Science.gov

Sample records for hybrid intensional programming

  1. Intensional reasoning about knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, O.B.

    1987-01-01

    As demands and ambitions increase in Artificial Intelligence, the need for formal systems that facilitate a study and a simulation of a machine cognition has become an inevitability. This paper explores and develops the foundations of a formal system for propositional reasoning about knowledge. The semantics of every meaningful expression in the system is fully determined by its intension, the set of complexes in which the expression is confirmed. The knowledge system is based on three zeroth-order theories of epistemic reasoning for consciousness, knowledge, and entailed knowledge. The results presented determine the soundness and the completeness of the knowledge system. The modes of reasoning and the relations among the various epistemic notions emphasize the expressive power of the intensional paradigm.

  2. Intensional Analysis of Quantified Types

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    a normal form which does not have a (saturated) application of a constructor of Ω in its head. Crary and Weirich [1999] propose the use of deBruijn...intensional type analysis” [Crary and Weirich 1999, Section 4.1]. For example polymorphic and existential types such as ∀α :Ω.Typerec α of . . . are not...a type-preserving compiler. 4.1 Analyzable Elements at the Type Level Following the ideas of Crary, Weirich , and Morrisett [1998], the run-time anal

  3. Fully Reflexive Intensional Type Analysis in Type Erasure Semantics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    and tags, and defining an interpre- tation function to map between the two, is related to the ideas proposed by Crary and Weirich for the language LX...Science, 1995. 11 [2] K. Crary and S. Weirich . Flexible type analysis. In Proc. 1999 ACM SIGPLAN International Conference on Functional Programming, pages...233–248. ACM Press, Sept. 1999. [3] K. Crary, S. Weirich , and G. Morrisett. Intensional polymorphism in type-erasure semantics. In Proc. 1998 ACM

  4. Extensional scientific realism vs. intensional scientific realism.

    PubMed

    Park, Seungbae

    2016-10-01

    Extensional scientific realism is the view that each believable scientific theory is supported by the unique first-order evidence for it and that if we want to believe that it is true, we should rely on its unique first-order evidence. In contrast, intensional scientific realism is the view that all believable scientific theories have a common feature and that we should rely on it to determine whether a theory is believable or not. Fitzpatrick argues that extensional realism is immune, while intensional realism is not, to the pessimistic induction. I reply that if extensional realism overcomes the pessimistic induction at all, that is because it implicitly relies on the theoretical resource of intensional realism. I also argue that extensional realism, by nature, cannot embed a criterion for distinguishing between believable and unbelievable theories.

  5. Hybrid propulsion technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Technology was identified which will enable application of hybrid propulsion to manned and unmanned space launch vehicles. Two design concepts are proposed. The first is a hybrid propulsion system using the classical method of regression (classical hybrid) resulting from the flow of oxidizer across a fuel grain surface. The second system uses a self-sustaining gas generator (gas generator hybrid) to produce a fuel rich exhaust that was mixed with oxidizer in a separate combustor. Both systems offer cost and reliability improvement over the existing solid rocket booster and proposed liquid boosters. The designs were evaluated using life cycle cost and reliability. The program consisted of: (1) identification and evaluation of candidate oxidizers and fuels; (2) preliminary evaluation of booster design concepts; (3) preparation of a detailed point design including life cycle costs and reliability analyses; (4) identification of those hybrid specific technologies needing improvement; and (5) preperation of a technology acquisition plan and large scale demonstration plan.

  6. Hybrid Propulsion Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, G. E.; Holzman, A. L.

    1990-01-01

    Future launch systems of the United States will require improvements in booster safety, reliability, and cost. In order to increase payload capabilities, performance improvements are also desirable. The hybrid rocket motor (HRM) offers the potential for improvements in all of these areas. The designs are presented for two sizes of hybrid boosters, a large 4.57 m (180 in.) diameter booster duplicating the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) vacuum thrust-time profile and smaller 2.44 m (96 in.), one-quater thrust level booster. The large booster would be used in tandem, while eight small boosters would be used to achieve the same total thrust. These preliminary designs were generated as part of the NASA Hybrid Propulsion Technology Program. This program is the first phase of an eventual three-phaes program culminating in the demonstration of a large subscale engine. The initial trade and sizing studies resulted in preferred motor diameters, operating pressures, nozzle geometry, and fuel grain systems for both the large and small boosters. The data were then used for specific performance predictions in terms of payload and the definition and selection of the requirements for the major components: the oxidizer feed system, nozzle, and thrust vector system. All of the parametric studies were performed using realistic fuel regression models based upon specific experimental data.

  7. Effects of Intensionality on Sentence and Discourse Processing: Evidence from Eye-Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delogu, Francesca; Vespignani, Francesco; Sanford, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    Intensional verbs like "want" select for clausal complements expressing propositions, though they can be perfectly natural when combined with a direct object. There are two interesting phenomena associated with intensional transitive expressions. First, it has been suggested that their interpretation requires enriched compositional operations,…

  8. Hybrid Vehicle Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1984-06-01

    This report summarizes the activities on the Hybrid Vehicle Program. The program objectives and the vehicle specifications are reviewed. The Hybrid Vehicle has been designed so that maximum use can be made of existing production components with a minimum compromise to program goals. The program status as of the February 9-10 Hardware Test Review is presented, and discussions of the vehicle subsystem, the hybrid propulsion subsystem, the battery subsystem, and the test mule programs are included. Other program aspects included are quality assurance and support equipment. 16 references, 132 figures, 47 tables.

  9. Electric and hybrid vehicles program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-08-01

    The progress achieved in developing electric and hybrid vehicle technologies, beginning with highlights of recent accomplishments in FY 1992 is described. Detailed descriptions are provided of program activities during FY 1992 in the areas of battery, fuel cell, and propulsion system development, and testing and evaluation of new technology in fleet site operations and in laboratories. This Annual Report also contains a status report on incentives and use of foreign components, as well as a list of publications resulting from the DOE program.

  10. Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program 250K Hybrid Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Story, George; Zoladz, Tom; Arves, Joe; Kearney, Darren; Abel, Terry; Park, O.

    2003-01-01

    The Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program (HPDP) program was formed to mature hybrid propulsion technology to a readiness level sufficient to enable commercialization for various space launch applications. The goal of the HPDP was to develop and test a 250,000 pound vacuum thrust hybrid booster in order to demonstrate hybrid propulsion technology and enable manufacturing of large hybrid boosters for current and future space launch vehicles. The HPDP has successfully conducted four tests of the 250,000 pound thrust hybrid rocket motor at NASA's Stennis Space Center. This paper documents the test series.

  11. Hybrid Doctoral Program: Innovative Practices and Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvich, Dori; Manning, JoAnn; McCormick, Kathy; Campbell, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This paper reflects on how one mid-Atlantic University innovatively incorporated technology into the development of a hybrid doctoral program in educational leadership. The paper describes a hybrid doctoral degree program using a rigorous design; challenges of reworking a traditional syllabus of record to a hybrid doctoral program; the perceptions…

  12. Electric and hybrid vehicles program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-05-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Electric and Hybrid Vehicles (EHV) Program is conducting research, development, testing, and evaluation activities to encourage the use of electricity and alternative fuels for transportation. This program supports the expanded DOE involvement as recommended in the National Energy Strategy. The transportation sector is the single largest user of petroleum; it consumed 63 percent of all petroleum used in the United States last year. Only a small fraction (5 percent) of electricity is generated from petroleum. Electric vehicles, which are themselves virtually pollution-free, could play a key role in helping to reduce both urban pollution and our dependence on petroleum imports. The program's goals are to develop, in cooperation with industry, the technology that will lead to the production and introduction of pollution-free electric vehicles into the Nation's transportation fleet and substitute domestic sources of energy for petroleum-based fuels. This report describes progress achieved in developing electric and hybrid vehicle technologies, beginning with highlights of recent accomplishments in FY-91. Detailed descriptions are provided of program activities during FY-91 in the areas of battery, fuel-cell, and propulsion system development, and testing and evaluation of new technology in fleet site operations and in laboratories. In accordance with the reporting requirements of the Act, this annual report contains a status report on incentives and use of foreign components and concludes with a list of publications resulting from the DOE program.

  13. Hybrid graduate program in optical engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, Banmali S.

    2003-10-01

    A unique graduate program in optical engineering by combining optical and microwave courses has been developed in the University of Nevada, Reno. The advantage of such a hybrid program is better job opportunities in a tight job market as these students are suitable for both RF/microwaves and Optical industries.

  14. Hybrid Power Management Program Continued

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2002-01-01

    Hybrid Power Management (HPM) is the innovative integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications. The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The advanced power devices include ultracapacitors and photovoltaics. HPM has extremely wide potential with applications including power-generation, transportation, biotechnology, and space power systems. It may significantly alleviate global energy concerns, improve the environment, and stimulate the economy.

  15. Hybrid Differential Dynamic Programming with Stochastic Search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aziz, Jonathan; Parker, Jeffrey; Englander, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Differential dynamic programming (DDP) has been demonstrated as a viable approach to low-thrust trajectory optimization, namely with the recent success of NASAs Dawn mission. The Dawn trajectory was designed with the DDP-based Static Dynamic Optimal Control algorithm used in the Mystic software. Another recently developed method, Hybrid Differential Dynamic Programming (HDDP) is a variant of the standard DDP formulation that leverages both first-order and second-order state transition matrices in addition to nonlinear programming (NLP) techniques. Areas of improvement over standard DDP include constraint handling, convergence properties, continuous dynamics, and multi-phase capability. DDP is a gradient based method and will converge to a solution nearby an initial guess. In this study, monotonic basin hopping (MBH) is employed as a stochastic search method to overcome this limitation, by augmenting the HDDP algorithm for a wider search of the solution space.

  16. Hybrid Differential Dynamic Programming with Stochastic Search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aziz, Jonathan; Parker, Jeffrey; Englander, Jacob A.

    2016-01-01

    Differential dynamic programming (DDP) has been demonstrated as a viable approach to low-thrust trajectory optimization, namely with the recent success of NASA's Dawn mission. The Dawn trajectory was designed with the DDP-based Static/Dynamic Optimal Control algorithm used in the Mystic software.1 Another recently developed method, Hybrid Differential Dynamic Programming (HDDP),2, 3 is a variant of the standard DDP formulation that leverages both first-order and second-order state transition matrices in addition to nonlinear programming (NLP) techniques. Areas of improvement over standard DDP include constraint handling, convergence properties, continuous dynamics, and multi-phase capability. DDP is a gradient based method and will converge to a solution nearby an initial guess. In this study, monotonic basin hopping (MBH) is employed as a stochastic search method to overcome this limitation, by augmenting the HDDP algorithm for a wider search of the solution space.

  17. Hybrid Governance in an Adult Program: A Nuanced Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cockley, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Eastern Mennonite University's adult program uses a hybrid governance structure. Functions separated from the traditional program include marketing, admissions, and student advising. Functions that remain connected to the traditional program include the registrar, financial aid, and student business accounts.

  18. Hydrogen hybrid vehicle engine development: Experimental program

    SciTech Connect

    Van Blarigan, P.

    1995-09-01

    A hydrogen fueled engine is being developed specifically for the auxiliary power unit (APU) in a series type hybrid vehicle. Hydrogen is different from other internal combustion (IC) engine fuels, and hybrid vehicle IC engine requirements are different from those of other IC vehicle engines. Together these differences will allow a new engine design based on first principles that will maximize thermal efficiency while minimizing principal emissions. The experimental program is proceeding in four steps: (1) Demonstration of the emissions and the indicated thermal efficiency capability of a standard CLR research engine modified for higher compression ratios and hydrogen fueled operation. (2) Design and test a new combustion chamber geometry for an existing single cylinder research engine, in an attempt to improve on the baseline indicated thermal efficiency of the CLR engine. (3) Design and build, in conjunction with an industrial collaborator, a new full scale research engine designed to maximize brake thermal efficiency. Include a full complement of combustion diagnostics. (4) Incorporate all of the knowledge thus obtained in the design and fabrication, by an industrial collaborator, of the hydrogen fueled engine for the hybrid vehicle power train illustrator. Results of the CLR baseline engine testing are presented, as well as preliminary data from the new combustion chamber engine. The CLR data confirm the low NOx produced by lean operation. The preliminary indicated thermal efficiency data from the new combustion chamber design engine show an improvement relative to the CLR engine. Comparison with previous high compression engine results shows reasonable agreement.

  19. Hybridized Teacher Education Programs in NYC: A Missed Opportunity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mungal, Angus Shiva

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study describes the development of hybrid teacher preparation programs that emerged as a result of a "forced" partnership between university-based and alternative teacher preparation programs in New York City. This hybrid experiment was a short-lived, yet innovative by-product of a somewhat pragmatic arrangement between…

  20. Using a Hybrid Approach to Facilitate Learning Introductory Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakiroglu, Unal

    2013-01-01

    In order to facilitate students' understanding in introductory programming courses, different types of teaching approaches were conducted. In this study, a hybrid approach including comment first coding (CFC), analogy and template approaches were used. The goal was to investigate the effect of such a hybrid approach on students' understanding in…

  1. The Federal electric and hybrid vehicle program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1980-01-01

    The commercial development and use of electric and hybrid vehicles is discussed with respect to its application as a possible alternative transportation system. A market demonstration is described that seeks to place 10,000 electric hybrid vehicles into public and private sector demonstrations.

  2. Introducing the First Hybrid Doctoral Program in Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, Matthew J.; Zellner, Andrea L.; Roseth, Cary J.; Dickson, Robin K.; Dickson, W. Patrick; Bell, John

    2013-01-01

    In 2010 Michigan State University launched the first hybrid doctoral program in Educational Technology. This 5-year program blends face-to-face and online components to engage experienced, working education professionals in doctoral study. In this paper, we describe the design and evolution of the program as well as the response from students. We…

  3. Hybrid Propulsion Technology Program, phase 1. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The study program was contracted to evaluate concepts of hybrid propulsion, select the most optimum, and prepare a conceptual design package. Further, this study required preparation of a technology definition package to identify hybrid propulsion enabling technologies and planning to acquire that technology in Phase 2 and demonstrate that technology in Phase 3. Researchers evaluated two design philosophies for Hybrid Rocket Booster (HRB) selection. The first is an ASRM modified hybrid wherein as many components/designs as possible were used from the present Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) design. The second was an entirely new hybrid optimized booster using ASRM criteria as a point of departure, i.e., diameter, thrust time curve, launch facilities, and external tank attach points. Researchers selected the new design based on the logic of optimizing a hybrid booster to provide NASA with a next generation vehicle in lieu of an interim advancement over the ASRM. The enabling technologies for hybrid propulsion are applicable to either and vehicle design may be selected at a downstream point (Phase 3) at NASA's discretion. The completion of these studies resulted in ranking the various concepts of boosters from the RSRM to a turbopump fed (TF) hybrid. The scoring resulting from the Figure of Merit (FOM) scoring system clearly shows a natural growth path where the turbopump fed solid liquid staged combustion hybrid provides maximized payload and the highest safety, reliability, and low life cycle costing.

  4. Strategies for Energy Efficient Resource Management of Hybrid Programming Models

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dong; Supinski, Bronis de; Schulz, Martin; Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios S; Cameron, Kirk W.

    2013-01-01

    Many scientific applications are programmed using hybrid programming models that use both message-passing and shared-memory, due to the increasing prevalence of large-scale systems with multicore, multisocket nodes. Previous work has shown that energy efficiency can be improved using software-controlled execution schemes that consider both the programming model and the power-aware execution capabilities of the system. However, such approaches have focused on identifying optimal resource utilization for one programming model, either shared-memory or message-passing, in isolation. The potential solution space, thus the challenge, increases substantially when optimizing hybrid models since the possible resource configurations increase exponentially. Nonetheless, with the accelerating adoption of hybrid programming models, we increasingly need improved energy efficiency in hybrid parallel applications on large-scale systems. In this work, we present new software-controlled execution schemes that consider the effects of dynamic concurrency throttling (DCT) and dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) in the context of hybrid programming models. Specifically, we present predictive models and novel algorithms based on statistical analysis that anticipate application power and time requirements under different concurrency and frequency configurations. We apply our models and methods to the NPB MZ benchmarks and selected applications from the ASC Sequoia codes. Overall, we achieve substantial energy savings (8.74% on average and up to 13.8%) with some performance gain (up to 7.5%) or negligible performance loss.

  5. TARDEC Hybrid Electric (HE) Technology Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-05

    System Generator /Motor...ireDifferential Differential Energy Storage System Generator / Motor Inverter Engine Generator/Motor Transmission 3-Phase AC power into Motor Inverter When...Hybrid Electric Drive Propulsion TireTire Tire Energy Storage System Generator Controller 3Ø A/C to HV DC Generator Controller rectifies AC to DC

  6. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The preliminary design of a hybrid vehicle which fully meets or exceeds the requirements set forth in the Near Term Hybrid Vehicle Program is documented. Topics addressed include the general layout and styling, the power train specifications with discussion of each major component, vehicle weight and weight breakdown, vehicle performance, measures of energy consumption, and initial cost and ownership cost. Alternative design options considered and their relationship to the design adopted, computer simulation used, and maintenance and reliability considerations are also discussed.

  7. A survey of electric and hybrid vehicle simulation programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bevan, J.; Heimburger, D. A.; Metcalfe, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    Results of a survey conducted within the United States to determine the extent of development and capabilities of automotive performance simulation programs suitable for electric and hybrid vehicle studies are summarized. Altogether, 111 programs were identified as being in a usable state. The complexity of the existing programs spans a range from a page of simple desktop calculator instructions to 300,000 lines of a high-level programming language. The capability to simulate electric vehicles was most common, heat-engines second, and hybrid vehicles least common. Batch-operated programs are slightly more common than interactive ones, and one-third can be operated in either mode. The most commonly used language was FORTRAN, the language typically used by engineers. The higher-level simulation languages (e.g. SIMSCRIPT, GPSS, SIMULA) used by "model builders" were conspicuously lacking.

  8. Advancing Scholarship, Team Building, and Collaboration in a Hybrid Doctoral Program in Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Barbara; Trimble, Meridee; Morrison-Danner, Dietrich

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid programs are changing the landscape of doctoral programs at American universities and colleges. The increased demand for hybrid doctoral programs, particularly for educational and career advancement, serves as an innovative way to increase scholarship, advance service, and promote leadership. Hybrid programs serve as excellent venues for…

  9. Passive and Hybrid Solar Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    The background and scope of the program is presented in general terms. The Program Plan is summarized describing how individual projects are categorized into mission-oriented tasks according to market sector categories. The individual projects funded by DOE are presented as follows: residential buildings, commercial buildings, solar products, solar cities and towns, and agricultural buildings. A summary list of projects by institution (contractors) and indexed by market application area is included. (MHR)

  10. Using a Hybrid Approach for a Leadership Cohort Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Maxine A.

    2013-01-01

    Because information technology continues to change rapidly, Extension is challenged with learning and using technology appropriately. We assert Extension cannot shy away from the challenges but must embrace technology because audiences and external forces demand it. A hybrid, or blended, format of a leadership cohort program was offered to public…

  11. Adaptive, Active and Multifunctional Composite and Hybrid Materials Program: Composite and Hybrid Materials ERA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    were exposed to a spray of polar solvent or polar solvent/ water absorbing polymer . When compared to the control, the doped yarns doubled in... Polymer Nanocomposite Synthesis ................................25 4.6.2 Polymeric Nanocomposite Battery Materials...merged into the ERA bridge program: in-house polymer synthesis and processing projects of graded preceramic polymeric hybrid materials, a laser

  12. Hybrid parallel programming with MPI and Unified Parallel C.

    SciTech Connect

    Dinan, J.; Balaji, P.; Lusk, E.; Sadayappan, P.; Thakur, R.; Mathematics and Computer Science; The Ohio State Univ.

    2010-01-01

    The Message Passing Interface (MPI) is one of the most widely used programming models for parallel computing. However, the amount of memory available to an MPI process is limited by the amount of local memory within a compute node. Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) models such as Unified Parallel C (UPC) are growing in popularity because of their ability to provide a shared global address space that spans the memories of multiple compute nodes. However, taking advantage of UPC can require a large recoding effort for existing parallel applications. In this paper, we explore a new hybrid parallel programming model that combines MPI and UPC. This model allows MPI programmers incremental access to a greater amount of memory, enabling memory-constrained MPI codes to process larger data sets. In addition, the hybrid model offers UPC programmers an opportunity to create static UPC groups that are connected over MPI. As we demonstrate, the use of such groups can significantly improve the scalability of locality-constrained UPC codes. This paper presents a detailed description of the hybrid model and demonstrates its effectiveness in two applications: a random access benchmark and the Barnes-Hut cosmological simulation. Experimental results indicate that the hybrid model can greatly enhance performance; using hybrid UPC groups that span two cluster nodes, RA performance increases by a factor of 1.33 and using groups that span four cluster nodes, Barnes-Hut experiences a twofold speedup at the expense of a 2% increase in code size.

  13. Hybrid propulsion technology program: Phase 1, volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claflin, S. E.; Beckman, A. W.

    1989-01-01

    The use of a liquid oxidizer-solid fuel hybrid propellant combination in booster rocket motors appears extremely attractive due to the integration of the best features of liquid and solid propulsion systems. The hybrid rocket combines the high performance, clean exhaust, and safety of liquid propellant engines with the low cost and simplicity of solid propellant motors. Additionally, the hybrid rocket has unique advantages such as an inert fuel grain and a relative insensitivity to fuel grain and oxidizer injection anomalies. The advantages mark the hybrid rocket as a potential replacement or alternative for current and future solid propellant booster systems. The issues are addressed and recommendations are made concerning oxidizer feed systems, injectors, and ignition systems as related to hybrid rocket propulsion. Early in the program a baseline hybrid configuration was established in which liquid oxygen would be injected through ports in a solid fuel whose composition is based on hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB). Liquid oxygen remained the recommended oxidizer and thus all of the injector concepts which were evaluated assumed only liquid would be used as the oxidizer.

  14. Organizing protein-DNA hybrids as nanostructures with programmed functionalities.

    PubMed

    Teller, Carsten; Willner, Itamar

    2010-12-01

    The structural and functional information encoded in the base sequence of nucleic acids provides a means to organize hybrid protein-DNA nanostructures with pre-designed, programmed functionality. This review discusses the activation of enzyme cascades in supramolecular DNA-protein hybrid structures, the bioelectrocatalytic activation of redox enzymes on DNA scaffolds, and the programmed positioning of enzymes on 1D, 2D and 3D DNA nanostructures. These systems provide starting points towards the design of interconnected enzyme networks. Substantial progress in the tailoring of functional protein-DNA nanostructures has been accomplished in recent years, and advances in this field warrant a comprehensive discussion. The application of these systems for the control of biocatalytic transformations, for amplified biosensing, and for the synthesis of metallic nanostructures are addressed, and future prospects for these systems are highlighted.

  15. Electric and hybrid vehicle program; Site Operator Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, J. F.

    1992-05-01

    Activities during the second quarter included the second meeting of the Site Operators in Phoenix, AZ in late April. The meeting was held in conjunction with the Solar and Electric 500 Race activities. Delivery of vehicles ordered previously has begun, although two of the operators are experiencing some delays in receiving their vehicles. Public demonstration activities continue, with an apparent increasing level of awareness and interest being displayed by the public. Initial problems with the Site Operator Database have been corrected and revised copies of the program have been supplied to the program participants. Operating and Maintenance data is being supplied and submitted to INEL on a monthly basis. Interest in the Site Operator Program is being reflected in requests for information from several organizations from across the country, representing a wide diversity of interests. These organizations have been referred to existing Site Operators with the explanation that the program will not be adding new participants, but that most of the existing organizations are willing to work with other groups. The exception to this was the addition of Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) to the program. PEPCO has been awarded a subcontract to operate and maintain the DOE owned G-Van and Escort located in Washington, DC. They will provide data on these vehicles, as well as a Solectria Force which PEPCO has purchased. The Task Force intends to be actively involved in the infrastructure development in a wide range of areas. These include, among others, personnel development, safety, charging, and servicing. Work continues in these areas. York Technical College (YORK) has completed the draft outline for the EV Technician course. This is being circulated to organizations around the country for comments. Kansas State University (KSU) is working with a private sector company to develop a energy dispensing meter for opportunity charging in public areas.

  16. Electric and hybrid vehicle program; Site Operator Program

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, J.F.

    1992-05-01

    Activities during the second quarter included the second meeting of the Site Operators in Phoenix, AZ in late April. The meeting was held in conjunction with the Solar and Electric 500 Race activities. Delivery of vehicles ordered previously has begun, although two of the operators are experiencing some delays in receiving their vehicles. Public demonstration activities continue, with an apparent increasing level of awareness and interest being displayed by the public. Initial problems with the Site Operator Database have been corrected and revised copies of the program have been supplied to the Program participants. Operating and Maintenance data is being supplied and submitted to INEL on a monthly basis. Interest in the Site Operator Program is being reflected in requests for information from several organizations from across the country, representing a wide diversity of interests. These organizations have been referred to existing Site Operators with the explanation that the program will not be adding new participants, but that most of the existing organizations are willing to work with other groups. The exception to this was the addition of Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) to the program. PEPCO has been awarded a subcontract to operate and maintain the DOE owned G-Van and Escort located in Washington, DC. They will provide data on these vehicles, as well as a Solectria Force which PEPCO has purchased. The Task Force intends to be actively involved in the infrastructure development in a wide range of areas. These include, among others, personnel development, safety, charging, and servicing. Work continues in these areas. York Technical College (YORK) has completed the draft outline for the EV Technician course. This is being circulated to organizations around the country for comments. Kansas State University (KSU) is working with a private sector company to develop a energy dispensing meter for opportunity charging in public areas.

  17. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program; Site Operator Program

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    Activities during the first quarter centered around integrating the new participants into the program. A meeting of the Site Operators, in conjunction with the first meeting of the Electric Vehicle Users Task Force, was held in October. A second meeting of the Task Force was held in December. During these meetings the new contractual requirements were explained to the participants. The Site Operator Data Base was distributed and explained. The Site Operators will begin using the data base in December 1991 and will supply the operating and maintenance data to the INEL on a monthly basis. The Operators requested that they be able to have access to the data of the other Operators and it was agreed that they would be provided this on floppy disk monthly from the INEL. Presentations were made to the DOE sponsored Automotive Technology Development-Contractors Coordination Meeting in October. An overview of the program was given by EG G. Representatives from Arizona Public Service, Texas A M University, and York Technical College provided details of their programs and the results and future goals. Work was begun on commercializing the Versatile Data Acquisition System (VDAS). A Scope of Work has been written for a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to be submitted to the USABC. If implemented, the CRADA will provide funds for the development and commercialization of the VDAS. Participants in the Site Operator Program will test prototypes of the system within their fleets, making the data available to the USABC and other interested organizations. The USABC will provide recommendations on the data to be collected. Major activities by the majority of the Operators were involved with the continued operation and demonstration of existing vehicles. In addition, several of the operators were involved in identifying and locating vehicles to be added to their fleets. A list of the vehicles in each Site Operator fleet is included as Appendix A to this report.

  18. Hybrid propulsion technology program: Phase 1, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuler, A. L.; Wiley, D. R.

    1989-01-01

    The program objectives of developing hybrid propulsion technology (HPT) to enable its application for manned and unmanned high thrust, high performance space launch vehicles are examined. The studies indicate that the hybrid propulsion (HP) is very attractive, especially when applied to large boosters for programs such as the Advanced Launch System (ALS) and the second generation Space Shuttle. Some of the advantages of HP are identified. Space launch vehicles using HP are less costly than those flying today because their propellant and insulation costs are much less and there are fewer operational restraints due to reduced safety requirements. Boosters using HP have safety features that are highly desirable, particularly for manned flights. HP systems will have a clean exhaust and high performance. Boosters using HP readily integrate with launch vehicles and their launch operations, because they are very compact for the amount of energy contained. Hybrid propulsion will increase the probability of mission success. In order to properly develop the technologies of HP, preliminary HP concepts are evaluated. System analyses and trade studies were performed to identify technologies applicable to HP.

  19. Smart devices and a future of hybrid tobacco cessation programs.

    PubMed

    Pulverman, Rachel; Yellowlees, Peter M

    2014-03-01

    The Internet and mobile "apps" on smart devices are increasingly being seen as primary tools to combat tobacco abuse with the development of several online tobacco cessation programs. This article reviews the small and recent body of research into the functionality and effectiveness of these Web-based programs, most of which are now being designed for mobile devices rather than for fixed computers. Based on current research findings, it is apparent that successful future tobacco cessation programs will utilize a wide variety of features available through smart devices and mobile applications, but will also incorporate the capacity to easily access live healthcare professionals as necessary, either online or in-person. These hybrid models of behavioral intervention for tobacco cessation appear likely to be more successful than previous approaches, but require more evaluation than has occurred in the past.

  20. A Hybrid Constraint Programming Approach for Nurse Rostering Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Rong; He, Fang

    Due to the complexity of nurse rostering problems (NRPs), Constraint Programming (CP) approaches on their own have shown to be ineffective in solving these highly constrained problems. We investigate a two-stage hybrid CP approach on real world benchmark NRPs. In the first stage, a constraint satisfaction model is used to generate weekly rosters consist of high quality shift sequences satisfying a subset of constraints. An iterative forward search is then adapted to extend them to build complete feasible solutions. Variable and value selection heuristics are employed to improve the efficiency. In the second stage, a simple Variable Neighborhood Search is used to quickly improve the solution obtained. The basic idea of the hybrid approach is based on the observations that high quality nurse rosters consist of high quality shift sequences. By decomposing the problems into solvable sub-problems for CP, the search space of the original problems are significantly reduced. The results on benchmark problems demonstrate the efficiency of this hybrid CP approach when compared to the state-of-the-art approaches in the literature.

  1. Electric and hybrid vehicle program site operator program. Quarterly progress report, January 1995--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Kiser, D.M.; Brown, H.L.

    1995-08-01

    The Site Operator Program was initially established by the Department of Energy (DOE) to incorporate the electric vehicle activities dictated by the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1976. In the ensuing years, the Program has evolved in response to new legislation and interests. The Program currently includes twelve sites located in diverse geographic, metrologic, and metropolitan areas across the United States. Information is shared reciprocally with a thirteenth site, not under Program contract. The vehicles are operator-owned. The Mission Statement of the Site Operator Program includes three major activities: (1) Advancement of electric vehicle technologies; (2) Development of infrastructure elements necessary to support significant electric vehicle use; and (3) Increasing the awareness and acceptance of electric vehicles (EVs) by the public. The current participants in the Site Operator Program are shown. Table 1 indicates the EVs in each of the Site Operator fleets. Table 2 provides baseline information on several EVs currently in use by the Site Operators, or which have evolved to the point that they may be introduced in the near future. The Program is currently managed by personnel of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The current principal management functions include: Coordination of Site Operator efforts in the areas of public awareness and infrastructure development (program-related meetings, and educational presentations).

  2. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix B: Design trade-off studies report. Volume 3: Computer program listings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A description and listing is presented of two computer programs: Hybrid Vehicle Design Program (HYVELD) and Hybrid Vehicle Simulation Program (HYVEC). Both of the programs are modifications and extensions of similar programs developed as part of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle System Research and Development Project.

  3. Hybrid propulsion for launch vehicle boosters: A program status update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, R. L.; Boardman, T. A.; Claflin, S. E.; Harwell, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    Results obtained in studying the origin and suppression of large-amplitude pressure oscillations in a 24 in. diameter hybrid motor using a liquid oxygen/hydroxylterminated polybutadiene/polycyclopentadiene propellant system are discussed. Tests conducted with liquid oxygen flow rates varying from 10 to 40 lbm/sec were designed to gauge the effectiveness of various vaporization chamber flow fields, injector designs, and levels of heat addition in suppressing high-frequency longitudinal mode oscillations. Longitudinal acoustic modes did not arise in any tests. However, initial testing revealed the presence of high-amplitude, sinusoidal, nonacoustic oscillations persisting throughout the burn durations. Analysis showed this to be analogous to chug mode instability in liquid rocket engines brought about by a coupling of motor combustion processes and the liquid oxygen feed system. Analytical models were developed and verified by test data to predict the amplitude and frequency of feed-system-coupled combustion pressure oscillations. Subsequent testing showed that increasing the feed system impedance eliminated the bulk mode instability. This paper documents the work completed to date in performance of the Hybrid Propulsion Technology for Launch Vehicle Boosters Program (NAS8-39942) sponsored by NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

  4. A Mixed Methods Analysis of Parental Support for a High School Hybrid Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiefel, Jacob P.

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid learning programs may offer the most benefits for secondary schools to help prepare students for the online learning requirements of higher education and the workforce. Parental support will be necessary for academic success of high school students in a hybrid learning program, though. The purpose of this sequential mixed methods study was…

  5. Biochemical identification of mallard-black duck hybrids through a breeding program and in nature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, R.P.; Meritt, D.W.; Block, S.B.; Cole, M.

    1978-01-01

    From 1974 to 1976, a breeding program was used to produce black duck-mallard hybrids for the evaluation of inheritance patterns of serum proteins and esterases. In addition to the initial crosses, a series of matings in 1975 and 1976 were designed to evaluate inheritance patterns in hybrid matings with either black duck or mallards. At the F1 level, hybrids were easily distinguished. However, mallard or black duck crosses with hybrids were detectable as hybrids in only 11.5 - 22.6% of the progeny using serum proteins, and 22.6 - 38.8% using serum esterases. Concurrent with the breeding program, a field survey indicated hybrid frequencies ranging from 4% to 28%.

  6. Hybrid propulsion technology program: Phase 1, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuler, A. L.; Wiley, D. R.

    1989-01-01

    A number of booster propulsion system concepts are being considered for the next generation of manned and unmanned space launch vehicles. The one propulsion system concept that has potential for reducing costs with increased safety, reliability, and performance is hybrid propulsion (HP). A HP system may be thought of as a liquid propulsion system with solid fuel or a solid propulsion system with a liquid oxidizer. The liquid propulsion features that are most attractive are the higher specific impulse, clean exhaust, separated propellants, and oxidizer loading just prior to launch. The most attractive solid propulsion features includes low life cycle costs, no rotating machinery, compact size, and a robust case. In addition, a HP system has a robust LO2 tank; provides thrust control for ignition, to alleviate flight loads, and for thrust termination; and uses an inert grain that is not sensitive to anomalies such as cracks, voids, and separations. The object is to develop the technology to enable the application of HP to manned and unmanned space launch vehicles. This program will identify the necessary technology, acquire that technology, and demonstrate that technology. This volume is the executive summary.

  7. City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    2013-12-31

    The City of Las Vegas was awarded Department of Energy (DOE) project funding in 2009, for the City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program. This project allowed the City of Las Vegas to purchase electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and associated electric vehicle charging infrastructure. The City anticipated the electric vehicles having lower overall operating costs and emissions similar to traditional and hybrid vehicles.

  8. A Best Practice Modular Design of a Hybrid Course Delivery Structure for an Executive Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klotz, Dorothy E.; Wright, Thomas A.

    2017-01-01

    This article highlights a best practice approach that showcases the highly successful deployment of a hybrid course delivery structure for an Operations core course in an Executive MBA Program. A key design element of the approach was the modular design of both the course itself and the learning materials. While other hybrid deployments may stress…

  9. Hybrid Band effects program (Lockheed Martin shared vision CRADA)

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, L. D.

    2012-03-01

    Hybrid Band{trademark} (H-band) is a Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control (LMMFC) designation for a specific RF modulation that causes disruption of select electronic components and circuits. H-Band enables conventional high-power microwave (HPM) effects (with a center frequency of 1 to 2 GHz, for example) using a higher frequency carrier signal. The primary technical objective of this project was to understand the fundamental physics of Hybrid Band{trademark} Radio Frequency effects on electronic systems. The follow-on objective was to develop and validate a Hybrid Band{trademark} effects analysis process.

  10. Phase I of the Near Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle Development Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The results of Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Vehicle Program are summarized. This phase of the program ws a study leading to the preliminary design of a 5-passenger hybrid vehicle utilizing two energy sources (electricity and gasoline/diesel fuel) to minimize petroleum usage on a fleet basis. This report presents the following: overall summary of the Phase I activity; summary of the individual tasks; summary of the hybrid vehicle design; summary of the alternative design options; summary of the computer simulations; summary of the economic analysis; summary of the maintenance and reliability considerations; summary of the design for crash safety; and bibliography.

  11. Hybrid propulsion technology program. Volume 2: Technology definition package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Gordon E.; Holzman, Allen L.; Leisch, Steven O.; Keilbach, Joseph; Parsley, Randy; Humphrey, John

    1989-01-01

    A concept design study was performed to configure two sizes of hybrid boosters; one which duplicates the advanced shuttle rocket motor vacuum thrust time curve and a smaller, quarter thrust level booster. Two sizes of hybrid boosters were configured for either pump-fed or pressure-fed oxygen feed systems. Performance analyses show improved payload capability relative to a solid propellant booster. Size optimization and fuel safety considerations resulted in a 4.57 m (180 inch) diameter large booster with an inert hydrocarbon fuel. The preferred diameter for the quarter thrust level booster is 2.53 m (96 inches). The demonstration plan would culminate with test firings of a 3.05 m (120 inch) diameter hybrid booster.

  12. Early experiments with the OpenMP/MPI hybrid programming model.

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, E.; Chan, A.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Chicago

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes some very early experiments on new architectures that support the hybrid programming model. The results are promising in that OpenMP threads interact with MPI as desired, allowing OpenMP-agnostic tools to be used. They explore three environments: a 'typical' Linux cluster, a new large-scale machine from SiCortex, and the new IBM BG/P, which have quite different compilers and runtime systems for both OpenMP and MPI. They look at a few simple, diagnostic programs, and one 'application-like' test program. They demonstrate the use of a tool that can examine the detailed sequence of events in a hybrid program and illustrate that a hybrid computation might not always proceed as expected.

  13. Petascale computation performance of lightweight multiscale cardiac models using hybrid programming models.

    PubMed

    Pope, Bernard J; Fitch, Blake G; Pitman, Michael C; Rice, John J; Reumann, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Future multiscale and multiphysics models must use the power of high performance computing (HPC) systems to enable research into human disease, translational medical science, and treatment. Previously we showed that computationally efficient multiscale models will require the use of sophisticated hybrid programming models, mixing distributed message passing processes (e.g. the message passing interface (MPI)) with multithreading (e.g. OpenMP, POSIX pthreads). The objective of this work is to compare the performance of such hybrid programming models when applied to the simulation of a lightweight multiscale cardiac model. Our results show that the hybrid models do not perform favourably when compared to an implementation using only MPI which is in contrast to our results using complex physiological models. Thus, with regards to lightweight multiscale cardiac models, the user may not need to increase programming complexity by using a hybrid programming approach. However, considering that model complexity will increase as well as the HPC system size in both node count and number of cores per node, it is still foreseeable that we will achieve faster than real time multiscale cardiac simulations on these systems using hybrid programming models.

  14. Computer programs used to aid in the selection of DNA hybridization probes.

    PubMed Central

    Raupach, R E

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes a package of three programs which used together aid in selecting the best possible sequence to be used as a DNA hybridization probe. This system searches an amino acid sequence for four adjacent amino acids with the fewest possible corresponding mRNA sequences, calculates their probability of occurrence, and locates the positions of wobbles and mismatches between the DNA hybridization probe and the possible mRNA sequences. PMID:6546442

  15. Hybrid MPI+OpenMP Programming of an Overset CFD Solver and Performance Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Djomehri, M. Jahed; Jin, Haoqiang H.; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This report describes a two level parallelization of a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) solver with multi-zone overset structured grids. The approach is based on a hybrid MPI+OpenMP programming model suitable for shared memory and clusters of shared memory machines. The performance investigations of the hybrid application on an SGI Origin2000 (O2K) machine is reported using medium and large scale test problems.

  16. A Hybrid Method to Estimate Specific Differential Phase and Rainfall With Linear Programming and Physics Constraints

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Hao; Zhang, Guifu; Zhao, Kun; ...

    2016-10-20

    A hybrid method of combining linear programming (LP) and physical constraints is developed to estimate specific differential phase (KDP) and to improve rain estimation. Moreover, the hybrid KDP estimator and the existing estimators of LP, least squares fitting, and a self-consistent relation of polarimetric radar variables are evaluated and compared using simulated data. Our simulation results indicate the new estimator's superiority, particularly in regions where backscattering phase (δhv) dominates. Further, a quantitative comparison between auto-weather-station rain-gauge observations and KDP-based radar rain estimates for a Meiyu event also demonstrate the superiority of the hybrid KDP estimator over existing methods.

  17. Correctness of Multi-Agent Programs: A Hybrid Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dastani, M.; Meyer, J.-J. Ch.

    This chapter proposes a twofold approach for ensuring the correctness of BDI-based agent programs. On the one hand, we advocate the alignment of the semantics of agent programming languages with agent specification languages such that for an agent programming language it can be shown that it obeys specific desirable properties expressed in the corresponding agent specification language. In this way, one can guarantee that specific properties expressed in the specification language are satisfied by any program implemented in the programming language. On the other hand, we introduce a debugging framework to find and resolve possible defects in such agent programs. The debugging approach consists of a specification language and a set of debugging tools. The specification language allows a developer to express cognitive and temporal properties of multi-agent program executions. The debugging tools allow a developer to verify if a specific multi-agent program execution satisfies a desirable property.

  18. Hybrid-Mentoring Programs for Beginning Elementary Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, EunJin

    2013-01-01

    This study examines four induction models and teacher changes in science teaching practices, as a result of several mentoring programs. It explores three different computer-mediated mentoring programs, and a traditional offline induction program--in terms of interactivity, inquiry-based teaching, and topics of knowledge. Fifteen elementary science…

  19. Near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Missions for hybrid vehicles that promise to yield high petroleum impact were identified and a preliminary design, was developed that satisfies the mission requirements and performance specifications. Technologies that are critical to successful vehicle design, development and fabrication were determined. Trade-off studies to maximize fuel savings were used to develop initial design specifications of the near term hybrid vehicle. Various designs were "driven" through detailed computer simulations which calculate the petroleum consumption in standard driving cycles, the petroleum and electricity consumptions over the specified missions, and the vehicle's life cycle costs over a 10 year vehicle lifetime. Particular attention was given to the selection of the electric motor, heat engine, drivetrain, battery pack and control system. The preliminary design reflects a modified current compact car powered by a currently available turbocharged diesel engine and a 24 kW (peak) compound dc electric motor.

  20. Hybrid propulsion technology program. Volume 1: Conceptional design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Gordon E.; Holzman, Allen L.; Leisch, Steven O.; Keilbach, Joseph; Parsley, Randy; Humphrey, John

    1989-01-01

    A concept design study was performed to configure two sizes of hybrid boosters; one which duplicates the advanced shuttle rocket motor vacuum thrust time curve and a smaller, quarter thrust level booster. Two sizes of hybrid boosters were configured for either pump-fed or pressure-fed oxygen feed systems. Performance analyses show improved payload capability relative to a solid propellant booster. Size optimization and fuel safety considerations resulted in a 4.57 m (180 inch) diameter large booster with an inert hydrocarbon fuel. The preferred diameter for the quarter thrust level booster is 2.53 m (96 inches). As part of the design study critical technology issues were identified and a technology acquisition and demonstration plan was formulated.

  1. Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program Resulted in Several New Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2003-01-01

    Hybrid Power Management (HPM) is the innovative integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications. The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The advanced power devices include ultracapacitors, fuel cells, and photovoltaics. HPM has extremely wide potential with applications from nanowatts to megawatts. Applications include power generation, transportation systems, biotechnology systems, and space power systems. HPM has the potential to significantly alleviate global energy concerns, improve the environment, and stimulate the economy.

  2. Research of Hybrid Programming with C#.net and Matlab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; An, Jian-Ping; Chen, Pan

    Several approaches of integrated programming between C# and Matlab are introduced in this paper, including using Matlab Engine, calling Matlab Workspace in C# Functions and using com component. How to implement these approaches by programming was also shown in this paper, then analyze the characteristic of these methods and give the range of use.

  3. Hybrid-view programming of nuclear fusion simulation code in the PGAS parallel programming language XcalableMP

    SciTech Connect

    Tsugane, Keisuke; Boku, Taisuke; Murai, Hitoshi; Sato, Mitsuhisa; Tang, William; Wang, Bei

    2016-06-01

    Recently, the Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) parallel programming model has emerged as a usable distributed memory programming model. XcalableMP (XMP) is a PGAS parallel programming language that extends base languages such as C and Fortran with directives in OpenMP-like style. XMP supports a global-view model that allows programmers to define global data and to map them to a set of processors, which execute the distributed global data as a single thread. In XMP, the concept of a coarray is also employed for local-view programming. In this study, we port Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code - Princeton (GTC-P), which is a three-dimensional gyrokinetic PIC code developed at Princeton University to study the microturbulence phenomenon in magnetically confined fusion plasmas, to XMP as an example of hybrid memory model coding with the global-view and local-view programming models. In local-view programming, the coarray notation is simple and intuitive compared with Message Passing Interface (MPI) programming while the performance is comparable to that of the MPI version. Thus, because the global-view programming model is suitable for expressing the data parallelism for a field of grid space data, we implement a hybrid-view version using a global-view programming model to compute the field and a local-view programming model to compute the movement of particles. Finally, the performance is degraded by 20% compared with the original MPI version, but the hybrid-view version facilitates more natural data expression for static grid space data (in the global-view model) and dynamic particle data (in the local-view model), and it also increases the readability of the code for higher productivity.

  4. Hybrid-view programming of nuclear fusion simulation code in the PGAS parallel programming language XcalableMP

    DOE PAGES

    Tsugane, Keisuke; Boku, Taisuke; Murai, Hitoshi; ...

    2016-06-01

    Recently, the Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) parallel programming model has emerged as a usable distributed memory programming model. XcalableMP (XMP) is a PGAS parallel programming language that extends base languages such as C and Fortran with directives in OpenMP-like style. XMP supports a global-view model that allows programmers to define global data and to map them to a set of processors, which execute the distributed global data as a single thread. In XMP, the concept of a coarray is also employed for local-view programming. In this study, we port Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code - Princeton (GTC-P), which is a three-dimensionalmore » gyrokinetic PIC code developed at Princeton University to study the microturbulence phenomenon in magnetically confined fusion plasmas, to XMP as an example of hybrid memory model coding with the global-view and local-view programming models. In local-view programming, the coarray notation is simple and intuitive compared with Message Passing Interface (MPI) programming while the performance is comparable to that of the MPI version. Thus, because the global-view programming model is suitable for expressing the data parallelism for a field of grid space data, we implement a hybrid-view version using a global-view programming model to compute the field and a local-view programming model to compute the movement of particles. Finally, the performance is degraded by 20% compared with the original MPI version, but the hybrid-view version facilitates more natural data expression for static grid space data (in the global-view model) and dynamic particle data (in the local-view model), and it also increases the readability of the code for higher productivity.« less

  5. Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program: Center of Automotive Technology Excellence in Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Technology at West Virginia University

    SciTech Connect

    Nigle N. Clark

    2006-12-31

    This report summarizes the technical and educational achievements of the Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center at West Virginia University (WVU), which was created to emphasize Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Technology. The Center has supported the graduate studies of 17 students in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and the Lane Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering. These students have addressed topics such as hybrid modeling, construction of a hybrid sport utility vehicle (in conjunction with the FutureTruck program), a MEMS-based sensor, on-board data acquisition for hybrid design optimization, linear engine design and engine emissions. Courses have been developed in Hybrid Vehicle Design, Mobile Source Powerplants, Advanced Vehicle Propulsion, Power Electronics for Automotive Applications and Sensors for Automotive Applications, and have been responsible for 396 hours of graduate student coursework. The GATE program also enhanced the WVU participation in the U.S. Department of Energy Student Design Competitions, in particular FutureTruck and Challenge X. The GATE support for hybrid vehicle technology enhanced understanding of hybrid vehicle design and testing at WVU and encouraged the development of a research agenda in heavy-duty hybrid vehicles. As a result, WVU has now completed three programs in hybrid transit bus emissions characterization, and WVU faculty are leading the Transportation Research Board effort to define life cycle costs for hybrid transit buses. Research and enrollment records show that approximately 100 graduate students have benefited substantially from the hybrid vehicle GATE program at WVU.

  6. The near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Performance specifications were determined for a hybrid vehicle designed to achieve the greatest reduction in fuel consumption. Based on the results of systems level studies, a baseline vehicle was constructed with the following basic paramaters: a heat engine power peak of 53 kW (VW gasoline engine); a traction motor power peak of 30 kW (Siemens 1GV1, separately excited); a heat engine fraction of 0.64; a vehicle curb weight of 2080 kg; a lead acid battery (35 kg weight); and a battery weight fraction of 0.17. The heat engine and the traction motor are coupled together with their combined output driving a 3 speed automatic transmission with lockup torque converter. The heat engine is equipped withe a clutch which allows it to be decoupled from the system.

