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Sample records for hybrid organic-inorganic nanomaterials

  1. Zirconium umbelliferonephosphate - A luminescent organic-inorganic hybrid nanomaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roming, Marcus; Feldmann, Claus

    2011-03-01

    Zirconium umbelliferonephosphate (ZrO(UFP)) is prepared by nucleation in the ionic liquid [MeBu 3N][NTf 2]. According to electron microscopy the resulting nanoparticles exhibit mean particle diameters of about 50 nm. The organic-inorganic hybrid material ZrO(UFP) shows blue emission upon UV-excitation. Luminescence originates from the organic dye and is highly intense due to the molar amount of luminescent centers per nanoparticle. The as-prepared material turns out to be non-crystalline. Therefore, its chemical composition is validated by infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and elemental analysis. The results (i.e., thermal decomposition, Zr:P ratio, C-/H-concentration) are in accordance to the composition of ZrO(UFP). Upon addition of acid phosphatase the luminescence intensity of ZrO(UFP) is significantly increased due to enzymatic hydrolysis accompanied by a release of non-bound umbelliferone. Both aspects - the increase in luminescence intensity as well as the release of umbelliferone - might be of future interest regarding biomedical application of ZrO(UFP) nanoparticles.

  2. Hyperbranched polymers and dendrimers as templates for organic/inorganic hybrid nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xinhua; Zheng, Sudan; Kim, Il

    2014-02-01

    This paper reviews the recent research and development of hyperbranched polymers (HPs) and dendrimers, and their use as templates for organic-inorganic hybrid nanomaterials. Hyperbranched polymers (HPs) are highly branched macromolecules with three-dimensional globular structures featuring unique properties such as low viscosity, high solubility, and a large number of terminal functional groups compared to their linear analogs. They are easily prepared by (1) condensation polymerization, (2) self-condensing vinyl copolymerization (SCVCP), and (3) ring-opening multibranch polymerization methods. Organic-inorganic hybrid nanomaterials are synthesized by a template approach using HPs/dendrimers. Monometallic, bimetallic (alloy and core/shell), semiconductor, and metal oxide nanoparticles have been prepared by this route. The dendrimer component of these composites serves not only as a template for preparing the nanoparticles but also as a stabilizer for the nanoparticles.

  3. Hybrid organic-inorganic nanomaterials based on polythiophene dendronized nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Advincula, Rigoberto C

    2006-06-21

    In this work, the synthesis, characterization, and applications of branched oligothiophene dendrons that act as electroactive surfactants for the capping of Au metal nanoparticles and CdSe quantum dots are described. Two distinct methods have been employed for synthesis: a ligand exchange process and a direct-capping synthesis approach. The coverage of the dendrons per nanocrystal, the nature of the surface coordination interactions, and energy transfer interactions were studied in detail using UV-vis absorbance, FT-IR, AFM, TEM, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The competition/displacement in ligand metathesis is highlighted by the size of the dendron and nature of binding on semiconductor nanocrystals. In the other system using the direct capping method, the size of the Au nanoparticle is mediated by the dimensions of the ligand, i.e. alkyl chain spacer and dendron branching or size. These hybrid dendron/nanoparticle complexes are generally very soluble and stable in non-polar solvents. They exhibit energy transfer, surface plasmon resonance effects, and photoinduced charge transfer interactions between the metal/semiconductor and conjugated ligands. Adsorption on mica and graphite surfaces was observed. A one-layer photovoltaic cell was fabricated to demonstrate the potential for device applications.

  4. Magnetic mesoporous organic-inorganic NiCo2O4 hybrid nanomaterials for electrochemical immunosensors.

    PubMed

    Li, Qunfang; Zeng, Lingxing; Wang, Jinchao; Tang, Dianping; Liu, Bingqian; Chen, Guonan; Wei, Mingdeng

    2011-04-01

    This study demonstrates a facile and feasible strategy toward the development of advanced electrochemical immunosensors based on chemically functionalized magnetic mesoporous organic-inorganic hybrid nanomaterials, and the preparation, characterization, and measurement of relevant properties of the immunosensor for detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, as a model analyte) in clinical immunoassays. The as-prepared nanomaterials composed of a magnetic mesoporous NiCo(2)O(4) nanosheet, an interlayer of Nafion/thionine organic molecules and a nanogold layer show good adsorption properties for the attachment of horseradish peroxidase-labeled secondary anti-CEA antibody (HRP-anti-CEA). With a sandwich-type immunoassay format, the functional bionanomaterials present good analytical properties to facilitate and modulate the way it was integrated onto the electrochemical immunosensors, and allows the detection of CEA at a concentration as low as 0.5 pg/mL. Significantly, the immunosensor could be easily regenerated by only using an external magnet without the need of any dissociated reagents. Importantly, the as-synthesized magnetic mesoporous NiCo(2)O(4) nanomaterials could be further extended for detection of other biomarkers or biocompounds.

  5. Relationship Between Interfacial Strength and Materials Properties in Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Chad; Richardson, Mickey; Zhou, Jing; Holmes, Gale; Karim, Alamgir; D'Souza, Nandika

    2008-03-01

    Thermal interface materials (TIM's) are critical to the semiconductor electronics industry for heat dissipation, a potential show-stopper for future technology nodes. Essentially, an epoxy nanocomposite, TIMs suffer from a series of typical nanocomposite limitations including heat conduction in nanoscale inclusions, nanoparticle dispersion, void formation with thermal cycling, and interfacial resistance between the matrix and filler. It is postulated that the interfacial adhesion between the matrix and nanofiller is at the root cause of many of these difficulties, however, few techniques exist to characterize this critical property. Compounding this are the overall difficulties associated with characterizing these materials in their ultimate applications, i.e., thin films. To this end, a novel series of organic/inorganic hybrid nanostructured materials based on layered double hydroxides in epoxy matrices were designed as a test bed to develop the measurement techniques needed to elucidate the relationship between the material structure and dynamics and the ultimate materials properties. Initial results are presented based on characterization by mechanical, dielectric, and thermal spectroscopies.

  6. Growth and assembly of functionalized nanomaterials: Using organic-inorganic polymer hybrid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, Divya

    Precise positioning of metallic nanostructures on semiconductor surfaces is important for applications such as photovoltaics, metal interconnects, sensing platforms, and many others. The rising cost and complexity with lithographically defined structures demands a parallel fabrication process that enables easy scale up. Surface patterns formed by block copolymers are considered as a promising means to create functional nanoscopic structures needed for the fabrication of miniaturized devices. The integration of polymers with inorganic nano-materials could find widespread applications in scientific research because it provides a strategy to combine the use of polymers as hosts, and the optical, electronic, and catalytic properties of nanoparticles. This thesis explores a technique that employs patterns in block copolymers as a template for the directed self-assembly of the nanocrystals. One area investigated was the preparation of thermally stable nanoparticles that could be intercalated into block copolymers. Nanoparticles of various materials were synthesized in spherical and rod shapes with different aspect ratios. These particles were characterized by optical absorption measurements, scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electorn microscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Methods were developed to functionalize these nanoparticles with thermally stable surface coatings using emulsion polymerization. A new method to control the size and spatial distribution of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers was developed, by intercalating nickel into a polymer film. Nanofibers were subsequently grown using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, and the properties of the nanofibers were characterized using TEM and electrochemical methods. The alignment of block copolymers normal to a dielectric thin film was demonstrated using AC electric fields. These studies demonstrated the underlying mechanism by which nanoscopic structure in thin films can be

  7. Molecular and supramolecular dynamics of hybrid organic-inorganic interfaces for the rational construction of advanced hybrid nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Grosso, David; Ribot, François; Boissiere, Cedric; Sanchez, Clément

    2011-02-01

    Today the capability to rationally design and construct hybrid materials utilizing a performance-property driven methodology is strongly dependent on our ability to control the structure and the dynamics of hybrid interfaces. This control needs a deep knowledge of their molecular and supramolecular dynamics that must be evaluated in situ, in the soft matter or colloidal states. For this purpose the use of modern methodologies of characterization such as time resolved synchrotron experiments and advanced pulsed field gradient NMR methods (DOSY) is particularly relevant. In this critical review, two important examples are discussed. They concern, first, the study of surface capping organic components' affinity towards nanoparticle surfaces by DOSY NMR. The knowledge and therefore the tuning of this affinity is paramount because it controls solubility, transferability and stability of colloidal dispersions of nanoparticles (NPs). In the second part, the mechanism of micellar templated formation of hybrid mesophases will be discussed in the frame of the main results obtained via in situ SAXS (107 references).

  8. Photochromic organic-inorganic hybrid materials.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Rosario; Zayat, Marcos; Levy, David

    2011-02-01

    Photochromic organic-inorganic hybrid materials have attracted considerable attention owing to their potential application in photoactive devices, such as optical memories, windows, photochromic decorations, optical switches, filters or non-linear optics materials. The growing interest in this field has largely expanded the use of photochromic materials for the purpose of improving existing materials and exploring new photochromic hybrid systems. This tutorial review summarizes the design and preparation of photochromic hybrid materials, and particularly those based on the incorporation of organic molecules in organic-inorganic matrices by the sol-gel method. This is the most commonly used method for the preparation of these materials as it allows vitreous hybrid materials to be obtained at low temperatures, and controls the interaction between the organic molecule and its embedding matrix, and hence allows tailoring of the performance of the resulting devices.

  9. Flexible Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Memory.

    PubMed

    Gu, Chungwan; Lee, Jang-Sik

    2016-05-24

    Active research has been done on hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite materials for application to solar cells with high power conversion efficiency. However, this material often shows hysteresis, which is undesirable, shift in the current-voltage curve. The hysteresis may come from formation of defects and their movement in perovskite materials. Here, we utilize the defects in perovskite materials to be used in memory operations. We demonstrate flexible nonvolatile memory devices based on hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite as the resistive switching layer on a plastic substrate. A uniform perovskite layer is formed on a transparent electrode-coated plastic substrate by solvent engineering. Flexible nonvolatile memory based on the perovskite layer shows reproducible and reliable memory characteristics in terms of program/erase operations, data retention, and endurance properties. The memory devices also show good mechanical flexibility. It is suggested that resistive switching is done by migration of vacancy defects and formation of conducting filaments under the electric field in the perovskite layer. It is believed that organic-inorganic perovskite materials have great potential to be used in high-performance, flexible memory devices.

  10. Organic/inorganic hybrid coatings for anticorrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhouying

    Compared to organic coatings, organic-inorganic hybrid coatings can potentially improve the anticorrosion performance. The organic phase provides the excellent mechaincal and barrier properties while the inorganic phase acts as an adhesion promoter and corrosion inhibitor. Despite that many studies on alkoxylsilane-based hybrid coatings have been developed and studied, their weatherability and anticorrosion performance has been rarely evaluated. On the other hand, organic-inorganic hybrid coatings based on mixed sol-gel precursors have received much less attention compared to alkoxylsilane-based hybrid coatings. In the first part, polyurethane hybrid coatings with a unique hybrid crosslinked structure as an improved unicoat were successfully prepared. The effect of polyesters on physical properties of the hybrid coatings was studied. Polyurethane coatings derived from cycloaliphatic polyester show comparable properties than those derived from the commercially viable aromatic polyester. Introducing the polysiloxane part into the polyurethane coatings enhanced the crosslinking density, Tg, mechanical properties, and general coating properties. The increased adhesion between the hybrid coating and the substrate make the hybrid coating a good candidate for anticorrosion application, which is shown by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The degradation mechanism of the polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coatings under various weathering conditions was shown to be the scission of the urethane and ester groups in the organic phase along with reorganizing and rearranging of the inorganic phase. The anticorrosion performance of the cycloaliphatic hybrid was much better than that of aromatic based hybrid under outdoor weathering based on visual observation and EIS analysis. Acid undercutting is an issue for TEOS based hybrid coating. In the second part, design of experiments (DOEs) was used to statistically investigate on the effect of sol-gel precursors. The

  11. Ion conducting organic/inorganic hybrid polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Maryann B. (Inventor); Kinder, James D. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    This invention relates to a series of organic/inorganic hybrid polymers that are easy to fabricate into dimensionally stable films with good ion-conductivity over a wide range of temperatures for use in a variety of applications. The polymers are prepared by the reaction of amines, preferably diamines and mixtures thereof with monoamines with epoxy-functionalized alkoxysilanes. The products of the reaction are polymerized by hydrolysis of the alkoxysilane groups to produce an organic-containing silica network. Suitable functionality introduced into the amine and alkoxysilane groups produce solid polymeric membranes which conduct ions for use in fuel cells, high-performance solid state batteries, chemical sensors, electrochemical capacitors, electro-chromic windows or displays, analog memory devices and the like.

  12. Hybrid organic-inorganic polariton laser.

    PubMed

    Paschos, G G; Somaschi, N; Tsintzos, S I; Coles, D; Bricks, J L; Hatzopoulos, Z; Lidzey, D G; Lagoudakis, P G; Savvidis, P G

    2017-09-12

    Organic materials exhibit exceptional room temperature light emitting characteristics and enormous exciton oscillator strength, however, their low charge carrier mobility prevent their use in high-performance applications such as electrically pumped lasers. In this context, ultralow threshold polariton lasers, whose operation relies on Bose-Einstein condensation of polaritons - part-light part-matter quasiparticles, are highly advantageous since the requirement for high carrier injection no longer holds. Polariton lasers have been successfully implemented using inorganic materials owing to their excellent electrical properties, however, in most cases their relatively small exciton binding energies limit their operation temperature. It has been suggested that combining organic and inorganic semiconductors in a hybrid microcavity, exploiting resonant interactions between these materials would permit to dramatically enhance optical nonlinearities and operation temperature. Here, we obtain cavity mediated hybridization of GaAs and J-aggregate excitons in the strong coupling regime under electrical injection of carriers as well as polariton lasing up to 200 K under non-resonant optical pumping. Our demonstration paves the way towards realization of hybrid organic-inorganic microcavities which utilise the organic component for sustaining high temperature polariton condensation and efficient electrical injection through inorganic structure.

  13. Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Tian, Wei; Zhou, Huanping; Li, Liang

    2017-09-12

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite materials garner enormous attention for a wide range of optoelectronic devices. Due to their attractive optical and electrical properties including high optical absorption coefficient, high carrier mobility, and long carrier diffusion length, perovskites have opened up a great opportunity for high performance photodetectors. This review aims to give a comprehensive summary of the significant results on perovskite-based photodetectors, focusing on the relationship among the perovskite structures, device configurations, and photodetecting performances. An introduction of recent progress in various perovskite structure-based photodetectors is provided. The emphasis is placed on the correlation between the perovskite structure and the device performance. Next, recent developments of bandgap-tunable perovskite and hybrid photodetectors built from perovskite heterostructures are highlighted. Then, effective approaches to enhance the stability of perovskite photodetector are presented, followed by the introduction of flexible and self-powered perovskite photodetectors. Finally, a summary of the previous results is given, and the major challenges that need to be addressed in the future are outlined. A comprehensive summary of the research status on perovskite photodetectors is hoped to push forward the development of this field. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Anticorrosive organic/inorganic hybrid coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Tongzhai

    Organic/inorganic hybrid coating system was developed for anticorrosion applications using polyurea, polyurethane or epoxide as the organic phase and polysiloxane, formed by sol-gel process, as the inorganic phase. Polyurea/polysiloxane hybrid coatings were formulated and moisture cured using HDI isocyanurate, alkoxysilane-functionalized HDI isocyanurate, and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) oligomers. Two urethanes were prepared using the same components as abovementioned in addition to the oligoesters derived from either cyclohexane diacids (CHDA) and 2-butyl-2-ethyl-1,3-propanediol (BEPD) or adipic acid (AA), isophthalic acid (IPA), 1,6-hexanediol (HD), and trimethylol propane (TMP). Accelerated weathering and outdoor exposure were performed to study the weatherability of the polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coating system. FTIR and solid-state 13C NMR revealed that the degradation of the hybrid coatings occurred at the urethane and ester functionalities of the organic phase. DMA and DSC analyses showed the glass transition temperature increased and broadened after weathering. SEM was employed to observe the change of morphology of the hybrid coatings and correlated with the gloss variation after weathering. Rutile TiO2 was formulated into polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coatings in order to investigate the effect of pigmentation on the coating properties and the sol-gel precursor. Chemical interaction between the TiO2 and the sol-gel precursor was investigated using solid-state 29Si NMR and XPS. The morphology, mechanical, viscoelastic, thermal properties of the pigmented coatings were evaluated as a function of pigmentation volume concentration (PVC). Using AFM and SEM, the pigment were observed to be well dispersed in the polymer matrix. The thermal stability, the tensile modulus and strength of the coatings were enhanced with increasing PVC, whereas the pull-off adhesion and flexibility were reduced with increasing PVC. Finally, the pigmented coatings were

  15. Stable organic-inorganic hybrid multilayered photoelectrochemical cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sun-Young; Kim, Min-gyeong; Jung, Jaehoon; Heo, Jinhee; Hong, Eun Mi; Choi, Sung Mook; Lee, Joo-Yul; Cho, Shinuk; Hong, Kihyon; Lim, Dong Chan

    2017-02-01

    The production of hydrogen from water via solar energy conversion has attracted immense attention as a potential solution for addressing energy supply issues. We demonstrated a stable and efficient organic-inorganic hybrid photoelectrochemical (H-PEC) cell. Modifying the surface energy and structure of the organic photoactive layer using multi-functional nanomaterials including -OH-modified NiO nanoparticles and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) led to a 2.8-fold enhancement of the water splitting performance in a single junction H-PEC cell. The enhanced performance was attributed to the i) improved water-wettability, ii) enhanced charge extraction property by band-edge alignment, and iii) the catalytic effect of the introduced NiO-OH nanoparticles. In addition, because of the effects of the RGO layer preventing water penetration and photo-corrosion during the oxidation of water, a distinguishable long-term stability was achieved from the H-PEC cell with an RGO capping layer. The best performance was obtained from the organic-inorganic hybrid multi-junction PEC cells consisting of the WO3 photo-anode (activated under UV irradiation) and the H-PEC cell (activated under visible light irradiation). The H-PEC cell with a WO3 photo-anode exhibited significantly enhanced stability and performance by a factor of 11.6 higher than photocurrent of the single H-PEC cell.

  16. A hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chiho; Huan, Tran Doan; Krishnan, Sridevi; Ramprasad, Rampi

    2017-05-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOIPs) have been attracting a great deal of attention due to their versatility of electronic properties and fabrication methods. We prepare a dataset of 1,346 HOIPs, which features 16 organic cations, 3 group-IV cations and 4 halide anions. Using a combination of an atomic structure search method and density functional theory calculations, the optimized structures, the bandgap, the dielectric constant, and the relative energies of the HOIPs are uniformly prepared and validated by comparing with relevant experimental and/or theoretical data. We make the dataset available at Dryad Digital Repository, NoMaD Repository, and Khazana Repository (http://khazana.uconn.edu/), hoping that it could be useful for future data-mining efforts that can explore possible structure-property relationships and phenomenological models. Progressive extension of the dataset is expected as new organic cations become appropriate within the HOIP framework, and as additional properties are calculated for the new compounds found.

  17. Natural hybrid organic-inorganic photovoltaic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Padova, Paola; Lucci, Massimiliano; Olivieri, Bruno; Quaresima, Claudio; Priori, Sandro; Francini, Roberto; Grilli, Antonio; Hricovini, Karol; Davoli, Ivan

    2009-06-01

    Natural hybrid organic-inorganic photovoltaic devices based on TiO 2 have been realized. Chlorophyll A (from anacystis nidulans algae), chlorophyll B (from spinach), carmic acid (from insect Coccus cacti L.), synthetic trans- β-carotene, natural fresh picked Morus nigra, and their mixtures have been used as an organic photo active layer to fabricate photovoltaic prototypes. In order to reduce the charge's interfacial recombination, different thicknesses (5-45 nm) of Si layers, subsequently oxidized in air, were inserted between the TiO 2 and chlorophyll B. Scanning electron microscopy of TiO 2 and Si/TiO 2 systems shows the coexistence at least of four classes of nanoparticles of 60, 100, 150 and 250 nm in size. Auger electron spectroscopy of the Si L 2,3V V transition demonstrates the presence of silica and SiO x suboxides. Photocurrent measurements versus radiation wavelength in the range 300-800 nm exhibit different peaks according to the absorption spectra of the organic molecules. All realized photovoltaic devices are suitable for solar light electric energy conversion. Those made of a blend of all organic molecules achieved higher current and voltage output. The Si/TiO 2-based devices containing chlorophyll B exhibited an enhanced photocurrent response with respect to those with TiO 2 only.

  18. Special section guest editorial: Hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells

    DOE PAGES

    Nogueira, Ana Flavia; Rumbles, Garry

    2015-04-06

    In this special section of the Journal of Photonics for Energy, there is a focus on some of the science and technology of a range of different hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells. Prior to 1991 there were many significant scientific research reports of hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells; finally, however, it wasn’t until the dye-sensitized solar cell entered the league table of certified research cell efficiencies that this area experienced an explosion of research activity.

  19. Chitosan bio-based organic-inorganic hybrid aerogel microspheres.

    PubMed

    El Kadib, Abdelkrim; Bousmina, Mosto

    2012-07-02

    Recently, organic-inorganic hybrid materials have attracted tremendous attention thanks to their outstanding properties, their efficiency, versatility and their promising applications in a broad range of areas at the interface of chemistry and biology. This article deals with a new family of surface-reactive organic-inorganic hybrid materials built from chitosan microspheres. The gelation of chitosan (a renewable amino carbohydrate obtained by deacetylation of chitin) by pH inversion affords highly dispersed fibrillar networks shaped as self-standing microspheres. Nanocasting of sol-gel processable monomeric alkoxides inside these natural hydrocolloids and their subsequent CO(2) supercritical drying provide high-surface-area organic-inorganic hybrid materials. Examples including chitosan-SiO(2), chitosan-TiO(2), chitosan-redox-clusters and chitosan-clay-aerogel microspheres are described and discussed on the basis of their textural and structural properties, thermal and chemical stability and their performance in catalysis and adsorption.

  20. Progress on lanthanide-based organic-inorganic hybrid phosphors.

    PubMed

    Carlos, Luís D; Ferreira, Rute A S; de Zea Bermudez, Verónica; Julián-López, Beatriz; Escribano, Purificación

    2011-02-01

    Research on organic-inorganic hybrid materials containing trivalent lanthanide ions (Ln(3+)) is a very active field that has rapidly shifted in the last couple of years to the development of eco-friendly, versatile and multifunctional systems, stimulated by the challenging requirements of technological applications spanning domains as diverse as optics, environment, energy, and biomedicine. This tutorial review offers a general overview of the myriad of advanced Ln(3+)-based organic-inorganic hybrid materials recently synthesised, which may be viewed as a major innovation in areas of phosphors, lighting, integrated optics and optical telecommunications, solar cells, and biomedicine.

  1. Special section guest editorial: Hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nogueira, Ana Flavia; Rumbles, Garry

    2015-04-06

    In this special section of the Journal of Photonics for Energy, there is a focus on some of the science and technology of a range of different hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells. Prior to 1991 there were many significant scientific research reports of hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells; finally, however, it wasn’t until the dye-sensitized solar cell entered the league table of certified research cell efficiencies that this area experienced an explosion of research activity.

  2. Hybrid organic-inorganic materials based on hydroxyapatite structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, Sana Ben; Bachouâ, Hassen; Gruselle, Michel; Beaunier, Patricia; Flambard, Alexandrine; Badraoui, Béchir

    2017-04-01

    The present article details the formation of calcium hydroxyapatite synthesized by the hydrothermal way, in presence of glycine or sarcosine. The presence of these amino-acids during the synthetic processes reduces the crystalline growthing through the formation of hybrid organic-inorganic species The crystallite sizes are decreasing and the morphology is modified with the increase of the amino-acid concentration.

  3. Heterogeneous Catalysis of Polyoxometalate Based Organic-Inorganic Hybrids.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yuanhang; Wang, Meiyin; Chen, Xueying; Yue, Bin; He, Heyong

    2015-03-31

    Organic-inorganic hybrid polyoxometalate (POM) compounds are a subset of materials with unique structures and physical/chemical properties. The combination of metal-organic coordination complexes with classical POMs not only provides a powerful way to gain multifarious new compounds but also affords a new method to modify and functionalize POMs. In parallel with the many reports on the synthesis and structure of new hybrid POM compounds, the application of these compounds for heterogeneous catalysis has also attracted considerable attention. The hybrid POM compounds show noteworthy catalytic performance in acid, oxidation, and even in asymmetric catalytic reactions. This review summarizes the design and synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid POM compounds and particularly highlights their recent progress in heterogeneous catalysis.

  4. Organic-inorganic hybrid polymer-encapsulated magnetic nanobead catalysts.

    PubMed

    Arai, Takayoshi; Sato, Toru; Kanoh, Hirofumi; Kaneko, Katsumi; Oguma, Koichi; Yanagisawa, Akira

    2008-01-01

    A new strategy for the encapsulation of magnetic nanobeads was developed by using the in situ self-assembly of an organic-inorganic hybrid polymer. The hybrid polymer of {[Cu(bpy)(BF(4))(2)(H(2)O)(2)](bpy)}(n) (bpy=4,4'-bipyridine) was constructed on the surface of amino-functionalized magnetic beads and the resulting hybrid-polymer-encapsulated beads were utilized as catalysts for the oxidation of silyl enolates to provide the corresponding alpha-hydroxy carbonyl compounds in high yield. After the completion of the reaction, the catalyst was readily recovered by magnetic separation and the recovered catalyst could be reused several times. Because the current method did not require complicated procedures for incorporating the catalyst onto the magnetic beads, the preparation and the application of various other types of organic-inorganic hybrid-polymer-coated magnetic beads could be possible.

  5. Hydrogen Bonding and Stability of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites.

    PubMed

    El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Marzouk, Asma; Bentria, El Tayeb; Rashkeev, Sergey N; Kais, Sabre; Alharbi, Fahhad H

    2016-09-22

    In the past few years, the efficiency of solar cells based on hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites has exceeded the level needed for commercialization. However, existing perovskites solar cells (PSCs) suffer from several intrinsic instabilities, which prevent them from reaching industrial maturity, and stabilizing PSCs has become a critically important problem. Here we propose to stabilize PSCs chemically by strengthening the interactions between the organic cation and inorganic anion of the perovskite framework. In particular, we show that replacing the methylammonium cation with alternative protonated cations allows an increase in the stability of the perovskite by forming strong hydrogen bonds with the halide anions. This interaction also provides opportunities for tuning the electronic states near the bandgap. These mechanisms should have a universal character in different hybrid organic-inorganic framework materials that are widely used. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Charge carrier mobility in an organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Kaushik Roy; Winiarz, Jeffrey G.; Samoc, Marek; Prasad, Paras N.

    2003-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials are media for electronic and optoelectronic applications. We present a study of the electronic transport in such a model nanoparticle-sensitized hybrid organic-inorganic photorefractive host system, consisting of poly(N-vinylcarbazole) doped with quantum dots of cadmium sulfide, using standard time-of-flight techniques. The photocurrent transients exhibit features typical of dispersive transport in an amorphous semiconductor. The hole mobility depends strongly on the electric field and temperature indicating Poole-Frenkel-like activated hopping transport; a thickness dependence of the mobility is observed. The presence of nanoparticles does not lead to increased trapping of holes. Conversely, a surprising result is observed: the mobility actually increases with the increase of nanoparticle concentration even though it is well below the percolation limit.

  7. High Temperature Resistant Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Polymers: An Architectural Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-18

    DATES COVERED July 10 2003 – January 09 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE High Temperature Resistant Organic/ Inorganic Hybrid Polymers: An...Supramolecular Chemistry, High Temperature Materials, Organic Inorganic Hybrid Materials, Sensors 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 16...298-102 Enclosure 1 2 High Temperature Resistant Organic/ Inorganic Hybrid Polymers: An Architectural Study DAAD19-03-1-0208 PIs Stuart

  8. Vanadium-oxo based hybrid organic-inorganic copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Campero, A.; Soto, A.M.; Maquet, J.; Sanchez, C.

    1996-12-31

    The authors describe the synthesis and characterization of hybrid organic-inorganic copolymer materials formed by the reaction of the transition metal alkoxide VO(OAm{sup t}){sub 3} with the chelating monomer ligand acetoacetoxyethylmethacrylate (AAEM). By the simultaneous induction of the organic and inorganic polymerization reactions, covalent bonds are formed between both types of interpenetrating components. The organic chelating moiety of AAEM is linked through its {beta}-diketo function to the vanadium-oxo species.

  9. Organic-inorganic hybrid glass: non-linear optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez Cruz, R.; Mendez-Perez, A.; Romero Galván, G.; Mendoza-Panduro, M.; Trejo-Duran, M.; Alvarado-Mendez, E.; Estudillo-Ayala, J. M.; Rojas-Laguna, R.; Martínez-Richa, A.; Castano, V. M.

    2008-04-01

    In this paper we report the preliminary results about the optical characterization of a new kind of organic-inorganic hybrid glass named 4-((5-dichloromethylsily1)-penty)oxy-cyanobenzene (DCN) synthesized by sol-gel process. We obtain the sign and magnitude of the sample by the Z-scan technique using a low power He-Ne laser at 632 nm in CW operation. The experimental data show that the DNC glass has a negative Kerr optical non-linearity and is estimated a nonlinear coefficient as Δn˜10-6.

  10. Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Nanostructures for Chemical Plasmonic Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Sehoon

    2011-12-01

    The work presented in this dissertation suggests novel design of chemical plasmonic sensors which have been developed based on Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR), and Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) phenomena. The goal of the study is to understand the SERS phenomena for 3D hybrid (organic/inorganic) templates and to design of the templates for trace-level detection of selected chemical analytes relevant to liquid explosives and hazardous chemicals. The key design criteria for the development of the SERS templates are utilizing selective polymeric nanocoatings within cylindrical nanopores for promoting selective adsorption of chemical analyte molecules, maximizing specific surface area, and optimizing concentration of hot spots with efficient light interaction inside nanochannels. The organic/inorganic hybrid templates are optimized through a comprehensive understanding of the LSPR properties of the gold nanoparticles, gold nanorods, interaction of light with highly porous alumina template, and the choice of physical and chemical attributes of the selective coating. Furthermore, novel method to assemble silver nanoparticles in 3D as the active SERS-active substrate has been demonstrated by uniform, in situ growth of silver nanoparticles from electroless deposited silver seeds excluding any adhesive polymer layer on template. This approach can be the optimal for SERS sensing applications because it is not necessary to separate the Raman bands of the polyelectrolyte binding layer from those of the desired analyte. The fabrication method is an efficient, simple and fast way to assemble nanoparticles into 3D nanostructures. Addressable Raman markers from silver nanowire crossbars with silver nanoparticles are also introduced and studied. Assembly of silver nanowire crossbar structure is achieved by simple, double-step capillary transfer lithography. The on/off SERS properties can be observed on silver nanowire crossbars with silver nanoparticles

  11. Hybrid organic-inorganic rotaxanes and molecular shuttles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chin-Fa; Leigh, David A; Pritchard, Robin G; Schultz, David; Teat, Simon J; Timco, Grigore A; Winpenny, Richard E P

    2009-03-19

    The tetravalency of carbon and its ability to form covalent bonds with itself and other elements enables large organic molecules with complex structures, functions and dynamics to be constructed. The varied electronic configurations and bonding patterns of inorganic elements, on the other hand, can impart diverse electronic, magnetic, catalytic and other useful properties to molecular-level structures. Some hybrid organic-inorganic materials that combine features of both chemistries have been developed, most notably metal-organic frameworks, dense and extended organic-inorganic frameworks and coordination polymers. Metal ions have also been incorporated into molecules that contain interlocked subunits, such as rotaxanes and catenanes, and structures in which many inorganic clusters encircle polymer chains have been described. Here we report the synthesis of a series of discrete rotaxane molecules in which inorganic and organic structural units are linked together mechanically at the molecular level. Structural units (dialkyammonium groups) in dumb-bell-shaped organic molecules template the assembly of essentially inorganic 'rings' about 'axles' to form rotaxanes consisting of various numbers of rings and axles. One of the rotaxanes behaves as a 'molecular shuttle': the ring moves between two binding sites on the axle in a large-amplitude motion typical of some synthetic molecular machine systems. The architecture of the rotaxanes ensures that the electronic, magnetic and paramagnetic characteristics of the inorganic rings-properties that could make them suitable as qubits for quantum computers-can influence, and potentially be influenced by, the organic portion of the molecule.

  12. Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Polymer/Clay Nanocomposites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Cheol; Connell, John W.; Smith, Joseph G., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    A novel class of polymer/clay nanocomposites has been invented in an attempt to develop transparent, lightweight, durable materials for a variety of aerospace applications. As their name suggests, polymer/ clay nanocomposites comprise organic/ inorganic hybrid polymer matrices containing platelet-shaped clay particles that have sizes of the order of a few nanometers thick and several hundred nanometers long. Partly because of their high aspect ratios and high surface areas, the clay particles, if properly dispersed in the polymer matrix at a loading level of 1 to 5 weight percent, impart unique combinations of physical and chemical properties that make these nanocomposites attractive for making films and coatings for a variety of industrial applications. Relative to the unmodified polymer, the polymer/ clay nanocomposites may exhibit improvements in strength, modulus, and toughness; tear, radiation, and fire resistance; and lower thermal expansion and permeability to gases while retaining a high degree of optical transparency.

  13. Chemically diverse and multifunctional hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Zheming; Deschler, Felix; Gao, Song; Friend, Richard H.; Cheetham, Anthony K.

    2017-02-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOIPs) can have a diverse range of compositions including halides, azides, formates, dicyanamides, cyanides and dicyanometallates. These materials have several common features, including their classical ABX3 perovskite architecture and the presence of organic amine cations that occupy the A-sites. Current research in HOIPs tends to focus on metal halide HOIPs, which show promise for use in solar cells and optoelectronic devices; however, the other subclasses also exhibit a diverse range of physical properties. In this Review, we summarize the chemical variability and structural diversity of all known HOIP subclasses. We also present a comprehensive account of their intriguing physical properties, including photovoltaic and optoelectronic properties, dielectricity, magnetism, ferroelectricity, ferroelasticity and multiferroicity. Moreover, we discuss the current challenges and future opportunities in this exciting field.

  14. Controllable synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid MoOx/polyaniline nanowires and nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sinong; Gao, Qingsheng; Zhang, Yahong; Gao, Jing; Sun, Xuhui; Tang, Yi

    2011-02-01

    A novel chemical oxidative polymerization approach has been proposed for the controllable preparation of organic-inorganic hybrid MoO(x)/polyaniline (PANI) nanocomposites based on the nanowire precursor of Mo(3)O(10)(C(6)H(8)N)(2)·2H(2)O with sub-nanometer periodic structures. The nanotubes, nanowires, and rambutan-like nanoparticles of MoO(x)/PANI were successfully obtained through simply modulating the pH values to 2.5-3.5, ≈2.0 and ≈1.0, respectively. Through systematic physicochemical characterization, such as scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and so forth, the composition and structure of MoO(x)/PANI hybrid nanocomposites are well confirmed. It is found that the nanowire morphology of the precursor is the key to achieve the one-dimensional (1D) structures of final products. A new polymerization-dissolution mechanism is proposed to explain the formation of such products with different morphologies, in which the match between polymerization and dissolution processes of the precursor plays the important role. This approach will find a new way to controllably prepare various organic-inorganic hybrid 1D nanomaterials especially for polymer-hybrid nanostructures.

  15. Polyoxometalate-Based Organic-Inorganic Hybrids as Antitumor Drugs.

    PubMed

    Fu, Lei; Gao, Hanqin; Yan, Mei; Li, Shouzhu; Li, Xinyu; Dai, Zhifei; Liu, Shaoqin

    2015-06-24

    Polyoxometalates (POMs) have shown encouraging antitumor activity. However, their cytotoxicity in normal cells and unspecific interactions with biomolecules are two major obstacles that impede the practical applications of POMs in clinical cancer treatment. Derivatization of POMs with more biocompatible organic ligands is expected to cause a synergetic effect and achieve improved bioactivity and biospecificity. Herein, the synthesis of an amphiphilic organic-inorganic hybrid is reported by grafting a long-chain organoalkoxysilane lipid onto a POM. The amphiphilic POM hybrid could spontaneously assemble into the vesicles and exhibits enhanced antitumor activity for human colorectal cancer cell lines (HT29) compared to that of parent POMs. This detailed study reveals that the amphiphilic nature of POM hybrids enables the as-formed vesicles to easily bind to the cell membranes and then be uptaken by the cells, thus leading to a substantial increase in antitumor activity. Such prominent antitumor action is mostly accomplished via cell apoptosis, which ultimately results in cell death. Our finding demonstrates that novel POM hybrids-based drugs with increased bioactivity could be obtained by decorating POMs with selective organic ligands. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Organic-Inorganic Hybrids Using Novel Phenylethynyl Imide Silanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, C.; Lowther, S. E.; Smith, J. G., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    In this presentation, polyimide-silica hybrids using novel phenylethynyl imide silanes are reported. The phenylethynyl group is present in the organic precursor as either a pendent or an end group to bond chemically with the polyimide adhesive containing phenylethynyl groups during processing, while the silane group of the organic precursor would chemically react with the inorganic precursor through oxane bond formation. The chemical compositions of these novel hybrids were examined using X-ray mapping modes of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which revealed a silicon gradient interphase between the high surface energy substrate and the polyimide adhesive. Novel aromatic phenylethynyl imide silanes (APEISs) and pendent phenylethynyl imide oligomeric disilanes (PPEIDSs) have been synthesized, and sol-gel solutions containing the new silanes, a phenylethynyl terminated imide oligomer (PETI-5), and an inorganic precursor were formulated to develop a gradient hybrid interphase between a titanium alloy and the adhesive. Two different sol-gel systems were investigated to develop organic-inorganic hybrids. Hybrid I was composed of an organic precursor containing both phenylethynyl and silane groups (PPEIDS) and an inorganic precursor. Functional group concentrations were controlled by the variation of the molecular weight of the imide backbone of PPEIDS. Hybrid II was composed of organic and inorganic precursors and a coupling agent containing both phenylethynyl and silane groups. Morphology and chemical composition of the hybrid interphase between the inorganic substrate and the adhesive were investigated, and the bond strength and durability were evaluated using lap shear tests at various conditions. The assessment of how the bonding at an interface is affected by various sol-gel solution compositions and environments is reported.

  17. Chemistry of Mesoporous Organosilica in Nanotechnology: Molecularly Organic-Inorganic Hybridization into Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Shi, Jianlin

    2016-05-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials aiming to combine the individual advantages of organic and inorganic components while overcoming their intrinsic drawbacks have shown great potential for future applications in broad fields. In particular, the integration of functional organic fragments into the framework of mesoporous silica to fabricate mesoporous organosilica materials has attracted great attention in the scientific community for decades. The development of such mesoporous organosilica materials has shifted from bulk materials to nanosized mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles (designated as MONs, in comparison with traditional mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs)) and corresponding applications in nanoscience and nanotechnology. In this comprehensive review, the state-of-art progress of this important hybrid nanomaterial family is summarized, focusing on the structure/composition-performance relationship of MONs of well-defined morphology, nanostructure, and nanoparticulate dimension. The synthetic strategies and the corresponding mechanisms for the design and construction of MONs with varied morphologies, compositions, nanostructures, and functionalities are overviewed initially. Then, the following part specifically concentrates on their broad spectrum of applications in nanotechnology, mainly in nanomedicine, nanocatalysis, and nanofabrication. Finally, some critical issues, presenting challenges and the future development of MONs regarding the rational synthesis and applications in nanotechnology are summarized and discussed. It is highly expected that such a unique molecularly organic-inorganic nanohybrid family will find practical applications in nanotechnology, and promote the advances of this discipline regarding hybrid chemistry and materials. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Isostructural organic-inorganic hybrid compounds: triethylcholine tribromidocadmate and triethylcholine tribromidomercurate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong-Yan; Hou, Xue-Li; Li, Xue-Nan

    2015-08-01

    In order to search for new anionic architectures and develop useful organic-inorganic hybrid materials in halometallate systems, two new crystalline organic-inorganic hybrid compounds have been prepared, i.e. catena-poly[triethyl(2-hydroxyethyl)azanium [[bromidocadmate(II)]-di-μ-bromido

  19. Dendrimer-based organic/inorganic hybrid nanoparticles in biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Mingwu; Shi, Xiangyang

    2010-09-01

    This review reports some recent advances on the synthesis, self-assembly, and biofunctionalization of various dendrimer-based organic/inorganic hybrid nanoparticles (NPs) for various biomedical applications, including but not limited to protein immobilization, gene delivery, and molecular diagnosis. In particular, targeted molecular imaging of cancer using dendrimer-based organic/inorganic hybrid NPs will be introduced in detail.

  20. Laser Crystallization of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Taewoo; Jin, Hyeong Min; Lee, Seung Hyun; Lee, Ju Min; Park, Hyung Il; Kim, Mi Kyung; Lee, Keon Jae; Shin, Byungha; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2016-08-23

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites attract enormous research interest for next generation solar energy harvest. Synergistic crystalline structures comprising organic and inorganic components enable solution processing of perovskite films. A reliable crystallization method for perovskites, compatible with fast continuous process over large-area flexible substrates, is crucial for high performance solar cell production. Here, we present laser crystallization of hybrid perovskite solar cells using near-infrared (NIR) laser (λ = 1064 nm). Crystalline morphology of CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) perovskite films are widely controllable with laser irradiation condition while maintaining film uniformity. Photothermal heating effectively assisted by interfacial photoconversion layers is critical for phase transformation without beam damage of multilayered device structures. Notably, laser crystallization attains higher device performances than conventional thermal annealing. Fast laser crystallization with manufacture level scan rate (1 m min(-1)) demonstrates inverted-type perovskite solar cells with 11.3 and 8.0% efficiencies on typical glass and flexible polymer substrates, respectively, without rigorous device optimization.

  1. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Thiol-ene-Based Photopolymerized Networks

    PubMed Central

    Schreck, Kathleen M.; Leung, Diana; Bowman, Christopher N.

    2011-01-01

    The thiol-ene reaction serves as a more oxygen tolerant alternative to traditional (meth)acrylate chemistry for forming photopolymerized networks with numerous desirable attributes including energy absorption, optical clarity, and reduced shrinkage stress. However, when utilizing commercially available monomers, many thiol-ene networks also exhibit decreases in properties such as glass transition temperature (Tg) and crosslink density. In this study, hybrid organic/inorganic thiol-ene resins incorporating silsesquioxane (SSQ) species into the photopolymerized networks were investigated as a route to improve these properties. Thiol- and ene-functionalized SSQs (SH-SSQ and allyl-SSQ, respectively) were synthesized via alkoxysilane hydrolysis/condensation chemistry, using a photopolymerizable monomer [either pentaerythriol tetrakis(3-mercaptopropionate) (PETMP) or 1,3,5-triallyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione (TATATO)] as the reaction solvent. The resulting SSQ-containing solutions (SSQ-PETMP and SSQ-TATATO) were characterized, and their incorporation into photopolymerized networks was evaluated. PMID:21984847

  2. Adhesion in flexible organic and hybrid organic/inorganic light emitting device and solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, D.; Kwabi, D.; Akogwu, O.; Du, J.; Oyewole, O. K.; Tong, T.; Anye, V. C.; Rwenyagila, E.; Asare, J.; Fashina, A.; Soboyejo, W. O.

    2014-08-21

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the adhesion between bi-material pairs that are relevant to organic light emitting devices, hybrid organic/inorganic light emitting devices, organic bulk heterojunction solar cells, and hybrid organic/inorganic solar cells on flexible substrates. Adhesion between the possible bi-material pairs is measured using force microscopy (AFM) techniques. These include: interfaces that are relevant to organic light emitting devices, hybrid organic/inorganic light emitting devices, bulk heterojunction solar cells, and hybrid combinations of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) and poly(3-hexylthiophene). The results of AFM measurements are incorporated into the Derjaguin-Muller-Toporov model for the determination of adhesion energies. The implications of the results are then discussed for the design of robust organic and hybrid organic/inorganic electronic devices.

  3. Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite FETs for Electrically Injected Laser Action

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    NUMBER Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite FETs for Electrically- Injected Laser Action Sb. GRANT NUMBER ONR N00014-15-1-2943 Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT...laser action aimed towards current injecting laser. For these studies we will use cw, transient and laser action techn iques on electrostatically gated...Office of Naval Research (ONR) Final grant report _QNR N00014-15-1-2943 Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite FETs for Electrically- Injected Laser

  4. A non-aqueous procedure to synthesize amino group bearing nanostructured organic-inorganic hybrid materials.

    PubMed

    Göring, M; Seifert, A; Schreiter, K; Müller, P; Spange, S

    2014-09-04

    Amino-functionalized organic-inorganic hybrid materials with a narrow distributed nanostructure of 2-4 nm in size were obtained by means of a template-free and non-aqueous procedure. Simultaneous twin polymerization of novel amino group containing twin monomers with 2,2'-spirobi[4H-1,3,2-benzodioxasiline] has been applied for this purpose. The amino groups of the organic-inorganic hybrid material are useful for post derivatization.

  5. Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites on the Move.

    PubMed

    Egger, David A; Rappe, Andrew M; Kronik, Leeor

    2016-03-15

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOIPs) are crystals with the structural formula ABX3, where A, B, and X are organic and inorganic ions, respectively. While known for several decades, HOIPs have only in recent years emerged as extremely promising semiconducting materials for solar energy applications. In particular, power-conversion efficiencies of HOIP-based solar cells have improved at a record speed and, after only little more than 6 years of photovoltaics research, surpassed the 20% threshold, which is an outstanding result for a solution-processable material. It is thus of fundamental importance to reveal physical and chemical phenomena that contribute to, or limit, these impressive photovoltaic efficiencies. To understand charge-transport and light-absorption properties of semiconducting materials, one often invokes a lattice of ions displaced from their static positions only by harmonic vibrations. However, a preponderance of recent studies suggests that this picture is not sufficient for HOIPs, where a variety of structurally dynamic effects, beyond small harmonic vibrations, arises already at room temperature. In this Account, we focus on these effects. First, we review structure and bonding in HOIPs and relate them to the promising charge-transport and absorption properties of these materials, in terms of favorable electronic properties. We point out that HOIPs are much "softer" mechanically, compared to other efficient solar-cell materials, and that this can result in large ionic displacements at room temperature. We therefore focus next on dynamic structural effects in HOIPs, going beyond a static band-structure picture. Specifically, we discuss pertinent experimental and theoretical findings as to phase-transition behavior and molecular/octahedral rearrangements. We then discuss atomic diffusion phenomena in HOIPs, with an emphasis on the migration of intrinsic and extrinsic ionic species. From this combined perspective, HOIPs appear as highly

  6. Photophysical Properties of Novel Organic, Inorganic, and Hybrid Semiconductor Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Angela Yenchi

    For the past 200 years, novel materials have driven technological progress, and going forward these advanced materials will continue to deeply impact virtually all major industrial sectors. Therefore, it is vital to perform basic and applied research on novel materials in order to develop new technologies for the future. This dissertation describes the results of photophysical studies on three novel materials with electronic and optoelectronic applications, namely organic small molecules DTDCTB with C60 and C70, colloidal indium antimonide (InSb) nanocrystals, and an organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite with the composition CH3NH3PbI 3-xClx, using transient absorption (TA) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. In chapter 2, we characterize the timescale and efficiency of charge separation and recombination in thin film blends comprising DTDCTB, a narrow-band gap electron donor, and either C60 or C70 as an electron acceptor. TA and time-resolved PL studies show correlated, sub-picosecond charge separation times and multiple timescales of charge recombination. Our results indicate that some donors fail to charge separate in donor-acceptor mixed films, which suggests material manipulations may improve device efficiency. Chapter 3 describes electron-hole pair dynamics in strongly quantum-confined, colloidal InSb nanocrystal quantum dots. For all samples, TA shows a bleach feature that, for several picoseconds, dramatically red-shifts prior to reaching a time-independent position. We suggest this unusual red-shift relates transient population flow through two energetically comparable conduction band states. From pump-power-dependent measurements, we also determine biexciton lifetimes. In chapter 4, we examine carrier dynamics in polycrystalline methylammonium lead mixed halide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3-xCl x) thin films as functions of temperature and photoexcitation wavelength. At room temperature, the long-lived TA signals stand in contrast to PL dynamics, where the

  7. Thin Film Solar Cells: Organic, Inorganic and Hybrid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankovich, John

    2004-01-01

    Thin film solar cells are an important developing resource for hundreds of applications including space travel. In addition to being more cost effective than traditional single crystal silicon cells, thin film multi-crystaline cells are plastic and light weight. The plasticity of the cells allows for whole solar panels to be rolled out from reams. Organic layers are being investigated in order to increase the efficiency of the cells to create an organic / inorganic hybrid cell. The main focus of the group is a thin film inorganic cell made with the absorber CuInS2. So far the group has been successful in creating the layer from a single-source precursor. They also use a unique method of film deposition called chemical vapor deposition for this. The general makeup of the cell is a molybdenum back contact with the CuInS2 layer, then CdS, ZnO and aluminum top contacts. While working cells have been produced, the efficiency so far has been low. Along with quantum dot fabrication the side project of this that is currently being studied is adding a polymer layer to increase efficiency. The polymer that we are using is P3OT (Poly(3-octylthiopene-2,5-diyll), retroregular). Before (and if) it is added to the cell, it must be understood in itself. To do this simple diodes are being constructed to begin to look at its behavior. The P3OT is spin coated onto indium tin oxide and silver or aluminum contacts are added. This method is being studied in order to find the optimal thickness of the layer as well as other important considerations that may later affect the composition of the finished solar cell. Because the sun is the most abundant renewable, energy source that we have, it is important to learn how to harness that energy and begin to move away from our other depleted non-renewable energy sources. While traditional silicon cells currently create electricity at relatively high efficiencies, they have drawbacks such as weight and rigidness that make them unattractive

  8. Thin Film Solar Cells: Organic, Inorganic and Hybrid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankovich, John

    2004-01-01

    Thin film solar cells are an important developing resource for hundreds of applications including space travel. In addition to being more cost effective than traditional single crystal silicon cells, thin film multi-crystaline cells are plastic and light weight. The plasticity of the cells allows for whole solar panels to be rolled out from reams. Organic layers are being investigated in order to increase the efficiency of the cells to create an organic / inorganic hybrid cell. The main focus of the group is a thin film inorganic cell made with the absorber CuInS2. So far the group has been successful in creating the layer from a single-source precursor. They also use a unique method of film deposition called chemical vapor deposition for this. The general makeup of the cell is a molybdenum back contact with the CuInS2 layer, then CdS, ZnO and aluminum top contacts. While working cells have been produced, the efficiency so far has been low. Along with quantum dot fabrication the side project of this that is currently being studied is adding a polymer layer to increase efficiency. The polymer that we are using is P3OT (Poly(3-octylthiopene-2,5-diyll), retroregular). Before (and if) it is added to the cell, it must be understood in itself. To do this simple diodes are being constructed to begin to look at its behavior. The P3OT is spin coated onto indium tin oxide and silver or aluminum contacts are added. This method is being studied in order to find the optimal thickness of the layer as well as other important considerations that may later affect the composition of the finished solar cell. Because the sun is the most abundant renewable, energy source that we have, it is important to learn how to harness that energy and begin to move away from our other depleted non-renewable energy sources. While traditional silicon cells currently create electricity at relatively high efficiencies, they have drawbacks such as weight and rigidness that make them unattractive

  9. Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Nanocomposite Infrared Photodetection by Intraband Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantz, Kevin Richard

    The ability to detect infrared radiation is vital for a host of applications that include optical communication, medical diagnosis, thermal imaging, atmospheric monitoring, and space science. The need to actively cool infrared photon detectors increases their operation cost and weight, and the focus of much recent research has been to limit the dark current and create room-temperature infrared photodetectors appropriate for mid-to-long-wave infrared detection. Quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) provide electron quantum confinement in three dimensions and have been shown to demonstrate high temperature operation (T>150 K) due to lower dark currents. However, these inorganic devices have not achieved sensitivity comparable to state-of-the-art photon detectors, due in large part to the inability to control the uniformity (size and shape) of QDs during strained-layer epitaxy. The purpose of this dissertation research was to investigate the feasibility of room-temperature infrared photodetection that could overcome the shortfalls of QDIPs by using chemically synthesized inorganic colloidal quantum dots (CQDs). CQDs are coated with organic molecules known as surface ligands that prevent the agglomeration of dots while in solution. When CQDs are suspended in a semiconducting organic polymer, these materials are known as organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposites. The novel approach investigated in this work was to use intraband transitions in the conduction band of the polymer-embedded CQD for room-temperature photodetection in the mid-wave, and possibly long-wave, infrared ranges. Hybrid nanocomposite materials promise room-temperature operation due to: (i) large bandgaps of the inorganic CQDs and the semiconducting polymer that reduce thermionic emission; and (ii) low dark current due to the three-dimensional electron confinement in the CQD and low carrier mobility in the semiconducting polymer. The primary material system investigated in this research was Cd

  10. Organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures for solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AbdulAlmohsin, Samir M.

    The enticing electro-optical properties of nanostructured materials such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, CdS nanocrystals and ZnO nanowrie bring new vigor into the innovation of photovoltaics. The main purpose of this dissertation is to develop novel nano-structured materials for low cost solar cell applications. Fabrication, characterization, and solar cell application of organic-inorganic hybrid structures are the main focus of this research. Polyaniline (PANI)/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) composite films were synthesized by an electrochemical polymerization of aniline with airbrushed MWNTs on ITO substrates. It was found that the incorporation of MWNTs in PANI effectively increase the film conductivity with a percolation threshold of 5% of nanotubes in the composite. The solar cell performance strongly depends on the conductivity of the composite films, which can be tuned by adjusting nanotube concentration. A higher conductivity resulted in a better cell performance, resulting from an efficient charge collection. This study indicates that PANI/MWNT composite films with optimized conductivity are potentially useful for low-cost hybrid solar cell applications. CdS nanocrystal-sensitized solar cells (NCSSCs) were investigated by using polyaniline (PANI) as a replacement for conventional platinum counter electrode. The growth time of the nanocrystals significantly affects the solar cell performance. At an optimum growth, the NCSSCs exhibit 0.83% of the conversion efficiency in comparison to 0.13% for the identical cells without CdS nanocrystals. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that the charge transfer in the solar cells with CdS nanocrystals was improved. The enhanced overall energy conversion efficiency by nanocrystals is attributed to improved light absorption and suppressed recombination rate of interfacial charges at the injection, resulting in significantly improved charge transfer and electron lifetime. In addition, the PANI electrodes

  11. Toxicology of organic-inorganic hybrid molecules: bio-organometallics and its toxicology.

    PubMed

    Fujie, Tomoya; Hara, Takato; Kaji, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Bio-organometallics is a research strategy of biology that uses organic-inorganic hybrid molecules. The molecules are expected to exhibit useful bioactivities based on the unique structure formed by interaction between the organic structure and intramolecular metal(s). However, studies on both biology and toxicology of organic-inorganic hybrid molecules have been incompletely performed. There can be two types of toxicological studies of bio-organometallics; one is evaluation of organic-inorganic hybrid molecules and the other is analysis of biological systems from the viewpoint of toxicology using organic-inorganic hybrid molecules. Our recent studies indicate that cytotoxicity of hybrid molecules containing a metal that is nontoxic in inorganic forms can be more toxic than that of hybrid molecules containing a metal that is toxic in inorganic forms when the structure of the ligand is the same. Additionally, it was revealed that organic-inorganic hybrid molecules are useful for analysis of biological systems important for understanding the toxicity of chemical compounds including heavy metals.

  12. Air stable organic-inorganic nanoparticles hybrid solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Lei; Yang, Jihua; Xue, Jiangeng; Holloway, Paul H.

    2015-09-29

    A solar cell includes a low work function cathode, an active layer of an organic-inorganic nanoparticle composite, a ZnO nanoparticle layer situated between and physically contacting the cathode and active layers; and a transparent high work function anode that is a bilayer electrode. The inclusion of the ZnO nanoparticle layer results in a solar cell displaying a conversion efficiency increase and reduces the device degradation rate. Embodiments of the invention are directed to novel ZnO nanoparticles that are advantageous for use as the ZnO nanoparticle layers of the novel solar cells and a method to prepare the ZnO nanoparticles.

  13. Synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid sols using trifunctional organoalkoxysilanes for dispersion agents.

    PubMed

    Park, Hoyyul; Kang, Dongjun; Ahn, Myeongsang; Lee, Hyeonhwa

    2012-02-01

    We investigated the properties of synthetically produced organic-inorganic hybrid coatings by a sol-gel process. The properties of organic-inorganic hybrid materials arise from the synergism between the properties of the individual components. One of the typical way to synthesize the organic-inorganic hybrid materials is to use silica and silanes. A colloidal silica sol was used as an inorganic material. Methyltrimethoxysilane and phenyltrimethoxysilane were used as the trifunctional organoalkoxysilanes. Hybrid sols of colloidal silica and silanes were synthesized as a function of reaction time and methyltrimethoxysilane/phenyltrimethoxysilane ratio by a sol-gel process. Physical properties of sol solutions such as stability, viscosity, and transmittance were investigated. The surface roughness and surface free energy of the coatings were also measured.

  14. Multi-enzyme co-embedded organic-inorganic hybrid nanoflowers: synthesis and application as a colorimetric sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jiayu; Ge, Jiechao; Liu, Weimin; Lan, Minhua; Zhang, Hongyan; Wang, Pengfei; Wang, Yanming; Niu, Zhongwei

    2013-12-01

    This study reports a facile method for the synthesis of multi-enzyme co-embedded organic-inorganic hybrid nanoflowers, using glucose oxidase (GOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as the organic components, and Cu3(PO4)2.3H2O as the inorganic component. The synthesized nanoflowers enable the combination of a two-enzyme cascade reaction in one step, in which the GOx component of the nanoflowers oxidizes glucose to generate H2O2, which then reacts with the adjacent HRP component on the nanoflowers to oxidize the chromogenic substrates, resulting in an apparent color change. Given the close proximity of the two enzyme components in a single nanoflower, this novel sensor greatly reduces the diffusion and decomposition of H2O2, and greatly enhances the sensitivity of glucose detection. Thus, the obtained multi-enzyme co-embedded organic-inorganic hybrid nanoflowers can be unquestionably used as highly sensitive colorimetric sensors for the detection of glucose. Notably, this work presents a very facile route for the synthesis of multi-enzyme co-embedded nanomaterials for the simultaneous catalysis of multi-step cascade enzymatic reactions. Furthermore, it has great potential for application in biotechnology, and biomedical and environmental chemistry.This study reports a facile method for the synthesis of multi-enzyme co-embedded organic-inorganic hybrid nanoflowers, using glucose oxidase (GOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as the organic components, and Cu3(PO4)2.3H2O as the inorganic component. The synthesized nanoflowers enable the combination of a two-enzyme cascade reaction in one step, in which the GOx component of the nanoflowers oxidizes glucose to generate H2O2, which then reacts with the adjacent HRP component on the nanoflowers to oxidize the chromogenic substrates, resulting in an apparent color change. Given the close proximity of the two enzyme components in a single nanoflower, this novel sensor greatly reduces the diffusion and decomposition of H2O2

  15. Design and properties of functional hybrid organic-inorganic membranes for fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Laberty-Robert, C; Vallé, K; Pereira, F; Sanchez, C

    2011-02-01

    This critical review presents a discussion on the major advances in the field of organic-inorganic hybrid membranes for fuel cells application. The hybrid organic-inorganic approach, when the organic part is not conductive, reproduces to some extent the behavior of Nafion where discrete hydrophilic and hydrophilic domains are homogeneously distributed. A large variety of proton conducting or non conducting polymers can be combined with various functionalized, inorganic mesostructured particles or an inorganic network in order to achieve high proton conductivity, and good mechanical and chemical properties. The tuning of the interface between these two components and the control over chemical and processing conditions are the key parameters in fabricating these hybrid organic-inorganic membranes with a high degree of reproducibility. This dynamic coupling between chemistry and processing requires the extensive use and development of complementary ex situ measurements with in situ characterization techniques, following in real time the molecular precursor solutions to the formation of the final hybrid organic-inorganic membranes. These membranes combine the intrinsic physical and chemical properties of both the inorganic and organic components. The development of the sol-gel chemistry allows a fine tuning of the inorganic network, which exhibits acid-based functionalized pores (-SO(3)H, -PO(3)H(2), -COOH), tunable pore size and connectivity, high surface area and accessibility. As such, these hybrid membranes containing inorganic materials are a promising family for controlling conductivity, mechanical and chemical properties (349 references).

  16. Organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous silicas: functionalization, pore size, and morphology control.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Soo; Ha, Chang-Sik

    2006-01-01

    Topological design of mesoporous silica materials, pore architecture, pore size, and morphology are currently major issues in areas such as catalytic conversion of bulky molecules, adsorption, host-guest chemistry, etc. In this sense, we discuss the pore size-controlled mesostructure, framework functionalization, and morphology control of organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous silicas by which we can improve the applicability of mesoporous materials. First, we explain that the sizes of hexagonal- and cubic-type pores in organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous silicas are well controlled from 24.3 to 98.0 A by the direct micelle-control method using an organosilica precursor and surfactants with different alkyl chain lengths or triblock copolymers as templates and swelling agents incorporated in the formed micelles. Second, we describe that organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous materials with various functional groups form various external morphologies such as rod, cauliflower, film, rope, spheroid, monolith, and fiber shapes. Third, we discuss that transition metals (Ti and Ru) and rare-earth ions (Eu(3+) and Tb(3+)) are used to modify organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous silica materials. Such hybrid mesoporous silica materials are expected to be applied as excellent catalysts for organic reactions, photocatalysis, optical devices, etc. c) 2006 The Japan Chemical Journal Forum and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Nanocomposites for Photovoltaic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ruchuan

    2014-01-01

    Inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells have attracted a lot of interest due to their potential in combining the advantages of both components. To understand the key issues in association with photoinduced charge separation/transportation processes and to improve overall power conversion efficiency, various combinations with nanostructures of hybrid systems have been investigated. Here, we briefly review the structures of hybrid nanocomposites studied so far, and attempt to associate the power conversion efficiency with these nanostructures. Subsequently, we are then able to summarize the factors for optimizing the performance of inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells. PMID:28788591

  18. Biomedical Applications of Magnetically Functionalized Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwa-Jeong; Lee, Sang Joon; Uthaman, Saji; Thomas, Reju George; Hyun, Hoon; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Cho, Chong-Su; Park, In-Kyu

    2015-06-15

    Nanofibers are one-dimensional nanomaterial in fiber form with diameter less than 1 µm and an aspect ratio (length/diameter) larger than 100:1. Among the different types of nanoparticle-loaded nanofiber systems, nanofibers loaded with magnetic nanoparticles have gained much attention from biomedical scientists due to a synergistic effect obtained from the unique properties of both the nanofibers and magnetic nanoparticles. These magnetic nanoparticle-encapsulated or -embedded nanofiber systems can be used not only for imaging purposes but also for therapy. In this review, we focused on recent advances in nanofibers loaded with magnetic nanoparticles, their biomedical applications, and future trends in the application of these nanofibers.

  19. Sulfur-Containing Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Gel Compositions and Aerogels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Owen R. (Inventor); Dong, Wenting (Inventor); Deshpande, Kiranmayi (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Methods and materials are described for preparing organic-inorganic hybrid gel compositions where a sulfur-containing cross-linking agent covalently links the organic and inorganic components. The gel compositions are further dried to provide porous gel compositions and aerogels. The mechanical and thermal properties of the dried gel compositions are also disclosed.

  20. Auto-organisation of hybrid organic-inorganic materials prepared by sol-gel process.

    PubMed

    Boury, Bruno; Corriu, Robert J P

    2002-04-21

    Silica-based hybrid organic-inorganic materials prepared by sol-gel chemistry exhibit chemical and physical properties revealing their anisotropic organisation. Besides the opportunities that this phenomenon opens for the preparation of new materials, it also provides arguments to the chemist looking for a better comprehension and control of the organisation of solids.

  1. Fabrication and characterization of materials and structures for hybrid organic-inorganic photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haško, Daniel; Chovan, Jozef; Uherek, František

    2017-03-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic integrated photonics integrate the organic material, as a part of active layer, with inorganic structure, and it is the organic component that extends the functionalities as compared to inorganic photonics. This paper presents the results of fabrication and characterization of inorganic and organic layers, as well as of hybrid organic-inorganic structures. Inorganic oxide and nitride materials and structures were grown using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. As a substrate for tested organic layers and for preparation of multilayer structures, commercially available SiO2 created by thermal oxidation on Si was used. The hybrid organic-inorganic structures were prepared by spin coating of organic materials on SiO2/Si inorganic structures. As the basic photonics devices, the testing strip inorganic and organic waveguides were fabricated using reactive ion etching. The shape of fabricated testing waveguides was trapezoidal and etched structures were able to guide the radiation. The presented technology enabled to prepare hybrid organic-inorganic structures of comparable dimensions and shape. The fabricated waveguides dimensions and shape will be used for optimisation and design of new lithographic mask to prepare photonic components with required characteristics.

  2. Hybrid organic-inorganic network coatings for protecting metal substrates from abrasion and corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Jordens, K.; Wilkes, G.

    1996-12-31

    Ceramers or Ormocers are hybrid organic-inorganic materials first created a decade ago, and are the subject of a recent review article. Recent research from the authors laboratory in this area of materials science has focused on synthesizing protective coatings for (soft) polymeric substrates, i.e. polycarbonate. The authors have now extended the application of such coatings to metallic substrates.

  3. Preparation and characterization of cellulose acetate organic/inorganic hybrid films

    Treesearch

    Saeed S. Shojaie; Timothy G. Rials; Stephen S. Kelley

    1995-01-01

    A series of organic/inorganic hybrid (OIH) films were prepared using cellulose acetate (CA) as the organic component and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as the inorganic component. The chemical, morphological, and mechanical properties of these films were evaluated with a variety of analytical techniques. The results of these evaluations showed that crosslinked CA OIH...

  4. Efficient Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cell Integrating Polymer Nanowires and Inorganic Nanotetrapods.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weizhe; Tan, Furui; Liu, Xiansheng; Zhang, Weifeng; Qu, Shengchun; Wang, Zhijie; Wang, Zhanguo

    2017-12-01

    Constructing a highly efficient bulk-heterojunction is of critical importance to the hybrid organic/inorganic solar cells. Here in this work, we introduce a novel hybrid architecture containing P3HT nanowire and CdSe nanotetrapod as bicontinuous charge channels for holes and electrons, respectively. Compared to the traditionally applied P3HT molecules, the well crystallized P3HT nanowires qualify an enhanced light absorption at the long wavelength as well as strengthened charge carrier transport in the hybrid active layer. Accordingly, based on efficient dissociation of photogenerated excitons, the interpercolation of these two nano-building blocks allows a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 1.7% in the hybrid solar cell, up to 42% enhancement compared to the reference solar cell with traditional P3HT molecules as electron donor. Our work provides a promising hybrid structure for efficient organic/inorganic bulk-heterojunction solar cells.

  5. Efficient Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cell Integrating Polymer Nanowires and Inorganic Nanotetrapods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Weizhe; Tan, Furui; Liu, Xiansheng; Zhang, Weifeng; Qu, Shengchun; Wang, Zhijie; Wang, Zhanguo

    2017-01-01

    Constructing a highly efficient bulk-heterojunction is of critical importance to the hybrid organic/inorganic solar cells. Here in this work, we introduce a novel hybrid architecture containing P3HT nanowire and CdSe nanotetrapod as bicontinuous charge channels for holes and electrons, respectively. Compared to the traditionally applied P3HT molecules, the well crystallized P3HT nanowires qualify an enhanced light absorption at the long wavelength as well as strengthened charge carrier transport in the hybrid active layer. Accordingly, based on efficient dissociation of photogenerated excitons, the interpercolation of these two nano-building blocks allows a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 1.7% in the hybrid solar cell, up to 42% enhancement compared to the reference solar cell with traditional P3HT molecules as electron donor. Our work provides a promising hybrid structure for efficient organic/inorganic bulk-heterojunction solar cells.

  6. Organic-inorganic hybrid gels for the selective absorption of oils from water.

    PubMed

    Ozan Aydin, Gulsah; Bulbul Sonmez, Hayal

    2016-06-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid gels were synthesized by the condensation of a linear aliphatic diol (1,8-octanediol) and altering the chain length of the alkyltriethoxysilanes (from ethyltriethoxysilane to hexadecyltrimethoxysilane) through a bulk polymerization process without using any initiator, activator, catalyst, or solvent for the selective removal of oils from water. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and solid-state (13)C and (29)Si cross-polarization magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (CPMAS NMR) were used for the structural analysis of hybrid gels. Thermal properties of the hybrid gels were determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Oil absorbency of organic-inorganic hybrid gels was determined by oil absorption tests. The results showed that hybrid gels have high and fast absorption capacities and excellent reusability. Good selectivity, high thermal stability, low density, and excellent recyclability for the oil removal give the material potential applications.

