#### Sample records for hybrid numerical methods

1. A hybrid numerical method for orbit correction

SciTech Connect

White, G.; Himel, T.; Shoaee, H.

1997-09-01

The authors describe a simple hybrid numerical method for beam orbit correction in particle accelerators. The method overcomes both degeneracy in the linear system being solved and respects boundaries on the solution. It uses the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) to find and remove the null-space in the system, followed by a bounded Linear Least Squares analysis of the remaining recast problem. It was developed for correcting orbit and dispersion in the B-factory rings.

2. A Hybrid Numerical Analysis Method for Structural Health Monitoring

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Forth, Scott C.; Staroselsky, Alexander

2001-01-01

A new hybrid surface-integral-finite-element numerical scheme has been developed to model a three-dimensional crack propagating through a thin, multi-layered coating. The finite element method was used to model the physical state of the coating (far field), and the surface integral method was used to model the fatigue crack growth. The two formulations are coupled through the need to satisfy boundary conditions on the crack surface and the external boundary. The coupling is sufficiently weak that the surface integral mesh of the crack surface and the finite element mesh of the uncracked volume can be set up independently. Thus when modeling crack growth, the finite element mesh can remain fixed for the duration of the simulation as the crack mesh is advanced. This method was implemented to evaluate the feasibility of fabricating a structural health monitoring system for real-time detection of surface cracks propagating in engine components. In this work, the authors formulate the hybrid surface-integral-finite-element method and discuss the mechanical issues of implementing a structural health monitoring system in an aircraft engine environment.

3. A numerical oil spill model based on a hybrid method.

PubMed

Guo, W J; Wang, Y X

2009-05-01

The purpose of this paper is the development of a hybrid particle tracking/Eulerian-Lagrangian approach for the simulation of spilled oil in coastal areas. Oil discharge from the source is modeled by the release of particles. When the oil slick thickness or the oil concentration reaches a critical value, particles are mapped on slick thickness or node concentrations, and the calculations proceed in the Eulerian-Lagrangian mode. To acquire accurate environment information, the model is coupled with the 3-D free-surface hydrodynamics model (POM) and the third-generation wave model (SWAN). By simulating the oil processes of spreading, advection, turbulent diffusion, evaporation, emulsification, dissolution and shoreline deposition, it has the ability to predict the horizontal movement of surface oil slick, the vertical distribution of oil particles, the concentration in the water column and the mass balance of spilled oil. An accidental oil release near Dalian coastal waters is simulated to validate the developed model. Compared with the satellite images of oil slicks on the surface, the numerical results indicate that the model has a reasonable accuracy.

4. A modified seventh order two step hybrid method for the numerical integration of oscillatory problems

Kalogiratou, Z.; Monovasilis, Th.; Simos, T. E.

2016-12-01

In this work we consider trigonometrically fitted two step hybrid methods for the numerical solution of second-order initial value problems. We follow the approach of Simos and derive trigonometrically fitting conditions for methods with five stages. As an example we modify a seventh order method and apply to three well known oscillatory problems.

5. Hybrid Particle-Continuum Numerical Methods for Aerospace Applications

DTIC Science & Technology

2011-01-01

solution of the Navier-Stokes equations with modern computational uid dynamics ( CFD ) can be found eciently with very little loss in physical accuracy...lee side. During the skip portion, the CFD simulation method over-predict the measurements by over a factor of two. Based on the reconstructed data...macroscopic methods ( CFD ) on the after-body of the AS-202 ight capsule and comparison with experimental ight data [14] Figure 3: Reconstruction of

6. Hybrid S{sub N} numerical method free from spatial truncation error for slab lattice calculations

SciTech Connect

Barros, R.C.

1994-12-31

In typical lattice cells where a highly absorbing, small fuel element is embedded in the moderator (a large weakly absorbing medium), high-order transport methods become unnecessary. In this paper we describe a hybrid discrete ordinates (S{sub N}) nodal method for slab lattice calculations. This hybrid S{sub N} method combines the convenience of a low-order S{sub N} method in the moderator with a high-order S{sub N} method in the fuel. The idea is based on the fact that in weakly absorbing media whose physical size is several neutron mean free paths in extent, even the S{sub 2} method (P{sub 1} approximation), leads to an accurate result. We use special fuel-moderator interface conditions and the spectral Greens function (SGF) numerical nodal method completely free from spatial truncation error, to calculate the neutron flux distribution and the disadvantage factor.

7. Numerical assessment for a broadband and tuned noise using hybrid mufflers and a simulated annealing method

Chiu, Min-Chie

2013-06-01

A broadband noise hybridized with pure tones often occurs in practical engineering work. However, assessments of a muffler's optimal shape design that would simultaneously overcome a broadband noise hybridized with multiple tones within a constrained space were rarely addressed. In order to promote the best acoustical performance in mufflers, five kinds of the hybrid mufflers composed of a reactive unit, a dissipative unit, and Helmholtz resonator (HR) units will be proposed. Moreover, to strengthen the noise elimination at the pure tone, mufflers having parallel multiple-sectioned HRs or having multiple HR connections in series (muffler D and muffler E) will be also presented in the noise abatement. On the basis of the plane wave theory, the four-pole system matrix used to evaluate the acoustic performance of a multi-tone hybrid Helmholtz muffler will be presented. A numerical case for eliminating broadband noise hybridized with a pure tone emitted from a machine room using five kinds of mufflers (muffler A-E) will also be introduced. To find the best acoustical performance of a space-constrained muffler, a numerical assessment using a simulated annealing (SA) method is adopted. To verify the availability of the SA optimization, a numerical optimization of muffler A at a pure tone (280 Hz) is exemplified. Before the SA operation can be carried out, the accuracy of the mathematical model will be checked using the experimental data. The influences of the sound transmission loss (STL) with respect to N1-array HR and the STL with respect to one-array HR sectioned in N2 divisions have also been assessed. Also, the influence of the STL with respect to the design parameters such as the ratio of d1/d2, the diameter of the perforated hole (dH), the porosity (p%) of the perforated plate, and the outer diameter (d2) of the dissipative unit has been analyzed. Consequently, a successful approach in eliminating a broadband noise hybridized with a pure tone using optimally

8. A Hybrid Numerical Method for Turbulent Mixing Layers. Degree awarded by Case Western Reserve Univ.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

2001-01-01

A hybrid method has been developed for simulations of compressible turbulent mixing layers. Such mixing layers dominate the flows in exhaust systems of modern day aircraft and also those of hypersonic vehicles currently under development. The method configurations in which a dominant structural feature provides an unsteady mechanism to drive the turbulent development in the mixing layer. The hybrid method uses a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) procedure to calculate wall bounded regions entering a mixing section, and a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) procedure to calculate the mixing dominated regions. A numerical technique was developed to enable the use of the hybrid RANS-LES method on stretched, non-Cartesian grids. Closure for the RANS equations was obtained using the Cebeci-Smith algebraic turbulence model in conjunction with the wall-function approach of Ota and Goldberg. The wall-function approach enabled a continuous computational grid from the RANS regions to the LES region. The LES equations were closed using the Smagorinsky subgrid scale model. The hybrid RANS-LES method is applied to a benchmark compressible mixing layer experiment. Preliminary two dimensional calculations are used to investigate the effects of axial grid density and boundary conditions. Vortex shedding from the base region of a splitter plate separating the upstream flows was observed to eventually transition to turbulence. The location of the transition, however, was much further downstream than indicated by experiments. Actual LES calculations, performed in three spatial directions, also indicated vortex shedding, but the transition to turbulence was found to occur much closer to the beginning of the mixing section. which is in agreement with experimental observations. These calculations demonstrated that LES simulations must be performed in three dimensions. Comparisons of time-averaged axial velocities and turbulence intensities indicated reasonable agreement with experimental

9. A hybrid numerical-experimental method for determination of dynamic fracture properties of material

Mihradi, S.; Putra, I. S.; Dirgantara, T.; Widagdo, D.; Truong, L. X.

2010-03-01

A novel hybrid numerical-experimental method to obtain dynamic fracture properties of materials has been developed in the present work. Specimens were tested with one-point bending configuration in the Hopkinson's bar apparatus, from which the impact loading profiles were measured. In this dynamic fracture experiment, the crack tip position was measured by two strips of special strain gage having five gages arranged in one strip. Since the strain gage record only gave strain signal of each gage as a function of time, a novel method is proposed to determine the time at which the crack tip passed each strain gage and the time when the crack finally stopped. From the data of crack tip position as a function of time, the crack speed then can be calculated. These data, i.e. the loading profile and the crack speed, were then used as the input of the Node-Based FEM program developed for dynamic fractures problems. With the proposed method, three dynamic fracture properties of materials i.e dynamic fracture toughness for crack initiation (KIcd), fracture toughness for crack propagation (KID), and crack arrest toughness (KIa) can simultaneously be obtained. The results obtained from the investigation of dynamic fracture properties of Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA) material by the present method are well compared with the ones in the literature and from the direct experimental measurement. The good agreement suggests that the hybrid method developed in the present work can be used reliably to determine the dynamic fracture properties of materials.

10. A hybrid numerical-experimental method for determination of dynamic fracture properties of material

Mihradi, S.; Putra, I. S.; Dirgantara, T.; Widagdo, D.; Truong, L. X.

2009-12-01

A novel hybrid numerical-experimental method to obtain dynamic fracture properties of materials has been developed in the present work. Specimens were tested with one-point bending configuration in the Hopkinson's bar apparatus, from which the impact loading profiles were measured. In this dynamic fracture experiment, the crack tip position was measured by two strips of special strain gage having five gages arranged in one strip. Since the strain gage record only gave strain signal of each gage as a function of time, a novel method is proposed to determine the time at which the crack tip passed each strain gage and the time when the crack finally stopped. From the data of crack tip position as a function of time, the crack speed then can be calculated. These data, i.e. the loading profile and the crack speed, were then used as the input of the Node-Based FEM program developed for dynamic fractures problems. With the proposed method, three dynamic fracture properties of materials i.e dynamic fracture toughness for crack initiation (KIcd), fracture toughness for crack propagation (KID), and crack arrest toughness (KIa) can simultaneously be obtained. The results obtained from the investigation of dynamic fracture properties of Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA) material by the present method are well compared with the ones in the literature and from the direct experimental measurement. The good agreement suggests that the hybrid method developed in the present work can be used reliably to determine the dynamic fracture properties of materials.

11. Comparison of symbolic and numerical integration methods for an assumed-stress hybrid shell element

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rengarajan, Govind; Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Aminpour, Mohammad A.

1993-01-01

Hybrid shell elements have long been regarded with reserve by the commercial finite element developers despite the high degree of reliability and accuracy associated with such formulations. The fundamental reason is the inherent higher computational cost of the hybrid approach as compared to the displacement-based formulations. However, a noteworthy factor in favor of hybrid elements is that numerical integration to generate element matrices can be entirely avoided by the use of symbolic integration. In this paper, the use of the symbolic computational approach is presented for an assumed-stress hybrid shell element with drilling degrees of freedom and the significant time savings achieved is demonstrated through an example.

12. Hybrid undulator numerical optimization

SciTech Connect

Hairetdinov, A.H.; Zukov, A.A.

1995-12-31

3D properties of the hybrid undulator scheme arc studied numerically using PANDIRA code. It is shown that there exist two well defined sets of undulator parameters which provide either maximum on-axis field amplitude or minimal higher harmonics amplitude of the basic undulator field. Thus the alternative between higher field amplitude or pure sinusoidal field exists. The behavior of the undulator field amplitude and harmonics structure for a large set of (undulator gap)/(undulator wavelength) values is demonstrated.

13. Stress analysis and damage evaluation of flawed composite laminates by hybrid-numerical methods

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Yang, Yii-Ching

1992-01-01

Structural components in flight vehicles is often inherited flaws, such as microcracks, voids, holes, and delamination. These defects will degrade structures the same as that due to damages in service, such as impact, corrosion, and erosion. It is very important to know how a structural component can be useful and survive after these flaws and damages. To understand the behavior and limitation of these structural components researchers usually do experimental tests or theoretical analyses on structures with simulated flaws. However, neither approach has been completely successful. As Durelli states that 'Seldom does one method give a complete solution, with the most efficiency'. Examples of this principle is seen in photomechanics which additional strain-gage testing can only average stresses at locations of high concentration. On the other hand, theoretical analyses including numerical analyses are implemented with simplified assumptions which may not reflect actual boundary conditions. Hybrid-Numerical methods which combine photomechanics and numerical analysis have been used to correct this inefficiency since 1950's. But its application is limited until 1970's when modern computer codes became available. In recent years, researchers have enhanced the data obtained from photoelasticity, laser speckle, holography and moire' interferometry for input of finite element analysis on metals. Nevertheless, there is only few of literature being done on composite laminates. Therefore, this research is dedicated to this highly anisotropic material.

14. A numerical study of hybrid optimization methods for the molecular conformation problems

SciTech Connect

Meza, J.C.; Martinez, M.L.

1993-05-01

An important area of research in computational biochemistry is the design of molecules for specific applications. The design of these molecules depends on the accurate determination of their three-dimensional structure or conformation. Under the assumption that molecules will settle into a configuration for which their energy is at a minimum, this design problem can be formulated as a global optimization problem. The solution of the molecular conformation problem can then be obtained, at least in principle, through any number of optimization algorithms. Unfortunately, it can easily be shown that there exist a large number of local minima for most molecules which makes this an extremely difficult problem for any standard optimization method. In this study, we present results for various optimization algorithms applied to a molecular conformation problem. We include results for genetic algorithms, simulated annealing, direct search methods, and several gradient methods. The major result of this study is that none of these standard methods can be used in isolation to efficiently generate minimum energy configurations. We propose instead several hybrid methods that combine properties of several local optimization algorithms. These hybrid methods have yielded better results on representative test problems than single methods.

15. Numerical simulation of overflow at vertical weirs using a hybrid level set/VOF method

Lv, Xin; Zou, Qingping; Reeve, Dominic

2011-10-01

This paper presents the applications of a newly developed free surface flow model to the practical, while challenging overflow problems for weirs. Since the model takes advantage of the strengths of both the level set and volume of fluid methods and solves the Navier-Stokes equations on an unstructured mesh, it is capable of resolving the time evolution of very complex vortical motions, air entrainment and pressure variations due to violent deformations following overflow of the weir crest. In the present study, two different types of vertical weir, namely broad-crested and sharp-crested, are considered for validation purposes. The calculated overflow parameters such as pressure head distributions, velocity distributions, and water surface profiles are compared against experimental data as well as numerical results available in literature. A very good quantitative agreement has been obtained. The numerical model, thus, offers a good alternative to traditional experimental methods in the study of weir problems.

16. Numerical simulation of particulate flows using a hybrid of finite difference and boundary integral methods.

PubMed

Bhattacharya, Amitabh; Kesarkar, Tejas

2016-10-01

A combination of finite difference (FD) and boundary integral (BI) methods is used to formulate an efficient solver for simulating unsteady Stokes flow around particles. The two-dimensional (2D) unsteady Stokes equation is being solved on a Cartesian grid using a second order FD method, while the 2D steady Stokes equation is being solved near the particle using BI method. The two methods are coupled within the viscous boundary layer, a few FD grid cells away from the particle, where solutions from both FD and BI methods are valid. We demonstrate that this hybrid method can be used to accurately solve for the flow around particles with irregular shapes, even though radius of curvature of the particle surface is not resolved by the FD grid. For dilute particle concentrations, we construct a virtual envelope around each particle and solve the BI problem for the flow field located between the envelope and the particle. The BI solver provides velocity boundary condition to the FD solver at "boundary" nodes located on the FD grid, adjacent to the particles, while the FD solver provides the velocity boundary condition to the BI solver at points located on the envelope. The coupling between FD method and BI method is implicit at every time step. This method allows us to formulate an O(N) scheme for dilute suspensions, where N is the number of particles. For semidilute suspensions, where particles may cluster, an envelope formation method has been formulated and implemented, which enables solving the BI problem for each individual particle cluster, allowing efficient simulation of hydrodynamic interaction between particles even when they are in close proximity. The method has been validated against analytical results for flow around a periodic array of cylinders and for Jeffrey orbit of a moving ellipse in shear flow. Simulation of multiple force-free irregular shaped particles in the presence of shear in a 2D slit flow has been conducted to demonstrate the robustness of

17. Numerical simulation of particulate flows using a hybrid of finite difference and boundary integral methods

Bhattacharya, Amitabh; Kesarkar, Tejas

2016-10-01

A combination of finite difference (FD) and boundary integral (BI) methods is used to formulate an efficient solver for simulating unsteady Stokes flow around particles. The two-dimensional (2D) unsteady Stokes equation is being solved on a Cartesian grid using a second order FD method, while the 2D steady Stokes equation is being solved near the particle using BI method. The two methods are coupled within the viscous boundary layer, a few FD grid cells away from the particle, where solutions from both FD and BI methods are valid. We demonstrate that this hybrid method can be used to accurately solve for the flow around particles with irregular shapes, even though radius of curvature of the particle surface is not resolved by the FD grid. For dilute particle concentrations, we construct a virtual envelope around each particle and solve the BI problem for the flow field located between the envelope and the particle. The BI solver provides velocity boundary condition to the FD solver at "boundary" nodes located on the FD grid, adjacent to the particles, while the FD solver provides the velocity boundary condition to the BI solver at points located on the envelope. The coupling between FD method and BI method is implicit at every time step. This method allows us to formulate an O (N ) scheme for dilute suspensions, where N is the number of particles. For semidilute suspensions, where particles may cluster, an envelope formation method has been formulated and implemented, which enables solving the BI problem for each individual particle cluster, allowing efficient simulation of hydrodynamic interaction between particles even when they are in close proximity. The method has been validated against analytical results for flow around a periodic array of cylinders and for Jeffrey orbit of a moving ellipse in shear flow. Simulation of multiple force-free irregular shaped particles in the presence of shear in a 2D slit flow has been conducted to demonstrate the robustness of

18. A numerical and experimental comparison of test methods for the shear strength in hybrid metal/thermoplastic-compounds

Saborowski, E.; Scholze, M.; Lindner, T.; Lampke, T.

2017-03-01

The lap shear test is a common method for determining the interlaminar shear strength of material compounds due to its simplicity with regard to specimen production and experimental realization. However, the obtained results strongly depend on the material pairing and the specimen geometry, which have a significant influence to the stress state within the interface during the experiment. A torsion test method using butt-bonded hollow cylinders seems more appropriate due to the expected more homogeneous shear stress distribution. The aim of this work is to compare both testing methods by experimental and numerical investigations. A comparative study with thermally joined aluminum-polyamide hybrid compounds was performed. The corresponding simulations were carried out with the commercial FE-software Abaqus™, using a user defined material model for the thermoplastic joining partner and the built-in cohesive behavior contact property for modelling interfacial damage.

19. Advanced Numerical Methods for Three-Dimensional Parallel Hybrid MHD/PIC.

DTIC Science & Technology

1996-10-31

energy density plasmas . Prototype problems include studies of physical systems encountered in advanced weapons, space propulsion thrusters, pulsed power...We have developed, implemented, and applied coupled Eulerican/Lagrangian computational models for efficient parallel numerical simulation of high

20. Numerical Solution to Generalized Burgers'-Fisher Equation Using Exp-Function Method Hybridized with Heuristic Computation

PubMed Central

Malik, Suheel Abdullah; Qureshi, Ijaz Mansoor; Amir, Muhammad; Malik, Aqdas Naveed; Haq, Ihsanul

2015-01-01

In this paper, a new heuristic scheme for the approximate solution of the generalized Burgers'-Fisher equation is proposed. The scheme is based on the hybridization of Exp-function method with nature inspired algorithm. The given nonlinear partial differential equation (NPDE) through substitution is converted into a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (NODE). The travelling wave solution is approximated by the Exp-function method with unknown parameters. The unknown parameters are estimated by transforming the NODE into an equivalent global error minimization problem by using a fitness function. The popular genetic algorithm (GA) is used to solve the minimization problem, and to achieve the unknown parameters. The proposed scheme is successfully implemented to solve the generalized Burgers'-Fisher equation. The comparison of numerical results with the exact solutions, and the solutions obtained using some traditional methods, including adomian decomposition method (ADM), homotopy perturbation method (HPM), and optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM), show that the suggested scheme is fairly accurate and viable for solving such problems. PMID:25811858

1. Numerical solution to generalized Burgers'-Fisher equation using Exp-function method hybridized with heuristic computation.

PubMed

Malik, Suheel Abdullah; Qureshi, Ijaz Mansoor; Amir, Muhammad; Malik, Aqdas Naveed; Haq, Ihsanul

2015-01-01

In this paper, a new heuristic scheme for the approximate solution of the generalized Burgers'-Fisher equation is proposed. The scheme is based on the hybridization of Exp-function method with nature inspired algorithm. The given nonlinear partial differential equation (NPDE) through substitution is converted into a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (NODE). The travelling wave solution is approximated by the Exp-function method with unknown parameters. The unknown parameters are estimated by transforming the NODE into an equivalent global error minimization problem by using a fitness function. The popular genetic algorithm (GA) is used to solve the minimization problem, and to achieve the unknown parameters. The proposed scheme is successfully implemented to solve the generalized Burgers'-Fisher equation. The comparison of numerical results with the exact solutions, and the solutions obtained using some traditional methods, including adomian decomposition method (ADM), homotopy perturbation method (HPM), and optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM), show that the suggested scheme is fairly accurate and viable for solving such problems.

2. A hybrid numerical method for three-dimensional spatially-developing free-shear flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Buell, Jeffrey C.

1991-01-01

The present novel algorithm for 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations treats a domain which is (1) infinite in the vertical direction, using a mapped spectral method; (2) finite in the streamwise direction, using a classical Fourier method; and (3) homogeneous in the spanwise direction, using high-order compact finite differencing. A projection method is employed which ensures the exact conservation of mass, as well as the satisfaction of the boundary conditions at infinity. The novel aspects of these methods are noted, and the code they constitute is validated in light of several test cases. Results are presented for two- and three-dimensional mixing layers.

3. John Butcher and hybrid methods

Mehdiyeva, Galina; Imanova, Mehriban; Ibrahimov, Vagif

2017-07-01

As is known there are the mainly two classes of the numerical methods for solving ODE, which is commonly called a one and multistep methods. Each of these methods has certain advantages and disadvantages. It is obvious that the method which has better properties of these methods should be constructed at the junction of them. In the middle of the XX century, Butcher and Gear has constructed at the junction of the methods of Runge-Kutta and Adams, which is called hybrid method. Here considers the construction of certain generalizations of hybrid methods, with the high order of accuracy and to explore their application to solving the Ordinary Differential, Volterra Integral and Integro-Differential equations. Also have constructed some specific hybrid methods with the degree p ≤ 10.

4. Numerical investigation of the vortex core precession in a model hydro turbine with the aid of hybrid methods for computation of turbulent flows

Sentyabov, A. V.; Gavrilov, A. A.; Dekterev, A. A.; Minakov, A. V.

2014-12-01

Numerical modeling of the unsteady flow in the draft tube of the test bench hydro turbine is conducted. The hybrid RANS-LES methods for modeling turbulent flows are compared. The intensity and frequency of pressure fluctuations, which are induced by the vortex core precession under the runner, and the integral characteristics are considered. An analysis of the synchronous and asynchronous parts of pressure fluctuations is done; the generating and influence of the synchronous component of fluctuations are considered. The vortex core interaction with the draft tube elbow is considered.

5. Introduction to Numerical Methods

SciTech Connect

Schoonover, Joseph A.

2016-06-14

These are slides for a lecture for the Parallel Computing Summer Research Internship at the National Security Education Center. This gives an introduction to numerical methods. Repetitive algorithms are used to obtain approximate solutions to mathematical problems, using sorting, searching, root finding, optimization, interpolation, extrapolation, least squares regresion, Eigenvalue problems, ordinary differential equations, and partial differential equations. Many equations are shown. Discretizations allow us to approximate solutions to mathematical models of physical systems using a repetitive algorithm and introduce errors that can lead to numerical instabilities if we are not careful.

6. Numerical Simulation of P-Wave Propagation in Rock Mass with Granular Material-Filled Fractures Using Hybrid Continuum-Discrete Element Method

Gui, Y. L.; Zhao, Z. Y.; Zhou, H. Y.; Wu, W.

2016-10-01

In this paper, a cohesive fracture model is applied to model P-wave propagation through fractured rock mass using hybrid continuum-discrete element method, i.e. Universal Distinct Element Code (UDEC). First, a cohesive fracture model together with the background of UDEC is presented. The cohesive fracture model considers progressive failure of rock fracture rather than an abrupt damage through simultaneously taking into account the elastic, plastic and damage mechanisms as well as a modified failure function. Then, a series of laboratory tests from the literature on P-wave propagation through rock mass containing single fracture and two parallel fractures are introduced and the numerical models used to simulate these laboratory tests are described. After that, all the laboratory tests are simulated and presented. The results show that the proposed model, particularly the cohesive fracture model, can capture very well the wave propagation characteristics in rock mass with non-welded and welded fractures with and without filling materials. In the meantime, in order to identify the significance of fracture on wave propagation, filling materials with different particle sizes and the fracture thickness are discussed. Both factors are found to be crucial for wave attenuation. The simulations also show that the frequency of transmission wave is lowered after propagating through fractures. In addition, the developed numerical scheme is applied to two-dimensional wave propagation in the rock mass.

7. Numerical simulation of motion and deformation of healthy and sick red blood cell through a constricted vessel using hybrid lattice Boltzmann-immersed boundary method.

PubMed

2017-05-01

In the present article, hybrid lattice Boltzmann-immersed boundary method is utilized to simulate two-dimensional incompressible viscous flow involving flexible immersed red blood cell (RBC) in a microchannel. The main focus of the present research is to study motion and deformation of both healthy and sick RBCs in a vessel with different sizes of stenosis. The presented computational results consent reasonably well with the available data in the literature. Two different channels i.e. a simple and a constricted channel are investigated in the present manuscript. The results show that the RBC transfer and deform without any lift force and rotation induced when it is located on the symmetry axis of the microchannel. However, when the RBC is located off the symmetry axis, the pressure difference produced in the flow around the RBC would apply lift forces on them and expel them towards the center of the channel. The healthy RBC always shows more deformation related to the sick one along the channel. Another important result of the present research is that for the ratio of [Formula: see text] a sick RBC cannot pass the stenosis, and it reasons serious difficulties for body. The present results have been compared with the available experimental and numerical results which show good agreements.

8. Numerical methods in control

Mehrmann, Volker; Xu, Hongguo

2000-11-01

We study classical control problems like pole assignment, stabilization, linear quadratic control and H[infinity] control from a numerical analysis point of view. We present several examples that show the difficulties with classical approaches and suggest reformulations of the problems in a more general framework. We also discuss some new algorithmic approaches.

9. Numerical methods in acoustics

Candel, S. M.

This paper presents a survey of some computational techniques applicable to acoustic wave problems. Recent advances in wave extrapolation methods, spectral methods and boundary integral methods are discussed and illustrated by specific calculations.

10. Numerical optimization of a three-channel radiofrequency coil for open, vertical-field, MR-guided, focused ultrasound surgery using the hybrid method of moment/finite difference time domain method.

PubMed

Xin, Xuegang; Wang, Di; Han, Jijun; Feng, Yanqiu; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan

2012-07-01

The numerical optimization of a three-channel radiofrequency (RF) coil with a physical aperture for the open, vertical-field, MR-guided, focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS) system using the hybrid method of moment (MoM)/finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is reported. The numerical simulation of the current density distribution on an RF coil with a complicated irregular structure was performed using MoM. The electromagnetic field simulation containing the full coil-tissue interactions within the region of interest was accomplished using the FDTD method. Huygens' equivalent box with six surfaces smoothly connected the MoM and FDTD method. An electromagnetic model of the human pelvic region was reconstructed and loaded in the FDTD zone to optimize the three-channel RF coil and compensate for the lower sensitivity at the vertical field. In addition, the numerical MoM was used to model the resonance, decoupling and impedance matching of the RF coil in compliance with engineering practices. A prototype RF coil was constructed to verify the simulation results. The results demonstrate that the signal-to-noise ratio and the homogeneity of the B(1) field were both greatly improved compared with previously published results.

11. A numerical method of regenerator

Zhu, Shaowei; Matsubara, Yoichi

2004-02-01

A numerical method for regenerators is introduced in this paper. It is not only suitable for the regenerators in cryocoolers and Stirling engines, but also suitable for the stacks in acoustic engines and the pulse tubes in pulse tube refrigerators. The numerical model is one dimensional periodic unsteady flow model. The numerical method is based on the control volume concept with the implicitly solve method. The iteration acceleration method, which considers the one-dimensional periodic unsteady problem as the steady two-dimensional problem, is used for decreasing the calculation time. By this method, the regenerator in an inertance tube pulse tube refrigerator was simulated. The result is useful for understanding how the inefficiency of the regenerator changes with the inertance effect.

12. Hybrid codes: Methods and applications

SciTech Connect

Winske, D. ); Omidi, N. )

1991-01-01

In this chapter we discuss hybrid'' algorithms used in the study of low frequency electromagnetic phenomena, where one or more ion species are treated kinetically via standard PIC methods used in particle codes and the electrons are treated as a single charge neutralizing massless fluid. Other types of hybrid models are possible, as discussed in Winske and Quest, but hybrid codes with particle ions and massless fluid electrons have become the most common for simulating space plasma physics phenomena in the last decade, as we discuss in this paper.

13. Hybrid particles and associated methods

DOEpatents

Fox, Robert V; Rodriguez, Rene; Pak, Joshua J; Sun, Chivin

2015-02-10

Hybrid particles that comprise a coating surrounding a chalcopyrite material, the coating comprising a metal, a semiconductive material, or a polymer; a core comprising a chalcopyrite material and a shell comprising a functionalized chalcopyrite material, the shell enveloping the core; or a reaction product of a chalcopyrite material and at least one of a reagent, heat, and radiation. Methods of forming the hybrid particles are also disclosed.

14. Numerical relativity and spectral methods

Grandclement, P.

2016-12-01

The term numerical relativity denotes the various techniques that aim at solving Einstein's equations using computers. Those computations can be divided into two families: temporal evolutions on the one hand and stationary or periodic solutions on the other one. After a brief presentation of those two classes of problems, I will introduce a numerical tool designed to solve Einstein's equations: the KADATH library. It is based on the the use of spectral methods that can reach high accuracy with moderate computational resources. I will present some applications about quasicircular orbits of black holes and boson star configurations.

15. Numerical methods for turbulent flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Turner, James C., Jr.

1988-01-01

It has generally become accepted that the Navier-Strokes equations predict the dynamic behavior of turbulent as well as laminar flows of a fluid at a point in space away form a discontinuity such as a shock wave. Turbulence is also closely related to the phenomena of non-uniqueness of solutions of the Navier-Strokes equations. These second order, nonlinear partial differential equations can be solved analytically for only a few simple flows. Turbulent flow fields are much to complex to lend themselves to these few analytical methods. Numerical methods, therefore, offer the only possibility of achieving a solution of turbulent flow equations. In spite of recent advances in computer technology, the direct solution, by discrete methods, of the Navier-Strokes equations for turbulent flow fields is today, and in the foreseeable future, impossible. Thus the only economically feasible way to solve practical turbulent flow problems numerically is to use statistically averaged equations governing mean-flow quantities. The objective is to study some recent developments relating to the use of numerical methods to study turbulent flow.

16. Hybrid Experimental-Numerical Stress Analysis.

DTIC Science & Technology

1983-04-01

tension testings of excised strips of the cornea (17] and the sclera E18 ] yielded erroneous modulus of elasticity and Poisson’s ratio by the...Clarke, ASTM 51? 668, 1979, pp. 121 -150. D. Lndet J A.Begley and G. A. Clarke, ASTM STP 668v 1979P pp. 65 - 120. 28. Wilson# W. K., and Oslas, 3. R...Paris, ASTM STP 700, 1900, pp. 174 - 188. 33. Nishioka, T. and Atluri, S. N., "Numerical Analysis of Dynamic Crack Propagation: Generation and

17. Numerical methods for molecular dynamics

SciTech Connect

Skeel, R.D.

1991-01-01

This report summarizes our research progress to date on the use of multigrid methods for three-dimensional elliptic partial differential equations, with particular emphasis on application to the Poisson-Boltzmann equation of molecular biophysics. This research is motivated by the need for fast and accurate numerical solution techniques for three-dimensional problems arising in physics and engineering. In many applications these problems must be solved repeatedly, and the extremely large number of discrete unknowns required to accurately approximate solutions to partial differential equations in three-dimensional regions necessitates the use of efficient solution methods. This situation makes clear the importance of developing methods which are of optimal order (or nearly so), meaning that the number of operations required to solve the discrete problem is on the order of the number of discrete unknowns. Multigrid methods are generally regarded as being in this class of methods, and are in fact provably optimal order for an increasingly large class of problems. The fundamental goal of this research is to develop a fast and accurate numerical technique, based on multi-level principles, for the solutions of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation of molecular biophysics and similar equations occurring in other applications. An outline of the report is as follows. We first present some background material, followed by a survey of the literature on the use of multigrid methods for solving problems similar to the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. A short description of the software we have developed so far is then given, and numerical results are discussed. Finally, our research plans for the coming year are presented.

18. Hybrid Numerical Simulations Of Planetesimal Accretion

Marzari, Francesco; Weidenschilling, S. J.

2006-09-01

The multi-zone simulation code modelling the accretion of planetesimals into planets (Spaute et al. 1991, Icarus 92, 147; Weidenschilling et al. 1997, ICARUS 128, 429) includes a statistical continuum of small bodies in logarithmic mass bins, while large bodies are discrete objects with individual masses and orbits. Formerly, gravitational interactions between large planetary embryos were treated by statistical scattering. The code has now been updated to properly handle the orbits of protoplanets in a deterministic way. The trajectories of the larger bodies are numerically computed with the symplectic integrator SyYMBA. The additional forces acting on the protoplanets due to collisions with smaller planetesimals and their gravitational perturbations, including dynamical friction, as well as gas drag and tidal interaction with the solar nebula, are incorporated in the N-body algorithm by applying a further step in the leap-frog structure of the SyMBA integrator. The changes in the orbital elements of the large bodies, computed in the stochastic part of the code with a Monte Carlo approach, are applied for half a timestep before and after the N-body Hamiltonian propagation as suggested in Lee & Peale (ApJ 567, 596, 2002). With this code we intend to study the effect of dynamical friction on terrestrial planet formation and the accretion of planetary cores in the outer solar system. We will present preliminary results of simulations performed with the updated code.

19. Numerical methods for multibody systems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Glowinski, Roland; Nasser, Mahmoud G.

1994-01-01

This article gives a brief summary of some results obtained by Nasser on modeling and simulation of inequality problems in multibody dynamics. In particular, the augmented Lagrangian method discussed here is applied to a constrained motion problem with impulsive inequality constraints. A fundamental characteristic of the multibody dynamics problem is the lack of global convexity of its Lagrangian. The problem is transformed into a convex analysis problem by localization (piecewise linearization), where the augmented Lagrangian has been successfully used. A model test problem is considered and a set of numerical experiments is presented.

20. Numerical methods in heat transfer

SciTech Connect

Lewis, R.W.; Morgan, K.; Schrefler, B.A.

1983-01-01

Topics discussed in this book include modelling the effects of fire, ablation, heat flow in porous rock, thermal stress and dissolving coal. Alternative energy sources such as geothermal reservoirs and solar radiation are also discussed. Includes bibliographies at the end of the papers, a cited author index, and a subject index. Contents, abridged: Exact finite element solutions for linear steady state thermal problems. Steep gradient modelling in diffusion problems. Numerical solution of coupled conduction-convection problems using lumped-parameter methods. The prediction of turbulent heat transfer by the finite element methods. The influence of creep and transformation plasticity in the analysis of stresses due to heat treatment. Heat and moisture movement in wood composite materials during the pressing operation-a simplified model. Index.

1. Numerical analysis of the symmetric hybrid transducer ultrasonic motor.

PubMed

Satonobu, J; Friend, J R; Nakamura, K; Ueha, S

2001-11-01

In this paper, operation of a symmetric hybrid transducer ultrasonic motor with output produced by two rotors connected together via a driveshaft is numerically analyzed and compared with the traditional asymmetric hybrid transducer motor design that produces its output from only one rotor. A one-dimensional finite element model for torsional vibration in the stator and a Coulomb friction model for rotor/stator contact associated with the longitudinal vibration of the motor are introduced. The calculation results demonstrate that the symmetric design is capable of performance comparable with the traditional asymmetric design when an optimum static spring force in the rotor/stator contact interface is applied during operation.

2. A hybrid (numerical-physical) model of the left ventricle.

PubMed

Ferrari, G; Kozarski, M; De Lazzari, C; Clemente, F; Merolli, M; Tosti, G; Guaragno, M; Mimmo, R; Ambrosi, D; Glapinski, J

2001-07-01

Hydraulic models of the circulation are used to test mechanical devices and for training and research purposes; when compared to numerical models, however, they are not flexible enough and rather expensive. The solution proposed here is to merge the characteristics and the flexibility of numerical models with the functions of physical models. The result is a hybrid model with numerical and physical sections connected by an electro-hydraulic interface - which is to some extent the main problem since the numerical model can be easily changed or modified. The concept of hybrid model is applied to the representation of ventricular function by a variable elastance numerical model. This prototype is an open loop circuit and the physical section is built out of a reservoir (atrium) and a modified windkessel (arterial tree). The corresponding equations are solved numerically using the variables (atrial and arterial pressures) coming from the physical circuit. Ventricular output flow is the computed variable and is sent to a servo amplifier connected to a DC motor-gear pump system. The gear pump, behaving roughly as a flow source, is the interface to the physical circuit. Results obtained under different hemodynamic conditions demonstrate the behaviour of the ventricular model on the pressure-volume plane and the time course of output flow and arterial pressure.

3. Spectral Methods for Numerical Relativity.

PubMed

Grandclément, Philippe; Novak, Jérôme

2009-01-01

Equations arising in general relativity are usually too complicated to be solved analytically and one must rely on numerical methods to solve sets of coupled partial differential equations. Among the possible choices, this paper focuses on a class called spectral methods in which, typically, the various functions are expanded in sets of orthogonal polynomials or functions. First, a theoretical introduction of spectral expansion is given with a particular emphasis on the fast convergence of the spectral approximation. We then present different approaches to solving partial differential equations, first limiting ourselves to the one-dimensional case, with one or more domains. Generalization to more dimensions is then discussed. In particular, the case of time evolutions is carefully studied and the stability of such evolutions investigated. We then present results obtained by various groups in the field of general relativity by means of spectral methods. Work, which does not involve explicit time-evolutions, is discussed, going from rapidly-rotating strange stars to the computation of black-hole-binary initial data. Finally, the evolution of various systems of astrophysical interest are presented, from supernovae core collapse to black-hole-binary mergers.

4. Hybrid predictions of railway induced ground vibration using a combination of experimental measurements and numerical modelling

Kuo, K. A.; Verbraken, H.; Degrande, G.; Lombaert, G.

2016-07-01

Along with the rapid expansion of urban rail networks comes the need for accurate predictions of railway induced vibration levels at grade and in buildings. Current computational methods for making predictions of railway induced ground vibration rely on simplifying modelling assumptions and require detailed parameter inputs, which lead to high levels of uncertainty. It is possible to mitigate against these issues using a combination of field measurements and state-of-the-art numerical methods, known as a hybrid model. In this paper, two hybrid models are developed, based on the use of separate source and propagation terms that are quantified using in situ measurements or modelling results. These models are implemented using term definitions proposed by the Federal Railroad Administration and assessed using the specific illustration of a surface railway. It is shown that the limitations of numerical and empirical methods can be addressed in a hybrid procedure without compromising prediction accuracy.

5. Numerical methods used in fusion science numerical modeling

Yagi, M.

2015-04-01

The dynamics of burning plasma is very complicated physics, which is dominated by multi-scale and multi-physics phenomena. To understand such phenomena, numerical simulations are indispensable. Fundamentals of numerical methods used in fusion science numerical modeling are briefly discussed in this paper. In addition, the parallelization technique such as open multi processing (OpenMP) and message passing interface (MPI) parallel programing are introduced and the loop-level parallelization is shown as an example.

6. Hybrid Power Management System and Method

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eichenberg, Dennis J. (Inventor)

2008-01-01

A system and method for hybrid power management. The system includes photovoltaic cells, ultracapacitors, and pulse generators. In one embodiment, the hybrid power management system is used to provide power for a highway safety flasher.

7. Hybrid power management system and method

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eichenberg, Dennis J. (Inventor)

2007-01-01

A system and method for hybrid power management. The system includes photovoltaic cells, ultracapacitors, and pulse generators. In one embodiment, the hybrid power management system is used to provide power for a highway safety flasher.

8. Chimera: a hybrid approach to numerical loop quantum cosmology

Diener, Peter; Gupt, Brajesh; Singh, Parampreet

2014-01-01

The existence of a quantum bounce in isotropic spacetimes is a key result in loop quantum cosmology (LQC), which has been demonstrated to arise in all the models studied so far. In most of the models, the bounce has been studied using numerical simulations involving states which are sharply peaked and which bounce at volumes much larger than the Planck volume. An important issue is to confirm the existence of the bounce for states which have a wide spread, or which bounce closer to the Planck volume. Numerical simulations with such states demand large computational domains, making them very expensive and practically infeasible with the techniques which have been implemented so far. To overcome these difficulties, we present an efficient hybrid numerical scheme using the property that at the small spacetime curvature, the quantum Hamiltonian constraint in LQC, which is a difference equation with uniform discretization in volume, can be approximated by a Wheeler-DeWitt differential equation. By carefully choosing a hybrid spatial grid allowing the use of partial differential equations at large volumes, and with a simple change of geometrical coordinate, we obtain a surprising reduction in the computational cost. This scheme enables us to explore regimes which were so far unachievable for the isotropic model in LQC. Our approach also promises to significantly reduce the computational cost for numerical simulations in anisotropic LQC using high performance computing.

9. Hybrid lattice Boltzmann method on overlapping grids.

PubMed

Di Ilio, G; Chiappini, D; Ubertini, S; Bella, G; Succi, S

2017-01-01

In this work, a hybrid lattice Boltzmann method (HLBM) is proposed, where the standard lattice Boltzmann implementation based on the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (LBGK) approximation is combined together with an unstructured finite-volume lattice Boltzmann model. The method is constructed on an overlapping grid system, which allows the coexistence of a uniform lattice nodes spacing and a coordinate-free lattice structure. The natural adaptivity of the hybrid grid system makes the method particularly suitable to handle problems involving complex geometries. Moreover, the provided scheme ensures a high-accuracy solution near walls, given the capability of the unstructured submodel of achieving the desired level of refinement in a very flexible way. For these reasons, the HLBM represents a prospective tool for solving multiscale problems. The proposed method is here applied to the benchmark problem of a two-dimensional flow past a circular cylinder for a wide range of Reynolds numbers and its numerical performances are measured and compared with the standard LBGK ones.

10. Hybrid lattice Boltzmann method on overlapping grids

Di Ilio, G.; Chiappini, D.; Ubertini, S.; Bella, G.; Succi, S.

2017-01-01

In this work, a hybrid lattice Boltzmann method (HLBM) is proposed, where the standard lattice Boltzmann implementation based on the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (LBGK) approximation is combined together with an unstructured finite-volume lattice Boltzmann model. The method is constructed on an overlapping grid system, which allows the coexistence of a uniform lattice nodes spacing and a coordinate-free lattice structure. The natural adaptivity of the hybrid grid system makes the method particularly suitable to handle problems involving complex geometries. Moreover, the provided scheme ensures a high-accuracy solution near walls, given the capability of the unstructured submodel of achieving the desired level of refinement in a very flexible way. For these reasons, the HLBM represents a prospective tool for solving multiscale problems. The proposed method is here applied to the benchmark problem of a two-dimensional flow past a circular cylinder for a wide range of Reynolds numbers and its numerical performances are measured and compared with the standard LBGK ones.

11. Hybrid ODE/SSA methods and the cell cycle model

Wang, S.; Chen, M.; Cao, Y.

2017-07-01

Stochastic effect in cellular systems has been an important topic in systems biology. Stochastic modeling and simulation methods are important tools to study stochastic effect. Given the low efficiency of stochastic simulation algorithms, the hybrid method, which combines an ordinary differential equation (ODE) system with a stochastic chemically reacting system, shows its unique advantages in the modeling and simulation of biochemical systems. The efficiency of hybrid method is usually limited by reactions in the stochastic subsystem, which are modeled and simulated using Gillespie's framework and frequently interrupt the integration of the ODE subsystem. In this paper we develop an efficient implementation approach for the hybrid method coupled with traditional ODE solvers. We also compare the efficiency of hybrid methods with three widely used ODE solvers RADAU5, DASSL, and DLSODAR. Numerical experiments with three biochemical models are presented. A detailed discussion is presented for the performances of three ODE solvers.

12. Chimera: A hybrid numerical approach for isotropic loop quantum cosmology

Diener, Peter; Gupt, Brajesh; Singh, Parampreet

2013-04-01

Loop quantum cosmology (LQC) is one approach to the resolution of the problem of singularities in classical cosmologies. The evolution of a cosmological model in LQC is governed by a set difference equations. In the isotropic cosmology (1+1 dimensions) the discretization is uniform in the spatial dimension. The stable simulation of a widely spread semi-classical state requires a very large computational domain and would therefore be computationally very expensive. In this talk we present an efficient hybrid numerical scheme based on the fact that the difference equations can be approximated by a set of partial differential equations (PDE's) in the limit of large spatial volume. We therefore introduce a hybrid scheme where we solve the LQC difference equations in the small volume and the PDE's in the large volume regime. By a simple change of coordinates in the large volume regime, we can significantly reduce the computational cost and explore regions of parameter space previously unachievable. We will describe the numerical implementation, present selected results and discuss the extension of the scheme to other models.

13. On Hybrid and mixed finite element methods

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pian, T. H. H.

1981-01-01

Three versions of the assumed stress hybrid model in finite element methods and the corresponding variational principles for the formulation are presented. Examples of rank deficiency for stiffness matrices by the hybrid stress model are given and their corresponding kinematic deformation modes are identified. A discussion of the derivation of general semi-Loof elements for plates and shells by the hybrid stress method is given. It is shown that the equilibrium model by Fraeijs de Veubeke can be derived by the approach of the hybrid stress model as a special case of semi-Loof elements.

14. Hybrid methods for rotordynamic analysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Noah, Sherif T.

1986-01-01

Effective procedures are presented for the response analysis of the Space Shuttle Main Engine turbopumps under transient loading conditions. Of particular concern is the determination of the nonlinear response of the systems to rotor imbalance in presence of bearing clearances. The proposed procedures take advantage of the nonlinearities involved being localized at only a few rotor/housing coupling joints. The methods include those based on integral formulations for the incremental solutions involving the transition matrices of the rotor and housing. Alternatively, a convolutional representation of the housing displacements at the coupling points is proposed which would allow performing the transient analysis on a reduced model of the housing. The integral approach is applied to small dynamical models to demonstrate the efficiency of the approach. For purposes of assessing the numerical integration results for the nonlinear rotor/housing systems, a numerical harmonic balance procedure is developed to enable determining all possible harmonic, subharmonic, and nonperiodic solutions of the systems. A brief account of the Fourier approach is presented as applied to a two degree of freedon rotor-support system.

15. Excel spreadsheet in teaching numerical methods

Djamila, Harimi

2017-09-01

One of the important objectives in teaching numerical methods for undergraduates’ students is to bring into the comprehension of numerical methods algorithms. Although, manual calculation is important in understanding the procedure, it is time consuming and prone to error. This is specifically the case when considering the iteration procedure used in many numerical methods. Currently, many commercial programs are useful in teaching numerical methods such as Matlab, Maple, and Mathematica. These are usually not user-friendly by the uninitiated. Excel spreadsheet offers an initial level of programming, which it can be used either in or off campus. The students will not be distracted with writing codes. It must be emphasized that general commercial software is required to be introduced later to more elaborated questions. This article aims to report on a teaching numerical methods strategy for undergraduates engineering programs. It is directed to students, lecturers and researchers in engineering field.

16. Implicit Numerical Methods in Meteorology

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Augenbaum, J.

1984-01-01

The development of a fully implicit finite-difference model, whose time step is chosen solely to resolve accurately the physical flow of interest is discussed. The method is based on an operator factorization which reduces the dimensionality of the implicit approach: at each time step only (spatially) one-dimensional block-tridiagonal linear systems must be solved. The scheme uses two time levels and is second-order accurate in time. Compact implicit spatial differences are used, yielding fourth-order accuracy both vertically and horizontally. In addition, the development of a fully interactive computer code is discussed. With this code the user will have a choice of models, with various levels of accuracy and sophistication, which are imbedded, as subsets of the fully implicit 3D code.

17. Numerical Methods For Chemically Reacting Flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Leveque, R. J.; Yee, H. C.

1990-01-01

Issues related to numerical stability, accuracy, and resolution discussed. Technical memorandum presents issues in numerical solution of hyperbolic conservation laws containing "stiff" (relatively large and rapidly changing) source terms. Such equations often used to represent chemically reacting flows. Usually solved by finite-difference numerical methods. Source terms generally necessitate use of small time and/or space steps to obtain sufficient resolution, especially at discontinuities, where incorrect mathematical modeling results in unphysical solutions.

18. Numerical and experimental analysis of heat transfer in injector plate of hydrogen peroxide hybrid rocket motor

Cai, Guobiao; Li, Chengen; Tian, Hui

2016-11-01

This paper is aimed to analyze heat transfer in injector plate of hydrogen peroxide hybrid rocket motor by two-dimensional axisymmetric numerical simulations and full-scale firing tests. Long-time working, which is an advantage of hybrid rocket motor over conventional solid rocket motor, puts forward new challenges for thermal protection. Thermal environments of full-scale hybrid rocket motors designed for long-time firing tests are studied through steady-state coupled numerical simulations of flow field and heat transfer in chamber head. The motor adopts 98% hydrogen peroxide (98HP) oxidizer and hydroxyl-terminated poly-butadiene (HTPB) based fuel as the propellants. Simulation results reveal that flowing liquid 98HP in head oxidizer chamber could cool the injector plate of the motor. The cooling of 98HP is similar to the regenerative cooling in liquid rocket engines. However, the temperature of the 98HP in periphery portion of the head oxidizer chamber is higher than its boiling point. In order to prevent the liquid 98HP from unexpected decomposition, a thermal protection method for chamber head utilizing silica-phenolics annular insulating board is proposed. The simulation results show that the annular insulating board could effectively decrease the temperature of the 98HP in head oxidizer chamber. Besides, the thermal protection method for long-time working hydrogen peroxide hybrid rocket motor is verified through full-scale firing tests. The ablation of the insulating board in oxygen-rich environment is also analyzed.

19. Numerical Methods of Computational Electromagnetics for Complex Inhomogeneous Systems

SciTech Connect

Cai, Wei

2014-05-15

Understanding electromagnetic phenomena is the key in many scientific investigation and engineering designs such as solar cell designs, studying biological ion channels for diseases, and creating clean fusion energies, among other things. The objectives of the project are to develop high order numerical methods to simulate evanescent electromagnetic waves occurring in plasmon solar cells and biological ion-channels, where local field enhancement within random media in the former and long range electrostatic interactions in the latter are of major challenges for accurate and efficient numerical computations. We have accomplished these objectives by developing high order numerical methods for solving Maxwell equations such as high order finite element basis for discontinuous Galerkin methods, well-conditioned Nedelec edge element method, divergence free finite element basis for MHD, and fast integral equation methods for layered media. These methods can be used to model the complex local field enhancement in plasmon solar cells. On the other hand, to treat long range electrostatic interaction in ion channels, we have developed image charge based method for a hybrid model in combining atomistic electrostatics and continuum Poisson-Boltzmann electrostatics. Such a hybrid model will speed up the molecular dynamics simulation of transport in biological ion-channels.

20. Perception of numerical methods in rarefied gasdynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bird, G. A.

1989-01-01

The relationships between various numerical methods applied to problems in rarefied gasdynamics are discussed, with emphasis on conflicting viewpoints and computational requirements associated with physical simulation versus the numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation. The basic differences between the molecular dynamics and direct simulation methods are shown to affect their applicability to dense and rarefied flows. Methods for the probabilistic selection of representative collision in the direct simulation Monte Carlo method are reviewed. A method combining the most desirable features of the earlier methods is presented.

1. Efficient hybrid-symbolic methods for quantum mechanical calculations

Scott, T. C.; Zhang, Wenxing

2015-06-01

We present hybrid symbolic-numerical tools to generate optimized numerical code for rapid prototyping and fast numerical computation starting from a computer algebra system (CAS) and tailored to any given quantum mechanical problem. Although a major focus concerns the quantum chemistry methods of H. Nakatsuji which has yielded successful and very accurate eigensolutions for small atoms and molecules, the tools are general and may be applied to any basis set calculation with a variational principle applied to its linear and non-linear parameters.

2. Hybrid methods for cybersecurity analysis :

SciTech Connect

Davis, Warren Leon,; Dunlavy, Daniel M.

2014-01-01

Early 2010 saw a signi cant change in adversarial techniques aimed at network intrusion: a shift from malware delivered via email attachments toward the use of hidden, embedded hyperlinks to initiate sequences of downloads and interactions with web sites and network servers containing malicious software. Enterprise security groups were well poised and experienced in defending the former attacks, but the new types of attacks were larger in number, more challenging to detect, dynamic in nature, and required the development of new technologies and analytic capabilities. The Hybrid LDRD project was aimed at delivering new capabilities in large-scale data modeling and analysis to enterprise security operators and analysts and understanding the challenges of detection and prevention of emerging cybersecurity threats. Leveraging previous LDRD research e orts and capabilities in large-scale relational data analysis, large-scale discrete data analysis and visualization, and streaming data analysis, new modeling and analysis capabilities were quickly brought to bear on the problems in email phishing and spear phishing attacks in the Sandia enterprise security operational groups at the onset of the Hybrid project. As part of this project, a software development and deployment framework was created within the security analyst work ow tool sets to facilitate the delivery and testing of new capabilities as they became available, and machine learning algorithms were developed to address the challenge of dynamic threats. Furthermore, researchers from the Hybrid project were embedded in the security analyst groups for almost a full year, engaged in daily operational activities and routines, creating an atmosphere of trust and collaboration between the researchers and security personnel. The Hybrid project has altered the way that research ideas can be incorporated into the production environments of Sandias enterprise security groups, reducing time to deployment from months and

3. The path exchange method for hybrid LCA.

PubMed

Lenzen, Manfred; Crawford, Robert

2009-11-01

Hybrid techniques for Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) provide a way of combining the accuracy of process analysis and the completeness of input-output analysis. A number of methods have been suggested to implement a hybrid LCA in practice, with the main challenge being the integration of specific process data with an overarching input-output system. In this work we present a new hybrid LCA method which works at the finest input-output level of detail: structural paths. This new Path Exchange method avoids double-counting and system disturbance just as previous hybrid LCA methods, but instead of a large LCA database it requires only a minimum of external information on those structural paths that are to be represented by process data.

4. Numerical analysis of combustion characteristics of hybrid rocket motor with multi-section swirl injection

Li, Chengen; Cai, Guobiao; Tian, Hui

2016-06-01

This paper is aimed to analyse the combustion characteristics of hybrid rocket motor with multi-section swirl injection by simulating the combustion flow field. Numerical combustion flow field and combustion performance parameters are obtained through three-dimensional numerical simulations based on a steady numerical model proposed in this paper. The hybrid rocket motor adopts 98% hydrogen peroxide and polyethylene as the propellants. Multiple injection sections are set along the axis of the solid fuel grain, and the oxidizer enters the combustion chamber by means of tangential injection via the injector ports in the injection sections. Simulation results indicate that the combustion flow field structure of the hybrid rocket motor could be improved by multi-section swirl injection method. The transformation of the combustion flow field can greatly increase the fuel regression rate and the combustion efficiency. The average fuel regression rate of the motor with multi-section swirl injection is improved by 8.37 times compared with that of the motor with conventional head-end irrotational injection. The combustion efficiency is increased to 95.73%. Besides, the simulation results also indicate that (1) the additional injection sections can increase the fuel regression rate and the combustion efficiency; (2) the upstream offset of the injection sections reduces the combustion efficiency; and (3) the fuel regression rate and the combustion efficiency decrease with the reduction of the number of injector ports in each injection section.

5. Stable and low diffusive hybrid upwind splitting methods

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coquel, Frederic; Liou, Meng-Sing

1992-01-01

A new concept for upwinding is introduced, named the hybrid upwind splitting (HUS), which is achieved by combining the basically distinct flux vector splitting (FVS) and the flux difference splitting (FDS) approaches. The HUS approach yields upwind methods which share the robustness of the FVS schemes in the capture of nonlinear waves and the accuracy of some of the FDS schemes. Numerical illustrations are presented proving the relevance of the HUS methods for viscous calculations.

6. A hybrid artificial bee colony algorithm for numerical function optimization

Alqattan, Zakaria N.; Abdullah, Rosni

2015-02-01

Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm is one of the swarm intelligence algorithms; it has been introduced by Karaboga in 2005. It is a meta-heuristic optimization search algorithm inspired from the intelligent foraging behavior of the honey bees in nature. Its unique search process made it as one of the most competitive algorithm with some other search algorithms in the area of optimization, such as Genetic algorithm (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). However, the ABC performance of the local search process and the bee movement or the solution improvement equation still has some weaknesses. The ABC is good in avoiding trapping at the local optimum but it spends its time searching around unpromising random selected solutions. Inspired by the PSO, we propose a Hybrid Particle-movement ABC algorithm called HPABC, which adapts the particle movement process to improve the exploration of the original ABC algorithm. Numerical benchmark functions were used in order to experimentally test the HPABC algorithm. The results illustrate that the HPABC algorithm can outperform the ABC algorithm in most of the experiments (75% better in accuracy and over 3 times faster).

7. Numerical Methods for Radiation Magnetohydrodynamics in Astrophysics

SciTech Connect

Klein, R I; Stone, J M

2007-11-20

We describe numerical methods for solving the equations of radiation magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for astrophysical fluid flow. Such methods are essential for the investigation of the time-dependent and multidimensional dynamics of a variety of astrophysical systems, although our particular interest is motivated by problems in star formation. Over the past few years, the authors have been members of two parallel code development efforts, and this review reflects that organization. In particular, we discuss numerical methods for MHD as implemented in the Athena code, and numerical methods for radiation hydrodynamics as implemented in the Orion code. We discuss the challenges introduced by the use of adaptive mesh refinement in both codes, as well as the most promising directions for future developments.

8. Numerical Methods for Nonlinear Hillslope Transport Laws

Perron, J. T.

2008-12-01

The numerical methods used to solve nonlinear sediment transport equations often set restrictive limits on the stability and accuracy of landscape evolution models. This is especially true for hillslope transport laws in which sediment flux increases nonlinearly as the surface slope approaches a limiting value. Standard explicit finite difference methods applied to such laws are subject to fundamental limits on numerical stability that require time steps much shorter than the timescales over which landscapes evolve, creating a heavy computational burden. Methods that rely on cell-to-cell sediment routing schemes can introduce significant errors that may not be obvious unless the numerical solution is compared with a known solution. I present a new, implicit method for nonlinear hillslope transport that builds on a previously proposed approach to modeling alluvial sediment transport but avoids the use of a cell-to-cell sediment routing scheme. Comparisons of numerical solutions with analytic solutions in one and two dimensions show that the new method retains the accuracy of the explicit method while allowing timesteps several orders of magnitude longer than the maximum timesteps permitted by the explicit method. The method can be adapted to any transport law in which the expression for sediment flux is differentiable, including coupled systems in which sediment flux is a function of quantities such as soil depth.