  7. Electric and hybrid vehicle program site operator program. Quarterly progress report, October 1994--December 1994 (First quarter of FY-95)

    SciTech Connect

    Kiser, D.M.; Brown, H.L.

    1995-07-01

    The DOE Site Operator Program was initially established to meet the requirements of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1976. The Program has since evolved in response to new legislation and interests. Its mission now includes three ma or activity categories: (1) Advancement of Electric Vehicle (EV) technologies, (2) Development of infrastructure elements needed to support significant EV use, and (3) Increasing public awareness and acceptance of EVs. The 13 Program participants, their geographic locations, and the principal thrusts of their efforts are identified in Table ES-1. The EV inventories of each participant are summarized in Table ES-2.

  8. Hybrid Food Preservation Program Improves Food Preservation and Food Safety Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    The growing trend in home food preservation raises concerns about whether the resulting food products will be safe to eat. The increased public demand for food preservation information led to the development of the comprehensive food preservation program, Preserve the Taste of Summer (PTTS). PTTS is a comprehensive hybrid food preservation program…

  9. A survey of electric and hybrid vehicles simulation programs. Volume 2: Questionnaire responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bevan, J.; Heimburger, D. A.; Metcalfe, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    The data received in a survey conducted within the United States to determine the extent of development and capabilities of automotive performance simulation programs suitable for electric and hybrid vehicle studies are presented. The survey was conducted for the Department of Energy by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Volume 1 of this report summarizes and discusses the results contained in Volume 2.

  10. Consumer evaluation of new tangerine hybrids from the UF-CREC citrus breeding program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to conduct a consumer evaluation of new tangerine hybrids from the UF-CREC citrus breeding program, together with some commercial varieties. A total of 153 mall intercept interviews were conducted with a random sample of fresh citrus fruit consumers in three markets: ...

  11. Broadening Participation of Women and Underrepresented Minorities in STEM through a Hybrid Online Transfer Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drew, Jennifer C.; Galindo-Gonzalez, Sebastian; Ardissone, Alexandria N.; Triplett, Eric W.

    2016-01-01

    The Microbiology and Cell Science (MCS) Department at the University of Florida (UF) developed a new model of a 2 + 2 program that uses a hybrid online approach to bring its science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) curriculum to students. In this paradigm, 2-year graduates transfer as online students into the Distance Education in…

  12. A hybrid nonlinear programming method for design optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajan, S. D.

    1986-01-01

    Solutions to engineering design problems formulated as nonlinear programming (NLP) problems usually require the use of more than one optimization technique. Moreover, the interaction between the user (analysis/synthesis) program and the NLP system can lead to interface, scaling, or convergence problems. An NLP solution system is presented that seeks to solve these problems by providing a programming system to ease the user-system interface. A simple set of rules is used to select an optimization technique or to switch from one technique to another in an attempt to detect, diagnose, and solve some potential problems. Numerical examples involving finite element based optimal design of space trusses and rotor bearing systems are used to illustrate the applicability of the proposed methodology.

  13. Approximate dynamic programming recurrence relations for a hybrid optimal control problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, W.; Ferrari, S.; Fierro, R.; Wettergren, T. A.

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a hybrid approximate dynamic programming (ADP) method for a hybrid dynamic system (HDS) optimal control problem, that occurs in many complex unmanned systems which are implemented via a hybrid architecture, regarding robot modes or the complex environment. The HDS considered in this paper is characterized by a well-known three-layer hybrid framework, which includes a discrete event controller layer, a discrete-continuous interface layer, and a continuous state layer. The hybrid optimal control problem (HOCP) is to nd the optimal discrete event decisions and the optimal continuous controls subject to a deterministic minimization of a scalar function regarding the system state and control over time. Due to the uncertainty of environment and complexity of the HOCP, the cost-to-go cannot be evaluated before the HDS explores the entire system state space; as a result, the optimal control, neither continuous nor discrete, is not available ahead of time. Therefore, ADP is adopted to learn the optimal control while the HDS is exploring the environment, because of the online advantage of ADP method. Furthermore, ADP can break the curses of dimensionality which other optimizing methods, such as dynamic programming (DP) and Markov decision process (MDP), are facing due to the high dimensions of HOCP.

  14. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix D: Sensitivity analysis resport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Parametric analyses, using a hybrid vehicle synthesis and economics program (HYVELD) are described investigating the sensitivity of hybrid vehicle cost, fuel usage, utility, and marketability to changes in travel statistics, energy costs, vehicle lifetime and maintenance, owner use patterns, internal combustion engine (ICE) reference vehicle fuel economy, and drive-line component costs and type. The lowest initial cost of the hybrid vehicle would be $1200 to $1500 higher than that of the conventional vehicle. For nominal energy costs ($1.00/gal for gasoline and 4.2 cents/kWh for electricity), the ownership cost of the hybrid vehicle is projected to be 0.5 to 1.0 cents/mi less than the conventional ICE vehicle. To attain this ownership cost differential, the lifetime of the hybrid vehicle must be extended to 12 years and its maintenance cost reduced by 25 percent compared with the conventional vehicle. The ownership cost advantage of the hybrid vehicle increases rapidly as the price of fuel increases from $1 to $2/gal.

  15. The Rubidium-Crystal Oscillator Hybrid Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vig, J. R.; Rosati, V. J.

    1984-01-01

    The rubidium-crystal oscillator hybrid (RbXO) will make precise time available to systems that lack the power required by atomic frequency standards. The RbXO consists of two subassemblies in separate enclosures. One contains a small rubidium frequency standard (RFS) without its internal oven-controlled crystal oscillator (OCXO), plus interface circuits. The second contains a low-power OCXO, and additional interface circuits. The OCXO is on continuously. Periodically, e.g., once a week, the user system applies power to the RFS. After the few necessary for the warmup of the RFS, the interface circuits adjust the frequency of the OCXO to the RFS reference, then shut off the RFS. The OCXO enclosure is separable from the RFS enclosure so that manpacks will be able to operate with minimum size, weight, and power consumption, while having the accuracy of the RFS for the duration of a mission. A prototype RbXO's RFS has operated successfully for 4200 on-off cycles. Parallel efforts on a Phase 2 RbXO development are in progress. Two sources for the RbXO are scheduled to be available during 1986.

  16. Environmental Assessment of the US Department of Energy Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M.K.; Bernard, M.J. III; Walsh, R.F

    1980-11-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) focuses on the long-term (1985-2000) impacts of the US Department of Energy (DOE) electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) program. This program has been designed to accelerate the development of EHVs and to demonstrate their commercial feasibility as required by the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1976 (P.L. 94-413), as amended (P.L. 95-238). The overall goal of the program is the commercialization of: (1) electric vehicles (EVs) acceptable to broad segments of the personal and commercial vehicle markets, (2) hybrid vehicles (HVs) with range capabilities comparable to those of conventional vehicles (CVs), and (3) advanced EHVs completely competitive with CVs with respect to both cost and performance. Five major EHV projects have been established by DOE: market demonstration, vehicle evaluation and improvement, electric vehicle commercialization, hybrid vehicle commercialization, and advanced vehicle development. Conclusions are made as to the effects of EV and HV commercialization on the: consumption and importation of raw materials; petroleum and total energy consumption; ecosystems impact from the time of obtaining raw material through vehicle use and materials recycling; environmental impacts on air and water quality, land use, and noise; health and safety aspects; and socio-economic factors. (LCL)

  17. A hybrid approach to protein folding problem integrating constraint programming with local search

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The protein folding problem remains one of the most challenging open problems in computational biology. Simplified models in terms of lattice structure and energy function have been proposed to ease the computational hardness of this optimization problem. Heuristic search algorithms and constraint programming are two common techniques to approach this problem. The present study introduces a novel hybrid approach to simulate the protein folding problem using constraint programming technique integrated within local search. Results Using the face-centered-cubic lattice model and 20 amino acid pairwise interactions energy function for the protein folding problem, a constraint programming technique has been applied to generate the neighbourhood conformations that are to be used in generic local search procedure. Experiments have been conducted for a few small and medium sized proteins. Results have been compared with both pure constraint programming approach and local search using well-established local move set. Substantial improvements have been observed in terms of final energy values within acceptable runtime using the hybrid approach. Conclusion Constraint programming approaches usually provide optimal results but become slow as the problem size grows. Local search approaches are usually faster but do not guarantee optimal solutions and tend to stuck in local minima. The encouraging results obtained on the small proteins show that these two approaches can be combined efficiently to obtain better quality solutions within acceptable time. It also encourages future researchers on adopting hybrid techniques to solve other hard optimization problems. PMID:20122212

  18. A Hybrid Method to Estimate Specific Differential Phase and Rainfall With Linear Programming and Physics Constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Hao; Zhang, Guifu; Zhao, Kun; Giangrande, Scott E.

    2016-10-20

    A hybrid method of combining linear programming (LP) and physical constraints is developed to estimate specific differential phase (KDP) and to improve rain estimation. Moreover, the hybrid KDP estimator and the existing estimators of LP, least squares fitting, and a self-consistent relation of polarimetric radar variables are evaluated and compared using simulated data. Our simulation results indicate the new estimator's superiority, particularly in regions where backscattering phase (δhv) dominates. Further, a quantitative comparison between auto-weather-station rain-gauge observations and KDP-based radar rain estimates for a Meiyu event also demonstrate the superiority of the hybrid KDP estimator over existing methods.

  19. Broadening Participation of Women and Underrepresented Minorities in STEM through a Hybrid Online Transfer Program

    PubMed Central

    Drew, Jennifer C.; Galindo-Gonzalez, Sebastian; Ardissone, Alexandria N.; Triplett, Eric W.

    2016-01-01

    The Microbiology and Cell Science (MCS) Department at the University of Florida (UF) developed a new model of a 2 + 2 program that uses a hybrid online approach to bring its science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) curriculum to students. In this paradigm, 2-year graduates transfer as online students into the Distance Education in MCS (DE MCS) bachelor of science program. The program has broadened access to STEM with a steadily increasing enrollment that does not draw students away from existing on-campus programs. Notably, half of the DE MCS students are from underrepresented minority (URM) backgrounds and two-thirds are women, which represents a greater level of diversity than the corresponding on-campus cohort and the entire university. Additionally, the DE MCS cohort has comparable retention and academic performance compared with the on-campus transfer cohort. Of those who have earned a BS through the DE MCS program, 71% are women and 61% are URM. Overall, these data demonstrate that the hybrid online approach is successful in increasing diversity and provides another viable route in the myriad of STEM pathways. As the first of its kind in a STEM field, the DE MCS program serves as a model for programs seeking to broaden their reach. PMID:27587859

  20. Broadening Participation of Women and Underrepresented Minorities in STEM through a Hybrid Online Transfer Program.

    PubMed

    Drew, Jennifer C; Galindo-Gonzalez, Sebastian; Ardissone, Alexandria N; Triplett, Eric W

    2016-01-01

    The Microbiology and Cell Science (MCS) Department at the University of Florida (UF) developed a new model of a 2 + 2 program that uses a hybrid online approach to bring its science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) curriculum to students. In this paradigm, 2-year graduates transfer as online students into the Distance Education in MCS (DE MCS) bachelor of science program. The program has broadened access to STEM with a steadily increasing enrollment that does not draw students away from existing on-campus programs. Notably, half of the DE MCS students are from underrepresented minority (URM) backgrounds and two-thirds are women, which represents a greater level of diversity than the corresponding on-campus cohort and the entire university. Additionally, the DE MCS cohort has comparable retention and academic performance compared with the on-campus transfer cohort. Of those who have earned a BS through the DE MCS program, 71% are women and 61% are URM. Overall, these data demonstrate that the hybrid online approach is successful in increasing diversity and provides another viable route in the myriad of STEM pathways. As the first of its kind in a STEM field, the DE MCS program serves as a model for programs seeking to broaden their reach.

  1. Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Passenger-Vehicle Development Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Under contract to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology, Minicars conducted Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle (NTHV) Development Program. This program led to the preliminary design of a hybrid (electric and internal combustion engine powered) vehicle and fulfilled the objectives set by JPL. JPL requested that the report address certain specific topics. A brief summary of all Phase I activities is given initially; the hybrid vehicle preliminary design is described in Sections 4, 5, and 6. Table 2 of the Summary lists performance projections for the overall vehicle and some of its subsystems. Section 4.5 gives references to the more-detailed design information found in the Preliminary Design Data Package (Appendix C). Alternative hybrid-vehicle design options are discussed in Sections 3 through 6. A listing of the tradeoff study alternatives is included in Section 3. Computer simulations are discussed in Section 9. Section 8 describes the supporting economic analyses. Reliability and safety considerations are discussed specifically in Section 7 and are mentioned in Sections 4, 5, and 6. Section 10 lists conclusions and recommendations arrived at during the performance of Phase I. A complete bibliography follows the list of references.

  2. Application of the Hybrid Program for Fitting Microwave and Far-Infrared Spectra of Methylamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleiner, Isabelle; Hougen, Jon T.

    2016-06-01

    Last year we presented a new hybrid-model fitting program for methylamine-like molecules, based on an effective Hamiltonian in which the ammonia-like inversion motion is treated using a tunneling formalism, while the internal-rotation motion is treated using an explicit kinetic energy operator and potential energy function. This new hybrid program was successfully applied to 2-methylmalonaldehyde, for which we refit the already published ground state vt = 0 data. This fit, which was of almost the same quality as that obtained using an all-tunneling formalism, removed one of the major puzzles in the isotope-dependence of the internal-rotation tunneling parameters found in the all-tunneling fit. This year we are trying to illustrate a second advantage of the new hybrid formalism, which allows one to carry out global fits of data from two or more torsional states in methylamine-like molecules. We are, in fact, trying to simultaneously fit the vt = 0 and vt = 1 microwave and infrared date on methylamine itself. This data is also in the literature, but the all-tunneling Hamiltonians used could only fit each of the two torsional states separately. At the time of writing this abstract, we have preliminary fits of about 1200 methylamine transitions to 25 or 30 torsion-inversion-rotation parameters, but these hybrid-program fits are not yet at the same level as the all-tunneling-program fits in the literature. We hope to report significant further progress on this work in June. I. Kleiner and J. T. Hougen, J Phys Chem A. 119, 10664-76 (2015)

  3. A hybrid programming model for compressible gas dynamics using openCL

    SciTech Connect

    Bergen, Benjamin Karl; Daniels, Marcus G; Weber, Paul M

    2010-01-01

    The current trend towards multicore/manycore and accelerated architectures presents challenges, both in portability, and also in the choices that developers must make on how to use the resources that these architectures provide. This paper explores some of the possibilities that are enabled by the Open Computing Language (OpenCL), and proposes a programming model that allows developers and scientists to more fully subscribe hybrid compute nodes, while, at the same time, reducing the impact of system failure.

  4. Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Passenger-Vehicle Development Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Heat engine/electric hybrid vehicles offer the potential of greatly reduced petroleum consumption, compared to conventional vehicles, without the disadvantages of limited performance and operating range associated with purely electric vehicles. This report documents a hybrid-vehicle design approach which is aimed at the development of the technology required to achieve this potential - in such a way that it is transferable to the auto industry in the near term. The development of this design approach constituted Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid-Vehicle Program. The major tasks in this program were: (1) Mission Analysis and Performance Specification Studies; (2) Design Tradeoff Studies; and (3) Preliminary Design. Detailed reports covering each of these tasks are included as appendices to this report and issued under separate cover; a fourth task, Sensitivity Studies, is also included in the report on the Design Tradeoff Studies. Because of the detail with which these appendices cover methodology and both interim and final results, the body of this report was prepared as a brief executive summary of the program activities and results, with appropriate references to the detailed material in the appendices.

  5. HYDES: A generalized hybrid computer program for studying turbojet or turbofan engine dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szuch, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    This report describes HYDES, a hybrid computer program capable of simulating one-spool turbojet, two-spool turbojet, or two-spool turbofan engine dynamics. HYDES is also capable of simulating two- or three-stream turbofans with or without mixing of the exhaust streams. The program is intended to reduce the time required for implementing dynamic engine simulations. HYDES was developed for running on the Lewis Research Center's Electronic Associates (EAI) 690 Hybrid Computing System and satisfies the 16384-word core-size and hybrid-interface limits of that machine. The program could be modified for running on other computing systems. The use of HYDES to simulate a single-spool turbojet and a two-spool, two-stream turbofan engine is demonstrated. The form of the required input data is shown and samples of output listings (teletype) and transient plots (x-y plotter) are provided. HYDES is shown to be capable of performing both steady-state design and off-design analyses and transient analyses.

  6. Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program. Seventeenth annual report to Congress for Fiscal Year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This program, in cooperation with industry, is conducting research, development, testing, and evaluation activities to develop the technologies that would lead to production and introduction of low-and zero-emission electric and hybrid vehicles into the Nation`s transportation fleet. This annual report describes program activities in the areas of advanced battery, fuel cell, and propulsion systems development. Testing and evaluation of new technology in fleet site operations and laboratories are also provided. Also presented is status on incentives (CAFE, 1992 Energy Policy Act) and use of foreign components, and a listing of publications by DOE, national laboratories, and contractors.

  7. Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program. Sixteenth annual report to Congress for fiscal year 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the progress achieved in developing electric and hybrid vehicle technologies, beginning with highlights of recent accomplishments in FY 1992. Detailed descriptions are provided of program activities during FY 1992 in the areas of battery, fuel cell, and propulsion system development, and testing and evaluation of new technology in fleet site operations and in laboratories. This Annual Report also contains a status report on incentives and use of foreign components, as well as a list of publications resulting from the DOE program.

  8. Performance of hybrid programming models for multiscale cardiac simulations: preparing for petascale computation.

    PubMed

    Pope, Bernard J; Fitch, Blake G; Pitman, Michael C; Rice, John J; Reumann, Matthias

    2011-10-01

    Future multiscale and multiphysics models that support research into human disease, translational medical science, and treatment can utilize the power of high-performance computing (HPC) systems. We anticipate that computationally efficient multiscale models will require the use of sophisticated hybrid programming models, mixing distributed message-passing processes [e.g., the message-passing interface (MPI)] with multithreading (e.g., OpenMP, Pthreads). The objective of this study is to compare the performance of such hybrid programming models when applied to the simulation of a realistic physiological multiscale model of the heart. Our results show that the hybrid models perform favorably when compared to an implementation using only the MPI and, furthermore, that OpenMP in combination with the MPI provides a satisfactory compromise between performance and code complexity. Having the ability to use threads within MPI processes enables the sophisticated use of all processor cores for both computation and communication phases. Considering that HPC systems in 2012 will have two orders of magnitude more cores than what was used in this study, we believe that faster than real-time multiscale cardiac simulations can be achieved on these systems.

  9. Evaluation of hybrid inverters for strategic environmental research and development program applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ginn, J.W.

    1995-11-01

    The photovoltaic systems test facility at Sandia National Laboratories is evaluating the performance of large hybrid power-processing centers (PPC`s). The primary customer for this work has been the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) of the Department of Defense. One of the goals of SERDP is to develop power-processing hardware to be used in photovoltaic-hybrid power systems at remote military installations. Power for these installations is presently provided by engine-generators. Currently, hardware for twelve such sites is in various stages of procurement. The subject of this talk is testing of the PPC for the first SERDP system, a 300-kW unit for Superior Valley, a US Navy site at China Lake, California.

  10. Monthly reservoir inflow forecasting using a new hybrid SARIMA genetic programming approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeeni, Hamid; Bonakdari, Hossein; Ebtehaj, Isa

    2017-03-01

    Forecasting reservoir inflow is one of the most important components of water resources and hydroelectric systems operation management. Seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) models have been frequently used for predicting river flow. SARIMA models are linear and do not consider the random component of statistical data. To overcome this shortcoming, monthly inflow is predicted in this study based on a combination of seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) and gene expression programming (GEP) models, which is a new hybrid method (SARIMA-GEP). To this end, a four-step process is employed. First, the monthly inflow datasets are pre-processed. Second, the datasets are modelled linearly with SARIMA and in the third stage, the non-linearity of residual series caused by linear modelling is evaluated. After confirming the non-linearity, the residuals are modelled in the fourth step using a gene expression programming (GEP) method. The proposed hybrid model is employed to predict the monthly inflow to the Jamishan Dam in west Iran. Thirty years' worth of site measurements of monthly reservoir dam inflow with extreme seasonal variations are used. The results of this hybrid model (SARIMA-GEP) are compared with SARIMA, GEP, artificial neural network (ANN) and SARIMA-ANN models. The results indicate that the SARIMA-GEP model ( R 2=78.8, VAF =78.8, RMSE =0.89, MAPE =43.4, CRM =0.053) outperforms SARIMA and GEP and SARIMA-ANN ( R 2=68.3, VAF =66.4, RMSE =1.12, MAPE =56.6, CRM =0.032) displays better performance than the SARIMA and ANN models. A comparison of the two hybrid models indicates the superiority of SARIMA-GEP over the SARIMA-ANN model.

  11. Electric and hybrid vehicle site operators program: Thinking of the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kansas State University, with support from federal, state, public, and private companies, is participating in the Department of Energy's Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Through participation in this program, Kansas State is displaying, testing, and evaluating electric or hybrid vehicle technology. This participation will provide organizations the opportunity to examine the latest EHV prototypes under actual operating conditions. KSU proposes to purchase one electric or hybrid van and two electric cars during the first two years of this five-year program. KSU has purchased one G-Van built by Conceptor Industries, Toronto, Canada and has initiated a procurement order to purchase two Soleq 1993 Ford EVcort station wagons. The G-Van has been signed in order for the public to be aware that this is an electric drive vehicle. Financial participants' names have been stenciled on the back door of the van. This vehicle is available for short term loan to interested utilities and companies. When other vehicles are obtained, the G-Van will be maintained on K-State's campus.

  12. [Electric and hybrid vehicle site operators program]: Thinking of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    Kansas State University, with funding support from federal, state, public, and private companies, is participating in the Department of Energy's Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Through participation in this program, Kansas State is displaying, testing, and evaluating electric or hybrid vehicle technology. This participation will provide organizations the opportunity to examine the latest EHV prototypes under actual operating conditions. KSU proposes to purchase one (1) electric or hybrid vans and two (2) electric cars during the first two years of this five-year program. KSU has purchased one G-Van built by Conceptor Industries, Toronto, Canada and has initiated a procurement order to purchase two (2) Soleq 1993 Ford EVcort station wagons. The G-Van has been signed in order for the public to be aware that this is an electric drive vehicle. Financial participants' names have been stenciled on the back door of the van. This vehicle is available for short term loan to interested utilities and companies. When other vehicles are obtained, the G-Van will be maintained on K-State's campus.

  13. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program: Site Operation Program. Quarterly progress report, July--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.; Bassett, R.R.; Briasco, S.

    1995-12-01

    The Site Operator Program has evolved substantially since its inception in response to the Electric Vehicle Research and Demonstration Act of 1976. In its original form, a commercialization effort was intended but this was not feasible for lack of vehicle suppliers and infrastructure. Nonetheless, with DOE sponsorship and technical participation, a few results (primarily operating experience and data) were forthcoming. The current Program comprises eleven sites and over 200 vehicles, of which about 50 are latest generation vehicles. DOE partially funds the Program participant expenditures and the INEL receives operating and maintenance data for the DOE-owned, and participant-owned or monitored vehicles, as well as Program reports. As noted elsewhere in this report, participants represent several widely differing categories: electric utilities, academic institutions, and federal agencies. While both the utilities and the academic institutions tend to establish beneficial relationships with the industrial community.

  14. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program, Site Operator Program. Quarterly progress report, January--March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E.; Bassett, R.R.; Briasco, S.

    1996-08-01

    Goals of the site operator program include field evaluation of electric vehicles (EVs) in real-world applications and environments, advancement of electric vehicle technologies, development of infrastructure elements necessary to support significant EV use, and increasing the awareness and acceptance of EVs by the public. The site operator program currently consists of 11 participants under contract and two other organizations with data-sharing agreements with the program. The participants (electric utilities, academic institutions, Federal agencies) are geographically dispersed within US and their vehicles see a broad spectrum of service conditions. Current EV inventories of the site operators exceeds 250 vehicles. Several national organizations have joined DOE to further the introduction and awareness of EVs, including: (1) EVAmerica (a utility program) and DOE conduct performance and evaluation tests to support market development for EVs; (2) DOE, DOT, the Electric Transportation Coalition, and the Electric Vehicle Association of the Americas are conducting a series of workshops to encourage urban groups in Clean Cities (a DOE program) to initiate the policies and infrastructure development necessary to support large-scale demonstrations, and ultimately the mass market use, of EVs. Current focus of the program is collection and dissemination of EV operations and performance data to aid in the evaluation of real- world EV use. This report contains several sections with vehicle evaluation as a focus: EV testing results, energy economics of EVs, and site operators activities.

  15. A hybrid computer program for rapidly solving flowing or static chemical kinetic problems involving many chemical species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclain, A. G.; Rao, C. S. R.

    1976-01-01

    A hybrid chemical kinetic computer program was assembled which provides a rapid solution to problems involving flowing or static, chemically reacting, gas mixtures. The computer program uses existing subroutines for problem setup, initialization, and preliminary calculations and incorporates a stiff ordinary differential equation solution technique. A number of check cases were recomputed with the hybrid program and the results were almost identical to those previously obtained. The computational time saving was demonstrated with a propane-oxygen-argon shock tube combustion problem involving 31 chemical species and 64 reactions. Information is presented to enable potential users to prepare an input data deck for the calculation of a problem.

  16. Fully Reflexive Intensional Type Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    general to different types if we perform the β-reduction step first or eliminate the iterator first. Crary and Weirich [1] propose another method for...lu must have identical domain and range. 8 One possibility is to follow the approach outlined by Crary and Weirich in [1] for quantified types; since...and suggestions on improving the presenta- tion. References [1] K. Crary and S. Weirich . Flexible type analysis. In Proc. 1999 ACM SIGPLAN

  17. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program. Quarterly report, April-June 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    Progress in the three projects in this program during April to July 1981 is reported. For the Electric Vehicle (EV) Project, development of engineering models of electronically commutated permanent magnet propulsion motors is nearing completion, tests on a samarium-cobalt motor and a ferrite motor were completed, a Phase I ac propulsion system breadboard was installed on the Road Load Simulator, lead-acid multicell modules delivered by industrial subcontractors surpassed 390 cycles in ongoing tests and offer promise of exceeding the FY 1981 objective of 450 cycles, and ongoing tests on nickel/iron modules demonstrated greater than 670 cycles in one case, and 430 cycles in another. For the Electric Hybrid Vehicle (EHV) Project, the final report of the Environmental Control System study was received and recommends a split heat pump system, and a test program which reflects recent project modifications was planned.

  18. Comparison of hybrid and completely online RN-to-BSN curricula: aspects of program structure that lead to success.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Susan C; Metzger, Richard L; Finley, Sarah

    2014-05-01

    The large increase in the number of RN-to-BSN programs has occurred in the context of the expansion of Internet-based resources. This article expands on an earlier reported evaluation of a program based on community-derived needs. Several dimensions were identified that appear to contribute to student success in a blended-hybrid and completely online curricula. Students move through a synchronous cohort curriculum. The graduation rate for both programs was above the national average for all programs (80%), and graduation rate for the blended-hybrid program (92%) exceeded the online program (88%). Social support theory framed the important factors in a way that paralleled the factors reported by students as leading to their success.

  19. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program; Site Operator Program. Quarterly progress report, October--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    Activities during the first quarter centered around integrating the new participants into the program. A meeting of the Site Operators, in conjunction with the first meeting of the Electric Vehicle Users Task Force, was held in October. A second meeting of the Task Force was held in December. During these meetings the new contractual requirements were explained to the participants. The Site Operator Data Base was distributed and explained. The Site Operators will begin using the data base in December 1991 and will supply the operating and maintenance data to the INEL on a monthly basis. The Operators requested that they be able to have access to the data of the other Operators and it was agreed that they would be provided this on floppy disk monthly from the INEL. Presentations were made to the DOE sponsored Automotive Technology Development-Contractors Coordination Meeting in October. An overview of the program was given by EG&G. Representatives from Arizona Public Service, Texas A&M University, and York Technical College provided details of their programs and the results and future goals. Work was begun on commercializing the Versatile Data Acquisition System (VDAS). A Scope of Work has been written for a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to be submitted to the USABC. If implemented, the CRADA will provide funds for the development and commercialization of the VDAS. Participants in the Site Operator Program will test prototypes of the system within their fleets, making the data available to the USABC and other interested organizations. The USABC will provide recommendations on the data to be collected. Major activities by the majority of the Operators were involved with the continued operation and demonstration of existing vehicles. In addition, several of the operators were involved in identifying and locating vehicles to be added to their fleets. A list of the vehicles in each Site Operator fleet is included as Appendix A to this report.

  20. Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program 18th annual report to Congress for Fiscal Year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The Department remains focused on the technologies that are critical to making electric and hybrid vehicles commercially viable and competitive with current production gasoline-fueled vehicles in performance, reliability, and affordability. During Fiscal Year 1994, significant progress was made toward fulfilling the intent of Congress. The Department and the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (a partnership of the three major domestic automobile manufacturers) continued to work together and to focus the efforts of battery developers on the battery technologies that are most likely to be commercialized in the near term. Progress was made in industry cost-shared contracts toward demonstrating the technical feasibility of fuel cells for passenger bus and light duty vehicle applications. Two industry teams which will develop hybrid vehicle propulsion technologies have been selected through competitive procurement and have initiated work, in Fiscal Year 1994. In addition, technical studies and program planning continue, as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992, to achieve the goals of reducing the transportation sector dependence on imported oil, reducing the level of environmentally harmful emissions, and enhancing industrial productivity and competitiveness.

  1. Stretchable living materials and devices with hydrogel–elastomer hybrids hosting programmed cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinyue; Tang, Tzu-Chieh; Tham, Eléonore; Yuk, Hyunwoo; Lin, Shaoting; Lu, Timothy K.; Zhao, Xuanhe

    2017-01-01

    Living systems, such as bacteria, yeasts, and mammalian cells, can be genetically programmed with synthetic circuits that execute sensing, computing, memory, and response functions. Integrating these functional living components into materials and devices will provide powerful tools for scientific research and enable new technological applications. However, it has been a grand challenge to maintain the viability, functionality, and safety of living components in freestanding materials and devices, which frequently undergo deformations during applications. Here, we report the design of a set of living materials and devices based on stretchable, robust, and biocompatible hydrogel–elastomer hybrids that host various types of genetically engineered bacterial cells. The hydrogel provides sustainable supplies of water and nutrients, and the elastomer is air-permeable, maintaining long-term viability and functionality of the encapsulated cells. Communication between different bacterial strains and with the environment is achieved via diffusion of molecules in the hydrogel. The high stretchability and robustness of the hydrogel–elastomer hybrids prevent leakage of cells from the living materials and devices, even under large deformations. We show functions and applications of stretchable living sensors that are responsive to multiple chemicals in a variety of form factors, including skin patches and gloves-based sensors. We further develop a quantitative model that couples transportation of signaling molecules and cellular response to aid the design of future living materials and devices. PMID:28202725

  2. Stretchable living materials and devices with hydrogel-elastomer hybrids hosting programmed cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinyue; Tang, Tzu-Chieh; Tham, Eléonore; Yuk, Hyunwoo; Lin, Shaoting; Lu, Timothy K; Zhao, Xuanhe

    2017-02-28

    Living systems, such as bacteria, yeasts, and mammalian cells, can be genetically programmed with synthetic circuits that execute sensing, computing, memory, and response functions. Integrating these functional living components into materials and devices will provide powerful tools for scientific research and enable new technological applications. However, it has been a grand challenge to maintain the viability, functionality, and safety of living components in freestanding materials and devices, which frequently undergo deformations during applications. Here, we report the design of a set of living materials and devices based on stretchable, robust, and biocompatible hydrogel-elastomer hybrids that host various types of genetically engineered bacterial cells. The hydrogel provides sustainable supplies of water and nutrients, and the elastomer is air-permeable, maintaining long-term viability and functionality of the encapsulated cells. Communication between different bacterial strains and with the environment is achieved via diffusion of molecules in the hydrogel. The high stretchability and robustness of the hydrogel-elastomer hybrids prevent leakage of cells from the living materials and devices, even under large deformations. We show functions and applications of stretchable living sensors that are responsive to multiple chemicals in a variety of form factors, including skin patches and gloves-based sensors. We further develop a quantitative model that couples transportation of signaling molecules and cellular response to aid the design of future living materials and devices.

  3. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program. Quarterly report, April-June 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    Progress in the three projects in this program during April to July 1981 is reported. For the Electric Vehicle (EV) Project, development of engineering models of electronically commutated permanent magnet propulsion motors is nearing completion, tests on a samarium-cobalt motor and a ferrite motor were completed, a Phase I ac propulsion system breadboard was installed on the Road Load Simulator, lead-acid multicell modules delivered by industrial subcontractors surpassed 390 cycles in ongoing tests and offer promise of exceeding the FY 1981 objective of 450 cycles, and ongoing tests on nickel/iron modules demonstrated greater than 670 cycles in one case, and 430 cycles in another. For the Electric Hybrid Vehicle (EHV) Project, the final report of the Environmental Control System study was received and recommends a split heat pump system, and a test program which reflects recent project modifications was planned. For the Advanced Vehicle Development Project, the dc controllers were tested and had measured efficiencies of from 85 to 98%, Mg-Al-C was evaluated as a low-cost permanent magnet material but its use is limited by its relatively low maximum operating temperature, the EHV computer simulation program is usable, and EHV subsystem technology assessment are continuing. (LCL)

  4. Development and outcomes of an online-onsite hybrid dental admissions enhancement pilot program.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Carrie L; Van Ness, Chris; Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C; Crain, Geralyn

    2014-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Kansas City (UMKC) School of Dentistry has piloted two years of an Admissions Enhancement Program (AEP) with students from underrepresented minority groups and/or economically disadvantaged areas of Missouri interested in applying to dental school. The AEP utilizes an innovative online-onsite hybrid format to elevate students' foundational knowledge in biology, chemistry, organic chemistry, and quantitative reasoning. The online component includes interaction with UMKC instructors using tablet technology and Wimba virtual classroom sessions. The onsite component engages students in academic and professional development, enrichment activities targeting skills training, experience in dental labs and clinics, and mentoring in preparing the dental school application, essay writing, and interviewing. Results to date indicate overall program satisfaction among AEP participants and a dental school acceptance rate of 73.7 percent (14/19 students). Participants reported the mock interviews and essay-writing portions contributed to their becoming competitive candidates for the admission process, and the online material enhanced their preparation for the Dental Admission Test (DAT). Pre- and post-AEP data show participant DAT Academic Average scores increased by two points. The school will continue to monitor program participants in subsequent years.

  5. A pre-breeding screening program for transgenic boars based on fluorescence in situ hybridization assay.

    PubMed

    Bou, Gerelchimeg; Sun, Mingju; Lv, Ming; Zhu, Jiang; Li, Hui; Wang, Juan; Li, Lu; Liu, Zhongfeng; Zheng, Zhong; He, Wenteng; Kong, Qingran; Liu, Zhonghua

    2014-08-01

    For efficient transgenic herd expansion, only the transgenic animals that possess the ability to transmit transgene into next generation are considered for breeding. However, for transgenic pig, practically lacking a pre-breeding screening program, time, labor and money is always wasted to maintain non-transgenic pigs, low or null transgenic transmission pigs and the related fruitless gestations. Developing a pre-breeding screening program would make the transgenic herd expansion more economical and efficient. In this technical report, we proposed a three-step pre-breeding screening program for transgenic boars simply through combining the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay with the common pre-breeding screening workflow. In the first step of screening, combined with general transgenic phenotype analysis, FISH is used to identify transgenic boars. In the second step of screening, combined with conventional semen test, FISH is used to detect transgenic sperm, thus to identify the individuals producing high quality semen and transgenic sperm. In the third step of screening, FISH is used to assess the in vitro fertilization embryos, thus finally to identify the individuals with the ability to produce transgenic embryos. By this three-step screening, the non-transgenic boars and boars with no ability to produce transgenic sperm or transgenic embryos would be eliminated; therefore only those boars could produce transgenic offspring are maintained and used for breeding and herd expansion. It is the first time a systematic pre-breeding screening program is proposed for transgenic pigs. This program might also be applied in other transgenic large animals, and provide an economical and efficient strategy for herd expansion.

  6. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program, Site Operator Program. Quarterly progress report, October--December 1995 (first quarter of fiscal year 1996)

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E.; Bassett, R.R.; Briasco, S.

    1996-03-01

    This is the Site Operator Program quarterly report for USDOE electric and hybrid vehicle research. Its mission now includes the three major activity categories of advancement of electric vehicle (EV) technologies, development of infrastructure elements needed to support significant EV use and increasing public awareness and acceptance of EVs. The 11 Site Operator Program participants, their geographic locations, and the principal thrusts of their efforts are identified. The EV inventories of the site operators totals about 250 vehicles. The individual fleets are summarized.

  7. Long-Term Student Experiences in a Hybrid, Open-Ended and Problem Based Adventure Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veletsianos, George; Doering, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the experiences of elementary school children over a two-year period during which they engaged with a hybrid Adventure Learning program. In addition to delineating Adventure Learning experiences, we report on educational technology implementations in ecologically valid and complex environments, while drawing inferences…

  8. Preparing Teachers to Use GIS: The Impact of a Hybrid Professional Development Program on Teachers' Use of GIS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Steven; Haviland, Don; Moore, William; Tran, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a 3-year study of a hybrid professional development program designed to prepare science and mathematics teachers to implement GIS in their classrooms. The study was conducted as part of the CoastLines Innovative Technology Experiences for Students and Teachers project funded by the National Science Foundation.…

  9. Project Integration Office for the electric and hybrid vehicle R and D program. Eighth progress report, March 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-19

    The Project Integration Office (PIO) was established to assist the US DOE with the direction and coordination of its multiple electric vehicle and hybrid electric vehicle research programs in order to get the maximum payoff from these research efforts. In addition, the PIO performs objective independent technical and economic studies, analyses and modeling, and maintains a technical information liaison service to facilitate information exchange between the program participants and industry. Progress in each of these activities is reported. (LCL)

  10. Universal Dynamic DNA Assembly-Programmed Surface Hybridization Effect for Single-Step, Reusable, and Amplified Electrochemical Nucleic Acid Biosensing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shufeng; Fang, Li; Wang, Yanqun; Wang, Li

    2017-03-07

    The traditional sensitive electrochemical biosensors are commonly confronted with the cumbersome interface operation and washing procedures and the inclusion of extra exogenous reagents, which impose the challenge on the detection simplicity, reliability, and reusability. Herein, we present the proof-of-principle of a unique biosensor architecture based on dynamic DNA assembly programmed surface hybridization, which confers the single-step, reusable, and enzyme-free amplified electrochemical nucleic acid analysis. To demonstrate the fabrication universality three dynamic DNA assembly strategies including DNA-fueled target recycling, catalytic hairpin DNA assembly, and hybridization chain reaction were flexibly harnessed to convey the homogeneous target recognition and amplification events into various DNA scaffolds for the autonomous proximity-based surface hybridization. The current biosensor architecture features generalizability, simplicity, low cost, high sensitivity, and specificity over the traditional nucleic acid-related amplified biosensors. The lowest detection limit of 50 aM toward target DNA could be achieved by hybridization chain reaction-programmed surface hybridization. The reliable working ability for both homogeneous solution and heterogeneous inteface facilitates the target analysis with a robust reliability and reproducibility, also making it to be readily extended for the integration with the kinds of detecting platforms. Thus, it may hold great potential for the biosensor fabrication served for the point-of-care applications in resource constrained regions.

  11. Enhanced propagation modeling of directional aviation noise: A hybrid parabolic equation-fast field program method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbaum, Joyce E.

    2011-12-01

    Commercial air traffic is anticipated to increase rapidly in the coming years. The impact of aviation noise on communities surrounding airports is, therefore, a growing concern. Accurate prediction of noise can help to mitigate the impact on communities and foster smoother integration of aerospace engineering advances. The problem of accurate sound level prediction requires careful inclusion of all mechanisms that affect propagation, in addition to correct source characterization. Terrain, ground type, meteorological effects, and source directivity can have a substantial influence on the noise level. Because they are difficult to model, these effects are often included only by rough approximation. This dissertation presents a model designed for sound propagation over uneven terrain, with mixed ground type and realistic meteorological conditions. The model is a hybrid of two numerical techniques: the parabolic equation (PE) and fast field program (FFP) methods, which allow for physics-based inclusion of propagation effects and ensure the low frequency content, a factor in community impact, is predicted accurately. Extension of the hybrid model to a pseudo-three-dimensional representation allows it to produce aviation noise contour maps in the standard form. In order for the model to correctly characterize aviation noise sources, a method of representing arbitrary source directivity patterns was developed for the unique form of the parabolic equation starting field. With this advancement, the model can represent broadband, directional moving sound sources, traveling along user-specified paths. This work was prepared for possible use in the research version of the sound propagation module in the Federal Aviation Administration's new standard predictive tool.

  12. Development and Lab-Scale Testing of a Gas Generator Hybrid Fuel in Support of the Hydrogen Peroxide Hybrid Upper Stage Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lund, Gary K.; Starrett, William David; Jensen, Kent C.; McNeal, Curtis (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    As part of a NASA funded contract to develop and demonstrate a gas generator cycle hybrid rocket motor for upper stage space motor applications, the development and demonstration of a low sensitivity, high performance fuel composition was undertaken. The ultimate goal of the development program was to demonstrate successful hybrid operation (start, stop, throttling) of the fuel with high concentration (90+%) hydrogen peroxide. The formulation development and lab-scale testing of a simple DOT Class 1.4c gas generator propellant is described. Both forward injected center perforated and aft injected end burner hybrid combustion behavior were evaluated with gaseous oxygen and catalytically decomposed 90% hydrogen peroxide. Cross flow and static environments were found to yield profoundly different combustion behaviors, which were further governed by binder type, oxidizer level and, significantly, oxidizer particle size. Primary extinguishment was accomplished via manipulation of PDL behavior and oxidizer turndown, which is enhanced with the hydrogen peroxide system. Laboratory scale combustor results compared very well with 11-inch and 24-inch sub-scale test results with 90% hydrogen peroxide.

  13. Hybrid Power Management Program Evaluated Fuel Cell/Ultracapacitor Combinations and Developed Other New Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2004-01-01

    In fiscal year 2003, the continuation of the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program through NASA Glenn Research Center's Commercial Technology Office resulted in several new successful applications of this pioneering technology. HPM is the innovative integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications. The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The advanced power devices include ultracapacitors, fuel cells, and photovoltaics. HPM has extremely wide potential, with applications from nanowatts to megawatts--including power generation, transportation systems, biotechnology systems, and space power systems. HPM has the potential to significantly alleviate global energy concerns, improve the environment, and stimulate the economy. Fuel cells provide excellent efficiency and energy density, but do not have good power density. In contrast, ultracapacitors have excellent power density and virtually unlimited cycle life. To improve the power density of the fuel cell, the combination of fuel cells and ultracapacitors was evaluated.

  14. PHOTO: A computer simulation program for photovoltaic and hybrid energy systems. Document and user's guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manninen, L. M.; Lund, P. D.; Virkkula, A.

    1990-11-01

    The version 3.0 is described of the program package PHOTO for the simulation and sizing of hybrid power systems (photovoltaic and wind power plants) on IBM PC, XT, AT, PS/2 and compatibles. The minimum memory requirement is 260 kB. Graphical output is created with HALO'88 graphics subroutine library. In the simulation model, special attention is given to the battery storage unit. A backup generator can also be included in the system configuration. The dynamic method developed uses accurate system component models accounting for component interactions and losses in e.g. wiring and diodes. The photovoltaic array can operate in a maximum power mode or in a clamped voltage mode together with the other subsystems. Various control strategies can also be considered. Individual subsystem models were verified against real measurements. Illustrative simulation example is also discussed. The presented model can be used to simulate various system configurations accurately and evaluate system performance, such as energy flows and power losses in photovoltaic array, wind generator, backup generator, wiring, diodes, maximum power point tracking device, inverter and battery. Energy cost is also an important consideration.

  15. Hybrid Power Management Program Evaluated Ultracapacitors for the Next Generation Launch Transportation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center initiated baseline testing of ultracapacitors to obtain empirical data in determining the feasibility of using ultracapacitors for the Next Generation Launch Transportation (NGLT) Project. There are large transient loads associated with NGLT that require a very large primary energy source or an energy storage system. The primary power source used for this test was a proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The energy storage system can consist of batteries, flywheels, or ultracapacitors. Ultracapacitors were used for these tests. NASA Glenn has a wealth of experience in ultracapacitor technology through the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program, which the Avionics, Power and Communications Branch of Glenn s Engineering Development Division initiated for the Technology Transfer and Partnership Office. HPM is the innovative integration of diverse, state-ofthe- art power devices in optimal configurations for space and terrestrial applications. The appropriate application and control of the various advanced power devices (such as ultracapacitors and fuel cells) significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. HPM has extremely wide potential. Applications include power generation, transportation systems, biotechnology systems, and space power systems. HPM has the potential to significantly alleviate global energy concerns, improve the environment, and stimulate the economy.

  16. The pDynamo Program for Molecular Simulations using Hybrid Quantum Chemical and Molecular Mechanical Potentials.

    PubMed

    Field, Martin J

    2008-07-01

    The pDynamo program has been developed for the simulation of molecular systems using hybrid quantum chemical (QC) and molecular mechanical (MM) potentials. pDynamo is written in a mixture of the computer languages Python and C and is a successor to the previous version of Dynamo, now denoted fDynamo, that was written in Fortran 90 (J. Comput. Chem. 2000, 21, 1088). The current version of Dynamo has a similar range of functionality to the older one but extends it in some significant ways, including the addition of a density functional theory QC capability. This paper gives a general description of pDynamo and outlines some of the advantages and disadvantages that have been encountered in switching computer languages. Some technical aspects of the implementation of pDynamo's algorithms are also discussed and illustrated with the results of example calculations. pDynamo is available on the Web at the address http://www.pdynamo.org and is released under the CeCILL license which is equivalent to the GNU general public license but conforms to the principles of French law.

  17. Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems: 2016 Technology Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Boardman, Richard; Rabiti, Cristian; Suk Kim, Jong; McKellar, Michael; Sabharwall, Piyush; Chen, Jun; Cetiner, M. Sacit; Harrison, T. Jay; Qualls, A. Lou

    2016-03-01

    The United States is in the midst of an energy revolution, spurred by advancement of technology to produce unprecedented supplies of oil and natural gas. Simultaneously, there is an increasing concern for climate change attributed to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that, in large part, result from burning fossil fuels. An international consensus has concluded that the U.S. and other developed nations have an imperative to reduce GHG emissions to address these climate change concerns. The global desire to reduce GHG emissions has led to the development and deployment of clean energy resources and technologies, particularly renewable energy technologies, at a rapid rate. At the same time, each of the major energy sectors—the electric grid, industrial manufacturing, transportation, and the residential/commercial consumers— is increasingly becoming linked through information and communications technologies, advanced modeling and simulation, and controls. Coordination of clean energy generation technologies through integrated hybrid energy systems, as defined below, has the potential to further revolutionize energy services at the system level by coordinating the exchange of energy currency among the energy sectors in a manner that optimizes financial efficiency (including capital investments), maximizes thermodynamic efficiency (through best use of exergy, which is the potential to use the available energy in producing energy services), reduces environmental impacts when clean energy inputs are maximized, and provides resources for grid management. Rapid buildout of renewable technologies has been largely driven by local, state, and federal policies, such as renewable portfolio standards and production tax credits that incentivize investment in these generation sources. A foundational assumption within this program plan is that renewable technologies will continue to be major contributors to the future U.S. energy infrastructure. While increased use of clean

  18. Preparing Teachers to Use GIS: The Impact of a Hybrid Professional Development Program on Teachers' Use of GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Steven; Haviland, Don; Moore, William; Tran, Michael

    2016-12-01

    This article reports the findings of a 3-year study of a hybrid professional development program designed to prepare science and mathematics teachers to implement GIS in their classrooms. The study was conducted as part of the CoastLines Innovative Technology Experiences for Students and Teachers project funded by the National Science Foundation. Three cohorts of teachers participated in the program, with each participant receiving 40 h of synchronous online instruction and 80 h of in-person instruction and support over an 8-month period. Data from surveys of participants both before and after the program were analyzed using correlation, ordinary least squares, and ordered logit regression analyses. The analyses revealed increases in the self-reported frequency of GIS use and enhanced feelings of preparation, competence, community, and comfort with respect to using GIS for instruction. A composite index of all impact variables was positively influenced as well. The statistical analyses found a strong relationship between self-reported feelings of preparation and use of GIS. Some support was found for the idea that feelings of competence, community, and comfort were related to the teachers' sense of preparation. The findings suggest that a robust hybrid model of teacher professional development can prepare teachers to use GIS in their classrooms. More research is needed to understand how hybrid models influence the sociopsychological and other dimensions that support teachers' feelings of preparation to implement GIS.