  7. A novel organic-inorganic hybrid tandem solar cell with inverted structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrami, A.; Faez, R.

    2017-04-01

    A novel organic-inorganic hybrid tandem solar cell with inverted structure is proposed. This efficient double-junction hybrid tandem solar cell consists of a single-junction hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) subcell with n-i-p structure as front cell and a P3HT:PCBM organic subcell with inverted structure as back cell. In order to optimize the hybrid tandem cell, we have performed a simulation based on transfer matrix method. We have compared the characteristics of this novel structure with a conventional structure. As a result, a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.1 and 24% improvement compared to the conventional hybrid tandem cell was achieved. We also discuss the high potential of this novel structure for realizing high-stability organic-inorganic hybrid photovoltaic devices.

  8. Ultrahigh and Broad Spectral Photodetectivity of an Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Phototransistor for Flexible Electronics.

    PubMed

    Rim, You Seung; Yang, Yang Micheal; Bae, Sang-Hoon; Chen, Huajun; Li, Chao; Goorsky, Mark S; Yang, Yang

    2015-11-18

    The creation of new organic-inorganic phototransistors with high and broad spectral photosensitivity is reported. The extended charge transport and photoconductivity between the layers in the bilayer structure results in a notable detectivity of over 10(12) Jones and a linear dynamic range of over 100 dB at a broad spectral bandwidth across the UV-NIR range. Furthermore, the considerably reduced persistent photocurrent effect of In-Ga-Zn-O (IGZO)-based hybrid phototransistors is first demonstrated via an organic-inorganic bilayer approach.

  9. Biomedical Applications of Magnetically Functionalized Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hwa-Jeong; Lee, Sang Joon; Uthaman, Saji; Thomas, Reju George; Hyun, Hoon; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Cho, Chong-Su; Park, In-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Nanofibers are one-dimensional nanomaterial in fiber form with diameter less than 1 µm and an aspect ratio (length/diameter) larger than 100:1. Among the different types of nanoparticle-loaded nanofiber systems, nanofibers loaded with magnetic nanoparticles have gained much attention from biomedical scientists due to a synergistic effect obtained from the unique properties of both the nanofibers and magnetic nanoparticles. These magnetic nanoparticle-encapsulated or -embedded nanofiber systems can be used not only for imaging purposes but also for therapy. In this review, we focused on recent advances in nanofibers loaded with magnetic nanoparticles, their biomedical applications, and future trends in the application of these nanofibers. PMID:26084046

  10. Preparation and applications of hybrid organic-inorganic monoliths: a review.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tao; Row, Kyung Ho

    2012-06-01

    This review presents an overview of the properties of hybrid organic-inorganic monolithic materials and summarizes the recent developments in the preparation and applications of these hybrid monolithic materials. Hybrid monolithic materials with porosities, surface functionalities, and fast dynamic transport have developed rapidly, and have been used in a wide range of applications owing to the low cost, good stability, and excellent performance. Basically, these materials can be divided into two major types according to the chemical composition: hybrid silica-based monolith (HSM) and hybrid polymer-based monolith (HPM). Compared to the HPM, HSM monolith has been attracting most wide attentions, and it is commonly synthesized by the sol-gel process. The conventional preparation procedures of two type's hybrid organic-inorganic monoliths are addressed. Applications of hybrid organic-inorganic monoliths in optical devices, capillary microextraction (CME), capillary electrochromatography (CEC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and chiral separation are also reviewed. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Multi-enzyme co-embedded organic-inorganic hybrid nanoflowers: synthesis and application as a colorimetric sensor.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiayu; Ge, Jiechao; Liu, Weimin; Lan, Minhua; Zhang, Hongyan; Wang, Pengfei; Wang, Yanming; Niu, Zhongwei

    2014-01-07

    This study reports a facile method for the synthesis of multi-enzyme co-embedded organic-inorganic hybrid nanoflowers, using glucose oxidase (GOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as the organic components, and Cu3(PO4)2 · 3H2O as the inorganic component. The synthesized nanoflowers enable the combination of a two-enzyme cascade reaction in one step, in which the GOx component of the nanoflowers oxidizes glucose to generate H2O2, which then reacts with the adjacent HRP component on the nanoflowers to oxidize the chromogenic substrates, resulting in an apparent color change. Given the close proximity of the two enzyme components in a single nanoflower, this novel sensor greatly reduces the diffusion and decomposition of H2O2, and greatly enhances the sensitivity of glucose detection. Thus, the obtained multi-enzyme co-embedded organic-inorganic hybrid nanoflowers can be unquestionably used as highly sensitive colorimetric sensors for the detection of glucose. Notably, this work presents a very facile route for the synthesis of multi-enzyme co-embedded nanomaterials for the simultaneous catalysis of multi-step cascade enzymatic reactions. Furthermore, it has great potential for application in biotechnology, and biomedical and environmental chemistry.

  12. Tetraalkylphosphonium polyoxometalate ionic liquids : novel, organic-inorganic hybrid materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Rickert, P. G.; Antonio, M. P.; Firestone, M. A.; Kubatko, K.-A.; Szreder, T.; Wishart, J. F.; Dietz, M. L.; Chemistry; Univ. of Notre Dame; BNL

    2007-01-01

    Pairing of a Keggin or Lindqvist polyoxometalate (POM) anion with an appropriate tetraalkylphosphonium cation is shown to yield the first members of a new family of ionic liquids (ILs). Detailed characterization of one of them, an ambient-temperature 'liquid POM' comprising the Lindqvist salt of the trihexyl(tetradecyl) phosphonium cation, by voltammetry, viscometry, conductimetry, and thermal analysis indicates that it exhibits conductivity and viscosity comparable to those of the one previously described inorganic-organic POM-IL hybrid but with substantially improved thermal stability.

  13. Synthesis and properties control of fluorinated organic-inorganic hybrid films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Qingjie; Xu, Jianming; Han, Yuanyuan

    2011-12-01

    Fluorinated organic-inorganic hybrid films were prepared by free-radical random copolymerization and sol-gel process through dodecafluoroheptyl methacrylate (DFMA), vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES), and tetramethoxysilane (TMOS). It was found that the prepared fluorinated organic-inorganic hybrid film was very hydrophobic and exhibits excellent water repellency. Hydrophobic fluorocarbon side chains were preferentially enriched to the outermost layer at the interface of coating film-air, and three layers probably exist in the coating films. The fluorinated hybrid films possessed fluorocarbon side chains orient toward the air originating from DFMA as the top layer, hydrocarbon backbone chain originating from vinyl polymerization as the middle layer, and silica network originating from the hydrolysis and condensation of siloxane as the bottom layer. It demonstrated that most of TMOS added might be arranged to the bottom layer of the fluorinated hybrid films, and had a slight impact on the enrichment of fluorocarbon side chains of the outermost layer. However, the useful properties of the fluorinated organic-inorganic hybrid films such as thickness and corrosion resistant can be significantly improved by the increase of TMOS content.

  14. Organic/inorganic hybrid amine and sulfonic acid tethered silica materials: Synthesis, characterization and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, Jason Christopher

    The major goals of this thesis were to: (1) create a site-isolated aminosilica material with higher amine loadings than previously reported isolation methods, (2) use spectroscopic, reactivity, and catalytic (olefin polymerization precatalysts) probes to determine isolation of amine groups on these organic/inorganic hybrid materials, (3) synthesize an organic/inorganic hybrid material capable of activating Group 4 olefin polymerization precatalysts, and (4) synthesize a high amine loaded organic/inorganic hybrid material capable of reversibly capturing CO2 in a simulated flue gas stream. The underlying motivation of this research involved the synthesis and design of novel amine and sulfonic acid materials. Traditional routes to synthesize aminosilicas have led to the formation of a high loading of multiple types of amine sites on the silica surface. Part of this research involved the creation of a new aminosilica material via a protection/deprotection method designed to prevent multiple sites, while maintaining a relatively high loading. As a characterization technique, fluorescence spectroscopy of pyrene-based fluorophores loaded on traditional aminosilicas and site-isolated aminosilicas was used to probe the degree of site-isolation obtained with these methods. Also, this protection/deprotection method was compared to other reported isolation techniques with heterogeneous Group 4 constrained-geometry inspired catalysts (CGCs). It was determined that the degree of separation of the amine sites could be controlled with protection/deprotection methods. Furthermore, an increase in the reactivity of the amines and the catalytic activity of CGCs built off of the amines was determined for aminosilicas synthesized by a protection/deprotection method. The second part of this work involved developing organic/inorganic hybrid materials as heterogeneous Bronsted acidic cocatalysts for activation of olefin polymerization precatalysts. This was the first reported organic/inorganic

  15. Multisite organic-inorganic hybrid catalysts for the direct sustainable synthesis of GABAergic drugs.

    PubMed

    Leyva-Pérez, Antonio; García-García, Pilar; Corma, Avelino

    2014-08-11

    Multisite organic-inorganic hybrid catalysts have been prepared and applied in a new general, practical, and sustainable synthetic procedure toward industrially relevant GABA derivatives. The domino sequence is composed of seven chemical transformations which are performed in two one-pot reactions. The method produces both enantiomeric forms of the product in high enantiopurity as well as the racemate in good yields after a single column purification step. This protocol highlights major process intensification, catalyst recyclability, and low waste generation.

  16. Synthesis of hybrid organic-inorganic near-IR responsive magnetic nanoparticles for cancer theragnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang, Doyeon; Lee, Taeksu; Choi, Jihye; Park, Joseph; Kang, Byunghoon; Huh, Yong-Min; Haam, Seungjoo

    2012-10-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic near-infrared responsive magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized for theragnosis combined with localized therapy. In detail, inorganic super-paramagnetic nanoparticles were embedded inside organic polyaniline matrix, which enables localized photothermal therapy upon NIR illumination under intracellular acidic/oxidative condition. In this structure, super-paramagnetic nanoparticle works as MRI contrast agent, that enables the visualization of a tumor and polyaniline works for near-infrared responsive tumor ablation.

  17. 45S5 Bioglass®-derived scaffolds coated with organic-inorganic hybrids containing graphene.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Paola; Valentini, Luca; Hum, Jasmin; Detsch, Rainer; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2013-10-01

    Highly porous 45S5 Bioglass®-based scaffolds fabricated by a foam replication technique were coated with electrically conductive organic-inorganic hybrid layers containing graphene by a solution method. α,ω-Triethoxysilane terminated poly (ethylene glycol) and tetraethoxysilane were used as the precursors of the organic-inorganic hybrid coatings, that contained 1.5 wt.% of homogeneously dispersed graphene nanoplatelets. The resulting coated scaffolds retained their original high porosity and interconnected pore structure after coating. The presence of graphene did not impair the bioactivity of the scaffolds in simulated body fluid. Initial tests carried out using MG-63 cells demonstrated that both uncoated scaffolds and scaffolds coated with organic/inorganic hybrids containing graphene offered the cultured cells an adequate surface for cell attachment, spreading and expression of extracellular matrix. The results showed that scaffolds coated with graphene are biocompatible and they can support cellular activity. The electrical conductivity introduced by the coating might have the potential to increase tissue growth when cell culture is carried out under an applied electric field.

  18. Zero-Dimensional Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskite Modeling: Insights from First Principles.

    PubMed

    Giorgi, Giacomo; Yamashita, Koichi

    2016-03-03

    We discuss the properties of zero dimensional (cluster) hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskite in view of their possible applicability in photovoltaics, light-emitting, and lasing devices. To support the need of theoretical investigations of such systems and pave the way for future investigations of clusters with different orientations, terminations, and compositions, we have assembled and characterized some zero dimensional models of methylammonium lead iodide, MAPbI3, by "cutting" its bulk. Interesting properties of such clusters that have been here theoretically investigated include their charge distribution, bandgap, wave function localization, and reduced effective mass. The surface orientation/termination and the organic/inorganic cation ratios have been discussed together with the roles they play in determining the electronic properties of such clusters. Also in agreement with experiments, it emerges that surface termination is crucial in determining the structural and optoelectronic properties of this largely overlooked, dimensionally reduced class of materials. Analogies and differences between clusters and bulk are discussed.

  19. Electric-Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect in a Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskite.

    PubMed

    Fan, Feng-Ren; Wu, Hua; Nabok, Dmitrii; Hu, Shunbo; Ren, Wei; Draxl, Claudia; Stroppa, Alessandro

    2017-09-20

    Hybrid organic-inorganic compounds attract a lot of interest for their flexible structures and multifunctional properties. For example, they can have coexisting magnetism and ferroelectricity whose possible coupling gives rise to magnetoelectricity. Here using first-principles computations, we show that, in a perovskite metal-organic framework (MOF), the magnetic and electric orders are further coupled to optical excitations, leading to an Electric tuning of the Magneto-Optical Kerr effect (EMOKE). Moreover, the Kerr angle can be switched by reversal of both ferroelectric and magnetic polarization only. The interplay between the Kerr angle and the organic-inorganic components of MOFs offers surprising unprecedented tools for engineering MOKE in complex compounds. Note that this work may be relevant to acentric magnetic systems in general, e.g., multiferroics.

  20. Broad-Band-Emissive Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Semiconducting Nanowires Based on an ABX3-Type Chain Compound.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhenyue; Li, Lina; Ji, Chengmin; Lin, Guoming; Wang, Sasa; Shen, Yaoguo; Sun, Zhihua; Zhao, Sangen; Luo, Junhua

    2017-08-07

    Organic-inorganic hybrid lead halide (e.g., CH3NH3PbX3, where X = CI, Br, and I) nanowires (NWs) with remarkable electric and optical properties have recently garnered increasing attention, owing to their structural flexibility and tunability compared to inorganic semiconducting NWs. While most recently reported NWs are limited to methylammonium/formamidinium three-dimensional lead halide perovskites, it is urgent to develop new organic-inorganic hybrid semiconducting NWs. Here, broad-band-emissive single-crystal semiconductive NWs based on a new ABX3-type organic-inorganic chain hybrid, (2-methylpiperidine)lead tribromide, are reported. It is believed that this work will enrich the organic-inorganic hybrid semiconducting NWs and may provide potential applications for LED displaying.

  1. Microscopic origin of entropy-driven polymorphism in hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Keith T.; Svane, Katrine; Kieslich, Gregor; Cheetham, Anthony K.; Walsh, Aron

    2016-11-01

    Entropy is a critical, but often overlooked, factor in determining the relative stabilities of crystal phases. The importance of entropy is most pronounced in softer materials, where small changes in free energy can drive phase transitions, which has recently been demonstrated in the case of organic-inorganic hybrid-formate perovskites. In this Rapid Communication we demonstrate the interplay between composition and crystal structure that is responsible for the particularly pronounced role of entropy in determining polymorphism in hybrid organic-inorganic materials. Using ab initio based lattice dynamics, we probe the origins and effects of vibrational entropy of four archetype perovskite (A B X3 ) structures. We consider an inorganic material (SrTiO3), an A -site hybrid-halide material (CH3NH3) PbI3 , a X -site hybrid material KSr (BH4)3 , and a mixed A - and X -site hybrid-formate material (N2H5) Zn (HCO2)3 , comparing the differences in entropy between two common polymorphs. The results demonstrate the importance of low-frequency intermolecular modes in determining the phase stability in these materials. The understanding gained allows us to propose a general principle for the relative stability of different polymorphs of hybrid materials as temperature is increased.

  2. Organosilica: Chemistry of Mesoporous Organosilica in Nanotechnology: Molecularly Organic-Inorganic Hybridization into Frameworks (Adv. Mater. 17/2016).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Shi, Jianlin

    2016-05-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials can combine the advantages of organic and inorganic materials, and overcome their drawbacks accordingly. On page 3235, Y. Chen and J. L. Shi review and discuss research progress on the design, synthesis, structure, and composition control of organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles (MONs). Extensive applications of MONs in nanotechnology, mainly in nanomedicine, nanocatalysis and nanofabrication are discussed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Design and synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid capsules for biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiafu; Jiang, Yanjun; Wang, Xiaoli; Wu, Hong; Yang, Dong; Pan, Fusheng; Su, Yanlei; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2014-08-07

    Organic-inorganic hybrid capsules, which typically possess a hollow lumen and a hybrid wall, have emerged as a novel and promising class of hybrid materials and have attracted enormous attention. In comparison to polymeric capsules or inorganic capsules, the hybrid capsules combine the intrinsic physical/chemical properties of the organic and inorganic moieties, acquire more degrees of freedom to manipulate multiple interactions, create hierarchical structures and integrate multiple functionalities. Thus, the hybrid capsules exhibit superior mechanical strength (vs. polymeric capsules) and diverse functionalities (vs. inorganic capsules), which may give new opportunities to produce high-performance materials. Much effort has been devoted to exploring innovative and effective methods for the synthesis of hybrid capsules that exhibit desirable performance in target applications. This tutorial review firstly presents a brief description of the capsular structure and hybrid materials in nature, then classifies the hybrid capsules into molecule-hybrid capsules and nano-hybrid capsules based upon the size of the organic and inorganic moieties in the capsule wall, followed by a detailed discussion of the design and synthesis of the hybrid capsules. For each kind of hybrid capsule, the state-of-the-art synthesis methods are described in detail and a critical comment is embedded. The applications of these hybrid capsules in biotechnological areas (biocatalysis, drug delivery, etc.) have also been summarized. Hopefully, this review will offer a perspective and guidelines for the future research and development of hybrid capsules.

  4. Surface chemistry for molecular layer deposition of organic and hybrid organic-inorganic polymers.

    PubMed

    George, Steven M; Yoon, Byunghoon; Dameron, Arrelaine A

    2009-04-21

    The fabrication of many devices in modern technology requires techniques for growing thin films. As devices miniaturize, manufacturers will need to control thin film growth at the atomic level. Because many devices have challenging morphologies, thin films must be able to coat conformally on structures with high aspect ratios. Techniques based on atomic layer deposition (ALD), a special type of chemical vapor deposition, allow for the growth of ultra-thin and conformal films of inorganic materials using sequential, self-limiting reactions. Molecular layer deposition (MLD) methods extend this strategy to include organic and hybrid organic-inorganic polymeric materials. In this Account, we provide an overview of the surface chemistry for the MLD of organic and hybrid organic-inorganic polymers and examine a variety of surface chemistry strategies for growing polymer thin films. Previously, surface chemistry for the MLD of organic polymers such as polyamides and polyimides has used two-step AB reaction cycles using homo-bifunctional reactants. However, these reagents can react twice and eliminate active sites on the growing polymer surface. To avoid this problem, we can employ alternative precursors for MLD based on hetero-bifunctional reactants and ring-opening reactions. We can also use surface activation or protected chemical functional groups. In addition, we can combine the reactants for ALD and MLD to grow hybrid organic-inorganic polymers that should display interesting properties. For example, using trimethylaluminum (TMA) and various diols as reactants, we can achieve the MLD of alucone organic-inorganic polymers. We can alter the chemical and physical properties of these organic-inorganic polymers by varying the organic constituent in the diol or blending the alucone MLD films with purely inorganic ALD films to build a nanocomposite or nanolaminate. The combination of ALD and MLD reactants enlarges the number of possible sequential self-limiting surface

  5. New organic-inorganic hybrid material based on functional cellulose nanowhisker, polypseudorotaxane and Au nanorods.

    PubMed

    Garavand, Ali; Dadkhah Tehrani, Abbas

    2016-11-05

    Organic-inorganic functional hybrid materials play a major role in the development of advanced functional materials and recently have gained growing interest of the worldwide community. In this context, new hybrid organic-inorganic gel consisting of cellulose nanowhisker xanthate (CNWX) and S-H functionalized polypseudorotaxane (PPR) as organic parts of gel and gold nanorods (GNRs) as inorganic cross-linking agent were prepared. Firstly, thiolated α-cyclodextrin (α-CD-SH) was threaded onto poly-(ethylene glycol) bis (mercaptoethanoate ester) (PEG-SH) to give polypseudorotaxane (PPR) and then it reacted with GNRs in the presence of CNWX to give the new hybrid gel material. The new synthesized gel and its components characterized by spectroscopic measurement methods such as FT-IR, UV-vis and NMR spectroscopy. Interestingly, hybrid gel showed new polygonal plate like morphology with 45-60nm thickness and 400-600nm width. The obtained gel may have potential application in many fields especially in biomedical applications.

  6. Design of novel hybrid organic-inorganic nanostructured biomaterials for immunoassay applications.

    PubMed

    Andrade, G; Barbosa-Stancioli, E F; Piscitelli Mansur, A A; Vasconcelos, W L; Mansur, H S

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop novel hybrid organic-inorganic materials based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) polymer chemically crosslinked network to be tested as solid support on bovine herpesvirus immunoassay. Hybrids were synthesized by reacting PVA with three different alkoxysilanes modifying chemical groups: tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS). PVA-derived hybrids were also modified by chemically crosslinking with glutaraldehyde (GA) during the synthesis reaction. In order to investigate the structure in the nanometer-scale, PVA-derived hybrids were characterized by using small-angle x-ray scattering synchrotron radiation (SAXS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). PVA hybrids' chemical functionalities and their interaction with herpesviruses were also characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The bioactivity assays were tested through enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). SAXS results have indicated nano-ordered disperse domains for PVA hybrids with different x-ray scattering patterns for PVA polymer and PVA-derived hybrids. FTIR spectra have shown major vibration bands associated with organic-inorganic chemical groups present in the PVA, PVA-derived by silane modifier and PVA chemically crosslinked by GA. The immunoassay results have shown that PVA hybrids with chemically functionalized structures regulated to some extent the specific bioimmobilization of herpesvirus onto solid phase. We think that it is due to the overall balance of forces associated with van der Waals interaction, hydrophilic and hydrophobic forces and steric hindrance acting at the surface. PVA and PVA-derived hybrid materials were successfully produced with GA crosslinking in a nanometer-scale network. Also, such a PVA-based material could be advantageously used in immunoassays with enhanced specificity for diagnosis.

  7. Gravimetric chemical sensors based on silica-based mesoporous organic-inorganic hybrids.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiaqiang; Zheng, Qi; Zhu, Yongheng; Lou, Huihui; Xiang, Qun; Cheng, Zhixuan

    2014-09-01

    Silica-based mesoporous organic-inorganic hybrid material modified quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensors have been examined for their ability to achieve highly sensitive and selective detection. Mesoporous silica SBA-15 serves as an inorganic host with large specific surface area, facilitating gas adsorption, and thus leads to highly sensitive response; while the presence of organic functional groups contributes to the greatly improved specific sensing property. In this work, we summarize our efforts in the rational design and synthesis of novel sensing materials for the detection of hazardous substances, including simulant nerve agent, organic vapor, and heavy metal ion, and develop high-performance QCM-based chemical sensors.

  8. Hydrolysis of oligosaccharides from distillers grains using organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous silica catalysts.

    PubMed

    Bootsma, Jason A; Entorf, Matthew; Eder, Judd; Shanks, Brent H

    2008-08-01

    The use of propylsulfonic acid-functionalized mesoporous silica as a catalyst for the hydrolysis of oligosaccharides released by hydrothermal pretreatment of distiller's grains was examined in batch reactor studies. The effectiveness of the catalyst system for oligosaccharide hydrolysis was found to improve significantly with increased reaction temperature. This higher temperature operation allowed for more selective recovery of glucose, but was detrimental to arabinose recovery since significant degradation occurred. Xylose recovery efficiency improved with increasing temperature, but the higher temperature led to increased degradation. Using a model feed, solubilized proteins were found to deactivate the organic-inorganic hybrid catalyst, but a simple pretreatment with activated silica was found to alleviate the deactivation.

  9. Tightly bound indirect exciton in single-layer hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Liu, Tao; Liew, Timothy C. H.

    2017-10-01

    We theoretically study the direct and indirect excitons (IXs) in a single-layer hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIP) semiconductor. Due to the 2D nature, the single-layer HOIP supports the large binding energy of IXs and direct excitons over a wide range of applied electric fields, which exceed the thermal energy of room temperature. Moreover, the ground-state IX has a lower energy than that of direct exciton, which will extend the coherence and relaxation time of IXs. This is beneficial to optoelectronic applications and excitonic information processing devices of IXs.

  10. In Situ Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticle Embedded Hybrid Soft Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Divya, Kizhmuri P; Miroshnikov, Mikhail; Dutta, Debjit; Vemula, Praveen Kumar; Ajayan, Pulickel M; John, George

    2016-09-20

    The allure of integrating the tunable properties of soft nanomaterials with the unique optical and electronic properties of metal nanoparticles has led to the development of organic-inorganic hybrid nanomaterials. A promising method for the synthesis of such organic-inorganic hybrid nanomaterials is afforded by the in situ generation of metal nanoparticles within a host organic template. Due to their tunable surface morphology and porosity, soft organic materials such as gels, liquid crystals, and polymers that are derived from various synthetic or natural compounds can act as templates for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles of different shapes and sizes. This method provides stabilization to the metal nanoparticles by the organic soft material and advantageously precludes the use of external reducing or capping agents in many instances. In this Account, we exemplify the green chemistry approach for synthesizing these materials, both in the choice of gelators as soft material frameworks and in the reduction mechanisms that generate the metal nanoparticles. Established herein is the core design principle centered on conceiving multifaceted amphiphilic soft materials that possess the ability to self-assemble and reduce metal ions into nanoparticles. Furthermore, these soft materials stabilize the in situ generated metal nanoparticles and retain their self-assembly ability to generate metal nanoparticle embedded homogeneous organic-inorganic hybrid materials. We discuss a remarkable example of vegetable-based drying oils as host templates for metal ions, resulting in the synthesis of novel hybrid nanomaterials. The synthesis of metal nanoparticles via polymers and self-assembled materials fabricated via cardanol (a bioorganic monomer derived from cashew nut shell liquid) are also explored in this Account. The organic-inorganic hybrid structures were characterized by several techniques such as UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and

  11. Stable hybrid organic/inorganic photocathodes for hydrogen evolution with amorphous WO3 hole selective contacts.

    PubMed

    Mezzetti, Alessandro; Fumagalli, Francesco; Alfano, Antonio; Iadicicco, Daniele; Antognazza, Maria Rosa; di Fonzo, Fabio

    2017-03-08

    Photoelectrochemical H2 production through hybrid organic/inorganic interfaces exploits the capability of polymeric absorbers to drive photo-induced electron transfer to an electrocatalyst in a water environment. Photoelectrode architectures based on solution-processed organic semiconductors are now emerging as low-cost alternatives to crystalline inorganic semiconductors based on Si, oxides and III-V alloys. In this work, we demonstrate that the stability of a hybrid organic/inorganic photocathode, employing a P3HT:PCBM blend as photoactive material, can be considerably improved by introducing an electrochemically stable WO3 hole selective layer, paired with a TiO2 electron selective layer. This hybrid photoelectrode exhibits a photocurrent of 2.48 mA cm(-2) at 0 VRHE, +0.56 VRHE onset potential and a state-of the art operational activity of more than 10 hours. This work gives the perspective that photoelectrodes based on organic semiconductors, coupled with proper inorganic selective contacts, represent a sound new option for the efficient and durable photoelectrochemical conversion of solar energy into fuels.

  12. Bioadhesive film formed from a novel organic-inorganic hybrid gel for transdermal drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ruiwei; Du, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Rui; Deng, Liandong; Dong, Anjie; Zhang, Jianhua

    2011-11-01

    A novel organic-inorganic hybrid film-forming agent for TDDS was developed by a modified poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) gel using γ-(glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (GPTMS) as an inorganic-modifying agent, poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) as a tackifier and glycerol (GLY) as a plasticizer. The prepared gels can be applied to the skin by a coating method and in situ form very thin and transparent films with good performance, comfortable feel and cosmetic attractiveness. The key properties of the bioadhesive films produced from the hybrid gels were investigated and the results showed that the incorporation of appropriate GPTMS (GPTMS/(PVA+GPTMS) in the range of 20-30%) into the PVA matrix not only can significantly enhance mechanical strength and skin adhesion properties of the resultant film, but also can decrease the crystalline regions of PVA and hence facilitate the diffusion of water vapor and drug. Furthermore, the investigations into in vivo skin irritation suggested the films caused non-irritation to skin after topical application for 120 h. In conclusion, the bioadhesive films formed from organic-inorganic hybrid gels possessed very good qualities for application on the skin and may provide a promising formulation for TDDS, especially when the patient acceptability from an aesthetic perspective of the dosage form is a prime consideration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Biomineralization-inspired synthesis of functional organic/inorganic hybrid materials: organic molecular control of self-organization of hybrids.

    PubMed

    Arakaki, Atsushi; Shimizu, Katsuhiko; Oda, Mayumi; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Nishimura, Tatsuya; Kato, Takashi

    2015-01-28

    Organisms produce various organic/inorganic hybrid materials, which are called biominerals. They form through the self-organization of organic molecules and inorganic elements under ambient conditions. Biominerals often have highly organized and hierarchical structures from nanometer to macroscopic length scales, resulting in their remarkable physical and chemical properties that cannot be obtained by simple accumulation of their organic and inorganic constituents. These observations motivate us to create novel functional materials exhibiting properties superior to conventional materials--both synthetic and natural. Herein, we introduce recent progress in understanding biomineralization processes at the molecular level and the development of organic/inorganic hybrid materials by these processes. We specifically outline fundamental molecular studies on silica, iron oxide, and calcium carbonate biomineralization and describe material synthesis based on these mechanisms. These approaches allow us to design a variety of advanced hybrid materials with desired morphologies, sizes, compositions, and structures through environmentally friendly synthetic routes using functions of organic molecules.

  14. Corrosion resistance properties of organic inorganic hybrid coatings on 2024 aluminum alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan; Sun, Dezhi; You, Hong; Chung, Jong Shik

    2005-06-01

    Three kinds of organic-inorganic hybrid coatings modified by tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) were prepared using precursors of vinyltrimethoxysilane (VMS), [3-(methacryloxy)propyl] trimethoxysilane (MPMS) and (3-glycidoxyproyl) trimethoxysilane (GPMS). Properties of corrosion resistance were tested by potentiodynamic polarization curves. Salt spray test and SEM images were also employed to examine the ablitity of coatings to resist long-time corrosion. The results show that hybrid coatings are effective for inhibiting corrosion reaction. Corrosion currents of VMS coating and MPMS coating were 300 times smaller than that of bare sample. The corrosion current of hybrid coatings is smallest when TEOS content reaches 15-20%. It was found that VMS coatings have the strongest ability to resist salt spray corrosion.

  15. Polymeric media comprising polybenzimidazoles N-substituted with organic-inorganic hybrid moiety

    DOEpatents

    Klaehn, John R [Idaho Falls, ID; Peterson, Eric S [Idaho Falls, ID; Wertsching, Alan K [Idaho Falls, ID; Orme, Christopher J [Shelley, ID; Luther, Thomas A [Idaho Falls, ID; Jones, Michael G [Pocatello, ID

    2009-12-15

    A PBI compound includes imidazole nitrogens at least a portion of which are substituted with an organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be included in a separator medium. At least 85% of the imidazole nitrogens may be substituted. The organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be an organosilane moiety, for example, (R)Me.sub.2SiCH.sub.2-- where R is selected from among methyl, phenyl, vinyl, and allyl. The separatory medium may exhibit an H.sub.2, Ar, N.sub.2, O.sub.2, CH.sub.3, or CO.sub.2 gas permeability greater than the gas permeability of a comparable separatory medium comprising the PBI compound without substitution. The separatory medium may further include an electronically conductive medium and/or ionically conductive medium. The separatory medium may be used as a membrane (semi-permeable, permeable, and non-permeable), a barrier, an ion exhcange media, a filter, a gas chromatography coating (such as stationary phase coating in affinity chromatography), etc.

  16. Fluorescent and cross-linked organic-inorganic hybrid nanoshells for monitoring drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lijuan; Liu, Tianhui; Li, Hua; Yang, Liang; Meng, Lingjie; Lu, Qinghua; Long, Jiangang

    2015-03-04

    Functionalized and monodisperse nanoshells have attracted significant attention owing to their well-defined structure, unique properties, and wide range of potential applications. Here, the synthesis of cross-linked organic-inorganic hybrid nanoshells with strong fluorescence properties was reported via a facile precipitation polymerization of hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene (HCCP) and fluorescein on silica particles used as templates. The resulting poly(cyclotriphosphazene-co-fluorescein) (PCTPF) nanoshells were firm cross-linked shells with ∼2.2 nm mesopores that facilitated the transport of drug molecules. The fluorescent nanoshells also exhibited excellent water dispersibility and biocompatibility; thus, they can be considered as ideal drug vehicles with high doxorubicin storage capacity (26.2 wt %) and excellent sustained release (up to 14 days). Compared to doxorubicin (DOX) alone, the PCTPF nanoshells more efficiently delivered DOX into and killed cancer cells. Moreover, the PCTPF nanoshells also exhibited remarkable fluorescent emission properties and improved photobleaching stability in both suspension and solid state owing to the covalent immobilization of fluorescein in the highly cross-linked organic-inorganic hybrids. The exceptional fluorescent properties enabled the release of DOX as well as the distribution of nanoshells and DOX to be monitored.

  17. Preparation of chitosan/nano hydroxyapatite organic-inorganic hybrid microspheres for bone repair.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingdi; Pan, Panpan; Zhang, Yujue; Zhong, Shengnan; Zhang, Qiqing

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we encapsulated icariin (ICA) into chitosan (CS)/nano hydroxyapatite (nHAP) composite microspheres to form organic-inorganic hybrid microspheres for drug delivery carrier. The composition and morphology of composite microspheres were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry- thermogravimetric analysis (DSC-TGA). Moreover, we further studied the performance of swelling properties, degradation properties and drug release behavior of the microspheres. ICA, the extract of traditional Chinese medicine-epimedium, was combined to study drug release properties of the microspheres. ICA loaded microspheres take on a sustained release behavior, which can be not only ascribed to electrostatic interaction between reactive negative hydroxyl (OH) of ICA and positive amine groups (NH₂) of CS, but also depended on the homogeneous dispersion of HAP nanoparticles inside CS organic matrix. In addition, the adhesion and morphology of osteoblasts were detected by inverted fluorescence microscopy. The biocompatibility of CS/nHAP/ICA microspheres was evaluated by the MTT cytotoxicity assay, Hoechst 33258 and PI fluorescence staining. These studies demonstrate that composite microspheres provide a suitable microenvironment for osteoblast attachment and proliferation. It can be speculated that the ICA loaded CS-based organic-inorganic hybrid microspheres might have potential applications in drug delivery systems.

  18. Efficient organic-inorganic hybrid Schottky solar cell: The role of built-in potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yawen; Song, Tao; Zhang, Fute; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Sun, Baoquan

    2013-03-01

    The organic-inorganic hybrid Schottky solar cells based on solution processed poly(3,4-ethlenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) in combination with silicon offer the merits of simple fabrication process and potential low cost. Here, we demonstrate that the work function (WF) of PEDOT:PSS films plays a critical role on the electronic output characteristics of the device. The WF of PEDOT:PSS is tuned by adding an aqueous solution of perfluorinated ionomer (PFI) due to its high electron affinity, which is compatible to fabricate the hybrid Si/PEDOT:PSS device. With an addition of 4% (weight) PFI into PEDOT:PSS, the device achieves a fill factor (FF) as high as 0.70 without sacrifice of open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current density, which improves 20% in comparison with the pristine PEDOT:PSS (0.58). The detailed electrical output measurements reveal that the high FF is ascribed to the enhanced built-in potential as well as suppression of charge recombination at organic-inorganic interface.

  19. Preparation, characterization and application of organic-inorganic hybrid caffeine imprinted monolith.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaofang; Sun, Na; Zhu, Quanfei; Wu, Mei; Ye, Yong; Chen, Huaixia

    2013-08-23

    The present work aims to synthesize an organic-inorganic hybrid caffeine imprinted monolith using one-step method. The synthesis conditions such as the type of inorganic precursor and porogenic solvent, the molar ratios of the monomer and cross-linker, the volume ratio of the inorganic alcoholysate and organic part were optimized. The morphology of the monolith was studied by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectra. The imprinted factor of the monolith for caffeine reached 3.02. A simple, rapid and sensitive method for the determination of caffeine in children's milk using the organic-inorganic hybrid caffeine imprinted polymer monolith microextraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiodes array detector was developed. Several parameters affecting the sample pretreatment were investigated, including the type, flow rate and volume of eluent, the flow rate and volume of sample solution. The assay exhibited a linear dynamic range of 8-500μgL(-1) with the correlation coefficient above 0.9987. Lower limits of detection (LOD, at S/N=3) and quantification (LOQ, at S/N=10) in children's milk samples were 2.7 and 8μgL(-1). Recoveries of caffeine from spiked children's milk ranged from 85 to 104% with relative standard deviations of less than 8.9%.

  20. Electrical spin injection from an organic-based ferrimagnet in a hybrid organic/inorganic heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston-Halperin, Ezekiel

    2012-02-01

    The development of organic-based magnets with room temperature magnetic ordering and semiconducting functionality promises to broaden the field of semiconductor spintronics, providing a route to all-organic spintronic devices and hybrid organic/inorganic structures capable of exploiting the multifunctionality and ease of production in organic systems as well as the well established spintronic functionality of inorganic materials. Our work demonstrates the successful extraction of spin polarized current from the organic-based room temperature ferrimagnetic semiconductor V[TCNE]x (x˜2, TCNE: tetracyanoethylene; TC > 400 K, EG ˜ 0.5 eV, σ˜ 10-2 S/cm) and its subsequent injection into a GaAs/AlGaAs light-emitting diode (LED) [1]. The spin current is detected by monitoring the polarization state of the photons emitted from the LED structure and tracks the magnetization of V[TCNE]x˜2, is weakly temperature dependent, and exhibits heavy hole / light hole asymmetry. This result opens the door to a new class of active, hybrid spintronic devices with multifunctional behavior defined by the optical, electronic and chemical sensitivity of the organic layer. In addition, spin transport in these hybrid structures provides the opportunity to leverage well-characterized inorganic materials as a probe of spin physics in organic and molecular systems and to explore the impact of the hybrid interface on spin injection efficiency. Initial studies exploring the impact of surface passivation of the inorganic layer with self-assembled monolayers of various chemistries will be presented, and additional experimental probes of the interfacial exchange interaction will be discussed. [4pt] [1] ``Electrical Spin Injection from an Organic-Based Ferrimagnet in a Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Heterostructure,'' Lei Fang, K. Deniz Bozdag, Chia-Yi Chen, P.A. Truitt, A.J. Epstein and E. Johnston-Halperin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 156602 (2011).

  1. Controlled formation of calcium-phosphate-based hybrid mesocrystals by organic-inorganic co-assembly.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Halei; Chu, Xiaobin; Li, Li; Xu, Xurong; Tang, Ruikang

    2010-11-01

    An understanding of controlled formation of biomimetic mesocrystals is of great importance in materials chemistry and engineering. Here we report that organic-inorganic hybrid plates and even mesocrystals can be conveniently synthesized using a one-pot reaction in a mixed system of protein (bovine serum albumin (BSA)), surfactant (sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)) and supersaturated calcium phosphate solution. The morphologies of calcium-phosphate-based products are analogous to the general inorganic crystals but they have abnormal and interesting substructures. The hybrids are constructed by the alternate stacking of organic layer (thickness of 1.31 nm) and well-crystallized inorganic mineral layer (thickness of 2.13 nm) at the nanoscale. Their morphologies (spindle, rhomboid and round) and sizes (200 nm-2 μm) can be tuned gradually by changing BSA, AOT and calcium phosphate concentrations. This modulation effect can be explained by a competition between the anisotropic and isotropic assembly of the ultrathin plate-like units. The anisotropic assembly confers mesocrystal characteristics on the hybrids while the round ones are the results of isotropic assembly. However, the basic lamellar organic-inorganic substructure remains unchanged during the hybrid formation, which is a key factor to ensure the self-assembly from molecule to micrometre scale. A morphological ternary diagram of BSA-AOT-calcium phosphate is used to describe this controlled formation process, providing a feasible strategy to prepare the required materials. This study highlights the cooperative effect of macromolecule (frame structure), small biomolecule (binding sites) and mineral phase (main component) on the generation and regulation of biomimetic hybrid mesocrystals.

  2. Controlled formation of calcium-phosphate-based hybrid mesocrystals by organic-inorganic co-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Halei; Chu, Xiaobin; Li, Li; Xu, Xurong; Tang, Ruikang

    2010-11-01

    An understanding of controlled formation of biomimetic mesocrystals is of great importance in materials chemistry and engineering. Here we report that organic-inorganic hybrid plates and even mesocrystals can be conveniently synthesized using a one-pot reaction in a mixed system of protein (bovine serum albumin (BSA)), surfactant (sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)) and supersaturated calcium phosphate solution. The morphologies of calcium-phosphate-based products are analogous to the general inorganic crystals but they have abnormal and interesting substructures. The hybrids are constructed by the alternate stacking of organic layer (thickness of 1.31 nm) and well-crystallized inorganic mineral layer (thickness of 2.13 nm) at the nanoscale. Their morphologies (spindle, rhomboid and round) and sizes (200 nm-2 μm) can be tuned gradually by changing BSA, AOT and calcium phosphate concentrations. This modulation effect can be explained by a competition between the anisotropic and isotropic assembly of the ultrathin plate-like units. The anisotropic assembly confers mesocrystal characteristics on the hybrids while the round ones are the results of isotropic assembly. However, the basic lamellar organic-inorganic substructure remains unchanged during the hybrid formation, which is a key factor to ensure the self-assembly from molecule to micrometre scale. A morphological ternary diagram of BSA-AOT-calcium phosphate is used to describe this controlled formation process, providing a feasible strategy to prepare the required materials. This study highlights the cooperative effect of macromolecule (frame structure), small biomolecule (binding sites) and mineral phase (main component) on the generation and regulation of biomimetic hybrid mesocrystals.

  3. Bridged polysilsesquioxanes: Hybrid organic-inorganic materials as fuel cell polyelectrolyte membranes and functional nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khiterer, Mariya

    2007-05-01

    This dissertation describes the design, fabrication, and characterization of organic-inorganic hybrid materials. Several classes of bridged polysilsesquioxanes are presented. The first class is a membrane material suitable for fuel cell technology as a proton conducting polyelectrolyte. The second class includes hybrid nanoparticles for display device applications and chromatographic media. Chapter 1 is an introduction to hybrid organic-inorganic materials. Sol-gel chemistry is discussed, followed by a survey of prominent examples of silica hybrids. Examples of physical organic-silica blends and covalent organo-silicas, including ORMOCERSRTM, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes, and bridged polysilsesquioxanes are discussed. Bridged polysilsesquioxanes are described in great detail. Monomer synthesis, sol-gel chemistry, processing, characterization, and physical properties are included. Chapter 2 describes the design of polyelectrolyte bridged polysilsesquioxane membranes. The materials contain covalently bound sulfonic acid groups originating from the corresponding disulfides. These organic-inorganic hybrid materials integrate a network supporting component which is systematically changed to fine-tune their physical properties. The membranes are characterized as PEM fuel cell electrolytes, where proton conductivities of 4-6 mS cm-1 were measured. In Chapter 3 techniques for the preparation of bridged polysilsesquioxane nanoparticles are described. An inverse water-in-oil microemulsion polymerization method is developed to prepare cationic nanoparticles, including viologen-bridged materials with applications in electrochromic display devices. An aqueous ammonia system is used to prepare neutral nanoparticles containing hydrocarbon bridging groups, which have potential applications as chromatographic media. Chapter 4 describes electrochromic devices developed in collaboration with the Heflin group of Virginia Tech, which incorporate viologen bridged nanoparticles

  4. Fabrication of nanoporous arrays from photosensitive organic-inorganic hybrid materials by using an UV soft nanoimprint technique.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuehua; Que, Wenxiu; Hu, Jiaxing; Chen, Jin; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Weiguo

    2013-02-01

    A honeycomb-like regular nanoporous pattern built in the photosensitive organic-inorganic hybrid film was fabricated by an UV soft nanoimprint technique. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft mold was firstly replicated from an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template obtained by using a two-step anodization method. Scanning electron microscopy images show that the AAO template has a regular honeycomb-like nanoporous structure, while the PDMS soft mold has a relief structure of nanopillar arrays. Photosensitive TiO2-contained organic-inorganic hybrid films, which were prepared by combining a low temperature sol-gel process with a spin-coating technique, were used as the imprinted layer. Thus, a honeycomb-like regular nanoporous pattern built in the hybrid film can be easily obtained by imprinting the PDMS soft mold into the photosensitive hybrid film under an UV-irradiation. The as-fabricated organic-inorganic regular nonporous arrays have potential applications in two-dimensional photonic crystal.

  5. Highly Efficient Red-Light Emission in An Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Ferroelectric: (Pyrrolidinium)MnCl₃.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Liao, Wei-Qiang; Fu, Da-Wei; Ye, Heng-Yun; Chen, Zhong-Ning; Xiong, Ren-Gen

    2015-04-22

    Luminescence of ferroelectric materials is one important property for technological applications, such as low-energy electron excitation. However, the vast majority of doped inorganic ferroelectric materials have low luminescent efficiency. The past decade has envisaged much progress in the design of both ferroelectric and luminescent organic-inorganic hybrid complexes for optoelectronic applications. The combination of ferroelectricity and luminescence within organic-inorganic hybrids would lead to a new type of luminescent ferroelectric multifunctional materials. We herein report a hybrid molecular ferroelectric, (pyrrolidinium)MnCl3, which exhibits excellent ferroelectricity with a saturation polarization of 5.5 μC/cm(2) as well as intense red luminescence with high quantum yield of 56% under a UV excitation. This finding may extend the application of organic-inorganic hybrid compounds to the field of ferroelectric luminescence and/or multifunctional devices.

  6. Assessment of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Antimony Sulfides for Earth-Abundant Photovoltaic Applications.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruo Xi; Butler, Keith T; Walsh, Aron

    2015-12-17

    Hybrid organic-inorganic solar absorbers are currently the subject of intense interest; however, the highest-performing materials contain Pb. Here we assess the potential of three Sb-based semiconductors: (i) Sb2S3, (ii) Cs2Sb8S13, and (iii) (CH3NH3)2Sb8S13. While the crystal structure of Sb2S3 is composed of 1D chains, 2D layers are formed in the ternary cesium and hybrid methylammonium antimony sulfide compounds. In each case, a stereochemically active Sb 5s(2) lone pair is found, resulting in a distorted coordination environment for the Sb cations. The bandgap of the binary sulfide is found to increase, while the ionization potential also changes, upon transition to the more complex compounds. Based on the predicted electronic structure, device configurations are suggested to be suitable for photovoltaic applications.

  7. Organic-inorganic hybrid foams with diatomite addition: Effect on functional properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdolotti, L.; D'Auria, M.; Lavorgna, M.; Vollaro, P.; Iannace, S.; Capasso, I.; Galzerano, B.; Caputo, D.; Liguori, B.

    2016-05-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid foams were prepared by using metakaolin, diatomite as a partial (or total) replacement of metakaolin, as matrix, silicon and whipped protein as pore forming. The foamed systems were hardened at defined temperature and time and then characterized by mechanical point of view through compression tests and by functional point of view through fire reaction and acoustic tests. The experimental findings highlighted that the replacement of diatomite in the formulation affected the morphological structure of the foams and consequently their mechanical properties. In particular, the consolidation mechanism in the diatomite based-hybrid foams changed from geopolymerization to a silicate polycondensation mechanism. Therefore, mechanical performances enhanced with increasing of the diatomite content. Fire reaction tests, such as non-combustibility and cone calorimeter tests, showed positive thermal inertia of samples regardless of the content of diatomite.

  8. Self-assembled organic-inorganic hybrid glucoamylase nanoflowers with enhanced activity and stability.

    PubMed

    Nadar, Shamraja S; Gawas, Sarita D; Rathod, Virendra K

    2016-11-01

    An organic-inorganic hybrid glucoamylase nanoflower was prepared in single pot by simple, facile and highly efficient method. The stepwise formation of enzyme-embedded hybrid nanoflowers and influence of experimental parameters viz. pH of solution mixture, enzyme and copper ion concentration on the activity of prepared hybrid nanoflowers were systematically investigated. The self-assembled hybrid glucoamylase nanoflowers were synthesized by mixing aqueous solution of copper sulphate (200mM) with PBS (pH 7.5, 5mM) containing glucoamylase (1mg/mL) in 24h at room temperature. These prepared nanoflowers were further characterized by FT-IR, SEM and XRD. The hybrid nanoflowers exhibited 204% enhanced activity recovery and two folds improvement in thermal stability in terms of half-life (in the range of 50-70°C) with respect to the free form. The hybrid glucoamylase nanoflowers retained 70% residual activity after eight successive cycles indicating their excellent durability. Additionally, the nanoflowers retained up to 91% residual activity upto 25 days of storage. Moreover, the conformational changes occurred in glucoamylase structure after preparing hybrid nanoflowers were evaluated by FT-IR spectroscopy data tools.

  9. Controllable lasing performance in solution-processed organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites.

    PubMed

    Kao, Tsung Sheng; Chou, Yu-Hsun; Hong, Kuo-Bin; Huang, Jiong-Fu; Chou, Chun-Hsien; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Chen, Fang-Chung; Lu, Tien-Chang

    2016-11-03

    Solution-processed organic-inorganic perovskites are fascinating due to their remarkable photo-conversion efficiency and great potential in the cost-effective, versatile and large-scale manufacturing of optoelectronic devices. In this paper, we demonstrate that the perovskite nanocrystal sizes can be simply controlled by manipulating the precursor solution concentrations in a two-step sequential deposition process, thus achieving the feasible tunability of excitonic properties and lasing performance in hybrid metal-halide perovskites. The lasing threshold is at around 230 μJ cm(-2) in this solution-processed organic-inorganic lead-halide material, which is comparable to the colloidal quantum dot lasers. The efficient stimulated emission originates from the multiple random scattering provided by the micro-meter scale rugged morphology and polycrystalline grain boundaries. Thus the excitonic properties in perovskites exhibit high correlation with the formed morphology of the perovskite nanocrystals. Compared to the conventional lasers normally serving as a coherent light source, the perovskite random lasers are promising in making low-cost thin-film lasing devices for flexible and speckle-free imaging applications.

  10. Solution-processible organic-inorganic hybrid bipolar field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Gil Jo; Kim, Kang Dae; Cho, Shinuk; Walker, Bright; Seo, Jung Hwa

    2016-04-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid bipolar field-effect transistors (HBFETs) comprising a layer of p-type organic poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) separated from a parallel layer of n-type inorganic zinc oxide (ZnO) were demonstrated by solution processing. In order to achieve balanced hole and electron mobilities, we initially optimized the hole-transporting P3HT channel by the addition of the polar non-solvent acetonitrile (AN) to P3HT solutions in chloroform, which induced a selfassembled nano-fibril morphology and an enhancement of hole mobilities. For the electron channel, a wet-chemically-prepared ZnO layer was optimized by thermal annealing. Unipolar P3HT FET with 5% AN exhibited the highest hole mobility of 7.20 × 10-2 cm2V-1s-1 while the highest electron mobility (3.64 × 10-2 cm2V-1s-1) was observed in unipolar ZnO FETs annealed at 200°C. The organic-inorganic HBFETs consisting of the P3HT layer with 5% AN and ZnO annealed at 200°C exhibited well-balanced hole and electron mobilities of 1.94 × 10-2 cm2V-1s-1 and 1.98 × 10-2 cm2V-1s-1, respectively.

  11. Electrochromic conductive polymer fuses for hybrid organic/inorganic semiconductor memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Sven; Forrest, Stephen R.; Perlov, Craig; Jackson, Warren; Taussig, Carl

    2003-12-01

    We demonstrate a nonvolatile, write-once-read-many-times (WORM) memory device employing a hybrid organic/inorganic semiconductor architecture consisting of thin film p-i-n silicon diode on a stainless steel substrate integrated in series with a conductive polymer fuse. The nonlinearity of the silicon diodes enables a passive matrix memory architecture, while the conductive polyethylenedioxythiophene:polystyrene sulfonic acid polymer serves as a reliable switch with fuse-like behavior for data storage. The polymer can be switched at ˜2 μs, resulting in a permanent decrease of conductivity of the memory pixel by up to a factor of 103. The switching mechanism is primarily due to a current and thermally dependent redox reaction in the polymer, limited by the double injection of both holes and electrons. The switched device performance does not degrade after many thousand read cycles in ambient at room temperature. Our results suggest that low cost, organic/inorganic WORM memories are feasible for light weight, high density, robust, and fast archival storage applications.

  12. Embedded Metal Electrode for Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Nanowire Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Um, Han-Don; Choi, Deokjae; Choi, Ahreum; Seo, Ji Hoon; Seo, Kwanyong

    2017-06-27

    We demonstrate here an embedded metal electrode for highly efficient organic-inorganic hybrid nanowire solar cells. The electrode proposed here is an effective alternative to the conventional bus and finger electrode which leads to a localized short circuit at a direct Si/metal contact and has a poor collection efficiency due to a nonoptimized electrode design. In our design, a Ag/SiO2 electrode is embedded into a Si substrate while being positioned between Si nanowire arrays underneath poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), facilitating suppressed recombination at the Si/Ag interface and notable improvements in the fabrication reproducibility. With an optimized microgrid electrode, our 1 cm(2) hybrid solar cells exhibit a power conversion efficiency of up to 16.1% with an open-circuit voltage of 607 mV and a short circuit current density of 34.0 mA/cm(2). This power conversion efficiency is more than twice as high as that of solar cells using a conventional electrode (8.0%). The microgrid electrode significantly minimizes the optical and electrical losses. This reproducibly yields a superior quantum efficiency of 99% at the main solar spectrum wavelength of 600 nm. In particular, our solar cells exhibit a significant increase in the fill factor of 78.3% compared to that of a conventional electrode (61.4%); this is because of the drastic reduction in the metal/contact resistance of the 1 μm-thick Ag electrode. Hence, the use of our embedded microgrid electrode in the construction of an ideal carrier collection path presents an opportunity in the development of highly efficient organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells.

  13. Direct control of the spatial arrangement of gold nanoparticles in organic-inorganic hybrid superstructures.

    PubMed

    Hermes, Jens P; Sander, Fabian; Peterle, Torsten; Cioffi, Carla; Ringler, Philippe; Pfohl, Thomas; Mayor, Marcel

    2011-04-04

    The directed assembly of gold nanoparticles is essential for their use in many kinds of applications, such as electronic devices, biological labels, and sensors. Herein an atomic alteration in the molecular structure of ligand-stabilized gold nanoparticles that can shift the interparticle distance up to 1 nm upon covalent coupling to organic-inorganic superstructures is presented. Gold nanoparticles are stabilized by two octadentate thioether ligands and have a mean diameter of 1.1 nm. The ligands contain a central rigid rod varying in length and terminally functionalized with a protected acetylene. The two peripheral functional groups on each particle enable the directed assembly of nanoparticles to dimers, trimers, and tetramers by oxidative acetylene coupling. This is a wet chemical protocol resulting in covalently bound nanoparticles. These organic-inorganic hybrid superstructures are analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, small angle X-ray scattering, and UV/vis spectroscopy. The focus of the comparison here is the subunit, which is anchoring the bridgehead, either a pyridine or benzene moiety. The pyridine-based ligands reflect the calculated length of the rigid-rod spacer in their interparticle distances in the obtained hybrid structures. This suggests a perpendicular arrangement that results from the coordination of the pyridine's lone pair to the gold surface. An atomic variation in the ligand's center leads to smaller interparticle distances in the case of hybrid structures obtained from benzene ligands. This large difference in the spatial arrangement suggests a tangential arrangement of the interparticle bridging structure in the latter case. Consequently a rather flat arrangement parallel to the particle surface must be assumed for the central benzene unit of the benzene-based ligand.

  14. Characteristics of organic-inorganic hybrid sols prepared from colloidal silica and multifunctional organoalkoxysilanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyeon Hwa; Park, Hoy Yul; Kang, Dong Jun

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics of organic-inorganic hybrid coatings that were prepared well from surfacemodified silicate sols were studied. The surface-modified silicate sols were fabricated in a two-step sol-gel process involving nano-silicates and silanes by varying the type of silane and the reaction time. The synthesized oraganosilane-treated silicate hybrid sols were confirmed using Fouriertransform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The viscosity of the sols increased with increasing number of alkoxy functional groups in the organoalkoxysilane and the transmittance of the sol solutions decreased with increasing reaction time. The thermal stability of the hybrid coatings increased with increasing amount of inorganic components. The surface roughness of the coatings depended highly on the homogeneity of the sol solutions. In addition, the contact angle of the hybrid coatings increased as the length of the alkyl chain decreased. Importantly, stabilized hybrid sols and coatings with well-controlled surface and thermal propreties were successfully fabricated by controlling the organoalkoxysilanes and the reaction time.

  15. Phase Behavior of Block Copolymer directed Nanostructured Organic/Inorganic Hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesner, Ulrich

    2002-03-01

    The study of amphiphilic polymer based polymer-ceramic hybrid materials is an exciting emerging research area offering enormous scientific and technological promise. By choice of the appropriate block copolymer system (PI-b-PEO) as well as ceramic precursors (organically modified ceramic precursors, ormocers) unprecedented morphology control on the nanoscale is obtained. It is based on a unique polymer-ceramic interface that can be characterized in detail by solid-state NMR measurements. The hydrophilic parts of the block copolymers are completely integrated into the ceramic phase, analogous to what is often found in biological hybrid materials. The resulting composites can be described as a 'quasi two-phase system' allowing for a more rational hybrid morphology design based on the current understanding of the phase behavior of block copolymers and copolymer-homopolymer mixtures. The structures generated on the nanoscale are a result of a fine balance of competing interactions, another feature of complex biological systems. In the present contribution the synthesis and characterization of nanostructured hybrids based on aluminosilicates will be described. Besides morphologies known from other polymer studies the existence of a 'Plumber's Nightmare' phase is suggested. This indicates subtle, not yet understood differences of the ternary 'pseudo' phase diagram (morphology diagram) of these systems to behavior of conventional block copolymers. Implications of these findings for further explorations of the complex phase space of the present novel nanostructured organic-inorganic hybrid systems will be discussed.

  16. Organic-inorganic hybrid lead halide perovskites for optoelectronic and electronic applications.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yixin; Zhu, Kai

    2016-02-07

    Organic and inorganic hybrid perovskites (e.g., CH(3)NH(3)PbI(3)), with advantages of facile processing, tunable bandgaps, and superior charge-transfer properties, have emerged as a new class of revolutionary optoelectronic semiconductors promising for various applications. Perovskite solar cells constructed with a variety of configurations have demonstrated unprecedented progress in efficiency, reaching about 20% from multiple groups after only several years of active research. A key to this success is the development of various solution-synthesis and film-deposition techniques for controlling the morphology and composition of hybrid perovskites. The rapid progress in material synthesis and device fabrication has also promoted the development of other optoelectronic applications including light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, and transistors. Both experimental and theoretical investigations on organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have enabled some critical fundamental understandings of this material system. Recent studies have also demonstrated progress in addressing the potential stability issue, which has been identified as a main challenge for future research on halide perovskites. Here, we review recent progress on hybrid perovskites including basic chemical and crystal structures, chemical synthesis of bulk/nanocrystals and thin films with their chemical and physical properties, device configurations, operation principles for various optoelectronic applications (with a focus on solar cells), and photophysics of charge-carrier dynamics. We also discuss the importance of further understanding of the fundamental properties of hybrid perovskites, especially those related to chemical and structural stabilities.

  17. Anomalous photovoltaic effect in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yongbo; Li, Tao; Wang, Qi; Xing, Jie; Gruverman, Alexei; Huang, Jinsong

    2017-03-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites (OIHPs) have been demonstrated to be highly successful photovoltaic materials yielding very-high-efficiency solar cells. We report the room temperature observation of an anomalous photovoltaic (APV) effect in lateral structure OIHP devices manifested by the device's open-circuit voltage (VOC) that is much larger than the bandgap of OIHPs. The persistent VOC is proportional to the electrode spacing, resembling that of ferroelectric photovoltaic devices. However, the APV effect in OIHP devices is not caused by ferroelectricity. The APV effect can be explained by the formation of tunneling junctions randomly dispersed in the polycrystalline films, which allows the accumulation of photovoltage at a macroscopic level. The formation of internal tunneling junctions as a result of ion migration is visualized with Kelvin probe force microscopy scanning. This observation points out a new avenue for the formation of large and continuously tunable VOC without being limited by the materials' bandgap.

  18. High-performance hybrid organic-inorganic solar cell based on planar n-type silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Dan; Qi, Boyuan; Wang, Jizheng; Qu, Shengchun; Wang, Zhanguo

    2014-05-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells were fabricated by spin coating the hole transporting conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) film on n-type crystalline silicon (n-Si). By incorporating different additives into the PEDOT:PSS, the conductivity and wettability of PEDOT:PSS film are markedly improved, and the device performance is greatly enhanced accordingly. To further optimize the device performance, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) layer was inserted between the n-Si and PEDOT:PSS layer. The P3HT layer blocks electrons from diffusing to the PEDOT:PSS, and hence reduces recombination at the anode side. The device eventually exhibits a high power conversion efficiency of 11.52%.

  19. Anomalous photovoltaic effect in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yongbo; Li, Tao; Wang, Qi; Xing, Jie; Gruverman, Alexei; Huang, Jinsong

    2017-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites (OIHPs) have been demonstrated to be highly successful photovoltaic materials yielding very-high-efficiency solar cells. We report the room temperature observation of an anomalous photovoltaic (APV) effect in lateral structure OIHP devices manifested by the device’s open-circuit voltage (VOC) that is much larger than the bandgap of OIHPs. The persistent VOC is proportional to the electrode spacing, resembling that of ferroelectric photovoltaic devices. However, the APV effect in OIHP devices is not caused by ferroelectricity. The APV effect can be explained by the formation of tunneling junctions randomly dispersed in the polycrystalline films, which allows the accumulation of photovoltage at a macroscopic level. The formation of internal tunneling junctions as a result of ion migration is visualized with Kelvin probe force microscopy scanning. This observation points out a new avenue for the formation of large and continuously tunable VOC without being limited by the materials’ bandgap. PMID:28345043

  20. A novel organic-inorganic hybrid composition for controllably synthesizing AgI nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junxue; He, Sheng; An, Changhua; Zhang, Jun

    2017-05-01

    The ability to control the shape and morphology of semiconductor macro/nanocrystals is critical to applications such as photocatalysis, electrocatalysis, photonics and nanoelectronics. Despite significant advances in controlling the shapes by thermal decomposition and solvothermal methods, rigorous shape control by low temperature and aqueous phase controlling remains challenging. Herein, a facile synthetic method based on ethylenediamine assisted precursor transformation technique has been developed for the fabrication of AgI nanocrystals. The central features of our approach are the use of ethylenediamine (en) as complexant and the use of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as capping surfactants to form Ag(en)xI precursor, which is followed by removing en to form AgI crystals. This work provides new insights into the use of a novel organic-inorganic hybrid composition as precursors for nanocrystals synthesis and offers a potential route to achieve well-defined morphology of inorganic nanostructures with uniform shape and size.

  1. The Rashba effect and indirect electron-hole recombination in hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhi-Gang

    2017-06-14

    Slow electron-hole recombination, characterized by the bimolecular coefficient k2 in hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOIPs), is a key to their outstanding photovoltaic performance. The measured k2 in HOIPs strongly deviates from k2 ∝ T(-3/2) (T is the temperature) in typical direct-gap semiconductors. Here we show that the observed temperature dependence can be quantitatively accounted for by phonon-assisted recombination of electrons and holes located at the band extrema, which become indirect due to the Rashba effect. Polar optical phonons are most effective in facilitating this indirect recombination. The variation in k2 in HOIPs among different studies in the literature can be attributed to different Rashba strengths in their samples. Our results indicate that the confluence of the Rashba effect and polar coupling transform HOIPs into a unique indirect semiconductor that can accommodate both strong optical absorption and slow carrier dynamics.

  2. Well-ordered organic-inorganic hybrid layered manganese oxide nanocomposites with excellent decolorization performance

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Junli; Yu, Lin; Sun, Ming; Ye, Fei; Lan, Bang; Diao, Guiqiang; He, Jun

    2013-02-15

    Well-ordered organic-inorganic hybrid layered manganese oxide nanocomposites (CTAB-Al-MO) with excellent decolorization performance were prepared through a two-step process. Specifically, the MnO{sub 2} nanosheets were self-assembled in the presence of CTAB, and subsequently pillared with Keggin ions. The obtained CTAB-Al-MO with the basal spacing of 1.59 nm could be stable at 300 Degree-Sign C for 2 h and also possesses high total pore volumes (0.41 cm Superscript-Three g{sup -1}) and high specific BET surface area (161 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}), which is nine times larger than that of the pristine (19 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}). Possible formation process for the highly thermal stable CTAB-Al-MO is proposed here. The decolorization experiments of methyl orange showed that the obtained CTAB-Al-MO exhibit excellent performance in wastewater treatment and the decolorization rate could reach 95% within 5 min. - Graphical Abstract: Well-ordered organic-inorganic hybrid LMO nanocomposites (CTAB-Al-MO) with excellent decolorization performance were prepared through a two-step process. Specifically, the MnO{sub 2} nanosheets were self-assembled by CTAB, and subsequently pillared with Keggin ions. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A two-step synthesis method was used to prepare the CTAB-Al-MO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The CTAB-Al-MO has the large basal spacing and high specific BET surface area. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermal stability of the well-ordered CTAB-Al-MO could obviously improve. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The CTAB-Al-MO exhibits excellent oxidation and absorption ability to remove organic pollutants.

  3. Ag-In-Zn-S quantum dots for hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eung-min; Ruankham, Pipat; Lee, Jae-hyeong; Hachiya, Kan; Sagawa, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Quantum dots of (AgIn)xZn2(1-x)S2 (x = 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0) capped by oleylamine were prepared and applied for hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells consisting of glass-indium-tin-oxide/ZnO/(AgIn)xZn2(1-x)S2/poly(3-hexylthiophene)/MoO3/Ag. The short-circuit current density (Jsc) and open-circuit voltage (Voc) of the hybrid solar cells were measured, and we found a low power conversion efficiency (PCE) below 0.1%. From the incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) profiles of the hybrid devices, there is no marked photocurrent generation from 350 to 700 nm, which is ascribed to the absorption region of (AgIn)xZn2(1-x)S2. To improve the photovoltaic performance, ligand substitution from oleylamine to pyridine was performed. The PCE of the hybrid cell using the pyridine-capped (AgIn)xZn2(1-x)S2 was improved twofold in terms of both Jsc and Voc as compared with that of the oleylamine-capped one. In particular, from the IPCE measurements, a remarkable (more than doubled) enhancement of photocurrent generation from 400 to 450 nm was observed with the pyridine-substituted nanoparticles.

  4. Spin-polarized exciton quantum beating in hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odenthal, Patrick; Talmadge, William; Gundlach, Nathan; Wang, Ruizhi; Zhang, Chuang; Sun, Dali; Yu, Zhi-Gang; Valy Vardeny, Z.; Li, Yan S.

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites have emerged as a new class of semiconductors that exhibit excellent performance as active layers in photovoltaic solar cells. These compounds are also highly promising materials for the field of spintronics due to their large and tunable spin-orbit coupling, spin-dependent optical selection rules, and their predicted electrically tunable Rashba spin splitting. Here we demonstrate the optical orientation of excitons and optical detection of spin-polarized exciton quantum beating in polycrystalline films of the hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbClxI3-x. Time-resolved Faraday rotation measurement in zero magnetic field reveals unexpectedly long spin lifetimes exceeding 1 ns at 4 K, despite the large spin-orbit couplings of the heavy lead and iodine atoms. The quantum beating of exciton states in transverse magnetic fields shows two distinct frequencies, corresponding to two g-factors of 2.63 and -0.33, which we assign to electrons and holes, respectively. These results provide a basic picture of the exciton states in hybrid perovskites, and suggest they hold potential for spintronic applications.

  5. Medical applications of organic-inorganic hybrid materials within the field of silica-based bioceramics.

    PubMed

    Vallet-Regí, María; Colilla, Montserrat; González, Blanca

    2011-02-01

    Research on bioceramics has evolved from the use of inert materials for mere substitution of living tissues towards the development of third-generation bioceramics aimed at inducing bone tissue regeneration. Within this context hybrid bioceramics have remarkable features resulting from the synergistic combination of both inorganic and organic components that make them suitable for a wide range of medical applications. Certain bioceramics, such as ordered mesoporous silicas, can exhibit different kind of interaction with organic molecules to develop different functions. The weak interaction of these host matrixes with drug molecules confined in the mesoporous channels allows these hybrid systems to be used as controlled delivery devices. Moreover, mesoporous silicas can be used to fabricate three (3D)-dimensional scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. In this last case, different osteoinductive agents (peptides, hormones and growth factors) can be strongly grafted to the bioceramic matrix to act as attracting signals for bone cells to promote bone regeneration process. Finally, recent research examples of organic-inorganic hybrid bioceramics, such as stimuli-responsive drug delivery systems and nanosystems for targeting of cancer cells and gene transfection, are also tackled in this tutorial review (64 references).