9. Numerical Methods for Initial Value Problems.

DTIC Science & Technology

1980-07-01

of general multistep methods for ordinary differential equations a4 to implement an efficient algorithm for the solution of stiff equations . Still...integral equations II. Roundoff error for variants of Gaussian elimination III. Multistep methods for ordinary differential equations IV. Multi-grid...62 -! Paige III. NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS ....... 63 1. Equivalent Forms of Multistep

10. A hybrid Godunov method for radiation hydrodynamics

SciTech Connect

Sekora, Michael D.; Stone, James M.

2010-09-20

From a mathematical perspective, radiation hydrodynamics can be thought of as a system of hyperbolic balance laws with dual multiscale behavior (multiscale behavior associated with the hyperbolic wave speeds as well as multiscale behavior associated with source term relaxation). With this outlook in mind, this paper presents a hybrid Godunov method for one-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics that is uniformly well behaved from the photon free streaming (hyperbolic) limit through the weak equilibrium diffusion (parabolic) limit and to the strong equilibrium diffusion (hyperbolic) limit. Moreover, one finds that the technique preserves certain asymptotic limits. The method incorporates a backward Euler upwinding scheme for the radiation energy density E{sub r} and flux F{sub r} as well as a modified Godunov scheme for the material density {rho}, momentum density m, and energy density E. The backward Euler upwinding scheme is first-order accurate and uses an implicit HLLE flux function to temporally advance the radiation components according to the material flow scale. The modified Godunov scheme is second-order accurate and directly couples stiff source term effects to the hyperbolic structure of the system of balance laws. This Godunov technique is composed of a predictor step that is based on Duhamel's principle and a corrector step that is based on Picard iteration. The Godunov scheme is explicit on the material flow scale but is unsplit and fully couples matter and radiation without invoking a diffusion-type approximation for radiation hydrodynamics. This technique derives from earlier work by Miniati and Colella (2007) . Numerical tests demonstrate that the method is stable, robust, and accurate across various parameter regimes.

11. Numerical methods for nonlinear hillslope transport laws

Perron, J. Taylor

2011-06-01

The numerical methods used to solve nonlinear sediment transport equations often set very restrictive limits on the stability and accuracy of landscape evolution models. This is especially true for hillslope transport laws in which sediment flux increases nonlinearly as the surface slope approaches a limiting value. Explicit-time finite difference methods applied to such laws are subject to fundamental limits on numerical stability that require time steps much shorter than the timescales over which landscapes evolve, creating a heavy computational burden. I present an implicit method for nonlinear hillslope transport that builds on a previously proposed approach to modeling alluvial sediment transport and improves stability and accuracy by avoiding the direct calculation of sediment flux. This method can be adapted to any transport law in which the expression for sediment flux is differentiable. Comparisons of numerical solutions with analytic solutions in one and two dimensions show that the implicit method retains the accuracy of a standard explicit method while permitting time steps several orders of magnitude longer than the maximum stable time step for the explicit method. The ability to take long time steps affords a substantial savings in overall computation time, despite the implicit method's higher per-iteration computational cost. Implicit models for hillslope evolution also offer a distinct advantage when modeling the response of hillslopes to incising channels.

12. Outlier Detection with a Hybrid Artificial Intelligence Method

Mejía-Lavalle, Manuel; Obregón, Ricardo Gómez; Vivar, Atlántida Sánchez

We propose a simple and efficient hybrid artificial intelligence method to detect exceptional data. The proposed method includes a novel end-user explanation feature. After various attempts, the best design was based on an unsupervised learning schema, which uses an hybrid adaptation of the Artificial Neural Network paradigms, the Case Based Reasoning methodology, the Data Mining area, and the Expert System shells. In our method, the cluster that contains the smaller number of instances is considered as outlier data. The method provides an explanation to the end user about why this cluster is exceptional regarding to the data universe. The proposed method has been tested and compared successfully not only with well-known academic data, but also with a real and very large financial database that contains attributes with numerical and categorical values.

13. A Hybrid Method for Abstracting Newspaper Articles.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Liu, James; Wu, Yan; Zhou, Lina

1999-01-01

Introduces a hybrid method for abstracting Chinese text that integrates the statistical approach with language understandings, incorporating some linguistics heuristics and segmentation into the abstracting process. Initial responses from application to Chinese newspaper articles show that the method contributes much to the flexibility and…

14. Numerical comparison between DHF and RHF methods

1987-10-01

A detailed numerical comparison of the Dirac-Hartree-Fock method and the relativistic Hartree-Fock (RHF) method of Cowan and Griffith (1976) is presented, considering the total energy, the orbital energies, and the one-electron and two-electron integrals. The RHF method is found to yield accurate values of the relativistic transition energies. Using accurate values of the correlation corrections for p-electron and d-electron systems, the usefulness of the RHF method in obtaining relativistic corrections to the differential term energies is demonstrated. Advantages of the method for positron scattering on heavy systems are also pointed out.

15. The shallow water equations as a hybrid flow model for the numerical and experimental analysis of hydro power stations

SciTech Connect

Ostermann, Lars; Seidel, Christian

2015-03-10

The numerical analysis of hydro power stations is an important method of the hydraulic design and is used for the development and optimisation of hydro power stations in addition to the experiments with the physical submodel of a full model in the hydraulic laboratory. For the numerical analysis, 2D and 3D models are appropriate and commonly used.The 2D models refer mainly to the shallow water equations (SWE), since for this flow model a large experience on a wide field of applications for the flow analysis of numerous problems in hydraulic engineering already exists. Often, the flow model is verified by in situ measurements. In order to consider 3D flow phenomena close to singularities like weirs, hydro power stations etc. the development of a hybrid fluid model is advantageous to improve the quality and significance of the global model. Here, an extended hybrid flow model based on the principle of the SWE is presented. The hybrid flow model directly links the numerical model with the experimental data, which may originate from physical full models, physical submodels and in-situ measurements. Hence a wide field of application of the hybrid model emerges including the improvement of numerical models and the strong coupling of numerical and experimental analysis.

16. Hybrid immersed interface-immersed boundary methods for AC dielectrophoresis

SciTech Connect

Hossan, Mohammad Robiul; Dillon, Robert; Dutta, Prashanta

2014-08-01

Dielectrophoresis, a nonlinear electrokinetic transport mechanism, has become popular in many engineering applications including manipulation, characterization and actuation of biomaterials, particles and biological cells. In this paper, we present a hybrid immersed interface–immersed boundary method to study AC dielectrophoresis where an algorithm is developed to solve the complex Poisson equation using a real variable formulation. An immersed interface method is employed to obtain the AC electric field in a fluid media with suspended particles and an immersed boundary method is used for the fluid equations and particle transport. The convergence of the proposed algorithm as well as validation of the hybrid scheme with experimental results is presented. In this paper, the Maxwell stress tensor is used to calculate the dielectrophoretic force acting on particles by considering the physical effect of particles in the computational domain. Thus, this study eliminates the approximations used in point dipole methods for calculating dielectrophoretic force. A comparative study between Maxwell stress tensor and point dipole methods for computing dielectrophoretic forces are presented. The hybrid method is used to investigate the physics of dielectrophoresis in microfluidic devices using an AC electric field. The numerical results show that with proper design and appropriate selection of applied potential and frequency, global electric field minima can be obtained to facilitate multiple particle trapping by exploiting the mechanism of negative dielectrophoresis. Our numerical results also show that electrically neutral particles form a chain parallel to the applied electric field irrespective of their initial orientation when an AC electric field is applied. This proposed hybrid numerical scheme will help to better understand dielectrophoresis and to design and optimize microfluidic devices.

17. Numerical Methods through Open-Ended Projects

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cline, Kelly S.

2005-01-01

We present a design for a junior level numerical methods course that focuses on a series of five open-ended projects in applied mathematics. These projects were deliberately designed to present many of the ambiguities and complexities that appear any time we use mathematics in the real world, and so they offered the students a variety of possible…

18. Incompatible numerical manifold method for fracture problems

Wei, Gaofeng; Li, Kaitai; Jiang, Haihui

2010-05-01

The incompatible numerical manifold method (INMM) is based on the finite cover approximation theory, which provides a unified framework for problems dealing with continuum and discontinuities. The incompatible numerical manifold method employs two cover systems as follows. The mathematical cover system provides the nodes for forming finite covers of the solution domain and the weighted functions, and the physical cover system describes geometry of the domain and the discontinuous surfaces therein. In INMM, the mathematical finite cover approximation theory is used to model cracks that lead to interior discontinuities in the process of displacement. Therefore, the discontinuity is treated mathematically instead of empirically by the existing methods. However, one cover of a node is divided into two irregular sub-covers when the INMM is used to model the discontinuity. As a result, the method sometimes causes numerical errors at the tip of a crack. To improve the precision of the INMM, the analytical solution is used at the tip of a crack, and thus the cover displacement functions are extended with higher precision and computational efficiency. Some numerical examples are given.

19. A numerical method of detecting singularity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laporte, M.; Vignes, J.

1978-01-01

A numerical method is reported which determines a value C for the degree of conditioning of a matrix. This value is C = 0 for a singular matrix and has progressively larger values for matrices which are increasingly well-conditioned. This value is C sub = C max sub max (C defined by the precision of the computer) when the matrix is perfectly well conditioned.

20. A multigrid solution method for mixed hybrid finite elements

SciTech Connect

Schmid, W.

1996-12-31

We consider the multigrid solution of linear equations arising within the discretization of elliptic second order boundary value problems of the form by mixed hybrid finite elements. Using the equivalence of mixed hybrid finite elements and non-conforming nodal finite elements, we construct a multigrid scheme for the corresponding non-conforming finite elements, and, by this equivalence, for the mixed hybrid finite elements, following guidelines from Arbogast/Chen. For a rectangular triangulation of the computational domain, this non-conforming schemes are the so-called nodal finite elements. We explicitly construct prolongation and restriction operators for this type of non-conforming finite elements. We discuss the use of plain multigrid and the multilevel-preconditioned cg-method and compare their efficiency in numerical tests.

1. A numerical method for predicting hypersonic flowfields

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maccormack, Robert W.; Candler, Graham V.

1989-01-01

The flow about a body traveling at hypersonic speed is energetic enough to cause the atmospheric gases to chemically react and reach states in thermal nonequilibrium. The prediction of hypersonic flowfields requires a numerical method capable of solving the conservation equations of fluid flow, the chemical rate equations for specie formation and dissociation, and the transfer of energy relations between translational and vibrational temperature states. Because the number of equations to be solved is large, the numerical method should also be as efficient as possible. The proposed paper presents a fully implicit method that fully couples the solution of the fluid flow equations with the gas physics and chemistry relations. The method flux splits the inviscid flow terms, central differences of the viscous terms, preserves element conservation in the strong chemistry source terms, and solves the resulting block matrix equation by Gauss Seidel line relaxation.

2. A numerical method for predicting hypersonic flowfields

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maccormack, Robert W.; Candler, Graham V.

1989-01-01

The flow about a body traveling at hypersonic speed is energetic enough to cause the atmospheric gases to chemically react and reach states in thermal nonequilibrium. The prediction of hypersonic flowfields requires a numerical method capable of solving the conservation equations of fluid flow, the chemical rate equations for specie formation and dissociation, and the transfer of energy relations between translational and vibrational temperature states. Because the number of equations to be solved is large, the numerical method should also be as efficient as possible. The proposed paper presents a fully implicit method that fully couples the solution of the fluid flow equations with the gas physics and chemistry relations. The method flux splits the inviscid flow terms, central differences of the viscous terms, preserves element conservation in the strong chemistry source terms, and solves the resulting block matrix equation by Gauss Seidel line relaxation.

3. Numerical Methods for Explosion Plume Predictions

DTIC Science & Technology

1993-03-12

AD-A262 343 6 NAVSWC TR 91-718 A -22~4..v~w•T ,,-., I II It ill/111111 ti(. NUMERICAL METHODS FOR EXPLOSION PLUME PREDICTIONS BY W.G. SZYMCZAK AND A...METHODS FOR EXPLOSION PLUME PREDICTIONS BY W. G. SZYMCZAK AND A. B. WARDLAW RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT 12 MARCH 1993 Approved for public release...2 TABLES Table Page 3-1 SHALLOW DEPTH EXPLOSION BUBBLE INITIAL DATA

4. A hybrid numerical fluid dynamics code for resistive magnetohydrodynamics

SciTech Connect

Johnson, Jeffrey

2006-04-01

Spasmos is a computational fluid dynamics code that uses two numerical methods to solve the equations of resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows in compressible, inviscid, conducting media[1]. The code is implemented as a set of libraries for the Python programming language[2]. It represents conducting and non-conducting gases and materials with uncomplicated (analytic) equations of state. It supports calculations in 1D, 2D, and 3D geometry, though only the 1D configuation has received significant testing to date. Because it uses the Python interpreter as a front end, users can easily write test programs to model systems with a variety of different numerical and physical parameters. Currently, the code includes 1D test programs for hydrodynamics (linear acoustic waves, the Sod weak shock[3], the Noh strong shock[4], the Sedov explosion[5], magnetic diffusion (decay of a magnetic pulse[6], a driven oscillatory "wine-cellar" problem[7], magnetic equilibrium), and magnetohydrodynamics (an advected magnetic pulse[8], linear MHD waves, a magnetized shock tube[9]). Spasmos current runs only in a serial configuration. In the future, it will use MPI for parallel computation.

5. Hybridized Multiscale Discontinuous Galerkin Methods for Multiphysics

DTIC Science & Technology

2015-09-14

4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with...ABSTRACT We have continued the development of the Hybridized Discontinuous Galerkin (HDG) method for the solution of systems of conservation laws . The...2015 Title: Hybridizable Discontinuous Galerkin (HDG) Methods for Systems of Conservation Laws In recent years, discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods

6. High order hybrid numerical simulations of two dimensional detonation waves

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cai, Wei

1993-01-01

In order to study multi-dimensional unstable detonation waves, a high order numerical scheme suitable for calculating the detailed transverse wave structures of multidimensional detonation waves was developed. The numerical algorithm uses a multi-domain approach so different numerical techniques can be applied for different components of detonation waves. The detonation waves are assumed to undergo an irreversible, unimolecular reaction A yields B. Several cases of unstable two dimensional detonation waves are simulated and detailed transverse wave interactions are documented. The numerical results show the importance of resolving the detonation front without excessive numerical viscosity in order to obtain the correct cellular patterns.

7. Numerical method for gas dynamics combining characteristic and conservation concepts

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coakley, T. J.

1981-01-01

An efficient implicit numerical method that solves the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in arbitrary curvilinear coordinates by the finite-volume technique is presented. An intrinsically dissipative difference scheme and a fully implicit treatment of boundary conditions, based on characteristic and conservation concepts, are used to improve stability and accuracy. Efficiency is achieved by using a diagonal form of the implicit algorithm and spatially varying time-steps. Comparisons of various schemes and methods are presented for one- and two-dimensional flows, including transonic separated flow past a thick circular-arc airfoil in a channel. The new method is equal to or better than a version of MacCormack's hybrid method in accuracy and it converges to a steady state up to an order of magnitude faster.

8. Numerical method for gas dynamics combining characteristic and conservation concepts

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coakley, T. J.

1981-01-01

An efficient implicit numerical method that solves the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in arbitrary curvilinear coordinates by the finite-volume technique is presented. An intrinsically dissipative difference scheme and a fully implicit treatment of boundary conditions, based on characteristic and conservation concepts, are used to improve stability and accuracy. Efficiency is achieved by using a diagonal form of the implicit algorithm and spatially varying time-steps. Comparisons of various schemes and methods are presented for one- and two-dimensional flows, including transonic separated flow past a thick circular-arc airfoil in a channel. The new method is equal to or better than a version of MacCormack's hybrid method in accuracy and it converges to a steady state up to an order of magnitude faster.

9. Hybrid transfer-matrix FDTD method for layered periodic structures.

PubMed

Deinega, Alexei; Belousov, Sergei; Valuev, Ilya

2009-03-15

A hybrid transfer-matrix finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is proposed for modeling the optical properties of finite-width planar periodic structures. This method can also be applied for calculation of the photonic bands in infinite photonic crystals. We describe the procedure of evaluating the transfer-matrix elements by a special numerical FDTD simulation. The accuracy of the new method is tested by comparing computed transmission spectra of a 32-layered photonic crystal composed of spherical or ellipsoidal scatterers with the results of direct FDTD and layer-multiple-scattering calculations.

10. Multimode Rayleigh wave profiling by hybrid surface and borehole methods

Lin, Shibin; Ashlock, Jeramy C.

2014-05-01

To improve the accuracy of shallow seismic shear wave velocity profiling, we propose a minimally invasive hybrid surface-and-borehole method that enhances the detection of higher modes of Rayleigh wave dispersion data. The new method combines techniques from the multichannel analysis of surface waves and multichannel simulation with one receiver (MSOR) methods to record components of Rayleigh wave motion at the surface as well as at shallow depths within the soil mass. The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated through computational and experimental studies. We show that individual modes of Rayleigh waves can exhibit different dominant depths at which their motion is most significant. This is demonstrated through a numerical study of eigenvectors of layered soil profiles via the stiffness matrix method, and confirmed by a finite element simulation of the apparent dispersion trends recorded at shallow depths using MSOR. Upon superimposing dispersion data recorded via the receivers at various depths, the resulting multimode dispersion data is used in a multi-objective inverse analysis, for which the difference between experimental and theoretical dispersive phase-velocity spectra are minimized for multiple modes simultaneously. In the numerical study, we demonstrate that the resulting inverted profiles and theoretical dispersion data have improved accuracy relative to single-mode inversion. Preliminary field tests are performed using the new hybrid method, and the results are shown to support the conclusions of the numerical study and confirm the feasibility of the proposed technique. Although the use of multiple modes in surface wave testing is not new, the proposed hybrid method can provide more accurate and complete multimodal dispersion data than achieved with surface-only Rayleigh wave methods. As a result, errors because of misidentification or partial measurement of higher modes may be minimized, thus reducing statistical uncertainty in the

11. Stable and low diffusive hybrid upwind splitting methods

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coquel, Frederic; Liou, Meng-Sing

1992-01-01

We introduce in this paper a new concept for upwinding: the Hybrid Upwind Splitting (HUS). This original strategy for upwinding is achieved by combining the two previous existing approaches, the Flux Vector (FVS) and Flux Difference Splittings (FDS), while retaining their own interesting features. Indeed, our approach yields upwind methods that share the robustness of FVS schemes in the capture of nonlinear waves and the accuracy of some FDS schemes in the capture of linear waves. We describe here some examples of such HUS methods obtained by hybridizing the Osher approach with FVS schemes. Numerical illustrations are displayed and will prove in particular the relevance of the HUS methods we propose for viscous calculations.

12. Hyperbolic conservation laws and numerical methods

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Leveque, Randall J.

1990-01-01

The mathematical structure of hyperbolic systems and the scalar equation case of conservation laws are discussed. Linear, nonlinear systems and the Riemann problem for the Euler equations are also studied. The numerical methods for conservation laws are presented in a nonstandard manner which leads to large time steps generalizations and computations on irregular grids. The solution of conservation laws with stiff source terms is examined.

13. Hybrid heating systems optimization of residential environment to have thermal comfort conditions by numerical simulation.

PubMed

Jahantigh, Nabi; Keshavarz, Ali; Mirzaei, Masoud

2015-01-01

The aim of this study is to determine optimum hybrid heating systems parameters, such as temperature, surface area of a radiant heater and vent area to have thermal comfort conditions. DOE, Factorial design method is used to determine the optimum values for input parameters. A 3D model of a virtual standing thermal manikin with real dimensions is considered in this study. Continuity, momentum, energy, species equations for turbulent flow and physiological equation for thermal comfort are numerically solved to study heat, moisture and flow field. K - ɛRNG Model is used for turbulence modeling and DO method is used for radiation effects. Numerical results have a good agreement with the experimental data reported in the literature. The effect of various combinations of inlet parameters on thermal comfort is considered. According to Pareto graph, some of these combinations that have significant effect on the thermal comfort require no more energy can be used as useful tools. A better symmetrical velocity distribution around the manikin is also presented in the hybrid system.

14. Numerical optimization of actuator trajectories for ITER hybrid scenario profile evolution

van Dongen, J.; Felici, F.; Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Geelen, P.; Maljaars, E.

2014-12-01

Optimal actuator trajectories for an ITER hybrid scenario ramp-up are computed using a numerical optimization method. For both L-mode and H-mode scenarios, the time trajectory of plasma current, EC heating and current drive distribution is determined that minimizes a chosen cost function, while satisfying constraints. The cost function is formulated to reflect two desired properties of the plasma q profile at the end of the ramp-up. The first objective is to maximize the ITG turbulence threshold by maximizing the volume-averaged s/q ratio. The second objective is to achieve a stationary q profile by having a flat loop voltage profile. Actuator and physics-derived constraints are included, imposing limits on plasma current, ramp rates, internal inductance and q profile. This numerical method uses the fast control-oriented plasma profile evolution code RAPTOR, which is successfully benchmarked against more complete CRONOS simulations for L-mode and H-mode mode ITER hybrid scenarios. It is shown that the optimized trajectories computed using RAPTOR also result in an improved ramp-up scenario for CRONOS simulations using the same input trajectories. Furthermore, the optimal trajectories are shown to vary depending on the precise timing of the L-H transition.

15. Numerical methods for molecular dynamics. Progress report

SciTech Connect

Skeel, R.D.

1991-12-31

This report summarizes our research progress to date on the use of multigrid methods for three-dimensional elliptic partial differential equations, with particular emphasis on application to the Poisson-Boltzmann equation of molecular biophysics. This research is motivated by the need for fast and accurate numerical solution techniques for three-dimensional problems arising in physics and engineering. In many applications these problems must be solved repeatedly, and the extremely large number of discrete unknowns required to accurately approximate solutions to partial differential equations in three-dimensional regions necessitates the use of efficient solution methods. This situation makes clear the importance of developing methods which are of optimal order (or nearly so), meaning that the number of operations required to solve the discrete problem is on the order of the number of discrete unknowns. Multigrid methods are generally regarded as being in this class of methods, and are in fact provably optimal order for an increasingly large class of problems. The fundamental goal of this research is to develop a fast and accurate numerical technique, based on multi-level principles, for the solutions of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation of molecular biophysics and similar equations occurring in other applications. An outline of the report is as follows. We first present some background material, followed by a survey of the literature on the use of multigrid methods for solving problems similar to the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. A short description of the software we have developed so far is then given, and numerical results are discussed. Finally, our research plans for the coming year are presented.

16. A numerical method to model excitable cells.

PubMed Central

Joyner, R W; Westerfield, M; Moore, J W; Stockbridge, N

1978-01-01

We have extended a fast, stable, and accurate method for the numerical solution of cable equations to include changes in geometry and membrane properties in order to model a single excitable cell realistically. In addition, by including the provision that the radius may be a function of distance along an axis, we have achieved a general and powerful method for simulating a cell with any number of branched processes, any or all of which may be nonuniform in diameter, and with no restriction on the branching pattern. PMID:656539

17. Hybrid Lanczos-type product methods

SciTech Connect

Ressel, K.J.

1996-12-31

A general framework is proposed to construct hybrid iterative methods for the solution of large nonsymmetric systems of linear equations. This framework is based on Lanczos-type product methods, whose iteration polynomial consists of the Lanczos polynomial multiplied by some other arbitrary, {open_quotes}shadow{close_quotes} polynomial. By using for the shadow polynomial Chebyshev (more general Faber) polynomials or L{sup 2}-optimal polynomials, hybrid (Chebyshev-like) methods are incorporated into Lanczos-type product methods. In addition, to acquire spectral information on the system matrix, which is required for such a choice of shadow polynomials, the Lanczos-process can be employed either directly or in an QMR-like approach. The QMR like approach allows the cheap computation of the roots of the B-orthogonal polynomials and the residual polynomials associated with the QMR iteration. These roots can be used as a good approximation for the spectrum of the system matrix. Different choices for the shadow polynomials and their construction are analyzed. The resulting hybrid methods are compared with standard Lanczos-type product methods, like BiOStab, BiOStab({ell}) and BiOS.

18. Hybrid numerical and analytical solutions for acoustic boundary problems in thermo-viscous fluids

Bossart, R.; Joly, N.; Bruneau, M.

2003-05-01

The present work aims at contributing to the investigation of methods to solve some classes of problems of acoustic propagation in thermo-viscous fluids, in unbounded or bounded media. The focus here is on thermal and vortical diffusion at the boundaries, which have to be considered for an accurate description of the acoustic field in small fluid-filled cavities and ducts. Existing boundary element or finite element acoustic software does not include these phenomena, as they are not compatible with the basic equations involved. A methodology is given to solve such problems when using this software, introducing a hybrid method which combines both numerical solutions and analytical solutions (for the fields inside the boundary layers). A detailed application is presented to validate the process using a boundary elements method.

19. Hybrid-CVFE method for flexible-grid reservoir simulation

SciTech Connect

Fung, L.S.K.; Buchanan, L.; Sharma, R. )

1994-08-01

Well flows and pressures are the most important boundary conditions in reservoir simulation. In a typical simulation, rapid changes and large pressure, temperature, saturation, and composition gradients occur in near-well regions. Treatment of these near-well phenomena significantly affects the accuracy of reservoir simulation results; therefore, extensive efforts have been devoted to the numerical treatment of wells and near-well flows. The flexible control-volume finite-element (CVFE) method is used to construct hybrid grids. The method involves use of a local cylindrical or elliptical grid to represent near-well flow accurately while honoring complex reservoir boundaries. The grid transition is smooth without any special discretization approximation, which eliminates the grid transition problem experienced with Cartesian local grid refinement and hybrid Cartesian gridding techniques.

20. Hybrid least squares multivariate spectral analysis methods

DOEpatents

Haaland, David M.

2002-01-01

A set of hybrid least squares multivariate spectral analysis methods in which spectral shapes of components or effects not present in the original calibration step are added in a following estimation or calibration step to improve the accuracy of the estimation of the amount of the original components in the sampled mixture. The "hybrid" method herein means a combination of an initial classical least squares analysis calibration step with subsequent analysis by an inverse multivariate analysis method. A "spectral shape" herein means normally the spectral shape of a non-calibrated chemical component in the sample mixture but can also mean the spectral shapes of other sources of spectral variation, including temperature drift, shifts between spectrometers, spectrometer drift, etc. The "shape" can be continuous, discontinuous, or even discrete points illustrative of the particular effect.

1. Hybrid least squares multivariate spectral analysis methods

DOEpatents

Haaland, David M.

2004-03-23

A set of hybrid least squares multivariate spectral analysis methods in which spectral shapes of components or effects not present in the original calibration step are added in a following prediction or calibration step to improve the accuracy of the estimation of the amount of the original components in the sampled mixture. The hybrid method herein means a combination of an initial calibration step with subsequent analysis by an inverse multivariate analysis method. A spectral shape herein means normally the spectral shape of a non-calibrated chemical component in the sample mixture but can also mean the spectral shapes of other sources of spectral variation, including temperature drift, shifts between spectrometers, spectrometer drift, etc. The shape can be continuous, discontinuous, or even discrete points illustrative of the particular effect.

2. RELAP-7 Numerical Stabilization: Entropy Viscosity Method

SciTech Connect

R. A. Berry; M. O. Delchini; J. Ragusa

2014-06-01

The RELAP-7 code is the next generation nuclear reactor system safety analysis code being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The code is based on the INL's modern scientific software development framework, MOOSE (Multi-Physics Object Oriented Simulation Environment). The overall design goal of RELAP-7 is to take advantage of the previous thirty years of advancements in computer architecture, software design, numerical integration methods, and physical models. The end result will be a reactor systems analysis capability that retains and improves upon RELAP5's capability and extends the analysis capability for all reactor system simulation scenarios. RELAP-7 utilizes a single phase and a novel seven-equation two-phase flow models as described in the RELAP-7 Theory Manual (INL/EXT-14-31366). The basic equation systems are hyperbolic, which generally require some type of stabilization (or artificial viscosity) to capture nonlinear discontinuities and to suppress advection-caused oscillations. This report documents one of the available options for this stabilization in RELAP-7 -- a new and novel approach known as the entropy viscosity method. Because the code is an ongoing development effort in which the physical sub models, numerics, and coding are evolving, so too must the specific details of the entropy viscosity stabilization method. Here the fundamentals of the method in their current state are presented.

3. Numerical study of ion-cyclotron resonant interaction via hybrid-Vlasov simulations

SciTech Connect

Valentini, Francesco; Iazzolino, Antonio; Veltri, Pierluigi

2010-05-15

Hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell numerical simulations are used to investigate the collisionless resonant interaction of ions with ion-cyclotron waves in parallel propagation with respect to a background magnetic field. In linear regime, analytical results on wave damping, obtained by integrating the linearized Vlasov equation through the well-known characteristics method, are compared with the numerical results. Then, the ion heating process and the consequent generation of temperature anisotropy in the direction perpendicular to the background magnetic field are investigated numerically in detail. In nonlinear regime, the numerical results show that the distribution of particle velocities is strongly distorted due to the resonant ion-cyclotron interaction with the formation of diffusive plateaus in the longitudinal direction (with respect to the ambient field) and significantly departs from the Maxwellian equilibrium. These results are relevant in many plasma physics environments, such as the solar wind, where the process of ion-cyclotron heating and the generation of temperature anisotropy and non-Maxwellian velocity distributions are routinely recovered in many in situ measurements, or the laboratory plasmas, where the resonant interaction of ions with ion-cyclotron waves is the primary source of auxiliary heating in the confining apparatus.

4. Efficient numerical methods for nonlinear Schrodinger equations

Liang, Xiao

The nonlinear Schrodinger equations are widely used to model a number of important physical phenomena, including solitary wave propagations in optical fibers, deep water turbulence, laser beam transmissions, and the Bose-Einstein condensation, just to mention a few. In the field of optics and photonics, the systems of nonlinear Schrodinger equations can be used to model multi-component solitons and the interaction of self-focusing laser beams. In three spatial dimensions, the nonlinear Schrodinger equation is known as the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, which models the soliton in a low-cost graded-index fiber. Recently, research on nonlinear space fractional Schrodinger equations, which capture the self-similarity in the fractional environment, has become prevalent. Our study includes the systems of multi-dimensional nonlinear space fractional Schrodinger equations. To solve the systems of multi-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equations efficiently, several novel numerical methods are presented. The central difference and quartic spline approximation based exponential time differencing Crank-Nicolson method is introduced for solving systems of one- and two-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equations. A local extrapolation is employed to achieve fourth-order accuracy in time. The numerical examples include the transmission of a self-focusing laser beam. The local discontinuous Galerkin methods combined with the fourth-order exponential time differencing Runge-Kutta time discretization are studied for solving the systems of nonlinear Schrodinger equations with hyperbolic terms, which are critical in modeling optical solitons in the birefringent fibers. The local discontinuous Galerkin method is able to achieve any order of accuracy in space, thanks to the usage of piecewise polynomial spaces. The exponential time differencing methods are employed to deal with the coupled nonlinearities for the reason that there is no need to solve nonlinear systems at every time step

5. Linearized Implicit Numerical Method for Burgers' Equation

Mukundan, Vijitha; Awasthi, Ashish

2016-12-01

In this work, a novel numerical scheme based on method of lines (MOL) is proposed to solve the nonlinear time dependent Burgers' equation. The Burgers' equation is semi discretized in spatial direction by using MOL to yield system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations in time. The resulting system of nonlinear differential equations is integrated by an implicit finite difference method. We have not used Cole-Hopf transformation which gives less accurate solution for very small values of kinematic viscosity. Also, we have not considered nonlinear solvers that are computationally costlier and take more running time.In the proposed scheme nonlinearity is tackled by Taylor series and the use of fully discretized scheme is easy and practical. The proposed method is unconditionally stable in the linear sense. Furthermore, efficiency of the proposed scheme is demonstrated using three test problems.

6. Numerical methods for engine-airframe integration

SciTech Connect

Murthy, S.N.B.; Paynter, G.C.

1986-01-01

Various papers on numerical methods for engine-airframe integration are presented. The individual topics considered include: scientific computing environment for the 1980s, overview of prediction of complex turbulent flows, numerical solutions of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations, elements of computational engine/airframe integrations, computational requirements for efficient engine installation, application of CAE and CFD techniques to complete tactical missile design, CFD applications to engine/airframe integration, and application of a second-generation low-order panel methods to powerplant installation studies. Also addressed are: three-dimensional flow analysis of turboprop inlet and nacelle configurations, application of computational methods to the design of large turbofan engine nacelles, comparison of full potential and Euler solution algorithms for aeropropulsive flow field computations, subsonic/transonic, supersonic nozzle flows and nozzle integration, subsonic/transonic prediction capabilities for nozzle/afterbody configurations, three-dimensional viscous design methodology of supersonic inlet systems for advanced technology aircraft, and a user's technology assessment.

7. Numerical analysis method for linear induction machines.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Elliott, D. G.

1972-01-01

A numerical analysis method has been developed for linear induction machines such as liquid metal MHD pumps and generators and linear motors. Arbitrary phase currents or voltages can be specified and the moving conductor can have arbitrary velocity and conductivity variations from point to point. The moving conductor is divided into a mesh and coefficients are calculated for the voltage induced at each mesh point by unit current at every other mesh point. Combining the coefficients with the mesh resistances yields a set of simultaneous equations which are solved for the unknown currents.

8. Numerical methods for finding stationary gravitational solutions

Dias, Óscar J. C.; Santos, Jorge E.; Way, Benson

2016-07-01

The wide applications of higher dimensional gravity and gauge/gravity duality have fuelled the search for new stationary solutions of the Einstein equation (possibly coupled to matter). In this topical review, we explain the mathematical foundations and give a practical guide for the numerical solution of gravitational boundary value problems. We present these methods by way of example: resolving asymptotically flat black rings, singly spinning lumpy black holes in anti-de Sitter (AdS), and the Gregory-Laflamme zero modes of small rotating black holes in AdS{}5× {S}5. We also include several tools and tricks that have been useful throughout the literature.

9. Numerical analysis method for linear induction machines.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Elliott, D. G.

1972-01-01

A numerical analysis method has been developed for linear induction machines such as liquid metal MHD pumps and generators and linear motors. Arbitrary phase currents or voltages can be specified and the moving conductor can have arbitrary velocity and conductivity variations from point to point. The moving conductor is divided into a mesh and coefficients are calculated for the voltage induced at each mesh point by unit current at every other mesh point. Combining the coefficients with the mesh resistances yields a set of simultaneous equations which are solved for the unknown currents.

10. Numerical solution methods for viscoelastic orthotropic materials

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gramoll, K. C.; Dillard, D. A.; Brinson, H. F.

1988-01-01

Numerical solution methods for viscoelastic orthotropic materials, specifically fiber reinforced composite materials, are examined. The methods include classical lamination theory using time increments, direction solution of the Volterra Integral, Zienkiewicz's linear Prony series method, and a new method called Nonlinear Differential Equation Method (NDEM) which uses a nonlinear Prony series. The criteria used for comparison of the various methods include the stability of the solution technique, time step size stability, computer solution time length, and computer memory storage. The Volterra Integral allowed the implementation of higher order solution techniques but had difficulties solving singular and weakly singular compliance function. The Zienkiewicz solution technique, which requires the viscoelastic response to be modeled by a Prony series, works well for linear viscoelastic isotropic materials and small time steps. The new method, NDEM, uses a modified Prony series which allows nonlinear stress effects to be included and can be used with orthotropic nonlinear viscoelastic materials. The NDEM technique is shown to be accurate and stable for both linear and nonlinear conditions with minimal computer time.

11. Strategies for efficient numerical implementation of hybrid multi-scale agent-based models to describe biological systems

PubMed Central

Cilfone, Nicholas A.; Kirschner, Denise E.; Linderman, Jennifer J.

2015-01-01

Biologically related processes operate across multiple spatiotemporal scales. For computational modeling methodologies to mimic this biological complexity, individual scale models must be linked in ways that allow for dynamic exchange of information across scales. A powerful methodology is to combine a discrete modeling approach, agent-based models (ABMs), with continuum models to form hybrid models. Hybrid multi-scale ABMs have been used to simulate emergent responses of biological systems. Here, we review two aspects of hybrid multi-scale ABMs: linking individual scale models and efficiently solving the resulting model. We discuss the computational choices associated with aspects of linking individual scale models while simultaneously maintaining model tractability. We demonstrate implementations of existing numerical methods in the context of hybrid multi-scale ABMs. Using an example model describing Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, we show relative computational speeds of various combinations of numerical methods. Efficient linking and solution of hybrid multi-scale ABMs is key to model portability, modularity, and their use in understanding biological phenomena at a systems level. PMID:26366228

12. Application of numerical methods to elasticity imaging.

PubMed

Castaneda, Benjamin; Ormachea, Juvenal; Rodríguez, Paul; Parker, Kevin J

2013-03-01

Elasticity imaging can be understood as the intersection of the study of biomechanical properties, imaging sciences, and physics. It was mainly motivated by the fact that pathological tissue presents an increased stiffness when compared to surrounding normal tissue. In the last two decades, research on elasticity imaging has been an international and interdisciplinary pursuit aiming to map the viscoelastic properties of tissue in order to provide clinically useful information. As a result, several modalities of elasticity imaging, mostly based on ultrasound but also on magnetic resonance imaging and optical coherence tomography, have been proposed and applied to a number of clinical applications: cancer diagnosis (prostate, breast, liver), hepatic cirrhosis, renal disease, thyroiditis, arterial plaque evaluation, wall stiffness in arteries, evaluation of thrombosis in veins, and many others. In this context, numerical methods are applied to solve forward and inverse problems implicit in the algorithms in order to estimate viscoelastic linear and nonlinear parameters, especially for quantitative elasticity imaging modalities. In this work, an introduction to elasticity imaging modalities is presented. The working principle of qualitative modalities (sonoelasticity, strain elastography, acoustic radiation force impulse) and quantitative modalities (Crawling Waves Sonoelastography, Spatially Modulated Ultrasound Radiation Force (SMURF), Supersonic Imaging) will be explained. Subsequently, the areas in which numerical methods can be applied to elasticity imaging are highlighted and discussed. Finally, we present a detailed example of applying total variation and AM-FM techniques to the estimation of elasticity.

13. Mathematica with a Numerical Methods Course

Varley, Rodney

2003-04-01

An interdisciplinary "Numerical Methods" course has been shared between physics, mathematics and computer science since 1992 at Hunter C. Recently, the lectures and workshops for this course have become formalized and placed on the internet at http://www.ph.hunter.cuny.edu (follow the links "Course Listings and Websites" >> "PHYS385 (Numerical Methods)". Mathematica notebooks for the lectures are available for automatic download (by "double clicking" the lecture icon) for student use in the classroom or at home. AOL (or Netscape/Explorer) can be used provided Mathematica (or the "free" MathReader) has been made a "helper application". Using Mathematica has the virtue that mathematical equations (no LaTex required) can easily be included with the text and Mathematica's graphing is easy to use. Computational cells can be included within the notebook and students may easily modify the calculation to see the result of "what if..." questions. Homework is sent as Mathematica notebooks to the instructor via the internet and the corrected workshops are returned in the same manner. Most exam questions require computational solutions.

14. Homogenization and Numerical Methods for Hyperbolic Equations

Liu, Jian-Guo

1990-01-01

This dissertation studies three aspects of analysis and numerical methods for partial differential equations with oscillatory solutions. 1. Homogenization theory for certain linear hyperbolic equations is developed. We derive the homogenized convection equations for linear convection problems with rapidly varying velocity in space and time. We find that the oscillatory solutions are very sensitive to the arithmetic properties of certain parameters, such as the corresponding rotation number and the ratio between the components of the mean velocity field in linear convection. We also show that the oscillatory velocity field in two dimensional incompressible flow behaves like shear flows. 2. The homogenization of scalar nonlinear conservation laws in several space variables with oscillatory initial data is also discussed. We prove that the initial oscillations will be eliminated for any positive time when the equations are non-degenerate. This is also true for degenerate equations if there is enough mixing among the initial oscillations in the degenerate direction. Otherwise, the initial oscillation, for which the homogenized equation is obtained, will survive and be propagated. The large-time behavior of conservation laws with several space variables is studied. We show that, under a new nondegenerate condition (the second derivatives of the flux functions are linearly independent in any interval), a piecewise smooth periodic solution with converge strongly to the mean value of initial data. This generalizes Glimm and Lax's result for the one dimensional problem (3). 3. Numerical simulations of the oscillatory solutions are also carried out. We give some error estimate for varepsilon-h resonance ( varepsilon: oscillation wave length, h: numerical step) and prove essential convergence (24) of order alpha < 1 for some numerical schemes. These include upwind schemes and particle methods for linear hyperbolic equations with oscillatory coefficients. A stochastic analysis

15. Numerical methods for problems in computational aeroacoustics

1998-12-01

A goal of computational aeroacoustics is the accurate calculation of noise from a jet in the far field. This work concerns the numerical aspects of accurately calculating acoustic waves over large distances and long time. More specifically, the stability, efficiency, accuracy, dispersion and dissipation in spatial discretizations, time stepping schemes, and absorbing boundaries for the direct solution of wave propagation problems are determined. Efficient finite difference methods developed by Tam and Webb, which minimize dispersion and dissipation, are commonly used for the spatial and temporal discretization. Alternatively, high order pseudospectral methods can be made more efficient by using the grid transformation introduced by Kosloff and Tal-Ezer. Work in this dissertation confirms that the grid transformation introduced by Kosloff and Tal-Ezer is not spectrally accurate because, in the limit, the grid transformation forces zero derivatives at the boundaries. If a small number of grid points are used, it is shown that approximations with the Chebyshev pseudospectral method with the Kosloff and Tal-Ezer grid transformation are as accurate as with the Chebyshev pseudospectral method. This result is based on the analysis of the phase and amplitude errors of these methods, and their use for the solution of a benchmark problem in computational aeroacoustics. For the grid transformed Chebyshev method with a small number of grid points it is, however, more appropriate to compare its accuracy with that of high- order finite difference methods. This comparison, for an order of accuracy 10-3 for a benchmark problem in computational aeroacoustics, is performed for the grid transformed Chebyshev method and the fourth order finite difference method of Tam. Solutions with the finite difference method are as accurate. and the finite difference method is more efficient than, the Chebyshev pseudospectral method with the grid transformation. The efficiency of the Chebyshev

16. A hybrid numerical technique for predicting the aerodynamic and acoustic fields of advanced turboprops

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Homicz, G. F.; Moselle, J. R.

1985-01-01

A hybrid numerical procedure is presented for the prediction of the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of advanced turboprops. A hybrid scheme is proposed which in principle leads to a consistent simultaneous prediction of both fields. In the inner flow a finite difference method, the Approximate-Factorization Alternating-Direction-Implicit (ADI) scheme, is used to solve the nonlinear Euler equations. In the outer flow the linearized acoustic equations are solved via a Boundary-Integral Equation (BIE) method. The two solutions are iteratively matched across a fictitious interface in the flow so as to maintain continuity. At convergence the resulting aerodynamic load prediction will automatically satisfy the appropriate free-field boundary conditions at the edge of the finite difference grid, while the acoustic predictions will reflect the back-reaction of the radiated field on the magnitude of the loading source terms, as well as refractive effects in the inner flow. The equations and logic needed to match the two solutions are developed and the computer program implementing the procedure is described. Unfortunately, no converged solutions were obtained, due to unexpectedly large running times. The reasons for this are discussed and several means to alleviate the situation are suggested.

17. Numerical approach for solving kinetic equations in two-dimensional case on hybrid computational clusters

Malkov, Ewgenij A.; Poleshkin, Sergey O.; Kudryavtsev, Alexey N.; Shershnev, Anton A.

2016-10-01

The paper presents the software implementation of the Boltzmann equation solver based on the deterministic finite-difference method. The solver allows one to carry out parallel computations of rarefied flows on a hybrid computational cluster with arbitrary number of central processor units (CPU) and graphical processor units (GPU). Employment of GPUs leads to a significant acceleration of the computations, which enables us to simulate two-dimensional flows with high resolution in a reasonable time. The developed numerical code was validated by comparing the obtained solutions with the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) data. For this purpose the supersonic flow past a flat plate at zero angle of attack is used as a test case.

18. Numerical modeling of lower hybrid heating and current drive

SciTech Connect

Valeo, E.J.; Eder, D.C.

1986-03-01

The generation of currents in toroidal plasma by application of waves in the lower hybrid frequency range involves the interplay of several physical phenomena which include: wave propagation in toroidal geometry, absorption via wave-particle resonances, the quasilinear generation of strongly nonequilibrium electron and ion distribution functions, and the self-consistent evolution of the current density in such a nonequilibrium plasma. We describe a code, LHMOD, which we have developed to treat these aspects of current drive and heating in tokamaks. We present results obtained by applying the code to a computation of current ramp-up and to an investigation of the possible importance of minority hydrogen absorption in a deuterium plasma as the ''density limit'' to current drive is approached.

19. Optimized Vertex Method and Hybrid Reliability

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Smith, Steven A.; Krishnamurthy, T.; Mason, B. H.

2002-01-01

A method of calculating the fuzzy response of a system is presented. This method, called the Optimized Vertex Method (OVM), is based upon the vertex method but requires considerably fewer function evaluations. The method is demonstrated by calculating the response membership function of strain-energy release rate for a bonded joint with a crack. The possibility of failure of the bonded joint was determined over a range of loads. After completing the possibilistic analysis, the possibilistic (fuzzy) membership functions were transformed to probability density functions and the probability of failure of the bonded joint was calculated. This approach is called a possibility-based hybrid reliability assessment. The possibility and probability of failure are presented and compared to a Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) of the bonded joint.

20. Simulation of ultrasonic inspection of curved composites using a hybrid semi-analytical/numerical code

Reverdy, Frédéric; Mahaut, Steve; Dominguez, Nicolas; Dubois, Philippe

2015-03-01

Carbon Fiber reinforced composites are increasingly used in structural parts in the aeronautics industry, as they allow to reduce the weight of aircrafts while maintaining high mechanical performances. However, such structures can be complicated to inspect due to their complex geometries and complex composite properties, leading to highly heterogeneous and anisotropic materials. Different potential damages and manufacturing flaws related to these parts are to be detected: porosities, ply waviness, delaminations after impact. Ultrasonic inspection, which is commonly used to test the full volume of composite panels, thus has to cope with both complex wave propagation (within anisotropic parts whose crystallographic orientation varies according to the layers structure) and flaw interaction (local distortion of plies such as ply waviness, small pores, structural noise due to periodicity patterns…). Developing NDT procedures for those parts therefore requires simulation tools to help for understanding those phenomena, and to optimize probes and techniques. Within the CIVA multi-techniques platform, CEA-LIST has developed semi-analytical tools for ultrasonic techniques, which have the advantages of high computational efficiency (fast calculations), but with limited range of application due to some hypothesis (for instance, homogenization approaches which don't allow to take account of structural noise). On the other hand, numerical methods such as finite element (FEM) or finite difference in time domain (FDTD) are more suitable to compute ultrasonic wave propagation and defect scattering in complex materials such as composite but require more computational efforts. Hybrid methods couple semi-analytical solutions and numerical computations in limited spatial domains to handle complex cases with high computation performances. In CIVA we have integrated a hybrid model that combines the semi-analytical methods developed at CEA to FDTD codes developed at Airbus Group

1. Hybrid perturbation methods based on statistical time series models

San-Juan, Juan Félix; San-Martín, Montserrat; Pérez, Iván; López, Rosario

2016-04-01

In this work we present a new methodology for orbit propagation, the hybrid perturbation theory, based on the combination of an integration method and a prediction technique. The former, which can be a numerical, analytical or semianalytical theory, generates an initial approximation that contains some inaccuracies derived from the fact that, in order to simplify the expressions and subsequent computations, not all the involved forces are taken into account and only low-order terms are considered, not to mention the fact that mathematical models of perturbations not always reproduce physical phenomena with absolute precision. The prediction technique, which can be based on either statistical time series models or computational intelligence methods, is aimed at modelling and reproducing missing dynamics in the previously integrated approximation. This combination results in the precision improvement of conventional numerical, analytical and semianalytical theories for determining the position and velocity of any artificial satellite or space debris object. In order to validate this methodology, we present a family of three hybrid orbit propagators formed by the combination of three different orders of approximation of an analytical theory and a statistical time series model, and analyse their capability to process the effect produced by the flattening of the Earth. The three considered analytical components are the integration of the Kepler problem, a first-order and a second-order analytical theories, whereas the prediction technique is the same in the three cases, namely an additive Holt-Winters method.

2. Small RNA Detection by in Situ Hybridization Methods

PubMed Central

Urbanek, Martyna O.; Nawrocka, Anna U.; Krzyzosiak, Wlodzimierz J.

2015-01-01

Small noncoding RNAs perform multiple regulatory functions in cells, and their exogenous mimics are widely used in research and experimental therapies to interfere with target gene expression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are the most thoroughly investigated representatives of the small RNA family, which includes short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), PIWI-associated RNA (piRNAs), and others. Numerous methods have been adopted for the detection and characterization of small RNAs, which is challenging due to their short length and low level of expression. These include molecular biology methods such as real-time RT-PCR, northern blotting, hybridization to microarrays, cloning and sequencing, as well as single cell miRNA detection by microscopy with in situ hybridization (ISH). In this review, we focus on the ISH method, including its fluorescent version (FISH), and we present recent methodological advances that facilitated its successful adaptation for small RNA detection. We discuss relevant technical aspects as well as the advantages and limitations of ISH. We also refer to numerous applications of small RNA ISH in basic research and molecular diagnostics. PMID:26068454

3. Novel Parallel Numerical Methods for Radiation& Neutron Transport

SciTech Connect

Brown, P N

2001-03-06

In many of the multiphysics simulations performed at LLNL, transport calculations can take up 30 to 50% of the total run time. If Monte Carlo methods are used, the percentage can be as high as 80%. Thus, a significant core competence in the formulation, software implementation, and solution of the numerical problems arising in transport modeling is essential to Laboratory and DOE research. In this project, we worked on developing scalable solution methods for the equations that model the transport of photons and neutrons through materials. Our goal was to reduce the transport solve time in these simulations by means of more advanced numerical methods and their parallel implementations. These methods must be scalable, that is, the time to solution must remain constant as the problem size grows and additional computer resources are used. For iterative methods, scalability requires that (1) the number of iterations to reach convergence is independent of problem size, and (2) that the computational cost grows linearly with problem size. We focused on deterministic approaches to transport, building on our earlier work in which we performed a new, detailed analysis of some existing transport methods and developed new approaches. The Boltzmann equation (the underlying equation to be solved) and various solution methods have been developed over many years. Consequently, many laboratory codes are based on these methods, which are in some cases decades old. For the transport of x-rays through partially ionized plasmas in local thermodynamic equilibrium, the transport equation is coupled to nonlinear diffusion equations for the electron and ion temperatures via the highly nonlinear Planck function. We investigated the suitability of traditional-solution approaches to transport on terascale architectures and also designed new scalable algorithms; in some cases, we investigated hybrid approaches that combined both.

4. Advanced numerical modeling and hybridization techniques for third-generation infrared detector pixel arrays

Schuster, Jonathan

Infrared (IR) detectors are well established as a vital sensor technology for military, defense and commercial applications. Due to the expense and effort required to fabricate pixel arrays, it is imperative to develop numerical simulation models to perform predictive device simulations which assess device characteristics and design considerations. Towards this end, we have developed a robust three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulation model for IR detector pixel arrays. We used the finite-difference time-domain technique to compute the optical characteristics including the reflectance and the carrier generation rate in the device. Subsequently, we employ the finite element method to solve the drift-diffusion equations to compute the electrical characteristics including the I(V) characteristics, quantum efficiency, crosstalk and modulation transfer function. We use our 3D numerical model to study a new class of detector based on the nBn-architecture. This detector is a unipolar unity-gain barrier device consisting of a narrow-gap absorber layer, a wide-gap barrier layer, and a narrow-gap collector layer. We use our model to study the underlying physics of these devices and to explain the anomalously long lateral collection lengths for photocarriers measured experimentally. Next, we investigate the crosstalk in HgCdTe photovoltaic pixel arrays employing a photon-trapping (PT) structure realized with a periodic array of pillars intended to provide broadband operation. The PT region drastically reduces the crosstalk; making the use of the PT structures not only useful to obtain broadband operation, but also desirable for reducing crosstalk, especially in small pitch detector arrays. Then, the power and flexibility of the nBn architecture is coupled with a PT structure to engineer spectrally filtering detectors. Last, we developed a technique to reduce the cost of large-format, high performance HgCdTe detectors by nondestructively screen-testing detector arrays prior

5. Transport Test Problems for Hybrid Methods Development

SciTech Connect

Shaver, Mark W.; Miller, Erin A.; Wittman, Richard S.; McDonald, Benjamin S.

2011-12-28

This report presents 9 test problems to guide testing and development of hybrid calculations for the ADVANTG code at ORNL. These test cases can be used for comparing different types of radiation transport calculations, as well as for guiding the development of variance reduction methods. Cases are drawn primarily from existing or previous calculations with a preference for cases which include experimental data, or otherwise have results with a high level of confidence, are non-sensitive, and represent problem sets of interest to NA-22.

6. Field by field hybrid upwind splitting methods

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coquel, Frederic; Liou, Meng-Sing

1993-01-01

A new and general approach to upwind splitting is presented. The design principle combines the robustness of flux vector splitting schemes in the capture of nonlinear waves and the accuracy of some flux difference splitting schemes in the resolution of linear waves. The new schemes are derived following a general hybridization technique performed directly at the basic level of the field by field decomposition involved in FDS methods. The scheme does not use a spatial switch to be tuned up according to the local smoothness of the approximate solution.

7. A separable shadow Hamiltonian hybrid Monte Carlo method

Sweet, Christopher R.; Hampton, Scott S.; Skeel, Robert D.; Izaguirre, Jesús A.

2009-11-01

Hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) is a rigorous sampling method that uses molecular dynamics (MD) as a global Monte Carlo move. The acceptance rate of HMC decays exponentially with system size. The shadow hybrid Monte Carlo (SHMC) was previously introduced to reduce this performance degradation by sampling instead from the shadow Hamiltonian defined for MD when using a symplectic integrator. SHMC's performance is limited by the need to generate momenta for the MD step from a nonseparable shadow Hamiltonian. We introduce the separable shadow Hamiltonian hybrid Monte Carlo (S2HMC) method based on a formulation of the leapfrog/Verlet integrator that corresponds to a separable shadow Hamiltonian, which allows efficient generation of momenta. S2HMC gives the acceptance rate of a fourth order integrator at the cost of a second-order integrator. Through numerical experiments we show that S2HMC consistently gives a speedup greater than two over HMC for systems with more than 4000 atoms for the same variance. By comparison, SHMC gave a maximum speedup of only 1.6 over HMC. S2HMC has the additional advantage of not requiring any user parameters beyond those of HMC. S2HMC is available in the program PROTOMOL 2.1. A Python version, adequate for didactic purposes, is also in MDL (http://mdlab.sourceforge.net/s2hmc).

8. A separable shadow Hamiltonian hybrid Monte Carlo method.

PubMed

Sweet, Christopher R; Hampton, Scott S; Skeel, Robert D; Izaguirre, Jesús A

2009-11-07

Hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) is a rigorous sampling method that uses molecular dynamics (MD) as a global Monte Carlo move. The acceptance rate of HMC decays exponentially with system size. The shadow hybrid Monte Carlo (SHMC) was previously introduced to reduce this performance degradation by sampling instead from the shadow Hamiltonian defined for MD when using a symplectic integrator. SHMC's performance is limited by the need to generate momenta for the MD step from a nonseparable shadow Hamiltonian. We introduce the separable shadow Hamiltonian hybrid Monte Carlo (S2HMC) method based on a formulation of the leapfrog/Verlet integrator that corresponds to a separable shadow Hamiltonian, which allows efficient generation of momenta. S2HMC gives the acceptance rate of a fourth order integrator at the cost of a second-order integrator. Through numerical experiments we show that S2HMC consistently gives a speedup greater than two over HMC for systems with more than 4000 atoms for the same variance. By comparison, SHMC gave a maximum speedup of only 1.6 over HMC. S2HMC has the additional advantage of not requiring any user parameters beyond those of HMC. S2HMC is available in the program PROTOMOL 2.1. A Python version, adequate for didactic purposes, is also in MDL (http://mdlab.sourceforge.net/s2hmc).

9. Dynamic force profile in hydraulic hybrid vehicles: a numerical investigation

2010-04-01

A hybrid hydraulic vehicle (HHV) combines a hydraulic sub-system with the conventional drivetrain in order to improve fuel economy for heavy vehicles. The added hydraulic module manages the storage and release of fluid power necessary to assist the motion of the vehicle. The power collected by a pump/motor (P/M) from the regenerative braking phase is stored in a high-pressure accumulator and then released by the P/M to the driveshaft during the acceleration phase. This technology is effective in significantly improving fuel-economy for heavy-class vehicles with frequent stop-and-go drive schedules. Despite improved fuel economy and higher vehicle acceleration, noise and vibrations are one of the main problems of these vehicles. The dual function P/Ms are the main source of noise and vibration in a HHV. This study investigates the dynamics of a P/M and particularly the profile and frequency-dependence of the dynamic forces generated by a bent-axis P/M unit. To this end, the fluid dynamics side of the problem has been simplified for investigating the system from a dynamics perspective. A mathematical model of a bent axis P/M has been developed to investigate the cause of vibration and noise in HHVs. The forces are calculated in time and frequency domains. The results of this work can be used to study the vibration response of the chassis and to design effective vibration isolation systems for HHVs.

10. Improved hybrid SMS-DSF method of nonimaging optical design

Bortz, John; Shatz, Narkis

2011-10-01

The hybrid SMS-DSF method of nonimaging optical design combines the discrete simultaneous multiple surface (SMS) method with the dual-surface functional (DSF) method to obtain improved optical performance relative to the discrete SMS method alone. In this contribution we present a new extension of the hybrid SMS-DSF method that uses differential ray tracing to produce designs having significantly improved performance relative to the original hybrid SMS-DSF method.

11. Solutions of D-dimensional Schrodinger equation for Woods-Saxon potential with spin-orbit, coulomb and centrifugal terms through a new hybrid numerical fitting Nikiforov-Uvarov method

Niknam, A.; Rajabi, A. A.; Solaimani, M.

2016-03-01

Solution of the radial Schrodinger equation for the Woods-Saxon potential together with spin-orbit interaction, coulomb and centrifugal terms by using usual Nikiforov-Uvarov (NU) method is not possible. Here, we have presented a new NU procedure with which we are able to solve this Schrodinger equation and any other one-dimensional ones with any shape of the potential profile. For this purpose, we have combined the NU method with numerical fitting schema. The energy eigenvalues and corresponding eigenfunctions for various values of n, l, and j quantum numbers have been obtained. Good agreement with experimental values is also achieved. We have calculated the 1/2+ state energy with more accuracy (our absolute error = 0.023 MeV and Hagen et al. absolute error = 0.0918 MeV), while Hagen et al. have calculated the 5/2+ state energy with higher accuracy (our absolute error = 0.71 MeV and Hagen et al. absolute error = 0.0337 MeV). Our wave functions are in agreement with Kim et al.'s work, too.