  19. A Hybrid Program for Fitting Rotationally Resolved Spectra of Floppy Molecules with One Large-Amplitude Rotatory Motion and One Large-Amplitude Oscillatory Motion

    PubMed Central

    Kleiner, Isabelle; Hougen, Jon T.

    2015-01-01

    A new hybrid-model fitting program for methylamine-like molecules has been developed, based on an effective Hamiltonian in which the ammonia-like inversion motion is treated using a tunneling formalism, while the internal-rotation motion is treated using an explicit kinetic energy operator and potential energy function. The Hamiltonian in the computer program is set up as a 2×2 partitioned matrix, where each diagonal block contains a traditional torsion-rotation Hamiltonian (as in the earlier program BELGI), and the two off-diagonal blocks contain tunneling terms. This hybrid formulation permits the use of the permutation-inversion group G6 (isomorphic to C3v) for terms in the two diagonal blocks, but requires G12 for terms in the off-diagonal blocks. The first application of the new program is to 2-methylmalonaldehyde. Microwave data for this molecule were previously fit using an all-tunneling Hamiltonian formalism to treat both large-amplitude-motions. For 2-methylmalonaldehyde, the hybrid program achieves the same quality of fit as was obtained with the all-tunneling program, but fits with the hybrid program eliminate a large discrepancy between internal rotation barriers in the OH and OD isotopologs of 2-methylmalonaldehyde that arose in fits with the all-tunneling program. This large isotopic shift in internal rotation barrier is thus almost certainly an artifact of the all-tunneling model. Other molecules for application of the hybrid program are mentioned. PMID:26439709

  20. Electric and hybrid vehicle program: Site operator program. Quarterly progress report, April--June, 1994 (3rd quarter of FY-1994)

    SciTech Connect

    Kiser, D.M.; Brown, H.L.

    1994-10-01

    The DOE Site Operator Program was initially established to meet the requirements of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1976. The Program has since evolved in response to new legislation and interests. Its mission now includes three major activity categories; advancement of Electric Vehicle (EV) technologies, development of infrastructure elements needed to support significant EV use, and increasing public awareness and acceptance of EVs. The 13 Program participants, their geographic locations, and the principal thrusts of their efforts are identified. The EV inventories of each participant are summarized. This third quarter report (FY-94) will include a summary of activities from the previous three quarters. The report section sequence has been revised to provide a more easily seen program overview, and specific operator activities are now included.

  1. Optimal energy management in a dual-storage fuel-cell hybrid vehicle using multi-dimensional dynamic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansarey, Mehdi; Shariat Panahi, Masoud; Ziarati, Hussein; Mahjoob, Mohammad

    2014-03-01

    Hybrid storage systems consisting of battery and ultra-capacitor have recently emerged as an alternative to the conventional single buffer layout in hybrid vehicles. Their high power and energy density could improve the performance indices of the vehicle, provided that an optimal energy management strategy is employed that could handle systems with multiple degrees of freedom (DOF). The majority of existing energy management strategies is limited to a single DOF and the small body of work on multi-DOF systems is mainly heuristic-based. We propose an optimal solution to the energy management problem in fuel-cell hybrid vehicles with dual storage buffer for fuel economy in a standard driving cycle using multi-dimensional dynamic programming (MDDP). An efficient MDDP code is developed using MATLAB™'s vectorization feature that helps reduce the inherently high computational cost of MDDP. Results of multiple simulated experiments are presented to demonstrate the applicability and performance of the proposed strategy. A comparison is also made between a single and a double buffer fuel-cell hybrid vehicle in various driving cycles to determine the maximum reduction in fuel consumption that can be achieved by the addition of an ultra-capacitor.

  2. Intraply Hybrid Composite Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    Several theoretical approaches combined in program. Intraply hybrid composites investigated theoretically and experimentally at Lewis Research Center. Theories developed during investigations and corroborated by attendant experiments used to develop computer program identified as INHYD (Intraply Hybrid Composite Design). INHYD includes several composites micromechanics theories, intraply hybrid composite theories, and integrated hygrothermomechanical theory. Equations from theories used by program as appropriate for user's specific applications.

  3. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program, Site Operator Program. Quarterly progress report for July through September 1994 (Fourth quarter of fiscal year 1994)

    SciTech Connect

    Kiser, D.M.; Brown, H.L.

    1995-03-01

    The Site Operator Program was initially established by the Department of Energy (DOE) to incorporate the electric vehicle activities dictated by the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1976. In the ensuing years, the Program has evolved in response to new legislation and interests. The Program currently includes twelve sites located in diverse geographic, metrologic, and metropolitan areas across the US. Information is shared reciprocally with a thirteenth site, not under Program contract. The vehicles are operator-owned, except for two Griffon vans. The Mission Statement of the Site Operator Program includes three major activities: advancement of electric vehicle technologies; development of infrastructure elements necessary to support significant electric vehicle use; and increasing the awareness and acceptance of electric vehicles (EVs) by the public. The current participants in the Site Operator Program are shown. The ultimate thrust of program activities varies among sites, reflecting not only the Operator`s business interests but also geographic and climate-related operating conditions. This fourth quarter report (FY-94) includes a summary of activities from the previous three quarters. The report section sequence has been revised to provide a more easily seen program overview, and specific operator activities are now found in Appendix A.

  4. Phase 1 of the near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montalenti, P.; Piccolo, R.

    1979-01-01

    In order to meet project requirements and be competitive in the 1985 market, the proposed six-passenger vehicle incorporates a high power type Ni-Zn battery, which by making electric-only traction possible, permits the achievement of an optimized control strategy based on electric-only traction to a set battery depth of discharge, followed by hybrid operation with thermal primary energy. This results in a highly efficient hybrid propulsion subsystem. Technical solutions are available to contain energy waste by reducing vehicle weight, rolling resistance, and drag coefficient. Reproaching new 1985 full size vehicles of the conventional type with hybrids of the proposed type would result in a U.S. average gasoline saving per vehicle of 1,261 liters/year and an average energy saving per vehicle of 27,133 MJ/year.

  5. Hybrid propulsion technology program: Phase 1. Volume 3: Thiokol Corporation Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuler, A. L.; Wiley, D. R.

    1989-01-01

    Three candidate hybrid propulsion (HP) concepts were identified, optimized, evaluated, and refined through an iterative process that continually forced improvement to the systems with respect to safety, reliability, cost, and performance criteria. A full scale booster meeting Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) thrust-time constraints and a booster application for 1/4 ASRM thrust were evaluated. Trade studies and analyses were performed for each of the motor elements related to SRM technology. Based on trade study results, the optimum HP concept for both full and quarter sized systems was defined. The three candidate hybrid concepts evaluated are illustrated.

  6. Program Elements for Special Needs Students in a Hybrid School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Edd Clayton

    2012-01-01

    Public charter schools have become a bigger and bigger part of the public school landscape. Online education has also grown exponentially over the past decade. In recent years a new instructional model has emerged within the charter school community. This model is known as blended or hybrid instruction. Blended instruction involves some…

  7. Hybrid striped bass National Breeding Program: Research towards genetic improvement of a non-model species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hybrid striped bass (HSB) farming industry at present relies almost totally on wild broodstock for annual production of larvae and fingerlings, and industry efforts to domesticate the parent species of the HSB (white bass: WB, Morone chrysops; striped bass: SB, M. saxatilis) have been fairly lim...

  8. Hybrid striped bass national breeding program: research towards genetic improvement of a non-model species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hybrid striped bass (HSB) farming industry at present relies almost totally on wild broodstock for annual production of larvae and fingerlings, and industry efforts to domesticate the parent species of the HSB (white bass: WB, Morone chrysops; striped bass: SB, M. saxatilis) have been fairly lim...

  9. Modeling and Analysis of Facility Systems for A Hybrid Materials Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Congiardo, Jared F.

    2007-01-01

    Analytic modeling and analysis processes employed at NASA-SSC in rocket propulsion systems testing are discussed in this paper with application to test facility propellant supply system design, activation and test of a hybrid rocket motor provided. This paper discusses the analytic model employed, its utilization across project phases and reviews performance results.

  10. Computer programs for analysis of nucleic acid hybridization, thermal denaturation, and gel electrophoresis data.

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, R F; Pearson, W R; Bonner, J

    1979-01-01

    Computer programs for the analysis of data from techniques frequently used in nucleic acids research are described. In addition to calculating non-linear, least-squares solutions to equations describing these systems, the programs allow for data editing, normalization, plotting and storage, and are flexible and simple to use. Typical applications of the programs are described. PMID:493129

  11. Near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Phase I. Appendices A and B. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    In this report vehicle use patterns or missions are defined and studied. The three most promising missions were found to be: all-purpose city driving which has the maximum potential market penetration; commuting which requires mainly a two-passenger car; and family and civic business driving which have minimal range requirements. The mission selection process was based principally on an analysis of the travel patterns found in the Nationwide Transportation Survey and on the Los Angeles and Washington, DC origin-destination studies data presented by General Research Corporation in Volume II of this report. Travel patterns in turn were converted to fuel requirements for 1985 conventional and hybrid cars. By this means the potential fuel savings for each mission were estimated, and preliminary design requirements for hybrid vehicles were derived.

  12. Rotman Lens Sidewall Design and Optimization with Hybrid Hardware/Software Based Programming

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-09

    enhances the Artificial Immune System ( AIS ) algorithm with techniques borrowed from PSO and GA. Preliminary results with three challenging mathematical...test functions were shown to be promising in terms of the performance of the enhanced AIS (EAIS) algorithm. The views, opinions and/or findings...involves developing a hybrid bio-inspired optimization algorithm which enhances the Artificial Immune System ( AIS ) algorithm with techniques borrowed

  13. Hybrid Electric Power Train and Control Strategies Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Frank

    2006-05-31

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) offer societal benefits through their ability to displace the use of petroleum fuels. Petroleum fuels represent a polluting and politically destabilizing energy carrier. PHEV technologies can move transportation away from petroleum fuel sources by enabling domestically generated electricity and liquids bio-fuels to serve as a carrier for transportation energy. Additionally, the All-Electric-Range (AER) offered by PHEVs can significantly reduce demand for expensive and polluting liquid fuels. The GATE funding received during the 1998 through 2004 funding cycle by the UC Davis Hybrid Electric Vehicle Center (HEVC) was used to advance and train researchers in PHEV technologies. GATE funding was used to construct a rigorous PHEV curriculum, provide financial support for HEVC researchers, and provide material support for research efforts. A rigorous curriculum was developed through the UC Davis Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering Department to train HEVC researchers. Students' research benefited from this course work by advancing the graduate student researchers' understanding of key PHEV design considerations. GATE support assisted HEVC researchers in authoring technical articles and producing patents. By supporting HEVC researchers multiple Master's theses were written as well as journal articles and publications. The topics from these publications include Continuously Variable Transmission control strategies and PHEV cross platform controls software development. The GATE funding has been well used to advance PHEV systems. The UC Davis Hybrid Electric Vehicle Center is greatly appreciative for the opportunities GATE funding provided. The goals and objectives for the HEVC GATE funding were to nourish engineering research in PHEV technologies. The funding supplied equipment needed to allow researchers to investigate PHEV design sensitivities and to further optimize system components. Over a dozen PHEV researchers benefited

  14. Shared and distinct transcriptional programs underlie the hybrid nature of iNKT cells

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Nadia R.; Brennan, Patrick J.; Shay, Tal; Watts, Gerald F.; Brigl, Manfred; Kang, Joonsoo; Brenner, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are innate-like T lymphocytes that act as critical regulators of the immune response. To better characterize this population, we profiled iNKT cell gene expression during ontogeny and in peripheral subsets as part of the Immunological Genome Project (ImmGen). High-resolution comparative transcriptional analyses defined developmental and subset-specific iNKT cell gene expression programs. In addition, iNKT cells were found to share an extensive transcriptional program with natural killer (NK) cells, similar in magnitude to that shared with major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted T cells. Strikingly, the NK- iNKT program also operated constitutively in γδT cells and in adaptive T cells following activation. Together, our findings highlight a core effector program regulated distinctly in innate and adaptive lymphocytes. PMID:23202270

  15. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix B: Design trade-off studies. [various hybrid/electric power train configurations and electrical and mechanical drive-line components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The relative attractiveness of various hybrid/electric power train configurations and electrical and mechanical drive-line components was studied. The initial screening was concerned primarily with total vehicle weight and economic factors and identified the hybrid power train combinations which warranted detailed evaluation over various driving cycles. This was done using a second-by-second vehicle simulation program which permitted the calculations of fuel economy, electricity usage, and emissions as a function of distance traveled in urban and highway driving. Power train arrangement possibilities were examined in terms of their effect on vehicle handling, safety, serviceability, and passenger comfort. A dc electric drive system utilizing a separately excited motor with field control and battery switching was selected for the near term hybrid vehicle. Hybrid vehicle simulations showed that for the first 30 mi (the electric range of the vehicle) in urban driving, the fuel economy was 80 mpg using a gasoline engine and 100 mpg using a diesel engine. In urban driving the hybrid would save about 75% of the fuel used by the conventional vehicle and in combined urban/highway driving the fuel saving is about 50%.

  16. Comparing the OpenMP, MPI, and Hybrid Programming Paradigm on an SMP Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jost, Gabriele; Jin, Haoqiang; anMey, Dieter; Hatay, Ferhat F.

    2003-01-01

    With the advent of parallel hardware and software technologies users are faced with the challenge to choose a programming paradigm best suited for the underlying computer architecture. With the current trend in parallel computer architectures towards clusters of shared memory symmetric multi-processors (SMP), parallel programming techniques have evolved to support parallelism beyond a single level. Which programming paradigm is the best will depend on the nature of the given problem, the hardware architecture, and the available software. In this study we will compare different programming paradigms for the parallelization of a selected benchmark application on a cluster of SMP nodes. We compare the timings of different implementations of the same CFD benchmark application employing the same numerical algorithm on a cluster of Sun Fire SMP nodes. The rest of the paper is structured as follows: In section 2 we briefly discuss the programming models under consideration. We describe our compute platform in section 3. The different implementations of our benchmark code are described in section 4 and the performance results are presented in section 5. We conclude our study in section 6.

  17. Comparing the OpenMP, MPI, and Hybrid Programming Paradigm on an SMP Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jost, Gabriele; Jin, Hao-Qiang; anMey, Dieter; Hatay, Ferhat F.

    2003-01-01

    Clusters of SMP (Symmetric Multi-Processors) nodes provide support for a wide range of parallel programming paradigms. The shared address space within each node is suitable for OpenMP parallelization. Message passing can be employed within and across the nodes of a cluster. Multiple levels of parallelism can be achieved by combining message passing and OpenMP parallelization. Which programming paradigm is the best will depend on the nature of the given problem, the hardware components of the cluster, the network, and the available software. In this study we compare the performance of different implementations of the same CFD benchmark application, using the same numerical algorithm but employing different programming paradigms.

  18. iCODEHOP: a new interactive program for designing COnsensus-DEgenerate Hybrid Oligonucleotide Primers from multiply aligned protein sequences

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, Richard; Chilana, Parmit; Rose, Timothy M.

    2009-01-01

    PCR amplification using COnsensus DEgenerate Hybrid Oligonucleotide Primers (CODEHOPs) has proven to be highly effective for identifying unknown pathogens and characterizing novel genes. We describe iCODEHOP; a new interactive web application that simplifies the process of designing and selecting CODEHOPs from multiply-aligned protein sequences. iCODEHOP intelligently guides the user through the degenerate primer design process including uploading sequences, creating a multiple alignment, deriving CODEHOPs and calculating their annealing temperatures. The user can quickly scan over an entire set of degenerate primers designed by the program to assess their relative quality and select individual primers for further analysis. The program displays phylogenetic information for input sequences and allows the user to easily design new primers from selected sequence sub-clades. It also allows the user to bias primer design to favor specific clades or sequences using sequence weights. iCODEHOP is freely available to all interested researchers at https://icodehop.cphi.washington.edu/i-codehop-context/Welcome. PMID:19443442

  19. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement: establishing a comprehensive program model for hybrid cardiac catheterization laboratories in the Department of Veterans Affairs.

    PubMed

    Speiser, Bernadette; Dutra-Brice, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Aortic valve disease, especially aortic stenosis, becomes progressively debilitating and carries a high mortality risk if it is categorized as severe and symptomatic (J Thorac Cardiovas Surg. 2012;144(3):e29-e84). In the past, the only treatment for aortic stenosis was surgical aortic valve replacement. Surgical treatment may require several hours of cardioplegia, and if the patient has comorbidities, such as renal failure or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, their operative mortality percentage increases.In 2011, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of a transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) procedure for patients who were deemed high risk or inoperative for the routine surgical aortic valve replacement surgery. More than 20, 000 TAVRs have been performed in patients worldwide since 2002 when Dr Alain Cribier performed the first-in-man TAVR (Arch Cardiovasc Dis. 2012;105(3):145-152). The Edwards Lifesciences SAPIEN XT valve and the Medtronic CoreValve are commercially available.The clinical findings and economic statistic have supported the expansion of the TAVR procedure. However, there has been considerable controversy over where the procedure is to occur and who is directly responsible for directing the TAVR care. This debate has identified barriers to the implementation of a TAVR program. The operating rooms and a cardiac catheterization laboratory are underprepared for the hybrid valve replacement therapy. Because of the barriers identified, the Department of Veterans Affairs determined a need for a systematic approach to review the programs that applied for this structural heart disease program. A centralized team was developed to ensure room readiness and staff competency. The use of the Health Failure Mode and Effects Analysis can define high-risk clinical processes and conduct a hazard analysis. Worksheets can show potential failure modes and their probabilities, along with actions and outcome measures, team collaboration

  20. Acceleration of the Geostatistical Software Library (GSLIB) by code optimization and hybrid parallel programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peredo, Oscar; Ortiz, Julián M.; Herrero, José R.

    2015-12-01

    The Geostatistical Software Library (GSLIB) has been used in the geostatistical community for more than thirty years. It was designed as a bundle of sequential Fortran codes, and today it is still in use by many practitioners and researchers. Despite its widespread use, few attempts have been reported in order to bring this package to the multi-core era. Using all CPU resources, GSLIB algorithms can handle large datasets and grids, where tasks are compute- and memory-intensive applications. In this work, a methodology is presented to accelerate GSLIB applications using code optimization and hybrid parallel processing, specifically for compute-intensive applications. Minimal code modifications are added decreasing as much as possible the elapsed time of execution of the studied routines. If multi-core processing is available, the user can activate OpenMP directives to speed up the execution using all resources of the CPU. If multi-node processing is available, the execution is enhanced using MPI messages between the compute nodes.Four case studies are presented: experimental variogram calculation, kriging estimation, sequential gaussian and indicator simulation. For each application, three scenarios (small, large and extra large) are tested using a desktop environment with 4 CPU-cores and a multi-node server with 128 CPU-nodes. Elapsed times, speedup and efficiency results are shown.

  1. Near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Phase I. Appendices C and D. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The derivation of and actual preliminary design of the Near Term Hybrid Vehicle (NTHV) are presented. The NTHV uses a modified GM Citation body, a VW Rabbit turbocharged diesel engine, a 24KW compound dc electric motor, a modified GM automatic transmission, and an on-board computer for transmission control. The following NTHV information is presented: the results of the trade-off studies are summarized; the overall vehicle design; the selection of the design concept and the base vehicle (the Chevrolet Citation), the battery pack configuration, structural modifications, occupant protection, vehicle dynamics, and aerodynamics; the powertrain design, including the transmission, coupling devices, engine, motor, accessory drive, and powertrain integration; the motor controller; the battery type, duty cycle, charger, and thermal requirements; the control system (electronics); the identification of requirements, software algorithm requirements, processor selection and system design, sensor and actuator characteristics, displays, diagnostics, and other topics; environmental system including heating, air conditioning, and compressor drive; the specifications, weight breakdown, and energy consumption measures; advanced technology components, and the data sources and assumptions used. (LCL)

  2. Internal combustion engine control for series hybrid electric vehicles by parallel and distributed genetic programming/multiobjective genetic algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladwin, D.; Stewart, P.; Stewart, J.

    2011-02-01

    This article addresses the problem of maintaining a stable rectified DC output from the three-phase AC generator in a series-hybrid vehicle powertrain. The series-hybrid prime power source generally comprises an internal combustion (IC) engine driving a three-phase permanent magnet generator whose output is rectified to DC. A recent development has been to control the engine/generator combination by an electronically actuated throttle. This system can be represented as a nonlinear system with significant time delay. Previously, voltage control of the generator output has been achieved by model predictive methods such as the Smith Predictor. These methods rely on the incorporation of an accurate system model and time delay into the control algorithm, with a consequent increase in computational complexity in the real-time controller, and as a necessity relies to some extent on the accuracy of the models. Two complementary performance objectives exist for the control system. Firstly, to maintain the IC engine at its optimal operating point, and secondly, to supply a stable DC supply to the traction drive inverters. Achievement of these goals minimises the transient energy storage requirements at the DC link, with a consequent reduction in both weight and cost. These objectives imply constant velocity operation of the IC engine under external load disturbances and changes in both operating conditions and vehicle speed set-points. In order to achieve these objectives, and reduce the complexity of implementation, in this article a controller is designed by the use of Genetic Programming methods in the Simulink modelling environment, with the aim of obtaining a relatively simple controller for the time-delay system which does not rely on the implementation of real time system models or time delay approximations in the controller. A methodology is presented to utilise the miriad of existing control blocks in the Simulink libraries to automatically evolve optimal control

  3. Qualitative Comparative Analysis: A Hybrid Method for Identifying Factors Associated with Program Effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Cragun, Deborah; Pal, Tuya; Vadaparampil, Susan T; Baldwin, Julie; Hampel, Heather; DeBate, Rita D

    2016-07-01

    Qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) was developed over 25 years ago to bridge the qualitative and quantitative research gap. Upon searching PubMed and the Journal of Mixed Methods Research, this review identified 30 original research studies that utilized QCA. Perceptions that QCA is complex and provides few relative advantages over other methods may be limiting QCA adoption. Thus, to overcome these perceptions, this article demonstrates how to perform QCA using data from fifteen institutions that implemented universal tumor screening (UTS) programs to identify patients at high risk for hereditary colorectal cancer. In this example, QCA revealed a combination of conditions unique to effective UTS programs. Results informed additional research and provided a model for improving patient follow-through after a positive screen.

  4. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix C: Preliminary design data package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The design methodology, the design decision rationale, the vehicle preliminary design summary, and the advanced technology developments are presented. The detailed vehicle design, the vehicle ride and handling and front structural crashworthiness analysis, the microcomputer control of the propulsion system, the design study of the battery switching circuit, the field chopper, and the battery charger, and the recent program refinements and computer results are presented.

  5. Genetic-program-based data mining for hybrid decision-theoretic algorithms and theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, James F., III

    2005-03-01

    A genetic program (GP) based data mining (DM) procedure has been developed that automatically creates decision theoretic algorithms. A GP is an algorithm that uses the theory of evolution to automatically evolve other computer programs or mathematical expressions. The output of the GP is a computer program or mathematical expression that is optimal in the sense that it maximizes a fitness function. The decision theoretic algorithms created by the DM algorithm are typically designed for making real-time decisions about the behavior of systems. The database that is mined by the DM typically consists of many scenarios characterized by sensor output and labeled by experts as to the status of the scenario. The DM procedure will call a GP as a data mining function. The GP incorporates the database and expert"s rules into its fitness function to evolve an optimal decision theoretic algorithm. A decision theoretic algorithm created through this process will be discussed as well as validation efforts showing the utility of the decision theoretic algorithm created by the DM process. GP based data mining to determine equations related to scientific theories and automatic simplification methods based on computer algebra will also be discussed.

  6. Intelligent hybrid system of welding parameters for robotic arc-welding task-level offline programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Pai; Tian, Jiansong; Wu, Lin; Dai, Ming

    2000-10-01

    Welding process parameters are indispensable to program arc welding robot. To simplify off-line programming (OLP) for robotic arc welding, we develop an arc welding expert system whcih can generate welding process parameters automatically. Its input data came from the feature database of welding part, which is set up by our feature modeling system. The expert system has become an important module of our RAWTOLPS (Robotic Arc Welding Task-level Off-Line System). It combines case-based reasoning with heuristic rule-based reasoning methods to deal with the welding process design. Moreover, artificial neural networks are introduced to the systems for reasoning and machine learning, and several network modules are developed to learn from welding process database, based on back-propagation neural networks. After some groups of actual welding process data were used to train the network models, several network models are established to both design the welding process and to predict the weld bead shape. Besides the ANN-based learning, cased-based learning are used in the expert system. These two methods have respectively their own characteristics, and can meet qualifications of different users. The experimental data show that the system can accomplish re-learning and expanding of welding process knowledge, and satisfy the command of the off-line programming system.

  7. Programming Language for the Solution of Partial Differential Equations Using Hybrid Computers. Phase I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-01

    SUDROUTINE PIC C PROGRAM PDE**12267~ DIMENSION tFTɚG>4 IPTV -;28>,ADELC18) COMMON/Pl/NA,JK,I Z COMMON,-POT w DEL,A COMM0N/DRUP/XL0Cគ...NA) XL0C<l)=A/6. XL0Cɚ)=2.*A/𔄀. XL0Cɛ)=3.*A/6. ADEL<JK)=DEL XL0C<JK)=3. *A/6. + DEL DO 756 IPV=1,20 IPTV <IPV)=IFIX�.*P<IPV)) 750...IE,2275,0) DO 10 K=l,20 CALL STINDCIE,IPT(K), IPTV <K)) 10 CONTINUE C SET TIME BASE CALL STIND<IE,2273,1000) CALL READ<IE,O200,IDUM

  8. Hybrid MPI/OpenMP Implementation of the ORAC Molecular Dynamics Program for Generalized Ensemble and Fast Switching Alchemical Simulations.

    PubMed

    Procacci, Piero

    2016-06-27

    We present a new release (6.0β) of the ORAC program [Marsili et al. J. Comput. Chem. 2010, 31, 1106-1116] with a hybrid OpenMP/MPI (open multiprocessing message passing interface) multilevel parallelism tailored for generalized ensemble (GE) and fast switching double annihilation (FS-DAM) nonequilibrium technology aimed at evaluating the binding free energy in drug-receptor system on high performance computing platforms. The production of the GE or FS-DAM trajectories is handled using a weak scaling parallel approach on the MPI level only, while a strong scaling force decomposition scheme is implemented for intranode computations with shared memory access at the OpenMP level. The efficiency, simplicity, and inherent parallel nature of the ORAC implementation of the FS-DAM algorithm, project the code as a possible effective tool for a second generation high throughput virtual screening in drug discovery and design. The code, along with documentation, testing, and ancillary tools, is distributed under the provisions of the General Public License and can be freely downloaded at www.chim.unifi.it/orac .

  9. Extension of the hybrid linear programming method to optimize simultaneously the design and operation of groundwater utilization systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostan, Mohamad; Hadi Afshar, Mohamad; Khadem, Majed

    2015-04-01

    This article proposes a hybrid linear programming (LP-LP) methodology for the simultaneous optimal design and operation of groundwater utilization systems. The proposed model is an extension of an earlier LP-LP model proposed by the authors for the optimal operation of a set of existing wells. The proposed model can be used to optimally determine the number, configuration and pumping rates of the operational wells out of potential wells with fixed locations to minimize the total cost of utilizing a two-dimensional confined aquifer under steady-state flow conditions. The model is able to take into account the well installation, piping and pump installation costs in addition to the operational costs, including the cost of energy and maintenance. The solution to the problem is defined by well locations and their pumping rates, minimizing the total cost while satisfying a downstream demand, lower/upper bound on the pumping rates, and lower/upper bound on the water level drawdown at the wells. A discretized version of the differential equation governing the flow is first embedded into the model formulation as a set of additional constraints. The resulting mixed-integer highly constrained nonlinear optimization problem is then decomposed into two subproblems with different sets of decision variables, one with a piezometric head and the other with the operational well locations and the corresponding pumping rates. The binary variables representing the well locations are approximated by a continuous variable leading to two LP subproblems. Having started with a random value for all decision variables, the two subproblems are solved iteratively until convergence is achieved. The performance and ability of the proposed method are tested against a hypothetical problem from the literature and the results are presented and compared with those obtained using a mixed-integer nonlinear programming method. The results show the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed method for

  10. Neural networks with multiple general neuron models: a hybrid computational intelligence approach using Genetic Programming.

    PubMed

    Barton, Alan J; Valdés, Julio J; Orchard, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Classical neural networks are composed of neurons whose nature is determined by a certain function (the neuron model), usually pre-specified. In this paper, a type of neural network (NN-GP) is presented in which: (i) each neuron may have its own neuron model in the form of a general function, (ii) any layout (i.e network interconnection) is possible, and (iii) no bias nodes or weights are associated to the connections, neurons or layers. The general functions associated to a neuron are learned by searching a function space. They are not provided a priori, but are rather built as part of an Evolutionary Computation process based on Genetic Programming. The resulting network solutions are evaluated based on a fitness measure, which may, for example, be based on classification or regression errors. Two real-world examples are presented to illustrate the promising behaviour on classification problems via construction of a low-dimensional representation of a high-dimensional parameter space associated to the set of all network solutions.

  11. Mitochondrial proteomics of the acetic acid - induced programmed cell death response in a highly tolerant Zygosaccharomyces bailii - derived hybrid strain

    PubMed Central

    Guerreiro, Joana F.; Sampaio-Marques, Belém; Soares, Renata; Coelho, Ana V.; Leão, Cecília; Ludovico, Paula; Sá-Correia, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Very high concentrations of acetic acid at low pH induce programmed cell death (PCD) in both the experimental model Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in Zygosaccharomyces bailii, the latter being considered the most problematic acidic food spoilage yeast due to its remarkable intrinsic resistance to this food preservative. However, while the mechanisms underlying S. cerevisiae PCD induced by acetic acid have been previously examined, the corresponding molecular players remain largely unknown in Z. bailii. Also, the reason why acetic acid concentrations known to be necrotic for S. cerevisiae induce PCD with an apoptotic phenotype in Z. bailii remains to be elucidated. In this study, a 2-DE-based expression mitochondrial proteomic analysis was explored to obtain new insights into the mechanisms involved in PCD in the Z. bailii derived hybrid strain ISA1307. This allowed the quantitative assessment of expression of protein species derived from each of the parental strains, with special emphasis on the processes taking place in the mitochondria known to play a key role in acetic acid - induced PCD. A marked decrease in the content of proteins involved in mitochondrial metabolism, in particular, in respiratory metabolism (Cor1, Rip1, Lpd1, Lat1 and Pdb1), with a concomitant increase in the abundance of proteins involved in fermentation (Pdc1, Ald4, Dld3) was registered. Other differentially expressed identified proteins also suggest the involvement of the oxidative stress response, protein translation, amino acid and nucleotide metabolism, among other processes, in the PCD response. Overall, the results strengthen the emerging concept of the importance of metabolic regulation of yeast PCD. PMID:28357336

  12. Hybrid OpenMP/MPI programs for solving the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation in a fully anisotropic trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satarić, Bogdan; Slavnić, Vladimir; Belić, Aleksandar; Balaž, Antun; Muruganandam, Paulsamy; Adhikari, Sadhan K.

    2016-03-01

    We present hybrid OpenMP/MPI (Open Multi-Processing/Message Passing Interface) parallelized versions of earlier published C programs (Vudragović et al. 2012) for calculating both stationary and non-stationary solutions of the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation in three spatial dimensions. The GP equation describes the properties of dilute Bose-Einstein condensates at ultra-cold temperatures. Hybrid versions of programs use the same algorithms as the C ones, involving real- and imaginary-time propagation based on a split-step Crank-Nicolson method, but consider only a fully-anisotropic three-dimensional GP equation, where algorithmic complexity for large grid sizes necessitates parallelization in order to reduce execution time and/or memory requirements per node. Since distributed memory approach is required to address the latter, we combine MPI programming paradigm with existing OpenMP codes, thus creating fully flexible parallelism within a combined distributed/shared memory model, suitable for different modern computer architectures. The two presented C/OpenMP/MPI programs for real- and imaginary-time propagation are optimized and accompanied by a customizable makefile. We present typical scalability results for the provided OpenMP/MPI codes and demonstrate almost linear speedup until inter-process communication time starts to dominate over calculation time per iteration. Such a scalability study is necessary for large grid sizes in order to determine optimal number of MPI nodes and OpenMP threads per node.

  13. [Electric and hybrid vehicle site operators program]: Thinking of the future. Second year third quarter report, January 1--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    Kansas State University, with funding support from federal, state, public, and private companies, is participating in the Department of Energy`s Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Through participation in this program, Kansas State is displaying, testing, and evaluating electric or hybrid vehicle technology. This participation will provide organizations the opportunity to examine the latest EHV prototypes under actual operating conditions. KSU proposes to purchase one (1) electric or hybrid vans and two (2) electric cars during the first two years of this five-year program. KSU has purchased one G-Van built by Conceptor Industries, Toronto, Canada and has initiated a procurement order to purchase two (2) Soleq 1993 Ford EVcort station wagons. The G-Van has been signed in order for the public to be aware that this is an electric drive vehicle. Financial participants` names have been stenciled on the back door of the van. This vehicle is available for short term loan to interested utilities and companies. When other vehicles are obtained, the G-Van will be maintained on K-State`s campus.

  14. Development of numerical modeling program for organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells by including tail/Interfacial states models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Kuan-Ying; Lu, I.-Hsin; Wu, Yuh-Renn

    2016-03-01

    A numerical model for PEDOT:PSS/SiNW hybrid solar cell has been developed and the structure has been simulated and analyzed. The limiting factor leading to low open circuit voltage (Voc) in PEDOT:PSS/SiNW hybrid solar cell is investigated. By adding a p-type silicon layer into the device to create an electric field in the silicon layer, the recombination at interface is improved and the Voc increases. The efficiency is improved to over 15% and more optimized work can be done in the future.

  15. Evaluation of battery/microturbine hybrid energy storage technologies at the University of Maryland :a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect

    De Anda, Mindi Farber (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC); Fall, Ndeye K.

    2005-03-01

    This study describes the technical and economic benefits derived from adding an energy storage component to an existing building cooling, heating, and power system that uses microturbine generation to augment utility-provided power. Three different types of battery energy storage were evaluated: flooded lead-acid, valve-regulated lead-acid, and zinc/bromine. Additionally, the economic advantages of hybrid generation/storage systems were evaluated for a representative range of utility tariffs. The analysis was done using the Distributed Energy Technology Simulator developed for the Energy Storage Systems Program at Sandia National Laboratories by Energetics, Inc. The study was sponsored by the U.S. DOE Energy Storage Systems Program through Sandia National Laboratories and was performed in coordination with the University of Maryland's Center for Environmental Energy Engineering.

  16. U.S. Department of Energy electric and hybrid vehicle Site Operator Program at Platte River Power Authority. Final report, July 3, 1991--August 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Emmert, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    The Platte River Power Authority (Platte River) is a political subdivision of the state of Colorado, owned by the four municipalities of Fort Collins, Loveland, Longmont and Estes Park, Colorado. Platte River is a non-profit, publicly owned, joint-action agency formed to construct, operate and maintain generating plants, transmission systems and related facilities for the purpose of delivering to the four municipalities electric energy for distribution and resale. Platte River, as a participant in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Site Operator Program, worked to accomplish the Site Operator Program goals and objectives to field test and evaluate electric and electric-hybrid vehicles and electric vehicle systems in a real world application/environment. This report presents results of Platte River`s program (Program) during the five-years Platte River participated in the DOE Site Operator Program. Platte River participated in DOE Site Operator Program from July 3, 1991 through August 31, 1996. During its Program, Platte River conducted vehicle tests and evaluations, and electric vehicle demonstrations in the Front Range region of Northern Colorado. Platte River also investigated electric vehicle infrastructure issues and tested infrastructure components. Platte River`s Program objectives were as follows: evaluate the year round performance, operational costs, reliability, and life cycle costs of electric vehicles in the Front Range region of Northern Colorado; evaluate an electric vehicle`s usability and acceptability as a pool vehicle; test any design improvements or technological improvements on a component level that may be made available to PRPA and which can be retrofit into vehicles; and develop, test and evaluate, and demonstrate components to be used in charging electric vehicles.

  17. An efficient and accurate solution methodology for bilevel multi-objective programming problems using a hybrid evolutionary-local-search algorithm.

    PubMed

    Deb, Kalyanmoy; Sinha, Ankur

    2010-01-01

    Bilevel optimization problems involve two optimization tasks (upper and lower level), in which every feasible upper level solution must correspond to an optimal solution to a lower level optimization problem. These problems commonly appear in many practical problem solving tasks including optimal control, process optimization, game-playing strategy developments, transportation problems, and others. However, they are commonly converted into a single level optimization problem by using an approximate solution procedure to replace the lower level optimization task. Although there exist a number of theoretical, numerical, and evolutionary optimization studies involving single-objective bilevel programming problems, not many studies look at the context of multiple conflicting objectives in each level of a bilevel programming problem. In this paper, we address certain intricate issues related to solving multi-objective bilevel programming problems, present challenging test problems, and propose a viable and hybrid evolutionary-cum-local-search based algorithm as a solution methodology. The hybrid approach performs better than a number of existing methodologies and scales well up to 40-variable difficult test problems used in this study. The population sizing and termination criteria are made self-adaptive, so that no additional parameters need to be supplied by the user. The study indicates a clear niche of evolutionary algorithms in solving such difficult problems of practical importance compared to their usual solution by a computationally expensive nested procedure. The study opens up many issues related to multi-objective bilevel programming and hopefully this study will motivate EMO and other researchers to pay more attention to this important and difficult problem solving activity.

  18. Development and testing of 11- and 24-inch hybrid motors under the joint government/industry IR&D program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boardman, T. A.; Carpenter, R. L.; Goldberg, B. E.; Shaeffer, C. W.

    1993-01-01

    Establishment of a test facility and associated 11-in.-diameter motor for hybrid propulsion technology development at NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center is discussed in this paper. Results of twenty 11-in.-diameter motor tests with a UTF-29901 (60 percent polycyclopentadiene, 40 percent hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene)/gaseous oxygen propellant system are presented. Tests at this scale have developed fuel regression correlations for comparison with results of yet-to-be-completed, 24-in.-diameter motor tests; demonstrated combustion efficiency levels in the 95 percent range for both single- and multiple-port grain configurations; have shown smooth and stable throttling characteristics over flight-type throttle ranges; and have begun to establish criteria for stable combustion in hybrid motors. The testing of 24-in. motors has not as yet been initiated and is not addressed.

  19. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix A: Mission analysis and performance specification studies report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Results of a study leading to the preliminary design of a five passenger hybrid vehicle utilizing two energy sources (electricity and gasoline/diesel fuel) to minimize petroleum usage on a fleet basis are presented. The study methodology is described. Vehicle characterizations, the mission description, characterization, and impact on potential sales, and the rationale for the selection of the reference internal combustion engine vehicle are presented. Conclusions and recommendations of the mission analysis and performance specification report are included.

  20. Phase 1 of the near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Appendix B: Trade-off studies, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traversi, M.; Piccolo, R.

    1980-01-01

    Tradeoff study activities and the analysis process used are described with emphasis on (1) review of the alternatives; (2) vehicle architecture; and (3) evaluation of the propulsion system alternatives; interim results are presented for the basic hybrid vehicle characterization; vehicle scheme development; propulsion system power and transmission ratios; vehicle weight; energy consumption and emissions; performance; production costs; reliability, availability and maintainability; life cycle costs, and operational quality. The final vehicle conceptual design is examined.

  1. U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program: Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Christophersen, Jon P.

    2014-09-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office. It is based on technical targets for commercial viability established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, future revisions including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures are expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices. The DOE-United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) supported the development of the manual. Technical Team points of contact responsible for its development and revision are Renata M. Arsenault of Ford Motor Company and Jon P. Christophersen of the Idaho National Laboratory. The development of this manual was funded by the Unites States Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Technical direction from DOE was provided by David Howell, Energy Storage R&D Manager and Hybrid Electric Systems Team Leader. Comments and questions regarding the manual should be directed to Jon P. Christophersen at the Idaho National Laboratory (jon.christophersen@inl.gov).

  2. Phase 1 of the near team hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Appendix C: Preliminary design data package. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piccolo, R.

    1979-01-01

    The design, development, efficiency, manufacturability, production costs, life cycle cost, and safety of sodium-sulfur, nickel-zinc, and lead-acid batteries for electric hybrid vehicles are discussed. Models are given for simulating the vehicle handling quality, and for finding the value of: (1) the various magnetic quantities in the different sections in which the magnetic circuit of the DC electric machine is divided; (2) flux distribution in the air gap and the magnetization curve under load conditions; and (3) the mechanical power curves versus motor speed at different values of armature current.

  3. "I Want My Robot to Look for Food": Comparing Kindergartner's Programming Comprehension Using Tangible, Graphic, and Hybrid User Interfaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strawhacker, Amanda; Bers, Marina U.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, educational robotics has become an increasingly popular research area. However, limited studies have focused on differentiated learning outcomes based on type of programming interface. This study aims to explore how successfully young children master foundational programming concepts based on the robotics user interface (tangible,…

  4. Colonization of a hybrid strain to restore male Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) mating competitiveness for sterile insect technique programs.

    PubMed

    Rull, Juan; Barreda-Landa, Abraham

    2007-06-01

    To restore male mating competitiveness of Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), reared for sterile insect releases by the Mexican Fruit fly Eradication Campaign, two strain replacement techniques were evaluated. Field cage male competitiveness tests revealed that laboratory males of the Metapa strain mated 3 times less often with wild females than field-collected wild males. A strain developed from the cross of wild males and laboratory females (hybrid strain) was similar to a strain developed from the cross of laboratory males and females (laboratory strain) in that its females produced similar amounts of eggs and the eggs displayed similar levels of hatch and egg-to-pupa transformation in artificial diet. By contrast, a strain developed from the cross of wild males and females (wild strain), forced into artificial rearing, experienced a series of bottlenecks involving reduced egg laying and extremely poor development in diet. The male F1 progeny of the hybrid strain and field-collected wild males outcompeted Fl laboratory males in field cage tests for matings with field-collected wild females. In conclusion, we found that strains developed from the cross of wild males and laboratory females allowed us to restore male mating competitiveness of F1 Mexican fruit flies without compromising mass-rearing production.

  5. Hybrid Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Trujillo, David J.; Sridharan, Srikesh; Weinstock, Irvin

    2005-10-15

    HybSim (short for Hybrid Simulator) is a flexible, easy to use screening tool that allows the user to quanti the technical and economic benefits of installing a village hybrid generating system and simulates systems with any combination of —Diesel generator sets —Photovoltaic arrays -Wind Turbines and -Battery energy storage systems Most village systems (or small population sites such as villages, remote military bases, small communities, independent or isolated buildings or centers) depend on diesel generation systems for their source of energy. HybSim allows the user to determine other "sources" of energy that can greatly reduce the dollar to kilo-watt hour ratio. Supported by the DOE, Energy Storage Program, HybSim was initially developed to help analyze the benefits of energy storage systems in Alaskan villages. Soon after its development, other sources of energy were added providing the user with a greater range of analysis opportunities and providing the village with potentially added savings. In addition to village systems, HybSim has generated interest for use from military institutions in energy provisions and USAID for international village analysis.

  6. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  7. Hybrid 3-D rocket trajectory program. Part 1: Formulation and analysis. Part 2: Computer programming and user's instruction. [computerized simulation using three dimensional motion analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, L. C. P.; Cook, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Models utilizing various sub-sets of the six degrees of freedom are used in trajectory simulation. A 3-D model with only linear degrees of freedom is especially attractive, since the coefficients for the angular degrees of freedom are the most difficult to determine and the angular equations are the most time consuming for the computer to evaluate. A computer program is developed that uses three separate subsections to predict trajectories. A launch rail subsection is used until the rocket has left its launcher. The program then switches to a special 3-D section which computes motions in two linear and one angular degrees of freedom. When the rocket trims out, the program switches to the standard, three linear degrees of freedom model.

  8. Electric and hybrid vehicle program; Site Operator Program. Quarterly progress report, January--March 1992 (Second quarter of fiscal year 1992)

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, J.F.

    1992-05-01

    Activities during the second quarter included the second meeting of the Site Operators in Phoenix, AZ in late April. The meeting was held in conjunction with the Solar and Electric 500 Race activities. Delivery of vehicles ordered previously has begun, although two of the operators are experiencing some delays in receiving their vehicles. Public demonstration activities continue, with an apparent increasing level of awareness and interest being displayed by the public. Initial problems with the Site Operator Database have been corrected and revised copies of the program have been supplied to the Program participants. Operating and Maintenance data is being supplied and submitted to INEL on a monthly basis. Interest in the Site Operator Program is being reflected in requests for information from several organizations from across the country, representing a wide diversity of interests. These organizations have been referred to existing Site Operators with the explanation that the program will not be adding new participants, but that most of the existing organizations are willing to work with other groups. The exception to this was the addition of Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) to the program. PEPCO has been awarded a subcontract to operate and maintain the DOE owned G-Van and Escort located in Washington, DC. They will provide data on these vehicles, as well as a Solectria Force which PEPCO has purchased. The Task Force intends to be actively involved in the infrastructure development in a wide range of areas. These include, among others, personnel development, safety, charging, and servicing. Work continues in these areas. York Technical College (YORK) has completed the draft outline for the EV Technician course. This is being circulated to organizations around the country for comments. Kansas State University (KSU) is working with a private sector company to develop a energy dispensing meter for opportunity charging in public areas.

  9. Bicultural or Hybrid? The Second Language Identities of Students on an English-Mediated University Program in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Alastair; Goddard, Angela

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that in foreign language learning and ELF situations, identity might not be implicated in any great extent. Focusing on the impact globalization has on identities, the purpose of this study is to consider whether identity might be involved in Swedish students' reasons for enrolling on an English-medium university program and,…

  10. Performance-Based Compensation Structures: Considerations for Individual, Group, and Hybrid Programs. Emerging Issues. Report No. 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potemski, Amy; Rowland, Cortney; Witham, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A significant number of educator compensation reform efforts are under way throughout the country. These school-, district-, and state-level programs come in all shapes and sizes--some are small and focus only on a cohort of teachers or schools, whereas others are large and target entire districts or groups of districts. The structure of these…

  11. Phase 1 of the near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Appendix B: Trade-off studies. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traversi, M.; Piccolo, R.

    1979-01-01

    The SPEC '78 computer program which consists of mathematical simulations of any vehicle component and external environment is described as are configuration alternatives for the propulsion system. Preliminary assessments of the fundamental characteristics of the lead-acid and sodium-sulfur batteries are included and procedures are given for estimating the cost of a new vehicle in mass production.

  12. The Best of Both Worlds: Resident Experiences of Urban and Regional Contexts in a Hybrid Pediatrics Residency Program

    PubMed Central

    Topps, Maureen; Ellaway, Rachel H.; Baron, Tara; Peek, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Background The context for specialty residency training in pediatrics has broadened in recent decades to include distributed community sites as well as academic health science centers. Rather than creating parallel, community-only programs, most programs have expanded to include both community and large urban tertiary health center experiences. Despite these changes, there has been relatively little research looking at residents' experiences in these distributed graduate medical education programs. Objective A longitudinal case study was undertaken to explore the experiences of residents in a Canadian pediatrics residency program that involved a combination of clinical placements in a large urban tertiary health center and in regional hospitals. Methods The study drew on 2 streams of primary data: 1-on-1 interviews with residents at the end of each block rotation and annual focus groups with residents. Results A thematic analysis (using grounded theory techniques) of transcripts of the interviews and focus groups identified 6 high-level themes: access to training, quality of learning, patient mix, continuity of care, learner roles, and residents as teachers. Conclusions Rather than finding that certain training contexts were “better” than others when comparing residents' experiences of the various training contexts in this pediatrics residency, what emerged was an understanding that the different settings complemented each other. Residents were adamant that this was not a matter of superiority of one context over any other; their experiences in different contexts each made a valuable contribution to the quality of their training. PMID:26692967

  13. Department of Energy electric and hybrid vehicle site operator program at Pacific Gas and Electric Company. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    Pacific Gas & Electric Company continues to expand an EV program that addresses the following: vehicle development and demonstration; vehicle technology assessment; infrastructure evaluation; participation in EV organizations; and meetings and events. This report highlights PG & E`s activities in each of these areas.