  6. Strontium-doped organic-inorganic hybrids towards three-dimensional scaffolds for osteogenic cells.

    PubMed

    John, Łukasz; Podgórska, Marta; Nedelec, Jean-Marie; Cwynar-Zając, Łucja; Dzięgiel, Piotr

    2016-11-01

    Biomimetic organic-inorganic hybrid bioscaffolds are developed to complement or replace damaged fragments in bone tissue surgery. The aim of this work was to develop a simple and fast method to prepare composite material for bone engineering, avoiding time consuming and complex methodologies. The resulting materials (also called in this work as hybrid composites or hybrid scaffolds) have a three-dimensional macroporous polymer-like network derived from triethoxyvinylsilane (TEVS) and 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) monomers, with incorporated calcium, strontium, and phosphate ions. The materials were fully characterized using FT-IR, biomineralization studies, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scratch tests, Young's modulus and compressive strength tests, and gas physisorption. We report a comprehensive study on the in vitro effect of novel strontium doped materials on human bone cells. In vitro investigations were conducted using a normal human osteoblast cell line that mimics the cellular events of the in vivo intramembranous bone formation process. The materials do not have a negative impact on the survival of the normal human osteoblasts; moreover, materials doped with strontium show that not only are cells able to survive, but they also attach to and grow on a bioscaffolds surface. For this reason, they may be used in future in vivo experiments.

  7. Domain-dependent electronic structure and optical absorption property in hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiang; Zhang, Ruifeng; Fu, Zhongheng; Zhang, Qianfan

    2016-10-05

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites, represented by materials in the CH3NH3PbI3 series, have become one of the most promising materials for solar cells with a high power conversion efficiency and low cost. The ordered Pb-I cage in such hybrid perovskites can induce the polarized cations to form a variety of polarization domains with long-range order, which will lead to the formation of specific atomic conformations or metastable crystalline phases, unique electronic band structures and optical absorption properties. Such domain-dependent characteristics play a critical role in the phase transition and service stability of such solar cells, and also open up the opportunity of tuning their electronic structure. In the present study, we systematically investigate the band structures and optical absorption properties of different electronically ordered domains in CH3NH3PbI3. By comparing different perovskites containing various cations, we have clarified the important influence of cation polarization on domain-dependent properties. Our results provide not only a possible pathway for the manipulation of band structure by applying an external field, but also a novel scheme for improving the performance and stability of hybrid perovskites.

  8. Photochromic dynamics of organic-inorganic hybrids supported on transparent and flexible recycled PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, R. P.; Nalin, M.; Ribeiro, S. J. L.; Molina, C.

    2017-04-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrids (OIH) synthesized by sol gel process containing phosphotungstic acid (PWA) entrapped have been attracted much attention for ultraviolet sensitive materials. However, the limitations for practical photochromic application of these materials are the poor interaction with flexible polymer substrates such as Poly(ethyleneterephthalate) (PET) and also photo response under ultraviolet radiation. This paper describes the use of the d-ureasil HOI, based on siliceous network grafted through linkages to both ends of polymer chain containing 2.5 poly(oxyethylene) units with PWA entrapped prepared as films on recycled PET. Films were characterized by IR-ATR, XRD, TG/DTG, UV-Vis and Contact angle. XRD patterns showed that both pristine hybrid matrix and those containing PWA are amorphous. IR showed that PWA structure is preserved in the matrix and interactions between them occur by intermolecular forces. Films are thermally stable up to 325 °C and contact angle of 25.1° showed a good wettability between substrate and hybrid matrix. Furthermore, films showed fast photochromic response after 1 min of ultraviolet exposure time. The bleaching process revealed that the relaxation process is dependent of the temperature and the activation energy of 47.2 kJ mol-1 was determined. The properties of these films make them potential candidates for applications in flexible photochromic materials.

  9. Development of nanostructured and surface modified semiconductors for hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Julia, W. P.

    2008-09-01

    Solar energy conversion is increasingly being recognized as one of the principal ways to meet future energy needs without causing detrimental environmental impact. Hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells (SCs) are attracting particular interest due to the potential for low cost manufacturing and for use in new applications, such as consumer electronics, architectural integration and light-weight sensors. Key materials advantages of these next generation SCs over conventional semiconductor SCs are in design opportunities--since the different functions of the SCs are carried out by different materials, there are greater materials choices for producing optimized structures. In this project, we explore the hybrid organic-inorganic solar cell system that consists of oxide, primarily ZnO, nanostructures as the electron transporter and poly-(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as the light-absorber and hole transporter. It builds on our capabilities in the solution synthesis of nanostructured semiconducting oxide arrays to this photovoltaic (PV) technology. The three challenges in this hybrid material system for solar applications are (1) achieving inorganic nanostructures with critical spacing that matches the exciton diffusion in the polymer, {approx} 10 nm, (2) infiltrating the polymer completely into the dense nanostructure arrays, and (3) optimizing the interfacial properties to facilitate efficient charge transfer. We have gained an understanding and control over growing oriented ZnO nanorods with sub-50 nm diameters and the required rod-to-rod spacing on various substrates. We have developed novel approaches to infiltrate commercially available P3HT in the narrow spacing between ZnO nanorods. Also, we have begun to explore ways to modify the interfacial properties. In addition, we have established device fabrication and testing capabilities at Sandia for prototype devices. Moreover, the control synthesis of ZnO nanorod arrays lead to the development of an efficient anti

  10. Organic/Inorganic Nano-hybrids with High Dielectric Constant for Organic Thin Film Transistor Applications.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang-Yen; Jiang, Ai-Hua; Lee, Wen-Ya

    2016-12-01

    The organic material soluble polyimide (PI) and organic-inorganic hybrid PI-barium titanate (BaTiO3) nanoparticle dielectric materials (IBX, where X is the concentration of BaTiO3 nanoparticles in a PI matrix) were successfully synthesized through a sol-gel process. The effects of various BaTiO3 contents on the hybrid film performance and performance optimization were investigated. Furthermore, pentacene-based organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) with PI-BaTiO3/polymethylmethacrylate or cyclic olefin copolymer (COC)-modified gate dielectrics were fabricated and examined. The hybrid materials showed effective dispersion of BaTiO3 nanoparticles in the PI matrix and favorable thermal properties. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the BaTiO3 nanoparticles had a perovskite structure. The hybrid films exhibited high formability and planarity. The IBX hybrid dielectric films exhibited tunable insulating properties such as the dielectric constant value and capacitance in ranges of 4.0-8.6 and 9.2-17.5 nF cm(-2), respectively. Adding the modified layer caused the decrease of dielectric constant values and capacitances. The modified dielectric layer without cross-linking displayed a hydrophobic surface. The electrical characteristics of the pentacene-based OTFTs were enhanced after the surface modification. The optimal condition for the dielectric layer was 10 wt% hybrid film with the COC-modified layer; moreover, the device exhibited a threshold voltage of 0.12 V, field-effect mobility of 4.32 × 10(-1) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), and on/off current of 8.4 × 10(7).

  11. Easily processable multimodal spectral converters based on metal oxide/organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Julián-López, Beatriz; Gonell, Francisco; Lima, Patricia P; Freitas, Vânia T; André, Paulo S; Carlos, Luis D; Ferreira, Rute A S

    2015-10-09

    This manuscript reports the synthesis and characterization of the first organic-inorganic hybrid material exhibiting efficient multimodal spectral converting properties. The nanocomposite, made of Er(3+), Yb(3+) codoped zirconia nanoparticles (NPs) entrapped in a di-ureasil d-U(600) hybrid matrix, is prepared by an easy two-step sol-gel synthesis leading to homogeneous and transparent materials that can be very easily processed as monolith or film. Extensive structural characterization reveals that zirconia nanocrystals of 10-20 nm in size are efficiently dispersed into the hybrid matrix and that the local structure of the di-ureasil is not affected by the presence of the NPs. A significant enhancement in the refractive index of the di-ureasil matrix with the incorporation of the ZrO2 nanocrystals is observed. The optical study demonstrates that luminescent properties of both constituents are perfectly preserved in the final hybrid. Thus, the material displays a white-light photoluminescence from the di-ureasil component upon excitation at UV/visible radiation and also intense green and red emissions from the Er(3+)- and Yb(3+)-doped NPs after NIR excitation. The dynamics of the optical processes were also studied as a function of the lanthanide content and the thickness of the films. Our results indicate that these luminescent hybrids represent a low-cost, environmentally friendly, size-controlled, easily processed and chemically stable alternative material to be used in light harvesting devices such as luminescent solar concentrators, optical fibres and sensors. Furthermore, this synthetic approach can be extended to a wide variety of luminescent NPs entrapped in hybrid matrices, thus leading to multifunctional and versatile materials for efficient tuneable nonlinear optical nanodevices.

  12. Organic/Inorganic Nano-hybrids with High Dielectric Constant for Organic Thin Film Transistor Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yang-Yen; Jiang, Ai-Hua; Lee, Wen-Ya

    2016-11-01

    The organic material soluble polyimide (PI) and organic-inorganic hybrid PI-barium titanate (BaTiO3) nanoparticle dielectric materials (IBX, where X is the concentration of BaTiO3 nanoparticles in a PI matrix) were successfully synthesized through a sol-gel process. The effects of various BaTiO3 contents on the hybrid film performance and performance optimization were investigated. Furthermore, pentacene-based organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) with PI-BaTiO3/polymethylmethacrylate or cyclic olefin copolymer (COC)-modified gate dielectrics were fabricated and examined. The hybrid materials showed effective dispersion of BaTiO3 nanoparticles in the PI matrix and favorable thermal properties. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the BaTiO3 nanoparticles had a perovskite structure. The hybrid films exhibited high formability and planarity. The IBX hybrid dielectric films exhibited tunable insulating properties such as the dielectric constant value and capacitance in ranges of 4.0-8.6 and 9.2-17.5 nF cm-2, respectively. Adding the modified layer caused the decrease of dielectric constant values and capacitances. The modified dielectric layer without cross-linking displayed a hydrophobic surface. The electrical characteristics of the pentacene-based OTFTs were enhanced after the surface modification. The optimal condition for the dielectric layer was 10 wt% hybrid film with the COC-modified layer; moreover, the device exhibited a threshold voltage of 0.12 V, field-effect mobility of 4.32 × 10-1 cm2 V-1 s-1, and on/off current of 8.4 × 107.

  13. Crystallization behavior of PA6/SiO{sub 2} organic-inorganic hybrid material

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Hualin; Shi Tiejun . E-mail: stjdean@hfut.edu.cn; Yang Shanzhong; Hang Guopei

    2006-02-02

    Poly 2-hydroxy propylmethacrylate-methyl methacrylate/SiO{sub 2} (PHPMA-MMA/SiO{sub 2}), an active composite was used to synthesize polyamide-6/SiO{sub 2} (PA6/SiO{sub 2}) organic-inorganic hybrid materials via blending method. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) results showed that the addition of PHPMA-MMA/SiO{sub 2} composite induced PA6 to transit from {alpha} to {gamma} crystal form. The nonisothermal crystallization kinetics of PA6 and PA6/SiO{sub 2} hybrid materials was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Jeziorny method derived from Avrami analysis and a method developed by Liu were employed to describe the nonisothermal crystallization process of PA6 and PA6/SiO{sub 2} hybrid materials. Based on our experimental data, if the relative degree of crystallinity was approximately 60% or more, the Jeziorny method was not valid to describe the nonisothermal crystallization process, while Liu method was successful to describe the whole nonisothermal crystallization process. When X(t) was below about 60%, the crystallization rates of PA6 and PA6/SiO{sub 2} hybrid materials were very approximate, but when X(t) was approximately 60% or more, the crystallization rate of PA6 was quicker than that of PA6/SiO{sub 2} hybrid materials. Moreover, the addition of PHPMA-MMA/SiO{sub 2} composite decreased the crystallization activation energy {delta}E calculated by Kissinger equation because of the {gamma} transition.

  14. Photoluminescence Mechanism and Photocatalytic Activity of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Materials Formed by Sequential Vapor Infiltration.

    PubMed

    Akyildiz, Halil I; Stano, Kelly L; Roberts, Adam T; Everitt, Henry O; Jur, Jesse S

    2016-05-03

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials formed by sequential vapor infiltration (SVI) of trimethylaluminum into polyester fibers are demonstrated, and the photoluminescence of the fibers is evaluated using a combined UV-vis and photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectroscopy approach. The optical activity of the modified fibers depends on infiltration thermal processing conditions and is attributed to the reaction mechanisms taking place at different temperatures. At low temperatures a single excitation band and dual emission bands are observed, while, at high temperatures, two distinct absorption bands and one emission band are observed, suggesting that the physical and chemical structure of the resulting hybrid material depends on the SVI temperature. Along with enhancing the photoluminescence intensity of the PET fibers, the internal quantum efficiency also increased to 5-fold from ∼4-5% to ∼24%. SVI processing also improved the photocatalytic activity of the fibers, as demonstrated by photodeposition of Ag and Au metal particles out of an aqueous metal salt solution onto fiber surfaces via UVA light exposure. Toward applications in flexible electronics, well-defined patterning of the metallic materials is achieved by using light masking and focused laser rastering approaches.

  15. Electronic Structure Approach to Tunable Electronic Properties of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Garnett; Huhn, William; Mitzi, David B.; Kanai, Yosuke; Blum, Volker

    We present a study of the electronic structure of layered hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIP) materials using all-electron density-functional theory. Varying the nature of the organic and inorganic layers should enable systematically fine-tuning the carrier properties of each component. Using the HSE06 hybrid density functional including spin-orbit coupling (SOC), we validate the principle of tuning subsystem-specific parts of the electron band structures and densities of states in CH3NH3PbX3 (X=Cl, Br, I) compared to a modified organic component in layered (C6H5C2H4NH3) 2PbX4 (X=Cl, Br, I) and C20H22S4N2PbX4 (X=Cl, Br, I). We show that tunable shifts of electronic levels indeed arise by varying Cl, Br, I as the inorganic components, and CH3NH3+ , C6H5C2H4NH3+ , C20H22S4N22 + as the organic components. SOC is found to play an important role in splitting the conduction bands of the HOIP compounds investigated here. The frontier orbitals of the halide shift, increasing the gap, when Cl is substituted for Br and I.

  16. In situ formation of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures for photovoltaic applications.

    PubMed

    Wood, Sebastian; Garnett, Oliver; Tokmoldin, Nurlan; Tsoi, Wing C; Haque, Saif A; Kim, Ji-Seon

    2014-01-01

    The performance of hybrid (organic-inorganic) photovoltaic devices is critically dependent on the thin film morphology. This work studies the film formation process using the in situ thermal decomposition of a soluble precursor to form a well-distributed network of CdS nanoparticles within a poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) polymer matrix. Resonant Raman spectroscopy is used to probe the formation of the inorganic nanoparticles and the corresponding changes in the molecular order of the polymer. We find that the CdS precursor decomposes rapidly upon heating to 160 °C, but that this has a disruptive effect on the P3HT. The extent of this disruption can be controlled by adjusting the annealing temperature, and nanowire aggregates of P3HT are found to have increased susceptibility. Atomic force microscopy reveals that at high temperatures (>200 °C), cracks form in the film, resulting in a 'plateau'-like microstructure. In order to retain the preferable 'granular' microstructure and to control the molecular disruption, low decomposition temperatures are needed. This work identifies a particular problem for optimising the hybrid thin film morphology and shows how it can be partially overcome.

  17. Rashba and Dresselhaus Effects in Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites: From Basics to Devices.

    PubMed

    Kepenekian, Mikaël; Robles, Roberto; Katan, Claudine; Sapori, Daniel; Pedesseau, Laurent; Even, Jacky

    2015-12-22

    We use symmetry analysis, density functional theory calculations, and k·p modeling to scrutinize Rashba and Dresselhaus effects in hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskites. These perovskites are at the center of a recent revolution in the field of photovoltaics but have also demonstrated potential for optoelectronic applications such as transistors and light emitters. Due to a large spin-orbit coupling of the most frequently used metals, they are also predicted to offer a promising avenue for spin-based applications. With an in-depth inspection of the electronic structures and bulk lattice symmetries of a variety of systems, we analyze the origin of the spin splitting in two- and three-dimensional hybrid perovskites. It is shown that low-dimensional nanostructures made of CH3NH3PbX3 (X = I, Br) lead to spin splittings that can be controlled by an applied electric field. These findings further open the door for a perovskite-based spintronics.

  18. A covalently-linked microporous organic-inorganic hybrid framework containing polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane moieties.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ye; Ben, Teng; Xu, Jun; Xue, Ming; Jing, Xiaofei; Deng, Feng; Qiu, Shilun; Zhu, Guangshan

    2011-03-28

    By a Yamamoto-type of Ullmann cross-coupling reaction, a well-defined covalently-linked microporous organic-inorganic hybrid framework polyoctaphenylsilsesquioxane (JUC-Z1) was effectively prepared from the nano building block p-iodio-octaphenylsilsesquioxane (I8OPS) with a yield of ca. 100%. The structure of JUC-Z1 was characterized by (13)C CP/MAS NMR and (29)Si MAS NMR experiments. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was performed to confirm the presence of functions in the framework. The results showed that inorganic silsesquioxane cubes were linearly covalently-linked by biphenyls, offering a highly cross-coupling framework. The powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) pattern and transmission electron microscope (TEM) image show that JUC-Z1 is spherical with uniform micropores. N(2) adsorption results suggest that the hybrid framework has a narrow pore size distribution from 11.8 to 20.0 Å, with a BET surface area of 283 m(2)g(-1) and a pore volume of 0.226 cm(3)g(-1). A thermogravimetric (TG) analysis indicates the thermal stability of JUC-Z1 up to 397 °C in air. Moreover, a liquid sorption experiment reveals the favorable sorption of benzene and water.

  19. Ratiometric fluorescence detection of silver ions using thioflavin T-based organic/inorganic hybrid supraparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Yun; Zhang, Min; Lu, Ling-Fei; Zhu, Anwei; Xia, Fei; Zhou, Tianshu; Shi, Guoyue

    2015-09-07

    In this work, we present a new type of functional organic/inorganic hybrid supraparticle that spontaneously assembles from silver ions (Ag(+)), iodide ions (I(-)) and thioflavin T (ThT) under aqueous solution conditions. ThT alone in aqueous solution was weakly fluorescent with an emission band at 494 nm, which was related to the monomer. However, in the above-mentioned hybrid supraparticle (i.e., ThT@AgI SP) structure, the ThT monomer can form a dimer with a new emission band. The new band shifted to 546 nm and the emission intensity increased. We further present a facile strategy of reversible fluorescence switching of ThT by a simple cation (Ag(+)) and anions (I(-) and S(2-)), which can be employed for the ratiometric fluorescence detection of Ag(+) with high sensitivity and selectivity. The linear range of detecting Ag(+) was from 100 nM to 10 μM, with a limit of detection as low as approximately 50 nM. Moreover, it can be successfully applied for the operation of a logic gate system and to the sensing of Ag(+) in real water samples.

  20. Superhalogens as building blocks of two-dimensional organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites for optoelectronics applications.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qiushi; Fang, Hong; Deng, Kaiming; Kan, Erjun; Jena, Puru

    2016-10-20

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, well known for their potential as the next generation solar cells, have found another niche application in optoelectronics. This was demonstrated in a recent experiment (L. Dou, et al., Science, 2015, 349, 1518) on atomically thin (C4H9NH3)2PbBr4, where, due to quantum confinement, the bandgap and the exciton binding energy are enhanced over their corresponding values in the three-dimensional bulk phase. Using density functional theory we show that when halogen atoms (e.g. I) are sequentially replaced with superhalogen molecules (e.g. BH4) the bandgap and exciton binding energy increase monotonically with the superhalogen content with the exciton binding energy of (C4H9NH3)2Pb(BH4)4 approaching the value in monolayer black phosphorus. Lead-free admixtures (C4H9NH3)2MI4-x(BH4)x (M = Sn and Ge; x = 0-4) also show a similar trend. Thus, a combination of quantum confinement and compositional change can be used as an effective strategy to tailor the bandgap and the exciton binding energy of two-dimensional hybrid perovskites, making them promising candidates for optoelectronic applications.

  1. Lead-free Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskites for Photovoltaic Applications: Recent Advances and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zejiao; Guo, Jia; Chen, Yonghua; Li, Qi; Pan, Yufeng; Zhang, Haijuan; Xia, Yingdong; Huang, Wei

    2017-02-03

    Organic-inorganic hybrid halide perovskites (e.g., MAPbI3 ) have recently emerged as novel active materials for photovoltaic applications with power conversion efficiency over 22%. Conventional perovskite solar cells (PSCs); however, suffer the issue that lead is toxic to the environment and organisms for a long time and is hard to excrete from the body. Therefore, it is imperative to find environmentally-friendly metal ions to replace lead for the further development of PSCs. Previous work has demonstrated that Sn, Ge, Cu, Bi, and Sb ions could be used as alternative ions in perovskite configurations to form a new environmentally-friendly lead-free perovskite structure. Here, we review recent progress on lead-free PSCs in terms of the theoretical insight and experimental explorations of the crystal structure of lead-free perovskite, thin film deposition, and device performance. We also discuss the importance of obtaining further understanding of the fundamental properties of lead-free hybrid perovskites, especially those related to photophysics.

  2. Reduced energy offset via substitutional doping for efficient organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiao; Sun, Weifu; Zhang, Qin; Ruan, Kelian; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Xu, Haijiao; Xu, Zhongyuan; Li, Qinghua

    2015-06-01

    Charge carrier transport in bulk heterojunction that is central to the device performance of solar cells is sensitively dependent on the energy level alignment of acceptor and donor. However, the effect of energy level regulation induced by nickel ions on the primary photoexcited electron transfer and the performance of P3HT/TiO2 hybrid solar cells remains being poorly understood and rarely studied. Here we demonstrate that the introduction of the versatile nickel ions into TiO2 nanocrystals can significantly elevate the conduction and valence band energy levels of the acceptor, thus resulting in a remarkable reduction of energy level offset between the conduction band of acceptor and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of donor. By applying transient photoluminescence and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopies, we demonstrate that the electron transfer becomes more competitive after incorporating nickel ions. In particular, the electron transfer life time is shortened from 30.2 to 16.7 ps, i.e., more than 44% faster than pure TiO2 acceptor, thus leading to a notable increase of power conversion efficiency in organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells. This work underscores the promising virtue of engineering the reduction of 'excess' energy offset to accelerate electron transport and demonstrates the potential of nickel ions in applications of solar energy conversion and photon detectors.

  3. PWA-diureasils organic-inorganic hybrids. Photochromism and effect of the organic chain length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, P. A.; Sarmento, V. H. V.; Ribeiro, S. J. L.; Nalin, M.; Molina, C.

    2015-08-01

    Di-ureasil organic-inorganic hybrids have been used together with Phosphotungstic acid (PWA- H3PW12O40) in the preparation of new photochromic materials. PWA was incorporated in different relative concentrations in di-ureasils displaying different organic chain lengths. The structure and photochromic behaviour of these novel material were investigated by means of infrared (FTIR), photoluminescence (PL) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopies and Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) technique as a function of PWA content and also of the polymer chain length. Eu3+ has been incorporated as probe ion. For the short polymer chains, europium and PWA keggin structures are located close to oxygen in the ether type of the polyoxides segments and for the long polymer chain carbonyl groups of the urea units were observed to contribute in the coordination. Moreover, the photochromic effect was followed by UV-Vis measurements which showed that in both hybrid families changing from colorless to blue after UV exposure, and the bleaching process, depend directly on the polymer chain length and the nature of the sites where PWA are coordinated in the matrix.

  4. Amphiphilic Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Zeotype Aluminosilicate like a Nanoporous Crystallized Langmuir-Blodgett Film.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Takuji; Hiyoshi, Norihito; Matsuura, Shun-ichi; Kodaira, Tetsuya; Nakaoka, Takuma; Irisa, Ami; Kawano, Miki; Yamamoto, Katsutoshi

    2015-06-26

    A new organic-inorganic hybrid zeotype compound with amphiphilic one-dimensional nanopore and aluminosilicate composition was developed. The framework structure is composed of double aluminosilicate layers and 12-ring nanopores; a hydrophilic layer pillared by Q(2) silicon atom species and a lipophilic layer pillared by phenylene groups are alternately stacked, and 12-ring nanopores perpendicularly penetrate the layers. The framework topology looks similar to that of an AFI-type zeolite but possesses a quasi-multidimensional pore structure consisting of a 12-ring channel and intersecting small pores equivalent to 8-rings. The hybrid material with alternately laminated lipophilic and hydrophilic nanospaces can be assumed as a crystallized Langmuir-Blodgett film. It demonstrates microporous adsorption for both hydrophilic and lipophilic adsorptives, and its outer surface tightly adsorbs lysozyme whose molecular size is much larger than its micropore opening. Our results suggest the possibility of designing porous adsorbent with high amphipathicity. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid azobenzene materials for the preparation of nanofibers by electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bućko, Aleksandra; Zielińska, Sonia; Ortyl, Ewelina; Larkowska, Maria; Barille, Regis

    2014-12-01

    The new photochromic hybrid materials containing different mole fractions of highly photoactive 4-[(E)-[4-[ethyl(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]phenyl]azo]-N-(4-methylpyrimidin-2-yl)benzenesulfonamide (SMERe) were prepared by a low temperature sol-gel process. The guest-host systems with triethoxyphenylsilane matrix were obtained. These materials were used to form thin transparent films by a spin-coating technique. Then the ability of thin hybrid films to reversible trans-cis photoisomerization under illumination was investigated using ellipsometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The reversible changes of refractive index of the films under illumination were in the range of 0.005-0.056. The maximum absorption of these materials was located at 462-486 nm. Moreover, the organic-inorganic azobenzene materials were used to form nanofibers by electrospinning using various parameters of the process. The microstructure of electrospun fibers depended on sols properties (e.g. concentration and viscosity of the sols) and process conditions (e.g. the applied voltage, temperature or type of the collector) at ambient conditions. The morphology of obtained nanofibers was analyzed by an optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. In most instances, the beadless fibers were obtained. The wettability of the surface of electrospun fibers deposited on glass substrates was investigated.

  6. Organic-inorganic hybrid polymer electrolytes based on polyether diamine, alkoxysilane, and trichlorotriazine: Synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, Diganta; Wu, Cheng-Gang; Fang, Jason; Tsai, Li-Duan; Kao, Hsien-Ming

    2014-12-01

    A new type of highly conductive organic-inorganic hybrid polymer electrolytes has been synthesized by the reaction of poly(propylene glycol)-block-poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol) bis(2-aminopropyl ether), 2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine and alkoxysilane precursor 3-(glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane, followed by doping of LiClO4. The 13C and 29Si solid-sate NMR results confirm the successful synthesis of the organic-inorganic hybrid structure. The solid hybrid electrolyte thus obtained exhibits a maximum ionic conductivity of 1.6 × 10-4 S cm-1 at 30 °C, which is the highest among the organic-inorganic hybrid electrolytes. The hybrid electrolytes are electrochemically stable up to 4.2 V. The prototype electrochromic device with such a solid hybrid electrolyte demonstrates a good coloration efficiency value of 183 cm2 C-1 with a cycle life over 200 cycles. For the lithium-ion battery test, the salt free solid hybrid membrane is swelled with a LiPF6-containing electrolyte solution to reach an acceptable ionic conductivity value of 6.5 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 30 °C. The battery cell carries an initial discharge capacity of 100 mAh g-1 at 0.2C-rate and a coulombic efficiency of about 95% up to 30 cycles without the sign of cell failure. The present organic-inorganic hybrid electrolytes hold promise for applications in electrochromic devices and lithium ion batteries.

  7. Wood-Based Nanocomposite Derived by in Situ Formation of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Polymer within Wood via a Sol-Gel Method.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiaoying; Zhuo, Xiao; Wei, Jie; Zhang, Gang; Li, Yongfeng

    2017-03-15

    Solid wood materials and wood-plastic composites as two kinds of lightweight materials are attracting great interest from academia and industry due to their green and recycling nature. However, the relatively lower specific strength limits their wider applications. In particular, solid wood is vulnerable to moisture and decay fungi in nature, resulting in its poor durability for effectively long-term utilization. Inspired from the porous structure of wood, we propose a new design to build a wood-based nanocomposite with higher specific strength and satisfactory durability by in situ generation of organic-inorganic hybrid polymer within wood via a sol-gel method. The derived composite has 50-1200% improvement of impact toughness, 56-192% improvement of tensile strength, and 110-291% improvement of flexural strength over those of typical wood-plastic composites, respectively; and even 34% improvement of specific tensile strength than that of 36A steel; 208% enhancement of hardness; and 156% enhancement of compression strength than those of compared solid wood, respectively; as well as significantly improved dimensional stability and decay resistance over those of untreated natural wood. Such materials could be potentially utilized as lightweight and high-strength materials for applications in construction and automotive industries. This method could be extended to constitute other inorganic nanomaterials for novel organic-inorganic hybrid polymer within wood.

  8. Effect of halide-mixing on the switching behaviors of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Bohee; Gu, Chungwan; Lee, Donghwa; Lee, Jang-Sik

    2017-03-01

    Mixed halide perovskite materials are actively researched for solar cells with high efficiency. Their hysteresis which originates from the movement of defects make perovskite a candidate for resistive switching memory devices. We demonstrate the resistive switching device based on mixed-halide organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx (x = 0, 1, 2, 3). Solvent engineering is used to deposit the homogeneous CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx layer on the indium-tin oxide-coated glass substrates. The memory device based on CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx exhibits write endurance and long retention, which indicate reproducible and reliable memory properties. According to the increase in Br contents in CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx the set electric field required to make the device from low resistance state to high resistance state decreases. This result is in accord with the theoretical calculation of migration barriers, that is the barrier to ionic migration in perovskites is found to be lower for Br- (0.23 eV) than for I- (0.29-0.30 eV). The resistive switching may be the result of halide vacancy defects and formation of conductive filaments under electric field in the mixed perovskite layer. It is observed that enhancement in operating voltage can be achieved by controlling the halide contents in the film.

  9. 'Green' biocompatible organic-inorganic hybrid electrospun nanofibers for potential biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Manjumeena, R; Elakkiya, T; Duraibabu, D; Feroze Ahamed, A; Kalaichelvan, P T; Venkatesan, R

    2015-02-01

    Gold nanoparticles were prepared by green route using Couroupita guianensis leaves extract. The green synthesized gold nanoparticles exhibited maximum absorbance at 526 nm in the ultraviolet spectrum. By incorporating the green synthesized gold nanoparticles in poly(vinyl alcohol) matrix, unique green organic-inorganic hybrid nanofibers (poly (vinyl alcohol : )-gold nanoparticles) were developed by electrospinning. Contact angle measurements showed that the prepared poly (vinyl alcohol)-gold nanoparticles were found to be highly hydrophilic. The crystallinity of gold nanoparticles was analyzed using XRD. The synthesized gold nanoparticles and poly (vinyl alcohol)-gold nanoparticles were characterized using high-resolution transmission electron microscope, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and energy-dispersive analysis of X-ray. The ultimate aim of the present work is to achieve optimum antibacterial, antifungal, biocompatibility and antiproliferative activities at a very low loading of gold nanoparticles. Vero cell lines showed a maximum of 90% cell viability on incubation with the prepared poly (vinyl alcohol)-gold nanoparticles. MCF 7 and HeLa cell lines proliferated only to 8% and 9%, respectively, on incubation with the poly (vinyl alcohol)-gold nanoparticles, and also exhibited good antibacterial and antifungal activities against test pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains. Thus, the poly (vinyl alcohol)-gold nanoparticles could be used for dual applications such as antimicrobial, anticancer treatment besides being highly biocompatible. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. Organic-inorganic hybrid nanoparticles: surface characteristics and interactions with a polyester resin.

    PubMed

    Jesson, David A; Abel, Marie-Laure; Hay, John N; Smith, Paul A; Watts, John F

    2006-05-23

    Organic-inorganic hybrid nanoparticles, derived from silica precursors with different organic functionalities (methyl, ethyl, vinyl, and phenyl) synthesized via a modified Stöber method have been investigated. These particles are intended as modifiers for polymers and polymer matrix composites. Therefore, the characteristics of a polyester matrix have also been determined, and the likely interactions with the particles have been proposed. Particles have been characterized using inverse gas chromatography (IGC), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The particles show two different sets of characteristics, with methyl, ethyl, and vinyl modified silicas showing one type of behavior and the phenyl modified silica behaving rather differently. The methyl, ethyl, and vinyl groups exhibit the appearance of uniform coverage, as they are comparatively small and tightly packed, which will prevent interaction of matrix resin with retained silanol groups. The phenyl group, which is comparatively large, is not able to pack as closely, which results in a reduction of the presence and availability of silanol groups, compared to an unmodified fumed silica, but not complete inaccessibility as far as the matrix resin is concerned.

  11. Organic-inorganic hybrid thin film solar cells using conducting polymer and gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwan Jung, Hyung; Ho Kim, Dong; Su Kim, Chang; Bae, Tae-Sung; Bum Chung, Kwun; Yoon Ryu, Seung

    2013-05-01

    We employed poly(styrenesulfonate)-doped poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT:PSS) as a p-layer on textured fluorine-tin-oxide (FTO) glass in pin-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells (a-Si:H SCs). An amorphous tungsten oxide (WO3) layer and gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) 10 nm in size were included to prevent the degradation and to increase short-circuit current by the Plasmon effect, respectively, between the PEDOT:PSS and intrinsic-Si layer. The energy band between PEDOT:PSS and WO3 was meaningfully adjusted by Au-NPs. The p-type PEDOT:PSS layer in these organic-inorganic hybrid a-Si:H SCs results in an increased conversion efficiency from ˜2.42% to ˜5.49% and an increased open-circuit voltage from ˜0.29 V to ˜0.56 V. PEDOT:PSS on textured FTO glass is sufficiently showing that it can replace the p-type Si layer in pin-type a-Si:H SCs.

  12. Anti-EGFR antibody conjugated organic-inorganic hybrid lipid nanovesicles selectively target tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Leung, Siu Ling; Zha, Zhengbao; Cohn, Celine; Dai, Zhifei; Wu, Xiaoyi

    2014-09-01

    Chemical conjugation of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibodies (anti-EGFR mAbs) to organic-inorganic hybrid liposomal immunocerasomes via maleimide-thiol coupling chemistry is explored as a mechanism for selectively targeting cancer cells. The cellular uptake and internalization of immunocerasomes are investigated in A431 cells that express an abnormally high level of EGFR, DU145 cells that overexpress EGFR, and HL-60 cells that are used as a negative control. The internalization study reveals a strong correlation between the receptor-mediated endocytosis of immunocerasomes and the membrane expression of EGFR. Further, free anti-EGFR mAbs and immunocerasomes conjugated with anti-EGFR mAbs at nanomolar doses display similar anti-proliferative effects on A431 cells. Additionally, serum proteins greatly reduce the cellular uptake of cerasomes that is mediated by non-specific receptors, but have no adverse effects on the specific EGFR-mediated delivery of immunocerasomes to A431 cells.

  13. Hybrid Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Perovskite Nanocrystals with Organic-Inorganic Mixed Cations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Liu, He; Wang, Weigao; Zhang, Jinbao; Xu, Bing; Karen, Ke Lin; Zheng, Yuanjin; Liu, Sheng; Chen, Shuming; Wang, Kai; Sun, Xiao Wei

    2017-03-07

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite materials with mixed cations have demonstrated tremendous advances in photovoltaics recently, by showing a significant enhancement of power conversion efficiency and improved perovskite stability. Inspired by this development, this study presents the facile synthesis of mixed-cation perovskite nanocrystals based on FA(1-x) Csx PbBr3 (FA = CH(NH2 )2 ). By detailed characterization of their morphological, optical, and physicochemical properties, it is found that the emission property of the perovskite, FA(1-x) Csx PbBr3 , is significantly dependent on the substitution content of the Cs cations in the perovskite composition. These mixed-cation perovskites are employed as light emitters in light-emitting diodes (LEDs). With an optimized composition of FA0.8 Cs0.2 PbBr3 , the LEDs exhibit encouraging performance with a highest reported luminance of 55 005 cd m(-2) and a current efficiency of 10.09 cd A(-1) . This work provides important instructions on the future compositional optimization of mixed-cation perovskite for obtaining high-performance LEDs. The authors believe this work is a new milestone in the development of bright and efficient perovskite LEDs.

  14. Mechanism of charge recombination in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenchao; Yao, Yao; Wu, Chang-Qin; organic Group Team

    2015-03-01

    In the recent popular organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells, the slowness of the charge recombination processes is found to be a key factor for contributing to their high efficiencies and open circuit voltages, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this work we study the recombination mechanism in perovskite solar cells and its roles on determining the device performance. Based on macroscopic device model simulations, the recombination resistances (Rrec) under different applied voltages are calculated to characterize the recombination mechanism, and the current density-voltage (J - V) curves are simulated to describe the device performance under at the same time. Through comparison with the impedance spectroscopy (IS) extracted Rrec data, it is found that bimolecular recombination (BR) is the dominant recombination process in the whole applied voltage regime and can determine the open circuit voltage, while the trap-assisted SRH monomolecular recombination (MR) is only important if the trap density is high or the BR rate is significantly reduced. The different electron injection barriers at the contact can induce different patterns for the Rrec- V characteristics. Under the cases of increased band gap or decreased BR rate, the Rrec's are enhanced which leads to high open circuit voltages. We are grateful to the support from the state key laboratory of surface physics, Fudan University.

  15. Trap center study in hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite using thermally stimulated current (TSC) analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordillo, G.; Otálora, C. A.; Reinoso, M. A.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents results of a study that allowed identifying states of traps in thin films of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite compounds based on methylammonium lead halide with different compositions CH3NH3PbX3 (X is Cl, Br or I) prepared by spin-coating, through Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) measurements. Special emphasis was done in studying the influence of the composition and adsorption of oxygen on the depth of traps and on the density of states associated with trapping centers. Deconvolution of the TSC curves obtained from measurements made inside a vacuum chamber under different oxygen partial pressures, revealed the presence of traps centers whose activation energies are affected by the oxygen concentration. It was also found that TSC peaks do not appear in TSC measurements carried out at pressures less than 0.1 mbar, indicating that the possible nature of the identified traps centers is related to oxygen adsorbed superficially and/or located into the grain boundaries.

  16. Cellular morphology of organic-inorganic hybrid foams based on alkali alumino-silicate matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Verdolotti, Letizia; Capasso, Ilaria; Lavorgna, Marino; Liguori, Barbara; Caputo, Domenico; Iannace, Salvatore

    2014-05-15

    Organic-inorganic hybrid foams based on an alkali alumino-silicate matrix were prepared by using different foaming methods. Initially, the synthesis of an inorganic matrix by using aluminosilicate particles, activated through a sodium silicate solution, was performed at room temperature. Subsequently the viscous paste was foamed by using three different methods. In the first method, gaseous hydrogen produced by the oxidization of Si powder in an alkaline media, was used as blowing agent to generate gas bubbles in the paste. In the second method, the porous structure was generated by mixing the paste with a “meringue” type of foam previously prepared by whipping, under vigorous stirring, a water solution containing vegetal proteins as surfactants. In the third method, a combination of these two methods was employed. The foamed systems were consolidated for 24 hours at 40°C and then characterized by FTIR, X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and compression tests. Low density foams (∼500 Kg/m{sup 3}) with good cellular structure and mechanical properties were obtained by combining the “meringue” approach with the use of the chemical blowing agent based on Si.

  17. Cellular morphology of organic-inorganic hybrid foams based on alkali alumino-silicate matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdolotti, Letizia; Liguori, Barbara; Capasso, Ilaria; Caputo, Domenico; Lavorgna, Marino; Iannace, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid foams based on an alkali alumino-silicate matrix were prepared by using different foaming methods. Initially, the synthesis of an inorganic matrix by using aluminosilicate particles, activated through a sodium silicate solution, was performed at room temperature. Subsequently the viscous paste was foamed by using three different methods. In the first method, gaseous hydrogen produced by the oxidization of Si powder in an alkaline media, was used as blowing agent to generate gas bubbles in the paste. In the second method, the porous structure was generated by mixing the paste with a "meringue" type of foam previously prepared by whipping, under vigorous stirring, a water solution containing vegetal proteins as surfactants. In the third method, a combination of these two methods was employed. The foamed systems were consolidated for 24 hours at 40°C and then characterized by FTIR, X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and compression tests. Low density foams (˜500 Kg/m3) with good cellular structure and mechanical properties were obtained by combining the "meringue" approach with the use of the chemical blowing agent based on Si.

  18. Hybrid organic-inorganic heterojunction solar cells with 12% efficiency by utilizing flexible film-silicon with a hierarchical surface.

    PubMed

    Thiyagu, Subramani; Hsueh, Chen-Chih; Liu, Chien-Ting; Syu, Hong-Jhang; Lin, Tzu-Ching; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2014-03-21

    This paper reports an organic-inorganic hybrid solar cell with a hierarchical surface composed of high density silicon nanoholes and micro-desert textures. High-efficiency organic-inorganic hybrid solar cell Si/PEDOT-PSS with a hierarchical surface, showing a power conversion efficiency of 12%. The structure provides excellent light absorption over 97% for the spectral range of 300 to 1100 nm with a thickness of 60 μm due to internal multiple reflections caused by subwavelength features of high density silicon nanoholes and micro-desert textures. In addition, from the angle of incidence (AOI) observed, even at the large angle of 75°, the reflectance value still exhibits less than 1%. With the advantage of very thin silicon material and inexpensive processing, hybrid silicon/polymer solar cells are promising for various applications and thus could be an economically feasible alternative energy solution in the future.

  19. Hybrid organic-inorganic heterojunction solar cells with 12% efficiency by utilizing flexible film-silicon with a hierarchical surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiyagu, Subramani; Hsueh, Chen-Chih; Liu, Chien-Ting; Syu, Hong-Jhang; Lin, Tzu-Ching; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2014-02-01

    This paper reports an organic-inorganic hybrid solar cell with a hierarchical surface composed of high density silicon nanoholes and micro-desert textures. High-efficiency organic-inorganic hybrid solar cell Si/PEDOT-PSS with a hierarchical surface, showing a power conversion efficiency of 12%. The structure provides excellent light absorption over 97% for the spectral range of 300 to 1100 nm with a thickness of 60 μm due to internal multiple reflections caused by subwavelength features of high density silicon nanoholes and micro-desert textures. In addition, from the angle of incidence (AOI) observed, even at the large angle of 75°, the reflectance value still exhibits less than 1%. With the advantage of very thin silicon material and inexpensive processing, hybrid silicon/polymer solar cells are promising for various applications and thus could be an economically feasible alternative energy solution in the future.This paper reports an organic-inorganic hybrid solar cell with a hierarchical surface composed of high density silicon nanoholes and micro-desert textures. High-efficiency organic-inorganic hybrid solar cell Si/PEDOT-PSS with a hierarchical surface, showing a power conversion efficiency of 12%. The structure provides excellent light absorption over 97% for the spectral range of 300 to 1100 nm with a thickness of 60 μm due to internal multiple reflections caused by subwavelength features of high density silicon nanoholes and micro-desert textures. In addition, from the angle of incidence (AOI) observed, even at the large angle of 75°, the reflectance value still exhibits less than 1%. With the advantage of very thin silicon material and inexpensive processing, hybrid silicon/polymer solar cells are promising for various applications and thus could be an economically feasible alternative energy solution in the future. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr06323b

  20. Temperature and exposure dependence of hybrid organic-inorganic layer formation by sequential vapor infiltration into polymer fibers.

    PubMed

    Akyildiz, Halil I; Padbury, Richard P; Parsons, Gregory N; Jur, Jesse S

    2012-11-06

    The characteristic processing behavior for growth of a conformal nanoscale hybrid organic-inorganic modification to polyamide 6 (PA6) by sequential vapor infiltration (SVI) is demonstrated. The SVI process is a materials growth technique by which exposure of organometallic vapors to a polymeric material promotes the formation of a hybrid organic-inorganic modification at the near surface region of the polymer. This work investigates the SVI exposure temperature and cycling times of sequential exposures of trimethylaluminum (TMA) on PA6 fiber mats. The result of TMA exposure is the preferential subsurface organic-inorganic growth by diffusion into the polymer and reaction with the carbonyl in PA6. Mass gain, infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy analysis indicate enhanced materials growth and uniformity at lower processing temperatures. The inverse relationship between mass gain and exposure temperature is explained by the formation of a hybrid layer that prevents the diffusion of TMA into the polymer to react with the PA6 upon subsequent exposure cycles. As few as 10 SVI exposure cycles are observed to saturate the growth, yielding a modified thickness of ∼75 nm and mass increase of ∼14 wt %. Removal of the inherent PA6 moisture content reduces the mass gain by ∼4 wt % at low temperature exposures. The ability to understand the characteristic growth process is critical for the development of the hybrid materials fabrication and modification techniques.

  1. Structure/property relations of elastomeric hybrid organic-inorganic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Thomas Michael

    Hybrid organic-inorganic composites have been synthesized by the sol-gel processing of triethoxysilane end functionalized poly(tetramethylene oxide) and tetraethxoysilane. The resulting transparent materials are elastomeric gels crosslinked by an amorphous polysilicate phase. Elementary rubber-elasticity theory in conjunction with dynamic mechanical spectroscopy was applied to these seemingly nonideal networks to quantify the change in phase interaction induced by aging the benchmark acid catalyzed gels in a basic solution of 70% ethylamine in water. The change in the average molar mass between crosslinks explained the previously published mechanical and dynamic mechanical results. Furthermore, the application of this theory to these seemingly nonideal networks resulted in network parameters that were in excellent agreement with traditional equilibrium swelling estimates. The work was then extended by utilizing this ethylamine solution to catalyze the sol-gel reaction in-situ. The effect of this change in catalyst upon the oxygen diffisivity of the hybrids as a function of polysilicate loading was investigated using a luminescence based approach. While the diffusivity of the acid catalyzed gels decreased with increasing loading, the base catalyzed gels did not indicating that the polysilicate domains resulting from the base catalysis possess considerable porosity. However, the pores appear to be much too small for Knudsen diffusion, a commonly observed gas separation mechanism in porous ceramic membranes. To investigate the influence of polysilicate network polarity and spatial distribution, the sol-gel processing of the hybrids was adjusted to produce two classes of gels. One exhibited a more discrete polysilicate phase possessing greater network connectivity and reduced silanol content than the other. This was accomplished by using dimethylformamide in place of tetrahydrofuran as the organic solvent constituent of the sol. Poly(methacrylic acid

  2. Multicolor Emission from Poly(p-Phenylene)/Nanoporous ZnMnO Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Light-Emitting Diode.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sejoon; Lee, Youngmin; Kim, Deuk Young; Panin, Gennady N

    2016-12-28

    The voltage-tunable multicolor emission was realized in a poly(p-phenylene)/nanoporous ZnMnO organic-inorganic hybrid light-emitting diode. Red, green, and blue (RGB) colors sequentially appeared with increasing magnitude of the bias voltage (i.e., R → RG → RGB with V↑). At a higher voltage (>2.4 V), eventually, the device emitted the visible light with a mixture of colors including RGB. These unique features may move us a step closer to the application of organic-inorganic hybrid solid-state lighting devices for the full-color display and/or the electrical-to-optical data converter for multivalue electronic signal processes. In-depth analyses on electrical and optical properties are presented, and voltage-controllable multicolor-emission mechanisms are discussed.

  3. Improvement in open circuit voltage of MEHPPV-FeS2 nanoparticle based organic inorganic hybrid solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layek, Animesh; Middya, Somnath; Ray, Partha Pratim

    2013-02-01

    In this study we have synthesized high quality FeS2 nanoparticles by solvothermal route and was applied as semiconducting acceptor in MEHPPV:FeS2 nanoparticle based organic inorganic hybrid solar cells. The open circuit voltage improved from 0.64V to 0.72V of the device due to modification of band gap of donor material by introducing nanoparticles.

  4. Toward High-Performance Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cells: Bringing Conjugated Polymers and Inorganic Nanocrystals in Close Contact.

    PubMed

    He, Ming; Qiu, Feng; Lin, Zhiqun

    2013-06-06

    Organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells composed of conjugated polymers (CPs) and inorganic nanocrystal (NC) semiconductors have garnered considerable attention as a potential alternative to traditional silicon solar cells due to the capacity of producing high-efficiency solar energy in a cost-effective manner. The combination of advantageous characteristics of CPs and NCs enables the construction of nanostructured high-performance, lightweight, flexible, large-area, and low-cost hybrid solar cells. However, it remains a grand challenge to control the film morphology and interfacial structure of such organic/inorganic semiconductor blends on the nanoscale. In this Perspective, we highlight the strategies of implementing close contact between CPs and NCs by tailoring the colloidal synthesis, the coordination reaction, and the chemical modification of CPs. As such, they offer promising opportunities for rationally controlling the phase separation between electron-donating CPs and electron-accepting NCs, increasing the interfacial areas between them, enhancing their electronic interaction, and thus substantially promoting the photovoltaic performance of the resulting organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells.

  5. Effect of halide-mixing on the switching behaviors of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite memory

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Bohee; Gu, Chungwan; Lee, Donghwa; Lee, Jang-Sik

    2017-01-01

    Mixed halide perovskite materials are actively researched for solar cells with high efficiency. Their hysteresis which originates from the movement of defects make perovskite a candidate for resistive switching memory devices. We demonstrate the resistive switching device based on mixed-halide organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3−xBrx (x = 0, 1, 2, 3). Solvent engineering is used to deposit the homogeneous CH3NH3PbI3−xBrx layer on the indium-tin oxide-coated glass substrates. The memory device based on CH3NH3PbI3−xBrx exhibits write endurance and long retention, which indicate reproducible and reliable memory properties. According to the increase in Br contents in CH3NH3PbI3−xBrx the set electric field required to make the device from low resistance state to high resistance state decreases. This result is in accord with the theoretical calculation of migration barriers, that is the barrier to ionic migration in perovskites is found to be lower for Br− (0.23 eV) than for I− (0.29–0.30 eV). The resistive switching may be the result of halide vacancy defects and formation of conductive filaments under electric field in the mixed perovskite layer. It is observed that enhancement in operating voltage can be achieved by controlling the halide contents in the film. PMID:28272547

  6. Quantum-dot blue light emitting diodes utilizing organic/inorganic hybrid structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Feifei; Hu, Lian; Zhang, Bingpo; Li, Ruifeng; Wu, Huizhen

    2015-02-01

    We report blue color quantum-dot light-emitting diodes (QDLEDs) using an organic-inorganic hybrid structure and CdZnS-ZnS core-shell quantum-dot emitters. In the device organic ploy(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):ploy(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and NN‧-bis(3-methylphenyl)-NN‧-bis(phenyl)-99-spiro-bifluorene (TPD) thin films are respectively used as the hole-injection layer (HIL) and the hole-transporting layer (HTL), and an inorganic ZnSnO thin film is used as the electron-transporting layer (ETL). In the blue QDLEDs, the function of the TPD-HTL is explored and it is found that the device employing a TPD-HTL exhibits much better optical characteristics compared with that having an identical device layout but without the TPD-HTL. The TPD HTL acts as a transition layer and offers a ladder for the injected holes from PEDOT:PSS to the QDs, leading to an more efficient hole injection. It is further found that the intensity ratio between surface-state emission (SSE) and band-edge emission (BEE) (RS/B) of the two devices shows significant difference at high bias voltages. The SSE becomes more prominent at higher bias voltage in the QDLEDs due to the imbalance injection of holes and electrons. The injected holes firstly encounter the excessive electrons accumulated at the surface of the charged QDs, thus the probability of hole-electron recombination at the QDs surface is greatly enhanced at high bias voltages.

  7. Excited state and charge dynamics of hybrid organic/inorganic heterojunctions. II. Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Anurag; Renshaw, C. Kyle; Oskooi, Ardavan; Lee, Kyusang; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2014-07-01

    In our companion paper (Paper I) [C. K. Renshaw and S. R. Forrest, Phys. Rev. B 90, 045302 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.045302], we developed a model for charge transport and photogeneration at hybrid organic/inorganic semiconductor heterojunctions (OI-HJs). Here we apply the model to two planar bilayer hybrid photovoltaic devices: the first using the wide-band gap n-TiO2 in combination with the hole transporting tetraphenyl-dibenzoperiflanthene (DBP), and the second based on the moderate-band gap n-InP and the hole transporting pentacene (PEN). We measure the external quantum efficiency (EQE) and current density vs voltage (J-V) characteristics of both devices as functions of temperature. The EQE spectra for both TiO2/DBP and InP/PEN provide convincing evidence that Frenkel states generated in the organic form hybrid charge transfer excitons (HCTEs) at the OI-HJ that are subsequently dissociated into free charges, and then collected at the opposing electrodes. The dissociation efficiency is found to be strongly influenced by the presence of surface states, particularly in the InP/PEN device. We further develop the J-V model from Paper I to include an analytical expression for space-charge effects in the organic at high currents. Model fits to the J-V data suggest that the temperature-dependent hole mobilities in both DBP and PEN result in increasing space-charge effects at low temperatures. Furthermore, we find that the J-V characteristics of the TiO2/DBP device both in the dark and under illumination are governed by interface recombination. In contrast, the dark current in the InP/PEN device is governed by injection over the OI-HJ barrier, whereas the photocurrent is dominated by interface recombination. This work elucidates the role of the HCTE state in photogeneration, and the applicability of our model to a range of important optoelectronic devices.

  8. Supramolecular organization in organic-inorganic heterogeneous hybrid catalysts formed from polyoxometalate and poly(ampholyte) polymer.

    PubMed

    Raj, Gijo; Swalus, Colas; Guillet, Alain; Devillers, Michel; Nysten, Bernard; Gaigneaux, Eric M

    2013-04-02

    Hybridization of polyoxometalates (POMs) via the formation of an organic-inorganic association constitutes a new route to develop a heterogeneous POM catalyst with tunable functionality imparted through supramolecular assembly. Herein, we report on strategies to obtain tunable well-defined supramolecular architectures of an organic-inorganic heterogeneous hybrid catalyst formed by the association of a hydrophobically substituted polyampholyte copolymer (poly N, N-diallyl-N-hexylamine-alt-maleic acid) and phosphotungstic acid (H3PW12O40) POMs. The self-assembling property of the initial polyampholyte copolymer matrix is modulated by controlling the pH of the hybridization solution. When deposited on a mica surface, isolated, long and extended polymer chains are formed under basic conditions (pH 7.9), while globular or coiled structures are formed under acidic conditions (pH 2). The supramolecular assembly of the POM-polymer hybrid is found to be directed by the type and quantities of charges present on the polyampholyte copolymer, which themselves depend on the pH conditions. The hypothesis is that the Keggin type [PW12O40](3-) anions, which have a size of ~1 nm, electrostatically bind to the positive charge sites of the polymer backbone. The hybrid material stabilized at pH 5.3 consists of POM-decorated polymer chains. Statistical analysis of distances between pairs of POM entities show narrow density distributions, suggesting that POM entities are attached to the polymer chains with a high level of order. Conversely, under acidic conditions (pH 2), the hybrid shows the formation of a core-shell type of structure. The strategies reported here, to tune the supramolecular assembly of organic-inorganic hybrid materials, are highly valuable for the design and a more rational utilization of POM heterogeneous catalysts in several chemical transformations.

  9. Low-cost, high-efficiency organic/inorganic hetero-junction hybrid solar cells for next generation photovoltaic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudasaini, P. R.; Ayon, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Organic/inorganic hybrid structures are considered innovative alternatives for the next generation of low-cost photovoltaic devices because they combine advantages of the purely organic and inorganic versions. Here, we report an efficient hybrid solar cell based on sub-wavelength silicon nanotexturization in combination with the spin-coating of poly (3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS). The described devices were analyzed by collecting current-voltage and capacitance-voltage measurements in order to explore the organic/inorganic heterojunction properties. ALD deposited ultrathin aluminium oxide was used as a junction passivation layer between the nanotextured silicon surface and the organic polymer. The measured interface defect density of the device was observed to decrease with the inclusion of an ultrathin Al2O3 passivation layer leading to an improved electrical performance. This effect is thought to be ascribed to the suppression of charge recombination at the organic/inorganic interface. A maximum power conversion efficiency in excess of 10% has been achieved for the optimized geometry of the device, in spite of lacking an antireflection layer or back surface field enhancement schemes.

  10. Synthesis and electron microscopy of inorganic and hybrid organic-inorganic mesoporous and macroporous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanford, Christopher Francis

    This work describes the creation and analysis of ordered porous inorganic and organic-inorganic hybrid materials with an emphasis on the qualitative and quantitative characterization by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Two major systems were studied: MCM-41-type mesoporous molecular sieves and three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) materials. The microanalysis of mesoporous samples is discussed first. Samples of unmodified siliceous MCM-41, MCM-41 with grafted titanium dioxide species, and MCM-41 with incorporated 3-mercaptopropyl groups were examined in the TEM at three accelerating voltages. The beam stability of all the samples increased with increasing accelerating voltage. The particles were significantly more resistant to beam damage with the surfactant template in place, when the samples were synthesized above room temperature, and when the silicate precursor was hydrolyzed in acid. The samples with organic and inorganic groups were more stable than siliceous analogs. The discussion of 3DOM materials begins with their synthesis and characterization: 3DOM materials were created from colloidal crystals of uniform, sub-micrometer diameter polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate) spheres. Metal alkoxides, solutions of metal salts, and mixed salt-alkoxide precursors were employed to create 3DOM metal oxides, silicates with incorporated organic groups and polyoxometalate clusters, metals, and metal alloys. SEM and TEM were used extensively to characterize the morphology, crystallinity, grain size, and phase of the 3DOM products. The formation of 3DOM nickel oxide was studied by heating a nickel oxalate-colloidal crystal composite in an environmental SEM. The growth of the grains in 3DOM cobalt metal and 3DOM iron oxide were observed by high-temperature TEM. The arrangement of the pores in 3DOM materials was studied by analyzing diffractograms of TEM images of single particles tilted into different orientations

  11. Understanding the Slow Transient Optoelectronic Response of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Daniel Louis

    Hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskites, particularly methylammonium lead triiodide (MAPbI3), have emerged within the past decade as an exciting class of photovoltaic materials. In less than ten years, MAPbI3-based photovoltaic devices have seen unprecedented performance growth, with photoconversion efficiency increasing from 3% to over 22%, making it competitive with traditional high-efficiency solar cells. Furthermore, the fabrication of MAPbI3 devices utilize low-temperature solution processing, which could facilitate ultra low cost manufacturing. However, MAPbI3 suffers from significant instabilities under working conditions that have limited their applications outside of the laboratory. The instability of the MAPbI3 material can be generalized as a complex, slow transient optoelectronic response (STOR). The mechanism of the generalized STOR is dependent on the native defects of MAPbI3, but detailed understanding of the material defect properties is complicated by the complex ionic bonding of MAPbI3. Furthermore, characterization of the intrinsic material's response is complicated by the diverse approach to material processing and device architecture across laboratories around the world. In order to understand and mitigate the significant problems of MAPbI3 devices, a new approach focused on the material response, rather than the full device response, must be pursued. This dissertation highlights the work to analyze and mitigate the STOR intrinsic to MAPbI3. An experimental platform was developed based on lateral interdigitated electrode (IDE) arrays capable of monitoring the current and photoluminescence response simultaneously. By correlating the dynamics of the current and photoluminescence (PL) responses, both charge trapping and ion migration mechanisms were identified to contribute to the STOR. Next, a novel fabrication technique is introduced that is capable of reliably depositing MAPbI3 thin films with grain sizes at least an order of magnitude

  12. Organic-inorganic hybrid superhydrophobic surfaces using methyltriethoxysilane and tetraethoxysilane sol-gel derived materials in emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xiu-Fang; Wang, Kun; Pi, Pi-Hui; Yang, Jin-Xin; Cai, Zhi-Qi; Zhang, Li-juan; Qian, Yu; Yang, Zhuo-Ru; Zheng, Da-feng; Cheng, Jiang

    2011-11-01

    By applying alkaline-catalyzed co-hydrolysis and copolycondensation reactions of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and methyltriethoxysilane (MTES) in organic siloxane modified polyacrylate emulsion (OSPA emulsion), we are able to demonstrate the potential for developing a sol-gel derived organic-inorganic hybrid emulsion for a superhydrophobic surface research. TEOS and MTES derived sol-gel moieties can be designed for a physical roughness and hydrophobic characteristic (Si-CH3) of the hybrid superhydrophobic surface, while OSPA emulsion can be endowed for good film-forming property. The effect of formulation parameters on superhydrophobicity and film-forming property was analyzed. The water contact angle (WCA) on the sol-gel derived hybrid film is determined to be 156°, and the contact angle hysteresis is 5° by keeping the mole ratio of TEOS:MTES:C2H5OH:NH3·H2O:AMP-95 at 1:4:30:10:0.63 and the mass percentage of OSPA emulsion at 25%. The nanoparticle-based silica rough surface is observed as the mole ratio of MTES/TEOS at 4:1. The sol-gel derived organic-inorganic hybrid emulsion shows remarkable film-forming property when the mole ratio of MTES/TEOS reaches or exceeds 4:1. With the primer coating, the performance of superhydrophobic film achieve actual use standard. It reveals that this new procedure is an effective shortcut to obtain a superhydrophobic surface with potential applications.

  13. A stable organic-inorganic hybrid layer protected lithium metal anode for long-cycle lithium-oxygen batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jinhui; Yang, Jun; Zhou, Jingjing; Zhang, Tao; Li, Lei; Wang, Jiulin; Nuli, Yanna

    2017-10-01

    A stable organic-inorganic hybrid layer (OIHL) is direct fabricated on lithium metal surface by the interfacial reaction of lithium metal foil with 1-chlorodecane and oxygen/carbon dioxide mixed gas. This favorable OIHL is approximately 30 μm thick and consists of lithium alkyl carbonate and lithium chloride. The lithium-oxygen batteries with OIHL protected lithium metal anode exhibit longer cycle life (340 cycles) than those with bare lithium metal anode (50 cycles). This desirable performance can be ascribed to the robust OIHL which prevents the growth of lithium dendrites and the corrosion of lithium metal.

  14. Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Polymers as Adsorbents for Removal of Heavy Metal Ions from Solutions: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Samiey, Babak; Cheng, Chil-Hung; Wu, Jiangning

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decades, organic-inorganic hybrid polymers have been applied in different fields, including the adsorption of pollutants from wastewater and solid-state separations. In this review, firstly, these compounds are classified. These compounds are prepared by sol-gel method, self-assembly process (mesopores), assembling of nanobuilding blocks (e.g., layered or core-shell compounds) and as interpenetrating networks and hierarchically structures. Lastly, the adsorption characteristics of heavy metals of these materials, including different kinds of functional groups, selectivity of them for heavy metals, effect of pH and synthesis conditions on adsorption capacity, are studied. PMID:28788483

  15. Research Update: Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIP) thin films and solar cells by vapor phase reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Po-Shen; Chiang, Yu-Hsien; Li, Ming-Hsien; Guo, Tzung-Fang; Chen, Peter

    2016-09-01

    With the rapid progress in deposition techniques for hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIP) thin films, this new class of photovoltaic (PV) technology has achieved material quality and power conversion efficiency comparable to those established technologies. Among the various techniques for HOIP thin films preparation, vapor based deposition technique is considered as a promising alternative process to substitute solution spin-coating method for large-area or scale-up preparation. This technique provides some unique benefits for high-quality perovskite crystallization, which are discussed in this research update.

  16. Quantum confinement of zero-dimensional hybrid organic-inorganic polaritons at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, H. S.; Lafosse, X.; Amo, A.; Bouchoule, S.; Bloch, J.; Abdel-Baki, K.; Lauret, J.-S.; Deleporte, E.

    2014-02-24

    We report on the quantum confinement of zero-dimensional polaritons in perovskite-based microcavity at room temperature. Photoluminescence of discrete polaritonic states is observed for polaritons localized in symmetric sphere-like defects which are spontaneously nucleated on the top dielectric Bragg mirror. The linewidth of these confined states is found much sharper (almost one order of magnitude) than that of photonic modes in the perovskite planar microcavity. Our results show the possibility to study organic-inorganic cavity polaritons in confined microstructure and suggest a fabrication method to realize integrated polaritonic devices operating at room temperature.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of silicon-based polymers for use as organic/inorganic hybrids and silicon carbide precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellinger, Alan

    Organic/inorganic hybrids from silsesquioxanes. This Dissertation describes the synthesis and characterization of methacrylate, epoxy and liquid crystalline (LC)-containing organic/inorganic hybrid materials based on silsesquioxanes. While the methacrylate and epoxy groups provide polymerizable moieties to the hybrids, the LC component is anticipated to provide toughness, and oxidative stability as well as minimize shrinkage during curing. The inorganic silsesquioxane portion, ((RSiOsb{1.5})sb8, cubes), which closely resembles specific crystalline forms of silica and zeolites, may be covalently linked to a variety of organic functional groups. As a result, single-phase organic/inorganic hybrids are formed that when polymerized mimic silica-reinforced composites. The resultant hybrids are liquids at room temperature, and hence allow for single-phase composite processing, ideal for abrasion-resistant coatings and filling molds, as in dental restorative applications. The reactions are based on inexpensive starting materials, have high yields (>80%), and form soluble products containing up to 65% masked silica. The hybrids were characterized using NMR spectroscopy (sp1H,\\ sp{13}C,\\ sp{29}Si), FTIR, size exclusion chromatography (SEC), and thermal analysis (TGA, DSC). A modified polymethylsilane as a precursor of silicon carbide. It is generally known that polymer precursor routes to silicon carbide (SiC) are very important in the processing of SiC fibers and high performance SiC parts with specific shapes. It is further known that commercial SiC precursor polymers are often not resistant to oxidation, and are based on monomers rich in carbon. As a result of this, their pyrolysis yields SiC rich in oxygen and carbon, a feature which drastically reduces the final materials' ultimate properties (high temperature resistance, tensile strength, modulus). To remedy this, we describe in this work the synthesis and characterization of a modified polymethylsilane (mPMS) which

  18. Soft templating strategies for the synthesis of mesoporous materials: inorganic, organic-inorganic hybrid and purely organic solids.

    PubMed

    Pal, Nabanita; Bhaumik, Asim

    2013-03-01

    With the discovery of MCM-41 by Mobil researchers in 1992 the journey of the research on mesoporous materials started and in the 21st century this area of scientific investigation have extended into numerous branches, many of which contribute significantly in emerging areas like catalysis, energy, environment and biomedical research. As a consequence thousands of publications came out in large varieties of national and international journals. In this review, we have tried to summarize the published works on various synthetic pathways and formation mechanisms of different mesoporous materials viz. inorganic, organic-inorganic hybrid and purely organic solids via soft templating pathways. Generation of nanoscale porosity in a solid material usually requires participation of organic template (more specifically surfactants and their supramolecular assemblies) called structure-directing agent (SDA) in the bottom-up chemical reaction process. Different techniques employed for the syntheses of inorganic mesoporous solids, like silicas, metal doped silicas, transition and non-transition metal oxides, mixed oxides, metallophosphates, organic-inorganic hybrids as well as purely organic mesoporous materials like carbons, polymers etc. using surfactants are depicted schematically and elaborately in this paper. Moreover, some of the frontline applications of these mesoporous solids, which are directly related to their functionality, composition and surface properties are discussed at the appropriate places. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Quasiparticle band gap of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites: Crystal structure, spin-orbit coupling, and self-energy effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Weiwei; Gao, Xiang; Abtew, Tesfaye A.; Sun, Yi-Yang; Zhang, Shengbai; Zhang, Peihong

    2016-02-01

    The quasiparticle band gap is one of the most important materials properties for photovoltaic applications. Often the band gap of a photovoltaic material is determined (and can be controlled) by various factors, complicating predictive materials optimization. An in-depth understanding of how these factors affect the size of the gap will provide valuable guidance for new materials discovery. Here we report a comprehensive investigation on the band gap formation mechanism in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites by decoupling various contributing factors which ultimately determine their electronic structure and quasiparticle band gap. Major factors, namely, quasiparticle self-energy, spin-orbit coupling, and structural distortions due to the presence of organic molecules, and their influences on the quasiparticle band structure of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites are illustrated. We find that although methylammonium cations do not contribute directly to the electronic states near band edges, they play an important role in defining the band gap by introducing structural distortions and controlling the overall lattice constants. The spin-orbit coupling effects drastically reduce the electron and hole effective masses in these systems, which is beneficial for high carrier mobilities and small exciton binding energies.