12. Optimization methods applied to hybrid vehicle design

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Donoghue, J. F.; Burghart, J. H.

1983-01-01

The use of optimization methods as an effective design tool in the design of hybrid vehicle propulsion systems is demonstrated. Optimization techniques were used to select values for three design parameters (battery weight, heat engine power rating and power split between the two on-board energy sources) such that various measures of vehicle performance (acquisition cost, life cycle cost and petroleum consumption) were optimized. The apporach produced designs which were often significant improvements over hybrid designs already reported on in the literature. The principal conclusions are as follows. First, it was found that the strategy used to split the required power between the two on-board energy sources can have a significant effect on life cycle cost and petroleum consumption. Second, the optimization program should be constructed so that performance measures and design variables can be easily changed. Third, the vehicle simulation program has a significant effect on the computer run time of the overall optimization program; run time can be significantly reduced by proper design of the types of trips the vehicle takes in a one year period. Fourth, care must be taken in designing the cost and constraint expressions which are used in the optimization so that they are relatively smooth functions of the design variables. Fifth, proper handling of constraints on battery weight and heat engine rating, variables which must be large enough to meet power demands, is particularly important for the success of an optimization study. Finally, the principal conclusion is that optimization methods provide a practical tool for carrying out the design of a hybrid vehicle propulsion system.

13. Numerical methods for analyzing electromagnetic scattering

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lee, S. W.; Lo, Y. T.; Chuang, S. L.; Lee, C. S.

1985-01-01

Numerical methods to analyze electromagnetic scattering are presented. The dispersions and attenuations of the normal modes in a circular waveguide coated with lossy material were completely analyzed. The radar cross section (RCS) from a circular waveguide coated with lossy material was calculated. The following is observed: (1) the interior irradiation contributes to the RCS much more than does the rim diffraction; (2) at low frequency, the RCS from the circular waveguide terminated by a perfect electric conductor (PEC) can be reduced more than 13 dB down with a coating thickness less than 1% of the radius using the best lossy material available in a 6 radius-long cylinder; (3) at high frequency, a modal separation between the highly attenuated and the lowly attenuated modes is evident if the coating material is too lossy, however, a large RCS reduction can be achieved for a small incident angle with a thin layer of coating. It is found that the waveguide coated with a lossy magnetic material can be used as a substitute for a corrugated waveguide to produce a circularly polarized radiation yield.

14. New methods for the numerical integration of ordinary differential equations and their application to the equations of motion of spacecraft

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Banyukevich, A.; Ziolkovski, K.

1975-01-01

A number of hybrid methods for solving Cauchy problems are described on the basis of an evaluation of advantages of single and multiple-point numerical integration methods. The selection criterion is the principle of minimizing computer time. The methods discussed include the Nordsieck method, the Bulirsch-Stoer extrapolation method, and the method of recursive Taylor-Steffensen power series.

15. Genomic analysis of hybrid rice varieties reveals numerous superior alleles that contribute to heterosis.

PubMed

Huang, Xuehui; Yang, Shihua; Gong, Junyi; Zhao, Yan; Feng, Qi; Gong, Hao; Li, Wenjun; Zhan, Qilin; Cheng, Benyi; Xia, Junhui; Chen, Neng; Hao, Zhongna; Liu, Kunyan; Zhu, Chuanrang; Huang, Tao; Zhao, Qiang; Zhang, Lei; Fan, Danlin; Zhou, Congcong; Lu, Yiqi; Weng, Qijun; Wang, Zi-Xuan; Li, Jiayang; Han, Bin

2015-02-05

Exploitation of heterosis is one of the most important applications of genetics in agriculture. However, the genetic mechanisms of heterosis are only partly understood, and a global view of heterosis from a representative number of hybrid combinations is lacking. Here we develop an integrated genomic approach to construct a genome map for 1,495 elite hybrid rice varieties and their inbred parental lines. We investigate 38 agronomic traits and identify 130 associated loci. In-depth analyses of the effects of heterozygous genotypes reveal that there are only a few loci with strong overdominance effects in hybrids, but a strong correlation is observed between the yield and the number of superior alleles. While most parental inbred lines have only a small number of superior alleles, high-yielding hybrid varieties have several. We conclude that the accumulation of numerous rare superior alleles with positive dominance is an important contributor to the heterotic phenomena.

16. Hybrid functionals and GW approximation in the FLAPW method

Friedrich, Christoph; Betzinger, Markus; Schlipf, Martin; Blügel, Stefan; Schindlmayr, Arno

2012-07-01

We present recent advances in numerical implementations of hybrid functionals and the GW approximation within the full-potential linearized augmented-plane-wave (FLAPW) method. The former is an approximation for the exchange-correlation contribution to the total energy functional in density-functional theory, and the latter is an approximation for the electronic self-energy in the framework of many-body perturbation theory. All implementations employ the mixed product basis, which has evolved into a versatile basis for the products of wave functions, describing the incoming and outgoing states of an electron that is scattered by interacting with another electron. It can thus be used for representing the nonlocal potential in hybrid functionals as well as the screened interaction and related quantities in GW calculations. In particular, the six-dimensional space integrals of the Hamiltonian exchange matrix elements (and exchange self-energy) decompose into sums over vector-matrix-vector products, which can be evaluated easily. The correlation part of the GW self-energy, which contains a time or frequency dependence, is calculated on the imaginary frequency axis with a subsequent analytic continuation to the real axis or, alternatively, by a direct frequency convolution of the Green function G and the dynamically screened Coulomb interaction W along a contour integration path that avoids the poles of the Green function. Hybrid-functional and GW calculations are notoriously computationally expensive. We present a number of tricks that reduce the computational cost considerably, including the use of spatial and time-reversal symmetries, modifications of the mixed product basis with the aim to optimize it for the correlation self-energy and another modification that makes the Coulomb matrix sparse, analytic expansions of the interaction potentials around the point of divergence at k = 0, and a nested density and density-matrix convergence scheme for hybrid

17. Hybrid projection-reflection method for phase retrieval

Bauschke, Heinz H.; Combettes, Patrick L.; Luke, D. Russell

2003-06-01

The phase-retrieval problem, fundamental in applied physics and engineering, addresses the question of how to determine the phase of a complex-valued function from modulus data and additional a priori information. Recently we identified two important methods for phase retrieval, namely, Fienup's basic input-output and hybrid input-output (HIO) algorithms, with classical convex projection methods and suggested that further connections between convex optimization and phase retrieval should be explored. Following up on this work, we introduce a new projection-based method, termed the hybrid projection-reflection (HPR) algorithm, for solving phase-retrieval problems featuring nonnegativity constraints in the object domain. Motivated by properties of the HPR algorithm for convex constraints, we recommend an error measure studied by Fienup more than 20 years ago. This error measure, which has received little attention in the literature, lends itself to an easily implementable stopping criterion. In numerical experiments we found the HPR algorithm to be a competitive alternative to the HIO algorithm and the stopping criterion to be reliable and robust.

18. An Experimental and Numerical Study of Hybrid III Dummy Response to Simulated Underbody Blast Impacts.

PubMed

Somasundaram, Karthik; Kalra, Anil; Sherman, Don; Begeman, Paul; Yang, King H; Cavanaugh, John M

2017-08-16

Anthropometric test devices (ATDs) such as Hybrid III dummy have been widely used in automotive crash tests to evaluate the risks of injury at different body regions. In recent years, researchers have started using automotive ATDs to study the high-speed vertical loading response caused by underbelly blast (UBB) impacts. This study analyzed the Hybrid III dummy responses to short-duration large magnitude vertical acceleration in a laboratory setup. Two unique test conditions were investigated using a horizontal sled system to simulate the UBB loading conditions. The biomechanical response in terms of the pelvis acceleration, chest acceleration, lumbar spine force, head accelerations and neck forces were measured. Subsequently, a series of finite element analyses (FEA) were performed to simulate the physical tests. The correlation between the Hybrid III test and numerical model was evaluated using the CORA version 3.6.1. The score for WSU FE model was 0.878 and 0.790 for loading condition 1 and 2, respectively in which 1.0 indicated a perfect correlation between the experiment and simulation response. With repetitive vertical impacts, the Hybrid III dummy pelvis showed a significant increase in the peak acceleration accompanied by rupture of the pelvis foam and flesh. The revised WSU Hybrid III model indicated high stress concentrations at the same location, providing a possible explanation for the material failure in actual Hybrid III tests.

19. Modeling material interfaces with hybrid adhesion method

DOE PAGES

Brown, Nicholas Taylor; Qu, Jianmin; Martinez, Enrique

2017-01-27

A molecular dynamics simulation approach is presented to approximate layered material structures using discrete interatomic potentials through classical mechanics and the underlying principles of quantum mechanics. This method isolates the energetic contributions of the system into two pure material layers and an interfacial region used to simulate the adhesive properties of the diffused interface. The strength relationship of the adhesion contribution is calculated through small-scale separation calculations and applied to the molecular surfaces through an inter-layer bond criterion. By segregating the contributions into three regions and accounting for the interfacial excess energies through the adhesive surface bonds, it is possiblemore » to model each material with an independent potential while maintaining an acceptable level of accuracy in the calculation of mechanical properties. This method is intended for the atomistic study of the delamination mechanics, typically observed in thin-film applications. Therefore, the work presented in this paper focuses on mechanical tensile behaviors, with observations in the elastic modulus and the delamination failure mode. To introduce the hybrid adhesion method, we apply the approach to an ideal bulk copper sample, where an interface is created by disassociating the force potential in the middle of the structure. Various mechanical behaviors are compared to a standard EAM control model to demonstrate the adequacy of this approach in a simple setting. In addition, we demonstrate the robustness of this approach by applying it on (1) a Cu-Cu2O interface with interactions between two atom types, and (2) an Al-Cu interface with two dissimilar FCC lattices. These additional examples are verified against EAM and COMB control models to demonstrate the accurate simulation of failure through delamination, and the formation and propagation of dislocations under loads. Finally, the results conclude that by modeling the energy

20. Z2Pack: Numerical implementation of hybrid Wannier centers for identifying topological materials

Gresch, Dominik; Autès, Gabriel; Yazyev, Oleg V.; Troyer, Matthias; Vanderbilt, David; Bernevig, B. Andrei; Soluyanov, Alexey A.

2017-02-01

The intense theoretical and experimental interest in topological insulators and semimetals has established band structure topology as a fundamental material property. Consequently, identifying band topologies has become an important, but often challenging, problem, with no exhaustive solution at the present time. In this work we compile a series of techniques, some previously known, that allow for a solution to this problem for a large set of the possible band topologies. The method is based on tracking hybrid Wannier charge centers computed for relevant Bloch states, and it works at all levels of materials modeling: continuous k .p models, tight-binding models, and ab initio calculations. We apply the method to compute and identify Chern, Z2, and crystalline topological insulators, as well as topological semimetal phases, using real material examples. Moreover, we provide a numerical implementation of this technique (the Z2Pack software package) that is ideally suited for high-throughput screening of materials databases for compounds with nontrivial topologies. We expect that our work will allow researchers to (a) identify topological materials optimal for experimental probes, (b) classify existing compounds, and (c) reveal materials that host novel, not yet described, topological states.

1. The numerical simulation of heat transfer during a hybrid laser-MIG welding using equivalent heat source approach

Bendaoud, Issam; Matteï, Simone; Cicala, Eugen; Tomashchuk, Iryna; Andrzejewski, Henri; Sallamand, Pierre; Mathieu, Alexandre; Bouchaud, Fréderic

2014-03-01

The present study is dedicated to the numerical simulation of an industrial case of hybrid laser-MIG welding of high thickness duplex steel UR2507Cu with Y-shaped chamfer geometry. It consists in simulation of heat transfer phenomena using heat equivalent source approach and implementing in finite element software COMSOL Multiphysics. A numerical exploratory designs method is used to identify the heat sources parameters in order to obtain a minimal required difference between the numerical results and the experiment which are the shape of the welded zone and the temperature evolution in different locations. The obtained results were found in good correspondence with experiment, both for melted zone shape and thermal history.

2. C deg continuity elements by Hybrid Stress method. M.S. Thesis, 1982 Final Report

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kang, David Sung-Soo

1991-01-01

An intensive study of the assumed variable distribution necessary for the Assumed Displacement Formulation, the Hellinger-Reissner Formulation, and the Hu-Washizu Formulation is made in a unified manner. With emphasis on physical explanation, a systematic method for the Hybrid Stress element construction is outlined. The numerical examples use four and eight node plane stress elements and eight and twenty node solid elements. Computation cost study indicates that the hybrid stress element derived using recently developed Uncoupled Stress Formulation is comparable in CPU time to the Assumed Displacement element. Overall, main emphasis is placed on providing a broader understanding of the Hybrid Stress Formulation.

3. Development of a Hybrid RANS/LES Method for Compressible Mixing Layer Simulations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Reshotko, Eli

2001-01-01

A hybrid method has been developed for simulations of compressible turbulent mixing layers. Such mixing layers dominate the flows in exhaust systems of modem day aircraft and also those of hypersonic vehicles currently under development. The hybrid method uses a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) procedure to calculate wall bounded regions entering a mixing section, and a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) procedure to calculate the mixing dominated regions. A numerical technique was developed to enable the use of the hybrid RANS/LES method on stretched, non-Cartesian grids. The hybrid RANS/LES method is applied to a benchmark compressible mixing layer experiment. Preliminary two-dimensional calculations are used to investigate the effects of axial grid density and boundary conditions. Actual LES calculations, performed in three spatial directions, indicated an initial vortex shedding followed by rapid transition to turbulence, which is in agreement with experimental observations.

4. Numerical study on the Welander oscillatory natural circulation problem using high-order numerical methods

DOE PAGES

Zou, Ling; Zhao, Haihua; Kim, Seung Jun

2016-11-16

In this study, the classical Welander’s oscillatory natural circulation problem is investigated using high-order numerical methods. As originally studied by Welander, the fluid motion in a differentially heated fluid loop can exhibit stable, weakly instable, and strongly instable modes. A theoretical stability map has also been originally derived from the stability analysis. Numerical results obtained in this paper show very good agreement with Welander’s theoretical derivations. For stable cases, numerical results from both the high-order and low-order numerical methods agree well with the non-dimensional flow rate analytically derived. The high-order numerical methods give much less numerical errors compared to themore » low-order methods. For stability analysis, the high-order numerical methods could perfectly predict the stability map, while the low-order numerical methods failed to do so. For all theoretically unstable cases, the low-order methods predicted them to be stable. The result obtained in this paper is a strong evidence to show the benefits of using high-order numerical methods over the low-order ones, when they are applied to simulate natural circulation phenomenon that has already gain increasing interests in many future nuclear reactor designs.« less

5. Numerical study on the Welander oscillatory natural circulation problem using high-order numerical methods

SciTech Connect

Zou, Ling; Zhao, Haihua; Kim, Seung Jun

2016-11-16

In this study, the classical Welander’s oscillatory natural circulation problem is investigated using high-order numerical methods. As originally studied by Welander, the fluid motion in a differentially heated fluid loop can exhibit stable, weakly instable, and strongly instable modes. A theoretical stability map has also been originally derived from the stability analysis. Numerical results obtained in this paper show very good agreement with Welander’s theoretical derivations. For stable cases, numerical results from both the high-order and low-order numerical methods agree well with the non-dimensional flow rate analytically derived. The high-order numerical methods give much less numerical errors compared to the low-order methods. For stability analysis, the high-order numerical methods could perfectly predict the stability map, while the low-order numerical methods failed to do so. For all theoretically unstable cases, the low-order methods predicted them to be stable. The result obtained in this paper is a strong evidence to show the benefits of using high-order numerical methods over the low-order ones, when they are applied to simulate natural circulation phenomenon that has already gain increasing interests in many future nuclear reactor designs.

6. Hybrid function method for solving Fredholm and Volterra integral equations of the second kind

Hsiao, Chun-Hui

2009-08-01

Numerical solutions of Fredholm and Volterra integral equations of the second kind via hybrid functions, are proposed in this paper. Based upon some useful properties of hybrid functions, integration of the cross product, a special product matrix and a related coefficient matrix with optimal order, are applied to solve these integral equations. The main characteristic of this technique is to convert an integral equation into an algebraic; hence, the solution procedures are either reduced or simplified accordingly. The advantages of hybrid functions are that the values of n and m are adjustable as well as being able to yield more accurate numerical solutions than the piecewise constant orthogonal function, for the solutions of integral equations. We propose that the available optimal values of n and m can minimize the relative errors of the numerical solutions. The high accuracy and the wide applicability of the hybrid function approach will be demonstrated with numerical examples. The hybrid function method is superior to other piecewise constant orthogonal functions [W.F. Blyth, R.L. May, P. Widyaningsih, Volterra integral equations solved in Fredholm form using Walsh functions, Anziam J. 45 (E) (2004) C269-C282; M.H. Reihani, Z. Abadi, Rationalized Haar functions method for solving Fredholm and Volterra integral equations, J. Comp. Appl. Math. 200 (2007) 12-20] for these problems.

7. The Numerical Simulation of the Broadband Spiral Antenna Design Based on Hybrid Backed-Cavity

Liu, Chunheng; Lu, Yueguang; Du, Chunlei; Cui, Jingbo; Shen, Ximing

2009-09-01

In the paper, the hybrid backed-cavity with EBG (Electromagnetic Band-Gap) structure and PEC (Perfect Electronic Conductor) is proposed for Archimedean spiral antenna, which can make the spiral antenna work over the 10:1 bandwidth, without the loss introduced by absorbing materials. Based on the AMC characteristic (Artificial Magnetic Conductor), the EBG is placed in the outer region of backed-cavity to improve the blind spot gain in the low frequency. The PEC at the center of the structure is used to obtain high gain at high frequency. The better antenna performances are achieved in the low profile spiral antenna. A typical spiral antenna with hybrid backed cavity is numerically studied. The novel spiral antenna design with hybrid backed cavity is validated by simulated results.

8. Evaluation of the Performance of the Hybrid Lattice Boltzmann Based Numerical Flux

Zheng, H. W.; Shu, C.

2016-06-01

It is well known that the numerical scheme is a key factor to the stability and accuracy of a Navier-Stokes solver. Recently, a new hybrid lattice Boltzmann numerical flux (HLBFS) is developed by Shu's group. It combines two different LBFS schemes by a switch function. It solves the Boltzmann equation instead of the Euler equation. In this article, the main object is to evaluate the ability of this HLBFS scheme by our in-house cell centered hybrid mesh based Navier-Stokes code. Its performance is examined by several widely-used bench-mark test cases. The comparisons on results between calculation and experiment are conducted. They show that the scheme can capture the shock wave as well as the resolving of boundary layer.

9. Improved numerical methods for turbulent viscous recirculating flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Turan, A.

1985-01-01

The hybrid-upwind finite difference schemes employed in generally available combustor codes possess excessive numerical diffusion errors which preclude accurate quantative calculations. The present study has as its primary objective the identification and assessment of an improved solution algorithm as well as discretization schemes applicable to analysis of turbulent viscous recirculating flows. The assessment is carried out primarily in two dimensional/axisymetric geometries with a view to identifying an appropriate technique to be incorporated in a three-dimensional code.

10. Experimental and Numerical Characterization of a Hybrid Fabry-Pérot Cavity for Temperature Sensing

PubMed Central

Lopez-Aldaba, Aitor; Pinto, Ana Margarida Rodrigues; Lopez-Amo, Manuel; Frazão, Orlando; Santos, José Luís; Baptista, José Manuel; Baierl, Hardy; Auguste, Jean-Louis; Jamier, Raphael; Roy, Philippe

2015-01-01

A hybrid Fabry-Pérot cavity sensing head based on a four-bridge microstructured fiber is characterized for temperature sensing. The characterization of this cavity is performed numerically and experimentally in the L-band. The sensing head output signal presents a linear variation with temperature changes, showing a sensitivity of 12.5 pm/°C. Moreover, this Fabry-Pérot cavity exhibits good sensitivity to polarization changes and high stability over time. PMID:25853404

11. Numerical solutions of reactive fluid flows during postignition transients in hybrid rocket systems.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hung, W. S. Y.; Chen, C. S.; Haviland, J. K.

1972-01-01

A computational method has been developed for the study of the post-ignition transients in hybrid rocket systems. The particular system chosen consisted of a gaseous oxidizer flowing within a tube of solid fuel, resulting in heterogeneous combustion. With the appropriate assumptions, two-dimensional, time-dependent conservation equations were derived for the reacting gas phase, and for the solid phase, in a cylindrical coordinate system. These were then programmed for numerical computation, using two implicit finite-difference schemes, the Lax-Wendroff scheme for the gas phase, and the Crank-Nicolson scheme for the solid phase. Appropriate initial and boundary conditions were represented, including heat and mass conservation at the interface between gas and solid. Initially, no attempt was made to relate the recession rate at the surface to the surface temperature, or to include heat transfer by radiation. A simple case was selected for preliminary calculations, with aluminum and oxygen as fuel and oxidizer, and aluminum oxide as the product.

12. Matching cometary ejection processes to the Leonids 1998-2001 using a hybrid numerical model

Welch, P. G.

2003-07-01

A new scheme for simulating meteor showers is introduced, based on a hybridization of current numerical modelling techniques. It involves an iterative method that generates particles which hit a real-scale Earth, removing the spatial and temporal blurring common to other modelling techniques. The scheme is applied to the activity profile of the Leonids 2001 using three different models of meteoroid ejection velocity and then applied to the Leonids 1998-2000 using the most favourable models. It is shown that to reproduce the observed meteor activity profiles there must be a strong concentration of ejection around perihelion. The modelling also implies that meteoroid density must be towards the higher end of the currently acceptable range, although the derived limits are not independent of the ejection velocity model. We also find that the extreme narrowness of Leonid activity peaks is not easily reproduced with outgassing over the entire day side of the comet but it is fitted well by outgassing in a restricted direction as one would expect from an outgassing jet. In addition, we show that double-peaked features, corresponding to a semihollow meteoroid streamlet, can arise in a meteor shower activity profile from outgassing during a single perihelion passage of the parent comet. It is suggested that this process caused the double-peaked feature in the first maxima of the 2001 Leonids.

13. Numerical Methods for Partial Differential Equations.

DTIC Science & Technology

1984-01-09

114). The pursuit of a linear-time solution led Brent and Luk to consider Jacobi methods . They have found an implementation using an n/2 xn/2 array...cyclic Jacobi method . It takes 0(n) time to perform a sweep of the method, and 0(log n) sweeps for the method to converge 1 1. Brent and Luk have...Hestenes algorithm that, in real arithmetic, is an exact analogue of their Jacobi method applied to the eigenproblem for ATA. The array requires 0(rnn

14. Numerical methods in Markov chain modeling

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Philippe, Bernard; Saad, Youcef; Stewart, William J.

1989-01-01

Several methods for computing stationary probability distributions of Markov chains are described and compared. The main linear algebra problem consists of computing an eigenvector of a sparse, usually nonsymmetric, matrix associated with a known eigenvalue. It can also be cast as a problem of solving a homogeneous singular linear system. Several methods based on combinations of Krylov subspace techniques are presented. The performance of these methods on some realistic problems are compared.

15. Interpolation Method Needed for Numerical Uncertainty

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Groves, Curtis E.; Ilie, Marcel; Schallhorn, Paul A.

2014-01-01

Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to predict a flow field is an approximation to the exact problem and uncertainties exist. There is a method to approximate the errors in CFD via Richardson's Extrapolation. This method is based off of progressive grid refinement. To estimate the errors, the analyst must interpolate between at least three grids. This paper describes a study to find an appropriate interpolation scheme that can be used in Richardson's extrapolation or other uncertainty method to approximate errors.

16. Assessment of high-resolution methods for numerical simulations of compressible turbulence with shock waves

Johnsen, Eric; Larsson, Johan; Bhagatwala, Ankit V.; Cabot, William H.; Moin, Parviz; Olson, Britton J.; Rawat, Pradeep S.; Shankar, Santhosh K.; Sjögreen, Björn; Yee, H. C.; Zhong, Xiaolin; Lele, Sanjiva K.

2010-02-01

Flows in which shock waves and turbulence are present and interact dynamically occur in a wide range of applications, including inertial confinement fusion, supernovae explosion, and scramjet propulsion. Accurate simulations of such problems are challenging because of the contradictory requirements of numerical methods used to simulate turbulence, which must minimize any numerical dissipation that would otherwise overwhelm the small scales, and shock-capturing schemes, which introduce numerical dissipation to stabilize the solution. The objective of the present work is to evaluate the performance of several numerical methods capable of simultaneously handling turbulence and shock waves. A comprehensive range of high-resolution methods (WENO, hybrid WENO/central difference, artificial diffusivity, adaptive characteristic-based filter, and shock fitting) and suite of test cases (Taylor-Green vortex, Shu-Osher problem, shock-vorticity/entropy wave interaction, Noh problem, compressible isotropic turbulence) relevant to problems with shocks and turbulence are considered. The results indicate that the WENO methods provide sharp shock profiles, but overwhelm the physical dissipation. The hybrid method is minimally dissipative and leads to sharp shocks and well-resolved broadband turbulence, but relies on an appropriate shock sensor. Artificial diffusivity methods in which the artificial bulk viscosity is based on the magnitude of the strain-rate tensor resolve vortical structures well but damp dilatational modes in compressible turbulence; dilatation-based artificial bulk viscosity methods significantly improve this behavior. For well-defined shocks, the shock fitting approach yields good results.

17. Assessment of high-resolution methods for numerical simulations of compressible turbulence with shock waves

SciTech Connect

Johnsen, Eric Larsson, Johan Bhagatwala, Ankit V.; Cabot, William H.; Moin, Parviz; Olson, Britton J.; Rawat, Pradeep S.; Shankar, Santhosh K.; Sjoegreen, Bjoern; Yee, H.C.; Zhong Xiaolin; Lele, Sanjiva K.

2010-02-20

Flows in which shock waves and turbulence are present and interact dynamically occur in a wide range of applications, including inertial confinement fusion, supernovae explosion, and scramjet propulsion. Accurate simulations of such problems are challenging because of the contradictory requirements of numerical methods used to simulate turbulence, which must minimize any numerical dissipation that would otherwise overwhelm the small scales, and shock-capturing schemes, which introduce numerical dissipation to stabilize the solution. The objective of the present work is to evaluate the performance of several numerical methods capable of simultaneously handling turbulence and shock waves. A comprehensive range of high-resolution methods (WENO, hybrid WENO/central difference, artificial diffusivity, adaptive characteristic-based filter, and shock fitting) and suite of test cases (Taylor-Green vortex, Shu-Osher problem, shock-vorticity/entropy wave interaction, Noh problem, compressible isotropic turbulence) relevant to problems with shocks and turbulence are considered. The results indicate that the WENO methods provide sharp shock profiles, but overwhelm the physical dissipation. The hybrid method is minimally dissipative and leads to sharp shocks and well-resolved broadband turbulence, but relies on an appropriate shock sensor. Artificial diffusivity methods in which the artificial bulk viscosity is based on the magnitude of the strain-rate tensor resolve vortical structures well but damp dilatational modes in compressible turbulence; dilatation-based artificial bulk viscosity methods significantly improve this behavior. For well-defined shocks, the shock fitting approach yields good results.

18. Numerical analysis of the orthogonal descent method

SciTech Connect

Shokov, V.A.; Shchepakin, M.B.

1994-11-01

The author of the orthogonal descent method has been testing it since 1977. The results of these tests have only strengthened the need for further analysis and development of orthogonal descent algorithms for various classes of convex programming problems. Systematic testing of orthogonal descent algorithms and comparison of test results with other nondifferentiable optimization methods was conducted at TsEMI RAN in 1991-1992 using the results.

19. A hybridized formulation for the weak Galerkin mixed finite element method

SciTech Connect

Mu, Lin; Wang, Junping; Ye, Xiu

2016-01-14

This paper presents a hybridized formulation for the weak Galerkin mixed finite element method (WG-MFEM) which was introduced and analyzed in Wang and Ye (2014) for second order elliptic equations. The WG-MFEM method was designed by using discontinuous piecewise polynomials on finite element partitions consisting of polygonal or polyhedral elements of arbitrary shape. The key to WG-MFEM is the use of a discrete weak divergence operator which is defined and computed by solving inexpensive problems locally on each element. The hybridized formulation of this paper leads to a significantly reduced system of linear equations involving only the unknowns arising from the Lagrange multiplier in hybridization. Optimal-order error estimates are derived for the hybridized WG-MFEM approximations. In conclusion, some numerical results are reported to confirm the theory and a superconvergence for the Lagrange multiplier.

20. A hybridized formulation for the weak Galerkin mixed finite element method

DOE PAGES

Mu, Lin; Wang, Junping; Ye, Xiu

2016-01-14

This paper presents a hybridized formulation for the weak Galerkin mixed finite element method (WG-MFEM) which was introduced and analyzed in Wang and Ye (2014) for second order elliptic equations. The WG-MFEM method was designed by using discontinuous piecewise polynomials on finite element partitions consisting of polygonal or polyhedral elements of arbitrary shape. The key to WG-MFEM is the use of a discrete weak divergence operator which is defined and computed by solving inexpensive problems locally on each element. The hybridized formulation of this paper leads to a significantly reduced system of linear equations involving only the unknowns arising frommore » the Lagrange multiplier in hybridization. Optimal-order error estimates are derived for the hybridized WG-MFEM approximations. In conclusion, some numerical results are reported to confirm the theory and a superconvergence for the Lagrange multiplier.« less

1. Compass: a hybrid method for clinical and biobank data mining.

PubMed

Krysiak-Baltyn, K; Nordahl Petersen, T; Audouze, K; Jørgensen, Niels; Angquist, L; Brunak, S

2014-02-01

We describe a new method for identification of confident associations within large clinical data sets. The method is a hybrid of two existing methods; Self-Organizing Maps and Association Mining. We utilize Self-Organizing Maps as the initial step to reduce the search space, and then apply Association Mining in order to find association rules. We demonstrate that this procedure has a number of advantages compared to traditional Association Mining; it allows for handling numerical variables without a priori binning and is able to generate variable groups which act as "hotspots" for statistically significant associations. We showcase the method on infertility-related data from Danish military conscripts. The clinical data we analyzed contained both categorical type questionnaire data and continuous variables generated from biological measurements, including missing values. From this data set, we successfully generated a number of interesting association rules, which relate an observation with a specific consequence and the p-value for that finding. Additionally, we demonstrate that the method can be used on non-clinical data containing chemical-disease associations in order to find associations between different phenotypes, such as prostate cancer and breast cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2. Numerical methods for reduction of topside ionograms

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mcculley, L.

1972-01-01

Several alternative methods for solving the group height equation are presented. Three of these are now in operation at Ames Research Center and use data contained in a single ionogram trace. From the data an electron density profile N(h) is computed. If the ionogram also exhibits other traces, reverse ionogram traces are computed, using the N(h) profile, for comparison with the redundant data. When agreement is poor, the initial data trace is reinterpreted, another N(h) profile computed, and the reverse traces generated once again. This process is repeated until a desired degree of consistency is achieved. To reduce the necessity for human intervention and eliminate decision making required in conjunction with the preceding methods, a method is proposed that accepts as input, all data from a single ionogram. In general, no electron density function will satisfy these data exactly, but a best N(h) profile can be computed. Finally, a method is described that eliminates the need to assume that the ionosphere is spherically stratified. Horizontal gradients in electron density are detected and accounted for by processing several ionograms from the same satellite pass simultaneously. This idea is derived as an extension of one of the basic methods.

3. Preface of "The Second Symposium on Border Zones Between Experimental and Numerical Application Including Solution Approaches By Extensions of Standard Numerical Methods"

Ortleb, Sigrun; Seidel, Christian

2017-07-01

In this second symposium at the limits of experimental and numerical methods, recent research is presented on practically relevant problems. Presentations discuss experimental investigation as well as numerical methods with a strong focus on application. In addition, problems are identified which require a hybrid experimental-numerical approach. Topics include fast explicit diffusion applied to a geothermal energy storage tank, noise in experimental measurements of electrical quantities, thermal fluid structure interaction, tensegrity structures, experimental and numerical methods for Chladni figures, optimized construction of hydroelectric power stations, experimental and numerical limits in the investigation of rain-wind induced vibrations as well as the application of exponential integrators in a domain-based IMEX setting.

4. Mathematical model and its fast numerical method for the tumor growth.

PubMed

Lee, Hyun Geun; Kim, Yangjin; Kim, Junseok

2015-12-01

In this paper, we reformulate the diffuse interface model of the tumor growth (S.M. Wise et al., Three-dimensional multispecies nonlinear tumor growth-I: model and numerical method, J. Theor. Biol. 253 (2008) 524--543). In the new proposed model, we use the conservative second-order Allen--Cahn equation with a space--time dependent Lagrange multiplier instead of using the fourth-order Cahn--Hilliard equation in the original model. To numerically solve the new model, we apply a recently developed hybrid numerical method. We perform various numerical experiments. The computational results demonstrate that the new model is not only fast but also has a good feature such as distributing excess mass from the inside of tumor to its boundary regions.

5. A numerical method for three-dimensional incompressible flows using nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinate systems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chen, Y. S.

1986-01-01

In the present paper, a numerical method for solving the equations of motion of three-dimensional incompressible flows in nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinate (BEC) systems has been developed and evaluated. The equations of motion are transformed to a generalized curvilinear coordinate system from which the transformed equations are discretized using finite difference approximations in the transformed domain. The hybrid scheme and a central differencing plus artificial dissipation scheme are used to approximate the convection terms in the governing equations. Effects of these two schemes on the accuracy of numerical predictions are studied. Solutions of the finite difference equations are obtained iteratively by using a pressure-velocity correction algorithm, SIMPLE-C. Numerical examples of two- and three-dimensional, laminar and turbulent flow problems are employed to evaluate the accuracy and efficiency of the present numerical method.

6. Numerical Methods Using B-Splines

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shariff, Karim; Merriam, Marshal (Technical Monitor)

1997-01-01

The seminar will discuss (1) The current range of applications for which B-spline schemes may be appropriate (2) The property of high-resolution and the relationship between B-spline and compact schemes (3) Comparison between finite-element, Hermite finite element and B-spline schemes (4) Mesh embedding using B-splines (5) A method for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in curvilinear coordinates using divergence-free expansions.

7. Modelling asteroid brightness variations. I - Numerical methods

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Karttunen, H.

1989-01-01

A method for generating lightcurves of asteroid models is presented. The effects of the shape of the asteroid and the scattering law of a surface element are distinctly separable, being described by chosen functions that can easily be changed. The shape is specified by means of two functions that yield the length of the radius vector and the normal vector of the surface at a given point. The general shape must be convex, but spherical concavities producing macroscopic shadowing can also be modeled.

8. Experimental and Numerical Investigations of Textile Hybrid Composites Subjected to Low Velocity Impact Loadings

PubMed Central

Chandekar, Gautam S.; Kelkar, Ajit D.

2014-01-01

In the present study experimental and numerical investigations were carried out to predict the low velocity impact response of four symmetric configurations: 10 ply E Glass, 10 ply AS4 Carbon, and two Hybrid combinations with 1 and 2 outer plies of E Glass and 8 and 6 inner plies of Carbon. All numerical investigations were performed using commercial finite element software, LS-DYNA. The test coupons were manufactured using the low cost Heated Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (H-VARTM©) technique. Low velocity impact testing was carried out using an Instron Dynatup 8250 impact testing machine. Standard 6 × 6 Boeing fixture was used for all impact experiments. Impact experiments were performed over progressive damage, that is, from incipient damage till complete failure of the laminate in six successive impact energy levels for each configuration. The simulation results for the impact loading were compared with the experimental results. For both nonhybrid configurations, it was observed that the simulated results were in good agreement with the experimental results, whereas, for hybrid configurations, the simulated impact response was softer than the experimental response. Maximum impact load carrying capacity was also compared for all four configurations based on their areal density. It was observed that Hybrid262 configuration has superior impact load to areal density ratio. PMID:24719573

9. Experimental and numerical investigations of textile hybrid composites subjected to low velocity impact loadings.

PubMed

Chandekar, Gautam S; Kelkar, Ajit D

2014-01-01

In the present study experimental and numerical investigations were carried out to predict the low velocity impact response of four symmetric configurations: 10 ply E Glass, 10 ply AS4 Carbon, and two Hybrid combinations with 1 and 2 outer plies of E Glass and 8 and 6 inner plies of Carbon. All numerical investigations were performed using commercial finite element software, LS-DYNA. The test coupons were manufactured using the low cost Heated Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (H-VARTM©) technique. Low velocity impact testing was carried out using an Instron Dynatup 8250 impact testing machine. Standard 6 × 6 Boeing fixture was used for all impact experiments. Impact experiments were performed over progressive damage, that is, from incipient damage till complete failure of the laminate in six successive impact energy levels for each configuration. The simulation results for the impact loading were compared with the experimental results. For both nonhybrid configurations, it was observed that the simulated results were in good agreement with the experimental results, whereas, for hybrid configurations, the simulated impact response was softer than the experimental response. Maximum impact load carrying capacity was also compared for all four configurations based on their areal density. It was observed that Hybrid262 configuration has superior impact load to areal density ratio.

10. Numerical design of microfluidic-microelectric hybrid chip for the separation of biological cells.

PubMed

Ye, Ting; Li, Hua; Lam, K Y

2011-03-15

A miniature microfluidic-microelectric hybrid chip is numerically designed for separation of biological cells, where the characteristic length of the chip is close to the cell radius. A mathematical model is developed to characterize the motion and deformation of a biological cell in the hydrodynamic and nonuniform electric coupled fields, in which the mechanical and dielectric behaviors of the cell are taken into consideration. Subsequently, the model is validated by comparing with the experimental results published previously. By taking a red blood cell (RBC) as the sample of biological cell, the chip structure is numerically designed from the viewpoints of the electrode width, fluid flow velocity, and electric potential, respectively. Using the designed microfluidic-microelectric hybrid chip, the effects of the shape and initial position of the RBC on the separation ability are then analyzed. After that, the separation of the RBCs with the different permittivities or conductivities using the designed chip is simulated, and the deformation behaviors of the RBCs are discussed as well. At the high frequency, the permittivities of the RBCs play a dominant role in the separation of the RBCs, which causes the RBCs moving toward or away from the electrode array. However, the conductivity of the RBC plays a significant role at the low frequency. With suitable suspending fluid therefore, the separation of cells with different permittivities or conductivities can be achieved using the microfluidic-microelectric hybrid chip designed by the present work.

11. Complex hybrid models combining deterministic and machine learning components for numerical climate modeling and weather prediction.

PubMed

Krasnopolsky, Vladimir M; Fox-Rabinovitz, Michael S

2006-03-01

A new practical application of neural network (NN) techniques to environmental numerical modeling has been developed. Namely, a new type of numerical model, a complex hybrid environmental model based on a synergetic combination of deterministic and machine learning model components, has been introduced. Conceptual and practical possibilities of developing hybrid models are discussed in this paper for applications to climate modeling and weather prediction. The approach presented here uses NN as a statistical or machine learning technique to develop highly accurate and fast emulations for time consuming model physics components (model physics parameterizations). The NN emulations of the most time consuming model physics components, short and long wave radiation parameterizations or full model radiation, presented in this paper are combined with the remaining deterministic components (like model dynamics) of the original complex environmental model--a general circulation model or global climate model (GCM)--to constitute a hybrid GCM (HGCM). The parallel GCM and HGCM simulations produce very similar results but HGCM is significantly faster. The speed-up of model calculations opens the opportunity for model improvement. Examples of developed HGCMs illustrate the feasibility and efficiency of the new approach for modeling complex multidimensional interdisciplinary systems.

12. Hybrid asymptotic-numerical approach for estimating first-passage-time densities of the two-dimensional narrow capture problem.

PubMed

Lindsay, A E; Spoonmore, R T; Tzou, J C

2016-10-01

A hybrid asymptotic-numerical method is presented for obtaining an asymptotic estimate for the full probability distribution of capture times of a random walker by multiple small traps located inside a bounded two-dimensional domain with a reflecting boundary. As motivation for this study, we calculate the variance in the capture time of a random walker by a single interior trap and determine this quantity to be comparable in magnitude to the mean. This implies that the mean is not necessarily reflective of typical capture times and that the full density must be determined. To solve the underlying diffusion equation, the method of Laplace transforms is used to obtain an elliptic problem of modified Helmholtz type. In the limit of vanishing trap sizes, each trap is represented as a Dirac point source that permits the solution of the transform equation to be represented as a superposition of Helmholtz Green's functions. Using this solution, we construct asymptotic short-time solutions of the first-passage-time density, which captures peaks associated with rapid capture by the absorbing traps. When numerical evaluation of the Helmholtz Green's function is employed followed by numerical inversion of the Laplace transform, the method reproduces the density for larger times. We demonstrate the accuracy of our solution technique with a comparison to statistics obtained from a time-dependent solution of the diffusion equation and discrete particle simulations. In particular, we demonstrate that the method is capable of capturing the multimodal behavior in the capture time density that arises when the traps are strategically arranged. The hybrid method presented can be applied to scenarios involving both arbitrary domains and trap shapes.

13. Hybrid asymptotic-numerical approach for estimating first-passage-time densities of the two-dimensional narrow capture problem

Lindsay, A. E.; Spoonmore, R. T.; Tzou, J. C.

2016-10-01

A hybrid asymptotic-numerical method is presented for obtaining an asymptotic estimate for the full probability distribution of capture times of a random walker by multiple small traps located inside a bounded two-dimensional domain with a reflecting boundary. As motivation for this study, we calculate the variance in the capture time of a random walker by a single interior trap and determine this quantity to be comparable in magnitude to the mean. This implies that the mean is not necessarily reflective of typical capture times and that the full density must be determined. To solve the underlying diffusion equation, the method of Laplace transforms is used to obtain an elliptic problem of modified Helmholtz type. In the limit of vanishing trap sizes, each trap is represented as a Dirac point source that permits the solution of the transform equation to be represented as a superposition of Helmholtz Green's functions. Using this solution, we construct asymptotic short-time solutions of the first-passage-time density, which captures peaks associated with rapid capture by the absorbing traps. When numerical evaluation of the Helmholtz Green's function is employed followed by numerical inversion of the Laplace transform, the method reproduces the density for larger times. We demonstrate the accuracy of our solution technique with a comparison to statistics obtained from a time-dependent solution of the diffusion equation and discrete particle simulations. In particular, we demonstrate that the method is capable of capturing the multimodal behavior in the capture time density that arises when the traps are strategically arranged. The hybrid method presented can be applied to scenarios involving both arbitrary domains and trap shapes.

14. Further validation of the hybrid particle-mesh method for vortex shedding flow simulations

Lee, Seung-Jae; Lee, Jun-Hyeok; Suh, Jung-Chun

2015-11-01

This is the continuation of a numerical study on vortex shedding from a blunt trailing-edge of a hydrofoil. In our previous work (Lee et al., 2015), numerical schemes for efficient computations were successfully implemented; i.e. multiple domains, the approximation of domain boundary conditions using cubic spline functions, and particle-based domain decomposition for better load balancing. In this study, numerical results through a hybrid particle-mesh method which adopts the Vortex-In-Cell (VIC) method and the Brinkman penalization model are further rigorously validated through comparison to experimental data at the Reynolds number of 2 × 106. The effects of changes in numerical parameters are also explored herein. We find that the present numerical method enables us to reasonably simulate vortex shedding phenomenon, as well as turbulent wakes of a hydrofoil.

15. Numerical simulations of gyro-devices with hybrid-PIC formulation

SciTech Connect

Nguyen, K.T.; Zaidman, E.G.; Ganguly, A.K.

1995-12-31

Recent strong interest in the development of compact, efficient, high power, millimeter wave gyro-devices has accentuated the need for advanced design tools capable of accurately predicting the device actual performance. At the Naval Research Laboratory, the studies of the nonlinear saturation gain, efficiency, and bandwidth for gyro-devices are approached from two different formulations: (1) slow-time scale (SLT) formulation and (2) hybrid particle-in-cell (PIC) formulation. The SLT formulation is a computationally efficient, well-proven approach suitable for the accurate modeling of steady-state, single-mode, amplifier operations. For time-dependent multimode design problems where frequencies are arbitrary (e.g. mode competition and spurious oscillations), the hybrid-PIC formulation is the appropriate approach. This formulation is the basis for a 3-D, finite difference, time domain, PIC code recently developed at NRL. Numerical simulations of both gyrotron and peniotron interactions have been performed with the new hybrid-PIC code. Comparisons between the SLT and hybrid-PIC formulations in appropriate cases have shown good agreement. Current code modeling capabilities include uniform and vaned interaction circuits, gyro-traveling-wave amplifiers, gyro-klystron amplifiers, and gyro-oscillators. Further details on the code and its modeling capabilities will be presented and discussed at the conference.

16. Efficient Numerical Methods for Stable Distributions

DTIC Science & Technology

2007-11-02

0 and cutoffs c1 = −128 and c2 = +127 are used, corresponding to the common values used in digital signal processing. Five new functions for discrete...variables using the Chambers- Mallows - Stuck method, rounding them to the nearest integer, and then cutting off if the value is too high or too low...within the common matlab environment they use. We comment briefly on the commercialization of this in the last section. 3 -100 -50 0 50 100 0. 0 0. 01 0

17. A numerical method for predicting hypersonic flowfields

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maccormack, Robert W.; Candler, Graham V.

1988-01-01

The flow about a body traveling at hypersonic speed is energetic enough to cause the atmospheric gases to react chemically and reach states in thermal nonequilibrium. In this paper, a new procedure based on Gauss-Seidel line relaxation is shown to solve the equations of hypersonic flow fields containing finite reaction rate chemistry and thermal nonequilibrium. The method requires a few hundred time steps and small computer times for axisymmetric flows about simple body shapes. The extension to more complex two-dimensional body geometries appears straightforward.

18. A numerical method for predicting hypersonic flowfields

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maccormack, Robert W.; Candler, Graham V.

1988-01-01

The flow about a body traveling at hypersonic speed is energetic enough to cause the atmospheric gases to react chemically and reach states in thermal nonequilibrium. In this paper, a new procedure based on Gauss-Seidel line relaxation is shown to solve the equations of hypersonic flow fields containing finite reaction rate chemistry and thermal nonequilibrium. The method requires a few hundred time steps and small computer times for axisymmetric flows about simple body shapes. The extension to more complex two-dimensional body geometries appears straightforward.

19. Numerical methods for hypersonic boundary layer stability

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Malik, M. R.

1990-01-01

Four different schemes for solving compressible boundary layer stability equations are developed and compared, considering both the temporal and spatial stability for a global eigenvalue spectrum and a local eigenvalue search. The discretizations considered encompass: (1) a second-order-staggered finite-difference scheme; (2) a fourth-order accurate, two-point compact scheme; (3) a single-domain Chebychev spectral collocation scheme; and (4) a multidomain spectral collocation scheme. As Mach number increases, the performance of the single-domain collocation scheme deteriorates due to the outward movement of the critical layer; a multidomain spectral method is accordingly designed to furnish superior resolution of the critical layer.

20. A hybrid displacement estimation method for ultrasonic elasticity imaging.

PubMed

Chen, Lujie; Housden, R; Treece, Graham; Gee, Andrew; Prager, Richard

2010-04-01

Axial displacement estimation is fundamental to many freehand quasistatic ultrasonic strain imaging systems. In this paper, we present a novel estimation method that combines the strengths of quality-guided tracking, multi-level correlation, and phase-zero search to achieve high levels of accuracy and robustness. The paper includes a full description of the hybrid method, in vivo examples to illustrate the method's clinical relevance, and finite element simulations to assess its accuracy. Quantitative and qualitative comparisons are made with leading single- and multi-level alternatives. In the in vivo examples, the hybrid method produces fewer obvious peak-hopping errors, and in simulation, the hybrid method is found to reduce displacement estimation errors by 5 to 50%. With typical clinical data, the hybrid method can generate more than 25 strain images per second on commercial hardware; this is comparable with the alternative approaches considered in this paper.

1. An efficient numerical method for orbit computations

Palacios, M.; Abad, A.; Elipe, A.

1992-08-01

A nonstandard formulation of perturbed Keplerian motion is set forth based on the analysis by Deprit (1975) and incorporating quaternions to integrate the equations of motion. The properties of quaternions are discussed and applied to the portion of the equations of motion describing the rotations between the space frame and the departure frame. Angular momentum is assumed to be constant, and a redundant set of variables is introduced to test the equations of motion for different step sizes. The method is analyzed for the cases of artificial satellites in Keplerian circular orbits, Keplerian elliptical orbits, and zonal harmonics. The present formulation is shown to adequately represent the dynamical behavior while avoiding small inclinations. The rotations described by quaternions require less arithmetic operations and therefore save computation time, and the accuracy of the solutions are improved by at least two significant digits.

2. Numerical investigation on the regression rate of hybrid rocket motor with star swirl fuel grain

Zhang, Shuai; Hu, Fan; Zhang, Weihua

2016-10-01

Although hybrid rocket motor is prospected to have distinct advantages over liquid and solid rocket motor, low regression rate and insufficient efficiency are two major disadvantages which have prevented it from being commercially viable. In recent years, complex fuel grain configurations are attractive in overcoming the disadvantages with the help of Rapid Prototyping technology. In this work, an attempt has been made to numerically investigate the flow field characteristics and local regression rate distribution inside the hybrid rocket motor with complex star swirl grain. A propellant combination with GOX and HTPB has been chosen. The numerical model is established based on the three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations with turbulence, combustion, and coupled gas/solid phase formulations. The calculated fuel regression rate is compared with the experimental data to validate the accuracy of numerical model. The results indicate that, comparing the star swirl grain with the tube grain under the conditions of the same port area and the same grain length, the burning surface area rises about 200%, the spatially averaged regression rate rises as high as about 60%, and the oxidizer can combust sufficiently due to the big vortex around the axis in the aft-mixing chamber. The combustion efficiency of star swirl grain is better and more stable than that of tube grain.

3. Numerical methods for analyzing electromagnetic scattering

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lee, S. W.; Lo, Y. T.; Chuang, S. L.; Lee, C. S.

1985-01-01

Attenuation properties of the normal modes in an overmoded waveguide coated with a lossy material were analyzed. It is found that the low-order modes, can be significantly attenuated even with a thin layer of coating if the coating material is not too lossy. A thinner layer of coating is required for large attenuation of the low-order modes if the coating material is magnetic rather than dielectric. The Radar Cross Section (RCS) from an uncoated circular guide terminated by a perfect electric conductor was calculated and compared with available experimental data. It is confirmed that the interior irradiation contributes to the RCS. The equivalent-current method based on the geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD) was chosen for the calculation of the contribution from the rim diffraction. The RCS reduction from a coated circular guide terminated by a PEC are planned schemes for the experiments are included. The waveguide coated with a lossy magnetic material is suggested as a substitute for the corrugated waveguide.

4. Thermal analysis of 3D composites by a new fast multipole hybrid boundary node method

Miao, Yu; Wang, Qiao; Zhu, Hongping; Li, Yinping

2014-01-01

This paper applies the hybrid boundary node method (Hybrid BNM) for the thermal analysis of 3D composites. A new formulation is derived for the inclusion-based composites. In the new formulation, the unknowns of the interfaces are assembled only once in the final system equation, which can reduce nearly one half of degrees of freedom (DOFs) compared with the conventional multi-domain solver when there are lots of inclusions. A new version of the fast multipole method (FMM) is also coupled with the new formulation and the technique is applied to thermal analysis of composites with many inclusions. In the new fast multipole hybrid boundary node method (FM-HBNM), a diagonal form for translation operators is used and the method presented can be applied to the computation of more than 1,000,000 DOFs on a personal computer. Numerical examples are presented to analyze the thermal behavior of composites with many inclusions.

5. Hybrid Semi-numerical Simulation Scheme to Predict Transducer Outputs of Acoustic Microscopes.

PubMed

Nierla, Michael; Rupitsch, Stefan

2015-12-18

We present a semi-numerical simulation method called SIRFEM, which enables the efficient prediction of high frequency transducer outputs. In particular, this is important for acoustic microscopy where the specimen under investigation is immersed in a coupling fluid. Conventional Finite Element (FE) simulations for such applications would consume too much computational power due to the required spatial and temporal discretization, especially for the coupling fluid between ultrasonic transducer and specimen. However, FE simulations are in most cases essential to consider the mode conversion at and inside the solid specimen as well as the wave propagation in its interior. SIRFEM reduces the computational effort of pure FE simulations by treating only the solid specimen and a small part of the fluid layer with FE. The propagation in the coupling fluid from transducer to specimen and back is processed by the so-called spatial impulse response (SIR). Through this hybrid approach, the number of elements as well as the number of time steps for the FE simulation can be reduced significantly, as it is presented for an axis-symmetric setup. Three B-mode images of a plane 2-D setup - computed at a transducer center frequency of 20 MHz - show that SIRFEM is, furthermore, able to predict reflections at inner structures as well as multiple reflections between those structures and the specimen's surface. For the purpose of a pure 2-D setup, the spatial impulse response of a curved-line transducer is derived and compared to the response function of a cylindrically focused aperture of negligible extend in the third spatial dimension.

6. Comparisons of numerical methods with respect to convectively dominated problems

Wang, Yongqi; Hutter, Kolumban

2001-11-01

A series of numerical schemes: first-order upstream, Lax-Friedrichs; second-order upstream, central difference, Lax-Wendroff, Beam-Warming, Fromm; third-order QUICK, QUICKEST and high resolution flux-corrected transport and total variation diminishing (TVD) methods are compared for one-dimensional convection-diffusion problems. Numerical results show that the modified TVD Lax-Friedrichs method is the most competent method for convectively dominated problems with a steep spatial gradient of the variables. Copyright

7. An hybrid finite volume finite element method for variable density incompressible flows

Calgaro, Caterina; Creusé, Emmanuel; Goudon, Thierry

2008-04-01

This paper is devoted to the numerical simulation of variable density incompressible flows, modeled by the Navier-Stokes system. We introduce an hybrid scheme which combines a finite volume approach for treating the mass conservation equation and a finite element method to deal with the momentum equation and the divergence free constraint. The breakthrough relies on the definition of a suitable footbridge between the two methods, through the design of compatibility condition. In turn, the method is very flexible and allows to deal with unstructured meshes. Several numerical tests are performed to show the scheme capabilities. In particular, the viscous Rayleigh-Taylor instability evolution is carefully investigated.

8. Numerical Simulations for Insect Clap and Fling' with Unsteady Incompressible Solver on Dynamic Hybrid Grids

Zhang, L. P.; Chang, X. H.; Duan, X. P.; Zhang, H. X.

For very insect such as tiny wasp Encarsaria Formosa, Weis-Fogh found that the ‘clap-fling’ mechanism of their wings is the main cause for their large lift. In this paper, we simulate the motion numerically and analyze the generation of large lift by the wings with an unsteady incompressible flow solver based on dynamic hybrid mesh. Both one wing flapping and two wings ‘clap and fling’ are considered in the Reynolds number range of 8-128, the difference on flow structures and aerodynamic forces are compared with each other, and then high lift mechanism is analyzed.

9. A numerical method for vortex sheet roll-up

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Krasny, R.

1986-01-01

The problem of computing vortex sheet roll-up from periodic analytic initial data is studied. Previous theoretical and numerical work is reviewed. Computational difficulties arising from ill posedness and singularity formation are discussed. A desingularization method is proposed to diminish these difficulties. Computations indicate that this approach converges past the time at which previous numerical investigations have failed to converge.

10. Method of hybrid plume plasma propulsion

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chang, Franklin R. (Inventor)

1990-01-01

A technique for producing thrust by generating a hybrid plume plasma exhaust is disclosed. A plasma flow is generated and introduced into a nozzle which features one or more inlets positioned to direct a flow of neutral gas about the interior of the nozzle. When such a neutral gas flow is combined with the plasma flow within the nozzle, a hybrid plume is constructed including a flow of hot plasma along the center of the nozzle surrounded by a generally annular flow of neutral gas, with an annular transition region between the pure plasma and the neutral gas. The temperature of the outer gas layer is below that of the pure plasma and generally separates the pure plasma from the interior surfaces of the nozzle. The neutral gas flow both insulates the nozzle walls from the high temperatures of the plasma flow and adds to the mass flow rate of the hybrid exhaust. The rate of flow of neutral gas into the interior of the nozzle may be selectively adjusted to control the thrust and specific impulse of the device.

11. Hybrid intelligent optimization methods for engineering problems

Pehlivanoglu, Yasin Volkan

The purpose of optimization is to obtain the best solution under certain conditions. There are numerous optimization methods because different problems need different solution methodologies; therefore, it is difficult to construct patterns. Also mathematical modeling of a natural phenomenon is almost based on differentials. Differential equations are constructed with relative increments among the factors related to yield. Therefore, the gradients of these increments are essential to search the yield space. However, the landscape of yield is not a simple one and mostly multi-modal. Another issue is differentiability. Engineering design problems are usually nonlinear and they sometimes exhibit discontinuous derivatives for the objective and constraint functions. Due to these difficulties, non-gradient-based algorithms have become more popular in recent decades. Genetic algorithms (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithms are popular, non-gradient based algorithms. Both are population-based search algorithms and have multiple points for initiation. A significant difference from a gradient-based method is the nature of the search methodologies. For example, randomness is essential for the search in GA or PSO. Hence, they are also called stochastic optimization methods. These algorithms are simple, robust, and have high fidelity. However, they suffer from similar defects, such as, premature convergence, less accuracy, or large computational time. The premature convergence is sometimes inevitable due to the lack of diversity. As the generations of particles or individuals in the population evolve, they may lose their diversity and become similar to each other. To overcome this issue, we studied the diversity concept in GA and PSO algorithms. Diversity is essential for a healthy search, and mutations are the basic operators to provide the necessary variety within a population. After having a close scrutiny of the diversity concept based on qualification and

12. Numerical analysis of the forced convective heat transfer on Al2O3-Cu/water hybrid nanofluid

Rahman, Mohd Rosdzimin Abdul; Leong, Kin Yuen; Idris, Azam Che; Saad, Mohd Rashdan; Anwar, Mahmood

2017-05-01

A numerical investigation to elucidate thermal behavior of hybrid nanofluids consisting of Al2O3 and Cu nanoparticles at ratio of 90:10 was conducted. Numerical domain of a two-dimensional axisymmetric copper tube with a length of 1000 and 10 mm in diameter is used. A uniform axial velocity is assigned at the velocity inlet based on the Reynolds number. The outer wall of the tube consists of non-slip wall condition with a constant heat flux. The assumptions of this numerical analysis are; (1) there is a steady state analysis, (2) effective thermo-physical properties of the nanofluid are depend on the volume concentration, and (3) fluid is continuum. It is found that the dominant nanoparticle in the hybrid nanofluids strongly influences the thermal behavior of the hybrid nanofluids. It was also found that the heat transfer coefficient increases as the volume concentration of the hybrid nanoparticle increases in base fluids and the Reynolds number.

13. Hybrid method for numerical modelling of LWR coolant chemistry

Swiatla-Wojcik, Dorota

2016-10-01

A comprehensive approach is proposed to model radiation chemistry of the cooling water under exposure to neutron and gamma radiation at 300 °C. It covers diffusion-kinetic processes in radiation tracks and secondary reactions in the bulk coolant. Steady-state concentrations of the radiolytic products have been assessed based on the simulated time dependent concentration profiles. The principal reactions contributing to the formation of H2, O2 and H2O2 were indicated. Simulation was carried out depending on the amount of extra hydrogen dissolved in the coolant to reduce concentration of corrosive agents. High sensitivity to the rate of reaction H+H2O=OH+H2 is shown and discussed.