  14. An analysis of the energy efficiency, range, and attributable emissions of electric vehicles, and an assessment of the United States Department of Energy Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program from 1976-2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clay, Kathryn G.

    Over the last decade, much attention has focused on the efforts of the federal government and private industry working together through public-private partnerships to develop electric and hybrid vehicle technologies. These efforts have taken place principally through the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Generally not appreciated is the extent of federal government investment in electric and hybrid vehicle research and development (R&D) that predates the USABC and PNGV ventures. The U.S. Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program (EHV Program) was established through an act of Congress in 1976 and has operated continuously since that time. The EHV Program has made significant contributions to the development of advanced battery technology. The program has funded research in fourteen distinct battery chemistries, has helped to establish a technology infrastructure in the field of battery development. This thesis has two guiding questions. First, what is it that makes developing adequate batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles so challenging? Second, what can and should the federal government do to hasten development of battery technologies for these advanced vehicles? In response to the first question, an analysis of the energy requirements of electric vehicles is presented, estimating vehicle range, efficiency, and emissions benefits based on available technology. Emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and carbon dioxide (CO2) are considered, and compared to conventional heat engine vehicles to estimate the potential reductions in transportation sector emissions. To address the second question, a review of technology policy since the Ford administration is presented. This discussion provides a background necessary to interpret the waxing and waning fortunes of the EHV Program over more than a quarter century. Reviews of government documents and

  15. Josephson-CMOS Hybrid Memories

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-25

    Liu, X . Meng, S. R. Whiteley, and T. Van Duzer, “Characterization of 4 K CMOS devices and circuits for hybrid Josephson- CMOS systems,” IEEE Trans. on...Josephson- CMOS hybrid memories Qingguo Liu Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences University of California at Berkeley Technical Report No. UCB...to 00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Josephson- CMOS hybrid memories 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  16. Viterbi/algebraic hybrid decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, R. W.; Ingels, F. M.; Mo, C.

    1980-01-01

    Decoder computer program is hybrid between optimal Viterbi and optimal algebraic decoders. Tests have shown that hybrid decoder outperforms any strictly Viterbi or strictly algebraic decoder and effectively handles compound channels. Algorithm developed uses syndrome-detecting logic to direct two decoders to assume decoding load alternately, depending on real-time channel characteristics.

  17. DOE SBIR Phase-1 Report on Hybrid CPU-GPU Parallel Development of the Eulerian-Lagrangian Barracuda Multiphase Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Dale M. Snider

    2011-02-28

    This report gives the result from the Phase-1 work on demonstrating greater than 10x speedup of the Barracuda computer program using parallel methods and GPU processors (General-Purpose Graphics Processing Unit or Graphics Processing Unit). Phase-1 demonstrated a 12x speedup on a typical Barracuda function using the GPU processor. The problem test case used about 5 million particles and 250,000 Eulerian grid cells. The relative speedup, compared to a single CPU, increases with increased number of particles giving greater than 12x speedup. Phase-1 work provided a path for reformatting data structure modifications to give good parallel performance while keeping a friendly environment for new physics development and code maintenance. The implementation of data structure changes will be in Phase-2. Phase-1 laid the ground work for the complete parallelization of Barracuda in Phase-2, with the caveat that implemented computer practices for parallel programming done in Phase-1 gives immediate speedup in the current Barracuda serial running code. The Phase-1 tasks were completed successfully laying the frame work for Phase-2. The detailed results of Phase-1 are within this document. In general, the speedup of one function would be expected to be higher than the speedup of the entire code because of I/O functions and communication between the algorithms. However, because one of the most difficult Barracuda algorithms was parallelized in Phase-1 and because advanced parallelization methods and proposed parallelization optimization techniques identified in Phase-1 will be used in Phase-2, an overall Barracuda code speedup (relative to a single CPU) is expected to be greater than 10x. This means that a job which takes 30 days to complete will be done in 3 days. Tasks completed in Phase-1 are: Task 1: Profile the entire Barracuda code and select which subroutines are to be parallelized (See Section Choosing a Function to Accelerate) Task 2: Select a GPU consultant company and

  18. Ozone sensitivity in hybrid poplar correlates with insensitivity to both salicylic acid and jasmonic acid. The role of programmed cell death in lesion formation.

    PubMed

    Koch, J R; Creelman, R A; Eshita, S M; Seskar, M; Mullet, J E; Davis, K R

    2000-06-01

    Our earlier studies demonstrated that the ozone-sensitive hybrid poplar clone NE-388 displays an attenuated level of ozone-, wound-, and phytopathogen-induced defense gene expression. To determine if this reduced gene activation involves signal transduction pathways dependent on salicylic acid (SA) and/or jasmonic acid (JA), we compared the responses of NE-388 and an ozone-tolerant clone, NE-245, to these signal molecules. JA levels increased in both clones in response to ozone, but only minimal increases in SA levels were measured for either clone. Treatment with SA and methyl jasmonate induced defense gene expression only in NE-245, indicating that NE-388 is insensitive to these signal molecules. DNA fragmentation, an indicator of programmed cell death (PCD), was detected in NE-245 treated with either ozone or an avirulent phytopathogen, but was not detected in NE-388. We conclude that these clones undergo two distinct mechanisms of ozone-induced lesion formation. In NE-388, lesions appear to be due to toxic cell death resulting from a limited ability to perceive and subsequently activate SA- and/or JA-mediated antioxidant defense responses. In NE-245, SA-dependent PCD precedes lesion formation via a process related to the PCD pathway activated by phytopathogenic bacteria. These results support the hypothesis that ozone triggers a hypersensitive response.

  19. Computer code for intraply hybrid composite design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program has been developed and is described herein for intraply hybrid composite design (INHYD). The program includes several composite micromechanics theories, intraply hybrid composite theories and a hygrothermomechanical theory. These theories provide INHYD with considerable flexibility and capability which the user can exercise through several available options. Key features and capabilities of INHYD are illustrated through selected samples.

  20. Computer code for intraply hybrid composite design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program is described for intraply hybrid composite design (INHYD). The program includes several composite micromechanics theories, intraply hybrid composite theories, and a hygrothermomechanical theory. These theories provide INHYD with considerable flexibility and capability which the user can exercise through several available options. Key features and capabilities of INHYD are illustrated through selected samples.

  1. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix B: Design trade-off studies report. Volume 2: Supplement to design trade-off studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Results of studies leading to the preliminary design of a hybrid passenger vehicle which is projected to have the maximum potential for reducing petroleum consumption in the near term are presented. Heat engine/electric hybrid vehicle tradeoffs, assessment of battery power source, and weight and cost analysis of key components are among the topics covered. Performance of auxiliary equipment, such as power steering, power brakes, air conditioning, lighting and electrical accessories, heating and ventilation is discussed along with the selection of preferred passenger compartment heating procedure for the hybrid vehicle. Waste heat from the engine, thermal energy storage, and an auxiliary burner are among the approaches considered.

  2. Near hybrid passenger vehicle development program, phase 1. Appendices A and B. Mission analysis and performance specification studies report, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The three most promising vehicle use patterns (missions) for the near term electric hybrid vehicle were found to be all-purpose city driving, commuting, and family and civic business. The mission selection process was based principally on an analysis of the travel patterns found in the Nationwide Transportation Survey and on the Los Angeles and Washington, D.C. origin-destination studies data. Travel patterns in turn were converted to fuel requirements for 1985 conventional and hybrid cars. By this means, the potential fuel savings for each mission were estimated, and preliminary design requirements for hybrid vehicles were derived.

  3. Stellarator hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Furth, H.P.; Ludescher, C.

    1984-08-01

    The present paper briefly reviews the subject of tokamak-stellarator and pinch-stellarator hybrids, and points to two interesting new possibilities: compact-torus-stellarators and mirror-stellarators.

  4. Research and Development in Natural Language Understanding as Part of the Strategic Computing Program. Volume 1. Overview of Technical Results. Revision.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-01

    system of metaplans. The current model also depends on a number of simplifying assumptions about the cooperativeness and knowledge of the agent and...intensional logic) to code for one or more application systems . Indomain model , and transformation rules to data base structure, to Texas Instruments for...domain model . We ,ummarize our major research and the intensional logic of the Janus achievements in parallel algorithms. anderstandng system . 3 Report

  5. Integrating Internet Video Conferencing Techniques and Online Delivery Systems with Hybrid Classes to Enhance Student Interaction and Learning in Accelerated Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckwith, E. George; Cunniff, Daniel T.

    2009-01-01

    Online course enrollment has increased dramatically over the past few years. The authors cite the reasons for this rapid growth and the opportunities open for enhancing teaching/learning techniques such as video conferencing and hybrid class combinations. The authors outlined an example of an accelerated learning, eight-class session course…

  6. The Impact of Emotions on Student Achievement in Synchronous Hybrid Business and Public Administration Programs: A Longitudinal Test of Control-Value Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butz, Nikolaus T.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Pekrun, Reinhard; Jensen, Jason L.; Harsell, Dana M.

    2016-01-01

    Synchronous hybrid delivery (simultaneously teaching on-campus and online students using Web conferencing) is becoming more common in higher education. However, little is known about students' emotions in these environments. Although often overlooked, emotions are fundamental antecedents of success. This study longitudinally examined the role of…

  7. Influence of the Use of Online Communications Media on Perceptions of Transactional Distance and Student Satisfaction in a Hybrid Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullwood, Elicia Dynae

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the uses of online communications media in an undergraduate hybrid course that yielded the least transactional distance perceived by students and the highest student satisfaction with distance education. The study was based on student responses to the Distance Education Learning Environment Survey having…

  8. Hybridized polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, E. E.; Hoggatt, J. T.; Symonds, W. A.

    1980-01-01

    The extent to which graphite fibers are released from resin matrix composites that are exposed to fire and impact conditions was determined. Laboratory simulations of those conditions that could exist in the event of an aircraft crash and burn situation were evaluated. The effectiveness of various hybridizing concepts in preventing this release of graphite fibers were also evaluated. The baseline (i.e., unhybridized) laminates examined were prepared from commercially available graphite/epoxy, graphite/polyimide, and graphite/phenolic materials. Hybridizing concepts investigated included resin fillers, laminate coatings, resin blending, and mechanical interlocking of the graphite reinforcement. The baseline and hybridized laminates' mechanical properties, before and after isothermal and humidity aging, were also compared. It was found that a small amount of graphite fiber was released from the graphite/epoxy laminates during the burn and impact conditions used in this program. However, the extent to which the fibers were released is not considered a severe enough problem to preclude the use of graphite reinforced composites in civil aircraft structure. It also was found that several hybrid concepts eliminated this fiber release. Isothermal and humidity aging did not appear to alter the fiber release tendencies.

  9. Dealing with the problem of non-specific in situ mRNA hybridization signals associated with plant tissues undergoing programmed cell death

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In situ hybridization is a general molecular method typically used for the localization of mRNA transcripts in plants. The method provides a valuable tool to unravel the connection between gene expression and anatomy, especially in species such as pines which show large genome size and shortage of sequence information. Results In the present study, expression of the catalase gene (CAT) related to the scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the polyamine metabolism related genes, diamine oxidase (DAO) and arginine decarboxylase (ADC), were localized in developing Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seeds. In addition to specific signals from target mRNAs, the probes continually hybridized non-specifically in the embryo surrounding region (ESR) of the megagametophyte tissue, in the remnants of the degenerated suspensors as well as in the cells of the nucellar layers, i.e. tissues exposed to cell death processes and extensive nucleic acid fragmentation during Scots pine seed development. Conclusions In plants, cell death is an integral part of both development and defence, and hence it is a common phenomenon in all stages of the life cycle. Our results suggest that extensive nucleic acid fragmentation during cell death processes can be a considerable source of non-specific signals in traditional in situ mRNA hybridization. Thus, the visualization of potential nucleic acid fragmentation simultaneously with the in situ mRNA hybridization assay may be necessary to ensure the correct interpretation of the signals in the case of non-specific hybridization of probes in plant tissues. PMID:20181098

  10. Hybrid Warfare: Preparing for Future Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-17

    AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY HYBRID WARFARE: PREPARING FOR FUTURE CONFLICT by Michael Miller, Lieutenant Colonel, United States Air...00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Hybrid Warfare: Preparing For Future Conflict 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Hybrid warfare will be the most likely type of conflict the US and its allies will face in the future

  11. Fast decision tree-based method to index large DNA-protein sequence databases using hybrid distributed-shared memory programming model.

    PubMed

    Jaber, Khalid Mohammad; Abdullah, Rosni; Rashid, Nur'Aini Abdul

    2014-01-01

    In recent times, the size of biological databases has increased significantly, with the continuous growth in the number of users and rate of queries; such that some databases have reached the terabyte size. There is therefore, the increasing need to access databases at the fastest rates possible. In this paper, the decision tree indexing model (PDTIM) was parallelised, using a hybrid of distributed and shared memory on resident database; with horizontal and vertical growth through Message Passing Interface (MPI) and POSIX Thread (PThread), to accelerate the index building time. The PDTIM was implemented using 1, 2, 4 and 5 processors on 1, 2, 3 and 4 threads respectively. The results show that the hybrid technique improved the speedup, compared to a sequential version. It could be concluded from results that the proposed PDTIM is appropriate for large data sets, in terms of index building time.

  12. Benefits of Hybrid Classes in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Joel

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses hybrid courses and their impact on educational facilities, their students, and instructors. Instructors now have over ten years of data related to hybrid courses and by trial and error have devised different strategies to plan and execute lesson plans via partly online forums. Programs are in place that give students the…

  13. 7 CFR 1400.212 - Growers of hybrid seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Growers of hybrid seed. 1400.212 Section 1400.212... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.212 Growers of hybrid seed. The existence of a hybrid seed contract for a person or legal entity will not be taken into...

  14. 7 CFR 1400.212 - Growers of hybrid seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Growers of hybrid seed. 1400.212 Section 1400.212... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.212 Growers of hybrid seed. The existence of a hybrid seed contract for a person or legal entity will not be taken into...

  15. 7 CFR 1400.212 - Growers of hybrid seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Growers of hybrid seed. 1400.212 Section 1400.212... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.212 Growers of hybrid seed. The existence of a hybrid seed contract for a person or legal entity will not be taken into...

  16. 7 CFR 1400.212 - Growers of hybrid seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Growers of hybrid seed. 1400.212 Section 1400.212... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.212 Growers of hybrid seed. The existence of a hybrid seed contract for a person or legal entity will not be taken into...

  17. 7 CFR 1400.212 - Growers of hybrid seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Growers of hybrid seed. 1400.212 Section 1400.212... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.212 Growers of hybrid seed. The existence of a hybrid seed contract for a person or legal entity will not be taken into...

  18. Hybrid shower counter for CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Nodulman, L.

    1980-01-01

    A hybrid scintillator/strip chamber electromagnetic calorimeter has been proposed for the Collider Detector Facility at Fermilab. Large modules of lead/scintillator with wavebar readout are to contain one or more bidimensional wire chambers near shower maximum. Results of the ongoing program of computer simulation and prototype testing are discussed.

  19. Phase 1 of the near term hybrid passenger vehicles development program. Appendix A: Mission analysis and performance specification studies, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traversi, M.; Barbarek, L. A. C.

    1979-01-01

    Applicable data was categorized and processed according to vehicle usage and trip parameters with consideration of payload (cargo, people, size) and driving cycles. A mission that maximizes the fuel potential savings for the total 1985 vehicle fleet was selected. Mission requirements that have a bearing on conventional and hybrid vehicle performance and characteristics were identified and formulated and a reference ICE vehicle was selected that meets or exceeds all requirements while maintaining within applicable constraints. Specifications for vehicle performance were established based on mission requirements, mission related vehicle characteristics, and fuel consumption.

  20. Flight Testing of Hybrid Powered Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Story, George; Arves, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Hybrid Rocket powered vehicles have had a limited number of flights. Most recently in 2004, Scaled Composites had a successful orbital trajectory that put a private vehicle twice to over 62 miles high, the edge of space to win the X-Prize. This endeavor man rates a hybrid system. Hybrids have also been used in a number of one time launch attempts - SET-1, HYSR, HPDP. Hybrids have also been developed for use and flown in target drones. This chapter discusses various flight-test programs that have been conducted, hybrid vehicles that are in development, other hybrid vehicles that have been proposed and some strap-on applications have also been examined.

  1. Asymmetric Hybrid Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Chumanov, George

    2015-11-05

    Hybrid Nanoparticles (AHNs) are rationally-designed multifunctional nanostructures and novel building blocks for the next generation of advanced materials and devices. Nanoscale materials attract considerable interest because of their unusual properties and potential for practical applications. Most of the activity in this field is focused on the synthesis of homogeneous nanoparticles from metals, metal oxides, semiconductors, and polymers. It is well recognized that properties of nanoparticles can be further enhanced if they are made as hybrid structures. This program is concerned with the synthesis, characterization, and application of such hybrid structures termed AHNs. AHNs are composed of a homogeneous core and several caps of different materials deposited on its surface (Fig. 1). Combined properties of the core and the caps as well as new properties that arise from core-cap and cap-cap interactions render AHNs multifunctional. In addition, specific chemical reactivity of the caps enables directional self-assembly of AHNs into complex architectures that are not possible with only spherical nanoparticles.

  2. Hybrid Gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  3. U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program -- Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity -- Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Review

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Morrow; Donald Darner; James Francfort

    2008-11-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are under evaluation by various stake holders to better understand their capability and potential benefits. PHEVs could allow users to significantly improve fuel economy over a standard HEV and in some cases, depending on daily driving requirements and vehicle design, have the ability to eliminate fuel consumption entirely for daily vehicle trips. The cost associated with providing charge infrastructure for PHEVs, along with the additional costs for the on-board power electronics and added battery requirements associated with PHEV technology will be a key factor in the success of PHEVs. This report analyzes the infrastructure requirements for PHEVs in single family residential, multi-family residential and commercial situations. Costs associated with this infrastructure are tabulated, providing an estimate of the infrastructure costs associated with PHEV deployment.

  4. Hybrid2: The hybrid system simulation model, Version 1.0, user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, E.I.

    1996-06-01

    In light of the large scale desire for energy in remote communities, especially in the developing world, the need for a detailed long term performance prediction model for hybrid power systems was seen. To meet these ends, engineers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Massachusetts (UMass) have spent the last three years developing the Hybrid2 software. The Hybrid2 code provides a means to conduct long term, detailed simulations of the performance of a large array of hybrid power systems. This work acts as an introduction and users manual to the Hybrid2 software. The manual describes the Hybrid2 code, what is included with the software and instructs the user on the structure of the code. The manual also describes some of the major features of the Hybrid2 code as well as how to create projects and run hybrid system simulations. The Hybrid2 code test program is also discussed. Although every attempt has been made to make the Hybrid2 code easy to understand and use, this manual will allow many organizations to consider the long term advantages of using hybrid power systems instead of conventional petroleum based systems for remote power generation.

  5. Development of male-sterile lines for breeding hybrid rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice is a self-pollinated crop that depends on male-sterility for F1 hybrid seed production. As an alternative to accessing existing male-sterile lines from other hybrid breeding programs, the program in Arkansas has created its own novel male-sterile sources. These were developed out of germplasm...

  6. Becoming-Teacher: The Negotiation of Teaching Practice of First-Year Secondary Science Teachers Prepared in a Hybrid Urban Teacher Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Kathryn Jill

    2014-01-01

    While research suggests that new teachers work to put into practice the pedagogy learned from their preservice preparation programs during their first year of teaching, they often resort to traditional, teacher-centered pedagogies even when prepared to use innovative practices, particularly in urban schools. Relatively little is known, however,…

  7. Tablet and Face-to-Face Hybrid Professional Development: Providing Earth Systems Science Educators Authentic Research Opportunities through The GLOBE Program at Purdue University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegner, K.; Branch, B. D.; Smith, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    The Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) program is a worldwide hands-on, primary and secondary school-based science and education program (www.globe.gov). GLOBE's vision promotes and supports students, teachers and scientists to collaborate on inquiry-based authentic science investigations of the environment and the Earth system working in close partnership with NASA, NOAA and NSF Earth System Science Projects (ESSP's) in study and research about the dynamics of Earth's environment. GLOBE Partners conduct face-to-face Professional Development in more than 110 countries, providing authentic scientific research experience in five investigation areas: atmosphere, earth as a system, hydrology, land cover, and soil. This presentation will provide a sample for a new framework of Professional Development that was implemented in July 2013 at Purdue University lead by Mr. Steven Smith who has tested GLOBE training materials for future training. The presentation will demonstrate how institutions can provide educators authentic scientific research opportunities through various components, including: - Carrying out authentic research investigations - Learning how to enter their authentic research data into the GLOBE database and visualize it on the GLOBE website - Learn how to access to NASA's Earth System Science resources via GLOBE's new online 'e-Training Program' - Exploring the connections of their soil protocol measurements and the history of the soil in their area through iPad soils app - LIDAR data exposure, Hydrology data exposure

  8. Hybrid mimics and hybrid vigor in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Greaves, Ian K; Groszmann, Michael; Wu, Li Min; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Peacock, W James

    2015-09-01

    F1 hybrids can outperform their parents in yield and vegetative biomass, features of hybrid vigor that form the basis of the hybrid seed industry. The yield advantage of the F1 is lost in the F2 and subsequent generations. In Arabidopsis, from F2 plants that have a F1-like phenotype, we have by recurrent selection produced pure breeding F5/F6 lines, hybrid mimics, in which the characteristics of the F1 hybrid are stabilized. These hybrid mimic lines, like the F1 hybrid, have larger leaves than the parent plant, and the leaves have increased photosynthetic cell numbers, and in some lines, increased size of cells, suggesting an increased supply of photosynthate. A comparison of the differentially expressed genes in the F1 hybrid with those of eight hybrid mimic lines identified metabolic pathways altered in both; these pathways include down-regulation of defense response pathways and altered abiotic response pathways. F6 hybrid mimic lines are mostly homozygous at each locus in the genome and yet retain the large F1-like phenotype. Many alleles in the F6 plants, when they are homozygous, have expression levels different to the level in the parent. We consider this altered expression to be a consequence of transregulation of genes from one parent by genes from the other parent. Transregulation could also arise from epigenetic modifications in the F1. The pure breeding hybrid mimics have been valuable in probing the mechanisms of hybrid vigor and may also prove to be useful hybrid vigor equivalents in agriculture.

  9. Establishment of the Australian in situ hybridization program for the assessment of HER2 amplification in breast cancer: a model for the introduction of new biomarkers into clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Farshid, Gelareh; Armes, Jane E; Bell, Richard; Cummings, Margaret; Fox, Stephen; Francis, Glenn; Haswell, Martin; Morey, Adrienne; McCue, Glenda; Raymond, Wendy; Robbins, Peter; Bilous, Michael

    2010-12-01

    In August 2006, the Australian government announced a decision to subsidize trastuzumab therapy for early breast cancer, to commence 6 weeks later. It was mandated that HER2 gene amplification, determined by in situ hybridization (ISH), be shown, and that the sponsor company, Roche Products Pty Ltd, should fund this testing. This announcement potentially required provision of ISH testing for HER2 for every newly diagnosed breast cancer, where previously HER2 testing had been performed by immunohistochemistry with support from a single fluorescence ISH (FISH) reference laboratory for indeterminate cases. The Australian HER2 Testing Advisory Board, an independent expert group, responded to the challenge of rapidly providing accurate nationwide ISH testing. Bright-field ISH was selected as the testing platform and a decentralized testing model, with support from a central FISH laboratory, was adopted. An implementation plan was developed addressing standards for training, accreditation, and quality assurance. Within 6 weeks, 8 pathology laboratories were accredited for ISH testing and by September 2008, 2 years after the announcement, 22 ISH testing laboratories were taking part in the national program and almost 20,000 ISH tests had been performed. This article describes the design and rapid implementation of a nationwide program of bright-field ISH as the first-line testing platform for HER2 status in early breast cancer. We believe that this model for the coordinated and large-scale implementation of a new biomarker test has wide application, given that accurate assessment of a range of novel biomarkers is being used increasingly to determine eligibility for new targeted treatment modalities.

  10. Hybrid rocket propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzman, Allen L.

    1993-01-01

    Topics addressed are: (1) comparison of the theoretical impulses; (2) comparison of the density-specific impulses; (3) general propulsion system features comparison; (4) hybrid systems, booster applications; and (5) hybrid systems, upper stage propulsion applications.

  11. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The introgression of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals 40,000 YBP after a half-million years of separation, may have led to the best example of a hybrid swarm on earth. Modern trade and transportation in support of the human hybrids has continued to introduce additional species, genotyp...

  12. High Temperature Power Converters for Military Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-09

    M) MINI-SYMPOSIUM AUGUST 9-11 DEARBORN, MICHIGAN HIGH TEMPERATURE POWER CONVERTERS FOR MILITARY HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES ABSTRACT...SUBTITLE High Temperature Power Converters for Military Hybrid Electric Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...public release High Temperature Power Converters for Military Hybrid Electric Vehicles Page 2 of 8 I. INTRODUCTION Today, wide bandgap devices

  13. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    DOEpatents

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  14. Hybrid and electronic vehicles: Volume 4, Number 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cupp, C.C.; Levine, P.

    1998-06-01

    Hybrid vehicles combine the best of gasoline, electricity and energy storage systems. Government and industry research and development programs are working on the multimillion dollar program to develop a fleet of experimental hybrid vehicles. The DARPA Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology program is pursuing research, development and demonstrations of technologies for electric and hybrid vehicles that address military missions, modernization and cost mitigation. The hybrid technology is equally important to both military and industry. Environmental regulations motivate both to find alternatives to the traditional vehicle. In an effort to comply with these strict regulations research efforts focus on building engines with high efficiency and low exhaust emission. In addition to improving air quality, it is also desirable to build inexpensive, reliable, long lasting, and compact vehicles. Formidable technological barriers exist, however, to achieving performance cost and reliability.

  15. Hybrid armature projectile

    DOEpatents

    Hawke, Ronald S.; Asay, James R.; Hall, Clint A.; Konrad, Carl H.; Sauve, Gerald L.; Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Susoeff, Allan R.

    1993-01-01

    A projectile for a railgun that uses a hybrid armature and provides a seed block around part of the outer surface of the projectile to seed the hybrid plasma brush. In addition, the hybrid armature is continuously vaporized to replenish plasma in a plasma armature to provide a tandem armature and provides a unique ridge and groove to reduce plasama blowby.

  16. Hybrid armature projectile

    DOEpatents

    Hawke, R.S.; Asay, J.R.; Hall, C.A.; Konrad, C.H.; Sauve, G.L.; Shahinpoor, M.; Susoeff, A.R.

    1993-03-02

    A projectile for a railgun that uses a hybrid armature and provides a seed block around part of the outer surface of the projectile to seed the hybrid plasma brush. In addition, the hybrid armature is continuously vaporized to replenish plasma in a plasma armature to provide a tandem armature and provides a unique ridge and groove to reduce plasma blowby.

  17. Hybrid quantum information processing

    SciTech Connect

    Furusawa, Akira

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  18. Homoploid hybrid expectations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Homoploid hybrid speciation occurs when a stable, fertile, and reproductively isolated lineage results from hybridization between two distinct species without a change in ploidy level. Reproductive isolation between a homoploid hybrid species and its parents is generally attained via chromosomal re...

  19. Pentaploid Wheat Hybrids: Applications, Characterisation, and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Padmanaban, Sriram; Zhang, Peng; Hare, Ray A.; Sutherland, Mark W.; Martin, Anke

    2017-01-01

    Interspecific hybridisation between hexaploid and tetraploid wheat species leads to the development of F1 pentaploid hybrids with unique chromosomal constitutions. Pentaploid hybrids derived from bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (Triticum turgidum spp. durum Desf.) crosses can improve the genetic background of either parent by transferring traits of interest. The genetic variability derived from bread and durum wheat and transferred into pentaploid hybrids has the potential to improve disease resistance, abiotic tolerance, and grain quality, and to enhance agronomic characters. Nonetheless, pentaploid wheat hybrids have not been fully exploited in breeding programs aimed at improving crops. There are several potential barriers for efficient pentaploid wheat production, such as low pollen compatibility, poor seed set, failed seedling establishment, and frequent sterility in F1 hybrids. However, most of the barriers can be overcome by careful selection of the parental genotypes and by employing the higher ploidy level genotype as the maternal parent. In this review, we summarize the current research on pentaploid wheat hybrids and analyze the advantages and pitfalls of current methods used to assess pentaploid-derived lines. Furthermore, we discuss current and potential applications in commercial breeding programs and future directions for research into pentaploid wheat. PMID:28367153

  20. Hybrid Teaching in Extension: Learning at the Crossroads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hino, Jeff; Kahn, Cub

    2016-01-01

    Extension clients' learning preferences are changing, with many increasingly going online for educational content. In response, Oregon State University Extension pilot tested a training program for Extension educators to explore hybrid teaching--a methodology that could provide more flexible access to a wider audience. Hybrid teaching offers a…

  1. The Hybrid Model for Implementing the Continuing Education Mission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hentschel, Doe

    1991-01-01

    Models through which higher education provides outreach include centralized, decentralized, and hybrid. The latter, academically integrated and administratively decentralized, meshes continuing education programs with the academic mission while maximizing cost effectiveness. (SK)

  2. Cultivating Curiosity: Integrating Hybrid Teaching in Courses in Human Behavior in the Social Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Keyes, Elizabeth; Schneider, Dana A.

    2013-01-01

    This study illustrates an experience of implementing a hybrid model for teaching human behavior in the social environment in an urban university setting. Developing a hybrid model in a BSW program arose out of a desire to reach students in a different way. Designed to promote curiosity and active learning, this particular hybrid model has students…

  3. Is Hybrid Education and Videoconferencing the Wave of the Future for Online Courses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popma, Joe

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive literature review examines the effectiveness of hybrid education utilizing videoconferencing. The observations and perceptions of both students and the instructor participating in a hybrid pilot program will be discussed. Discussion highlights the value of hybrid education within the context of the students' busy schedules and…

  4. Passive and hybrid solar technologies program summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-05-01

    The goal of the national energy policy is to foster an adequate supply of energy at reasonable prices. This policy recognizes that adequate supply requires flexibility, with no undue reliance on any single source of supply. The goal of reasonable prices suggests economic efficiency so that consumers, individuals, commercial and industrial users alike, are not penalized by government regulation or subside. The strategies for achieving this energy policy goal are: (1) to minimize federal regulation in energy pricing while maintaining public health and safety and environmental quality, and (2) to promote a balanced and mixed energy resource system through research and development. One of the keys to energy sufficiently is the scientific application of passive solar energy techniques.

  5. Hybrid recreation by reverse breeding in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wijnker, Erik; Deurhof, Laurens; van de Belt, Jose; de Snoo, C Bastiaan; Blankestijn, Hetty; Becker, Frank; Ravi, Maruthachalam; Chan, Simon W L; van Dun, Kees; Lelivelt, Cilia L C; de Jong, Hans; Dirks, Rob; Keurentjes, Joost J B

    2014-04-01

    Hybrid crop varieties are traditionally produced by selecting and crossing parental lines to evaluate hybrid performance. Reverse breeding allows doing the opposite: selecting uncharacterized heterozygotes and generating parental lines from them. With these, the selected heterozygotes can be recreated as F1 hybrids, greatly increasing the number of hybrids that can be screened in breeding programs. Key to reverse breeding is the suppression of meiotic crossovers in a hybrid plant to ensure the transmission of nonrecombinant chromosomes to haploid gametes. These gametes are subsequently regenerated as doubled-haploid (DH) offspring. Each DH carries combinations of its parental chromosomes, and complementing pairs can be crossed to reconstitute the initial hybrid. Achiasmatic meiosis and haploid generation result in uncommon phenotypes among offspring owing to chromosome number variation. We describe how these features can be dealt with during a reverse-breeding experiment, which can be completed in six generations (∼1 year).

  6. Hybrid Power Management (HPM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center s Avionics, Power and Communications Branch of the Engineering and Systems Division initiated the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program for the GRC Technology Transfer and Partnership Office. HPM is the innovative integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications. The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The advanced power devices include ultracapacitors and fuel cells. HPM has extremely wide potential. Applications include power generation, transportation systems, biotechnology systems, and space power systems. HPM has the potential to significantly alleviate global energy concerns, improve the environment, and stimulate the economy. One of the unique power devices being utilized by HPM for energy storage is the ultracapacitor. An ultracapacitor is an electrochemical energy storage device, which has extremely high volumetric capacitance energy due to high surface area electrodes, and very small electrode separation. Ultracapacitors are a reliable, long life, maintenance free, energy storage system. This flexible operating system can be applied to all power systems to significantly improve system efficiency, reliability, and performance. There are many existing and conceptual applications of HPM.

  7. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  8. Requirements for Hybrid Cosimulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-16

    hybrid cosimulation version of the Functional Mockup Interface ( FMI ) standard. A cosimulation standard de nes interfaces that enable diverse simulation...This hybrid mixture is not well supported by existing cosimulation standards, and speci cally not by FMI 2.0, for reasons that are explained in this...cosimulation standards, and specifically provides guidance for development of a hybrid cosimulation version of the Functional Mockup Interface ( FMI ) standard

  9. Managing hybrid marketing systems.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, R T; Moran, U

    1990-01-01

    As competition increases and costs become critical, companies that once went to market only one way are adding new channels and using new methods - creating hybrid marketing systems. These hybrid marketing systems hold the promise of greater coverage and reduced costs. But they are also hard to manage; they inevitably raise questions of conflict and control: conflict because marketing units compete for customers; control because new indirect channels are less subject to management authority. Hard as they are to manage, however, hybrid marketing systems promise to become the dominant design, replacing the "purebred" channel strategy in all kinds of businesses. The trick to managing the hybrid is to analyze tasks and channels within and across a marketing system. A map - the hybrid grid - can help managers make sense of their hybrid system. What the chart reveals is that channels are not the basic building blocks of a marketing system; marketing tasks are. The hybrid grid forces managers to consider various combinations of channels and tasks that will optimize both cost and coverage. Managing conflict is also an important element of a successful hybrid system. Managers should first acknowledge the inevitability of conflict. Then they should move to bound it by creating guidelines that spell out which customers to serve through which methods. Finally, a marketing and sales productivity (MSP) system, consisting of a central marketing database, can act as the central nervous system of a hybrid marketing system, helping managers create customized channels and service for specific customer segments.

  10. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Szalanski, Allen L; Gaskin, John F.; Young, Nicholas E.; West, Amanda; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Tripodi, Amber

    2014-01-01

    Science has shown that the introgression or hybridization of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals up to 40,000 YBP may have led to the swarm of modern humans on earth. However, there is little doubt that modern trade and transportation in support of the humans has continued to introduce additional species, genotypes, and hybrids to every country on the globe. We assessed the utility of species distributions modeling of genotypes to assess the risk of current and future invaders. We evaluated 93 locations of the genus Tamarix for which genetic data were available. Maxent models of habitat suitability showed that the hybrid, T. ramosissima x T. chinensis, was slightly greater than the parent taxa (AUCs > 0.83). General linear models of Africanized honey bees, a hybrid cross of Tanzanian Apis mellifera scutellata and a variety of European honey bee including A. m. ligustica, showed that the Africanized bees (AUC = 0.81) may be displacing European honey bees (AUC > 0.76) over large areas of the southwestern U.S. More important, Maxent modeling of sub-populations (A1 and A26 mitotypes based on mDNA) could be accurately modeled (AUC > 0.9), and they responded differently to environmental drivers. This suggests that rapid evolutionary change may be underway in the Africanized bees, allowing the bees to spread into new areas and extending their total range. Protecting native species and ecosystems may benefit from risk maps of harmful invasive species, hybrids, and genotypes.

  11. Using genomic slot blot hybridization to assess intergeneric Saccharum x Erianthus hybrids (Andropogoneae - Saccharinae).

    PubMed

    Besse, P; McIntyre, C L; Burner, D M; Almeida, C G

    1997-08-01

    The use of genomic slot blot hybridization enabled the differentiation of hybrids from selfs in Saccharum x Erianthus intergeneric crosses in which Saccharum was used as the female parent. Based on the genomic in situ hybridization technique, slot blots of DNA from the parents and the progeny were blocked with the Saccharum parent DNA and hybridized with the labelled male Erianthus genomic DNA. This technique allowed a rapid screening for hybrids and was sensitive enough to detect a 1/20 dilution of Erianthus in Saccharum DNA, which should enable the detection of most partial hybrids. The genomic slot blot hybridization technique was shown to be potentially useful for assessing crosses involving Saccharum species with either Old World Erianthus section Ripidium or North American Erianthus (= Saccharum) species. The effectiveness of the technique was assessed on 144 progeny of a Saccharum officinarum x Erianthus arundinaceus cross, revealing that 43% of the progeny were selfs. The importance of this test as a tool to support intergeneric breeding programs is discussed.

  12. The New Information Hybrid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitan, Karen B.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the creation and existence of "hybrid" organizations, i.e., nonprofit companies sponsored by the government to provide extensive research and development services. Possibilities for hybrids are brought about by government intervention in the information marketplace to produce social benefits. (SW)

  13. Hybrid Taxis Give Fuel Economy a Lift, Clean Cities, Fleet Experiences, April 2009 (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-04-01

    Clean Cities helped Boston, San Antonio, and Cambridge create hybrid taxi programs. The hybrid taxis are able to achieve about twice the gas mileage of a conventional taxi while helping cut gasoline use and fuel costs. Tax credits and other incentives are helping both company owners and drivers make the switch to hybrids. Program leaders have learned some important lessons other cities can benefit from including learning a city's taxi structure, relaying benefits to drivers, and understanding the needs of owners.

  14. Hybrid baryons in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, Jozef J.; Edwards, Robert G.

    2012-03-21

    In this study, we present the first comprehensive study of hybrid baryons using lattice QCD methods. Using a large basis of composite QCD interpolating fields we extract an extensive spectrum of baryon states and isolate those of hybrid character using their relatively large overlap onto operators which sample gluonic excitations. We consider the spectrum of Nucleon and Delta states at several quark masses finding a set of positive parity hybrid baryons with quantum numbers $N_{1/2^+},\\,N_{1/2^+},\\,N_{3/2^+},\\, N_{3/2^+},\\,N_{5/2^+},\\,$ and $\\Delta_{1/2^+},\\, \\Delta_{3/2^+}$ at an energy scale above the first band of `conventional' excited positive parity baryons. This pattern of states is compatible with a color octet gluonic excitation having $J^{P}=1^{+}$ as previously reported in the hybrid meson sector and with a comparable energy scale for the excitation, suggesting a common bound-state construction for hybrid mesons and baryons.

  15. Hybrid reactors. [Fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-09-09

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of /sup 233/U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m/sup -2/, and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid.

  16. The hybrid BCI.

    PubMed

    Pfurtscheller, Gert; Allison, Brendan Z; Brunner, Clemens; Bauernfeind, Gunther; Solis-Escalante, Teodoro; Scherer, Reinhold; Zander, Thorsten O; Mueller-Putz, Gernot; Neuper, Christa; Birbaumer, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, everybody knows what a hybrid car is. A hybrid car normally has two engines to enhance energy efficiency and reduce CO2 output. Similarly, a hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI) is composed of two BCIs, or at least one BCI and another system. A hybrid BCI, like any BCI, must fulfill the following four criteria: (i) the device must rely on signals recorded directly from the brain; (ii) there must be at least one recordable brain signal that the user can intentionally modulate to effect goal-directed behaviour; (iii) real time processing; and (iv) the user must obtain feedback. This paper introduces hybrid BCIs that have already been published or are in development. We also introduce concepts for future work. We describe BCIs that classify two EEG patterns: one is the event-related (de)synchronisation (ERD, ERS) of sensorimotor rhythms, and the other is the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP). Hybrid BCIs can either process their inputs simultaneously, or operate two systems sequentially, where the first system can act as a "brain switch". For example, we describe a hybrid BCI that simultaneously combines ERD and SSVEP BCIs. We also describe a sequential hybrid BCI, in which subjects could use a brain switch to control an SSVEP-based hand orthosis. Subjects who used this hybrid BCI exhibited about half the false positives encountered while using the SSVEP BCI alone. A brain switch can also rely on hemodynamic changes measured through near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Hybrid BCIs can also use one brain signal and a different type of input. This additional input can be an electrophysiological signal such as the heart rate, or a signal from an external device such as an eye tracking system.

  17. Manzanita Hybrid Power system Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Trisha Frank

    2005-03-31

    The Manzanita Indian Reservation is located in southeastern San Diego County, California. The Tribe has long recognized that the Reservation has an abundant wind resource that could be commercially utilized to its benefit, and in 1995 the Tribe established the Manzanita Renewable Energy Office. Through the U.S. Department of Energy's Tribal Energy Program the Band received funds to install a hybrid renewable power system to provide electricity to one of the tribal community buildings, the Manzanita Activities Center (MAC building). The project began September 30, 1999 and was completed March 31, 2005. The system was designed and the equipment supplied by Northern Power Systems, Inc, an engineering company with expertise in renewable hybrid system design and development. Personnel of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory provided technical assistance in system design, and continued to provide technical assistance in system monitoring. The grid-connected renewable hybrid wind/photovoltaic system provides a demonstration of a solar/wind energy hybrid power-generating project on Manzanita Tribal land. During the system design phase, the National Renewable Energy Lab estimated that the wind turbine is expected to produce 10,000-kilowatt hours per year and the solar array 2,000-kilowatt hours per year. The hybrid system was designed to provide approximately 80 percent of the electricity used annually in the MAC building. The project proposed to demonstrate that this kind of a system design would provide highly reliable renewable power for community uses.

  18. Hybrid matrix fiber composites

    DOEpatents

    Deteresa, Steven J.; Lyon, Richard E.; Groves, Scott E.

    2003-07-15

    Hybrid matrix fiber composites having enhanced compressive performance as well as enhanced stiffness, toughness and durability suitable for compression-critical applications. The methods for producing the fiber composites using matrix hybridization. The hybrid matrix fiber composites include two chemically or physically bonded matrix materials, whereas the first matrix materials are used to impregnate multi-filament fibers formed into ribbons and the second matrix material is placed around and between the fiber ribbons that are impregnated with the first matrix material and both matrix materials are cured and solidified.

  19. Artificial mismatch hybridization

    DOEpatents

    Guo, Zhen; Smith, Lloyd M.

    1998-01-01

    An improved nucleic acid hybridization process is provided which employs a modified oligonucleotide and improves the ability to discriminate a control nucleic acid target from a variant nucleic acid target containing a sequence variation. The modified probe contains at least one artificial mismatch relative to the control nucleic acid target in addition to any mismatch(es) arising from the sequence variation. The invention has direct and advantageous application to numerous existing hybridization methods, including, applications that employ, for example, the Polymerase Chain Reaction, allele-specific nucleic acid sequencing methods, and diagnostic hybridization methods.

  20. Hybrid Bloch brane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazeia, D.; Lima, Elisama E. M.; Losano, L.

    2017-02-01

    This work reports on models described by two real scalar fields coupled with gravity in the five-dimensional spacetime, with a warped geometry involving one infinite extra dimension. Through a mechanism that smoothly changes a thick brane into a hybrid brane, one investigates the appearance of hybrid branes hosting internal structure, characterized by the splitting on the energy density and the volcano potential, induced by the parameter which controls interactions between the two scalar fields. In particular, we investigate distinct symmetric and asymmetric hybrid brane scenarios.

  1. Chaotic mixer improves microarray hybridization.

    PubMed

    McQuain, Mark K; Seale, Kevin; Peek, Joel; Fisher, Timothy S; Levy, Shawn; Stremler, Mark A; Haselton, Frederick R

    2004-02-15

    Hybridization is an important aspect of microarray experimental design which influences array signal levels and the repeatability of data within an array and across different arrays. Current methods typically require 24h and use target inefficiently. In these studies, we compare hybridization signals obtained in conventional static hybridization, which depends on diffusional target delivery, with signals obtained in a dynamic hybridization chamber, which employs a fluid mixer based on chaotic advection theory to deliver targets across a conventional glass slide array. Microarrays were printed with a pattern of 102 identical probe spots containing a 65-mer oligonucleotide capture probe. Hybridization of a 725-bp fluorescently labeled target was used to measure average target hybridization levels, local signal-to-noise ratios, and array hybridization uniformity. Dynamic hybridization for 1h with 1 or 10ng of target DNA increased hybridization signal intensities approximately threefold over a 24-h static hybridization. Similarly, a 10- or 60-min dynamic hybridization of 10ng of target DNA increased hybridization signal intensities fourfold over a 24h static hybridization. In time course studies, static hybridization reached a maximum within 8 to 12h using either 1 or 10ng of target. In time course studies using the dynamic hybridization chamber, hybridization using 1ng of target increased to a maximum at 4h and that using 10ng of target did not vary over the time points tested. In comparison to static hybridization, dynamic hybridization reduced the signal-to-noise ratios threefold and reduced spot-to-spot variation twofold. Therefore, we conclude that dynamic hybridization based on a chaotic mixer design improves both the speed of hybridization and the maximum level of hybridization while increasing signal-to-noise ratios and reducing spot-to-spot variation.

  2. Characteristics of fertile somatic hybrids of G. hirsutum L. and G. trilobum generated via protoplast fusion.

    PubMed

    Yu, X S; Chu, B J; Liu, R E; Sun, J; Brian, Joseph Jones; Wang, H Z; Shuijin, Zhu; Sun, Y Q

    2012-11-01

    Fertile somatic hybrids between tetraploid upland cotton G. hirsutum L. cv. Coker 312 and wild cotton G. trilobum were generated by symmetric electrofusion. Comparisons of morphology, combined with flow cytometric, RAPD, SRAP and AFLP analyses confirmed the hybrid nature of the regenerated plants. The hybrids differed morphologically from the parent plants. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the hybrids had DNA similar in amount to the total combined DNA content of the two parents, and the use of molecular markers revealed that the hybrids contained genomic fragments from both fusion parents, further indicating the hybrid nature of the regenerated plants. The stability of the morphological features of the hybrids was examined in following generations. The hexaploid fusion plants showed strong photosynthesis and a high expression level of some photosystem-related genes. Our results suggest that novel traits may be incorporated in cotton breeding programs through the production of somatic hybrids and the backcrossing of these plants with elite cultivars.

  3. Hybrid plasmachemical reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lelevkin, V. M. Smirnova, Yu. G.; Tokarev, A. V.

    2015-04-15

    A hybrid plasmachemical reactor on the basis of a dielectric barrier discharge in a transformer is developed. The characteristics of the reactor as functions of the dielectric barrier discharge parameters are determined.

  4. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  5. Hybrid polymer microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, A.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques have been successfully tested for bonding polymeric spheres, typically 0.1 micron in diameter, to spheres with diameter up to 100 microns. Hybrids are being developed as improved packing material for ion-exchange columns, filters, and separators.

  6. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  7. Systems for hybrid cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitsche, Otmar; Gutmann, Guenter

    Not only sharp competition but also legislation are pushing development of hybrid drive trains. Based on conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, these drive trains offer a wide range of benefits from reduced fuel consumption and emission to multifaceted performance improvements. Hybrid electric drive trains may also facilitate the introduction of fuel cells (FC). The battery is the key component for all hybrid drive trains, as it dominates cost and performance issues. The selection of the right battery technology for the specific automotive application is an important task with an impact on costs of development and use. Safety, power, and high cycle life are a must for all hybrid applications. The greatest pressure to reduce cost is in soft hybrids, where lead-acid embedded in a considerate management presents the cheapest solution, with a considerable improvement in performance needed. From mild to full hybridization, an improvement in specific power makes higher costs more acceptable, provided that the battery's service life is equivalent to the vehicle's lifetime. Today, this is proven for the nickel-metal hydride system. Lithium ion batteries, which make use of a multiple safety concept, and with some development anticipated, provide even better prospects in terms of performance and costs. Also, their scalability permits their application in battery electric vehicles—the basis for better performance and enhanced user acceptance. Development targets for the batteries are discussed with a focus on system aspects such as electrical and thermal management and safety.

  8. Human hybrid hybridoma

    SciTech Connect

    Tiebout, R.F.; van Boxtel-Oosterhof, F.; Stricker, E.A.M.; Zeijlemaker, W.P.