  20. Fabrication of a new type of organic-inorganic hybrid superlattice films combined with titanium oxide and polydiacetylene

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We fabricated a new organic-inorganic hybrid superlattice film using molecular layer deposition [MLD] combined with atomic layer deposition [ALD]. In the molecular layer deposition process, polydiacetylene [PDA] layers were grown by repeated sequential adsorption of titanium tetrachloride and 2,4-hexadiyne-1,6-diol with ultraviolet polymerization under a substrate temperature of 100°C. Titanium oxide [TiO2] inorganic layers were deposited at the same temperatures with alternating surface-saturating reactions of titanium tetrachloride and water. Ellipsometry analysis showed a self-limiting surface reaction process and linear growth of the nanohybrid films. The transmission electron microscopy analysis of the titanium oxide cross-linked polydiacetylene [TiOPDA]-TiO2 thin films confirmed the MLD growth rate and showed that the films are amorphous superlattices. Composition and polymerization of the films were confirmed by infrared spectroscopy. The TiOPDA-TiO2 nanohybrid superlattice films exhibited good thermal and mechanical stabilities. PACS: 81.07.Pr, organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures; 82.35.-x, polymerization; 81.15.-z, film deposition; 81.15.Gh, chemical vapor deposition (including plasma enhanced CVD, MOCVD, ALD, etc.). PMID:22221520

  1. Fabrication of a new type of organic-inorganic hybrid superlattice films combined with titanium oxide and polydiacetylene.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Kwan-Hyuck; Han, Kyu-Seok; Sung, Myung-Mo

    2012-01-05

    We fabricated a new organic-inorganic hybrid superlattice film using molecular layer deposition [MLD] combined with atomic layer deposition [ALD]. In the molecular layer deposition process, polydiacetylene [PDA] layers were grown by repeated sequential adsorption of titanium tetrachloride and 2,4-hexadiyne-1,6-diol with ultraviolet polymerization under a substrate temperature of 100°C. Titanium oxide [TiO2] inorganic layers were deposited at the same temperatures with alternating surface-saturating reactions of titanium tetrachloride and water. Ellipsometry analysis showed a self-limiting surface reaction process and linear growth of the nanohybrid films. The transmission electron microscopy analysis of the titanium oxide cross-linked polydiacetylene [TiOPDA]-TiO2 thin films confirmed the MLD growth rate and showed that the films are amorphous superlattices. Composition and polymerization of the films were confirmed by infrared spectroscopy. The TiOPDA-TiO2 nanohybrid superlattice films exhibited good thermal and mechanical stabilities.PACS: 81.07.Pr, organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures; 82.35.-x, polymerization; 81.15.-z, film deposition; 81.15.Gh, chemical vapor deposition (including plasma enhanced CVD, MOCVD, ALD, etc.).

  2. Rheological Behavior of a Novel Organic-Inorganic Hybrid: Micro/Nano-Tin Fluorophosphate Glass-Polycarbonate.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Liu, Huiwen; Yu, Honglin; Zou, Xiaoxuan; Jing, Bo; Dai, Wenli

    2016-03-01

    The rheological behavior of a novel, binary organic-inorganic hybrid consisting of an ultra-low Tg tin fluorophosphate glass (Pglass) and polycarbonate (PC) was investigated using oscillatory rheometry. It was found that the complex viscosity of the hybrid showed Pglass content dependence. Under low Pglass content (10-30%), the complex viscosity of the hybrid was lower than that of pure PC. While the complex viscosity was dramatically increased and higher than that of pure PC with the content of Pglass above 30%. This phenomenon was particularly remarkable at low frequencies. Besides, with the addition of Pglass the hybrid material exhibited shear-thinning behavior and the shear-thinning characteristics became more obvious with the enhancement of the Pglass content, indicating the presence of nonlinear chemical and physical interactions between the hybrid components. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements revealed that increasing the content of Pglass caused a decrease of the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the hybrids, suggesting that Pglass was acting as a macromolecular plasticizer for the PC. The microstructure of the Pglass in the hybrid material was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the Pglass were dispersed as micro- and nano-bead in the continuous phase of PC and the Pglass appeared aggregation partly with the increase of the Pglass content. This contribution was anticipated to be a guideline for the processing of this promising new class of hybrid materials.

  3. Multifunctional properties of organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposites based on chitosan derivatives and layered double hydroxides for ocular drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tingting; Zhang, Jie; Chi, Huibo; Cao, Feng

    2016-05-01

    To improve the ocular bioavailability of the model drug of pirenoxine sodium (PRN), organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposites including layered double hydroxides (LDH) and chitosan derivatives (chitosan-glutathione (CG), chitosan-glutathione-valine (CG-V) and chitosan-glutathione-valine-valine (CG-VV)) were designed and characterized. In vivo precorneal retention study on rabbits showed that mean residence time (MRT) and area under the curve (AUC0-6h) of CG-PRN-LDH nanocomposite eye drop was up to 2.1-fold and 6.3-fold higher than those of commercial product, respectively. In vitro corneal penetration on rabbits demonstrated that the cumulative permeation of CG-VV-PRN-LDH nanocomposite dispersion was increased by 5.2 folds compared to that of commercial product, which may be due to the active transport effect of the nanocomposites by peptide transporter-1 (PepT-1). In addition, the ex vivo fluorescence imaging showed that fluorescent intensity of crystalline lens in rabbits was increased after the administration of PRN-LDH, CG-PRN-LDH, CG-V-PRN-LDH and CG-VV-PRN-LDH (in increasing order) nanocomposite eye drop. Finally, in vivo distribution evaluation in ocular tissues of rabbits revealed that AUC0-8h and MRT in crystalline lens exhibited 14.7-fold and 2.2-fold increase in CG-VV-PRN-LDH nanocomposite eye drop group than those of commercial group, respectively. In summary, the organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposites with multifunctional properties may be a promising ocular drug delivery system to achieve prolonged precorneal retention, better corneal permeability and enhanced ocular bioavailability. Due to several structural and physiological intraocular barriers, drug delivery to the ocular mid-posterior segments still faces great challenges. In this manuscript, organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposites based on chitosan derivatives and layered double hydroxides (LDH) were designed and constructed. Multifunctional properties of these hybrid nanocomposites were due to

  4. Giant barocaloric effect in the ferroic organic-inorganic hybrid [TPrA][Mn(dca)3] perovskite under easily accessible pressures.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez-García, Juan M; Sánchez-Andújar, Manuel; Castro-García, Socorro; López-Beceiro, Jorge; Artiaga, Ramón; Señarís-Rodríguez, María A

    2017-06-01

    The fast growing family of organic-inorganic hybrid compounds has recently been attracting increased attention owing to the remarkable functional properties (magnetic, multiferroic, optoelectronic, photovoltaic) displayed by some of its members. Here we show that these compounds can also have great potential in the until now unexplored field of solid-state cooling by presenting giant barocaloric effects near room temperature already under easily accessible pressures in the hybrid perovskite [TPrA][Mn(dca)3] (TPrA: tetrapropylammonium, dca: dicyanamide). Moreover, we propose that this will not be an isolated example for such an extraordinary behaviour as many other organic-inorganic hybrids (metal-organic frameworks and coordination polymers) exhibit the basic ingredients to display large caloric effects which can be very sensitive to pressure and other external stimuli. These findings open up new horizons and great opportunities for both organic-inorganic hybrids and for solid-state cooling technologies.

  5. Giant barocaloric effect in the ferroic organic-inorganic hybrid [TPrA][Mn(dca)3] perovskite under easily accessible pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermúdez-García, Juan M.; Sánchez-Andújar, Manuel; Castro-García, Socorro; López-Beceiro, Jorge; Artiaga, Ramón; Señarís-Rodríguez, María A.

    2017-06-01

    The fast growing family of organic-inorganic hybrid compounds has recently been attracting increased attention owing to the remarkable functional properties (magnetic, multiferroic, optoelectronic, photovoltaic) displayed by some of its members. Here we show that these compounds can also have great potential in the until now unexplored field of solid-state cooling by presenting giant barocaloric effects near room temperature already under easily accessible pressures in the hybrid perovskite [TPrA][Mn(dca)3] (TPrA: tetrapropylammonium, dca: dicyanamide). Moreover, we propose that this will not be an isolated example for such an extraordinary behaviour as many other organic-inorganic hybrids (metal-organic frameworks and coordination polymers) exhibit the basic ingredients to display large caloric effects which can be very sensitive to pressure and other external stimuli. These findings open up new horizons and great opportunities for both organic-inorganic hybrids and for solid-state cooling technologies.

  6. Antibacterial activity of plastics coated with silver-doped organic-inorganic hybrid coatings prepared by sol-gel processes.

    PubMed

    Marini, M; De Niederhausern, S; Iseppi, R; Bondi, M; Sabia, C; Toselli, M; Pilati, F

    2007-04-01

    Silver-doped organic-inorganic hybrid coatings were prepared starting from tetraethoxysilane- and triethoxysilane-terminated poly(ethylene glycol)-block-polyethylene by the sol-gel process. They were applied as a thin layer (0.6-1.1 microm) to polyethylene (PE) and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) films and the antibacterial activity of the coated films was tested against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538) bacteria. The effect of several factors (such as organic-inorganic ratio, type of catalyst, time of post-curing, silver ion concentration, etc.) was investigated. Measurements at different contact times showed a rapid decrease of the viable count for both tested strains. The highest antibacterial activity [more than 6 log reduction within 6 h starting from 106 colony-forming units (cfu) mL-1] was obtained for samples with an organic-inorganic weight ratio of 80:20 and 5 wt % silver salt with respect to the coating. For the coatings prepared by an acid-catalyzed process, a high level of permanence of the antibacterial activity of the coated films was demonstrated by repeatedly washing the samples in warm water or by immersion in physiological saline solution at 37 degrees C for 3 days. The release of silver ions per square meter of coating is very similar to that previously observed for polyamides filled with metallic silver nanoparticles; however, when compared on the basis of Ag content, the concentration of silver ions released from the coating is much higher than that released from 1 mm thick specimens of polyamide (PA) filled with silver nanoparticles. Transparency and good adhesion of the coating to PE and PVC plastic substrates without any previous surface treatment are further interesting features.

  7. Organic/inorganic hybrid filters based on dendritic and cyclodextrin "nanosponges" for the removal of organic pollutants from water.

    PubMed

    Arkas, Michael; Allabashi, Roza; Tsiourvas, Dimitris; Mattausch, Eva-Maria; Perfler, Reinhard

    2006-04-15

    Long-alkyl chain functionalized poly(propylene imine) dendrimer, poly(ethylene imine) hyperbranched polymer, and beta-cyclodextrin derivatives, which are completely insoluble in water, have the property of encapsulating organic pollutants from water. Ceramic porous filters can be impregnated with these compounds resulting in hybrid organic/ inorganic filter modules. These hybrid filter modules were tested for the effective purification of water, by continuous filtration experiments, employing a variety of water pollutants. It has been established that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be removed very efficiently (more than 95%), and final concentrations of several ppb (microg/ L) are easily obtained. Representatives of the pollutant group of trihalogen methanes (THMs), monoaromatic hydrocarbons (BTX), and pesticides (simazine) can also be removed (>80%), although the filters are saturated considerably faster in these cases.

  8. Ti/Au Cathode for Electronic transport material-free organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Tongfei; Chen, Jian; Zheng, Jianqiang; Li, Xinhua; Zhou, Bukang; Cao, Huaxiang; Wang, Yuqi

    2016-01-01

    We have fabricated organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cell that uses a Ti/Au multilayer as cathode and does not use electron transport materials, and achieved the highest power conversion efficiency close to 13% with high reproducibility and hysteresis-free photocurrent curves. Our cell has a Schottky planar heterojunction structure (ITO/PEDOT:PSS/perovskite/Ti/Au), in which the Ti insertion layer isolate the perovskite and Au layers, thus proving good contact between the Au and perovskite and increasing the cells’ shunt resistance greatly. Moreover, the Ti/Au cathode in direct contact with hybrid perovskite showed no reaction for a long-term exposure to the air, and can provide sufficient protection and avoid the perovskite and PEDOT:PSS layers contact with moisture. Hence, the Ti/Au based devices retain about 70% of their original efficiency after 300 h storage in the ambient environment. PMID:27995951

  9. Ti/Au Cathode for Electronic transport material-free organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Tongfei; Chen, Jian; Zheng, Jianqiang; Li, Xinhua; Zhou, Bukang; Cao, Huaxiang; Wang, Yuqi

    2016-12-01

    We have fabricated organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cell that uses a Ti/Au multilayer as cathode and does not use electron transport materials, and achieved the highest power conversion efficiency close to 13% with high reproducibility and hysteresis-free photocurrent curves. Our cell has a Schottky planar heterojunction structure (ITO/PEDOT:PSS/perovskite/Ti/Au), in which the Ti insertion layer isolate the perovskite and Au layers, thus proving good contact between the Au and perovskite and increasing the cells’ shunt resistance greatly. Moreover, the Ti/Au cathode in direct contact with hybrid perovskite showed no reaction for a long-term exposure to the air, and can provide sufficient protection and avoid the perovskite and PEDOT:PSS layers contact with moisture. Hence, the Ti/Au based devices retain about 70% of their original efficiency after 300 h storage in the ambient environment.

  10. Photo-triggered molecular release based on auto-degradable polymer-containing organic-inorganic hybrids.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kazuo; Ohashi, Wataru; Chujo, Yoshiki

    2014-07-01

    The photo-triggered molecular release from the organic-inorganic polymer hybrids is presented in this manuscript. Initially, the preparation of the auto-degradable polymer is explained with the photo-cleavable group at the end of the polymer main-chain. The silica-based dye-loaded hybrids containing these polymers were fabricated. It was found that by UV irradiation, the end capping was removed, and then the auto-degradation occurs through the polymer main-chain. Finally, the molecular release of the loaded dyes was accomplished in various media by the UV irradiation. In particular, it was shown that both of hydrophobic and hydrophilic dyes can be applied in this system.

  11. General Deposition of Metal-Organic Frameworks on Highly Adaptive Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Electrospun Fibrous Substrates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Wu, Yi-Nan; Morlay, Catherine; Gu, Yifan; Gebremariam, Binyam; Yuan, Xiao; Li, Fengting

    2016-02-03

    Electrospun nanofibrous mats are ideal substrates for metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) crystal deposition because of their specific structural parameters and chemical tenability. In this work, we utilized organic-inorganic hybrid electrospun fibrous mats as support material to study the deposition of various MOF particles. HKUST-1 and MIL-53(Al) were produced through solvothermal method, while ZIF-8 and MIL-88B(Fe) were prepared using microwave-induced heating method. The synthesis procedure for both methods were simple and effective because the hybrid nanofibrous mats showed considerable affinity to MOF particles and could be used without additional modifications. The obtained MOF composites exhibited effective incorporation between MOF particles and the porous substrates. MIL-53(Al) composite was applied as fibrous sorbent and showed enhanced adsorption capacity and removal rate, as well as easier operation, compared with thepowdered sample. Moreover, MIL-53(Al) composite was easier to be regenerated compared with powder form.

  12. Regulation of responsiveness of phosphorescence toward dissolved oxygen concentration by modulating polymer contents in organic-inorganic hybrid materials.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kazuo; Chujo, Yoshiki

    2014-06-15

    Platinum(II) octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP)-loaded organic-inorganic hybrids were obtained via the microwave-assisted sol-gel condensation with methyltrimethoxysilane and poly(vinylpyrrolidone). From transparent and homogeneous hybrid films, the strong phosphorescence from PtOEP was observed. Next, the resulting hybrids were immersed in the aqueous buffer, and the emission intensity was monitored by changing the dissolved oxygen level in the buffer. When the hybrid with relatively-higher amount of the silica element, the strong phosphorescence was observed even under the aerobic conditions. In contrast, the emission from the hybrids with lower amounts of the silica element was quenched under the hypoxic conditions. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first example to demonstrate that the responsiveness of the phosphorescence intensity of PtOEP in hybrid films to the dissolved oxygen concentration in water can be modulated by changing the percentage of the contents in the material. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Self-powered pH sensor based on a flexible organic-inorganic hybrid composite nanogenerator.

    PubMed

    Saravanakumar, Balasubramaniam; Soyoon, Shin; Kim, Sang-Jae

    2014-08-27

    In this study, we developed an innovative, flexible, organic-inorganic hybrid composite nanogenerator, which was used to drive a self-powered microwire-based pH sensor. The hybrid composite nanogenerator was fabricated using ZnO nanowire and piezoelectric polymer poly(vinylidene fluoride), through a simple, inexpensive solution-casting technique. The fabricated hybrid composite nanogenerator delivered a maximum open-circuit voltage of 6.9 V and a short-circuit current of 0.96 μA, with an output power of 6.624 μW under uniaxial compression. This high-performance, electric poling free composite nanogenerator opens up the possibility of industrial-scale fabrication. The hybrid nanogenerator demonstrated its ability to drive five green LEDs simultaneously, without using an energy-storage device. Additionally, we constructed a self-powered pH sensor, using a ZnO microwire powered with our hybrid nanogenerator. The output voltage varied according to changes in the pH level. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using a hybrid nanogenerator as a self-powered device that can be extended for use as a biosensor for environmental monitoring and/or as a smart, wearable, vibration sensor in future applications.

  14. Resonant Infrared Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation Of Inorganic Nanoparticles And Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Pate, Ryan; Lantz, Kevin R.; Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D.; Dhawan, Anuj; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2010-10-08

    In this research, resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) has been used to deposit different classes of inorganic nanoparticles, including bare, un-encapsulated ZnO and Au nanoparticles, as well as ligand-encapsulated CdSe colloidal quantum dots (CQDs). RIR-MAPLE has been used for thin-film deposition of different organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposites using some of these inorganic nanoparticles, including CdSe CQD-poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy )-1,4-(1-cyanovinylene)phenylene](MEH-CN-PPV) nanocomposites and Au nanoparticle-poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) nanocomposites. The unique contribution of this research is that a technique is demonstrated for the deposition of organic-based thin-films requiring solvents with bond energies that do not have to be resonant with the laser energy. By creating an emulsion of solvent and ice in the target, RIR-MAPLE using a 2.94 {mu}m laser can deposit most material systems because the hydroxyl bonds in the ice component of the emulsion matrix are strongly resonant with the 2.94 {mu}m laser. In this way, the types of materials that can be deposited using RIR-MAPLE has been significantly expanded. Furthermore, materials with different solvent bond energies can be co-deposited without concern for material degradation and without the need to specifically tune the laser energy to each material solvent bond energy, thereby facilitating the realization of organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposite thin-films. In addition to the structural characterization of the inorganic nanoparticle and hybrid nanocomposite thin-films deposited using this RIR-MAPLE technique, optical characterization is presented to demonstrate the potential of such films for optoelectronic device applications.

  15. [Preparation of organic-inorganic hybrid boronate affinity monolith via thiol-ene click reaction for specific capture of glycoproteins].

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Mao, Jie; He, Xiwen; Chen, Langxing; Zhang, Yukui

    2013-06-01

    A novel strategy for the preparation of the organic-inorganic hybrid boronate affinity monolith was developed via the "thiol-ene" click reaction. A thiol group-modified silica monolith was first synthesized via the sol-gel process by the in situ co-condensation with tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) and 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) as precursors. Then 3-acrylamidophenylboronic acid (AAPBA) was covalently immobilized on the hybrid monolith via the "thiol-ene" click reaction to form AAPBA-silica hybrid affinity monolith. The reaction conditions for the preparation of AAPBA-silica hybrid affinity monolith were optimized, including the ratio of TMOS to MPTMS, the contents of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and methanol. The morphology and mechanical stability of the boronate affinity monolith were characterized and evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The obtained boronate affinity hybrid monolith exhibited excellent specificity toward the nucleosides containing cis-diols under neutral conditions. It was further applied to the specific capture of the glycoproteins ovalbumin and horseradish peroxidase. The method is novel and reliable, which has a great potential for the preparation of different kinds of the boronate affinity monoliths.

  16. Organic-inorganic hybrid polyionic liquid based polyoxometalate as nano porous material for selective oxidation of sulfides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafiee, Ezzat; Shahebrahimi, Shabnam

    2017-07-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid nano porous materials based on poly(ionic liquid)-polyoxometalate (PIL-POM) were reported. These hybrid materials were synthesized by the reaction of 4-vinyl pyridine with 1,3-propanesultone, followed by the polymerization and also sulfonate-functionalized cross-linked poly(4-vinylpyridine) and combining these polymers with H5PMo10V2O40 (PMo10V2). Activity of prepared PIL-PMo10V2 hybrids were investigated as catalysts for oxidation of sulfides with H2O2 as oxidant. For understanding catalytic activities of the PIL-PMo10V2 hybrids in oxidation of sulfides, effect of catalyst composition, substrate, and reaction conditions were studied. The results show that the PIL-PMo10V2 hybrids are active as selective heterogeneous catalysts for oxidation of sulfides and can be recovered and reused. The catalyst was characterized by FT-IR, TGA-DSC, XRD, SEM/EDX, BET, CV and zeta potential measurement. Also, average molecular weight of prepared catalysts were measured.

  17. Ultrathin Two-Dimensional Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Nanosheets with Bright, Tunable Photoluminescence and High Stability.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuang; Niu, Wenxin; Wang, An-Liang; Fan, Zhanxi; Chen, Bo; Tan, Chaoliang; Lu, Qipeng; Zhang, Hua

    2017-03-15

    Two-dimensional (2D) organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite nanosheets (NSs) are attracting increasing research interest due to their unique properties and promising applications. Here, for the first time, we report the facile synthesis of single- and few-layer free-standing phenylethylammonium lead halide perovskite NSs, that is, (PEA)2 PbX4 (PEA=C8 H9 NH3 , X=Cl, Br, I). Importantly, their lateral size can be tuned by changing solvents. Moreover, these ultrathin 2D perovskite NSs exhibit highly efficient and tunable photoluminescence, as well as superior stability. Our study provides a simple and general method for the controlled synthesis of 2D perovskite NSs, which may offer a new avenue for their fundamental studies and optoelectronic applications.

  18. Photosensitized reduction of water to hydrogen using novel Maya blue-like organic-inorganic hybrid material.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojie; Jin, Zhiliang; Li, Yuexiang; Li, Shuben; Lu, Gongxuan

    2009-05-01

    On the basis of the understanding that membranes play an important role in the separation of the intermediate photoproducts in the photosynthetic process, a novel efficient hydrogen evolution system was constructed with Maya blue-like organic-inorganic hybrid material as a photocatalyst, in which palygorskite acts as matrix and Eosin Y as a photosensitizer. Under visible light irradiation (lambda > or = 420 nm), the highest rate of hydrogen evolution and apparent quantum yield are about 3247.2 micromol h(-1) (g Eosin Y)(-1) and 12.5%, respectively. Negatively charged palygorskite particles could control the photosensitized electron-transfer reaction by means of electrostatic interaction. Based on the activities of hydrogen generation and the experimental measurements of UV-vis absorbance and fluorescence, a probable mechanism for photosensitized hydrogen evolution was postulated.

  19. Efficient conversion of furfuryl alcohol into alkyl levulinates catalyzed by an organic-inorganic hybrid solid acid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zehui; Dong, Kun; Zhao, Zongbao Kent

    2011-01-17

    A clean, facile, and environment-friendly catalytic method has been developed for the conversion of furfuryl alcohol into alkyl levulinates making use of the novel solid catalyst methylimidazolebutylsulfate phosphotungstate ([MIMBS]₃PW₁₂O₄₀). The solid catalyst is an organic-inorganic hybrid material, which consists of an organic cation and an inorganic anion. A study for optimizing the reaction conditions such as the reaction time, the temperature and the catalyst loading has been performed. Under optimal conditions, a high n-butyl levulinate yield of up to 93 % is obtained. Furthermore, the kinetics of the reaction pathways and the mechanism for the alcoholysis of furfuryl alcohol are discussed. This method is environmentally benign and economical for the conversion of biomass-based derivatives into fine chemicals.

  20. Morphology and properties of a hybrid organic-inorganic system: Al nanoparticles embedded into CuPc thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Molodtsova, O. V.; Babenkov, S. V.; Aristova, I. M.; Vilkov, O. V.; Aristov, V. Yu.

    2014-04-28

    The evolution of the morphology and the electronic structure of the hybrid organic-inorganic system composed of aluminum nanoparticles (NPs) distributed in an organic semiconductor matrix—copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)—as a function of nominal aluminum content was studied by transmission electron microscopy and by photoemission spectroscopy methods. The aluminum atoms deposited onto the CuPc surface diffuse into the organic matrix and self-assemble to NPs in a well-defined manner with a narrow diameter distribution, which depends on the amount of aluminum that is evaporated onto the CuPc film. We find clear evidence of a charge transfer from Al to CuPc and we have been able to determine the lattice sites where Al ions sit. The finally at high coverage about 64 Å the formation of metallic aluminum overlayer on CuPc thin film takes place.

  1. Methanol selective fibre-optic gas sensor with a nanoporous thin film of organic-inorganic hybrid multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Okuda, H.; Lee, S.-W.

    2015-07-01

    The development of an evanescent wave optical fibre (EWOF) sensor modified with an organic-inorganic hybrid nanoporous thin film for alcohol vapor detection was demonstrated. The optical fibre with a core diameter of 200 μm was bent into U-shape probe optic fibre to enhance the penetation depth of light transferred into the evanescent filed. The bended region of the fibre was modified with a multilayered thin film of poly(allyamine hydrochloride) and silica nanoparticels, (PAH/SiO2)n, by a layer-by-layer (LbL) film deposition technique, followed by infusion of tetrakis(4- sulfophenyl)porphine, TPPS. The mesoporous film structure showed high sensitivity and selectivity to methanol by the aid of the TPPS infused inside the film. The optical sensor response was reversible and reproducible over many times of exposures to analytes, which was caused by the change in refractive index (RI) of the film.

  2. Dehydrocoupling and Silazane Cleavage Routes to Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Polymers with NBN Units in the Main Chain.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Thomas; Lik, Artur; Plamper, Felix A; Helten, Holger

    2016-06-13

    Despite the great potential of both π-conjugated organoboron polymers and BN-doped polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in organic optoelectronics, our knowledge of conjugated polymers with B-N bonds in their main chain is currently scarce. Herein, the first examples of a new class of organic-inorganic hybrid polymers are presented, which consist of alternating NBN and para-phenylene units. Polycondensation with B-N bond formation provides facile access to soluble materials under mild conditions. The photophysical data for the polymer and molecular model systems of different chain lengths reveal a low extent of π-conjugation across the NBN units, which is supported by DFT calculations. The applicability of the new polymers as macromolecular polyligands is demonstrated by a cross-linking reaction with Zr(IV) .

  3. Hydrophilic solid-phase extraction of melamine with ampholine-modified hybrid organic-inorganic silica material.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingting; Zhu, Yiming; Ma, Junfeng; Xuan, Rongrong; Gao, Haoqi; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2015-01-01

    In this work, an ampholine-functionalized hybrid organic-inorganic silica sorbent was successfully used to extract melamine from a milk formula sample by a hydrophilic interaction solid-phase extraction protocol. Primary factors affecting the extraction efficiency of the material such as extraction solvent, elution solvent, sample loading volume, and elution volume have been thoroughly optimized. Under the optimized hydrophilic solid-phase extraction conditions, the recoveries of melamine spiked in milk formula samples ranged from 86.2 to 101.8% with relative standard deviations of 4.1-9.4% (n = 3). The limit of detection (S/N = 3) was 0.32 μg/g. The adsorption capacity toward melamine was 30 μg of melamine per grams of sorbent. Due to its simplicity, rapidity and cost effectiveness, the newly developed hydrophilic solid-phase extraction method should provide a promising tool for daily monitoring of doped melamine in milk formula.

  4. Impedimetric and amperometric bifunctional glucose biosensor based on hybrid organic-inorganic thin films.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huihui; Ohnuki, Hitoshi; Endo, Hideaki; Izumi, Mitsuru

    2015-02-01

    A novel glucose biosensor with an immobilized mediator was studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and amperometry measurements. The biosensor has a characteristic ultrathin form and is composed of a self-assembled monolayer anchoring glucose oxidase (GOx) covered with Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of Prussian blue (PB). The immobilized PB in the LB films acts as a mediator and enables the biosensor to work under a low potential (0.0V vs. Ag/AgCl). In the EIS measurements, a dramatic decrease in charge transfer resistance (Rct) was observed with sequential addition of glucose, which can be attributed to enzymatic activity. The linearity of the biosensor response was observed by the variation of the sensor response (1/Rct) as a function of glucose concentration in the range 0 to 25mM. The sensor also showed linear amperometric response below 130mM glucose. The organic-inorganic system of GOx and PB nanoclusters demonstrated bifunctional sensing action, both amperometry and EIS modes, as well as long sensing stability for 4 days.

  5. Synthesis and structural characterization of inorganic-organic-inorganic hybrids of dipalladium-substituted γ-Keggin silicodecatungstates.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Tomohisa; Uehara, Kazuhiro; Uchida, Sayaka; Hibino, Mitsuhiro; Kamata, Keigo; Mizuno, Noritaka

    2013-03-04

    Three inorganic-organic-inorganic hybrids of dipalladium-substituted γ-Keggin silicodecatungstates with organic linkers of different lengths, TBA8[{(γ-H2SiW10O36Pd2)(O2C(CH2)nCO2)}2] (n = 1 (II), 3 (III), and 5 (IV), TBA = [(n-C4H9)4N](+)), were synthesized by exchange of the acetate ligands in TBA4[γ-H2SiW10O36Pd2(OAc)2] (ITBA) with malonic, glutaric, and pimelic acids, respectively. The X-ray crystallographic analysis of II, IIIA (IIIA: III with DCE, DCE = 1,2-dichloroethane), and IVA (IVA: IV with 10DCE) revealed that the anion parts of II, IIIA, and IVA were inorganic-organic-inorganic hybrids composed of two dipalladium-substituted γ-Keggin silicodecatungstates connected by two dicarboxylate ligands. In the crystal structure of IVA, 10 DCE molecules per polyanion were present in the vicinity of polyanions. Compound IVB (IVB: IV with 0.2DCE) was obtained by the evacuation of IVA. The DCE sorption-desorption isotherms of IVB showed that the amount of DCE sorbed was saturated at 10.5 mol mol(-1), of which the amount was close to that (10 mol mol(-1)) of crystallographically assigned DCE molecules. In the DCE sorption-desorption isotherms, a low-pressure hysteresis was observed probably because of hydrogen-bonding interaction between DCE molecules and polyanions. The powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of IVA changed with decrease in the relative DCE vapor pressure to form IVC (IVC: IV with 0.7DCE) at P/P0 = 0.0. The in situ powder XRD study showed reversible structure transformation between IVA and IVC driven by the sorption-desorption of DCE.

  6. Enzymatically degradable hybrid organic-inorganic bridged silsesquioxane nanoparticles for in vitro imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatieiev, Y.; Croissant, J. G.; Julfakyan, K.; Deng, L.; Anjum, D. H.; Gurinov, A.; Khashab, N. M.

    2015-09-01

    We describe biodegradable bridged silsesquioxane (BS) composite nanomaterials with an unusually high organic content (ca. 50%) based on oxamide components mimicking amino acid biocleavable groups. Unlike most bulk BS materials, the design of sub-200 nm nearly monodisperse nanoparticles (NPs) was achieved. These enzymatically degradable BS NPs were further tested as promising imaging nanoprobes.We describe biodegradable bridged silsesquioxane (BS) composite nanomaterials with an unusually high organic content (ca. 50%) based on oxamide components mimicking amino acid biocleavable groups. Unlike most bulk BS materials, the design of sub-200 nm nearly monodisperse nanoparticles (NPs) was achieved. These enzymatically degradable BS NPs were further tested as promising imaging nanoprobes. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed synthetic procedure, experimental procedure and Fig. S1-15. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03065j

  7. Nb-Ta, Nb-Mo and Nb-V oxides prepared from hybrid organic-inorganic precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Deligne, N.; Bayot, D.; Degand, M.; Devillers, M.

    2007-07-15

    New hybrid organic-inorganic materials based on group 5 elements and a well-defined polymeric matrix have been prepared and used as precursors for Nb-Ta and Nb-Mo mixed oxides. In this non-conventional but easily accessible route to multimetallic oxides, a copolymer of N,N-diallyl-N-hexylamine and maleic acid was synthesised and used as matrix to stabilise inorganic species generated in solution from (NH{sub 4}){sub 6}Mo{sub 7}O{sub 24}.4H{sub 2}O, NH{sub 4}VO{sub 3} (gu){sub 3}[Nb(O{sub 2}){sub 4}] and (gu){sub 3}[Ta(O{sub 2}){sub 4}]. Solid-state studies indicate that the homogeneity of the blends can be kept up to about 0.5 mol Nb{sup V} and Ta{sup V} and 0.25 mol V{sup V} per mol of repeat units of the copolymer. The calcination conditions of these homogeneous hybrid precursors were optimised to produce Nb-Mo, Nb-Ta and Nb-V oxides. While the thermal treatment of the Nb-V hybrid blends led only to a mixture of different phases, the characterisation of the final phases by X-ray diffraction (XRD) proved the formation of pure Nb{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}O{sub 14} and showed that Nb-Ta oxides could be synthesised as single phases corresponding to a continuous series of solid solutions. - Graphical abstract: An alternative route based on hybrid organic-inorganic materials was implemented to synthesise Nb-Ta, Nb-Mo and Nb-V oxides. The hybrid materials were prepared by incorporation of inorganic salts based on Nb{sup V}, Ta{sup V}, V{sup V} and Mo{sup VI} in an organic polymer bearing cationic as well as anionic moieties. A thermal treatment of these hybrid blends has allowed the formation of multimetallic oxides.

  8. Photochromic hybrid organic-inorganic liquid-crystalline materials built from nonionic surfactants and polyoxometalates: elaboration and structural study.

    PubMed

    Poulos, Andreas S; Constantin, Doru; Davidson, Patrick; Impéror, Marianne; Pansu, Brigitte; Panine, Pierre; Nicole, Lionel; Sanchez, Clément

    2008-06-17

    This work reports the elaboration and structural study of new hybrid organic-inorganic materials constructed via the coupling of liquid-crystalline nonionic surfactants and polyoxometalates (POMs). X-ray scattering and polarized light microscopy demonstrate that these hybrid materials, highly loaded with POMs (up to 18 wt %), are nanocomposites of liquid-crystalline lamellar structure (Lalpha), with viscoelastic properties close to those of gels. The interpretation of X-ray scattering data strongly suggests that the POMs are located close to the terminal -OH groups of the nonionic surfactants, within the aqueous sublayers. Moreover, these materials exhibit a reversible photochromism associated to the photoreduction of the polyanion. The photoinduced mixed-valence behavior has been characterized through ESR and UV-visible-near-IR spectroscopies that demonstrate the presence of W(V) metal cations and of the characteristic intervalence charge transfer band in the near-IR region, respectively. These hybrid nanocomposites exhibit optical properties that may be useful for applications involving UV-light-sensitive coatings or liquid-crystal-based photochromic switches. From a more fundamental point of view, these hybrid materials should be very helpful models for the study of both the static and dynamic properties of nano-objects confined within soft lamellar structures.

  9. Multiple-stage structure transformation of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Qiong; Liu, Henan; Kim, Hui -Seon; ...

    2016-09-15

    In this study, by performing spatially resolved Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy with varying excitation wavelength, density, and data acquisition parameters, we achieve a unified understanding towards the spectroscopy signatures of the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite, transforming from the pristine state (CH3NH3PbI3) to the fully degraded state (i.e., PbI2) for samples with varying crystalline domain size from mesoscopic scale (approximately 100 nm) to macroscopic size (centimeters), synthesized by three different techniques. We show that the hybrid perovskite exhibits multiple stages of structure transformation occurring either spontaneously or under light illumination, with exceptionally high sensitivity to the illumination conditions (e.g., power, illumination time,more » and interruption pattern). We highlight four transformation stages (stages I-IV, with stage I being the pristine state) along either the spontaneous or photoinduced degradation path exhibiting distinctly different Raman spectroscopy features at each stage, and point out that previously reported Raman spectra in the literature reflect highly degraded structures of either stage III or stage IV. Additional characteristic optical features of partially degraded materials under the joint action of spontaneous and photodegradation are also given. This study offers reliable benchmark results for understanding the intrinsic material properties and structure transformation of this unique category of hybrid materials, and the findings are pertinently important to a wide range of potential applications where the hybrid material is expected to function in greatly different environment and light-matter interaction conditions.« less

  10. Water and oil wettability of hybrid organic-inorganic titanate-silicate thin films deposited via a sol-gel route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houmard, M.; Vasconcelos, D. C. L.; Vasconcelos, W. L.; Berthomé, G.; Joud, J. C.; Langlet, M.

    2009-09-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic titanate-silicate thin films were deposited on silicium wafer via a sol-gel route. Hybrid sols were formulated by mixing an inorganic titanium alkoxide solution with solutions of hybrid organic-inorganic silicon alkoxides partially substituted with non-hydrolysable alkyl chains. Three organo-silicate precursors were used to introduce methyl, octyl, or hexadecyl chains in the oxide network. Physico-chemical and morphological properties of derived hybrid films have been studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ellipsometry, and atomic force microscopy. Contact angle measurements have also been performed to assess the water and mineral oil wettability of hybrid films. Wettability properties of these films are discussed with respect to physico-chemical and morphological features. It is shown that increasing the fraction and length of alkyl chains in the oxide network conjointly increases water and oil contact angles measured on such hybrid films.

  11. New organic-inorganic hybrid molecular systems and highly organized materials in catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kustov, L. M.

    2015-11-01

    Definitions of hybrid materials are suggested, and applications of these materials are considered. Particular attention is focused on the application of hybrid materials in hydrogenation, partial oxidation, plant biomass conversion, and natural gas reforming, primarily on the use of core-shell nanoparticles and decorated metal nanoparticles in these reactions. Application prospects of various hybrid materials, particularly those of metal-organic frameworks, are discussed.

  12. Loaded Ce-Ag organic-inorganic hybrids and their antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Truffault, Laurianne; Rodrigues, Danilo Fernando; Salgado, Hérida Regida Nunes; Santilli, Celso Valentim; Pulcinelli, Sandra Helena

    2016-11-01

    There are requirements for surfaces with antibacterial properties in various technological fields. U-PEO hybrids with antibacterial properties were synthesized by the sol-gel process, incorporating combinations of cerium and silver salts at different silver molar fractions (0, 0.02, 0.05, 0.10, and 1) relative to the total amount of doped cations. The loaded hybrids were characterized by TGA, XRD, and Raman spectroscopy. Release tests were performed using UV-vis spectroscopy, and the antibacterial properties of the hybrids were studied in agar tests and turbidimetry assays. The nanostructural evolution of the hybrids during the release of the antibacterial agents was investigated by in situ SAXS. XRD results showed the presence of the AgCl crystalline phase in the loaded hybrids from a silver molar fraction of 0.05. Raman spectroscopy evidenced the interaction of silver cations with the polymeric part of the hybrid. SAXS results confirmed these interactions and showed that cerium species interacted with both organic and inorganic parts of the hybrids. The loaded U-PEO hybrids were found to release all the incorporated cerium in 1h, while the hybrid containing 100% of silver released only 78% of the incorporated silver. All the loaded hybrids displayed antibacterial activity against the Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterium. The antibacterial activity was found to increase with silver molar fraction. Due to its high antibacterial activity and low silver molar fraction, the loaded hybrid with silver molar fraction of 0.10 seemed to be a good compromise between efficiency, esthetic transparency, and photostability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Organic/inorganic hybrid pn-junction between copper phthalocyanine and CdSe quantum dot layers as solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Sudip K.; Guchhait, Asim; Pal, Amlan J.

    2012-08-01

    We have introduced an organic/inorganic hybrid pn-junction for solar cell applications. Layers of II-VI quantum dots and a metal-phthalocyanine in sequence have been used as n- and p-type materials, respectively, to form a junction. The film of quantum dots has been formed through a layer-by-layer process by replacing the long-chain ligands of the nanoparticles in each ultrathin layer or a monolayer with short-chain ones so that interparticle distance becomes small leading to a decrease in resistance of the quantum dot layer. With indium tin oxide and Au as electrodes, we have formed an inverted sandwiched structure. These electrodes formed ohmic contacts with the neighboring materials. From the current-voltage characteristics of the hybrid heterostructure, we have inferred formation of a depletion region at the pn-junction that played a key role in charge separation and correspondingly a photocurrent in the external circuit. For comparison, we have also formed and characterized Schottky devices based on components of the pn-junction keeping the electrode combination same. From capacitance-voltage characteristics, we have observed that the depletion region of the hybrid pn-junction was much wider as compared to that in Schottky devices based on components of the junction.

  14. Effect of "bridge" on the performance of organic-inorganic crosslinked hybrid proton exchange membranes via KH550

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Hailan; Li, Hai Qiang; Liu, Meiyu; Xu, Lishuang; Xu, Jingmei; Wang, Shuang; Ni, Hongzhe; Wang, Zhe

    2017-02-01

    A series of novel organic-inorganic crosslinked hybrid proton exchange membranes were prepared using sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketone sulfone) polymers containing carboxyl groups (C-SPAEKS), (3-aminopropyl)-triethoxysilane (KH550), and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS). KH550 acted as a "bridge" after reacting with carboxyl and sulfonic groups of C-SPAEKS to form covalent and ionic crosslinked structure between the C-SPAEKS and SiO2 phase. The crosslinked hybrid membranes (C-SPAEKS/K-SiO2) were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, TGA, and electrochemistry, etc. The thermal stability, mechanical properties and proton conductivity of the crosslinked hybrid membranes were improved by the presence of both crosslinked structure and inorganic phase. The proton conductivity of C-SPAEKS/K-SiO2-8 was recorded as 0.110 S cm-1, higher than that of Nafion® (0.028 S cm-1) at 120 °C. Moreover, the methanol permeability of the C-SPAEKS/K-SiO2-8 was measured as 3.86 × 10-7 cm2 s-1, much lower than that of Nafion® 117 membranes (29.4 × 10-7 cm2 s-1) at 25 °C.

  15. Molecularly Engineered Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite with Multiple Quantum Well Structure for Multicolored Light-Emitting Diodes

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hongwei; Salim, Teddy; Chen, Bingbing; Lam, Yeng Ming

    2016-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have the potential to be used as a new class of emitters with tunable emission, high color purity and good ease of fabrication. Recent studies have so far been focused on three-dimensional (3D) perovskites, such as CH3NH3PbBr3 and CH3NH3PbI3 for green and infrared emission. Here, we explore a new series of hybrid perovskite emitters with a general formula of (C4H9NH3)2(CH3NH3)n−1PbnI3n+1 (where n = 1, 2, 3), which possesses a multiple quantum well structure. The quantum well thickness of these materials is adjustable through simple molecular engineering which results in a continuously tunable bandgap and emission spectra. Deep saturated red emission was obtained with a peak external quantum efficiency of 2.29% and a maximum luminance of 214 cd/m2. Green and blue LEDs were also demonstrated through halogen substitutions in these hybrid perovskites. We expect these results to open up the way towards high performance perovskite LEDs through molecular-structure engineering of these perovskite emitters. PMID:27633084

  16. Covalent organic/inorganic hybrid proton-conductive membrane with semi-interpenetrating polymer network: Preparation and characterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Rong-Qiang; Woo, Jung-Je; Seo, Seok-Jun; Lee, Jae-Suk; Moon, Seung-Hyeon

    2008-05-01

    A series of new covalent organic/inorganic hybrid proton-conductive membranes, each with a semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN), for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) applications is prepared through the following sequence: (i) copolymerization of impregnated styrene (St), p-vinylbenzyl chloride (VBC) and divinylbenzene (DVB) within a supporting polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film; (ii) reaction of the chloromethyl group with 3-(methylamine)propyl-trimethoxysilane (MAPTMS); (ii) a sol-gel process under acidic conditions; (iv) a sulfonation reaction. The developed membranes are characterized in terms of Fourier transform infrared/attenuated total reflectance (FTIR/ATR), scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDXA), elemental analysis (EA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), which confirm the formation of the target membranes. The developed copolymer chains are interpenetrating with the PVC matrix to form the semi-IPN structure, and the inorganic silica is covalently bound to the copolymers. These features provide the membranes with high mechanical strength. The effect of silica content is investigated. As the silica content increases, proton conductivity and water content decrease, whereas oxidative stability is improved. In particular, methanol permeability and methanol uptake are reduced largely by the silica. The ratio of proton conductivity to methanol permeability for the hybrid membranes is higher than that of Nafion 117. All these properties make the hybrid membranes a potential candidate for DMFC applications.

  17. Oxide Semiconductor-Based Flexible Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Thin-Film Transistors Fabricated on Polydimethylsiloxane Elastomer.

    PubMed

    Jung, Soon-Won; Choi, Jeong-Seon; Park, Jung Ho; Koo, Jae Bon; Park, Chan Woo; Na, Bock Soon; Oh, Ji-Young; Lim, Sang Chul; Lee, Sang Seok; Chu, Hye Yong

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate flexible organic/inorganic hybrid thin-film transistors (TFTs) on a polydimethysilox- ane (PDMS) elastomer substrate. The active channel and gate insulator of the hybrid TFT are composed of In-Ga-Zn-O (IGZO) and blends of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF- TrFE)] with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), respectively. It has been confirmed that the fabri- cated TFT display excellent characteristics: the recorded field-effect mobility, sub-threshold voltage swing, and I(on)/I(off) ratio were approximately 0.35 cm2 V(-1) s(-1), 1.5 V/decade, and 10(4), respectively. These characteristics did not experience any degradation at a bending radius of 15 mm. These results correspond to the first demonstration of a hybrid-type TFT using an organic gate insulator/oxide semiconducting active channel structure fabricated on PDMS elastomer, and demonstrate the feasibility of a promising device in a flexible electronic system.

  18. Protein micropatterning on bifunctional organic-inorganic sol-gel hybrid materials.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woo-Soo; Kim, Min-Gon; Ahn, Jun-Hyeong; Bae, Byeong-Soo; Park, Chan Beum

    2007-04-24

    Active protein micropatterns and microarrays made by selective localization are popular candidates for medical diagnostics, such as biosensors, bioMEMS, and basic protein studies. In this paper, we present a simple fabrication process of thick (approximately 20 microm) protein micropatterning using capillary force lithography with bifunctional sol-gel hybrid materials. Because bifunctional sol-gel hybrid material can have both an amine function for linking with protein and a methacryl function for photocuring, proteins such as streptavidin can be immobilized directly on thick bifunctional sol-gel hybrid micropatterns. Another advantage of the bifunctional sol-gel hybrid materials is the high selective stability of the amine group on bifunctional sol-gel hybrid patterns. Because amine function is regularly contained in each siloxane oligomers, immobilizing sites for streptavidin are widely distributed on the surface of thick hybrid micropatterns. The micropatterning processes of active proteins using efficient bifunctional sol-gel hybrid materials will be useful for the development of future bioengineered systems because they can save several processing steps and reduce costs.

  19. Synthesis of organic/inorganic hybrid gel with acid activated clay after γ-ray radiation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donghyun; Lee, Hoik; Sohn, Daewon

    2014-08-01

    A hybrid gel was prepared from acid activated clay (AA clay) and acrylic acid by gamma ray irradiation. Irradiated inorganic particles which have peroxide groups act as initiator because it generates oxide radicals by increasing temperature. Inorganic nanoparticles which are rigid part in hybrid gel also contribute to increase the mechanical property as a crosslinker. We prepared two hybrid gels to compare the effect of acid activated treatment of clay; one is synthesized with raw clay particles and another is synthesized with AA clay particles. The composition and structure of AA clay particles and raw clay particles were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence instrument and surface area analyzer. And chemical and physical property of hybrid gel with different ratios of acrylic acid and clay particle was tested by Raman spectroscope and universal testing machine (UTM). The synthesized hydrogel with 76% gel contents can elongated approximately 1000% of its original size.

  20. Terahertz and infrared transmission of an organic/inorganic hybrid thermoelectric material

    SciTech Connect

    Heyman, J. N. Alebachew, B. A.; Kaminski, Z. S.; Nguyen, M. D.; Coates, N. E.; Urban, J. J.

    2014-04-07

    We report terahertz and infrared transmission measurements of a high-performance thermoelectric material containing tellurium nanowires in a conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) matrix. The DC electrical conductivity of the hybrid material (41 S/cm) is approximately one hundred times that of pure PEDOT:PSS and more than 400 times that of a film of pure tellurium nanowires, while the terahertz-frequency (THz) conductivity of PEDOT:PSS and the hybrid material are comparable at f ∼ 2THz. A frequency-dependent conductivity model indicates that the increased DC conductivity of the hybrid material results from an increase in the DC charge mobility rather than in the free charge density. We suggest that the increased DC conductivity of the hybrid material results from an increase in linkage between PEDOT domains by the tellurium nanowires.

  1. Organic Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cell Efficiency Improvement By Employing Au Nanocluster

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-14

    4nm, it is consider that plasmonic effect did not play a relevant role in the observed PCE improvement . , Index Terms — hybrid solar cell ...employed in the fabrication of heterojuction p-n solar cell devices due to its proper HOMO-LUMO band gap as well as its tunable conductivity...PCE) on planer silicon (Si) hybrid heterojunction solar cell devices. Specifically, the reference sample 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND

  2. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Materials Depth Profiling Using Low Energy Cesium Ions.

    PubMed

    Noël, Céline; Houssiau, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    The structures developed in organic electronics, such as organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) or organic photovoltaics (OPVs) devices always involve hybrid interfaces, joining metal or oxide layers with organic layers. No satisfactory method to probe these hybrid interfaces physical chemistry currently exists. One promising way to analyze such interfaces is to use in situ ion beam etching, but this requires ion beams able to depth profile both inorganic and organic layers. Mono- or diatomic ion beams commonly used to depth profile inorganic materials usually perform badly on organics, while cluster ion beams perform excellently on organics but yield poor results when organics and inorganics are mixed. Conversely, low energy Cs(+) beams (<500 eV) allow organic and inorganic materials depth profiling with comparable erosion rates. This paper shows a successful depth profiling of a model hybrid system made of metallic (Au, Cr) and organic (tyrosine) layers, sputtered with 500 eV Cs(+) ions. Tyrosine layers capped with metallic overlayers are depth profiled easily, with high intensities for the characteristic molecular ions and other specific fragments. Metallic Au or Cr atoms are recoiled into the organic layer where they cause some damage near the hybrid interface as well as changes in the erosion rate. However, these recoil implanted metallic atoms do not appear to severely degrade the depth profile overall quality. This first successful hybrid depth profiling report opens new possibilities for the study of OLEDs, organic solar cells, or other hybrid devices.

  3. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Materials Depth Profiling Using Low Energy Cesium Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noël, Céline; Houssiau, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    The structures developed in organic electronics, such as organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) or organic photovoltaics (OPVs) devices always involve hybrid interfaces, joining metal or oxide layers with organic layers. No satisfactory method to probe these hybrid interfaces physical chemistry currently exists. One promising way to analyze such interfaces is to use in situ ion beam etching, but this requires ion beams able to depth profile both inorganic and organic layers. Mono- or diatomic ion beams commonly used to depth profile inorganic materials usually perform badly on organics, while cluster ion beams perform excellently on organics but yield poor results when organics and inorganics are mixed. Conversely, low energy Cs+ beams (<500 eV) allow organic and inorganic materials depth profiling with comparable erosion rates. This paper shows a successful depth profiling of a model hybrid system made of metallic (Au, Cr) and organic (tyrosine) layers, sputtered with 500 eV Cs+ ions. Tyrosine layers capped with metallic overlayers are depth profiled easily, with high intensities for the characteristic molecular ions and other specific fragments. Metallic Au or Cr atoms are recoiled into the organic layer where they cause some damage near the hybrid interface as well as changes in the erosion rate. However, these recoil implanted metallic atoms do not appear to severely degrade the depth profile overall quality. This first successful hybrid depth profiling report opens new possibilities for the study of OLEDs, organic solar cells, or other hybrid devices.

  4. Quantum dot-based organic-inorganic hybrid materials for optoelectronic applications (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kwang-Sup

    2016-10-01

    Our recent research involves the design, characterization and testing of devices constituting low bandgap conjugated polymers, surface-engineered quantum dots (QDs), carbon nanotube (CNT)-QDs, QDs decorated nanowires, and QD coupled conjugated polymers. The resulting hybrid materials can be used for facilitating the charge/energy transfer and enhancing the charge carrier mobility in highly efficient optoelectronic and photonic devices. Exploiting the full potential of quantum dots (QDs) in optoelectronic devices require efficient mechanisms for transfer of energy or electrons produced in the optically excited QDs. We propose semiconducting π-conjugated molecules as ligands to achieve energy or charge transfer. The hybridization of p-type π-conjugated molecules to the surface of n-type QDs can induce distinct luminescence and charge transport characteristics due to energy and/or charge transfer effects. QDs and π-conjugated molecule hybrids with controlled luminescent properties can be used for new active materials for light-emitting diodes and flexible displays. In addition, such hybrid systems with enhanced charge transfer efficiency can be used for nanoscale photovoltaic devices. We have also explored single nanoparticle based electronics using QDs and π-conjugated molecule hybrids with molecular-scale n-p or n-insulating (ins)-p-heterojunction structures.

  5. Supramolecular Assembly of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Polyoxometalate Nanoclusters at Solid-liquid Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Na; Jing, Benxin; Zhu, Yingxi

    2013-03-01

    Polyoxometalate (POM) inorganic nanoclusters have recently emerged as building blocks for the design and synthesis of novel functional materials for broad applications ranging from catalysis to nanomedicines. Rather than taking the slow self-assembly of POMs in aqueous solutions, we have investigated the assembly of hybrid Anderson-type Mo-based POMs with organic ligands at a solid surface by Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) deposition and characterized the films by AFM, TEM, and X-ray diffraction. We have observed the formation of well-ordered monolayer or bilayer consisting of periodic arrangement of hybrid POM nanoclusters, showing a strong dependence on substrate chemistry and LB compression pressure. The controlled assembly of hybrid POM nanocluster films by LB deposition could be used as a template with stoichiometric crystalline nanostructure to the programmed assembly of novel multi-functional supramolecular complexes.

  6. Hybrid organic/inorganic interfaces as reversible label-free platform for direct monitoring of biochemical interactions.

    PubMed

    Vello, Tatiana P; da Silva, Larissa M B; Silva, Gustavo O; de Camargo, Davi H S; Corrêa, Cátia C; Bof Bufon, Carlos C

    2017-01-15

    The combination of organic and inorganic materials to create hybrid nanostructures is an effective approach to develop label-free platforms for biosensing as well as to overcome eventual leakage current-related problems in capacitive sensors operating in liquid. In this work, we combine an ultra-thin high-k dielectric layer (Al2O3) with a nanostructured organic functional tail to create a platform capable of monitoring biospecific interactions directly in liquid at very low analyte concentrations. As a proof of concept, a reversible label-free glutathione-S-transferase (GST) biosensor is demonstrated. The sensor can quantify the GST enzyme concentration through its biospecific interaction with tripeptide reduced glutathione (GSH) bioreceptor directly immobilized on the dielectric surface. The enzymatic reaction is monitored by electrical impedance measurements, evaluating variations on the overall capacitance values according to the GST concentration. The biosensor surface can be easily regenerated, allowing the detection of GST with the very same device. The biosensor shows a linear response in the range of 200pmolL(-1) to 2µmolL(-1), the largest reported in the literature along with the lowest detectable GST concentration (200pmolL(-1)) for GST label-free sensors. Such a nanostructured hybrid organic-inorganic system represents a powerful tool for the monitoring of biochemical reactions, such as protein-protein interactions, for biosensing and biotechnological applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Photothermal initiation of hybrid organic/inorganic metastable interstitial composites: synergistic effects on the dynamics of energy release.

    PubMed

    Mileham, Melissa L; Park, Chi-Dong; van de Burgt, Lambertus J; Kramer, Michael P; Stiegman, A E

    2008-12-11

    The organic high-energy material pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) was incorporated at low concentrations into Al (100 nm)/Fe(2)O(3) metastable intersitital composites (MIC) to form a hybrid organic/inorganic high-energy material. Studies of the dynamics of energy release were carried out by initiating the reaction photothermally with a single 8 ns pulse of the 1064 nm fundamental of a Nd:YAG laser. The reaction dynamics were measured using time-resolved spectroscopy of the light emitted from the deflagrating material. Two parameters were measured: the time to initiation and the duration of the deflagration. The presence of small amounts of PETN (16 mg/g of MIC) results in a dramatic decrease in the initiation time. This is attributed to a contribution to the temperature of the reacting system from the combustion of the PETN that, at lower loadings, appears to follow an Arrhenius dependence. The presence of PETN was also found to reduce the energy density required for single-pulse photothermal initiation by an order of magnitude, suggesting that hybrid materials such as this may be engineered to optimize their use as an efficient photodetonation medium.

  8. Preparation of a novel hybrid organic-inorganic monolith for the separation of lysozyme by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ligai; Liu, Haiyan; Liu, Yankun; Zhang, Xinghua; Yang, Gengliang; Ma, Zhengyue

    2011-01-07

    A novel hybrid organic-inorganic monolith for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was firstly developed by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) by a simple and rapid method, in which vinyl ester resin was used as the monomer, natrium bisulfurosum was used both as organic adjunct and coadunate initiator to alter the activity of the free radical in the process of polymerization and then to control the molecular mass. The conditions of polymerization were optimized. The chemical group of the monolith was assayed by infrared spectra method, the morphology of monolithic material was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the pore size distribution was determined by a mercury porosimeter. Finally, the monolith was used to separate lysozyme (Lys) from chicken egg white with good resolution and reproducibility that were obtained in a short time (10 min) by HPLC. In addition, the influences of buffer concentration and pH value on elution have been investigated and the hybrid monolith was used to separate benzene and its homologs from the mixture.

  9. A Simple Approach for Molecular Controlled Release based on Atomic Layer Deposition Hybridized Organic-Inorganic Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehler, Christian; Güder, Firat; Kücükbayrak, Umut M.; Zacharias, Margit; Asplund, Maria

    2016-01-01

    On-demand release of bioactive substances with high spatial and temporal control offers ground-breaking possibilities in the field of life sciences. However, available strategies for developing such release systems lack the possibility of combining efficient control over release with adequate storage capability in a reasonably compact system. In this study we present a new approach to target this deficiency by the introduction of a hybrid material. This organic-inorganic material was fabricated by atomic layer deposition of ZnO into thin films of polyethylene glycol, forming the carrier matrix for the substance to be released. Sub-surface growth mechanisms during this process converted the liquid polymer into a solid, yet water-soluble, phase. This layer permits extended storage for various substances within a single film of only a few micrometers in thickness, and hence demands minimal space and complexity. Improved control over release of the model substance Fluorescein was achieved by coating the hybrid material with a conducting polymer film. Single dosage and repetitive dispensing from this system was demonstrated. Release was controlled by applying a bias potential of ±0.5 V to the polymer film enabling or respectively suppressing the expulsion of the model drug. In vitro tests showed excellent biocompatibility of the presented system.

  10. Novel Multifunctional Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Curing Agent with High Flame-Retardant Efficiency for Epoxy Resin.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yi; Shao, Zhu-Bao; Chen, Xue-Fang; Long, Jia-Wei; Chen, Li; Wang, Yu-Zhong

    2015-08-19

    A novel multifunctional organic-inorganic hybrid was designed and prepared based on ammonium polyphosphate (APP) by cation exchange with diethylenetriamine (DETA), abbreviated as DETA-APP. Then DETA-APP was used as flame-retardant curing agent for epoxy resin (EP). Curing behavior, including the curing kinetic parameters, was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The flame retardance and burning behavior of DETA-APP cured EP were also evaluated. The limiting oxygen index (LOI) value of DETA-APP/EP was enhanced to 30.5% with only 15 wt % of DETA-APP incorporated; and the UL-94 V-0 rating could be easily passed through with only 10 wt % of the hybrid. Compared with DETA/EP, the peak-heat release rate (PHRR), total heat release (THR), total smoke production (TSP), and peak-smoke production release (SPR) of DETA-APP/EP (15 wt % addition), obtained from cone calorimetry, were dropped by 68.3, 79.3, 79.0, and 30.0%, respectively, suggesting excellent flame-retardant and smoke suppression efficiency. The flame-retardant mechanism of DETA-APP/EP has been investigated comprehensively. The results of all the aforementioned studies distinctly confirmed that DETA-APP was an effective flame-retardant curing agent for EP.

  11. A Simple Approach for Molecular Controlled Release based on Atomic Layer Deposition Hybridized Organic-Inorganic Layers

    PubMed Central

    Boehler, Christian; Güder, Firat; Kücükbayrak, Umut M.; Zacharias, Margit; Asplund, Maria

    2016-01-01

    On-demand release of bioactive substances with high spatial and temporal control offers ground-breaking possibilities in the field of life sciences. However, available strategies for developing such release systems lack the possibility of combining efficient control over release with adequate storage capability in a reasonably compact system. In this study we present a new approach to target this deficiency by the introduction of a hybrid material. This organic-inorganic material was fabricated by atomic layer deposition of ZnO into thin films of polyethylene glycol, forming the carrier matrix for the substance to be released. Sub-surface growth mechanisms during this process converted the liquid polymer into a solid, yet water-soluble, phase. This layer permits extended storage for various substances within a single film of only a few micrometers in thickness, and hence demands minimal space and complexity. Improved control over release of the model substance Fluorescein was achieved by coating the hybrid material with a conducting polymer film. Single dosage and repetitive dispensing from this system was demonstrated. Release was controlled by applying a bias potential of ±0.5 V to the polymer film enabling or respectively suppressing the expulsion of the model drug. In vitro tests showed excellent biocompatibility of the presented system. PMID:26791399

  12. A Simple Approach for Molecular Controlled Release based on Atomic Layer Deposition Hybridized Organic-Inorganic Layers.

    PubMed

    Boehler, Christian; Güder, Firat; Kücükbayrak, Umut M; Zacharias, Margit; Asplund, Maria

    2016-01-21

    On-demand release of bioactive substances with high spatial and temporal control offers ground-breaking possibilities in the field of life sciences. However, available strategies for developing such release systems lack the possibility of combining efficient control over release with adequate storage capability in a reasonably compact system. In this study we present a new approach to target this deficiency by the introduction of a hybrid material. This organic-inorganic material was fabricated by atomic layer deposition of ZnO into thin films of polyethylene glycol, forming the carrier matrix for the substance to be released. Sub-surface growth mechanisms during this process converted the liquid polymer into a solid, yet water-soluble, phase. This layer permits extended storage for various substances within a single film of only a few micrometers in thickness, and hence demands minimal space and complexity. Improved control over release of the model substance Fluorescein was achieved by coating the hybrid material with a conducting polymer film. Single dosage and repetitive dispensing from this system was demonstrated. Release was controlled by applying a bias potential of ± 0.5 V to the polymer film enabling or respectively suppressing the expulsion of the model drug. In vitro tests showed excellent biocompatibility of the presented system.

  13. Crafting semiconductor organic-inorganic nanocomposites via placing conjugated polymers in intimate contact with nanocrystals for hybrid solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Lin, Zhiqun

    2012-08-22

    Semiconductor organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells incorporating conjugated polymers (CPs) and nanocrystals (NCs) offer the potential to deliver efficient energy conversion with low-cost fabrication. The CP-based photovoltaic devices are complimented by an extensive set of advantageous characteristics from CPs and NCs, such as lightweight, flexibility, and solution-processability of CPs, combined with high electron mobility and size-dependent optical properties of NCs. Recent research has witnessed rapid advances in an emerging field of directly tethering CPs on the NC surface to yield an intimately contacted CP-NC nanocomposite possessing a well-defined interface that markedly promotes the dispersion of NCs within the CP matrix, facilitates the photoinduced charge transfer between these two semiconductor components, and provides an effective platform for studying the interfacial charge separation and transport. In this Review, we aim to highlight the recent developments in CP-NC nanocomposite materials, critically examine the viable preparative strategies geared to craft intimate CP-NC nanocomposites and their photovoltaic performance in hybrid solar cells, and finally provide an outlook for future directions of this extraordinarily rich field.

  14. A simple synthetic route to polyoxovanadate-based organic-inorganic hybrids using EEDQ as an ester coupling agent.

    PubMed

    Bayaguud, Aruuhan; Li, JianDa; She, Shan; Wei, Yongge

    2017-04-05

    A reaction strategy for the post-functionalization of hexavanadate derivatives is presented herein. In this study, five polyoxovanadate-based organic-inorganic hybrids TBA2[V6O13{(OCH2)3CCOO(CH2)15CH3}2] (2), TBA2[V6O13{(OCH2)3CCOO(CH2)8CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CH2}2] (3), TBA2[V6O13{(OCH2)3CCOOCH2CF3}2] (4), TBA2[V6O13{(OCH2)3CCOO(CH2CH2O)3CH3}2] (5), and TBA2[V6O13{(OCH2)3CCOO(CH2)12OH}2]·2CH3CH2OH (6) were successfully synthesized via esterification of carboxylic acid groups-containing TBA2[V6O13{(OCH2)3CCOOH}2] (1) with five alcohols possessing different functional groups. These hybrids were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, IR, ESI-MS, (1)H and (13)C-NMR spectroscopies, and elemental analysis. Moreover, the formation of large vesicles was observed in a mixed solution of compound 2 due to its surfactant-like structure.

  15. Spatial Electron-hole Separation in a One Dimensional Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Lead Iodide.

    PubMed

    Savory, Christopher N; Palgrave, Robert G; Bronstein, Hugo; Scanlon, David O

    2016-02-09

    The increasing efficiency of the inorganic-organic hybrid halides has revolutionised photovoltaic research. Despite this rapid progress, the significant issues of poor stability and toxicity have yet to be suitably overcome. In this article, we use Density Functional Theory to examine (Pb2I6) · (H2DPNDI) · (H2O) · (NMP), an alternative lead-based hybrid inorganic-organic solar absorber based on a photoactive organic cation. Our results demonstrate that optical properties suitable for photovoltaic applications, in addition to spatial electron-hole separation, are possible but efficient charge transport may be a limiting factor.

  16. Synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid sols with nano silica particles and organoalkoxysilanes for transparent and high-thermal-resistance coating films using sol-gel reaction.

    PubMed

    Na, Moonkyong; Park, Hoyyul; Ahn, Myeongsang; Lee, Hyeonhwa; Chung, Ildoo

    2010-10-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid sols were synthesized from nano silica particles dispersed in water and from organoalkoxysilanes, using the sol-gel reaction. This work focuses on the effects of the three multifunctional organoalkoxysilanes dimethyldimethoxysilane (DMDMS), methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS), and tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) to form a transparent and high-thermal-resistance coating film. The stability of the hybrid sol was evaluated as a function of the reaction time for 10 d through the variation of the viscosity. The viscosity of the silica/DMDMS and silica/MTMS sol was slightly increased for 10 d. The multifunctional organoalkoxysilanes formed dense silica networks through hydrolysis and condensation reaction, which enhanced the thermal resistance of the coating films. No thermal degradation of the silica/DMDMS sample occurred up to 600 degrees C, and none of the silica/MTMS and silica/TMOS samples occurred either up to 700 degrees C. The organic-inorganic hybrid sols were coated on the glass substrate using a spin-coating procedure. The organic-inorganic hybrid sols formed flat coating films without cracks. The transmittance of the hybrid sol coating films using MTMS and DMDMS was shown to be over 90%. The transmittance of the silica/TMOS sol coating film reacted for 10 d abruptly decreased due to faster gelation. The silica/DMDMS and silica/MTMS hybrid sols formed smooth coating films while the surface roughness of the silica/TMOS coating film markedly increased when the hybrid sol reacted for 10 d. The increase of the surface roughness of the silica/TMOS coating film can be attributed to the degradation of the stability of the hybrid sol and to the loss of transmittance of the coating film. It was confirmed in this study that the use of organic-inorganic hybrid sol can yield transparent and high-thermal-resistance coating films.

  17. Advances in organic-inorganic hybrid sorbents for the extraction of organic and inorganic pollutants in different types of food and environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Ng, Nyuk-Ting; Kamaruddin, Amirah Farhan; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Aini; Sanagi, Mohd Marsin; Abdul Keyon, Aemi S

    2017-08-21

    The efficiency of the extraction and removal of pollutants from food and the environment has been an important issue in analytical science. By incorporating inorganic species into an organic matrix, a new material known as an organic-inorganic hybrid material is formed. As it possesses high selectivity, permeability, and mechanical and chemical stabilities, organic-inorganic hybrid materials constitute an emerging research field and have become popular to serve as sorbents in various separaton science methods. Here, we review recent significant advances in analytical solid-phase extraction employing organic-inorganic composite/nanocomposite sorbents for the extraction of organic and inorganic pollutants from various types of food and environmental matrices. The physicochemical characteristics, extraction properties, and analytical performances of sorbents are discussed; including morphology and surface characteristics, types of functional groups, interaction mechanism, selectivity and sensitivity, accuracy, and regeneration abilities. Organic-inorganic hybrid sorbents combined with extraction techniques are highly promising for sample preparation of various food and environmental matrixes with analytes at trace levels. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Organic-inorganic hybrid materials: nanoparticle containing organogels with myriad applications.

    PubMed

    Peveler, William J; Bear, Joseph C; Southern, Paul; Parkin, Ivan P

    2014-11-28

    The synthesis of hybrid inorganic-organic materials from a single-component organogelator is reported. Varied functional inorganic materials were included and the resultant physico-chemical properties of the gels are presented. These materials are quick, versatile, can be cast into virtually any form, and the nanoparticles are easily reclaimed.