14. Methods for assessing DNA hybridization of PNA-TiO2 nanoconjugates

PubMed Central

Brown, Eric M. B.; Paunesku, Tatjana; Wu, AiGuo; Thurn, K. Ted; Haley, Benjamin; Clark, Jimmy; Priester, Taisa; Woloschak, Gayle E.

2008-01-01

We describe the synthesis of peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoconjugates and the several novel methods developed to investigate the DNA hybridization behaviors of these constructs. PNAs are synthetic DNA analogs resistant to degradation by cellular enzymes, which hybridize to single strand DNA (ssDNA) with higher affinity than DNA oligonucleotides, invade double strand DNA (dsDNA), and form different PNA-DNA complexes. Previously, we developed a DNA-TiO2 nanoconjugate capable of hybridizing to target DNA intracellularly in a sequence-specific manner, with the ability to cleave DNA when excited by electromagnetic radiation, but susceptible to degradation which may lower its intracellular targeting efficiency and retention time. PNA-TiO2 nanoconjugates described herein hybridize to target ssDNA, oligonucleotide dsDNA, and supercoiled plasmid DNA under physiological-like ionic and temperature conditions, enabling rapid and inexpensive, sequence-specific precipitation of nucleic acids in vitro. When modified by the addition of imaging agents or peptides, hybridization capabilities of PNA-TiO2 nanoconjugates are enhanced which provides essential benefits for numerous in vitro and in vivo applications. The series of experiments shown here could not be done with either TiO2-DNA nanoconjugates or PNAs alone, and the novel methods developed will benefit studies of numerous other nanoconjugate systems. PMID:18786502

15. Numerical Modelling of Staged Combustion Aft-Injected Hybrid Rocket Motors

Nijsse, Jeff

The staged combustion aft-injected hybrid (SCAIH) rocket motor is a promising design for the future of hybrid rocket propulsion. Advances in computational fluid dynamics and scientific computing have made computational modelling an effective tool in hybrid rocket motor design and development. The focus of this thesis is the numerical modelling of the SCAIH rocket motor in a turbulent combustion, high-speed, reactive flow framework accounting for solid soot transport and radiative heat transfer. The SCAIH motor is modelled with a shear coaxial injector with liquid oxygen injected in the center at sub-critical conditions: 150 K and 150 m/s (Mach ≈ 0.9), and a gas-generator gas-solid mixture of one-third carbon soot by mass injected in the annual opening at 1175 K and 460 m/s (Mach ≈ 0.6). Flow conditions in the near injector region and the flame anchoring mechanism are of particular interest. Overall, the flow is shown to exhibit instabilities and the flame is shown to anchor directly on the injector faceplate with temperatures in excess of 2700 K.

16. Active control of high-frequency vibration: Optimisation using the hybrid modelling method

Muthalif, Asan G. A.; Langley, Robin S.

2012-06-01

This work presents active control of high-frequency vibration using skyhook dampers. The choice of the damper gain and its optimal location is crucial for the effective implementation of active vibration control. In vibration control, certain sensor/actuator locations are preferable for reducing structural vibration while using minimum control effort. In order to perform optimisation on a general built-up structure to control vibration, it is necessary to have a good modelling technique to predict the performance of the controller. The present work exploits the hybrid modelling approach, which combines the finite element method (FEM) and statistical energy analysis (SEA) to provide efficient response predictions at medium to high frequencies. The hybrid method is implemented here for a general network of plates, coupled via springs, to allow study of a variety of generic control design problems. By combining the hybrid method with numerical optimisation using a genetic algorithm, optimal skyhook damper gains and locations are obtained. The optimal controller gain and location found from the hybrid method are compared with results from a deterministic modelling method. Good agreement between the results is observed, whereas results from the hybrid method are found in a significantly reduced amount of time.

17. Some Comments on Numerical Methods for Chaos Problems

Miller, R. H.

1996-03-01

Hamiltonian systems with chaotic regions are particularly slippery to treat numerically. Numerical treatments can introduce nonphysical features. Simple examples illustrate some of the pitfalls. Integer, or discrete, arithmetic is a favorite “workaround.” While it does not cure chaos, it clarifies the interaction of computational methods with the underlying mathematical structure. Be forewarned: I won't give any prescription that is guaranteed to give a good and reliable method to handle chaotic problems numerically. Instead, I'll stress a few of the concerns and describe one or two pitfalls.

18. Zone Based Hybrid Feature Extraction Algorithm for Handwritten Numeral Recognition of South Indian Scripts

Rajashekararadhya, S. V.; Ranjan, P. Vanaja

India is a multi-lingual multi script country, where eighteen official scripts are accepted and have over hundred regional languages. In this paper we propose a zone based hybrid feature extraction algorithm scheme towards the recognition of off-line handwritten numerals of south Indian scripts. The character centroid is computed and the image (character/numeral) is further divided in to n equal zones. Average distance and Average angle from the character centroid to the pixels present in the zone are computed (two features). Similarly zone centroid is computed (two features). This procedure is repeated sequentially for all the zones/grids/boxes present in the numeral image. There could be some zones that are empty, and then the value of that particular zone image value in the feature vector is zero. Finally 4*n such features are extracted. Nearest neighbor classifier is used for subsequent classification and recognition purpose. We obtained 97.55 %, 94 %, 92.5% and 95.2 % recognition rate for Kannada, Telugu, Tamil and Malayalam numerals respectively.

19. Method of producing a hybrid matrix fiber composite

DOEpatents

Deteresa, Steven J.; Lyon, Richard E.; Groves, Scott E.

2006-03-28

Hybrid matrix fiber composites having enhanced compressive performance as well as enhanced stiffness, toughness and durability suitable for compression-critical applications. The methods for producing the fiber composites using matrix hybridization. The hybrid matrix fiber composites comprised of two chemically or physically bonded matrix materials, whereas the first matrix materials are used to impregnate multi-filament fibers formed into ribbons and the second matrix material is placed around and between the fiber ribbons that are impregnated with the first matrix material and both matrix materials are cured and solidified.

20. A numerical method for phase-change problems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kim, Charn-Jung; Kaviany, Massoud

1990-01-01

A highly accurate and efficient finite-difference method for phase-change problems with multiple moving boundaries of irregular shape is developed by employing a coordinate transformation that immobilizes moving boundaries and preserves the conservative forms of the original governing equations. The numerical method is first presented for one-dimensional phase-change problems (involving large density variation between phases, heat generation, and multiple moving boundaries) and then extended to solve two-dimensional problems (without change of densities between phases). Numerical solutions are obtained non-iteratively using an explicit treatment of the interfacial mass and energy balances and an implicit treatment of the temperature field equations. The accuracy and flexibility of the present numerical method are verified by solving some phase-change problems and comparing the results with existing analytical, semi-analytical and numerical solutions. Results indicate that one- and two-dimensional phase-change problems can be handled easily with excellent accuracies.

1. A numerical method for phase-change problems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kim, Charn-Jung; Kaviany, Massoud

1990-01-01

A highly accurate and efficient finite-difference method for phase-change problems with multiple moving boundaries of irregular shape is developed by employing a coordinate transformation that immobilizes moving boundaries and preserves the conservative forms of the original governing equations. The numerical method is first presented for one-dimensional phase-change problems (involving large density variation between phases, heat generation, and multiple moving boundaries) and then extended to solve two-dimensional problems (without change of densities between phases). Numerical solutions are obtained non-iteratively using an explicit treatment of the interfacial mass and energy balances and an implicit treatment of the temperature field equations. The accuracy and flexibility of the present numerical method are verified by solving some phase-change problems and comparing the results with existing analytical, semi-analytical and numerical solutions. Results indicate that one- and two-dimensional phase-change problems can be handled easily with excellent accuracies.

2. Effective numerical method of spectral analysis of quantum graphs

2017-05-01

We present in the paper an effective numerical method for the determination of the spectra of periodic metric graphs equipped by Schrödinger operators with real-valued periodic electric potentials as Hamiltonians and with Kirchhoff and Neumann conditions at the vertices. Our method is based on the spectral parameter power series method, which leads to a series representation of the dispersion equation, which is suitable for both analytical and numerical calculations. Several important examples demonstrate the effectiveness of our method for some periodic graphs of interest that possess potentials usually found in quantum mechanics.

3. Asymptotic-induced numerical methods for conservation laws

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Garbey, Marc; Scroggs, Jeffrey S.

1990-01-01

Asymptotic-induced methods are presented for the numerical solution of hyperbolic conservation laws with or without viscosity. The methods consist of multiple stages. The first stage is to obtain a first approximation by using a first-order method, such as the Godunov scheme. Subsequent stages of the method involve solving internal-layer problems identified by using techniques derived via asymptotics. Finally, a residual correction increases the accuracy of the scheme. The method is derived and justified with singular perturbation techniques.

4. Hybrid architecture active wavefront sensing and control system, and method

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Feinberg, Lee D. (Inventor); Dean, Bruce H. (Inventor); Hyde, Tristram T. (Inventor)

2011-01-01

According to various embodiments, provided herein is an optical system and method that can be configured to perform image analysis. The optical system can comprise a telescope assembly and one or more hybrid instruments. The one or more hybrid instruments can be configured to receive image data from the telescope assembly and perform a fine guidance operation and a wavefront sensing operation, simultaneously, on the image data received from the telescope assembly.

5. Hybrid materials and methods for producing the same

DOEpatents

Luzzi, David E.; Smith, Brian W.

2003-04-08

A hybrid material is provided which comprises a first single-walled nanotube having a lumen, and a fill molecule contained within the lumen of the single-walled nanotube. A method for producing the hybrid material is also provided wherein a single-walled nanotube is contacted with a fill molecule to cause the fill molecule to enter the lumen of the single-walled nanotube.

6. Hybrid materials and methods for producing the same

DOEpatents

Luzzi, David E [Wallingford, PA; Smith, Brian W [Philadelphia, PA

2008-02-19

A hybrid material is provided which comprises a first single-walled nanotube having a lumen, and a fill molecule contained within the lumen of the single-walled nanotube. A method for producing the hybrid material is also provided wherein a single-walled nanotube is contacted with a fill molecule to cause the fill molecule to enter the lumen of the single-walled nanotube.

7. Hybrid materials and methods for producing the same

DOEpatents

Luzzi, David E.; Smith, Brian W.

2008-02-19

A hybrid material is provided which comprises a first single-walled nanotube having a lumen, and a fill molecule contained within the lumen of the single-walled nanotube. A method for producing the hybrid material is also provided wherein a single-walled nanotube is contacted with a fill molecule to cause the fill molecule to enter the lumen of the single-walled nanotube.

8. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

DOEpatents

Bockelmann, Thomas R.; Hope, Mark E.; Zou, Zhanjiang; Kang, Xiaosong

2009-02-10

A battery control system for hybrid vehicle includes a hybrid powertrain battery, a vehicle accessory battery, and a prime mover driven generator adapted to charge the vehicle accessory battery. A detecting arrangement is configured to monitor the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge. A controller is configured to activate the prime mover to drive the generator and recharge the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a first predetermined level, or transfer electrical power from the hybrid powertrain battery to the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a second predetermined level. The invention further includes a method for controlling a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

9. Numerical methods for solving ODEs on the infinity computer

Mazzia, F.; Sergeyev, Ya. D.; Iavernaro, F.; Amodio, P.; Mukhametzhanov, M. S.

2016-10-01

New algorithms for the numerical solution of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) with initial conditions are proposed. They are designed for working on a new kind of a supercomputer - the Infinity Computer - that is able to deal numerically with finite, infinite and infinitesimal numbers. Due to this fact, the Infinity Computer allows one to calculate the exact derivatives of functions using infinitesimal values of the stepsize. As a consequence, the new methods are able to work with the exact values of the derivatives, instead of their approximations. Within this context, variants of one-step multi-point methods closely related to the classical Taylor formulae and to the Obrechkoff methods are considered. To get numerical evidence of the theoretical results, test problems are solved by means of the new methods and the results compared with the performance of classical methods.

10. Hybrid Method for Tokamak MHD Equilibrium Configuration Reconstruction

He, Hong-Da; Dong, Jia-Qi; Zhang, Jin-Hua; Jiang, Hai-Bin

2007-02-01

A hybrid method for tokamak MHD equilibrium configuration reconstruction is proposed and employed in the modified EFIT code. This method uses the free boundary tokamak equilibrium configuration reconstruction algorithm with one boundary point fixed. The results show that the position of the fixed point has explicit effects on the reconstructed divertor configurations. In particular, the separatrix of the reconstructed divertor configuration precisely passes the required position when the hybrid method is used in the reconstruction. The profiles of plasma parameters such as pressure and safety factor for reconstructed HL-2A tokamak configurations with the hybrid and the free boundary methods are compared. The possibility for applications of the method to swing the separatrix strike point on the divertor target plate is discussed.

11. Exploring chemical space with discrete, gradient, and hybrid optimization methods.

PubMed

Balamurugan, D; Yang, Weitao; Beratan, David N

2008-11-07

Discrete, gradient, and hybrid optimization methods are applied to the challenge of discovering molecules with optimized properties. The cost and performance of the approaches were studied using a tight-binding model to maximize the static first electronic hyperpolarizability of molecules. Our analysis shows that discrete branch and bound methods provide robust strategies for inverse chemical design involving diverse chemical structures. Based on the linear combination of atomic potentials, a hybrid discrete-gradient optimization strategy significantly improves the performance of the gradient methods. The hybrid method performs better than dead-end elimination and competes with branch and bound and genetic algorithms. The branch and bound methods for these model Hamiltonians are more cost effective than genetic algorithms for moderate-sized molecular optimization.

12. [A hybrid volume rendering method using general hardware].

PubMed

Li, Bin; Tian, Lianfang; Chen, Ping; Mao, Zongyuan

2008-06-01

In order to improve the effect and efficiency of the reconstructed image after hybrid volume rendering of different kinds of volume data from medical sequential slices or polygonal models, we propose a hybrid volume rendering method based on Shear-Warp with economical hardware. First, the hybrid volume data are pre-processed by Z-Buffer method and RLE (Run-Length Encoded) data structure. Then, during the process of compositing intermediate image, a resampling method based on the dual-interpolation and the intermediate slice interpolation methods is used to improve the efficiency and the effect. Finally, the reconstructed image is rendered by the texture-mapping technology of OpenGL. Experiments demonstrate the good performance of the proposed method.

13. An improved hybrid MoM/FDTD technique for MRI RF coils modeling using Huygen's equivalent surface method.

PubMed

Li, Bing Keong; Liu, Feng; Weber, Ewald; Padhi, Shantanu; Crozier, Stuart

2007-01-01

In this work, an improved hybrid MoM/FDTD algorithm for modeling low to ultra high field MRI RF coil/sample interactions has been proposed. In our previous hybrid MoM/FDTD method, the accuracy of modeling MRI RF coils is generally hindered by two major issues, staircasing errors and rough approximation of the coil current distortions by electromagnetic reflections from sample. In view of this, a Huygen's equivalent surface method has been proposed to effectively bridge MoM and FDTD. In the improved hybrid MoM/FDTD algorithm, staircasing errors are eliminated, and most importantly the complex coil/tissue interactions are explicitly accounted for. The accuracy of the improved hybrid MoM/FDTD method is numerically verified with a well established hybrid Green function/MoM solution and also experimentally underpinned with MR images obtained using a prototype rotary phased array head coil.

14. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT NUMERICAL INTERFACE METHODS ON HYDRODYNAMICS INSTABILITY

SciTech Connect

FRANCOIS, MARIANNE M.; DENDY, EDWARD D.; LOWRIE, ROBERT B.; LIVESCU, DANIEL; STEINKAMP, MICHAEL J.

2007-01-11

The authors compare the effects of different numerical schemes for the advection and material interface treatments on the single-mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability, using the RAGE hydro-code. The interface growth and its surface density (interfacial area) versus time are investigated. The surface density metric shows to be better suited to characterize the difference in the flow, than the conventional interface growth metric. They have found that Van Leer's limiter combined to no interface treatment leads to the largest surface area. Finally, to quantify the difference between the numerical methods they have estimated the numerical viscosity in the linear-regime at different scales.

15. Numerical solutions of the GEW equation using MLS collocation method

Kaplan, Ayşe Gül; Dereli, Yılmaz

In this paper, the generalized equal width wave (GEW) equation is solved by using moving least squares collocation (MLSC) method. To test the accuracy of the method some numerical experiments are presented. The motion of single solitary waves, the interaction of two solitary waves and the Maxwellian initial condition problems are chosen as test problems. For the single solitary wave motion whose analytical solution was known L2, L∞ error norms and pointwise rates of convergence were calculated. Also mass, energy and momentum invariants were calculated for every test problems. Obtained numerical results are compared with some earlier works. It is seen that the method is very efficient and reliable due to obtained numerical results are very satisfactorily. Stability analysis of difference equation was done by applying the moving least squares collocation method for GEW equation.

16. Numeric Modified Adomian Decomposition Method for Power System Simulations

SciTech Connect

Dimitrovski, Aleksandar D; Simunovic, Srdjan; Pannala, Sreekanth

2016-01-01

This paper investigates the applicability of numeric Wazwaz El Sayed modified Adomian Decomposition Method (WES-ADM) for time domain simulation of power systems. WESADM is a numerical method based on a modified Adomian decomposition (ADM) technique. WES-ADM is a numerical approximation method for the solution of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The non-linear terms in the differential equations are approximated using Adomian polynomials. In this paper WES-ADM is applied to time domain simulations of multimachine power systems. WECC 3-generator, 9-bus system and IEEE 10-generator, 39-bus system have been used to test the applicability of the approach. Several fault scenarios have been tested. It has been found that the proposed approach is faster than the trapezoidal method with comparable accuracy.

17. A parallel hybrid numerical algorithm for simulating gas flow and gas discharge of an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

Lin, K.-M.; Hu, M.-H.; Hung, C.-T.; Wu, J.-S.; Hwang, F.-N.; Chen, Y.-S.; Cheng, G.

2012-12-01

Development of a hybrid numerical algorithm which couples weakly with the gas flow model (GFM) and the plasma fluid model (PFM) for simulating an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ) and its acceleration by two approaches is presented. The weak coupling between gas flow and discharge is introduced by transferring between the results obtained from the steady-state solution of the GFM and cycle-averaged solution of the PFM respectively. Approaches of reducing the overall runtime include parallel computing of the GFM and the PFM solvers, and employing a temporal multi-scale method (TMSM) for PFM. Parallel computing of both solvers is realized using the domain decomposition method with the message passing interface (MPI) on distributed-memory machines. The TMSM considers only chemical reactions by ignoring the transport terms when integrating temporally the continuity equations of heavy species at each time step, and then the transport terms are restored only at an interval of time marching steps. The total reduction of runtime is 47% by applying the TMSM to the APPJ example presented in this study. Application of the proposed hybrid algorithm is demonstrated by simulating a parallel-plate helium APPJ impinging onto a substrate, which the cycle-averaged properties of the 200th cycle are presented. The distribution patterns of species densities are strongly correlated by the background gas flow pattern, which shows that consideration of gas flow in APPJ simulations is critical.

18. Numerical simulation of active track tensioning system for autonomous hybrid vehicle

Mȩżyk, Arkadiusz; Czapla, Tomasz; Klein, Wojciech; Mura, Gabriel

2017-05-01

One of the most important components of a high speed tracked vehicle is an efficient suspension system. The vehicle should be able to operate both in rough terrain for performance of engineering tasks as well as on the road with high speed. This is especially important for an autonomous platform that operates either with or without human supervision, so that the vibration level can rise compared to a manned vehicle. In this case critical electronic and electric parts must be protected to ensure the reliability of the vehicle. The paper presents a dynamic parameters determination methodology of suspension system for an autonomous high speed tracked platform with total weight of about 5 tonnes and hybrid propulsion system. Common among tracked vehicles suspension solutions and cost-efficient, the torsion-bar system was chosen. One of the most important issues was determining optimal track tensioning - in this case an active hydraulic system was applied. The selection of system parameters was performed with using numerical model based on multi-body dynamic approach. The results of numerical analysis were used to define parameters of active tensioning control system setup. LMS Virtual.Lab Motion was used for multi-body dynamics numerical calculation and Matlab/SIMULINK for control system simulation.

19. Investigating Convergence Patterns for Numerical Methods Using Data Analysis

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gordon, Sheldon P.

2013-01-01

The article investigates the patterns that arise in the convergence of numerical methods, particularly those in the errors involved in successive iterations, using data analysis and curve fitting methods. In particular, the results obtained are used to convey a deeper level of understanding of the concepts of linear, quadratic, and cubic…

20. Investigating Convergence Patterns for Numerical Methods Using Data Analysis

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gordon, Sheldon P.

2013-01-01

The article investigates the patterns that arise in the convergence of numerical methods, particularly those in the errors involved in successive iterations, using data analysis and curve fitting methods. In particular, the results obtained are used to convey a deeper level of understanding of the concepts of linear, quadratic, and cubic…

1. A numerical method for solving singular Des

SciTech Connect

Mahaver, W.T.

1996-12-31

A numerical method is developed for solving singular differential equations using steepest descent based on weighted Sobolev gradients. The method is demonstrated on a variety of first and second order problems, including linear constrained, unconstrained, and partially constrained first order problems, a nonlinear first order problem with irregular singularity, and two second order variational problems.

2. Broadband ground motion simulation using a paralleled hybrid approach of Frequency Wavenumber and Finite Difference method

Chen, M.; Wei, S.

2016-12-01

The serious damage of Mexico City caused by the 1985 Michoacan earthquake 400 km away indicates that urban areas may be affected by remote earthquakes. To asses earthquake risk of urban areas imposed by distant earthquakes, we developed a hybrid Frequency Wavenumber (FK) and Finite Difference (FD) code implemented with MPI, since the computation of seismic wave propagation from a distant earthquake using a single numerical method (e.g. Finite Difference, Finite Element or Spectral Element) is very expensive. In our approach, we compute the incident wave field (ud) at the boundaries of the excitation box, which surrounding the local structure, using a paralleled FK method (Zhu and Rivera, 2002), and compute the total wave field (u) within the excitation box using a parallelled 2D FD method. We apply perfectly matched layer (PML) absorbing condition to the diffracted wave field (u-ud). Compared to previous Generalized Ray Theory and Finite Difference (Wen and Helmberger, 1998), Frequency Wavenumber and Spectral Element (Tong et al., 2014), and Direct Solution Method and Spectral Element hybrid method (Monteiller et al., 2013), our absorbing boundary condition dramatically suppress the numerical noise. The MPI implementation of our method can greatly speed up the calculation. Besides, our hybrid method also has a potential use in high resolution array imaging similar to Tong et al. (2014).

3. A hybrid method for assessment of soil pollutants spatial distribution

Tarasov, D. A.; Medvedev, A. N.; Sergeev, A. P.; Shichkin, A. V.; Buevich, A. G.

2017-07-01

The authors propose a hybrid method to predict the distribution of topsoil pollutants (Cu and Cr). The method combines artificial neural networks and kriging. Corresponding computer models were built and tested on real data on example of subarctic regions of Russia. The network structure selection was based on the minimization of the Root-mean-square error between real and predicted concentrations. The constructed models show that the prognostic accuracy of the artificial neural network is higher than in case of the geostatistical (kriging) and deterministic methods. The conclusion is that hybridization of models (artificial neural network and kriging) provides the improvement of the total predictive accuracy.

4. A hybrid approximation method for solving Hutchinson's equation

Marzban, Hamid Reza; Tabrizidooz, Hamid Reza

2012-01-01

The hybrid function approximation method for solving Hutchinson's equation which is a nonlinear delay partial differential equation, is investigated. The properties of hybrid of block-pulse functions and Lagrange interpolating polynomials based on Legendre-Gauss-type points are presented and are utilized to replace the system of nonlinear delay differential equations resulting from the application of Legendre pseudospectral method, by a system of nonlinear algebraic equations. The validity and applicability of the proposed method are demonstrated through two illustrative examples on Hutchinson's equation.

5. The NINJA-2 catalog of hybrid post-Newtonian/numerical-relativity waveforms for non-precessing black-hole binaries

Ajith, P.; Boyle, Michael; Brown, Duncan A.; Brügmann, Bernd; Buchman, Luisa T.; Cadonati, Laura; Campanelli, Manuela; Chu, Tony; Etienne, Zachariah B.; Fairhurst, Stephen; Hannam, Mark; Healy, James; Hinder, Ian; Husa, Sascha; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Krishnan, Badri; Laguna, Pablo; Liu, Yuk Tung; London, Lionel; Lousto, Carlos O.; Lovelace, Geoffrey; MacDonald, Ilana; Marronetti, Pedro; Mohapatra, Satya; Mösta, Philipp; Müller, Doreen; Mundim, Bruno C.; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Ohme, Frank; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Pekowsky, Larne; Pollney, Denis; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; Ponce, Marcelo; Pürrer, Michael; Reifenberger, George; Reisswig, Christian; Santamaría, Lucía; Scheel, Mark A.; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Shoemaker, Deirdre; Sopuerta, Carlos F.; Sperhake, Ulrich; Szilágyi, Béla; Taylor, Nicholas W.; Tichy, Wolfgang; Tsatsin, Petr; Zlochower, Yosef

2012-06-01

The numerical injection analysis (NINJA) project is a collaborative effort between members of the numerical-relativity and gravitational wave data-analysis communities. The purpose of NINJA is to study the sensitivity of existing gravitational-wave search and parameter-estimation algorithms using numerically generated waveforms and to foster closer collaboration between the numerical-relativity and data-analysis communities. The first NINJA project used only a small number of injections of short numerical-relativity waveforms, which limited its ability to draw quantitative conclusions. The goal of the NINJA-2 project is to overcome these limitations with long post-Newtonian—numerical-relativity hybrid waveforms, large numbers of injections and the use of real detector data. We report on the submission requirements for the NINJA-2 project and the construction of the waveform catalog. Eight numerical-relativity groups have contributed 56 hybrid waveforms consisting of a numerical portion modeling the late inspiral, merger and ringdown stitched to a post-Newtonian portion modeling the early inspiral. We summarize the techniques used by each group in constructing their submissions. We also report on the procedures used to validate these submissions, including examination in the time and frequency domains and comparisons of waveforms from different groups against each other. These procedures have so far considered only the (ℓ, m) = (2, 2) mode. Based on these studies, we judge that the hybrid waveforms are suitable for NINJA-2 studies. We note some of the plans for these investigations.

6. A numerical scheme for the identification of hybrid systems describing the vibration of flexible beams with tip bodies

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rosen, I. G.

1984-01-01

A cubic spline based Galerkin-like method is developed for the identification of a class of hybrid systems which describe the transverse vibration to flexible beams with attached tip bodies. The identification problem is formulated as a least squares fit to data subject to the system dynamics given by a coupled system of ordnary and partial differential equations recast as an abstract evolution equation (AEE) in an appropriate infinite dimensional Hilbert space. Projecting the AEE into spline-based subspaces leads naturally to a sequence of approximating finite dimensional identification problems. The solutions to these problems are shown to exist, are relatively easily computed, and are shown to, in some sense, converge to solutions to the original identification problem. Numerical results for a variety of examples are discussed.

7. 25 Years of Self-organized Criticality: Numerical Detection Methods

McAteer, R. T. James; Aschwanden, Markus J.; Dimitropoulou, Michaila; Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Pruessner, Gunnar; Morales, Laura; Ireland, Jack; Abramenko, Valentyna

2016-01-01

8. Numerical Simulation of Cavitation Phenomena for Hybrid Contra-Rotating Shaft Propellers

Kim, Sung-Hoon; Choo, Sung-Han; Park, Jeong-Yong; Choi, Gil-Hwan

2015-12-01

This paper deals with a numerical simulation of cavitation flow around a hybrid contra-rotating shaft propeller operating in wake field. The simulation for the cavitating flow is performed for straight operating and turning condition of podded propeller located behind the main propeller using unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes. The behavior of the main propeller is almost similar regardless of the turning angle. In contrast, the cavitation behavior of the podded propeller depending on the turning angle appears to be entirely different due to the change of the load distribution on the podded propeller. At the large angle of the turning condition, the unstable cavity flow due to the large amount of cavitation and the hub vortex separated from the forward propeller as well as face cavitation is observed. Thus, a great caution on the cavitation phenomena is needed when designing and operating the HCRSP.

9. Method for production of sorghum hybrids with selected flowering times

DOEpatents

Mullet, John E.; Rooney, William L.

2016-08-30

Methods and composition for the production of sorghum hybrids with selected and different flowering times are provided. In accordance with the invention, a substantially continual and high-yield harvest of sorghum is provided. Improved methods of seed production are also provided.

10. A hybrid formulation for the numerical simulation of condensed phase explosives

Michael, L.; Nikiforakis, N.

2016-07-01

In this article we present a new formulation and an associated numerical algorithm, for the simulation of combustion and transition to detonation of condensed-phase commercial- and military-grade explosives, which are confined by (or in general interacting with one or more) compliant inert materials. Examples include confined rate-stick problems and interaction of shock waves with gas cavities or solid particles in explosives. This formulation is based on an augmented Euler approach to account for the mixture of the explosive and its products, and a multi-phase diffuse interface approach to solve for the immiscible interaction between the mixture and the inert materials, so it is in essence a hybrid (augmented Euler and multi-phase) model. As such, it has many of the desirable features of the two approaches and, critically for our applications of interest, it provides the accurate recovery of temperature fields across all components. Moreover, it conveys a lot more physical information than augmented Euler, without the complexity of full multi-phase Baer-Nunziato-type models or the lack of robustness of augmented Euler models in the presence of more than two components. The model can sustain large density differences across material interfaces without the presence of spurious oscillations in velocity and pressure, and it can accommodate realistic equations of state and arbitrary (pressure- or temperature-based) reaction-rate laws. Under certain conditions, we show that the formulation reduces to well-known augmented Euler or multi-phase models, which have been extensively validated and used in practice. The full hybrid model and its reduced forms are validated against problems with exact (or independently-verified numerical) solutions and evaluated for robustness for rate-stick and shock-induced cavity collapse case-studies.

11. The numerical mirage method for photothermal characterization of materials.

PubMed

Demko, Michael T; Hostler, Stephen R; Abramson, Alexis R

2008-04-01

Noncontact thermal measurement techniques offer rapid thermal characterization without modification or destruction of the sample being studied. A simple and versatile method has been developed, termed the "numerical mirage method," that utilizes the transient photothermal deflection of a laser beam traversing a modulated temperature gradient. This method expands the range and simplifies the experimental procedure of traditional mirage methods. A numerical solver is used to create accurate deflection profile models and a linear curve fitting routine is developed, from which the thermal diffusivity of a material may be determined. This method allows for rapid modification of sample and heating configurations. Verification of the method is performed on bismuth and fused quartz reference samples, and good agreement with literature is obtained.

12. Protein structure prediction using hybrid AI methods

SciTech Connect

Guan, X.; Mural, R.J.; Uberbacher, E.C.

1993-11-01

This paper describes a new approach for predicting protein structures based on Artificial Intelligence methods and genetic algorithms. We combine nearest neighbor searching algorithms, neural networks, heuristic rules and genetic algorithms to form an integrated system to predict protein structures from their primary amino acid sequences. First we describe our methods and how they are integrated, and then apply our methods to several protein sequences. The results are very close to the real structures obtained by crystallography. Parallel genetic algorithms are also implemented.

13. Numerical results for extended field method applications. [thin plates

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Donaldson, B. K.; Chander, S.

1973-01-01

This paper presents the numerical results obtained when a new method of analysis, called the extended field method, was applied to several thin plate problems including one with non-rectangular geometry, and one problem involving both beams and a plate. The numerical results show that the quality of the single plate solutions was satisfactory for all cases except those involving a freely deflecting plate corner. The results for the beam and plate structure were satisfactory even though the structure had a freely deflecting corner.

14. Nonlinear vibrations of buckled plates by an asymptotic numerical method

Benchouaf, Lahcen; Boutyour, El Hassan

2016-03-01

This work deals with nonlinear vibrations of a buckled von Karman plate by an asymptotic numerical method and harmonic balance approach. The coupled nonlinear static and dynamic problems are transformed into a sequence of linear ones solved by a finite-element method. The static behavior of the plate is first computed. The fundamental frequency of nonlinear vibrations of the plate, about any equilibrium state, is obtained. To improve the validity range of the power series, Padé approximants are incorporated. A continuation technique is used to get the whole solution. To show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology, numerical tests are presented.

15. A numerical method for acoustic oscillations in tubes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gary, John M.

1988-01-01

A numerical method to obtain the neutral curve for the onset of acoustic oscillations in a helium-filled tube is described. Such oscillations can cause a serious heat loss in the plumbing associated with liquid helium dewars. The problem is modelled by a second-order, ordinary differential eigenvalue problem for the pressure perturbation. The numerical method to find the eigenvalues and track the resulting points along the neutral curve is tailored to this problem. The results show that a tube with a uniform temperature gradient along it is much more stable than one where the temperature suddenly jumps from the cold to the hot value in the middle of the tube.

16. Multiple-time-stepping generalized hybrid Monte Carlo methods

SciTech Connect

Escribano, Bruno; Akhmatskaya, Elena; Reich, Sebastian; Azpiroz, Jon M.

2015-01-01

Performance of the generalized shadow hybrid Monte Carlo (GSHMC) method [1], which proved to be superior in sampling efficiency over its predecessors [2–4], molecular dynamics and hybrid Monte Carlo, can be further improved by combining it with multi-time-stepping (MTS) and mollification of slow forces. We demonstrate that the comparatively simple modifications of the method not only lead to better performance of GSHMC itself but also allow for beating the best performed methods, which use the similar force splitting schemes. In addition we show that the same ideas can be successfully applied to the conventional generalized hybrid Monte Carlo method (GHMC). The resulting methods, MTS-GHMC and MTS-GSHMC, provide accurate reproduction of thermodynamic and dynamical properties, exact temperature control during simulation and computational robustness and efficiency. MTS-GHMC uses a generalized momentum update to achieve weak stochastic stabilization to the molecular dynamics (MD) integrator. MTS-GSHMC adds the use of a shadow (modified) Hamiltonian to filter the MD trajectories in the HMC scheme. We introduce a new shadow Hamiltonian formulation adapted to force-splitting methods. The use of such Hamiltonians improves the acceptance rate of trajectories and has a strong impact on the sampling efficiency of the method. Both methods were implemented in the open-source MD package ProtoMol and were tested on a water and a protein systems. Results were compared to those obtained using a Langevin Molly (LM) method [5] on the same systems. The test results demonstrate the superiority of the new methods over LM in terms of stability, accuracy and sampling efficiency. This suggests that putting the MTS approach in the framework of hybrid Monte Carlo and using the natural stochasticity offered by the generalized hybrid Monte Carlo lead to improving stability of MTS and allow for achieving larger step sizes in the simulation of complex systems.

17. Calculations of EURACOS iron benchmark experiment using the HYBRID method

SciTech Connect

Chang, B.J.; Liu, Y.W.H.; Wun, C.C. ); Rief, H. )

1992-09-01

In this paper, the HYBRID method is used in the calculations of the iron benchmark experiment at the EURACOS-II device. The saturation activities of the [sup 32]S(n,p)[sup 32]P reaction at different depths in an iron block are computed with ENDF/B-IV data to compare with the measurements. At the outer layers of the iron block, the HYBRID calculation gives increasingly higher results than the VITAMIN-C multigroup calculation. With the adjustment of the two- to one-dimensional ratios, the HYBRID results agree with the measurements to within 10% at most penetration depths, a considerable improvement over the VITAMIN-C multigroup results. The development of a collapsing method for the HYBRID cross sections provides a more direct and practical way of using the HYBRID method in the two-dimensional calculations. It is observed that half of the window effect is smeared in the collapsing treatment, but it still provides a better cross-section set than the VITAMIN-C cross sections for the deep-penetration calculations.

18. A hybrid discontinuous finite element-spectral nodal method for slab-geometry transport problems without spatial truncation error

SciTech Connect

Barros, R.C. de

1995-12-31

Described here is a hybrid discontinuous finite element-spectral nodal method for slab-geometry one-speed transport problems without spatial truncation error. For the angular approximation the author used a linear discontinuous (LD) expansion for the angular flux inside each of the N elements of a uniform angular grid. This procedure yields the LD{sub N} equations that is solved numerically using the Spectral Greens Function (SGF) method with the one-node block inversion (NBI) iterative scheme. The SGF method generates numerical solutions for the LD{sub N} equations that are completely free from spatial approximations. Numerical results are given to illustrate the methods accuracy.

19. Robust Hybrid Finite Element Methods for Antennas and Microwave Circuits

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gong, J.; Volakis, John L.

1996-01-01

One of the primary goals in this dissertation is concerned with the development of robust hybrid finite element-boundary integral (FE-BI) techniques for modeling and design of conformal antennas of arbitrary shape. Both the finite element and integral equation methods will be first overviewed in this chapter with an emphasis on recently developed hybrid FE-BI methodologies for antennas, microwave and millimeter wave applications. The structure of the dissertation is then outlined. We conclude the chapter with discussions of certain fundamental concepts and methods in electromagnetics, which are important to this study.

20. Eigensensitivity analysis of rotating clamped uniform beams with the asymptotic numerical method

Bekhoucha, F.; Rechak, S.; Cadou, J. M.

2016-12-01

In this paper, free vibrations of a rotating clamped Euler-Bernoulli beams with uniform cross section are studied using continuation method, namely asymptotic numerical method. The governing equations of motion are derived using Lagrange's method. The kinetic and strain energy expression are derived from Rayleigh-Ritz method using a set of hybrid variables and based on a linear deflection assumption. The derived equations are transformed in two eigenvalue problems, where the first is a linear gyroscopic eigenvalue problem and presents the coupled lagging and stretch motions through gyroscopic terms. While the second is standard eigenvalue problem and corresponds to the flapping motion. Those two eigenvalue problems are transformed into two functionals treated by continuation method, the Asymptotic Numerical Method. New method proposed for the solution of the linear gyroscopic system based on an augmented system, which transforms the original problem to a standard form with real symmetric matrices. By using some techniques to resolve these singular problems by the continuation method, evolution curves of the natural frequencies against dimensionless angular velocity are determined. At high angular velocity, some singular points, due to the linear elastic assumption, are computed. Numerical tests of convergence are conducted and the obtained results are compared to the exact values. Results obtained by continuation are compared to those computed with discrete eigenvalue problem.

1. A hybrid perturbation-Galerkin method for differential equations containing a parameter

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geer, James F.; Andersen, Carl M.

1989-01-01

A two-step hybrid perturbation-Galerkin method to solve a variety of differential equations which involve a parameter is presented and discussed. The method consists of: (1) the use of a perturbation method to determine the asymptotic expansion of the solution about one or more values of the parameter; and (2) the use of some of the perturbation coefficient functions as trial functions in the classical Bubnov-Galerkin method. This hybrid method has the potential of overcoming some of the drawbacks of the perturbation method and the Bubnov-Galerkin method when they are applied by themselves, while combining some of the good features of both. The proposed method is illustrated first with a simple linear two-point boundary value problem and is then applied to a nonlinear two-point boundary value problem in lubrication theory. The results obtained from the hybrid method are compared with approximate solutions obtained by purely numerical methods. Some general features of the method, as well as some special tips for its implementation, are discussed. A survey of some current research application areas is presented and its degree of applicability to broader problem areas is discussed.

2. Hybrid recommendation methods in complex networks.

PubMed

Fiasconaro, A; Tumminello, M; Nicosia, V; Latora, V; Mantegna, R N

2015-07-01

We propose two recommendation methods, based on the appropriate normalization of already existing similarity measures, and on the convex combination of the recommendation scores derived from similarity between users and between objects. We validate the proposed measures on three data sets, and we compare the performance of our methods to other recommendation systems recently proposed in the literature. We show that the proposed similarity measures allow us to attain an improvement of performances of up to 20% with respect to existing nonparametric methods, and that the accuracy of a recommendation can vary widely from one specific bipartite network to another, which suggests that a careful choice of the most suitable method is highly relevant for an effective recommendation on a given system. Finally, we study how an increasing presence of random links in the network affects the recommendation scores, finding that one of the two recommendation algorithms introduced here can systematically outperform the others in noisy data sets.

3. Hybrid Particle-Continuum Methods for Nonequilibrium Gas and Plasma Flows

SciTech Connect

Boyd, Iain D.

2011-05-20

Two different hybrid particle-continuum methods are described for simulation of nonequilibrium gas and plasma dynamics. The first technique, used for nonequilibrium hypersonic gas flows, uses either a continuum description or a particle method throughout a flow domain based on local conditions. This technique is successful in reproducing the results of full particle simulations at a small fraction of the cost. The second method uses a continuum model of the electrons combined with a particle description of the ions and atoms for simulating plasma jets. The physical accuracy of the method is assessed through comparisons with plasma plume measurements obtained in space. These examples illustrate that the complex physical phenomena associated with nonequilibrium conditions can be simulated with physical accuracy and numerical efficiency using such hybrid approaches.

4. High power battery test methods for hybrid vehicle applications

SciTech Connect

Hunt, G.L.; Haskins, H.; Heinrich, B.; Sutula, R.

1997-11-01

Commonly used EV battery tests are not very suitable for testing hybrid vehicle batteries, which may be primarily intended to supply vehicle acceleration power. The capacity of hybrid vehicle batteries will be relatively small, they will typically operate over a restricted range of states-of-charge, and they may seldom if ever be fully recharged. Further, hybrid propulsion system designs will commonly impose a higher regeneration content than is typical for electric vehicles. New test methods have been developed for use in characterizing battery performance and life for hybrid vehicle use. The procedures described in this paper were developed from the requirements of the government-industry cooperative Partnership for A New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program; however, they are expected to have broad application to the testing of energy storage devices for hybrid vehicles. The most important performance measure for a high power battery is its pulse power capability as a function of state-of-charge for both discharge and regeneration pulses. It is also important to characterize cycle life, although the {open_quote}cycles{close_quote} involved are quite different from the conventional full-discharge, full-recharge cycle commonly used for EV batteries, This paper illustrates in detail several test profiles which have been selected for PNGV battery testing, along with some sample results and lessons learned to date from the use of these test profiles. The relationship between the PNGV energy storage requirements and these tests is described so that application of the test methods can be made to other hybrid vehicle performance requirements as well. The resulting test procedures can be used to characterize the pulse power capability of high power energy storage devices including batteries and ultracapacitors, as well as the life expectancy of such devices, for either power assist or dual mode hybrid propulsion system designs.

5. COMPARISON OF NUMERICAL METHODS FOR SOLVING THE SECOND-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF MOLECULAR SCATTERING THEORY

SciTech Connect

Thomas, L.D.; Alexander, M.H.; Johnson, B.R.; Lester Jr., W. A.; Light, J.C.; McLenithan, K.D.; Parker, G.A.; Redmon, M.J.; Schmalz, T.G.; Secrest, D.; Walker, R.B.

1980-07-01

The numerical solution of coupled, second-order differential equations is a fundamental problem in theoretical physics and chemistry. There are presently over 20 commonly used methods. Unbiased comparisons of the methods are difficult to make and few have been attempted. Here we report a comparison of 11 different methods applied to 3 different test problems. The test problems have been constructed to approximate chemical systems of current research interest and to be representative of the state of the art in inelastic molecular collisions. All calculations were done on the same computer and the attempt was made to do all calculations to the same level of accuracy. The results of the initial tests indicated that an improved method might be obtained by using different methods in different integration regions. Such a hybrid program was developed and found to be at least 1.5 to 2.0 times faster than any individual method.

6. Hybrid modeling of spatial continuity for application to numerical inverse problems

USGS Publications Warehouse

Friedel, Michael J.; Iwashita, Fabio

2013-01-01

A novel two-step modeling approach is presented to obtain optimal starting values and geostatistical constraints for numerical inverse problems otherwise characterized by spatially-limited field data. First, a type of unsupervised neural network, called the self-organizing map (SOM), is trained to recognize nonlinear relations among environmental variables (covariates) occurring at various scales. The values of these variables are then estimated at random locations across the model domain by iterative minimization of SOM topographic error vectors. Cross-validation is used to ensure unbiasedness and compute prediction uncertainty for select subsets of the data. Second, analytical functions are fit to experimental variograms derived from original plus resampled SOM estimates producing model variograms. Sequential Gaussian simulation is used to evaluate spatial uncertainty associated with the analytical functions and probable range for constraining variables. The hybrid modeling of spatial continuity is demonstrated using spatially-limited hydrologic measurements at different scales in Brazil: (1) physical soil properties (sand, silt, clay, hydraulic conductivity) in the 42 km2 Vargem de Caldas basin; (2) well yield and electrical conductivity of groundwater in the 132 km2 fractured crystalline aquifer; and (3) specific capacity, hydraulic head, and major ions in a 100,000 km2 transboundary fractured-basalt aquifer. These results illustrate the benefits of exploiting nonlinear relations among sparse and disparate data sets for modeling spatial continuity, but the actual application of these spatial data to improve numerical inverse modeling requires testing.

7. Numerical methods for solving terminal optimal control problems

Gornov, A. Yu.; Tyatyushkin, A. I.; Finkelstein, E. A.

2016-02-01

Numerical methods for solving optimal control problems with equality constraints at the right end of the trajectory are discussed. Algorithms for optimal control search are proposed that are based on the multimethod technique for finding an approximate solution of prescribed accuracy that satisfies terminal conditions. High accuracy is achieved by applying a second-order method analogous to Newton's method or Bellman's quasilinearization method. In the solution of problems with direct control constraints, the variation of the control is computed using a finite-dimensional approximation of an auxiliary problem, which is solved by applying linear programming methods.

8. A Hybrid Analytical/Numerical Model for the Characterization of Preferential Flow Path with Non-Darcy Flow

PubMed Central

Wang, Sen; Feng, Qihong; Han, Xiaodong

2013-01-01

Due to the long-term fluid-solid interactions in waterflooding, the tremendous variation of oil reservoir formation parameters will lead to the widespread evolution of preferential flow paths, thereby preventing the further enhancement of recovery efficiency because of unstable fingering and premature breakthrough. To improve oil recovery, the characterization of preferential flow paths is essential and imperative. In efforts that have been previously documented, fluid flow characteristics within preferential paths are assumed to obey Darcy's equation. However, the occurrence of non-Darcy flow behavior has been increasingly suggested. To examine this conjecture, the Forchheimer number with the inertial coefficient estimated from different empirical formulas is applied as the criterion. Considering a 10% non-Darcy effect, the fluid flow in a preferential path may do experience non-Darcy behavior. With the objective of characterizing the preferential path with non-Darcy flow, a hybrid analytical/numerical model has been developed to investigate the pressure transient response, which dynamically couples a numerical model describing the non-Darcy effect of a preferential flow path with an analytical reservoir model. The characteristics of the pressure transient behavior and the sensitivities of corresponding parameters have also been discussed. In addition, an interpretation approach for pressure transient testing is also proposed, in which the Gravitational Search Algorithm is employed as a non-linear regression technology to match measured pressure with this hybrid model. Examples of applications from different oilfields are also presented to illustrate this method. This cost-effective approach provides more accurate characterization of a preferential flow path with non-Darcy flow, which will lay a solid foundation for the design and operation of conformance control treatments, as well as several other Enhanced Oil Recovery projects. PMID:24386224

9. High accuracy mantle convection simulation through modern numerical methods

Kronbichler, Martin; Heister, Timo; Bangerth, Wolfgang

2012-10-01

Numerical simulation of the processes in the Earth's mantle is a key piece in understanding its dynamics, composition, history and interaction with the lithosphere and the Earth's core. However, doing so presents many practical difficulties related to the numerical methods that can accurately represent these processes at relevant scales. This paper presents an overview of the state of the art in algorithms for high-Rayleigh number flows such as those in the Earth's mantle, and discusses their implementation in the Open Source code ASPECT (Advanced Solver for Problems in Earth's ConvecTion). Specifically, we show how an interconnected set of methods for adaptive mesh refinement (AMR), higher order spatial and temporal discretizations, advection stabilization and efficient linear solvers can provide high accuracy at a numerical cost unachievable with traditional methods, and how these methods can be designed in a way so that they scale to large numbers of processors on compute clusters. ASPECT relies on the numerical software packages DEAL.II and TRILINOS, enabling us to focus on high level code and keeping our implementation compact. We present results from validation tests using widely used benchmarks for our code, as well as scaling results from parallel runs.

10. Numerical methods and calculations for droplet flow, heating and ignition

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dwyer, H. A.; Sanders, B. R.; Dandy, D.

1982-01-01

A numerical method was devised and employed to solve a variety of problems related to liquid droplet combustion. The basic transport equations of mass, momentum and energy were formulated in terms of generalized nonorthogonal coordinates, which allows for adaptive griding and arbitrary particle shape. Example problems are solved for internal droplet heating, droplet ignition and high Reynolds number flow over a droplet.

11. A numerical method for unsteady aerodynamics via acoustics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hodge, Steve

1991-01-01

Formal solutions to the wave equation may be conveniently described within the framework of generalized function theory. A generalized function theory is used to yield a formulation and formal solution of a wave equation describing oscillation of a flat plate from which a numerical method may be derived.

12. COMPARING NUMERICAL METHODS FOR ISOTHERMAL MAGNETIZED SUPERSONIC TURBULENCE

SciTech Connect

Kritsuk, Alexei G.; Collins, David; Norman, Michael L.; Xu Hao E-mail: dccollins@lanl.gov

2011-08-10

Many astrophysical applications involve magnetized turbulent flows with shock waves. Ab initio star formation simulations require a robust representation of supersonic turbulence in molecular clouds on a wide range of scales imposing stringent demands on the quality of numerical algorithms. We employ simulations of supersonic super-Alfvenic turbulence decay as a benchmark test problem to assess and compare the performance of nine popular astrophysical MHD methods actively used to model star formation. The set of nine codes includes: ENZO, FLASH, KT-MHD, LL-MHD, PLUTO, PPML, RAMSES, STAGGER, and ZEUS. These applications employ a variety of numerical approaches, including both split and unsplit, finite difference and finite volume, divergence preserving and divergence cleaning, a variety of Riemann solvers, and a range of spatial reconstruction and time integration techniques. We present a comprehensive set of statistical measures designed to quantify the effects of numerical dissipation in these MHD solvers. We compare power spectra for basic fields to determine the effective spectral bandwidth of the methods and rank them based on their relative effective Reynolds numbers. We also compare numerical dissipation for solenoidal and dilatational velocity components to check for possible impacts of the numerics on small-scale density statistics. Finally, we discuss the convergence of various characteristics for the turbulence decay test and the impact of various components of numerical schemes on the accuracy of solutions. The nine codes gave qualitatively the same results, implying that they are all performing reasonably well and are useful for scientific applications. We show that the best performing codes employ a consistently high order of accuracy for spatial reconstruction of the evolved fields, transverse gradient interpolation, conservation law update step, and Lorentz force computation. The best results are achieved with divergence-free evolution of the

13. Comparing Numerical Methods for Isothermal Magnetized Supersonic Turbulence

Kritsuk, Alexei G.; Nordlund, Åke; Collins, David; Padoan, Paolo; Norman, Michael L.; Abel, Tom; Banerjee, Robi; Federrath, Christoph; Flock, Mario; Lee, Dongwook; Li, Pak Shing; Müller, Wolf-Christian; Teyssier, Romain; Ustyugov, Sergey D.; Vogel, Christian; Xu, Hao

2011-08-01

Many astrophysical applications involve magnetized turbulent flows with shock waves. Ab initio star formation simulations require a robust representation of supersonic turbulence in molecular clouds on a wide range of scales imposing stringent demands on the quality of numerical algorithms. We employ simulations of supersonic super-Alfvénic turbulence decay as a benchmark test problem to assess and compare the performance of nine popular astrophysical MHD methods actively used to model star formation. The set of nine codes includes: ENZO, FLASH, KT-MHD, LL-MHD, PLUTO, PPML, RAMSES, STAGGER, and ZEUS. These applications employ a variety of numerical approaches, including both split and unsplit, finite difference and finite volume, divergence preserving and divergence cleaning, a variety of Riemann solvers, and a range of spatial reconstruction and time integration techniques. We present a comprehensive set of statistical measures designed to quantify the effects of numerical dissipation in these MHD solvers. We compare power spectra for basic fields to determine the effective spectral bandwidth of the methods and rank them based on their relative effective Reynolds numbers. We also compare numerical dissipation for solenoidal and dilatational velocity components to check for possible impacts of the numerics on small-scale density statistics. Finally, we discuss the convergence of various characteristics for the turbulence decay test and the impact of various components of numerical schemes on the accuracy of solutions. The nine codes gave qualitatively the same results, implying that they are all performing reasonably well and are useful for scientific applications. We show that the best performing codes employ a consistently high order of accuracy for spatial reconstruction of the evolved fields, transverse gradient interpolation, conservation law update step, and Lorentz force computation. The best results are achieved with divergence-free evolution of the

14. Numerical methods for aerothermodynamic design of hypersonic space transport vehicles

Wanie, K. M.; Brenneis, A.; Eberle, A.; Heiss, S.

1993-04-01

The requirement of the design process of hypersonic vehicles to predict flow past entire configurations with wings, fins, flaps, and propulsion system represents one of the major challenges for aerothermodynamics. In this context computational fluid dynamics has come up as a powerful tool to support the experimental work. A couple of numerical methods developed at MBB designed to fulfill the needs of the design process are described. The governing equations and fundamental details of the solution methods are shortly reviewed. Results are given for both geometrically simple test cases and realistic hypersonic configurations. Since there is still a considerable lack of experience for hypersonic flow calculations an extensive testing and verification is essential. This verification is done by comparison of results with experimental data and other numerical methods. The results presented prove that the methods used are robust, flexible, and accurate enough to fulfill the strong needs of the design process.

15. Numerical aperture of multimode fibers by several methods - Resolving differences

Franzen, Douglas L.; Young, Matt; Cherin, Allen H.; Head, E. D.; Hackert, Michael J.

1989-06-01

An industry-wide study among members of the Electronic Industries Association was conducted to document differences among three numerical aperture measurement methods. Results on 12 multimode graded-index fibers indicate systematic differences exist among commonly used far-field and index-profile techniques. Differences can be explained by a wavelength-dependent factor and choice of definitions. Conversion factors can be used to relate the various methods.

16. Efficient numerical methods for entropy-linear programming problems

Gasnikov, A. V.; Gasnikova, E. B.; Nesterov, Yu. E.; Chernov, A. V.

2016-04-01

Entropy-linear programming (ELP) problems arise in various applications. They are usually written as the maximization of entropy (minimization of minus entropy) under affine constraints. In this work, new numerical methods for solving ELP problems are proposed. Sharp estimates for the convergence rates of the proposed methods are established. The approach described applies to a broader class of minimization problems for strongly convex functionals with affine constraints.

17. A novel gas-droplet numerical method for spray combustion

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chen, C. P.; Shang, H. M.; Jiang, Y.

1991-01-01

This paper presents a non-iterative numerical technique for computing time-dependent gas-droplet flows. The method is a fully-interacting combination of Eulerian fluid and Lagrangian particle calculation. The interaction calculations between the two phases are formulated on a pressure-velocity coupling procedure based on the operator-splitting technique. This procedure eliminates the global iterations required in the conventional particle-source-in-cell (PSIC) procedure. Turbulent dispersion calculations are treated by a stochastic procedure. Numerical calculations and comparisons with available experimental data, as well as efficiency assessments are given for some sprays typical of spray combustion applications.

18. Numerical methods and computers used in elastohydrodynamic lubrication

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hamrock, B. J.; Tripp, J. H.

1982-01-01

Some of the methods of obtaining approximate numerical solutions to boundary value problems that arise in elastohydrodynamic lubrication are reviewed. The highlights of four general approaches (direct, inverse, quasi-inverse, and Newton-Raphson) are sketched. Advantages and disadvantages of these approaches are presented along with a flow chart showing some of the details of each. The basic question of numerical stability of the elastohydrodynamic lubrication solutions, especially in the pressure spike region, is considered. Computers used to solve this important class of lubrication problems are briefly described, with emphasis on supercomputers.

19. Hybrid method of free-form lens design for arbitrary illumination target.

PubMed

Ma, Yufei; Zhang, Hang; Su, Zeyu; He, Yu; Xu, Liang; Liu, Xu; Li, Haifeng

2015-05-10

We propose a hybrid method of free-form illumination design for an arbitrary target form, imposing no restriction on the boundary of the irradiance distribution. Smooth continuous surfaces and continuous irradiance distributions are achieved with two independent steps. Initial solutions of the illumination problem are obtained with the method of supporting paraboloids, and final solutions are acquired by numerically solving the elliptic Monge-Ampére equations. Lenses, which are able to produce complex irradiance distributions, can be achieved with this method and fabricated in practice. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated by some examples with experimental results.

20. Hybrid radical energy storage device and method of making

DOEpatents

Gennett, Thomas; Ginley, David S.; Braunecker, Wade; Ban, Chunmei; Owczarczyk, Zbyslaw

2016-04-26

Hybrid radical energy storage devices, such as batteries or electrochemical devices, and methods of use and making are disclosed. Also described herein are electrodes and electrolytes useful in energy storage devices, for example, radical polymer cathode materials and electrolytes for use in organic radical batteries.

1. Hybrid radical energy storage device and method of making

DOEpatents

Gennett, Thomas; Ginley, David S; Braunecker, Wade; Ban, Chunmei; Owczarczyk, Zbyslaw

2015-01-27

Hybrid radical energy storage devices, such as batteries or electrochemical devices, and methods of use and making are disclosed. Also described herein are electrodes and electrolytes useful in energy storage devices, for example, radical polymer cathode materials and electrolytes for use in organic radical batteries.

2. Numerical multistep methods for the efficient solution of quantum mechanics and related problems

Anastassi, Z. A.; Simos, T. E.

2009-10-01

In this paper we present the recent development in the numerical integration of the Schrödinger equation and related systems of ordinary differential equations with oscillatory solutions, such as the N-body problem. We examine several types of multistep methods (explicit, implicit, predictor-corrector, hybrid) and several properties (P-stability, trigonometric fitting of various orders, phase fitting, high phase-lag order, algebraic order). We analyze the local truncation error and the stability of the methods. The error for the Schrödinger equation is also presented, which reveals the relation of the error to the energy. The efficiency of the methods is evaluated through the integration of five problems. Figures are presented and analyzed and some general conclusions are made. Code written in Maple is given for the development of all methods analyzed in this paper. Also the subroutines written in Matlab, that concern the integration of the methods, are presented.

3. 3D magnetospheric parallel hybrid multi-grid method applied to planet–plasma interactions

SciTech Connect

Leclercq, L.; Mancini, M.

2016-03-15

We present a new method to exploit multiple refinement levels within a 3D parallel hybrid model, developed to study planet–plasma interactions. This model is based on the hybrid formalism: ions are kinetically treated whereas electrons are considered as a inertia-less fluid. Generally, ions are represented by numerical particles whose size equals the volume of the cells. Particles that leave a coarse grid subsequently entering a refined region are split into particles whose volume corresponds to the volume of the refined cells. The number of refined particles created from a coarse particle depends on the grid refinement rate. In order to conserve velocity distribution functions and to avoid calculations of average velocities, particles are not coalesced. Moreover, to ensure the constancy of particles' shape function sizes, the hybrid method is adapted to allow refined particles to move within a coarse region. Another innovation of this approach is the method developed to compute grid moments at interfaces between two refinement levels. Indeed, the hybrid method is adapted to accurately account for the special grid structure at the interfaces, avoiding any overlapping grid considerations. Some fundamental test runs were performed to validate our approach (e.g. quiet plasma flow, Alfven wave propagation). Lastly, we also show a planetary application of the model, simulating the interaction between Jupiter's moon Ganymede and the Jovian plasma.

