentioned above. The solvable character of these models allows detailed analyses of their behavior, which in some cases is quite remarkable (for instance isochronous or asymptotically isochronous). In this paper we introduce and discuss various discrete-time dynamical systems, which are as well solvable, which also display interesting behaviors (including isochrony and asymptotic isochrony) and which reduce to dynamical systems of goldfish type in the limit when the discrete-time independent variable l=0,1,2,... becomes the standard continuous-time independent variable t, 0≤t<∞.
Discrete Abelian gauge symmetries and axions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Honecker, Gabriele; Staessens, Wieland
2015-07-01
We combine two popular extensions of beyond the Standard Model physics within the framework of intersecting D6-brane models: discrete ℤn symmetries and Peccei-Quinn axions. The underlying natural connection between both extensions is formed by the presence of massive U(1) gauge symmetries in D-brane model building. Global intersecting D6-brane models on toroidal orbifolds of the type T6/ℤ2N and T6/ℤ2 × ℤ2M with discrete torsion offer excellent playgrounds for realizing these extensions. A generation-dependent ℤ2 symmetry is identified in a global Pati-Salam model, while global left-right symmetric models give rise to supersymmetric realizations of the DFSZ axion model. In one class of the latter models, the axion as well as Standard Model particles carry a non-trivial ℤ3 charge.
Microfabricated, flowthrough porous apparatus for discrete detection of binding reactions
Beattie, Kenneth L.
1998-01-01
An improved microfabricated apparatus for conducting a multiplicity of individual and simultaneous binding reactions is described. The apparatus comprises a substrate on which are located discrete and isolated sites for binding reactions. The apparatus is characterized by discrete and isolated regions that extend through said substrate and terminate on a second surface thereof such that when a test sample is allowed to the substrate, it is capable of penetrating through each such region during the course of said binding reaction. The apparatus is especially useful for sequencing by hybridization of DNA molecules.
Approximate Schur complement preconditioning of the lowest order nodal discretizations
Moulton, J.D.; Ascher, U.M.; Morel, J.E.
1996-12-31
Particular classes of nodal methods and mixed hybrid finite element methods lead to equivalent, robust and accurate discretizations of 2nd order elliptic PDEs. However, widespread popularity of these discretizations has been hindered by the awkward linear systems which result. The present work exploits this awkwardness, which provides a natural partitioning of the linear system, by defining two optimal preconditioners based on approximate Schur complements. Central to the optimal performance of these preconditioners is their sparsity structure which is compatible with Dendy`s black box multigrid code.
Discrete Sibson interpolation.
Park, Sung W; Linsen, Lars; Kreylos, Oliver; Owens, John D; Hamann, Bernd
2006-01-01
Natural-neighbor interpolation methods, such as Sibson's method, are well-known schemes for multivariate data fitting and reconstruction. Despite its many desirable properties, Sibson's method is computationally expensive and difficult to implement, especially when applied to higher-dimensional data. The main reason for both problems is the method's implementation based on a Voronoi diagram of all data points. We describe a discrete approach to evaluating Sibson's interpolant on a regular grid, based solely on finding nearest neighbors and rendering and blending d-dimensional spheres. Our approach does not require us to construct an explicit Voronoi diagram, is easily implemented using commodity three-dimensional graphics hardware, leads to a significant speed increase compared to traditional approaches, and generalizes easily to higher dimensions. For large scattered data sets, we achieve two-dimensional (2D) interpolation at interactive rates and 3D interpolation (3D) with computation times of a few seconds. PMID:16509383
Discrete Pearson distributions
Bowman, K.O.; Shenton, L.R.; Kastenbaum, M.A.
1991-11-01
These distributions are generated by a first order recursive scheme which equates the ratio of successive probabilities to the ratio of two corresponding quadratics. The use of a linearized form of this model will produce equations in the unknowns matched by an appropriate set of moments (assumed to exist). Given the moments we may find valid solutions. These are two cases; (1) distributions defined on the non-negative integers (finite or infinite) and (2) distributions defined on negative integers as well. For (1), given the first four moments, it is possible to set this up as equations of finite or infinite degree in the probability of a zero occurrence, the sth component being a product of s ratios of linear forms in this probability in general. For (2) the equation for the zero probability is purely linear but may involve slowly converging series; here a particular case is the discrete normal. Regions of validity are being studied. 11 refs.
Immigration and Prosecutorial Discretion
Apollonio, Dorie; Lochner, Todd; Heddens, Myriah
2015-01-01
Immigration has become an increasingly salient national issue in the US, and the Department of Justice recently increased federal efforts to prosecute immigration offenses. This shift, however, relies on the cooperation of US attorneys and their assistants. Traditionally federal prosecutors have enjoyed enormous discretion and have been responsive to local concerns. To consider how the centralized goal of immigration enforcement may have influenced federal prosecutors in regional offices, we review their prosecution of immigration offenses in California using over a decade's worth of data. Our findings suggest that although centralizing forces influence immigration prosecutions, individual US attorneys' offices retain distinct characteristics. Local factors influence federal prosecutors' behavior in different ways depending on the office. Contrary to expectations, unemployment rates did not affect prosecutors' willingness to pursue immigration offenses, nor did local popular opinion about illegal immigration. PMID:26146530
Discrete stability in stochastic programming
Lepp, R.
1994-12-31
In this lecture we study stability properties of stochastic programs with recourse where the probability measure is approximated by a sequence of weakly convergent discrete measures. Such discrete approximation approach gives us a possibility to analyze explicitly the behavior of the second stage correction function. The approach is based on modern functional analytical methods of an approximation of extremum problems in function spaces, especially on the notion of the discrete convergence of vectors to an essentially bounded measurable function.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ellis, George F. R.; Gibbons, Gary W.
2014-01-01
In this paper we lay down the foundations for a purely Newtonian theory of cosmology, valid at scales small compared with the Hubble radius, using only Newtonian point particles acted on by gravity and a possible cosmological term. We describe the cosmological background which is given by an exact solution of the equations of motion in which the particles expand homothetically with their comoving positions constituting a central configuration. We point out, using previous work, that an important class of central configurations are homogeneous and isotropic, thus justifying the usual assumptions of elementary treatments. The scale factor is shown to satisfy the standard Raychaudhuri and Friedmann equations without making any fluid dynamic or continuum approximations. Since we make no commitment as to the identity of the point particles, our results are valid for cold dark matter, galaxies, or clusters of galaxies. In future publications we plan to discuss perturbations of our cosmological background from the point particle viewpoint laid down in this paper and show consistency with much standard theory usually obtained by more complicated and conceptually less clear continuum methods. Apart from its potential use in large scale structure studies, we believe that our approach has great pedagogic advantages over existing elementary treatments of the expanding universe, since it requires no use of general relativity or continuum mechanics but concentrates on the basic physics: Newton’s laws for gravitationally interacting particles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishchenko, Michael I.; Dlugach, Janna M.; Yurkin, Maxim A.; Bi, Lei; Cairns, Brian; Liu, Li; Panetta, R. Lee; Travis, Larry D.; Yang, Ping; Zakharova, Nadezhda T.
2016-05-01
A discrete random medium is an object in the form of a finite volume of a vacuum or a homogeneous material medium filled with quasi-randomly and quasi-uniformly distributed discrete macroscopic impurities called small particles. Such objects are ubiquitous in natural and artificial environments. They are often characterized by analyzing theoretically the results of laboratory, in situ, or remote-sensing measurements of the scattering of light and other electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic scattering and absorption by particles can also affect the energy budget of a discrete random medium and hence various ambient physical and chemical processes. In either case electromagnetic scattering must be modeled in terms of appropriate optical observables, i.e., quadratic or bilinear forms in the field that quantify the reading of a relevant optical instrument or the electromagnetic energy budget. It is generally believed that time-harmonic Maxwell's equations can accurately describe elastic electromagnetic scattering by macroscopic particulate media that change in time much more slowly than the incident electromagnetic field. However, direct solutions of these equations for discrete random media had been impracticable until quite recently. This has led to a widespread use of various phenomenological approaches in situations when their very applicability can be questioned. Recently, however, a new branch of physical optics has emerged wherein electromagnetic scattering by discrete and discretely heterogeneous random media is modeled directly by using analytical or numerically exact computer solutions of the Maxwell equations. Therefore, the main objective of this Report is to formulate the general theoretical framework of electromagnetic scattering by discrete random media rooted in the Maxwell-Lorentz electromagnetics and discuss its immediate analytical and numerical consequences. Starting from the microscopic Maxwell-Lorentz equations, we trace the development of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakurai, G.; Jomura, M.; Yonemura, S.; Iizumi, T.; Shirato, Y.; Yokozawa, M.
2010-12-01
The soils of terrestrial ecosystems accumulate large amounts of carbon and the response of soil organic carbon (SOC) to global warming is of great concern in projections of future carbon cycling. While many theoretical and experimental studies have suggested that the decomposition rates of soil organic matters depend upon the physical and chemical conditions, land managements and so on, there has not yet been consensus in the dependencies. Most of the soil carbon turnover models for describing the SOC dynamics do not assume the differences in decomposition rates. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the decomposition rates of SOC based on a soil carbon turnover model, RothC, which describes SOC dynamics dividing it into compartments with different decomposition rates. In this study, reflecting that decomposition rate could change with time due to the fertility management in arable land, we used time-dependent Bayesian inference methods to allow time-change variation of the parameters. Thus, we used a hybrid method of particle filtering methods and MH algorithm. We applied this method to datasets obtained from three long-term experiments on time changes in total SOC at five sites over the Japan mainland. For each dataset, three treatments were examined: no N applied, chemical fertilizer applied, and chemical fertilizer and farmyard manure applied. We estimated parameters on the temperature and water dependent functions as well as the intrinsic decomposition rate for each compartment of RothC and for each treatment. As a result, it was shown that the temperature dependencies tended to decreased with the decomposability of the compartment, i.e. lower temperature dependency for more recalcitrant compartment of the model. On the other hand, the water dependencies were not determined with the SOC turnover rates of the compartments. Additionally, the intrinsic decomposition rates tended to increase with time especially in no N applied treatment. This result reflects
Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Materials (NOHMs) - Structure and Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Archer, Lynden
2014-03-01
Polymer-particle composites are used today in virtually every field of technology. When the particles approach nanometer dimensions, large interfacial regions are created in their polymer hosts, which present opportunities and challenges for research, as well as for applications. This talk will focus on a novel class of polymer-particle composite fluids created by densely grafting short organic polymer chains or ionic liquid molecules to inorganic nanostructures. By manipulating the nanoparticle size, polymer molecular weight and surface chemistry, we show that it is possible to create self-suspended suspensions of nanoparticles in which each particle in suspension carries around a discrete share of the suspending medium. The talk will explore consequences of the self-suspended state on fluid structure, rheology, and tethered polymer & particle dynamics in these so-called nanoscale organic hybrid materials (NOHMs). The talk will also discuss particle and tethered polymer dynamics in single-component NOHMs and phase stability, structure, and rheology of NOHMs/polymer blends. This presentation is based on work supported in part by the National Science Foundation, Award No. DMR-1006323.
Distributed mean curvature on a discrete manifold for Regge calculus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Conboye, Rory; Miller, Warner A.; Ray, Shannon
2015-09-01
The integrated mean curvature of a simplicial manifold is well understood in both Regge Calculus and Discrete Differential Geometry. However, a well motivated pointwise definition of curvature requires a careful choice of the volume over which to uniformly distribute the local integrated curvature. We show that hybrid cells formed using both the simplicial lattice and its circumcentric dual emerge as a remarkably natural structure for the distribution of this local integrated curvature. These hybrid cells form a complete tessellation of the simplicial manifold, contain a geometric orthonormal basis, and are also shown to give a pointwise mean curvature with a natural interpretation as the fractional rate of change of the normal vector.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Venter, Gerhard; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski Jaroslaw
2002-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to show how the search algorithm known as particle swarm optimization performs. Here, particle swarm optimization is applied to structural design problems, but the method has a much wider range of possible applications. The paper's new contributions are improvements to the particle swarm optimization algorithm and conclusions and recommendations as to the utility of the algorithm, Results of numerical experiments for both continuous and discrete applications are presented in the paper. The results indicate that the particle swarm optimization algorithm does locate the constrained minimum design in continuous applications with very good precision, albeit at a much higher computational cost than that of a typical gradient based optimizer. However, the true potential of particle swarm optimization is primarily in applications with discrete and/or discontinuous functions and variables. Additionally, particle swarm optimization has the potential of efficient computation with very large numbers of concurrently operating processors.
Discrete Mathematics and Curriculum Reform.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kenney, Margaret J.
1996-01-01
Defines discrete mathematics as the mathematics necessary to effect reasoned decision making in finite situations and explains how its use supports the current view of mathematics education. Discrete mathematics can be used by curriculum developers to improve the curriculum for students of all ages and abilities. (SLD)
Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oxley, Alan
2010-01-01
The article gives ideas that lecturers of undergraduate Discrete Mathematics courses can use in order to make the subject more interesting for students and encourage them to undertake further studies in the subject. It is possible to teach Discrete Mathematics with little or no reference to computing. However, students are more likely to be…
Discreteness inducing coexistence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
dos Santos, Renato Vieira
2013-12-01
Consider two species that diffuse through space. Consider further that they differ only in initial densities and, possibly, in diffusion constants. Otherwise they are identical. What happens if they compete with each other in the same environment? What is the influence of the discrete nature of the interactions on the final destination? And what are the influence of diffusion and additive fluctuations corresponding to random migration and immigration of individuals? This paper aims to answer these questions for a particular competition model that incorporates intra and interspecific competition between the species. Based on mean field theory, the model has a stationary state dependent on the initial density conditions. We investigate how this initial density dependence is affected by the presence of demographic multiplicative noise and additive noise in space and time. There are three main conclusions: (1) Additive noise favors denser populations at the expense of the less dense, ratifying the competitive exclusion principle. (2) Demographic noise, on the other hand, favors less dense populations at the expense of the denser ones, inducing equal densities at the quasi-stationary state, violating the aforementioned principle. (3) The slower species always suffers the more deleterious effects of statistical fluctuations in a homogeneous medium.
Huang, Z. )
1992-12-01
We examine an interesting scenario to solve the domain-wall problem recently suggested by Preskill, Trivedi, Wilczek, and Wise. The effective potential is calculated in the presence of the QCD axial anomaly. It is shown that some discrete symmetries such as {ital CP} and {ital Z}{sub 2} can be anomalous due to a so-called {ital K} term induced by instantons. We point out that the {ital Z}{sub 2} domain-wall problem in the two-doublet standard model can be resolved by two types of solutions: the {ital CP}-conserving one and the {ital CP}-breaking one. In the first case, there exist two {ital Z}{sub 2}-related local minima whose energy splitting is provided by the instanton effect. In the second case, there is only one unique vacuum so that the domain walls do not form at all. The consequences of this new source of {ital CP} violation are discussed and shown to be well within the experimental limits in weak interactions.
Khan, M M; Varma, M P; Cleland, J; O'Kane, H O; Webb, S W; Mulholland, H C; Adgey, A A
1981-01-01
Data concerning 17 consecutive patients with discrete subaortic stenosis are recorded. Twelve patients underwent operative resection of the obstructing lesion. Of these all except one were symptomatic and all had electrocardiographic evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy or left ventricular hypertrophy with strain. They had a peak resting systolic left ventricular outflow tract gradient of greater than 50 mmHg as predicted from the combined cuff measurement of systolic blood pressure and the echocardiographically estimated left ventricular systolic pressure and/or as determined by cardiac catheterisation. The outflow tract gradient as predicted from M-mode echocardiography and peak systolic pressure showed close correlation with that measured at cardiac catheterisation or operation. During the postoperative follow-up from one month to 11 years, of 11 patients, one patient required a further operation for recurrence of the obstruction four years after the initial operation. All patients are now asymptomatic. Five patients have not had an operation. The left ventricular outflow tract gradient as assessed at the time of cardiac catheterisation was greater than 50 mmHg. One patient has been lost to follow-up. The remaining four have been followed from four to eight years and have remained asymptomatic and the electrocardiograms have remained unchanged. Careful follow-up of all patients is essential with continuing clinical assessment, electrocardiograms, M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiograms, and if necessary cardiac catheterisation. Prophylaxis against bacterial endocarditis is also essential. Images PMID:6457617
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Esposito, A.; Pilloni, A.; Polosa, A. D.