  19. Hybrid organic/inorganic thin-film multijunction solar cells exceeding 11% power conversion efficiency.

    PubMed

    Roland, Steffen; Neubert, Sebastian; Albrecht, Steve; Stannowski, Bernd; Seger, Mark; Facchetti, Antonio; Schlatmann, Rutger; Rech, Bernd; Neher, Dieter

    2015-02-18

    Hybrid multijunction solar cells comprising hydrogenated amorphous silicon and an organic bulk heterojunction are presented, reaching 11.7% power conversion efficiency. The benefits of merging inorganic and organic subcells are pointed out, the optimization of the cells, including optical modeling predictions and tuning of the recombination contact are described, and an outlook of this technique is given.

  20. Improving the bioactivity of bioglass/ (PMMA-co-MPMA) organic/inorganic hybrid.

    PubMed

    Ravarian, R; Wei, H; Dehghani, F

    2011-01-01

    Binary system of CaO-SiO(2) glasses enables the apatite formation in simulated body fluid (SBF). However, the presence of phosphate content in SiO(2)-CaO-P(2)O(5) glasses leads to the formation of orthophosphate nanocrystalline nuclei, which facilitates the generation of carbonate hydroxyapatite; this compound is more compatible with natural bone. The brittle and less flexible properties of bioactive glasses are the major obstacle for their application as bone implant. The hybridization of essential constituents of bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics with polymers such as PMMA can improve their poor mechanical properties. The aim of this study was to improve the bioactivity of nanocomposites fabricated from poly(methyl metacrylate) (PMMA) and bioglass for bone implant applications. Bioglass compounds with various phosphate contents were used for the preparation of PMMA/bioglass hybrid matrices. Since the lack of adhesion between the two phases impedes the homogenous composite formation, a silane coupling agent such as 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylates (MPMA) was incorporated into the polymer structure. The effect of addition of MPMA on the molecular structure of composite was investigated. Furthermore, the presence of MPMA in the system improved the homogeneity of sample. Increasing phosphate content in the inorganic segment of hybrid up to 10 mol% resulted in the formation of apatite layer on the surface; hence the hybrid was bioactive and suitable candidate for bone tissue engineering.

  1. Biosensor made with organic-inorganic hybrid composite: cellulose-tin oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadeva, Suresha K.; Nayak, Jyoti; Kim, Jaehwan

    2011-04-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant polymer found in nature, inexhaustible, low cost, easy processing, renewable, biodegradable and biocompatible. SnO2, is a known electrical conductor that is optically transparent in the visible spectrum with a wide band gap at room temperature. Thus, a hybrid nanocomposite of cellulose and SnO2can offer a unique property of cellulose combined with electrical properties of SnO2. These unique properties of cellulose- SnO2 hybrid nanocomposite can be capitalized to design flexible, biodegradable and low cost biosensors. Preparation and characterization of cellulose-SnO2 hybrid nanocomposite and its application as a flexible urea biosensor was demonstrated in this paper. It is observed sensitivity of cellulose-SnO2 hybrid nanocomposite urea biosensor was increased linearly with deposition time. As deposition time increased, amount of tin oxide deposited over cellulose surface also increases, so as to increase the amount of enzyme immobilization and attachment of analyte, attributes to large current output and high sensitivity of sensor. Increasing enzyme activity is observed, with increasing urea concentration. Experimental results suggested that, the proposed biosensor under study is suitable for urea detection below 50 mM.

  2. Biosensor made with organic-inorganic hybrid composite: cellulose-tin oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K. Mahadeva, Suresha; Nayak, Jyoti; Kim, Jaehwan

    2011-03-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant polymer found in nature, inexhaustible, low cost, easy processing, renewable, biodegradable and biocompatible. SnO2, is a known electrical conductor that is optically transparent in the visible spectrum with a wide band gap at room temperature. Thus, a hybrid nanocomposite of cellulose and SnO2can offer a unique property of cellulose combined with electrical properties of SnO2. These unique properties of cellulose- SnO2 hybrid nanocomposite can be capitalized to design flexible, biodegradable and low cost biosensors. Preparation and characterization of cellulose-SnO2 hybrid nanocomposite and its application as a flexible urea biosensor was demonstrated in this paper. It is observed sensitivity of cellulose-SnO2 hybrid nanocomposite urea biosensor was increased linearly with deposition time. As deposition time increased, amount of tin oxide deposited over cellulose surface also increases, so as to increase the amount of enzyme immobilization and attachment of analyte, attributes to large current output and high sensitivity of sensor. Increasing enzyme activity is observed, with increasing urea concentration. Experimental results suggested that, the proposed biosensor under study is suitable for urea detection below 50 mM.

  3. Bio-Inspired Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Electronic and Photonic Materials and Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-31

    nanoassemblies such 4 that the QDs are sandwiched in the local EM fields of bottom nanopatterned metal support and top metal nanoparticle by using the...highly integrated multifunctional hybrid nanoassemblies for a diverse range of nanobiotechnological applications. ,5.D -510 r,na 50 D - 100 rwn 15 0

  4. Organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposites based on chitosan derivatives and layered double hydroxides with intercalated phacolysin as ocular delivery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Zhiguo; Zhang, Jie; Chi, Huibo; Cao, Feng

    2015-12-01

    This study was mainly aimed to evaluate the potential use of a novel ocular drug delivery system, organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposites based on chitosan derivatives and layered double hydroxides (LDH). Organic polymers of chitosan-glutathione (CG) and pre-activated chitosan-glutathione (CG-2MNA) were successfully synthesized and characterized. LDH with intercalated phacolysin (PCL), including larger hexagonal LDH-PCL (Lh-LDH-PCL), larger spherical LDH-PCL (Ls-LDH-PCL), smaller hexagonal LDH-PCL (Sh-LDH-PCL), CG hybrid LDH-PCL (LDH-PCL-CG), and CG-2MNA hybrid LDH-PCL (LDH-PCL-CG-2MNA), were prepared. The nanocomposites with particle size of 107.2-274.9 nm were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, transmission electron micrographs, etc. In vivo precorneal retention studies showed that the detectable time of all nanocomposites was prolonged from 2 to 6 h in comparison to PCL saline. Accordingly, the AUC0-6h values of Lh-LDH-PCL, Ls-LDH-PCL, Sh-LDH-PCL, LDH-PCL-CG, and LDH-PCL-CG-2MNA nanocomposites were increased by 2.27-, 2.08-, 3.08-, 4.67-, and 3.36-fold, respectively. The Draize test and hematoxylin and eosin staining demonstrated that modified LDH had no eye irritation after single and repeated administration. These results indicated that chitosan derivatives-LDH hybrid nanocomposite dispersion could be a promising ocular drug delivery system to improve precorneal retention time of drugs.

  5. Tungsten hydride complex as a template in organic inorganic hybrid materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montinho, Isilda; Boev, Victor; Fonseca, António M.; Silva, Carlos J. R.; Neves, Isabel C.

    2003-03-01

    A tungsten hydride complex, [WH 2( η2-OOCCH 3)(Ph 2PCH 2CH 2PPh 2) 2][BPh 4], was dispersed in a hybrid matrix synthesized by a sol-gel process. The host matrix of the so-called ureasil is a network of silica to which oligopolyoxyethylene chains [POE, (OCH 2CH 2) n] are grafted by means of urea cross-links. The free complex and sol-gel materials were characterized by thermal analysis (DSC) and spectroscopic methods (FT-IR and UV/Vis). The data gathered indicate that the tungsten(IV) complex is immobilized in the host matrix, and it exhibits structural properties different from those of the free form. These differences could arise either from distortions caused by steric effects imposed by the structure of hybrid matrix or by interactions with the matrix.

  6. Hyperbranched quasi-1D TiO2 nanostructure for hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ghadirzadeh, Ali; Passoni, Luca; Grancini, Giulia; Terraneo, Giancarlo; Li Bassi, Andrea; Petrozza, Annamaria; Di Fonzo, Fabio

    2015-04-15

    The performance of hybrid solar cells is strongly affected by the device morphology. In this work, we demonstrate a poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl)/TiO2 hybrid solar cell where the TiO2 photoanode comprises an array of tree-like hyperbranched quasi-1D nanostructures self-assembled from the gas phase. This advanced architecture enables us to increase the power conversion efficiency to over 1%, doubling the efficiency with respect to state of the art devices employing standard mesoporous titania photoanodes. This improvement is attributed to several peculiar features of this array of nanostructures: high interfacial area; increased optical density thanks to the enhanced light scattering; and enhanced crystallization of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) inside the quasi-1D nanostructure.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of organic/inorganic heterostructure films for hybrid light emitting diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyama, Toshihiko; Ichihara, Tokuyuki; Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Okamoto, Hiroaki

    2007-10-01

    Thin-film light emitting devices based on organic materials have been gathering attentions for applying a flat-panel display and a solid-state lighting. Alternatively, inorganic technologies such as Si-based thin-film technology have been growing almost independently. It is then expected that combining the Si-based thin-film technology with the organic light emitting diode (OLED) technology will develop innovative devices. Here, we report syntheses of the hybrid light emitting diode (LED) with a heterostructure consisting of p-type SiC x and tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum films and characterization for the hybrid LEDs. We present the energy diagram of the heterostructure, and describe that the use of high dark conductivities of the p-type SiC x as well as inserting wide-gap intrinsic a-SiC x at the p-type SiC x/Alq interface are effective for improving device performance.

  8. Improvement of device performance by using zinc oxide in hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Akinobu; Sagawa, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanopowder was applied to hybrid solar cells in combination with poly(3-hexylthiophene). Stability tests of the hybrid solar cell with or without encapsulation with glass and UV cut-off films were performed under 1 sun at 63 °C at a relative humidity of 50%. It was found that the sealed cell showed worse device performance in terms of the loss of the open-circuit voltage (Voc), whereas the unsealed cell exposed to air retained an almost constant Voc for more than 3 d under dark and atmospheric conditions. Placement in O2 atmosphere in the dark led to the recovery of Voc. Cation (Sn4+) doping into ZnO was performed, and the loss of Voc was effectively suppressed through the restraint of the supply of the excited electron from the valence band to the conduction band.

  9. Electrically tunable organic-inorganic hybrid polaritons with monolayer WS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flatten, Lucas C.; Coles, David M.; He, Zhengyu; Lidzey, David G.; Taylor, Robert A.; Warner, Jamie H.; Smith, Jason M.

    2017-01-01

    Exciton-polaritons are quasiparticles consisting of a linear superposition of photonic and excitonic states, offering potential for nonlinear optical devices. The excitonic component of the polariton provides a finite Coulomb scattering cross section, such that the different types of exciton found in organic materials (Frenkel) and inorganic materials (Wannier-Mott) produce polaritons with different interparticle interaction strength. A hybrid polariton state with distinct excitons provides a potential technological route towards in situ control of nonlinear behaviour. Here we demonstrate a device in which hybrid polaritons are displayed at ambient temperatures, the excitonic component of which is part Frenkel and part Wannier-Mott, and in which the dominant exciton type can be switched with an applied voltage. The device consists of an open microcavity containing both organic dye and a monolayer of the transition metal dichalcogenide WS2. Our findings offer a perspective for electrically controlled nonlinear polariton devices at room temperature.

  10. Synthesis, neutralization and blocking procedures of organic/inorganic hybrid scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Costa, Hermes S; Stancioli, Edel F B; Pereira, Marivalda M; Oréfice, Rodrigo L; Mansur, Herman S

    2009-02-01

    Bioactive glasses (BaG) can bind to human bone tissues and have been used in many biomedical applications for the last 30 years. However they usually are weak and brittle. On the other hand, composites that combine polymers and BaG are of particular interest, since they often show an excellent balance between stiffness and toughness. Bioactive glass-poly(vinyl alcohol) foams to be used in tissue engineering applications were previously developed by our group, using the sol-gel route. Since bioactive glass-polymer composite derived from the sol-gel process cannot be submitted to thermal treatments at high temperatures (above 400 degrees C), they usually have unreacted species that can cause cytotoxicity. This work reports a technique for stabilizing the sol-gel derived bioactive glass/poly(vinyl alcohol) hybrids by using glutaraldehyde (GA), NH(4)OH solutions and a blocking solution containing bovine serum albumin. PVA/BaG/GA hybrids were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM/EDX) analyses. Moreover, MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) biocompatibility and cytotoxicity assays were also conducted. The hybrids exhibited pore size varying from 80 to 820 mum. After treatments, no major changes in the pore structure were observed and high levels of cell viability were obtained.

  11. Immobilization of rhodium complexes in chiral organic-inorganic hybrid materials.

    PubMed

    Adima, A; Moreau, J J; Wong Chi Man, M

    2000-06-01

    Two new alkoxysilylated derivatives of (-)-(1R,2R)-1, 2-diaminocyclohexane: M = N-[(triethoxysilyl)propyl]-(-)-(1R,2R)-1, 2-diaminocyclohexane and B = N, N'-bis[(triethoxysilyl)propyl]-(-)-(1R,2R)-1,2-diaminocyclohexane have been synthesized. Their complexation with [Rh(cod)Cl]2 in the presence of TEOS = Si(OEt)4, followed by sol-gel hydrolysis-condensation, afforded new catalytic chiral hybrid materials. Evidence for the presence of the organic moieties complexed by rhodium in these solids was obtained by UV-visible spectroscopy, FT-IR studies, solid state 13C and 29Si CP-MAS NMR analysis, energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) techniques, and elemental analysis. The nitrogen sorption studies and BET analyses ranged these solid gels from nonporous to highly porous materials. The catalytic activities and selectivities of the solid materials have been studied in the asymmetric hydrogen-transfer reduction of prochiral ketones and compared to that of the homogeneous rhodium complexes of the ligands M and B. The hybrid materials appeared interesting supports for enantioselective heterogeneous catalysis leading to chiral alcohols with ee up to 58% in the reduction of acetophenone and up to 98% in the case of the more hindered related ketones. The catalytic properties as a function of the nature of chiral hybrid solid are discussed.

  12. Enhanced light absorption of silicon nanotube arrays for organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Huisu; Song, Hui; Pak, Yusin; Kwon, Il Keun; Jo, Kyubong; Lee, Heon; Jung, Gun Young

    2014-06-04

    By combining nanoimprint lithography technique and a two-step lift-off process, a Si nanotube array is fabricated and applied as a light absorber for n-Si/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells. The light is effectively trapped within the nanotubes and the device reveals a Jsc of 29.9 mA · cm(-2) and a power conversion efficiency of 10.03%, which is an enhancement of 13.4% compared to the cell having the best-known Si architecture of nanocones as a light absorber to date.

  13. Development of New Amperometric Biosensors based on Organic-inorganic Hybrid Ultra-thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnuki, Hitoshi; Endo, Hideaki; Imakubo, Tatsuro; Izumi, Mitsuru

    The hybrid ultra-thin films composed of cationic long-alkyl chain molecules and nano-size Prussian Blue clusters were obtained by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. It was found that the LB films are quite useful as the starting material for building the high performance biosensors based on oxidative enzymes. The biosensors were easily prepared by a simple immersion of the LB films into enzyme solution, then they work under a very low potential range avoiding the interferent current. We demonstrated that the process is applicable to prepare many types of biosensors just by changing the immobilized enzymes.

  14. Capillary force induced formation of monodisperse polystyrene/silica organic-inorganic hybrid hollow spheres.

    PubMed

    Leng, Wenguang; Chen, Min; Zhou, Shuxue; Wu, Limin

    2010-09-07

    This paper presents a "one-spot" procedure to fabricate polystyrene/silica (PS/SiO(2)) hybrid hollow spheres. In this approach, when poly(vinylpyrrolidone)-stabilized PS colloids were deposited by sol-gel derived silica layer under acidic medium, it was interesting to find that the PS/SiO(2) core-shell colloids gradually changed to hollow structure spontaneously in the same medium as reaction went on. The formation of this hollow structure should be attributed to the diffusion of PS macromolecular chains from core particles into the voids between silica nanoparticles driven by the strong capillary force.

  15. Organosilica hybrid nanomaterials with a high organic content: syntheses and applications of silsesquioxanes.

    PubMed

    Croissant, Jonas G; Cattoën, Xavier; Durand, Jean-Olivier; Wong Chi Man, Michel; Khashab, Niveen M

    2016-12-08

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials garner properties from their organic and inorganic matrices as well as synergistic features, and therefore have recently attracted much attention at the nanoscale. Non-porous organosilica hybrid nanomaterials with a high organic content such as silsesquioxanes (R-SiO1.5, with R organic groups) and bridged silsesquioxanes (O1.5Si-R-SiO1.5) are especially attractive hybrids since they provide 20 to 80 weight percent of organic functional groups in addition to the known chemistry and stability of silica. In the organosilica family, silsesquioxanes (R-SiO1.5) stand between silicas (SiO2) and silicones (R2SiO), and are variously called organosilicas, ormosil (organically-modified silica), polysilsesquioxanes and silica hybrids. Herein, we comprehensively review non-porous silsesquioxane and bridged silsesquioxane nanomaterials and their applications in nanomedicine, electro-optics, and catalysis.

  16. Synthesis of hybrid organic-inorganic nanocomposite materials based on CdS nanocrystals for energy conversion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laera, A. M.; Resta, V.; Ferrara, M. C.; Schioppa, M.; Piscopiello, E.; Tapfer, L.

    2011-11-01

    Efficient solar energy conversion is strongly related to the development of new materials with enhanced functional properties. In this context, a wide variety of inorganic, organic, or hybrid nanostructured materials have been investigated. In particular, in hybrid organic-inorganic nanocomposites are combined the convenient properties of organic polymers, such as easy manipulation and mechanical flexibility, and the unique size-dependent properties of nanocrystals (NCs). However, applications of hybrid nanocomposites in photovoltaic devices require a homogeneous and highly dense dispersion of NCs in polymer in order to guarantee not only an efficient charge separation, but also an efficient transport of the carriers to the electrodes without recombination. In previous works, we demonstrated that cadmium thiolate complexes are suitable precursors for the in situ synthesis of nanocrystalline CdS. Here, we show that the soluble [Cd(SBz)2]2·(1-methyl imidazole) complex can be efficiently annealed in a conjugated polymer obtaining a nanocomposite with a regular and compact network of NCs. The proposed synthetic strategies require annealing temperatures well below 200 °C and short time for the thermal treatment, i.e., less than 30 min. We also show that the same complex can be used to synthesize CdS NCs in mesoporous TiO2. The adsorption of cadmium thiolate molecule in TiO2 matrix can be obtained by using chemical bath deposition technique and subsequent thermal annealing. The use of NCs, quantum dots, as sensitizers of TiO2 matrices represents a very promising alternative to common dye-sensitized solar cells and an interesting solution for heterogeneous photocatalysis.

  17. Hybrid organic-inorganic crystals based on ammonium dihydrogen phosphate and ammonium salicylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronov, A. P.; Salo, V. I.; Puzikov, V. M.; Babenko, G. N.; Roshal, A. D.; Tkachenko, V. F.

    2011-11-01

    ADP-NH 4Sal hybrid crystals are grown from aqueous solutions. The influence of the acidity of the mixed solution on the conditions of co-crystallization of the components is studied. The spectral and scintillation characteristics are determined. Co-crystallization of ammonium salicylate (NH 4Sal) and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP, NH 4H 2PO 4) is shown to be feasible, the structure of the doping addition being defined by the solution рН. In basic and weak acidic media the hybrid crystals ADP:NH 4Sal are formed in which salicylate anions are located in the interplanar space between the {110}-type planes in the lattice of ADP. The luminescence spectra contain an emission band maximum with λ max=360 nm. In acidic solutions there are ADP:HSal crystals in which salicylic acid molecules captured by the growth macrosteps are located in the interplanar space of the prismatic {100} and pyramidal {101} growth sectors. The luminescence band undergoes bathochromic shift to λmax=400 nm. The sensitivity of ADP:NH 4Sal scintillation crystals to fast neutrons depends on the concentration of ammonium salicylate in ADP matrix. The highest neutron sensitivity is characteristic of the co-doped ADP:NH 4Sal/Tl scintillation crystals.

  18. A metallocene molecular complex as visible-light absorber for high-voltage organic-inorganic hybrid photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Ayumi; Miyasaka, Tsutomu

    2014-04-14

    A thin solid-state dye-sensitized photovoltaic cell is fabricated by composing organic and inorganic heterojunctions in which the visible-light sensitizers are cyclopentadiene derivatives (Cp*) coordinated to a metal oxide, typically TiO2. The coordination bonds of the metallocene molecular complex (Ti-Cp*) create a new LMCT (ligand-to-metal charge transfer) absorption band and induce a rectified charge transfer from the organic ligands to TiO2, leading to photocurrent generation. Photovoltaic junctions are completed by coating crystalline organic molecules (perylene) as a hole-transport layer on the Cp*-coordinated TiO2 surface by using the vapor deposition method. The molecular plane of Cp* on the TiO2 surfaces seems to help the hole-transport layer to form ordered structures, which effectively improve carrier conductivities and minimize interfacial resistance. The organic-inorganic hybrid thin-film photocell with metallocene molecular complexes is capable of generating high open-circuit voltages exceeding 1.2 V. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Organic-inorganic hybrid fluorous monolithic capillary column for selective solid-phase microextraction of perfluorinated persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiyue; Yang, Zihui; Huang, Yongbin; Jiang, Linbo; Chen, Yingzhuang; Shen, Yao; Chen, Bo

    2013-03-01

    A novel construction strategy of monolithic capillary column for selectively enriching perfluorinated persistent organic pollutants was proposed. The organic-inorganic hybrid fluorous monolithic capillary column was synthesized by a "one-pot" approach via the polycondensation of γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxy-silane, then in situ copolymerization of 1H,1H,7H-dodecafluoroheptyl methacrylate and vinyl group on the precondensed siloxanes. The obtained monolithic columns were systematically characterized. The results demonstrated that the optimal column possessed good mechanical stability and high permeability. The adsorption capacities of the optimized monolithic column for perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate were 0.257 and 0.513 μg/mg, respectively. Adsorption capacities of the monoliths were proved to increasing with increasing the amounts of fluorinated monomers in the fluorous monoliths. Sodium 1-octanesulfonate, as a comparison compound, was hardly adsorbed on the fluorous monolith. In addition, the trace amounts of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate in water samples can be successfully concentrated about 160 times to their original concentrations by this monolithic column. These results demonstrated that the capacity and selectivity of the affinity fluorous column is high and can be applied to the selective enrichment for the perfluorinated persistent organic pollutants from environmental samples.

  20. Hybrid organic/inorganic copolymers with strongly hydrogen-bond acidic properties for acoustic wave and optical sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, J.W.; Kaganove, S.N.; Patrash, S.J.

    1997-05-01

    Hybrid organic/inorganic polymers have been prepared incorporating fluoroalkyl-substituted bisphenol groups linked using oligosiloxane spacers. These hydrogen-bond acidic materials have glass-to-rubber transition temperatures below room temperature and are excellent sorbents for basic vapors. The physical properties such as viscosity and refractive index can be tuned by varying the length of the oligosiloxane spacers and the molecular weight. In addition, the materials are easily cross-linked to yield solid elastomers. The potential use of these materials for chemical sensing has been demonstrated by applying them to surface acoustic wave devices as thin films and detecting the hydrogen-bond basic vapor dimethyl methylphosphonate with high sensitivity. It has also been demonstrated that one of these materials with suitable viscosity and refractive index can be used to clad silica optical fibers; the cladding was applied to freshly drawn fiber using a fiber drawing tower. These fibers have potential as evanescent wave optical fiber sensors. 38 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Perovskite-Like Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Lead Iodide with a Large Organic Cation Incorporated within the Layers.

    PubMed

    Que, Chen-Jie; Mo, Chong-Jiao; Li, Zhao-Qi; Zhang, Guang-Lin; Zhu, Qin-Yu; Dai, Jie

    2017-03-06

    A great effort has been made to investigate 2D perovskites to improve the stability and controllability in the fabrication of photoelectronic devices. As far as we know, only small organic cations such as methylammonium can incorporate into the multilayered perovskite structure except the cations sandwiched between the inorganic layers. We report here a new layered lead iodide, (H2Aepz)3Pb4I14 (1), where larger organic cations, bis-protonated 2-(2-aminoethyl)pyrazole (Aepz), not only were sandwiched between the inorganic layers but also were incorporated within the perovskite-like PbI layered structure. Another 2D compound, (H2Aepz)PbI4 (2), was also prepared that was a one-layer perovskite. A simple Schottky device was prepared to investigate the photoelectroresponsive properties of the compounds in comparison with that of a typical organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite. In general, the energy gap is decreased with an increase in the perovskite layers, but the band gap of two-layered 1 is larger than that of one-layered 2. The photocurrent densities of the compounds are in the order of 1 < 2 < (CH3NH3)PbI3, which is discussed based on the crystal structures and band energy gaps.

  2. Optical properties of LaF3:Er,Yb nanoparticle-doped organic-inorganic hybrid material.

    PubMed

    Li, Tong; Zhang, Dan; Chen, Cong; Bo, Shuhui; Zhang, Daming

    2010-03-01

    Oleic acid (OA)-modified LaF3:Er,Yb nanoparticle-doped organic-inorganic hybrid material (OIHM) was prepared. The absorption spectrum and photoluminescence spectrum were analyzed. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the photoluminescence spectrum was about 83 nm. The Judd-Ofelt theory was used to analyze the absorption spectrum of Er3+ and obtain the intensity parameters: omega2 = 2.11 x 10(-20) cm2, omega4 = 0.78 x 10(-200 cm2, omega6 = 0.56 x 10(-20)cm2. The line strengths predict spontaneous transition probabilities, and the radiative lifetimes are calculated with the Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters. The calculated radiative lifetime of the excited 4I13/2 state of Er3+ is 13.34 ms. Based on the parameters we calculated, OA-modified LaF3:Er,Yb nanoparticle-doped OIHM is a potential material for polymeric optical waveguide amplifiers.

  3. Preparation and characterization of superhydrophobic organic-inorganic hybrid cotton fabrics via γ-radiation-induced graft polymerization.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qianhong; Hu, Jiangtao; Li, Rong; Pang, Lijuan; Xing, Zhe; Xu, Lu; Wang, Mouhua; Guo, Xiaojing; Wu, Guozhong

    2016-09-20

    A new kind of non-fluorine-based organic-inorganic hybrid superhydrophobic cotton fabric was successfully prepared by simultaneous radiation-induced graft polymerization of γ-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxy silane (MAPS) and subsequent end-capping modification with hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS). The chemical structure and surface topography of the pristine and modified cotton fabrics were investigated in detail by ATR-FTIR, XPS, (29)Si NMR, SEM and TGA to confirm that the graft reaction and end-capping modification had taken place. The above results demonstrated that the grafting polymerization and following end-capping reaction were completed, and a grafting layer was immobilized onto the surface of the cotton fabric. Surface wettability measurement and oil-water separation showed that the modified cotton surface not only exhibited the superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 165°, but also afforded a high efficiency of oil-water separation (96%). In particular, this modified cotton fabric retains superhydrophobicity even after 30 laundering cycles or 400 cycles of abrasion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Piezoelectric scattering limited mobility of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites CH3NH3PbI3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ying-Bo; Kong, Xianghua; Chen, Xiaobin; Cooke, David G.; Guo, Hong

    2017-02-01

    Carrier mobility is one of the most important parameters for semiconducting materials and their use in optoelectronic devices. Here we report a systematic first principles analysis of the acoustic phonon scattering mechanism that limits the mobility of CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) perovskites. Due to the unique hybrid organic-inorganic structure, the mechanical, electronic and transport properties are dominated by the same factor, i.e. the weak interatomic bond and the easy rotation of methylammonium (MA) molecules under strain. Both factors make MAPbI3 soft. Rotation of MA molecule induces a transverse shift between Pb and I atoms, resulting in a very low deformation potential and a strong piezoelectricity in MAPbI3. Hence the carrier mobility of pristine MAPbI3 is limited by the piezoelectric scattering, which is consistent to the form of its temperature dependence. Our calculations suggest that in the pristine limit, a high mobility of about several thousand cm2 V‑1 S‑1 is expected for MAPbI3.

  5. CdSe/ZnS quantum dot size dependent carrier relaxation in hybrid organic/inorganic system.

    PubMed

    Uddin, A; Wong, H S; Teo, C C

    2012-10-01

    We have studied the CdSe/ZnS quantum dot (QD) size dependent carrier relaxation dynamics in hybrid organic/inorganic system for the first time. The QD size was from 5.0 to 2.0 nm. The optical narrow emission of quantum dots shift to higher energies as the size of dots gets smaller due to the 3-D confinement which splits the continuous band into a series of discrete quantum states and increases the band gap. The carrier relaxation time in QDs was found to increases as the pump power increased and reached saturation at approximately 326 microW excitation, probably due to the saturation of traps with the photoexcited charge carriers within individual nanoparticles. The relaxation rate was also increased with pump power, indicating that new relaxation processes e.g., Auger processes and faster carrier trapping were present. The slow decay component remained at the lowest power (51microW) excitation with no fast decay present. The decrease of CdSe/ZnS QD size increased the fast component relaxation rate probably due to a higher number of surface defects hence inducing faster trapping of carriers by shallow trap state.

  6. Three iodometalate organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on methylene blue cation: Syntheses, structures, properties and DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Wen-Xiang; Lin, Jian; Song, Li; Qin, Lai-Shun; Shi, Hong-Sheng; Guo, Jia-Yu; Shu, Kang-Ying

    2012-08-01

    The functional dye of methylene blue (MB) has been employed for seeking new organic-inorganic hybrid photochromic materials. Although the photochromism has not been observed yet, three iodometalate compounds, namely (MB) (PbI3) (DMF) (1), (MB)4(Cu2I4)2 (2), and (MB)3(Bi2I9) (DMF)2 (3), have been synthesized and characterized. The iodometalate anion features as a [PbI3]∞- chain in 1, a dinuclear unit of Cu2I42- in 2, and a dinuclear unit of Bi2I93- in 3. Due to the synergy of cations and anions, the MB+ cations present supramolecular column stacks in 1 and 3, but a novel supramolecular octamer structure in 2. Their thermogravimetric analyses reveal that the polymeric inorganic anion structure is helpful to increase the stability of cation whereas the discrete structure is adverse. For seeking some clues which is significant to searching new photochromic systems, the density functional theory (DFT) studies have been performed on 1, in which the electronic structure analyses suggests that the stacking mode of cations and anions could be also an important factor influencing the charge transfer between them. In addition, dielectric hysteresis loop testing has been performed on 1 due to its polar space group of Cc.

  7. Durable and Hydrophobic Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Coatings via Fluoride Rearrangement of Phenyl T12 Silsesquioxane and Siloxanes.

    PubMed

    Krug, David J; Laine, Richard M

    2017-03-08

    There have been many successful efforts to enhance the water shedding properties of hydrophobic and superhydrophobic coatings, but durability is often a secondary concern. Here, we describe durable and hydrophobic coatings prepared via fluoride catalyzed rearrangement reaction of dodecaphenylsilsesquioxane [PhSiO1.5]12 (DDPS) with octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4). Hydrophobic properties and wear resistance are maximized by incorporating both low surface energy moieties and cross-linkable moieties into the siloxane network. Water contact angles as high as 150 ± 4° were achieved even after 150 wear cycles with SiC sandpaper (2000 grit, 2 kPa). These hybrid organic-inorganic copolymers also have high thermal stabilities after curing at 250 °C (Td5% ≥ 340 °C in air) due to the siloxane network with a maximum Td5% of >460 °C measured for the system with the highest silsesquioxane content. The coating systems presented here offer a unique combination of hydrophobicity and mechanical/thermal stability and could greatly expand the utility of water repellent coatings.

  8. Dialkylenecarbonate-Bridged Polysilsesquioxanes. Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Sol-Gels with a Thermally Labile Bridging Group

    SciTech Connect

    Assink, Roger A.; Baugher, Brigitta M.; Beach, James V.; Loy, Douglas A.; Shea, Kenneth J.; Small, James H.; Tran, Joseph

    1999-07-20

    In this paper, we introduce a new approach for altering the properties of bridged polysilsesquioxane xerogels using post-processing mobilization of the polymeric network. The bridging organic group contains latent functionalities that can be liberated thermally, photochemically, or by chemical means after the gel has been processed to a xerogel. These modifications can produce changes in density, volubility, porosity, and or chemical properties of the material. Since every monomer possesses two latent functional groups, the technique allows for the introduction of high levels of functionality in hybrid organic-inorganic materials. Dialkylenecarbonate-bridged polysilsesquioxane gels were prepared by the sol-gel polymerization of bis(triethoxysilylpropyl)carbonate (1) and bis(triethoxysilylisobutyl)-carbonate (2). Thermal treatment of the resulting non-porous xerogels and aerogels at 300-350 C resulted in quantitative decarboxylation of the dialkylenecarbonate bridging groups to give new hydroxyalkyl and olefinic substituted polysilsesquioxane monolithic xerogels and aerogels that can not be directly prepared through direct sol-gel polymerization of organotrialkoxysilanes.

  9. Magnetically modulated electroluminescence from hybrid organic/inorganic light-emitting diodes based on electron donor-acceptor exciplex blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Zhiyong; Baniya, Sangita; Zhang, Chuang; Sun, Dali; Vardeny, Z. Valy

    2016-03-01

    We report room temperature magnetically modulated electroluminescence from a hybrid organic/inorganic light-emitting diode (h-OLED), in which an inorganic magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) with large room temperature magnetoresistance is coupled to an N,N,N ',N '-Tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)benzidine (MeO-TPD): tris-[3-(3-pyridyl)mesityl]borane (3TPYMB) [D-A] based OLED that shows thermally activated delayed luminescence. The exciplex-based OLED provides two spin-mixing channels: upper energy channel of polaron pairs and lower energy channel of exciplexes. In operation, the large resistance mismatch between the MTJ and OLED components is suppressed due to the non-linear I-V characteristic of the OLED. This leads to enhanced giant magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) at room temperature. We measured MEL of ~ 75% at ambient conditions. Supported by SAMSUNG Global Research Outreach (GRO) program, and also by the NSF-Material Science & Engineering Center (MRSEC) program at the University of Utah (DMR-1121252).

  10. Piezoelectric scattering limited mobility of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites CH3NH3PbI3

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ying-Bo; Kong, Xianghua; Chen, Xiaobin; Cooke, David G.; Guo, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Carrier mobility is one of the most important parameters for semiconducting materials and their use in optoelectronic devices. Here we report a systematic first principles analysis of the acoustic phonon scattering mechanism that limits the mobility of CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) perovskites. Due to the unique hybrid organic-inorganic structure, the mechanical, electronic and transport properties are dominated by the same factor, i.e. the weak interatomic bond and the easy rotation of methylammonium (MA) molecules under strain. Both factors make MAPbI3 soft. Rotation of MA molecule induces a transverse shift between Pb and I atoms, resulting in a very low deformation potential and a strong piezoelectricity in MAPbI3. Hence the carrier mobility of pristine MAPbI3 is limited by the piezoelectric scattering, which is consistent to the form of its temperature dependence. Our calculations suggest that in the pristine limit, a high mobility of about several thousand cm2 V−1 S−1 is expected for MAPbI3. PMID:28150743

  11. Designing artificial photosynthetic devices using hybrid organic-inorganic modules based on polyoxometalates.

    PubMed

    Symes, Mark D; Cogdell, Richard J; Cronin, Leroy

    2013-08-13

    Artificial photosynthesis aims at capturing solar energy and using it to produce storable fuels. However, while there is reason to be optimistic that such approaches can deliver higher energy conversion efficiencies than natural photosynthetic systems, many serious challenges remain to be addressed. Perhaps chief among these is the issue of device stability. Almost all approaches to artificial photosynthesis employ easily oxidized organic molecules as light harvesters or in catalytic centres, frequently in solution with highly oxidizing species. The 'elephant in the room' in this regard is that oxidation of these organic moieties is likely to occur at least as rapidly as oxidation of water, meaning that current device performance is severely curtailed. Herein, we discuss one possible solution to this problem: using self-assembling organic-polyoxometalate hybrid structures to produce compartments inside which the individual component reactions of photosynthesis can occur without such a high incidence of deleterious side reactions.

  12. Strain tuning of ferroelectric polarization in hybrid organic inorganic perovskite compounds.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Saurabh; Di Sante, Domenico; Stroppa, Alessandro

    2015-11-19

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are hybrid crystalline compounds comprised of an extended ordered network made up of organic molecules, organic linkers and metal cations. In particular, MOFs with the same topology as inorganic perovskites have been shown to possess interesting properties, e.g., coexistence of ferroelectric and magnetic ordering. Using first-principles density functional theory, we have investigated the effect of strain on the compounds C(NH2)3Cr(HCOO)3 and (CH3CH2NH3)Mn(HCOO)3. Here, we show that compressive strain can substantially increase the ferroelectric polarization by more than 300%, and we discuss the mechanism involved in the strain enhancement of polarization. Our study highlights the complex interplay between strain and organic cations' dipoles and put forward the possibility of tuning of ferroelectric polarization through appropriate thin film growing.

  13. Gold nanoparticles embedded in organic/inorganic hybrid matrix: electrical and electrochemical behavior (withdrawal notice)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, Sandra D. F. C.; Silva, J. P. B.; Silva, Carlos J. R.; Capan, I.; Gomes, M. J. M.; Costa, Manuel F. M.

    2013-05-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with different diameters, from 3 to 32 nm, were immobilized in amine-alcohol-silicate matrix by mixing a preformed nanoparticle colloid with the precursors of amine-alcohol-silicate (AAs) prior to the solgel transition. These nanocomposites show high optical quality and optical features dictated by the size of the nanoparticle dopants but also present a high degree of flexibility which can largely enhance the range of practical applications. The current-voltage, impedance and capacitance-voltage characteristics of these materials have been measured. The electrochemical and impedimetric results reveal that AuNPs with different sizes give different signals, thus providing useful information that allows the employment of AuNPs in electrochemical biosensors. Capacitance- voltage measurements showed that these composites embedded AuNPs exhibited a large hysteresis window of 2.4V which indicates the possibility of charge storage in the Au nanoparticles embedded AAs hybrids.

  14. Sol-gel synthesis of hybrid organic-inorganic tin oxide based materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ribot, F.O.; Banse, F.; Sanchez, C.

    1994-12-31

    RSn(OAm{sup t}){sub 3} with R = n-butyl, n-butenyl or para-styryl, which are monomeric precursors, have been hydrolyzed. The so-obtained products have been characterized mainly by {sup 119}Sn NMR. In every case, tin expands its coordination from 4 to 5 and 6, and hydrolysis yields tin oxo-hydroxo species of small size. For n-butyl and n-butenyl, a cage-like tin oxo-hydroxo cluster, {l_brace}(RSn){sub 12}({mu}{sub 3}-O){sub 14}({mu}{sub 2}-OH){sub 6}{r_brace}{sup 2+}, was evidenced as the major compound formed. Organic polymerization of the unsaturated organic groups linked to tin was initiated on the hydrolysis products and yielded hybrid systems which can be pictured as tin oxo-hydroxo oligomers attached together by polymeric chains.

  15. Alkylene-bridged polygerm- and polygermsilsesqui-oxanes: New hybrid organic-inorganic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jamison, G.M.; Loy, D.A.; Zender, G.; Shea, K.J.

    1993-12-31

    Alkylene-bridge polygerm- and polygermsilsequioxanes have been formed by hydrolysis-condensation of their corresponding (EtO){sub 3}M(CH{sub 2}){sub n}Ge(OEt){sub 3} monomers under HCl- and NEt{sub 3}-catalyzed conditions in ethanol. Solid state {sup 13}C and {sup 29}Si NMR indicate the retention of the alkylene bridging moiety during polymerization. The resulting aerogels are mesoporous materials with high surface areas. Incorporation of the short ethylene bridging unit results in higher surface areas than when heylene bridges are present. The porous nature of hexylene-bridged hybrid network [Si(CH{sub 2}){sub 6}GeO{sub 3}]{sub n} appears insensitive to the acidic or basic nature of the catalyst employed in it formation, in contrast to its polysilsesquioxane counterpart. Work is underway to determine the origin of porosity in these materials, and to characterize xerogel materials generated from these monomers.

  16. Application of hybrid organic/inorganic polymers as coatings on metallic substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustinho, T. R.; Motz, G.; Ihlow, S.; Machado, R. A. F.

    2016-09-01

    Acrylic polymers, particularly poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), have certain specific properties, such as good film formation, transparency, and good mechanical properties, which have been widely used in paints, coatings and adhesives. However, the limited chemical and physical stability of these pure polymers limits their applications when exposed to hostile conditions, as in ship hulls, for example. A suitable way to enhance PMMA properties is the addition of silicon polymers with very good protective characteristics. In this study, a PMMA and HTT 1800 (commercial silazane) copolymer were applied on metallic substrate and compared to pure PMMA and HTT 1800. All the materials were applied as coatings. They were applied on stainless steel via dip-coating to investigate the coating properties. Thermal cycling was employed to analyze coating durability at high temperatures (50 °C to 600 °C). Optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the coated surfaces, and the adhesion of pure PMMA, pure HTT 1800 and PMMA/HTT 1800 coatings on metallic substrate was investigated by Cross-Cut-Test (ASTM D 3359). The sessile drop method was used to determine the contact angle. PMMA coatings presented complete degradation from 250 °C, while hybrid coatings of PMMA and HTT 1800 have good protection until 400 °C. The adherence of the coating on metallic substrate showed improvement in all synthesized materials when compared to pure PMMA, obtaining the best adherence possible. The contact angle test showed that the hydrophobicity of the hybrid coatings is higher than that of the pure coatings.

  17. Clustomesogens: Liquid Crystalline Hybrid Nanomaterials Containing Functional Metal Nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Molard, Yann

    2016-08-16

    Inorganic phosphorescent octahedral metal nanoclusters fill the gap between metal complexes and nanoparticles. They are finite groups of metal atoms linked by metal-metal bonds, with an exact composition and structure at the nanometer scale. As their phosphorescence internal quantum efficiency can approach 100%, they represent a very attractive class of molecular building blocks to design hybrid nanomaterials dedicated to light energy conversion, optoelectronic, display, lighting, or theragnostic applications. They are obtained as AnM6X(i)8X(a)6 ternary salt powders (A = alkali cation, M = Mo, Re, W, X(i): halogen inner ligand, X(a) = halogen apical ligand) by high temperature solid state synthesis (750-1200 °C). However, their ceramic-like behavior has largely restricted their use as functional components in the past. Since these last two decades, several groups, including ours, started to tackle the challenge of integrating them in easy-to-process materials. Within this context, we have extensively explored the nanocluster ternary salt specificities to develop a new class of self-organized hybrid organic-inorganic nanomaterials known as clustomesogens. These materials, combine the specific properties of nanoclusters (magnetic, electronic, luminescence) with the anisotropy-related properties of liquid crystals (LCs). This Account covers the research and development of clustomesogens starting from the design concepts and synthesis to their introduction in functional devices. We developed three strategies to build such hybrid super- or supramolecules. In the covalent approach, we capitalized on the apical ligand-metal bond iono-covalent character to graft tailor-made organic LC promoters on the {M6X(i)8}(n+) nanocluster cores. The supramolecular approach relies on the host-guest complexation of the ternary cluster salt alkali cations with functional crown ether macrocycles. We showed that the hybrid LC behavior depends on the macrocycles structural features

  18. Computational molecular design of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane based organic-inorganic hybrid semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Feng

    Cubic silsesquioxanes (T8 SQs), with the formula of [RSiO1.5] 8, enable advanced materials design. In this thesis, a computational materials science framework, including ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations, molecular dynamics (MD), and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, was developed to perform computational molecular design and crystal engineering of silsesquioxane based diacene-SQ and then octa(halogenphenyl)-SQ molecular systems. The goal of this project was to identify novel molecular architectures, a priori, that exhibit targeted self-assembly behaviors and result in materials with improved electronic properties. First, existing force fields, including our in house charge transfer reactive (CTR) force field, and COMPASS, were evaluated for simulating cubic silsesquioxane systems. All force fields reproduced the experimental structure of SQ-based crystals very well. However, only the FLX force field reproduced the experimentally observed vibrational properties and thermodynamic behavior. Next, targeting materials performance, such as high electronic mobility, a series of diacene-SQ molecules were designed and their crystal structures predicted by following the computational molecular design recipe that accounts for transport theory, symmetry relationships, polymorph prediction procedures, and solid state electronic property evaluation methods. Computationally derived diacene-SQ crystals are predicted to exhibit advanced electronic properties, such as very small band gaps and parallel packing of the acene groups in crystal structures, indicating excellent transport properties, as well as improved thermal and mechanical properties. Finally, a series of new small-band gap octa(halogenphenyl)-SQ molecular systems were identified by computationally exploring alternative architectures and functionalization of recently synthesized octa(halogenphenyl)-SQ crystals. These hybrid molecular crystals also feature other unique properties, such as solution

  19. Organic-inorganic hybrid anion exchange hollow fiber membranes: a novel device for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Na; Wu, Cuiming; Cheng, Yiyun; Xu, Tongwen

    2011-04-15

    The clinical use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (such as sodium salicylate (NaSA)) for the treatment of chronic arthritis is limited due to the adverse effects and patient non-compliance. In order to solve these problems, anion exchange hollow fiber membranes (AEHFMs) are proposed for the first time here as potential drug carriers. Brominated poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (BPPO) is used as the starting membrane material. In-situ sol-gel process of γ-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane (γ-MPS) in BPPO matrix is operated so as to enhance the membranes' thermal and dimensional stability. The performances of the membranes in controlled release of the drug (NaSA as the model drug) are improved accordingly. Loading and release experiments illustrate that the hybrid AEHFM can bind salicylate (SA⁻) at a high loading efficiency (28.4%), and the retention of the drug on the membrane matrix is significantly prolonged (drug released in 7 days under physiological condition: 51.9%, neglecting the drug bound by protein). Meanwhile, the membrane is biocompatible and can support the adherence, growth, and survival of human cells. Overall, the prepared AEHFM is a promising scaffolding material for drug delivery and tissue engineering.

  20. Flexible Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Near-Infrared Photoplethysmogram Sensor for Cardiovascular Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huihua; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Guodong; Luo, Ningqi; Zhao, Ni

    2017-08-01

    Wearable photoplethysmogram (PPG) sensors offer convenient and informative measurements for evaluating daily physiological states of individuals. In this work, epidermal and flexible near-infrared (NIR) PPG sensors integrating a low-power, high-sensitivity organic phototransistor (OPT) with a high-efficiency inorganic light-emitting diode are developed. By exploiting an organic bulk heterojunction active layer and a bilayer gate dielectric design, a low voltage (<3 V) operated OPT with NIR responsivity as high as 3.5 × 10(5) A W(-1) and noise equivalent power of 1.2 × 10(-15) W Hz(-1/2) is achieved, greatly surpassing commercial available silicon-based photodetectors. In addition, the ultrathin encapsulation structure renders the device highly flexible and allows transfer printing of the device directly onto human skin. It is demonstrated that the epidermal/flexible PPG sensors are capable of continuously monitoring heart rate variability and precisely tracking the changes of pulse pressure at different postures of human subjects with the aid of electrocardiogram monitoring, exhibiting more reliable performance than commercial PPG sensors while consuming less power. The study suggests that the hybrid PPG sensor design may provide a promising solution for low-power, real-time physiological monitoring. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Nanocomposite Based Organic-Inorganic Cu3BiS3 High Sensitive Hybrid Photonic Devices.

    PubMed

    Murali, Banavoth; Krupanidhi, S B

    2015-04-01

    We report the synthesis and application Cu3BiS3 nanorods in infrared photodectection. Cu3BiS3 nano rods were characterized structurally, optically and electrically. The detailed IR photodectection properties in terms of photo response were demonstrated with IR lamp and 1064 nm laser illuminations. The rapid photocurrent time constants followed by the slower components, resulting due to the defect states. The photo detecting properties for different concentrations of nanorods blended with the conjugate polymer devices were demonstrated. Further the photocurrent was enhanced to threefold increase from 3.47 x 10(-7) A to 2.37 x 10(-3) A at 1 V for 10 mg nanorods embedded in the polymer device. Responsivity of hybrid device was enhanced from 0.0158 A/W to 102 A/W. The detailed trap assisted space charge transport properties were studied considering the different regimes. Hence Cu3BiS3 can be a promising candidate in the nano switchable near IR photodetectors.

  2. Stable organic-inorganic hybrid of polyaniline/α-zirconium phosphate for efficient removal of organic pollutants in water environment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Wu, Xi-Lin; Xu, Wei-Hong; Huang, Xing-Jiu; Liu, Jin-Huai; Xu, An-Wu

    2012-05-01

    In this article, organic-inorganic hybrid materials of polyaniline/α-zirconium phosphate (PANI/α-ZrP) was synthesized by in situ oxidative polymerization reaction and characterized by Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR), field-emission scanning electron microscopic (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that polyaniline (PANI) was successfully grown on the surface of α-zirconium phosphate (α-ZrP) nanoplates. The PANI/α-ZrP nanocomposites were further applied to remove methyl orange (MO), which was used as a model of organic pollutants in aqueous solution. A synergistic effect of PANI and α-ZrP on promoting the adsorption removal of MO was observed. The PANI/α-ZrP nanocomposites exhibited excellent maximum adsorption capacity toward MO (377.46 mg g(-1)), which is superior to that of PANI nanotubes (254.15 mg g(-1)) and much higher than that of many other adsorbents. The adsorption isotherms of MO can be well-fitted with the Langmuir model and the adsorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order model. MO adsorption decreased with increasing solution pH at pH > 4.0 implying that MO adsorption on PANI/α-ZrP may via electrostatic interactions between amine and imine groups on the surface of PANI/α-ZrP and MO molecules. This study implies that the hybrid materials of PANI/α-ZrP can be suggested as potential adsorbents to remove organic dyes from large volumes of aqueous solutions.

  3. Synthesis of a novel organic-inorganic hybrid of polyaniline/titanium phosphate for Re(VII) removal.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yang; Chen, Changlun; Chen, He; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Xiangke

    2015-05-21

    The organic-inorganic hybrid material of polyaniline/titanium(IV) (PANI/Ti(HPO4)2) was synthesized by an oxidative polymerization reaction. The PANI/Ti(HPO4)2 was applied to remove Re(VII). The size of Ti(HPO4)2 nanoplates has no obvious effect on the sorption capacity. The effects of various environmental factors (such as pH, extra anions (NO3(-) and MO4(2-)) and temperature) on Re(VII) sorption to PANI/Ti(HPO4)2 were investigated by batch experiments. The sorption kinetics followed a pseudo-second-order model. The nitrogen-containing functional groups of PANI promoted Re(VII) sorption. The PANI/Ti(HPO4)2 exhibited excellent maximum sorption capacity to Re(VII) (47.62 mg g(-1)), which was superior to that of PANI (10.75 mg g(-1)) and much higher than that of many other sorbents. The sorption isotherms of Re(VII) can be well fitted with the Langmuir model. Re(VII) sorption decreased with increasing solution pH at pH > 4.0, which implied that Re(VII) sorption on PANI/Ti(HPO4)2 might be attributed to the outer-sphere complexation between amine and imine groups on the surface of PANI/Ti(HPO4)2 and Re(VII). This study implies that the hybrid material of PANI/Ti(HPO4)2 can be regarded as a potential sorbent to remove Re(VII) and its analogues from large volumes of aqueous solutions.

  4. Flexible Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Field-Effect Transistors with High Performance and Operational Stability.

    PubMed

    Dahiya, Abhishek S; Opoku, Charles; Poulin-Vittrant, Guylaine; Camara, Nicolas; Daumont, Christophe; Barbagiovanni, Eric G; Franzò, Giorgia; Mirabella, Salvo; Alquier, Daniel

    2017-01-11

    The production of high-quality semiconducting nanostructures with optimized electrical, optical, and electromechanical properties is important for the advancement of next-generation technologies. In this context, we herein report on highly obliquely aligned single-crystalline zinc oxide nanosheets (ZnO NSs) grown via the vapor-liquid-solid approach using r-plane (01-12) sapphire as the template surface. The high structural and optical quality of as-grown ZnO NSs has been confirmed using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and temperature-dependent photoluminescence, respectively. To assess the potential of our NSs as effective building materials in high-performance flexible electronics, we fabricate organic (parylene C)/inorganic (ZnO NS) hybrid field-effect transistor (FET) devices on flexible substrates using room-temperature assembly processes. Extraction of key FET performance parameters suggests that as-grown ZnO NSs can successfully function as excellent n-type semiconducting modules. Such devices are found to consistently show very high on-state currents (Ion) > 40 μA, high field-effect mobility (μeff) > 200 cm(2)/(V s), exceptionally high on/off current modulation ratio (Ion/off) of around 10(9), steep subthreshold swing (s-s) < 200 mV/decade, very low hysteresis, and negligible threshold voltage shifts with prolonged electrical stressing (up to 340 min). The present study delivers a concept of integrating high-quality ZnO NS as active semiconducting elements in flexible electronic circuits.

  5. Organic-inorganic hybrid rare earth complexes based on polymolybdates with intrinsic photosensitive properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Ma, Pengtao; Niu, Jingyang

    2015-03-14

    A series of organic–inorganic hybrid rare earth complexes {[RE2(PO)2(H2O)10][H2Mo36O112(OH2)12(PO)4]}·5PO·2(CH3CN)·nH2O [n = 23–42, RE(III) = Nd(III), 1; Sm(III), 2; Eu(III), 3; Gd(III), 4; Dy(III), 5; Er(III), 6; Tm(III), 7; Yb(III), 8; Lu(III), 9; Y(III), 10; PO = piperidin-2-one] have been synthesized and fully characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, IR spectra, thermogravimetric analysis and UV-vis spectra. Structural analysis reveals that compounds 1-10 are isostructural and crystallize in the monoclinic P2(1)/n space group. Each compound contains a centrosymmetric anionic cluster [Mo36O112(OH2)12(PO)4](8-), which could be described as the derivative of [Mo36O112(OH2)16](8-) with four water molecules substituted by organic PO molecules. Each {Mo18} subunit connects with one RE(III) ion via its two terminal O atoms from two independent {MoO6} octahedra. The eight coordinated RE(III) ion with a distorted tetragonal antiprism coordination geometry is also surrounded by another six oxygen atoms, five of them from five water molecules and the final one from one PO molecule. Compounds 1-10 show considerable photosensitive behavior under visible light excitation. In addition, compound 3 exhibits three emission bands at 580, 595 and 617 nm in the solid state, which could be assigned to (5)D0→(7)F0, (5)D0→(7)F1 and (5)D0→(7)F2 transitions of Eu(III) ions, respectively.

  6. Ultrathin, flexible organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells based on silicon nanowires and PEDOT:PSS.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manisha; Pudasaini, Pushpa Raj; Ruiz-Zepeda, Francisco; Elam, David; Ayon, Arturo A

    2014-03-26

    Recently, free-standing, ultrathin, single-crystal silicon (c-Si) membranes have attracted considerable attention as a suitable material for low-cost, mechanically flexible electronics. In this paper, we report a promising ultrathin, flexible, hybrid solar cell based on silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The free-standing, ultrathin c-Si membranes of different thicknesses were produced by KOH etching of double-side-polished silicon wafers for various etching times. The processed free-standing silicon membranes were observed to be mechanically flexible, and in spite of their relatively small thickness, the samples tolerated the different steps of solar cell fabrication, including surface nanotexturization, spin-casting, dielectric film deposition, and metallization. However, in terms of the optical performance, ultrathin c-Si membranes suffer from noticeable transmission losses, especially in the long-wavelength region. We describe the experimental performance of a promising light-trapping scheme in the aforementioned ultrathin c-Si membranes of thicknesses as small as 5.7 μm employing front-surface random SiNW texturization in combination with a back-surface distribution of silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs). We report the enhancement of both the short-circuit current density (JSC) and the open-circuit voltage (VOC) that has been achieved in the described devices. Such enhancement is attributable to the plasmonic backscattering effect of the back-surface Ag NPs, which led to an overall 10% increase in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the devices compared to similar structures without Ag NPs. A PCE in excess of 6.62% has been achieved in the described devices having a c-Si membrane of thickness 8.6 μm. The described device technology could prove crucial in achieving an efficient, low-cost, mechanically flexible photovoltaic device in the near future.

  7. Effects of molecular interface modification in hybrid organic-inorganic photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goh, Chiatzun; Scully, Shawn R.; McGehee, Michael D.

    2007-06-01

    We have systematically investigated the effects of surface modification of titania (TiO2) in hybrid TiO2/regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) photovoltaic cells. By employing a series of para-substituted benzoic acids with varying dipoles and a series of multiply substituted benzene carboxylic acids, the energy offset at the TiO2/polymer interface and thus the open-circuit voltage of devices can be tuned systematically by 0.25 V. Transient photovoltage measurements showed that the recombination kinetics was dominated by charge carrier concentration in these devices and were closely associated with the dark current. The saturated photocurrent of TiO2/P3HT devices exhibited more than a twofold enhancement when molecular modifiers with large electron affinity were employed. The ability of modifiers to accept charge from polymers, as revealed in photoluminescence quenching measurement with blends of polymers, was shown to be correlated with the enhancement in device photocurrent. A planar geometry photoluminescence quenching measurement showed that TiO2 substrates modified by these same molecules that accept charge quenched more excitons in regioregular P3HT than bare TiO2 surfaces. An exciton diffusion length in P3HT as large as 6.5-8.5 nm was extracted. By measuring the external quantum efficiency (EQE) of working devices, it was found that all of the excitons that were quenched were accountable as extracted photocurrent. EQE was effectively increased from 5% to 10%-14% with certain surface modifiers; consequently exciton harvesting was more than doubled. The use of ruthenium (II) sensitizing dyes with good exciton harvesting property coupled with suppression of the recombination kinetics improved the efficiency of optimized bilayer TiO2/P3HT devices from 0.34% to 0.6% under AM 1.5 solar illuminations. The implication of this work is directly relevant to the design of nanostructured bulk heterojunction inorganic-organic cells, in which efficient exciton

  8. Quantum confinement and dielectric profiles of colloidal nanoplatelets of halide inorganic and hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapori, Daniel; Kepenekian, Mikaël; Pedesseau, Laurent; Katan, Claudine; Even, Jacky

    2016-03-01

    Quantum confinement as well as high frequency ε∞ and static εs dielectric profiles are described for nanoplatelets of halide inorganic perovskites CsPbX3 (X = I, Br, Cl) and hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOP) in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) structures. 3D HOP are currently being sought for their impressive photovoltaic ability. Prior to this sudden popularity, 2D HOP materials were driving intense activity in the field of optoelectronics. Such developments have been enriched by the recent ability to synthesize colloidal nanostructures of controlled sizes of 2D and 3D HOP. This raises the need to achieve a thorough description of the electronic structure and dielectric properties of these systems. In this work, we go beyond the abrupt dielectric interface model and reach the atomic scale description. We examine the influence of the nature of the halogen and of the cation on the band structure and dielectric constants. Similarly, we survey the effect of dimensionality and shape of the perovskite. In agreement with recent experimental results, we show an increase of the band gap and a decrease of ε∞ when the size of a nanoplatelet reduces. By inspecting 2D HOP, we find that it cannot be described as a simple superposition of independent inorganic and organic layers. Finally, the dramatic impact of ionic contributions on the dielectric constant εs is analysed.Quantum confinement as well as high frequency ε∞ and static εs dielectric profiles are described for nanoplatelets of halide inorganic perovskites CsPbX3 (X = I, Br, Cl) and hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOP) in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) structures. 3D HOP are currently being sought for their impressive photovoltaic ability. Prior to this sudden popularity, 2D HOP materials were driving intense activity in the field of optoelectronics. Such developments have been enriched by the recent ability to synthesize colloidal nanostructures of controlled

  9. Synthesis, structural and optical characterization of APbX{sub 3} (A=methylammonium, dimethylammonium, trimethylammonium; X=I, Br, Cl) hybrid organic-inorganic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, Alessandro; Quadrelli, Paolo; Amoroso, Giuseppe; Milanese, Chiara; Boiocchi, Massimo; Sironi, Angelo; Patrini, Maddalena; Guizzetti, Giorgio; Malavasi, Lorenzo

    2016-08-15

    In this paper we report the synthesis, the crystal structure and the optical response of APbX{sub 3} (A=MA, DMA, and TMA; X=I, Br) hybrid organic-inorganic materials including some new phases. We observe that as the cation group increases in size, the optical absorption edge shifts to higher energies with energy steps which are systematic and independent on the anion. A linear correlation between the optical bad gap and the tolerance factor has been shown for the series of samples investigated. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structure and the optical response of the two series of hybrid organic-inorganic materials APbX{sub 3} (A=MA, DMA, and TMA; X=I, Br), which include some new phases, are reported. A dependence of crystal structure and band-gap with tolerance factor is shown. Display Omitted - Highlights: • DMAPbI{sub 3}, TMAPbI{sub 3} and TMAPbBr{sub 3} are reported as new hybrid organic-inorganic compounds. • Crystal structure and optical properties as a function of the number of methyl groups are provided. • Correlation between structure and optical properties are given as a function of tolerance factor.

  10. Induction of Syndecan-4 by Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Molecules with a 1,10-Phenanthroline Structure in Cultured Vascular Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Hara, Takato; Kojima, Takayuki; Matsuzaki, Hiroka; Nakamura, Takehiro; Yoshida, Eiko; Fujiwara, Yasuyuki; Yamamoto, Chika; Saito, Shinichi; Kaji, Toshiyuki

    2017-02-08

    Organic-inorganic hybrid molecules constitute analytical tools used in biological systems. Vascular endothelial cells synthesize and secrete proteoglycans, which are macromolecules consisting of a core protein and glycosaminoglycan side chains. Although the expression of endothelial proteoglycans is regulated by several cytokines/growth factors, there may be alternative pathways for proteoglycan synthesis aside from downstream pathways activated by these cytokines/growth factors. Here, we investigated organic-inorganic hybrid molecules to determine a variant capable of analyzing the expression of syndecan-4, a transmembrane heparan-sulfate proteoglycan, and identified 1,10-phenanthroline (o-Phen) with or without zinc (Zn-Phen) or rhodium (Rh-Phen). Bovine aortic endothelial cells in culture were treated with these compounds, and the expression of syndecan-4 mRNA and core proteins was determined by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis, respectively. Our findings indicated that o-Phen and Zn-Phen specifically and strongly induced syndecan-4 expression in cultured vascular endothelial cells through activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α/β pathway via inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase-domain-containing protein 2. These results demonstrated an alternative pathway involved in mediating induction of endothelial syndecan-4 expression and revealed organic-inorganic hybrid molecules as effective tools for analyzing biological systems.

  11. Aggregation of dipolar molecules in SiO2 hybrid organic-inorganic films: use of silver nanoparticles as inhibitors of molecular aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Alfredo; García-Macedo, Jorge; Brusatin, Giovanna; Guglielmi, Massimo

    2013-04-01

    The technological implementation of hybrid organic-inorganic materials in second order nonlinear optical photonic devices depends strongly on the ability of the host matrixes to contain high loads of dipolar molecules without aggregation. Some organic molecules are often used to diminish the attracting interactions between dipolar molecules in such kind of materials, but their efficiency as inhibitors of molecular aggregation is limited by their polarizability. In this work, we report the use of silver nanoparticles as inhibitors of molecular aggregation in hybrid organic-inorganic films doped with dipolar molecules. The large polarizability of the silver nanoparticles makes them ideal moieties for the inhibition of the electrostatic interactions between dipolar nonlinear optical molecules. The average size of the silver nanoparticles in this work was 70.5 nm in diameter, they were synthesized using silver nitrate (AgNO3) as precursor and aminoethylaminopropyltrimethoxysilane as reducing agent. These nanoparticles were immersed in SiO2 hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel films doped with dipolar chromophores to study their effect as inhibitors of dipolar chromophores aggregation. The presence of the silver nanoparticles in the solid films was confirmed by transmission electronic microscopy and UV-Visible spectroscopy. UV-Visible spectroscopy was also used to monitor the dipolar chromophores aggregation in the SiO2 films. We found that, at room temperature, silver nanoparticles are good inhibiting chromophores aggregation in comparison with the performance of organic inhibitors.

  12. Ampholine-functionalized hybrid organic-inorganic silica material as sorbent for solid-phase extraction of acidic and basic compounds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingting; Chen, Yihui; Ma, Junfeng; Chen, Mingliang; Nie, Chenggang; Hu, Minjie; Li, Ying; Jia, Zhijian; Fang, Jianghua; Gao, Haoqi

    2013-09-20

    A novel sorbent for solid-phase extraction (SPE) was synthesized by chemical immobilization of ampholine on hybrid organic-inorganic silica material. The ampholine-functionalized hybrid organic-inorganic silica sorbent is consisted of aliphatic amine groups, carboxyl groups and long carbon chains, allowing for extraction of both acidic and basic compounds. The retention properties of the developed sorbent were evaluated for 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (HNA), 1-naphthoic acid (NA), 3-hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA), benzoic acid (BA), sorbic acid (SA), vanillic aldehyde (VA), butyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (BHB), propyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (PHB), ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (EHB), and methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (MHB). The results show that such a sorbent has three types of interaction, i.e., electrostatic interaction, hydrophobic interaction, and hydrogen bonding, exhibiting high extraction efficiency towards the compounds tested. The adsorption capacities of the analytes ranged from 0.61 to 6.54μgmg(-1). The reproducibility of the sorbent preparation was evaluated at three spiking concentration levels, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.0-10.5%. The recoveries of ten acidic and basic compounds spiked in beverage Coca-Cola(®) sample ranged from 82.5% to 98.2% with RSDs less than 5.8%. Under optimum conditions, the ampholine-functionalized hybrid organic-inorganic silica sorbent rendered higher extraction efficiency for acidic compounds than that of the commercially available ampholine-functionalized silica particles, and was comparable to that of the commercial Oasis WAX and Oasis WCX.

  13. Mechanism of charge recombination in meso-structured organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells: A macroscopic perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Wenchao; Yao, Yao Wu, Chang-Qin

    2015-04-21

    In the currently popular organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells, the slowness of the charge recombination processes is found to be a key factor for contributing to their high efficiencies and high open circuit voltages, but the underlying recombination mechanism remains unclear. In this work, we investigate the bimolecular recombination (BR) and the trap-assisted monomolecular recombination (MR) in meso-structured perovskite solar cells under steady state working condition, and try to reveal their roles on determining the device performance. Some interfacial effects such as the injection barriers at the selective contacts are examined as well. Based on the macroscopic device modeling, the recombination resistance-voltage (R{sub rec}−V) and the current density-voltage (J–V) curves are calculated to characterize the recombination mechanism and describe the device performance, respectively. Through comparison with the impedance spectroscopy extracted R{sub rec} data, it is found that under the typical BR reduction factor and deep trap densities observed in experiments, the MR dominates the charge recombination in the low voltage regime, while the BR dominates in the high voltage regime. The short circuit current and the fill factor could be reduced by the significant MR but the open circuit voltage is generally determined by the BR. The different electron injection barriers at the contact can change the BR rate and induce different patterns for the R{sub rec}–V characteristics. For the perovskites of increased band gaps, the R{sub rec}'s are significantly enhanced, corresponding to the high open circuit voltages. Finally, it is revealed that the reduced effective charge mobility due to the transport in electron and hole transporting material makes the R{sub rec} decrease slowly with the increasing voltage, which leads to increased open circuit voltage.

  14. New organic-inorganic hybrid compounds constructed from polyoxometalates and transition metal mixed-organic-ligand complexes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yang-Yang; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Xiao; Zhao, De-Chuan; Cui, Xiao-Bing; Huo, Qi-Sheng; Xu, Ji-Qing

    2016-02-14

    Five new organic-inorganic hybrid compounds based on different polyoxoanions [HxGeW12O40](n-) or [H3As2W18O62](3-) (x = 0, 2; n = 4, 2), namely [Cu3(2,2'-bpy)3(inic)(OH)(H2O)][GeW12O40]·1.5H2O (1), [Cu2(phen)2(μ2-Cl)2(inic)]2[H2GeW12O40]·2H2O (2), [Cu2(phen)2(μ2-Cl)Cl(nic)]2[H2GeW12O40] (3), [Cu2(2,2'-bpy)2(hnic)Cl]2[H2GeW12O40] (4), [Cu(phen)(inic)H2O][Cu2(phen)2(inic)2(H2O)][H3As2W18O62]·3H2O (5) (inic = isonicotinic acid, nic = nicotinic acid, hnic = 2-hydroxy-nicotinic acid, 2,2'-bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline), have been synthesized and characterized by IR, UV-Vis, XRD, cyclic voltammetric measurements and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Single crystal X-ray analysis reveals that compound 1 is isomorphous and isostructural with a compound reported by us recently, the main difference between the two is the heteroatom of the polyoxoanions in the two compounds. Compound 2 is a supramolecular structure constructed from polyoxoanions and transition metal mixed-organic-ligand complexes. Compound 3 is a novel polyoxoanion bi-supported transition metal mixed-organic-ligand complex. Compound 4 is a 1-D chain structure constructed from polyoxoanions and transition metal mixed-organic-ligand complexes. The photodegradation properties of compounds 1-5 have been analyzed.