4. A hybrid method for flood simulation in small catchments combining hydrodynamic and hydrological techniques

Bellos, Vasilis; Tsakiris, George

2016-09-01

The study presents a new hybrid method for the simulation of flood events in small catchments. It combines a physically-based two-dimensional hydrodynamic model and the hydrological unit hydrograph theory. Unit hydrographs are derived using the FLOW-R2D model which is based on the full form of two-dimensional Shallow Water Equations, solved by a modified McCormack numerical scheme. The method is tested at a small catchment in a suburb of Athens-Greece for a storm event which occurred in February 2013. The catchment is divided into three friction zones and unit hydrographs of 15 and 30 min are produced. The infiltration process is simulated by the empirical Kostiakov equation and the Green-Ampt model. The results from the implementation of the proposed hybrid method are compared with recorded data at the hydrometric station at the outlet of the catchment and the results derived from the fully hydrodynamic model FLOW-R2D. It is concluded that for the case studied, the proposed hybrid method produces results close to those of the fully hydrodynamic simulation at substantially shorter computational time. This finding, if further verified in a variety of case studies, can be useful in devising effective hybrid tools for the two-dimensional flood simulations, which are lead to accurate and considerably faster results than those achieved by the fully hydrodynamic simulations.

5. Singularity Preserving Numerical Methods for Boundary Integral Equations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kaneko, Hideaki (Principal Investigator)

1996-01-01

In the past twelve months (May 8, 1995 - May 8, 1996), under the cooperative agreement with Division of Multidisciplinary Optimization at NASA Langley, we have accomplished the following five projects: a note on the finite element method with singular basis functions; numerical quadrature for weakly singular integrals; superconvergence of degenerate kernel method; superconvergence of the iterated collocation method for Hammersteion equations; and singularity preserving Galerkin method for Hammerstein equations with logarithmic kernel. This final report consists of five papers describing these projects. Each project is preceeded by a brief abstract.

6. Simple numerical method for predicting steady compressible flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vonlavante, Ernst; Nelson, N. Duane

1986-01-01

A numerical method for solving the isenthalpic form of the governing equations for compressible viscous and inviscid flows was developed. The method was based on the concept of flux vector splitting in its implicit form. The method was tested on several demanding inviscid and viscous configurations. Two different forms of the implicit operator were investigated. The time marching to steady state was accelerated by the implementation of the multigrid procedure. Its various forms very effectively increased the rate of convergence of the present scheme. High quality steady state results were obtained in most of the test cases; these required only short computational times due to the relative efficiency of the basic method.

7. A Hybrid On-line Verification Method of Relay Setting

Gao, Wangyuan; Chen, Qing; Si, Ji; Huang, Xin

2017-05-01

Along with the rapid development of the power industry, grid structure gets more sophisticated. The validity and rationality of protective relaying are vital to the security of power systems. To increase the security of power systems, it is essential to verify the setting values of relays online. Traditional verification methods mainly include the comparison of protection range and the comparison of calculated setting value. To realize on-line verification, the verifying speed is the key. The verifying result of comparing protection range is accurate, but the computation burden is heavy, and the verifying speed is slow. Comparing calculated setting value is much faster, but the verifying result is conservative and inaccurate. Taking the overcurrent protection as example, this paper analyses the advantages and disadvantages of the two traditional methods above, and proposes a hybrid method of on-line verification which synthesizes the advantages of the two traditional methods. This hybrid method can meet the requirements of accurate on-line verification.

8. A numerical method for interface problems in elastodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mcghee, D. S.

1984-01-01

The numerical implementation of a formulation for a class of interface problems in elastodynamics is discussed. This formulation combines the use of the finite element and boundary integral methods to represent the interior and the exteriro regions, respectively. In particular, the response of a semicylindrical alluvial valley in a homogeneous halfspace to incident antiplane SH waves is considered to determine the accuracy and convergence of the numerical procedure. Numerical results are obtained from several combinations of the incidence angle, frequency of excitation, and relative stiffness between the inclusion and the surrounding halfspace. The results tend to confirm the theoretical estimates that the convergence is of the order H(2) for the piecewise linear elements used. It was also observed that the accuracy descreases as the frequency of excitation increases or as the relative stiffness of the inclusion decreases.

9. New hybrid conjugate gradient methods with the generalized Wolfe line search.

PubMed

Xu, Xiao; Kong, Fan-Yu

2016-01-01

The conjugate gradient method was an efficient technique for solving the unconstrained optimization problem. In this paper, we made a linear combination with parameters β k of the DY method and the HS method, and putted forward the hybrid method of DY and HS. We also proposed the hybrid of FR and PRP by the same mean. Additionally, to present the two hybrid methods, we promoted the Wolfe line search respectively to compute the step size α k of the two hybrid methods. With the new Wolfe line search, the two hybrid methods had descent property and global convergence property of the two hybrid methods that can also be proved.

10. Numerical methods for solving the Boltzmann equation (a review)

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Limar, Y. F.; Shakhov, Y. M.; Shidlovskiy, V. P.

1972-01-01

The methods are reviewed which are utilized in principal attempts to obtain the numerical solution or modeling of the Boltzmann equation over a broad range of Knudsen numbers. The primary methods considered are the Monte Carlo and the discrete velocities methods. The conculsions drawn from the analysis include the following: (1) The Monte Carlo methods are not well suited in the area of small Knudsen numbers. (2) Among the Monte Carlo methods, the Bird method appears to be the most attractive, since it is more directly related to the Boltzmann equation. (3) The deterministic methods, which include the discrete ordinate technique, offer great possibilities but require exceedingly large computer times. (4) The use of approximating equations in combination with the discrete velocities method will possibly improve computation time and reduce the required memory volume.

11. A hybrid experimental-numerical technique for determining 3D velocity fields from planar 2D PIV data

Eden, A.; Sigurdson, M.; Mezić, I.; Meinhart, C. D.

2016-09-01

Knowledge of 3D, three component velocity fields is central to the understanding and development of effective microfluidic devices for lab-on-chip mixing applications. In this paper we present a hybrid experimental-numerical method for the generation of 3D flow information from 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV) experimental data and finite element simulations of an alternating current electrothermal (ACET) micromixer. A numerical least-squares optimization algorithm is applied to a theory-based 3D multiphysics simulation in conjunction with 2D PIV data to generate an improved estimation of the steady state velocity field. This 3D velocity field can be used to assess mixing phenomena more accurately than would be possible through simulation alone. Our technique can also be used to estimate uncertain quantities in experimental situations by fitting the gathered field data to a simulated physical model. The optimization algorithm reduced the root-mean-squared difference between the experimental and simulated velocity fields in the target region by more than a factor of 4, resulting in an average error less than 12% of the average velocity magnitude.

12. Validation of a hybrid life-cycle inventory analysis method.

PubMed

Crawford, Robert H

2008-08-01

The life-cycle inventory analysis step of a life-cycle assessment (LCA) may currently suffer from several limitations, mainly concerned with the use of incomplete and unreliable data sources and methods of assessment. Many past LCA studies have used traditional inventory analysis methods, namely process analysis and input-output analysis. More recently, hybrid inventory analysis methods have been developed, combining these two traditional methods in an attempt to minimise their limitations. In light of recent improvements, these hybrid methods need to be compared and validated, as these too have been considered to have several limitations. This paper evaluates a recently developed hybrid inventory analysis method which aims to improve the limitations of previous methods. It was found that the truncation associated with process analysis can be up to 87%, reflecting the considerable shortcomings in the quantity of process data currently available. Capital inputs were found to account for up to 22% of the total inputs to a particular product. These findings suggest that current best-practice methods are sufficiently accurate for most typical applications, but this is heavily dependent upon data quality and availability. The use of input-output data assists in improving the system boundary completeness of life-cycle inventories. However, the use of input-output analysis alone does not always provide an accurate model for replacing process data. Further improvements in the quantity of process data currently available are needed to increase the reliability of life-cycle inventories.

13. A comparison between implicit and hybrid methods for the calculation of steady and unsteady inlet flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coakley, T. J.; Hsieh, T.

1985-01-01

Numerical simulation of steady and unsteady transonic diffuser flows using two different computer codes are discussed and compared with experimental data. The codes solve the Reynolds-averaged, compressible, Navier-Stokes equations using various turbulence models. One of the codes has been applied extensively to diffuser flows and uses the hybrid method of MacCormack. This code is relatively inefficient numerically. The second code, which was developed more recently, is fully implicit and is relatively efficient numerically. Simulations of steady flows using the implicit code are shown to be in good agreement with simulations using the hybrid code. Both simulations are in good agreement with experimental results. Simulations of unsteady flows using the two codes are in good qualitative agreement with each other, although the quantitative agreement is not as good as in the steady flow cases. The implicit code is shown to be eight times faster than the hybrid code for unsteady flow calculations and up to 32 times faster for steady flow calculations. Results of calculations using alternative turbulence models are also discussed.

14. A comparison between implicit and hybrid methods for the calculation of steady and unsteady inlet flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coakley, T. J.; Hsieh, T.

1985-01-01

Numerical simulation of steady and unsteady transonic diffuser flows using two different computer codes are discussed and compared with experimental data. The codes solve the Reynolds-averaged, compressible, Navier-Stokes equations using various turbulence models. One of the codes has been applied extensively to diffuser flows and uses the hybrid method of MacCormack. This code is relatively inefficient numerically. The second code, which was developed more recently, is fully implicit and is relatively efficient numerically. Simulations of steady flows using the implicit code are shown to be in good agreement with simulations using the hybrid code. Both simulations are in good agreement with experimental results. Simulations of unsteady flows using the two codes are in good qualitative agreement with each other, although the quantitative agreement is not as good as in the steady flow cases. The implicit code is shown to be eight times faster than the hybrid code for unsteady flow calculations and up to 32 times faster for steady flow calculations. Results of calculations using alternative turbulence models are also discussed.

15. Atomistic hybrid DSMC/NEMD method for nonequilibrium multiscale simulations

Gu, Kai; Watkins, Charles B.; Koplik, Joel

2010-03-01

A multiscale hybrid method for coupling the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method to the nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) method is introduced. The method addresses Knudsen layer type gas flows within a few mean free paths of an interface or about an object with dimensions of the order of a few mean free paths. It employs the NEMD method to resolve nanoscale phenomena closest to the interface along with coupled DSMC simulation of the remainder of the Knudsen layer. The hybrid DSMC/NEMD method is a particle based algorithm without a buffer zone. It incorporates a new, modified generalized soft sphere (MGSS) molecular collision model to improve the poor computational efficiency of the traditional generalized soft sphere GSS model and to achieve DSMC compatibility with Lennard-Jones NEMD molecular interactions. An equilibrium gas, a Fourier thermal flow, and an oscillatory Couette flow, are simulated to validate the method. The method shows good agreement with Maxwell-Boltzmann theory for the equilibrium system, Chapman-Enskog theory for Fourier flow, and pure DSMC simulations for oscillatory Couette flow. Speedup in CPU time of the hybrid solver is benchmarked against a pure NEMD solver baseline for different system sizes and solver domain partitions. Finally, the hybrid method is applied to investigate interaction of argon gas with solid surface molecules in a parametric study of the influence of wetting effects and solid molecular mass on energy transfer and thermal accommodation coefficients. It is determined that wetting effect strength and solid molecular mass have a significant impact on the energy transfer between gas and solid phases and thermal accommodation coefficient.

16. Extension and Validation of a Hybrid Particle-Finite Element Method for Hypervelocity Impact Simulation. Chapter 2

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fahrenthold, Eric P.; Shivarama, Ravishankar

2004-01-01

The hybrid particle-finite element method of Fahrenthold and Horban, developed for the simulation of hypervelocity impact problems, has been extended to include new formulations of the particle-element kinematics, additional constitutive models, and an improved numerical implementation. The extended formulation has been validated in three dimensional simulations of published impact experiments. The test cases demonstrate good agreement with experiment, good parallel speedup, and numerical convergence of the simulation results.

17. Numerical Polynomial Homotopy Continuation Method and String Vacua

DOE PAGES

Mehta, Dhagash

2011-01-01

Finding vmore » acua for the four-dimensional effective theories for supergravity which descend from flux compactifications and analyzing them according to their stability is one of the central problems in string phenomenology. Except for some simple toy models, it is, however, difficult to find all the vacua analytically. Recently developed algorithmic methods based on symbolic computer algebra can be of great help in the more realistic models. However, they suffer from serious algorithmic complexities and are limited to small system sizes. In this paper, we review a numerical method called the numerical polynomial homotopy continuation (NPHC) method, first used in the areas of lattice field theories, which by construction finds all of the vacua of a given potential that is known to have only isolated solutions. The NPHC method is known to suffer from no major algorithmic complexities and is embarrassingly parallelizable , and hence its applicability goes way beyond the existing symbolic methods. We first solve a simple toy model as a warm-up example to demonstrate the NPHC method at work. We then show that all the vacua of a more complicated model of a compactified M theory model, which has an S U ( 3 ) structure, can be obtained by using a desktop machine in just about an hour, a feat which was reported to be prohibitively difficult by the existing symbolic methods. Finally, we compare the various technicalities between the two methods.« less

18. Improved hybrid iterative optimization method for seismic full waveform inversion

Wang, Yi; Dong, Liang-Guo; Liu, Yu-Zhu

2013-06-01

In full waveform inversion (FWI), Hessian information of the misfit function is of vital importance for accelerating the convergence of the inversion; however, it usually is not feasible to directly calculate the Hessian matrix and its inverse. Although the limited memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (L-BFGS) or Hessian-free inexact Newton (HFN) methods are able to use approximate Hessian information, the information they collect is limited. The two methods can be interlaced because they are able to provide Hessian information for each other; however, the performance of the hybrid iterative method is dependent on the effective switch between the two methods. We have designed a new scheme to realize the dynamic switch between the two methods based on the decrease ratio (DR) of the misfit function (objective function), and we propose a modified hybrid iterative optimization method. In the new scheme, we compare the DR of the two methods for a given computational cost, and choose the method with a faster DR. Using these steps, the modified method always implements the most efficient method. The results of Marmousi and over thrust model testings indicate that the convergence with our modified method is significantly faster than that in the L-BFGS method with no loss of inversion quality. Moreover, our modified outperforms the enriched method by a little speedup of the convergence. It also exhibits better efficiency than the HFN method.

19. A Comparison of Different Hybrid Methods on the Lorenz 1963 Model

Goodliff, Michael; van Leeuwen, Peter Jan; Amezcua, Javier

2014-05-01

Hybrid data assimilation schemes are becoming more widely used in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP). These methods combine ideas from successful schemes such as 4DVAR and the ensemble transform Kalman filter (ETKF). The motivation behind hybrid schemes is to make use of a flow-dependent background error covariance matrix (Pb) in a variational setting. Although some of these hybrid schemes are being used operationally now, several basic questions on the reasons behind their performance are still open. Hybrid methods mainly differ in their use of Pb. Here we study 3 formulations. The first scheme, ETKF-4DVAR, uses Pb from the ETKF and combines it (weighted) with the climatological background error covariance matrix in 4DVAR (Bclim), at the start of each assimilation window. The second scheme, 4DVAR-BEN, is similar to ETKF-4DVAR but has zero weighting on Bclim. The third scheme, 4DENVAR, uses a the 4-dimensional covariance from the ensemble that alleviates the need for the tangent-linear and adjoint model in the 4DVar. We systematically compare the performance of ETKF-4DVAR, 4DVAR-BEN and 4DENVAR with respect to two traditional schemes (4DVAR and ETKF) on the Lorenz 1963 model. Using the analysis root mean square error (RMSE) as a metric, these schemes have been compared considering (1) assimilation window length and observation interval size, (2) ensemble size and (3) inflation of the climatological background error covariance matrix. For short assimilation windows, hybrid schemes are shown to outperform traditional methods. As the assimilation window length increases, sequential schemes become more accurate over both traditional variational and hybrid schemes which use an adjoint model. The 4DENVAR scheme performs slightly better in most cases than the ETKF over longer assimilation windows, which suggests that replacing the adjoint model by 4D-covariances from sequential schemes can increase the accuracy of variational schemes.

20. Computational methods for aerodynamic design using numerical optimization

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Peeters, M. F.

1983-01-01

Five methods to increase the computational efficiency of aerodynamic design using numerical optimization, by reducing the computer time required to perform gradient calculations, are examined. The most promising method consists of drastically reducing the size of the computational domain on which aerodynamic calculations are made during gradient calculations. Since a gradient calculation requires the solution of the flow about an airfoil whose geometry was slightly perturbed from a base airfoil, the flow about the base airfoil is used to determine boundary conditions on the reduced computational domain. This method worked well in subcritical flow.

1. Simple numerical method for solving the steady Euler equations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Von Lavante, E.; Melson, N. Duane

1987-01-01

A numerical method for solving the isenthalpic form of the governing equations for compressible inviscid flows is developed. The method is based on the concept of flux vector splitting in its implicit form and is tested on several demanding configurations. Time marching to steady state is accelerated by the implementation of the multigrid procedure which very effectively increases the rate of convergence. Steady-state results are obtained for various test cases. Only short computational times are required due to the relative efficiency of the basic method.

2. A Numerical Method for Incompressible Flow with Heat Transfer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sa, Jong-Youb; Kwak, Dochan

1997-01-01

A numerical method for the convective heat transfer problem is developed for low speed flow at mild temperatures. A simplified energy equation is added to the incompressible Navier-Stokes formulation by using Boussinesq approximation to account for the buoyancy force. A pseudocompressibility method is used to solve the resulting set of equations for steady-state solutions in conjunction with an approximate factorization scheme. A Neumann-type pressure boundary condition is devised to account for the interaction between pressure and temperature terms, especially near a heated or cooled solid boundary. It is shown that the present method is capable of predicting the temperature field in an incompressible flow.

3. Numerical Method and Analysis of Consistency for Electrodiffusion Problem

Filipek, R.; Szyszkiewicz, K.; Danielewski, M.; Lewenstam, A.

2007-12-01

Numerical procedure based on method of lines for time-dependent electrodiffusion transport is developed. Finite difference space discretization with suitably selected weights based on a non-uniform grid is applied. Consistency of this method and the method put forward by Brumleve and Buck are analyzed and compared. The resulting stiff system of ODEs is effectively solved using the Radau IIa integrator. The applications to selected electrochemical systems: liquid junction, bi-ionic case and fused salts have been tested. Results for ion-selective electrodes are demonstrated.

4. Projected discrete ordinates methods for numerical transport problems

SciTech Connect

Larsen, E.W.

1985-01-01

A class of Projected Discrete-Ordinates (PDO) methods is described for obtaining iterative solutions of discrete-ordinates problems with convergence rates comparable to those observed using Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration (DSA). The spatially discretized PDO solutions are generally not equal to the DSA solutions, but unlike DSA, which requires great care in the use of spatial discretizations to preserve stability, the PDO solutions remain stable and rapidly convergent with essentially arbitrary spatial discretizations. Numerical results are presented which illustrate the rapid convergence and the accuracy of solutions obtained using PDO methods with commonplace differencing methods.

5. Numerical method to compute acoustic scattering effect of a moving source.

PubMed

Song, Hao; Yi, Mingxu; Huang, Jun; Pan, Yalin; Liu, Dawei

2016-01-01

In this paper, the aerodynamic characteristic of a ducted tail rotor in hover has been numerically studied using CFD method. An analytical time domain formulation based on Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) equation is derived for the prediction of the acoustic velocity field and used as Neumann boundary condition on a rigid scattering surface. In order to predict the aerodynamic noise, a hybrid method combing computational aeroacoustics with an acoustic thin-body boundary element method has been proposed. The aerodynamic results and the calculated sound pressure levels (SPLs) are compared with the known method for validation. Simulation results show that the duct can change the value of SPLs and the sound directivity. Compared with the isolate tail rotor, the SPLs of the ducted tail rotor are smaller at certain azimuth.

6. Fast and stable numerical method for neuronal modelling

Hashemi, Soheil; Abdolali, Ali

2016-11-01

Excitable cell modelling is of a prime interest in predicting and targeting neural activity. Two main limits in solving related equations are speed and stability of numerical method. Since there is a tradeoff between accuracy and speed, most previously presented methods for solving partial differential equations (PDE) are focused on one side. More speed means more accurate simulations and therefore better device designing. By considering the variables in finite differenced equation in proper time and calculating the unknowns in the specific sequence, a fast, stable and accurate method is introduced in this paper for solving neural partial differential equations. Propagation of action potential in giant axon is studied by proposed method and traditional methods. Speed, consistency and stability of the methods are compared and discussed. The proposed method is as fast as forward methods and as stable as backward methods. Forward methods are known as fastest methods and backward methods are stable in any circumstances. Complex structures can be simulated by proposed method due to speed and stability of the method.

7. Automatic numerical integration methods for Feynman integrals through 3-loop

de Doncker, E.; Yuasa, F.; Kato, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Olagbemi, O.

2015-05-01

We give numerical integration results for Feynman loop diagrams through 3-loop such as those covered by Laporta [1]. The methods are based on automatic adaptive integration, using iterated integration and extrapolation with programs from the QUADPACK package, or multivariate techniques from the ParInt package. The Dqags algorithm from QuadPack accommodates boundary singularities of fairly general types. PARINT is a package for multivariate integration layered over MPI (Message Passing Interface), which runs on clusters and incorporates advanced parallel/distributed techniques such as load balancing among processes that may be distributed over a network of nodes. Results are included for 3-loop self-energy diagrams without IR (infra-red) or UV (ultra-violet) singularities. A procedure based on iterated integration and extrapolation yields a novel method of numerical regularization for integrals with UV terms, and is applied to a set of 2-loop self-energy diagrams with UV singularities.

8. Methode des elements finis hybride appliquee aux vibrations des coques spheriques

Menaa, Mohamed

The analysis of spherical shells filled with fluid and subjected to supersonic flow has been the subject of few research. Most of these studies treat the dynamic behaviour of empty shells. Few works have investigated spherical shells filled with fluid or subjected to supersonic flutter. In this thesis, we propose to develop a model to analyse the vibratory behaviour of both empty spherical shells and partially filled with fluid. This model is also applicable to study of the dynamic stability of spherical shells subjected to supersonic flow. The model developed is a combination of finite element method, thin shell theory, potential fluid theory and aerodynamic fluid theory. Different parameters are considered here in this study. In the first part of this study, free vibration analysis of spherical shell is carried out. The structural model is based on a combination of thin shell theory and the classical finite element method. Free vibration equations using the hybrid finite element formulation are derived and solved numerically. The results are validated using numerical and theoretical data available in the literature. The analysis is accomplished for spherical shells of different geometries, boundary conditions and radius to thickness ratios. This proposed hybrid finite element method can be used efficiently for design and analysis of spherical shells employed in high speed aircraft structures. In the second part of the present study, a hybrid finite element method is applied to investigate the free vibration of spherical shell filled with fluid. The structural model is based on a combination of thin shell theory and the classical finite element method. It is assumed that the fluid is incompressible and has no free-surface effect. Fluid is considered as a velocity potential variable at each node of the shell element where its motion is expressed in terms of nodal elastic displacement at the fluid-structure interface. Numerical simulation is done and vibration

9. Numerical methods for control optimization in linear systems

Tyatyushkin, A. I.

2015-05-01

Numerical methods are considered for solving optimal control problems in linear systems, namely, terminal control problems with control and phase constraints and time-optimal control problems. Several algorithms with various computer storage requirements are proposed for solving these problems. The algorithms are intended for finding an optimal control in linear systems having certain features, for example, when the reachable set of a system has flat faces.

10. Fast Numerical Methods for Stochastic Partial Differential Equations

DTIC Science & Technology

2016-04-15

AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0156 Fast Numerical Methods for Stochastic Partial Differential Equations Hongmei Chi Florida Agricultural and Mechanical...University Tallahassee Final Report 04/15/2016 DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release. AF Office Of Scientific Research (AFOSR)/ RTA2...Arlington, Virginia 22203 Air Force Research Laboratory Air Force Materiel Command REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 1. REPORT

11. Numerical Analysis of Maneuvering Rotorcraft Using Moving Overlapped Grid Method

Yang, Choongmo; Aoyama, Takashi

In transient flight, rotor wakes and tip vortex generated by unsteady blade air-loads and blade motions are fully unsteady and 3-dimensionally-aperiodic, giving rise to significant complicity in accurate analysis compared to steady flight. We propose a hybrid approach by splitting the motions of a maneuvering helicopter into translation and rotation. Translation is simulated using a non-inertial moving (translating) coordinate for which new governing equations are derived, and rotations are simulated by moving each grid in the frame. A flow simulation (CFD) code is constructed by using the hybrid approach, then two simple cases (accelerating/decelerating flight and right-turn flight) for maneuvering helicopter are calculated using the moving overlapped grid method, which is now one of the most advanced techniques for tip-vortex capture. The vortex bundling phenomena, which is a main characteristic of right-turn flight, is well captured by the simulation code. The results of the present study provide better understanding of the characteristics for maneuvering rotorcraft, which can be valuable in full helicopter design.

12. Screening methods for linear-scaling short-range hybrid calculations on CPU and GPU architectures.

PubMed

Beuerle, Matthias; Kussmann, Jörg; Ochsenfeld, Christian

2017-04-14

We present screening schemes that allow for efficient, linear-scaling short-range exchange calculations employing Gaussian basis sets for both CPU and GPU architectures. They are based on the LinK [C. Ochsenfeld et al., J. Chem. Phys. 109, 1663 (1998)] and PreLinK [J. Kussmann and C. Ochsenfeld, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 134114 (2013)] methods, but account for the decay introduced by the attenuated Coulomb operator in short-range hybrid density functionals. Furthermore, we discuss the implementation of short-range electron repulsion integrals on GPUs. The introduction of our screening methods allows for speedups of up to a factor 7.8 as compared to the underlying linear-scaling algorithm, while retaining full numerical control over the accuracy. With the increasing number of short-range hybrid functionals, our new schemes will allow for significant computational savings on CPU and GPU architectures.

13. Screening methods for linear-scaling short-range hybrid calculations on CPU and GPU architectures

Beuerle, Matthias; Kussmann, Jörg; Ochsenfeld, Christian

2017-04-01

We present screening schemes that allow for efficient, linear-scaling short-range exchange calculations employing Gaussian basis sets for both CPU and GPU architectures. They are based on the LinK [C. Ochsenfeld et al., J. Chem. Phys. 109, 1663 (1998)] and PreLinK [J. Kussmann and C. Ochsenfeld, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 134114 (2013)] methods, but account for the decay introduced by the attenuated Coulomb operator in short-range hybrid density functionals. Furthermore, we discuss the implementation of short-range electron repulsion integrals on GPUs. The introduction of our screening methods allows for speedups of up to a factor 7.8 as compared to the underlying linear-scaling algorithm, while retaining full numerical control over the accuracy. With the increasing number of short-range hybrid functionals, our new schemes will allow for significant computational savings on CPU and GPU architectures.

14. [Numerical methods for multi-fluid flows]. Final progress report

SciTech Connect

Pozrikidis, C.

1998-07-21

The central objective of this research has been to develop efficient numerical methods for computing multi-fluid flows with large interfacial deformations, and apply these methods to study the rheology of suspensions of deformable particles with viscous and non-Newtonian interfacial behavior. The mathematical formulation employs boundary-integral, immersed-boundary, and related numerical methods. Particles of interest include liquid drops with constant surface tension and capsules whose interfaces exhibit viscoelastic and incompressible characteristics. In one family of problems, the author has considered the shear-driven and pressure-driven flow of a suspension of two-dimensional liquid drops with ordered and random structure. In a second series of investigations, the author carried out dynamic simulations of two-dimensional, unbounded, doubly-periodic shear flows with random structure. Another family of problems addresses the deformation of three-dimensional capsules whose interfaces exhibit isotropic surface tension, viscous, elastic, or incompressible behavior, in simple shear flow. The numerical results extend previous asymptotic theories for small deformations and illuminate the mechanism of membrane rupture.

15. Modeling collisional processes in plasmas using discontinuous numerical methods

Miller, Sean

Fluid-based plasma models are typically applied to parameter regimes where a local thermal equilibrium is assumed. The applicability of this regime is valid for many plasmas, however, it is limited to plasma dynamics dominated by collisional effects. This study attempts to extend the validity of the collisional fluid regime using an anisotropic 13-moment fluid model derived from the Pearson type-IV probability distribution. The model explicitly evolves the heat flux hyperbolically alongside the density, momentum, and energy in order to capture dynamics usually restricted to costly kinetic models. Each particle species is modeled individually and collectively coupled through electromagnetic and collision operators. To remove electromagnetic divergence errors inherent to numerical representations of Maxwell's equations, both hyperbolic and parabolic cleaning methods are presented. The plasma models are implemented using high-order finite volume and discontinuous Galerkin numerical methods designed for unstructured meshes. The unstructured code framework, numerical methods, and plasma models were developed in the University of Washington's WARPXM code for use on heterogeneous accelerated clusters.

16. Coupled electric fields in photorefractive driven liquid crystal hybrid cells - theory and numerical simulation

Moszczyński, P.; Walczak, A.; Marciniak, P.

2016-12-01

In cyclic articles previously published we described and analysed self-organized light fibres inside a liquid crystalline (LC) cell contained photosensitive polymer (PP) layer. Such asymmetric LC cell we call a hybrid LC cell. Light fibre arises along a laser beam path directed in plane of an LC cell. It means that a laser beam is parallel to photosensitive layer. We observed the asymmetric LC cell response on an external driving field polarization. Observation has been done for an AC field first. It is the reason we decided to carry out a detailed research for a DC driving field to obtain an LC cell response step by step. The properly prepared LC cell has been built with an isolating layer and garbage ions deletion. We proved by means of a physical model, as well as a numerical simulation that LC asymmetric response strongly depends on junction barriers between PP and LC layers. New parametric model for a junction barrier on PP/LC boundary has been proposed. Such model is very useful because of lack of proper conductivity and charge carriers of band structure data on LC material.

17. Numerical studies on hybrid resonators for a medium-size COIL

Hall, Thomas; Duschek, Frank R.; Gruenewald, Karin M.; Handke, Juergen; Schall, Wolfgang O.

2005-03-01

A negative branch and a positive branch hybrid resonator, suitable for a laser with large optical cross section and small output coupling are explored numerically. The basis of the theory is the Fresnel-Kirchhoff integral equation, the calculations describe a passive resonator. The fabrication of cylindrical mirrors is difficult and deviations in mirror radius of curvature are possible. While a large concave radius of curvature of the mirror is allowed in the stable direction, a convex curvature is not tolerable. Near the ideal mirror parameters, the resonator in unstable direction is insensitive to mirror curvature variations, if the resonator length is appropriately adapted to the actual mirror curvatures. With respect to mirror tilt, the calculations show that in unstable direction the off-axis negative branch confocal unstable resonator is less sensitive than the off-axis positive branch confocal unstable resonator. In stable direction, the sensitivity to mirror misalignment is larger and dependent on the mirror curvature but independent of the unstable resonator part.

18. The instanton method and its numerical implementation in fluid mechanics

Grafke, Tobias; Grauer, Rainer; Schäfer, Tobias

2015-08-01

A precise characterization of structures occurring in turbulent fluid flows at high Reynolds numbers is one of the last open problems of classical physics. In this review we discuss recent developments related to the application of instanton methods to turbulence. Instantons are saddle point configurations of the underlying path integrals. They are equivalent to minimizers of the related Freidlin-Wentzell action and known to be able to characterize rare events in such systems. While there is an impressive body of work concerning their analytical description, this review focuses on the question on how to compute these minimizers numerically. In a short introduction we present the relevant mathematical and physical background before we discuss the stochastic Burgers equation in detail. We present algorithms to compute instantons numerically by an efficient solution of the corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations. A second focus is the discussion of a recently developed numerical filtering technique that allows to extract instantons from direct numerical simulations. In the following we present modifications of the algorithms to make them efficient when applied to two- or three-dimensional (2D or 3D) fluid dynamical problems. We illustrate these ideas using the 2D Burgers equation and the 3D Navier-Stokes equations.

19. Hybrid System Reduction Method using Reduced System Regulator

Kuroda, Eisuke; Tsuji, Takao; Oyama, Tsutomu

In order to analyze transient stability of large-scale power systems, it is advantageous to apply system reduction method to external systems. Short-circuit current method is one of the typical engineering reduction techniques. However, the dominant eigenvalues are not necessarily conserved in the reduced system. Therefore, the hybrid reduction method in which controller parameters are adjusted to conserve the dominant eigenvalues was proposed. Automatic voltage regulator (AVR) and power system stabilizer (PSS) have been used for parameters adjustment so far. However, since there are many parameters in AVR and PSS, complicated procedures are required to adjust them. Therefore, in this paper, the reduced system regulator (RSR) is proposed for hybrid system reduction method. The RSR has only two parameters for adjustment. It is easier to adjust the RSR than AVR/PSS. In addition, the initial gains of the RSR are set zero so that dynamic behavior of the system is not influenced before the adjustment. The effect and the accuracy of the hybrid system reduction method with RSR are examined using a typical longitudinal power system, IEEJ WEST 10-machine system model.

20. A robust method for handling low density regions in hybrid simulations for collisionless plasmas

SciTech Connect

Amano, Takanobu Higashimori, Katsuaki; Shirakawa, Keisuke

2014-10-15

A robust method to handle vacuum and near vacuum regions in hybrid simulations for space and astrophysical plasmas is presented. The conventional hybrid simulation model dealing with kinetic ions and a massless charge-neutralizing electron fluid is known to be susceptible to numerical instability due to divergence of the whistler-mode wave dispersion, as well as division-by-density operation in regions of low density. Consequently, a pure vacuum region is not allowed to exist in the simulation domain unless some ad hoc technique is used. To resolve this difficulty, an alternative way to introduce finite electron inertia effect is proposed. Contrary to the conventional method, the proposed one introduces a correction to the electric field rather than the magnetic field. It is shown that the generalized Ohm's law correctly reduces to Laplace's equation in a vacuum which therefore does not involve any numerical problems. In addition, a variable ion-to-electron mass ratio is introduced to reduce the phase velocity of high frequency whistler waves at low density regions so that the stability condition is always satisfied. It is demonstrated that the proposed model is able to handle near vacuum regions generated as a result of nonlinear self-consistent development of the system, as well as pure vacuum regions set up at the initial condition, without losing the advantages of the standard hybrid code.

1. Numerical simulation of boundary layers. Part 1: Weak formulation and numerical method

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spalart, P. R.

1986-01-01

A numerical method designed to solve the time-dependent, three-dimensional, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in boundary layers is presented. The fluid domain is the half-space over a flat plate, and periodic conditions are applied in the horizontal directions. The discretization is spectral. The basis functions are divergence-free and a weak formulation of the momentum equation is used, which eliminates the pressure term. An exponential mapping and Jacobi polynomials are used in the semi-infinite direction, with the irrotational component receiving special treatment. Issues related to the accuracy, stability and efficiency of the method are discussed. Very fast convergence is demonstrated on some model problems with smooth solutions. The method has also been shown to accurately resolve the fine scales of transitional and turbulent boundary layers.

2. Numerical Continuation Methods for Intrusive Uncertainty Quantification Studies

SciTech Connect

Safta, Cosmin; Najm, Habib N.; Phipps, Eric Todd

2014-09-01

Rigorous modeling of engineering systems relies on efficient propagation of uncertainty from input parameters to model outputs. In recent years, there has been substantial development of probabilistic polynomial chaos (PC) Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) methods, enabling studies in expensive computational models. One approach, termed ”intrusive”, involving reformulation of the governing equations, has been found to have superior computational performance compared to non-intrusive sampling-based methods in relevant large-scale problems, particularly in the context of emerging architectures. However, the utility of intrusive methods has been severely limited due to detrimental numerical instabilities associated with strong nonlinear physics. Previous methods for stabilizing these constructions tend to add unacceptably high computational costs, particularly in problems with many uncertain parameters. In order to address these challenges, we propose to adapt and improve numerical continuation methods for the robust time integration of intrusive PC system dynamics. We propose adaptive methods, starting with a small uncertainty for which the model has stable behavior and gradually moving to larger uncertainty where the instabilities are rampant, in a manner that provides a suitable solution.

3. Numerical Method for Darcy Flow Derived Using Discrete Exterior Calculus

Hirani, A. N.; Nakshatrala, K. B.; Chaudhry, J. H.

2015-05-01

We derive a numerical method for Darcy flow, and also for Poisson's equation in mixed (first order) form, based on discrete exterior calculus (DEC). Exterior calculus is a generalization of vector calculus to smooth manifolds and DEC is one of its discretizations on simplicial complexes such as triangle and tetrahedral meshes. DEC is a coordinate invariant discretization, in that it does not depend on the embedding of the simplices or the whole mesh. We start by rewriting the governing equations of Darcy flow using the language of exterior calculus. This yields a formulation in terms of flux differential form and pressure. The numerical method is then derived by using the framework provided by DEC for discretizing differential forms and operators that act on forms. We also develop a discretization for a spatially dependent Hodge star that varies with the permeability of the medium. This also allows us to address discontinuous permeability. The matrix representation for our discrete non-homogeneous Hodge star is diagonal, with positive diagonal entries. The resulting linear system of equations for flux and pressure are saddle type, with a diagonal matrix as the top left block. The performance of the proposed numerical method is illustrated on many standard test problems. These include patch tests in two and three dimensions, comparison with analytically known solutions in two dimensions, layered medium with alternating permeability values, and a test with a change in permeability along the flow direction. We also show numerical evidence of convergence of the flux and the pressure. A convergence experiment is included for Darcy flow on a surface. A short introduction to the relevant parts of smooth and discrete exterior calculus is included in this article. We also include a discussion of the boundary condition in terms of exterior calculus.

4. An explicit mixed numerical method for mesoscale model

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hsu, H.-M.

1981-01-01

A mixed numerical method has been developed for mesoscale models. The technique consists of a forward difference scheme for time tendency terms, an upstream scheme for advective terms, and a central scheme for the other terms in a physical system. It is shown that the mixed method is conditionally stable and highly accurate for approximating the system of either shallow-water equations in one dimension or primitive equations in three dimensions. Since the technique is explicit and two time level, it conserves computer and programming resources.

5. Teaching Thermal Hydraulics & Numerical Methods: An Introductory Control Volume Primer

SciTech Connect

Lucas, D.S.

2004-10-03

This paper covers the basics of the implementation of the control volume method in the context of the Homogeneous Equilibrium Model (HEM)(T/H) code using the conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy. This primer uses the advection equation as a template. The discussion will cover the basic equations of the control volume portion of the course in the primer, which includes the advection equation, numerical methods, along with the implementation of the various equations via FORTRAN into computer programs and the final result for a three equation HEM code and its validation.

6. New numerical method to study phase transitions and its applications

SciTech Connect

Lee, Jooyoung; Kosterlitz, J.M.

1991-11-01

We present a powerful method of identifying the nature of transitions by numerical simulation of finite systems. By studying the finite size scaling properties of free energy barrier between competing states, we can identify unambiguously a weak first order transition even when accessible system sizes are L/{xi} < 0.05 as in the five state Potts model in two dimensions. When studying a continuous phase transition we obtain quite accurate estimates of critical exponents by treating it as a field driven first order transition. The method has been successfully applied to various systems.

7. Integrated numerical methods for hypersonic aircraft cooling systems analysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Petley, Dennis H.; Jones, Stuart C.; Dziedzic, William M.

1992-01-01

Numerical methods have been developed for the analysis of hypersonic aircraft cooling systems. A general purpose finite difference thermal analysis code is used to determine areas which must be cooled. Complex cooling networks of series and parallel flow can be analyzed using a finite difference computer program. Both internal fluid flow and heat transfer are analyzed, because increased heat flow causes a decrease in the flow of the coolant. The steady state solution is a successive point iterative method. The transient analysis uses implicit forward-backward differencing. Several examples of the use of the program in studies of hypersonic aircraft and rockets are provided.

8. Development of numerical modeling program for organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells by including tail/Interfacial states models

Ho, Kuan-Ying; Lu, I.-Hsin; Wu, Yuh-Renn

2016-03-01

A numerical model for PEDOT:PSS/SiNW hybrid solar cell has been developed and the structure has been simulated and analyzed. The limiting factor leading to low open circuit voltage (Voc) in PEDOT:PSS/SiNW hybrid solar cell is investigated. By adding a p-type silicon layer into the device to create an electric field in the silicon layer, the recombination at interface is improved and the Voc increases. The efficiency is improved to over 15% and more optimized work can be done in the future.

9. HyCFS, a high-resolution shock capturing code for numerical simulation on hybrid computational clusters

Shershnev, Anton A.; Kudryavtsev, Alexey N.; Kashkovsky, Alexander V.; Khotyanovsky, Dmitry V.

2016-10-01

The present paper describes HyCFS code, developed for numerical simulation of compressible high-speed flows on hybrid CPU/GPU (Central Processing Unit / Graphical Processing Unit) computational clusters on the basis of full unsteady Navier-Stokes equations, using modern shock capturing high-order TVD (Total Variation Diminishing) and WENO (Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory) schemes on general curvilinear structured grids. We discuss the specific features of hybrid architecture and details of program implementation and present the results of code verification.

10. Scattering and radiation analysis of three-dimensional cavity arrays via a hybrid finite element method

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jin, Jian-Ming; Volakis, John L.

1992-01-01

A hybrid numerical technique is presented for a characterization of the scattering and radiation properties of three-dimensional cavity arrays recessed in a ground plane. The technique combines the finite element and boundary integral methods and invokes Floquet's representation to formulate a system of equations for the fields at the apertures and those inside the cavities. The system is solved via the conjugate gradient method in conjunction with the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) thus achieving an O(N) storage requirement. By virtue of the finite element method, the proposed technique is applicable to periodic arrays comprised of cavities having arbitrary shape and filled with inhomogeneous dielectrics. Several numerical results are presented, along with new measured data, which demonstrate the validity, efficiency, and capability of the technique.

11. Projected Hybrid Orbitals: A General QM/MM Method

PubMed Central

2015-01-01

A projected hybrid orbital (PHO) method was described to model the covalent boundary in a hybrid quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) system. The PHO approach can be used in ab initio wave function theory and in density functional theory with any basis set without introducing system-dependent parameters. In this method, a secondary basis set on the boundary atom is introduced to formulate a set of hybrid atomic orbtials. The primary basis set on the boundary atom used for the QM subsystem is projected onto the secondary basis to yield a representation that provides a good approximation to the electron-withdrawing power of the primary basis set to balance electronic interactions between QM and MM subsystems. The PHO method has been tested on a range of molecules and properties. Comparison with results obtained from QM calculations on the entire system shows that the present PHO method is a robust and balanced QM/MM scheme that preserves the structural and electronic properties of the QM region. PMID:25317748

12. Hybrid pathwise sensitivity methods for discrete stochastic models of chemical reaction systems

SciTech Connect

Wolf, Elizabeth Skubak; Anderson, David F.

2015-01-21

Stochastic models are often used to help understand the behavior of intracellular biochemical processes. The most common such models are continuous time Markov chains (CTMCs). Parametric sensitivities, which are derivatives of expectations of model output quantities with respect to model parameters, are useful in this setting for a variety of applications. In this paper, we introduce a class of hybrid pathwise differentiation methods for the numerical estimation of parametric sensitivities. The new hybrid methods combine elements from the three main classes of procedures for sensitivity estimation and have a number of desirable qualities. First, the new methods are unbiased for a broad class of problems. Second, the methods are applicable to nearly any physically relevant biochemical CTMC model. Third, and as we demonstrate on several numerical examples, the new methods are quite efficient, particularly if one wishes to estimate the full gradient of parametric sensitivities. The methods are rather intuitive and utilize the multilevel Monte Carlo philosophy of splitting an expectation into separate parts and handling each in an efficient manner.

13. Hybrid pathwise sensitivity methods for discrete stochastic models of chemical reaction systems.

PubMed

Wolf, Elizabeth Skubak; Anderson, David F

2015-01-21

Stochastic models are often used to help understand the behavior of intracellular biochemical processes. The most common such models are continuous time Markov chains (CTMCs). Parametric sensitivities, which are derivatives of expectations of model output quantities with respect to model parameters, are useful in this setting for a variety of applications. In this paper, we introduce a class of hybrid pathwise differentiation methods for the numerical estimation of parametric sensitivities. The new hybrid methods combine elements from the three main classes of procedures for sensitivity estimation and have a number of desirable qualities. First, the new methods are unbiased for a broad class of problems. Second, the methods are applicable to nearly any physically relevant biochemical CTMC model. Third, and as we demonstrate on several numerical examples, the new methods are quite efficient, particularly if one wishes to estimate the full gradient of parametric sensitivities. The methods are rather intuitive and utilize the multilevel Monte Carlo philosophy of splitting an expectation into separate parts and handling each in an efficient manner.

14. Optimization methods and silicon solar cell numerical models

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Girardini, K.; Jacobsen, S. E.

1986-01-01

An optimization algorithm for use with numerical silicon solar cell models was developed. By coupling an optimization algorithm with a solar cell model, it is possible to simultaneously vary design variables such as impurity concentrations, front junction depth, back junction depth, and cell thickness to maximize the predicted cell efficiency. An optimization algorithm was developed and interfaced with the Solar Cell Analysis Program in 1 Dimension (SCAP1D). SCAP1D uses finite difference methods to solve the differential equations which, along with several relations from the physics of semiconductors, describe mathematically the performance of a solar cell. A major obstacle is that the numerical methods used in SCAP1D require a significant amount of computer time, and during an optimization the model is called iteratively until the design variables converge to the values associated with the maximum efficiency. This problem was alleviated by designing an optimization code specifically for use with numerically intensive simulations, to reduce the number of times the efficiency has to be calculated to achieve convergence to the optimal solution.

15. A Numerical Method for Synthesizing Atmospheric Temperature and Humidity Profiles.

Tatarskaia, Maia S.; Lataitis, Richard J.; Boba Stankov, B.; Tatarskii, Viatcheslav V.

1998-07-01

A numerical technique is described for synthesizing realistic atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles. The method uses an ensemble of radiosonde measurements collected at a site of interest. Erroneous profiles are removed by comparing their likelihood with prevailing meteorological conditions. The remaining profiles are decomposed using the method of empirical orthogonal functions. The corresponding eigenprofiles and the statistics of the expansion coefficients are used to numerically generate synthetic profiles that obey the same statistics (i.e., have the same mean, variability, and vertical correlation) as the initial dataset. The technique was applied to a set of approximately 1000 temperature and humidity soundings made in Denver, Colorado, during the winter months of 1991-95. This dataset was divided into four cloud classification categories and daytime and nighttime launches to better characterize typical profiles for the eight cases considered. It was found that 97% of the variance in the soundings could be accounted for by using only five eigenprofiles in the reconstructions. Ensembles of numerically generated profiles can be used to test the accuracy of various retrieval algorithms under controlled conditions not usually available in practice.

16. NUMERICAL MODELING OF CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT IN FRACTURED POROUS MEDIA USING MIXED FINITE ELEMENT AND FINITE VOLUME METHODS

SciTech Connect

Taylor, G.; Dong, C.; Sun, S.

2010-03-18

A mathematical model for contaminant species passing through fractured porous media is presented. In the numerical model, we combine two locally conservative methods, i.e. mixed finite element (MFE) and the finite volume methods. Adaptive triangle mesh is used for effective treatment of the fractures. A hybrid MFE method is employed to provide an accurate approximation of velocities field for both the fractures and matrix which are crucial to the convection part of the transport equation. The finite volume method and the standard MFE method are used to approximate the convection and dispersion terms respectively. The model is used to investigate the interaction of adsorption with transport and to extract information on effective adsorption distribution coefficients. Numerical examples in different fractured media illustrate the robustness and efficiency of the proposed numerical model.

17. Hybrid thermal link-wise artificial compressibility method

Obrecht, Christian; Kuznik, Frédéric

2015-10-01

Thermal flow prediction is a subject of interest from a scientific and engineering points of view. Our motivation is to develop an accurate, easy to implement and highly scalable method for convective flows simulation. To this end, we present an extension to the link-wise artificial compressibility method (LW-ACM) for thermal simulation of weakly compressible flows. The novel hybrid formulation uses second-order finite difference operators of the energy equation based on the same stencils as the LW-ACM. For validation purposes, the differentially heated cubic cavity was simulated. The simulations remained stable for Rayleigh numbers up to Ra =108. The Nusselt numbers at isothermal walls and dynamics quantities are in good agreement with reference values from the literature. Our results show that the hybrid thermal LW-ACM is an effective and easy-to-use solution to solve convective flows.

18. Numerical integration of population models satisfying conservation laws: NSFD methods.

PubMed

Mickens, Ronald E

2007-10-01

Population models arising in ecology, epidemiology and mathematical biology may involve a conservation law, i.e. the total population is constant. In addition to these cases, other situations may occur for which the total population, asymptotically in time, approach a constant value. Since it is rarely the situation that the equations of motion can be analytically solved to obtain exact solutions, it follows that numerical techniques are needed to provide solutions. However, numerical procedures are only valid if they can reproduce fundamental properties of the differential equations modeling the phenomena of interest. We show that for population models, involving a dynamical conservation law the use of nonstandard finite difference (NSFD) methods allows the construction of discretization schemes such that they are dynamically consistent (DC) with the original differential equations. The paper will briefly discuss the NSFD methodology, the concept of DC, and illustrate their application to specific problems for population models.

19. Hybrid method of scattering from a dielectric target above a rough surface: TM case.

PubMed

Li, L; Dong, T L; Li, Q X

2013-12-20

A hybrid method, combining analytic Kirchhoff approximation (KA) and numerical method of moment (MoM), is developed to solve the 2D scattering problem of a dielectric target with arbitrary cross section above a moderate perfect electric conductor (PEC) rough surface under TM-polarized tapered wave incidence. Consider the target as the MoM region and the rough surface as the KA region, the induced current on the rough surface is obtained through the KA method, which depends on the incident tapered wave and the field illuminating by current distribution on the target, leaving only unknowns on the target region. In order to reduce the computational costs further, the rough surface is truncated to speed up computation of the scattering contribution from the rough surface to the target. Compared with the conventional MoM, the hybrid method is very efficient to solve the composite scattering problem of target above rough surface, especially for long underlying rough surface. Simulation results validate the effectiveness and accuracy of the hybrid method.

20. Performance analysis of a mirror by numerical iterative method.

PubMed

Park, Kwijong; Cho, Myung; Lee, Dae-Hee; Moon, Bongkon

2014-12-29

Zernike polynomials are generally used to predict the optical performance of a mirror. However, it can also be done by a numerical iterative method. As piston, tip, tilt, and defocus (P.T.T.F) aberrations can be easily removed by optical alignment, we iteratively used a rotation transformation and a paraboloid graph subtraction for removal of the aberrations from a raw deformation of the optical surface through a Finite Element Method (FEM). The results of a 30 cm concave circular mirror corrected by the iterative method were almost the same as those yielded by Zernike polynomial fitting, and the computational time was fast. In addition, a concave square mirror whose surface area is π was analyzed in order to visualize the deformation maps of a general mirror aperture shape. The iterative method can be applicable efficiently because it does not depend on the mirror aperture shape.

1. Numerical renormalization group method for quantum impurity systems

Bulla, Ralf; Costi, Theo A.; Pruschke, Thomas

2008-04-01

In the early 1970s, Wilson developed the concept of a fully nonperturbative renormalization group transformation. When applied to the Kondo problem, this numerical renormalization group (NRG) method gave for the first time the full crossover from the high-temperature phase of a free spin to the low-temperature phase of a completely screened spin. The NRG method was later generalized to a variety of quantum impurity problems. The purpose of this review is to give a brief introduction to the NRG method, including some guidelines for calculating physical quantities, and to survey the development of the NRG method and its various applications over the last 30 years. These applications include variants of the original Kondo problem such as the non-Fermi-liquid behavior in the two-channel Kondo model, dissipative quantum systems such as the spin-boson model, and lattice systems in the framework of the dynamical mean-field theory.

SciTech Connect

Lipnikov, Konstantine; Danilov, A; Vassilevski, Y; Agonzal, A

2010-01-01

3. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

DOEpatents

Bockelmann, Thomas R.; Beaty, Kevin D.; Zou, Zhanijang; Kang, Xiaosong

2009-07-21

A battery control system for controlling a state of charge of a hybrid vehicle battery includes a detecting arrangement for determining a vehicle operating state or an intended vehicle operating state and a controller for setting a target state of charge level of the battery based on the vehicle operating state or the intended vehicle operating state. The controller is operable to set a target state of charge level at a first level during a mobile vehicle operating state and at a second level during a stationary vehicle operating state or in anticipation of the vehicle operating in the stationary vehicle operating state. The invention further includes a method for controlling a state of charge of a hybrid vehicle battery.

4. The numerical methods for the fluid flow of UCMCWS

SciTech Connect

Zhang Wenfu; Li Hui; Zhu Shuquan; Wang Zuna

1997-12-31

As an alternative for diesel oil for internal combustion engines, the fluid flow state of Ultra Clean Micronized Coal-Water Slurry (UCMCWS) in mini pipe and nozzle of a diesel engine must be known. In the laboratory three kinds of UCMCWS have been made with coal containing less than 0.8% ash, viscosity less than 600 mPa.s and concentration between 50% and 56%. Because the UCMCWS is a non-Newtonian fluid, there are no analytical resolution for pipe flow, especially in inlet and outlet sections. In this case using the numerical methods to research the flow state of UCMCWS is a useful method. Using the method of finite element, the flow state of UCMCWS in inlet and outlet sections (similar to a nozzle) have been studied. The distribution of velocity at different pressures of UCMCWS in outlet and inlet sections have been obtained. The result of the numerical methods is the efficient base for the pipe and nozzle design.

5. High-order Hybridized Discontinuous Galerkin methods for Large-Eddy Simulation

Fernandez, Pablo; Nguyen, Ngoc-Cuong; Peraire, Jaime

2016-11-01

With the increase in computing power, Large-Eddy Simulation emerges as a promising technique to improve both knowledge of complex flow physics and reliability of flow predictions. Most LES works, however, are limited to simple geometries and low Reynolds numbers due to high computational cost. While most existing LES codes are based on 2nd-order finite volume schemes, the efficient and accurate prediction of complex turbulent flows may require a paradigm shift in computational approach. This drives a growing interest in the development of Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods for LES. DG methods allow for high-order, conservative implementations on complex geometries, and offer opportunities for improved sub-grid scale modeling. Also, high-order DG methods are better-suited to exploit modern HPC systems. In the spirit of making them more competitive, researchers have recently developed the hybridized DG methods that result in reduced computational cost and memory footprint. In this talk we present an overview of high-order hybridized DG methods for LES. Numerical accuracy, computational efficiency, and SGS modeling issues are discussed. Numerical results up to Re=460k show rapid grid convergence and excellent agreement with experimental data at moderate computational cost.

6. Numerical methods and measurement systems for nonlinear magnetic circuits (abstract)

Heitbrink, Axel; Dieter Storzer, Hans; Beyer, Adalbert

1994-05-01

In the past years an increasing interest in calculation methods of circuits containing magnetic nonlinearities could be observed. For this reason a new method was developed which makes it possible to calculate the steady state solution of such circuits by the help of an interactive cad program. The modular concept of the software allows to separate the circuit into nonlinear and linear subnetworks. When regarding nonlinear magnetic elements one can choose between several numerical models for the description of the hysteresis loops or an inbuilt realtime measurement system can be activated to get the dynamic hysteresis loops. The measurement system is also helpful for the parameter extraction for the numerical hysteresis models. A modified harmonic-balance algorithm and a set of iteration schemes is used for solving the network function. The combination of the realtime measurement system and modern numerical methods brings up a productive total concept for the exact calculation of nonlinear magnetic circuits. A special application class will be discussed which is given by earth-leakage circuit breakers. These networks contain a toroidal high permeable NiFe alloy and a relay as nonlinear elements (cells) and some resistors, inductors, and capacitors as linear elements. As input dc signals at the primary winding of the core any curveform must be regarded, especially 135° phasecutted pulses. These signals with extreme higher frequency components make it impossible to use numerical models for the description of the nonlinear behavior of the core and the relays. So for both elements the realtime measurement system must be used during the iteration process. During each iteration step the actual magnetization current is sent to the measurement system, which measures the dynamic hysteresis loop at the probe. These values flow back into the iteration process. A graphic subsystem allows a look at the waveforms of all voltages and current when the iterations take place. One

7. Optimized shear wave generation using hybrid beamforming methods.

PubMed

Nabavizadeh, Alireza; Greenleaf, James F; Fatemi, Mostafa; Urban, Matthew W

2014-01-01

Elasticity imaging is a medical imaging modality that measures tissue elasticity as an aid in the diagnosis of certain diseases. Shear wave-based methods have been developed to perform elasticity measurements in soft tissue. These methods often use the radiation force mechanism of focused ultrasound to induce shear waves in soft tissue such as liver, kidney, breast, thyroid and skeletal muscle. The efficiency of the ultrasound beam in producing broadband extended shear waves in soft tissue is very important to the widespread use of this modality. Hybrid beamforming combines two types of focusing, conventional spherical focusing and axicon focusing, to produce a beam for generating a shear wave that has increased depth-of-field (DOF) so that measurements can be made with a shear wave with a consistent wave front. Spherical focusing is used in many applications to achieve high lateral resolution, but has low DOF. Axicon focusing, with a cone-shaped transducer, can provide good lateral resolution with large DOF. We describe our linear aperture design and beam optimization performed using angular spectrum simulations. We performed a large parametric simulation study in which we varied the focal depth for the spherical focusing portion of the aperture, the numbers of elements devoted to the spherical and axicon focusing portions of the aperture and the opening angle used for axicon focusing. The hybrid beamforming method was experimentally tested in two phantoms, and shear wave speed measurement accuracy and DOF for each hybrid beam were evaluated. We compared our results with those for shear waves generated using only spherical focusing. The results of this study indicate that hybrid beamforming is capable of producing a beam with increased DOF over which accurate shear wave speed measurements can be made for different-size apertures and at different focal depths.

8. A new hybrid-Lagrangian numerical scheme for gyrokinetic simulation of tokamak edge plasma

SciTech Connect

Ku, S.; Hager, R.; Chang, C. S.; Kwon, J. M.; Parker, S. E.

2016-04-01

In order to enable kinetic simulation of non-thermal edge plasmas at a reduced computational cost, a new hybrid-Lagrangian δf scheme has been developed that utilizes the phase space grid in addition to the usual marker particles, taking advantage of the computational strengths from both sides. The new scheme splits the particle distribution function of a kinetic equation into two parts. Marker particles contain the fast space-time varying, δf, part of the distribution function and the coarse-grained phase-space grid contains the slow space-time varying part. The coarse-grained phase-space grid reduces the memory-requirement and the computing cost, while the marker particles provide scalable computing ability for the fine-grained physics. Weights of the marker particles are determined by a direct weight evolution equation instead of the differential form weight evolution equations that the conventional delta-f schemes use. The particle weight can be slowly transferred to the phase space grid, thereby reducing the growth of the particle weights. The non-Lagrangian part of the kinetic equation – e.g., collision operation, ionization, charge exchange, heat-source, radiative cooling, and others – can be operated directly on the phase space grid. Deviation of the particle distribution function on the velocity grid from a Maxwellian distribution function – driven by ionization, charge exchange and wall loss – is allowed to be arbitrarily large. In conclusion, the numerical scheme is implemented in the gyrokinetic particle code XGC1, which specializes in simulating the tokamak edge plasma that crosses the magnetic separatrix and is in contact with the material wall.