2016-07-01
We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X , Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules but rather a manifestation of the interplay between the two. While meson molecules need a negative or zero binding energy, its counterpart for h-tetraquarks is required to be positive. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs0 π± channel by the D0 Collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb Collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X , Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X (5568) are also made.
Entanglement Swapping between Discrete and Continuous Variables
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takeda, Shuntaro; Fuwa, Maria; van Loock, Peter; Furusawa, Akira
2015-03-01
We experimentally realize "hybrid" entanglement swapping between discrete-variable (DV) and continuous-variable (CV) optical systems. DV two-mode entanglement as obtainable from a single photon split at a beam splitter is robustly transferred by means of efficient CV entanglement and operations, using sources of squeezed light and homodyne detections. The DV entanglement after the swapping is verified without postselection by the logarithmic negativity of up to 0.28 ±0.01 . Furthermore, our analysis shows that the optimally transferred state can be postselected into a highly entangled state that violates a Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality by more than 4 standard deviations, and thus it may serve as a resource for quantum teleportation and quantum cryptography.
Entanglement swapping between discrete and continuous variables.
Takeda, Shuntaro; Fuwa, Maria; van Loock, Peter; Furusawa, Akira
2015-03-13
We experimentally realize "hybrid" entanglement swapping between discrete-variable (DV) and continuous-variable (CV) optical systems. DV two-mode entanglement as obtainable from a single photon split at a beam splitter is robustly transferred by means of efficient CV entanglement and operations, using sources of squeezed light and homodyne detections. The DV entanglement after the swapping is verified without postselection by the logarithmic negativity of up to 0.28±0.01. Furthermore, our analysis shows that the optimally transferred state can be postselected into a highly entangled state that violates a Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality by more than 4 standard deviations, and thus it may serve as a resource for quantum teleportation and quantum cryptography. PMID:25815914
Li, Zhelong; Zhang, Dongxiao; Li, Xiqing
2010-02-15
Advances in pore structure characterization and lattice-Boltzmann (LB) simulations of flow fields in pore spaces are making mechanistic simulations of colloid transport in real porous media a realistic goal. The primary challenge to reach this goal may be the computational demand of LB flow simulations in discretized porous medium domains at an assemblage scale. In this work, flow fields in simple cubic and dense packing systems were simulated at different discretization resolutions using the LB method. The simulated flow fields were incorporated into to a three-dimensional particle tracking model to simulate colloid transport in the two systems. The simulated colloid deposition tended to become asymptotic at a critical discretization resolution (voxel-grain size ratio = 0.01) at groundwater flow regimes for colloids down to submicrometer level under favorable conditions and down to around 1 microm under unfavorable conditions. The average simulated fluid velocities near grain surfaces were extracted to explain the sensitivities of simulated depositions to space discretization under both conditions. At the critical discretization resolution, current computation capacity would allow flow simulations and particle tracking in assemblage porous medium domains. In addition, particle tracking simulations revealed that colloids may be retained in flow vortices under conditions both favorable and unfavorable for deposition. Colloid retention in flow vortices has been proposed only very recently. Here we provide a mechanistic confirmation to this novel retention process. PMID:20088544
Novel Fabrication Strategies for Multifunctional Hydrogel Particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lewis, Chrisitna L.
2011-12-01
Three fabrication strategies for poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) -based microparticles and their utility for exploiting the advantages of viral nanotemplates and DNA oligonucleotides are presented in this dissertation: 1. Nucleic Acid Hybridization Assembly of Viral Nanotemplates on Microparticles A flow lithography technique known as stop-flow lithography (SFL) was used to fabricate microparticles with discrete regions for sample identification and patterned assembly of functionalized tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) nanotemplates. TMV nanotemplates were programmed with linker DNA, complementary to the probe DNA in the assembly region of the microparticles. The hybridization-based assembly yielded specific, programmable, and spatially selective assembly of TMV nanotemplates on encoded hydrogel microparticles and demonstrates a novel high throughput route to create multiplexed and multifunctional viral-synthetic hybrid microentities. 2. Microparticles Containing Functionalized Viral Nanotemplates Functionalized viral assemblies were uniformly distributed throughout hydrogel microparticles by direct embedding with a microfluidic flow-focusing device and UV photopolymerization. Fluorescence and confocal microscopy images showed uniform distribution of the TMV nanotemplates. Microparticles containing TMV-templated palladium (Pd) nanoparticles exhibited catalytic activity for the dichromate reduction reaction. The results reveal that microparticles provide a stable and simple-to-handle carrier for TMV nanotemplates and address a critical challenge of 3D assembly of functionalized viral hybrid nanomaterials. 3. DNA-Conjugated Microparticles via Replica Molding (RM) DNA-conjugated microparticles were fabricated using a soft-lithographic batch processing-based technique, known as RM. A humidity controlled environment was found to minimize the negative effects of rapid evaporation and ensure uniformity across batch fabricated microparticles. It was also found that PEG
Tao, W.C.; Costantino, M.S.; Ornellas, D.L.
1990-04-01
In this study, the average surface regression rate of two HMX-based cast explosives, RX-35-AU and RX-35-AV, is measured to pressures above 750 MPa using a hybrid closed bomb-strand burner. The hybrid design allows the simultaneous measurement of pressure and regression rate over a large range of pressures in each experiment. Nitroglycerin/Triacetin (75/25) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) are used as the energetic plasticizer and polymeric binder, respectively, in both formulations. The HMX solids loading in each formulation is 50 wt %, consisting of a narrow particle size distribution of 6--8 {mu}m for RX-35-AU and 150--177 {mu}m for RX-35-AV. Of special interest are the regression rate and burning mechanism as a function of the initial particle size distribution and the mechanical properties fo the cast explosives. In general, the regression rate for the larger particle size formulation, RX-35-AV, is two to three times faster compared to that for RX-35-AU. Up to 750 MPa and independent of the initial confinement pressure, RX-35-AU exhibits a planar burning mechanism with the regression rate obeying the classical aP{sup n} formalism. For RX-35-AV, however, the burning behavior is erratic for samples ignited at 200 MPa confinement pressure. At confinement pressures above 400 MPa, the regression exhibits more of a planar burning mechanism. The unstable combustion behavior for RX-35-AV at lower confinement pressures is related to several mechanisms: (1) an abrupt increase in surface area due to particle fracture and subsequent translation and rotation, resulting in debonding and creating porosity, (2) thixotropic'' separation of the binder and nitramine, causing the significantly greater fracture damage to the nitramine during the loading cycle, (3) microscopic damage to the nitramine crystals that increase its intrinsic burning rate. 12 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.
A hybrid transport-diffusion method for Monte Carlo radiative-transfer simulations
Densmore, Jeffery D. . E-mail: jdd@lanl.gov; Urbatsch, Todd J. . E-mail: tmonster@lanl.gov; Evans, Thomas M. . E-mail: tme@lanl.gov; Buksas, Michael W. . E-mail: mwbuksas@lanl.gov
2007-03-20
Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo (DDMC) is a technique for increasing the efficiency of Monte Carlo particle-transport simulations in diffusive media. If standard Monte Carlo is used in such media, particle histories will consist of many small steps, resulting in a computationally expensive calculation. In DDMC, particles take discrete steps between spatial cells according to a discretized diffusion equation. Each discrete step replaces many small Monte Carlo steps, thus increasing the efficiency of the simulation. In addition, given that DDMC is based on a diffusion equation, it should produce accurate solutions if used judiciously. In practice, DDMC is combined with standard Monte Carlo to form a hybrid transport-diffusion method that can accurately simulate problems with both diffusive and non-diffusive regions. In this paper, we extend previously developed DDMC techniques in several ways that improve the accuracy and utility of DDMC for nonlinear, time-dependent, radiative-transfer calculations. The use of DDMC in these types of problems is advantageous since, due to the underlying linearizations, optically thick regions appear to be diffusive. First, we employ a diffusion equation that is discretized in space but is continuous in time. Not only is this methodology theoretically more accurate than temporally discretized DDMC techniques, but it also has the benefit that a particle's time is always known. Thus, there is no ambiguity regarding what time to assign a particle that leaves an optically thick region (where DDMC is used) and begins transporting by standard Monte Carlo in an optically thin region. Also, we treat the interface between optically thick and optically thin regions with an improved method, based on the asymptotic diffusion-limit boundary condition, that can produce accurate results regardless of the angular distribution of the incident Monte Carlo particles. Finally, we develop a technique for estimating radiation momentum deposition during the
A Discrete-Element Approach for Blood Cell Adhesion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chesnutt, Jennifer; Marshall, Jeffrey
2006-11-01
An efficient computational model for simulation of the individual dynamics of adhering blood cells is discussed. Each cell is represented as a discrete particle so that the model can extend existing discrete-element approaches for dense particulate fluid flows to account for receptor-ligand binding of particles, elliptical particle shape, and deformation of the particles due to shear forces. Capabilities of the method in simulating large numbers of particles are illustrated through simulations of the formation of red blood cell rouleaux in shear flow. The effects of several factors, such as aspect ratio of the elliptical particle, shear rate, strength of the cell adhesion force, and hematocrit are investigated. Comparison of the discrete-element results with results of a level-set approach which computes the entire flow field about a small number of cells is used to develop an improved model of the effect of nearby red blood cells on the cell drag force expression. The method is also being applied to examine the influence of red blood cells on other components of the blood, such as platelet dispersion and activation in high shear regions.
Discrete element modelling of bed load transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maurin, Raphael; Chareyre, Bruno; Chauchat, Julien; Frey, Philippe
2013-04-01
Discrete element method (DEM) is a numerical method to simulate an assembly of particles, which has been widely used in mechanics (soil, rock) and granular physics. DEM consists in considering undeformable particles and modelling the intergranular interactions with simple laws (e.g. linear elastic and Coulomb friction law). The expression of the equation of motion on each particle considering the nearest neighbor interactions allows then to solve the dynamical behavior of the system explicitely. Since its introduction more than thirty years ago, this type of model has proven its ability to well describe the behavior of granular media in several different situations, from quasi-static system to flow of granular media. Bedload transport in streams is characterized by particle transport restricted to the interface between fluid flow and immerged granular media, where particles are rolling, sliding or in saltation over the bed. This situation corresponds to the larger particles transported on the bed in stream channels and has a great influence on geomorphology. Physical mechanisms and processes ruling bedload transport and more generally coarse-particle/fluid systems are poorly known. This is partly due to the small attention given to the role of granular interactions. Starting from these considerations, we used DEM to reproduce experiments carried out with spherical glass beads in an experimental steep and narrow flume. This was done in order to focus on granular interactions and to have access to parameters not available in the experiment. DEM open-source code Yade was coupled with a simplified fluid model, taking into account the different hydrodynamical interactions (buoyancy, drag, lift...) experienced by the particles. Numerical results obtained from the simulation are compared with an experimental data set established previously at the laboratory. It consists in monodisperse and bidisperse mixtures of coarse spherical glass beads entrained by a shallow
The discrete variational derivative method based on discrete differential forms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yaguchi, Takaharu; Matsuo, Takayasu; Sugihara, Masaaki
2012-05-01
As is well known, for PDEs that enjoy a conservation or dissipation property, numerical schemes that inherit this property are often advantageous in that the schemes are fairly stable and give qualitatively better numerical solutions in practice. Lately, Furihata and Matsuo have developed the so-called “discrete variational derivative method” that automatically constructs energy preserving or dissipative finite difference schemes. Although this method was originally developed on uniform meshes, the use of non-uniform meshes is of importance for multi-dimensional problems. On the other hand, the theories of discrete differential forms have received much attention recently. These theories provide a discrete analogue of the vector calculus on general meshes. In this paper, we show that the discrete variational derivative method and the discrete differential forms by Bochev and Hyman can be combined. Applications to the Cahn-Hilliard equation and the Klein-Gordon equation on triangular meshes are provided as demonstrations. We also show that the schemes for these equations are H1-stable under some assumptions. In particular, one for the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation is obtained by combination of the energy conservation property and the discrete Poincaré inequality, which are the temporal and spacial structures that are preserved by the above methods.
Compensatory neurofuzzy model for discrete data classification in biomedical
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ceylan, Rahime
2015-03-01
Biomedical data is separated to two main sections: signals and discrete data. So, studies in this area are about biomedical signal classification or biomedical discrete data classification. There are artificial intelligence models which are relevant to classification of ECG, EMG or EEG signals. In same way, in literature, many models exist for classification of discrete data taken as value of samples which can be results of blood analysis or biopsy in medical process. Each algorithm could not achieve high accuracy rate on classification of signal and discrete data. In this study, compensatory neurofuzzy network model is presented for classification of discrete data in biomedical pattern recognition area. The compensatory neurofuzzy network has a hybrid and binary classifier. In this system, the parameters of fuzzy systems are updated by backpropagation algorithm. The realized classifier model is conducted to two benchmark datasets (Wisconsin Breast Cancer dataset and Pima Indian Diabetes dataset). Experimental studies show that compensatory neurofuzzy network model achieved 96.11% accuracy rate in classification of breast cancer dataset and 69.08% accuracy rate was obtained in experiments made on diabetes dataset with only 10 iterations.
Exact discretization by Fourier transforms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tarasov, Vasily E.
2016-08-01
A discretization of differential and integral operators of integer and non-integer orders is suggested. New type of differences, which are represented by infinite series, is proposed. A characteristic feature of the suggested differences is an implementation of the same algebraic properties that have the operator of differentiation (property of algebraic correspondence). Therefore the suggested differences are considered as an exact discretization of derivatives. These differences have a property of universality, which means that these operators do not depend on the form of differential equations and the parameters of these equations. The suggested differences operators allows us to have difference equations whose solutions are equal to the solutions of corresponding differential equations. The exact discretization of the derivatives of integer orders is given by the suggested differences of the same integer orders. Similarly, the exact discretization of the Riesz derivatives and integrals of integer and non-integer order is given by the proposed fractional differences of the same order.
Novel approach to data discretization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borowik, Grzegorz; Kowalski, Karol; Jankowski, Cezary
2015-09-01
Discretization is an important preprocessing step in data mining. The data discretization method involves determining the ranges of values for numeric attributes, which ultimately represent discrete intervals for new attributes. The ranges for the proposed set of cuts are analyzed, in order to obtain a minimal set of ranges while retaining the possibility of classification. For this purpose, a special discernibility function can be constructed as a conjunction of alternative cuts set for each pair of different objects of different decisions- cuts discern these objects. However, the data mining methods based on discernibility matrix are insufficient for large databases. The purpose of this paper is the idea of implementation of a new data discretization algorithm that is based on statistics of attribute values and that avoids building the discernibility matrix explicitly. Evaluation of time complexity has shown that the proposed method is much more efficient than currently available solutions for large data sets.
Chaos in Periodic Discrete Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Yuming; Zhang, Lijuan; Yu, Panpan; Huang, Qiuling
This paper focuses on chaos in periodic discrete systems, whose state space may vary with time. Some close relationships between some chaotic dynamical behaviors of a periodic discrete system and its autonomous induced system are given. Based on these relationships, several criteria of chaos are established and some sufficient conditions for no chaos are given for periodic discrete systems. Further, it is shown that a finite-dimensional linear periodic discrete system is not chaotic in the sense of Li-Yorke or Wiggins. In particular, an interesting problem of whether nonchaotic rules may generate a chaotic system is studied, with some examples provided, one of which surprisingly shows that a composition of globally asymptotically stable maps can be chaotic. In addition, some properties of sign pattern matrices of non-negative square matrices are given for convenience of the study.
Microscopic derivation of discrete hydrodynamics.
Español, Pep; Anero, Jesús G; Zúñiga, Ignacio
2009-12-28
By using the standard theory of coarse graining based on Zwanzig's projection operator, we derive the dynamic equations for discrete hydrodynamic variables. These hydrodynamic variables are defined in terms of the Delaunay triangulation. The resulting microscopically derived equations can be understood, a posteriori, as a discretization on an arbitrary irregular grid of the Navier-Stokes equations. The microscopic derivation provides a set of discrete equations that exactly conserves mass, momentum, and energy and the dissipative part of the dynamics produces strict entropy increase. In addition, the microscopic derivation provides a practical implementation of thermal fluctuations in a way that the fluctuation-dissipation theorem is satisfied exactly. This paper points toward a close connection between coarse-graining procedures from microscopic dynamics and discretization schemes for partial differential equations. PMID:20059064
Discrete-element modeling of particulate aerosol flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marshall, J. S.