  15. The interaction between hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskite and selective contacts in perovskite solar cells: an infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Idígoras, J; Todinova, A; Sánchez-Valencia, J R; Barranco, A; Borrás, A; Anta, J A

    2016-05-11

    The interaction of hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskite and selective contacts is crucial to get efficient, stable and hysteresis-free perovskite-based solar cells. In this report, we analyze the vibrational properties of methylammonium lead halide perovskites deposited on different substrates by infrared absorption (IR) measurements (4000-500 cm(-1)). The materials employed as substrates are not only characterized by different chemical natures (TiO2, ZnO and Al2O3), but also by different morphologies. For all of them, we have investigated the influence of these substrate properties on perovskite formation and its degradation by humidity. The effect of selective-hole contact (Spiro-OmeTad and P3HT) layers on the degradation rate by moisture has also been studied. Our IR results reveal the existence of a strong interaction between perovskite and all ZnO materials considered, evidenced by a shift of the peaks related to the N-H vibrational modes. The interaction even induces a morphological change in ZnO nanoparticles after perovskite deposition, pointing to an acid-base reaction that takes place through the NH3(+) groups of the methylammonium cation. Our IR and X-ray diffraction results also indicate that this specific interaction favors perovskite decomposition and PbI2 formation for ZnO/perovskite films subjected to humid conditions. Although no interaction is observed for TiO2, Al2O3, and the hole selective contact, the morphology and chemical nature of both contacts appear to play an important role in the rate of degradation upon exposure to moisture.

  16. Mechanism of charge recombination in meso-structured organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells: A macroscopic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenchao; Yao, Yao; Wu, Chang-Qin

    2015-04-01

    In the currently popular organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells, the slowness of the charge recombination processes is found to be a key factor for contributing to their high efficiencies and high open circuit voltages, but the underlying recombination mechanism remains unclear. In this work, we investigate the bimolecular recombination (BR) and the trap-assisted monomolecular recombination (MR) in meso-structured perovskite solar cells under steady state working condition, and try to reveal their roles on determining the device performance. Some interfacial effects such as the injection barriers at the selective contacts are examined as well. Based on the macroscopic device modeling, the recombination resistance-voltage (Rrec-V) and the current density-voltage (J-V) curves are calculated to characterize the recombination mechanism and describe the device performance, respectively. Through comparison with the impedance spectroscopy extracted Rrec data, it is found that under the typical BR reduction factor and deep trap densities observed in experiments, the MR dominates the charge recombination in the low voltage regime, while the BR dominates in the high voltage regime. The short circuit current and the fill factor could be reduced by the significant MR but the open circuit voltage is generally determined by the BR. The different electron injection barriers at the contact can change the BR rate and induce different patterns for the Rrec-V characteristics. For the perovskites of increased band gaps, the Rrec's are significantly enhanced, corresponding to the high open circuit voltages. Finally, it is revealed that the reduced effective charge mobility due to the transport in electron and hole transporting material makes the Rrec decrease slowly with the increasing voltage, which leads to increased open circuit voltage.

  17. Ultrafast pulse generation from erbium-doped fiber laser modulated by hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Guobao; Miao, Lili; Yi, Jun; Huang, Bin; Peng, Wei; Zou, Yanhong; Huang, Huihui; Hu, Wei; Zhao, Chujun; Wen, Shuangchun

    2017-04-01

    We report the nonlinear optical responses of organic-inorganic halide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 and its application in ultrafast pulse generation from an erbium-doped fiber laser in the optical communication band. By adopting the Z-scan technique, the third-order nonlinear optical responses of the organic-inorganic halide perovskites have been characterized. An ultrafast optical pulse with a pulse width of 661 fs centered at a wavelength of 1555 nm has been delivered via the nonlinear optical material introduced into the fiber laser cavity. Our experimental results confirm that the organic-inorganic halide perovskite possesses obvious third-order nonlinear optical responses in the C-band window and manifests its application potential in nonlinear optoelectronic devices.

  18. Synthesis of an imprinted hybrid organic-inorganic polymeric sol-gel matrix toward the specific binding and isotherm kinetics investigation of creatinine.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yong-Sheun; Ko, Ting-Hsien; Hsu, Ting-Jung; Syu, Mei-Jywan

    2009-03-15

    Hybrid organic-inorganic polymeric sol-gel materials imprinted with creatinine template molecules were synthesized for the specific binding of creatinine. Creatinine is a metabolite from creatine and is the final product from kidney metabolism. Therefore, creatinine can be an important index to estimate the function of the kidney. It was then chosen as the target molecule in this work. To achieve the specific binding toward creatinine, molecular imprinting was used to create a polymeric matrix for the regarding purpose. Sol-gel was further added to create a rigid network structure for the absorption of creatinine. An inorganic precursor, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), was mixed with an organic functional monomer, 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane-sulfonic acid (AMPS), and the creatinine template to form a hybrid organic-inorganic imprinted polymer. The chemical functionality was achieved as well as a confined matrix via the polymerization and the hydrolysis-condensation of the sol-gel. The imprinting effect from the hybrid materials against the corresponding nonimprinted was investigated. BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) analysis was carried out for the imprinted and the nonimprinted materials. The specificity of the hybrid materials was further examined by capping the surface silanol groups with chloro-trimethylsilane (CTMS) and 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS), respectively. The capping effect was compared and discussed from the binding results. Selectivity of the materials toward creatinine was obtained using mixture solutions in the presence of creatinine and its analogues. Reutilization and storage stability of the hybrid organic-inorganic imprinted material were also studied. Additionally, the affinity distribution of the hybrid imprinted materials derived from the allosteric model was also analyzed from the adsorption isotherm data.

  19. Nanomaterials from Nanocomponents: Synthesis and Properties of Hybrid Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akey, Austin Joseph

    This thesis consists of two series of investigations into two different classes of hybrid nanomaterials, their formation and properties. In the first part of this thesis, hybrid nanomaterials composed of cadmium selenide nanoparticles and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are discussed; a novel synthetic method for these hybrids is presented, and an anomalous photoluminescence behavior is examined. Our experiments show that SWNTs can be decorated with CdSe nanoparticles at high loading densities, following the removal of the nanoparticle surface ligands and replacement with pyridine. The resulting hybrids are thermally stable up to 350°C and mechanically stable against sonication. The photoluminescence Stokes shift in the bound nanoparticles is shown to be reduced relative to that of unbound nanoparticles. This difference is attributed to Forster resonance energy transfer from the nanoparticles to the nanotube, leading to hot luminescence in the nanoparticles. The second part of this thesis focuses on formation strategies and mechanisms for nanoparticle superlattices. Supercrystals, as they are called, are formed using lithographically-patterned reservoirs and capillary channels, giving control over both supercrystal dimensions and placement; these supercrystals form within a few hours, much faster than those previously reported. These results are extended to the formation of large-area (> 10 mum lateral dimension) thick (> 1 mum) supercrystals on substrates, and the formation mechanism probed by in situ small-angle x-ray scattering. Both monocomponent and binary supercrystals are examined.

  20. Electrohydrodynamic fabrication of inorganic and hybrid (organic-inorganic) fibers and core-shell structures with micro- and nanometric dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velarde-Ortiz, Raffet

    This dissertation describes the fabrication of inorganic and hybrid (organic-inorganic) fibers and core-shell spheres and tubes with micro and submicrometric dimensions. These structures resulted from the application of electrohydrodynamic forces to carefully aged, viscous sol-gel precursors. The contribution of Dr. Larsen and Dr. Dzenis (Engineering Mechanics, UNL) to the field was to extend the electrospinning technique to the inorganic materials field. At a later stage, Dr. Larsen and collaborators made such structures with hollow geometries for the first time. Using this technique, titania-silica, silica, alumina, mullite, zirconia and yttria-stabilized zirconia fibers of quasi-circular cross sections with diameters ranging from 0.15 to 1 mum, and fibers with non-circular cross sections (ribbons) with widths of 20--40 mum and thicknesses of just few microns were produced. The materials initially collected were amorphous, and after an appropriate thermal treatment they formed polycrystalline phases, and in all cases they displayed a remarkable structural stability retaining their individual fibrous identity. Furthermore, using a coaxial nozzle that was previously used to carry out liquid-liquid encapsulations expanded the range of potential applications of this novel technique. The coaxial nozzle allows the generation of compound liquid jets. In this case the shell liquid was the aged sol and the core liquid was an inert, immiscible or slow-mixing liquid such as olive oil, glycerin or water. The result was the formation of well-defined spherical hollow silica spheres and tubes with average diameters from 200 nm to 5 mum, and wall thicknesses of few nanometers to 2 mum. Since the injection of the shell and core liquids is done using independently controlled pumps, the flow rate ratio of both streams can be conveniently adjusted and different wall thicknesses can be obtained. On collection, certain liquid templates evaporate at room temperatures, thereby producing

  1. 2,4,6-Trimethylpyridinium perchlorate: Polar properties and correlations with molecular structure of organic-inorganic hybrid crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Wojtas, M.; Gagor, A.; Czupinski, O.; Pietraszko, A.; Jakubas, R.

    2009-11-15

    [(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}C{sub 5}H{sub 2}NH][ClO{sub 4}] has been synthesized and characterized by X-ray (at 344, 245, 180 and 115 K), calorimetric, dilatometric, dielectric and pyroelectric measurements. At room temperature the crystal structure is polar, space group Pmn2{sub 1}. It consists of discrete disordered [ClO{sub 4}]{sup -} anions and ordered trimethylpyridinium cations giving the 3D network of hydrogen bonds. The compound reveals a rich polymorphism in the solid state. It undergoes four solid-solid phase transitions: from phases I to II at 356/327 K (heating/cooling), II->III at 346/326, III->IV at 226 K and IV->V at 182/170 K. [(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}C{sub 5}H{sub 2}NH][ClO{sub 4}] reveals a strong pyroelectric response over a wide temperature region (phases III, IV and V) with the spontaneous polarization changes (DELTAP{sub s}) of the order of 1.5-8x10{sup -3}C/m{sup 2}. The spontaneous polarization is irreversible over all the polar phases, however, the magnitude of the DELTAP{sub s} in the vicinity of the phase transitions is characteristic of compounds with the ferroelectric order. The molecular mechanism of the successive phases transitions in the studied crystal is proposed. - A novel organic-inorganic hybrid material, simple ionic salt: 2,4,6-trimethylpyridinium perchlorate, [(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}C{sub 5}H{sub 2}NH][ClO{sub 4}] has been synthesized. In this paper we report singlecrystal X-ray, powder X-ray, calorimetric, dilatometric, dielectric and pyroelectric studies of this compound over a wide temperature range. A possible mechanism of the structural phase transitions in [(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}C{sub 5}H{sub 2}NH][ClO{sub 4}] is discussed with particular attention focused on unusually strong pyroelectric properties.

  2. Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Materials Based on Basket-like {Ca⊂P6Mo18O73} Cages.

    PubMed

    Zhang, He; Yu, Kai; Lv, Jing-hua; Gong, Li-hong; Wang, Chun-mei; Wang, Chun-xiao; Sun, Di; Zhou, Bai-Bin

    2015-07-20

    Four basket-like organic-inorganic hybrids, formulated as [{Cu(II)(H2O)2}{Ca4(H2O)4(HO0.5)3(en)2}{Ca⊂P6Mo4(V)Mo14(VI)O73}]·7H2O (1), (H4bth)[{Fe(II)(H2O)}{Ca⊂P6Mo18(VI)O73}]·4H2O (2), (H2bih)3[{Cu(II)(H2O)2}{Ca⊂P6Mo2(V)Mo16(VI)O73}]·2H2O (3), (H2bib)3[{Fe(II)(H2O)2}{Ca⊂P6Mo2(V) Mo16(VI)O73}]·4H2O (4), (bth = 1,6-bis(triazole)hexane; bih = 1,6-bis(imidazol)hexane; bib = 1,4-bis(imidazole)butane) have been hydrothermally synthesized and fully characterized. Compounds 1-4 contain polyoxoanion [Ca⊂P6Mon(V)Mo18-n(VI)O73]((6+n)-) (n = 0, 2, or 4) (abbreviated as {P6Mo18O73}) as a basic building block, which is composed of a "basket body" {P2Mo14} unit and a "handle"-liked {P4Mo4} fragment encasing an alkaline-earth metal Ca(2+) cation in the cage. Compound 1 exhibits an infrequent 2D layer structure linked by the Cu(H2O)2 linker and an uncommon tetranuclear calcium complex, while compound 2 is 8-connected 2-D layers connected by binuclear {Fe2(H2O)3} segaments, which are observed for the first time as 2-D basket-like assemblies. Compounds 3 and 4 are similar 1D Z-typed chains bonded by M(H2O)2 units (M = Cu for 3 and Fe for 4). The optical band gaps of 1-4 reveal their semiconductive natures. They exhibit universal highly efficient degradation ability for typical dyes such as methylene blue, methyl orange, and rhodamine B under UV light. The lifetime and catalysis mechanism of the catalysts have been investigated. The compounds also show good bifunctional electrocatalytic behavior for oxidation of amino acids and reduction of NO2(-).

  3. Characteristics of oxidative homolytic alkylation of imidazoles and organic-inorganic hybrid extended networks from large aromatic building blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kunhao

    The discovery of the dramatic in vitro antimalarial activity of 2-iodo-L-histidine and 2-fluoro-L-histidine, as well as their in vivo limitations, has prompted a systematic search for novel 2-substituted imidazoles and bioimidazoles as agents against human malaria. Previous research has shown that the regioselective alkyl free radical substitution on imidazoles and bioimidazoles could serve as a simple and efficient route to a wide variety of 2-alkylimidazoles. In this research, this methodology was successfully extended to include alkyl radicals substituted with various functional groups such as amide or ester. While this novel methodology should be of some synthetic utility when tertiary radicals are used, poorer yields are usually encountered in the cases of primary radicals. In the second part of this dissertation, a series of novel ligands containing multiple ortho-bis(organothio) groups were synthesized and their coordination and network forming properties were studied in the context of crystalline organic-inorganic hybrid extended networks. For the syntheses of HRTTs [2,3,6,7,10,11-hexakis(alkylthio)triphenylenes], a simpler, safer and higher yielding one-pot process was developed. Quenching the hexa-anions (formed when sodium methylthiolate was refluxed with hexabromotriphenylene) with alkyl halides or acid chlorides afforded HRTTs. This newly developed process was also successfully expanded to the pyrene system. In the syntheses of unsymmetrically substituted triphenlyenes, it was shown for the first time that the oxidative cyclization process is applicable to thioether containing systems, pointing to a novel strategy for the preparation of this type of unsymmetrically substituted triphenlyenes. Treating these novel ligands with various metal salts [i.e. bismuth(III) chloride and bismuth(III) bromide] under carefully controlled conditions resulted in a series of air-stable semiconductive coordination networks. Their single crystal structures were

  4. Hybrid upconversion nanomaterials for optogenetic neuronal control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Shreyas; Liu, Jing-Jing; Pasquale, Nicholas; Lai, Jinping; McGowan, Heather; Pang, Zhiping P.; Lee, Ki-Bum

    2015-10-01

    Nanotechnology-based approaches offer the chemical control required to develop precision tools suitable for applications in neuroscience. We report a novel approach employing hybrid upconversion nanomaterials, combined with the photoresponsive ion channel channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), to achieve near-infrared light (NIR)-mediated optogenetic control of neuronal activity. Current optogenetic methodologies rely on using visible light (e.g. 470 nm blue light), which tends to exhibit high scattering and low tissue penetration, to activate ChR2. In contrast, our approach enables the use of 980 nm NIR light, which addresses the short-comings of visible light as an excitation source. This was facilitated by embedding upconversion nanomaterials, which can convert NIR light to blue luminescence, into polymeric scaffolds. These hybrid nanomaterial scaffolds allowed for NIR-mediated neuronal stimulation, with comparable efficiency as that of 470 nm blue light. Our platform was optimized for NIR-mediated optogenetic control by balancing multiple physicochemical properties of the nanomaterial (e.g. size, morphology, structure, emission spectra, concentration), thus providing an early demonstration of rationally-designing nanomaterial-based strategies for advanced neural applications.Nanotechnology-based approaches offer the chemical control required to develop precision tools suitable for applications in neuroscience. We report a novel approach employing hybrid upconversion nanomaterials, combined with the photoresponsive ion channel channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), to achieve near-infrared light (NIR)-mediated optogenetic control of neuronal activity. Current optogenetic methodologies rely on using visible light (e.g. 470 nm blue light), which tends to exhibit high scattering and low tissue penetration, to activate ChR2. In contrast, our approach enables the use of 980 nm NIR light, which addresses the short-comings of visible light as an excitation source. This was facilitated by

  5. Construction of optical glucose nanobiosensor with high sensitivity and selectivity at physiological pH on the basis of organic-inorganic hybrid microgels.

    PubMed

    Wu, Weitai; Zhou, Ting; Aiello, Michael; Zhou, Shuiqin

    2010-08-15

    A new class of optical glucose nanobiosensors with high sensitivity and selectivity at physiological pH is described. To construct these glucose nanobiosensors, the fluorescent CdS quantum dots (QDs), serving as the optical code, were incorporated into the glucose-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-acrylamide-2-acrylamidomethyl-5-fluorophenylboronic acid) copolymer microgels, via both in situ growth method and "breathing in" method, respectively. The polymeric gel can adapt to surrounding glucose concentrations, and regulate the fluorescence of the embedded QDs, converting biochemical signals into optical signals. The gradual swelling of the gel would lead to the quenching of the fluorescence at the elevated glucose concentrations. The hybrid microgels displayed high selectivity to glucose over the potential primary interferents of lactate and human serum albumin in the physiologically important glucose concentration range. The stability, reversibility, and sensitivity of the organic-inorganic hybrid microgel-based biosensors were also systematically studied. These general properties of our nanobiosensors are well tunable under appropriate tailor on the hybrid microgels, in particular, simply through the change in the crosslinking degree of the microgels. The optical glucose nanobiosensors based on the organic-inorganic hybrid microgels have shown the potential for a third generation fluorescent biosensor.

  6. Organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous polymers fabricated by using (CTA)2S2O8 as self-decomposed soft templates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tianyou; Du, Binyang; Fan, Zhiqiang

    2012-10-23

    Organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous polymers were successfully synthesized by using a template-directed free radical polymerization technique in aqueous solution at 0-5 °C with oxidative complexes as self-decomposed soft templates. The oxidative complexes ((CTA)(2)S(2)O(8)), which were formed between anionic oxidant (S(2)O(8)(2-)) and cationic surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB) at 0-5 °C, can be automatically decomposed due to the reduction of S(2)O(8)(2-). No additional treatment was needed to remove the templates. The reactive functional monomer, 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (TMSPMA), was used as main monomer. Styrene was used as the comonomer. With simultaneous free radical copolymerization of TMSPMA and styrene, condensation of methoxysilyl groups, and the self-decomposition of (CTA)(2)S(2)O(8), organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous polymers were successfully obtained. The mesoporous structures and morphologies of the resultant hybrid mesoporous polymers were found to be strongly dependent on the feed amounts of TMSPMA and styrene. In the absence of styrene, the hybrid polymer PTMSPMA exhibited mesh-like bicontinuous structures with mesopores and high surface area (335 m(2)/g). With the incorporation of styrene, mesoporous nanoparticles were obtained. The surface areas of the mesoporous nanoparticles decreased with the increase of styrene contents. The adsorption capabilities of such mesoporous polymers for organic dye (Congo red) and protein (bovine serum albumin) were also studied.

  7. Hybrid upconversion nanomaterials for optogenetic neuronal control.

    PubMed

    Shah, Shreyas; Liu, Jing-Jing; Pasquale, Nicholas; Lai, Jinping; McGowan, Heather; Pang, Zhiping P; Lee, Ki-Bum

    2015-10-28

    Nanotechnology-based approaches offer the chemical control required to develop precision tools suitable for applications in neuroscience. We report a novel approach employing hybrid upconversion nanomaterials, combined with the photoresponsive ion channel channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), to achieve near-infrared light (NIR)-mediated optogenetic control of neuronal activity. Current optogenetic methodologies rely on using visible light (e.g. 470 nm blue light), which tends to exhibit high scattering and low tissue penetration, to activate ChR2. In contrast, our approach enables the use of 980 nm NIR light, which addresses the short-comings of visible light as an excitation source. This was facilitated by embedding upconversion nanomaterials, which can convert NIR light to blue luminescence, into polymeric scaffolds. These hybrid nanomaterial scaffolds allowed for NIR-mediated neuronal stimulation, with comparable efficiency as that of 470 nm blue light. Our platform was optimized for NIR-mediated optogenetic control by balancing multiple physicochemical properties of the nanomaterial (e.g. size, morphology, structure, emission spectra, concentration), thus providing an early demonstration of rationally-designing nanomaterial-based strategies for advanced neural applications.

  8. Thermochemistry of Multiferroic Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskites [(CH3)2NH2][M(HCOO)3] (M = Mn, Co, Ni, and Zn).

    PubMed

    Nagabhushana, G P; Shivaramaiah, Radha; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2015-08-19

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials have enormous potential for applications in catalysis, gas storage, sensors, drug delivery, and energy generation, among others. A class of hybrid materials adopts the ABX3 perovskite topology. We report here the synthesis and characterization of an isostructural series of dense hybrid perovskites, [(CH3)2NH2][M(HCOO)3], with M = Mn, Co, Ni, and Zn. These compounds have shown promising multiferroic behavior. Understanding their stability is crucial for their practical application. We report their formation enthalpies based on direct measurement by room-temperature acid solution calorimetry. The enthalpy of formation of this dimethylammonium metal formate series becomes less exothermic in the order Mn, Zn, Co, Ni. The stability of the hybrid perovskite decreases as the tolerance factor increases, unlike trends seen in inorganic perovskites. However, the trends are similar to those seen in a number of ternary transition metal oxides, suggesting that specific bonding interactions rather than geometric factors dominate the energetics.

  9. Evidences of plasmonic effect in an organic-inorganic hybrid photovoltaic device using flower-like ZnO@Au nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Tong-Sheng; Sharma, Jadab; Chu, Chih-Chien; Tai, Yian

    2014-10-01

    Using flower-like ZnO@Au nanoparticles as external additives in an organic-inorganic hybrid solar cell device, we investigate the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect of gold nanoparticles. The active layer of the device consists of a usual polymeric blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and surface functionalized ZnO nanorods, which is conventionally known for its poor power conversion efficiency. We present the experimental evidences of improvement over UV-visible absorption properties and photocurrent generation due to the SPR effect. As a result, improvement is reported for short circuit current density and efficiency of the device on addition of flower-like ZnO@Au nanostructures.

  10. Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of horseradish peroxidase immobilized in hybrid organic-inorganic film of chitosan/sol-gel/carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Xinhuang; Wang, Jun; Tang, Zhiwen; Wu, Hong; Lin, Yuehe

    2009-04-15

    A hybrid organic-inorganic nanocomposite film of chitosan/sol-gel/multi-walled carbon nanotubes was constructed for the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). This film was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Direct electron transfer (DET) and bioelectrocatalysis of HRP incorporated into the composite film were investigated. The results indicate that the film can provide a favorable microenvironment for HRP to perform DET on the surface of glassy carbon electrodes with a pair of quasi-reversible redox waves and to retain its bioelectrocatalytic activity toward hydrogen peroxide.

  11. Synthesis, structural and optical characterization of APbX3 (A=methylammonium, dimethylammonium, trimethylammonium; X=I, Br, Cl) hybrid organic-inorganic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancini, Alessandro; Quadrelli, Paolo; Amoroso, Giuseppe; Milanese, Chiara; Boiocchi, Massimo; Sironi, Angelo; Patrini, Maddalena; Guizzetti, Giorgio; Malavasi, Lorenzo

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we report the synthesis, the crystal structure and the optical response of APbX3 (A=MA, DMA, and TMA; X=I, Br) hybrid organic-inorganic materials including some new phases. We observe that as the cation group increases in size, the optical absorption edge shifts to higher energies with energy steps which are systematic and independent on the anion. A linear correlation between the optical bad gap and the tolerance factor has been shown for the series of samples investigated.

  12. Gold nanoparticles-induced enhancement of the analytical response of an electrochemical biosensor based on an organic-inorganic hybrid composite material.

    PubMed

    Barbadillo, M; Casero, E; Petit-Domínguez, M D; Vázquez, L; Pariente, F; Lorenzo, E

    2009-12-15

    The design and characterization of a new organic-inorganic hybrid composite material for glucose electrochemical sensing are described. This material is based on the entrapment of both gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and glucose oxidase, which was chosen as a model, into a sol-gel matrix. The addition of spectroscopic grade graphite to this system, which confers conductivity, leads to the development of a material particularly attractive for electrochemical biosensor fabrication. The characterization of the hybrid composite material was performed using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy techniques. This composite material was applied to the determination of glucose in presence of hydroxymethylferrocene as a redox mediator. The system exhibits a clear electrocatalytic activity towards glucose, allowing its determination at 250 mV vs Ag/AgCl. The performance of the resulting enzyme biosensor was evaluated in terms of sensitivity, detection limit, linear response range, stability and accuracy. Finally, the enhancement of the analytical response of the resulting biosensor induced by the presence of gold nanoparticles was evaluated by comparison with a similar organic-inorganic hybrid composite material without AuNPs.

  13. Flexible SiInZnO thin film transistor with organic/inorganic hybrid gate dielectric processed at 150 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J. Y.; Kim, S.; Hwang, B.-U.; Lee, N.-E.; Lee, S. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Silicon indium zinc oxide (SIZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) have been fabricated on a flexible polyimide (PI) substrate by using organic/inorganic hybrid gate dielectrics of poly-4vinyl phenol (PVP) and Al2O3. To improve the mechanical stability, Al2O3 has been used as a buffer layer on the flexible substrate. The Al2O3 layer of hybrid gate dielectrics protected the organic gate dielectric and improved mechanical flexibility. The different surface roughness of the gate dielectrics is investigated. The performance of the device with smooth surface roughness was significantly improved. Finally, the electrical characteristics of the TFTs with hybrid gate dielectrics were measured as well as the promising electrical endurance characteristics at the bending radius of 5 mm.

  14. Organic-inorganic hybrid supermicroporous iron(III) phosphonate nanoparticles as an efficient catalyst for the synthesis of biofuels.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Malay; Bhaumik, Asim

    2013-06-24

    Here we report a novel family of crystalline, supermicroporous iron(III) phosphonate nanomaterials (HFeP-1-3, HFeP-1-2, and HFeP-1-4) with different Fe(III)-to-organophosphonate ligand mole ratios. The materials were synthesized by using a hydrothermal reaction between benzene-1,3,5-triphosphonic acid and iron(III) chloride under acidic conditions (pH ≈ 4.0). Powder X-ray diffraction, N2 sorption, transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM) image analysis, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA), and FTIR spectroscopic tools were used to characterize the materials. The triclinic crystal phase [P1(2) space group] of the hybrid iron phosphonate was established by a Rietveld refinement of the PXRD analysis of HFeP-1-3 by using the MAUD program. The unit cell parameters are a = 8.749(1), b = 8.578(1), c = 17.725(3) Å; α = 104.47(3), β = 97.64(1), γ = 113.56(3)°; and V = 1013.41 Å(3). With these crystal parameters, we proposed an 24-membered-ring open framework structure for HFeP-1. Compound HFeP-1-3, with an starting Fe/ligand molar ratio of 3.0, shows the highest Brunauer-Emmett-Telller (BET) surface area of 556 m(2) g(-1) and uniform supermicropores of approximately 1.1 nm. The acidic surface of the porous iron(III) phosphonate nanoparticles was used in a highly efficient and recyclable catalytic transesterification reaction for the synthesis of biofuels under mild reaction conditions. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Structural direction of hybrid organic-inorganic materials: Synthesis of vanadium oxyfluoride, copper vanadate, and copper molybdate solid state materials through solvuthermal and solution methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deburgomaster, Paul

    The vast structural complexity of inorganic oxides with structure directing organocations, nitrogen containing ligands and organophosphonate ligands was explored. The hydrothermal reaction conditions utilized herein include the variables of temperature, pH, fill volume and stoichiometry. The systems studied included: (1) the complex materials rendered from reactions of organoamine cations on the structure of vanadium oxides, oxyfluorides and fluorides. As with other systems, the influence of the mineralizer HF was not limited to pH as fluorine incorporation was not uncommon. In specific cases this coincided with reduction of vanadium sites. (2) The copper-organonitrogen ligand/vanadium oxide/aromatic phosphonate system has been studied. The rigid aromatic di- and tri-phosphonate tethers have provided a series of materials which are structurally distinct from the previously investigated aliphatic series. The inclusion of copper-coordinated nitrogen bi- and tri-dentate ligands also provided structural diversity. Product composition was highly influenced by the HF/V ratio. A similar study was conducted with the ligand 1,4-carboxy-phenylphosphonic acid. (3) The preparation of a series of bimetallic organic-inorganic hybrid materials of the M(II)/VxOy/organonitrogen ligand class was further evidence of the utility of thermodynamically driven hydrothermal synthesis. (4) While decomposition of the spherical Keplerate molybdenum clusters is encountered under hydrothermal conditions, this highly soluble form of molybdate was investigated for the development of hybrid organic-inorganic room temperature solution synthesis.

  16. Synthesis of a novel molecularly imprinted organic-inorganic hybrid polymer for the selective isolation and determination of fluoroquinolones in tilapia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xun; Wang, Ruiling; Wang, Weihua; Yan, Hongyuan; Qiu, Mande; Song, Yanxue

    2014-01-15

    A novel molecularly imprinted organic-inorganic hybrid polymer (MI-MAA/APTS) based on a dummy molecular imprinting technique and an organic-inorganic hybrid material technique was synthesised and used as a sorbent in solid-phase extraction for the selective isolation and determination of ofloxacin (OFL), lomefloxacin (LOM), and ciprofloxacin (CIP) in tilapia samples. The MI-MAA/APTS sorbent was prepared from 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilanes (APTS) as an inorganic source and methacrylic acid (MAA) as an organic source and exhibited high mechanical strength and special affinities to the analytes. A comparison of MI-MAA/APTS with other conventional sorbents (C18 and HLB) showed that MI-MAA/APTS displayed good selectivity and affinity for OFL, LOM, and CIP, and the recoveries of the analytes at three spiked levels were in the range of 85.1-101.0%, with the relative standard deviations ≤5.1%. The presented MI-MAA/APTS-SPE-HPLC method could be potentially applied to the determination of fluoroquinolones (FQs) in complex fish samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The electronic structure of organic-inorganic hybrid compounds: (NH₄)₂CuCl₄, (CH₃NH₃)₂CuCl₄ and (C₂H₅NH₃)₂CuCl₄.

    PubMed

    Zolfaghari, P; de Wijs, G A; de Groot, R A

    2013-07-24

    Hybrid organic-inorganic compounds are an intriguing class of materials that have been experimentally studied over the past few years because of a potential broad range of applications. The electronic and magnetic properties of three organic-inorganic hybrid compounds with compositions (NH4)2CuCl4, (CH3NH3)2CuCl4 and (C2H5NH3)2CuCl4 are investigated for the first time with density functional theory plus on-site Coulomb interaction. A strong Coulomb interaction on the copper causes a relatively weak exchange coupling within the layers of the octahedral network, in good agreement with experiment. The character of the exchange interaction (responsible for magnetic behavior) is analyzed. The calculations reveal that (C2H5NH3)2CuCl4 has the strongest Jahn-Teller (JT) distortion in comparison with the two other compounds. The easy axis of magnetization is investigated, showing a weak anisotropic interaction between inter-layer Cu(2+) ions in the (C2H5NH3)2CuCl4 structure. Orbital ordering is concluded from our partial density of states calculations: a cooperation of the JT distortion with an antiferro-distortive pattern.

  18. All-optical logic gate based on transient grating from disperse red 1 doped organic-inorganic hybrid films with an improved figure of merit

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Tianxi; Que, Wenxiu Shao, Jinyou; Wang, Yushu

    2015-10-21

    Azobenzene dyes have large refractive index near their main resonance, but the poor figure of merit (FOM) limits their potential for all-optical applications. To improve this situation, disperse red 1 (DR1) molecules were dispersed in a sol-gel germanium/Ormosil organic-inorganic hybrid matrix. Z-scan measurement results showed a good compatibility between the dopant and the matrix, and also, an improved FOM was obtained as compared to the DR1/polymer films reported previously. To demonstrate the all-optical signal processing effect, a cw Nd:YAG laser emitting at 532 nm and a He-Ne laser emitting at 632.8 nm were used as pump and probe beams, respectively. DR1 acts as an initiator of the photo-induced transient holographic grating, which is attributed to the trans-cis-trans photoisomerization. Thus, a three inputs AND all-optical logic gate was achieved by using choppers with different frequencies. The detailed mechanism of operation is discussed. These results indicate that the DR1 doped germanium/Ormosil organic-inorganic hybrid film with an improved FOM has a great potential in all-optical devices around its main resonance.

  19. High voltage and efficient bilayer heterojunction solar cells based on an organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite absorber with a low-cost flexible substrate.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Yi-Fang; Jeng, Jun-Yuan; Lee, Mu-Huan; Peng, Shin-Rung; Chen, Peter; Guo, Tzung-Fang; Wen, Ten-Chin; Hsu, Yao-Jane; Hsu, Ching-Ming

    2014-04-07

    A low temperature (<100 °C), flexible solar cell based on an organic-inorganic hybrid CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite-fullerene planar heterojunction (PHJ) is successfully demonstrated. In this manuscript, we study the effects of energy level offset between a solar absorber (organic-inorganic hybrid CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite) and the selective contact materials on the photovoltaic behaviors of the planar organometallic perovskite-fullerene heterojunction solar cells. We find that the difference between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite and the Fermi level of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) dominates the voltage output of the device. ITO films on glass or on the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) flexible substrate with different work functions are investigated to illustrate this phenomenon. The higher work function of the PET/ITO substrate decreases the energy loss of hole transfer from the HOMO of perovskite to ITO and minimizes the energy redundancy of the photovoltage output. The devices using the high work function ITO substrate as contact material show significant open-circuit voltage enhancement (920 mV), with the power conversion efficiency of 4.54%, and these types of extra-thin planar bilayer heterojunction solar cells have the potential advantages of low-cost and lightweight.

  20. Revealing the properties of defects formed by CH3NH2 molecules in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite MAPbBr3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ji; Zhang, Ao; Yan, Jun; Li, Dan; Chen, Yunlin

    2017-03-01

    The properties of defects in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite are widely studied from the first-principles calculation. However, the defects of methylamine (methylamine = CH3NH2), which would be easily formed during the preparation of the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite, are rarely investigated. Thermodynamic properties as well as defect states of methylamine embedded MAPbX3 (MA = methyl-ammonium = CH3NH3, X = Br, I) are studied based on first-principles calculations of density functional theory. It was found that there is a shallow defect level near the highest occupied molecular orbital, which induced by the interstitial methylamine defect in MAPbBr3, will lead to an increase of photoluminescence. The calculation results showed that interstitial defect states of methylamine may move deeper due to the interaction between methylamine molecules and methyl-ammonium cations. It was also showed that the interstitial methylamine defect is stable at room temperature, and the defect can be removed easily by annealing.

  1. Novel Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Electrolyte to Enable LiFePO4 Quasi-Solid-State Li-Ion Batteries Performed Highly around Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Tan, Rui; Gao, Rongtan; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Mingjian; Xu, Junyi; Yang, Jinlong; Pan, Feng

    2016-11-16

    A novel type of organic-inorganic hybrid polymer electrolytes with high electrochemical performances around room temperature is formed by hybrid of nanofillers, Y-type oligomer, polyoxyethylene and Li-salt (PBA-Li), of which the Tg and Tm are significantly lowered by blended heterogeneous polyethers and embedded nanofillers with benefit of the dipole modification to achieve the high Li-ion migration due to more free-volume space. The quasi-solid-state Li-ion batteries based on the LiFePO4/15PBA-Li/Li-metal cells present remarkable reversible capacities (133 and 165 mAh g(-1) @0.2 C at 30 and 45 °C, respectively), good rate ability and stable cycle performance (141.9 mAh g(-1) @0.2 C at 30 °C after 150 cycles).

  2. Growth, characterization and post-processing of inorganic and hybrid organic-inorganic thin films deposited using atomic and molecular layer deposition techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulagatov, Aziz Ilmutdinovich

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) and molecular layer deposition (MLD) are advanced thin film coating techniques developed for deposition of inorganic and hybrid organic-inorganic films respectively. Decreasing device dimensions and increasing aspect ratios in semiconductor processing has motivated developments in ALD. The beginning of this thesis will cover study of new ALD chemistry for high dielectric constant Y 2O3. In addition, the feasibility of conducting low temperature ALD of TiN and TiAlN is explored using highly reactive hydrazine as a new nitrogen source. Developments of these ALD processes are important for the electronics industry. As the search for new materials with more advanced properties continues, attention has shifted toward exploring the synthesis of hierarchically nanostructured thin films. Such complex architectures can provide novel functions important to the development of state of the art devices for the electronics industry, catalysis, energy conversion and memory storage as a few examples. Therefore, the main focus of this thesis is on the growth, characterization, and post-processing of ALD and MLD films for fabrication of novel composite (nanostructured) thin films. Novel composite materials are created by annealing amorphous ALD oxide alloys in air and by heat treatment of hybrid organic-inorganic MLD films in inert atmosphere (pyrolysis). The synthesis of porous TiO2 or Al2O3 supported V2O5 for enhanced surface area catalysis was achieved by the annealing of inorganic TiVxOy and AlV xOy ALD films in air. The interplay between phase separation, surface energy difference, crystallization, and melting temperature of individual oxides were studied for their control of film morphology. In other work, a class of novel metal oxide-graphitic carbon composite thin films was produced by pyrolysis of MLD hybrid organic-inorganic films. For example, annealing in argon of titania based hybrid films enabled fabrication of thin films of intimately

  3. Synthesis, crystal structure, vibrational spectra, optical properties and theoretical investigation of a two-dimensional self-assembled organic-inorganic hybrid material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dammak, Hajer; Elleuch, Slim; Feki, Habib; Abid, Younes

    2016-11-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid material of formula (C4H3SC2H4NH3)2[PbI4] was synthesized and studied by X-ray diffraction, Infrared absorption, Raman scattering, UV-Visible absorption and photoluminescence measurements. The molecule crystallizes as an organic-inorganic two-dimensional (2D) structure built up from infinite PbI6 octahedra surrounded by organic cations. Such a structure may be regarded as quantum wells system in which the inorganic layers act as semiconductor wells and the organic cations act as insulator barriers. Room temperature IR and Raman spectra were recorded in the 520-3500 and 10-3500 cm-1 frequency range, respectively. Optical absorption measurements performed on thin films of (C4H3SC2H4NH3)2[PbI4] revealed three distinct bands at 2.4, 2.66 and 3.25 eV. We also report DFT calculations of the electric dipole moments (μ), polarizability (α), the static first hyperpolarizability (β) and HOMO-LUMO analysis of the title compound investigated by GAUSSIAN 09 package. The calculated static first Hyperpolarizability is equal to 11.46 × 10-31 esu.

  4. Biodegradable polymer adhesives, hybrids and nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mylonakis, Andreas

    Biodegradable polymeric products and organic-inorganic hybrid materials for a diversity of applications are the two main fields on which this research has been focused. A novel biodegradable adhesive, which mimics marine adhesive proteins, has been synthesized by the covalent incorporation of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid onto the chitosan backbone. The adhesive strength of these materials varies with the molecular weight of the polysaccharide, the amount of diphenolics present and the curing time. Infrared spectroscopy (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV) have been used to qualitatively and quantitatively establish the amount of the diphenolic moiety present on the backbone of the biodegradable polymers. The as synthesized polymers combine both the adhesive capability of the diphenolic function and the healing effect of chitosan. The biocompatibility and biodegradability of these modified chitosans offer the promise of utility of these novel materials in dental and medical applications. Organic-inorganic hybrid materials with low volume shrinkage and excellent mechanical properties were synthesized by the covalent incorporation of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and glycidyl methacrylate on pre-hydrolyzed sol-gel silica. These hybrid materials exhibited low volume shrinkage during polymerization and were crack-free during storage for about twelve months. The mechanical properties of these materials are composition dependent. Incorporation of silica effectively increased the compressive yield stress and modulus of the obtained poly(HEMAGMA-silica) hybrid materials. A series of new electroactive hybrid materials have been synthesized by covalent incorporation of polyaniline into polyacrylate-silica hybrids. The formulation involves the radical co-polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate-polyaniline (GMA-PANi) and glycidyl methacrylate2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-silica (GMA-HEMA-silica) to yield poly

  5. Synthesis and characterizations of anion exchange organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Shaoling; Wu Cuiming; Xu Tongwen . E-mail: twxu@ustc.edu.cn; Gong Ming; Xu Xiaolong

    2005-07-15

    A series of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO)-based organic-inorganic hybrid materials for anion exchange were prepared through sol-gel process of polymer precursors PPO-Si(OCH{sub 3}){sub 3}. PPO-Si(OCH{sub 3}){sub 3} were obtained from the reaction of bromomethylated PPO with 3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (A1110). These polymer precursors then underwent hydrolysis and condensation with additional A1110 to generate hybrid materials. The reaction to produce polymer precursors was identified by FTIR; while FTIR, TGA, XRD, SEM, as well as conventional ion exchange capacity (IEC) measurements were conducted for the structures and properties of the prepared hybrids. TGA results show that this series of hybrid materials possess high thermal stability; XRD and SEM indicate that the prepared hybrid materials are amorphous and the inorganic and organic contents show good compatibility if the ratio between them is proper. The IEC values of the hybrid materials due to the amine groups range from 1.13 mmol/gBPPO (material i) to 4.80 mmol/gBPPO (material iv)

  6. Bio-inspired strategy for on-surface synthesis of silver nanoparticles for metal/organic hybrid nanomaterials and LDI-MS substrates.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seonki; Lee, Joon Seok; Ryu, Jungki; Lee, Sahng Ha; Lee, Dong Yun; Kim, Dong-Pyo; Park, Chan Beum; Lee, Haeshin

    2011-12-09

    A strategy for the on-surface synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on a variety of two- to three-dimensional material surfaces, utilizing polydopamine, an emerging surface modifying agent, is reported in this paper. This material-independent platform for AgNP synthesis is useful for fabricating organic/inorganic hybrid nanomaterials and for preparing substrates for laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI-ToF MS).

  7. Improvement of charge injection efficiency in organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells by chemical modification of metal oxides with organic molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Kudo, Naomi; Honda, Satoshi; Shimazaki, Yuta; Ohkita, Hideo; Ito, Shinzaburo; Benten, Hiroaki

    2007-04-30

    The effect of chemical modification of metal oxide surface with dye molecules in organic-inorganic hybrid solid solar cells was studied by using double layered cells consisting of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and a flat layer of dense TiO{sub 2}. The external quantum efficiency of the chemically modified cell was nearly double that expected from the photosensitizing effect of the dye molecules. The additional increase shows that the chemical modification with dye molecules can serve not only as a photosensitizer but mainly as an energy funnel and/or an electronic mediator to significantly improve the electron injection efficiency from P3HT to TiO{sub 2}.

  8. Controllable Assembly of Vanadium-Containing Polyoxoniobate-Based Three-Dimensional Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Compounds and Their Photocatalytic Properties.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jufang; Wang, Yin; Zhang, Xinning; Chi, Yingnan; Yang, Song; Li, Jikun; Hu, Changwen

    2016-08-01

    The controllable synthesis of two vanadium-containing polyoxoniobate-based three-dimensional organic-inorganic hybrid compounds, [Co(pn)2]4[HPNb10V(IV)2O40(V(IV)O)4]·17H2O (1) and [Co(pn)2]5[PNb12O40(V(IV)O)6](OH)7·15H2O (2), where pn = 1,2-diaminopropane, is realized by changing the hydrothermal temperature or adding N-(aminoethyl)piperazine as an additive. Both compounds 1 and 2 are structurally characterized by single-crystal/powder X-ray diffraction and IR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Compound 1 features a new divanadium-substituted Keggin polyoxoniobate capped by four vanadyl groups, and the polyanion in 2 exhibits the highest coordination number (10-connected) in polyoxoniobate chemistry. Moreover, the photocatalytic activities of 1 and 2 for hydrogen evolution are preliminarily assessed.

  9. Two novel organic-inorganic hybrid materials from tetrachloridometallate(II) salts and 4-[(E)-2-(pyridin-1-ium-2-yl)ethenyl]pyridinium.

    PubMed

    Campos-Gaxiola, José J; Arredondo Rea, Susana P; Corral Higuera, Ramón; Höpfl, Herbert; Cruz Enríquez, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Two organic-inorganic hybrid compounds have been prepared by the combination of the 4-[(E)-2-(pyridin-1-ium-2-yl)ethenyl]pyridinium cation with perhalometallate anions to give 4-[(E)-2-(pyridin-1-ium-2-yl)ethenyl]pyridinium tetrachloridocobaltate(II), (C12H12N2)[CoCl4], (I), and 4-[(E)-2-(pyridin-1-ium-2-yl)ethenyl]pyridinium tetrachloridozincate(II), (C12H12N2)[ZnCl4], (II). The compounds have been structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, showing the formation of a three-dimensional network through X-H...ClnM(-) (X = C, N(+); n = 1, 2; M = Co(II), Zn(II)) hydrogen-bonding interactions and π-π stacking interactions. The title compounds were also characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

  10. High-energy X-ray detection by hafnium-doped organic-inorganic hybrid scintillators prepared by sol-gel method

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yan; Koshimizu, Masanori Yahaba, Natsuna; Asai, Keisuke; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Kishimoto, Shunji; Haruki, Rie

    2014-04-28

    With the aim of enhancing the efficiency with which plastic scintillators detect high-energy X-rays, hafnium-doped organic-inorganic hybrid scintillators were fabricated via a sol-gel method. Transmission electron microscopy of sampled material reveals the presence of Hf{sub x}Si{sub 1−x}O{sub 2} nanoparticles, dispersed in a polymer matrix that constitutes the active material of the X-ray detector. With Hf{sub x}Si{sub 1−x}O{sub 2} nanoparticles incorporated in the polymer matrix, the absorption edge and the luminescence wavelength is shifted, which we attribute to Mie scattering. The detection efficiency for 67.4-keV X-rays in a 0.6-mm-thick piece of this material is two times better than the same thickness of a commercial plastic scintillator-NE142.

  11. Moderate Humidity Delays Electron-Hole Recombination in Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites: Time-Domain Ab Initio Simulations Rationalize Experiments.

    PubMed

    Long, Run; Fang, Weihai; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2016-08-18

    Experiments show both positive and negative changes in performance of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells upon exposure to moisture. Ab initio nonadiabatic molecular dynamics reveals the influence of humidity on nonradiative electron-hole recombination. In small amounts, water molecules perturb perovskite surface and localize photoexcited electron close to the surface. Importantly, deep electron traps are avoided. The electron-hole overlap decreases, and the excited state lifetime increases. In large amounts, water forms stable hydrogen-bonded networks, has a higher barrier to enter perovskite, and produces little impact on charge localization. At the same time, by contributing high frequency polar vibrations, water molecules increase nonadiabatic coupling and accelerate recombination. In general, short coherence between electron and hole benefits photovoltaic response of the perovskites. The calculated recombination time scales show excellent agreement with experiment. The time-domain atomistic simulations reveal the microscopic effects of humidity on perovskite excited-state lifetimes and rationalize the conflicting experimental observations.

  12. Cross-type orbital ordering in the layered hybrid organic-inorganic compound (C6H5CH2CH2NH3 )2CuCl4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugroho, A. A.; Hu, Z.; Kuo, C. Y.; Haverkort, M. W.; Pi, T. W.; Onggo, D.; Valldor, M.; Tjeng, L. H.

    2016-11-01

    We have studied the magnetic properties and the underlying type of orbital ordering in the layered hybrid organic-inorganic compound (C6H5CH2CH2NH3 )2CuCl4 by using ac-magnetic susceptibility and polarization-dependent soft-x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Cu-L2 and Cu-L3 edges. We have established that the compound has a long-range ferromagnetic ordering both in plane and out of plane and we found from the analysis of the absorption spectra that the orbital ordering of the Cu2 + holes involves the cross-type dx2-z2/dy2-z2 arrangement which is different from the dx2-y2 arrangement found in the parent compounds of the high-Tc cuprate superconductors.

  13. Template-free synthesis of a porous organic-inorganic hybrid tin(IV) phosphonate and its high catalytic activity for esterification of free fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Arghya; Patra, Astam K; Uyama, Hiroshi; Bhaumik, Asim

    2013-10-23

    Here we have synthesized an organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous tin phosphonate monolith (MLSnP-1) with crystalline pore walls by a template-free sol-gel route. N2 sorption analysis shows Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of 347 m2 g(-1). Wide-angle powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) pattern shows few broad diffraction peaks indicating crystalline pore wall of the material. High-resolution transmission electron microscopic (HR TEM) image further reveals the crystal fringes on the pore wall. Framework bonding and local environment around phosphorus and carbon were examined by Fourier transform infrared (FT IR) spectroscopy and solid-state MAS NMR spectroscopy. The material exhibits remarkable catalytic activity for esterification of long chain fatty acids under mild reaction conditions at room temperature.

  14. Experimental and theoretical study of AC electrical conduction mechanisms of Organic-inorganic hybrid compound Bis (4-acetylanilinium) tetrachlorocadmiate (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jellibi, A.; Chaabane, I.; Guidara, K.

    2016-06-01

    A new organic-inorganic bis (4-acetylaniline) tetrachlorocadmate [C8H10NO]2[CdCl4] can be obtained by slow evaporation at room temperature and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction. It crystallized in an orthorhombic system (Cmca space group). The material electrical properties were characterized by impedance spectroscopy technique in the frequency range from 209 Hz-5 MHz and temperature 413 to 460 K. Besides, the impedance plots show semicircle arcs at different temperatures and an electrical equivalent circuit has been proposed to interpret the impedance results. The circuits consist of the parallel combination of a resistance (R), capacitance (C) and fractal capacitance (CPE). The variation of the exponent s as a function of temperature suggested that the conduction mechanism in Bis (4-acetylanilinium) tetrachlorocadmiate compound is governed by two processes which can be ascribed to a hopping transport mechanism: correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model below 443 K and the small polaron tunneling (SPT) model above 443 K.

  15. Hybrid organic-inorganic silica monolith with hydrophobic/strong cation-exchange functional groups as a sorbent for micro-solid phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ming-Ming; Ruan, Ge-Deng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2009-11-06

    A hybrid organic-inorganic silica monolith with hydrophobic and strong cation-exchange functional groups was prepared and used as a sorbent for micro-solid phase extraction (micro-SPE). The hybrid silica monolith functionalized with octyl and thiol groups was conveniently synthesized by hydrolysis and polycondensation of a mixture of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), n-octyltriethoxysilane (C8-TEOS) and 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) via a two-step catalytic sol-gel process. Due to the favorable chemical reactivity of mercapto pendant moieties, the obtained hybrid monolith was oxidized using hydrogen peroxide (30%, w/w) to yield sulfonic acid groups, which provided strong cation-exchange sites. The obtained hybrid monolith was characterized by diffused infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The results show that the resulting monolith contains much higher carbon (31.6%) and sulfur (4.8%) contents than traditionally bonded silica materials. The extraction performance of the hybrid monolith was evaluated using sulfonamides as testing analytes by micro-SPE on-line coupled to HPLC. The results show that the hybrid monolith with hydrophobic and strong cation-exchange functional groups exhibits high extraction efficiency towards the testing analytes. The column-to-column RSD values were 1.3-9.8% for the extraction of SAs investigated. The extraction performance of the hybrid silica monolith remained practically unchanged after treated with acid (pH 1.0) and basic solutions (pH 10.5). Finally, the application of the hybrid monolith was demonstrated by micro-SPE of sulfonamide residues from milk followed by HPLC-UV analysis. The limits of detection (S/N=3) for eight SAs were found to be 1.0-3.0ng/mL in milk. The recoveries of eight SAs spiked in milk sample ranged from 80.2% to 115.6%, with relative standard deviations less than 11.8%.

  16. Facile preparation of organic-inorganic hybrid polymeric ionic liquid monolithic column with a one-pot process for protein separation in capillary electrochromatography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cuicui; Deng, Qiliang; Fang, Guozhen; Feng, Xue; Qian, Hailong; Wang, Shuo

    2014-11-01

    An organic-inorganic hybrid monolithic column based on 1-vinyl-3-dodecylimidazolium bromide (VC12Im(+)Br(-)) has been prepared in a single step by combining radical copolymerization with a non-hydrolytic sol-gel (NHSG) process. The NHSG process was significantly shortened to 6 h by using formic acid as catalyst. For comparison, we also prepared polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) monolithic columns by hydrolytic sol-gel and organic polymeric process, respectively. The resulting monolithic columns were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra, scanning electron microscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller. Under the capillary electrochromatography mode, these columns were applied to separate alkylbenzenes, anilines, and proteins, respectively. The results indicated that the NHSG-based hybrid PIL monolithic column exhibited the highest column efficiency among the three types of columns; organic solvent, commonly required by the traditional columns to achieve satisfactory separation efficiency for proteins, was absent in the NHSG-based hybrid PIL monolithic column because of the biocompatibility of the VC12Im(+)Br(-), which was beneficial to analysis of protein containing samples. In order to demonstrate its application potential, the developed NHSG-based hybrid PIL monolithic column was also employed to separate egg white sample.

  17. Poly(ε-caprolactone) reinforced with sol-gel synthesized organic-inorganic hybrid fillers as composite substrates for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Russo, Teresa; Gloria, Antonio; D-Antò, Vincenzo; D'Amora, Ugo; Ametrano, Gianluca; Bollino, Flavia; De Santis, Roberto; Ausanio, Giovanni; Catauro, Michelina; Rengo, Sandro; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    The importance of polymer-based composite materials to make multifunctional substrates for tissue engineering and the strategies to improve their performances have been stressed in the literature. Bioactive features of sol-gel synthesized poly(ε-caprolactone)/TiO₂ or poly(ε-caprolactone)/ZrO₂ organic-inorganic hybrid materials are widely documented. Accordingly, the aim of this preliminary research was to develop advanced composite substrates consisting of a poly(ε-caprolactone) matrix reinforced with sol-gel synthesized PCL/TiO₂ or PCL/ZrO₂ hybrid fillers. Micro-computed tomography and atomic force microscopy analyses allowed to study surface topography and roughness. On the other hand, mechanical and biological performances were evaluated by small punch tests and Alamar Blue™ assay, respectively. Micro-computed tomography and atomic force microscopy analyses highlighted the effect of the preparation technique. Results from small punch tests and Alamar Blue™ assay evidenced that PCL reinforced with Ti2 (PCL=12, TiO₂=88 wt%) and Zr2 (PCL=12, ZrO₂=88 wt%) hybrid fillers provided better mechanical and biological performances. PCL reinforced with Ti2 (PCL=12, TiO₂=88 wt%) and Zr2 (PCL=12, ZrO₂=88 wt%) hybrid fillers could be considered as advanced composite substrates for hard tissue engineering.

  18. A Mechanistic Explanation of the Peculiar Amphiphobic Properties of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Coatings by Combining XPS Characterization and DFT Modeling.

    PubMed

    Motta, Alessandro; Cannelli, Oliviero; Boccia, Alice; Zanoni, Robertino; Raimondo, Mariarosa; Caldarelli, Aurora; Veronesi, Federico

    2015-09-16

    We report a combined X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical modeling analysis of hybrid functional coatings constituted by fluorinated alkylsilane monolayers covalently grafted on a nanostructured ceramic oxide (Al2O3) thin film deposited on aluminum alloy substrates. Such engineered surfaces, bearing hybrid coatings obtained via a classic sol-gel route, have been previously shown to possess amphiphobic behavior (superhydrophobicity plus oleophobicity) and excellent durability, even under simulated severe working environments. Starting from XPS, SEM, and contact angle results and analysis, and combining it with DFT results, the present investigation offers a first mechanistic explanation at a molecular level of the peculiar properties of the hybrid organic-inorganic coating in terms of composition and surface structural arrangements. Theoretical modeling shows that the active fluorinated moiety is strongly anchored on the alumina sites with single Si-O-Al bridges and that the residual valence of Si is saturated by Si-O-Si bonds which form a reticulation with two vicinal fluoroalkylsilanes. The resulting hybrid coating consists of stable rows of fluorinated alkyl chains in reciprocal contact, which form well-ordered and packed monolayers.

  19. Sulfonic acid-functionalized hybrid organic-inorganic proton exchange membranes synthesized by sol-gel using 3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane (MPTMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosa, J.; Durán, A.; Aparicio, M.

    2015-11-01

    Organic/inorganic hybrid membranes based on (3-glycidoxypropyl) trimethoxysilane (GPTMS) and 3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane (MPTMS) have been prepared by sol-gel method and organic polymerisation, as candidate materials for proton exchange membranes in direct alcohol fuel cell (DMFC) applications. The -SH groups of MPTMS are oxidized to sulfonic acid groups, which are attributed to enhance the proton conductivity of hybrid membranes. FTIR, XPS and contact angle were used to characterize and confirm the hybrid structure and oxidation reaction progress. Membranes characterization also includes ion exchange capacity, water uptake, methanol permeability and proton conductivity to confirm their applicability in fuel cells. All the membranes were homogeneous and thermally and chemically resistant. In particular, the hybrid membranes demonstrated proton conductivities as high as 0.16 S cm-1 at high temperature, while exhibiting a low methanol permeability as compared to Nafion®. These results are associated with proton conducting paths through the silica pseudo-PEO network in which sulfonic acid groups work as proton donor.

  20. Self-assembled Nanomaterials for Hybrid Electronic and Photonic Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-15

    Self-assembled Nanomaterials for Hybrid Electronic and Photonic Systems This grant studied DNA nanostructures and their applications in a variety of...Number of Papers published in non peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: Self-assembled Nanomaterials for Hybrid Electronic and Photonic Systems Report

  1. Organic/inorganic hybrid nanospheres based on hyperbranched poly(ethylene imine) encapsulated into silica for the sorption of toxic metal ions and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from water.

    PubMed

    Arkas, Michael; Tsiourvas, Dimitris

    2009-10-15

    Organic-inorganic hybrid silica nanospheres were prepared through a biomimetic silicification process in water at ambient conditions by the interaction of low cost poly(ethylene imine) hyperbranched polymer with silicic acid. The characterization of these nanoparticles by FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), zeta-potential and dynamic light scattering (DLS) experiments confirmed that the dendritic polymer was incorporated into the silica network. Preliminary experiments show that these hybrid nanoparticles can be employed for the removal of toxic water contaminants. Hybrid nanospheres' sorption of two completely different categories of pollutants, i.e. metal ions such as Pb(2+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+), Cr(2)O(7)(2-), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as pyrene and phenanthrene, was largely enhanced in comparison with the corresponding polymer-free silica nanospheres. This was attributed to the to the formation of conventional metal-ligand and charge-transfer complexes proving that although integrated into the silica network poly(ethylene imine) retains its chemical properties.

  2. Calcium phosphate-based organic-inorganic hybrid nanocarriers with pH-responsive on/off switch for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Nomoto, Takahiro; Fukushima, Shigeto; Kumagai, Michiaki; Miyazaki, Kozo; Inoue, Aki; Mi, Peng; Maeda, Yoshinori; Toh, Kazuko; Matsumoto, Yu; Morimoto, Yuji; Kishimura, Akihiro; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2016-05-26

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising treatment modality for malignant tumors in a light-selective manner. To improve the PDT efficacy, numerous kinds of nanocarriers have been developed to deliver photosensitizers (PSs) selectively into the tumor through leaky tumor-associated vasculature. However, the corresponding prolonged retention of the nanocarrier in the bloodstream may lead to unfavorable photochemical damage to normal tissues such as skin. Here, we report an organic-inorganic hybrid nanocarrier with a pH-responsive on/off switch of PDT efficacy. This hybrid nanocarrier is constructed by hydrothermal synthesis after simple mixing of calcium/phosphate ions, chlorin e6 (amphiphilic low molecular weight PS), and poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(aspartic acid) (PEG-PAsp) copolymers in an aqueous solution. The hybrid nanocarrier possesses a calcium phosphate (CaP) core encapsulating the PSs, which is surrounded by a PEG shielding layer. Under physiological conditions (pH 7.4), the nanocarrier suppressed the photochemical activity of PS by lowering the access of oxygen molecules to the incorporated PS, while PDT efficacy was restored in a pH-responsive manner because of the dissolution of CaP and eventual recovery of access between the oxygen and the PS. Owing to this switch, the nanocarrier reduced the photochemical damage in the bloodstream, while it induced effective PDT efficacy inside the tumor cell in response to the acidic conditions of the endo-/lysosomes.

  3. Preparation of organic-inorganic hybrid silica monolith with octyl and sulfonic acid groups for capillary electrochromatograhpy and application in determination of theophylline and caffeine in beverage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Luan; Zheng, Ming-Ming; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2010-05-21

    An organic-inorganic hybrid silica monolithic column with octyl and sulfonic acid groups has been prepared by sol-gel technique for capillary electrochromatograhpy. The structure of hybrid monolith was optimized by changing the composition of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), octyltriethoxysilane (C(8)-TEOS) and 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) in the mixture of precursors. Then, the obtained hybrid monolith was oxidized using hydrogen peroxide (30%, w/w) to yield sulfonic acid groups. The sulfonic acid group, which served as strong cation-exchanger, dominated the charge on the surface of the capillary column and generated stable electroosmotic flow (EOF) in a wide range of pH. The monolithic column was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and elemental analysis (EA), and the performance of column was evaluated in detail by separating different kinds of compounds with column efficiency up to 155,000 plates/m for thiourea. In addition, this monolithic column was also applied in the analysis of theophylline (TP) and caffeine (CA) in beverages. The detection limits were 0.39 and 0.48 microg/mL for theophylline and caffeine, respectively. The method reproducibility was tested by evaluating the intra- and inter-day precisions, and relative standard deviations of less than 3.9 and 8.4%, respectively, were obtained. Recoveries of compounds from spiked beverage samples ranged from 87.2 to 105.2%. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Organic-inorganic crosslinked and hybrid membranes derived from sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone)/silica via sol-gel process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Shaoguang; Shang, Yuming; Wang, Yingzi; Xie, Xiaofeng; Mathur, V. K.; Xu, Jingming

    A series of covalently crosslinkable organic-inorganic hybrid membranes have been prepared from sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (SPAES) with pendant propenyl moiety and various amounts of vinyl substituted silica via sol-gel process which are then thermally crosslinked in the presence of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) initiator. The obtained membranes are characterized in terms of oxidative stability, thermal property, ion exchange capacity (IEC), water uptake, swelling ratio in methanol aqueous solution, proton conductivity, and methanol permeability coefficient. The results indicate that the oxidative stability and thermal stability of the hybrid membranes are improved. Moreover, introduction of silica reduces the water uptake and methanol swelling of membranes. The swelling ratio of membranes in 2 mol L -1 methanol aqueous solution at 80 °C slowly decreases from 26 to 19% with the increase of SiO 2 content from 0 to 12 wt.%. Furthermore, with the increase in silica content, the methanol permeability coefficient of the hybrid membranes decreases at first and then increases. When the silica content reaches 8 wt.%, the methanol permeability coefficient is at the minimum of 6.02 × 10 -7 cm 2 s -1, a 2.64-fold decrease compared with that of the pristine SPAES membrane. Moreover, the proton conductivity is found to be at about 95% of that of pristine polymer at that silica content.

  5. Elaboration, structural, spectroscopy, DSC investigations and Hirshfeld surface analysis of a one-dimensional self-assembled organic-inorganic hybrid compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesbeh, Radhia; Hamdi, Besma; Zouari, Ridha

    2017-01-01

    The new organic-inorganic hybrid of the formula [H2mela]Cu2Cl6, where mela = 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine, has been synthesized by the reaction of 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine and copper(II) chloride dihydrate in the presence of hydrochloric acid. This compound has been determined by X-ray diffraction analysis and characterized by FT-IR, Raman, NMR characterization, differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis, dielectric measurements and Hirshfeld surface. 1,3,5-triazinidium-2,4,6-triamine hexachlorodicuprate(II) crystallizes in the monoclinic system with space group P21/c. The final refinement of the structure of the program led to the reliability factors unweighted R1 = 3.53% and weighted WR2 = 8.87%. The observed internal C3sbnd N31sbnd C1 and C3sbnd N23sbnd C2 angle (121.5 and 121.4°) at protanated N-atom are significantly greater the other ring angle C1sbnd N12sbnd C2 (117.1°). The titled compound crystallizes as an organic-inorganic one-dimensional (1D) structure. The crystal structure was stabilized by two types of hydrogen bonding Nsbnd H⋯Cl and Nsbnd H⋯N. The infrared spectra was recorded in the 4000-400 cm-1 frequency region and the Raman spectra was recorded in the external region of the anionic sublattice vibration 4000-50 cm-1 at room temperature. Solid-state 13C and 63Cu MAS-NMR spectroscopies are in agreement with the X-ray structure. The differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) show the presence of a structural phase transition of the title compound at 338 K. Hirshfeld surface analyses for visually analyzing intermolecular interactions in crystal structures employing molecular surface contours and 2D fingerprint plots have been used to examine molecular shapes.

  6. Preparation of SnS2 colloidal quantum dots and their application in organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Dispersive SnS2 colloidal quantum dots have been synthesized via hot-injection method. Hybrid photovoltaic devices based on blends of a conjugated polymer poly[2-methoxy-5-(3",7"dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MDMO-PPV) as electron donor and crystalline SnS2 quantum dots as electron acceptor have been studied. Photoluminescence measurement has been performed to study the surfactant effect on the excitons splitting process. The photocurrent of solar cells with the hybrid depends greatly on the ligands exchange as well as the device heat treatment. AFM characterization has demonstrated morphology changes happening upon surfactant replacement and annealing, which can explain the performance variation of hybrid solar cells. PMID:21711811

  7. Preparation of SnS2 colloidal quantum dots and their application in organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Furui; Qu, Shengchun; Wu, Ju; Liu, Kong; Zhou, Shuyun; Wang, Zhanguo

    2011-12-01

    Dispersive SnS2 colloidal quantum dots have been synthesized via hot-injection method. Hybrid photovoltaic devices based on blends of a conjugated polymer poly[2-methoxy-5-(3",7"dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MDMO-PPV) as electron donor and crystalline SnS2 quantum dots as electron acceptor have been studied. Photoluminescence measurement has been performed to study the surfactant effect on the excitons splitting process. The photocurrent of solar cells with the hybrid depends greatly on the ligands exchange as well as the device heat treatment. AFM characterization has demonstrated morphology changes happening upon surfactant replacement and annealing, which can explain the performance variation of hybrid solar cells.

  8. Preparation of SnS2 colloidal quantum dots and their application in organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, Furui; Qu, Shengchun; Wu, Ju; Liu, Kong; Zhou, Shuyun; Wang, Zhanguo

    2011-04-05

    Dispersive SnS2 colloidal quantum dots have been synthesized via hot-injection method. Hybrid photovoltaic devices based on blends of a conjugated polymer poly[2-methoxy-5-(3",7"dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MDMO-PPV) as electron donor and crystalline SnS2 quantum dots as electron acceptor have been studied. Photoluminescence measurement has been performed to study the surfactant effect on the excitons splitting process. The photocurrent of solar cells with the hybrid depends greatly on the ligands exchange as well as the device heat treatment. AFM characterization has demonstrated morphology changes happening upon surfactant replacement and annealing, which can explain the performance variation of hybrid solar cells.

  9. Dual cross-linked organic-inorganic hybrid polymer electrolyte membranes based on quaternized poly(ether ether ketone) and (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Na; Wang, Baolong; Zhao, Chengji; Zhang, Yurong; Bu, Fanzhe; Cui, Ying; Li, Xuefeng; Na, Hui

    2015-02-01

    Quaternized poly(ether ether ketone)s (QPEEKs) are synthesized to absorb phosphoric acid (PA) and used as high temperature proton exchange membranes (HTPEMs). In order to improve their oxidative and mechanical stability without sacrificing proton conductivities, a series of dual cross-linked organic-inorganic hybrid membranes are prepared using (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) as a cross-linker. The amine of APTES reacts with two benzyl bromide groups to build the primary cross-linking network. The Si-O-Si network generated by the hydrolysis of triethoxysilane in APTES is the secondary cross-linking network. The dual cross-linking hybrid networks improve the mechanical and oxidative stability of PA doped membranes. They can endure up to 15.3 h in 3 wt.% H2O2, 4 ppm Fe2+ Fenton solution at 80 °C. During the hydrolysis of triethoxysilane, the release of small molecules (H2O and C2H5OH) forms many pores in surfaces and interior of membranes. These pores and the resulted Si-OH groups corporately enhance the PA absorbing ability and proton conductivity. The highest proton conductivity is 61.7 mS cm-1 for PA-QPEEK-10%APTES at 200 °C under anhydrous condition. These membranes show great potential to be used in HTPEM fuel cell.