9. Numerical simulation of a hybrid CSP/Biomass 5 MWel power plant

Soares, João; Oliveira, Armando

2017-06-01

The fundamental benefit of using renewable energy systems is undeniable since they rely on a source that will not run out. Nevertheless, they strongly depend on meteorological conditions (solar, wind, etc.), leading to uncertainty of instantaneous energy supply and consequently to grid connection issues. An interesting concept is renewable hybridisation. This consists in the strategic combination of different renewable sources in the power generation portfolio by taking advantage of each technology. Hybridisation of concentrating solar power with biomass denotes a powerful way of assuring system stability and reliability. The main advantage is dispatchability through the whole extent of the operating range. Regarding concentrating solar power heat transfer fluid, direct steam generation is one of the most interesting concepts. Nevertheless, it presents itself technical challenges that are mostly related to the two-phase fluid flow in horizontal pipes, as well as the design of an energy storage system. Also, the use of reheat within the turbine is usually indirectly addressed, hindering system efficiency. These challenges can be addressed through hybridisation with biomass. In this paper, a hybrid renewable electricity generation system is presented. The system relies on a combination of solar and biomass sources to drive a 5 MWel steam turbine. System performance is analysed through numerical simulation using Ebsilon professional software. The use of direct reheat in the turbine is addressed. Results show that hybridisation results in an enhancement of system dispatchability and generation stability. Furthermore, hybridisation enhanced the annual solar field and power block efficiencies, and thus the system annual efficiency (from 7.6% to 20%). The use of direct reheat eliminates steam wetness in the last turbine stage and also improves system efficiency.

10. Numerical investigation of optical Tamm states in two-dimensional hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal nanobeams

SciTech Connect

Meng, Zi-Ming E-mail: lizy@aphy.iphy.ac.cn; Hu, Yi-Hua; Ju, Gui-Fang; Zhong, Xiao-Lan; Ding, Wei; Li, Zhi-Yuan E-mail: lizy@aphy.iphy.ac.cn

2014-07-28

Optical Tamm states (OTSs) in analogy with its electronic counterpart confined at the surface of crystals are optical surface modes at the interfaces between uniform metallic films and distributed Bragg reflectors. In this paper, OTSs are numerically investigated in two-dimensional hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal nanobeams (HPPCN), which are constructed by inserting a metallic nanoparticle into a photonic crystal nanobeam formed by periodically etching square air holes into dielectric waveguides. The evidences of OTSs can be verified by transmission spectra and the field distribution at resonant frequency. Similar to OTSs in one-dimensional multilayer structures OTSs in HPPCN can be excited by both TE and TM polarization. The physical origin of OTSs in HPPCN is due to the combined contribution of strong reflection imposed by the photonic band gap (PBG) of the photonic crystal (PC) nanobeam and strong backward scattering exerted by the nanoparticle. For TE, incidence OTSs can be obtained at the frequency near the center of the photonic band gap. The transmissivity and the resonant frequency can be finely tuned by the dimension of nanoparticles. While for TM incidence OTSs are observed for relatively larger metallic nanoparticles compared with TE polarization. The differences between TE and TM polarization can be explained by two reasons. For one reason stronger backward scattering of nanoparticles for TE polarization can be achieved by the excitation of localized surface plasmon polariton of nanoparticles. This assumption has been proved by examining the scattering, absorption, and extinction cross section of the metallic nanoparticle. The other can be attributed to the deep and wide PBG available for TE polarization with less number of air holes compared with TM polarization. Our results show great promise in extending the application scope of OTSs from one-dimensional structures to practical integrated photonic devices and circuits.

11. Numerical investigation of optical Tamm states in two-dimensional hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal nanobeams

Meng, Zi-Ming; Hu, Yi-Hua; Ju, Gui-Fang; Zhong, Xiao-Lan; Ding, Wei; Li, Zhi-Yuan

2014-07-01

Optical Tamm states (OTSs) in analogy with its electronic counterpart confined at the surface of crystals are optical surface modes at the interfaces between uniform metallic films and distributed Bragg reflectors. In this paper, OTSs are numerically investigated in two-dimensional hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal nanobeams (HPPCN), which are constructed by inserting a metallic nanoparticle into a photonic crystal nanobeam formed by periodically etching square air holes into dielectric waveguides. The evidences of OTSs can be verified by transmission spectra and the field distribution at resonant frequency. Similar to OTSs in one-dimensional multilayer structures OTSs in HPPCN can be excited by both TE and TM polarization. The physical origin of OTSs in HPPCN is due to the combined contribution of strong reflection imposed by the photonic band gap (PBG) of the photonic crystal (PC) nanobeam and strong backward scattering exerted by the nanoparticle. For TE, incidence OTSs can be obtained at the frequency near the center of the photonic band gap. The transmissivity and the resonant frequency can be finely tuned by the dimension of nanoparticles. While for TM incidence OTSs are observed for relatively larger metallic nanoparticles compared with TE polarization. The differences between TE and TM polarization can be explained by two reasons. For one reason stronger backward scattering of nanoparticles for TE polarization can be achieved by the excitation of localized surface plasmon polariton of nanoparticles. This assumption has been proved by examining the scattering, absorption, and extinction cross section of the metallic nanoparticle. The other can be attributed to the deep and wide PBG available for TE polarization with less number of air holes compared with TM polarization. Our results show great promise in extending the application scope of OTSs from one-dimensional structures to practical integrated photonic devices and circuits.

12. Numeric Design and Performance Analysis of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell -- Gas Turbine Hybrids on Aircraft

Hovakimyan, Gevorg

The aircraft industry benefits greatly from small improvements in aircraft component design. One possible area of improvement is in the Auxiliary Power Unit (APU). Modern aircraft APUs are gas turbines located in the tail section of the aircraft that generate additional power when needed. Unfortunately the efficiency of modern aircraft APUs is low. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine (SOFC/GT) hybrids are one possible alternative for replacing modern gas turbine APUs. This thesis investigates the feasibility of replacing conventional gas turbine APUs with SOFC/GT APUs on aircraft. An SOFC/GT design algorithm was created in order to determine the specifications of an SOFC/GT APU. The design algorithm is comprised of several integrated modules which together model the characteristics of each component of the SOFC/GT system. Given certain overall inputs, through numerical analysis, the algorithm produces an SOFC/GT APU, optimized for specific power and efficiency, capable of performing to the required specifications. The SOFC/GT design is then input into a previously developed quasi-dynamic SOFC/GT model to determine its load following capabilities over an aircraft flight cycle. Finally an aircraft range study is conducted to determine the feasibility of the SOFC/GT APU as a replacement for the conventional gas turbine APU. The design results show that SOFC/GT APUs have lower specific power than GT systems, but have much higher efficiencies. Moreover, the dynamic simulation results show that SOFC/GT APUs are capable of following modern flight loads. Finally, the range study determined that SOFC/GT APUs are more attractive over conventional APUs for longer range aircraft.

13. A new hybrid-Lagrangian numerical scheme for gyrokinetic simulation of tokamak edge plasma

SciTech Connect

Ku, S.; Hager, R.; Chang, C.S.; Kwon, J.M.; Parker, S.E.

2016-06-15

In order to enable kinetic simulation of non-thermal edge plasmas at a reduced computational cost, a new hybrid-Lagrangian δf scheme has been developed that utilizes the phase space grid in addition to the usual marker particles, taking advantage of the computational strengths from both sides. The new scheme splits the particle distribution function of a kinetic equation into two parts. Marker particles contain the fast space-time varying, δf, part of the distribution function and the coarse-grained phase-space grid contains the slow space-time varying part. The coarse-grained phase-space grid reduces the memory-requirement and the computing cost, while the marker particles provide scalable computing ability for the fine-grained physics. Weights of the marker particles are determined by a direct weight evolution equation instead of the differential form weight evolution equations that the conventional delta-f schemes use. The particle weight can be slowly transferred to the phase space grid, thereby reducing the growth of the particle weights. The non-Lagrangian part of the kinetic equation – e.g., collision operation, ionization, charge exchange, heat-source, radiative cooling, and others – can be operated directly on the phase space grid. Deviation of the particle distribution function on the velocity grid from a Maxwellian distribution function – driven by ionization, charge exchange and wall loss – is allowed to be arbitrarily large. The numerical scheme is implemented in the gyrokinetic particle code XGC1, which specializes in simulating the tokamak edge plasma that crosses the magnetic separatrix and is in contact with the material wall.

14. A new hybrid-Lagrangian numerical scheme for gyrokinetic simulation of tokamak edge plasma

DOE PAGES

Ku, S.; Hager, R.; Chang, C. S.; ...

2016-04-01

In order to enable kinetic simulation of non-thermal edge plasmas at a reduced computational cost, a new hybrid-Lagrangian δf scheme has been developed that utilizes the phase space grid in addition to the usual marker particles, taking advantage of the computational strengths from both sides. The new scheme splits the particle distribution function of a kinetic equation into two parts. Marker particles contain the fast space-time varying, δf, part of the distribution function and the coarse-grained phase-space grid contains the slow space-time varying part. The coarse-grained phase-space grid reduces the memory-requirement and the computing cost, while the marker particles providemore » scalable computing ability for the fine-grained physics. Weights of the marker particles are determined by a direct weight evolution equation instead of the differential form weight evolution equations that the conventional delta-f schemes use. The particle weight can be slowly transferred to the phase space grid, thereby reducing the growth of the particle weights. The non-Lagrangian part of the kinetic equation – e.g., collision operation, ionization, charge exchange, heat-source, radiative cooling, and others – can be operated directly on the phase space grid. Deviation of the particle distribution function on the velocity grid from a Maxwellian distribution function – driven by ionization, charge exchange and wall loss – is allowed to be arbitrarily large. In conclusion, the numerical scheme is implemented in the gyrokinetic particle code XGC1, which specializes in simulating the tokamak edge plasma that crosses the magnetic separatrix and is in contact with the material wall.« less

15. Comparison of four stable numerical methods for Abel's integral equation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Murio, Diego A.; Mejia, Carlos E.

1991-01-01

The 3-D image reconstruction from cone-beam projections in computerized tomography leads naturally, in the case of radial symmetry, to the study of Abel-type integral equations. If the experimental information is obtained from measured data, on a discrete set of points, special methods are needed in order to restore continuity with respect to the data. A new combined Regularized-Adjoint-Conjugate Gradient algorithm, together with two different implementations of the Mollification Method (one based on a data filtering technique and the other on the mollification of the kernal function) and a regularization by truncation method (initially proposed for 2-D ray sample schemes and more recently extended to 3-D cone-beam image reconstruction) are extensively tested and compared for accuracy and numerical stability as functions of the level of noise in the data.

16. Numerical Analysis of a Finite Element/Volume Penalty Method

Maury, Bertrand

The penalty method makes it possible to incorporate a large class of constraints in general purpose Finite Element solvers like freeFEM++. We present here some contributions to the numerical analysis of this method. We propose an abstract framework for this approach, together with some general error estimates based on the discretization parameter ɛ and the space discretization parameter h. As this work is motivated by the possibility to handle constraints like rigid motion for fluid-particle flows, we shall pay a special attention to a model problem of this kind, where the constraint is prescribed over a subdomain. We show how the abstract estimate can be applied to this situation, in the case where a non-body-fitted mesh is used. In addition, we describe how this method provides an approximation of the Lagrange multiplier associated to the constraint.

17. Numerical methods for high-dimensional probability density function equations

SciTech Connect

Cho, H.; Venturi, D.; Karniadakis, G.E.

2016-01-15

In this paper we address the problem of computing the numerical solution to kinetic partial differential equations involving many phase variables. These types of equations arise naturally in many different areas of mathematical physics, e.g., in particle systems (Liouville and Boltzmann equations), stochastic dynamical systems (Fokker–Planck and Dostupov–Pugachev equations), random wave theory (Malakhov–Saichev equations) and coarse-grained stochastic systems (Mori–Zwanzig equations). We propose three different classes of new algorithms addressing high-dimensionality: The first one is based on separated series expansions resulting in a sequence of low-dimensional problems that can be solved recursively and in parallel by using alternating direction methods. The second class of algorithms relies on truncation of interaction in low-orders that resembles the Bogoliubov–Born–Green–Kirkwood–Yvon (BBGKY) framework of kinetic gas theory and it yields a hierarchy of coupled probability density function equations. The third class of algorithms is based on high-dimensional model representations, e.g., the ANOVA method and probabilistic collocation methods. A common feature of all these approaches is that they are reducible to the problem of computing the solution to high-dimensional equations via a sequence of low-dimensional problems. The effectiveness of the new algorithms is demonstrated in numerical examples involving nonlinear stochastic dynamical systems and partial differential equations, with up to 120 variables.

18. Numerical methods for high-dimensional probability density function equations

Cho, H.; Venturi, D.; Karniadakis, G. E.

2016-01-01

In this paper we address the problem of computing the numerical solution to kinetic partial differential equations involving many phase variables. These types of equations arise naturally in many different areas of mathematical physics, e.g., in particle systems (Liouville and Boltzmann equations), stochastic dynamical systems (Fokker-Planck and Dostupov-Pugachev equations), random wave theory (Malakhov-Saichev equations) and coarse-grained stochastic systems (Mori-Zwanzig equations). We propose three different classes of new algorithms addressing high-dimensionality: The first one is based on separated series expansions resulting in a sequence of low-dimensional problems that can be solved recursively and in parallel by using alternating direction methods. The second class of algorithms relies on truncation of interaction in low-orders that resembles the Bogoliubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon (BBGKY) framework of kinetic gas theory and it yields a hierarchy of coupled probability density function equations. The third class of algorithms is based on high-dimensional model representations, e.g., the ANOVA method and probabilistic collocation methods. A common feature of all these approaches is that they are reducible to the problem of computing the solution to high-dimensional equations via a sequence of low-dimensional problems. The effectiveness of the new algorithms is demonstrated in numerical examples involving nonlinear stochastic dynamical systems and partial differential equations, with up to 120 variables.

19. Calculation of free-fall trajectories using numerical optimization methods.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hull, D. G.; Fowler, W. T.; Gottlieb, R. G.

1972-01-01

An important problem in space flight is the calculation of trajectories for nonthrusting vehicles between fixed points in a given time. A new procedure based on Hamilton's principle for solving such two-point boundary-value problems is presented. It employs numerical optimization methods to perform the extremization required by Hamilton's principle. This procedure is applied to the calculation of an Earth-Moon trajectory. The results show that the initial guesses required to obtain an iteration procedure which converges are not critical and that convergence can be obtained to any predetermined degree of accuracy.

20. Numerical Methods for Computing Turbulence-Induced Noise

DTIC Science & Technology

2005-12-16

consider the finite dimensional subspace Vhl C Vh . Let vhi -= phlu be the optimal representation of u in Vhl and phi : V+_+ Vhl be the appropriate...mapping. We consider the following numerical method which is obtained by replacing h with hi in (2.4). Find uhl E Vhi , such that B(whi, uhl) + M(whUhl, f...the same functional form of the model that leads to the optimal solution on Vh, also leads to the optimal solution on Vhi . Thus, requiring uhl = vh

1. Simple numerical method for predicting steady compressible flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Von Lavante, E.; Melson, N. Duane

1987-01-01

The present numerical method for the solution of the isenthalpic form of the governing equations for compressible viscous and inviscid flows has its basis in the concept of flux vector splitting in its implicit form, and has been tested in the cases of several difficult viscous and inviscid configurations. An acceleration of time-marching to steady state is accomplished by implementing a multigrid procedure which effectively increases the convergence rate. The steady state results obtained are largely of good quality, and required only short computational times.

2. Calculation of free-fall trajectories using numerical optimization methods.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hull, D. G.; Fowler, W. T.; Gottlieb, R. G.

1972-01-01

An important problem in space flight is the calculation of trajectories for nonthrusting vehicles between fixed points in a given time. A new procedure based on Hamilton's principle for solving such two-point boundary-value problems is presented. It employs numerical optimization methods to perform the extremization required by Hamilton's principle. This procedure is applied to the calculation of an Earth-Moon trajectory. The results show that the initial guesses required to obtain an iteration procedure which converges are not critical and that convergence can be obtained to any predetermined degree of accuracy.

3. A hybrid formulation to suppress the numerical oscillations caused by immersed moving boundaries

Luo, Haoxiang; Dai, Hu; Ferreira de Sousa, Paulo

2009-11-01

A family of immersed-boundary methods, based on the sharp-interface representation of the boundary and local interpolation/extrapolation, has been recently developed to handle complex and moving boundary problems encountered in biological flows. Implemented typically on structured meshes, these methods save the computational cost of grid generation and take advantage of efficient computations on structured grids. However, since some of the nodes near the immersed boundary do not have the regular finite-difference stencil available for discretizing the Navier-Stokes equation, a local interpolation or extrapolation scheme is often used to reconstruct the flow field around the nodes. The drawback of this approach is that when a non-stationary boundary moves across the mesh points, the change of the stencil for the solution reconstruction causes artificial oscillations in the pressure. To suppress the oscillations, we have introduced a set of hybrid nodes on which both the Navier-Stokes solution and flow reconstruction are sought, and they are weighted according to the distance to the immersed boundary. The method has been implemented in both two- and three-dimensional solvers to handle a class of biological locomotion problems including flow-structure interaction. The accuracy and capability of the solvers will be demonstrated.

4. Numerical prediction of interfacial instabilities: Sharp interface method (SIM)

Nourgaliev, R. R.; Liou, M.-S.; Theofanous, T. G.

2008-04-01

We introduce a sharp interface method (SIM) for the direct numerical simulation of unstable fluid-fluid interfaces. The method is based on the level set approach and the structured adaptive mesh refinement technology, endowed with a corridor of irregular, cut-cell grids that resolve the interfacial region to third-order spatial accuracy. Key in that regard are avoidance of numerical mixing, and a least-squares interpolation method that is supported by irregular datasets distinctly on each side of the interface. Results on test problems show our method to be free of the spurious current problem of the continuous surface force method and to converge, on grid refinement, at near-theoretical rates. Simulations of unstable Rayleigh-Taylor and viscous Kelvin-Helmholtz flows are found to converge at near-theoretical rates to the exact results over a wide range of conditions. Further, we show predictions of neutral-stability maps of the viscous Kelvin-Helmholtz flows (Yih instability), as well as self-selection of the most unstable wave-number in multimode simulations of Rayleigh-Taylor instability. All these results were obtained with a simple seeding of random infinitesimal disturbances of interface-shape, as opposed to seeding by a complete eigenmode. For other than elementary flows the latter would normally not be available, and extremely difficult to obtain if at all. Sample comparisons with our code adapted to mimic typical diffuse interface treatments were not satisfactory for shear-dominated flows. On the other hand the sharp dynamics of our method would appear to be compatible and possibly advantageous to any interfacial flow algorithm in which the interface is represented as a discrete Heaviside function.

5. Hybrid star structure with the Field Correlator Method

Burgio, G. F.; Zappalà, D.

2016-03-01

We explore the relevance of the color-flavor locking phase in the equation of state (EoS) built with the Field Correlator Method (FCM) for the description of the quark matter core of hybrid stars. For the hadronic phase, we use the microscopic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) many-body theory, and its relativistic counterpart, i.e. the Dirac-Brueckner (DBHF). We find that the main features of the phase transition are directly related to the values of the quark-antiquark potential V1, the gluon condensate G2 and the color-flavor superconducting gap Δ. We confirm that the mapping between the FCM and the CSS (constant speed of sound) parameterization holds true even in the case of paired quark matter. The inclusion of hyperons in the hadronic phase and its effect on the mass-radius relation of hybrid stars is also investigated.

6. Hybrid Methods in Iron-Sulfur Cluster Biogenesis

PubMed Central

Prischi, Filippo; Pastore, Annalisa

2017-01-01

Hybrid methods, which combine and integrate several biochemical and biophysical techniques, have rapidly caught up in the last twenty years to provide a way to obtain a fuller description of proteins and molecular complexes with sizes and complexity otherwise not easily affordable. Here, we review the use of a robust hybrid methodology based on a mixture of NMR, SAXS, site directed mutagenesis and molecular docking which we have developed to determine the structure of weakly interacting molecular complexes. We applied this technique to gain insights into the structure of complexes formed amongst proteins involved in the molecular machine, which produces the essential iron-sulfur cluster prosthetic groups. Our results were validated both by X-ray structures and by other groups who adopted the same approach. We discuss the advantages and the limitations of our methodology and propose new avenues, which could improve it. PMID:28349052

7. 2D-3D hybrid stabilized finite element method for tsunami runup simulations

Takase, S.; Moriguchi, S.; Terada, K.; Kato, J.; Kyoya, T.; Kashiyama, K.; Kotani, T.

2016-09-01

This paper presents a two-dimensional (2D)-three-dimensional (3D) hybrid stabilized finite element method that enables us to predict a propagation process of tsunami generated in a hypocentral region, which ranges from offshore propagation to runup to urban areas, with high accuracy and relatively low computational costs. To be more specific, the 2D shallow water equation is employed to simulate the propagation of offshore waves, while the 3D Navier-Stokes equation is employed for the runup in urban areas. The stabilized finite element method is utilized for numerical simulations for both of the 2D and 3D domains that are independently discretized with unstructured meshes. The multi-point constraint and transmission methods are applied to satisfy the continuity of flow velocities and pressures at the interface between the resulting 2D and 3D meshes, since neither their spatial dimensions nor node arrangements are consistent. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed hybrid method to simulate tsunami behavior, including offshore propagation and runup to urban areas, with substantially lower computation costs in comparison with full 3D computations.

8. A modified hybrid uncertain analysis method for dynamic response field of the LSOAAC with random and interval parameters

Zi, Bin; Zhou, Bin

2016-07-01

For the prediction of dynamic response field of the luffing system of an automobile crane (LSOAAC) with random and interval parameters, a hybrid uncertain model is introduced. In the hybrid uncertain model, the parameters with certain probability distribution are modeled as random variables, whereas, the parameters with lower and upper bounds are modeled as interval variables instead of given precise values. Based on the hybrid uncertain model, the hybrid uncertain dynamic response equilibrium equation, in which different random and interval parameters are simultaneously included in input and output terms, is constructed. Then a modified hybrid uncertain analysis method (MHUAM) is proposed. In the MHUAM, based on random interval perturbation method, the first-order Taylor series expansion and the first-order Neumann series, the dynamic response expression of the LSOAAC is developed. Moreover, the mathematical characteristics of extrema of bounds of dynamic response are determined by random interval moment method and monotonic analysis technique. Compared with the hybrid Monte Carlo method (HMCM) and interval perturbation method (IPM), numerical results show the feasibility and efficiency of the MHUAM for solving the hybrid LSOAAC problems. The effects of different uncertain models and parameters on the LSOAAC response field are also investigated deeply, and numerical results indicate that the impact made by the randomness in the thrust of the luffing cylinder F is larger than that made by the gravity of the weight in suspension Q . In addition, the impact made by the uncertainty in the displacement between the lower end of the lifting arm and the luffing cylinder a is larger than that made by the length of the lifting arm L .

9. A hybrid method for evaluating enterprise architecture implementation.

PubMed

Nikpay, Fatemeh; Ahmad, Rodina; Yin Kia, Chiam

2017-02-01

Enterprise Architecture (EA) implementation evaluation provides a set of methods and practices for evaluating the EA implementation artefacts within an EA implementation project. There are insufficient practices in existing EA evaluation models in terms of considering all EA functions and processes, using structured methods in developing EA implementation, employing matured practices, and using appropriate metrics to achieve proper evaluation. The aim of this research is to develop a hybrid evaluation method that supports achieving the objectives of EA implementation. To attain this aim, the first step is to identify EA implementation evaluation practices. To this end, a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) was conducted. Second, the proposed hybrid method was developed based on the foundation and information extracted from the SLR, semi-structured interviews with EA practitioners, program theory evaluation and Information Systems (ISs) evaluation. Finally, the proposed method was validated by means of a case study and expert reviews. This research provides a suitable foundation for researchers who wish to extend and continue this research topic with further analysis and exploration, and for practitioners who would like to employ an effective and lightweight evaluation method for EA projects.

10. Numerical methods for large eddy simulation of acoustic combustion instabilities

Wall, Clifton T.

Acoustic combustion instabilities occur when interaction between the combustion process and acoustic modes in a combustor results in periodic oscillations in pressure, velocity, and heat release. If sufficiently large in amplitude, these instabilities can cause operational difficulties or the failure of combustor hardware. In many situations, the dominant instability is the result of the interaction between a low frequency acoustic mode of the combustor and the large scale hydrodynamics. Large eddy simulation (LES), therefore, is a promising tool for the prediction of these instabilities, since both the low frequency acoustic modes and the large scale hydrodynamics are well resolved in LES. Problems with the tractability of such simulations arise, however, due to the difficulty of solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations efficiently at low Mach number and due to the large number of acoustic periods that are often required for such instabilities to reach limit cycles. An implicit numerical method for the solution of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations has been developed which avoids the acoustic CFL restriction, allowing for significant efficiency gains at low Mach number, while still resolving the low frequency acoustic modes of interest. In the limit of a uniform grid the numerical method causes no artificial damping of acoustic waves. New, non-reflecting boundary conditions have also been developed for use with the characteristic-based approach of Poinsot and Lele (1992). The new boundary conditions are implemented in a manner which allows for significant reduction of the computational domain of an LES by eliminating the need to perform LES in regions where one-dimensional acoustics significantly affect the instability but details of the hydrodynamics do not. These new numerical techniques have been demonstrated in an LES of an experimental combustor. The new techniques are shown to be an efficient means of performing LES of acoustic combustion

11. Optimization methods and silicon solar cell numerical models

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Girardini, K.

1986-01-01

The goal of this project is the development of an optimization algorithm for use with a solar cell model. It is possible to simultaneously vary design variables such as impurity concentrations, front junction depth, back junctions depth, and cell thickness to maximize the predicted cell efficiency. An optimization algorithm has been developed and interfaced with the Solar Cell Analysis Program in 1 Dimension (SCAPID). SCAPID uses finite difference methods to solve the differential equations which, along with several relations from the physics of semiconductors, describe mathematically the operation of a solar cell. A major obstacle is that the numerical methods used in SCAPID require a significant amount of computer time, and during an optimization the model is called iteratively until the design variables converge to the value associated with the maximum efficiency. This problem has been alleviated by designing an optimization code specifically for use with numerically intensive simulations, to reduce the number of times the efficiency has to be calculated to achieve convergence to the optimal solution. Adapting SCAPID so that it could be called iteratively by the optimization code provided another means of reducing the cpu time required to complete an optimization. Instead of calculating the entire I-V curve, as is usually done in SCAPID, only the efficiency is calculated (maximum power voltage and current) and the solution from previous calculations is used to initiate the next solution.

12. Teaching Thermal Hydraulics & Numerical Methods: An Introductory Control Volume Primer

SciTech Connect

D. S. Lucas

2004-10-01

A graduate level course for Thermal Hydraulics (T/H) was taught through Idaho State University in the spring of 2004. A numerical approach was taken for the content of this course since the students were employed at the Idaho National Laboratory and had been users of T/H codes. The majority of the students had expressed an interest in learning about the Courant Limit, mass error, semi-implicit and implicit numerical integration schemes in the context of a computer code. Since no introductory text was found the author developed notes taught from his own research and courses taught for Westinghouse on the subject. The course started with a primer on control volume methods and the construction of a Homogeneous Equilibrium Model (HEM) (T/H) code. The primer was valuable for giving the students the basics behind such codes and their evolution to more complex codes for Thermal Hydraulics and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The course covered additional material including the Finite Element Method and non-equilibrium (T/H). The control volume primer and the construction of a three-equation (mass, momentum and energy) HEM code are the subject of this paper . The Fortran version of the code covered in this paper is elementary compared to its descendants. The steam tables used are less accurate than the available commercial version written in C Coupled to a Graphical User Interface (GUI). The Fortran version and input files can be downloaded at www.microfusionlab.com.

13. Underwater imaging using a hybrid Kirchhoff migration: direction of arrival method and a sparse surface sensor array.

PubMed

Dord, Jean-Francois; Farhat, Charbel

2010-08-01

This paper considers the problem of imaging a complex object submerged in shallow waters using a sparse surface sensor array and a hybrid signal processing method. This method is constructed by refining the Kirchhoff migration technique to incorporate a zoning of the sensors and an analysis of multiple reflections, and combining it with the direction of arrival estimation method. Its performance is assessed and analyzed with the shape identification of a mockup submarine by numerical simulation. The obtained numerical results highlight the potential of this approach for identifying underwater intruders.

14. A numerical method for solving the Vlasov equation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satofuka, N.

1982-01-01

A numerical procedure is derived for the solution of the Vlasov-Poisson system of equations in two phase-space variables. Derivatives with respect to the phase-space variables are approximated by a weighted sum of the values of the distribution function at property chosen neighboring points. The resulting set of ordinary differential equations is then solved by using an appropriate time intergration scheme. The accuracy of the proposed method is tested with some simple model problems. The results for the free streaming case, linear Landau damping, and nonlinear Landau damping are investigated and compared with those of the splitting scheme. The proposed method is found to be very accurate and efficient.

15. Numerical modeling of spray combustion with an advanced VOF method

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chen, Yen-Sen; Shang, Huan-Min; Shih, Ming-Hsin; Liaw, Paul

1995-01-01

This paper summarizes the technical development and validation of a multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) numerical method using the volume-of-fluid (VOF) model and a Lagrangian tracking model which can be employed to analyze general multiphase flow problems with free surface mechanism. The gas-liquid interface mass, momentum and energy conservation relationships are modeled by continuum surface mechanisms. A new solution method is developed such that the present VOF model can be applied for all-speed flow regimes. The objectives of the present study are to develop and verify the fractional volume-of-fluid cell partitioning approach into a predictor-corrector algorithm and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the present approach by simulating benchmark problems including laminar impinging jets, shear coaxial jet atomization and shear coaxial spray combustion flows.

16. Hybrid finite element-finite difference method for thermal analysis of blood vessels.

PubMed

Blanchard, C H; Gutierrez, G; White, J A; Roemer, R B

2000-01-01

A hybrid finite-difference/finite-element technique for the thermal analysis of blood vessels embedded in perfused tissue has been developed and evaluated. This method provides efficient and accurate solutions to the conjugated heat transfer problem of convection by blood coupled to conduction in the tissue. The technique uses a previously developed 3D automatic meshing method for creating a finite element mesh in the tissue surrounding the vessels, coupled iteratively with a 1-D marching finite difference method for the interior of the vessels. This hybrid technique retains the flexibility and ease of automated finite-element meshing techniques for modelling the complex geometry of blood vessels and irregularly shaped tissues, and speeds the solution time by using a simple finite-difference method to calculate the bulk mean temperatures within all blood vessels. The use of the 1D finite-difference technique in the blood vessels also eliminates the large computer memory requirements needed to accurately solve large vessel network problems when fine FE meshes are used in the interior of vessels. The accuracy of the hybrid technique has been verified against previously verified numerical solutions. In summary, the hybrid technique combines the accuracy and flexibility found in automated finite-element techniques, with the speed and reduction of computational memory requirements associated with the 1D finite-difference technique, something which has not been done before. This method, thus, has the potential to provide accurate, flexible and relatively fast solutions for the thermal analysis of coupled perfusion/blood vessel problems, and large vessel network problems.

17. Adaptive Current Control Method for Hybrid Active Power Filter

Chau, Minh Thuyen

2016-09-01

This paper proposes an adaptive current control method for Hybrid Active Power Filter (HAPF). It consists of a fuzzy-neural controller, identification and prediction model and cost function. The fuzzy-neural controller parameters are adjusted according to the cost function minimum criteria. For this reason, the proposed control method has a capability on-line control clings to variation of the load harmonic currents. Compared to the single fuzzy logic control method, the proposed control method shows the advantages of better dynamic response, compensation error in steady-state is smaller, able to online control is better and harmonics cancelling is more effective. Simulation and experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

18. Time-domain hybrid method for simulating large amplitude motions of ships advancing in waves

Liu, Shukui; Papanikolaou, Apostolos D.

2011-03-01

Typical results obtained by a newly developed, nonlinear time domain hybrid method for simulating large amplitude motions of ships advancing with constant forward speed in waves are presented. The method is hybrid in the way of combining a time-domain transient Green function method and a Rankine source method. The present approach employs a simple double integration algorithm with respect to time to simulate the free-surface boundary condition. During the simulation, the diffraction and radiation forces are computed by pressure integration over the mean wetted surface, whereas the incident wave and hydrostatic restoring forces/moments are calculated on the instantaneously wetted surface of the hull. Typical numerical results of application of the method to the seakeeping performance of a standard containership, namely the ITTC S175, are herein presented. Comparisons have been made between the results from the present method, the frequency domain 3D panel method (NEWDRIFT) of NTUA-SDL and available experimental data and good agreement has been observed for all studied cases between the results of the present method and comparable other data.

19. Numerical Methods and Simulations of Complex Multiphase Flows

Multiphase flows are an important part of many natural and technological phenomena such as ocean-air coupling (which is important for climate modeling) and the atomization of liquid fuel jets in combustion engines. The unique challenges of multiphase flow often make analytical solutions to the governing equations impossible and experimental investigations very difficult. Thus, high-fidelity numerical simulations can play a pivotal role in understanding these systems. This dissertation describes numerical methods developed for complex multiphase flows and the simulations performed using these methods. First, the issue of multiphase code verification is addressed. Code verification answers the question "Is this code solving the equations correctly?" The method of manufactured solutions (MMS) is a procedure for generating exact benchmark solutions which can test the most general capabilities of a code. The chief obstacle to applying MMS to multiphase flow lies in the discontinuous nature of the material properties at the interface. An extension of the MMS procedure to multiphase flow is presented, using an adaptive marching tetrahedron style algorithm to compute the source terms near the interface. Guidelines for the use of the MMS to help locate coding mistakes are also detailed. Three multiphase systems are then investigated: (1) the thermocapillary motion of three-dimensional and axisymmetric drops in a confined apparatus, (2) the flow of two immiscible fluids completely filling an enclosed cylinder and driven by the rotation of the bottom endwall, and (3) the atomization of a single drop subjected to a high shear turbulent flow. The systems are simulated numerically by solving the full multiphase Navier-Stokes equations coupled to the various equations of state and a level set interface tracking scheme based on the refined level set grid method. The codes have been parallelized using MPI in order to take advantage of today's very large parallel computational

20. Numerical methods for assessment of the ship's pollutant emissions

Jenaru, A.; Acomi, N.

2016-08-01

The maritime transportation sector constitutes a source of atmospheric pollution. To avoid or minimize ships pollutant emissions the first step is to assess them. Two methods of estimation of the ships’ emissions are proposed in this paper. These methods prove their utility for shipboard and shore based management personnel from the practical perspective. The methods were demonstrated for a product tanker vessel where a permanent monitoring system for the pollutant emissions has previously been fitted. The values of the polluting agents from the exhaust gas were determined for the ship from the shipyard delivery and were used as starting point. Based on these values, the paper aimed at numerical assessing of ship's emissions in order to determine the ways for avoiding environmental pollution: the analytical method of determining the concentrations of the exhaust gas components, by using computation program MathCAD, and the graphical method of determining the concentrations of the exhaust gas components, using variation diagrams of the parameters, where the results of the on board measurements were introduced, following the application of pertinent correction factors. The results should be regarded as a supporting tool during the decision making process linked to the reduction of ship's pollutant emissions.

1. A set of parallel, implicit methods for a reconstructed discontinuous Galerkin method for compressible flows on 3D hybrid grids

DOE PAGES

Xia, Yidong; Luo, Hong; Frisbey, Megan; ...

2014-07-01

A set of implicit methods are proposed for a third-order hierarchical WENO reconstructed discontinuous Galerkin method for compressible flows on 3D hybrid grids. An attractive feature in these methods are the application of the Jacobian matrix based on the P1 element approximation, resulting in a huge reduction of memory requirement compared with DG (P2). Also, three approaches -- analytical derivation, divided differencing, and automatic differentiation (AD) are presented to construct the Jacobian matrix respectively, where the AD approach shows the best robustness. A variety of compressible flow problems are computed to demonstrate the fast convergence property of the implemented flowmore » solver. Furthermore, an SPMD (single program, multiple data) programming paradigm based on MPI is proposed to achieve parallelism. The numerical results on complex geometries indicate that this low-storage implicit method can provide a viable and attractive DG solution for complicated flows of practical importance.« less

2. A set of parallel, implicit methods for a reconstructed discontinuous Galerkin method for compressible flows on 3D hybrid grids

SciTech Connect

Xia, Yidong; Luo, Hong; Frisbey, Megan; Nourgaliev, Robert

2014-07-01

A set of implicit methods are proposed for a third-order hierarchical WENO reconstructed discontinuous Galerkin method for compressible flows on 3D hybrid grids. An attractive feature in these methods are the application of the Jacobian matrix based on the P1 element approximation, resulting in a huge reduction of memory requirement compared with DG (P2). Also, three approaches -- analytical derivation, divided differencing, and automatic differentiation (AD) are presented to construct the Jacobian matrix respectively, where the AD approach shows the best robustness. A variety of compressible flow problems are computed to demonstrate the fast convergence property of the implemented flow solver. Furthermore, an SPMD (single program, multiple data) programming paradigm based on MPI is proposed to achieve parallelism. The numerical results on complex geometries indicate that this low-storage implicit method can provide a viable and attractive DG solution for complicated flows of practical importance.

3. A method for improving time-stepping numerics

Williams, P. D.

2012-04-01

In contemporary numerical simulations of the atmosphere, evidence suggests that time-stepping errors may be a significant component of total model error, on both weather and climate time-scales. This presentation will review the available evidence, and will then suggest a simple but effective method for substantially improving the time-stepping numerics at no extra computational expense. The most common time-stepping method is the leapfrog scheme combined with the Robert-Asselin (RA) filter. This method is used in the following atmospheric models (and many more): ECHAM, MAECHAM, MM5, CAM, MESO-NH, HIRLAM, KMCM, LIMA, SPEEDY, IGCM, PUMA, COSMO, FSU-GSM, FSU-NRSM, NCEP-GFS, NCEP-RSM, NSEAM, NOGAPS, RAMS, and CCSR/NIES-AGCM. Although the RA filter controls the time-splitting instability in these models, it also introduces non-physical damping and reduces the accuracy. This presentation proposes a simple modification to the RA filter. The modification has become known as the RAW filter (Williams 2011). When used in conjunction with the leapfrog scheme, the RAW filter eliminates the non-physical damping and increases the amplitude accuracy by two orders, yielding third-order accuracy. (The phase accuracy remains second-order.) The RAW filter can easily be incorporated into existing models, typically via the insertion of just a single line of code. Better simulations are obtained at no extra computational expense. Results will be shown from recent implementations of the RAW filter in various atmospheric models, including SPEEDY and COSMO. For example, in SPEEDY, the skill of weather forecasts is found to be significantly improved. In particular, in tropical surface pressure predictions, five-day forecasts made using the RAW filter have approximately the same skill as four-day forecasts made using the RA filter (Amezcua, Kalnay & Williams 2011). These improvements are encouraging for the use of the RAW filter in other models.

4. Libration Orbit Mission Design: Applications of Numerical & Dynamical Methods

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor); Folta, David; Beckman, Mark

2002-01-01

Sun-Earth libration point orbits serve as excellent locations for scientific investigations. These orbits are often selected to minimize environmental disturbances and maximize observing efficiency. Trajectory design in support of libration orbits is ever more challenging as more complex missions are envisioned in the next decade. Trajectory design software must be further enabled to incorporate better understanding of the libration orbit solution space and thus improve the efficiency and expand the capabilities of current approaches. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is currently supporting multiple libration missions. This end-to-end support consists of mission operations, trajectory design, and control. It also includes algorithm and software development. The recently launched Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) and upcoming James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and Constellation-X missions are examples of the use of improved numerical methods for attaining constrained orbital parameters and controlling their dynamical evolution at the collinear libration points. This paper presents a history of libration point missions, a brief description of the numerical and dynamical design techniques including software used, and a sample of future GSFC mission designs.

5. Comparative examination of probe labeling methods for microarray hybridization

Burke, David I.; Woodward, Karen; Setterquist, Robert A.; Kawasaki, Ernest S.

2001-06-01

For detection of differential gene expression, confocal laser based scanners are now capable of analyzing microarrays using one to five wavelengths. This allows investigators to choose among several labeling methods. Here we compare direct incorporation and indirect methods (amino-allyl and dendrimers) for labeling cDNA probes. We assessed reproducible sensitivity of each probe preparation method in two ways. First, by comparing hybridization intensities for limit of signal detection and second by measuring the lowest detectable concentration of a known ratio of mixed DNA (spikes). Limit of detection assay was done using arrays of mixed targets consisting of a serially diluted human specific gene fragment (HU1) and an undiluted DNA of chloramphenicol acetyl tranferase (CAT) gene. Then, individual single target arrays of CAT and HU1 DNA were used to determine the lowest detectable spike ratio of each labeling method. The results of this study will be presented and their significance for the analysis of microarrays will be discussed.

6. Numerical method of characteristics for one-dimensional blood flow

Acosta, Sebastian; Puelz, Charles; Rivière, Béatrice; Penny, Daniel J.; Rusin, Craig G.

2015-08-01

Mathematical modeling at the level of the full cardiovascular system requires the numerical approximation of solutions to a one-dimensional nonlinear hyperbolic system describing flow in a single vessel. This model is often simulated by computationally intensive methods like finite elements and discontinuous Galerkin, while some recent applications require more efficient approaches (e.g. for real-time clinical decision support, phenomena occurring over multiple cardiac cycles, iterative solutions to optimization/inverse problems, and uncertainty quantification). Further, the high speed of pressure waves in blood vessels greatly restricts the time step needed for stability in explicit schemes. We address both cost and stability by presenting an efficient and unconditionally stable method for approximating solutions to diagonal nonlinear hyperbolic systems. Theoretical analysis of the algorithm is given along with a comparison of our method to a discontinuous Galerkin implementation. Lastly, we demonstrate the utility of the proposed method by implementing it on small and large arterial networks of vessels whose elastic and geometrical parameters are physiologically relevant.

7. A numerical simulation method for aircraft infrared imaging

Zhou, Yue; Wang, Qiang; Li, Ting; Hu, Haiyang

2017-06-01

Numerical simulation of infrared (IR) emission from aircraft is of great significance for military and civilian applications. In this paper, the narrow band k-distribution (NBK) model is used to calculate radiative properties of non-gray gases in the hot exhaust plume. With model parameters derived from the high resolution spectral database HITEMP 2010, the NBK model is validated by comparisons with exact line by line (LBL) results and experimental data. Based on the NBK model, a new finite volume and back ray tracing (FVBRT) method is proposed to solve the radiative transfer equations and produce IR imaging. Calculated results by the FVBRT method are compared with experimental data and available results in open references, which shows the FVBRT method can maintain good accuracy while producing IR images with better rendering effects. Finally, the NBK model and FVBRT method are integrated to calculate IR signature of an aircraft. The IR images and spatial distributions of radiative intensity are compared and analyzed in both 3 - 5 μm band and 8 - 12 μm band to provide references for engineering applications.

8. Space-time adaptive numerical methods for geophysical applications.

PubMed

Castro, C E; Käser, M; Toro, E F

2009-11-28

In this paper we present high-order formulations of the finite volume and discontinuous Galerkin finite-element methods for wave propagation problems with a space-time adaptation technique using unstructured meshes in order to reduce computational cost without reducing accuracy. Both methods can be derived in a similar mathematical framework and are identical in their first-order version. In their extension to higher order accuracy in space and time, both methods use spatial polynomials of higher degree inside each element, a high-order solution of the generalized Riemann problem and a high-order time integration method based on the Taylor series expansion. The static adaptation strategy uses locally refined high-resolution meshes in areas with low wave speeds to improve the approximation quality. Furthermore, the time step length is chosen locally adaptive such that the solution is evolved explicitly in time by an optimal time step determined by a local stability criterion. After validating the numerical approach, both schemes are applied to geophysical wave propagation problems such as tsunami waves and seismic waves comparing the new approach with the classical global time-stepping technique. The problem of mesh partitioning for large-scale applications on multi-processor architectures is discussed and a new mesh partition approach is proposed and tested to further reduce computational cost.

9. Numerical Method of Characteristics for One-Dimensional Blood Flow.

PubMed

Acosta, Sebastian; Puelz, Charles; Riviére, Béatrice; Penny, Daniel J; Rusin, Craig G

2015-08-01

Mathematical modeling at the level of the full cardiovascular system requires the numerical approximation of solutions to a one-dimensional nonlinear hyperbolic system describing flow in a single vessel. This model is often simulated by computationally intensive methods like finite elements and discontinuous Galerkin, while some recent applications require more efficient approaches (e.g. for real-time clinical decision support, phenomena occurring over multiple cardiac cycles, iterative solutions to optimization/inverse problems, and uncertainty quantification). Further, the high speed of pressure waves in blood vessels greatly restricts the time step needed for stability in explicit schemes. We address both cost and stability by presenting an efficient and unconditionally stable method for approximating solutions to diagonal nonlinear hyperbolic systems. Theoretical analysis of the algorithm is given along with a comparison of our method to a discontinuous Galerkin implementation. Lastly, we demonstrate the utility of the proposed method by implementing it on small and large arterial networks of vessels whose elastic and geometrical parameters are physiologically relevant.

10. Numerical Method of Characteristics for One–Dimensional Blood Flow

PubMed Central

Puelz, Charles; Riviére, Béatrice; Penny, Daniel J.; Rusin, Craig G.

2015-01-01

Mathematical modeling at the level of the full cardiovascular system requires the numerical approximation of solutions to a one-dimensional nonlinear hyperbolic system describing flow in a single vessel. This model is often simulated by computationally intensive methods like finite elements and discontinuous Galerkin, while some recent applications require more efficient approaches (e.g. for real-time clinical decision support, phenomena occurring over multiple cardiac cycles, iterative solutions to optimization/inverse problems, and uncertainty quantification). Further, the high speed of pressure waves in blood vessels greatly restricts the time step needed for stability in explicit schemes. We address both cost and stability by presenting an efficient and unconditionally stable method for approximating solutions to diagonal nonlinear hyperbolic systems. Theoretical analysis of the algorithm is given along with a comparison of our method to a discontinuous Galerkin implementation. Lastly, we demonstrate the utility of the proposed method by implementing it on small and large arterial networks of vessels whose elastic and geometrical parameters are physiologically relevant. PMID:25931614

11. Superconvergence and recovery type a posteriori error estimation for hybrid stress finite element method

Bai, YanHong; Wu, YongKe; Xie, XiaoPing

2016-09-01

Superconvergence and a posteriori error estimators of recovery type are analyzed for the 4-node hybrid stress quadrilateral finite element method proposed by Pian and Sumihara (Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engrg., 1984, 20: 1685-1695) for linear elasticity problems. Uniform superconvergence of order $O(h^{1+\\min\\{\\alpha,1\\}})$ with respect to the Lam\\'{e} constant $\\lambda$ is established for both the recovered gradients of the displacement vector and the stress tensor under a mesh assumption, where $\\alpha>0$ is a parameter characterizing the distortion of meshes from parallelograms to quadrilaterals. A posteriori error estimators based on the recovered quantities are shown to be asymptotically exact. Numerical experiments confirm the theoretical results.

12. Hybrid Instruction Method of Brush Strokes with Haptic Device.

PubMed

Nomura, Yoshihiko; Kato, Hirotsugu; Sakamoto, Ryota

2015-01-01

This paper proposes an instruction method of brush strokes utilizing haptic devices. Focusing attention to the magnitude difference between the horizontal and the vertical in brush strokes, we introduced a position/force hybrid scheme for determining traction forces to be fed back to users: the horizontal component of the force was given to reduce the horizontal position deviation of a learner from an expert, and the vertical component was given as reaction forces of the expert-exerted forces. As an example, a bush stroke experiment was conducted for some Brahmi characters.

13. Applications of the hybrid coordinate method to the TOPS autopilot

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fleischer, G. E.

1978-01-01

Preliminary results are presented from the application of the hybrid coordinate method to modeling TOPS (thermoelectric outer planet spacecraft) structural dynamics. Computer simulated responses of the vehicle are included which illustrate the interaction of relatively flexible appendages with an autopilot control system. Comparisons were made between simplified single-axis models of the control loop, with spacecraft flexibility represented by hinged rigid bodies, and a very detailed three-axis spacecraft model whose flexible portions are described by modal coordinates. While single-axis system, root loci provided reasonable qualitative indications of stability margins in this case, they were quantitatively optimistic when matched against responses of the detailed model.

14. Applications of the hybrid coordinate method to the TOPS autopilot

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fleischer, G. E.

1978-01-01

Preliminary results are presented from the application of the hybrid coordinate method to modeling TOPS (thermoelectric outer planet spacecraft) structural dynamics. Computer simulated responses of the vehicle are included which illustrate the interaction of relatively flexible appendages with an autopilot control system. Comparisons were made between simplified single-axis models of the control loop, with spacecraft flexibility represented by hinged rigid bodies, and a very detailed three-axis spacecraft model whose flexible portions are described by modal coordinates. While single-axis system, root loci provided reasonable qualitative indications of stability margins in this case, they were quantitatively optimistic when matched against responses of the detailed model.

15. Control system and method for a hybrid electric vehicle

DOEpatents

Tamor, Michael Alan

2001-03-06

Several control methods are presented for application in a hybrid electric vehicle powertrain including in various embodiments an engine, a motor/generator, a transmission coupled at an input thereof to receive torque from the engine and the motor generator coupled to augment torque provided by the engine, an energy storage device coupled to receive energy from and provide energy to the motor/generator, an engine controller (EEC) coupled to control the engine, a transmission controller (TCM) coupled to control the transmission and a vehicle system controller (VSC) adapted to control the powertrain.

16. Hybrid Model for Cascading Outage in a Power System: A Numerical Study

Susuki, Yoshihiko; Takatsuji, Yu; Hikihara, Takashi

Analysis of cascading outages in power systems is important for understanding why large blackouts emerge and how to prevent them. Cascading outages are complex dynamics of power systems, and one cause of them is the interaction between swing dynamics of synchronous machines and protection operation of relays and circuit breakers. This paper uses hybrid dynamical systems as a mathematical model for cascading outages caused by the interaction. Hybrid dynamical systems can combine families of flows describing swing dynamics with switching rules that are based on protection operation. This paper refers to data on a cascading outage in the September 2003 blackout in Italy and shows a hybrid dynamical system by which propagation of outages reproduced is consistent with the data. This result suggests that hybrid dynamical systems can provide an effective model for the analysis of cascading outages in power systems.

17. Method and apparatus for controlling hybrid powertrain system in response to engine temperature

SciTech Connect

Martini, Ryan D; Spohn, Brian L; Lehmen, Allen J; Cerbolles, Teresa L

2014-10-07

A method for controlling a hybrid powertrain system including an internal combustion engine includes controlling operation of the hybrid powertrain system in response to a preferred minimum coolant temperature trajectory for the internal combustion engine.

18. A hybrid numerical prediction scheme for solar radiation estimation in un-gauged catchments.

Shamim, M. A.; Bray, M.; Ishak, A. M.; Remesan, R.; Han, D.

2009-09-01

The importance of solar radiation on earth's surface is depicted in its wide range of applications in the fields of meteorology, agricultural sciences, engineering, hydrology, crop water requirements, climatic changes and energy assessment. It is quite random in nature as it has to go through different processes of assimilation and dispersion while on its way to earth. Compared to other meteorological parameters, solar radiation is quite infrequently measured, for example, the worldwide ratio of stations collecting solar radiation to those collecting temperature is 1:500 (Badescu, 2008). Researchers, therefore, have to rely on indirect techniques of estimation that include nonlinear models, artificial intelligence (e.g. neural networks), remote sensing and numerical weather predictions (NWP). This study proposes a hybrid numerical prediction scheme for solar radiation estimation in un-gauged catchments. It uses the PSU/NCAR's Mesoscale Modelling system (MM5) (Grell et al., 1995) to parameterise the cloud effect on extraterrestrial radiation by dividing the atmosphere into four layers of very high (6-12 km), high (3-6 km), medium (1.5-3) and low (0-1.5) altitudes from earth. It is believed that various cloud forms exist within each of these layers. An hourly time series of upper air pressure and relative humidity data sets corresponding to all of these layers is determined for the Brue catchment, southwest UK, using MM5. Cloud Index (CI) was then determined using (Yang and Koike, 2002): 1 p?bi [ (Rh - Rh )] ci =------- max 0.0,---------cri dp pbi - ptipti (1- Rhcri) where, pbi and pti represent the air pressure at the top and bottom of each layer and Rhcri is the critical value of relative humidity at which a certain cloud type is formed. Output from a global clear sky solar radiation model (MRM v-5) (Kambezidis and Psiloglu, 2008) is used along with meteorological datasets of temperature and precipitation and astronomical information. The analysis is aided by the

19. Numerical optimization method for packing regular convex polygons

Galiev, Sh. I.; Lisafina, M. S.

2016-08-01

An algorithm is presented for the approximate solution of the problem of packing regular convex polygons in a given closed bounded domain G so as to maximize the total area of the packed figures. On G a grid is constructed whose nodes generate a finite set W on G, and the centers of the figures to be packed can be placed only at some points of W. The problem of packing these figures with centers in W is reduced to a 0-1 linear programming problem. A two-stage algorithm for solving the resulting problems is proposed. The algorithm finds packings of the indicated figures in an arbitrary closed bounded domain on the plane. Numerical results are presented that demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.

20. A mathematical model and numerical method for thermoelectric DNA sequencing

Shi, Liwei; Guilbeau, Eric J.; Nestorova, Gergana; Dai, Weizhong

2014-05-01

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are single base pair variations within the genome that are important indicators of genetic predisposition towards specific diseases. This study explores the feasibility of SNP detection using a thermoelectric sequencing method that measures the heat released when DNA polymerase inserts a deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate into a DNA strand. We propose a three-dimensional mathematical model that governs the DNA sequencing device with a reaction zone that contains DNA template/primer complex immobilized to the surface of the lower channel wall. The model is then solved numerically. Concentrations of reactants and the temperature distribution are obtained. Results indicate that when the nucleoside is complementary to the next base in the DNA template, polymerization occurs lengthening the complementary polymer and releasing thermal energy with a measurable temperature change, implying that the thermoelectric conceptual device for sequencing DNA may be feasible for identifying specific genes in individuals.

1. Performance of Several High Order Numerical Methods for Supersonic Combustion

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sjoegreen, Bjoern; Yee, H. C.; Don, Wai Sun; Mansour, Nagi N. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

The performance of two recently developed numerical methods by Yee et al. and Sjoegreen and Yee using postprocessing nonlinear filters is examined for a 2-D multiscale viscous supersonic react-live flow. These nonlinear filters can improve nonlinear instabilities and at the same time can capture shock/shear waves accurately. They do not, belong to the class of TVD, ENO or WENO schemes. Nevertheless, they combine stable behavior at discontinuities and detonation without smearing the smooth parts of the flow field. For the present study, we employ a fourth-order Runge-Kutta in time and a sixth-order non-dissipative spatial base scheme for the convection and viscous terms. We denote the resulting nonlinear filter schemes ACM466-RK4 and WAV66-RK4.

2. Numerical simulation on snow melting phenomena by CIP method

Mizoe, H.; Yoon, Seong Y.; Josho, M.; Yabe, T.

2001-04-01

A numerical scheme based on the C-CUP method to simulate melting phenomena in snow is proposed. To calculate these complex phenomena we introduce the phase change, elastic-plastic model, porous model, and verify each model by using some simple examples. This scheme is applied to a practical model, such as the snow piled on the insulator of electrical transmission line, in which snow is modeled as a compound material composed of air, water, and ice, and is calculated by elastic-plastic model. The electric field between two electrodes is solved by the Poisson equation giving the Joule heating in the energy conservation that eventually leads to snow melting. Comparison is made by changing the fraction of water in the snow to see its effect on melting process for the cases of applied voltage of 50 and 500 kV on the two electrodes.

3. Performance of Several High Order Numerical Methods for Supersonic Combustion

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sjoegreen, Bjoern; Yee, H. C.; Don, Wai Sun; Mansour, Nagi N. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

The performance of two recently developed numerical methods by Yee et al. and Sjoegreen and Yee using postprocessing nonlinear filters is examined for a 2-D multiscale viscous supersonic react-live flow. These nonlinear filters can improve nonlinear instabilities and at the same time can capture shock/shear waves accurately. They do not, belong to the class of TVD, ENO or WENO schemes. Nevertheless, they combine stable behavior at discontinuities and detonation without smearing the smooth parts of the flow field. For the present study, we employ a fourth-order Runge-Kutta in time and a sixth-order non-dissipative spatial base scheme for the convection and viscous terms. We denote the resulting nonlinear filter schemes ACM466-RK4 and WAV66-RK4.

4. ANN-TREE: a hybrid method for pattern recognition

Zhou, Lijia; Franklin, Stan

1993-09-01

Here we present a hybrid method of generating a hierarchical recognition system based on example learning. The method is 'hybrid' in that it uses both conventional Artificial Intelligence and Artificial Neural Network techniques. The integrated hierarchical recognition system, called IHKB (integrated hierarchical knowledge base), has a tree structure consisting of nodes and leaves. Each node is indexed by an attribute set and contains a small Kohonen network (KN). Each leaf represents a recognition class. The system uses a conceptual function to instruct the process of attribute choosing. Whenever a suitable attribute set is obtained for a certain group of training examples, a small Kohonen net is built and trained with those examples. This allows the machine to focus on special features of these training examples and thus to better describe the special characteristics of these patterns. Typically, there are many KNs in a IHKB, the number depending on the number of attribute sets. The position of each KN in the tree is fixed automatically. When the construction is complete, the training examples are classified by Kohonen nets, and recognition is achieved by a path from the root of the tree to a leaf. The method has been tested on individual handwritten character recognition, showing that high recognition rates can be achieved given enough training examples.