2009-03-01
A multiple-time step computational approach is presented for efficient discrete-element modeling of aerosol flows containing adhesive solid particles. Adhesive aerosol particulates are found in numerous dust and smoke contamination problems, including smoke particle transport in the lungs, particle clogging of heat exchangers in construction vehicles, industrial nanoparticle transport and filtration systems, and dust fouling of electronic systems and MEMS components. Dust fouling of equipment is of particular concern for potential human occupation on dusty planets, such as Mars. The discrete-element method presented in this paper can be used for prediction of aggregate structure and breakup, for prediction of the effect of aggregate formation on the bulk fluid flow, and for prediction of the effects of small-scale flow features (e.g., due to surface roughness or MEMS patterning) on the aggregate formation. After presentation of the overall computational structure, the forces and torques acting on the particles resulting from fluid motion, particle-particle collision, and adhesion under van der Waals forces are reviewed. The effect of various parameters of normal collision and adhesion of two particles are examined in detail. The method is then used to examine aggregate formation and particle clogging in pipe and channel flow.
Discrete-element modeling of particulate aerosol flows
Marshall, J.S.
2009-03-20
A multiple-time step computational approach is presented for efficient discrete-element modeling of aerosol flows containing adhesive solid particles. Adhesive aerosol particulates are found in numerous dust and smoke contamination problems, including smoke particle transport in the lungs, particle clogging of heat exchangers in construction vehicles, industrial nanoparticle transport and filtration systems, and dust fouling of electronic systems and MEMS components. Dust fouling of equipment is of particular concern for potential human occupation on dusty planets, such as Mars. The discrete-element method presented in this paper can be used for prediction of aggregate structure and breakup, for prediction of the effect of aggregate formation on the bulk fluid flow, and for prediction of the effects of small-scale flow features (e.g., due to surface roughness or MEMS patterning) on the aggregate formation. After presentation of the overall computational structure, the forces and torques acting on the particles resulting from fluid motion, particle-particle collision, and adhesion under van der Waals forces are reviewed. The effect of various parameters of normal collision and adhesion of two particles are examined in detail. The method is then used to examine aggregate formation and particle clogging in pipe and channel flow.
Hybrid codes: Methods and applications
Winske, D. ); Omidi, N. )
1991-01-01
In this chapter we discuss hybrid'' algorithms used in the study of low frequency electromagnetic phenomena, where one or more ion species are treated kinetically via standard PIC methods used in particle codes and the electrons are treated as a single charge neutralizing massless fluid. Other types of hybrid models are possible, as discussed in Winske and Quest, but hybrid codes with particle ions and massless fluid electrons have become the most common for simulating space plasma physics phenomena in the last decade, as we discuss in this paper.
Identification of micro parameters for discrete element simulation of agglomerates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palis, Stefan; Antonyuk, Sergiy; Dosta, Maksym; Heinrich, Stefan
2013-06-01
The mechanical behaviour of solid particles like agglomerates, granules or crystals strongly depends on their micro structure, e.g. structural defects and porosity. In order to model the mechanical behaviour of these inhomogeneous media the discrete element method has been proven to be an appropriate tool. The model parameters used are typically micro parameters like bond stiffness, particle-particle contact stiffness, strength of the bonds. Due to the lack of general methods for a direct micro parameter determination, normally laborious parameter adaptation has to be done in order to fit experiment and simulation. In this contribution a systematic and automatic way for parameter adaptation using real experiments is proposed. Due to the fact, that discrete element models are typically systems of differential equations of very high order, gradient based methods are not suitable. Hence, the focus will be on derivative free methods.
Testing discrete symmetries at a super τ -charm factory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bevan, Adrian John
2016-02-01
Tests of discrete symmetry violation have played an important role in understanding the structure of weak interactions in the Standard Model of particle physics. Historically, these measurements have been extensively performed in experiments with large samples of K and B mesons. A high luminosity τ-charm facility presents physicists with the opportunity to comprehensively explore discrete symmetry violation and test the Standard Model using τ leptons, charm mesons, and charmed baryons. This paper discusses several possible measurements for a future τ-charm factory.
Gravity cutoff in theories with large discrete symmetries.
Dvali, Gia; Redi, Michele; Sibiryakov, Sergey; Vainshtein, Arkady
2008-10-10
We set an upper bound on the gravitational cutoff in theories with exact quantum numbers of large N periodicity, such as Z(N) discrete symmetries. The bound stems from black hole physics. It is similar to the bound appearing in theories with N particle species, though a priori, a large discrete symmetry does not imply a large number of species. Thus, there emerges a potentially wide class of new theories that address the hierarchy problem by lowering the gravitational cutoff due to the existence of large Z(10(32))-type symmetries. PMID:18999587
Hybrid simulation techniques applied to the earth's bow shock
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Winske, D.; Leroy, M. M.
1985-01-01
The application of a hybrid simulation model, in which the ions are treated as discrete particles and the electrons as a massless charge-neutralizing fluid, to the study of the earth's bow shock is discussed. The essentials of the numerical methods are described in detail; movement of the ions, solution of the electromagnetic fields and electron fluid equations, and imposition of appropriate boundary and initial conditions. Examples of results of calculations for perpendicular shocks are presented which demonstrate the need for a kinetic treatment of the ions to reproduce the correct ion dynamics and the corresponding shock structure. Results for oblique shocks are also presented to show how the magnetic field and ion motion differ from the perpendicular case.
Dessouky, Mohamed M; Elrashidy, Mohamed A; Taha, Taha E; Abdelkader, Hatem M
2016-05-01
The different discrete transform techniques such as discrete cosine transform (DCT), discrete sine transform (DST), discrete wavelet transform (DWT), and mel-scale frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) are powerful feature extraction techniques. This article presents a proposed computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for extracting the most effective and significant features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) using these different discrete transform techniques and MFCC techniques. Linear support vector machine has been used as a classifier in this article. Experimental results conclude that the proposed CAD system using MFCC technique for AD recognition has a great improvement for the system performance with small number of significant extracted features, as compared with the CAD system based on DCT, DST, DWT, and the hybrid combination methods of the different transform techniques. PMID:26371347
HYPERS: A Unidimensional Asynchronous Framework for Multiscale Hybrid Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Omelchenko, Y. A.; Karimabadi, H.; Vu, H. X.
2011-12-01
Kinetic ion-driven processes are crucial for understanding the complex dynamics of the closely coupled Earth magnetosphere-ionosphere system. Largely varying time and length scales impose severe numerical constraints on global simulations with hybrid (particle ions + fluid electrons) codes. To enable larger simulations we developed a unique, uni-dimensional multiscale hybrid code, HYPERS. Instead of stepping all simulation variables uniformly in time, HYPERS tracks physically meaningful changes to individual particles and cell-based electromagnetic fields via asynchronous discrete events. HYPERS has been parallelized with the Preemptive Event Processing (PEP) technique. The parallel algorithm enables arbitrary domain decompositions and processor configurations on restarts. This is a critical prerequisite for implementing a full load balancing functionality in the future. We validate HYPERS by simulating the interaction of streaming plasmas with dipole magnetospheres and show that our approach results in superior numerical metrics (stability, accuracy and speed) compared to conventional techniques. We also discuss further extensions to the HYPERS framework that would enable seemless integration of ion fluid and kinetic schemes.
Distributed Relaxation for Conservative Discretizations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.
2001-01-01
A multigrid method is defined as having textbook multigrid efficiency (TME) if the solutions to the governing system of equations are attained in a computational work that is a small (less than 10) multiple of the operation count in one target-grid residual evaluation. The way to achieve this efficiency is the distributed relaxation approach. TME solvers employing distributed relaxation have already been demonstrated for nonconservative formulations of high-Reynolds-number viscous incompressible and subsonic compressible flow regimes. The purpose of this paper is to provide foundations for applications of distributed relaxation to conservative discretizations. A direct correspondence between the primitive variable interpolations for calculating fluxes in conservative finite-volume discretizations and stencils of the discretized derivatives in the nonconservative formulation has been established. Based on this correspondence, one can arrive at a conservative discretization which is very efficiently solved with a nonconservative relaxation scheme and this is demonstrated for conservative discretization of the quasi one-dimensional Euler equations. Formulations for both staggered and collocated grid arrangements are considered and extensions of the general procedure to multiple dimensions are discussed.
Cheraghi-Sohi, Sudeh; Calnan, Michael
2013-11-01
There has much debate about the extent to which professional discretion has been challenged by recent organisational changes such as through the new forms of governance associated with the introduction of the principles of the New Public Management (NPM) into health systems and other public sector services. What appears to be missing from these debates is a detailed analysis of the concept of professional discretion itself. This paper attempts to fill this gap by delineating the key concepts of professional discretion evident in the literature and exploring their significance in an empirical study of the influence of the 2004 new general medical services contract (nGMS) and the introduction of the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF), a prescriptive pay-for-performance system designed to standardise the quality of care provision in general medical practice in the United Kingdom. The study adopted a longitudinal design using semi-structured interviews with general practitioners (GPs, N = 62) working in the English National Health Service (NHS) between 2007 and 2009. A multi-dimensional conception of discretion was used to explore how GP discretion might have been influenced by contractual changes and in particular, QOF. The findings suggest that through a complex interplay of factors, a post-QOF reduction in GP discretion was identifiable, highlighting different potential sources of constraint such as in the social, organisational and economic dimensions of discretion. The evidence also suggested the emergence of a new form of organisational medical professionalism within general practice characterised by standardisation, bureaucracy and performance management. PMID:24034951
Time Discretization Approach to Dynamic Localization Conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papp, E.
An alternative wavefunction to the description of the dynamic localization of a charged particle moving on a one-dimensional lattice under the influence of a periodic time dependent electric field is written down. For this purpose the method of characteristics such as applied by Dunlap and Kenkre [Phys. Rev. B 34, 3625 (1986)] has been modified by using a different integration variable. Handling this wavefunction one is faced with the selection of admissible time values. This results in a conditionally exactly solvable problem, now by accounting specifically for the implementation of a time discretization working in conjunction with a related dynamic localization condition. In addition, one resorts to the strong field limit, which amounts to replace, to leading order, the large order zeros of the Bessel function J0(z), used before in connection with the cosinusoidal modulation, by integral multiples of π. Here z stands for the ratio between the field amplitude and the frequency. The modulation function of the electric field vanishes on the nodal points of the time grid, which stands for an effective field-free behavior. This opens the way to propose quickly tractable dynamic localization conditions for arbitrary periodic modulations. We have also found that the present time discretization approach produces the minimization of the mean square displacement characterizing the usual exact wavefunction. Other realizations and comparisons have also been presented.
Vortex Particle-Mesh methods for large scale LES of aircraft wakes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chatelain, Philippe; Duponcheel, Matthieu; Marichal, Yves; Winckelmans, Grégoire
2015-11-01
Vortex methods solve the NS equations in vorticity-velocity formulation. The present Particle-Mesh variant exploits the advantages of a hybrid approach: advection is handled by the particles while the mesh allows the evaluation of the differential operators and the use of fast Poisson solvers (here a Fourier-based solver which allows for unbounded directions and inlet/outlet boundaries). A lifting line approach models the vorticity sources in the flow; its immersed treatment efficiently captures the development of vorticity from thin sheets into 3-D field. Large scale simulations of aircraft wakes (including ``encounter'' cases where a following aircraft flies into the wake) are presented, which also demonstrate the performance of the methodology: the adequate treatment of particle distortion, the high-order discretization, and the multiscale subgrid models allow to capture wake dynamics with minimal spurious dispersion and diffusion.
Geometry of discrete quantum computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanson, Andrew J.; Ortiz, Gerardo; Sabry, Amr; Tai, Yu-Tsung
2013-05-01
Conventional quantum computing entails a geometry based on the description of an n-qubit state using 2n infinite precision complex numbers denoting a vector in a Hilbert space. Such numbers are in general uncomputable using any real-world resources, and, if we have the idea of physical law as some kind of computational algorithm of the universe, we would be compelled to alter our descriptions of physics to be consistent with computable numbers. Our purpose here is to examine the geometric implications of using finite fields Fp and finite complexified fields \\mathbf {F}_{p^2} (based on primes p congruent to 3 (mod4)) as the basis for computations in a theory of discrete quantum computing, which would therefore become a computable theory. Because the states of a discrete n-qubit system are in principle enumerable, we are able to determine the proportions of entangled and unentangled states. In particular, we extend the Hopf fibration that defines the irreducible state space of conventional continuous n-qubit theories (which is the complex projective space \\mathbf {CP}^{2^{n}-1}) to an analogous discrete geometry in which the Hopf circle for any n is found to be a discrete set of p + 1 points. The tally of unit-length n-qubit states is given, and reduced via the generalized Hopf fibration to \\mathbf {DCP}^{2^{n}-1}, the discrete analogue of the complex projective space, which has p^{2^{n}-1} (p-1)\\,\\prod _{k=1}^{n-1} ( p^{2^{k}}+1) irreducible states. Using a measure of entanglement, the purity, we explore the entanglement features of discrete quantum states and find that the n-qubit states based on the complexified field \\mathbf {F}_{p^2} have pn(p - 1)n unentangled states (the product of the tally for a single qubit) with purity 1, and they have pn + 1(p - 1)(p + 1)n - 1 maximally entangled states with purity zero.
Model-Based Prognostics of Hybrid Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Daigle, Matthew; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Bregon, Anibal
2015-01-01
Model-based prognostics has become a popular approach to solving the prognostics problem. However, almost all work has focused on prognostics of systems with continuous dynamics. In this paper, we extend the model-based prognostics framework to hybrid systems models that combine both continuous and discrete dynamics. In general, most systems are hybrid in nature, including those that combine physical processes with software. We generalize the model-based prognostics formulation to hybrid systems, and describe the challenges involved. We present a general approach for modeling hybrid systems, and overview methods for solving estimation and prediction in hybrid systems. As a case study, we consider the problem of conflict (i.e., loss of separation) prediction in the National Airspace System, in which the aircraft models are hybrid dynamical systems.
Li, Xinzhe; Fang, Yiyun; Wen, Lixin; Li, Feng; Yin, Guanlin; Chen, Wanmin; An, Xingcai; Jin, Jun; Ma, Jiantai
2016-04-01
Cobalt-based nanomaterials are promising candidates as efficient, affordable, and sustainable alternative electrocatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). However, the catalytic efficiency of traditional nanomaterials is still far below what is expected, because of their low stability in basic solutions and poor active site exposure yield. Here a unique hybrid nanomaterial comprising Co@Co3O4 core-shell nanoparticle (NP) encapsulated N-doped mesoporous carbon cages on reduced graphene oxide (denoted as Co@Co3O4@NMCC/rGO) is successfully synthesized via a carbonization and subsequent oxidation strategy of a graphene oxide (GO)-based metal-organic framework (MOF). Impressively, the special carbon cage structure is very important for not only leading to a large active surface area, enhanced mass/charge transport capability, and easy release of gas bubbles, but also preventing Co@Co3O4 NPs from aggregation and peeling off during prolonged electrochemical reactions. As a result, in alkaline media, the resulting hybrid materials catalyze the OER with a low onset potential of ∼1.50 V (vs. RHE) and an over-potential of only 340 mV to achieve a stable current density of 10 mA cm(-2) for at least 25 h. In addition, metallic Co cores in Co@Co3O4 provide an alternative way for electron transport and accelerate the OER rate. PMID:26914166
Automatic Mesh Coarsening for Discrete Ordinates Codes
Turner, Scott A.
1999-03-11
This paper describes the use of a ''mesh potential'' function for automatic coarsening of meshes in discrete ordinates neutral particle transport codes. For many transport calculations, a user may find it helpful to have the code determine a ''good'' neutronics mesh. The complexity of a problem involving millions of mesh cells, dozens of materials, and many energy groups makes it difficult to determine an adequate level of mesh refinement with a minimum number of cells. A method has been implemented in PARTISN (Parallel Time-dependent SN) to calculate a ''mesh potential'' in each original cell of a problem, and use this information to determine the maximum coarseness allowed in the mesh while maintaining accuracy in the solution. Results are presented for a simple x-y-z fuel/control/reflector problem.