  10. Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Ternary Bulk Heterojunction of Nanostructured Perovskite-Low Bandgap Polymer-PCBM for Improved Efficiency of Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hanbin; Lee, Jae Kwan

    2015-12-30

    A new organic-inorganic ternary bulk heterojunction (TBHJ) hybrid configuration comprised of nanostructured (CH3)3NHPbI3 (MAPbI3) perovskite-low bandgap PCPDTBT-PCBM was investigated. Well-organized TBHJ films were readily prepared by sequential spin-casting of sparsely covered MAPbI3 nano dots and PCPDTBT-PCBM bulk heterojunction (BHJ) composites on ITO/PEDOT:PSS substrates. The TBHJ hybrid device configuration comprising diiooctane (DIO) treated MAPbI3 perovskite nano dots and a PCPDTBT-PCBM BHJ composite processed with DIO additive exhibited excellent performances. The DIO additive played a key role in developing perovskite structures of MAPbI3 nano dots and induced the (110) directional crystallinity growth of longitudinal constructive morphologies such as nano rods. The improved photocurrent and fill factor compared to those of conventional BHJ devices led to an increase in efficiency of ∼28%. This improved photovoltaic performance originated from the higher quantum efficiencies contributed by the charge transfer from nanostructured MAPbI3 perovskite to PCBM. These TBHJs composed of nanostructured MAPbI3 perovskite, PCPDTBT, and PCBM also facilitated the exciton dissociation in the multi-BHJ system between MAPbI3 perovskite, PCPDTBT, and PCBM.

  11. Syntheses, structures and properties of two 2-D layered hybrid organic-inorganic materials based on different V4O12 building units.

    PubMed

    Hou, Wentao; Guo, Jiuyu; Xu, Xiao; Wang, Zuoxiang; Zhang, Deng; Wan, Hongxiang; Song, You; Zhu, Dunru; Xu, Yan

    2014-01-14

    Two new layered hybrid organic-inorganic compounds [Zn(pyim)]2V4O12 () (pyim = 2-(2-pyridyl)imidazole) and [Cu(bim)2]2V4O12(H2O)·CH3CH2OH () (bim = bis(1-imidazolyl)methane) based on polyoxovanadates (POVs) and organic ligands decorated transition metal units have been synthesized by hydrothermal and solvothermal methods respectively. Single crystal XRD, fluorescence spectrum, magnetic measurement, IR spectra, powder XRD and thermogravimetric (TG) measurements were performed to analyze the structures and properties of and . The structural analysis reveals that compound features a two-dimensional {[Zn(pyim)]2V4O12}n layered structure, constructed by sine wave-like {V4O12}n(4n-) chains, Zn(2+) ions and pyim ligands. In the layered structure of , {V4O12}(4-) circles are connected by Cu(2+) ions to form {Cu(V4O12)}n(2n-) chains, which are further linked by {Cu(bim)4}(2+) subunits to generate a hybrid layer of . The magnetic susceptibility measurement indicates strong antiferromagnetic interactions between Cu(2+) ions in .

  12. Pd(0)-CMC@Ce(OH)(4) organic/inorganic hybrid as highly active catalyst for the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bijin; Liu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Zhuan; Chen, Yang; Liao, Xiaojian; Li, Yiqun

    2017-07-01

    A very easy sequential metathesis for the synthesis of Pd(II)-CMC@Ce(OH)4 organic/inorganic hybrid and its application as effective pre-catalyst for the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction have been reported. It was found that the Pd nanoparticles (Pd NPs) were formed in situ in the course of the Suzuki-Miyaura couplings when Pd(II)-CMC@Ce(OH)4 was used as a pre-catalyst. The activity of the Pd NPs in the reaction was enhanced synergistically by the unique redox properties (Ce(3+)/Ce(4+)) of Ce(OH)4 and coordination with carboxyl groups as well as free hydroxyl groups of the hybrid of CMC@Ce(OH)4. The results exhibit the Pd(0)-CMC@Ce(OH)4 is super over Pd(II)@CMC, Pd(II)@CeO2, and Pd(II)@Ce(OH)4 catalysts in the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction. Moreover, the catalyst could be easily separated by simple filtration and reused at least seven runs without losing its activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis and luminescence properties of hybrid organic-inorganic transparent titania thin film activated by in-situ formed lanthanide complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yige; Wang Li; Li Huanrong Liu Peng; Qin Dashan; Liu Binyuan; Zhang Wenjun; Deng Ruiping; Zhang Hongjie

    2008-03-15

    Stable transparent titania thin films were fabricated at room temperature by combining thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA)-modified titanium precursors with amphiphilic triblock poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO, P123) copolymers. The obtained transparent titania thin films were systematically investigated by IR spectroscopy, PL emission and excitation spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. IR spectroscopy indicates that TTFA coordinates the titanium center during the process of hydrolysis and condensation. Luminescence spectroscopy confirms the in-situ formation of lanthanide complexes in the transparent titania thin film. TEM image shows that the in-situ formed lanthanide complexes were homogeneously distributed throughout the whole thin film. The quantum yield and the number of water coordinated to lanthanide metal center have been theoretically determined based on the luminescence data. - Graphical abstract: Novel stable luminescent organic-inorganic hybrid titania thin film with high transparency activated by in-situ formed lanthanide complexes have been obtained at room temperature via a simple one-pot synthesis approach by using TTFA-modified titanium precursor with amphiphilic triblock copolymer P123. The obtained hybrid thin film displays bright red (or green), near-monochromatic luminescence due to the in-situ formed lanthanide complex.

  14. Synthesis, Multinuclear NMR Characterization and Dynamic Property of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Electrolyte Membrane Based on Alkoxysilane and Poly(oxyalkylene) Diamine.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Diganta; Pan, Yu-Chi; Kao, Hsien-Ming

    2012-06-13

    Organic-inorganic hybrid electrolyte membranes based on poly(propylene glycol)-block-poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol) bis(2-aminopropyl ether) complexed with LiClO4 via the co-condensation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and 3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl isocyanate have been prepared and characterized. A variety of techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, alternating current (AC) impedance and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy are performed to elucidate the relationship between the structural and dynamic properties of the hybrid electrolyte and the ion mobility. A VTF (Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher)-like temperature dependence of ionic conductivity is observed for all the compositions studied, implying that the diffusion of charge carriers is assisted by the segmental motions of the polymer chains. A maximum ionic conductivity value of 5.3 × 10-5 Scm-1 is obtained at 30 °C. Solid-state NMR results provide a microscopic view of the effects of salt concentrations on the dynamic behavior of the polymer chains.

  15. Development of numerical modeling program for organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells by including tail/Interfacial states models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Kuan-Ying; Lu, I.-Hsin; Wu, Yuh-Renn

    2016-03-01

    A numerical model for PEDOT:PSS/SiNW hybrid solar cell has been developed and the structure has been simulated and analyzed. The limiting factor leading to low open circuit voltage (Voc) in PEDOT:PSS/SiNW hybrid solar cell is investigated. By adding a p-type silicon layer into the device to create an electric field in the silicon layer, the recombination at interface is improved and the Voc increases. The efficiency is improved to over 15% and more optimized work can be done in the future.

  16. (29)Si NMR and SAXS investigation of the hybrid organic-inorganic glasses obtained by consolidation of the melting gels.

    PubMed

    Jitianu, Andrei; Cadars, Sylvian; Zhang, Fan; Rodriguez, Gabriela; Picard, Quentin; Aparicio, Mario; Mosa, Jadra; Klein, Lisa C

    2017-03-14

    This study is focused on structural characterization of hybrid glasses obtained by consolidation of melting gels. The melting gels were prepared in molar ratios of methyltriethoxysilane (MTES) and dimethyldiethoxysilane (DMDES) of 75%MTES-25%DMDES and 65%MTES-35%DMDES. Following consolidation, the hybrid glasses were characterized using Raman, (29)Si and (13)C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, synchrotron Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Raman spectroscopy revealed the presence of Si-C bonds in the hybrid glasses and 8-membered ring structures in the Si-O-Si network. Qualitative NMR spectroscopy identified the main molecular species, while quantitative NMR data showed that the ratio of trimers (T) to dimers (D) varied between 4.6 and 3.8. Two-dimensional (29)Si NMR data were used to identify two distinct types of T(3) environments. SAXS data showed that the glasses are homogeneous across the nm to micrometer length scales. The scattering cross section was one thousand times lower than what is expected when phase separation occurs. The SEM images show a uniform surface without defects, in agreement with the SAXS results, which further supports that the hybrid glasses are nonporous.

  17. Optimization of hybrid organic/inorganic poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl)/silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weingarten, Martin; Sanders, Simon; Stümmler, Dominik; Pfeiffer, Pascal; Vescan, Andrei; Kalisch, Holger

    2016-04-01

    In the last years, hybrid organic/silicon solar cells have attracted great interest in photovoltaic research due to their potential to become a low-cost alternative for the conventionally used silicon pn-junction solar cells. This work is focused on hybrid solar cells based on the polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl), which was deposited on n-doped crystalline silicon via spin-coating under ambient conditions. By employing an anisotropic etching step with potassium hydroxide (KOH), the reflection losses at the silicon surface were reduced. Hereby, the short-circuit current density of the hybrid devices was increased by 31%, leading to a maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 13.1% compared to a PCE of 10.7% for the devices without KOH etching. In addition, the contacts were improved by replacing gold with the more conductive silver as top grid material to reduce the contact resistance and by introducing a thin (˜0.5 nm) lithium fluoride layer between the silicon and the aluminum backside contact to improve electron collection and hole blocking. Hereby, the open-circuit voltage and the fill factor of the hybrid solar cells were further improved and devices with very high PCE up to 14.2% have been realized.

  18. A new type of organic-inorganic hybrid NLO-phore with large off-diagonal first hyperpolarizability tensors: a two-dimensional approach.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Shabbir; Xu, Hongliang; Su, Zhongmin; Fukuda, Kotaro; Kishi, Ryohei; Shigeta, Yasuteru; Nakano, Masayoshi

    2013-11-14

    We report a novel type of organic-inorganic hybrid material with rare two-dimensional nonlinear optical (NLO) properties. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations combined with the finite-field (FF) method show that the designed molecules (6,9 organo-derivatives of B10H14) could carry the characteristic NLO properties of both organic and inorganic materials. Interestingly, due to their unique V-shaped structures, they have large off-diagonal first hyperpolarizability tensors or nonlinear anisotropy, which is an advantage in their practical applications over conventional donor-π-acceptor (D-π-A) NLO-phores. The systematic substitutions of terminal donor/acceptor groups as well as the extension of π-conjugation along the V-shape in these derivatives have been evaluated to guide a purpose-oriented synthesis of NLO material. All the systems in the present study have been categorized into Set-I and Set-II with D-π-A-π-D and A-π-D-π-A configurations, respectively. These designed derivatives show large amplitudes of βz values. For example, systems 3N (6,9-[(N=C=Ph-NO2)2]-B10H12) and 4N (6,9-[((N=C=Ph)2-NO2)2]-B10H12) have βz amplitudes as large as 34.16 and 276.91 × 10(3) a.u. which are 380 and 3000 times larger than those of a typical NLO molecule of urea, respectively. Remarkably, the substitution of nitrogen atoms with 6,9 hydrogen atoms in decaborane is shown to cause a lone pair back donation to vacant p orbitals of 6,9 boron atoms of the decaborane basket. This p orbital overlapping verticalizes the V-arms of the decaborane derivatives and boosts their nonlinear anisotropies due to their larger off-diagonal tensor components. The nonlinear anisotropy values are significantly larger, ranging from 1 (minimum in system 1) to 31.90 (maximum in system 3A) due to their unique V-shape. Comparison of their efficiencies with standard molecules demonstrates that our designed organic-inorganic hybrid molecules have significant potential as excellent

  19. Photoinduced energy transfer processes in hybrid organic-inorganic multichromophoric arrays arranged on a truxene-based platform.

    PubMed

    Diring, Stéphane; Ventura, Barbara; Barbieri, Andrea; Ziessel, Raymond

    2012-11-14

    The synthesis, photophysical characterization and energy-transfer features of a series of hybrid truxene derivatives peripherally decorated with inorganic Os-containing polypyridine units and organic Bodipy dyes are reported. The photoactive terminal units are coupled to the central truxene scaffold by rigid ethynyl linkers in a star-shaped arrangement. The absorption range widely covers the UV-Vis spectrum and the Os (3)MLCT or the Bodipy triplet act as final collectors of the absorbed energy.

  20. Barrier characteristics of biopolymer-based organic/inorganic Au/CTS/n-InP hybrid junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abay, Bahattin

    2015-11-01

    Thin film of biopolymeric compound chitosan (CTS) has been surfaced on moderately doped n-InP substrate as an interfacial layer by means of spin coating for the electronic modification of Au/n-InP structure. Electrical characterization of Au/CTS/n-InP hybrid junction has been performed by I-V and C-V measurements at room temperature. An effective barrier height (BH) value of 0.678 eV and an ideality factor of n = 1.665 have been obtained for the hybrid junction. The CTS interfacial layer has been found to reduce the reverse bias leakage current of the junction by about three orders of magnitude and enhance the BH by about 0.213 eV. Furthermore, the BH value of the hybrid junction has been obtained as 0.693 eV by C-V measurement. Good performance of the device could be ascribed to the passivation effect of the CTS interfacial layer between Au and n-InP. The BH values of 0.678 and 0.693 eV for the hybrid junction have been significantly higher than that of the conventional Au/n-InP junction (~0.465 eV). The results indicated that biopolymeric thin interfacial CTS layer might lead to the modification of the potential barrier for metal/n-InP junctions. Moreover, band gap of the CTS layer has been determined as 4.60 eV via UV-vis spectroscopy.

  1. Modification of Blue LED using Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Polymer Doped with Nile Red for Artificial Lighting of Photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syakir, Norman; Syarifudin, Fahmi; Hidayat, Sahrul; Fitrilawati

    2017-07-01

    The photosynthesis process of chlorophyll absorbs only the light with wavelength in the blue and red ranges. The absorption peak of the chlorophyll-A is at 428 nm and 660 nm, while absorption peak of chlorophyll-B is at 453 nm and 643 nm. We report the modification of blue LED using hybrid polymer doped with Nile Red. In order to match the total absorption spectra of chlorophyll-A and chlorophyll-B, the emission spectrum of the modified blue LED was taken out by using the wavelength conversion material. We modified the blue LED by covering the blue LED of 450 nm as excitation source with precursor of red wavelength conversion material. The red wavelength conversion material was prepared by doped precursor of TMSPMA hybrid polymer with organic phosphor of Nile Red. The precursor of hybrid polymer was synthesized using sol-gel process and then it was doped with 0.1% Nile Red. In order to freeze the precursor of these conversion material, we employed UV photopolymerization process. The modified blue LED has two emission peaks, which are at 448 nm (blue emission) and at 651 nm (red emission). The optimum spectrum profile of the modified blue LED has similar range as the total absorption spectra of chlorophyll-A and chlorophyll-B that obtain using Nile Red with the mass of 2.9 μg and the driven current of 60 mA. This result has a potential application for the artificial lighting in the photosynthesis process of horticultures at indoor plantation.

  2. Nonhydrolytic sol-gel approach to facile creation of surface-bonded zirconia organic-inorganic hybrid coatings for sample preparation. Ι. Capillary microextraction of catecholamine neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Alhendal, Abdullah; Mengis, Stephanie; Matthews, Jacob; Malik, Abdul

    2016-10-14

    Nonhydrolytic sol-gel (NHSG) route was used for the creation of novel zirconia-polypropylene oxide (ZrO2-PPO) sol-gel hybrid sorbents in the form of surface coatings for the extraction and preconcentration of catecholamine neurotransmitters and molecules structurally related to their deaminated metabolites. In comparison to other sorbents made of inorganic transition metal oxides, the presented hybrid organic-inorganic sorbents facilitated reversible sorption properties that allowed for efficient desorption of the extracted analytes by LC-MS compatible mobile phases. The presented sol-gel hybrid sorbents effectively overcame the major drawbacks of traditional silica- or polymer-based sorbents by providing superior pH stability (pH range: 0-14), and a variety of intermolecular interactions. Nonaqueous sol-gel treatment of PPO with ZrCl4 was employed for the derivatization of the terminal hydroxyl groups on PPO, providing zirconium trichloride-containing end groups characterized by enhanced sol-gel reactivity. NHSG ZrO2-PPO sorbent provided excellent microextraction performance for catecholamines, low detection limits (5.6-9.6pM), high run-to-run reproducibility (RSD 0.6-5.1%), high desorption efficiency (95.0-99.5%) and high enrichment factors (∼1480-2650) for dopamine and epinephrine, respectively, extracted from synthetic urine samples. The presented sol-gel sorbents provided effective alternative to conventional extraction media providing unique physicochemical characteristics and excellent extraction capability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Phosphomolybdate clusters as molecular building blocks in the design of one-, two- and three-dimensional organic inorganic hybrid materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel Armatas, N.; Burkholder, Eric; Zubieta, Jon

    2005-08-01

    An attractive approach to the design of inorganic solids exploits the tethering of inorganic clusters through organic spacers to produce hybrid materials with composite properties. We have recently described a modified strategy in which polyoxometalate clusters are linked through organic subunits to give an anionic hybrid substructure which may be further modified through the introduction of secondary metal-ligand complex (SMLC) cations, serving as a third component building block. In this application, the molybdophosphonate cluster {Mo 5O 15(O 3PR) 2} 4- serves as a secondary building unit (SBU) with alkyl (CH 2) n or aromatic -(C 6H 4) n- tethers providing one-dimensional structural expansion. A binucleating ligand such as tetrapyridylpyrazine (tpyprz) is used to bridge secondary metal sites into a binuclear {Cu 2(tpyprz)} 4+ SBU which may link phosphomolybdate clusters into two- or three-dimensional structures. The influence of a variety of structural determinants is discussed, including the tether length of the diphosphonate ligand, the coordination preferences of the secondary metal, expansion of the ligand component of the SMLC, and substitution of As for P in the oxide SBU.

  4. Crystal structure, thermochromic and magnetic properties of organic-inorganic hybrid compound: (C7H7N2S)2CuCl4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishwakarma, Ashok K.; Kumari, Reema; Ghalsasi, Prasanna S.; Arulsamy, Navamoney

    2017-08-01

    The synthesis, thermal analysis, crystal structure and magnetic properties of (2-aminobenzothiazolium)2CuCl4, organic-inorganic hybrid compound, have been described. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with two formula units in a unit cell of dimensions a = 6.9522(4) Å, b = 9.6979(4) Å, c = 13.9633(6) Å, β = 97.849(3)° and volume 930.83(8) Å3 at 150(2) K. The structure consists of isolated nearly square planer [CuC14]2- units, with somewhat longer than normal Cusbnd Cl bond lengths [Cusbnd Cl (average) = 2.2711 Å]. The magnetic measurements of (2-aminobenzothiazolium)2CuCl4 using SQUID magnetometer show paramagnetic nature of the compound. Thermal measurements (TG-DTA and DSC) on this compound showed reversible phase transition at 83 °C. This transition is accompanied by the reversible change in colour of the prismatic crystal from green to dark brown, thermochromic behaviour. Temperature dependent EPR measurements on powdered sample ascertain change in coordination sphere around Cu(II) with shift in g|| = 2.150 and g⊥ = 2.071 at room temperature, typical of square planar, to g|| = 2.201 and g⊥ = 2.182 at 170 °C, typical of distorted tetrahedral geometry.

  5. Hydrothermal syntheses, crystal structures of three new organic-inorganic hybrids constructed from Keggin-type [BW 12O 40] 5- clusters and transition metal complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing-Ping; Guo, Gui-Ling; Niu, Jing-Yang

    2008-08-01

    Three new organic-inorganic hybrid compounds constructed from Keggin-type polyanions and transition metal complexes, [Mn(2,2'-bipy) 3] 1.5[BW 12O 40Mn(2,2'-bipy) 2(H 2O)]·0.25H 2O ( 1), [Fe(2,2'-bipy) 3] 1.5[BW 12O 40Fe(2,2'-bipy) 2(H 2O)]·0.5H 2O ( 2) and [Cu 2(phen) 2(OH) 2] 2H[Cu(H 2O) 2{BW 12O 40Cu 0.75(phen)(H 2O)} 2]·1.5H 2O ( 3), have been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, IR, TGA and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 1 and 2 are isostructural and both exhibit monosupporting polyoxometalate cluster structure, each of which contains a [BW 12O 40] 5- cluster decorated by one transition metal complex. Compound 3 contains a bisupporting polyoxometalate cluster anion where two {Cu 0.75(phen)(H 2O)} 0.75+ fragments are supported on the polyoxometalate dimer {Cu(H 2O) 2(BW 12O 40) 2} 8-, this represents the first bisupporting polyoxometalate cluster based on a Keggin-type polyoxometalate dimer, which are further packed together via π-π stacking contacts into an extended 1-D chain.

  6. Optical properties and ab initio study on the hybrid organic-inorganic material [(CH 3) 2NH 2] 3[BiI 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samet, A.; Ahmed, A. Ben; Mlayah, A.; Boughzala, H.; Hlil, E. K.; Abid, Y.

    2010-08-01

    The tri (dimetylammonium) hexa-iodobismuthate of general formula [(CH 3) 2NH 2] 3[BiI 6] is an organic-inorganic hybrid material. The crystal lattice is composed of discrete [BiI 6] anions surrounded by dimethylamine cations. The X-ray diffraction pattern was obtained and indexed on the basis of rhombohedra unit cell with the R3¯ space group. Room temperature IR and Raman spectra of the title compound were recorded and analyzed. Semi-empirical Parameter Model three (PM3) method as well as density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed to derive the equilibrium geometry, vibrational wave numbers and a prediction of IR and Raman spectral activities. In this compound the bands corresponding to the cation vibrational modes show that the symmetry of these cations is distorted and they are strongly hydrogen bonded to the respective anions. The frontier molecular orbital and the energy gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest un-occupied molecular orbital (LUMO) were calculated with time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). The results show good consistent with the experiment and confirm the contribution of metal orbital to the HOMO-LUMO boundary.

  7. Studies on the synthesis, spectral, optical and thermal properties of l-Valine Zinc Sulphate: an organic inorganic hybrid nonlinear optical crystal.

    PubMed

    Puhal Raj, A; Ramachandra Raja, C

    2012-11-01

    Nonlinear optical (NLO) organic inorganic hybrid l-Valine Zinc Sulphate (LVZS) was synthesized and single crystals were obtained from saturated aqueous solution by slow evaporation method at 36°C using a constant temperature bath (CTB) with an accuracy of ±0.01°C. This crystal is reported with its characterization by single crystal and powder XRD, FTIR, UV-Vis-NIR, TG/DTA analysis and SHG test. Single crystal XRD study reveals that LVZS crystallizes in monoclinic system with the lattice constants a=9.969(3) Å, b=7.238(3) Å, c=24.334(9) Å and cell volume is 1736.00Å(3). Sharp peaks observed in powder X-ray diffraction studies confirm the high degree of crystallinity of grown crystal. The incorporation of sulphate ion with l-valine is confirmed by FTIR spectrum in LVZS crystal(.) A remarkable increase in optical transparency has been observed in LVZS when compared to l-valine and zinc sulphate heptahydrate Thermal properties of LVZS have been reported by using TG/DTA analysis. Kurtz powder second harmonic generation (SHG) test confirms NLO property of the crystal and SHG efficiency of LVZS was found to be 1.34 times more than pure l-valine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Preparation of hybrid organic-inorganic mesoporous silicas applied to mercury removal from aqueous media: Influence of the synthesis route on adsorption capacity and efficiency.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Quintanilla, Damián; Sánchez, Alfredo; Sierra, Isabel

    2016-06-15

    New hybrid organic-inorganic mesoporous silicas were prepared by employing three different synthesis routes and mercury adsorption studies were done in aqueous media using the batch technique. The organic ligands employed for the functionalization were derivatives of 2-mercaptopyrimidine or 2-mercaptothiazoline, and the synthesis pathways used were post-synthesis, post-synthesis with surface ion-imprinting and co-condensation with ion-imprinting. The incorporation of functional groups and the presence of ordered mesopores in the organosilicas was confirmed by XRD, TEM and SEM, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, (13)C MAS-NMR, (29)Si MAS-NMR, elemental and thermogravimetric analysis. The highest adsorption capacity and selectivity observed was for the material functionalized with 2-mercaptothiazoline ligand by means the co-condensation with ion-imprinting route (1.03 mmol g(-1) at pH 6). The prepared material could be potential sorbent for the extraction of this heavy metal from environmental and drinking waters.

  9. Preparation of silica-supported porous sorbent for heavy metal ions removal in wastewater treatment by organic-inorganic hybridization combined with sucrose and polyethylene glycol imprinting.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Du, Ping; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Shusheng

    2007-03-07

    A new porous sorbent for wastewater treatment of metal ions was synthesized by covalent grafting of molecularly imprinted organic-inorganic hybrid on silica gel. With sucrose and polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG 4000) being synergic imprinting molecules, covalent surface coating on silica gel was achieved by using polysaccharide-incorporated sol-gel process starting from the functional biopolymer, chitosan and an inorganic epoxy-precursor, gamma-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysiloxane (GPTMS) at room temperature. The prepared porous sorbent was characterized by using simultaneous thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimeter (TG/DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nitrogen adsorption porosimetry measurement and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Copper ion, Cu(2+), was chosen as the model metal ion to evaluate the effectiveness of the new biosorbent in wastewater treatment. The influence of epoxy-siloxane dose, buffer pH and co-existed ions on Cu(2+) adsorption was assessed through batch experiments. The imprinted composite sorbent offered a fast kinetics for the adsorption of Cu(2+). The uptake capacity of the sorbent imprinted by two pore-building components was higher than those imprinted with only a single component. The dynamic adsorption in column underwent a good elimination of Cu(2+) in treating electric plating wastewater. The prepared composite sorbent exhibited high reusability. Easy preparation of the described porous composite sorbent, absence of organic solvents, cost-effectiveness and high stability make this approach attractive in biosorption.

  10. FeS2@C nanowires derived from organic-inorganic hybrid nanowires for high-rate and long-life lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Feifei; Wang, Chunli; Huang, Gang; Yin, Dongming; Wang, Limin

    2016-10-01

    One-dimensional (1D) porous FeS2@C nanowires as a high cathode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are synthesized on a large-scale from an organic-inorganic hybrid nanowire precursor. The FeS2@C nanowires not only provide a continuous and fast electron transport pathway, favorable diffusion kinetics, but also provide the protection buffer the volume expansion and effectively prevent the polysulfides from dissolving in the electrolyte during cycling. Attributing to the synergistic advantages of both 1D porous nanostructure and the encapsulation of thin amorphous carbon layers, the FeS2@C nanowires exhibit remarkable lithium storage performance with a high specific capacity of 889 mA h g-1 at 0.1 A g-1 and 521 mA h g-1 at 10 A g-1. Moreover, a discharge energy density of 1225 Wh kg-1 is obtained at 2 A g-1 and remains as high as 637 Wh kg-1 after 1000 cycles, which is even higher than the LiCoO2 cathode. The results demonstrate that the potential for applications in LIBs with high power density and long cycling life.

  11. Reinvestigation of hybrid organic-inorganic materials based on molybdate and piperazininum cations: Influence of the synthesis conditions on the chemical composition and characterizations of the photochromic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Coue, Violaine; Dessapt, Remi Bujoli-Doeuff, Martine; Evain, Michel; Jobic, Stephane

    2008-05-15

    The reactivity of the [Mo{sub 7}O{sub 24}]{sup 6-} anion towards the structure directing-reagent piperazine (pipz) has been investigated and new synthetic routes to achieve the known (H{sub 2}pipz){sub 3}[Mo{sub 8}O{sub 27}] 1, (H{sub 2}pipz)[Mo{sub 3}O{sub 10}].H{sub 2}O 2, and (H{sub 2}pipz)[Mo{sub 5}O{sub 16}] 3 molybdenum(VI) containing compounds are proposed. The role of the pH on the stabilization of the different compounds and their interconversion pathways is discussed. Compounds 1 and 2 show photochromic behavior under UV excitation, related to the particular organization of the organic component around the mineral framework. Their optical properties are reported and commented. - Graphical abstract: Three organic-inorganic hybrid materials have been prepared from the investigations of the [Mo{sub 7}O{sub 24}]{sup 6-}/piperazine system in hydrothermal conditions. The role of the pH on the stabilization of the different polyoxomolybdate blocks in the materials i.e. 1/({infinity}) [Mo{sub 3}O{sub 10}]{sup 2-} and 1/({infinity}) [Mo{sub 8}O{sub 27}]{sup 6-} chains and 2/({infinity}) [Mo{sub 5}O{sub 16}]{sup 2-} layer has been investigated.

  12. High-Efficiency Phosphorescent Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Light-Emitting Diodes Using a Solution-Processed Small-Molecule Emissive Layer.

    PubMed

    Fan, Changjun; Lei, Yong; Liu, Zhen; Wang, Ruixue; Lei, Yanlian; Li, Guoqing; Xiong, Zuhong; Yang, Xiaohui

    2015-09-23

    The morphology and optical and electrical properties of solution-processed and vacuum-deposited 4,4',4″-tris(carbazol-9-yl)triphenylamine (TCTA):2,2'-(1,3-phenylene)bis[5-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole] (OXD-7) composite films are investigated. All of the films exhibit smooth and pinhole-free morphology, while the evaporated films possess enhanced carrier-transport properties compared to solution-processed ones. The close correlation between the carrier-transport feature and the packing density of the film is established. High-efficiency monochromatic and white phosphorescent hybrid organic-inorganic light-emitting diodes with solution-processed small-molecule emissive layers are reported: the maximum external quantum efficiencies of blue, yellow, and red devices are 18.9, 14.6, and 10.2%, respectively; white devices show a maximum luminance efficiency of 40 cd A(-1) and a power efficiency of 20.8 lm W(-1) at 1000 cd m(-2). The efficiencies of blue, red, and white devices represent significant improvement over previously reported values.

  13. Neutron powder diffraction study of the layer organic-inorganic hybrid iron(II) methylphosphonate-hydrate, Fe[(CD 3PO 3)(D 2O)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léone, Philippe; Bellitto, Carlo; Bauer, Elvira M.; Righini, Guido; André, Gilles; Bourée, Françoise

    2008-11-01

    The crystal and magnetic structures of the hybrid organic-inorganic layer compound Fe[(CD 3PO 3)(D 2O)] have been studied by neutron powder diffraction as a function of temperature down to 1.5 K. The neutron diffraction pattern recorded at 200 K shows that the fully deuterated compound crystallizes in one of the two known forms of the undeuterated Fe[(CH 3PO 3)(H 2O)]. The crystal structure is orthorhombic, space group Pmn2 1, with the following unit-cell parameters: a=5.7095(1) Å, b=8.8053(3) Å and c=4.7987(1) Å; Z=2. The crystal structure remains unchanged on cooling from 200 to 1.5 K. Moreover, at low temperature, Fe[(CD 3PO 3)(D 2O)] shows a commensurate magnetic structure ( k=(0,0,0)). As revealed by bulk susceptibility measurements on Fe[(CH 3PO 3)(H 2O)], the magnetic structure corresponds to a canted antiferromagnet with a critical temperature TN=25 K. Neutron powder diffraction reveals that below TN=23.5 K the iron magnetic moments in Fe[(CD 3PO 3)(D 2O)] are antiferromagnetically coupled and oriented along the b-axis, perpendicular to the inorganic layers. No ferromagnetic component is observable in the neutron powder diffraction experiment, due to its too small value (<0.1 μB).

  14. First determination of the valence band dispersion of CH3NH3PbI3 hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Min-I.; Barragán, Ana; Nair, Maya N.; Jacques, Vincent L. R.; Le Bolloc'h, David; Fertey, Pierre; Jemli, Khaoula; Lédée, Ferdinand; Trippé-Allard, Gaëlle; Deleporte, Emmanuelle; Taleb-Ibrahimi, Amina; Tejeda, Antonio

    2017-07-01

    The family of hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskites is in the limelight because of their recently discovered high photovoltaic efficiency. These materials combine photovoltaic energy conversion efficiencies exceeding 22% and low-temperature and low-cost processing in solution; a breakthrough in the panorama of renewable energy. Solar cell operation relies on the excitation of the valence band electrons to the conduction band by solar photons. One factor strongly impacting the absorption efficiency is the band dispersion. The band dispersion has been extensively studied theoretically, but no experimental information was available. Herein, we present the first experimental determination of the valence band dispersion of methylammonium lead halide in the tetragonal phase. Our results pave the way for contrasting the electronic hopping or the electron effective masses in different theories by comparing to our experimental bands. We also show a significant broadening of the electronic states, promoting relaxed conditions for photon absorption, and demonstrate that the tetragonal structure associated to the octahedra network distortion below 50 °C induces only a minor modification of the electronic bands, with respect to the cubic phase at high temperature, thus minimizing the impact of the cubic-tetragonal transition on solar cell efficiencies.

  15. Analysis of drugs in plasma samples from schizophrenic patients by column-switching liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with organic-inorganic hybrid cyanopropyl monolithic column.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Diego Soares; Souza, Israel Donizeti de; Queiroz, Maria Eugênia Costa

    2015-07-01

    This study reports on the development of a rapid, selective, and sensitive column-switching liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to analyze sixteen drugs (antidepressants, anticonvulsants, anxiolytics, and antipsychotics) in plasma samples from schizophrenic patients. The developed organic-inorganic hybrid monolithic column with cyanopropyl groups was used for the first dimension of the column-switching arrangement. This arrangement enabled online pre-concentration of the drugs (monolithic column) and their subsequent analytical separation on an XSelect SCH C18 column. The drugs were detected on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer (multiple reactions monitoring mode) with an electrospray ionization source in the positive ion mode. The developed method afforded adequate linearity for the sixteen target drugs; the coefficients of determination (R(2)) lay above 0.9932, the interassay precision had coefficients of variation lower than 6.5%, and the relative standard error values of the accuracy ranged from -14.0 to 11.8%. The lower limits of quantification in plasma samples ranged from 63 to 1250pgmL(-1). The developed method successfully analyzed the target drugs in plasma samples from schizophrenic patients for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM).

  16. Characterization of organic-inorganic hybrid layered perovskite and intercalated compound (n-C12H25NH3)2ZnCl4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Kader, M. M.; Aboud, A. I.; Gamal, W. M.

    2016-05-01

    We report on some electrical properties and solid-solid phase transitions of organic-inorganic hybrid layered halide perovskite and intercalated compound (n-C12H25NH3)2ZnCl4 which is one member of the long-chain compounds of the series (n-CnH2n+1NH3)2,(n = 8-18). The complex dielectric permittivity ɛ*(ω,T) and the ac conductivity σ (ω,T) were measured as functions of temperature 100 K < T < 390 K and frequency 5 kHz < f < 100 kHz. Moreover, the differential scanning calorimetery and the differential thermal analysis thermograms were performed. The analysis of our data confirms the existence of a structural phase transition at T ≈ (362 ± 2) K, where the compound changes its state from intercalation to non-intercalation with a drastic increase in the c-axis by about 16.4%. The behavior of the frequency-dependent conductivity follows the Jonscher universal power law: σ (ω, T) αῳs(ῳ,T). The mechanism of electrical conduction in the low-temperature phase (phase II) can be described as quantum mechanical tunneling model.

  17. Development of hybrid organic-inorganic surface imprinted Mn-doped ZnS QDs and their application as a sensing material for target proteins.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lei; Huang, Cong; Peng, Rongfei; Tang, Youwen; Li, Weiming

    2014-11-15

    Applying molecular imprinting techniques to the surface of functionalized quantum dots (QDs) allows the preparation of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with accessible, surface exposed binding sites and excellent optical properties. This paper demonstrates a new strategy for producing such hybrid organic-inorganic imprinted Mn-doped ZnS QDs for specific recognition of bovine hemoglobin. The technique provides surface grafting imprinting in aqueous solutions using amino modified Mn-doped ZnS QDs as supports, acrylamide and methacrylic acid as functional monomers, γ-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxy silane as the grafting agent, and bovine hemoglobin as a template. The amino propyl functional monomer layer directs the selective occurrence of imprinting polymerization at the QDs surface through copolymerization of grafting agents with functional monomers, but also acts as an assistive monomer to drive the template into the formed polymer shells to create effective recognition sites. Using MIP-QDs composites as a fluorescence sensing material, trace amounts of bovine hemoglobin are signaled with high selectivity by emission intensity changes of Mn-doped ZnS QDs, which is embedded into the imprinted polymers.

  18. Co-functionalized organic/inorganic hybrid ZnO nanorods as electron transporting layers for inverted organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ambade, Swapnil B; Ambade, Rohan B; Eom, Seung Hun; Baek, Myung-Jin; Bagde, Sushil S; Mane, Rajaram S; Lee, Soo-Hyoung

    2016-03-07

    In an unprecedented attempt, we present an interesting approach of coupling solution processed ZnO planar nanorods (NRs) by an organic small molecule (SM) with a strong electron withdrawing cyano moiety and the carboxylic group as binding sites by a facile co-functionalization approach. Direct functionalization by SMs (SM-ZnO NRs) leads to higher aggregation owing to the weaker solubility of SMs in solutions of ZnO NRs dispersed in chlorobenzene (CB). A prior addition of organic 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)acetic acid (MEA) over ZnO NRs not only inhibits aggregation of SMs over ZnO NRs, but also provides enough sites for the SM to strongly couple with the ZnO NRs to yield transparent SM-MEA-ZnO NRs hybrids that exhibited excellent capability as electron transporting layers (ETLs) in inverted organic solar cells (iOSCs) of P3HT:PC60BM bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) photoactive layers. A strongly coupled SM-MEA-ZnO NR hybrid reduces the series resistance by enhancing the interfacial area and tunes the energy level alignment at the interface between the (indium-doped tin oxide, ITO) cathode and BHJ photoactive layers. A significant enhancement in power conversion efficiency (PCE) was achieved for iOSCs comprising ETLs of SM-MEA-ZnO NRs (3.64%) advancing from 0.9% for pristine ZnO NRs, while the iOSCs of aggregated SM-ZnO NRs ETL exhibited a much lower PCE of 2.6%, thus demonstrating the potential of the co-functionalization approach. The superiority of the co-functionalized SM-MEA-ZnO NRs ETL is also evident from the highest PCE of 7.38% obtained for the iOSCs comprising BHJ of PTB7-Th:PC60BM compared with extremely poor 0.05% for non-functionalized ZnO NRs.

  19. Co-functionalized organic/inorganic hybrid ZnO nanorods as electron transporting layers for inverted organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambade, Swapnil B.; Ambade, Rohan B.; Eom, Seung Hun; Baek, Myung-Jin; Bagde, Sushil S.; Mane, Rajaram S.; Lee, Soo-Hyoung

    2016-02-01

    In an unprecedented attempt, we present an interesting approach of coupling solution processed ZnO planar nanorods (NRs) by an organic small molecule (SM) with a strong electron withdrawing cyano moiety and the carboxylic group as binding sites by a facile co-functionalization approach. Direct functionalization by SMs (SM-ZnO NRs) leads to higher aggregation owing to the weaker solubility of SMs in solutions of ZnO NRs dispersed in chlorobenzene (CB). A prior addition of organic 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)acetic acid (MEA) over ZnO NRs not only inhibits aggregation of SMs over ZnO NRs, but also provides enough sites for the SM to strongly couple with the ZnO NRs to yield transparent SM-MEA-ZnO NRs hybrids that exhibited excellent capability as electron transporting layers (ETLs) in inverted organic solar cells (iOSCs) of P3HT:PC60BM bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) photoactive layers. A strongly coupled SM-MEA-ZnO NR hybrid reduces the series resistance by enhancing the interfacial area and tunes the energy level alignment at the interface between the (indium-doped tin oxide, ITO) cathode and BHJ photoactive layers. A significant enhancement in power conversion efficiency (PCE) was achieved for iOSCs comprising ETLs of SM-MEA-ZnO NRs (3.64%) advancing from 0.9% for pristine ZnO NRs, while the iOSCs of aggregated SM-ZnO NRs ETL exhibited a much lower PCE of 2.6%, thus demonstrating the potential of the co-functionalization approach. The superiority of the co-functionalized SM-MEA-ZnO NRs ETL is also evident from the highest PCE of 7.38% obtained for the iOSCs comprising BHJ of PTB7-Th:PC60BM compared with extremely poor 0.05% for non-functionalized ZnO NRs.In an unprecedented attempt, we present an interesting approach of coupling solution processed ZnO planar nanorods (NRs) by an organic small molecule (SM) with a strong electron withdrawing cyano moiety and the carboxylic group as binding sites by a facile co-functionalization approach. Direct functionalization by SMs (SM

  20. Photo-Patternable ZnO Thin Films Based on Cross-Linked Zinc Acrylate for Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Complementary Inverters.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yong Jin; An, Tae Kyu; Yun, Dong-Jin; Kim, Lae Ho; Park, Seonuk; Kim, Yebyeol; Nam, Sooji; Lee, Keun Hyung; Kim, Se Hyun; Jang, Jaeyoung; Park, Chan Eon

    2016-03-02

    Complementary inverters consisting of p-type organic and n-type metal oxide semiconductors have received considerable attention as key elements for realizing low-cost and large-area future electronics. Solution-processed ZnO thin-film transistors (TFTs) have great potential for use in hybrid complementary inverters as n-type load transistors because of the low cost of their fabrication process and natural abundance of active materials. The integration of a single ZnO TFT into an inverter requires the development of a simple patterning method as an alternative to conventional time-consuming and complicated photolithography techniques. In this study, we used a photocurable polymer precursor, zinc acrylate (or zinc diacrylate, ZDA), to conveniently fabricate photopatternable ZnO thin films for use as the active layers of n-type ZnO TFTs. UV-irradiated ZDA thin films became insoluble in developing solvent as the acrylate moiety photo-cross-linked; therefore, we were able to successfully photopattern solution-processed ZDA thin films using UV light. We studied the effects of addition of a tiny amount of indium dopant on the transistor characteristics of the photopatterned ZnO thin films and demonstrated low-voltage operation of the ZnO TFTs within ±3 V by utilizing Al2O3/TiO2 laminate thin films or ion-gels as gate dielectrics. By combining the ZnO TFTs with p-type pentacene TFTs, we successfully fabricated organic/inorganic hybrid complementary inverters using solution-processed and photopatterned ZnO TFTs.

  1. Hexamethylenetetramine directed synthesis and properties of a new family of alpha-nickel hydroxide organic-inorganic hybrid materials with high chemical stability.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bian-Hua; Yu, Shu-Hong; Chen, Shao-Feng; Wu, Chun-Yan

    2006-03-09

    A new family of organic-inorganic hybrid material of alpha-nickel hydroxide formulated as Ni(OH)2-x(An-)x/n-(C6H12N4)y.zH2O (A=Cl-, CH3COO-, SO4(2-), NO3-; x=0.05-0.18, y=0.09-0.11, z=0.36-0.43) with high stability and adjustable interlayer spacing ranging from 7.21 to 15.12 A has been successfully prepared by a simple hydrothermal method. The effects of various anions and hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) on the d values of alpha-nickel hydroxide have been systematically investigated. This family of hybrid materials is of such high stability that they can stand more than 40 days in 6 M KOH. The product with a formula Ni(OH)1.95(C6H12N4)0.11(Cl-)0.05(H2O)0.36 has a high surface area of about 299.26 m2/g and an average pore diameter of about 45.1 A. The coercivity (Hc) value is ca. 2000 Oe for the sample with a d spacing of 13.14 A. Moreover, the prepared alpha-Ni(OH)2 in our experiment is of high stability in strong alkali solution. Such high stability could be derived from strong chelating interactions between the Ni ions and HMT molecules with the interlayers. This high chemical stability could make this material more suitable for the applications.

  2. Enhanced charge transport and photovoltaic performance induced by incorporating rare-earth phosphor into organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zihan; Li, Qinghua; Chen, Chuyang; Du, Jiaxing; Tong, Jifeng; Jin, Xiao; Li, Yue; Yuan, Yongbiao; Qin, Yuancheng; Wei, Taihuei; Sun, Weifu

    2014-11-28

    In this work, dysprosium ion decorated yttrium oxide (Dy(3+):Y2O3) nanocrystal phosphors were incorporated into TiO2 acceptor thin film in a bid to enhance the light harvest, charge separation and transfer in the hybrid solar cells. The results show that the energy level offset between the donor (P3HT) and the acceptor (Dy(3+):Y2O3-TiO2) has been narrowed down, thus leading to the enhanced electron and hole transports, and also photovoltaic performances as compared to pure TiO2 without incorporating Dy(3+):Y2O3. By applying femtosecond transient optical spectroscopy, after the incorporation of dopant Dy(3+):Y2O3 into TiO2 at 6 wt%, both the hot electron and hole transfer lifetimes have been shortened, that is, from 30.2 ps and 6.94 ns to 25.1 ps and 1.26 ns, respectively, and an enhanced efficiency approaching 3% was achieved as compared to 2.0% without doping, indicating that the energetic charges are captured more efficiently benefitting a higher power conversion efficiency. Moreover, these results reveal that both the conduction band (CB) and valence band (VB) edges of the acceptor were elevated by 0.57 and 0.32 eV, respectively, after incorporating 6 wt% Dy(3+):Y2O3. This work demonstrates that distinct energy level alignment engineered by Dy(3+):Y2O3 phosphor has an important role in pursuing efficient future solar cells and underscores the promising potential of rare-earth phosphor in solar applications.

  3. Comprehensive analysis of photonic effects on up-conversion of β-NaYF4:Er3+ nanoparticles in an organic-inorganic hybrid 1D photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, C. L. M.; Fischer, S.; Reitz, C.; Richards, B. S.; Goldschmidt, J. C.

    2016-04-01

    Upconversion (UC) presents a possibility to exploit sub-bandgap photons for current generation in solar cells by creating one high-energy photon out of at least two lower-energy photons. Photonic structures can enhance UC by two effects: a locally increased irradiance and a modified local density of photon states (LDOS). Bragg stacks are promising photonic structures for this application, because they are straightforward to optimize and overall absorption can be increased by adding more layers. In this work, we present a comprehensive simulation-based analysis of the photonic effects of a Bragg stack on UC luminescence. The investigated organic-inorganic hybrid Bragg stack consists of alternating layers of Poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), containing purpose-built β-NaYF4:25% Er3+ core-shell nanoparticles and titanium dioxide (TiO2). From optical characterization of single thin layers, input parameters for simulations of the photonic effects are generated. The local irradiance enhancement and modulated LDOS are first simulated separately. Subsequently they are coupled in a rate equation model of the upconversion dynamics. Using the integrated model, UC luminescence is maximized by adapting the Bragg stack design. For a Bragg stack of only 5 bilayers, UC luminescence is enhanced by a factor of 3.8 at an incident irradiance of 2000 W/m2. Our results identify the Bragg stack as promising for enhancing UC, especially in the low-irradiance regime, relevant for the application in photovoltaics. Therefore, we experimentally realized optimized Bragg stack designs. The PMMA layers, containing UC nanoparticles, are produced via spin-coating from a toluene based solution. The TiO2 layers are produced by atomic layer deposition from molecular precursors. The reflectance measurements show that the realized Bragg stacks are in good agreement with predictions from simulation.

  4. Rare-earth-transition-metal organic-inorganic hybrids based on Keggin-type polyoxometalates and pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaowei; Zhao, Junwei; Ma, Pengtao; Niu, Jingyang; Wang, Jingping

    2012-05-01

    Five rare-earth-transition-metal (RE-TM) heterometal organic-inorganic hybrids based on Keggin-type silicotungstates and mixed ligands H2pzda (pzda=pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylate) and en (en=ethylenediamine) (enH2)[Cu(en)2(H2O)]2{[Cu(en)2][Cu(en)2(H2O)][(α-SiW11 O39)RE(H2O)(pzda)]}2·n H2O (n≈4; RE=YIII (1), DyIII (2), YbIII (3), and LuIII (4)) and [Cu(en)2(H2O)]2{[Cu(en)2]2[Cu(pzda)2][(α-H2SiW11O39)Ce(H2O)]2}·n H2O (5; n≈8) have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. Compounds 1-5 all contain the dimeric mono-RE substituted Keggin [RE(α-SiW11O39)]210- subunits linked by H2pzda ligands. Interestingly, 1-4 exhibit discrete structures, in which the H2pzda ligand acts as a tetradentate ligand to bind the RE and Cu cations, whereas 5 displays a 1D double-chain architecture, in which the H2pzda ligand adopts a new pentadentate mode to connect the Ce and Cu cations. To our knowledge, 1-5 represent the first monovacant Keggin-type silicotungstates containing both RE-TM heterometals and mixed ligands. The luminescence of 2 is derived from the combination of the DyIII cations and H2pzda ligands, whereas the luminescence properties of 1 and 3-5 are attributable to the H2pzda ligands.

  5. Development of ethenetetrathiolate hybrid thermoelectric materials consisting of cellulose acetate and semiconductor nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Hitoshi; Sakura, Naoko; Oshima, Keisuke; Shiraishi, Yukihide; Toshima, Naoki

    2016-02-01

    We investigated novel organic/inorganic hybrid thermoelectric materials prepared using several metal-polymer complexes, binders (insulating polymers), and inorganic semiconductor nanomaterials. It was found that the three-component hybrid thermoelectric materials, which consisted of nanodispersed poly(nickel 1,1,2,2-ethenetetrathiolate) (Ni-PETT), cellulose acetate (CA), and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), showed high thermoelectric performance. Ni-PETT had a large negative Seebeck coefficient of -42 µV K-1 and was an n-type semiconducting polymer complex. Ni-PETT sufficiently dispersed p-type CNTs in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone. The charge transfer interaction between Ni-PETT and CNTs could provide a strong contact. Good films could be obtained by using CA as a binder. In addition, the electrical conductivity of the three-component hybrid films was increased by methanol treatment. The Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, and power factor of Ni-PETT/CA/CNT films normalized on the basis of the CNT mass were 1.9, 5.2, and 2.8 times higher than those of the CNT sheets.

  6. Hybrid nanomaterial and its applications: IR sensing and energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Yi-Hsuan

    In this dissertation, a hybrid nanomaterial, single-wall carbon nanotubes-copper sulfide nanoparticles (SWNTs-CuS NPs), was synthesized and its properties were analyzed. Due to its unique optical and thermal properties, the hybrid nanomaterial exhibited great potential for infrared (IR) sensing and energy harvesting. The hybrid nanomaterial was synthesized with the non-covalent bond technique to functionalize the surface of the SWNTs and bind the CuS nanoparticles on the surface of the SWNTs. For testing and analyzing the hybrid nanomaterial, SWNTs-CuS nanoparticles were formed as a thin film structure using the vacuum filtration method. Two conductive wires were bound on the ends of the thin film to build a thin film device for measurements and analyses. Measurements found that the hybrid nanomaterial had a significantly increased light absorption (up to 80%) compared to the pure SWNTs. Moreover, the hybrid nanomaterial thin film devices exhibited a clear optical and thermal switching effect, which could be further enhanced up to ten times with asymmetric illumination of light and thermal radiation on the thin film devices instead of symmetric illumination. A simple prototype thermoelectric generator enabled by the hybrid nanomaterials was demonstrated, indicating a new route for achieving thermoelectricity. In addition, CuS nanoparticles have great optical absorption especially in the near-infrared region. Therefore, the hybrid nanomaterial thin films also have the potential for IR sensing applications. The first application to be covered in this dissertation is the IR sensing application. IR thin film sensors based on the SWNTs-CuS nanoparticles hybrid nanomaterials were fabricated. The IR response in the photocurrent of the hybrid thin film sensor was significantly enhanced, increasing the photocurrent by 300% when the IR light illuminates the thin film device asymmetrically. The detection limit could be as low as 48mW mm-2. The dramatically enhanced

  7. Virus hybrids as nanomaterials for biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Soto, Carissa M; Ratna, Banahalli R

    2010-08-01

    The current review describes advances in the field of bionanotechnology in which viruses are used to fabricate nanomaterials. Viruses are introduced as protein cages, scaffolds, and templates for the production of biohybrid nanostructured materials where organic and inorganic molecules are incorporated in a precise and a controlled fashion. Genetic engineering enables the insertion or replacement of selected amino acids on virus capsids for uses from bioconjugation to crystal growth. The variety of nanomaterials generated in rod-like and spherical viruses is highlighted for tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), M13 bacteriophage, cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), and cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV). Functional biohybrid nanomaterials find applications in biosensing, memory devices, nanocircuits, light-harvesting systems, and nanobatteries. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of a new layered organic-inorganic hybrid nickel(II) 1,4:5,8-naphthalenediimide bis-phosphonate, exhibiting canted antiferromagnetism, with T{sub c}{approx}21 K

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Elvira M. Bellitto, Carlo; Gomez Garcia, Carlos J. Righini, Guido

    2008-05-15

    A new Ni(II) layered hybrid organic-inorganic compound of formula Ni{sub 2}[(NDI-BP)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}].2H{sub 2}O has been prepared in very mild conditions from N,N'-bis(2-phosphonoethyl)napthalene-1,4:5,8-tetracarboximide (NDI-BP ligand) and NiCl{sub 2}. The X-ray powder structure characterization of the title compound suggests a pillared layered organic-inorganic hybrid structure. The distance between the organic and inorganic layers has been found to be 17.8 A. The inorganic layers consist of corner sharing [NiO{sub 5}(H{sub 2}O)] octahedra and they are pillared by the diphosphonate groups. DC and AC magnetic measurements as a function of temperature and field indicate the presence of 2D antiferromagnetic exchange interactions between the nearest-neighbor Ni(II) ions below 100 K. A long-range magnetic ordering at T{sub c}{approx}21 K has been established and is attributed to the presence of spin canting. AC magnetic measurements as a function of temperature at different frequencies confirm the occurrence of the magnetic ordering temperature at T=21 K and the presence of a slight structural disorder in the title compound. - Graphical abstract: A new layered hybrid organic-inorganic Ni(II) N,N'-bis(2-phosphonoethyl)-naphthalene 1,4:5,8 tetracarboxydiimide complex has been synthesized and characterized. Magnetic measurements as a function of temperature and at different fields show that the compound is magnetically ordered below T{sub c}{approx}21 K.

  9. Organic-inorganic hybrid materials starting from the novel nanoscaled bismuth oxido methacrylate cluster [Bi38O45(OMc)24(DMSO)9]·2DMSO·7H2O.

    PubMed

    Miersch, Linda; Rüffer, Tobias; Mehring, Michael

    2011-06-14

    The reaction of the basic bismuth nitrate [Bi(6)O(4)(OH)(4)](NO(3))(6)·H(2)O with sodium methacrylate in DMSO gave [Bi(38)O(45)(OMc)(24)(DMSO)(9)]·2DMSO·7H(2)O (OMc = O(2)CC(3)H(5)), which is highly soluble in organic solvents. By copolymerization of the bismuth oxido cluster with methyl methacrylate transparent, radiopaque organic-inorganic hybrid materials were obtained. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  10. Biomolecule/nanomaterial hybrid systems for nanobiotechnology.

    PubMed

    Tel-Vered, Ran; Yehezkeli, Omer; Willner, Itamar

    2012-01-01

    The integration of biomolecules with metallic or semiconductor nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes yields new hybrid nanostructures of unique features that combine the properties of the biomolecules and of the nano-elements. These unique features of the hybrid biomolecule/nanoparticle systems provide the basis for the rapid development of the area of nanobiotechnology. Recent advances in the implementation of hybrid materials consisting of biomolecules and metallic nanoparticles or semiconductor quantum dots will be discussed. The following topics will be exemplified: (i) The electrical wiring of redox enzymes with electrodes by means of metallic nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes, and the application of the modified electrodes as amperometric biosensors or for the construction of biofuel cells. (ii) The biocatalytic growth of metallic nanoparticles as a means to construct optical or electrical sensors. (iii) The functionalization of semiconductor quantum dots with biomolecules and the application of the hybrid nanostructures for developing different optical sensors, including intracellular sensor systems. (iv) The use of biomolecule-metallic nanoparticle nanostructures as templates for growing metallic nanowires, and the construction of fuel-driven nano-transporters.

  11. Noble Metal-Iron Oxide Hybrid Nanomaterials: Emerging Applications.

    PubMed

    Leung, Ken Cham-Fai; Xuan, Shouhu

    2016-02-01

    This account provides an overview of current research activities that focus on the synthesis and applications of nanomaterials from noble metal (e.g., Au, Ag, Pd) and iron oxide (Fe3O4) hybrids. An introduction to the synthetic strategies that have been developed for generating M-Fe3O4 nanomaterials with different novel structures is presented. Surface functionalization and bioconjugation of these hybrid nanoparticles and nanocomposites are also reviewed. The utilization of the advantageous properties of both noble metals and iron oxide for a variety of applications, such as theranostics, gene delivery, biosensing, cell sorting, bioseparation, and catalysis, is discussed and highlighted. Finally, future trends and perspectives of these sophisticated nanocomposites are outlined. The fundamental requirements underpinning the effective preparation of M-Fex Oy hybrid nanomaterials shed light on the future development of heterogeneous catalysts, nanotheranostics, nanomedicines, and other chemical technologies. © 2016 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Atomic force microscopy of electrospun organic-inorganic lipid nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinhong; Cohn, Celine; Qiu, Weiguo; Zha, Zhengbao; Dai, Zhifei; Wu, Xiaoyi

    2011-09-01

    An organic-inorganic hybridization strategy has been proposed to synthesize polymerizable lipid-based materials for the creation of highly stable lipid-mimetic nanostructures. We employ atomic force microscopy (AFM) to analyze the surface morphology and mechanical property of electrospun cholesteryl-succinyl silane (CSS) nanofibers. The AFM nanoindentation of the CSS nanofibers reveals elastic moduli of 55.3 ± 27.6 to 70.8 ± 35 MPa, which is significantly higher than the moduli of natural phospholipids and cholesterols. The study shows that organic-inorganic hybridization is useful in the design of highly stable lipid-based materials.

  13. Crystal structure, vibrational studies and optical properties of a new organic-inorganic hybrid compound (C10H28N4)CuCl5Clṡ4H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessentini, A.; Belhouchet, M.; Suñol, J. J.; Abid, Y.; Mhiri, T.

    2015-01-01

    A new organic-inorganic hybrid material, 1,4-bis(3-ammoniumpropyl) piperazinium pentachloridocuprate(II) chloride tetrahydrate [(C10H28N4)CuCl5Clṡ4H2O], has been synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-visible absorption, Infrared and Raman spectroscopy. The compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic system and Pnma space group with a = 8.18 (3) Å, b = 10.96 (5) Å, c = 21.26 (9) Å, V = 2254.3 (15) Å3. In this structure, the Cu2+ ion, surrounded by five chlorides, adopts the square pyramidal coordination geometry. The structure of this compound consists of tetraprotonated 1,4-bis(3-ammoniumpropyl) piperazinium cations and the anionic sublattice is built up of isolated, square pyramid [CuCl5]3- units, chloride ion Cl- and water molecules connected with each other by hydrogen bonds. Organic and inorganic entities are interconnected by means of hydrogen bonding contacts [Nsbnd H⋯O(Cl), O(W)sbnd H⋯Cl and O(W)sbnd H⋯O]. Furthermore, the room temperature IR and Raman spectra of the title compound were recorded and analyzed on the basis of literature data. The optical study was also investigated by UV-Vis absorption. In fact, the organic-inorganic hybrid crystal thin film can be easily prepared by spin-coating method from the ethanol solution of the (C10H28N4)CuCl5Clṡ4H2O hybrid compound and it showed absorptions characteristics of Cusbnd Cl based layered compounds centered at 275 and 374 nm.

  14. Hybrid Nanomaterial Complexes for Advanced Phage-guided Gene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Yata, Teerapong; Lee, Koon-Yang; Dharakul, Tararaj; Songsivilai, Sirirurg; Bismarck, Alexander; Mintz, Paul J; Hajitou, Amin

    2014-01-01

    Developing nanomaterials that are effective, safe, and selective for gene transfer applications is challenging. Bacteriophages (phage), viruses that infect bacteria only, have shown promise for targeted gene transfer applications. Unfortunately, limited progress has been achieved in improving their potential to overcome mammalian cellular barriers. We hypothesized that chemical modification of the bacteriophage capsid could be applied to improve targeted gene delivery by phage vectors into mammalian cells. Here, we introduce a novel hybrid system consisting of two classes of nanomaterial systems, cationic polymers and M13 bacteriophage virus particles genetically engineered to display a tumor-targeting ligand and carry a transgene cassette. We demonstrate that the phage complex with cationic polymers generates positively charged phage and large aggregates that show enhanced cell surface attachment, buffering capacity, and improved transgene expression while retaining cell type specificity. Moreover, phage/polymer complexes carrying a therapeutic gene achieve greater cancer cell killing than phage alone. This new class of hybrid nanomaterial platform can advance targeted gene delivery applications by bacteriophage. PMID:25118171

  15. The role of Jahn-Teller distortion in insulator to semiconductor phase transition in organic-inorganic hybrid compound (p-chloroanilinium)2CuCl4 at high pressure.

    PubMed

    Ghalsasi, Pallavi; Garg, Nandini; Deo, M N; Garg, Alka; Mande, Hemant; Ghalsasi, Prasanna; Sharma, Surinder M

    2015-12-28

    (p-Chloroanilinium)2CuCl4(C2H14Cl6CuN2) is from an important family of organic-inorganic layered hybrid compounds which can be a possible candidate for multiferroicity. In situ high pressure FTIR, Raman and resistivity measurements on this compound indicate the weakening of Jahn-Teller distortion and the consequent removal of puckering of the CuCl6(4-) octahedra within the layer. These effects trigger insulator to semiconductor phase transition along with a change in the sample colour from yellow to dark red. This article explains the crucial role of the anisotropic volume reduction of the CuCl6(4-) octahedron (caused due to the quenching of Jahn-Teller distortion) in the observed insulator to semiconductor phase transition.

  16. Chemical and structural changes in polyamide based organic-inorganic hybrid materials upon incorporation of SeS2O62- precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylova, V.; Dukstienė, N.; Žalenkienė, S.; Baltrusaitis, J.

    2017-01-01

    Composite organic-inorganic functional materials are of significant importance in various applications of science and technology. In this work, physicochemical characterization of such composite materials obtained after the exposure of polyamide PA 6 to K2SeS2O6 precursor solution was performed. Chalcogenized polymer surface was characterized using X-ray diffraction, infrared, and UV-vis spectroscopies while their bulk chemical analysis was performed using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Crystallite size was not found to change with the exposure to K2SeS2O6 precursor but PA 6 chain-chain separation decreased. Importantly, infrared and X-ray analyses showed chemical bonding taking place between the PA 6 and SeS2O62- ions via -NH- functional group. A distinct change in bandgap, Eg, value was observed in UV-vis spectra due to the presence of SeS2O62-, SeSO32- and Se2S2O62- ions formed via decomposition of the precursor material in acidic medium. After extended 4 h chalcogenation a distinct absorption due to the elemental selenium was also observed as obtained from Tauc plots.

  17. Magnetic order through super-superexchanges in the polar magnetoelectric organic-inorganic hybrid Cr[(D3N-(CH2)2-PO3)(Cl)(D2O)].

    PubMed

    Nénert, Gwilherm; Koo, Hyun-Joo; Colin, Claire V; Bauer, Elvira M; Bellitto, Carlo; Ritter, Clemens; Righini, Guido; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan

    2013-01-18

    The crystal and magnetic structures of the organic-inorganic hybrid compound Cr(II) ammoniumethylphosphonate chloride monohydrate, Cr[D(3)N-(CH(2))(2)-PO(3))(Cl)(D(2)O)] (1), have been studied by temperature-dependent neutron powder diffraction and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry. The compound represents a rare example of a magnetoelectric polar organic-inorganic hybrid solid, containing high spin Cr(2+) ions (S = 2) and is a canted antiferromagnet (weak ferromagnet) below T(N) = 5.5 K. The neutron powder diffraction pattern recorded at T = 10 K, shows that the partially deuterated compound crystallizes in the same non centrosymmetric monoclinic space group P2(1) (No. 4) with the following unit-cell parameters: a = 5.24041(4) Å, b =13.93113(8) Å, c = 5.26081(4) Å, and β = 105.4347(5)°. Powder neutron diffraction of a partially deuterated sample has enabled us, for the first time, to locate the water molecule. At low temperature, the compound presents a canted antiferromagnetic state characterized by k = 0 resulting in the magnetic symmetry P2(1)'. This symmetry is in agreement with the previously reported large magnetodielectric effect. The crystal structure of (1) can be described as being built up of triangular lattice planes made up of [Cr(II)O(4)Cl] square pyramids which are separated by ammonium ethyl groups along the b axis. The transition from paramagnetic to weakly ferromagnetic state results from super-superexchanges only. Surprisingly, while the overall magnetic behavior is antiferromagnetic, the Cr(II)O(4)Cl planes are ferromagnetic, and the strongest antiferromagnetic coupling is via the ammonium ethyl groups. Our density functional calculations confirm these aspects of the spin exchange interactions of (1) and that the spin exchange interactions between Cr(II) ions are considerably weak compared with the single-ion anisotropy of Cr(II).

  18. A novel 1D organic-inorganic hybrid based on alternating heteropolyanions [GeMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 4-} and isopolyanions [Mo{sub 6}O{sub 22}]{sup 8-}

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jingping; Du Xiaodi; Niu Jingyang . E-mail: jyniu@henu.edu.cn

    2006-10-15

    A novel one-dimensional (1D) coordination polymer [{l_brace}Cu(2,2'-bpy){r_brace}{sub 6}(Mo{sub 6}O{sub 22})][GeMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}].H{sub 2}O (2,2'-bpy=2,2'-bipyridine), which represents the first example of 1D organic-inorganic hybrid based on a Keggin-type heteropolyanion [GeMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 4-} and an unprecedented isopolyanion [Mo{sub 6}O{sub 22}]{sup 8-}, has been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Crystal data: C{sub 60}H{sub 50}Cu{sub 6}GeMo{sub 18}N{sub 12}O{sub 63}, monoclinic, P2{sub 1}/c, a=13.9344(3), b=20.0329(3), c=17.2151(3) A; {beta}=94.0220(10){sup o}, V=4793.70(15) A{sup 3}, T=293(2) K; Z=2. - Graphical abstract: A novel polyoxometalate [{l_brace}Cu(2,2'-bpy){r_brace}{sub 6}(Mo{sub 6}O{sub 22})][GeMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}].H{sub 2}O, which represents the first example of 1D organic-inorganic hybrid based on a Keggin-type heteropolyanion [GeMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 4-} and an unprecedented isopolyanion [Mo{sub 6}O{sub 22}]{sup 8-}.

  19. Synthesis and application of virus-based hybrid nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Yup; Lim, Jung-Sun; Harris, Michael T

    2012-01-01

    A virus is a nanoscaled biomolecular substance composed of genes, protecting capsid proteins, and envelopes. The nanoscale dimensions and surface functionalities of virions have been exploited to attract and assemble inorganic and organic materials to produce functional nanomaterials with large surface areas. Genetic modifications of virus capsid proteins lead to the selective deposition and controlled growth of inorganic substances producing organized virus-based hybrid materials. Due to these properties, viruses hold promise for development as platforms for the creation of hybrid materials with multiple functionalities. This article reviews the characteristics of commonly used viruses and their fabrication into virus-based hybrid materials that have been applied in engineering applications such as nanowires and catalysts. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Synthesis of monodispersed wurtzite structure CuInSe2 nanocrystals and their application in high-performance organic-inorganic hybrid photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Jun; Wang, Yong-Qing; Cao, Fei-Fei; Guo, Yu-Guo; Wan, Li-Jun

    2010-09-08

    A new facile solution method for the synthesis of high-quality CuInSe(2) nanocrystals with monodispersed size and uniform hexagonal shape was developed. A high-performance hybrid photodetector based on a hybrid film of CuInSe(2) nanocrystals and poly(3-hexylthiophene) was constructed. The device showed distinct "ON" and "OFF" states with a ratio of >100 in photocurrents responding to outside illumination. The high sensitivity and stability of the hybrid device revealed a broad prospect for use of the hybrid material in light detection and signal magnification for the development of large-area, low-cost, lightweight, and foldable products.

  1. Three new three-dimensional organic-inorganic hybrid compounds based on PMo12O40(n-) (n = 3 or 4) polyanions and Cu(I)-pyrazine/Cu(I)-pyrazine-Cl porous coordination polymers.

    PubMed

    Qi, Ming-Li; Yu, Kai; Su, Zhan-Hua; Wang, Chun-Xiao; Wang, Chun-Mei; Zhou, Bai-Bin; Zhu, Chun-Cheng

    2013-06-07

    Three new organic-inorganic hybrid compounds based on PMo12O40(n-) (n = 3 or 4) polyanions and Cu(I)-pz/Cu(I)-pz-Cl porous coordination polymers: [Cu(I)(pz)]3[PMo(VI)12O40] (1), [Cu(I)(pz)1.5]4[PMo(V)Mo(VI)11O40]·pz·2H2O (2), [Cu(I)3(pz)3Cl][Cu(I)2(pz)3(H2O)][PMo(V)Mo(VI)11O40] (3) (pz = pyrazine) have been hydrothermally prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, TG, XRD, XPS and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 presents a three-dimensional Cu(I)-pz framework with cube-like chambers, into which PMo(VI)12O40(3-) Keggin ions are incorporated. Compound 2 shows a three-dimensional sandwich-like framework, and PMo(V)Mo(VI)11O40(4-) polyanions are located in the octagonal voids of every two-dimensional Cu(I)-pz 4(1)8(2) network structure. Compound 3 exhibits a two-dimensional Cl-bridged Cu(I)-pz-Cl double-layer structure, and two kinds of PMo(V)Mo(VI)11O40(4-) polyanions as bridging linkers connect two adjacent double-layers to form a three-dimensional organic-inorganic framework through Cu(I)-O bonds. Additionally, their electrochemical characters, electrocatalytic behaviors and solid state fluorescent properties at room temperature have been investigated in detail.