5. Mass spectrometry methods for the analysis of biodegradable hybrid materials

Alalwiat, Ahlam

This dissertation focuses on the characterization of hybrid materials and surfactant blends by using mass spectrometry (MS), tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), liquid chromatography (LC), and ion mobility (IM) spectrometry combined with measurement and simulation of molecular collision cross sections. Chapter II describes the principles and the history of mass spectrometry (MS) and liquid chromatography (LC). Chapter III introduces the materials and instrumentation used to complete this dissertation. In chapter IV, two hybrid materials containing poly(t-butyl acrylate) (PtBA) or poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) blocks attached to a hydrophobic peptide rich in valine and glycine (VG2), as well as the poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and VG2 peptide precursor materials, are characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS). Collision cross-sections and molecular modeling have been used to determine the final architecture of both hybrid materials. Chapter V investigates a different hybrid material, [BMP-2(HA)2 ], comprised of a dendron with two polyethylene glycol (PEG) branches terminated by a hydroxyapatite binding peptide (HA), and a focal point substituted with a bone morphogenic protein mimicking peptide (BMP-2). MALDI-MS, ESI-MS and IM-MS have been used to characterize the HA and BMP-2 peptides. Collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) and electron transfer dissociation (ETD) have been employed in double stage (i.e. tandem) mass spectrometry (MS/MS) experiments to confirm the sequences of the two peptides HA and BMP-2. The MALDI-MS, ESI-MS and IM-MS methods were also applied to characterize the [BMP-2(HA)2] hybrid material. Collision cross-section measurements and molecular modeling indicated that [BMP-2(HA)2] can attain folded or extended conformation, depending on its degree of protonation (charge state). Chapter VI focuses on the analysis of

6. Gene flow and hybridization between numerically imbalanced populations of two duck species in the Falkland Islands.

PubMed

McCracken, Kevin G; Wilson, Robert E

2011-01-01

Interspecific hybridization is common in plants and animals, particularly in waterfowl (Anatidae). One factor shown to contribute to hybridization is restricted mate choice, which can occur when two species occur in sympatry but one is rare. The Hubbs principle, or "desperation hypothesis," states that under such circumstances the rarer species is more likely to mate with heterospecifics. Here we report interspecific hybridization between two waterfowl species that coexist in broad sympatry and mixed flocks throughout southern South America. Speckled teal (Anas flavirostris) and yellow-billed pintails (Anas georgica) are abundant in continental South America, but in the Falkland Islands speckled teal outnumber yellow-billed pintails approximately ten to one. Using eight genetic loci (mtDNA and 7 nuclear introns) coupled with Bayesian assignment tests and relatedness analysis, we identified a speckled teal x yellow-billed pintail F(1) hybrid female and her duckling sired by a male speckled teal. Although our sample in the Falkland Islands was small, we failed to identify unequivocal evidence of hybridization or introgression in a much larger sample from Argentina using a three-population "isolation with migration" coalescent analysis. While additional data are needed to determine if this event in the Falkland Islands was a rare singular occurrence, our results provide further support for the "desperation hypothesis," which states that scarcity in one population and abundance of another will often lead to hybridization.

7. Gene Flow and Hybridization between Numerically Imbalanced Populations of Two Duck Species in the Falkland Islands

PubMed Central

McCracken, Kevin G.; Wilson, Robert E.

2011-01-01

Interspecific hybridization is common in plants and animals, particularly in waterfowl (Anatidae). One factor shown to contribute to hybridization is restricted mate choice, which can occur when two species occur in sympatry but one is rare. The Hubbs principle, or “desperation hypothesis,” states that under such circumstances the rarer species is more likely to mate with heterospecifics. Here we report interspecific hybridization between two waterfowl species that coexist in broad sympatry and mixed flocks throughout southern South America. Speckled teal (Anas flavirostris) and yellow-billed pintails (Anas georgica) are abundant in continental South America, but in the Falkland Islands speckled teal outnumber yellow-billed pintails approximately ten to one. Using eight genetic loci (mtDNA and 7 nuclear introns) coupled with Bayesian assignment tests and relatedness analysis, we identified a speckled teal x yellow-billed pintail F1 hybrid female and her duckling sired by a male speckled teal. Although our sample in the Falkland Islands was small, we failed to identify unequivocal evidence of hybridization or introgression in a much larger sample from Argentina using a three-population “isolation with migration” coalescent analysis. While additional data are needed to determine if this event in the Falkland Islands was a rare singular occurrence, our results provide further support for the “desperation hypothesis,” which states that scarcity in one population and abundance of another will often lead to hybridization. PMID:21887236

8. Simultaneous source-mask optimization: a numerical combining method

Mülders, Thomas; Domnenko, Vitaliy; Küchler, Bernd; Klimpel, Thomas; Stock, Hans-Jürgen; Poonawala, Amyn A.; Taravade, Kunal N.; Stanton, William A.

2010-09-01

9. Non-conforming hybrid meshes for efficient 2-D wave propagation using the Discontinuous Galerkin Method

Hermann, Verena; Käser, Martin; Castro, Cristóbal E.

2011-02-01

We present a Discontinuous Galerkin finite element method using a high-order time integration technique for seismic wave propagation modelling on non-conforming hybrid meshes in two space dimensions. The scheme can be formulated to achieve the same approximation order in space and time and avoids numerical artefacts due to non-conforming mesh transitions or the change of the element type. A point-wise Gaussian integration along partially overlapping edges of adjacent elements is used to preserve the schemes accuracy while providing a higher flexibility in the problem-adapted mesh generation process. We describe the domain decomposition strategy of the parallel implementation and validate the performance of the new scheme by numerical convergence test and experiments with comparisons to independent reference solutions. The advantage of non-conforming hybrid meshes is the possibility to choose the mesh spacing proportional to the seismic velocity structure, which allows for simple refinement or coarsening methods even for regular quadrilateral meshes. For particular problems of strong material contrasts and geometrically thin structures, the scheme reduces the computational cost in the sense of memory and run-time requirements. The presented results promise to achieve a similar behaviour for an extension to three space dimensions where the coupling of tetrahedral and hexahedral elements necessitates non-conforming mesh transitions to avoid linking elements in form of pyramids.

10. The hybridized Discontinuous Galerkin method for Implicit Large-Eddy Simulation of transitional turbulent flows

Fernandez, P.; Nguyen, N. C.; Peraire, J.

2017-05-01

We present a high-order Implicit Large-Eddy Simulation (ILES) approach for transitional aerodynamic flows. The approach encompasses a hybridized Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method for the discretization of the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations, and a parallel preconditioned Newton-GMRES solver for the resulting nonlinear system of equations. The combination of hybridized DG methods with an efficient solution procedure leads to a high-order accurate NS solver that is competitive to alternative approaches, such as finite volume and finite difference codes, in terms of computational cost. The proposed approach is applied to transitional flows over the NACA 65-(18)10 compressor cascade and the Eppler 387 wing at Reynolds numbers up to 460,000. Grid convergence studies are presented and the required resolution to capture transition at different Reynolds numbers is investigated. Numerical results show rapid convergence and excellent agreement with experimental data. In short, this work aims to demonstrate the potential of high-order ILES for simulating transitional aerodynamic flows. This is illustrated through numerical results and supported by theoretical considerations.

11. Hybrid optimization method with general switching strategy for parameter estimation.

PubMed

Balsa-Canto, Eva; Peifer, Martin; Banga, Julio R; Timmer, Jens; Fleck, Christian

2008-03-24

Modeling and simulation of cellular signaling and metabolic pathways as networks of biochemical reactions yields sets of non-linear ordinary differential equations. These models usually depend on several parameters and initial conditions. If these parameters are unknown, results from simulation studies can be misleading. Such a scenario can be avoided by fitting the model to experimental data before analyzing the system. This involves parameter estimation which is usually performed by minimizing a cost function which quantifies the difference between model predictions and measurements. Mathematically, this is formulated as a non-linear optimization problem which often results to be multi-modal (non-convex), rendering local optimization methods detrimental. In this work we propose a new hybrid global method, based on the combination of an evolutionary search strategy with a local multiple-shooting approach, which offers a reliable and efficient alternative for the solution of large scale parameter estimation problems. The presented new hybrid strategy offers two main advantages over previous approaches: First, it is equipped with a switching strategy which allows the systematic determination of the transition from the local to global search. This avoids computationally expensive tests in advance. Second, using multiple-shooting as the local search procedure reduces the multi-modality of the non-linear optimization problem significantly. Because multiple-shooting avoids possible spurious solutions in the vicinity of the global optimum it often outperforms the frequently used initial value approach (single-shooting). Thereby, the use of multiple-shooting yields an enhanced robustness of the hybrid approach.

12. Advanced numerical methods and software approaches for semiconductor device simulation

SciTech Connect

CAREY,GRAHAM F.; PARDHANANI,A.L.; BOVA,STEVEN W.

2000-03-23

In this article the authors concisely present several modern strategies that are applicable to drift-dominated carrier transport in higher-order deterministic models such as the drift-diffusion, hydrodynamic, and quantum hydrodynamic systems. The approaches include extensions of upwind and artificial dissipation schemes, generalization of the traditional Scharfetter-Gummel approach, Petrov-Galerkin and streamline-upwind Petrov Galerkin (SUPG), entropy variables, transformations, least-squares mixed methods and other stabilized Galerkin schemes such as Galerkin least squares and discontinuous Galerkin schemes. The treatment is representative rather than an exhaustive review and several schemes are mentioned only briefly with appropriate reference to the literature. Some of the methods have been applied to the semiconductor device problem while others are still in the early stages of development for this class of applications. They have included numerical examples from the recent research tests with some of the methods. A second aspect of the work deals with algorithms that employ unstructured grids in conjunction with adaptive refinement strategies. The full benefits of such approaches have not yet been developed in this application area and they emphasize the need for further work on analysis, data structures and software to support adaptivity. Finally, they briefly consider some aspects of software frameworks. These include dial-an-operator approaches such as that used in the industrial simulator PROPHET, and object-oriented software support such as those in the SANDIA National Laboratory framework SIERRA.

13. Advanced Numerical Methods and Software Approaches for Semiconductor Device Simulation

DOE PAGES

Carey, Graham F.; Pardhanani, A. L.; Bova, S. W.

2000-01-01

In this article we concisely present several modern strategies that are applicable to driftdominated carrier transport in higher-order deterministic models such as the driftdiffusion, hydrodynamic, and quantum hydrodynamic systems. The approaches include extensions of “upwind” and artificial dissipation schemes, generalization of the traditional Scharfetter – Gummel approach, Petrov – Galerkin and streamline-upwind Petrov Galerkin (SUPG), “entropy” variables, transformations, least-squares mixed methods and other stabilized Galerkin schemes such as Galerkin least squares and discontinuous Galerkin schemes. The treatment is representative rather than an exhaustive review and several schemes are mentioned only briefly with appropriate reference to the literature. Some of themore » methods have been applied to the semiconductor device problem while others are still in the early stages of development for this class of applications. We have included numerical examples from our recent research tests with some of the methods. A second aspect of the work deals with algorithms that employ unstructured grids in conjunction with adaptive refinement strategies. The full benefits of such approaches have not yet been developed in this application area and we emphasize the need for further work on analysis, data structures and software to support adaptivity. Finally, we briefly consider some aspects of software frameworks. These include dial-an-operator approaches such as that used in the industrial simulator PROPHET, and object-oriented software support such as those in the SANDIA National Laboratory framework SIERRA.« less

14. Introduction to finite-difference methods for numerical fluid dynamics

SciTech Connect

Scannapieco, E.; Harlow, F.H.

1995-09-01

This work is intended to be a beginner`s exercise book for the study of basic finite-difference techniques in computational fluid dynamics. It is written for a student level ranging from high-school senior to university senior. Equations are derived from basic principles using algebra. Some discussion of partial-differential equations is included, but knowledge of calculus is not essential. The student is expected, however, to have some familiarity with the FORTRAN computer language, as the syntax of the computer codes themselves is not discussed. Topics examined in this work include: one-dimensional heat flow, one-dimensional compressible fluid flow, two-dimensional compressible fluid flow, and two-dimensional incompressible fluid flow with additions of the equations of heat flow and the {Kappa}-{epsilon} model for turbulence transport. Emphasis is placed on numerical instabilities and methods by which they can be avoided, techniques that can be used to evaluate the accuracy of finite-difference approximations, and the writing of the finite-difference codes themselves. Concepts introduced in this work include: flux and conservation, implicit and explicit methods, Lagrangian and Eulerian methods, shocks and rarefactions, donor-cell and cell-centered advective fluxes, compressible and incompressible fluids, the Boussinesq approximation for heat flow, Cartesian tensor notation, the Boussinesq approximation for the Reynolds stress tensor, and the modeling of transport equations. A glossary is provided which defines these and other terms.

15. Hybrid PSO-ASVR-based method for data fitting in the calibration of infrared radiometer

SciTech Connect

Yang, Sen; Li, Chengwei

2016-06-15

The present paper describes a hybrid particle swarm optimization-adaptive support vector regression (PSO-ASVR)-based method for data fitting in the calibration of infrared radiometer. The proposed hybrid PSO-ASVR-based method is based on PSO in combination with Adaptive Processing and Support Vector Regression (SVR). The optimization technique involves setting parameters in the ASVR fitting procedure, which significantly improves the fitting accuracy. However, its use in the calibration of infrared radiometer has not yet been widely explored. Bearing this in mind, the PSO-ASVR-based method, which is based on the statistical learning theory, is successfully used here to get the relationship between the radiation of a standard source and the response of an infrared radiometer. Main advantages of this method are the flexible adjustment mechanism in data processing and the optimization mechanism in a kernel parameter setting of SVR. Numerical examples and applications to the calibration of infrared radiometer are performed to verify the performance of PSO-ASVR-based method compared to conventional data fitting methods.

16. Hybrid PSO-ASVR-based method for data fitting in the calibration of infrared radiometer.

PubMed

Yang, Sen; Li, Chengwei

2016-06-01

The present paper describes a hybrid particle swarm optimization-adaptive support vector regression (PSO-ASVR)-based method for data fitting in the calibration of infrared radiometer. The proposed hybrid PSO-ASVR-based method is based on PSO in combination with Adaptive Processing and Support Vector Regression (SVR). The optimization technique involves setting parameters in the ASVR fitting procedure, which significantly improves the fitting accuracy. However, its use in the calibration of infrared radiometer has not yet been widely explored. Bearing this in mind, the PSO-ASVR-based method, which is based on the statistical learning theory, is successfully used here to get the relationship between the radiation of a standard source and the response of an infrared radiometer. Main advantages of this method are the flexible adjustment mechanism in data processing and the optimization mechanism in a kernel parameter setting of SVR. Numerical examples and applications to the calibration of infrared radiometer are performed to verify the performance of PSO-ASVR-based method compared to conventional data fitting methods.

17. Hybrid PSO-ASVR-based method for data fitting in the calibration of infrared radiometer

Yang, Sen; Li, Chengwei

2016-06-01

The present paper describes a hybrid particle swarm optimization-adaptive support vector regression (PSO-ASVR)-based method for data fitting in the calibration of infrared radiometer. The proposed hybrid PSO-ASVR-based method is based on PSO in combination with Adaptive Processing and Support Vector Regression (SVR). The optimization technique involves setting parameters in the ASVR fitting procedure, which significantly improves the fitting accuracy. However, its use in the calibration of infrared radiometer has not yet been widely explored. Bearing this in mind, the PSO-ASVR-based method, which is based on the statistical learning theory, is successfully used here to get the relationship between the radiation of a standard source and the response of an infrared radiometer. Main advantages of this method are the flexible adjustment mechanism in data processing and the optimization mechanism in a kernel parameter setting of SVR. Numerical examples and applications to the calibration of infrared radiometer are performed to verify the performance of PSO-ASVR-based method compared to conventional data fitting methods.

18. A Hybrid Optimization Method for Solving Bayesian Inverse Problems under Uncertainty

PubMed Central

Zhang, Kai; Wang, Zengfei; Zhang, Liming; Yao, Jun; Yan, Xia

2015-01-01

In this paper, we investigate the application of a new method, the Finite Difference and Stochastic Gradient (Hybrid method), for history matching in reservoir models. History matching is one of the processes of solving an inverse problem by calibrating reservoir models to dynamic behaviour of the reservoir in which an objective function is formulated based on a Bayesian approach for optimization. The goal of history matching is to identify the minimum value of an objective function that expresses the misfit between the predicted and measured data of a reservoir. To address the optimization problem, we present a novel application using a combination of the stochastic gradient and finite difference methods for solving inverse problems. The optimization is constrained by a linear equation that contains the reservoir parameters. We reformulate the reservoir model’s parameters and dynamic data by operating the objective function, the approximate gradient of which can guarantee convergence. At each iteration step, we obtain the relatively ‘important’ elements of the gradient, which are subsequently substituted by the values from the Finite Difference method through comparing the magnitude of the components of the stochastic gradient, which forms a new gradient, and we subsequently iterate with the new gradient. Through the application of the Hybrid method, we efficiently and accurately optimize the objective function. We present a number numerical simulations in this paper that show that the method is accurate and computationally efficient. PMID:26252392

19. [Diagnosed tuberculosis using specific DNA probe hybridization methods].

PubMed

Furuta, Itaru; Yamazumi, Toshiaki

2002-11-01

In Japan, reported cases of tuberculosis had declined nearly every year until 1995. However, in 1997 newly recorded cases began increasing for the first time in more than 38 years. Recent studies using DNA fingerprinting show that person- to person transmission may account for as many as one-third of new cases of tuberculosis in citizen populations. Nucleic acid hybridization methods using specific DNA probes can specifically identify M. tuberculosis and other mycobacterial species. Rapid nucleic acid amplification techniques such as polymerase chain reaction methods allow direct identification of M. tuberculosis in clinical specimens. Is 6110 has been exploited extensively as a clonal marker in molecular epidemiology studies of tuberculosis. The emergence of resistance to antituberculosis drugs is a relevant matter worldwide. A recent genotypic method allows earlier detection of RFP-resistant and INH-resistant stains using probes for mutation in rpoB and in katG.

20. Design and numerical analysis of highly sensitive Au-MoS2-graphene based hybrid surface plasmon resonance biosensor

Rahman, M. Saifur; Anower, Md. Shamim; Hasan, Md. Rabiul; Hossain, Md. Biplob; Haque, Md. Ismail

2017-08-01

We demonstrate a highly sensitive Au-MoS2-Graphene based hybrid surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor for the detection of DNA hybridization. The performance parameters of the proposed sensor are investigated in terms of sensitivity, detection accuracy and quality factor at operating wavelength of 633 nm. We observed in the numerical study that sensitivity can be greatly increased by adding MoS2 layer in the middle of a Graphene-on-Au layer. It is shown that by using single layer of MoS2 in between gold and graphene layer, the proposed biosensor exhibits simultaneously high sensitivity of 87.8 deg/RIU, high detection accuracy of 1.28 and quality factor of 17.56 with gold layer thickness of 50 nm. This increased performance is due to the absorption ability and optical characteristics of graphene biomolecules and high fluorescence quenching ability of MoS2. On the basis of changing in SPR angle and minimum reflectance, the proposed sensor can sense nucleotides bonding happened between double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) helix structures. Therefore, this sensor can successfully detect the hybridization of target DNAs to the probe DNAs pre-immobilized on the Au-MoS2-Graphene hybrid with capability of distinguishing single-base mismatch.

1. Numerical Comparison of Periodic MoM (Method of Moments) and BMIA (Banded Matrix Iteration Method)

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kim, Y.; Rodriguez, E.; Michel, T.

1995-01-01

The most popular numerical technique in rough surface scattering is the Method of Moments (MoM). Since the scattering patch size is finite, the edge current must be suppressed to obtain accurate scattering cross sections. Two standard ways to minimize the edge current are periodic boundary conditions and incident wave tapering. We compare the accuracy & computational requirements of these methods.

2. Numerical Comparison of Periodic MoM (Method of Moments) and BMIA (Banded Matrix Iteration Method)

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kim, Y.; Rodriguez, E.; Michel, T.

1995-01-01

The most popular numerical technique in rough surface scattering is the Method of Moments (MoM). Since the scattering patch size is finite, the edge current must be suppressed to obtain accurate scattering cross sections. Two standard ways to minimize the edge current are periodic boundary conditions and incident wave tapering. We compare the accuracy & computational requirements of these methods.

3. Design of time interval generator based on hybrid counting method

Yao, Yuan; Wang, Zhaoqi; Lu, Houbing; Chen, Lian; Jin, Ge

2016-10-01

Time Interval Generators (TIGs) are frequently used for the characterizations or timing operations of instruments in particle physics experiments. Though some "off-the-shelf" TIGs can be employed, the necessity of a custom test system or control system makes the TIGs, being implemented in a programmable device desirable. Nowadays, the feasibility of using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) to implement particle physics instrumentation has been validated in the design of Time-to-Digital Converters (TDCs) for precise time measurement. The FPGA-TDC technique is based on the architectures of Tapped Delay Line (TDL), whose delay cells are down to few tens of picosecond. In this case, FPGA-based TIGs with high delay step are preferable allowing the implementation of customized particle physics instrumentations and other utilities on the same FPGA device. A hybrid counting method for designing TIGs with both high resolution and wide range is presented in this paper. The combination of two different counting methods realizing an integratable TIG is described in detail. A specially designed multiplexer for tap selection is emphatically introduced. The special structure of the multiplexer is devised for minimizing the different additional delays caused by the unpredictable routings from different taps to the output. A Kintex-7 FPGA is used for the hybrid counting-based implementation of a TIG, providing a resolution up to 11 ps and an interval range up to 8 s.

4. Methods of establishing plantations of hybrid-poplar cuttings

Treesearch

Frank E. Cunningham

1954-01-01

Fast-growing hybrid poplars are now being tested in plantations scattered from Maine to West Virginia to find out how the different hybrids respond to a wide range of environmental conditions throughout the Northeast.

5. A new nonlocal thermodynamical equilibrium radiative transfer method for cool stars. Method and numerical implementation

Lambert, J.; Josselin, E.; Ryde, N.; Faure, A.

2015-08-01

Context. The solution of the nonlocal thermodynamical equilibrium (non-LTE) radiative transfer equation usually relies on stationary iterative methods, which may falsely converge in some cases. Furthermore, these methods are often unable to handle large-scale systems, such as molecular spectra emerging from, for example, cool stellar atmospheres. Aims: Our objective is to develop a new method, which aims to circumvent these problems, using nonstationary numerical techniques and taking advantage of parallel computers. Methods: The technique we develop may be seen as a generalization of the coupled escape probability method. It solves the statistical equilibrium equations in all layers of a discretized model simultaneously. The numerical scheme adopted is based on the generalized minimum residual method. Results: The code has already been applied to the special case of the water spectrum in a red supergiant stellar atmosphere. This demonstrates the fast convergence of this method, and opens the way to a wide variety of astrophysical problems.

6. Numerical methods for determining interstitial oxygen in silicon

SciTech Connect

Stevenson, J.O.; Medernach, J.W.

1995-01-01

The interstitial oxygen (O{sub i}) concentration in Czochralski silicon and the subsequent SiO{sub x} precipitation are important parameters for integrated circuit fabrication. Uncontrolled SiO{sub x} precipitation during processing can create detrimental mechanical and electrical effects that contribute to poor performance. An inability to consistently and accurately measure the initial O{sub i} concentration in heavily doped silicon has led to contradictory results regarding the effects of dopant type and concentration on SiO{sub x} precipitation. The authors have developed a software package for reliably determining and comparing O{sub i} in heavily doped silicon. The SiFTIR{copyright} code implements three independent oxygen analysis methods in a single integrated package. Routine oxygen measurements are desirable over a wide range of silicon resistivities, but there has been confusion concerning which of the three numerical methods is most suitable for the low resistivity portion of the continuum. A major strength of the software is an ability to rapidly produce results for all three methods using only a single Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) spectrum as input. This ability to perform three analyses on a single data set allows a detailed comparison of the three methods across the entire range of resistivities in question. Integrated circuit manufacturers could use the enabling technology provided by SiFTIR{copyright} to monitor O{sub i} content. Early detection of O{sub i} using this diagnostic could be beneficial in controlling SiO{sub x} precipitation during integrated circuit processing.

7. Numerical Methods for Forward and Inverse Problems in Discontinuous Media

SciTech Connect

Chartier, Timothy P.

2011-03-08

The research emphasis under this grant's funding is in the area of algebraic multigrid methods. The research has two main branches: 1) exploring interdisciplinary applications in which algebraic multigrid can make an impact and 2) extending the scope of algebraic multigrid methods with algorithmic improvements that are based in strong analysis.The work in interdisciplinary applications falls primarily in the field of biomedical imaging. Work under this grant demonstrated the effectiveness and robustness of multigrid for solving linear systems that result from highly heterogeneous finite element method models of the human head. The results in this work also give promise to medical advances possible with software that may be developed. Research to extend the scope of algebraic multigrid has been focused in several areas. In collaboration with researchers at the University of Colorado, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory, the PI developed an adaptive multigrid with subcycling via complementary grids. This method has very cheap computing costs per iterate and is showing promise as a preconditioner for conjugate gradient. Recent work with Los Alamos National Laboratory concentrates on developing algorithms that take advantage of the recent advances in adaptive multigrid research. The results of the various efforts in this research could ultimately have direct use and impact to researchers for a wide variety of applications, including, astrophysics, neuroscience, contaminant transport in porous media, bi-domain heart modeling, modeling of tumor growth, and flow in heterogeneous porous media. This work has already led to basic advances in computational mathematics and numerical linear algebra and will continue to do so into the future.

8. A numerical solution method for acoustic radiation from axisymmetric bodies

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Caruthers, John E.; Raviprakash, G. K.

1995-01-01

A new and very efficient numerical method for solving equations of the Helmholtz type is specialized for problems having axisymmetric geometry. It is then demonstrated by application to the classical problem of acoustic radiation from a vibrating piston set in a stationary infinite plane. The method utilizes 'Green's Function Discretization', to obtain an accurate resolution of the waves using only 2-3 points per wave. Locally valid free space Green's functions, used in the discretization step, are obtained by quadrature. Results are computed for a range of grid spacing/piston radius ratios at a frequency parameter, omega R/c(sub 0), of 2 pi. In this case, the minimum required grid resolution appears to be fixed by the need to resolve a step boundary condition at the piston edge rather than by the length scale imposed by the wave length of the acoustic radiation. It is also demonstrated that a local near-field radiation boundary procedure allows the domain to be truncated very near the radiating source with little effect on the solution.

9. Exact and quasi exact numerical methods for giant magnetic molecules

Schnack, Jürgen

2012-02-01

The determination of the energy spectra of large magnetic molecules is a demanding numerical problem. In this contribution we demonstrate that theory has advanced very much in recent years. We first show that it is possible to diagonalize the Heisenberg Hamiltonian by employing the spin-rotational symmetry SU(2) in combination with arbitrary point-group symmetries [1]. This goes far beyond earlier approaches and enables us to evaluate thermodynamic observables such as the magnetization and spectroscopic data for molecules as large as the famous ferric wheel Fe10 with a Hilbert space dimension of more than 60 Millions. Then we explain how the finite-temperature Lanczos method can be applied to magnetic molecules in order to determine thermodynamic functions for Hilbert spaces as large as up to 1 Billion [2]. The new method enables us to discuss the magnetic properties of the highly frustrated Keplerate molecule W72V30 which behaves like a finite size Kagome lattice antiferromagnet. [4pt] [1] R. Schnalle and J. Schnack, Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 29 (2010) 403; R. Schnalle, J. Schnack, Phys. Rev. B 79 (2009) 104419. [0pt] [2] J. Schnack, O. Wendland, Eur. Phys. J. B 78 (2010) 535-541.

10. Numerical modelling methods for predicting antenna performance on aircraft

Kubina, S. J.

1983-09-01

Typical case studies that involve the application of Moment Methods to the prediction of the radiation characteristics of antennas in the HF frequency band are examined. The examples consist of the analysis of a shorted transmission line HF antenna on a CHSS-2/Sea King helicopter, wire antennas on the CP-140/Aurora patrol aircraft and a long dipole antenna on the Space Shuttle Orbiter spacecraft. In each of these cases the guidelines for antenna modeling by the use of the program called the Numerical Electromagnetic Code are progressively applied and results are compared to measurements made by the use of scale-model techniques. In complex examples of this type comparisons based on individual radiation patterns are insufficient for the validation of computer models. A volumetric method of radiation pattern comparison is used based on criteria that result from pattern integration and that are related to communication system performance. This is supplemented by hidden-surface displays of an entire set of conical radiation patterns resulting from measurements and computations. Antenna coupling considerations are discussed for the case of the dual HF installation on the CP-140/Aurora aircraft.

11. Hybrid Finite Element Method for Describing the Electrical Response of Biological Cells to Applied Fields

PubMed Central

Ying, Wenjun; Henriquez, Craig S.

2007-01-01

A novel hybrid finite element method for modeling the response of passive and active biological membranes to external stimuli is presented. The method is based on the differential equations that describe the conservation of electric flux and membrane currents. By introducing the electric flux through the cell membrane as an additional variable, the algorithm decouples the linear partial differential equation part from the nonlinear ordinary differential equation part that defines the membrane dynamics of interest. This conveniently results in two subproblems: a linear interface problem and a nonlinear initial value problem. The linear interface problem is solved with a hybrid finite element method. The initial value problem is integrated by a standard ordinary differential equation solver such as the Euler and Runge-Kutta methods. During time integration, these two subproblems are solved alternatively. The algorithm can be used to model the interaction of stimuli with multiple cells of almost arbitrary geometries and complex ion-channel gating at the plasma membrane. Numerical experiments are presented demonstrating the uses of the method for modeling field stimulation and action potential propagation. PMID:17405368

12. Unsteady Hybrid Navier-Stokes/Vortex Model for Numerical Study of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Aerodynamics under Yaw Conditions

Suzuki, Kensuke

A new analysis tool, an unsteady Hybrid Navier-Stokes/Vortex Model, for a horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) in yawed flow is presented, and its convergence and low cost computational performance are demonstrated. In earlier work, a steady Hybrid Navier-Stokes/Vortex Model was developed with a view to improving simulation results obtained by participants of the NASA Ames blind comparison workshop, following the NREL Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment. The hybrid method was shown to better predict rotor torque and power over the range of wind speeds, from fully attached to separated flows. A decade has passed since the workshop was held and three dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes analyses have become available using super computers. In the first chapter, recent results of unsteady Euler and Navier-Stokes computations are reviewed as standard references of what is currently possible and are contrasted with results of the Hybrid Navier-Stokes/Vortex Model in steady flow. In Chapter 2, the computational method for the unsteady Hybrid model is detailed. The grid generation procedure, using ICEM CFD, is presented in Chapter 3. Steady and unsteady analysis results for the NREL Phase IV rotor and for a modified "swept NREL rotor" are presented in Chapter 4-Chapter 7.

13. Hybrid Lattice Boltzmann Method for the Simulation of Blending Process in Static Mixers

Latt, Jonas; Kontaxakis, Dimitrios; Chatagny, Laurent; Muggli, Felix; Chopard, Bastien

2013-12-01

A lattice Boltzmann method is proposed to simulate the blending of two fluids in static, laminar mixers. The method uses a mesh-based algorithm to solve for the fluid flow, and a meshless technique to trace the interface between the blended fluids. This hybrid approach is highly accurate, because the position of the interface can be traced beyond the resolution of the grid. The numerical diffusion is negligible in this model, and it is possible to reproduce mixing patterns that contain more than one hundred striations with high fidelity. The implementation of this method in the massively parallel library Palabos is presented, and simulation results are compared with experimental data to emphasize the accuracy of the results.

14. Numerical simulations on unsteady operation processes of N2O/HTPB hybrid rocket motor with/without diaphragm

Zhang, Shuai; Hu, Fan; Wang, Donghui; Okolo, N. Patrick; Zhang, Weihua

2017-07-01

Numerical simulations on processes within a hybrid rocket motor were conducted in the past, where most of these simulations carried out majorly focused on steady state analysis. Solid fuel regression rate strongly depends on complicated physicochemical processes and internal fluid dynamic behavior within the rocket motor, which changes with both space and time during its operation, and are therefore more unsteady in characteristics. Numerical simulations on the unsteady operational processes of N2O/HTPB hybrid rocket motor with and without diaphragm are conducted within this research paper. A numerical model is established based on two dimensional axisymmetric unsteady Navier-Stokes equations having turbulence, combustion and coupled gas/solid phase formulations. Discrete phase model is used to simulate injection and vaporization of the liquid oxidizer. A dynamic mesh technique is applied to the non-uniform regression of fuel grain, while results of unsteady flow field, variation of regression rate distribution with time, regression process of burning surface and internal ballistics are all obtained. Due to presence of eddy flow, the diaphragm increases regression rate further downstream. Peak regression rates are observed close to flow reattachment regions, while these peak values decrease gradually, and peak position shift further downstream with time advancement. Motor performance is analyzed accordingly, and it is noticed that the case with diaphragm included results in combustion efficiency and specific impulse efficiency increase of roughly 10%, and ground thrust increase of 17.8%.

15. Handwritten numeral verification method using distribution maps of structural features

1990-08-01

Character recognition methods can be categorized into two major approaches. One is pattern matching, which is little affected by topological changes such as breaks in strokes. The other is structural analysis, which tolerates distorted characters only if the topological features of their undistorted versions are kept. We developed a new recognition method for hand-written numerals by combining the merits of the two approaches. The recognition process consists of three steps: (1) an input character is recognized by a patternmatching method, which reduces the number of possible categories to 1.5 on the average, (2) the character is yenfled to be true, false, or uncertain by a structural analysis method that we have newly developed, and (3) special heuristic verification logics are applied to uncertain characters. In the second step, the new structural analysis method uses the positions and directions of terminal points extracted from thinned character images as a main feature. The extracted terminal points are labeled according to a structural-feature distribution map prepared for each category. The generated labels are matched with template label sets constructed by statistical analysis. The characteristics of the method are as follows: (1) it copes with distortion of hand-written characters by using distribution maps for the positions and directions of feature points, and (2) distribution maps can be automatically generated from statistical data in learning samples and easily tuned interactively. The merits of combining the two methods are as follows: (1) the advantages of both pattern matching and structural analysis are obtained, (2) the probabilities of steps 2 and 3 needing to be executed are 22% and 9% respectively, which hardly affect the total processing time, and (3) as a result of steps 1 and 2, only a small number of special logics are required. In a test using unconstrained hand-written characters of low quality, the recognition rate and substitution

16. Numerical stabilities of loosely coupled methods for robust modeling of lightweight and flexible structures in incompressible and viscous flows

Akcabay, Deniz Tolga; Xiao, Jian; Young, Yin Lu

2017-06-01

The growing interest to examine the hydroelastic dynamics and stabilities of lightweight and flexible materials requires robust and accurate fluid-structure interaction (FSI) models. Classically, partitioned fluid and structure solvers are easier to implement compared to monolithic methods; however, partitioned FSI models are vulnerable to numerical ("virtual added mass") instabilities for cases when the solid to fluid density ratio is low and if the flow is incompressible. As a partitioned method, the loosely hybrid coupled (LHC) method, which was introduced and validated in Young et al. (Acta Mech. Sin. 28:1030-1041, 2012), has been successfully used to efficiently and stably model lightweight and flexible structures. The LHC method achieves its numerical stability by, in addition to the viscous fluid forces, embedding potential flow approximations of the fluid induced forces to transform the partitioned FSI model into a semi-implicit scheme. The objective of this work is to derive and validate the numerical stability boundary of the LHC. The results show that the stability boundary of the LHC is much wider than traditional loosely coupled methods for a variety of numerical integration schemes. The results also show that inclusion of an estimate of the fluid inertial forces is the most critical to ensure the numerical stability when solving for fluid-structure interaction problems involving cases with a solid to fluid-added mass ratio less than one.

17. Numerical stabilities of loosely coupled methods for robust modeling of lightweight and flexible structures in incompressible and viscous flows

Akcabay, Deniz Tolga; Xiao, Jian; Young, Yin Lu

2017-08-01

The growing interest to examine the hydroelastic dynamics and stabilities of lightweight and flexible materials requires robust and accurate fluid-structure interaction (FSI) models. Classically, partitioned fluid and structure solvers are easier to implement compared to monolithic methods; however, partitioned FSI models are vulnerable to numerical ("virtual added mass") instabilities for cases when the solid to fluid density ratio is low and if the flow is incompressible. As a partitioned method, the loosely hybrid coupled (LHC) method, which was introduced and validated in Young et al. (Acta Mech. Sin. 28:1030-1041, 2012), has been successfully used to efficiently and stably model lightweight and flexible structures. The LHC method achieves its numerical stability by, in addition to the viscous fluid forces, embedding potential flow approximations of the fluid induced forces to transform the partitioned FSI model into a semi-implicit scheme. The objective of this work is to derive and validate the numerical stability boundary of the LHC. The results show that the stability boundary of the LHC is much wider than traditional loosely coupled methods for a variety of numerical integration schemes. The results also show that inclusion of an estimate of the fluid inertial forces is the most critical to ensure the numerical stability when solving for fluid-structure interaction problems involving cases with a solid to fluid-added mass ratio less than one.

18. Simplified method for numerical modeling of fiber lasers.

PubMed

Shtyrina, O V; Yarutkina, I A; Fedoruk, M P

2014-12-29

A simplified numerical approach to modeling of dissipative dispersion-managed fiber lasers is examined. We present a new numerical iteration algorithm for finding the periodic solutions of the system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations describing the intra-cavity dynamics of the dissipative soliton characteristics in dispersion-managed fiber lasers. We demonstrate that results obtained using simplified model are in good agreement with full numerical modeling based on the corresponding partial differential equations.

19. Improved numerical methods for turbulent viscous recirculating flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vandoormaal, J. P.; Turan, A.; Raithby, G. D.

1986-01-01

The objective of the present study is to improve both the accuracy and computational efficiency of existing numerical techniques used to predict viscous recirculating flows in combustors. A review of the status of the study is presented along with some illustrative results. The effort to improve the numerical techniques consists of the following technical tasks: (1) selection of numerical techniques to be evaluated; (2) two dimensional evaluation of selected techniques; and (3) three dimensional evaluation of technique(s) recommended in Task 2.

20. A hybrid approach for efficient anomaly detection using metaheuristic methods.

PubMed

Ghanem, Tamer F; Elkilani, Wail S; Abdul-Kader, Hatem M

2015-07-01

Network intrusion detection based on anomaly detection techniques has a significant role in protecting networks and systems against harmful activities. Different metaheuristic techniques have been used for anomaly detector generation. Yet, reported literature has not studied the use of the multi-start metaheuristic method for detector generation. This paper proposes a hybrid approach for anomaly detection in large scale datasets using detectors generated based on multi-start metaheuristic method and genetic algorithms. The proposed approach has taken some inspiration of negative selection-based detector generation. The evaluation of this approach is performed using NSL-KDD dataset which is a modified version of the widely used KDD CUP 99 dataset. The results show its effectiveness in generating a suitable number of detectors with an accuracy of 96.1% compared to other competitors of machine learning algorithms.

1. A hybrid approach for efficient anomaly detection using metaheuristic methods

PubMed Central

Ghanem, Tamer F.; Elkilani, Wail S.; Abdul-kader, Hatem M.

2014-01-01

Network intrusion detection based on anomaly detection techniques has a significant role in protecting networks and systems against harmful activities. Different metaheuristic techniques have been used for anomaly detector generation. Yet, reported literature has not studied the use of the multi-start metaheuristic method for detector generation. This paper proposes a hybrid approach for anomaly detection in large scale datasets using detectors generated based on multi-start metaheuristic method and genetic algorithms. The proposed approach has taken some inspiration of negative selection-based detector generation. The evaluation of this approach is performed using NSL-KDD dataset which is a modified version of the widely used KDD CUP 99 dataset. The results show its effectiveness in generating a suitable number of detectors with an accuracy of 96.1% compared to other competitors of machine learning algorithms. PMID:26199752

2. Hybrid solution of stochastic optimal control problems using Gauss pseudospectral method and generalized polynomial chaos algorithms

Cottrill, Gerald C.

A hybrid numerical algorithm combining the Gauss Pseudospectral Method (GPM) with a Generalized Polynomial Chaos (gPC) method to solve nonlinear stochastic optimal control problems with constraint uncertainties is presented. TheGPM and gPC have been shown to be spectrally accurate numerical methods for solving deterministic optimal control problems and stochastic differential equations, respectively. The gPC uses collocation nodes to sample the random space, which are then inserted into the differential equations and solved by applying standard differential equation methods. The resulting set of deterministic solutions is used to characterize the distribution of the solution by constructing a polynomial representation of the output as a function of uncertain parameters. Optimal control problems are especially challenging to solve since they often include path constraints, bounded controls, boundary conditions, and require solutions that minimize a cost functional. Adding random parameters can make these problems even more challenging. The hybrid algorithm presented in this dissertation is the first time the GPM and gPC algorithms have been combined to solve optimal control problems with random parameters. Using the GPM in the gPC construct provides minimum cost deterministic solutions used in stochastic computations that meet path, control, and boundary constraints, thus extending current gPC methods to be applicable to stochastic optimal control problems. The hybrid GPM-gPC algorithm was applied to two concept demonstration problems: a nonlinear optimal control problem with multiplicative uncertain elements and a trajectory optimization problem simulating an aircraft flying through a threat field where exact locations of the threats are unknown. The results show that the expected value, variance, and covariance statistics of the polynomial output function approximations of the state, control, cost, and terminal time variables agree with Monte-Carlo simulation

3. Quantum Simulations of Solvated Biomolecules Using Hybrid Methods

Hodak, Miroslav

2009-03-01

One of the most important challenges in quantum simulations on biomolecules is efficient and accurate inclusion of the solvent, because the solvent atoms usually outnumber those in the biomolecule of interest. We have developed a hybrid method that allows for explicit quantum-mechanical treatment of the solvent at low computational cost. In this method, Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT) is combined with an orbital-free (OF) DFT. Kohn-Sham (KS) DFT is used to describe the biomolecule and its first solvation shells, while the orbital-free (OF) DFT is employed for the rest of the solvent. The OF part is fully O(N) and capable of handling 10^5 solvent molecules on current parallel supercomputers, while taking only ˜ 10 % of the total time. The compatibility between the KS and OF DFT methods enables seamless integration between the two. In particular, the flow of solvent molecules across the KS/OF interface is allowed and the total energy is conserved. As the first large-scale applications, the hybrid method has been used to investigate the binding of copper ions to proteins involved in prion (PrP) and Parkinson's diseases. Our results for the PrP, which causes mad cow disease when misfolded, resolve a contradiction found in experiments, in which a stronger binding mode is replaced by a weaker one when concentration of copper ions is increased, and show how it can act as a copper buffer. Furthermore, incorporation of copper stabilizes the structure of the full-length PrP, suggesting its protective role in prion diseases. For alpha-synuclein, a Parkinson's disease (PD) protein, we show that Cu binding modifies the protein structurally, making it more susceptible to misfolding -- an initial step in the onset of PD. In collaboration with W. Lu, F. Rose and J. Bernholc.

4. Advancements of the Hybrid Method UF6 Container Inspection System

SciTech Connect

Mace, Emily K.; Orton, Christopher R.; Jordan, David V.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Smith, Leon E.

2011-07-17

Safeguards inspectors currently visit uranium enrichment plants to verify UF6 cylinder enrichment declarations. Measurements are performed with handheld high-resolution detectors on a limited number of cylinders taken to be representative of the plant’s cylinder inventory. These enrichment assay methods interrogate only a small fraction of the total cylinder volume, and are time-consuming and expensive to execute. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing an automated UF6 cylinder verification station concept based on the combined collection of traditional enrichment-meter data (186 keV photons from 235U) and non-traditional, neutron-induced, high-energy gamma-ray signatures (3-8 MeV) with an array of collimated, medium-resolution scintillators. Previous work at PNNL (2010) demonstrated proof-of-principle that this hybrid method yields accurate, full-volume assay of the cylinder enrichment, reduces systematic errors when compared to several other enrichment assay methods, and provides simplified instrumentation and algorithms suitable for long-term, unattended operations. This system aims to increase the number of inspected cylinders at higher accuracy and with lower cost than when compared to inspectors with hand-held instruments. Several measurement campaigns of 30B cylinder populations and a refined MCNP model will be reported. The MCNP model consists of per-gram basis vectors for the different uranium isotopes and several fill geometries, enabling fast generation of any UF6 enrichment level and multiple configurations. The refined model was used to optimize collimator design and detector configuration for the hybrid method. In addition, a new field prototype based on model results was utilized in a set of field measurements.

5. Numerical Weather Predictions Evaluation Using Spatial Verification Methods

Tegoulias, I.; Pytharoulis, I.; Kotsopoulos, S.; Kartsios, S.; Bampzelis, D.; Karacostas, T.

2014-12-01

During the last years high-resolution numerical weather prediction simulations have been used to examine meteorological events with increased convective activity. Traditional verification methods do not provide the desired level of information to evaluate those high-resolution simulations. To assess those limitations new spatial verification methods have been proposed. In the present study an attempt is made to estimate the ability of the WRF model (WRF -ARW ver3.5.1) to reproduce selected days with high convective activity during the year 2010 using those feature-based verification methods. Three model domains, covering Europe, the Mediterranean Sea and northern Africa (d01), the wider area of Greece (d02) and central Greece - Thessaly region (d03) are used at horizontal grid-spacings of 15km, 5km and 1km respectively. By alternating microphysics (Ferrier, WSM6, Goddard), boundary layer (YSU, MYJ) and cumulus convection (Kain-­-Fritsch, BMJ) schemes, a set of twelve model setups is obtained. The results of those simulations are evaluated against data obtained using a C-Band (5cm) radar located at the centre of the innermost domain. Spatial characteristics are well captured but with a variable time lag between simulation results and radar data. Acknowledgements: This research is co­financed by the European Union (European Regional Development Fund) and Greek national funds, through the action "COOPERATION 2011: Partnerships of Production and Research Institutions in Focused Research and Technology Sectors" (contract number 11SYN_8_1088 - DAPHNE) in the framework of the operational programme "Competitiveness and Entrepreneurship" and Regions in Transition (OPC II, NSRF 2007-­-2013).

6. Numerical investigations with a hybrid isentropic-sigma model. I - Normal-mode characteristics. II - The inclusion of moist processes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pierce, R. B.; Johnson, Donald R.; Reames, Fred M.; Zapotocny, Tom H.; Wolf, Bart J.

1991-01-01

The normal-mode characteristics of baroclinically amplifying disturbances were numerically investigated in a series of adiabatic simulations by a hybrid isentropic-sigma model, demonstrating the effect of coupling an isentropic-coordinate free atmospheric domain with a sigma-coordinate PBL on the normal-mode characteristics. Next, the normal-mode model was modified by including a transport equation for water vapor and adiabatic heating by condensation. Simulations with and without a hydrological component showed that the overall effect of latent heat release is to markedly enhance cyclogenesis and frontogenesis.

7. Improved diffraction computation with a hybrid C-RCWA-method

Bischoff, Joerg

2009-03-01

The Rigorous Coupled Wave Approach (RCWA) is acknowledged as a well established diffraction simulation method in electro-magnetic computing. Its two most essential applications in the semiconductor industry are in optical scatterometry and optical lithography simulation. In scatterometry, it is the standard technique to simulate spectra or diffraction responses for gratings to be characterized. In optical lithography simulation, it is an effective alternative to supplement or even to replace the FDTD for the calculation of light diffraction from thick masks as well as from wafer topographies. Unfortunately, the RCWA shows some serious disadvantages particularly for the modelling of grating profiles with shallow slopes and multilayer stacks with many layers such as extreme UV masks with large number of quarter wave layers. Here, the slicing may become a nightmare and also the computation costs may increase dramatically. Moreover, the accuracy is suffering due to the inadequate staircase approximation of the slicing in conjunction with the boundary conditions in TM polarization. On the other hand, the Chandezon Method (C-Method) solves all these problems in a very elegant way, however, it fails for binary patterns or gratings with very steep profiles where the RCWA works excellent. Therefore, we suggest a combination of both methods as plug-ins in the same scattering matrix coupling frame. The improved performance and the advantages of this hybrid C-RCWA-Method over the individual methods is shown with some relevant examples.

8. Numerical methods for incompressible viscous flows with engineering applications

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rose, M. E.; Ash, R. L.

1988-01-01

A numerical scheme has been developed to solve the incompressible, 3-D Navier-Stokes equations using velocity-vorticity variables. This report summarizes the development of the numerical approximation schemes for the divergence and curl of the velocity vector fields and the development of compact schemes for handling boundary and initial boundary value problems.

9. Numerical methods for problems involving the Drazin inverse

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Meyer, C. D., Jr.

1979-01-01

The objective was to try to develop a useful numerical algorithm for the Drazin inverse and to analyze the numerical aspects of the applications of the Drazin inverse relating to the study of homogeneous Markov chains and systems of linear differential equations with singular coefficient matrices. It is felt that all objectives were accomplished with a measurable degree of success.

10. Hybrid finite element method for describing the electrical response of biological cells to applied fields.

PubMed

Ying, Wenjun; Henriquez, Craig S

2007-04-01

A novel hybrid finite element method (FEM) for modeling the response of passive and active biological membranes to external stimuli is presented. The method is based on the differential equations that describe the conservation of electric flux and membrane currents. By introducing the electric flux through the cell membrane as an additional variable, the algorithm decouples the linear partial differential equation part from the nonlinear ordinary differential equation part that defines the membrane dynamics of interest. This conveniently results in two subproblems: a linear interface problem and a nonlinear initial value problem. The linear interface problem is solved with a hybrid FEM. The initial value problem is integrated by a standard ordinary differential equation solver such as the Euler and Runge-Kutta methods. During time integration, these two subproblems are solved alternatively. The algorithm can be used to model the interaction of stimuli with multiple cells of almost arbitrary geometries and complex ion-channel gating at the plasma membrane. Numerical experiments are presented demonstrating the uses of the method for modeling field stimulation and action potential propagation.

11. A Reconstructed Discontinuous Galerkin Method for the Compressible Navier-Stokes Equations on Hybrid Grids

SciTech Connect

Xiaodong Liu; Lijun Xuan; Hong Luo; Yidong Xia

2001-01-01

A reconstructed discontinuous Galerkin (rDG(P1P2)) method, originally introduced for the compressible Euler equations, is developed for the solution of the compressible Navier- Stokes equations on 3D hybrid grids. In this method, a piecewise quadratic polynomial solution is obtained from the underlying piecewise linear DG solution using a hierarchical Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory (WENO) reconstruction. The reconstructed quadratic polynomial solution is then used for the computation of the inviscid fluxes and the viscous fluxes using the second formulation of Bassi and Reay (Bassi-Rebay II). The developed rDG(P1P2) method is used to compute a variety of flow problems to assess its accuracy, efficiency, and robustness. The numerical results demonstrate that the rDG(P1P2) method is able to achieve the designed third-order of accuracy at a cost slightly higher than its underlying second-order DG method, outperform the third order DG method in terms of both computing costs and storage requirements, and obtain reliable and accurate solutions to the large eddy simulation (LES) and direct numerical simulation (DNS) of compressible turbulent flows.

12. A hybrid incremental projection method for thermal-hydraulics applications

Christon, Mark A.; Bakosi, Jozsef; Nadiga, Balasubramanya T.; Berndt, Markus; Francois, Marianne M.; Stagg, Alan K.; Xia, Yidong; Luo, Hong

2016-07-01

A new second-order accurate, hybrid, incremental projection method for time-dependent incompressible viscous flow is introduced in this paper. The hybrid finite-element/finite-volume discretization circumvents the well-known Ladyzhenskaya-Babuška-Brezzi conditions for stability, and does not require special treatment to filter pressure modes by either Rhie-Chow interpolation or by using a Petrov-Galerkin finite element formulation. The use of a co-velocity with a high-resolution advection method and a linearly consistent edge-based treatment of viscous/diffusive terms yields a robust algorithm for a broad spectrum of incompressible flows. The high-resolution advection method is shown to deliver second-order spatial convergence on mixed element topology meshes, and the implicit advective treatment significantly increases the stable time-step size. The algorithm is robust and extensible, permitting the incorporation of features such as porous media flow, RANS and LES turbulence models, and semi-/fully-implicit time stepping. A series of verification and validation problems are used to illustrate the convergence properties of the algorithm. The temporal stability properties are demonstrated on a range of problems with 2 ≤ CFL ≤ 100. The new flow solver is built using the Hydra multiphysics toolkit. The Hydra toolkit is written in C++ and provides a rich suite of extensible and fully-parallel components that permit rapid application development, supports multiple discretization techniques, provides I/O interfaces, dynamic run-time load balancing and data migration, and interfaces to scalable popular linear solvers, e.g., in open-source packages such as HYPRE, PETSc, and Trilinos.

13. A hybrid incremental projection method for thermal-hydraulics applications

DOE PAGES

Christon, Mark A.; Bakosi, Jozsef; Nadiga, Balasubramanya T.; ...

2016-07-01

In this paper, a new second-order accurate, hybrid, incremental projection method for time-dependent incompressible viscous flow is introduced in this paper. The hybrid finite-element/finite-volume discretization circumvents the well-known Ladyzhenskaya–Babuška–Brezzi conditions for stability, and does not require special treatment to filter pressure modes by either Rhie–Chow interpolation or by using a Petrov–Galerkin finite element formulation. The use of a co-velocity with a high-resolution advection method and a linearly consistent edge-based treatment of viscous/diffusive terms yields a robust algorithm for a broad spectrum of incompressible flows. The high-resolution advection method is shown to deliver second-order spatial convergence on mixed element topology meshes,more » and the implicit advective treatment significantly increases the stable time-step size. The algorithm is robust and extensible, permitting the incorporation of features such as porous media flow, RANS and LES turbulence models, and semi-/fully-implicit time stepping. A series of verification and validation problems are used to illustrate the convergence properties of the algorithm. The temporal stability properties are demonstrated on a range of problems with 2 ≤ CFL ≤ 100. The new flow solver is built using the Hydra multiphysics toolkit. The Hydra toolkit is written in C++ and provides a rich suite of extensible and fully-parallel components that permit rapid application development, supports multiple discretization techniques, provides I/O interfaces, dynamic run-time load balancing and data migration, and interfaces to scalable popular linear solvers, e.g., in open-source packages such as HYPRE, PETSc, and Trilinos.« less

14. A hybrid incremental projection method for thermal-hydraulics applications

SciTech Connect

Christon, Mark A.; Bakosi, Jozsef; Nadiga, Balasubramanya T.; Berndt, Markus; Francois, Marianne M.; Stagg, Alan K.; Xia, Yidong; Luo, Hong

2016-07-01

In this paper, a new second-order accurate, hybrid, incremental projection method for time-dependent incompressible viscous flow is introduced in this paper. The hybrid finite-element/finite-volume discretization circumvents the well-known Ladyzhenskaya–Babuška–Brezzi conditions for stability, and does not require special treatment to filter pressure modes by either Rhie–Chow interpolation or by using a Petrov–Galerkin finite element formulation. The use of a co-velocity with a high-resolution advection method and a linearly consistent edge-based treatment of viscous/diffusive terms yields a robust algorithm for a broad spectrum of incompressible flows. The high-resolution advection method is shown to deliver second-order spatial convergence on mixed element topology meshes, and the implicit advective treatment significantly increases the stable time-step size. The algorithm is robust and extensible, permitting the incorporation of features such as porous media flow, RANS and LES turbulence models, and semi-/fully-implicit time stepping. A series of verification and validation problems are used to illustrate the convergence properties of the algorithm. The temporal stability properties are demonstrated on a range of problems with 2 ≤ CFL ≤ 100. The new flow solver is built using the Hydra multiphysics toolkit. The Hydra toolkit is written in C++ and provides a rich suite of extensible and fully-parallel components that permit rapid application development, supports multiple discretization techniques, provides I/O interfaces, dynamic run-time load balancing and data migration, and interfaces to scalable popular linear solvers, e.g., in open-source packages such as HYPRE, PETSc, and Trilinos.

15. A hybrid incremental projection method for thermal-hydraulics applications

SciTech Connect

Christon, Mark A.; Bakosi, Jozsef; Nadiga, Balasubramanya T.; Berndt, Markus; Francois, Marianne M.; Stagg, Alan K.; Xia, Yidong; Luo, Hong

2016-07-01

In this paper, a new second-order accurate, hybrid, incremental projection method for time-dependent incompressible viscous flow is introduced in this paper. The hybrid finite-element/finite-volume discretization circumvents the well-known Ladyzhenskaya–Babuška–Brezzi conditions for stability, and does not require special treatment to filter pressure modes by either Rhie–Chow interpolation or by using a Petrov–Galerkin finite element formulation. The use of a co-velocity with a high-resolution advection method and a linearly consistent edge-based treatment of viscous/diffusive terms yields a robust algorithm for a broad spectrum of incompressible flows. The high-resolution advection method is shown to deliver second-order spatial convergence on mixed element topology meshes, and the implicit advective treatment significantly increases the stable time-step size. The algorithm is robust and extensible, permitting the incorporation of features such as porous media flow, RANS and LES turbulence models, and semi-/fully-implicit time stepping. A series of verification and validation problems are used to illustrate the convergence properties of the algorithm. The temporal stability properties are demonstrated on a range of problems with 2 ≤ CFL ≤ 100. The new flow solver is built using the Hydra multiphysics toolkit. The Hydra toolkit is written in C++ and provides a rich suite of extensible and fully-parallel components that permit rapid application development, supports multiple discretization techniques, provides I/O interfaces, dynamic run-time load balancing and data migration, and interfaces to scalable popular linear solvers, e.g., in open-source packages such as HYPRE, PETSc, and Trilinos.

16. Reduced-complexity numerical method for optimal gate synthesis

Sridharan, Srinivas; Gu, Mile; James, Matthew R.; McEneaney, William M.

2010-10-01

Although quantum computers have the potential to efficiently solve certain problems considered difficult by known classical approaches, the design of a quantum circuit remains computationally difficult. It is known that the optimal gate-design problem is equivalent to the solution of an associated optimal-control problem; the solution to which is also computationally intensive. Hence, in this article, we introduce the application of a class of numerical methods (termed the max-plus curse of dimensionality-free techniques) that determine the optimal control, thereby synthesizing the desired unitary gate. The application of this technique to quantum systems has a growth in complexity that depends on the cardinality of the control-set approximation rather than the much larger growth with respect to spatial dimensions in approaches based on gridding of the space, which is used in previous research. This technique is demonstrated by obtaining an approximate solution for the gate synthesis on SU(4)—a problem that is computationally intractable by grid-based approaches.

17. Numerical Simulation of Tubular Pumping Systems with Different Regulation Methods

Zhu, Honggeng; Zhang, Rentian; Deng, Dongsheng; Feng, Xusong; Yao, Linbi

2010-06-01

Since the flow in tubular pumping systems is basically along axial direction and passes symmetrically through the impeller, most satisfying the basic hypotheses in the design of impeller and having higher pumping system efficiency in comparison with vertical pumping system, they are being widely applied to low-head pumping engineering. In a pumping station, the fluctuation of water levels in the sump and discharge pool is most common and at most time the pumping system runs under off-design conditions. Hence, the operation of pump has to be flexibly regulated to meet the needs of flow rates, and the selection of regulation method is as important as that of pump to reduce operation cost and achieve economic operation. In this paper, the three dimensional time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are closed by RNG κ-ɛ turbulent model, and two tubular pumping systems with different regulation methods, equipped with the same pump model but with different designed system structures, are numerically simulated respectively to predict the pumping system performances and analyze the influence of regulation device and help designers make final decision in the selection of design schemes. The computed results indicate that the pumping system with blade-adjusting device needs longer suction box, and the increased hydraulic loss will lower the pumping system efficiency in the order of 1.5%. The pumping system with permanent magnet motor, by means of variable speed regulation, obtains higher system efficiency partly for shorter suction box and partly for different structure design. Nowadays, the varied speed regulation is realized by varied frequency device, the energy consumption of which is about 3˜4% of output power of the motor. Hence, when the efficiency of variable frequency device is considered, the total pumping system efficiency will probably be lower.