    1987-11-15

    Hybrid hybridomas are obtained by fusion of two cells, each producing its own antibody. Several authors have reported the construction of murine hybrid hybridomas with the aim to obtain bispecific monoclonal antibodies. The authors have investigated, in a model system, the feasibility of constructing a human hybrid hybridoma. They fused two monoclonal cell lines: an ouabain-sensitive and azaserine/hypoxanthine-resistant Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human cell line that produces an IgG1kappa antibody directed against tetanus toxiod and an azaserine/hypoxanthine-sensitive and ouabain-resistant human-mouse xenohybrid cell line that produces a human IgG1lambda antibody directed against hepatitis-B surface antigen. Hybrid hybridoma cells were selected in culture medium containing azaserine/hypoxanthine and ouabain. The hybrid nature of the secreted antibodies was analyzed by means of two antigen-specific immunoassay. The results show that it is possible, with the combined use of transformation and xenohybridization techniques, to construct human hybrid hybridomas that produce bispecific antibodies. Bispecific antibodies activity was measured by means of two radioimmunoassays.

  9. Systems Engineering of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Levin, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    Technical paper notes systems engineering principles applied to development of electric and hybrid vehicles such that system performance requirements support overall program goal of reduced petroleum consumption. Paper discusses iterative design approach dictated by systems analyses. In addition to obvious peformance parameters of range, acceleration rate, and energy consumption, systems engineering also considers such major factors as cost, safety, reliability, comfort, necessary supporting infrastructure, and availability of materials.

  10. Imaging Prostate Cancer Microenvironment by Collagen Hybridization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Michael S. Yu CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Utah Salt Lake City, UT 84112 REPORT DATE: October 2015 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual...SUBTITLE Imaging Prostate Cancer Microenvironment by Collagen Hybridization 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0555 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...peptide (CMP) as a collagen targeting agents that will allow imaging of invasive PCa. Since CMP binds to unstructured collagens more readily, it is

  11. Hybrid Microwave Treatment of SRS TRU and Mixed Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Wicks, G.G.

    1999-11-18

    A new process, using hybrid microwave energy, has been developed as part of the Strategic Research and Development program and successfully applied to treatment of a wide variety of non-radioactive materials, representative of SRS transuranic (TRU) and mixed wastes. Over 35 simulated (non-radioactive) TRU and mixed waste materials were processed individually, as well as in mixed batches, using hybrid microwave energy, a new technology now being patented by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC).

  12. Large-Scale Hybrid Motor Testing. Chapter 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Story, George

    2006-01-01

    Hybrid rocket motors can be successfully demonstrated at a small scale virtually anywhere. There have been many suitcase sized portable test stands assembled for demonstration of hybrids. They show the safety of hybrid rockets to the audiences. These small show motors and small laboratory scale motors can give comparative burn rate data for development of different fuel/oxidizer combinations, however questions that are always asked when hybrids are mentioned for large scale applications are - how do they scale and has it been shown in a large motor? To answer those questions, large scale motor testing is required to verify the hybrid motor at its true size. The necessity to conduct large-scale hybrid rocket motor tests to validate the burn rate from the small motors to application size has been documented in several place^'^^.^. Comparison of small scale hybrid data to that of larger scale data indicates that the fuel burn rate goes down with increasing port size, even with the same oxidizer flux. This trend holds for conventional hybrid motors with forward oxidizer injection and HTPB based fuels. While the reason this is occurring would make a great paper or study or thesis, it is not thoroughly understood at this time. Potential causes include the fact that since hybrid combustion is boundary layer driven, the larger port sizes reduce the interaction (radiation, mixing and heat transfer) from the core region of the port. This chapter focuses on some of the large, prototype sized testing of hybrid motors. The largest motors tested have been AMROC s 250K-lbf thrust motor at Edwards Air Force Base and the Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program s 250K-lbf thrust motor at Stennis Space Center. Numerous smaller tests were performed to support the burn rate, stability and scaling concepts that went into the development of those large motors.

  13. Hybrid Breakdown in Cichlid Fish

    PubMed Central

    Stelkens, Rike Bahati; Schmid, Corinne; Seehausen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Studies from a wide diversity of taxa have shown a negative relationship between genetic compatibility and the divergence time of hybridizing genomes. Theory predicts the main breakdown of fitness to happen after the F1 hybrid generation, when heterosis subsides and recessive allelic (Dobzhansky-Muller) incompatibilities are increasingly unmasked. We measured the fitness of F2 hybrids of African haplochromine cichlid fish bred from species pairs spanning several thousand to several million years divergence time. F2 hybrids consistently showed the lowest viability compared to F1 hybrids and non-hybrid crosses (crosses within the grandparental species), in agreement with hybrid breakdown. Especially the short- and long-term survival (2 weeks to 6 months) of F2 hybrids was significantly reduced. Overall, F2 hybrids showed a fitness reduction of 21% compared to F1 hybrids, and a reduction of 43% compared to the grandparental, non-hybrid crosses. We further observed a decrease of F2 hybrid viability with the genetic distance between grandparental lineages, suggesting an important role for negative epistatic interactions in cichlid fish postzygotic isolation. The estimated time window for successful production of F2 hybrids resulting from our data is consistent with the estimated divergence time between the multiple ancestral lineages that presumably hybridized in three major adaptive radiations of African cichlids. PMID:25996870

  14. Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-05-01

    Kansas State University, with funding support from federal, state, public, and private companies, is participating in the Department of Energy's Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Through participation is this program, Kansas State is demonstrating, testing, and evaluating electric or hybrid vehicle technology. This participation will provide organizations the opportunity to examine the latest EHV prototypes under actual operating conditions. KSU proposes to purchase one electric or hybrid van and four electric cars during the first two years of this five year program. KSU has purchased one G-Van built by Conceptor Industries, Toronto, Canada and has initiated a procurement order to purchase two Soleq 1992 Ford EVcort stationwagons.

  15. Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Kansas State University, with funding support from federal, state, public, and private companies, is participating in the Department of Energy's Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Through participation is this program, Kansas State is demonstrating, testing, and evaluating electric or hybrid vehicle technology. This participation will provide organizations the opportunity to examine the latest EHV prototypes under actual operating conditions. KSU proposes to purchase one (1) electric or hybrid van and four (4) electric cars during the first two years of this five year program. KSU has purchased one G-Van built by Conceptor Industries, Toronto, Canada and has initiated a procurement order to purchase two (2) Soleq 1992 Ford EVcort stationwagons.

  16. Penn State DOE GATE Program

    SciTech Connect

    Anstrom, Joel

    2012-08-31

    The Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program at The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) was established in October 1998 pursuant to an award from the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE). The focus area of the Penn State GATE Program is advanced energy storage systems for electric and hybrid vehicles.

  17. Hybrid baryons in QCD

    DOE PAGES

    Dudek, Jozef J.; Edwards, Robert G.

    2012-03-21

    In this study, we present the first comprehensive study of hybrid baryons using lattice QCD methods. Using a large basis of composite QCD interpolating fields we extract an extensive spectrum of baryon states and isolate those of hybrid character using their relatively large overlap onto operators which sample gluonic excitations. We consider the spectrum of Nucleon and Delta states at several quark masses finding a set of positive parity hybrid baryons with quantum numbersmore » $$N_{1/2^+},\\,N_{1/2^+},\\,N_{3/2^+},\\, N_{3/2^+},\\,N_{5/2^+},\\,$$ and $$\\Delta_{1/2^+},\\, \\Delta_{3/2^+}$$ at an energy scale above the first band of `conventional' excited positive parity baryons. This pattern of states is compatible with a color octet gluonic excitation having $$J^{P}=1^{+}$$ as previously reported in the hybrid meson sector and with a comparable energy scale for the excitation, suggesting a common bound-state construction for hybrid mesons and baryons.« less

  18. Research on Hybrid Vehicle Drivetrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhongzhi

    Hybrid cars as a solution to energy saving, emission reduction measures, have received widespread attention. Motor drive system as an important part of the hybrid vehicles as an important object of study. Based on the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain control system for permanent magnet synchronous motor as the object of study. Can be applied to hybrid car compares the characteristics of traction motors, chose permanent magnet synchronous Motors as drive motors for hybrid vehicles. Building applications in hybrid cars in MATLAB/Simulink simulation model of permanent-magnet synchronous motor speed control system and analysis of simulation results.

  19. Ames Hybrid Combustion Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zilliac, Greg; Karabeyoglu, Mustafa A.; Cantwell, Brian; Hunt, Rusty; DeZilwa, Shane; Shoffstall, Mike; Soderman, Paul T.; Bencze, Daniel P. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The report summarizes the design, fabrication, safety features, environmental impact, and operation of the Ames Hybrid-Fuel Combustion Facility (HCF). The facility is used in conducting research into the scalability and combustion processes of advanced paraffin-based hybrid fuels for the purpose of assessing their applicability to practical rocket systems. The facility was designed to deliver gaseous oxygen at rates between 0.5 and 16.0 kg/sec to a combustion chamber operating at pressures ranging from 300 to 900. The required run times were of the order of 10 to 20 sec. The facility proved to be robust and reliable and has been used to generate a database of regression-rate measurements of paraffin at oxygen mass flux levels comparable to those of moderate-sized hybrid rocket motors.

  20. Hybridization schemes for clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wales, David J.

    The concept of an optimum hybridization scheme for cluster compounds is developed with particular reference to electron counting. The prediction of electron counts for clusters and the interpretation of the bonding is shown to depend critically upon the presumed hybridization pattern of the cluster vertex atoms. This fact has not been properly appreciated in previous work, particularly in applications of Stone's tensor surface harmonic (TSH) theory, but is found to be a useful tool when dealt with directly. A quantitative definition is suggested for the optimum cluster hybridization pattern based directly upon the ease of interpretation of the molecular orbitals, and results are given for a range of species. The relationship of this scheme to the detailed cluster geometry is described using Löwdin's partitioned perturbation theory, and the success and range of application of TSH theory are discussed.

  1. Smart hybrid rotary damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C. S. Walter; DesRoches, Reginald

    2014-03-01

    This paper develops a smart hybrid rotary damper using a re-centering smart shape memory alloy (SMA) material as well as conventional energy-dissipating metallic plates that are easy to be replaced. The ends of the SMA and steel plates are inserted in the hinge. When the damper rotates, all the plates bend, providing energy dissipating and recentering characteristics. Such smart hybrid rotary dampers can be installed in structures to mitigate structural responses and to re-center automatically. The damaged energy-dissipating plates can be easily replaced promptly after an external excitation, reducing repair time and costs. An OpenSEES model of a smart hybrid rotary was established and calibrated to reproduce the realistic behavior measured from a full-scale experimental test. Furthermore, the seismic performance of a 3-story moment resisting model building with smart hybrid rotary dampers designed for downtown Los Angeles was also evaluated in the OpenSEES structural analysis software. Such a smart moment resisting frame exhibits perfect residual roof displacement, 0.006", extremely smaller than 18.04" for the conventional moment resisting frame subjected to a 2500 year return period ground motion for the downtown LA area (an amplified factor of 1.15 on Kobe earthquake). The smart hybrid rotary dampers are also applied into an eccentric braced steel frame, which combines a moment frame system and a bracing system. The results illustrate that adding smart hybrid rotaries in this braced system not only completely restores the building after an external excitation, but also significantly reduces peak interstory drifts.

  2. Rice artificial hybridization for genetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Sha, Xueyan

    2013-01-01

    Artificial hybridization has probably been practiced since ancient time; however, the science of genetics did not initiate until Gregor Mendel conducted a series of crosses between different pure lines of garden pea and made careful observations and systematical analyses of their offspring. Artificial hybridization or crossing between carefully chosen parents has been and still is the primary way to transfer genes from different germplasm for self-pollinated rice. Through gene recombination, novel genetic variation is created by different arrangements of genes existing in parental lines. Procedures of artificial hybridization involve the selection of appropriate panicles from representative plants of the female parents, the emasculation of female parents, and the pollination of emasculated panicles with abundant pollens of selected male parents. Of the numerous proposed methods, hot water and vacuum emasculation have proven to be the most robust and reliable ones. A successful and efficient hybridization program also relies on the knowledge of parental lines or germplasm, the reproductive biology and development of rice, the conditions needed to promote flowering and seed development, and the techniques to synchronize flowering of diverse parents.

  3. DOE/EPRI hybrid power system

    SciTech Connect

    Stiger, S.G.; Taylor, K.J.; Hughes, E.E.

    1988-01-01

    One of the primary objectives of the DOE Geopressured Geothermal Program is to improve methods for optimum energy extraction from geopressured reservoirs. Hybrid power systems which take advantage of the chemical and thermal energy content of geopressured fluids could improve conversion efficiency by 15 to 20% over the same amount of fuel and geothermal fluid processed separately. In a joint DOE/EPRI effort, equipment from the Direct Contact heat Exchange test facility at East Mesa is being modified for use in a unique geopressured hybrid power plant located at the Pleasant Bayou wellsite in Brazoria County, TX. Natural gas separated at the wellhead will fuel a gas turbine, and exhaust heat from the engine will be used with the geothermal brine to vaporize isobutane in a binary power cycle. The hybrid power system is designed for 10,000 bbl/day brine flow, with estimated power production of 980 kW (net). In addition to evaluating the enhanced performance resulting from the combined power generation cycles, operation of the hybrid unit will provide a demonstration of fuel flexibility in an individual plant. This approach would allow a resource developer to reduce costs and risks by optimizing production for various economic climates and would improve the mix in a utility's generating system. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Hybrid Vehicle Simulation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-17

    Driving Sequence," Federal Register, 35(219): 17288-313 (10 November 1970). 7. "Electric Cars : Where Batteries Stand," Automotive Industry, 185(13): 81-83...Storage Systems, November 1979. 11. Hiroyuko, Imai. "Optimal Acceleration Performance and Storage Battery Voltage of an Electric Automobile Viewed from...ARE:,/35X, 16HNOMINAL VOLTAGE=, F4.0 C,/35X13HBATTERY MASS=,F5.0) C C ENTER HYBRID VARIABLES. FIRST CARD- 1 IF HYBRID,0 IF NOT. NEXT CAR C )IF IHYB=1

  5. Diagnostics for hybrid reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsitto, Francesco Paolo

    2012-06-01

    The Hybrid Reactor(HR) can be considered an attractive actinide-burner or a fusion assisted transmutation for destruction of transuranic(TRU) nuclear waste. The hybrid reactor has two important subsystems: the tokamak neutron source and the blanket which includes a fuel zone where the TRU are placed and a tritium breeding zone. The diagnostic system for a HR must be as simple and robust as possible to monitor and control the plasma scenario, guarantee the protection of the machine and monitor the transmutation.

  6. Diagnostics for hybrid reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Orsitto, Francesco Paolo

    2012-06-19

    The Hybrid Reactor(HR) can be considered an attractive actinide-burner or a fusion assisted transmutation for destruction of transuranic(TRU) nuclear waste. The hybrid reactor has two important subsystems: the tokamak neutron source and the blanket which includes a fuel zone where the TRU are placed and a tritium breeding zone. The diagnostic system for a HR must be as simple and robust as possible to monitor and control the plasma scenario, guarantee the protection of the machine and monitor the transmutation.

  7. Hybridized polymer matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, B. A.; Visser, T.

    1981-01-01

    Under certain conditions of combined fire and impact, graphite fibers are released to the atmosphere by graphite fiber composites. The retention of graphite fibers in these situations is investigated. Hybrid combinations of graphite tape and cloth, glass cloth, and resin additives are studied with resin systems. Polyimide resins form the most resistant composites and resins based on simple novolac epoxies the least resistant of those tested. Great improvement in the containment of the fibers is obtained in using graphite/glass hybrids, and nearly complete prevention of individual fiber release is made possible by the use of resin additives.

  8. Design, processing and testing of LSI arrays, hybrid microelectronics task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Himmel, R. P.; Stuhlbarg, S. M.; Ravetti, R. G.; Zulueta, P. J.; Rothrock, C. W.

    1979-01-01

    Mathematical cost models previously developed for hybrid microelectronic subsystems were refined and expanded. Rework terms related to substrate fabrication, nonrecurring developmental and manufacturing operations, and prototype production are included. Sample computer programs were written to demonstrate hybrid microelectric applications of these cost models. Computer programs were generated to calculate and analyze values for the total microelectronics costs. Large scale integrated (LST) chips utilizing tape chip carrier technology were studied. The feasibility of interconnecting arrays of LSU chips utilizing tape chip carrier and semiautomatic wire bonding technology was demonstrated.

  9. A Mathematical Approach to Hybridization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, P. S. C.; Thompson, J. J.

    1975-01-01

    Presents an approach to hybridization which exploits the similarities between the algebra of wave functions and vectors. This method will account satisfactorily for the number of orbitals formed when applied to hybrids involving the s and p orbitals. (GS)

  10. Hybrid electromagnetic transient simulation with the state variable representation of HVDC converter plant

    SciTech Connect

    Zavahir, J.M.; Arrillaga, J.; Watson, N.R. )

    1993-07-01

    The two alternative methods in current use for the transient simulation of HVdc power systems are Electromagnetic Transient Programs and State Variable Analysis. A hybrid algorithm is described in this paper which combines the two methods selecting their best features. The relative performances of conventional and hybrid algorithms are discussed. Simulation results of typical back-to back HVdc link show that the hybrid representation provides more stable, accurate and efficient solutions.

  11. A new hybrid algorithm for analysis of HVdc and FACTs systems

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, G.W.J.; Watson, N.R.; Arnold, C.P.; Arrillaga, J.

    1995-12-31

    Hybrid stability programs use a transient stability analysis for ac systems, in conjunction with detailed state variable or EMTP type modelling for fast dynamic devices. This paper presents a new hybrid algorithm that uses optimized techniques based on previously proposed methods. The hybrid provides a useful analysis tool to examine systems incorporating fast dynamic non-linear components such as HVdc links and FACTs devices.

  12. Fabrication, Characterization, and Wettability Analysis of a Microstructured Hybrid Hydrophobic/Hydrophilic Surface

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Characterization, and Wettability Analysis of a Microstructured Hybrid Hydrophobic/Hydrophilic Surface 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...geometry on wettability of Hybrid Surfaces. The Hybrid Surfaces are composed of many micropillars with hydrophobic sidewalls and hydrophilic tops. The... wettability . A model based on energy minimization is referenced and fits well to the experimental data. Experiments suggest a composite interface for

  13. Automatic hybrid electric lumina van

    SciTech Connect

    Ellers, C.W.

    1995-12-31

    A parallel/Series split-drive hybrid system driving a seven passenger Lumina van is described. The series type hybrid uses a heat-engine driven generator to charge the batteries and/or supply power to the electric drive motor. Volvo is now showing the Volvo ECC (Environmental Concept Car) which is one of the best examples of the series hybrid concept.

  14. Organics go hybrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzani, Guglielmo; Petrozza, Annamaria; Caironi, Mario

    2017-01-01

    From displays to solar cells, the field of organic optoelectronics has come a long way over the past 50 years, but the realization of an electrically pumped organic laser remains elusive. The answer may lie with hybrid organic-inorganic materials called perovskites.

  15. Hybrid Imaging in Oncology.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Nosheen; Zaman, Maseeh uz; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath; Zaman, Unaiza; Shahid, Wajeeha; Zaman, Areeba; Tahseen, Rabia

    2015-01-01

    In oncology various imaging modalities play a crucial role in diagnosis, staging, restaging, treatment monitoring and follow up of various cancers. Stand-alone morphological imaging like computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provide a high magnitude of anatomical details about the tumor but are relatively dumb about tumor physiology. Stand-alone functional imaging like positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission tomography (SPECT) are rich in functional information but provide little insight into tumor morphology. Introduction of first hybrid modality PET/CT is the one of the most successful stories of current century which has revolutionized patient care in oncology due to its high diagnostic accuracy. Spurred on by this success, more hybrid imaging modalities like SPECT/CT and PET/MR were introduced. It is the time to explore the potential applications of the existing hybrid modalities, developing and implementing standardized imaging protocols and train users in nuclear medicine and radiology. In this review we discuss three existing hybrid modalities with emphasis on their technical aspects and clinical applications in oncology.

  16. Rethinking Resources and Hybridity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonsalves, Allison J.; Seiler, Gale; Salter, Dana E.

    2011-01-01

    This review explores Alfred Schademan's "What does playing cards have to do with science? A resource-rich view of African American young men" by examining how he uses two key concepts--hybridity and resources--to propose an approach to science education that counters enduring deficit notions associated with this population. Our response to…

  17. Glueballs, Hybrids and Exotics

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, M. A.; Moreno, G.

    2006-09-25

    We comment on the physics analysis carried out by the Experimental High Energy Physics (EHEP) group of the Instituto de Fisica of the University of Guanajuato (IFUG), Mexico. In particular, this group has been involved in analysis carried out to search for glueball, hybrid and exotic candidates.

  18. Hybridization of biomedical circuitry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinard, G. A.

    1978-01-01

    The design and fabrication of low power hybrid circuits to perform vital signs monitoring are reported. The circuits consist of: (1) clock; (2) ECG amplifier and cardiotachometer signal conditioner; (3) impedance pneumobraph and respiration rate processor; (4) hear/breath rate processor; (5) temperature monitor; and (6) LCD display.

  19. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  20. Improved hybrid rocket fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, David L.

    1995-01-01

    McDonnell Douglas Aerospace, as part of its Independent R&D, has initiated development of a clean burning, high performance hybrid fuel for consideration as an alternative to the solid rocket thrust augmentation currently utilized by American space launch systems including Atlas, Delta, Pegasus, Space Shuttle, and Titan. It could also be used in single stage to orbit or as the only propulsion system in a new launch vehicle. Compared to solid propellants based on aluminum and ammonium perchlorate, this fuel is more environmentally benign in that it totally eliminates hydrogen chloride and aluminum oxide by products, producing only water, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon oxides, and trace amounts of nitrogen oxides. Compared to other hybrid fuel formulations under development, this fuel is cheaper, denser, and faster burning. The specific impulse of this fuel is comparable to other hybrid fuels and is between that of solids and liquids. The fuel also requires less oxygen than similar hybrid fuels to produce maximum specific impulse, thus reducing oxygen delivery system requirements.

  1. Hybrid Solar GHP Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Yavuzturk, Cy; Chiasson, Andrew; Shonder, John

    2012-12-11

    This project provides an easy-to-use, menu-driven, software tool for designing hybrid solar-geothermal heat pump systems (GHP) for both heating- and cooling-dominated buildings. No such design tool currently exists. In heating-dominated buildings, the design approach takes advantage of glazed solar collectors to effectively balance the annual thermal loads on the ground with renewable solar energy. In cooling-dominated climates, the design approach takes advantage of relatively low-cost, unglazed solar collectors as the heat rejecting component. The primary benefit of hybrid GHPs is the reduced initial cost of the ground heat exchanger (GHX). Furthermore, solar thermal collectors can be used to balance the ground loads over the annual cycle, thus making the GHX fully sustainable; in heating-dominated buildings, the hybrid energy source (i.e., solar) is renewable, in contrast to a typical fossil fuel boiler or electric resistance as the hybrid component; in cooling-dominated buildings, use of unglazed solar collectors as a heat rejecter allows for passive heat rejection, in contrast to a cooling tower that consumes a significant amount of energy to operate, and hybrid GHPs can expand the market by allowing reduced GHX footprint in both heating- and cooling-dominated climates. The design tool allows for the straight-forward design of innovative GHP systems that currently pose a significant design challenge. The project lays the foundations for proper and reliable design of hybrid GHP systems, overcoming a series of difficult and cumbersome steps without the use of a system simulation approach, and without an automated optimization scheme. As new technologies and design concepts emerge, sophisticated design tools and methodologies must accompany them and be made usable for practitioners. Lack of reliable design tools results in reluctance of practitioners to implement more complex systems. A menu-driven software tool for the design of hybrid solar GHP systems is

  2. Fitness consequences of hybridization between ecotypes of Avena barbata: hybrid breakdown, hybrid vigor, and transgressive segregation.

    PubMed

    Johansen-Morris, A D; Latta, R G

    2006-08-01

    Hybridization is an important factor in the evolution of plants; however, many of the studies that have examined hybrid fitness have been concerned with the study of early generation hybrids. We examined the early- and late-generation fitness consequences of hybridization between two ecotypes of the selfing annual Avena barbata in a greenhouse environment as well as in two natural environments. Fitness of early generation (F2) hybrids reflects both the action of dominance effects (hybrid vigor) and recombination (hybrid breakdown) and was not significantly different from that of the midparent in any environment. Fitness of later generation (F6) recombinant inbred lines (RILS) derived from the cross reflect both the loss of early generation heterozygosity as well as disruption of any coadapted gene complexes present in the parents. In all environments, F6 RILs were on average significantly less fit than the (equally homozygous) midparent, indicating hybrid breakdown through the disruption of epistatic interactions. However, the inbred F6 were also less fit than the heterozygous F2, indicating that hybrid vigor also occurs in A. barbata, and counteracts hybrid breakdown in early generation hybrids. Also, although the F6 generation mean is lower than the midparent mean, there are individual genotypes within the F6 generation that are capable of outperforming the parental ecotypes in the greenhouse. Fewer hybrid genotypes are capable of outperforming the parental ecotypes in the field. Overall, these experiments demonstrate how a single hybridization event can result in a number of outcomes including hybrid vigor, hybrid breakdown, and transgressive segregation, which interact to determine long-term hybrid fitness.

  3. Hybrid algorithms in quantum Monte Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeongnim; Esler, Kenneth P.; McMinis, Jeremy; Morales, Miguel A.; Clark, Bryan K.; Shulenburger, Luke; Ceperley, David M.

    2012-12-01

    With advances in algorithms and growing computing powers, quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods have become a leading contender for high accuracy calculations for the electronic structure of realistic systems. The performance gain on recent HPC systems is largely driven by increasing parallelism: the number of compute cores of a SMP and the number of SMPs have been going up, as the Top500 list attests. However, the available memory as well as the communication and memory bandwidth per element has not kept pace with the increasing parallelism. This severely limits the applicability of QMC and the problem size it can handle. OpenMP/MPI hybrid programming provides applications with simple but effective solutions to overcome efficiency and scalability bottlenecks on large-scale clusters based on multi/many-core SMPs. We discuss the design and implementation of hybrid methods in QMCPACK and analyze its performance on current HPC platforms characterized by various memory and communication hierarchies.

  4. Spin-mediated Hybrid Quantum Optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffer, Airlia; Chang, Laura; Patil, Yogesh Sharad; Bariani, Francesco; Singh, Swati; Date, Aditya; Chakram, Srivatsan; Schwab, Keith; Meystre, Pierre; Vengalattore, Mukund

    2015-05-01

    We describe our realization of a hybrid quantum system where a macroscopic mechanical resonator is coupled to the collective spin of an ultracold gas through a remote optical interface. Through this interface, the spin ensemble is capable of sympathetic cooling, sub-SQL detection and quantum control of the mechanical resonator. As such, this hybrid quantum system presents a powerful scheme to combine the robustness of the mesoscopic resonator with the sensitivity and coherence of the spin ensemble. Our ongoing studies of this system include various aspects of quantum metrology and the out-of-equilibrium dynamics of open quantum systems. This work is supported by the ARO MURI on non-equilibrium dynamics, the DARPA QuASAR program through a grant from the ARO and an NSF INSPIRE award.

  5. A hybrid airship concept for Naval missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, M.

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary analysis of a hybrid semibuoyant delta-planform airship was performed using a computer synthesis program. The delta-planform hull shape was studied parametrically to determine the effects on vehicle performance for two Navy antisubmarine missions. The effects of buoyancy ratio, design speed, and altitude were also studied. The results suggest that long-range mission vehicles require a near buoyant or fully buoyant design and that there is no special advantage to the use of a lifting-body hull shape. For shorter-range missions, hybrid vehicles may have merit, and optimum vehicle buoyancy varies depending on whether a minimum-weight or minimum-fuel-consumption design is desired. As compared with conventionally shaped airships, the benefits, if any, from a lifting-body configuration will be limited to missions requiring relatively higher flight speeds.

  6. Ants exhibit asymmetric hybridization in a mosaic hybrid zone.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Jessica; Zahnd, Sacha; Athanasiades, Anouk; Türler, Rebecca; Chapuisat, Michel; Brelsford, Alan

    2016-10-01

    Research on hybridization between species provides unparalleled insights into the pre- and postzygotic isolating mechanisms that drive speciation. In social organisms, colony-level incompatibilities may provide additional reproductive barriers not present in solitary species, and hybrid zones offer an opportunity to identify these barriers. Here, we use genotyping-by-sequencing to sequence hundreds of markers in a hybrid zone between two socially polymorphic ant species, Formica selysi and Formica cinerea. We characterize the zone, determine the frequency of hybrid workers, infer whether hybrid queens or males are produced and investigate whether hybridization is influenced by colony social organization. We also compare cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and aggression levels between the two species. The hybrid zone exhibits a mosaic structure. The asymmetric distribution of hybrids skewed towards F. cinerea suggests a pattern of unidirectional nuclear gene flow from F. selysi into F. cinerea. The occurrence of backcrossed individuals indicates that hybrid queens and/or males are fertile, and the presence of the F. cinerea mitochondrial haplotype in 97% of hybrids shows that successful F1 hybrids will generally have F. cinerea mothers and F. selysi fathers. We found no evidence that social organization contributes to speciation, because hybrids occur in both single-queen and multiple-queen colonies. Strongly differentiated cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and heightened interspecific aggression further reveal that species recognition cues are both present and perceived. The discovery of fertile hybrids and asymmetrical gene flow is unusual in ants, and this hybrid zone will therefore provide an ideal system with which to investigate speciation in social insects.

  7. Integrating Quality Matters into Hybrid Course Design: A Principles of Marketing Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research supports the idea that the success of hybrid or online delivery modes is more a function of course design than delivery media. This article describes a case study of a hybrid Principles of Marketing course that implemented a comprehensive redesign based on design principles espoused by the Quality Matters Program, a center for…

  8. Optimal Day-Ahead Scheduling of a Hybrid Electric Grid Using Weather Forecasts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    14. SUBJECT TERMS Hybrid electric grid , Microgrid, Hybrid renewable energy system , energy management center, optimization, Day...Department of Defense DRPs demand response programs EMC energy management center ES energy storage ESS energy storage system FAA Federal...Aviation Administration FOB forward operating base GFS Global Forecast System GHG greenhouse gases GW gigawatt GWEC Global Wind Energy Council HEG

  9. Evaluation of Hybrid Learning in a Construction Engineering Context: A Mixed-Method Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karabulut-Ilgu, Aliye; Jahren, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Engineering educators call for a widespread implementation of hybrid learning to respond to rapidly changing demands of the 21st century. In response to this call, a junior-level course in the Construction Engineering program entitled Construction Equipment and Heavy Construction Methods was converted into a hybrid learning model. The overarching…

  10. Starting from Scratch: The Evolution of One University's Administrative Structure for Adult Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Carol G.

    2012-01-01

    Abilene Christian University uses a hybrid governance model. Centralized structures include traditional program departments that supply the faculty and curriculum development for online graduate programs. Decentralized structures include an associate provost and separate student services for the online program.

  11. Solving deterministic non-linear programming problem using Hopfield artificial neural network and genetic programming techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasant, P.; Ganesan, T.; Elamvazuthi, I.

    2012-11-01

    A fairly reasonable result was obtained for non-linear engineering problems using the optimization techniques such as neural network, genetic algorithms, and fuzzy logic independently in the past. Increasingly, hybrid techniques are being used to solve the non-linear problems to obtain better output. This paper discusses the use of neuro-genetic hybrid technique to optimize the geological structure mapping which is known as seismic survey. It involves the minimization of objective function subject to the requirement of geophysical and operational constraints. In this work, the optimization was initially performed using genetic programming, and followed by hybrid neuro-genetic programming approaches. Comparative studies and analysis were then carried out on the optimized results. The results indicate that the hybrid neuro-genetic hybrid technique produced better results compared to the stand-alone genetic programming method.

  12. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen Minh

    2004-07-04

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the January to June 2004 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a micro-turbine. In addition, an activity included in this program focuses on the development of an integrated coal gasification fuel cell system concept based on planar SOFC technology. Also, another activity included in this program focuses on the development of SOFC scale up strategies.

  13. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

    2004-01-04

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the July 2003 to December 2003 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a micro-turbine. In addition, an activity included in this program focuses on the development of an integrated coal gasification fuel cell system concept based on planar SOFC technology. Also, another activity included in this program focuses on the development of SOFC scale up strategies.

  14. 2011 Hyundai Sonata 3539 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew Shirk; Tyler Gray; Jeffrey Wishart

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicle batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid (VIN KMHEC4A47BA003539). Battery testing was performed by Intertek Testing Services NA. The Idaho National Laboratory and Intertek collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  15. Automated procedure for developing hybrid computer simulations of turbofan engines. Part 1: General description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szuch, J. R.; Krosel, S. M.; Bruton, W. M.

    1982-01-01

    A systematic, computer-aided, self-documenting methodology for developing hybrid computer simulations of turbofan engines is presented. The methodology that is pesented makes use of a host program that can run on a large digital computer and a machine-dependent target (hybrid) program. The host program performs all the calculations and data manipulations that are needed to transform user-supplied engine design information to a form suitable for the hybrid computer. The host program also trims the self-contained engine model to match specified design-point information. Part I contains a general discussion of the methodology, describes a test case, and presents comparisons between hybrid simulation and specified engine performance data. Part II, a companion document, contains documentation, in the form of computer printouts, for the test case.

  16. SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL HYBRID SYSTEM FOR DISTRIBUTED POWER GENERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-03-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by Honeywell during the July 2001 to September 2001 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a turbogenerator. An internal program kickoff was held at Honeywell in Torrance, CA. The program structure was outlined and the overall technical approach for the program was presented to the team members. Detail program schedules were developed and detailed objectives were defined. Initial work has begun on the system design and pressurized SOFC operation.

  17. Hybrid plasma modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; DeChant, Lawrence Justin.; Piekos, Edward Stanley; Pointon, Timothy David

    2009-02-01

    This report summarizes the work completed during FY2007 and FY2008 for the LDRD project ''Hybrid Plasma Modeling''. The goal of this project was to develop hybrid methods to model plasmas across the non-continuum-to-continuum collisionality spectrum. The primary methodology to span these regimes was to couple a kinetic method (e.g., Particle-In-Cell) in the non-continuum regions to a continuum PDE-based method (e.g., finite differences) in continuum regions. The interface between the two would be adjusted dynamically ased on statistical sampling of the kinetic results. Although originally a three-year project, it became clear during the second year (FY2008) that there were not sufficient resources to complete the project and it was terminated mid-year.

  18. Hybrid superconducting magnetic suspensions

    SciTech Connect

    Tixador, P.; Hiebel, P.; Brunet, Y.

    1996-07-01

    Superconductors, especially high T{sub c} ones, are the most attractive materials to design stable and fully passive magnetic suspensions which have to control five degrees of freedom. The hybrid superconducting magnetic suspensions present high performances and a simple cooling mode. They consist of a permanent magnet bearing, stabilized by a suitable magnet-superconductor structure. Several designs are given and compared in terms of forces and stiffnesses. The design of the magnet bearing plays an important part. The superconducting magnetic bearing participates less in levitation but must provide a high stabilizing stiffness. This is achieved by the magnet configuration, a good material in term of critical current density and field cooling. A hybrid superconducting suspension for a flywheel is presented. This system consists of a magnet thrust bearing stabilized by superconductors interacting with an alternating polarity magnet structure. First tests and results are reported. Superconducting materials are magnetically melt-textured YBaCuO.

  19. Pulsed hybrid field emitter

    SciTech Connect

    Sampayan, Stephen E.

    1998-01-01

    A hybrid emitter exploits the electric field created by a rapidly depoled ferroelectric material. Combining the emission properties of a planar thin film diamond emitter with a ferroelectric alleviates the present technological problems associated with both types of emitters and provides a robust, extremely long life, high current density cathode of the type required by emerging microwave power generation, accelerator technology and display applications. This new hybrid emitter is easy to fabricate and not susceptible to the same failures which plague microstructure field emitter technology. Local electrode geometries and electric field are determined independently from those for optimum transport and brightness preservation. Due to the large amount of surface charge created on the ferroelectric, the emitted electrons have significant energy, thus eliminating the requirement for specialized phosphors in emissive flat-panel displays.

  20. Pulsed hybrid field emitter

    DOEpatents

    Sampayan, S.E.

    1998-03-03

    A hybrid emitter exploits the electric field created by a rapidly depoled ferroelectric material. Combining the emission properties of a planar thin film diamond emitter with a ferroelectric alleviates the present technological problems associated with both types of emitters and provides a robust, extremely long life, high current density cathode of the type required by emerging microwave power generation, accelerator technology and display applications. This new hybrid emitter is easy to fabricate and not susceptible to the same failures which plague microstructure field emitter technology. Local electrode geometries and electric field are determined independently from those for optimum transport and brightness preservation. Due to the large amount of surface charge created on the ferroelectric, the emitted electrons have significant energy, thus eliminating the requirement for specialized phosphors in emissive flat-panel displays. 11 figs.

  1. Hybridized polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    London, A.

    1981-01-01

    Design approaches and materials are described from which are fabricated pyrostatic graphite/epoxy (Gr/Ep) laminates that show improved retention of graphite particulates when subjected to burning. Sixteen hybridized plus two standard Gr/Ep laminates were designed, fabricated, and tested in an effort to eliminate the release of carbon (graphite) fiber particles from burned/burning, mechanically disturbed samples. The term pyrostatic is defined as meaning mechanically intact in the presence of fire. Graphite particulate retentive laminates were constructed whose constituent materials, cost of fabrication, and physical and mechanical properties were not significantly different from existing Gr/Ep composites. All but one laminate (a Celion graphite/bis-maleimide polyimide) were based on an off-the-shelf Gr/Ep, the AS-1/3501-5A system. Of the 16 candidates studied, four thin (10-ply) and four thick (50-ply) hybridized composites are recommended.

  2. Phoxonic Hybrid Superlattice.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Redondo, Elena; Huesmann, Hannah; El Boudouti, El-Houssaine; Tremel, Wolfgang; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram; Butt, Hans-Juergen; Fytas, George

    2015-06-17

    We studied experimentally and theoretically the direction-dependent elastic and electromagnetic wave propagation in a supported film of hybrid PMMA (poly[methyl-methacrylate])-TiO2 superlattice (SL). In the direction normal to the layers, this one-dimensional periodic structure opens propagation band gaps for both hypersonic (GHz) phonons and near-UV photons. The high mismatch of elastic and optical impedance results in a large dual phoxonic band gap. The presence of defects inherent to the spin-coating fabrication technique is sensitively manifested in the band gap region. Utilizing Brillouin light scattering, phonon propagation along the layers was observed to be distinctly different from propagation normal to them and can, under certain conditions (SL thickness and substrate elasticity), reveal the nanomechanical properties of the constituent layers. Besides the first realization of unidirectional phoxonic behavior, hybrid (soft-hard) periodic materials are a promising simple platform for opto-acoustic interactions and applications such as filters and Bragg mirrors.

  3. Fibonacci-Pell Hybridities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koshy, Thomas; Gao, Zhenguang

    2012-01-01

    We develop a recurrence satisfied by the Fibonacci and Pell families. We then use it to find explicit formulae and generating functions for the hybrids "F[subscript n]P[subscript n]", "L[subscript n]P[subscript n]", "F[subscript n]Q[subscript n]" and "L[subscript n]Q[subscript n]", where "F[subscript n]", "L[subscript n]", "P[subscript n]" and…

  4. Hybrid electroluminescent devices

    DOEpatents

    Shiang, Joseph John; Duggal, Anil Raj; Michael, Joseph Darryl

    2010-08-03

    A hybrid electroluminescent (EL) device comprises at least one inorganic diode element and at least one organic EL element that are electrically connected in series. The absolute value of the breakdown voltage of the inorganic diode element is greater than the absolute value of the maximum reverse bias voltage across the series. The inorganic diode element can be a power diode, a Schottky barrier diode, or a light-emitting diode.

  5. Rationalizing Hybrid Earthquake Probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomberg, J.; Reasenberg, P.; Beeler, N.; Cocco, M.; Belardinelli, M.

    2003-12-01

    An approach to including stress transfer and frictional effects in estimates of the probability of failure of a single fault affected by a nearby earthquake has been suggested in Stein et al. (1997). This `hybrid' approach combines conditional probabilities, which depend on the time elapsed since the last earthquake on the affected fault, with Poissonian probabilities that account for friction and depend only on the time since the perturbing earthquake. The latter are based on the seismicity rate change model developed by Dieterich (1994) to explain the temporal behavior of aftershock sequences in terms of rate-state frictional processes. The model assumes an infinite population of nucleation sites that are near failure at the time of the perturbing earthquake. In the hybrid approach, assuming the Dieterich model can lead to significant transient increases in failure probability. We explore some of the implications of applying the Dieterich model to a single fault and its impact on the hybrid probabilities. We present two interpretations that we believe can rationalize the use of the hybrid approach. In the first, a statistical distribution representing uncertainties in elapsed and/or mean recurrence time on the fault serves as a proxy for Dieterich's population of nucleation sites. In the second, we imagine a population of nucleation patches distributed over the fault with a distribution of maturities. In both cases we find that the probability depends on the time since the last earthquake. In particular, the size of the transient probability increase may only be significant for faults already close to failure. Neglecting the maturity of a fault may lead to overestimated rate and probability increases.

  6. Hybrid Warfare and Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    against financial targets. Hybrid challenges are not limited to non - state actors. States can shift their conventional units to irregular formations and... non -state actors, using both simple and sophisticated technolo- gies in innovative ways.”23 Tomorrow’s conflicts will not be easily categorized into...between “regular” and “irregu- lar” warfare are blurring. Even non -state groups are increasingly gaining access to the kinds of weapons that were once

  7. Hybrid knowledge systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subrahmanian, V. S.

    1994-01-01

    An architecture called hybrid knowledge system (HKS) is described that can be used to interoperate between a specification of the control laws describing a physical system, a collection of databases, knowledge bases and/or other data structures reflecting information about the world in which the physical system controlled resides, observations (e.g. sensor information) from the external world, and actions that must be taken in response to external observations.

  8. Hybrid undulator numerical optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Hairetdinov, A.H.; Zukov, A.A.

    1995-12-31

    3D properties of the hybrid undulator scheme arc studied numerically using PANDIRA code. It is shown that there exist two well defined sets of undulator parameters which provide either maximum on-axis field amplitude or minimal higher harmonics amplitude of the basic undulator field. Thus the alternative between higher field amplitude or pure sinusoidal field exists. The behavior of the undulator field amplitude and harmonics structure for a large set of (undulator gap)/(undulator wavelength) values is demonstrated.

  9. Printed hybrid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karioja, Pentti; Mäkinen, Jukka-Tapani; Keränen, Kimmo; Aikio, Janne; Alajoki, Teemu; Jaakola, Tuomo; Koponen, Matti; Keränen, Antti; Heikkinen, Mikko; Tuomikoski, Markus; Suhonen, Riikka; Hakalahti, Leena; Kopola, Pälvi; Hast, Jukka; Liedert, Ralf; Hiltunen, Jussi; Masuda, Noriyuki; Kemppainen, Antti; Rönkä, Kari; Korhonen, Raimo

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents research activities carried out at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland in the field of hybrid integration of optics, electronics and mechanics. Main focus area in our research is the manufacturing of electronic modules and product structures with printed electronics, film-over-molding and polymer sheet lamination technologies and the goal is in the next generation of smart systems utilizing monolithic polymer packages. The combination of manufacturing technologies such as roll-to-roll -printing, injection molding and traditional component assembly is called Printed Hybrid Systems (PHS). Several demonstrator structures have been made, which show the potential of polymer packaging technology. One demonstrator example is a laminated structure with embedded LED chips. Element thickness is only 0.3mm and the flexible stack of foils can be bent in two directions after assembly process and was shaped curved using heat and pressure. The combination of printed flexible circuit boards and injection molding has also been demonstrated with several functional modules. The demonstrators illustrate the potential of origami electronics, which can be cut and folded to 3D shapes. It shows that several manufacturing process steps can be eliminated by Printed Hybrid Systems technology. The main benefits of this combination are small size, ruggedness and conformality. The devices are ideally suited for medical applications as the sensitive electronic components are well protected inside the plastic and the structures can be cleaned easily due to the fact that they have no joints or seams that can accumulate dirt or bacteria.

  10. New Models of Hybrid Leadership in Global Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonini, Donna C.; Burbules, Nicholas C.; Gunsalus, C. K.

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript highlights the development of a leadership preparation program known as the Nanyang Technological University Leadership Academy (NTULA), exploring the leadership challenges unique to a university undergoing rapid growth in a highly multicultural context, and the hybrid model of leadership it developed in response to globalization.…

  11. The Florida Series of Hybrid Amaryllis: Five New Hippeastrum Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hippeastrum Herbert, amaryllis, has yielded popular large-flowered hybrids over a 200 year breeding history. The USDA breeding program, with goals of developing cultivars with heat resistance and novel floral phenotypes, has been ongoing for nearly 15 years. In this paper we announce the release a...

  12. Join the Hive: The Need for More "Hybrid" Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giusto, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Challenging the dichotomy between theory and practice in education, the author advocates a middle ground that could motivate more practicing teachers to pursue the studies necessary to become "hybrid" educators. These teacher educators would be masters of both research and practice, bringing both into teacher preparation programs in a…

  13. Hybrid2 - The hybrid power system simulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, E.I.; Green, H.J.; Dijk, V.A.P. van; Manwell, J.F.

    1996-12-31

    There is a large-scale need and desire for energy in remote communities, especially in the developing world; however the lack of a user friendly, flexible performance prediction model for hybrid power systems incorporating renewables hindered the analysis of hybrids as options to conventional solutions. A user friendly model was needed with the versatility to simulate the many system locations, widely varying hardware configurations, and differing control options for potential hybrid power systems. To meet these ends, researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Massachusetts (UMass) developed the Hybrid2 software. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities, features, and functionality of the Hybrid2 code, discusses its validation and future plans. Model availability and technical support provided to Hybrid2 users are also discussed. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Hybrid2: The hybrid power system simulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, E I; Green, H J; van Dijk, V A.P.; Manwell, J F

    1996-07-01

    There is a large-scale need and desire for energy in remote communities, especially in the developing world; however the lack of a user friendly, flexible performance prediction model for hybrid power systems incorporating renewables hindered the analysis of hybrids (including wind turbines, PV, diesel generators, AC/DC energy storage) as options to conventional solutions. A user friendly model was needed with the versatility to simulate the many system locations, widely varying hardware configurations, and differing control options for potential hybrid power systems. To meet these ends, NREL and U. Mass. researchers developed the Hybrid2 software. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities, features, and functionality of the Hybrid2 code, discusses its validation and future plans. Model availability and technical support provided to Hybrid2 users are also discussed.

  15. Optimization methods applied to hybrid vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donoghue, J. F.; Burghart, J. H.

    1983-01-01

    The use of optimization methods as an effective design tool in the design of hybrid vehicle propulsion systems is demonstrated. Optimization techniques were used to select values for three design parameters (battery weight, heat engine power rating and power split between the two on-board energy sources) such that various measures of vehicle performance (acquisition cost, life cycle cost and petroleum consumption) were optimized. The apporach produced designs which were often significant improvements over hybrid designs already reported on in the literature. The principal conclusions are as follows. First, it was found that the strategy used to split the required power between the two on-board energy sources can have a significant effect on life cycle cost and petroleum consumption. Second, the optimization program should be constructed so that performance measures and design variables can be easily changed. Third, the vehicle simulation program has a significant effect on the computer run time of the overall optimization program; run time can be significantly reduced by proper design of the types of trips the vehicle takes in a one year period. Fourth, care must be taken in designing the cost and constraint expressions which are used in the optimization so that they are relatively smooth functions of the design variables. Fifth, proper handling of constraints on battery weight and heat engine rating, variables which must be large enough to meet power demands, is particularly important for the success of an optimization study. Finally, the principal conclusion is that optimization methods provide a practical tool for carrying out the design of a hybrid vehicle propulsion system.