Discrete Stochastic Simulation Methods for Chemically Reacting Systems
Cao, Yang; Samuels, David C.
2012-01-01
Discrete stochastic chemical kinetics describe the time evolution of a chemically reacting system by taking into account the fact that in reality chemical species are present with integer populations and exhibit some degree of randomness in their dynamical behavior. In recent years, with the development of new techniques to study biochemistry dynamics in a single cell, there are increasing studies using this approach to chemical kinetics in cellular systems, where the small copy number of some reactant species in the cell may lead to deviations from the predictions of the deterministic differential equations of classical chemical kinetics. This chapter reviews the fundamental theory related to stochastic chemical kinetics and several simulation methods that are based on that theory. We focus on non-stiff biochemical systems and the two most important discrete stochastic simulation methods: Gillespie's Stochastic Simulation Algorithm (SSA) and the tau-leaping method. Different implementation strategies of these two methods are discussed. Then we recommend a relatively simple and efficient strategy that combines the strengths of the two methods: the hybrid SSA/tau-leaping method. The implementation details of the hybrid strategy are given here and a related software package is introduced. Finally, the hybrid method is applied to simple biochemical systems as a demonstration of its application. PMID:19216925
Discrete element modelling of bedload transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loyer, A.; Frey, P.
2011-12-01
Discrete element modelling (DEM) has been widely used in solid mechanics and in granular physics. In this type of modelling, each individual particle is taken into account and intergranular interactions are modelled with simple laws (e.g. Coulomb friction). Gravity and contact forces permit to solve the dynamical behaviour of the system. DEM is interesting to model configurations and access to parameters not directly available in laboratory experimentation, hence the term "numerical experimentations" sometimes used to describe DEM. DEM was used to model bedload transport experiments performed at the particle scale with spherical glass beads in a steep and narrow flume. Bedload is the larger material that is transported on the bed on stream channels. It has a great geomorphic impact. Physical processes ruling bedload transport and more generally coarse-particle/fluid systems are poorly known, arguably because granular interactions have been somewhat neglected. An existing DEM code (PFC3D) already computing granular interactions was used. We implemented basic hydrodynamic forces to model the fluid interactions (buoyancy, drag, lift). The idea was to use the minimum number of ingredients to match the experimental results. Experiments were performed with one-size and two-size mixtures of coarse spherical glass beads entrained by a shallow turbulent and supercritical water flow down a steep channel with a mobile bed. The particle diameters were 4 and 6mm, the channel width 6.5mm (about the same width as the coarser particles) and the channel inclination was typically 10%. The water flow rate and the particle rate were kept constant at the upstream entrance and adjusted to obtain bedload transport equilibrium. Flows were filmed from the side by a high-speed camera. Using image processing algorithms made it possible to determine the position, velocity and trajectory of both smaller and coarser particles. Modelled and experimental particle velocity and concentration depth
Some discrete multiple orthogonal polynomials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arvesú, J.; Coussement, J.; van Assche, W.
2003-04-01
In this paper, we extend the theory of discrete orthogonal polynomials (on a linear lattice) to polynomials satisfying orthogonality conditions with respect to r positive discrete measures. First we recall the known results of the classical orthogonal polynomials of Charlier, Meixner, Kravchuk and Hahn (T.S. Chihara, An Introduction to Orthogonal Polynomials, Gordon and Breach, New York, 1978; R. Koekoek and R.F. Swarttouw, Reports of the Faculty of Technical Mathematics and Informatics No. 98-17, Delft, 1998; A.F. Nikiforov et al., Classical Orthogonal Polynomials of a Discrete Variable, Springer, Berlin, 1991). These polynomials have a lowering and raising operator, which give rise to a Rodrigues formula, a second order difference equation, and an explicit expression from which the coefficients of the three-term recurrence relation can be obtained. Then we consider r positive discrete measures and define two types of multiple orthogonal polynomials. The continuous case (Jacobi, Laguerre, Hermite, etc.) was studied by Van Assche and Coussement (J. Comput. Appl. Math. 127 (2001) 317-347) and Aptekarev et al. (Multiple orthogonal polynomials for classical weights, manuscript). The families of multiple orthogonal polynomials (of type II) that we will study have a raising operator and hence a Rodrigues formula. This will give us an explicit formula for the polynomials. Finally, there also exists a recurrence relation of order r+1 for these multiple orthogonal polynomials of type II. We compute the coefficients of the recurrence relation explicitly when r=2.
Single electron tunneling in large scale nanojunction arrays with bisferrocene-nanoparticle hybrids.
Karmakar, Shilpi; Kumar, Susmit; Marzo, Pasquale; Primiceri, Elisabetta; Di Corato, Riccardo; Rinaldi, Ross; Cozzi, Pier Giorgio; Bramanti, Alessandro Paolo; Maruccio, Giuseppe
2012-04-01
We report on the fabrication and single electron tunneling behaviour of large scale arrays of nanogap electrodes bridged by bisferrocene-gold nanoparticle hybrids (BFc-AuNP). Coulomb staircase was observed in the low temperature current-voltage curves measured on the junctions with asymmetric tunnel barriers. On the other hand, junctions with symmetric tunneling barrier exhibited mere nonlinear current voltage characteristics without discrete staircase. The experimental results agreed well with simulations based on the orthodox theory. The junction resistance showed thermally activated conduction behaviour at higher temperature. The overall voltage and temperature dependent results show that the transport behaviour of the large arrays of single particle devices obtained by a facile optical lithography and chemical etching process corresponds with the behaviour of single particle devices fabricated by other techniques like e-beam lithography and mechanical breaking methods. PMID:22370878
Topology optimization of double- and triple-layer grids using a hybrid methodology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dehghani, M.; Mashayekhi, M.; Salajegheh, E.
2016-08-01
In this article, a hybrid methodology combining evolutionary structural optimization (ESO) and gravitational particle swarm (GPS) methods is proposed for topology optimization of double- and triple-layer grids. In the present methodology, which is called the ESO-GPS method, the size optimization of double- and triple-layer grids is first performed by ESO. Then, the outcomes of the ESO are used to improve the GPS through four modifications. Structural weight is minimized against constraints on the displacements of nodes, internal stresses and element slenderness ratio. The GPS is used to investigate the optimum topology of large-scale skeletal structures with discrete variables whose agents update their respective positions by the particle swarm optimization velocity and the acceleration of the gravitational search algorithm. The numerical results show that the proposed algorithm, the ESO-GPS, performs better than the GPS and the other methods presented in the literature.
Discrete implementations of scale transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Djurdjanovic, Dragan; Williams, William J.; Koh, Christopher K.
1999-11-01
Scale as a physical quantity is a recently developed concept. The scale transform can be viewed as a special case of the more general Mellin transform and its mathematical properties are very applicable in the analysis and interpretation of the signals subject to scale changes. A number of single-dimensional applications of scale concept have been made in speech analysis, processing of biological signals, machine vibration analysis and other areas. Recently, the scale transform was also applied in multi-dimensional signal processing and used for image filtering and denoising. Discrete implementation of the scale transform can be carried out using logarithmic sampling and the well-known fast Fourier transform. Nevertheless, in the case of the uniformly sampled signals, this implementation involves resampling. An algorithm not involving resampling of the uniformly sampled signals has been derived too. In this paper, a modification of the later algorithm for discrete implementation of the direct scale transform is presented. In addition, similar concept was used to improve a recently introduced discrete implementation of the inverse scale transform. Estimation of the absolute discretization errors showed that the modified algorithms have a desirable property of yielding a smaller region of possible error magnitudes. Experimental results are obtained using artificial signals as well as signals evoked from the temporomandibular joint. In addition, discrete implementations for the separable two-dimensional direct and inverse scale transforms are derived. Experiments with image restoration and scaling through two-dimensional scale domain using the novel implementation of the separable two-dimensional scale transform pair are presented.
A FINITE-DIFFERENCE, DISCRETE-WAVENUMBER METHOD FOR CALCULATING RADAR TRACES
A hybrid of the finite-difference method and the discrete-wavenumber method is developed to calculate radar traces. The method is based on a three-dimensional model defined in the Cartesian coordinate system; the electromagnetic properties of the model are symmetric with respect ...
A FINITE-DIFFERENCE, DISCRETE-WAVENUMBER METHOD FOR CALCULATING RADAR TRACES
A hybrid of the finite-difference method and the discrete-wavenumber method is developed to calculate radar traces. The method is based on a three-dimensional model defined in the Cartesian coordinate system; the electromag-netic properties of the model are symmetric with respect...
Single electron tunneling in large scale nanojunction arrays with bisferrocene-nanoparticle hybrids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karmakar, Shilpi; Kumar, Susmit; Marzo, Pasquale; Primiceri, Elisabetta; di Corato, Riccardo; Rinaldi, Ross; Cozzi, Pier Giorgio; Bramanti, Alessandro Paolo; Maruccio, Giuseppe
2012-03-01
We report on the fabrication and single electron tunneling behaviour of large scale arrays of nanogap electrodes bridged by bisferrocene-gold nanoparticle hybrids (BFc-AuNP). Coulomb staircase was observed in the low temperature current-voltage curves measured on the junctions with asymmetric tunnel barriers. On the other hand, junctions with symmetric tunneling barrier exhibited mere nonlinear current voltage characteristics without discrete staircase. The experimental results agreed well with simulations based on the orthodox theory. The junction resistance showed thermally activated conduction behaviour at higher temperature. The overall voltage and temperature dependent results show that the transport behaviour of the large arrays of single particle devices obtained by a facile optical lithography and chemical etching process corresponds with the behaviour of single particle devices fabricated by other techniques like e-beam lithography and mechanical breaking methods.We report on the fabrication and single electron tunneling behaviour of large scale arrays of nanogap electrodes bridged by bisferrocene-gold nanoparticle hybrids (BFc-AuNP). Coulomb staircase was observed in the low temperature current-voltage curves measured on the junctions with asymmetric tunnel barriers. On the other hand, junctions with symmetric tunneling barrier exhibited mere nonlinear current voltage characteristics without discrete staircase. The experimental results agreed well with simulations based on the orthodox theory. The junction resistance showed thermally activated conduction behaviour at higher temperature. The overall voltage and temperature dependent results show that the transport behaviour of the large arrays of single particle devices obtained by a facile optical lithography and chemical etching process corresponds with the behaviour of single particle devices fabricated by other techniques like e-beam lithography and mechanical breaking methods. Electronic supplementary
SHDOM: Spherical Harmonic Discrete Ordinate Method for atmospheric radiative transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evans, K. Franklin
2015-08-01
The Spherical Harmonic Discrete Ordinate Method (SHDOM) radiative transfer model computes polarized monochromatic or spectral band radiative transfer in a one, two, or three-dimensional medium for either collimated solar and/or thermal emission sources of radiation. The model is written in a variant of Fortran 77 and in Fortran90 and requires a Fortran 90 compiler. Also included are programs for generating the optical property files input to SHDOM from physical properties of water cloud particles and aerosols.
Method for coupling two-dimensional to three-dimensional discrete ordinates calculations
Thompson, J.L.; Emmett, M.B.; Rhoades, W.A.; Dodds, H.L. Jr.
1985-01-01
A three-dimensional (3-D) discrete ordinates transport code, TORT, has been developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for radiation penetration studies. It is not feasible to solve some 3-D penetration problems with TORT, such as a building located a large distance from a point source, because (1) the discretized 3-D problem is simply too big to fit on the computer or (2) the computing time (and corresponding cost) is prohibitive. Fortunately, such problems can be solved with a hybrid approach by coupling a two-dimensional (2-D) description of the point source, which is assumed to be azimuthally symmetric, to a 3-D description of the building, the region of interest. The purpose of this paper is to describe this hybrid methodology along with its implementation and evaluation in the DOTTOR (Discrete Ordinates to Three-dimensional Oak Ridge Transport) code.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomczak, M.; Dubieniecki, P.
2015-12-01
On the basis of the Solar Maximum Mission observations, Švestka ( Solar Phys. 121, 399, 1989) introduced a new class of flares, the so-called flare hybrids. When they start, they look like typical compact flares (phase 1), but later on, they look like flares with arcades of magnetic loops (phase 2). We summarize the characteristic features of flare hybrids in soft and hard X-rays as well as in the extreme ultraviolet; these features allow us to distinguish flare hybrids from other flares. In this article, additional energy release or long plasma cooling timescales are suggested as possible causes of phase 2. We estimate the frequency of flare hybrids, and study the magnetic configurations favorable for flare hybrid occurrence. Flare hybrids appear to be quite frequent, and the difference between the lengths of magnetic loops in the two interacting loop systems seem to be a crucial parameter for determining their characteristics.
Recourse-based facility-location problems in hybrid uncertain environment.
Wang, Shuming; Watada, Junzo; Pedrycz, Witold
2010-08-01
The objective of this paper is to study facility-location problems in the presence of a hybrid uncertain environment involving both randomness and fuzziness. A two-stage fuzzy-random facility-location model with recourse (FR-FLMR) is developed in which both the demands and costs are assumed to be fuzzy-random variables. The bounds of the optimal objective value of the two-stage FR-FLMR are derived. As, in general, the fuzzy-random parameters of the FR-FLMR can be regarded as continuous fuzzy-random variables with an infinite number of realizations, the computation of the recourse requires solving infinite second-stage programming problems. Owing to this requirement, the recourse function cannot be determined analytically, and, hence, the model cannot benefit from the use of techniques of classical mathematical programming. In order to solve the location problems of this nature, we first develop a technique of fuzzy-random simulation to compute the recourse function. The convergence of such simulation scenarios is discussed. In the sequel, we propose a hybrid mutation-based binary ant-colony optimization (MBACO) approach to the two-stage FR-FLMR, which comprises the fuzzy-random simulation and the simplex algorithm. A numerical experiment illustrates the application of the hybrid MBACO algorithm. The comparison shows that the hybrid MBACO finds better solutions than the one using other discrete metaheuristic algorithms, such as binary particle-swarm optimization, genetic algorithm, and tabu search. PMID:19955039
Colloidal thermoresponsive gel forming hybrids.
Liu, Ruixue; Tirelli, Nicola; Cellesi, Francesco; Saunders, Brian R
2010-09-15
Colloidal hybrids comprise organic and inorganic components and are attracting considerable attention in the literature. Recently, we reported hybrid anisotropic microsheets that formed thermoresponsive gels in polymer solutions [Liu et al., Langmuir, 25, 490, 2009]. Here, we investigate the composition and properties of these hybrid colloids themselves in detail for the first time. Three different cationic PNIPAm (N-isopropylacrylamide) graft copolymers and two inorganic nanoparticle types (laponite and Ludox silica) were used to prepare a range of hybrids. Anisotropic microsheets only formed when laponite particles were added to the copolymer implying directed self-assembly. Aqueous dispersions of the microsheets spontaneously formed gels at room temperature and these gels were thermoresponsive. They represent a new class of gel forming colloid and are termed thermoresponsive gel forming hybrids. The compositions of the hybrids were determined from thermogravimetric analysis and those that gave gel forming behaviour identified. Variable-temperature rheology experiments showed that the elasticity of the gels increased linearly with temperature. The reversibility of the thermally-triggered changes in gel elasticity was investigated. The concentration dependence of the rheology data was well described by elastic percolation scaling theory and the data could be collapsed onto a master curve. The concentration exponent for the elastic modulus was 2.5. The strong attractive interactions that exist between the dispersed gel forming hybrids was demonstrated by the formation of stable thermoresponsive hybrid hydrogels through casting of hybrid dispersions. PMID:20561633
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, J. S.; Moon, K. J.; Kim, Y. J.
2006-11-01
The size- and time-resolved measurement of particulate trace elements was made using an eight-stage Davis Rotating Unit for Monitoring sampler and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence system from 29 March to 29 May in 2002 at Gosan, Korea, which is one of the representative background sites in east Asia. As a result, continuous 3-hour average concentrations were obtained for 19 elements including S, Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Cl, Cu, Zn, Ti, K, Mn, Pb, Ni, V, Se, As, Rb, Cr, and Br. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) method was applied to the size-resolved aerosol data sets in order to identify the possible sources and to estimate their contribution to particulate matter mass in each size range. Twelve sources were then resolved in the fine size range (0.07 ˜ 1.15 μm), including continental aerosol, biomass burning, coal combustion, oil heating furnace, residual oil fired boiler, municipal incineration, nonferrous metal source, ferrous metal source, gasoline vehicle, diesel vehicle, copper smelter, and volcanic emission. A newly developed hybrid receptor model, concentration, retention time, and source emission weighted trajectory (CRSWT), was then applied to the source intensities derived from the PMF analysis by incorporating meteorological and source inventory information of the study region in order to suggest the regional information of long-range transported fine aerosol sources. The CRSWT model was able to resolve highly potential source areas and pathways for the fine ambient aerosol at the Gosan background site.