18. Computer-aided diagnosis system: a Bayesian hybrid classification method.

PubMed

Calle-Alonso, F; Pérez, C J; Arias-Nicolás, J P; Martín, J

2013-10-01

A novel method to classify multi-class biomedical objects is presented. The method is based on a hybrid approach which combines pairwise comparison, Bayesian regression and the k-nearest neighbor technique. It can be applied in a fully automatic way or in a relevance feedback framework. In the latter case, the information obtained from both an expert and the automatic classification is iteratively used to improve the results until a certain accuracy level is achieved, then, the learning process is finished and new classifications can be automatically performed. The method has been applied in two biomedical contexts by following the same cross-validation schemes as in the original studies. The first one refers to cancer diagnosis, leading to an accuracy of 77.35% versus 66.37%, originally obtained. The second one considers the diagnosis of pathologies of the vertebral column. The original method achieves accuracies ranging from 76.5% to 96.7%, and from 82.3% to 97.1% in two different cross-validation schemes. Even with no supervision, the proposed method reaches 96.71% and 97.32% in these two cases. By using a supervised framework the achieved accuracy is 97.74%. Furthermore, all abnormal cases were correctly classified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

19. Hybrid Modeling Method for a DEP Based Particle Manipulation

PubMed Central

Miled, Mohamed Amine; Gagne, Antoine; Sawan, Mohamad

2013-01-01

In this paper, a new modeling approach for Dielectrophoresis (DEP) based particle manipulation is presented. The proposed method fulfills missing links in finite element modeling between the multiphysic simulation and the biological behavior. This technique is amongst the first steps to develop a more complex platform covering several types of manipulations such as magnetophoresis and optics. The modeling approach is based on a hybrid interface using both ANSYS and MATLAB to link the propagation of the electrical field in the micro-channel to the particle motion. ANSYS is used to simulate the electrical propagation while MATLAB interprets the results to calculate cell displacement and send the new information to ANSYS for another turn. The beta version of the proposed technique takes into account particle shape, weight and its electrical properties. First obtained results are coherent with experimental results. PMID:23364197

20. Revisiting Milgram's Cyranoid Method: Experimenting With Hybrid Human Agents.

PubMed

Corti, Kevin; Gillespie, Alex

2015-01-01

In two studies based on Stanley Milgram's original pilots, we present the first systematic examination of cyranoids as social psychological research tools. A cyranoid is created by cooperatively joining in real-time the body of one person with speech generated by another via covert speech shadowing. The resulting hybrid persona can subsequently interact with third parties face-to-face. We show that naïve interlocutors perceive a cyranoid to be a unified, autonomously communicating person, evidence for a phenomenon Milgram termed the "cyranic illusion." We also show that creating cyranoids composed of contrasting identities (a child speaking adult-generated words and vice versa) can be used to study how stereotyping and person perception are mediated by inner (dispositional) vs. outer (physical) identity. Our results establish the cyranoid method as a unique means of obtaining experimental control over inner and outer identities within social interactions rich in mundane realism.

1. HYBRID NEURAL NETWORK AND SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE METHOD FOR OPTIMIZATION

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rai, Man Mohan (Inventor)

2005-01-01

System and method for optimization of a design associated with a response function, using a hybrid neural net and support vector machine (NN/SVM) analysis to minimize or maximize an objective function, optionally subject to one or more constraints. As a first example, the NN/SVM analysis is applied iteratively to design of an aerodynamic component, such as an airfoil shape, where the objective function measures deviation from a target pressure distribution on the perimeter of the aerodynamic component. As a second example, the NN/SVM analysis is applied to data classification of a sequence of data points in a multidimensional space. The NN/SVM analysis is also applied to data regression.

2. Hybrid Neural Network and Support Vector Machine Method for Optimization

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rai, Man Mohan (Inventor)

2007-01-01

System and method for optimization of a design associated with a response function, using a hybrid neural net and support vector machine (NN/SVM) analysis to minimize or maximize an objective function, optionally subject to one or more constraints. As a first example, the NN/SVM analysis is applied iteratively to design of an aerodynamic component, such as an airfoil shape, where the objective function measures deviation from a target pressure distribution on the perimeter of the aerodynamic component. As a second example, the NN/SVM analysis is applied to data classification of a sequence of data points in a multidimensional space. The NN/SVM analysis is also applied to data regression.

3. Hybrid modeling method for a DEP based particle manipulation.

PubMed

Miled, Mohamed Amine; Gagne, Antoine; Sawan, Mohamad

2013-01-30

In this paper, a new modeling approach for Dielectrophoresis (DEP) based particle manipulation is presented. The proposed method fulfills missing links in finite element modeling between the multiphysic simulation and the biological behavior. This technique is amongst the first steps to develop a more complex platform covering several types of manipulations such as magnetophoresis and optics. The modeling approach is based on a hybrid interface using both ANSYS and MATLAB to link the propagation of the electrical field in the micro-channel to the particle motion. ANSYS is used to simulate the electrical propagation while MATLAB interprets the results to calculate cell displacement and send the new information to ANSYS for another turn. The beta version of the proposed technique takes into account particle shape, weight and its electrical properties. First obtained results are coherent with experimental results.

4. Hybrid-secondary uncluttered permanent magnet machine and method

DOEpatents

Hsu, John S.

2005-12-20

An electric machine (40) has a stator (43), a permanent magnet rotor (38) with permanent magnets (39) and a magnetic coupling uncluttered rotor (46) for inducing a slip energy current in secondary coils (47). A dc flux can be produced in the uncluttered rotor when the secondary coils are fed with dc currents. The magnetic coupling uncluttered rotor (46) has magnetic brushes (A, B, C, D) which couple flux in through the rotor (46) to the secondary coils (47c, 47d) without inducing a current in the rotor (46) and without coupling a stator rotational energy component to the secondary coils (47c, 47d). The machine can be operated as a motor or a generator in multi-phase or single-phase embodiments and is applicable to the hybrid electric vehicle. A method of providing a slip energy controller is also disclosed.

5. Active Problem Solving and Applied Research Methods in a Graduate Course on Numerical Methods

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maase, Eric L.; High, Karen A.

2008-01-01

"Chemical Engineering Modeling" is a first-semester graduate course traditionally taught in a lecture format at Oklahoma State University. The course as taught by the author for the past seven years focuses on numerical and mathematical methods as necessary skills for incoming graduate students. Recent changes to the course have included Visual…

6. Active Problem Solving and Applied Research Methods in a Graduate Course on Numerical Methods

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maase, Eric L.; High, Karen A.

2008-01-01

"Chemical Engineering Modeling" is a first-semester graduate course traditionally taught in a lecture format at Oklahoma State University. The course as taught by the author for the past seven years focuses on numerical and mathematical methods as necessary skills for incoming graduate students. Recent changes to the course have included Visual…

7. Computational modeling and relevance of numerical convergence for the investigation of thermal expansion behavior for aluminium hybrid composites

Krishna, S. A. Mohan; Shridhar, T. N.; Krishnamurthy, L.

2016-06-01

The thermal characterization and analysis of composite materials has been increasingly important in a wide range of applications. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is one of the most important properties of metal matrix composites (MMCs). Since nearly all MMCs are used in various temperature ranges, measurement of CTE as a function of temperature is necessary in order to know the behavior of the material. In this research paper, the evaluation of CTE or thermal expansivity has been accomplished for Al 6061, silicon carbide and graphite hybrid MMCs from room temperature to 300∘C. Aluminium-based composites reinforced with silicon carbide and graphite particles have been prepared by stir casting technique. The thermal expansivity behavior of hybrid composites with different percentage compositions of reinforcements has been investigated. The results have indicated that the thermal expansivity of different compositions of hybrid MMCs decrease by the addition of graphite with silicon carbide and Al 6061. Empirical models have been validated for the evaluation of thermal expansivity of composites. Numerical convergence test has been accomplished to investigate the thermal expansion behavior of composites.

8. A method of numerically controlled machine part programming

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1970-01-01

Computer program is designed for automatically programmed tools. Preprocessor computes desired tool path and postprocessor computes actual commands causing machine tool to follow specific path. It is used on a Cincinnati ATC-430 numerically controlled machine tool.

9. Basic numerical methods. [of unsteady and transonic flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Steger, Joseph L.; Van Dalsem, William R.

1989-01-01

Some of the basic finite-difference schemes that can be used to solve the nonlinear equations that describe unsteady inviscid and viscous transonic flow are reviewed. Numerical schemes for solving the unsteady Euler and Navier-Stokes, boundary-layer, and nonlinear potential equations are described. Emphasis is given to the elementary ideas used in constructing various numerical procedures, not specific details of any one procedure.

10. Review of Methods and Approaches for Deriving Numeric ...

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

EPA will propose numeric criteria for nitrogen/phosphorus pollution to protect estuaries, coastal areas and South Florida inland flowing waters that have been designated Class I, II and III , as well as downstream protective values (DPVs) to protect estuarine and marine waters. In accordance with the formal determination and pursuant to a subsequent consent decree, these numeric criteria are being developed to translate and implement Florida’s existing narrative nutrient criterion, to protect the designated use that Florida has previously set for these waters, at Rule 62-302.530(47)(b), F.A.C. which provides that “In no case shall nutrient concentrations of a body of water be altered so as to cause an imbalance in natural populations of aquatic flora or fauna.” Under the Clean Water Act and EPA’s implementing regulations, these numeric criteria must be based on sound scientific rationale and reflect the best available scientific knowledge. EPA has previously published a series of peer reviewed technical guidance documents to develop numeric criteria to address nitrogen/phosphorus pollution in different water body types. EPA recognizes that available and reliable data sources for use in numeric criteria development vary across estuarine and coastal waters in Florida and flowing waters in South Florida. In addition, scientifically defensible approaches for numeric criteria development have different requirements that must be taken into consider

11. Numerical tracing of energetic electron microsignatures: methods and applications

Andriopoulou, M.; Roussos, E.; Krupp, N.; Paranicas, C.; Thomsen, M. F.; Krimigis, S. M.; Dougherty, M. K.

2012-12-01

One of the most sensitive methods to measure weak, non-corotational velocity components in Saturn's magnetosphere is the detection and analysis of the energetic electron microsignature locations. Microsignatures are typically very sharp and narrow energetic electron flux dropouts observed in the inner saturnian magnetosphere and at locations that map magnetically close to the orbits of the planet's icy moons. Microsignatures form after the drifting electrons encounter one of these moons and get absorbed. Since the resulting cavities cannot refill within the local, moon-magnetosphere interaction region, they propagate in the magnetosphere with the properties of the pre-depleted energetic electrons. Microsignatures may survive up to 1.5 rotations around the planet, and for that reason they are excellent tools for tracing the shape of the magnetospheric particle drift shells. In all tracing studies up to now, however, calculations were performed assuming a dipole field configuration and corotation-driven azimuthal electric fields. These assumptions allow for straightforward, analytical solutions of the equations of motion. Aspects that are usually neglected are related to the detection of the microsignatures, such as the finite energy width and complex response of the detector channels that record the relevant signals. Furthermore, the role of the weak, non-corotational and/or non-dipolar drift components becomes important as the energy of the electrons increases, since corotation and magnetic drifts tend to cancel out between about 400 keV and few MeV. Neglecting these weak drifts at high energies can be a source of large systematic errors in the tracing procedure. In this study we demonstrate how all these assumptions and simplifications may affect the quality and the outcome of the microsignature analysis. We then show how the use of the correct system of equations and numerical tracing helps to understand all major observational aspects of microsignatures (e

12. Development of a hybrid (numerical-hydraulic) circulatory model: prototype testing and its response to IABP assistance.

PubMed

Ferrari, G; Kozarski, M; De Lazzari, C; Górczyńska, K; Tosti, G; Darowski, M

2005-07-01

Merging numerical and physical models of the circulation makes it possible to develop a new class of circulatory models defined as hybrid. This solution reduces the costs, enhances the flexibility and opens the way to many applications ranging from research to education and heart assist devices testing. In the prototype described in this paper, a hydraulic model of systemic arterial tree is connected to a lumped parameters numerical model including pulmonary circulation and the remaining parts of systemic circulation. The hydraulic model consists of a characteristic resistance, of a silicon rubber tube to allow the insertion of an Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump (IABP) and of a lumped parameters compliance. Two electro-hydraulic interfaces, realized by means of gear pumps driven by DC motors, connect the numerical section with both terminals of the hydraulic section. The lumped parameters numerical model and the control system (including analog to digital and digital to analog converters)are developed in LabVIEW environment. The behavior of the model is analyzed by means of the ventricular pressure-volume loops and the time courses of arterial and ventricular pressures and flows in different circulatory conditions. A simulated pathological condition was set to test the IABP and verify the response of the system to this type of mechanical circulatory assistance. The results show that the model can represent hemodynamic relationships in different ventricular and circulatory conditions and is able to react to the IABP assistance.

13. Numerical simulations of multicomponent ecological models with adaptive methods.

PubMed

Owolabi, Kolade M; Patidar, Kailash C

2016-01-08

The study of dynamic relationship between a multi-species models has gained a huge amount of scientific interest over the years and will continue to maintain its dominance in both ecology and mathematical ecology in the years to come due to its practical relevance and universal existence. Some of its emergence phenomena include spatiotemporal patterns, oscillating solutions, multiple steady states and spatial pattern formation. Many time-dependent partial differential equations are found combining low-order nonlinear with higher-order linear terms. In attempt to obtain a reliable results of such problems, it is desirable to use higher-order methods in both space and time. Most computations heretofore are restricted to second order in time due to some difficulties introduced by the combination of stiffness and nonlinearity. Hence, the dynamics of a reaction-diffusion models considered in this paper permit the use of two classic mathematical ideas. As a result, we introduce higher order finite difference approximation for the spatial discretization, and advance the resulting system of ODE with a family of exponential time differencing schemes. We present the stability properties of these methods along with the extensive numerical simulations for a number of multi-species models. When the diffusivity is small many of the models considered in this paper are found to exhibit a form of localized spatiotemporal patterns. Such patterns are correctly captured in the local analysis of the model equations. An extended 2D results that are in agreement with Turing typical patterns such as stripes and spots, as well as irregular snakelike structures are presented. We finally show that the designed schemes are dynamically consistent. The dynamic complexities of some ecological models are studied by considering their linear stability analysis. Based on the choices of parameters in transforming the system into a dimensionless form, we were able to obtain a well-balanced system that

14. Three-dimensional numerical analysis of hybrid heterojunction silicon wafer solar cells with heterojunction rear point contacts

Ling, Zhi Peng; Duttagupta, Shubham; Ma, Fajun; Mueller, Thomas; Aberle, Armin G.; Stangl, Rolf

2015-07-01

This paper presents a three-dimensional numerical analysis of homojunction/heterojunction hybrid silicon wafer solar cells, featuring front-side full-area diffused homojunction contacts and rear-side heterojunction point contacts. Their device performance is compared with conventional full-area heterojunction solar cells as well as conventional diffused solar cells featuring locally diffused rear point contacts, for both front-emitter and rear-emitter configurations. A consistent set of simulation input parameters is obtained by calibrating the simulation program with intensity dependent lifetime measurements of the passivated regions and the contact regions of the various types of solar cells. We show that the best efficiency is obtained when a-Si:H is used for rear-side heterojunction point-contact formation. An optimization of the rear contact area fraction is required to balance between the gains in current and voltage and the loss in fill factor with shrinking rear contact area fraction. However, the corresponding optimal range for the rear-contact area fraction is found to be quite large (e.g. 20-60 % for hybrid front-emitter cells). Hybrid rear-emitter cells show a faster drop in the fill factor with decreasing rear contact area fraction compared to front-emitter cells, stemming from a higher series resistance contribution of the rear-side a-Si:H(p+) emitter compared to the rear-side a-Si:H(n+) back surface field layer. Overall, we show that hybrid silicon solar cells in a front-emitter configuration can outperform conventional heterojunction silicon solar cells as well as diffused solar cells with rear-side locally diffused point contacts.

15. A Fast Numerical Method for a Nonlinear Black-Scholes Equation

Koleva, Miglena N.; Vulkov, Lubin G.

2009-11-01

In this paper we will present an effective numerical method for the Black-Scholes equation with transaction costs for the limiting price u(s, t;a). The technique combines the Rothe method with a two-grid (coarse-fine) algorithm for computation of numerical solutions to initial boundary-values problems to this equation. Numerical experiments for comparison the accuracy ant the computational cost of the method with other known numerical schemes are discussed.

16. A numerical analysis method for evaluating rod lenses using the Monte Carlo method.

PubMed

Yoshida, Shuhei; Horiuchi, Shuma; Ushiyama, Zenta; Yamamoto, Manabu

2010-12-20

We propose a numerical analysis method for evaluating GRIN lenses using the Monte Carlo method. Actual measurements of the modulation transfer function (MTF) of a GRIN lens using this method closely match those made by conventional methods. Experimentally, the MTF is measured using a square wave chart, and is then calculated based on the distribution of output strength on the chart. In contrast, the general method using computers evaluates the MTF based on a spot diagram made by an incident point light source. However the results differ greatly from those from experiments. We therefore developed an evaluation method similar to the experimental system based on the Monte Carlo method and verified that it more closely matches the experimental results than the conventional method.

17. Hybrid MC/MD Method For High Entropy Alloy

Feng, Bojun; Widom, Michael

High entropy alloys (HEA) are materials that contain multiple components of elements consisting of a single solid solution phase which could make the entropy of mixing very high. From recent investigations, HEA's possess promising properties such as strength at high temperature, tensile strength, thermal stability and corrosion resistance. In this talk, a hybrid Molecular Dynamics (MD)/Monte Carlo (MC) simulation method is introduced to the computational analysis of HEA, treating atomic displacement by MD as well as swapping atomic species by MC. This method efficiently models the phase separation and short range order by swapping between different types of atoms, while structural deviation from the perfect lattice sites of atoms is equilibrated quickly by MD. We apply this method to HfNbTaZr HEA modeled using an embedded-atom potential. The result gives a strong phase separation of Hf-Zr and Nb-Ta pairs shown by the pair correlation function. Diffuse scattering patterns are predicted and compared to experiments. Doe Grant No. DE-SC0014506.

18. SAMSAN- MODERN NUMERICAL METHODS FOR CLASSICAL SAMPLED SYSTEM ANALYSIS

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Frisch, H. P.

1994-01-01

SAMSAN was developed to aid the control system analyst by providing a self consistent set of computer algorithms that support large order control system design and evaluation studies, with an emphasis placed on sampled system analysis. Control system analysts have access to a vast array of published algorithms to solve an equally large spectrum of controls related computational problems. The analyst usually spends considerable time and effort bringing these published algorithms to an integrated operational status and often finds them less general than desired. SAMSAN reduces the burden on the analyst by providing a set of algorithms that have been well tested and documented, and that can be readily integrated for solving control system problems. Algorithm selection for SAMSAN has been biased toward numerical accuracy for large order systems with computational speed and portability being considered important but not paramount. In addition to containing relevant subroutines from EISPAK for eigen-analysis and from LINPAK for the solution of linear systems and related problems, SAMSAN contains the following not so generally available capabilities: 1) Reduction of a real non-symmetric matrix to block diagonal form via a real similarity transformation matrix which is well conditioned with respect to inversion, 2) Solution of the generalized eigenvalue problem with balancing and grading, 3) Computation of all zeros of the determinant of a matrix of polynomials, 4) Matrix exponentiation and the evaluation of integrals involving the matrix exponential, with option to first block diagonalize, 5) Root locus and frequency response for single variable transfer functions in the S, Z, and W domains, 6) Several methods of computing zeros for linear systems, and 7) The ability to generate documentation "on demand". All matrix operations in the SAMSAN algorithms assume non-symmetric matrices with real double precision elements. There is no fixed size limit on any matrix in any

19. SAMSAN- MODERN NUMERICAL METHODS FOR CLASSICAL SAMPLED SYSTEM ANALYSIS

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Frisch, H. P.

1994-01-01

SAMSAN was developed to aid the control system analyst by providing a self consistent set of computer algorithms that support large order control system design and evaluation studies, with an emphasis placed on sampled system analysis. Control system analysts have access to a vast array of published algorithms to solve an equally large spectrum of controls related computational problems. The analyst usually spends considerable time and effort bringing these published algorithms to an integrated operational status and often finds them less general than desired. SAMSAN reduces the burden on the analyst by providing a set of algorithms that have been well tested and documented, and that can be readily integrated for solving control system problems. Algorithm selection for SAMSAN has been biased toward numerical accuracy for large order systems with computational speed and portability being considered important but not paramount. In addition to containing relevant subroutines from EISPAK for eigen-analysis and from LINPAK for the solution of linear systems and related problems, SAMSAN contains the following not so generally available capabilities: 1) Reduction of a real non-symmetric matrix to block diagonal form via a real similarity transformation matrix which is well conditioned with respect to inversion, 2) Solution of the generalized eigenvalue problem with balancing and grading, 3) Computation of all zeros of the determinant of a matrix of polynomials, 4) Matrix exponentiation and the evaluation of integrals involving the matrix exponential, with option to first block diagonalize, 5) Root locus and frequency response for single variable transfer functions in the S, Z, and W domains, 6) Several methods of computing zeros for linear systems, and 7) The ability to generate documentation "on demand". All matrix operations in the SAMSAN algorithms assume non-symmetric matrices with real double precision elements. There is no fixed size limit on any matrix in any

20. Development of a Hybrid RANS/LES Method for Turbulent Mixing Layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Reshotko, Eli

2001-01-01

Significant research has been underway for several years in NASA Glenn Research Center's nozzle branch to develop advanced computational methods for simulating turbulent flows in exhaust nozzles. The primary efforts of this research have concentrated on improving our ability to calculate the turbulent mixing layers that dominate flows both in the exhaust systems of modern-day aircraft and in those of hypersonic vehicles under development. As part of these efforts, a hybrid numerical method was recently developed to simulate such turbulent mixing layers. The method developed here is intended for configurations in which a dominant structural feature provides an unsteady mechanism to drive the turbulent development in the mixing layer. Interest in Large Eddy Simulation (LES) methods have increased in recent years, but applying an LES method to calculate the wide range of turbulent scales from small eddies in the wall-bounded regions to large eddies in the mixing region is not yet possible with current computers. As a result, the hybrid method developed here uses a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) procedure to calculate wall-bounded regions entering a mixing section and uses a LES procedure to calculate the mixing-dominated regions. A numerical technique was developed to enable the use of the hybrid RANS-LES method on stretched, non-Cartesian grids. With this technique, closure for the RANS equations is obtained by using the Cebeci-Smith algebraic turbulence model in conjunction with the wall-function approach of Ota and Goldberg. The LES equations are closed using the Smagorinsky subgrid scale model. Although the function of the Cebeci-Smith model to replace all of the turbulent stresses is quite different from that of the Smagorinsky subgrid model, which only replaces the small subgrid turbulent stresses, both are eddy viscosity models and both are derived at least in part from mixing-length theory. The similar formulation of these two models enables the RANS

1. Numerical Analysis on the Vortex Pattern and Flux Particle Dispersion in KR Method Using MPS Method

Hirata, N.; Xu, Y.; Anzai, K.

2015-06-01

The mechanically-stirring vessel is widely used in many fields, such as chemical reactor, bioreactor, and metallurgy, etc. The type of vortex mode that formed during impeller stirring has great effect on stirring efficiency, chemical reacting rate and air entrapment. Many efforts have been made to numerically simulate the fluid flow in the stirring vessel with classical Eulerian method. However, it is difficult to directly investigate the vortex mode and flux particle dispersion. Therefore, moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method, which is based on Lagrangian method, is applied to simulate the fluid flow in a KR method in this practice. Top height and bottom heights of vortex surface in a steady state under several rotation speed was taken as key parameters to compare the results of numerical and published results. Flux particle dispersion behaviour under a rotation speed range from 80 to 480 rpm was also compared with the past study. The result shows that the numerical calculation has high consistency with experimental results. It is confirmed that the calculation using MPS method well reflected the vortex mode and flux particle dispersion in a mechanically-stirring vessel.

2. A hybrid Boundary Element Unstructured Transmission-line (BEUT) method for accurate 2D electromagnetic simulation

Simmons, Daniel; Cools, Kristof; Sewell, Phillip

2016-11-01

Time domain electromagnetic simulation tools have the ability to model transient, wide-band applications, and non-linear problems. The Boundary Element Method (BEM) and the Transmission Line Modeling (TLM) method are both well established numerical techniques for simulating time-varying electromagnetic fields. The former surface based method can accurately describe outwardly radiating fields from piecewise uniform objects and efficiently deals with large domains filled with homogeneous media. The latter volume based method can describe inhomogeneous and non-linear media and has been proven to be unconditionally stable. Furthermore, the Unstructured TLM (UTLM) enables modelling of geometrically complex objects by using triangular meshes which removes staircasing and unnecessary extensions of the simulation domain. The hybridization of BEM and UTLM which is described in this paper is named the Boundary Element Unstructured Transmission-line (BEUT) method. It incorporates the advantages of both methods. The theory and derivation of the 2D BEUT method is described in this paper, along with any relevant implementation details. The method is corroborated by studying its correctness and efficiency compared to the traditional UTLM method when applied to complex problems such as the transmission through a system of Luneburg lenses and the modelling of antenna radomes for use in wireless communications.

3. A hybrid Boundary Element Unstructured Transmission-line (BEUT) method for accurate 2D electromagnetic simulation

SciTech Connect

Simmons, Daniel Cools, Kristof; Sewell, Phillip

2016-11-01

Time domain electromagnetic simulation tools have the ability to model transient, wide-band applications, and non-linear problems. The Boundary Element Method (BEM) and the Transmission Line Modeling (TLM) method are both well established numerical techniques for simulating time-varying electromagnetic fields. The former surface based method can accurately describe outwardly radiating fields from piecewise uniform objects and efficiently deals with large domains filled with homogeneous media. The latter volume based method can describe inhomogeneous and non-linear media and has been proven to be unconditionally stable. Furthermore, the Unstructured TLM (UTLM) enables modelling of geometrically complex objects by using triangular meshes which removes staircasing and unnecessary extensions of the simulation domain. The hybridization of BEM and UTLM which is described in this paper is named the Boundary Element Unstructured Transmission-line (BEUT) method. It incorporates the advantages of both methods. The theory and derivation of the 2D BEUT method is described in this paper, along with any relevant implementation details. The method is corroborated by studying its correctness and efficiency compared to the traditional UTLM method when applied to complex problems such as the transmission through a system of Luneburg lenses and the modelling of antenna radomes for use in wireless communications. - Graphical abstract:.

4. Hybrid discrete ordinates and characteristics method for solving the linear Boltzmann equation

Yi, Ce

With the ability of computer hardware and software increasing rapidly, deterministic methods to solve the linear Boltzmann equation (LBE) have attracted some attention for computational applications in both the nuclear engineering and medical physics fields. Among various deterministic methods, the discrete ordinates method (SN) and the method of characteristics (MOC) are two of the most widely used methods. The SN method is the traditional approach to solve the LBE for its stability and efficiency. While the MOC has some advantages in treating complicated geometries. However, in 3-D problems requiring a dense discretization grid in phase space (i.e., a large number of spatial meshes, directions, or energy groups), both methods could suffer from the need for large amounts of memory and computation time. In our study, we developed a new hybrid algorithm by combing the two methods into one code, TITAN. The hybrid approach is specifically designed for application to problems containing low scattering regions. A new serial 3-D time-independent transport code has been developed. Under the hybrid approach, the preferred method can be applied in different regions (blocks) within the same problem model. Since the characteristics method is numerically more efficient in low scattering media, the hybrid approach uses a block-oriented characteristics solver in low scattering regions, and a block-oriented SN solver in the remainder of the physical model. In the TITAN code, a physical problem model is divided into a number of coarse meshes (blocks) in Cartesian geometry. Either the characteristics solver or the SN solver can be chosen to solve the LBE within a coarse mesh. A coarse mesh can be filled with fine meshes or characteristic rays depending on the solver assigned to the coarse mesh. Furthermore, with its object-oriented programming paradigm and layered code structure, TITAN allows different individual spatial meshing schemes and angular quadrature sets for each coarse

5. Modeling supersonic combustion using a fully-implicit numerical method

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maccormack, Robert W.; Wilson, Gregory J.

1990-01-01

A fully-implicit finite-volume algorithm for two-dimensional axisymmetric flows has been coupled to a detailed hydrogen-air reaction mechanism (13 species and 33 reactions) so that supersonic combustion phenomena may be investigated. Numerical computations are compared with ballistic-range shadowgraphs of Lehr (1972) that exhibit two discontinuities caused by a blunt body as it passes through a premixed stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixture. The suitability of the numerical procedure for simulating these double-front flows is shown. The requirements for the physical formulation and the numerical modeling of these flowfields are discussed. Finally, the sensitivity of these external flowfields to changes in certain key reaction rate constants is examined.

6. Adaptive Numerical Dissipation Controls for High Order Methods

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Yee, Helen C.; Sjogreen, B.; Sandham, N. D.; Mansour, Nagi (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

A numerical scheme for direct numerical simulation of shock-turbulence interactions of high speed compressible flows would ideally not be significantly more expensive than the standard fourth or sixth-order compact or non-compact central differencing scheme. It should be possible to resolve all scales down to scales of order of the Kolmogorov scales of turbulence accurately and efficiently, while at the same time being able to capture steep gradients occurring at much smaller scales efficiently. The goal of this lecture is to review the progress and new development of the low dissipative high order shock-capturing schemes proposed by Yee et al. Comparison on the efficiency and accuracy of this class of schemes with spectral and the fifth-order WENO (weighted essentially nonoscillatory) scheme will be presented. A new approach to dynamically sense the appropriate amount of numerical dissipation to be added at each grid point using non-orthogonal wavelets will be discussed.

7. Physics-based hybrid method for multiscale transport in porous media

2017-09-01

Despite advancements in the development of multiscale models for flow and reactive transport in porous media, the accurate, efficient and physics-based coupling of multiple scales in hybrid models remains a major theoretical and computational challenge. Improving the predictivity of macroscale predictions by means of multiscale algorithms relative to classical at-scale models is the primary motivation for the development of multiscale simulators. Yet, very few are the quantitative studies that explicitly address the predictive capability of multiscale coupling algorithms as it is still generally not possible to have a priori estimates of the errors that are present when complex flow processes are modeled. We develop a nonintrusive pore-/continuum-scale hybrid model whose coupling error is bounded by the upscaling error, i.e. we build a predictive tightly coupled multiscale scheme. This is accomplished by slightly enlarging the subdomain where continuum-scale equations are locally invalid and analytically defining physics-based coupling conditions at the interfaces separating the two computational sub-domains, while enforcing state variable and flux continuity. The proposed multiscale coupling approach retains the advantages of domain decomposition approaches, including the use of existing solvers for each subdomain, while it gains flexibility in the choice of the numerical discretization method and maintains the coupling errors bounded by the upscaling error. We implement the coupling in finite volumes and test the proposed method by modeling flow and transport through a reactive channel and past an array of heterogeneously reactive cylinders.

8. Application of numerical methods to planetary radiowave scattering

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simpson, Richard A.; Tyler, G. Leonard

1987-01-01

Existing numerical techniques for the solution of scattering problems were investigated to determine those which might be applicable to planetary surface studies, with the goal of improving the interpretation of radar data from Venus, Mars, the Moon, and icy satellites. The general characteristics of the models are described along with computational concerns. In particular, the Numerical Electrogmatics Code (NEC) developed at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory is discussed. Though not developed for random rough surfaces, the NEC contains elements which may be generalized and which could be valuable in the study of scattering by planetary surfaces.

9. A numerical method for the nonlinear oscillator problem

Killingbeck, J.; Jolicard, G.

1998-03-01

The treatment of a nonlinear Schrödinger equation with power law potential terms by means of hypervirial perturbation theory (HVPT) is considered. Previous workers have tried to handle the nonlinearity by constructing an HVPT which also contains a nonlinear term. We show that higher numerical accuracy can be obtained by reverting to the usual linear HVPT in combination with a simple numerical procedure. The procedure also works with finite-difference shooting calculations, which would permit the calculations to be extended to handle more general potentials.

10. Investigating Transgenic Corn Hybrids as a Method for Mycotoxin Control

USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

Transgenic Bt corn hybrids have been available for more than 10 years and are known to control specific insects. More recently, so-called “stacked-gene” hybrids, have been released with multiple insect resistance genes and genes for herbicide resistance, resulting in up to 6 traits per plant. Beca...

11. Applying multi-resolution numerical methods to geodynamics

Davies, David Rhodri

Computational models yield inaccurate results if the underlying numerical grid fails to provide the necessary resolution to capture a simulation's important features. For the large-scale problems regularly encountered in geodynamics, inadequate grid resolution is a major concern. The majority of models involve multi-scale dynamics, being characterized by fine-scale upwelling and downwelling activity in a more passive, large-scale background flow. Such configurations, when coupled to the complex geometries involved, present a serious challenge for computational methods. Current techniques are unable to resolve localized features and, hence, such models cannot be solved efficiently. This thesis demonstrates, through a series of papers and closely-coupled appendices, how multi-resolution finite-element methods from the forefront of computational engineering can provide a means to address these issues. The problems examined achieve multi-resolution through one of two methods. In two-dimensions (2-D), automatic, unstructured mesh refinement procedures are utilized. Such methods improve the solution quality of convection dominated problems by adapting the grid automatically around regions of high solution gradient, yielding enhanced resolution of the associated flow features. Thermal and thermo-chemical validation tests illustrate that the technique is robust and highly successful, improving solution accuracy whilst increasing computational efficiency. These points are reinforced when the technique is applied to geophysical simulations of mid-ocean ridge and subduction zone magmatism. To date, successful goal-orientated/error-guided grid adaptation techniques have not been utilized within the field of geodynamics. The work included herein is therefore the first geodynamical application of such methods. In view of the existing three-dimensional (3-D) spherical mantle dynamics codes, which are built upon a quasi-uniform discretization of the sphere and closely coupled

12. SIMS: A Hybrid Method for Rapid Conformational Analysis

PubMed Central

Gipson, Bryant; Moll, Mark; Kavraki, Lydia E.

2013-01-01

Proteins are at the root of many biological functions, often performing complex tasks as the result of large changes in their structure. Describing the exact details of these conformational changes, however, remains a central challenge for computational biology due the enormous computational requirements of the problem. This has engendered the development of a rich variety of useful methods designed to answer specific questions at different levels of spatial, temporal, and energetic resolution. These methods fall largely into two classes: physically accurate, but computationally demanding methods and fast, approximate methods. We introduce here a new hybrid modeling tool, the Structured Intuitive Move Selector (sims), designed to bridge the divide between these two classes, while allowing the benefits of both to be seamlessly integrated into a single framework. This is achieved by applying a modern motion planning algorithm, borrowed from the field of robotics, in tandem with a well-established protein modeling library. sims can combine precise energy calculations with approximate or specialized conformational sampling routines to produce rapid, yet accurate, analysis of the large-scale conformational variability of protein systems. Several key advancements are shown, including the abstract use of generically defined moves (conformational sampling methods) and an expansive probabilistic conformational exploration. We present three example problems that sims is applied to and demonstrate a rapid solution for each. These include the automatic determination of “active” residues for the hinge-based system Cyanovirin-N, exploring conformational changes involving long-range coordinated motion between non-sequential residues in Ribose-Binding Protein, and the rapid discovery of a transient conformational state of Maltose-Binding Protein, previously only determined by Molecular Dynamics. For all cases we provide energetic validations using well-established energy

13. The Design of CAL Packages for Teaching Numerical Methods to Chemistry Students.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Norris, A. C.

1979-01-01

Discusses the design of computational exercises useful for a course in numerical methods for chemists. Some of the exercises make use of available programs while others require the student to write programs incorporating numerical routines. The emphasis throughout is on the use of numerical methods to solve chemical problems. (Author)

14. Numerical Methods for Analysis of Charged Vacancy Diffusion in Dielectric Solids

DTIC Science & Technology

2006-12-01

numerical solution dictate the practical choice of t∆ 10 ( Chapra and Canale, 1998). Let /B RD dk θ ξ= , where Rξ is a reference concentration per unit...H. A.; Wilkes, J. O. Applied Numerical Methods; Wiley: New York, 1969. Chapra , S. C.; Canale, R. P. Numerical Methods for Engineers with

15. Application of the hybrid method with constant coefficients to solving the integro-differential equations of first order

Mehdiyeva, Galina; Imanova, Mehriban; Ibrahimov, Vagif

2012-11-01

As is well known investigation of many processes of natural sciences reduce to the solving of initial value problem for integro-differential equations which are one of the priority areas of modern mathematics. To define the exact solution of such problems is not always possible. Therefore the scientists constructed approximate methods for solving them. There are a number of papers devoted to finding approximate solutions of integro-differential equations. Unlike at papers investigated, here the numerical solution of initial value problem for Volterra integro-differential equations by the hybrid methods, constructed concrete methods with the degree p ≤ 6 and suggested algorithm for using them.

16. Application of advanced hybrid metrology method to nanoimprint lithography

Osherov, Ilya; Issacharoff, Limor; Gedalia, Oram; Wakamoto, Koichi; Sendelbach, Matthew; Asano, Masafumi

2017-03-01

Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is one alternative lithography solution that is being pursued by the industry. A metrology-related problem specific to NIL is the measurement of the residual layer thickness (RLT), as knowledge of this is key to the monitoring and control of the NIL process and subsequent patterning. Scatterometry is used to measure the RLT due to its ability to measure profile features non-destructively with high throughput. But because scatterometry is sensitive to features unrelated to the parameter of interest, complex geometries throughout the film stack can make the measurement challenging. New methods to reduce the impact of such complex geometries on the measurement parameters of interest are therefore needed. Because of the use of NIL for 3DNAND development, the measurement of the RLT with complex structures underneath becomes necessary. This paper describes the results from a new hybrid metrology method that can combine key information from these complex geometries with scatterometry measurements to reduce the impact on the RLT measurement due to the layers beneath the resist. By reducing this impact, scatterometry measurement noise and cross-correlation of parameters are reduced, resulting in better precision and accuracy in the RLT measurement.

17. A numerical method for solving the 3D unsteady incompressible Navier Stokes equations in curvilinear domains with complex immersed boundaries

Ge, Liang; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

2007-08-01

A novel numerical method is developed that integrates boundary-conforming grids with a sharp interface, immersed boundary methodology. The method is intended for simulating internal flows containing complex, moving immersed boundaries such as those encountered in several cardiovascular applications. The background domain (e.g. the empty aorta) is discretized efficiently with a curvilinear boundary-fitted mesh while the complex moving immersed boundary (say a prosthetic heart valve) is treated with the sharp-interface, hybrid Cartesian/immersed-boundary approach of Gilmanov and Sotiropoulos [A. Gilmanov, F. Sotiropoulos, A hybrid cartesian/immersed boundary method for simulating flows with 3d, geometrically complex, moving bodies, Journal of Computational Physics 207 (2005) 457-492.]. To facilitate the implementation of this novel modeling paradigm in complex flow simulations, an accurate and efficient numerical method is developed for solving the unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in generalized curvilinear coordinates. The method employs a novel, fully-curvilinear staggered grid discretization approach, which does not require either the explicit evaluation of the Christoffel symbols or the discretization of all three momentum equations at cell interfaces as done in previous formulations. The equations are integrated in time using an efficient, second-order accurate fractional step methodology coupled with a Jacobian-free, Newton-Krylov solver for the momentum equations and a GMRES solver enhanced with multigrid as preconditioner for the Poisson equation. Several numerical experiments are carried out on fine computational meshes to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method for standard benchmark problems as well as for unsteady, pulsatile flow through a curved, pipe bend. To demonstrate the ability of the method to simulate flows with complex, moving immersed boundaries we apply it to calculate pulsatile, physiological flow

18. Numerical modeling of shallow magma intrusions with finite element method

Chen, Tielin; Cheng, Shaozhen; Fang, Qian; Zhou, Cheng

2017-03-01

A numerical approach for simulation of magma intrusion process, considering the couplings of the stress distribution, the viscous fluid flow of magma, and the fracturing of host rock, has been developed to investigate the mechanisms of fracture initiation and propagation in host rock during magma intrusion without pre-placing a set of fractures. The study focused on the dike intrusions filled with injected viscous magma in shallow sediments. A series of numerical modellings were carried out to simulate the process of magma intrusion in host rocks, with particular attention on the magma propagation processes and the formation of intrusion shapes. The model materials were Mohr-Coulomb materials with tension failure and shear failure. The scenarios of both stochastically heterogeneous host rocks and layered host rocks were analyzed. The injected magma formed intrusions shapes of (a) dyke, (b) sill, (c) cup-shaped intrusion, (d) saucer-shaped intrusion. The numerical results were in agreement with the experimental and field observed results, which confirmed the adequacy and the power of the numerical approach.

19. Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Combustion Using Vortex Methods

DTIC Science & Technology

1990-01-08

Electric Co., Schenectady, October 1988. 2. DOD and EPA Tyndall Conference on Halon, the Ozone Layer and Research on Alternative Chemicals, Tyndall...26th Aerospace Sciences Meetin , January 11-14, Reno, Nevada, AIAA-88-0729. 13. Ghoniem A.F., and Ng K.K., Numerical study of a forced shear layet

20. Hybrid method for understanding black-hole mergers: Head-on case

Nichols, David A.; Chen, Yanbei

2010-11-01

Black-hole-binary coalescence is often divided into three stages: inspiral, merger, and ringdown. The post-Newtonian (PN) approximation treats the inspiral phase, black-hole perturbation (BHP) theory describes the ringdown, and the nonlinear dynamics of space-time characterize the merger. In this paper, we introduce a hybrid method that incorporates elements of PN and BHP theories, and we apply it to the head-on collision of black holes with transverse, antiparallel spins. We compare our approximation technique with a full numerical-relativity simulation, and we find good agreement between the gravitational waveforms and the radiated energy and momentum. Our results suggest that PN and BHP theories may suffice to explain the main features of outgoing gravitational radiation for head-on mergers. This would further imply that linear perturbations to exact black-hole solutions can capture the nonlinear aspects of head-on binary-black-hole mergers accessible to observers far from the collision.

1. Numerical Modeling of 3-D Dynamics of Ultrasound Contrast Agent Microbubbles Using the Boundary Integral Method

Calvisi, Michael; Manmi, Kawa; Wang, Qianxi

2014-11-01

Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) are microbubbles stabilized with a shell typically of lipid, polymer, or protein and are emerging as a unique tool for noninvasive therapies ranging from gene delivery to tumor ablation. The nonspherical dynamics of contrast agents are thought to play an important role in both diagnostic and therapeutic applications, for example, causing the emission of subharmonic frequency components and enhancing the uptake of therapeutic agents across cell membranes and tissue interfaces. A three-dimensional model for nonspherical contrast agent dynamics based on the boundary integral method is presented. The effects of the encapsulating shell are approximated by adapting Hoff's model for thin-shell, spherical contrast agents to the nonspherical case. A high-quality mesh of the bubble surface is maintained by implementing a hybrid approach of the Lagrangian method and elastic mesh technique. Numerical analyses for the dynamics of UCAs in an infinite liquid and near a rigid wall are performed in parameter regimes of clinical relevance. The results show that the presence of a coating significantly reduces the oscillation amplitude and period, increases the ultrasound pressure amplitude required to incite jetting, and reduces the jet width and velocity.

2. Hybrid Monte Carlo/deterministic methods for radiation shielding problems

Becker, Troy L.

For the past few decades, the most common type of deep-penetration (shielding) problem simulated using Monte Carlo methods has been the source-detector problem, in which a response is calculated at a single location in space. Traditionally, the nonanalog Monte Carlo methods used to solve these problems have required significant user input to generate and sufficiently optimize the biasing parameters necessary to obtain a statistically reliable solution. It has been demonstrated that this laborious task can be replaced by automated processes that rely on a deterministic adjoint solution to set the biasing parameters---the so-called hybrid methods. The increase in computational power over recent years has also led to interest in obtaining the solution in a region of space much larger than a point detector. In this thesis, we propose two methods for solving problems ranging from source-detector problems to more global calculations---weight windows and the Transform approach. These techniques employ sonic of the same biasing elements that have been used previously; however, the fundamental difference is that here the biasing techniques are used as elements of a comprehensive tool set to distribute Monte Carlo particles in a user-specified way. The weight window achieves the user-specified Monte Carlo particle distribution by imposing a particular weight window on the system, without altering the particle physics. The Transform approach introduces a transform into the neutron transport equation, which results in a complete modification of the particle physics to produce the user-specified Monte Carlo distribution. These methods are tested in a three-dimensional multigroup Monte Carlo code. For a basic shielding problem and a more realistic one, these methods adequately solved source-detector problems and more global calculations. Furthermore, they confirmed that theoretical Monte Carlo particle distributions correspond to the simulated ones, implying that these methods

3. An Ensemble Method with Hybrid Features to Identify Extracellular Matrix Proteins

PubMed Central

Yang, Runtao; Zhang, Chengjin; Gao, Rui; Zhang, Lina

2015-01-01

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a dynamic composite of secreted proteins that play important roles in numerous biological processes such as tissue morphogenesis, differentiation and homeostasis. Furthermore, various diseases are caused by the dysfunction of ECM proteins. Therefore, identifying these important ECM proteins may assist in understanding related biological processes and drug development. In view of the serious imbalance in the training dataset, a Random Forest-based ensemble method with hybrid features is developed in this paper to identify ECM proteins. Hybrid features are employed by incorporating sequence composition, physicochemical properties, evolutionary and structural information. The Information Gain Ratio and Incremental Feature Selection (IGR-IFS) methods are adopted to select the optimal features. Finally, the resulting predictor termed IECMP (Identify ECM Proteins) achieves an balanced accuracy of 86.4% using the 10-fold cross-validation on the training dataset, which is much higher than results obtained by other methods (ECMPRED: 71.0%, ECMPP: 77.8%). Moreover, when tested on a common independent dataset, our method also achieves significantly improved performance over ECMPP and ECMPRED. These results indicate that IECMP is an effective method for ECM protein prediction, which has a more balanced prediction capability for positive and negative samples. It is anticipated that the proposed method will provide significant information to fully decipher the molecular mechanisms of ECM-related biological processes and discover candidate drug targets. For public access, we develop a user-friendly web server for ECM protein identification that is freely accessible at http://iecmp.weka.cc. PMID:25680094

4. Subleading poles in the numerical unitarity method at two loops

Abreu, S.; Febres Cordero, F.; Ita, H.; Jaquier, M.; Page, B.

2017-05-01

We describe the unitarity approach for the numerical computation of two-loop integral coefficients of scattering amplitudes. It is well known that the leading propagator singularities of an amplitude's integrand are related to products of tree amplitudes. At two loops, Feynman diagrams with doubled propagators appear naturally, which lead to subleading pole contributions. In general, it is not known how these contributions can be directly expressed in terms of a product of on-shell tree amplitudes. We present a universal algorithm to extract these subleading pole terms by releasing some of the on-shell conditions. We demonstrate the new approach by numerically computing two-loop four-gluon integral coefficients.

5. A method for direct numerical integration of the Boltzmann equation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cheremisin, F. G.

1972-01-01

The principal difficulties in numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation are considered. The study is aimed at formulating a numerical solution in such a manner that it contains a minimum amount of excess information at the distribution function level. It is pointed out that the accurate calculation of the distribution function at each point in phase space requires a tremendous number of operations, due to the necessity of solving five-fold quadratures in the collision integral. This results in the operational memory of the digital computer being insufficient to store all the data on the distribution functions at the necessary points in phase space. An algorithm is constructed involving successive iterations of the Boltzmann equation which does not require storage of each step of the new distribution function.

6. Some variance reduction methods for numerical stochastic homogenization.

PubMed

Blanc, X; Le Bris, C; Legoll, F

2016-04-28

We give an overview of a series of recent studies devoted to variance reduction techniques for numerical stochastic homogenization. Numerical homogenization requires that a set of problems is solved at the microscale, the so-called corrector problems. In a random environment, these problems are stochastic and therefore need to be repeatedly solved, for several configurations of the medium considered. An empirical average over all configurations is then performed using the Monte Carlo approach, so as to approximate the effective coefficients necessary to determine the macroscopic behaviour. Variance severely affects the accuracy and the cost of such computations. Variance reduction approaches, borrowed from other contexts in the engineering sciences, can be useful. Some of these variance reduction techniques are presented, studied and tested here.

7. Variable inertia method: A novel numerical method for mantle convection simulation

Takeyama, Kosuke; Saitoh, Takayuki R.; Makino, Junichiro

2017-01-01

3D numerical simulations have been very useful for the understanding of mantle convection of the earth. In almost all previous simulations of mantle convection, the (extended) Boussinesq approximation has been used. This method is implicit in the sense that buoyancy force and viscosity are balanced, and allows the use of long timesteps that are not limited by the CFL condition. However, the resulting matrix is ill-conditioned, in particular since the viscosity strongly depends on the temperature. It is not well-suited to modern large-scale parallel machines. In this paper, we propose an explicit method which can be used to solve the mantle convection problem. If we can reduce the sound speed without changing the characteristics of the flow, we can increase the timestep and thus can use the explicit method. In order to reduce the sound speed, we multiplied the inertia term of the equation of motion by a large and viscosity-dependent coefficient. Theoretically, we can expect that this modification would not change the flow as long as the Reynolds number and the Mach number are sufficiently smaller than unity. We call this method the variable inertia method (VIM). We have performed an extensive set of numerical tests of the proposed method for thermal convection, and concluded that it works well. In particular, it can handle differences in viscosity of more than five orders of magnitude.

8. Algorithms for the Fractional Calculus: A Selection of Numerical Methods

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diethelm, K.; Ford, N. J.; Freed, A. D.; Luchko, Yu.

2003-01-01

Many recently developed models in areas like viscoelasticity, electrochemistry, diffusion processes, etc. are formulated in terms of derivatives (and integrals) of fractional (non-integer) order. In this paper we present a collection of numerical algorithms for the solution of the various problems arising in this context. We believe that this will give the engineer the necessary tools required to work with fractional models in an efficient way.

9. Methods, Software and Tools for Three Numerical Applications. Final report

SciTech Connect

E. R. Jessup

2000-03-01

This is a report of the results of the authors work supported by DOE contract DE-FG03-97ER25325. They proposed to study three numerical problems. They are: (1) the extension of the PMESC parallel programming library; (2) the development of algorithms and software for certain generalized eigenvalue and singular value (SVD) problems, and (3) the application of techniques of linear algebra to an information retrieval technique known as latent semantic indexing (LSI).

10. Numerical conformal mapping: Methods, applications, and theory. Final report

SciTech Connect

DeLillo, T.K.

1995-11-01

Section 1 of this report, briefly summarizes research performed under this grant during the first two years 1992 to 1994 and makes some overall remarks. Section 2, summarizes research performed during the final year from September, 1994 through May 31, 1995, more fully. The main achievement of the last period has been the application of numerical conformed mapping to the solution of the biharmonic equation. Section 3, summarizes travel, meetings, and other expenses supported by this grant during the final year.

11. Overview: Applications of numerical optimization methods to helicopter design problems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Miura, H.

1984-01-01

There are a number of helicopter design problems that are well suited to applications of numerical design optimization techniques. Adequate implementation of this technology will provide high pay-offs. There are a number of numerical optimization programs available, and there are many excellent response/performance analysis programs developed or being developed. But integration of these programs in a form that is usable in the design phase should be recognized as important. It is also necessary to attract the attention of engineers engaged in the development of analysis capabilities and to make them aware that analysis capabilities are much more powerful if integrated into design oriented codes. Frequently, the shortcoming of analysis capabilities are revealed by coupling them with an optimization code. Most of the published work has addressed problems in preliminary system design, rotor system/blade design or airframe design. Very few published results were found in acoustics, aerodynamics and control system design. Currently major efforts are focused on vibration reduction, and aerodynamics/acoustics applications appear to be growing fast. The development of a computer program system to integrate the multiple disciplines required in helicopter design with numerical optimization technique is needed. Activities in Britain, Germany and Poland are identified, but no published results from France, Italy, the USSR or Japan were found.

12. Personalised Information Services Using a Hybrid Recommendation Method Based on Usage Frequency

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kim, Yong; Chung, Min Gyo

2008-01-01

Purpose: This paper seeks to describe a personal recommendation service (PRS) involving an innovative hybrid recommendation method suitable for deployment in a large-scale multimedia user environment. Design/methodology/approach: The proposed hybrid method partitions content and user into segments and executes association rule mining,…

13. Personalised Information Services Using a Hybrid Recommendation Method Based on Usage Frequency

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kim, Yong; Chung, Min Gyo

2008-01-01

Purpose: This paper seeks to describe a personal recommendation service (PRS) involving an innovative hybrid recommendation method suitable for deployment in a large-scale multimedia user environment. Design/methodology/approach: The proposed hybrid method partitions content and user into segments and executes association rule mining,…

14. Numerical simulation of droplet shapes in laser-MIG hybrid welding

Lei, Zhenglong; Ni, Longchang; Li, Bingwei; Zhang, Kezhao

2017-02-01

A three-dimensional finite element model based on minimum energy principle is developed to simulate the droplet transfer process in laser-MIG hybrid welding. The energy manifestations of all forces that determine droplet shapes are considered in this model, and the model has been used to predict droplet shapes. Offset of droplet centroid and critical additional axial acceleration are adopted to characterize the stability of droplet transfer. The calculated droplet shapes and offset of droplet centroid agree well with experimental results. It is found that increasing laser power or decreasing welding current would destabilize droplet transfer. Additional mechanical forces contribute to stable droplet transfer, and the positive effects of increased shielding gas flow rate on the stability of welding processes are subsequently verified.

15. Numerical Investigation of Vertical Plunging Jet Using a Hybrid Multifluid–VOF Multiphase CFD Solver

DOE PAGES

Shonibare, Olabanji Y.; Wardle, Kent E.

2015-06-28

A novel hybrid multiphase flow solver has been used to conduct simulations of a vertical plunging liquid jet. This solver combines a multifluid methodology with selective interface sharpening to enable simulation of both the initial jet impingement and the long-time entrained bubble plume phenomena. Models are implemented for variable bubble size capturing and dynamic switching of interface sharpened regions to capture transitions between the initially fully segregated flow types into the dispersed bubbly flow regime. It was found that the solver was able to capture the salient features of the flow phenomena under study and areas for quantitative improvement havemore » been explored and identified. In particular, a population balance approach is employed and detailed calibration of the underlying models with experimental data is required to enable quantitative prediction of bubble size and distribution to capture the transition between segregated and dispersed flow types with greater fidelity.« less

16. Numerical Prediction of Combustion-induced Noise using a hybrid LES/CAA approach

Ihme, Matthias; Pitsch, Heinz; Kaltenbacher, Manfred

2006-11-01

Noise generation in technical devices is an increasingly important problem. Jet engines in particular produce sound levels that not only are a nuisance but may also impair hearing. The noise emitted by such engines is generated by different sources such as jet exhaust, fans or turbines, and combustion. Whereas the former acoustic mechanisms are reasonably well understood, combustion-generated noise is not. A methodology for the prediction of combustion-generated noise is developed. In this hybrid approach unsteady acoustic source terms are obtained from an LES and the propagation of pressure perturbations are obtained using acoustic analogies. Lighthill's acoustic analogy and a non-linear wave equation, accounting for variable speed of sound, have been employed. Both models are applied to an open diffusion flame. The effects on the far field pressure and directivity due to the variation of speed of sound are analyzed. Results for the sound pressure level will be compared with experimental data.

17. Nanoscale lamellar photoconductor hybrids and methods of making same

DOEpatents

Stupp, Samuel I; Goldberger, Josh; Sofos, Marina

2013-02-05

An article of manufacture and methods of making same. In one embodiment, the article of manufacture has a plurality of zinc oxide layers substantially in parallel, wherein each zinc oxide layer has a thickness d.sub.1, and a plurality of organic molecule layers substantially in parallel, wherein each organic molecule layer has a thickness d.sub.2 and a plurality of molecules with a functional group that is bindable to zinc ions, wherein for every pair of neighboring zinc oxide layers, one of the plurality of organic molecule layers is positioned in between the pair of neighboring zinc oxide layers to allow the functional groups of the plurality of organic molecules to bind to zinc ions in the neighboring zinc oxide layers to form a lamellar hybrid structure with a geometric periodicity d.sub.1+d.sub.2, and wherein d.sub.1 and d.sub.2 satisfy the relationship of d.sub.1.ltoreq.d.sub.2.ltoreq.3d.sub.1.

18. Hybrid Training Method for MLP: Optimization of Architecture and Training.

PubMed

Zanchettin, C; Ludermir, T B; Almeida, L M

2011-08-01

The performance of an artificial neural network (ANN) depends upon the selection of proper connection weights, network architecture, and cost function during network training. This paper presents a hybrid approach (GaTSa) to optimize the performance of the ANN in terms of architecture and weights. GaTSa is an extension of a previous method (TSa) proposed by the authors. GaTSa is based on the integration of the heuristic simulated annealing (SA), tabu search (TS), genetic algorithms (GA), and backpropagation, whereas TSa does not use GA. The main advantages of GaTSa are the following: a constructive process to add new nodes in the architecture based on GA, the ability to escape from local minima with uphill moves (SA feature), and faster convergence by the evaluation of a set of solutions (TS feature). The performance of GaTSa is investigated through an empirical evaluation of 11 public-domain data sets using different cost functions in the simultaneous optimization of the multilayer perceptron ANN architecture and weights. Experiments demonstrated that GaTSa can also be used for relevant feature selection. GaTSa presented statistically relevant results in comparison with other global and local optimization techniques.

19. Hybrid CMS methods with model reduction for assembly of structures

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Farhat, Charbel

1991-01-01

Future on-orbit structures will be designed and built in several stages, each with specific control requirements. Therefore there must be a methodology which can predict the dynamic characteristics of the assembled structure, based on the dynamic characteristics of the subassemblies and their interfaces. The methodology developed by CSC to address this issue is Hybrid Component Mode Synthesis (HCMS). HCMS distinguishes itself from standard component mode synthesis algorithms in the following features: (1) it does not require the subcomponents to have displacement compatible models, which makes it ideal for analyzing the deployment of heterogeneous flexible multibody systems, (2) it incorporates a second-level model reduction scheme at the interface, which makes it much faster than other algorithms and therefore suitable for control purposes, and (3) it does answer specific questions such as 'how does the global fundamental frequency vary if I change the physical parameters of substructure k by a specified amount?'. Because it is based on an energy principle rather than displacement compatibility, this methodology can also help the designer to define an assembly process. Current and future efforts are devoted to applying the HCMS method to design and analyze docking and berthing procedures in orbital construction.

20. An efficient hybrid method for scattering from arbitrary dielectric objects buried under a rough surface: TM case.

PubMed

Xu, Run-Wen; Guo, Li-Xin

2014-03-24

A hybrid method combining the finite element method (FEM) with the boundary integral equation (BIE) is presented in this paper to investigate two-dimensional (2D) electromagnetic scattering properties of multiple dielectric objects buried beneath a dielectric rough ground for TM case. In traditional FEM simulation, the artificial boundaries, such as perfectly matched layer (PML) and the absorbing boundary conditions (ABC), are usually adopted as truncated boundaries to enclose the whole model. However, the enclosed computational domain increases quickly in size for a rough surface with a large scale, especially for the scattering model of objects away from the rough surface. In the hybrid FEM-BIE method, one boundary integral equation is adopt to depict the scattering above the rough surface based on Green's function. Based on the domain decomposition technique, the computational region below the rough ground is divided into multiple isolated interior regions containing each object and the exterior region. Finite element formulations are only applied inside interior regions to derive a set of linear systems, and another boundary integral formula is developed below the rough surface which also acts as the boundary constraint of the FEM region. Compared with traditional FEM, the hybrid technique presented here is highly efficient in terms of computational memory, time, and versatility. Numerical simulations are carried out based on hybrid FEM-BIE to study the scattering from multiple dielectric objects buried beneath a rough ground.