  16. Asymmetric hybridization in Rhododendron agastum: a hybrid taxon comprising mainly F1s in Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Zha, Hong-Guang; Milne, Richard I.; Sun, Hang

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Rhododendron (Ericaceae) is a large woody genus in which hybridization is thought to play an important role in evolution and speciation, particularly in the Sino-Himalaya region where many interfertile species often occur sympatrically. Rhododendron agastum, a putative hybrid species, occurs in China, western Yunnan Province, in mixed populations with R. irroratum and R. delavayi. Methods Material of these taxa from two sites 400 km apart (ZhuJianYuan, ZJY and HuaDianBa, HDB) was examined using cpDNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) loci, to test the possibility that R. agastum was in fact a hybrid between two of the other species. Chloroplast trnL-F and trnS-trnG sequences together distinguished R. irroratum, R. delavayi and some material of R. decorum, which is also considered a putative parent of R. agastum. Key Results All 14 R. agastum plants from the HDB site had the delavayi cpDNA haplotype, whereas at the ZJY site 17 R. agastum plants had this haplotype and four had the R. irroratum haplotype. R. irroratum and R. delavayi are distinguished by five unequivocal point mutations in their ITS sequences; every R. agastum accession had an additive pattern (double peaks) at each of these sites. Data from AFLP loci were acquired for between ten and 21 plants of each taxon from each site, and were analysed using a Bayesian approach implemented by the program NewHybrids. The program confirmed the identity of all accessions of R. delavayi, and all R. irroratum except one, which was probably a backcross. All R. agastum from HDB and 19 of 21 from ZJY were classified as F1 hybrids; the other two could not be assigned a class. Conclusions Rhododendron agastum represents populations of hybrids between R. irroratum and R. delavayi, which comprise mostly or only F1s, at the two sites examined. The sites differ in that at HDB there was no detected variation in cpDNA type or hybrid class

  17. Dueco Plug-In Hybrid Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Phillip Eidler

    2011-09-30

    Dueco, a final stage manufacture of utility trucks, was awarded a congressionally directed cost shared contract to develop, test, validate, and deploy several PHEV utility trucks. Odyne will be the primary subcontractor responsible for all aspects of the hybrid system including its design and installation on a truck chassis. Key objectives in this program include developing a better understanding of the storage device and system capability; improve aspects of the existing design, optimization of system and power train components, and prototype evaluation. This two year project will culminate in the delivery of at least five vehicles for field evaluation.

  18. Evaluation of different genetic procedures for the generation of artificial hybrids in Saccharomyces genus for winemaking.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Través, Laura; Lopes, Christian A; Barrio, Eladio; Querol, Amparo

    2012-05-15

    Several methods based on recombinant DNA techniques have been proposed for yeast strain improvement; however, the most relevant oenological traits depend on a multitude of loci, making these techniques difficult to apply. In this way, hybridization techniques involving two complete genomes became interesting. Natural hybrid strains between different Saccharomyces species have been detected in diverse fermented beverages including wine, cider and beer. These hybrids seem to be better adapted to fluctuating situations typically observed in fermentations due to the acquisition of particular physiological properties of both parental strains. In this work we evaluated the usefulness of three different hybridization methods: spore to spore mating, rare-mating and protoplast fusion for the generation of intra- and inter-specific stable hybrids, being the first report about the comparison of different methods to obtain artificial hybrids to be used in fermentations. Spore to spore mating is an easy but time-consuming method; hybrids generated with this technique could lack some of the industrially relevant traits present in the parental strains because of the segregation occurred during meiosis and spore generation prior to hybridization. Hybrids obtained by protoplast fusion get the complete information of both parents but they are currently considered as genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Finally, hybrids obtained by rare-mating are easily obtained by the optimized methodology described in this work, they originally contain a complete set of chromosomes of both parents and they are not considered as GMOs. Hybrids obtained by means of the three methodological approaches showed a high genetic variability; however, a loss of genetic material was detected in most of them. Based on these results, it became evident that a last crucial aspect to be considered in every hybridization program is the genetic stabilization of recently generated hybrids that guarantee its

  19. Real-time hybrid computer simulation of a small turboshaft engine and control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, C. E.; Wenzel, L. M.

    1984-01-01

    The development of an analytical model of a small turboshaft engine designed for helicopter propulsion systems is described. The model equations were implemented on a hybrid computer system to provide a real time nonlinear simulation of the engine performance over a wide operating range. The real time hybrid simulation of the engine was used to evaluate a microprocessor based digital control module. This digital control module was developed as part of an advanced rotorcraft control program. After tests with the hybrid engine simulation the digital control module was used to control a real engine in an experimental program. A hybrid simulation of the engine's electrical hydromechanical control system was developed. This allowed to vary the fuel flow and torque load inputs to the hybrid engine simulation for simulating transient operation. A steady-state data and the experimental tests are compared. Analytical model equations, analog computer diagrams, and a digital computer flow chart are included.

  20. Solar thermal electric hybridization issues

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, T A; Bohn, M S; Price, H W

    1994-10-01

    Solar thermal electric systems have an advantage over many other renewable energy technologies because the former use heat as an intermediate energy carrier. This is an advantage as it allows for a relatively simple method of hybridization by using heat from fossil-fuel. Hybridization of solar thermal electric systems is a topic that has recently generated significant interest and controversy and has led to many diverse opinions. This paper discusses many of the issues associated with hybridization of solar thermal electric systems such as what role hybridization should play; how it should be implemented; what are the efficiency, environmental, and cost implications; what solar fraction is appropriate; how hybrid systems compete with solar-only systems; and how hybridization can impact commercialization efforts for solar thermal electric systems.

  1. Study of a hybrid multispectral processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, R. E.; Kriegler, F. J.

    1973-01-01

    A hybrid processor is described offering enough handling capacity and speed to process efficiently the large quantities of multispectral data that can be gathered by scanner systems such as MSDS, SKYLAB, ERTS, and ERIM M-7. Combinations of general-purpose and special-purpose hybrid computers were examined to include both analog and digital types as well as all-digital configurations. The current trend toward lower costs for medium-scale digital circuitry suggests that the all-digital approach may offer the better solution within the time frame of the next few years. The study recommends and defines such a hybrid digital computing system in which both special-purpose and general-purpose digital computers would be employed. The tasks of recognizing surface objects would be performed in a parallel, pipeline digital system while the tasks of control and monitoring would be handled by a medium-scale minicomputer system. A program to design and construct a small, prototype, all-digital system has been started.

  2. Hybrid systems process mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Chertow, M.R.

    1989-10-01

    Some technologies, developed recently in Europe, combine several processes to separate and reuse materials from solid waste. These plants have in common, generally, that they are reasonably small, have a composting component for the organic portion, and often have a refuse-derived fuel component for combustible waste. Many European communities also have very effective drop-off center programs for recyclables such as bottles and cans. By maintaining the integrity of several different fractions of the waste, there is a less to landfill and less to burn. The importance of these hybrid systems is that they introduce in one plant an approach that encompasses the key concept of today's solid waste planning; recover as much as possible and landfill as little as possible. The plants also introduce various risks, particularly of finding secure markets. There are a number of companies offering various combinations of materials recovery, composting, and waste combustion. Four examples are included: multiple materials recovery and refuse-derived fuel production in Eden Prairie, Minnesota; multiple materials recovery, composting and refuse-derived fuel production in Perugia, Italy; composting, refuse-derived fuel, and gasification in Tolmezzo, Italy; and a front-end system on a mass burning waste-to-energy plant in Neuchatel, Switzerland.

  3. Interspecific hybridization between Crassostrea angulata and C. ariakensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Tuo; Zhang, Yuehuan; Yan, Xiwu; Wang, Zhaoping; Li, Dongchun; Su, Jiaqi; Yu, Ruihai

    2015-08-01

    Interspecific hybridization can generate heterosis, which is proven to be a useful tool in selective breeding programs for oyster culture. Crassostrea angulata and C. ariakensis are two important economic shellfish species in China. We conducted 2 × 2 reciprocal crosses to determine whether these two species can cross-fertilize and their hybrids can hatch, survive and perform heterosis. Fertilization was found symmetrical without delay. The rate of fertilization success of C. angulata ♀ × C. ariakensis ♂ was lower than that of C. ariakensis ♀ × C. angulata ♂, and the success rate of both hybridizations was lower than that of two intraspecific crosses each. During the planktonic period, survival rate of the progeny was lower in the hybrid crosses than in the intraspecific crosses. On day 360, mean shell height of the progeny of C. angulata ♀ × C. angulata ♂ was highest, which was followed by that of C. angulata ♀ × C. ariakensis ♂, C. ariakensis ♀ × C. ariakensis ♂ and C. ariakensis ♀ × C. angulata ♂ in a descending order. Morphology of adults produced by the hybrid crosses was similar to that of C. angulata. Both hybrids underwent normal gonad development and produced mature gametes in the mating season. This study provided new insights into the quantitative traits in interspecific crosses of Crassostrea species, thus being of guidance value for selective breeding of oyster.

  4. Hybrid solar lighting systems and components

    DOEpatents

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.; Beshears, David L.; Maxey, Lonnie C.; Jordan, John K.; Lind, Randall F.

    2007-06-12

    A hybrid solar lighting system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates each component.

  5. Hybrid solar lighting distribution systems and components

    DOEpatents

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.; Beshears, David L.; Maxey, Lonnie C.; Jordan, John K.; Lind, Randall F.

    2011-07-05

    A hybrid solar lighting distribution system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates all components.

  6. MERCURY CONTROL WITH ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller

    2005-05-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addressed Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and has been marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas--solid contactor. The objective of the project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included bench-scale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW (9000-acfm) scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control

  7. Variations of hybrid damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Margaretha J.; Inman, Daniel J.; Saunders, William R.

    1998-06-01

    Damping is important to structures and can be achieved through the addition of viscoelastic materials (VEM). The damping of the VEM is enhanced if a constraining layer is attached to the VEM. If this constraining layer is active, the treatment is called active constrained layer damping (ACLD). In the last few years, ACLD has proven to be superior in vibration control to active or passive damping. The active element makes ACLD more effective than passive constrained layer damping. It also provides a fail-safe in case of breakdown of the active element that is not present for purely active control. It is shown that the control effort needed to damp vibration using ACLD can be significantly higher than purely active control. In order to combine the inherent damping of passive control with the effectiveness of the active element, this paper will explore different variations of active, passive and hybrid damping. Some of the variations include: passive constrained layer damping (PCLD) separate from active element but on the same side of beam, PCLD separate from active on the opposite side of the beam, and active element underneath PCLD. The discretized system equations will be obtained using assumed modes method and Lagrange's equation. The damping will be modeled using the Golla-Hughes-McTavish (GHM) method. The optimal placement and size of the active, passive, ACLD and hybrid treatments will be found using different schemes. The issue of overshoot and settling time of the output and control force using LQR will be addressed, as well as the control effort, passive and active vibration suppression, and LQR cost function. It will be shown that the hybrid treatments are capable of greater vibration control for lower control effort for different optimization schemes. 31

  8. US blanket technology programs. [Directory of current research

    SciTech Connect

    Nygren, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental research in US programs related to blanket technology is described through brief summaries of the objectives, facilities, recent experimental results and principal investigators for the Blanket Technology Program, TRIO-1 Experiment, TSTA, Fusion Hybrid Program and selected activities in the Fusion Materials and Fusion Safety Programs in neutronics research.

  9. Large hybrid membrane mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Erika; Ruiz Schneider, Elfego; Ferreira, Alejandra

    2003-01-01

    The trend to minimize the thickness in optical mirrors has led to several practical limits in their fabrication and operation. The design of a flexible membrane mirror segment, which overcomes most of these limitations and can be conformed to giant segmented primary mirrors, is presented. The segment consists of a lightweight multi-layer hybrid structure, which will permit precise active control of the reflecting surface by means of a continuous elastic medium interface with embedded pneumatic actuators. Conceptual designs, finite element analysis model simulations and experimental results are included.

  10. Competitive hybridization models.

    PubMed

    Cherepinsky, Vera; Hashmi, Ghazala; Mishra, Bud

    2010-11-01

    Microarray technology, in its simplest form, allows one to gather abundance data for target DNA molecules, associated with genomes or gene-expressions, and relies on hybridizing the target to many short probe oligonucleotides arrayed on a surface. While for such multiplexed reactions conditions are optimized to make the most of each individual probe-target interaction, subsequent analysis of these experiments is based on the implicit assumption that a given experiment yields the same result regardless of whether it was conducted in isolation or in parallel with many others. It has been discussed in the literature that this assumption is frequently false, and its validity depends on the types of probes and their interactions with each other. We present a detailed physical model of hybridization as a means of understanding probe interactions in a multiplexed reaction. Ultimately, the model can be derived from a system of ordinary differential equations (ODE's) describing kinetic mass action with conservation-of-mass equations completing the system. We examine pairwise probe interactions in detail and present a model of "competition" between the probes for the target--especially, when the target is effectively in short supply. These effects are shown to be predictable from the affinity constants for each of the four probe sequences involved, namely, the match and mismatch sequences for both probes. These affinity constants are calculated from the thermodynamic parameters such as the free energy of hybridization, which are in turn computed according to the nearest neighbor (NN) model for each probe and target sequence. Simulations based on the competitive hybridization model explain the observed variability in the signal of a given probe when measured in parallel with different groupings of other probes or individually. The results of the simulations can be used for experiment design and pooling strategies, based on which probes have been shown to have a strong effect

  11. Ionic electroactive hybrid transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akle, Barbar J.; Bennett, Matthew D.; Leo, Donald J.

    2005-05-01

    Ionic electroactive actuators have received considerable attention in the past ten years. Ionic electroactive polymers, sometimes referred to as artificial muscles, have the ability to generate large bending strain and moderate stress at low applied voltages. Typical types of ionic electroactive polymer transducers include ionic polymers, conducting polymers, and carbon nanotubes. Preliminary research combining multiple types of materials proved to enhance certain transduction properties such as speed of response, maximum strain, or quasi-static actuation. Recently it was demonstrated that ionomer-ionic liquid transducers can operate in air for long periods of time (>250,000 cycles) and showed potential to reduce or eliminate the back-relaxation issue associated with ionomeric polymers. In addition, ionic liquids have higher electrical stability window than those operated with water as the solvent thereby increasing the maximum strain that the actuator can produce. In this work, a new technique developed for plating metal particulates on the surface of ionomeric materials is applied to the development of hybrid transducers that incorporate carbon nanotubes and conducting polymers as electrode materials. The new plating technique, named the direct assembly process, consists of mixing a conducting powder with an ionomer solution. This technique has demonstrated improved response time and strain output as compared to previous methods. Furthermore, the direct assembly process is less costly to implement than traditional impregnation-reduction methods due to less dependence on reducing agents, it requires less time, and is easier to implement than other processes. Electrodes applied using this new technique of mixing RuO2 (surface area 45~65m2/g) particles and Nafion dispersion provided 5x the displacement and 10x the force compared to a transducer made with conventional methods. Furthermore, the study illustrated that the response speed of the transducer is optimized

  12. Cryogenic Hybrid Magnetic Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeks, Crawford R.; Dirusso, Eliseo; Brown, Gerald V.

    1994-01-01

    Cryogenic hybrid magnetic bearing is example of class of magnetic bearings in which permanent magnets and electromagnets used to suspend shafts. Electromagnets provide active control of position of shaft. Bearing operates at temperatures from -320 degrees F (-196 degrees C) to 650 degrees F (343 degrees C); designed for possible use in rocket-engine turbopumps, where effects of cryogenic environment and fluid severely limit lubrication of conventional ball bearings. This and similar bearings also suitable for terrestrial rotating machinery; for example, gas-turbine engines, high-vacuum pumps, canned pumps, precise gimbals that suspend sensors, and pumps that handle corrosive or gritty fluids.

  13. Hybrid Techniques Investigation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    ALGORITHM; HYBRID CONF GURAT ION CONTROL 5-16 .. p o,6 2. LOGICAL CONFIGURATION TABLE ELEMENT GENERATION When the composite OPCs are generated for each...ISM. . , , ,.; = = JYt m- -. -W Pr 09rage instruct ions Qpuaue Normal Lanes i15 Space A oControl [ - I I N A IDirectory -6 1 S ZICTMemo C DeoderSpace...files, however, are retained. 7-1 % % S- 5i .iS 𔃿 gw_.-, ’ e "+ +1, ., W" .m ,W" " ," m . . ,, .r- + " 5’- • " ~SECT ION 8 ’ GUARD FUNCTIONS IN A

  14. Hybrid receiver study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, M. S.; Mcadam, P. L.; Saunders, O. W.

    1977-01-01

    The results are presented of a 4 month study to design a hybrid analog/digital receiver for outer planet mission probe communication links. The scope of this study includes functional design of the receiver; comparisons between analog and digital processing; hardware tradeoffs for key components including frequency generators, A/D converters, and digital processors; development and simulation of the processing algorithms for acquisition, tracking, and demodulation; and detailed design of the receiver in order to determine its size, weight, power, reliability, and radiation hardness. In addition, an evaluation was made of the receiver's capabilities to perform accurate measurement of signal strength and frequency for radio science missions.

  15. Competitive hybridization models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherepinsky, Vera; Hashmi, Ghazala; Mishra, Bud

    2010-11-01

    Microarray technology, in its simplest form, allows one to gather abundance data for target DNA molecules, associated with genomes or gene-expressions, and relies on hybridizing the target to many short probe oligonucleotides arrayed on a surface. While for such multiplexed reactions conditions are optimized to make the most of each individual probe-target interaction, subsequent analysis of these experiments is based on the implicit assumption that a given experiment yields the same result regardless of whether it was conducted in isolation or in parallel with many others. It has been discussed in the literature that this assumption is frequently false, and its validity depends on the types of probes and their interactions with each other. We present a detailed physical model of hybridization as a means of understanding probe interactions in a multiplexed reaction. Ultimately, the model can be derived from a system of ordinary differential equations (ODE’s) describing kinetic mass action with conservation-of-mass equations completing the system. We examine pairwise probe interactions in detail and present a model of “competition” between the probes for the target—especially, when the target is effectively in short supply. These effects are shown to be predictable from the affinity constants for each of the four probe sequences involved, namely, the match and mismatch sequences for both probes. These affinity constants are calculated from the thermodynamic parameters such as the free energy of hybridization, which are in turn computed according to the nearest neighbor (NN) model for each probe and target sequence. Simulations based on the competitive hybridization model explain the observed variability in the signal of a given probe when measured in parallel with different groupings of other probes or individually. The results of the simulations can be used for experiment design and pooling strategies, based on which probes have been shown to have a strong

  16. Robust hybrid mass damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collette, C.; Chesné, S.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the design of a hybrid mass damper (HMD) is proposed for the reduction of the resonant vibration amplitude of a multiple degree-of-freedom structure. HMD includes both passive and active elements. Combining these elements the system is fail-safe and its performances are comparable to usual purely active systems. The control law is a revisited direct velocity feedback. Two zeros are added to the controller to interact with the poles of the plant. The developed control law presents the particularity to be simple and hyperstable. The proposed HMD is compared to other classical control approaches for similar purpose in term of vibration attenuation, power consumption and stroke.

  17. Hybrid vehicle potential assessment. Volume 7: Hybrid vehicle review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leschly, K. O.

    1979-01-01

    Review of hybrid vehicles built during the past ten years or planned to be built in the near future is presented. An attempt is made to classify and analyze these vehicles to get an overall picture of their key characteristics. The review includes onroad hybrid passenger cars, trucks, vans, and buses.

  18. The Hybrid Advantage: Graduate Student Perspectives of Hybrid Education Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sarah; Villareal, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid courses combine online and face-to-face learning environments. To organize and teach hybrid courses, instructors must understand the uses of multiple online learning tools and face-toface classroom activities to promote and monitor the progress of students. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the perspectives of…

  19. Adaptive powertrain control for plugin hybrid electric vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Kedar-Dongarkar, Gurunath; Weslati, Feisel

    2013-10-15

    A powertrain control system for a plugin hybrid electric vehicle. The system comprises an adaptive charge sustaining controller; at least one internal data source connected to the adaptive charge sustaining controller; and a memory connected to the adaptive charge sustaining controller for storing data generated by the at least one internal data source. The adaptive charge sustaining controller is operable to select an operating mode of the vehicle's powertrain along a given route based on programming generated from data stored in the memory associated with that route. Further described is a method of adaptively controlling operation of a plugin hybrid electric vehicle powertrain comprising identifying a route being traveled, activating stored adaptive charge sustaining mode programming for the identified route and controlling operation of the powertrain along the identified route by selecting from a plurality of operational modes based on the stored adaptive charge sustaining mode programming.

  20. Solar energy: Program summary document

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-08-01

    Solar programs and the eight solar technologies are discussed, including biomass energy systems, photovoltaic energy systems, wind energy conversion systems, solar thermal power, ocean systems, agricultural and industrial process heat, active solar heating and cooling, passive and hybrid solar heating and cooling.

  1. Hybrid microdosing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Richter, Stefan; Mehner, Jan; Schubert, Steffen; Doetzel, Wolfram; Gessner, Thomas

    1998-09-01

    Based on an article in print this paper presents a hybrid assembled bi-directional micro dosing system for a water flow range of -40 (mu) l/min to 80 (mu) l/min. The system consists of a silicon micropump/valve chip (9 mm X 9 mm) and a silicon flow sensor (6 mm X 12 mm). The valve/pump can be driven by either a piezoelectric disk or an electrostatic actuator. Both, piezoelectric and electrostatic actuation for the pump/valve, the technology of each component and the hybrid assembling of the whole system are described. Results of transient numerical simulation of the pump and the mass flow sensor are presented and compared with experimental results. Descriptions of two different operational modes of the micro dosing system are given. The new pulse-width modulated control method for the actuator makes controlling the system easier. It allows an open-loop control of the pump rates without changing the driving frequency. All reported micropumps were driven by a square-wave signal which causes a relatively high noise level. In contrast to this, sawtooth and sinusoidal signals generate a smooth and quiet operation because of the small drag force on the fluid ports. Results of different driving methods are presented and compared.

  2. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  3. Hybrid flexure hinges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Rongzhou; Zhang, Xianmin; Long, Xuejun; Fatikow, Sergej

    2013-08-01

    This paper designs and analyzes the hybrid flexure hinge composed of half a hyperbolic flexure hinge and half a corner-filleted flexure hinge. As it is transversely asymmetric, it has different performance when the fixed and free ends switch. Considering the diversion of rotation center from midpoint, closed-form equations are formulated to characterize both the active rotation and all other in-plane parasitic motion by the Castigliano's second theorem. The maximum stress is evaluated as well. These equations are verified by the finite element analysis and experimentation. The compliance precision ratios are proposed to indicate flexure hinges' ability of preserving the rotation center when they have the same displacement at the free end. The hybrid flexure hinges are compared with five kinds of common notch flexure hinges (circular, corner-filleted, elliptical, hyperbolic, and parabolic flexure hinges) quantitatively based on compliance, precision, compliance precision ratios, and the maximum stress. Conclusions are drawn regarding the performance of these six kinds of flexure hinges.

  4. New smooth hybrid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarides, George; Vamvasakis, Achilleas

    2007-10-15

    We consider the extension of the supersymmetric Pati-Salam model which solves the b-quark mass problem of supersymmetric grand unified models with exact Yukawa unification and universal boundary conditions and leads to the so-called new shifted hybrid inflationary scenario. We show that this model can also lead to a new version of smooth hybrid inflation based only on renormalizable interactions provided that a particular parameter of its superpotential is somewhat small. The potential possesses valleys of minima with classical inclination, which can be used as inflationary paths. The model is consistent with the fitting of the three-year Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe data by the standard power-law cosmological model with cold dark matter and a cosmological constant. In particular, the spectral index turns out to be adequately small so that it is compatible with the data. Moreover, the Pati-Salam gauge group is broken to the standard model gauge group during inflation and, thus, no monopoles are formed at the end of inflation. Supergravity corrections based on a nonminimal Kaehler potential with a convenient choice of a sign keep the spectral index comfortably within the allowed range without generating maxima and minima of the potential on the inflationary path. So, unnatural restrictions on the initial conditions for inflation can be avoided.

  5. Arabidopsis hybrid speciation processes

    PubMed Central

    Schmickl, Roswitha; Koch, Marcus A.

    2011-01-01

    The genus Arabidopsis provides a unique opportunity to study fundamental biological questions in plant sciences using the diploid model species Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis lyrata. However, only a few studies have focused on introgression and hybrid speciation in Arabidopsis, although polyploidy is a common phenomenon within this genus. More recently, there is growing evidence of significant gene flow between the various Arabidopsis species. So far, we know Arabidopsis suecica and Arabidopsis kamchatica as fully stabilized allopolyploid species. Both species evolved during Pleistocene glaciation and deglaciation cycles in Fennoscandinavia and the amphi-Beringian region, respectively. These hybrid studies were conducted either on a phylogeographic scale or reconstructed experimentally in the laboratory. In our study we focus at a regional and population level. Our research area is located in the foothills of the eastern Austrian Alps, where two Arabidopsis species, Arabidopsis arenosa and A. lyrata ssp. petraea, are sympatrically distributed. Our hypothesis of genetic introgression, migration, and adaptation to the changing environment during the Pleistocene has been confirmed: We observed significant, mainly unidirectional gene flow between the two species, which has given rise to the tetraploid A. lyrata. This cytotype was able to escape from the narrow ecological niche occupied by diploid A. lyrata ssp. petraea on limestone outcrops by migrating northward into siliceous areas, leaving behind a trail of genetic differentiation. PMID:21825128

  6. Suppression subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Ghorbel, Mohamed T; Murphy, David

    2011-01-01

    Comparing two RNA populations that differ from the effects of a single independent variable, such as a drug treatment or a specific genetic defect, can establish differences in the abundance of specific transcripts that vary in a population dependent manner. There are different methods for identifying differentially expressed genes. These methods include microarray, Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE), and quantitative Reverse-Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR). Herein, the protocol describes an easy and cost-effective alternative that does not require prior knowledge of the transcriptomes under examination. It is specifically relevant when low levels of RNA starting material are available. This protocol describes the use of Switching Mechanism At RNA Termini Polymerase Chain Reaction (SMART-PCR) to amplify cDNA from small amounts of RNA. The amplified cDNA populations under comparison are then subjected to Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH-PCR). SSH-PCR is a technique that couples subtractive hybridization with suppression PCR to selectively amplify fragments of differentially expressed genes. The resulting products are cDNA populations enriched for significantly overrepresented transcripts in either of the two input RNAs. These cDNA populations can then be cloned to generate subtracted cDNA library. Microarrays made with clones from the subtracted forward and reverse cDNA libraries are then screened for differentially expressed genes using targets generated from tester and driver total RNAs.

  7. Production and genetic characterization of interspecific hybrids among Crambe abyssinica, Crambe hispanica and Crambe kralikii.

    PubMed

    Du, X Z; Huang, B L; Guan, H; Li, Z Y; Huang, B Q

    2014-03-26

    In this paper, interspecific crosses among Crambe abyssinica, Crambe hispanica, and Crambe kralikii were reported. In the C. hispanica x C. abyssinica (H x A) cross, 118 F1 hybrids were produced without embryo rescue, while 5 F1 hybrids were obtained with embryo rescue, when C. hispanica was used as the female parent. In the reciprocal cross (A x H), 232 hybrids were obtained without embryo rescue. From more than 1000 C. kralikii flowers pollinated with pollen grains of C. abyssinica (K x A), only 2 F1 hybrids were obtained with embryo rescue, whereas the reciprocal cross produced no hybrids, even with embryo rescue. The hybrids were confirmed at the morphological, cytological, and molecular levels. In the combinations of A x H and H x A, many BC1 hybrids were obtained without embryo rescue. In contrast, in the K x A cross, only 7 BC1 plants were obtained with embryo rescue, while no seed set was achieved under self-pollination or in backcrosses without embryo rescue. In the H x A F1 hybrids, the pollen stainability was 65.4-86.0%, with an average of 76.9%. In comparison, the pollen viability of hybrids in the reciprocal cross (A x H) ranged from 66.2 to 81.1%, with an average of 75.4%. Fertile pollen grains were not found in the K x A F1 hybrids. All F1 hybrids of the 3 crosses (H x A, A x H, and K x A) had the expected 2n = 75 chromosomes. AFLP analyses indicated that all F1 hybrids and their progenies had typical bands of the parents. These hybrids and progenies are anticipated to be valuable for future C. abyssinica improvement in breeding programs.

  8. Retrofits Convert Gas Vehicles into Hybrids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Successful space missions can rarely be attributed to a single thing. Rather, they are the result of a system of systems: integrated elements functioning effectively in their individual roles and together with related components, then those systems interacting with and supporting other systems to form a collaborative whole - from the spacecraft itself to the engineering and research teams that design and build it. An example is found in spacecraft power systems. Unlike a gas-powered car or a battery-powered laptop, most spacecraft are powered by multiple energy sources - such as photovoltaic panels, fuel cells, and batteries - working in tandem to ensure the spacecraft functions throughout the course of a mission. As with any system, the appropriate combination of elements and the method of their management are key to high performance and efficiency. One initiative at Glenn Research Center, the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) program, focused on joining new and mature technologies for optimal power systems applications in space and on Earth, with the goal not only to develop ultra-efficient space power systems, but to advance HPM to address global energy issues. The HPM program emerged from Glenn s long history of electric vehicle research dating back to the 1970s, including the NASA Hybrid Electric Transit Bus (HETB) project in the 1990s, which was the largest vehicle to use supercapacitor energy storage.

  9. Analysis of UAS hybrid propulsion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupe, Ryan M.

    Hybrid propulsion technology has been growing over last several years. With the steadily increasing cost of fuel and demand for unmanned aircraft systems to meet an ever expanding variety of responsibilities, research must be conducted into the development of alternative propulsion systems to reduce operating costs and optimize for strategic missions. One of the primary roles of unmanned aircraft systems is to provide aerial surveillance without detection. While electric propulsion systems provide a great option for lower acoustic signatures due to the lack of combustion and exhaust noise, they typically have low flight endurance due to battery limitations. Gas burning propulsion systems are ideal for long range/endurance missions due to the high energy density of hydrocarbon fuel, but can be much easier to detect. Research is conducted into the feasibility of gas/electric hybrid propulsion systems and the tradeoffs involved for reconnaissance mission scenarios. An analysis program is developed to optimize each component of the system and examine their effects on the overall performance of the aircraft. Each subsystem is parameterized and simulated within the program and tradeoffs between payload weight, range, and endurance are tested and evaluated to fulfill mission requirements.

  10. Hybrid spread spectrum radio system

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Stephen F [London, TN; Dress, William B [Camas, WA

    2010-02-09

    Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method, includes receiving a hybrid spread spectrum signal including: fast frequency hopping demodulating and direct sequence demodulating a direct sequence spread spectrum signal, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time and each bit is represented by chip transmissions at multiple frequencies.

  11. Expanding Discourse Repertoires with Hybridity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    In "Hybrid discourse practice and science learning" Kamberelis and Wehunt present a theoretically rich argument about the potential of hybrid discourses for science learning. These discourses draw from different forms of "talk, social practice, and material practices" to create interactions that are "intertextually complex" and "interactionally…

  12. [Behaviors of maricultured hybrid sturgeon].

    PubMed

    Wu, Changwen; Jiang, Chengguo; Chen, Guoye

    2006-02-01

    The study on the behaviors of hybrid sturgeon under mariculture conditions showed that hybrid sturgeon had a stronger endurance to the exposure in air, with 100% and 74.1% of livability after 1 h and 3 h exposure, respectively. The feeding habit of hybrid sturgeon could be domesticated, i.e., all kinds of vegetal proteinic food could be used as feedstuff. Hybrid sturgeon also had a strong hunger resistance. An obvious ingestion rhythm was observed, with two peaks in the morning and evening when breeding in cement pool, and during slack tide and tidal stand when breeding in deep water cage. At the two peaks, the ingestion exceeded 50% of that in the whole day. The hybrid sturgeon in cement pool had the habit of hiding during the day and coming out at night, while that in deep water cage stayed at the base in riptide and swam in slack tide. Hybrid sturgeon had a weaker resistance to riptide and wave than American red snapper, but a stronger resistance than yellow croaker. Hybrid sturgeon could quickly adapt the surroundings, and be a good species to mariculture in deep water cage. The appropriate size of hybrid sturgeon bred in deep water cage should be about 400 g.

  13. Hybrid breeding in autogamous cereals.

    PubMed

    Longin, Carl Friedrich Horst; Mühleisen, Jonathan; Maurer, Hans Peter; Zhang, Hongliang; Gowda, Manje; Reif, Jochen Christoph

    2012-10-01

    Hybrid breeding in autogamous cereals has a long history of attempts with moderate success. There is a vast amount of literature investigating the potential problems and solutions, but until now, market share of hybrids is still a niche compared to line varieties. Our aim was to summarize the status quo of hybrid breeding efforts for the autogamous cereals wheat, rice, barley, and triticale. Furthermore, the research needs for a successful hybrid breeding in autogamous cereals are intensively discussed. To our opinion, the basic requirements for a successful hybrid breeding in autogamous cereals are fulfilled. Nevertheless, optimization of the existing hybridization systems is urgently required and should be coupled with the development of clear male and female pool concepts. We present a quantitative genetic framework as a first step to compare selection gain of hybrid versus line breeding. The lack of precise empirical estimates of relevant quantitative genetic parameters, however, is currently the major bottleneck for a robust evaluation of the potential of hybrid breeding in autogamous cereals.

  14. 76 FR 60534 - Comment Request for Information Collection; Apprenticeship Programs, Labor Standards for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... (technology-based instruction and distance learning). Occupation Training Approach now includes the Hybrid Approach. The Competency-Based and Hybrid Approaches are explained in more detail. This includes the use of... Hybrid Occupations. The certificates are issued by the Registration Agency upon the program...

  15. Hybrid Power Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    An engineering discipline denoted as hybrid power management (HPM) has emerged from continuing efforts to increase energy efficiency and reliability of hybrid power systems. HPM is oriented toward integration of diverse electric energy-generating, energy-storing, and energy-consuming devices in optimal configurations for both terrestrial and outer-space applications. The basic concepts of HPM are potentially applicable at power levels ranging from nanowatts to megawatts. Potential applications include terrestrial power-generation, terrestrial transportation, biotechnology, and outer-space power systems. Instances of this discipline at prior stages of development were reported (though not explicitly labeled as HPM) in three prior NASA Tech Briefs articles: "Ultracapacitors Store Energy in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle"(LEW-16876), Vol. 24, No. 4 (April 2000), page 63; "Photovoltaic Power Station With Ultracapacitors for Storage" (LEW-17177), Vol. 27, No. 8 (August 2003), page 38; and "Flasher Powered by Photovoltaic Cells and Ultracapacitors" (LEW-17246), Vol. 24, No. 10 (October 2003), page 37. As the titles of the cited articles indicate, the use of ultracapacitors as energy-storage devices lies at the heart of HPM. An ultracapacitor is an electrochemical energy-storage device, but unlike in a conventional rechargeable electrochemical cell or battery, chemical reactions do not take place during operation. Instead, energy is stored electrostatically at an electrode/electrolyte interface. The capacitance per unit volume of an ultracapacitor is much greater than that of a conventional capacitor because its electrodes have much greater surface area per unit volume and the separation between the electrodes is much smaller. Power-control circuits for ultracapacitors can be simpler than those for batteries, for two reasons: (1) Because of the absence of chemical reactions, charge and discharge currents can be greater than those in batteries, limited only by the electrical

  16. Energy-efficient container handling using hybrid model predictive control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Jianbin; Negenborn, Rudy R.; Lodewijks, Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    The performance of container terminals needs to be improved to adapt the growth of containers while maintaining sustainability. This paper provides a methodology for determining the trajectory of three key interacting machines for carrying out the so-called bay handling task, involving transporting containers between a vessel and the stacking area in an automated container terminal. The behaviours of the interacting machines are modelled as a collection of interconnected hybrid systems. Hybrid model predictive control (MPC) is proposed to achieve optimal performance, balancing the handling capacity and energy consumption. The underlying control problem is hereby formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming problem. Simulation studies illustrate that a higher penalty on energy consumption indeed leads to improved sustainability using less energy. Moreover, simulations illustrate how the proposed energy-efficient hybrid MPC controller performs under different types of uncertainties.

  17. 2006 Toyota Highlander-5681 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Highlander hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTEDW21A860005681). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  18. 2007 Toyota Camry-7129 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Camry hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTNBB46K773007129). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  19. 2007 Toyota Camry-6330 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Camry hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTNBB46K673006330). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The AVTA is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct AVTA for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  20. Hybrid energy system cost analysis: San Nicolas Island, California

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, T.L.; McKenna, E.

    1996-07-01

    This report analyzes the local wind resource and evaluates the costs and benefits of supplementing the current diesel-powered energy system on San Nicolas Island, California (SNI), with wind turbines. In Section 2.0 the SNI site, naval operations, and current energy system are described, as are the data collection and analysis procedures. Section 3.0 summarizes the wind resource data and analyses that were presented in NREL/TP 442-20231. Sections 4.0 and 5.0 present the conceptual design and cost analysis of a hybrid wind and diesel energy system on SNI, with conclusions following in Section 6. Appendix A presents summary pages of the hybrid system spreadsheet model, and Appendix B contains input and output files for the HYBRID2 program.

  1. 'Jones hybrid' hickory: a case study in Carya curation.

    PubMed

    Grauke, L J; Mendoza-Herrera, M Azucena; Stelly, David M; Klein, Patricia E

    2016-01-01

    'Jones Hybrid' hickory is an accession in the National Collection of Genetic Resources for Pecans and Hickories for which information about origin, identity and characteristics is very incomplete. Phenotypic and genetic profiles, when examined in the context of historic literature, provide evidence that the accession in question is 'Siers' a cultivar of Carya × laneyi (an interspecific hybrid between C. ovata and C. cordiformis). The accession has traits that make it interesting in the pecan breeding program, with potential for both rootstock and scion development. The tall, slender tree form of 'Jones Hybrid' is a trait that could be valuable in commercial pecan cultivars, allowing increased tree densities and reducing the need for expensive hedging operations. Tree size reduction is a goal to be pursued in scion selection and rootstock development, with each goal requiring assessment of reproductive potential of the accession.

  2. Electric and hybrid vehicle systems assessment seminar: proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-15

    The following twenty papers are included in these proceedings: (1) electric and hybrid vehicle assessment overview, (2) electric and hybrid vehicle systems considerations, (3) advanced vehicle assessment, (4) hybrid vehicle assessment, (5) battery optimization considerations, (6) alkaline battery technology, (7) lead-acid batteries, (8) nickel-iron batteries, (9) zinc-chloride batteries, (10) zinc-bromine batteries, (11) sodium-sulfur batteries, (12) system/battery design interaction for a lithium-method sulfide van battery, (13) iorn-air batteries, (14) aluminium-air cells, (15) fuel cell overview, (16) variable-reluctance motor drives, (17) electric vehicle design, (18) advanced electric vehicle powertrain program, (19) Eaton ac drivetrains, and (20) JET Propulsion Laboratory ac power system. (MOW)

  3. 2007 Nissan Altima-7982 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Grey; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Nissan Altima hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number 1N4CL21E27C177982). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  4. Hybrid powertrain controller

    DOEpatents

    Jankovic, Miroslava; Powell, Barry Kay

    2000-12-26

    A hybrid powertrain for a vehicle comprising a diesel engine and an electric motor in a parallel arrangement with a multiple ratio transmission located on the torque output side of the diesel engine, final drive gearing connecting drivably the output shaft of transmission to traction wheels of the vehicle, and an electric motor drivably coupled to the final drive gearing. A powertrain controller schedules fuel delivered to the diesel engine and effects a split of the total power available, a portion of the power being delivered by the diesel and the balance of the power being delivered by the motor. A shifting schedule for the multiple ratio transmission makes it possible for establishing a proportional relationship between accelerator pedal movement and torque desired at the wheels. The control strategy for the powertrain maintains drivability of the vehicle that resembles drivability of a conventional spark ignition vehicle engine powertrain while achieving improved fuel efficiency and low exhaust gas emissions.

  5. Hybrid Systems Diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McIlraith, Sheila; Biswas, Gautam; Clancy, Dan; Gupta, Vineet

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on an on-going Project to investigate techniques to diagnose complex dynamical systems that are modeled as hybrid systems. In particular, we examine continuous systems with embedded supervisory controllers that experience abrupt, partial or full failure of component devices. We cast the diagnosis problem as a model selection problem. To reduce the space of potential models under consideration, we exploit techniques from qualitative reasoning to conjecture an initial set of qualitative candidate diagnoses, which induce a smaller set of models. We refine these diagnoses using parameter estimation and model fitting techniques. As a motivating case study, we have examined the problem of diagnosing NASA's Sprint AERCam, a small spherical robotic camera unit with 12 thrusters that enable both linear and rotational motion.

  6. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley Miller; Rich Gebert; William Swanson

    1999-11-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a manner that has not been done before. The AHPC concept consists of a combination of fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC is currently being tested at the 2.7-MW scale at the Big Stone power station.

  7. Supersymmetric Hybrid Inflation Redux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Mansoor Ur; Shafi, Qaisar; Wickman, Joshua R.

    2010-02-01

    We discuss the important role played during inflation by one of the soft supersymmetry breaking terms in the inflationary potential of supersymmetric hybrid inflation models. With minimal Kahler potential, the inclusion of this term allows the prediction for the scalar spectral index to agree with the value ns = 0.963^+0.014 -0.015 found by WMAP5. In the absence of this soft term, and by taking into account only radiative and supergravity corrections, it is well known that ns >= 0.985. This same soft term has previously been shown to play a key role in resolving the MSSM μ problem. The tensor to scalar ratio r is quite small in these models, taking on values r <= 10-5 in the WMAP5 2σ range of ns. )

  8. Hybrid Natural Inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Graham G.; Germán, Gabriel; Vázquez, J. Alberto

    2016-05-01

    We construct two simple effective field theory versions of Hybrid Natural Inflation (HNI) that illustrate the range of its phenomenological implications. The resulting inflationary sector potential, V = Δ4(1 + acos( ϕ/f)), arises naturally, with the inflaton field a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson. The end of inflation is triggered by a waterfall field and the conditions for this to happen are determined. Also of interest is the fact that the slow-roll parameter ɛ (and hence the tensor r) is a non-monotonic function of the field with a maximum where observables take universal values that determines the maximum possible tensor to scalar ratio r. In one of the models the inflationary scale can be as low as the electroweak scale. We explore in detail the associated HNI phenomenology, taking account of the constraints from Black Hole production, and perform a detailed fit to the Planck 2015 temperature and polarisation data.

  9. Hybrid Heat Exchangers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tu, Jianping Gene; Shih, Wei

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid light-weight heat exchanger concept has been developed that uses high-conductivity carbon-carbon (C-C) composites as the heat-transfer fins and uses conventional high-temperature metals, such as Inconel, nickel, and titanium as the parting sheets to meet leakage and structural requirements. In order to maximize thermal conductivity, the majority of carbon fiber is aligned in the fin direction resulting in 300 W/m.K or higher conductivity in the fin directions. As a result of this fiber orientation, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the C-C composite in both non-fiber directions matches well with the CTE of various high-temperature metal alloys. This allows the joining of fins and parting sheets by using high-temperature braze alloys.

  10. Photochromic mesoporous hybrid coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raboin, L.; Matheron, M.; Gacoin, T.; Boilot, J.-P.

    2008-09-01

    Spirooxazine (SO) photochromic molecules were trapped in sol-gel matrices. In order to increase the colourability and improve mechanical properties of sol-gel photochromic films, we present an original strategy in which SO photochromic molecules were dispersed in mesoporous organized films using the impregnation technique. Well-ordered organosilicate mesoporous coatings with the 3D-hexagonal symmetry were prepared by the sol-gel technique. These robust mesoporous films, which contain high amounts of hydrophobic methyl groups at the pore surface, offer optimized environments for photochromic dyes dispersed by impregnation technique. After impregnation by a spirooxazine solution, the photochromic response is only slightly slower when compared with mesostructured or soft sol-gel matrices, showing that mesoporous organized hybrid matrix are good host for photochromic dyes. Moreover, the molecular loading in films is easily adjustable in a large range using multi-impregnation procedure and increasing the film thickness leading to coatings for optical switching devices.

  11. Recognition Using Hybrid Classifiers.

    PubMed

    Osadchy, Margarita; Keren, Daniel; Raviv, Dolev

    2016-04-01

    A canonical problem in computer vision is category recognition (e.g., find all instances of human faces, cars etc., in an image). Typically, the input for training a binary classifier is a relatively small sample of positive examples, and a huge sample of negative examples, which can be very diverse, consisting of images from a large number of categories. The difficulty of the problem sharply increases with the dimension and size of the negative example set. We propose to alleviate this problem by applying a "hybrid" classifier, which replaces the negative samples by a prior, and then finds a hyperplane which separates the positive samples from this prior. The method is extended to kernel space and to an ensemble-based approach. The resulting binary classifiers achieve an identical or better classification rate than SVM, while requiring far smaller memory and lower computational complexity to train and apply.

  12. Hybrid powertrain system

    SciTech Connect

    Grillo, Ricardo C.; O'Neil, Walter K.; Preston, David M.

    2005-09-20

    A hybrid powertrain system is provided that includes a first prime mover having a rotational output, a second prime mover having a rotational output, and a transmission having a main shaft supporting at least two main shaft gears thereon. The transmission includes a first independent countershaft drivingly connected to the first prime mover and including at least one ratio gear supported thereon that meshes with a respective main shaft gear. A second independent countershaft is drivingly connected to the second prime mover and includes at least one ratio gear supported thereon that meshes with a respective main shaft gear. The ratio gears on the first and second countershafts cooperate with the main shaft gears to provide at least one gear ratio between the first and second countershafts and the main shaft. A shift control mechanism selectively engages and disengages the first and second countershafts for rotation with the main shaft.

  13. Hybrid Electric Transit Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    A government, industry, and university cooperative is developing an advanced hybrid electric city transit bus. Goals of this effort include doubling the fuel economy compared to current buses and reducing emissions to one-tenth of current EPA standards. Unique aspects of the vehicle's power system include the use of ultra-capacitors as an energy storage system, and a planned natural gas fueled turbogenerator developed from a small jet engine. Power from both the generator and energy storage system is provided to a variable speed electric motor attached to the rear axle. At over 15000 kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle of its kind ever built using ultra-capacitor energy storage. This paper describes the overall power system architecture, the evolution of the control strategy, and its performance over industry standard drive cycles.

  14. Hybridized polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henshaw, J.

    1983-01-01

    Methods of improving the fire resistance of graphite epoxy composite laminates were investigated with the objective of reducing the volume of loose graphite fibers disseminated into the airstream as the result of a high intensity aircraft fuel fire. Improvements were sought by modifying the standard graphite epoxy systems without significantly negating their structural effectiveness. The modifications consisted primarily of an addition of a third constituent material such as glass fibers, glass flakes, carbon black in a glassy resin. These additions were designed to encourage coalescense of the graphite fibers and thereby reduce their aerodynamic float characteristics. A total of 38 fire tests were conducted on thin (1.0 mm) and thick (6.0 mm) hybrid panels.

  15. Hybrid vehicle control

    DOEpatents

    Shallvari, Iva; Velnati, Sashidhar; DeGroot, Kenneth P.

    2015-07-28

    A method and apparatus for heating a catalytic converter's catalyst to an efficient operating temperature in a hybrid electric vehicle when the vehicle is in a charge limited mode such as e.g., the charge depleting mode or when the vehicle's high voltage battery is otherwise charge limited. The method and apparatus determine whether a high voltage battery of the vehicle is incapable of accepting a first amount of charge associated with a first procedure to warm-up the catalyst. If it is determined that the high voltage battery is incapable of accepting the first amount of charge, a second procedure with an acceptable amount of charge is performed to warm-up the catalyst.

  16. Hybrid Filter Membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of

  17. Metabolic prediction of important agronomic traits in hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Dan, Zhiwu; Hu, Jun; Zhou, Wei; Yao, Guoxin; Zhu, Renshan; Zhu, Yingguo; Huang, Wenchao

    2016-02-24

    Hybrid crops have contributed greatly to improvements in global food and fodder production over the past several decades. Nevertheless, the growing population and changing climate have produced food crises and energy shortages. Breeding new elite hybrid varieties is currently an urgent task, but present breeding procedures are time-consuming and labour-intensive. In this study, parental metabolic information was utilized to predict three polygenic traits in hybrid rice. A complete diallel cross population consisting of eighteen rice inbred lines was constructed, and the hybrids' plant height, heading date and grain yield per plant were predicted using 525 metabolites. Metabolic prediction models were built using the partial least square regression method, with predictive abilities ranging from 0.858 to 0.977 for the hybrid phenotypes, relative heterosis, and specific combining ability. Only slight changes in predictive ability were observed between hybrid populations, and nearly no changes were detected between reciprocal hybrids. The outcomes of prediction of the three highly polygenic traits demonstrated that metabolic prediction was an accurate (high predictive abilities) and efficient (unaffected by population genetic structures) strategy for screening promising superior hybrid rice. Exploitation of this pre-hybridization strategy may contribute to rice production improvement and accelerate breeding programs.