Dark energy from discrete spacetime.
Trout, Aaron D
2013-01-01
Dark energy accounts for most of the matter-energy content of our universe, yet current theories of its origin rely on radical physical assumptions such as the holographic principle or controversial anthropic arguments. We give a better motivated explanation for dark energy, claiming that it arises from a small negative scalar-curvature present even in empty spacetime. The vacuum has this curvature because spacetime is fundamentally discrete and there are more ways for a discrete geometry to have negative curvature than positive. We explicitly compute this effect using a variant of the well known dynamical-triangulations (DT) model for quantum gravity. Our model predicts a time-varying non-zero cosmological constant with a current value, [Formula: see text] in natural units, in agreement with observation. This calculation is made possible by a novel characterization of the possible DT action values combined with numerical evidence concerning their degeneracies. PMID:24312502
Class of discrete Gabor expansion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Shidong; Healy, Dennis M., Jr.
1994-03-01
We present a new approach to studying a discrete Gabor expansion (DGE). We show that, in general, DGE is not the usual biorthogonal decomposition, but belongs to a larger and looser decomposition scheme which we call pseudo frame decomposition. It includes the DGE scheme proposed as a special case. The standard dual frame decomposition is also a special case. We derive algorithms using techniques for Gabor sequences to compute 'biorthogonal' sequences through proper matrix representation. Our algorithms involve solutions to a linear system to obtain the 'biorthogonal' windows. This approach provides a much broader mathematical view of the DGE, and therefore, establishes a wider mathematical foundation towards the theory of DGE. The general algorithm derived also provides a whole class of discrete Gabor expansions, among which 'good' ones can be generated. Simulation results are also provided.
Systoles in discrete dynamical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernandes, Sara; Grácio, Clara; Ramos, Carlos Correia
2013-01-01
The fruitful relationship between Geometry and Graph Theory has been explored by several authors benefiting also the Theory of discrete dynamical systems seen as Markov chains in graphs. In this work we will further explore the relation between these areas, giving a geometrical interpretation of notions from dynamical systems. In particular, we relate the topological entropy with the systole, here defined in the context of discrete dynamical systems. We show that for continuous interval maps the systole is trivial; however, for the class of interval maps with one discontinuity point the systole acquires relevance from the point of view of the dynamical behavior. Moreover, we define the geodesic length spectrum associated to a Markov interval map and we compute the referred spectrum in several examples.
Dark Energy from Discrete Spacetime
Trout, Aaron D.
2013-01-01
Dark energy accounts for most of the matter-energy content of our universe, yet current theories of its origin rely on radical physical assumptions such as the holographic principle or controversial anthropic arguments. We give a better motivated explanation for dark energy, claiming that it arises from a small negative scalar-curvature present even in empty spacetime. The vacuum has this curvature because spacetime is fundamentally discrete and there are more ways for a discrete geometry to have negative curvature than positive. We explicitly compute this effect using a variant of the well known dynamical-triangulations (DT) model for quantum gravity. Our model predicts a time-varying non-zero cosmological constant with a current value, in natural units, in agreement with observation. This calculation is made possible by a novel characterization of the possible DT action values combined with numerical evidence concerning their degeneracies. PMID:24312502
A FORTRAN Program for Discrete Discriminant Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boone, James O.; Brewer, James K.
1976-01-01
A Fortran program is presented for discriminant analysis of discrete variables. The program assumes discrete, nominal data with no distributional, variance-covariance assumptions. The program handles a maximum of fifty predictor variables and twelve outcome groups. (Author/JKS)
Efficient genetic algorithms using discretization scheduling.
McLay, Laura A; Goldberg, David E
2005-01-01
In many applications of genetic algorithms, there is a tradeoff between speed and accuracy in fitness evaluations when evaluations use numerical methods with varying discretization. In these types of applications, the cost and accuracy vary from discretization errors when implicit or explicit quadrature is used to estimate the function evaluations. This paper examines discretization scheduling, or how to vary the discretization within the genetic algorithm in order to use the least amount of computation time for a solution of a desired quality. The effectiveness of discretization scheduling can be determined by comparing its computation time to the computation time of a GA using a constant discretization. There are three ingredients for the discretization scheduling: population sizing, estimated time for each function evaluation and predicted convergence time analysis. Idealized one- and two-dimensional experiments and an inverse groundwater application illustrate the computational savings to be achieved from using discretization scheduling. PMID:16156928
Anomalies and Discrete Chiral Symmetries
Creutz, M.
2009-09-07
The quantum anomaly that breaks the U(1) axial symmetry of massless multi-flavored QCD leaves behind a discrete flavor-singlet chiral invariance. With massive quarks, this residual symmetry has a close connection with the strong CP-violating parameter theta. One result is that if the lightest quarks are degenerate, then a first order transition will occur when theta passes through pi. The resulting framework helps clarify when the rooting prescription for extrapolating in the number of flavors is valid.
Discrete vortex representation of magnetohydrodynamics
Kinney, R.; Tajima, T.; Petviashvili, N.; McWilliams, J.C.
1993-02-01
We present an alternative approach to statistical analysis of an intermittent ideal MHD fluid in two dimensions, based on the hydrodynamical discrete vortex model applied to the Elsasser variables. The model contains negative temperature states which predict the formation of magnetic islands, but also includes a natural limit under which the equilibrium states revert to the familiar twin-vortex states predicted by hydrodynamical turbulence theories. Numerical dynamical calculations yield equilibrium spectra in agreement with the theoretical predictions.
Discrete-contact nanowire photovoltaics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chitambar, Michelle J.; Wen, Wen; Maldonado, Stephen
2013-11-01
A series of finite-element simulations have been performed to assess the operational characteristics of a new semiconductor nanowire solar cell design operating under high-level injection conditions. Specifically, the steady-state current-voltage behavior of a cylindrical silicon (Si) nanowire with a series of discrete, ohmic-selective contacts under intense sunlight illumination was investigated. The scope of the analysis was limited to only the factors that impact the net internal quantum yield for solar to electricity conversion. No evaluations were performed with regards to optical light trapping in the modeled structures. Several aspects in a discrete-contact nanowire device that could impact operation were explored, including the size and density of ohmic-selective contacts, the size of the nanowire, the electronic quality and conductivity of the nanowire, the surface defect density of the nanowire, and the type of ohmic selectivity employed at each contact. The analysis showed that there were ranges of values for each parameter that supported good to excellent photoresponses, with certain combinations of experimentally attainable material properties yielding internal energy conversion efficiencies at the thermodynamic limit for a single junction cell. The merits of the discrete-contact nanowire cell were contrasted with "conventional" nanowire photovoltaic cells featuring a uniform conformal contact and also with planar point-contact solar cells. The unique capacity of the discrete-contact nanowire solar cell design to operate at useful energy conversion efficiencies with low quality semiconductor nanowires (i.e., possessing short charge-carrier lifetimes) with only light doping is discussed. This work thus defines the impetus for future experimental work aimed at developing this photovoltaic architecture.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burström, Per E. C.; Frishfelds, Vilnis; Ljung, Anna-Lena; Lundström, T. Staffan; Marjavaara, B. Daniel
2016-04-01
Convective heat transport in a relatively thin porous layer of monosized particles is here modeled. The size of the particles is only one order of magnitude smaller than the thickness of the layer. Both a discrete three-dimensional system of particles and a continuous one-dimensional model are considered. The methodology applied for the discrete system is Voronoi discretization with minimization of dissipation rate of energy. The discrete and continuous model compares well for low velocities for the studied uniform inlet boundary conditions. When increasing the speed or for a thin porous layer however, the continuous model diverge from the discrete approach if a constant dispersion is used in the continuous approach. The new result is thus that a special correlation must be used when using a continuous model for flow perpendicular to a thin porous media in order to predict the dispersion in proper manner, especially in combination with higher velocities.
Symmetric Discrete Orthonormal Stockwell Transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yanwei; Orchard, Jeff
2008-09-01
The Stockwell Transform (ST) is a time-frequency signal decomposition that is gaining in popularity, likely because of its direct relation with the Fourier Transform (FT). A discrete and non-redundant version of the ST, denoted the Discrete Orthonormal Stockwell Transform (DOST), has made the use of the ST more feasible. However, the matrix multiplication required by the DOST can still be a formidable computation, especially for high-dimensional data. Moreover, the symmetric property of the ST and FT is not present in the DOST. In this paper, we investigate a new Symmetric Discrete Orthonormal Stockwell Transform (SDOST) that still keeps the non-redundant multiresolution features of the DOST, while maintaining a symmetry property similar to that of the FT. First, we give a brief introduction for the ST and the DOST. Then we analyze the DOST coefficients and modify the transform to get a symmetric version. A small experiment shows that the SDOST has kept the abilities of the DOST and demonstrates the advantage of symmetry when applying the SDOST.
Interference in discrete Wigner functions
Cormick, Cecilia; Paz, Juan Pablo
2006-12-15
We analyze some features of the class of discrete Wigner functions that was recently introduced by Gibbons et al. [Phys. Rev. A 70, 062101 (2004)] to represent quantum states of systems with power-of-prime dimensional Hilbert spaces. We consider ''cat'' states obtained as coherent superpositions of states with positive Wigner function; for such states we show that the oscillations of the discrete Wigner function typically spread over the entire discrete phase space (including the regions where the two interfering states are localized). This is a generic property, which is in sharp contrast with the usual attributes of Wigner functions that make them useful candidates to display the existence of quantum coherence through oscillations. However, it is possible to find subsets of cat states with a natural phase-space representation, in which the oscillatory regions remain localized. We show that this can be done for interesting families of stabilizer states used in quantum error-correcting codes, and illustrate this by analyzing the phase-space representation of the five-qubit error-correcting code.
Observability of discretized partial differential equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cohn, Stephen E.; Dee, Dick P.
1988-01-01
It is shown that complete observability of the discrete model used to assimilate data from a linear partial differential equation (PDE) system is necessary and sufficient for asymptotic stability of the data assimilation process. The observability theory for discrete systems is reviewed and applied to obtain simple observability tests for discretized constant-coefficient PDEs. Examples are used to show how numerical dispersion can result in discrete dynamics with multiple eigenvalues, thereby detracting from observability.
Discrete Particle Dynamics Simulations of Adhesive Systems with Thermostatting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pierce, Flint; Lechman, Jeremy; Hewson, John
2012-02-01
Aggregation/coagulation/flocculation processes are ubiquitous in modern industry from fields as diverse as waste water treatment, the food industry, algae biofuel production, and materials processing where control of the size and morphology of aggregates is paramount to the application of interest. Population balance models have historically been used with success in predicting aggregation kinetics and size distributions for these processes. However, even the most robust population balance schemes can lack an exact description of the underlying physical processes governing attractive or adhesive particulate matter suspended in a background medium, including finite aggregate strength and yield stress, restructuring length and time scales, and response to hydrodynamic forces. In order to elucidate these phenomena, We develop and use a JKR type model for simulating adhesive particulate matter in a background medium varying from dilute gas to liquid. We evaluate the time and length scales for restructuring/fragmentation that result from this model as a function of aggregate size and fractal dimension. We additionally introduce a method for pairwise thermostatting of the adhesive potential and discuss the applicability of this model to various adhesive systems.
Discreteness noise versus force errors in N-body simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hernquist, Lars; Hut, Piet; Makino, Jun
1993-01-01
A low accuracy in the force calculation per time step of a few percent for each particle pair is sufficient for collisionless N-body simulations. Higher accuracy is made meaningless by the dominant discreteness noise in the form of two-body relaxation, which can be reduced only by increasing the number of particles. Since an N-body simulation is a Monte Carlo procedure in which each particle-particle force is essentially random, i.e., carries an error of about 1000 percent, the only requirement is a systematic averaging-out of these intrinsic errors. We illustrate these assertions with two specific examples in which individual pairwise forces are deliberately allowed to carry significant errors: tree-codes on supercomputers and algorithms on special-purpose machines with low-precision hardware.
Particle segregation during explosive dispersal of binary particle mixtures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frost, David; Loiseau, Jason; Marr, Bradley; Goroshin, Sam
2015-06-01
The explosive dispersal of a layer of solid particles surrounding a spherical high explosive charge generates a turbulent, multiphase flow. The shock-compacted particle layer typically fractures into discrete fragments which shed particles in their wakes forming jet-like structures. The tendency to form jets depends on the particle to explosive mass ratio and type of particles, with brittle particles (e.g., glass) as well as ductile metallic particles particularly susceptible to jet formation. In contrast, tough, dense (e.g., steel) particles are much less prone to forming jets. Experiments have been carried out to determine the degree of particle segregation that occurs during the explosive dispersal of a uniform binary mixture containing both ``jetting'' (silicon carbide) and ``non-jetting'' (steel) particles with various mass fractions of each particle type. During the dispersal of mixtures that contain predominantly non-jetting (steel) particles, the steel particles form a stable layer whereas the jetting (silicon carbide) particles rapidly segregate and form jets which lag behind the steel particles. As the fraction of silicon carbide particles increases, the jet structures dominate the particle motion and the steel particles are entrained into the jets.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vlahos, L.; Machado, M. E.; Ramaty, R.; Murphy, R. J.; Alissandrakis, C.; Bai, T.; Batchelor, D.; Benz, A. O.; Chupp, E.; Ellison, D.
1986-01-01
Data is compiled from Solar Maximum Mission and Hinothori satellites, particle detectors in several satellites, ground based instruments, and balloon flights in order to answer fundamental questions relating to: (1) the requirements for the coronal magnetic field structure in the vicinity of the energization source; (2) the height (above the photosphere) of the energization source; (3) the time of energization; (4) transistion between coronal heating and flares; (5) evidence for purely thermal, purely nonthermal and hybrid type flares; (6) the time characteristics of the energization source; (7) whether every flare accelerates protons; (8) the location of the interaction site of the ions and relativistic electrons; (9) the energy spectra for ions and relativistic electrons; (10) the relationship between particles at the Sun and interplanetary space; (11) evidence for more than one acceleration mechanism; (12) whether there is single mechanism that will accelerate particles to all energies and also heat the plasma; and (13) how fast the existing mechanisms accelerate electrons up to several MeV and ions to 1 GeV.
Hybrid stochastic simplifications for multiscale gene networks
Crudu, Alina; Debussche, Arnaud; Radulescu, Ovidiu
2009-01-01
Background Stochastic simulation of gene networks by Markov processes has important applications in molecular biology. The complexity of exact simulation algorithms scales with the number of discrete jumps to be performed. Approximate schemes reduce the computational time by reducing the number of simulated discrete events. Also, answering important questions about the relation between network topology and intrinsic noise generation and propagation should be based on general mathematical results. These general results are difficult to obtain for exact models. Results We propose a unified framework for hybrid simplifications of Markov models of multiscale stochastic gene networks dynamics. We discuss several possible hybrid simplifications, and provide algorithms to obtain them from pure jump processes. In hybrid simplifications, some components are discrete and evolve by jumps, while other components are continuous. Hybrid simplifications are obtained by partial Kramers-Moyal expansion [1-3] which is equivalent to the application of the central limit theorem to a sub-model. By averaging and variable aggregation we drastically reduce simulation time and eliminate non-critical reactions. Hybrid and averaged simplifications can be used for more effective simulation algorithms and for obtaining general design principles relating noise to topology and time scales. The simplified models reproduce with good accuracy the stochastic properties of the gene networks, including waiting times in intermittence phenomena, fluctuation amplitudes and stationary distributions. The methods are illustrated on several gene network examples. Conclusion Hybrid simplifications can be used for onion-like (multi-layered) approaches to multi-scale biochemical systems, in which various descriptions are used at various scales. Sets of discrete and continuous variables are treated with different methods and are coupled together in a physically justified approach. PMID:19735554
State-space supervision of reconfigurable discrete event systems
Garcia, H.E.; Ray, A.