  18. Understanding the Role of Social, Teaching and Cognitive Presence in Hybrid Courses: Student Perspectives on Learning and Pedagogical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voegele, Janelle DeCarrico

    2012-01-01

    The use of hybrid learning (a blend of face-to-face and distance learning) is rapidly increasing in higher education. However, educational leaders have raised concerns about the proliferation of hybrid programming as an efficiency measure without appropriate attention to learning. This study examined the relationship between social, teaching and…

  19. Hybridization increases invasive knotweed success

    PubMed Central

    Parepa, Madalin; Fischer, Markus; Krebs, Christine; Bossdorf, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Hybridization is one of the fundamental mechanisms by which rapid evolution can occur in exotic species. If hybrids show increased vigour, this could significantly contribute to invasion success. Here, we compared the success of the two invasive knotweeds, Fallopia japonica and F. sachalinensis, and their hybrid, F. × bohemica, in competing against experimental communities of native plants. Using plant material from multiple clones of each taxon collected across a latitudinal gradient in Central Europe, we found that knotweed hybrids performed significantly better in competition with a native community and that they more strongly reduced the growth of the native plants. One of the parental species, F. sachalinensis, regenerated significantly less well from rhizomes, and this difference disappeared if activated carbon was added to the substrate, which suggests allelopathic inhibition of F. sachalinensis regeneration by native plants. We found substantial within-taxon variation in competitive success in all knotweed taxa, but variation was generally greatest in the hybrid. Interestingly, there was also significant variation within the genetically uniform F. japonica, possibly reflecting epigenetic differences. Our study shows that invasive knotweed hybrids are indeed more competitive than their parents and that hybridization increased the invasiveness of the exotic knotweed complex. PMID:24665343

  20. Evaluation of the 2007 Toyota Camry Hybrid Synergy Drive System

    SciTech Connect

    Burress, T A; Coomer, C L; Campbell, S L; Seiber, L E; Marlino, L D; Staunton, R H; Cunningham, J P

    2008-04-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and American automotive manufacturers General Motors, Ford, and DaimlerChrysler began a five-year, cost-shared partnership in 1993. Currently, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) research and development is conducted by DOE through its FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program. The mission of the FCVT program is to develop more energy efficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies. Program activities include research, development, demonstration, testing, technology validation, and technology transfer. These activities are aimed at developing technologies that can be domestically produced in a clean and cost-competitive manner. Under the FCVT program, support is provided through a three-phase approach [1] which is intended to: • Identify overall propulsion and vehicle-related needs by analyzing programmatic goals and reviewing industry’s recommendations and requirements, then develop the appropriate technical targets for systems, subsystems, and component research and development activities; • Develop and validate individual subsystems and components, including electric motors, emission control devices, battery systems, power electronics, accessories, and devices to reduce parasitic losses; and • Determine how well the components and subassemblies work together in a vehicle environment or as a complete propulsion system and whether the efficiency and performance targets at the vehicle level have been achieved. The research performed in this area will help remove technical and cost barriers to enable technology for use in such advanced vehicles as hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric, electric, and fuel-cell-powered vehicles.

  1. High power battery test methods for hybrid vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, G.L.; Haskins, H.; Heinrich, B.; Sutula, R.

    1997-11-01

    Commonly used EV battery tests are not very suitable for testing hybrid vehicle batteries, which may be primarily intended to supply vehicle acceleration power. The capacity of hybrid vehicle batteries will be relatively small, they will typically operate over a restricted range of states-of-charge, and they may seldom if ever be fully recharged. Further, hybrid propulsion system designs will commonly impose a higher regeneration content than is typical for electric vehicles. New test methods have been developed for use in characterizing battery performance and life for hybrid vehicle use. The procedures described in this paper were developed from the requirements of the government-industry cooperative Partnership for A New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program; however, they are expected to have broad application to the testing of energy storage devices for hybrid vehicles. The most important performance measure for a high power battery is its pulse power capability as a function of state-of-charge for both discharge and regeneration pulses. It is also important to characterize cycle life, although the {open_quote}cycles{close_quote} involved are quite different from the conventional full-discharge, full-recharge cycle commonly used for EV batteries, This paper illustrates in detail several test profiles which have been selected for PNGV battery testing, along with some sample results and lessons learned to date from the use of these test profiles. The relationship between the PNGV energy storage requirements and these tests is described so that application of the test methods can be made to other hybrid vehicle performance requirements as well. The resulting test procedures can be used to characterize the pulse power capability of high power energy storage devices including batteries and ultracapacitors, as well as the life expectancy of such devices, for either power assist or dual mode hybrid propulsion system designs.

  2. Hybrid codes: Methods and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Winske, D. ); Omidi, N. )

    1991-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss hybrid'' algorithms used in the study of low frequency electromagnetic phenomena, where one or more ion species are treated kinetically via standard PIC methods used in particle codes and the electrons are treated as a single charge neutralizing massless fluid. Other types of hybrid models are possible, as discussed in Winske and Quest, but hybrid codes with particle ions and massless fluid electrons have become the most common for simulating space plasma physics phenomena in the last decade, as we discuss in this paper.

  3. Hybrid Bearing Prognostic Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Certo, Joseph M.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Dimofte, Florin

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has developed a new Hybrid Bearing Prognostic Test Rig to evaluate the performance of sensors and algorithms in predicting failures of rolling element bearings for aeronautics and space applications. The failure progression of both conventional and hybrid (ceramic rolling elements, metal races) bearings can be tested from fault initiation to total failure. The effects of different lubricants on bearing life can also be evaluated. Test conditions monitored and recorded during the test include load, oil temperature, vibration, and oil debris. New diagnostic research instrumentation will also be evaluated for hybrid bearing damage detection. This paper summarizes the capabilities of this new test rig.

  4. Triplex in-situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Fresco, Jacques R.; Johnson, Marion D.

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed are methods for detecting in situ the presence of a target sequence in a substantially double-stranded nucleic acid segment, which comprises: a) contacting in situ under conditions suitable for hybridization a substantially double-stranded nucleic acid segment with a detectable third strand, said third strand being capable of hybridizing to at least a portion of the target sequence to form a triple-stranded structure, if said target sequence is present; and b) detecting whether hybridization between the third strand and the target sequence has occured.

  5. Innovation in Doctoral Degrees Designed for Adult Learners: A Hybrid Model in Personal Financial Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grable, John E.

    2011-01-01

    Innovation in doctoral degree program development and delivery provides an effective counterpoint to the expert-apprentice model established in the Middle Ages. The author outlines the importance of innovation in reaching adult learners and describes an innovative hybrid PhD program designed to allow aspiring doctoral adult-age students to pursue…

  6. Flexible substructure online hybrid test system using conventional testing devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Nakashima, Masayoshi

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a substructure online hybrid test system that is extensible for geographically distributed tests. This system consists of a set of devices conventionally used for cyclic tests to load the tested substructures onto the target displacement or the target force. Due to their robustness and portability, individual sets of conventional loading devices can be transported and reconfigured to realize physical loading in geographically remote laboratories. Another appealing feature is the flexible displacement-force mixed control that is particularly suitable for specimens having large disparities in stiffness during various performance stages. To conduct a substructure online hybrid test, an extensible framework is developed, which is equipped with a generalized interface to encapsulate each substructure. Multiple tested substructures and analyzed substructures using various structural program codes can be accommodated within the single framework, simply interfaced with the boundary displacements and forces. A coordinator program is developed to keep the boundaries among all substructures compatible and equilibrated. An Internet-based data exchange scheme is also devised to transfer data among computers equipped with different software environments. A series of online hybrid tests are introduced, and the portability, flexibility, and extensibility of the online hybrid test system are demonstrated.

  7. Inheritance patterns of enzymes and serum proteins of mallard-black duck hybrids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, R.P.; Meritt, D.W.; Block, S.B.; Cole, M.A.; Sulkin, S.T.; Lee, F.B.; Henny, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    From 1974 to 1976, a breeding program was used to produce hybrids of black ducks and mallards for the evaluation of inheritance patterns of serum proteins and serum, liver and muscle enzymes. In addition to the crosses designed to produce hybrids, a series of matings in 1975 and 1976 were designed to evaluate inheritance patterns of a hybrid with either a black duck or mallard. At the F1 level, hybrids were easily distinguished using serum proteins. However, once a hybrid was crossed back to either a mallard or black duck, only 12?23% of the progeny were distinguishable from black ducks or mallards using serum proteins and 23?39% using esterases. Muscle, serum and liver enzymes were similar between the two species.

  8. Real-time simulation of the TF30-P-3 turbofan engine using a hybrid computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szuch, J. R.; Bruton, W. M.

    1974-01-01

    A real-time, hybrid-computer simulation of the TF30-P-3 turbofan engine was developed. The simulation was primarily analog in nature but used the digital portion of the hybrid computer to perform bivariate function generation associated with the performance of the engine's rotating components. FORTRAN listings and analog patching diagrams are provided. The hybrid simulation was controlled by a digital computer programmed to simulate the engine's standard hydromechanical control. Both steady-state and dynamic data obtained from the digitally controlled engine simulation are presented. Hybrid simulation data are compared with data obtained from a digital simulation provided by the engine manufacturer. The comparisons indicate that the real-time hybrid simulation adequately matches the baseline digital simulation.

  9. Economics and performance of PV hybrid power systems: Three case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, A.L.; Durand, S.J.; Thomas, M.G.; Post, H.N.

    1998-07-01

    The Photovoltaic Systems Assistance Center (PVSAC) of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been supporting the development and implementation of off-grid PV hybrid power systems for many years. Technical support has included: refining hardware; understanding system design techniques; obtaining operation and maintenance data; studying use of energy produced. As part of the program, the PVSAC has provided technical expertise on hybrid systems to many federal agencies including the National Park Service, the Forest Service, the Bureau of Land Management, and the Department of Defense. The goal of these partnerships has been to ensure that reliable and safe PV hybrid systems are specified and procured. At present, a critical review of performance and costs of several representative PV hybrid systems is underway. This paper presents a summary of the performance and economical analyses conducted on three PV hybrid systems.

  10. Inheritance patterns of enzymes and serum proteins of mallard-black duck hybrids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, R.P.; Meritt, D.W.; Block, S.B.; Cole, M.

    1984-01-01

    From 1974 to 1976, a breeding program was used to produce hybrids of black ducks and mallards for the evaluation of inheritance patterns of serum proteins and serum, liver and muscle enzymes. In addition to the crosses designed to produce hybrids, a series of matings in 1975 and 1976 were designed to evaluate inheritance patterns of a hybrid with either a black duck or mallard. At the F1 level, hybrids were easily distinguished using serum proteins. However, once a hybrid was crossed back to either a mallard or black duck, only 12-23% of the progeny were distinguishable from black ducks or mallards using serum proteins and 23-39% using esterases. Muscle, serum and liver enzymes were similar between the two species.

  11. Hybrid Inflatable Pressure Vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raboin, Jasen; Valle, Gerard D.; Edeen, Gregg; DeLaFuente, Horacio M.; Schneider, William C.; Spexarth, Gary R.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Pandya, Shalini

    2004-01-01

    Figure 1 shows a prototype of a large pressure vessel under development for eventual use as a habitable module for long spaceflight (e.g., for transporting humans to Mars). The vessel is a hybrid that comprises an inflatable shell attached to a rigid central structural core. The inflatable shell is, itself, a hybrid that comprises (1) a pressure bladder restrained against expansion by (2) a web of straps made from high-strength polymeric fabrics. On Earth, pressure vessels like this could be used, for example, as portable habitats that could be set up quickly in remote locations, portable hyperbaric chambers for treatment of decompression sickness, or flotation devices for offshore platforms. In addition, some aspects of the design of the fabric straps could be adapted to such other items as lifting straps, parachute straps, and automotive safety belts. Figure 2 depicts selected aspects of the design of a vessel of this type with a toroidal configuration. The bladder serves as an impermeable layer to keep air within the pressure vessel and, for this purpose, is sealed to the central structural core. The web includes longitudinal and circumferential straps. To help maintain the proper shape upon inflation after storage, longitudinal and circumferential straps are indexed together at several of their intersections. Because the web is not required to provide a pressure seal and the bladder is not required to sustain structural loads, the bladder and the web can be optimized for their respective functions. Thus, the bladder can be sealed directly to the rigid core without having to include the web in the seal substructure, and the web can be designed for strength. The ends of the longitudinal straps are attached to the ends of the rigid structural core by means of clevises. Each clevis pin is surrounded by a roller, around which a longitudinal strap is wrapped to form a lap seam with itself. The roller is of a large diameter chosen to reduce bending of the fibers in

  12. How common is homoploid hybrid speciation?

    PubMed

    Schumer, Molly; Rosenthal, Gil G; Andolfatto, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Hybridization has long been considered a process that prevents divergence between species. In contrast to this historical view, an increasing number of empirical studies claim to show evidence for hybrid speciation without a ploidy change. However, the importance of hybridization as a route to speciation is poorly understood, and many claims have been made with insufficient evidence that hybridization played a role in the speciation process. We propose criteria to determine the strength of evidence for homoploid hybrid speciation. Based on an evaluation of the literature using this framework, we conclude that although hybridization appears to be common, evidence for an important role of hybridization in homoploid speciation is more circumscribed.

  13. Hybrid Fuel Cell Technology Overview

    SciTech Connect

    None available

    2001-05-31

    For the purpose of this STI product and unless otherwise stated, hybrid fuel cell systems are power generation systems in which a high temperature fuel cell is combined with another power generating technology. The resulting system exhibits a synergism in which the combination performs with an efficiency far greater than can be provided by either system alone. Hybrid fuel cell designs under development include fuel cell with gas turbine, fuel cell with reciprocating (piston) engine, and designs that combine different fuel cell technologies. Hybrid systems have been extensively analyzed and studied over the past five years by the Department of Energy (DOE), industry, and others. These efforts have revealed that this combination is capable of providing remarkably high efficiencies. This attribute, combined with an inherent low level of pollutant emission, suggests that hybrid systems are likely to serve as the next generation of advanced power generation systems.

  14. Damage of hybrid composite laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haery, Haleh A.; Kim, Ho Sung

    2013-08-01

    Hybrid laminates consisting of woven glass fabric/epoxy composite plies and woven carbon fabric/epoxy composite plies are studied for fatigue damage and residual strength. A theoretical framework based on the systems approach is proposed as a guide to deal with the complexity involving uncertainties and a large number of variables in the hybrid composite system. A relative damage sensitivity factor expression was developed for quantitative comparisons between non-hybrid and hybrid composites. Hypotheses derived from the theoretical framework were tested and verified. The first hypothesis was that the difference between two different sets of properties produces shear stress in interface between carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CRP) and glass fibre reinforced plastics (GRP), and eventually become a source for CRP/GRP interfacial delamination or longitudinal cracking. The second hypothesis was that inter-fibre bundle delamination occurs more severely to CRP sub-system than GRP sub-system.

  15. Accelerated hybrid-circuit production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, J. E.; Dassele, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    Modified die-bonding machine speeds up hybrid-circuit production. Utilizing two pedestals, one for die tray and another for substrate tray, increased production and decreased error-margin are possible.

  16. Real and Hybrid Atomic Orbitals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, D. B.; Fowler, P. W.

    1981-01-01

    Demonstrates that the Schrodinger equation for the hydrogenlike atom separates in both spheroconal and prolate spheroidal coordinates and that these separations provide a sound theoretical basis for the real and hybrid atomic orbitals. (Author/SK)

  17. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  18. Hybrid Electro-Optic Processor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    This report describes the design of a hybrid electro - optic processor to perform adaptive interference cancellation in radar systems. The processor is...modulator is reported. Included is this report is a discussion of the design, partial fabrication in the laboratory, and partial testing of the hybrid electro ... optic processor. A follow on effort is planned to complete the construction and testing of the processor. The work described in this report is the

  19. Hybrid particles and associated methods

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Robert V; Rodriguez, Rene; Pak, Joshua J; Sun, Chivin

    2015-02-10

    Hybrid particles that comprise a coating surrounding a chalcopyrite material, the coating comprising a metal, a semiconductive material, or a polymer; a core comprising a chalcopyrite material and a shell comprising a functionalized chalcopyrite material, the shell enveloping the core; or a reaction product of a chalcopyrite material and at least one of a reagent, heat, and radiation. Methods of forming the hybrid particles are also disclosed.

  20. Fabricating a hybrid imaging device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wadsworth, Mark (Inventor); Atlas, Gene (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A hybrid detector or imager includes two substrates fabricated under incompatible processes. An array of detectors, such as charged-coupled devices, are formed on the first substrate using a CCD fabrication process, such as a buried channel or peristaltic process. One or more charge-converting amplifiers are formed on a second substrate using a CMOS fabrication process. The two substrates are then bonded together to form a hybrid detector.

  1. 2011 Hyundai Sonata 4932 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid HEV (VIN KMHEC4A43BA004932). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  2. New shifted hybrid inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeannerot, Rachel; Khalil, Shaaban; Lazarides, George

    2002-07-01

    A new shifted hybrid inflationary scenario is introduced which, in contrast to the older one, relies only on renormalizable superpotential terms. This scenario is automatically realized in a concrete extension of the `minimal' supersymmetric Pati-Salam model which naturally leads to a moderate violation of Yukawa unification so that, for μ>0, the predicted b-quark mass is acceptable even with universal boundary conditions. It is shown that this extended model possesses a classically flat `shifted' trajectory which acquires a slope via one-loop radiative corrections and can be used as inflationary path. The constraints from the cosmic background explorer can be met with natural values of the relevant parameters. Also, there is no disastrous production of magnetic monopoles after inflation since the Pati-Salam gauge group is already broken on the `shifted' path. The relevant part of inflation takes place at values of the inflaton field which are not much smaller than the `reduced' Planck scale and, thus, supergravity corrections could easily invalidate inflation. It is, however, shown that inflation can be kept intact provided that an extra gauge singlet with a superheavy vacuum expectation value, which originates from D-terms, is introduced and a specific form of the Kähler potential is used. Moreover, it is found that, although the supergravity corrections are sizable, the constraints from the cosmic background explorer can again be met by readjusting the values of the parameters which were obtained with global supersymmetry.

  3. Hybrid manifold embedding.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Yan; Chan, Keith C C; Hua, Kien A

    2014-12-01

    In this brief, we present a novel supervised manifold learning framework dubbed hybrid manifold embedding (HyME). Unlike most of the existing supervised manifold learning algorithms that give linear explicit mapping functions, the HyME aims to provide a more general nonlinear explicit mapping function by performing a two-layer learning procedure. In the first layer, a new clustering strategy called geodesic clustering is proposed to divide the original data set into several subsets with minimum nonlinearity. In the second layer, a supervised dimensionality reduction scheme called locally conjugate discriminant projection is performed on each subset for maximizing the discriminant information and minimizing the dimension redundancy simultaneously in the reduced low-dimensional space. By integrating these two layers in a unified mapping function, a supervised manifold embedding framework is established to describe both global and local manifold structure as well as to preserve the discriminative ability in the learned subspace. Experiments on various data sets validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Wei-Kan

    1995-04-01

    Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings (HSMB's) utilize high temperature superconductors (HTS's) together with permanent magnets to form a frictionless interface between relatively rotating parts. They are low mass, stable, and do not incur expenditure of energy during normal operation. There is no direct physical contact between rotor and stator, and hence there is no wear and tear. However, just as any other applications of HTS's, it requires a very cold temperature to function. Whereas this might be perceived as a disadvantage on earth, it is of no great concern in space or on the moon. To astronomers, the moon is an excellent site for an observatory, but the cold and dusty vacuum environment on the moon precludes the use of mechanical bearings on the telescope mounts. Furthermore, drive mechanisms with very fine steps, and hence bearings with extremely low friction are needed to track a star from the moon, because the moon rotates very slowly. All aspects considered, the HSMB is about the only candidate that fits in naturally. Here, we present a design for one such bearing, capable of supporting a telescope that weighs about 3 lbs on Earth.

  5. Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Wei-Kan

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings (HSMB's) utilize high temperature superconductors (HTS's) together with permanent magnets to form a frictionless interface between relatively rotating parts. They are low mass, stable, and do not incur expenditure of energy during normal operation. There is no direct physical contact between rotor and stator, and hence there is no wear and tear. However, just as any other applications of HTS's, it requires a very cold temperature to function. Whereas this might be perceived as a disadvantage on earth, it is of no great concern in space or on the moon. To astronomers, the moon is an excellent site for an observatory, but the cold and dusty vacuum environment on the moon precludes the use of mechanical bearings on the telescope mounts. Furthermore, drive mechanisms with very fine steps, and hence bearings with extremely low friction are needed to track a star from the moon, because the moon rotates very slowly. All aspects considered, the HSMB is about the only candidate that fits in naturally. Here, we present a design for one such bearing, capable of supporting a telescope that weighs about 3 lbs on Earth.

  6. Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, W.

    1995-04-01

    Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings (HSMB`s) utilize high temperature superconductors (HTS`s) together with permanent magnets to form a frictionless interface between relatively rotating parts. They are low mass, stable, and do not incur expenditure of energy during normal operation. There is no direct physical contact between rotor and stator, and hence there is no wear and tear. However, just as any other applications of HTS`s, it requires a very cold temperature to function. Whereas this might be perceived as a disadvantage on earth, it is of no great concern in space or on the moon. To astronomers, the moon is an excellent site for an observatory, but the cold and dusty vacuum environment on the moon precludes the use of mechanical bearings on the telescope mounts. Furthermore, drive mechanisms with very fine steps, and hence bearings with extremely low friction are needed to track a star from the moon, because the moon rotates very slowly. All aspects considered, the HSMB is about the only candidate that fits in naturally. Here, the authors present a design for one such bearing, capable of supporting a telescope that weighs about 3 lbs on Earth.

  7. Hybrid power source

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Harmohan N.

    2012-06-05

    A hybrid power system is comprised of a high energy density element such as a fuel-cell and high power density elements such as a supercapacitor banks. A DC/DC converter electrically connected to the fuel cell and converting the energy level of the energy supplied by the fuel cell. A first switch is electrically connected to the DC/DC converter. First and second supercapacitors are electrically connected to the first switch and a second switch. A controller is connected to the first switch and the second switch, monitoring charge levels of the supercapacitors and controls the switching in response to the charge levels. A load is electrically connected to the second switch. The first switch connects the DC/DC converter to the first supercapacitor when the second switch connects the second supercapacitor to the load. The first switch connects the DC/DC converter to the second supercapacitor when the second switch connects the first supercapacitor to the load.

  8. Hybrid cluster identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Herrero, J.

    2004-10-01

    I present a hybrid method for the labelling of clusters in two-dimensional lattices, which combines the recursive approach with iterative scanning to reduce the stack size required by the pure recursive technique, while keeping its benefits: single pass and straightforward cluster characterization and percolation detection parallel to the labelling. While the capacity to hold the entire lattice in memory is usually regarded as the major constraint for the applicability of the recursive technique, the required stack size is the real limiting factor. Resorting to recursion only for the transverse direction greatly reduces the recursion depth and therefore the required stack. It also enhances the overall performance of the recursive technique, as is shown by results on a set of uniform random binary lattices and on a set of samples of the Ising model. I also show how this technique may replace the recursive technique in Wolff's cluster algorithm, decreasing the risk of stack overflow and increasing its speed, and the Hoshen-Kopelman algorithm in the Swendsen-Wang cluster algorithm, allowing effortless characterization during generation of the samples and increasing its speed.

  9. Survey of lower hybrid experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Porkolab, M.

    1983-05-01

    Recent developments in lower hybrid experiments are discussed. While a decade ago there were many small scale experiments which verified the fundamental aspects of wave propagation near and above the lower hybrid frequency, more recently the greatest interest has been in using lower hybrid waves to heat the plasma, and to drive currents in toroidal devices. While in the mid 70's lower hybrid heating experiments in tokamaks were carried out at the 100 to 200 kW level, in recent experiments powers up to 1 MW have been injected in the Alcator C tokamak at MIT. Also, while the earlier lower hybrid experiments concentrated on the ion heating regime (..omega.. approx. = ..omega../sub LH/), in the more recent experiments the electron heating regime (..omega.. greater than or equal to 2..omega../sub LH/) and the current drive regime (..omega.. > 2..omega../sub LH/) has been explored to a greater extent. The reason for this is that bulk ion heating near the mode conversion layer appears to be less reproducible and more difficult to achieve than electron heating (and concommitant collisional bulk ion heating). While the reason for this is not well understood, it is likely that as the wave frequency gets closer to the lower hybrid frequency the shorter wavelength waves may be more effectively absorbed and/or scattered near the plasma surface by nonlinear effects (parametric instabilities, low frequency fluctuations, etc.). Toroidal effects may further enhance such mechanisms.

  10. Ecological context shapes hybridization dynamics.

    PubMed

    Buerkle, C Alex

    2009-05-01

    Gene exchange among oak species (Quercus) in Europe is known to be pervasive and to complicate population genetic studies of this species complex. A study in this issue of Molecular Ecology adds geographical and stand-level resolution to the patterns of genetic variation among four species and documents the relatively high frequency of hybrids (10.7-30.5% of trees in a population, including hybrids between all pairs of species; Lepais et al. 2009). In addition, the authors show that the relative abundance of parental species affects the genetic composition of hybrids and shifts the average direction of introgression. Variation in the relative abundance of parental species is one example of how the ecological context of hybridization can influence the dynamics and outcome of contact between species and represents an opportunity to investigate the components of reproductive isolation between species. This research raises several questions about the dynamics of hybridization in this well-studied species complex, and highlights methodological and conceptual issues associated with contemporary research on hybridization.

  11. Hybrid techniques for complex aerospace electromagnetics problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aberle, Jim

    1993-01-01

    Important aerospace electromagnetics problems include the evaluation of antenna performance on aircraft and the prediction and control of the aircraft's electromagnetic signature. Due to the ever increasing complexity and expense of aircraft design, aerospace engineers have become increasingly dependent on computer solutions. Traditionally, computational electromagnetics (CEM) has relied primarily on four disparate techniques: the method of moments (MoM), the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique, the finite element method (FEM), and high frequency asymptotic techniques (HFAT) such as ray tracing. Each of these techniques has distinct advantages and disadvantages, and no single technique is capable of accurately solving all problems of interest on computers that are available now or will be available in the foreseeable future. As a result, new approaches that overcome the deficiencies of traditional techniques are beginning to attract a great deal of interest in the CEM community. Among these new approaches are hybrid methods which combine two or more of these techniques into a coherent model. During the ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program a hybrid FEM/MoM computer code was developed and applied to a geometry containing features found on many modern aircraft.

  12. Flexible Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Memory.

    PubMed

    Gu, Chungwan; Lee, Jang-Sik

    2016-05-24

    Active research has been done on hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite materials for application to solar cells with high power conversion efficiency. However, this material often shows hysteresis, which is undesirable, shift in the current-voltage curve. The hysteresis may come from formation of defects and their movement in perovskite materials. Here, we utilize the defects in perovskite materials to be used in memory operations. We demonstrate flexible nonvolatile memory devices based on hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite as the resistive switching layer on a plastic substrate. A uniform perovskite layer is formed on a transparent electrode-coated plastic substrate by solvent engineering. Flexible nonvolatile memory based on the perovskite layer shows reproducible and reliable memory characteristics in terms of program/erase operations, data retention, and endurance properties. The memory devices also show good mechanical flexibility. It is suggested that resistive switching is done by migration of vacancy defects and formation of conducting filaments under the electric field in the perovskite layer. It is believed that organic-inorganic perovskite materials have great potential to be used in high-performance, flexible memory devices.

  13. Saw + LMJ: a hybrid semiconductor dicing solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richerzhagen, Bernold; Plankensteiner, Martin; Kling, Notker U.; Stay, Keith; Brulé, Arnaud

    2008-02-01

    The concept of combining the Laser MicroJet (R) (LMJ) water jet-guided laser with a standard industrial diamond blade saw was first proposed early in 2006. The idea has now been taken a step forward with a joint project between Synova SA and Disco Hi-Tech Europe GmbH. The hybrid machine being developed integrates an LMJ module in place of the second blade saw on a Disco dual-spindle machine. The resulting machine will be fully capable of sequencing the different processes to carry out dicing of complex and layered semiconductors wafer, in any possible combination. It will be possible to program both processes to run independently in parallel or allow sequential operation during the same cutting pass. This extraordinary flexibility, combined with the speed advantages, quality of material cutting and simplification in processing in a fully automatic mode for up to 300 mm wafers, all now available in a single machine, will greatly benefit the manufacturing community. This paper will provide some insight into the design and operation of the hybrid machine and some examples of the improvements gained from its use.

  14. Nitrous oxide cooling in hybrid rocket nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemieux, Patrick

    2010-02-01

    The Department of Mechanical Engineering at the California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, has developed an innovative program of experimental research and development on hybrid rocket motors (where the fuel and the oxidizer are in different phases prior to combustion). One project currently underway involves the development of aerospike nozzles for such motors. These nozzles, however, are even more susceptible to throat ablation than regular converging-diverging nozzles, due the nature of their flow expansion mechanism. This paper presents the result of a recent development project focused on reducing throat ablation in hybrid rocket motor nozzles. Although the method is specifically targeted at increasing the life and operating range of aerospike nozzles, this paper describes its proof-of-concept implementation on conventional nozzles. The method is based on a regenerative cooling mechanism that differs in practice from that used in liquid propellant motors. A series of experimental tests demonstrate that this new method is not only effective at reducing damage in the most ablative region of the nozzle, but that the nozzle can survive multiple test runs.

  15. Moisture and Structural Analysis for High Performance Hybrid Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Grin, A.; Lstiburek, J.

    2012-09-01

    Based on past experience in the Building America program, BSC has found that combinations of materials and approaches—in other words, systems—usually provide optimum performance. Integration is necessary, as described in this research project. The hybrid walls analyzed utilize a combination of exterior insulation, diagonal metal strapping, and spray polyurethane foam and leave room for cavity-fill insulation. These systems can provide effective thermal, air, moisture, and water barrier systems in one assembly and provide structure.

  16. Example Transfers of Corn-Hybrid Polymer (CHP) Blasting Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    Energy and Environment Corn-Hybrid Polymer (CHP) Blasting Technology Overview  Description: Low pressure blasting system for coating removal from...million, for various components and facilities (results available upon request) A ship radome section (left) is stripped at low pressure (right...seek broad Command-wide acceptance:  Identify Program Office POCs for approval support on selected weapon systems  Conduct Command-wide, high

  17. Hybrid composites that retain graphite fibers on burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, E. E.

    1980-01-01

    A laboratory scale program was conducted to determine fiber release tendencies of graphite reinforced/resinous matrix composites currently used or projected for use in civil aircraft. In the event of an aircraft crash and burn situation, there is concern that graphite fibers will be released from the composites once the resin matrix is thermally decomposed. Hybridizing concepts aimed at preventing fiber release on burning were postulated and their effectiveness evaluated under fire, impact, and air flow during an aircraft crash.

  18. INHYD: Computer code for intraply hybrid composite design. A users manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1983-01-01

    A computer program (INHYD) was developed for intraply hybrid composite design. A users manual for INHYD is presented. In INHYD embodies several composite micromechanics theories, intraply hybrid composite theories, and an integrated hygrothermomechanical theory. The INHYD can be run in both interactive and batch modes. It has considerable flexibility and capability, which the user can exercise through several options. These options are demonstrated through appropriate INHYD runs in the manual.

  19. Hybrid measurement chains for the SAS-C spacecraft. [advantages over analog signal processing circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goeke, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    Spacecraft electronic systems usually demand tight packaging. It was this consideration which initially forced us to consider hybrid circuits for the analog signal processing circuits in the Small Astronomy Satellite-C (SAS-C) scientific payload. We gradually discovered that increased reliability, low power consumption, and reduced program costs all followed. This paper will attempt to share our laboratory's first experience with hybrid circuits and indicate those areas which we found to be important.

  20. Programed Learning and Mathematical Education, A CEM Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Kenneth O.

    This study reports on the position of programed learning in the teaching of college mathematics. A historical survey is given describing the following programing styles: Skinner, Crowder, eclectic, hybrid, Pressey, and problem. Conclusions based on research are given to claims about the benefits of programing including those of: providing for…

  1. Correlation of field injuries and GM hybrid III dummy responses for lap-shoulder belt restraint.

    PubMed

    Nyquist, G W; Begman, P C; King, A I; Mertz, H J

    1980-05-01

    Simulated frontal, lap-shoulder belted, barrier impact tests were performed using a Volvo sedan and General Motors Hybrid III anthropomorphic test dummy. Swedish field accident injury data for this vehicle are available from another published study. For the purpose of this program, the injuries were logically subdivided into four body regions: head, neck, thorax, and lower torso. The Hybrid III has instrumentation in each of these regions. The results of three replicated tests at barrier equivalent velocities of nominally 32 and 48 km/h are discussed in terms of the field injuries, thereby providing a basis for more intelligent interpretation of future Hybrid III test results.

  2. 2010 Honda Civic Hybrid UltraBattery Conversion 5577 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Honda Civic HEV UltraBattery Conversion (VIN JHMFA3F24AS005577). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  3. Hybrid Arrays for Chemical Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Kirsten E.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Johnson, Kevin J.; Minor, Christian P.

    In recent years, multisensory approaches to environment monitoring for chemical detection as well as other forms of situational awareness have become increasingly popular. A hybrid sensor is a multimodal system that incorporates several sensing elements and thus produces data that are multivariate in nature and may be significantly increased in complexity compared to data provided by single-sensor systems. Though a hybrid sensor is itself an array, hybrid sensors are often organized into more complex sensing systems through an assortment of network topologies. Part of the reason for the shift to hybrid sensors is due to advancements in sensor technology and computational power available for processing larger amounts of data. There is also ample evidence to support the claim that a multivariate analytical approach is generally superior to univariate measurements because it provides additional redundant and complementary information (Hall, D. L.; Linas, J., Eds., Handbook of Multisensor Data Fusion, CRC, Boca Raton, FL, 2001). However, the benefits of a multisensory approach are not automatically achieved. Interpretation of data from hybrid arrays of sensors requires the analyst to develop an application-specific methodology to optimally fuse the disparate sources of data generated by the hybrid array into useful information characterizing the sample or environment being observed. Consequently, multivariate data analysis techniques such as those employed in the field of chemometrics have become more important in analyzing sensor array data. Depending on the nature of the acquired data, a number of chemometric algorithms may prove useful in the analysis and interpretation of data from hybrid sensor arrays. It is important to note, however, that the challenges posed by the analysis of hybrid sensor array data are not unique to the field of chemical sensing. Applications in electrical and process engineering, remote sensing, medicine, and of course, artificial

  4. Epitaxial Hybrid Silicon Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    this program a system at UCSB that had been used to grow InGaAsP quantum well lasers as well as InP-based heterojunction bipolar transistors was to...information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering...laser structures directly after establishing the high quality ELO film. However, in our literature searches we have not found any papers showing the

  5. Solving Fuzzy Optimization Problem Using Hybrid Ls-Sa Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasant, Pandian

    2011-06-01

    Fuzzy optimization problem has been one of the most and prominent topics inside the broad area of computational intelligent. It's especially relevant in the filed of fuzzy non-linear programming. It's application as well as practical realization can been seen in all the real world problems. In this paper a large scale non-linear fuzzy programming problem has been solved by hybrid optimization techniques of Line Search (LS), Simulated Annealing (SA) and Pattern Search (PS). As industrial production planning problem with cubic objective function, 8 decision variables and 29 constraints has been solved successfully using LS-SA-PS hybrid optimization techniques. The computational results for the objective function respect to vagueness factor and level of satisfaction has been provided in the form of 2D and 3D plots. The outcome is very promising and strongly suggests that the hybrid LS-SA-PS algorithm is very efficient and productive in solving the large scale non-linear fuzzy programming problem.

  6. Electric/hybrid vehicle model for establishing optimal battery requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marr, W. W.; Walsh, W. J.

    1986-04-01

    A microcomputer program (HELEN) for establishing battery requirements for a heat engine/battery hybrid vehicle is described. The program permits least-cost analyses to identify the optimum combination of battery and heat engine characteristics for different vehicle types and missions. It can also be used for cost comparisons between heat-engine vehicles, all-electric (battery) vehicles, and hybrid vehicles. Simplified models are used for the transmission, motor/generator, controller, and other vehicle components, while a rather comprehensive model is employed for the battery. The heat engine performance model is based on engineering data for a production engine. A series/parallel configuration for the hybrid vehicle system is presently simulated. Energy management in the operation of the vehicle depends on the specified mission requirements, type and size of the battery, allowable battery depth of discharge, type and size of the heat engine, and the energy management strategy used. The program is written in PL/I language and can be run interactively on an IBM PC, COMPAQ, or other compatible microcomputer.

  7. A Hybrid Architecture For Natural Language Understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loatman, R. Bruce

    1987-05-01

    The PRC Adaptive Knowledge-based Text Understanding System (PAKTUS) is an environment for developing natural language understanding (NLU) systems. It uses a knowledge-based approach in an integrated hybrid architecture based on a factoring of the NLU problem into its lexi-cal, syntactic, conceptual, domain-specific, and pragmatic components. The goal is a robust system that benefits from the strengths of several NLU methodologies, each applied where most appropriate. PAKTUS employs a frame-based knowledge representation and associative networks throughout. The lexical component uses morphological knowledge and word experts. Syntactic knowledge is represented in an Augmented Transition Network (ATN) grammar that incorporates rule-based programming. Case grammar is used for canonical conceptual representation with constraints. Domain-specific templates represent knowledge about specific applications as patterns of the form used in logic programming. Pragmatic knowledge may augment any of the other types and is added wherever needed for a particular domain. The system has been constructed in an interactive graphic programming environment. It has been used successfully to build a prototype front end for an expert system. This integration of existing technologies makes limited but practical NLU feasible now for narrow, well-defined domains.

  8. Stakeholder acceptance analysis: Tunable hybrid plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, T.

    1995-12-01

    This report resents evaluations, recommendations, and requirements concerning Tunable Hybrid Plasma (THP) derived from a three-year program of stake holder involvement. THP destroys volatile organic compounds by directing a moderate energy electron beam into a flow of air containing organic contaminants. This report is for technology developers and for those responsible for making decisions about the use of technology to remediate contamination by volatile organic compounds. Stakeholders` perspectives help those responsible for technology deployment make good decisions concerning the acceptability and applicability of THP to the remediation problems the face. In addition, this report presents data requirements for the technology`s field demonstration defined by stakeholders associated with the Hanford site in Washington State, as well as detailed comments on THP from stakeholders from four other sites throughout the western United States.

  9. Preliminary evaluation of hybrid titanium composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. L.; Progar, D. J.; Johnson, W. S.; St.clair, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    In this study, the mechanical response of hybrid titanium composite laminates (HTCL) was evaluated at room and elevated temperatures. Also, the use of an elastic-plastic laminate analysis program for predicting the tensile response from constituent properties was verified. The improvement in mechanical properties achieved by the laminates was assessed by comparing the results of static strength and constant amplitude fatigue tests to those for monolithic titanium sheet. Two HTCL were fabricated with different fiber volume fractions, resin layer thicknesses, and resins. One panel was thicker and was more poorly bonded in comparison to other. Consequently, the former had a lower tensile strength, while fewer cracks grew in this panel and at a slower rate. Both panels showed an improvement in fatigue life of almost two orders of magnitude. The model predictions were also in good agreement with the experimental results for both HTCL panels.

  10. Further analytical study of hybrid rocket combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, W. S. Y.; Chen, C. S.; Haviland, J. K.

    1972-01-01

    Analytical studies of the transient and steady-state combustion processes in a hybrid rocket system are discussed. The particular system chosen consists of a gaseous oxidizer flowing within a tube of solid fuel, resulting in a heterogeneous combustion. Finite rate chemical kinetics with appropriate reaction mechanisms were incorporated in the model. A temperature dependent Arrhenius type fuel surface regression rate equation was chosen for the current study. The governing mathematical equations employed for the reacting gas phase and for the solid phase are the general, two-dimensional, time-dependent conservation equations in a cylindrical coordinate system. Keeping the simplifying assumptions to a minimum, these basic equations were programmed for numerical computation, using two implicit finite-difference schemes, the Lax-Wendroff scheme for the gas phase, and, the Crank-Nicolson scheme for the solid phase.

  11. A parylene coating process for hybrid circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The parylene coating process developed during this program consists of (1) obtaining a hybrid cover with a hole in it, (2) sealing of the circuit with a hole in the cover, (3) parylene coating through the hole with the external leads protected from parylene by appropriate fixturing, and (4) sealing of the hole by soldering a pretinned kovar tab. Development of the above process required optimization of the parylene coater parameters to obtain a uniform consistent coating which could offer adequate protection to the circuits, fixture design for packages of various types, determination of the size of the deposition hole, and the amount of dimer charge per run, a process to hermetically seal the deposition holes and establishment of quality control techniques or acceptance criteria for the deposited film.

  12. UC Davis Fuel Cell, Hydrogen, and Hybrid Vehicle (FCH2V) GATE Center of Excellence

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, Paul

    2012-05-31

    This is the final report of the UC Davis Fuel Cell, Hydrogen, and Hybrid Vehicle (FCH2V) GATE Center of Excellence which spanned from 2005-2012. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program, to provide a new generation of engineers and scientists with knowledge and skills to create advanced automotive technologies. The UC Davis Fuel Cell, Hydrogen, and Hybrid Vehicle (FCH2V) GATE Center of Excellence established in 2005 is focused on research, education, industrial collaboration and outreach within automotive technology. UC Davis has had two independent GATE centers with separate well-defined objectives and research programs from 1998. The Fuel Cell Center, administered by ITS-Davis, has focused on fuel cell technology. The Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Design Center (HEV Center), administered by the Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, has focused on the development of plug-in hybrid technology using internal combustion engines. The merger of these two centers in 2005 has broadened the scope of research and lead to higher visibility of the activity. UC Davis's existing GATE centers have become the campus's research focal points on fuel cells and hybrid-electric vehicles, and the home for graduate students who are studying advanced automotive technologies. The centers have been highly successful in attracting, training, and placing top-notch students into fuel cell and hybrid programs in both industry and government.

  13. Metabolic prediction of important agronomic traits in hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Dan, Zhiwu; Hu, Jun; Zhou, Wei; Yao, Guoxin; Zhu, Renshan; Zhu, Yingguo; Huang, Wenchao

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid crops have contributed greatly to improvements in global food and fodder production over the past several decades. Nevertheless, the growing population and changing climate have produced food crises and energy shortages. Breeding new elite hybrid varieties is currently an urgent task, but present breeding procedures are time-consuming and labour-intensive. In this study, parental metabolic information was utilized to predict three polygenic traits in hybrid rice. A complete diallel cross population consisting of eighteen rice inbred lines was constructed, and the hybrids’ plant height, heading date and grain yield per plant were predicted using 525 metabolites. Metabolic prediction models were built using the partial least square regression method, with predictive abilities ranging from 0.858 to 0.977 for the hybrid phenotypes, relative heterosis, and specific combining ability. Only slight changes in predictive ability were observed between hybrid populations, and nearly no changes were detected between reciprocal hybrids. The outcomes of prediction of the three highly polygenic traits demonstrated that metabolic prediction was an accurate (high predictive abilities) and efficient (unaffected by population genetic structures) strategy for screening promising superior hybrid rice. Exploitation of this pre-hybridization strategy may contribute to rice production improvement and accelerate breeding programs. PMID:26907211

  14. Functional evaluation of ES-somatic cell hybrids in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sumer, Huseyin; Kim, Kitai; Liu, Jun; Ng, Kitwa; Daley, George Q; Verma, Paul J

    2014-06-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have previously been reported to reprogram somatic cells following fusion. The resulting ES-somatic cell hybrids have been shown to adopt the transcriptional profile of ESCs, suggesting that the pluripotent program is dominant. ES-somatic cell hybrids have most characteristics of pluripotent cells in vitro; however, it remains unclear whether the somatic genome is an active partner in the hybrid cells or simply retained predominately as silent cargo. Furthermore, the functional properties of ES-somatic cell hybrids in vivo have been limited to studies on their contribution to teratomas and developing embryos/chimeras. The extent of their pluripotency remains largely unclear. Here we determined that the somatic genome is actively transcribed by generating ES-somatic cell hybrids using Rag2-deficient ESCs fused to autologous wild-type somatic cells. Rag2 expression was detected during in vitro differentiation, suggesting that the somatic genome follows the correct temporal cues during differentiation. Furthermore, ES-somatic cell hybrids maintain their tetraploid state following 4 weeks of differentiation in vivo and are immune tolerated when transferred into matched individuals. The ES-somatic cell hybrids can efficiently differentiate into hematopoietic precursors in both myeloid and lymphoid lineages in vitro, suggesting that the somatic genome is actively transcribed following cell fusion based reprogramming. However, the ES-somatic cell hybrids showed an altered hematopoietic potential following in vitro differentiation and were unable to show hematopoietic engraftment in a mouse model.

  15. DNA elimination in embryogenic development of Pennisetum glaucum x Pennisetum purpureum (Poaceae) hybrids.

    PubMed

    Nunes, J D; Azevedo, A L S; Pereira, A V; Paula, C M P; Campos, J M S; Lédo, F J S; Santos, V B

    2013-10-22

    Interspecific hybridization between Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum), which is widely grown in Brazil for cattle forage, and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) has been used as a breeding strategy for the development of improved cultivars. However, the hybrid between these two species is sterile due to its triploid condition (2n = 3x = 21 chromosomes), which hinders its use in crop breeding programs. It is known that genomic alterations result from the hybridization process. In order to measure the loss of DNA during embryo development, we used flow cytometry to estimate the nuclear DNA content of triploid and tetraploid embryos produced by interspecific hybridization between Napier grass and pearl millet. The triploid and tetraploid hybrids had a mean DNA content of 4.99-4.87 and 5.25-4.84 pg, at 10 and 30 days after pollination, respectively. The mean reduction in DNA content was higher in the tetraploid hybrids. The flow cytometry results revealed progressive genomic instability in these triploid and tetraploid hybrids, with this instability causing significant alterations in the DNA content of the hybrids.

  16. Hybridization in a warmer world

    PubMed Central

    Chunco, Amanda J

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is profoundly affecting the evolutionary trajectory of individual species and ecological communities, in part through the creation of novel species assemblages. How climate change will influence competitive interactions has been an active area of research. Far less attention, however, has been given to altered reproductive interactions. Yet, reproductive interactions between formerly isolated species are inevitable as populations shift geographically and temporally as a result of climate change, potentially resulting in introgression, speciation, or even extinction. The susceptibility of hybridization rates to anthropogenic disturbance was first recognized in the 1930s. To date, work on anthropogenically mediated hybridization has focused primarily on either physical habitat disturbance or species invasion. Here, I review recent literature on hybridization to identify how ecological responses to climate change will increase the likelihood of hybridization via the dissolution of species barriers maintained by habitat, time, or behavior. Using this literature, I identify several cases where novel hybrid zones have recently formed, likely as a result of changing climate. Future research should focus on identifying areas and taxonomic groups where reproductive species interactions are most likely to be influenced by climate change. Furthermore, a better understanding of the evolutionary consequences of climate-mediated secondary contact is urgently needed. Paradoxically, hybridization is both a major conservation concern and an important source of novel genetic and phenotypic variation. Hybridization may therefore both contribute to increasing rates of extinction and stimulate the creation of novel phenotypes that will speed adaptation to novel climates. Predicting which result will occur following secondary contact will be an important contribution to conservation for many species. PMID:24963394

  17. Hybrid Modeling Improves Health and Performance Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Scientific Monitoring Inc. was awarded a Phase I Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center to create a new, simplified health-monitoring approach for flight vehicles and flight equipment. The project developed a hybrid physical model concept that provided a structured approach to simplifying complex design models for use in health monitoring, allowing the output or performance of the equipment to be compared to what the design models predicted, so that deterioration or impending failure could be detected before there would be an impact on the equipment's operational capability. Based on the original modeling technology, Scientific Monitoring released I-Trend, a commercial health- and performance-monitoring software product named for its intelligent trending, diagnostics, and prognostics capabilities, as part of the company's complete ICEMS (Intelligent Condition-based Equipment Management System) suite of monitoring and advanced alerting software. I-Trend uses the hybrid physical model to better characterize the nature of health or performance alarms that result in "no fault found" false alarms. Additionally, the use of physical principles helps I-Trend identify problems sooner. I-Trend technology is currently in use in several commercial aviation programs, and the U.S. Air Force recently tapped Scientific Monitoring to develop next-generation engine health-management software for monitoring its fleet of jet engines. Scientific Monitoring has continued the original NASA work, this time under a Phase III SBIR contract with a joint NASA-Pratt & Whitney aviation security program on propulsion-controlled aircraft under missile-damaged aircraft conditions.