1995-12-31
The Discrete Event Systems (DES) theory of supervisory and state feedback control offers many advantages for implementing supervisory systems. Algorithmic concepts have been introduced to assure that the supervising algorithms are correct and meet the specifications. It is often assumed that the supervisory specifications are invariant or, at least, until a given supervisory task is completed. However, there are many practical applications where the supervising specifications update at real time. For example, in a Reconfigurable Discrete Event System (RDES) architecture, a bank of supervisors is defined to accommodate each identified operational condition or different supervisory specifications. This adaptive supervisory control system changes the supervisory configuration to accept coordinating commands or to adjust for changes in the controlled process. This paper addresses reconfiguration at the supervisory level of hybrid systems along with a RDES underlying architecture. It reviews the state-based supervisory control theory and extends it to the paradigm of RDES and in view of process control applications. The paper addresses theoretical issues with a limited number of practical examples. This control approach is particularly suitable for hierarchical reconfigurable hybrid implementations.
Three-dimensional incompressible flow calculations with alternative discretization schemes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamamidis, Panos; Assanis, Dennis N.
1993-08-01
A finite-volume calculation procedure for steady, incompressible, elliptic flows in complex geometries is presented. The methodology uses generalized body-fitted coordinates to model the shape of the boundary accurately. All variables are stored at the centroids of the elements, thus achieving simplicity and low cost of computations. Turbulence is modeled by using the standard two-equation k-epsilon model. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the performance and accuracy of flow calculations under different discretization schemes in the light of experimental results. The discretization schemes that are incorporated in the code include the classical hybrid scheme, the third-order QUICK scheme, and a fifth-order upwind scheme. Benchmark tests are performed for laminar and turbulent flows in 90 deg curved ducts of square and circular cross sections. Flaw solutions obtained using the classical hybrid scheme are compared with solutions obtained with the higher-order schemes. The results show that accurate solutions can be efficiently obtained on grids of moderate size by using high-order-accuracy schemes. Overall, the potential of the methodology for calculating real-life engineering flows is demonstrated.
Discrete element modeling of subglacial sediment deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Damsgaard, A.; Egholm, D. L.; Piotrowski, J. A.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Larsen, N. K.
2013-12-01
The Discrete Element Method (DEM) is used to explore the highly nonlinear dynamics of a granular bed when exposed to stress conditions comparable to those at the bed of warm-based glaciers. In the DEM, the material is simulated on a grain-by-grain basis, and defining the micromechanical properties of the inter-particle contacts parameterizes the model. For validating the numerical approach, the macromechanical behavior of the numerical material is compared to the results from successive laboratory ring-shear experiments. Overall, there is a good agreement between the geotechnical behavior of the real granular materials and the numerical results. The materials deform by an elasto-plastic rheology under the applied effective normal stress and horizontal shearing. The peak and ultimate shear strengths depend linearly on the magnitude of the normal stress by the Mohr-Coulomb constitutive relationship. The numerical approach allows for a detailed analysis of the material dynamics and shear zone development during progressive shear strain. We demonstrate how the shear zone thickness and dilation increase with the magnitude of the normal stress. The stresses are distributed heterogeneously through the granular material along stress-carrying force chains. Between the force chains are the volumetrically dominant inactive zones. Overall, the force chain orientation is parallel to the maximum compressive stress. The data-parallel nature of the basic DEM formulation makes the problem ideal for utilizing the high arithmetic potential of modern general-purpose GPUs. Using the Nvidia CUDA C toolkit, the algorithm is formulated for spherical particles in three dimensions with a linear-elastic soft-body contact model. We have coupled the DEM model to a model for porewater flow, and we present early results of particle-porewater interactions. The two-way mechanical coupling is used to investigate pore-pressure feedbacks, which may be very important for the dynamics of soft
Zhang, Boning; Herbold, Eric B.; Homel, Michael A.; Regueiro, Richard A.
2015-12-01
An adaptive particle fracture model in poly-ellipsoidal Discrete Element Method is developed. The poly-ellipsoidal particle will break into several sub-poly-ellipsoids by Hoek-Brown fracture criterion based on continuum stress and the maximum tensile stress in contacts. Also Weibull theory is introduced to consider the statistics and size effects on particle strength. Finally, high strain-rate split Hopkinson pressure bar experiment of silica sand is simulated using this newly developed model. Comparisons with experiments show that our particle fracture model can capture the mechanical behavior of this experiment very well, both in stress-strain response and particle size redistribution. The effects of density and packings o the samples are also studied in numerical examples.
HIGH ENERGY PARTICLE ACCELERATOR
Courant, E.D.; Livingston, M.S.; Snyder, H.S.
1959-04-14
An improved apparatus is presented for focusing charged particles in an accelerator. In essence, the invention includes means for establishing a magnetic field in discrete sectors along the path of moving charged particles, the magnetic field varying in each sector in accordance with the relation. B = B/ sub 0/ STAln (r-r/sub 0/)/r/sub 0/!, where B/sub 0/ is the value of the magnetic field at the equilibrium orbit of radius r/sub 0/ of the path of the particles, B equals the magnetic field at the radius r of the chamber and n equals the magnetic field gradient index, the polarity of n being abruptly reversed a plurality of times as the particles travel along their arcuate path. With this arrangement, the particles are alternately converged towards the axis of their equillbrium orbit and diverged therefrom in successive sectors with a resultant focusing effect.
3D imaging of nanomaterials by discrete tomography.
Batenburg, K J; Bals, S; Sijbers, J; Kübel, C; Midgley, P A; Hernandez, J C; Kaiser, U; Encina, E R; Coronado, E A; Van Tendeloo, G
2009-05-01
The field of discrete tomography focuses on the reconstruction of samples that consist of only a few different materials. Ideally, a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of such a sample should contain only one grey level for each of the compositions in the sample. By exploiting this property in the reconstruction algorithm, either the quality of the reconstruction can be improved significantly, or the number of required projection images can be reduced. The discrete reconstruction typically contains fewer artifacts and does not have to be segmented, as it already contains one grey level for each composition. Recently, a new algorithm, called discrete algebraic reconstruction technique (DART), has been proposed that can be used effectively on experimental electron tomography datasets. In this paper, we propose discrete tomography as a general reconstruction method for electron tomography in materials science. We describe the basic principles of DART and show that it can be applied successfully to three different types of samples, consisting of embedded ErSi(2) nanocrystals, a carbon nanotube grown from a catalyst particle and a single gold nanoparticle, respectively. PMID:19269094
On discrete symmetries and torsion homology in F-theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mayrhofer, Christoph; Palti, Eran; Till, Oskar; Weigand, Timo
2015-06-01
We study the relation between discrete gauge symmetries in F-theory compactifications and torsion homology on the associated Calabi-Yau manifold. Focusing on the simplest example of a symmetry, we show that there are two physically distinct ways that such a discrete gauge symmetry can arise. First, compactifications of M-Theory on Calabi-Yau threefolds which support a genus-one fibration with a bi-section are known to be dual to six-dimensional F-theory vacua with a gauge symmetry. We show that the resulting five-dimensional theories do not have a symmetry but that the latter emerges only in the F-theory decompactification limit. Accordingly the genus-one fibred Calabi-Yau manifolds do not exhibit torsion in homology. Associated to the bi-section fibration is a Jacobian fibration which does support a section. Compactifying on these related but distinct varieties does lead to a symmetry in five dimensions and, accordingly, we find explicitly an associated torsion cycle. We identify the expected particle and membrane system of the discrete symmetry in terms of wrapped M2 and M5 branes and present a field-theory description of the physics for both cases in terms of circle reductions of six-dimensional theories. Our results and methods generalise straightforwardly to larger discrete symmetries and to four-dimensional compactifications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McKenna-Lawlor, S.; Kallio, E.; Alho, M.; Jarvinen, R.; Afonin, V.
2012-04-01
Energetic particle data recorded by the SLED instrument aboard Phobos-2 while in circular orbit about Mars in March, 1989 showed the presence of magnetic shadowing. A 3-D, self consistent, hybrid model (HYB-Mars) supplemented by test particle simulations was developed to study the response of the Martian plasma environment to solar disturbances and to interpret, in particular, the SLED observations. The magnetic and electric fields, as well as the properties of high energy ions, present at Mars under conditions of extreme solar disturbance can be derived from HYB-Mars. Our initial study [McKenna-Lawlor et al., EPS 2011, in press] showed that the HYB-Mars model predicted an already well-documented plasma phenomenon at the planet, namely 'sw-flow shadowing (identified in the measurements of the ASPERA (plasma) experiment aboard Phobos-2). HYB further, importantly, predicted the occurrence of magnetic shadowing which is qualitatively similar to that recorded by SLED. The simulations in addition suggested that the configuration of a magnetic shadow depends on the pertaining solar wind density and velocity, and on the magnitude and direction of the interplanetary magnetic field. The present work presents a more detailed study where plasma and magnetic field inputs to the HYB model come from measurements made aboard Phobos-2 contemporaneously with the SLED observations. In this way it is possible to realistically match the upstream interplanetary conditions with the configuration of the magnetic shadow recorded at various energies in the SLED data. One-to-one comparisons between the SLED observations and simulated high energy H+ fluxes will be presented in this context and similarities and differences between the observations and simulations discussed.
Driven discrete time quantum walks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamilton, Craig S.; Barkhofen, Sonja; Sansoni, Linda; Jex, Igor; Silberhorn, Christine
2016-07-01
We introduce the driven discrete time quantum walk (QW), where walkers are added during the walk instead of only at the beginning. This leads to interference in walker number and very different dynamics when compared to the original QW. These dynamics have two regimes, which we illustrate using the one-dimensional line. Then, we explore a search application which has certain advantages over current search protocols, namely that it does not require a complicated initial state nor a specific measurement time to observe the marked state. Finally, we describe a potential experimental implementation using existing technology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukuyama, Yoshikazu
This paper compares particle swarm optimization (PSO) techniques for a reactive power allocation planning problem in power systems. The problem can be formulated as a mixed-integer nonlinear optimization problem (MINLP). The PSO based methods determines a reactive power allocation strategy with continuous and discrete state variables such as automatic voltage regulator (AVR) operating values of electric power generators, tap positions of on-load tap changer (OLTC) of transformers, and the number of reactive power compensation equipment. Namely, this paper investigates applicability of PSO techniques to one of the practical MINLPs in power systems. Four variations of PSO: PSO with inertia weight approach (IWA), PSO with constriction factor approach (CFA), hybrid particle swarm optimization (HPSO) with IWA, and HPSO with CFA are compared. The four methods are applied to the standard IEEE14 bus system and a practical 112 bus system.
On discrete symmetries for a whole Abelian model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chauca, J.; Doria, R.
2012-10-01
Considering the whole concept applied to gauge theory a nonlinear abelian model is derived. A next step is to understand on the model properties. At this work, it will be devoted to discrete symmetries. For this, we will work based in two fields reference systems. This whole gauge symmetry allows to be analyzed through different sets which are the constructor basis {Dμ,Xiμ} and the physical basis {GμI}. Taking as fields reference system the diagonalized spin-1 sector, P, C, T and PCT symmetries are analyzed. They show that under this systemic model there are conservation laws driven for the parts and for the whole. It develops the meaning of whole-parity, field-parity and so on. However it is the whole symmetry that rules. This means that usually forbidden particles as pseudovector photons can be introduced through such whole abelian system. As result, one notices that the fields whole {GμI} manifest a quanta diversity. It involves particles with different spins, masses and discrete quantum numbers under a same gauge symmetry. It says that without violating PCT symmetry different possibilities on discrete symmetries can be accommodated.
On discrete symmetries for a whole Abelian model
Chauca, J.; Doria, R.
2012-09-24
Considering the whole concept applied to gauge theory a nonlinear abelian model is derived. A next step is to understand on the model properties. At this work, it will be devoted to discrete symmetries. For this, we will work based in two fields reference systems. This whole gauge symmetry allows to be analyzed through different sets which are the constructor basis {l_brace}D{sub {mu}},X{sup i}{sub {mu}}{r_brace} and the physical basis {l_brace}G{sub {mu}I}{r_brace}. Taking as fields reference system the diagonalized spin-1 sector, P, C, T and PCT symmetries are analyzed. They show that under this systemic model there are conservation laws driven for the parts and for the whole. It develops the meaning of whole-parity, field-parity and so on. However it is the whole symmetry that rules. This means that usually forbidden particles as pseudovector photons can be introduced through such whole abelian system. As result, one notices that the fields whole {l_brace}G{sub {mu}I}{r_brace} manifest a quanta diversity. It involves particles with different spins, masses and discrete quantum numbers under a same gauge symmetry. It says that without violating PCT symmetry different possibilities on discrete symmetries can be accommodated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chatelin, Robin; Poncet, Philippe
2014-07-01
Particle methods are very convenient to compute transport equations in fluid mechanics as their computational cost is linear and they are not limited by convection stability conditions. To achieve large 3D computations the method must be coupled to efficient algorithms for velocity computations, including a good treatment of non-homogeneities and complex moving geometries. The Penalization method enables to consider moving bodies interaction by adding a term in the conservation of momentum equation. This work introduces a new computational algorithm to solve implicitly in the same step the Penalization term and the Laplace operators, since explicit computations are limited by stability issues, especially at low Reynolds number. This computational algorithm is based on the Sherman-Morrison-Woodbury formula coupled to a GMRES iterative method to reduce the computations to a sequence of Poisson problems: this allows to formulate a penalized Poisson equation as a large perturbation of a standard Poisson, by means of algebraic relations. A direct consequence is the possibility to use fast solvers based on Fast Fourier Transforms for this problem with good efficiency from both the computational and the memory consumption point of views, since these solvers are recursive and they do not perform any matrix assembling. The resulting fluid mechanics computations are very fast and they consume a small amount of memory, compared to a reference solver or a linear system resolution. The present applications focus mainly on a coupling between transport equation and 3D Stokes equations, for studying biological organisms motion in a highly viscous flows with variable viscosity.
Discreteness effects in population dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guevara Hidalgo, Esteban; Lecomte, Vivien
2016-05-01
We analyse numerically the effects of small population size in the initial transient regime of a simple example population dynamics. These effects play an important role for the numerical determination of large deviation functions of additive observables for stochastic processes. A method commonly used in order to determine such functions is the so-called cloning algorithm which in its non-constant population version essentially reduces to the determination of the growth rate of a population, averaged over many realizations of the dynamics. However, the averaging of populations is highly dependent not only on the number of realizations of the population dynamics, and on the initial population size but also on the cut-off time (or population) considered to stop their numerical evolution. This may result in an over-influence of discreteness effects at initial times, caused by small population size. We overcome these effects by introducing a (realization-dependent) time delay in the evolution of populations, additional to the discarding of the initial transient regime of the population growth where these discreteness effects are strong. We show that the improvement in the estimation of the large deviation function comes precisely from these two main contributions.
An extension of the OpenModelica compiler for using Modelica models in a discrete event simulation
Nutaro, James
2014-11-03
In this article, a new back-end and run-time system is described for the OpenModelica compiler. This new back-end transforms a Modelica model into a module for the adevs discrete event simulation package, thereby extending adevs to encompass complex, hybrid dynamical systems. The new run-time system that has been built within the adevs simulation package supports models with state-events and time-events and that comprise differential-algebraic systems with high index. Finally, although the procedure for effecting this transformation is based on adevs and the Discrete Event System Specification, it can be adapted to any discrete event simulation package.
Fast Particle Pair Detection Algorithms for Particle Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iwai, T.; Hong, C.-W.; Greil, P.
New algorithms with O(N) complexity have been developed for fast particle-pair detections in particle simulations like the discrete element method (DEM) and molecular dynamic (MD). They exhibit robustness against broad particle size distributions when compared with conventional boxing methods. Almost similar calculation speeds are achieved at particle size distributions from is mono-size to 1:10 while the linked-cell method results in calculations more than 20 times. The basic algorithm, level-boxing, uses the variable search range according to each particle. The advanced method, multi-level boxing, employs multiple cell layers to reduce the particle size discrepancy. Another method, indexed-level boxing, reduces the size of cell arrays by introducing the hash procedure to access the cell array, and is effective for sparse particle systems with a large number of particles.
Furth, H.P.; Ludescher, C.
1984-08-01
The present paper briefly reviews the subject of tokamak-stellarator and pinch-stellarator hybrids, and points to two interesting new possibilities: compact-torus-stellarators and mirror-stellarators.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary
2012-01-01
Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of
Fabrication and optical enhancing properties of discrete supercrystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tebbe, Moritz; Lentz, Sarah; Guerrini, Luca; Fery, Andreas; Alvarez-Puebla, Ramon A.; Pazos-Perez, Nicolas
2016-06-01
Discrete gold nanoparticle crystals with tunable size and morphology are fabricated via a fast and inexpensive template-assisted method. The highly precise hierarchical organization of the plasmonic building blocks yields superstructures with outstanding behaviour for surface-enhanced Raman scattering analysis.Discrete gold nanoparticle crystals with tunable size and morphology are fabricated via a fast and inexpensive template-assisted method. The highly precise hierarchical organization of the plasmonic building blocks yields superstructures with outstanding behaviour for surface-enhanced Raman scattering analysis. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: UV-Vis spectra and TEM and SEM images of different particles and supercrystals. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr09017b
Discrete Ordinates Solutions for Highly Forward Peaked Scattering
Sanchez, Richard; McCormick, Norman J.
2004-07-15
The limitations of asymptotic methods for numerically solving highly forward peaked scattering (HFPS) problems are reviewed before resorting to a discrete ordinates solution for such problems based on biased angular quadrature formulas to increase the precision of the angular representation and on source evaluation from cell-averaged angular fluxes to reduce memory requirements. Also, a twice-collided source is introduced to avoid numerical representation of singularities in the solution. As an example the propagation and spreading of a collimated particle beam in an HFPS medium has been calculated with a discrete ordinates diamond-differenced numerical solution of the transport equation in two-dimensional curvilinear cylindrical coordinates. The calculation was carried out for a strongly forward peaked Henyey-Greenstein scattering law for which Fokker-Planck asymptotic models are not valid. The results show promise for numerically calculated reference solutions based on accurate spatial representations for checking the accuracy of standard asymptotic models for these types of problems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Park, Han G.; Cannon, Howard; Bajwa, Anupa; Mackey, Ryan; James, Mark; Maul, William
2004-01-01
This paper describes the initial integration of a hybrid reasoning system utilizing a continuous domain feature-based detector, Beacon-based Exceptions Analysis for Multimissions (BEAM), and a discrete domain model-based reasoner, Livingstone.
Discrete element modelling of subglacial sediment deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christensen, A. D.; Egholm, D. L.; Piotrowski, J. A.; Tulaczyk, S.
2012-04-01
Soft, deformable sediments are often present under glaciers. Subglacial sediments deform under the differential load of the ice, and this causes the overlying glacier to accelerate its motion. Understanding the rheology of subglacial sediment is therefore important for models of glacial dynamics. Previous studies of the mechanical behaviour of subglacial sediments have primarily relied on analytical considerations and laboratory shearing experiments. As a novel approach, the Discrete Element Method (DEM) is used to explore the highly nonlinear dynamics of a granular bed that is exposed to stress conditions comparable to subglacial environments. The numerical approach allows close monitoring of the mechanical and rheological behaviour under a range of conditions. Of special interest is bed shear strength, strain distribution and -localization, mode of deformation, and role of effective normal pressure during shearing. As a calibration benchmark, results from laboratory ring-shear experiments on granular material are compared to similar numerical experiments. The continuously recorded stress dynamics in the laboratory shear experiments are compared to DEM experiments, and the micro-mechanical parameters in the contact model of the DEM code are calibrated to match the macroscopic Mohr-Coulomb failure criteria parameters, constrained from successive laboratory shear tests under a range of normal pressures. The data-parallel nature of the basic DEM formulation makes the problem ideal for utilizing the high arithmetic potential of modern general-purpose GPUs. Using the Nvidia Cuda C toolkit, the algorithm is formulated for spherical particles in three dimensions with a soft-body contact model. Scene rendering is performed using a custom Cuda ray-tracing algorithm. Efforts on optimization of the particle algorithm are discussed, and future plans of expansion are presented.
Structure of an energetic narrow discrete arc
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcfadden, J. P.; Carlson, C. W.; Boehm, M. H.
1990-01-01
Particle distributions, waves, dc electric fields, and magnetic fields were measured by two sounding rockets at altitudes of 950 and 430 km through an energetic (greater than 5 keV) narrow (about 10 km) stable discrete arc. Although the payloads' magnetic footprints were separated by only 50 km, differences in the arc's structure were observed including the spatial width, peak energy, and characteristic spectra. The energetic electron precipitation included both slowly varying isotropic fluxes that formed an inverted-V energy-time signature and rapidly varying field-aligned fluxes at or below the isotropic spectral peak. The isotropic precipitation had a flux discontinuity inside the arc indicating the arc was present on a boundary between two different magnetospheric plasmas. Dispersive and nondispersive bursts of field-aligned electrons were measured throughout the arc, appearing over broad energy ranges or as monoenergetic beams. Dispersive bursts gave variable source distances less than 8000 km. Plateauing of some of the most intense bursts suggests that waves stabilized these electrons. During the lower altitude arc crossing, the field-aligned component formed a separate inverted-V energy-time signature whose peak energy was half the isotropic peak energy.
Simulating Electrophoresis with Discrete Charge and Drag
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mowitz, Aaron J.; Witten, Thomas A.
A charged asymmetric rigid cluster of colloidal particles in saline solution can respond in exotic ways to an electric field: it may spin or move transversely. These distinctive motions arise from the drag force of the neutralizing countercharge surrounding the cluster. Because of this drag, calculating the motion of arbitrary asymmetric objects with nonuniform charge is impractical by conventional methods. Here we present a new method of simulating electrophoresis, in which we replace the continuous object and the surrounding countercharge with discrete point-draggers, called Stokeslets. The balance of forces imposes a linear, self-consistent relation among the drag and Coulomb forces on the Stokeslets, which allows us to easily determine the object's motion via matrix inversion. By explicitly enforcing charge+countercharge neutrality, the simulation recovers the distinctive features of electrophoretic motion to few-percent accuracy using as few as 1000 Stokeslets. In particular, for uniformly charged objects, we observe the characteristic Smoluchowski independence of mobility on object size and shape. We then discuss electrophoretic motion of asymmetric objects, where our simulation method is particularly advantageous. This work is supported by a Grant from the US-Israel Binational Science Foundation.
Discrete element modeling of subglacial sediment deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Damsgaard, Anders; Egholm, David L.; Piotrowski, Jan A.; Tulaczyk, Slawek; Larsen, Nicolaj K.; Tylmann, Karol
2013-12-01
The Discrete Element Method (DEM) is used in this study to explore the highly nonlinear dynamics of a granular bed when exposed to stress conditions comparable to those at the bed of warm-based glaciers. Complementary to analog experiments, the numerical approach allows a detailed analysis of the material dynamics and the shear zone development during progressive shear strain. The geometry of the heterogeneous stress network is visible in the form of force-carrying grain bridges and adjacent, volumetrically dominant, inactive zones. We demonstrate how the shear zone thickness and dilation depend on the level of normal (overburden) stress, and we show how high normal stress can mobilize material to great depths. The particle rotational axes tend to align with progressive shear strain, with rotations both along and reverse to the shear direction. The results from successive laboratory ring-shear experiments on simple granular materials are compared to results from similar numerical experiments. The simulated DEM material and all tested laboratory materials deform by an elastoplastic rheology under the applied effective normal stress. These results demonstrate that the DEM is a viable alternative to continuum models for small-scale analysis of sediment deformation. It can be used to simulate the macromechanical behavior of simple granular sediments, and it provides an opportunity to study how microstructures in subglacial sediments are formed during progressive shear strain.
Discrete Element Modeling for Mobility and Excavation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knuth, M. A.; Hopkins, M. A.
2011-12-01
The planning and completion of mobility and excavation efforts on the moon requires a thorough understanding of the planetary regolith. In this work, a discrete element method (DEM) model is created to replicate those activities in the laboratory and for planning mission activities in the future. The crux of this work is developing a particle bed that best replicates the regolith tool/wheel interaction seen in the laboratory. To do this, a DEM geotechnical triaxial strength cell was created allowing for comparison of laboratory JSC-1a triaxial tests to DEM simulated soils. This model relies on a triangular lattice membrane covered triaxial cell for determining the macroscopic properties of the modeled granular material as well as a fast and efficient contact detection algorithm for a variety of grain shapes. Multiple grain shapes with increasing complexity (ellipsoid, poly-ellipsoid and polyhedra) have been developed and tested. This comparison gives us a basis to begin scaling DEM grain size and shape to practical values for mobility and excavation modeling. Next steps include development of a DEM scoop for percussive excavation testing as well as continued analysis of rover wheel interactions using a wide assortment of grain shape and size distributions.
Observers for discrete-time nonlinear systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grossman, Walter D.
Observer synthesis for discrete-time nonlinear systems with special applications to parameter estimation is analyzed. Two new types of observers are developed. The first new observer is an adaptation of the Friedland continuous-time parameter estimator to discrete-time systems. The second observer is an adaptation of the continuous-time Gauthier observer to discrete-time systems. By adapting these observers to discrete-time continuous-time parameter estimation problems which were formerly intractable become tractable. In addition to the two newly developed observers, two observers already described in the literature are analyzed and deficiencies with respect to noise rejection are demonstrated. Improved versions of these observers are proposed and their performance demonstrated. The issues of discrete-time observability, discrete-time system inversion, and optimal probing are also addressed.
Simulation of Marine Hydrokinetic Turbines in Unsteady Flow using Vortex Particle Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sale, Danny; Aliseda, Alberto
2013-11-01
A vortex particle method has been developed to study the performance and wake characteristics of Marine Hydrokinetic turbines. The goals are to understand mean flow and turbulent eddy effects on wake evolution, and the unsteady loading on the rotor and support structures. The vorticity-velocity formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian method involving both vortex particle and spatial mesh discretizations. Particle strengths are modified by vortex stretching, diffusion, and body forces; these terms in the vorticity transport equation involve differential operators and are computed more efficiently on a Cartesian mesh using finite differences. High-order and moment-conserving interpolations allow the particles and mesh to exchange field quantities and particle strengths. An immersed boundary method which introduces a penalization term in the vorticity transport equations provides an efficient way to satisfy the no-slip boundary condition on solid boundaries. To provide further computational speedup, we investigate the use of multicore processors and graphics processing units using the OpenMP and OpenCL interfaces within the Parallel Particle-Mesh Library.
Hybridized polymer matrix composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
London, A.
1981-01-01
Design approaches and materials are described from which are fabricated pyrostatic graphite/epoxy (Gr/Ep) laminates that show improved retention of graphite particulates when subjected to burning. Sixteen hybridized plus two standard Gr/Ep laminates were designed, fabricated, and tested in an effort to eliminate the release of carbon (graphite) fiber particles from burned/burning, mechanically disturbed samples. The term pyrostatic is defined as meaning mechanically intact in the presence of fire. Graphite particulate retentive laminates were constructed whose constituent materials, cost of fabrication, and physical and mechanical properties were not significantly different from existing Gr/Ep composites. All but one laminate (a Celion graphite/bis-maleimide polyimide) were based on an off-the-shelf Gr/Ep, the AS-1/3501-5A system. Of the 16 candidates studied, four thin (10-ply) and four thick (50-ply) hybridized composites are recommended.
Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; DeChant, Lawrence Justin.; Piekos, Edward Stanley; Pointon, Timothy David
2009-02-01
This report summarizes the work completed during FY2007 and FY2008 for the LDRD project ''Hybrid Plasma Modeling''. The goal of this project was to develop hybrid methods to model plasmas across the non-continuum-to-continuum collisionality spectrum. The primary methodology to span these regimes was to couple a kinetic method (e.g., Particle-In-Cell) in the non-continuum regions to a continuum PDE-based method (e.g., finite differences) in continuum regions. The interface between the two would be adjusted dynamically ased on statistical sampling of the kinetic results. Although originally a three-year project, it became clear during the second year (FY2008) that there were not sufficient resources to complete the project and it was terminated mid-year.
Multigrid methods for isogeometric discretization.
Gahalaut, K P S; Kraus, J K; Tomar, S K
2013-01-01
We present (geometric) multigrid methods for isogeometric discretization of scalar second order elliptic problems. The smoothing property of the relaxation method, and the approximation property of the intergrid transfer operators are analyzed. These properties, when used in the framework of classical multigrid theory, imply uniform convergence of two-grid and multigrid methods. Supporting numerical results are provided for the smoothing property, the approximation property, convergence factor and iterations count for V-, W- and F-cycles, and the linear dependence of V-cycle convergence on the smoothing steps. For two dimensions, numerical results include the problems with variable coefficients, simple multi-patch geometry, a quarter annulus, and the dependence of convergence behavior on refinement levels [Formula: see text], whereas for three dimensions, only the constant coefficient problem in a unit cube is considered. The numerical results are complete up to polynomial order [Formula: see text], and for [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] smoothness. PMID:24511168
Multigrid methods for isogeometric discretization
Gahalaut, K.P.S.; Kraus, J.K.; Tomar, S.K.
2013-01-01
We present (geometric) multigrid methods for isogeometric discretization of scalar second order elliptic problems. The smoothing property of the relaxation method, and the approximation property of the intergrid transfer operators are analyzed. These properties, when used in the framework of classical multigrid theory, imply uniform convergence of two-grid and multigrid methods. Supporting numerical results are provided for the smoothing property, the approximation property, convergence factor and iterations count for V-, W- and F-cycles, and the linear dependence of V-cycle convergence on the smoothing steps. For two dimensions, numerical results include the problems with variable coefficients, simple multi-patch geometry, a quarter annulus, and the dependence of convergence behavior on refinement levels ℓ, whereas for three dimensions, only the constant coefficient problem in a unit cube is considered. The numerical results are complete up to polynomial order p=4, and for C0 and Cp-1 smoothness. PMID:24511168
Classicality in discrete Wigner functions
Cormick, Cecilia; Galvao, Ernesto F.; Gottesman, Daniel; Paz, Juan Pablo; Pittenger, Arthur O.
2006-01-15
Gibbons et al., [Phys. Rev. A 70, 062101 (2004)] have recently defined discrete Wigner functions W to represent quantum states in a Hilbert space with finite dimension. We show that such a class of Wigner functions W can be defined so that the only pure states having non-negative W for all such functions are stabilizer states, as conjectured by Galvao, [Phys. Rev. A 71, 042302 (2005)]. We also show that the unitaries preserving non-negativity of W for all definitions of W in the class form a subgroup of the Clifford group. This means pure states with non-negative W and their associated unitary dynamics are classical in the sense of admitting an efficient classical simulation scheme using the stabilizer formalism.
Determinant Expressions for Discrete Integrable Maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sogo, Kiyoshi
2006-08-01
Explicit formulas for several discrete integrable maps with periodic boundary condition are obtained, which give the sequential time developments in a form of the quotient of successive determinants of tri-diagonal matrices. We can expect that such formulas make the corresponding numerical simulations simple and stable. The cases of discrete Lotka-Volterra and discrete KdV equations are demonstrated by using the common algorithm computing determinants of tri-diagonal matrices.
Comparison of hybrid Hall thruster model to experimental measurements
Scharfe, Michelle K.; Gascon, Nicolas; Cappelli, Mark A.; Fernandez, Eduardo
2006-08-15
A two-dimensional hybrid particle-in-cell numerical model has been constructed in the radial-axial plane with the intent of examining the physics governing Hall thruster operation. The electrons are treated as a magnetized quasi-one-dimensional fluid and the ions are treated as collisionless, unmagnetized discrete particles. The anomalously high electron conductivity experimentally observed in Hall thrusters is accounted for using experimental measurements of electron mobility in the Stanford Hall Thruster. While an experimental mobility results in improved simulation of electron temperature and electric potential relative to a Bohm-type model, results suggest that energy losses due to electron wall interactions may also be an important factor in accurately simulating plasma properties. Using a simplified electron wall damping model modified to produce general agreement with experimental measurements, an evaluation is made of differing treatments of electron mobility, background gas, neutral wall interactions, and charge exchange collisions. Although background gas results in two populations of neutrals, the increased neutral density has little effect on other plasma properties. Diffuse neutral wall interactions are in better agreement with experimental measurements than specular scattering. Also, charge exchange collisions result in an increase in average neutral velocity of 11% and a decrease in average ion velocity of 4% near the exit plane. The momentum exchange that occurs during charge exchange collisions is found to be negligible.