  18. The performance and application of high speed long life LH2 hybrid bearings for reusable rocket engine turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hannum, N. P.; Nielson, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    Data are presented for two different experimental programs which were conducted to investigate the characteristics of a hybrid (hydrostatic/ball) bearing operating in liquid hydrogen. The same bearing design was used in both programs. Analytical predictions were made of the bearing characteristics and are compared with the experimental results when possible. The first program used a bearing tester to determine the steady state, transient, and cyclic life characteristics of the bearing over a wide range of operating conditions. The second program demonstrated the feasibility of applying hybrid bearings to an actual high speed turbopump by retrofitting and then testing an existing liquid hydrogen turbopump with the bearings.

  19. Using faecal DNA sampling and GIS to monitor hybridization between red wolves (Canis rufus) and coyotes (Canis latrans).

    PubMed

    Adams, J R; Kelly, B T; Waits, L P

    2003-08-01

    The US Fish and Wildlife Service's (USFWS) Red Wolf Recovery Program recognizes hybridization with coyotes as the primary threat to red wolf recovery. Efforts to curb or stop hybridization are hampered in two ways. First, hybrid individuals are difficult to identify based solely on morphology. Second, managers need to effectively search 6000 km(2) for the presence of coyotes and hybrids. We develop a noninvasive method to screen large geographical areas for coyotes and hybrids with maternal coyote ancestry by combining mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis of faeces (scat) and geographic information system (GIS) technology. This method was implemented on the Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge (1000 km(2)) in northeastern North Carolina. A total of 956 scats were collected in the spring of 2000 and 2001 and global positioning system (GPS) coordinates were recorded. Seventy-five percent of the scats were assigned to species and five coyote/hybrid scats were detected. Placement of scat location coordinates on a map of the experimental population area revealed that four of the coyote/hybrid scats were detected within the home ranges of sterilized hybrids. The other coyote/hybrid scat indicated the presence of a previously unknown individual. We suggest this method be expanded to include more of the experimental population area and be optimized for use with nuclear markers to improve detection of hybrid and back-crossed individuals.

  20. Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping

    SciTech Connect

    Herbert Andrus; Gregory Burns; John Chiu; Gregory Lijedahl; Peter Stromberg; Paul Thibeault

    2009-01-07

    For the past several years Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), a leading world-wide power system manufacturer and supplier, has been in the initial stages of developing an entirely new, ultra-clean, low cost, high efficiency power plant for the global power market. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion-gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology The process consists of the oxidation, reduction, carbonation, and calcination of calcium-based compounds, which chemically react with coal, biomass, or opportunity fuels in two chemical loops and one thermal loop. The chemical and thermal looping technology can be alternatively configured as (i) a combustion-based steam power plant with CO{sub 2} capture, (ii) a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas for gas turbines or fuel cells, or (iii) an integrated hybrid combustion-gasification process producing hydrogen for gas turbines, fuel cells or other hydrogen based applications while also producing a separate stream of CO{sub 2} for use or sequestration. In its most advanced configuration, this new concept offers the promise to become the technology link from today's Rankine cycle steam power plants to tomorrow's advanced energy plants. The objective of this work is to develop and verify the high temperature chemical and thermal looping process concept at a small-scale pilot facility in order to enable AL to design, construct and demonstrate a pre-commercial, prototype version of this advanced system. In support of this objective, Alstom and DOE started a multi-year program, under this contract. Before the contract started, in a preliminary phase (Phase 0) Alstom funded and built the required small-scale pilot facility (Process Development Unit, PDU) at its Power Plant Laboratories in Windsor, Connecticut. Construction was completed in calendar year 2003. The objective for Phase I was to develop the indirect combustion loop with CO{sub 2

  1. Hybrid origins of cultivated potatoes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Flor; Ghislain, Marc; Clausen, Andrea M; Jansky, Shelley H; Spooner, David M

    2010-10-01

    Solanum section Petota is taxonomically difficult, partly because of interspecific hybridization at both the diploid and polyploid levels. The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes is particularly controversial. Using DNA sequence data of the waxy gene, we here infer relationships among the four species of cultivated potatoes accepted in the latest taxonomic treatment (S. ajanhuiri, S. curtilobum, S. juzepczukii and S. tuberosum, the latter divided into the Andigenum and Chilotanum Cultivar Groups). The data support prior ideas of hybrid origins of S. ajanhuiri from the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group (2x = S. stenotomum) × S. megistacrolobum; S. juzepczukii from the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group (2x = S. stenotomum) × S. acaule; and S. curtilobum from the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group (4x = S. tuberosum subsp. andigenum) × S. juzepczukii. For the tetraploid cultivar-groups of S. tuberosum, hybrid origins are suggested entirely within much more closely related species, except for two of three examined accessions of the S. tuberosum Chilotanum Group that appear to have hybridized with the wild species S. maglia. Hybrid origins of the crop/weed species S. sucrense are more difficult to support and S. vernei is not supported as a wild species progenitor of the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group.

  2. Somatic hybridization in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Constabel, F

    1976-11-01

    Somatic hybridization in higher plants has come into focus since methods have been established for protoplast fusion and uptake of foreign DNA and organelles by protoplasts. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was an effective agent for inducing fusion. Treatment of protoplasts with PEG resulted in 5 to 30% heterospecific fusion products. Protoplasts of different species, genera and even families were compatible when fused. A number of protoplast combinations (soybean + corn, soybean + pea, soybean + tobacco, carrot + barley, etc.) provided fusion products which underwent cell division and callus formation. Fusion products initially were heterokaryocytes. In dividing heterokaryocytes, random distribution of mitotic nuclei was observed to be accompanied by multiple wall formation and to result in chimeral callus. Juxtaposition of mitotic nuclei suggested nuclear fusion and hybrid formation. Fusion of heterospecific interphase nuclei was demonstrated in soybean + pea and carrot + barley heterokaryons. Provided parental protoplasts carry suitable markers, the fusion products can be recognized. For the isolation and cloning of hybrid cells, fusion experiments must be supplemented with a selective system. Complementation of two non-allelic genes that prevent or inhibit growth under special culture conditions appears as the principle on which to base the selection of somatic hybrids. As protoplasts of some species have been induced to regenerate entire plants, the development of hybrid plants from protoplast fusion products is feasible and has already been demonstrated for tobacco.

  3. Hybrid metrology implementation: server approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osorio, Carmen; Timoney, Padraig; Vaid, Alok; Elia, Alex; Kang, Charles; Bozdog, Cornel; Yellai, Naren; Grubner, Eyal; Ikegami, Toru; Ikeno, Masahiko

    2015-03-01

    Hybrid metrology (HM) is the practice of combining measurements from multiple toolset types in order to enable or improve metrology for advanced structures. HM is implemented in two phases: Phase-1 includes readiness of the infrastructure to transfer processed data from the first toolset to the second. Phase-2 infrastructure allows simultaneous transfer and optimization of raw data between toolsets such as spectra, images, traces - co-optimization. We discuss the extension of Phase-1 to include direct high-bandwidth communication between toolsets using a hybrid server, enabling seamless fab deployment and further laying the groundwork for Phase-2 high volume manufacturing (HVM) implementation. An example of the communication protocol shows the information that can be used by the hybrid server, differentiating its capabilities from that of a host-based approach. We demonstrate qualification and production implementation of the hybrid server approach using CD-SEM and OCD toolsets for complex 20nm and 14nm applications. Finally we discuss the roadmap for Phase-2 HM implementation through use of the hybrid server.

  4. Effectiveness-implementation Hybrid Designs

    PubMed Central

    Curran, Geoffrey M.; Bauer, Mark; Mittman, Brian; Pyne, Jeffrey M.; Stetler, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study proposes methods for blending design components of clinical effectiveness and implementation research. Such blending can provide benefits over pursuing these lines of research independently; for example, more rapid translational gains, more effective implementation strategies, and more useful information for decision makers. This study proposes a “hybrid effectiveness-implementation” typology, describes a rationale for their use, outlines the design decisions that must be faced, and provides several real-world examples. Results An effectiveness-implementation hybrid design is one that takes a dual focus a priori in assessing clinical effectiveness and implementation. We propose 3 hybrid types: (1) testing effects of a clinical intervention on relevant outcomes while observing and gathering information on implementation; (2) dual testing of clinical and implementation interventions/strategies; and (3) testing of an implementation strategy while observing and gathering information on the clinical intervention’s impact on relevant outcomes. Conclusions The hybrid typology proposed herein must be considered a construct still in evolution. Although traditional clinical effectiveness and implementation trials are likely to remain the most common approach to moving a clinical intervention through from efficacy research to public health impact, judicious use of the proposed hybrid designs could speed the translation of research findings into routine practice. PMID:22310560

  5. Hybrid vehicle turbine engine technology support (HVTE-TS) project. 1995--1996 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This report presents a summary of technical work accomplished on the Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine--Technology Support (HVTE-TS) Project during calendar years 1995 and 1996. Work was performed under an initial National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) contract DEN3-336. As of September 1996 the contract administration was transferred to the US Department of Energy (DoE) Chicago Operations Office, and renumbered as DE-AC02-96EE50553. The purpose of the HVTE-TS program is to develop gas turbine engine technology in support of DoE and automotive industry programs exploring the use of gas turbine generator sets in hybrid-electric automotive propulsion systems. The program focus is directed to the development of four key technologies to be applied to advanced turbogenerators for hybrid vehicles: Structural ceramic materials and processes; Low emissions combustion systems; Regenerators and seals systems; and Insulation systems and processes. 60 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. Testing hybridization hypotheses and evaluating the evolutionary potential of hybrids in mangrove plant species.

    PubMed

    Lo, E Y Y

    2010-10-01

    Natural hybridization is of marked importance from global to local biological diversity. In mangroves, species ranges overlap extensively with one another and species share a long overlap of flowering time. Although hybridization has been suggested, patterns of hybridization and the evolutionary potential of hybrids are not yet fully understood. This study provides molecular evidence for the parental origins and status of hybrids in the dominant mangrove genus Rhizophora based on comparisons of chloroplast and nuclear phylogenies and estimations of genetic relatedness and structure from inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that almost all species can act as maternal parents to hybrids and that hybridization can be bidirectional. Bayesian analyses indicate that hybrids are simple F(1) s, and no trace of backcrossing was detected within populations. Hybridization, for the most part, occurs almost only locally and dispersal of hybrid individuals is limited beyond the hybrid sites.

  7. Efficient Solutions of Kepler's Equation via Hybrid and Digital Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oltrogge, Daniel L.

    2015-12-01

    The solution of Kepler's equation is accomplished via families of hybrid and table lookup techniques. A new arithmetic operation timing approach with general application to scientific programming is used to accurately estimate performance of each Kepler's equation solution technique. The hybrid approaches couple a power series expansion starting approximation with nine different types of higher-order corrective step methods. The resulting computationally efficient non-iterative methods avoid "if" statements and directly yield in-plane Euler rotation angles necessary to map orbit elements to orbital position. The best-performing of the nine hybrid methods are up to two times faster than the original efficient Laguerre iterative method and achieve worst-case resultant true anomaly accuracies down to machine precision at 3 × 10-11° for eccentricities up to 0.999999. This matches or exceeds the performance of iterative methods and translates to less than three micro-meters at GEO altitude. Meanwhile, six digital approaches were explored, with the best table lookup approach boasting a ten-fold speed increase with a worst-case accuracy of 1 × 10-6° (154 mm) for an eccentricity of 0.999999. These combinations of accuracy and speed performance make both the hybrid and table lookup approaches well-suited for in-line incorporation into a wide range of low- to high-fidelity semi-analytic orbit propagators and multi-threaded or vector programming languages and computing hardware (GPUs, etc.). And finally, a new operator-based computational timing technique is designed and employed to estimate the performance of math-laden computer programs, with sample application to all of the aforementioned Kepler's equation solution techniques.

  8. XACC - eXtreme-scale Accelerator Programming Framework

    SciTech Connect

    McCaskey, Alexander J.

    2016-11-18

    Hybrid programming models for beyond-CMOS technologies will prove critical for integrating new computing technologies alongside our existing infrastructure. Unfortunately the software infrastructure required to enable this is lacking or not available. XACC is a programming framework for extreme-scale, post-exascale accelerator architectures that integrates alongside existing conventional applications. It is a pluggable framework for programming languages developed for next-gen computing hardware architectures like quantum and neuromorphic computing. It lets computational scientists efficiently off-load classically intractable work to attached accelerators through user-friendly Kernel definitions. XACC makes post-exascale hybrid programming approachable for domain computational scientists.

  9. Plaque-based competitive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Villányi, Zoltán; Gyurján, István; Stéger, Viktor; Orosz, László

    2008-01-01

    The authors have developed a simple, cost-saving experimental design, plaque-based competitive hybridization (PBCH), for genome-wide identification of genes differentially expressed in different tissues. PBCH offers advantages in comparison with other methods used in comparative genomics by combining the principles of differential hybridization with the subtractive hybridization. PBCH is particularly advantageous when libraries with few differences are to be analyzed. The authors demonstrate the use of PBCH by identifying 3 genes, up-regulated in the developing velvet antler of red deer (Cervus elaphus): ApoD, C011A2, and S100a1. The fidelity and sensitivity of PBCH is also shown: 1 specific clone among a library sample of 15,000 can be recognized. Possibilities for further utilizations are discussed.

  10. Intercalated hybrid graphite fiber composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The invention is directed to a highly conductive lightweight hybrid material and methods of producing the same. The hybrid composite is obtained by weaving strands of a high strength carbon or graphite fiber into a fabric-like structure, depositing a layer of carbon onto the structure, heat treating the structure to graphitize the carbon layer, and intercalating the graphitic carbon layer structure. A laminate composite material useful for protection against lightning strikes comprises at least one layer of the hybrid material over at least one layer of high strength carbon or graphite fibers. The composite material of the present invention is compatible with matrix compounds, has a coefficient of thermal expansion which is the same as underlying fiber layers, and is resistant to galvanic corrosion in addition to being highly conductive. These materials are useful in the aerospace industry, in particular as lightning strike protection for airplanes.

  11. Homoploid hybrid speciation in animals.

    PubMed

    Mavárez, Jesús; Linares, Mauricio

    2008-10-01

    Among animals, evidence for homoploid hybrid speciation (HHS, i.e. the creation of a hybrid lineage without a change in chromosome number) was limited until recently to the virgin chub, Gila seminuda, and some controversial data in support of hybrid status for the red wolf, Canis rufus. This scarcity of evidence, together with pessimistic attitudes among zoologists about the evolutionary importance of hybridisation, prompted the view that HHS is extremely rare among animals, especially as compared with plants. However, in recent years, the literature on animal HHS has expanded to include several new putative examples in butterflies, ants, flies and fishes. We argue that this evidence suggests that HHS is far more common than previously thought and use it to provide insights into some of the genetic and ecological aspects associated with this type of speciation among animals.

  12. DNA-based hybrid catalysis.

    PubMed

    Rioz-Martínez, Ana; Roelfes, Gerard

    2015-04-01

    In the past decade, DNA-based hybrid catalysis has merged as a promising novel approach to homogeneous (asymmetric) catalysis. A DNA hybrid catalysts comprises a transition metal complex that is covalently or supramolecularly bound to DNA. The chiral microenvironment and the second coordination sphere interactions provided by the DNA are key to achieve high enantioselectivities and, often, additional rate accelerations in catalysis. Nowadays, current efforts are focused on improved designs, understanding the origin of the enantioselectivity and DNA-induced rate accelerations, expanding the catalytic scope of the concept and further increasing the practicality of the method for applications in synthesis. Herein, the recent developments will be reviewed and the perspectives for the emerging field of DNA-based hybrid catalysis will be discussed.

  13. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David M.; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  14. Vegetative and Adaptive Traits Predict Different Outcomes for Restoration Using Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Crystal, Philip A.; Lichti, Nathanael I.; Woeste, Keith E.; Jacobs, Douglass F.

    2016-01-01

    Hybridization has been implicated as a driver of speciation, extinction, and invasiveness, but can also provide resistant breeding stock following epidemics. However, evaluating the appropriateness of hybrids for use in restoration programs is difficult. Past the F1 generation, the proportion of a progenitor’s genome can vary widely, as can the combinations of parental genomes. Detailed genetic analysis can reveal this information, but cannot expose phenotypic alterations due to heterosis, transgressive traits, or changes in metabolism or development. In addition, because evolution is often driven by extreme individuals, decisions based on phenotypic averages of hybrid classes may have unintended results. We demonstrate a strategy to evaluate hybrids for use in restoration by visualizing hybrid phenotypes across selected groups of traits relative to both progenitor species. Specifically, we used discriminant analysis to differentiate among butternut (Juglans cinerea L.), black walnut (J. nigra L.), and Japanese walnut (J. ailantifolia Carr. var. cordiformis) using vegetative characters and then with functional adaptive traits associated with seedling performance. When projected onto the progenitor trait space, naturally occurring hybrids (J. × bixbyi Rehd.) between butternut and Japanese walnut showed introgression toward Japanese walnut at vegetative characters but exhibited a hybrid swarm at functional traits. Both results indicate that hybrids have morphological and ecological phenotypes that distinguish them from butternut, demonstrating a lack of ecological equivalency that should not be carried into restoration breeding efforts. Despite these discrepancies, some hybrids were projected into the space occupied by butternut seedlings’ 95% confidence ellipse, signifying that some hybrids were similar at the measured traits. Determining how to consistently identify these individuals is imperative for future breeding and species restoration efforts involving

  15. Genomic Networks of Hybrid Sterility

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Leslie M.; White, Michael A.; Tautz, Diethard; Payseur, Bret A.

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci (“Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities”). The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus) provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL). Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven ‘hotspots,’ seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL—but not cis eQTL—were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a ‘fertile’ subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is

  16. Angled injection: Hybrid fluid film bearings for cryogenic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SanAndres, Luis

    1995-01-01

    A computational bulk-flow analysis for prediction of the force coefficients of hybrid fluid film bearings with angled orifice injection is presented. Past measurements on water-lubricated hybrid bearings with angle orifice injection have demonstrated improved rotordynamic performance with virtual elimination of cross-coupled stiffness coefficients and nul or negative whirl frequency ratios. A simple analysis reveals that the fluid momentum exchange at the orifice discharge produces a pressure rise in the recess which retards the shear flow induced by journal rotation, and consequently, reduces cross-coupling forces. The predictions from the model correlate well with experimental measurements from a radial and 45 deg angled orifice injection, five recess water hybrid bearings (C = 125 microns) operating at 10.2, 17.4, and 24.6 krpm and with nominal supply pressures equal to 4, 5.5, and 7 MPa. An application example for a liquid oxygen six recess/pad hybrid journal bearing shows the advantages of tangential orifice injection on the rotordynamic force coefficients and stability indicator for forward whirl motions and without performance degradation on direct stiffness and damping coefficients. The computer program generated, 'hydrojet,' extends and complements previously developed codes.

  17. Beyond eugenics: the forgotten scandal of hybridizing humans and apes.

    PubMed

    Etkind, Alexander

    2008-06-01

    This paper examines the available evidence on one of the most radical ideas in the history of eugenics and utopianism. In the mid-1920s, the zoology professor Ilia Ivanov submitted to the Soviet government a project for hybridizing humans and apes by means of artificial insemination. He received substantial financing and organized expeditions to Africa to catch apes for his experiments. His project caused an international sensation. The American Association for the Advancement of Atheism announced its fund-raising campaign to support Ivanov's project but gave it a scandalously racist interpretation. Ivanov's own motivation remained unclear, as did the motivation of those in the Bolshevik government who supported Ivanov until his arrest in 1930. This paper discusses three hypothetical reasons for Ivanov's adventure: first, hybridization between humans and apes, should it be successful, would support the atheist propaganda of the Bolsheviks; second, regardless of the success of hybridization, Ivanov would catch and bring to Russia apes, which were necessary for the rejuvenation programs that were fashionable among the Bolshevik elite; and third, hybridization, should it be successful, would pave the way to the New Socialist Man whose 'construction by scientific means' was the official purpose of the Bolsheviks. Ivanov's ideas were arguably important for the American proponent of reform eugenics, Herman Muller, and for the Soviet anthropologist Boris Porshnev.

  18. Hybrid hydrostatic/ball bearings in high-speed turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielson, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    A high speed, high pressure liquid hydrogen turbopump was designed, fabricated, and tested under a previous contract. This design was then modified to incorporate hybrid hydrostatic/ball bearings on both the pump end and turbine end to replace the original conventional ball bearing packages. The design, analysis, turbopump modification, assembly, and testing of the turbopump with hybrid bearings is presented here. Initial design considerations and rotordynamic performance analysis was made to define expected turbopump operating characteristics and are reported. The results of testing the turbopump to speeds of 9215 rad/s (88,000 rpm) using a wide range of hydrostatic bearing supply pressures are presented. The hydrostatic bearing test data and the rotordynamic behavior of the turbopump was closely analyzed and are included in the report. The testing of hybrid hydrostatic/ball bearings on a turbopump to the high speed requirements has indicated the configuration concept is feasible. The program has presented a great deal of information on the technology requirements of integrating the hybrid bearing into high speed turbopump designs for improved bearing life.

  19. Hybrid combustion with metallized fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, Jianwen; Wygle, Brian S.; Bates, Ronald W.; Jones, Michael D.; Ramohalli, Kumar

    1993-01-01

    A chemical method of adding certain catalysts to improve the degradation process of a solid fuel is discussed. Thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis used to study the fundamental degradation behavior of a typical hybrid fuel (HTPB) shows that high surface temperatures increase the degradation rate. Fuels were tested in a laboratory-scale experimental hybrid rocket and their behavior was compared to a baseline behavior of HTPB fuel regression rates. It was found that a small amount of metal powder added to the fuel can significantly increase the regression rates.

  20. Optical Hybrid Quantum Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Shuntaro; Furusawa, Akira

    Historically, two complementary approaches to optical quantum information processing have been pursued: qubits and continuous-variables, each exploiting either particle or wave nature of light. However, both approaches have pros and cons. In recent years, there has been a significant progress in combining both approaches with a view to realizing hybrid protocols that overcome the current limitations. In this chapter, we first review the development of the two approaches with a special focus on quantum teleportation and its applications. We then introduce our recent research progress in realizing quantum teleportation by a hybrid scheme, and mention its future applications to universal and fault-tolerant quantum information processing.

  1. Helping HAN for hybrid rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar; Dowler, Warren

    1995-01-01

    Hydroxyl amine nitrate (HAN) is a powerful oxidizer for hybrid rocket flight motors. Miscible with water up to 95% by mass, it also has high density and has been extensively characterized for materials compatibility, safety, transportation, storage and handling. Before any serious attempt to use the proposed oxidizer in hybrids, though, the usual performance figures must first be obtained. The simplest are time-independent, equilibrium rocket performance numbers that include chamber temperature, temperature at the nozzle throat, and key species in the exhaust. These numbers must be followed by several other important performance evaluation, including burning rates, pressure dependence, susceptibility to instabilities and temperature sensitivity.

  2. Leptogenesis in smooth hybrid inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeannerot, R.; Khalil, S.; Lazarides, G.

    2001-05-01

    We present a concrete supersymmetric grand unified model based on the Pati-Salam gauge group SU(4)c×SU(2)L×SU(2)R and leading naturally to smooth hybrid inflation, which avoids the cosmological disaster encountered in the standard hybrid inflationary scenario from the overproduction of monopoles at the end of inflation. Successful `reheating' which satisfies the gravitino constraint takes place after the termination of inflation. Also, adequate baryogenesis via a primordial leptogenesis occurs consistently with the solar and atmospheric neutrino oscillation data as well as the SU(4)c symmetry.

  3. Witnessing entanglement in hybrid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrelli, Massimo; Rossi, Matteo; Macchiavello, Chiara; Maniscalco, Sabrina

    2014-08-01

    We extend the definition of entanglement witnesses based on spin structure factors to the case of scatterers with quantum mechanical motion. We show that this allows for hybrid entanglement detection and specialize the witness for a chain of trapped ions. Within this framework, we also show how the collective vibronic state of the chain can act as an undesired quantum environment affecting the spin-spin-entanglement detection. Furthermore, we investigate several specific cases where these witness operators allow us to detect hybrid entanglement.

  4. Brake-By-Wire Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Report contains color. 14. ABSTRACT Two design iterations for electric calipers and two systems (full brake by wire and hybrid brakes ...were developed for use on a ground vehicle. The program demonstrated a fully integrated electric caliper and full brake -by-wire system on a sports...release. Project Context The development of an electric brake caliper and associated systems for automotive application represented a significant

  5. Postsecondary Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Annals of the Deaf, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This article lists postsecondary programs specifically for people with deafness and other postsecondary programs with supportive services for students with deafness. Alphabetized by state, contact information is provided for each of the programs, along with date the program was founded, programs, degrees, and number of students and staff with…

  6. Principled Scavenging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-11-01

    5] K. Crary and S. Weirich . Flexible type analysis. In Proc. 1999 ACM SIGPLAN International Conference on Functional Programming, pages 233–248. ACM...Press, Sept. 1999. [6] K. Crary, S. Weirich , and G. Morrisett. Intensional polymorphism in type-erasure semantics. In Proc. 1998 ACM SIGPLAN

  7. Sound and Complete Elimination of Singleton Kinds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    Karl Crary and Stephanie Weirich . Flexible type analysis. In 1999 ACM International Conference on Functional Programming, pages 233-248, Paris...September 1999. [3] Karl Crary, Stephanie Weirich , and Greg Morrisett. Intensional polymorphism in type-erasure seman- tics. In 1998 ACM International

  8. Hybrid Power Management System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A system and method for hybrid power management. The system includes photovoltaic cells, ultracapacitors, and pulse generators. In one embodiment, the hybrid power management system is used to provide power for a highway safety flasher.

  9. Field errors in hybrid insertion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Schlueter, R.D.

    1995-02-01

    Hybrid magnet theory as applied to the error analyses used in the design of Advanced Light Source (ALS) insertion devices is reviewed. Sources of field errors in hybrid insertion devices are discussed.

  10. Hybrid power management system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A system and method for hybrid power management. The system includes photovoltaic cells, ultracapacitors, and pulse generators. In one embodiment, the hybrid power management system is used to provide power for a highway safety flasher.

  11. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak; Rich Gebert

    2001-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hr parametric tests and 100-hr proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency. Since all of the developmental goals of Phase I were met, the approach was scaled up in Phase II to a size of 255 m{sup 3}/min (9000 acfm) (equivalent in size to 2.5 MW) and was installed on a slipstream at the Big Stone Power Plant. For Phase II, the AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant was operated continuously from late July 1999 until mid-December 1999. The Phase II results were highly successful in that ultrahigh particle collection efficiency was achieved, pressure drop was well controlled, and system operability was excellent. For Phase III, the AHPC was modified into a more compact configuration, and components were installed that were closer to what would be used in a full-scale commercial design. The modified AHPC was operated from April to July 2000. While operational results were acceptable during this time, inspection of bags in the summer of 2000 revealed some membrane damage to the fabric that appeared to be

  12. Actuated Hybrid Mirror Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, Gregory; Redding, David; Lowman, Andrew; Cohen, David; Ohara, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The figure depicts the planned Actuated Hybrid Mirror Telescope (AHMT), which is intended to demonstrate a new approach to the design and construction of wide-aperture spaceborne telescopes for astronomy and Earth science. This technology is also appropriate for Earth-based telescopes. The new approach can be broadly summarized as using advanced lightweight mirrors that can be manufactured rapidly at relatively low cost. More specifically, it is planned to use precise replicated metallic nanolaminate mirrors to obtain the required high-quality optical finishes. Lightweight, dimensionally stable silicon carbide (SiC) structures will support the nanolaminate mirrors in the required surface figures. To enable diffraction- limited telescope performance, errors in surface figures will be corrected by use of mirror-shape-control actuators that will be energized, as needed, by a wave-front-sensing and control system. The concepts of nanolaminate materials and mirrors made from nanolaminate materials were discussed in several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. Nanolaminates constitute a relatively new class of materials that can approach theoretical limits of stiffness and strength. Nanolaminate mirrors are synthesized by magnetron sputter deposition of metallic alloys and/or compounds on optically precise master surfaces to obtain optical-quality reflector surfaces backed by thin shell structures. As an integral part of the deposition process, a layer of gold that will constitute the reflective surface layer is deposited first, eliminating the need for a subsequent and separate reflective-coating process. The crystallographic textures of the nanolaminate will be controlled to optimize the performance of the mirror. The entire deposition process for making a nanolaminate mirror takes less than 100 hours, regardless of the mirror diameter. Each nanolaminate mirror will be bonded to its lightweight SiC supporting structure. The lightweight nanolaminate mirrors and Si

  13. The Dark Snow Project: a hybrid research communication program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Box, J. E.; Sinclair, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Dark Snow Project, to crowd fund and communicate Greenland ice-climate interactions expedition research, was a baptism by fire climate communications venture. We did it without a guide book and ran on pure inspiration. Along the way, we acquired quite some of the communication skill set: marketing; social psychology; crowd funding; conventional media; video production; social media.The aim of this presentation is to inventory lessons learned, experience, and resolve recommendations how to do it better for those adventurous enough to do a crowd funded actvity. Key themes are amplifying basic research, engagement in citizen science, outreach, communication.Quickly, one begins thinking of success tactics, like launching news on a Monday instead of a Saturday or keeping the conversation going by telling the story from different and evolving perspectives. The experience taught that unconventional funding is harder won than conventional funding. Yet, because the support came from unconventional sources, the public, we began tapping a large resource in citizen science engagement. If having a compelling call to action such a campaign can be a significant source of sustain. What had also proven difficult was doing it with a small team when each of the following skills demands a larger group; running a media campaign; logistics; video recording and editing; social media promotion; conventional media engagement. The issue and brand awareness grows in a snowball effect encouraging us to run successive annual campaigns.Now in third year, the project can be more effective if upscaling from a single to a multi-cell organization.

  14. Pulse Power Hybrid Energy Storage Module Development Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and...be done by following the instructions in the data initialization input fde, also provided with the model. For example and for the convenience of the...following Figure 16 summarizes the various flywheel designs developed at UT-CEM and highlights the two models used for this initial sizing study. 35 Data

  15. Overview of Compact Toroidal Hybrid research program progress and plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, David; Ennis, David; Hanson, James; Hartwell, Gregory; Herfindal, Jeffrey; Knowlton, Stephen; Ma, Xingxing; Pandya, Mihir; Roberds, Nicholas; Ross, Kevin; Traverso, Peter

    2016-10-01

    disruptive behavior on the level of applied 3D magnetic shaping; (2) test and advance the V3FIT reconstruction code and NIMROD modeling of CTH; and (3) study the implementation of an island divertor. Progress towards these goals and other developments are summarized. The disruptive density limit exceeds the Greenwald limit as the vacuum transform is increased, but a threshold for avoidance is not observed. Low- q disruptions, with 1.1 < q (a) <2.0, cease to occur if the vacuum transform is raised above 0.07. Application of vacuum transform can reduce and eliminate the vertical drift of elongated discharges that would otherwise be vertically unstable. Reconstructions using external magnetics give accurate estimates for quantities near the plasma boundary, and internal diagnostics have been implemented to extend the range of accuracy into the plasma core. Sawtooth behavior has been reproducibly modified with external transform and NIMROD is used to model these observations and reproduces experimental trends. An island divertor design has begun with connection length studies to model energy deposition on divertor plates located in an edge 1/3 island as well as the study of a non-resonant divertor configuration. This work is supported by U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-00ER54610.

  16. Developing Online/Hybrid Learning Models for Higher Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, William; Allen, Linda; Warfield, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Colleges and universities are looking for creative ways to increase student enrollment while providing flexible course offerings and maintaining adequate fiscal stewardship. This review of selected literature advocates for the use of online instruction in higher education in order to address, with instructional fidelity, the learning preferences…

  17. Distant hybridization leads to different ploidy fishes.

    PubMed

    Liu, ShaoJun

    2010-04-01

    Distant hybridization makes it possible to transfer the genome of one species to another, which results in changes in phenotypes and genotypes of the progenies. This study shows that distant hybridization or the combination of this method with gynogenesis or androgenesis lead to different ploidy fishes with genetic variation, including fertile tetraploid hybrids, sterile triploid hybrids, fertile diploid hybrids, fertile diploid gynogenetic fish, and their derived progenies. The formations of the different ploidy fishes depend on the genetic relationship between the parents. In this study, several types of distant hybridization, including red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) (2n=100, abbreviated as RCC) (female) x common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (2n=100, abbreviated as CC) (male), and RCC (2n=100) (female) x blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) (2n=48, abbreviated as BSB) (male) are described. In the distant hybridization of RCC (female) x CC (male), bisexual fertile F(3)-F(18) allotetraploid hybrids (4n=200, abbreviated as 4nAT) were formed. The diploid hybrid eggs and diploid sperm generated by the females and males of 4nAT developed into diploid gynogenetic hybrids and diploid androgenetic hybrids, respectively, by gynogenesis and androgenesis, without treatment for doubling the chromosome. Improved tetraploid hybrids and improved diploid fishes with genetic variation were derived from the gynogenetic hybrid line. The improved diploid fishes included the high-body RCC and high-body goldfish. The formation of the tetraploid hybrids was related to the occurrence of unreduced gametes generated from the diploid hybrids, which involved in premeiotic endoreduplication, endomitosis, or fusion of germ cells. The sterile triploid hybrids (3n=150) were produced on a large scale by crossing the males of tetraploid hybrids with females of diploid fish (2n=100). In another distant hybridization of RCC (female) x BSB (male), different ploidy fishes were

  18. Energy Storage for Hybrid Miiltary Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-11

    Energy Storage for Hybrid Military Vehicles Ghassan Y. Khalil Abstract The benefits of hybrid electric vehicles have been recognized by the US Army...and safe energy storage in future All Electric Combat Vehicles (AECV). Keywords: battery, HEV, energy storage, battery management Introduction The...potential benefits of hybrid electric vehicles for military applications have been recognized by the US Army as well as other military services. Hybrid

  19. Summer Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumann, Herbert

    1975-01-01

    Summer employment and participation in professional programs offer the vocational agriculture teacher the unique opportunity to attain excellence in his program. Most administrators appreciate the teacher's efforts and the resulting well-planned and implemented programs. (MW)

  20. Balance between a higher degree of heterosis and increased reproductive isolation: a strategic design for breeding inter-subspecific hybrid rice.

    PubMed

    Dan, Zhiwu; Liu, Ping; Huang, Wenchao; Zhou, Wei; Yao, Guoxin; Hu, Jun; Zhu, Renshan; Lu, Baorong; Zhu, Yingguo

    2014-01-01

    The application of heterosis (hybrid vigor) has brought great success to plant breeding, particularly of hybrid rice, achieving significant yield increases. Attempts to explore the heterosis of inter-subspecific hybrids between indica and japonica rice, which result in even greater yield increases, have greatly increased in the past decades. However, because of the reduced seed setting rate in F1 hybrids as a result of increased reproductive isolation, the application of inter-subspecific hybrids in rice has slowed. Understanding the balance between heterosis and the reproductive isolation of inter-subspecific hybrids will facilitate the strategic design of inter-subspecific hybrid breeding. In this study, five indica and seven japonica rice varieties were chosen as the parental lines of a complete diallel mating design. Data from six group traits from all of the hybrids and inbred lines were collected. We found that the grain weight per plant, grain number per panicle, tiller per plant, thousand grain weight and plant height, which reflected increased heterosis, were associated with the genetic divergence index (GDI) of the parents. Meanwhile, owing to the reduced seed setting rate, which was also associated with the parents' GDI, the grain production of the hybrids was negatively affected. After analyzing the relationships between the GDI of indica-japonica parents and the grain weight per plant of the F1 hybrids, an ideal GDI value (0.37) for the two indica-japonica parents that could provide an optimal balance between the inter-subspecific heterosis and reproductive isolation was proposed. Our findings will help in the strategic design of an inter-subspecific hybrid rice breeding program by identifying the ideal indica and japonica parents for a hybrid combination to achieve hybrid rice with an optimal yield. This strategic design of an inter-subspecific hybrid rice breeding program will be time saving and cost effective.

  1. The Hybrid Automobile and the Atkinson Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    The hybrid automobile is a strikingly new automobile technology with a number of new technological features that dramatically improve energy efficiency. This paper will briefly describe how hybrid automobiles work; what are these new technological features; why the Toyota Prius hybrid internal combustion engine operates on the Atkinson cycle…

  2. Sativa by falcata alfalfa hybrid variety trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has demonstrated that alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) subsp. sativa by subsp. falcata hybrids showed heterosis. Limited work has been done examining these hybrids in a sward situation. The objective of this study was to produce sativa by falcata hybrids using Dairyland Seed Company’...

  3. Hybrid Computation at Louisiana State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corripio, Armando B.

    Hybrid computation facilities have been in operation at Louisiana State University since the spring of 1969. In part, they consist of an Electronics Associates, Inc. (EAI) Model 680 analog computer, an EAI Model 693 interface, and a Xerox Data Systems (XDS) Sigma 5 digital computer. The hybrid laboratory is used in a course on hybrid computation…

  4. Diploid hybrid speciation in Penstemon (Scrophulariaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Andrea D.; Xiang, Qiu-Yun; Kephart, Susan R.

    1998-01-01

    Hybrid speciation has played a significant role in the evolution of angiosperms at the polyploid level. However, relatively little is known about the importance of hybrid speciation at the diploid level. Two species of Penstemon have been proposed as diploid hybrid derivatives based on morphological data, artificial crossing studies, and pollinator behavior observations: Penstemon spectabilis (derived from hybridization between Penstemon centranthifolius and Penstemon grinnellii) and Penstemon clevelandii (derived from hybridization between P. centranthifolius and P. spectabilis). Previous studies were inconclusive regarding the purported hybrid nature of these species because of a lack of molecular markers sufficient to differentiate the parental taxa in the hybrid complex. We developed hypervariable nuclear markers using inter-simple sequence repeat banding patterns to test these classic hypotheses of diploid hybrid speciation in Penstemon. Each species in the hybrid complex was genetically distinct, separated by 10–42 species-specific inter-simple sequence repeat markers. Our data do not support the hybrid origin of P. spectabilis but clearly support the diploid hybrid origin of P. clevelandii. Our results further suggest that the primary reason diploid hybrid speciation is so difficult to detect is the lack of molecular markers able to differentiate parental taxa from one another, particularly with recently diverged species. PMID:9560237

  5. Hybrid cars now, fuel cell cars later.

    PubMed

    Demirdöven, Nurettin; Deutch, John

    2004-08-13

    We compare the energy efficiency of hybrid and fuel cell vehicles as well as conventional internal combustion engines. Our analysis indicates that fuel cell vehicles using hydrogen from fossil fuels offer no significant energy efficiency advantage over hybrid vehicles operating in an urban drive cycle. We conclude that priority should be placed on hybrid vehicles by industry and government.

  6. Using Hybrid Modeling to Develop Innovative Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtman, Brenda; Avans, Diana

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a hybrid activities model that physical educators can use with students in grades four and above to create virtually a limitless array of novel games. A brief introduction to the basic theory is followed by descriptions of some hybrid games. Hybrid games are typically the result of merging two traditional sports or other…

  7. Hybrid origins of cultivated potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild and cultivated potatoes, Solanum section Petota, is taxonomically difficult, partly because of interspecific hybridization at both the diploid and polyploid levels. The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes is particularly controversial. With DNA sequence data of the GBSSI (waxy) gene we here infer r...

  8. Hybrid free electron laser devices

    SciTech Connect

    Asgekar, Vivek; Dattoli, G.

    2007-03-15

    We consider hybrid free electron laser devices consisting of Cerenkov and undulator sections. We will show that they can in principle be used as segmented devices and also show the possibility of exploiting Cerenkov devices for the generation of nonlinear harmonic coherent power. We discuss both oscillator and amplifier schemes.

  9. Iterative framework radiation hybrid mapping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Building comprehensive radiation hybrid maps for large sets of markers is a computationally expensive process, since the basic mapping problem is equivalent to the traveling salesman problem. The mapping problem is also susceptible to noise, and as a result, it is often beneficial to remove markers ...

  10. The threat of hybrid Phytophthoras

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The majority of invasive plant pathogens have resulted from the introduction of exotic organisms. However, another mechanism for invasiveness results from hybridization between species. This phenomenon has been documented in plants and animals, but its role in plant pathology has only recently been ...

  11. LANL Debuts Hybrid Garbage Truck

    ScienceCinema

    Witt, Monica

    2016-08-26

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has begun using a diesel-hydraulic hybrid garbage truck that could save up to 30 percent in operating costs and greenhouse emissions. The Peterbilt Model 320 takes energy from braking and uses it to help the truck accelerate after stops.

  12. Magneto-Acoustic Hybrid Nanomotor.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinxing; Li, Tianlong; Xu, Tailin; Kiristi, Melek; Liu, Wenjuan; Wu, Zhiguang; Wang, Joseph

    2015-07-08

    Efficient and controlled nanoscale propulsion in harsh environments requires careful design and manufacturing of nanomachines, which can harvest and translate the propelling forces with high spatial and time resolution. Here we report a new class of artificial nanomachine, named magneto-acoustic hybrid nanomotor, which displays efficient propulsion in the presence of either magnetic or acoustic fields without adding any chemical fuel. These fuel-free hybrid nanomotors, which comprise a magnetic helical structure and a concave nanorod end, are synthesized using a template-assisted electrochemical deposition process followed by segment-selective chemical etching. Dynamic switching of the propulsion mode with reversal of the movement direction and digital speed regulation are demonstrated on a single nanovehicle. These hybrid nanomotors exhibit a diverse biomimetic collective behavior, including stable aggregation, swarm motion, and swarm vortex, triggered in response to different field inputs. Such adaptive hybrid operation and controlled collective behavior hold considerable promise for designing smart nanovehicles that autonomously reconfigure their operation mode according to their mission or in response to changes in their surrounding environment or in their own performance, thus holding considerable promise for diverse practical biomedical applications of fuel-free nanomachines.

  13. 1997 hybrid electric vehicle specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.; Duoba, M.

    1996-10-01

    The US DOE sponsors Advanced Vehicle Technology competitions to help educate the public and advance new vehicle technologies. For several years, DOE has provided financial and technical support for the American Tour de Sol. This event showcases electric and hybrid electric vehicles in a road rally across portions of the northeastern United States. The specifications contained in this technical memorandum apply to vehicles that will be entered in the 1997 American Tour de Sol. However, the specifications were prepared to be general enough for use by other teams and individuals interested in developing hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the specifications is to ensure that the vehicles developed do not present a safety hazard to the teams that build and drive them or to the judges, sponsors, or public who attend the competitions. The specifications are by no means the definitive sources of information on constructing hybrid electric vehicles - as electric and hybrid vehicles technologies advance, so will the standards and practices for their construction. In some cases, the new standards and practices will make portions of these specifications obsolete.

  14. Transgressive Hybrids as Hopeful Monsters.

    PubMed

    Dittrich-Reed, Dylan R; Fitzpatrick, Benjamin M

    2013-06-01

    The origin of novelty is a critical subject for evolutionary biologists. Early geneticists speculated about the sudden appearance of new species via special macromutations, epitomized by Goldschmidt's infamous "hopeful monster". Although these ideas were easily dismissed by the insights of the Modern Synthesis, a lingering fascination with the possibility of sudden, dramatic change has persisted. Recent work on hybridization and gene exchange suggests an underappreciated mechanism for the sudden appearance of evolutionary novelty that is entirely consistent with the principles of modern population genetics. Genetic recombination in hybrids can produce transgressive phenotypes, "monstrous" phenotypes beyond the range of parental populations. Transgressive phenotypes can be products of epistatic interactions or additive effects of multiple recombined loci. We compare several epistatic and additive models of transgressive segregation in hybrids and find that they are special cases of a general, classic quantitative genetic model. The Dobzhansky-Muller model predicts "hopeless" monsters, sterile and inviable transgressive phenotypes. The Bateson model predicts "hopeful" monsters with fitness greater than either parental population. The complementation model predicts both. Transgressive segregation after hybridization can rapidly produce novel phenotypes by recombining multiple loci simultaneously. Admixed populations will also produce many similar recombinant phenotypes at the same time, increasing the probability that recombinant "hopeful monsters" will establish true-breeding evolutionary lineages. Recombination is not the only (or even most common) process generating evolutionary novelty, but might be the most credible mechanism for sudden appearance of new forms.

  15. LANL Debuts Hybrid Garbage Truck

    SciTech Connect

    Witt, Monica

    2010-11-17

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has begun using a diesel-hydraulic hybrid garbage truck that could save up to 30 percent in operating costs and greenhouse emissions. The Peterbilt Model 320 takes energy from braking and uses it to help the truck accelerate after stops.

  16. Hybrid respiration-signal conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinard, G. A.; Steffen, D. A.; Sturm, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Hybrid impedance-pneumograph and respiration-rate signal conditioner element of hand-held vital signs monitor measures changes in impedance of chest during breathing cycle and generates analog respiration signal as output along with synchronous square wave that can be monitored by breath-rate processor.

  17. Expanding discourse repertoires with hybridity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Gregory J.

    2012-09-01

    In "Hybrid discourse practice and science learning" Kamberelis and Wehunt present a theoretically rich argument about the potential of hybrid discourses for science learning. These discourses draw from different forms of "talk, social practice, and material practices" to create interactions that are "intertextually complex" and "interactionally dynamic." The hybrid discourse practices are described as involving the dynamic interplay of at least three key elements: "the lamination of multiple cultural frames, the shifting relations between people and their discourse, and the shifting power relations between and among people." Each of these elements requires a respective unit of analysis and are often mutually reinforcing. The authors present a theoretically cogent argument for the study of hybrid discourse practices and identify the potential such discourses may have for science education. This theoretical development leads to an analysis of spoken and written discourse around a set of educational events concerning the investigation of owl pellets by two fifth grade students, their classmates, and teacher. Two discourse segments are presented and analyzed by the authors in detail. The first is a discourse analysis of the dissection of the owl pellet by two students, Kyle and Max. The second analysis examines the science report of these same two students. In this article, I pose a number of questions about the study with the hope that by doing so I expand the conversation around the insightful analysis presented.

  18. Yeast two-hybrid screen.

    PubMed

    Makuch, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Yeast two-hybrid is a method for screening large numbers of gene products (encoded by cDNA libraries) for their ability to interact with a protein of interest. This system can also be used for characterizing and manipulating candidate protein: protein interactions. Interactions between proteins are monitored by the growth of yeast plated on selective media.

  19. Shape Memory Composite Hybrid Hinge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, Houfei; Im, Eastwood; Lin, John; Scarborough, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    There are two conventional types of hinges for in-space deployment applications. The first type is mechanically deploying hinges. A typical mechanically deploying hinge is usually composed of several tens of components. It is complicated, heavy, and bulky. More components imply higher deployment failure probability. Due to the existence of relatively moving components among a mechanically deploying hinge, it unavoidably has microdynamic problems. The second type of conventional hinge relies on strain energy for deployment. A tape-spring hinge is a typical strain energy hinge. A fundamental problem of a strain energy hinge is that its deployment dynamic is uncontrollable. Usually, its deployment is associated with a large impact, which is unacceptable for many space applications. Some damping technologies have been experimented with to reduce the impact, but they increased the risks of an unsuccessful deployment. Coalescing strain energy components with shape memory composite (SMC) components to form a hybrid hinge is the solution. SMCs are well suited for deployable structures. A SMC is created from a high-performance fiber and a shape memory polymer resin. When the resin is heated to above its glass transition temperature, the composite becomes flexible and can be folded or packed. Once cooled to below the glass transition temperature, the composite remains in the packed state. When the structure is ready to be deployed, the SMC component is reheated to above the glass transition temperature, and it returns to its as-fabricated shape. A hybrid hinge is composed of two strain energy flanges (also called tape-springs) and one SMC tube. Two folding lines are placed on the SMC tube to avoid excessive strain on the SMC during folding. Two adapters are used to connect the hybrid hinge to its adjacent structural components. While the SMC tube is heated to above its glass transition temperature, a hybrid hinge can be folded and stays at folded status after the temperature

  20. Hybrid texture generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyata, Kazunori; Nakajima, Masayuki

    1995-04-01

    A method is given for synthesizing a texture by using the interface of a conventional drawing tool. The majority of conventional texture generation methods are based on the procedural approach, and can generate a variety of textures that are adequate for generating a realistic image. But it is hard for a user to imagine what kind of texture will be generated simply by looking at its parameters. Furthermore, it is difficult to design a new texture freely without a knowledge of all the procedures for texture generation. Our method offers a solution to these problems, and has the following four merits: First, a variety of textures can be obtained by combining a set of feature lines and attribute functions. Second, data definitions are flexible. Third, the user can preview a texture together with its feature lines. Fourth, people can design their own textures interactively and freely by using the interface of a conventional drawing tool. For users who want to build this texture generation method into their own programs, we also give the language specifications for generating a texture. This method can interactively provide a variety of textures, and can also be used for typographic design.