From discrete elements to continuum fields: Extension to bidisperse systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tunuguntla, Deepak R.; Thornton, Anthony R.; Weinhart, Thomas
2015-11-01
Micro-macro transition methods can be used to, both, calibrate and validate continuum models from discrete data obtained via experiments or simulations. These methods generate continuum fields such as density, momentum, stress, etc., from discrete data, i.e. positions, velocity, orientations and forces of individual elements. Performing this micro-macro transition step is especially challenging for non-uniform or dynamic situations. Here, we present a general method of performing this transition, but for simplicity we will restrict our attention to two-component scenarios. The mapping technique, presented here, is an extension to the micro-macro transition method, called coarse-graining, for unsteady two-component flows and can be easily extended to multi-component systems without any loss of generality. This novel method is advantageous; because, by construction the obtained macroscopic fields are consistent with the continuum equations of mass, momentum and energy balance. Additionally, boundary interaction forces can be taken into account in a self-consistent way and thus allow for the construction of continuous stress fields even within one element radius of the boundaries. Similarly, stress and drag forces can also be determined for individual constituents of a multi-component mixture, which is critical for several continuum applications, e.g. mixture theory-based segregation models. Moreover, the method does not require ensemble-averaging and thus can be efficiently exploited to investigate static, steady and time-dependent flows. The method presented in this paper is valid for any discrete data, e.g. particle simulations, molecular dynamics, experimental data, etc.; however, for the purpose of illustration we consider data generated from discrete particle simulations of bidisperse granular mixtures flowing over rough inclined channels. We show how to practically use our coarse-graining extension for both steady and unsteady flows using our open-source coarse
From discrete elements to continuum fields: Extension to bidisperse systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tunuguntla, Deepak R.; Thornton, Anthony R.; Weinhart, Thomas
2016-07-01
Micro-macro transition methods can be used to, both, calibrate and validate continuum models from discrete data obtained via experiments or simulations. These methods generate continuum fields such as density, momentum, stress, etc., from discrete data, i.e. positions, velocity, orientations and forces of individual elements. Performing this micro-macro transition step is especially challenging for non-uniform or dynamic situations. Here, we present a general method of performing this transition, but for simplicity we will restrict our attention to two-component scenarios. The mapping technique, presented here, is an extension to the micro-macro transition method, called coarse-graining, for unsteady two-component flows and can be easily extended to multi-component systems without any loss of generality. This novel method is advantageous; because, by construction the obtained macroscopic fields are consistent with the continuum equations of mass, momentum and energy balance. Additionally, boundary interaction forces can be taken into account in a self-consistent way and thus allow for the construction of continuous stress fields even within one element radius of the boundaries. Similarly, stress and drag forces can also be determined for individual constituents of a multi-component mixture, which is critical for several continuum applications, e.g. mixture theory-based segregation models. Moreover, the method does not require ensemble-averaging and thus can be efficiently exploited to investigate static, steady and time-dependent flows. The method presented in this paper is valid for any discrete data, e.g. particle simulations, molecular dynamics, experimental data, etc.; however, for the purpose of illustration we consider data generated from discrete particle simulations of bidisperse granular mixtures flowing over rough inclined channels. We show how to practically use our coarse-graining extension for both steady and unsteady flows using our open-source coarse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wollaeger, Ryan; van Rossum, Daniel; Graziani, Carlo; Couch, Sean; Jordan, George; Lamb, Donald; Moses, Gregory
2013-10-01
We apply Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) and Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo (DDMC) to Nomoto's W7 model of Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia). IMC is a stochastic method for solving the nonlinear radiation transport equations. DDMC is a stochastic radiation diffusion method that is generally used to accelerate IMC for Monte Carlo (MC) particle histories in optically thick regions of space. The hybrid IMC-DDMC method has recently been extended to account for multifrequency and velocity effects. SNe Ia are thermonuclear explosions of white dwarf stars that produce characteristic light curves and spectra sourced by radioactive decay of 56Ni. We exhibit the advantages of the hybrid MC approach relative to pure IMC for the W7 model. These results shed light on the viability of IMC-DDMC in more sophisticated, multi-dimensional simulations of SNe Ia. This work was supported in part by the University of Chicago and the National Science Foundation under grant AST-0909132.
A discrete event method for wave simulation
Nutaro, James J
2006-01-01
This article describes a discrete event interpretation of the finite difference time domain (FDTD) and digital wave guide network (DWN) wave simulation schemes. The discrete event method is formalized using the discrete event system specification (DEVS). The scheme is shown to have errors that are proportional to the resolution of the spatial grid. A numerical example demonstrates the relative efficiency of the scheme with respect to FDTD and DWN schemes. The potential for the discrete event scheme to reduce numerical dispersion and attenuation errors is discussed.
Scalar discrete nonlinear multipoint boundary value problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodriguez, Jesus; Taylor, Padraic
2007-06-01
In this paper we provide sufficient conditions for the existence of solutions to scalar discrete nonlinear multipoint boundary value problems. By allowing more general boundary conditions and by imposing less restrictions on the nonlinearities, we obtain results that extend previous work in the area of discrete boundary value problems [Debra L. Etheridge, Jesus Rodriguez, Periodic solutions of nonlinear discrete-time systems, Appl. Anal. 62 (1996) 119-137; Debra L. Etheridge, Jesus Rodriguez, Scalar discrete nonlinear two-point boundary value problems, J. Difference Equ. Appl. 4 (1998) 127-144].
Sectional and discrete representations of floc breakage in agitated suspensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hill, Paul S.
1996-05-01
The destruction of large aggregates plays several important roles in the sea, yet a rigorous method for incorporating this process into commonly applied models of aggregate dynamics has not been available. To fill this void the statistical, population-balance approach to modelling floc breakage developed most formally and completely by Pandya and Spielman ( Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 90(2) (1982) 517-531) is cast into geometric sectional and discrete forms popular for modelling the effect of aggregation on particle-size distributions. Two breakup mechanisms are considered. Floc erosion occurs when small particles are removed from the surface of larger flocs. Floc splitting is the rupture of flocs into roughly equal-sized daughter fragments. The rate of change of mass in a size class due to these mechanisms is best represented by six terms: loss due to diminution by erosion of fines, loss due to erosion of fines, gain from diminution of larger flocs, gain from production of erosion fines, loss due to splitting and gain from splitting. Comparisons of the sectional and discrete equations are made with inputs that are consistent with observations of flocs in the marine environment. A simple, new model of particle-disaggregation rate that emphasizes the importance of dissipative eddies in disrupting flocs is proposed. It suggests that splitting dominates the breakup of flocs of all sizes.
Comparing Algorithms for Graph Isomorphism Using Discrete- and Continuous-Time Quantum Random Walks
Rudinger, Kenneth; Gamble, John King; Bach, Eric; Friesen, Mark; Joynt, Robert; Coppersmith, S. N.
2013-07-01
Berry and Wang [Phys. Rev. A 83, 042317 (2011)] show numerically that a discrete-time quan- tum random walk of two noninteracting particles is able to distinguish some non-isomorphic strongly regular graphs from the same family. Here we analytically demonstrate how it is possible for these walks to distinguish such graphs, while continuous-time quantum walks of two noninteracting parti- cles cannot. We show analytically and numerically that even single-particle discrete-time quantum random walks can distinguish some strongly regular graphs, though not as many as two-particle noninteracting discrete-time walks. Additionally, we demonstrate how, given the same quantum random walk, subtle di erences in the graph certi cate construction algorithm can nontrivially im- pact the walk's distinguishing power. We also show that no continuous-time walk of a xed number of particles can distinguish all strongly regular graphs when used in conjunction with any of the graph certi cates we consider. We extend this constraint to discrete-time walks of xed numbers of noninteracting particles for one kind of graph certi cate; it remains an open question as to whether or not this constraint applies to the other graph certi cates we consider.
Comparing Algorithms for Graph Isomorphism Using Discrete- and Continuous-Time Quantum Random Walks
Rudinger, Kenneth; Gamble, John King; Bach, Eric; Friesen, Mark; Joynt, Robert; Coppersmith, S. N.
2013-07-01
Berry and Wang [Phys. Rev. A 83, 042317 (2011)] show numerically that a discrete-time quan- tum random walk of two noninteracting particles is able to distinguish some non-isomorphic strongly regular graphs from the same family. Here we analytically demonstrate how it is possible for these walks to distinguish such graphs, while continuous-time quantum walks of two noninteracting parti- cles cannot. We show analytically and numerically that even single-particle discrete-time quantum random walks can distinguish some strongly regular graphs, though not as many as two-particle noninteracting discrete-time walks. Additionally, we demonstrate how, given the same quantum random walk, subtle di erencesmore » in the graph certi cate construction algorithm can nontrivially im- pact the walk's distinguishing power. We also show that no continuous-time walk of a xed number of particles can distinguish all strongly regular graphs when used in conjunction with any of the graph certi cates we consider. We extend this constraint to discrete-time walks of xed numbers of noninteracting particles for one kind of graph certi cate; it remains an open question as to whether or not this constraint applies to the other graph certi cates we consider.« less
Ghaedi, M; Ansari, A; Bahari, F; Ghaedi, A M; Vafaei, A
2015-02-25
In the present study, zinc sulfide nanoparticle loaded on activated carbon (ZnS-NP-AC) simply was synthesized in the presence of ultrasound and characterized using different techniques such as SEM and BET analysis. Then, this material was used for brilliant green (BG) removal. To dependency of BG removal percentage toward various parameters including pH, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration and contact time were examined and optimized. The mechanism and rate of adsorption was ascertained by analyzing experimental data at various time to conventional kinetic models such as pseudo-first-order and second order, Elovich and intra-particle diffusion models. Comparison according to general criterion such as relative error in adsorption capacity and correlation coefficient confirm the usability of pseudo-second-order kinetic model for explanation of data. The Langmuir models is efficiently can explained the behavior of adsorption system to give full information about interaction of BG with ZnS-NP-AC. A multiple linear regression (MLR) and a hybrid of artificial neural network and partial swarm optimization (ANN-PSO) model were used for prediction of brilliant green adsorption onto ZnS-NP-AC. Comparison of the results obtained using offered models confirm higher ability of ANN model compare to the MLR model for prediction of BG adsorption onto ZnS-NP-AC. Using the optimal ANN-PSO model the coefficient of determination (R(2)) were 0.9610 and 0.9506; mean squared error (MSE) values were 0.0020 and 0.0022 for the training and testing data set, respectively. PMID:25286113
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghaedi, M.; Ansari, A.; Bahari, F.; Ghaedi, A. M.; Vafaei, A.
2015-02-01
In the present study, zinc sulfide nanoparticle loaded on activated carbon (ZnS-NP-AC) simply was synthesized in the presence of ultrasound and characterized using different techniques such as SEM and BET analysis. Then, this material was used for brilliant green (BG) removal. To dependency of BG removal percentage toward various parameters including pH, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration and contact time were examined and optimized. The mechanism and rate of adsorption was ascertained by analyzing experimental data at various time to conventional kinetic models such as pseudo-first-order and second order, Elovich and intra-particle diffusion models. Comparison according to general criterion such as relative error in adsorption capacity and correlation coefficient confirm the usability of pseudo-second-order kinetic model for explanation of data. The Langmuir models is efficiently can explained the behavior of adsorption system to give full information about interaction of BG with ZnS-NP-AC. A multiple linear regression (MLR) and a hybrid of artificial neural network and partial swarm optimization (ANN-PSO) model were used for prediction of brilliant green adsorption onto ZnS-NP-AC. Comparison of the results obtained using offered models confirm higher ability of ANN model compare to the MLR model for prediction of BG adsorption onto ZnS-NP-AC. Using the optimal ANN-PSO model the coefficient of determination (R2) were 0.9610 and 0.9506; mean squared error (MSE) values were 0.0020 and 0.0022 for the training and testing data set, respectively.
Nanorice: a new hybrid nanostructure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nordlander, P.; Brandl, D.; Le, F.; Wang, H.; Halas, N. J.
2006-03-01
The plasmon hybridization method [1] is applied to nanorice, a new metallic nanostructure which combines the properties of two popular tunable plasmonic nanoparticle geometries: nanorods and nanoshells. The particle consists of a prolate spheroidal dielectric core and a thin metallic shell, bearing a remarkable resemblance to a rice grain. The nanorice particle shows far greater geometric tunability of the optical resonance, larger local field intensity enhancements and far greater sensitivity as a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) nanosensor than any previously reported dielectric-metal nanostructure. The tunability of the nanorice particle arises from the interaction of primitive plasmons associated with the inner and outer surfaces of the shell. The results from plasmon hybridization are compared to FDTD simulations. [1] E. Prodan and P. Nordlander, J. Chem. Phys. 120(2004)5444-5454
Discretization vs. Rounding Error in Euler's Method
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Borges, Carlos F.
2011-01-01
Euler's method for solving initial value problems is an excellent vehicle for observing the relationship between discretization error and rounding error in numerical computation. Reductions in stepsize, in order to decrease discretization error, necessarily increase the number of steps and so introduce additional rounding error. The problem is…
Discrete/PWM Ballast-Resistor Controller
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
King, Roger J.
1994-01-01
Circuit offers low switching loss and automatic compensation for failure of ballast resistor. Discrete/PWM ballast-resistor controller improved shunt voltage-regulator circuit designed to supply power from high-resistance source to low-impedance bus. Provides both coarse discrete voltage levels (by switching of ballast resistors) and continuous fine control of voltage via pulse-width modulation.
Discreteness and Gradience in Intonational Contrasts.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gussenhoven, Carlos
1999-01-01
Three experimental techniques that can be used to investigate the gradient of discrete nature of intonational differences, the semantic task, the imitation task, and the pitch range task are discussed and evaluated. It is pointed out that categorical perception is a sufficient but not a necessary, property of phonological discreteness. (Author/VWL)
Current Density and Continuity in Discretized Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boykin, Timothy B.; Luisier, Mathieu; Klimeck, Gerhard
2010-01-01
Discrete approaches have long been used in numerical modelling of physical systems in both research and teaching. Discrete versions of the Schrodinger equation employing either one or several basis functions per mesh point are often used by senior undergraduates and beginning graduate students in computational physics projects. In studying…
Discrete Fractional Diffusion Equation of Chaotic Order
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Guo-Cheng; Baleanu, Dumitru; Xie, He-Ping; Zeng, Sheng-Da
Discrete fractional calculus is suggested in diffusion modeling in porous media. A variable-order fractional diffusion equation is proposed on discrete time scales. A function of the variable order is constructed by a chaotic map. The model shows some new random behaviors in comparison with other variable-order cases.
Codimension-Two Bifurcation, Chaos and Control in a Discrete-Time Information Diffusion Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Jingli; Yu, Liping
2016-07-01
In this paper, we present a discrete model to illustrate how two pieces of information interact with online social networks and investigate the dynamics of discrete-time information diffusion model in three types: reverse type, intervention type and mutualistic type. It is found that the model has orbits with period 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 20, 30, quasiperiodic orbit, and undergoes heteroclinic bifurcation near 1:2 point, a homoclinic structure near 1:3 resonance point and an invariant cycle bifurcated by period 4 orbit near 1:4 resonance point. Moreover, in order to regulate information diffusion process and information security, we give two control strategies, the hybrid control method and the feedback controller of polynomial functions, to control chaos, flip bifurcation, 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4 resonances, respectively, in the two-dimensional discrete system.
Neutron streaming through shield ducts using a discrete ordinates/Monte Carlo method
Urban, W.T.; Baker, R.S.
1993-08-18
A common problem in shield design is determining the neutron flux that streams through ducts in shields and also that penetrates the shield after having traveled partway down the duct. Obviously the determination of the neutrons that stream down the duct can be computed in a straightforward manner using Monte Carlo techniques. On the other hand those neutrons that must penetrate a significant portion of the shield are more easily handled using discrete ordinates methods. A hybrid discrete ordinates/Monte Carlo cods, TWODANT/MC, which is an extension of the existing discrete ordinates code TWODANT, has been developed at Los Alamos to allow the efficient, accurate treatment of both streaming and deep penetration problems in a single calculation. In this paper we provide examples of the application of TWODANT/MC to typical geometries that are encountered in shield design and compare the results with those obtained using the Los Alamos Monte Carlo code MCNP{sup 3}.