  2. 25th anniversary article: hybrid nanostructures based on two-dimensional nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao; Tan, Chaoliang; Yin, Zongyou; Zhang, Hua

    2014-04-09

    Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), receive a lot of attention, because of their intriguing properties and wide applications in catalysis, energy-storage devices, electronics, optoelectronics, and so on. To further enhance the performance of their application, these 2D nanomaterials are hybridized with other functional nanostructures. In this review, the latest studies of 2D nanomaterial-based hybrid nanostructures are discussed, focusing on their preparation methods, properties, and applications.

  3. Synthesis, characterization, and biosensing application of novel hybrid nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Shun

    Hybrid nanomaterials consisting of nanoparticles (NPs) distributed on the surface of the carbon nanotube (CNT)/graphene represent a new class of materials. These materials could potentially display not only the unique properties of NPs and those of the CNT/graphene, but also additional novel properties due to the interaction between the NP and the CNT/graphene. This thesis entails the synthesis and characterization of NP-CNT/graphene hybrid nanomaterials and the demonstration of their use for biosensors. A simple method that combines an electrospray technique with electrostatic force directed assembly (ESFDA) was developed for successful functionalization of the CNT/thermally-reduced graphene oxide (TRGO) with NPs. Colloidal CdSe NPs, Au NPs, and Au NP-antibody conjugates were electrosprayed and assembled onto random CNTs, vertically-aligned CNT arrays, and TRGO sheets in a controlled manner. CNT and TRGO field-effect transistors (FETs) were fabricated; and novel electronic protein biosensors based on the CNTFET/TRGO FET and Au NP-antibody conjugates were demonstrated. The electrical detection of the protein binding was accomplished by the introduction of Au NP-antibody conjugates in the CNTFET/TRGO FET, in which the Au-coated CNT/TRGO serves as the electrical conducting channel. Antibody (anti-horseradish peroxidase/anti-Immunoglobulin G) and antigen (horseradish peroxidase/Immunoglobulin G) binding events led to the change in the CNT/TRGO conductivity, which was sensitively detected by FET and direct current (dc) measurements. The CNTFET biosensor had a detection limit of 0.2 mg/ml (˜4.5 microM, horseradish peroxidase) while the TRGO FET biosensor exhibited a detection limit of 2 ng/ml (˜13 pM, Immunoglobulin G), which is among the best of carbon nanomaterial (e.g., CNT, graphene, GO)-based protein sensors. The dependence of the sensor response on the TRGO resistance and the antibody areal density on the TRGO sheet was systematically studied, and the sensor

  4. Morphology and properties of organic-inorganic hybrid materials involving TiO2 and poly(epsilon-caprolactone), a biodegradable aliphatic polyester.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Nie, Kangming; Pang, Wenmin; Zhu, Qingren

    2007-10-01

    The novel biodegradable poly(epsilon-caprolactone)/titanium dioxide hybrid materials were prepared via in situ sol-gel process of tetrabutyl titanate (TBT) as inorganic precursor in the presence of PCL. The relationships between morphology, microphase separation, crystalline structure, and properties were investigated by means of XPS, SEM, XRD, DSC, and in vitro degradation test. The microstructures of the bulk hybrids display two-phase microscopic separation on the nanometer scale, which domain is 20-80 nm. The surface morphology and intermolecular bonding interaction are significantly dependent on inorganic component. The relative crystalline degrees of PCL/TiO(2) hybrid nanocomposite materials were controlled by both inorganic component and hydrogen bonding special interaction. The hybrid nanocomposite materials with TiO(2) showed faster biodegradation rate than that of pure PCL itself, and the transparency corresponding to microstructure increase with increase of inorganic component content.

  5. Giant barocaloric effect in the ferroic organic-inorganic hybrid [TPrA][Mn(dca)3] perovskite under easily accessible pressures

    PubMed Central

    Bermúdez-García, Juan M.; Sánchez-Andújar, Manuel; Castro-García, Socorro; López-Beceiro, Jorge; Artiaga, Ramón; Señarís-Rodríguez, María A.

    2017-01-01

    The fast growing family of organic–inorganic hybrid compounds has recently been attracting increased attention owing to the remarkable functional properties (magnetic, multiferroic, optoelectronic, photovoltaic) displayed by some of its members. Here we show that these compounds can also have great potential in the until now unexplored field of solid-state cooling by presenting giant barocaloric effects near room temperature already under easily accessible pressures in the hybrid perovskite [TPrA][Mn(dca)3] (TPrA: tetrapropylammonium, dca: dicyanamide). Moreover, we propose that this will not be an isolated example for such an extraordinary behaviour as many other organic–inorganic hybrids (metal-organic frameworks and coordination polymers) exhibit the basic ingredients to display large caloric effects which can be very sensitive to pressure and other external stimuli. These findings open up new horizons and great opportunities for both organic–inorganic hybrids and for solid-state cooling technologies. PMID:28569842

  6. Optical and thermal response of single-walled carbon nanotube-copper sulfide nanoparticle hybrid nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Yi-Hsuan; He, Yuan; Lakshmanan, Santana; Yang, Chang; Chen, Wei; Que, Long

    2012-11-16

    This paper reports the optical and thermal response of a single-walled carbon nanotube-copper sulfide nanoparticle (SWNT-CuS NP) hybrid nanomaterial and its application as a thermoelectric generator. The hybrid nanomaterial was synthesized using oleylamine molecules as the linker molecules between SWNTs and CuS NPs. Measurements found that the hybrid nanomaterial has significantly increased light absorption (up to 80%) compared to the pure SWNT. Measurements also found that the hybrid nanomaterial thin-film devices exhibit a clear optical and thermal switching effect, which can be further enhanced up to 10 ×  by asymmetric illumination of light and thermal radiation on the thin-film devices instead of symmetric illumination. A simple prototype thermoelectric generator enabled by the hybrid nanomaterials is demonstrated, indicating a new route for achieving thermoelectricity.

  7. Successful entrapment of carbon dots within flexible free-standing transparent mesoporous organic-inorganic silica hybrid films for photonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassilakopoulou, Anastasia; Georgakilas, Vasilios; Vainos, Nikolaos; Koutselas, Ioannis

    2017-04-01

    The effective entrapment of Carbon dots (CDs) into a polymer-silica hybrid matrix, formed as free standing transparent flexible films, is presented. The composite's synthesis, characterization, device application and properties -mechanical, thermal and optical- are being provided and discussed. CDs of 3 nm mean size with strong photoluminescence are embedded into a silica matrix during the sol-gel procedure, using tetraethyl orthosilicate as the precursor and F127 triblock copolymer as the structure directing agent under acidic conditions. The final hybrid nanostructure forms free standing transparent films that show high flexibility and long term stable CDs luminescence indicating the protective character of the hybrid matrix. It is crucial that the photoluminescence of the hybrid's CDs is not seriously affected after thermal treatment at 550 °C for 30 min. Moreover, the herein reported hybrid is demonstrated to be suitable for the fabrication of advanced photonic structures using soft lithography processes due to its low shrinkage and distortion upon drying, both attributable to its porosity. Finally, it is reported that addition of F127 ethanolic solution in aqueous solution of CDs induces a blue-shift of their photoluminescence.

  8. Photophysical properties of a novel organic-inorganic hybrid material: Eu(III)-β-diketone complex covalently bonded to SiO(2) /ZnO composite matrix.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya-Juan; Yan, Bing

    2010-01-01

    In this article, dibenzoylmethane (DBM) was first grafted with the coupling reagent 3-(triethoxysilyl)-propyl isocyanate (TESPIC) to form precursor DBM-Si, and ZnO quantum dot was modified with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) to form SiO(2) /ZnO nanocomposite particle. Then the precursor DBM-Si and the terminal ligand 1,10-phenthroline (phen) were coordinated to Eu(3+) ion to obtain ternary hybrid material phen-Eu-DBM-SiO(2) /ZnO after hydrolysis and copolycondensation between the tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), water molecules and the SiO(2) /ZnO network via the sol-gel process. In addition, for comparison, the binary hybrid material with SiO(2) /ZnO network and ternary hybrid material with pure Si-O network were also synthesized, denoted as Eu-DBM-SiO(2) /ZnO and phen-Eu-DBM-Si, respectively. The results reveal that hybrid material with SiO(2) /ZnO network phen-Eu-DBM-SiO(2) /ZnO exhibits the stronger red light, the longer lifetimes and higher quantum efficiency than hybrid material with pure Si-O network phen-Eu-DBM-Si, suggesting that SiO(2) /ZnO is a favorable host matrix for the luminescence of rare earth complexes.

  9. A new paratungstate-A-based organic-inorganic hybrid compound: Synthesis, structure and photocatalytic property of [Co(en)3]2[H2W7O24]·8H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Gang; Wang, Xin; Ma, Yuanyuan; Cheng, Xin; Wang, Yonghui; Li, Yangguang

    2013-03-01

    A new paratungstate-A-based organic-inorganic hybrid compound with the chemical formula of [Co(en)3]2[H2W7O24]·8H2O (en = ethylenediamine) (1) has been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by the elemental analysis, IR, TG, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with a = 17.216(3) Å, b = 14.986(3) Å, c = 23.088(8) Å, β = 128.151(2)°, V = 4684.2 Å3, Z = 1, R1 = 0.0484, and wR2 = 0.1087. The structure of 1 consists of the [H2W7O24]4- building blocks and [Co(en)3]2+ metal-organic cationic moieties, which are packed together via the electrostatic forces and extensive hydrogen-bonding interactions to form a three-dimensional supramolecular framework. Interestingly, compound 1 represents the first structurally-defined hybrid compound based on the metastable paratungstate-A polyoxoanions and metal-organic units. The degradation of Rhodamine-B (RhB) under UV irradiation with 1 as the heterogeneous photocatalyst has been investigated, showing a good photocatalytic property of 1 for RhB degradation.

  10. Amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors using organic-inorganic hybrid films deposited by low-temperature plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for all dielectric layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chao-Jui; Chang, Ching-Hsiang; Chang, Kuei-Ming; Wu, Chung-Chih

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the deposition of high-performance organic-inorganic hybrid dielectric films by low-temperature (close to room temperature) inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition (ICP-CVD) with hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO)/O2 precursor gas. The hybrid films exhibited low leakage currents and high breakdown fields, suitable for thin-film transistor (TFT) applications. They were successfully integrated into the gate insulator, the etch-stop layer, and the passivation layer for bottom-gate staggered amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) TFTs having the etch-stop configuration. With the double-active-layer configuration having a buffer a-IGZO back-channel layer grown in oxygen-rich atmosphere for better immunity against plasma damage, the etch-stop-type bottom-gate staggered a-IGZO TFTs with good TFT characteristics were successfully demonstrated. The TFTs showed good field-effect mobility (μFE), threshold voltage (V th), subthreshold swing (SS), and on/off ratio (I on/off) of 7.5 cm2 V-1 s-1, 2.38 V, 0.38 V/decade, and 2.2 × 108, respectively, manifesting their usefulness for a-IGZO TFTs.

  11. Selective Fluorogenic Sensing of As(III) Using Aptamer-Capped Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Oroval, Mar; Coll, Carmen; Bernardos, Andrea; Marcos, María D; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; Shchukin, Dmitry G; Sancenón, Félix

    2017-04-05

    Organic-inorganic hybrid nanomaterials offer extremely valuable tools for monitoring many types of analytes in solution. Within this framework, aptamer-based nanomaterials for heavy metal detection are still very scarce. Herein, a novel sensing nanoprobe for the selective and sensitive detection of As(III) based on the combination of aptamers with mesoporous silica nanoparticles has been developed. The efficiency of the sensor is demonstrated in environmental conditions, showing a great potential in As(III) monitoring assays.

  12. Ion-Conducting Organic/Inorganic Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinder, James D.; Meador, Mary Ann B.

    2007-01-01

    Ion-conducting polymers that are hybrids of organic and inorganic moieties and that are suitable for forming into solid-electrolyte membranes have been invented in an effort to improve upon the polymeric materials that have been used previously for such membranes. Examples of the prior materials include perfluorosulfonic acid-based formulations, polybenzimidazoles, sulfonated polyetherketone, sulfonated naphthalenic polyimides, and polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based formulations. Relative to the prior materials, the polymers of the present invention offer greater dimensional stability, greater ease of formation into mechanically resilient films, and acceptably high ionic conductivities over wider temperature ranges. Devices in which films made of these ion-conducting organic/inorganic polymers could be used include fuel cells, lithium batteries, chemical sensors, electrochemical capacitors, electrochromic windows and display devices, and analog memory devices. The synthesis of a polymer of this type (see Figure 1) starts with a reaction between an epoxide-functionalized alkoxysilane and a diamine. The product of this reaction is polymerized by hydrolysis and condensation of the alkoxysilane group, producing a molecular network that contains both organic and inorganic (silica) links. The silica in the network contributes to the ionic conductivity and to the desired thermal and mechanical properties. Examples of other diamines that have been used in the reaction sequence of Figure 1 are shown in Figure 2. One can use any of these diamines or any combination of them in proportions chosen to impart desired properties to the finished product. Alternatively or in addition, one could similarly vary the functionality of the alkoxysilane to obtain desired properties. The variety of available alkoxysilanes and diamines thus affords flexibility to optimize the organic/inorganic polymer for a given application.

  13. Highly Robust Hybrid Photocatalyst for Carbon Dioxide Reduction: Tuning and Optimization of Catalytic Activities of Dye/TiO2/Re(I) Organic-Inorganic Ternary Systems.

    PubMed

    Won, Dong-Il; Lee, Jong-Su; Ji, Jung-Min; Jung, Won-Jo; Son, Ho-Jin; Pac, Chyongjin; Kang, Sang Ook

    2015-10-28

    Herein we report a detailed investigation of a highly robust hybrid system (sensitizer/TiO2/catalyst) for the visible-light reduction of CO2 to CO; the system comprises 5'-(4-[bis(4-methoxymethylphenyl)amino]phenyl-2,2'-dithiophen-5-yl)cyanoacrylic acid as the sensitizer and (4,4'-bis(methylphosphonic acid)-2,2'-bipyridine)Re(I)(CO)3Cl as the catalyst, both of which have been anchored on three different types of TiO2 particles (s-TiO2, h-TiO2, d-TiO2). It was found that remarkable enhancements in the CO2 conversion activity of the hybrid photocatalytic system can be achieved by addition of water or such other additives as Li(+), Na(+), and TEOA. The photocatalytic CO2 reduction efficiency was enhanced by approximately 300% upon addition of 3% (v/v) H2O, giving a turnover number of ≥570 for 30 h. A series of Mott-Schottky (MS) analyses on nanoparticle TiO2 films demonstrated that the flat-band potential (V(fb)) of TiO2 in dry DMF is substantially negative but positively shifts to considerable degrees in the presence of water or Li(+), indicating that the enhancement effects of the additives on the catalytic activity should mainly arise from optimal alignment of the TiO2 V(fb) with respect to the excited-state oxidation potential of the sensitizer and the reduction potential of the catalyst in our ternary system. The present results confirm that the TiO2 semiconductor in our heterogeneous hybrid system is an essential component that can effectively work as an electron reservoir and as an electron transporting mediator to play essential roles in the persistent photocatalysis activity of the hybrid system in the selective reduction of CO2 to CO.

  14. Bioinspired Synthesis of All-in-One Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Nanoflowers Combined with a Handheld pH Meter for On-Site Detection of Food Pathogen.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ranfeng; Zhu, Chengzhou; Song, Yang; Lu, Qian; Ge, Xiaoxiao; Yang, Xu; Zhu, Mei-Jun; Du, Dan; Li, He; Lin, Yuehe

    2016-06-01

    With a mild elaborately bioinspired one-pot process, Con A-GOx-CaHPO4 nanoflowers are prepared. Employing the as-prepared all-in-one hybrid nanoflowers as signal tags, a simple but potentially powerful amplification biosensing technology for the detection of food pathogen with excellent simplicity, portability, sensitivity, and adaptability is achieved. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Two new organic-inorganic hybrid compounds based on metal-pyrazine coordination polymers and Keggin polyoxometalates: effect of metal ions on the structure

    SciTech Connect

    Cui Fengyun; Ma Xiaoyu; Li Cong; Dong Tao; Gao Yuanzhe; Han Zhangang; Chi Yingnan; Hu Changwen

    2010-12-15

    Through changing the metal ions, two Keggin polyoxometalates-based hybrid compounds, [Cu{sub 5}(pz){sub 6}(Cl)(SiW{sub 12}O{sub 40})] (1) and [Ag{sub 4}(pz){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(SiW{sub 12}O{sub 40})] (2) (pz=pyrazine), were hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by an elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analyses, and single X-ray diffraction. In compound 1, the metal-organic motif exhibits a 6{sup 3} topological 2-D sheet, which is further fused by the [SiW{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 4-} anions to construct a (6.7.8)(6{sup 3}.7.8{sup 2})(6{sup 3})(6{sup 5}.7)(6{sup 5}.8) topological 3D structure. In compound 2, the bridging groups Ag{sub 2}(pz) connect the [SiW{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 4-} anions to form a (5{sup 3}){sub 2}(5{sup 4}.8{sup 2}) topological 2-D layer, which is further linked by an [Ag(pz)]{sub n}{sup n+} chains to construct a 3D structure with the (3{sup 4}.4{sup 16}.5{sup 24}.6{sup 12}.7{sup 8}.8{sup 2})(3{sup 4}.4{sup 6}.5{sup 4}.6){sub 2}(4.5{sup 2}){sub 2} topology. It represents the highest connected network topology presently known for the polyoxometalates system. The structure differences of compounds 1 and 2 reveal that the coordination numbers and geometries of the metal ions have a great influence on the final structure and topology of the Keggin POMs-based hybrid compounds. In addition, the electrochemistry properties of the two compounds have been studied. -- Graphical Abstract: Two new highly connected Keggin POMs-based hybrids have been synthesized by changing metal ions under hydrothermal conditions and the effect of metal ions on the final structure and topology of the POMs-based hybrid compounds was discussed. Display Omitted

  16. Phosphomolybdate clusters as molecular building blocks in the design of one-, two- and three-dimensional organic-inorganic hybrid materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel Armatas, N.; Burkholder, Eric; Zubieta, Jon . E-mail: jazubiet@syr.edu

    2005-08-15

    An attractive approach to the design of inorganic solids exploits the tethering of inorganic clusters through organic spacers to produce hybrid materials with composite properties. We have recently described a modified strategy in which polyoxometalate clusters are linked through organic subunits to give an anionic hybrid substructure which may be further modified through the introduction of secondary metal-ligand complex (SMLC) cations, serving as a third component building block. In this application, the molybdophosphonate cluster {l_brace}Mo{sub 5}O{sub 15}(O{sub 3}PR){sub 2}{r_brace}{sup 4-} serves as a secondary building unit (SBU) with alkyl (CH{sub 2}) {sub n} or aromatic -(C{sub 6}H{sub 4}) {sub n} - tethers providing one-dimensional structural expansion. A binucleating ligand such as tetrapyridylpyrazine (tpyprz) is used to bridge secondary metal sites into a binuclear {l_brace}Cu{sub 2}(tpyprz){r_brace}{sup 4+} SBU which may link phosphomolybdate clusters into two- or three-dimensional structures. The influence of a variety of structural determinants is discussed, including the tether length of the diphosphonate ligand, the coordination preferences of the secondary metal, expansion of the ligand component of the SMLC, and substitution of As for P in the oxide SBU.

  17. Two anionic [Cu I6X7] nn- ( X=Br and I) chain-based organic-inorganic hybrid solids with N-substituted benzotriazole ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xia; Zhai, Quan-Guo; Li, Shu-Ni; Xia, Rui; Xiang, Hai-Juan; Jiang, Yu-Cheng; Hu, Man-Cheng

    2010-05-01

    Solvothermal reactions of the flexible ligand 1,6-Bi(benzotriazole)hexane with CuI and KI or CuBr and KBr in ethanol generate two hybrid compounds, namely, {(HETA)[(Cu 6I 7)(ETA) 2]} n( 1) and {K(Cu 6Br 7)(BBTH)} n( 2) (ETA= N-ethylbenzotriazole, HETA=protonated N-ethylbenzotriazole, BBTH=1,6-bi(benzotriazole)hexane). In 1, two [Cu 3I 4] vertex missing cubane-like subunits link each other by sharing one I atom to give a [Cu 6I 7] cluster, which further form novel 1D [Cu 6I 7] nn- anionic chain. Two in-situ generated ETA ligands finished the 4-coordinated environments of copper centers and another one discrete protonated ETA ligand keeps the charge neutrality for 1. In complex 2, bowl-shaped [Cu 5Br 4] clusters and rhomboid [Cu 2Br 2] dimers link each other to generate a [Cu 6Br 7] nn- 1D chain. BBTH ligands complete the tetrahedral spheres of Cu(I), and 7-coordinated K atoms further extend the 1D chain motifs to a 2D hybrid layer of 2. The UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrum and luminescence measurements show that compound 1 and 2 both are potential semiconductor and photoluminescence materials.

  18. Some aspects of dimensionality and phase transitions of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite ( n-C14H29NH3)2ZnCl4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelkader, M. M.; Gamal, W. M.

    2017-03-01

    The differential scanning calorimetery and the differential thermal analysis thermograms were performed over a suitable wide range of temperatures on polycrystalline samples of the titled hybrid. Furthermore, the ac conductivity σ ac(ῳ, T) and the complex dielectric permittivity ɛ *(ῳ, T) as function of temperature 120 K < T < 400 K and some selected frequencies in the range 1 kHz ≤ f ≤ 100 kHz were measured and presented. The combination of the measured parameters confirms, without any doubt, the existence of a first-order reversible solid-solid structural phase transition from intercalation to non-intercalation, at T ≈ 368 K accompanied by a sudden increase of the interlayer spacing by ≈17.5%. The analysis of our data is based on the coordination complex and the dimensionality of the central metal halide arrangements, which, in our case, is isolated square [ZnCl4]-2 tetrahedral coordination and, hence, of zero-dimensionality (0D), but stabilized in a two-dimensional structure through charge-assisted hydrogen-bonding system. The zero-dimensionality results in a large charge density and, hence, of high efficiently packed compared with other hybrids of this series which are usually crystallized in two-dimensional (2D) corner-sharing [MCl6]-2. The rule of hydrogen bonding has been considered. The odd-even effects were given.

  19. A molecularly imprinted organic-inorganic hybrid monolithic column for the selective extraction and HPLC determination of isoprocarb residues in rice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ting; Ma, Chao; Chen, Huaixia; Zhang, Yajie; Dang, Xueping; Huang, Jianlin

    2014-03-01

    An IPC-imprinted (IPC is isoprocarb) poly(methacrylic acid)/SiO2 hybrid monolithic column was prepared and applied for the recognition of the template. The hybrid monolithic column was synthesized in a micropipette tip using methyltrimethoxysilane as the inorganic precursor, 3-(methacryloxy)propyltrimethoxysilane as the coupling agent, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker. The synthesis conditions, including the porogenic solvent, coupling agent, volume ratio of the inorganic alcoholysate and organic part, were optimized. The prepared monolithic column was characterized by SEM and FTIR spectroscopy. A simple, rapid, and sensitive method for the determination of IPC in rice using the imprinted monolithic column microextraction combined with HPLC was developed. Several parameters affecting the sample pretreatment were investigated, including the eluent, washing solution, and loading sample volume. The linearity of the calibration curve was observed in the range of 9.0-1000 μg/kg for IPC in rice with the correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.9983. The LOD was 3.0 μg/kg (S/N = 3). The assay gave recovery values ranging from 91 to 107%. The proposed method has been successfully applied for the selective extraction and sensitive determination of IPC in rice and a satisfactory result was obtained.

  20. Synthesis, property and crystal structure of a novel two-dimensional network organic-inorganic hybrid compound based on the neodymium III center and Keggin-type heteropolyanion of [α-BW 12O 40] 5-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Jingyang; Zhao, Junwei; Wang, Jingping; Ma, Pengtao

    2004-08-01

    A novel two-dimensional infinite network organic-inorganic hybrid neodymium(III)-centered compound of formula (dmaH) 2[Nd(dmf) 4(H 2O)][α-BW 12O 40]·H 2O ( 1) [dma=dimethylamine and dmf= N, N-dimethylformamide] is obtained by the conventional self-assembly reaction of neodymium oxide, N, N-dimethylformamide and borotungstic acid (α-H 5BW 12O 40·30H 2O) in the mixed solvent of acetonitrile and water, and characterized by IR, UV-visible spectra and X-ray single crystal diffraction. Structural analysis indicates that every [α-BW 12O 40] 5- polyanion interconnects with three adjacent [Nd(dmf) 4(H 2O)] 3+ subunits by means of W-O-Nd bridges, meanwhile, every [Nd(dmf) 4(H 2O)] 3+ building block is surrounded by three neighboring [α-BW 12O 40] 5- polyanions by making use of which an unprecedented two-dimensional extended network structure can be constructed. Interestingly, this structure pattern may act as useful model for the design and assembly of functional molecule-based compounds, especially in the field of molecular sieve materials.

  1. Synthesis of layered zinc hydroxide intercalated with dodecyl sulfate organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposite as a fiber coating for the headspace solid-phase microextraction of aromatic hydrocarbons from water.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Vahid; Parastari, Sheyda; Gorji, Mohsen; Foroutani, Reza; Mahdavi, Mehri; Hazizadeh, Behzad

    2016-12-01

    We describe the synthesis of a layered zinc hydroxide-dodecyl sulfate organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposite as a new solid-phase microextraction fiber. The fiber coating can be prepared easily in a short time and the reaction is at room temperature; it is mechanically stable and exhibits relatively high thermal stability. The synthesized layered zinc hydroxide-dodecyl sulfate nanocomposite was successfully prepared and immobilized on a stainless steel wire and evaluated for the extraction of aromatic compounds from aqueous sample solutions in combination with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The method yields good results for some validation parameters. Under optimum conditions (extraction time: 15 min, extraction temperature: 50°C, desorption time: 1 min, desorption temperature: 250°C, salt concentration: 0.5 g/mL), the limit of detection and dynamic linear range were 0.69-3.2 ng/L and 10-500 ng/L, respectively. The method was applied to the analyses of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o-, p-, and m-xylenes in two real water samples collected from the Aji river and Mehran river, Tabriz, Iran. Under optimum conditions, the repeatability and reproducibility for one fiber (n = 3), expressed as the relative standard deviation, was 3.2-7.3% and 4.2-11.2% respectively. The fibers are thermally stable and yield better recoveries than conventional methods of analysis. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Syntheses, structures and properties of two new organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on ε-Zn Keggin units {ε-PMo(V)8Mo(VI)4O(40-x)(OH)(x)Zn4}.

    PubMed

    Miao, Hao; Hu, Gonghao; Guo, Jiuyu; Wan, Hongxiang; Mei, Hua; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Yan

    2015-01-14

    Two novel organic-inorganic hybrids, Na[PMo(V)8Mo(VI)4O38(OH)2Zn4][pyim]2·1.5H2O [ε(pyim)2] (pyim = 2-(2-pyridyl)-imidazole) and [PMo(V)8Mo(VI)4O37(OH)3Zn4]2[pyim]6·4H2O [ε2(pyim)6], based on ε-Zn Keggin units {ε-PMo(V)8Mo(VI)4O(40-x)(OH)(x)Zn4}, have been successfully synthesized under hydrothermal conditions by controlling the pH values. Structural analysis indicates that the framework of ε(pyim)2 is a 1D chain constructed by monomeric ε-Zn units modified by pyim ligands, while ε2(pyim)6 is an isolated structural compound with dimeric ε-Zn units modified by pyim ligands. This is the first isolated structure of the ε-Keggin POMs system. The luminescent and electrochemical properties of ε(pyim)2 and ε2(pyim)6 were investigated. ε2(pyim)6 also shows high catalytic activity for the esterification of phosphoric acid with equimolar lauryl alcohol to monoalkyl phosphate ester (MAP).

  3. Synthesis, characterization and antioxidant activity of a novel organic-inorganic hybrid material trans-2,5-dimethylpiperazine-1,4-diium pentachlorobismuthate(III): [C6H16N2]BiCl5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essid, Manel; Rzaigui, Mohamed; Marouani, Houda

    2016-08-01

    A novel organic-inorganic hybrid compound, trans-2,5-dimethylpiperazine-1,4-diium pentachlorobismuthate(III), [C6H16N2]BiCl5, was synthesized and its structure determined by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. It crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/c, with the following parameters: a = 15.365(5), b = 12.634(3), c = 8.313(3) Å, β = 120.59(3)°, Z = 4 and V = 1389.1(7) Å3. Its crystal structure consists of [BiCl5]2- anions surrounded by [C6H16N2]2+ cations. Complex hydrogen bonding interactions between [BiCl5]2- and organic cations through N(C)-H … Cl hydrogen bonds to form a three-dimensional network. The crystal packing is stabilized by Cl … Cl interactions. The structure reveals that the piperazine ring is in a chair conformation. The vibrational spectrum has been measured at room temperature by FT-infrared spectroscopy (4000-400 cm-1) on polycrystalline samples. The number of the NMR components in the 13C CP-MAS NMR spectrum proves the presence of three crystallographically independent carbons as revealed by X-ray structure determination. Investigation of antioxidant activity of compound was carried out by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl radical, Ferric Reducing Power (FRP) and Ferrous ion chelating (FIC) methods. The synthesized compound exhibited significant antioxidant activities.

  4. Hydrothermal synthesis of a new organic-inorganic hybrid with Dawson type polyanions as building blocks: Na3(C7NH8O2)3[P2W18O62]·16H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hmida, Fatma; Ayed, Brahim; Haddad, Amor

    2016-07-01

    A new organic-inorganic hybrid compound based on dawson polyoxotungstate, Na3(C7NH8O2)3 [P2W18O62].16H2O have been isolated under autogenous pressure method and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, infrared, ultraviolet spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). This compound crystallized in the triclinic system, space group P-1, with a = 14.063 (1) Å; b = 17.009 (1) Å; c = 17.868 (1) Å; α = 79.88 (1)°; β = 77.14 (1)°; γ = 79.25 (1)° and Z = 2. The crystal structures of the compounds exhibit three-dimensional supramolecular assembly based on the extensive hydrogen bonding interactions between organic cations, sodium cations, water molecules and Dawson polyoxoanions. The infrared spectrum fully confirms the X-ray crystal structure and the UV spectrum of the title compound exhibits an absorption peak at 295 nm.

  5. Evidence and detailed study of a second-order phase transition in the (C{sub 6}H{sub 11}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}[PbI{sub 4}] organic-inorganic hybrid material

    SciTech Connect

    Yangui, A.; Pillet, S.; Garrot, D.; Boukheddaden, K.; Triki, S.; Abid, Y.

    2015-03-21

    The thermal properties of the organic-inorganic hybrid material (C{sub 6}H{sub 11}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}[PbI{sub 4}] are investigated using diffuse reflectivity, spectroscopic ellipsometry, differential scanning calorimetry, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The diffuse reflectivity, performed in heating mode, clearly evidences the presence of a singularity at 336 K. This is confirmed by the temperature dependence of the spectroscopic ellipsometry spectra, which points out a second-order phase transition at 336 K with a critical exponent ∼0.5. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements on a polycrystalline powder of (C{sub 6}H{sub 11}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}[PbI{sub 4}] show a reversible phase transition detected at T{sub C} = 336 K without hysteresis. Raman spectroscopy data suggest that this transition arises from a change in the interactions between inorganic sheets (([PbI{sub 4}]{sup 2−}){sub ∞}) and organic protonated molecules ([C{sub 6}H{sub 11}NH{sub 3}]{sup +}). The structural analysis from power X-ray diffraction reveals an incomplete order-disorder transition of the cyclohexylammonium cation, causing a subtle contraction of the inter-plane distance. The transition results from repulsive close contacts between the organic molecules in the interlayer spacing.

  6. Two new organic-inorganic hybrid compounds based on metal-pyrazine coordination polymers and Keggin polyoxometalates: effect of metal ions on thestructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Feng-Yun; Ma, Xiao-Yu; Li, Cong; Dong, Tao; Gao, Yuan-Zhe; Han, Zhan-Gang; Chi, Ying-Nan; Hu, Chang-Wen

    2010-12-01

    Through changing the metal ions, two Keggin polyoxometalates-based hybrid compounds, [Cu 5(pz) 6(Cl)(SiW 12O 40)] ( 1) and [Ag 4(pz) 3(H 2O) 2(SiW 12O 40)] ( 2) (pz=pyrazine), were hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by an elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analyses, and single X-ray diffraction. In compound 1, the metal-organic motif exhibits a 6 3 topological 2-D sheet, which is further fused by the [SiW 12O 40] 4- anions to construct a (6·7·8)(6 3·7·8 2)(6 3)(6 5·7)(6 5·8) topological 3D structure. In compound 2, the bridging groups Ag 2(pz) connect the [SiW 12O 40] 4- anions to form a (5 3) 2(5 4·8 2) topological 2-D layer, which is further linked by an [Ag(pz)] nn+ chains to construct a 3D structure with the (3 4·4 16·5 24·6 12·7 8·8 2)(3 4·4 6·5 4·6) 2(4·5 2) 2 topology. It represents the highest connected network topology presently known for the polyoxometalates system. The structure differences of compounds 1 and 2 reveal that the coordination numbers and geometries of the metal ions have a great influence on the final structure and topology of the Keggin POMs-based hybrid compounds. In addition, the electrochemistry properties of the two compounds have been studied.

  7. Crystal structure, phase transition and conductivity study of two new organic - inorganic hybrids: [(CH2)7(NH3)2]X2, X = Cl/Br

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafa, Mohga Farid; El-khiyami, Shimaa Said; Abd-Elal, Seham Kamal

    2017-01-01

    Two hybrids 1,7-heptanediammonium di-halide, [(C7H20N2]X2,X = Cl/Br crystallize in monoclinic P21/c, Z = 4. [(C7H20N2]Cl2: a = 4.7838 (2) Å, b = 16.9879 (8) Å, c = 13.9476 (8) Å, β = 97.773 (2)°, V = 1203.58(10) Å3, D = 1.137 g/cm3, λ = 0.71073 Å, R = 0.052 for 1055 reflections with I > 2σ(I), T = 298(2) K. [(C7H20N2]Br2: a = 4.7952 (10) Å, b = 16.9740 (5) Å, c = 13.9281 (5) Å, β = 97.793 (2)°, V = 1203.83(6) Å3, D = 1.612 g/cm3, λ = 0.71073 Å, R = 0.03 for 1959 reflections with I > 2σ(I) T = 298(2) K. Asymmetric unit cell of [(C7H20N2]X2,X = Cl/Br, each consist of one heptane-1,7-diammonium cation and two halide anions. The organic hydrocarbon layers pack in a stacked herring-bone manner, hydrogen bonded to the halide ions. Lattice potential energy is 1568.59 kJ/mol and 1560.78 kJ/mol, and cation molar volumes are 0.295 nm3 and 0.300 nm3 for chloride and bromide respectively. DTA confirmed chain melting transitions for both hybrids below T ∼ 340 K. Dielectric and ac conductivity measurements (290 < T K < 410; 0.080 < f kHz<100) indicated higher conductivity and activation energy of bromide for T > 340 K. Cross over from Jonscher's universal dielectric response at low temperatures T < 340 K to super-linear power law for T > 340 K is observed. At high temperatures halide ion hopping in accordance with the jump relaxation model prevails.

  8. Strain-induced crystallization in elastomeric polymer networks prepared in solution and sol-gel derived high-temperature organic-inorganic hybrid materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premachandra, Jagath Kumara

    Cross-linking polymer chains in solution should bring about fewer inter-chain entanglements in the resulting network. The subsequent drying of this network should compress the chains into a "super-contracted" state. The opposing effects of these changes on strain-induced crystallization in cis-1,4-polyisoprene networks formed in solution were investigated. Higher elongations were required to achieve strain-induced crystallinity in the networks prepared at higher dilutions, suggesting that in this regard the compressed states of the chains was more important than their reduced entangling. The constrained-junction theory was applied to strain-induced crystallization in the above networks. The stress-strain isotherms generated from this theory were in satisfactory agreement with experiment. It was found that the constraint parameter kappa decreases with increase in dilution during cross-linking mainly due to the fact that cross-linking in solution decreases chain interpenetration. The dependence of hydrolysis and condensation of gamma-ureidopropyltrimethoxysilane on pH in the water-methanol system at 23sp°C was investigated by FTIR spectroscopy. Quantitative analysis of rates of hydrolysis showed that gamma-ureidopropyltrimethoxysilane is most stable in the water-methanol system at pH 7.7. The rate of overall condensation of silanols produced by the hydrolysis was qualitatively analyzed. These silanol groups are relatively more stable around pH 4.87. The mechanical properties, thermal stability and water absorption of high-temperature sulfopolybenzobisthiazole-silica hybrid materials were investigated. The use of a bonding agent N,N-diethylaminopropyltrimethoxysilane facilitated the interfacial bonding between the organic and inorganic phases in these materials prepared through the sol-gel process. Tensile modulus, thermal stability and the resistant to water absorption were increased with increase in silica content in the resulting composites

  9. In Situ Characterization of the Initial Effect of Water on Molecular Interactions at the Interface of Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletincx, Sven; Trotochaud, Lena; Fockaert, Laura-Lynn; Mol, Johannes M. C.; Head, Ashley R.; Karslıoğlu, Osman; Bluhm, Hendrik; Terryn, Herman; Hauffman, Tom

    2017-03-01

    Probing initial interactions at the interface of hybrid systems under humid conditions has the potential to reveal the local chemical environment at solid/solid interfaces under real-world, technologically relevant conditions. Here, we show that ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS) with a conventional X-ray source can be used to study the effects of water exposure on the interaction of a nanometer-thin polyacrylic acid (PAA) layer with a native aluminum oxide surface. The formation of a carboxylate ionic bond at the interface is characterized both with APXPS and in situ attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the Kretschmann geometry (ATR-FTIR Kretschmann). When water is dosed in the APXPS chamber up to 5 Torr (~28% relative humidity), an increase in the amount of ionic bonds at the interface is observed. To confirm our APXPS interpretation, complementary ATR-FTIR Kretschmann experiments on a similar model system, which is exposed to an aqueous electrolyte, are conducted. These spectra demonstrate that water leads to an increased wet adhesion through increased ionic bond formation.

  10. A new organic-inorganic hybrid oxyfluorotitanate [Hgua]2·(Ti5O5F12) as a transparent UV filter.

    PubMed

    Lhoste, J; Rocquefelte, X; Adil, K; Dessapt, R; Jobic, S; Leblanc, M; Maisonneuve, V; Bujoli-Doeuff, M

    2011-06-20

    A new generation UV absorber is obtained by microwave-heating-assisted hydrothermal synthesis: [Hgua](2)·(Ti(5)O(5)F(12)). The structure of this hybrid titanium(IV) oxyfluoride is ab initio determined from powder X-ray data by combining a direct space method, Rietveld refinement [orthorhombic, Cmm2, a = 22.410(1) Å, b = 11.191(1) Å, c = 3.802(1) Å], and density functional theory geometry optimization. The three-dimensional network is built up from infinite inorganic layers (∞)(Ti(5)O(5)F(12)) separated by guanidinium cations. The theoretical optical gap (3.2 eV) estimated from density of state calculations is in good agreement with the experimental gap (3.3 eV) obtained by UV-vis diffuse reflectivity. The optical absorption is mainly due to O(2p) → Ti(3d) and F(2p) → Ti(3d) transitions at higher energies. The refraction index is low in the visible range (n ≈ 1.9) compared to that of TiO(2) and, consequently, [Hgua](2)·(Ti(5)O(5)F(12)) shows a good transparency adapted to UV shielding. Under UV irradiation at 254 nm for 40 h, the white microcrystalline powder turns to light purple-gray. This color change is caused by the reduction of Ti(IV) to Ti(III), confirmed by magnetic measurements. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  11. The role of a LiF layer on the performance of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)/Si organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunfang; Liu, Ruiyuan; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Sun, Baoquan

    2014-02-01

    We report an ultra-thin layer of lithium fluoride (LiF) between silicon (Si) and aluminum (Al) in a Si/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) hybrid solar cell which resulted in a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 11.09%. The insertion of a thin layer of LiF improved the contact between Si and Al, which decreased the contact resistance from 5.4 × 10-1 Ω cm2 to 2.6 × 10-2 Ω cm2. Also, the electron transport from Si to Al was improved and charge carrier recombination was suppressed. As a result, the short circuit current density, the open circuit voltage, and the fill factor were all improved with the presence of the LiF layer. The solar cell with the LiF/Al bilayer as a cathode displayed a 14.45% enhancement on PCE when compared with the device using pristine Al as a cathode.

  12. Synthesis, characterization, Hirshfeld surface analysis and antioxidant activity of a novel organic-inorganic hybrid material 1-methylpiperazine-1,4-diium bis(nitrate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatfaoui, Sofian; Mezni, Ali; Roisnel, Thierry; Marouani, Houda

    2017-07-01

    The new inorganic-organic hybrid material 1-methylpiperazine-1,4-diium bis(nitrate) (MPN) have been synthesized and crystallized to the orthorhombic system with space group Pnma and the lattice parameters obtained are a = 10.9385(9) Å, b = 6.5698 Å (4), c = 13.7021(10) Å, V = 984.68(12) Å3 and Z = 4. The trigonal (NO3-) anions are connected to the 1-methylpiperazine-1,4-diium cations via a large number of bifurcated and non-bifurcated Nsbnd H⋯O and Csbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The diprotonated piperazine ring adopts a chair conformation, with the methyl group occupying an equatorial position. Intermolecular interactions in the crystal structure were quantified by Hirshfeld surface analysis. Infrared spectrum confirms the existence of the functional groups in the elaborated material. Optical absorption reveals an important band gap energy indicating stability of the title compound. The DTA/TGA and DSC curves indicate that the crystal is thermally stable up to 180 °C. The antioxidant properties were determined via the DPPH radical scavenging, the ABTS radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRP).

  13. Synthesis, crystal structure and characterization of a new organic-inorganic hybrid material: [C6H16N2O]SbCl5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloui, Z.; Ferretti, V.; Abid, S.; Rzaigui, M.; Lefebvre, F.; Ben Nasr, C.

    2015-05-01

    The present paper undertakes the study of [C6H16N2O]SbCl5 which is a new hybrid compound. It is synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, IR and solid state NMR spectroscopies. The centrosymmetric compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/n, with the following unit cell parameters: a = 9.8519(2), b = 8.8345(2), c = 17.3087(4) Å, β = 102.3(1)° and Z = 4. The atomic arrangement shows an alternation of organic and inorganic entities. The cohesion between these entities is performed via N-H⋯Cl and O-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonding to form a three-dimensional network. The 13C CP-MAS NMR spectrum is in agreement with the X-ray structure. Infrared and Raman spectra at room temperature are recorded in the 4000-400 and 500-100 cm-1 frequency regions respectively. This study confirms the presence of the organic cation [C6H16N2]2+ and of the [SbCl5]2- anion. DFT calculations allow the attribution of the carbon peaks to the different atoms.

  14. A zero dimensional hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite ZnCl4 based: Synthesis, crystal structure, UV-vis, and electronic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Mrabet, Rajae; Kassou, Said; Tahiri, Obaida; Belaaraj, Abdesselam; El Ammari, Lahcen; Saadi, Mohamed

    2017-08-01

    A low dimensional hybrid perovskite-like system [H3Nsbnd (CH2)8sbnd NH3]ZnCl4 was synthesized by slow evaporation method at room temperature. Single crystal X-ray diffraction was used to characterize the crystal structure. The compound crystallizes into triclinic system P-1 space group with mutually surrounded inorganic (ZnCl4)-2 organic (H3Nsbnd (CH2)8sbnd NH3) entities, and the following unit cell parameters: a = 6.9998(1) Å, b = 10.7846(2) Å, c = 11.0332(2) Å, α = 83.1730(10)°, β = 82.0490(10)°, γ = 73.2820(10)°, V = 787.27(2) Å3 and Z = 2. The optical band gap deduced from UV-visible spectroscopy was found to be 4.9 eV. Hirshfeld surface analysis shows the importance of hydrogen bonding interactions to ensure the cohesion of the studied crystal. The band structures and electronic properties, such as total and partial densities of state, were investigated by density functional theory (DFT) using a local LDA and semi local GGA approaches. The obtained results reveal the insulating behavior of the material.

  15. Fluorinated and Thermo-Cross-Linked Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes: New Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Materials for High-Performance Dielectric Application.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiajia; Sun, Jing; Zhou, Junfeng; Jin, Kaikai; Fang, Qiang

    2017-04-12

    A fluorinated and thermo-cross-linked polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) has been successfully synthesized by thermal polymerization of a fluorinated POSS monomer having an inorganic silsesquioxane core and organic side chains bearing thermo-cross-linkable trifluorovinyl ether groups. This new inorganic-organic hybrid polymer shows high thermostability with a 5 wt % loss temperature of 436 °C, as well as good transparency (a sheet with an average thickness of 1.5 mm shows high transmittance of 92% varying from 400 to 1100 nm). Moreover, the polymer exhibits both low dielectric constant (<2.56) and low dissipation factor (<3.1 × 10(-3)) in a wide range of frequencies from 40 Hz to 30 MHz even at a high frequency of 5 GHz. The polymer also shows low water uptake (<0.04%) and low Dk (near 2.63) after immersing it in water at room temperature for 3 days. These data imply that this polymer is very suitable to be utilized as a high-performance dielectric material for fabrication of high-frequency printed circuit boards or encapsulation resins for integrated circuit dies in the microelectronic industry. Furthermore, this work also provides a route for the preparation of fluorinated POSS-based polymers.

  16. In Situ Characterization of the Initial Effect of Water on Molecular Interactions at the Interface of Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Systems

    PubMed Central

    Pletincx, Sven; Trotochaud, Lena; Fockaert, Laura-Lynn; Mol, Johannes M. C.; Head, Ashley R.; Karslıoğlu, Osman; Bluhm, Hendrik; Terryn, Herman; Hauffman, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Probing initial interactions at the interface of hybrid systems under humid conditions has the potential to reveal the local chemical environment at solid/solid interfaces under real-world, technologically relevant conditions. Here, we show that ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS) with a conventional X-ray source can be used to study the effects of water exposure on the interaction of a nanometer-thin polyacrylic acid (PAA) layer with a native aluminum oxide surface. The formation of a carboxylate ionic bond at the interface is characterized both with APXPS and in situ attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the Kretschmann geometry (ATR-FTIR Kretschmann). When water is dosed in the APXPS chamber up to 5 Torr (~28% relative humidity), an increase in the amount of ionic bonds at the interface is observed. To confirm our APXPS interpretation, complementary ATR-FTIR Kretschmann experiments on a similar model system, which is exposed to an aqueous electrolyte, are conducted. These spectra demonstrate that water leads to an increased wet adhesion through increased ionic bond formation. PMID:28327587

  17. Impact of preparation condition of ZnO electron transport layer on performance of hybrid organic-inorganic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chun-Yuan; Yang, Chih-Chiang; Yu, Hsin-Chieh; Chen, Ying-Chih

    2014-02-01

    In this article, we have demonstrated the hybrid polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) with a sol-gel derived or rf-sputtered ZnO electron transport layer (ETL). For the ZnO films prepared under different conditions, low annealing temperature (300 °C) leads to the film amorphous while the polycrystalline films is readily achieved by sputtering. Though the surface roughness can be improved by thermal annealing at 400 °C for sputtered films, the release of compressive stress after treatment has shrunk the optical band gap from 3.282 to 3.268 eV. As the ETL in PLEDs, the reduced band gap could increase potential barrier for electron injection and decrease the hole blocking capability. In our cases, luminance larger than 7000 cd/m2 can be obtained in device with pristine sputtered ZnO ETL. It is concluded that crystalline structure of ZnO films is important to facilitate the balance of carrier mobility to obtain high luminance and high efficiency devices.

  18. Photovoltaic performance of P3HT-porphyrin functionalized 1D CdS nanostructured organic inorganic bulk heterojunction hybrid solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabeen, Uzma; Adhikari, Tham; Shah, Syed Mujtaba; Pathak, Dinesh; Wagner, Tomas; Nunzi, Jean-Michel

    2017-05-01

    Here we report first time the direct observation of the nucleation and growth process of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanowires by stirring of CdS nanoparticles. The growth process of CdS nanowires consist of three steps, the growth of CdS particles, nucleation of CdS nanorods and finally the growth of CdS nanowires. This method brings forward a new idea to synthesize nanowires. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra have been provided for the characterization of the as-obtained nanowires. Furthermore, carboxylic functionalize porphyrin was examined as sensitizer for CdS nanowires. The interaction of porphyrin with CdS nanowires was investigated by absorption, infrared, steady state fluorescence spectroscopy and SEM techniques. The hybrid devices were fabricated with organic polymer with different concentration of dyes and the device with optimum concentration 6 × 10-6 M shows the highest efficiency of 0.5% with short-circuit current density 3.10 mA cm-2, open-circuit voltage 0.44 V and fill factor 0.37. Contribution to the topical issue "Materials for Energy harvesting, conversion and storage II (ICOME 2016)", edited by Jean-Michel Nunzi, Rachid Bennacer and Mohammed El Ganaoui

  19. In Situ Characterization of the Initial Effect of Water on Molecular Interactions at the Interface of Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Systems.

    PubMed

    Pletincx, Sven; Trotochaud, Lena; Fockaert, Laura-Lynn; Mol, Johannes M C; Head, Ashley R; Karslıoğlu, Osman; Bluhm, Hendrik; Terryn, Herman; Hauffman, Tom

    2017-03-22

    Probing initial interactions at the interface of hybrid systems under humid conditions has the potential to reveal the local chemical environment at solid/solid interfaces under real-world, technologically relevant conditions. Here, we show that ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS) with a conventional X-ray source can be used to study the effects of water exposure on the interaction of a nanometer-thin polyacrylic acid (PAA) layer with a native aluminum oxide surface. The formation of a carboxylate ionic bond at the interface is characterized both with APXPS and in situ attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the Kretschmann geometry (ATR-FTIR Kretschmann). When water is dosed in the APXPS chamber up to 5 Torr (~28% relative humidity), an increase in the amount of ionic bonds at the interface is observed. To confirm our APXPS interpretation, complementary ATR-FTIR Kretschmann experiments on a similar model system, which is exposed to an aqueous electrolyte, are conducted. These spectra demonstrate that water leads to an increased wet adhesion through increased ionic bond formation.

  20. Tailoring bifunctional hybrid organic-inorganic nanoadsorbents by the choice of functional layer composition probed by adsorption of Cu(2+) ions.

    PubMed

    Tomina, Veronika V; Melnyk, Inna V; Zub, Yuriy L; Kareiva, Aivaras; Vaclavikova, Miroslava; Seisenbaeva, Gulaim A; Kessler, Vadim G

    2017-01-01

    Spherical silica particles with bifunctional (≡Si(CH2)3NH2/≡SiCH3, ≡Si(CH2)3NH2/≡Si(CH2)2(CF2)5CF3) surface layers were produced by a one-step approach using a modified Stöber method in three-component alkoxysilane systems, resulting in greatly increased contents of functional components. The content of functional groups and thermal stability of the surface layers were analyzed by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy, and (13)C and (29)Si solid-state NMR spectroscopy revealing their composition and organization. The fine chemical structure of the surface in the produced hybrid adsorbent particles and the ligand distribution were further investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and electron spectroscopy of diffuse reflectance (ESDR) spectroscopy using Cu(2+) ion coordination as a probe. The composition and structure of the emerging surface complexes were determined and used to provide an insight into the molecular structure of the surfaces. It was demonstrated that the introduction of short hydrophobic (methyl) groups improves the kinetic characteristics of the samples during the sorption of copper(II) ions and promotes fixation of aminopropyl groups on the surface of silica microspheres. The introduction of long hydrophobic (perfluoroctyl) groups changes the nature of the surface, where they are arranged in alternately hydrophobic/hydrophilic patches. This makes the aminopropyl groups huddled and less active in the sorption of metal cations. The size and aggregation/morphology of obtained particles was optimized controlling the synthesis conditions, such as concentrations of reactants, basicity of the medium, and the process temperature.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of bis (acetylacetonato κ-O, O') [zinc(ii)/copper(ii)] hybrid organic-inorganic complexes as solid metal organic precursors.

    PubMed

    Rooydell, Reza; Wang, Ruey-Chi; Brahma, Sanjaya; Ebrahimzadeh, Farzaneh; Liu, Chuan-Pu

    2015-05-07

    We have synthesized novel metal organic hybrid mixed compounds of bis (acetylacetonato κ-O, O') [zinc(ii)/copper(ii)]. Taking C10H14O4Zn0.7Cu0.3 (Z0.7C0.3AA) as an example, the crystals are composed of Z0.7C0.3AA units and uncoordinated water molecules. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction results show that the complex Z0.7C0.3AA crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group P21/n. The unit cell dimensions are a = 10.329(4) Å, b = 4.6947(18) Å, and c = 11.369(4) Å; the angles are α = 90°, β = 91.881(6)°, and γ = 90°, the volume is 551.0(4) Å(3), and Z = 2. In this process, the M(ii) ions of Zn and Cu mix and occupy the centers of symmetrical structural units, which are coordinated to two ligands. The measured bond lengths and angles of O-M-O vary with the ratio of metal species over the entire series of the complexes synthesized. The chemistry of the as-synthesized compounds has been characterized using infrared spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, and the morphology of the products has been characterized using scanning electron microscopy. The thermal decomposition of the Z0.7C0.3AA composites measured by thermogravimetric analysis suggests that these complexes are volatile. The thermal characteristics of these complexes make them attractive precursors for metal organic chemical vapor deposition.

  2. Near-infrared sensitive organic-inorganic photorefractive device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinova, Vera; Liu, Ren-Chung; Lin, Shiuan-Huei; Chen, Ming-Syuan; Lin, Yi-Hsin; Hsu, Ken-Yuh

    2016-10-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid structure, assembled by Rh-doped Bi12TiO20 crystal and liquid crystal (LC) layer, operating at near-infrared range is proposed and demonstrated. Due to the photorefractive properties of inorganic substrate, light illumination caused a space charge field which acts as a driving force for LC molecules re-alignment and subsequent refractive index modulation. All optically controlled phase retardation ability has been demonstrated supporting possibilities for further infrared applications.

  3. Polyoxometalate-based organic-inorganic hybrid compounds containing transition metal mixed-organic-ligand complexes of N-containing and pyridinecarboxylate ligands.

    PubMed

    Zhao, De-Chuan; Hu, Yang-Yang; Ding, Hong; Guo, Hai-Yang; Cui, Xiao-Bing; Zhang, Xiao; Huo, Qi-Sheng; Xu, Ji-Qing

    2015-05-21

    Five new organic–inorganic hybrid compounds based on the Keggin-type polyoxoanion [SiW12O40]4−, namely [Cu3(2,2′-bpy)3(inic)(μ2-OH)(H2O)][SiW12O40]·2H2O (1), [Cu6(phen)6(μ3-Cl)2(μ2-Cl)2Cl2(inic)2][SiW12O40]·6H2O (2), [Cu2(hnic)(2,2′-bpy)2Cl]2[H2SiW12O40] (3), [Cu2(nic)(phen)2Cl2]2[SiW12O40] (4) and [Cu2(pic)(2,2′-bpy)2Cl]2[SiW12O40] (5) (inic = isonicotinic acid, hnic = 2-hydroxy-nicotinic acid, nic = nicotinic acid, pic = picolinic acid, 2,2′-bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) have been synthesized and characterized by IR, UV-Vis, XPS, XRD, cyclic voltammetric measurements, photoluminescence analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Crystal analysis reveals that compound 1 exhibits a 2-D double layered framework structure constructed from [SiW12O40]4− and copper-aqua-2,2′-bipy-hydroxyl-isonicotinate complexes. Compound 2 is a 0-D discrete structure formed by [SiW12O40]4− and copper-chloro-isonicotinate-phenanthroline complexes. Compound 3 shows a 1-D single chain structure based on the linkage of copper-2,2-bpy-chloro-2-hydroxy-nicotinate complexes and [SiW12O40]4−. Compounds 4 and 5 both contain polyoxometalate supported transition metal complexes, one is a polyoxometalate supported copper-chloro-nicotinate-phenanthroline complex in 4, and the other is a polyoxometalate supported copper-2,2-bpy-chloro-nicotinate complex in 5. It should be noted that nicotinic, isonicotinic and picolinic acids are structural isomers and 2-hydroxy-nicotinic acid is an in situ hydroxylated product of nicotinic acid. In addition, photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) by compounds 1–5 has been investigated in aqueous solutions.

  4. Adsorption behavior of the three species of the biprotic peptide Phe-Ala onto an end-capped C18-bonded organic/inorganic hybrid stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges

    2009-12-15

    We recorded the overloaded elution band profiles of the dipeptide phenylalanine-alanine (Phe-Ala) on a column packed with C18-bonded organic (ethyl)/inorganic (silica) hybrid porous particles (BEH), eluted with a series of buffered methanol-water mobile phases (20/80, v/v). The (W)(S)pHs of the mobile phases were successively adjusted with addition of suitable buffers to values of 1.67, 2.44, 3.83, 4.94, 7.41, and 10.71 (where the notation (W)(S)pH means that the pH of the solution is directly measured in the solution (S) after the electrode was calibrated in pure water (W)). The ionic strength of the eluent was kept constant at 20 mM. The injected samples had different sizes and concentrations. The retention of the low-concentration samples was minimum at an intermediate (W)(S)pH (k' approximately 0.5) and maximum for the lowest (k' approximately 1.3) and highest (k' approximately 3.5) (W)(S)pHs showing that the zwitterion (+Phe-Ala-) is less strongly adsorbed than the positively (+Phe-Ala) and negatively (Phe-Ala-) charged species of the dipeptide onto BEH-C18. The elution profiles of the concentrated samples demonstrated that the adsorption isotherm of the zwitterionic species is an anti-Langmuirian Moreau isotherm due to significant adsorbate-adsorbate interactions, whereas the isotherms of the charged species are more conventional Langmuir isotherms. A simple ternary isotherm for the coadsorption of the three dipeptide species is proposed. It accounts well for the complex band profiles observed when large concentrated samples of the peptide are injected under controlled pH conditions. The slight departure between the calculated and the experimental band profiles obtained under uncontrolled pH conditions suggests the possible adsorption of the buffer components onto the packing material and the possible influence of microenvironment effects near the stationary phase surface, which would affect the local pH along the column. Preparative chromatography of

  5. Hybrid organic/inorganic reverse osmosis (RO) membrane for bactericidal anti-fouling. 1. Preparation and characterization of TiO2 nanoparticle self-assembled aromatic polyamide thin-film-composite (TFC) membrane.

    PubMed

    Kwak, S Y; Kim, S H; Kim, S S

    2001-06-01

    Hybrid organic/inorganic reverse osmosis (RO) membranes composed of aromatic polyamide thin films underneath titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanosized particles have been fabricated by a self-assembly process, aiming at breakthrough of biofouling problems. First, positively charged particles of the colloidal TiO2 were synthesized by a sol-gel process, and the diameter of the resulting particles in acidic aqueous solution was estimated to be approximately 2 nm by analyzing the UV-visible absorption characteristics with a quantum mechanical model developed by Brus. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) further confirmed the formation of the quantum-sized TiO2 particles (approximately 10 nm or less). The TiO2 particles appeared to exist in the crystallographic form of anatase as observed with the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern in comparison with those of commercial 100% rutile and commercial 70:30% anatase-to-rutile mixture. The hybrid thin-film-composite (TFC) aromatic polyamide membranes were prepared by self-assembly of the TiO2 nanoparticles on the polymer chains with COOH groups along the surface. They showed improved RO performance in which the water flux even increased, though slightly. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) exhibited the TiO2 nanoparticles well adsorbed onto the surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) demonstrated quantitatively that a considerable amount of the adsorbed particles were tightly self-assembled at the expense of the initial loss of those that were loosely bound, and became stabilized even after exposure to the various washing and harsh RO operating conditions. The antibacterial fouling potential of the TiO2 hybrid membrane was examined and verified by measuring the viable numbers and determining the survival ratios of the Escherichia coli (E. coli) as a model bacterium, both with and without UV light illumination. The photocatalytic bactericidal efficiency was remarkably higher for the TiO2 hybrid membrane under UV

  6. Hydrothermal syntheses, crystal structures and properties of 0-D, 1-D and 2-D organic-inorganic hybrid borotungstates constructed from Keggin-type heteropolyanion [α-BW 12O 40] 5- and transition-metal complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Junwei; Song, Yiping; Ma, Pengtao; Wang, Jingping; Niu, Jingyang

    2009-07-01

    Three novel organic-inorganic hybrid borotungstates {[Ni(phen) 2(H 2O)] 2H(α-BW 12O 40)}·4H 2O ( 1), [Cu I(2,2'-bipy)(4,4'-bipy) 0.5] 2{[Cu I(2,2'-bipy)] 2Cu I(4,4'-bipy) 2(α-BW 12O 40)} ( 2) and {[Cu I(4,4'-bipy)] 3H 2(α-BW 12O 40)}·3.5H 2O ( 3) (phen=1,10-phenanthroline, 2,2'-bipy=2,2'-bipyridine, 4,4'-bipy=4,4'-bipyridine) have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by elemental analyses, IR, UV spectra, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), single-crystal X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and photoluminescence. The structural analysis reveals that 1 consists of a 0-D bisupporting polyoxometalate cluster where two [Ni(phen) 2(H 2O)] 2+ cations are grafted on the polyoxoanion [α-BW 12O 40] 5- through two terminal oxygen atoms, 2 shows a 1-D infinite chain constructed from [α-BW 12O 40] 5- polyoxoanions and {[Cu I(2,2'-bipy)] 2Cu I(4,4'-bipy) 2} 3+ cations by means of alternating fashion, and 3 displays an unprecedented 2D extended structure built by [α-BW 12O 40] 5- polyoxoanions and -Cu I-4,4'-bipy- linear chains, in which each [α-BW 12O 40] 5- polyoxoanion acts as a tetradentate inorganic ligand and provides three terminal oxygen atom and one two-bridging oxygen atom. The presence of Ni II and W VI in 1, Cu I ions and W VI in 2 and 3 are identified by XPS spectra. The photoluminescence of 2 and 3 are also investigated.

  7. pH-resistant titania hybrid organic-inorganic coating for stir bar sorptive extraction of drugs of abuse in urine samples followed by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet visible detection.

    PubMed

    Lan, Lidan; Hu, Bin; Yu, Chunhe

    2010-11-05

    An organic-inorganic hybrid titania-hydroxy-terminated silicone oil (titania-OH-TSO) stir bar coating was prepared by sol-gel method. The extraction performance of titania-OH-TSO coated stir bar was evaluated and compared with poly(dimethysiloxane) (PDMS), poly(dimethysiloxane)-divinylbenzene (PDMS-DVB), poly(dimethysiloxane)-β-cyclodextrin (PDMS-β-CD) and C(18) coated stir bar with five polar drugs of abuse including amphetamine (PA), methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and ketamine (Ke) as the model analytes. The experimental results revealed that the titania-OH-TSO coated stir bar exhibited highly pH-resistant ability, good preparation reproducibility, superior selectivity and high extraction efficiency for the target compounds. Based on this fact, a new method of titania-OH-TSO coated stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) combined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ultraviolet visible (UV) detection was developed for the analysis of five drugs of abuse in urine samples. The factors affecting the extraction efficiency of SBSE such as sample pH, desorption solvent, sample volume, extraction time, desorption time, stirring rate and ionic strength were investigated and the optimal extraction conditions were established. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) for titania-OH-TSO coated SBSE-HPLC-UV determination of five polar drugs of abuse were in the range of 2.3-9.1 μg/L with relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 7.3 to 8.9% (c=300 μg/L, n=6), and all of the target compounds exhibited good linearity over a concentration range of 30-3000 μg/L. The developed method was applied to the determination of amphetamines and Ke in urine samples of drug abusers with satisfactory results.

  8. Enhancement of the Curie temperature by isomerization of diarylethene (DAE) for an organic-inorganic hybrid system: Co4(OH)7(DAE)0.5.3H2O.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, H; Okubo, M; Nakamoto, A; Enomoto, M; Kojima, N

    2006-12-11

    Intercalation of an organic photochromic molecule into layered magnetic systems may provide multifunctional properties such as photomagnetism. To build up a photosensitive multifunctional magnet, an organic-inorganic hybrid system coupled with a photochromic diarylethene anion, 2,2'-dimethyl-3,3'-(perfluorocyclopentene-1,2-diyl)bis(benzo[b]thiophene-6-sulfonate) (DAE), and cobalt LDHs (layered double hydroxides), Co4(OH)7(DAE)0.5.3H2O, was synthesized by the anion exchange reaction between Co2(OH)3(CH3COO).H2O and DAE. In the dark and under UV-irradiated (313 nm) conditions, Co4(OH)7(DAE)0.5.3H2O with open and closed forms of DAE were obtained, respectively. The magnetic susceptibility measurements elucidated ferromagnetic intra- and interlayer interactions and Curie temperatures of TC = 9 and 20 K for cobalt LDHs with the open and closed forms of DAE, respectively. The enhancement of the Curie temperature from 9 to 20 K by substitution of the open form of DAE with the closed form of DAE as an intercalated molecule is attributed to the delocalization of the pi-electrons in the closed form of DAE, which enhances the interlayer magnetic interaction. The enhancement of the interlayer magnetic interaction induced by the delocalization of pi-electrons in intercalated molecules is strongly supported by the fact that the Curie temperature (26.0 K) of cobalt LDHs with (E,E)-2,4-hexadienedioate having a conjugated pi-electron system is enormously higher than that (7.0 K) of the cobalt LDHs with hexanedioate. By UV irradiation at 313 nm, Co4(OH)7(DAE)0.5.3H2O shows the photoisomerization of DAE from the open form to the closed one in the solid state, which leads to the enhancement of Curie temperature.

  9. Crystal structure, thermal studies, Hirshfeld surface analysis, vibrational and DFT investigation of organic-inorganic hybrid compound [C9H6NOBr2]2CuBr4·2H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesbeh, Radhia; Hamdi, Besma; Zouari, Ridha

    2016-12-01

    Single crystals of a hybrid organic/inorganic material with the formula [C9H6NOBr2]2CuBr4·2H2O were studied by X-ray diffraction. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group C2/c with the following unit cell parameters: a = 7.8201 (12) Ǻ, b = 18.203 (3) Ǻ, c = 19.486 (3) Ǻ, β = 98.330 (5)°, Z = 4, V = 2744.6 (7) Ǻ3. Crystal structure was solved with a final R = 5.66% for 3483 independent reflections. The atomic arrangement shows an alternation of organic and inorganic layers. Between layers, the cohesion is performed via Osbnd H⋯Br, Csbnd H⋯Br, Nsbnd H⋯Br, Nsbnd H⋯O and Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bending. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) measurements have been carried out on [C9H6NOBr2]2CuBr4·2H2O crystal in the temperature range between 50 and 500 °C. The assignment of the observed bands in the solid state FTIR and Raman spectra of the compound was assisted by the theoretically predicted frequencies and compared with data previously reported for similar compounds. The theoretical geometrical parameters in the ground state have been investigated by density functional theory (DFT) with the B3LYP/LanL2DZ level of theory. The optical properties were investigated by optical absorption and show two bands at 279, 300 nm. The percentages of hydrogen bonding interactions are analyzed by Fingerprint plots of Hirshfeld surface.

  10. Synthesis, crystal structure, vibrational spectroscopy, optical properties and theoretical studies of a new organic-inorganic hybrid material: [((CH3)2NH2)(+)]6·[(BiBr6)(3-)]2.

    PubMed

    Ben Ahmed, A; Feki, H; Abid, Y

    2014-12-10

    A new organic-inorganic hybrid material, [((CH3)2NH2)(+)]6·[(BiBr6)(3-)]2, has been synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy and UV-Visible absorption. The studied compound crystallizes in the triclinic system, space group P1¯ with the following parameters: a=8.4749(6)(Å), b=17.1392(12)(Å), c=17.1392(12)(Å), α=117.339(0)°, β=99.487(0)°, γ=99.487(0)° and Z=2. The crystal lattice is composed of a two discrete (BiBr6)(3-) anions surrounded by six ((CH3)2NH2)(+) cations. Complex hydrogen bonding interactions between (BiBr6)(3-) and organic cations from a three-dimensional network. Theoretical calculations were performed using density functional theory (DFT) for studying the molecular structure, vibrational spectra and optical properties of the investigated molecule in the ground state. The full geometry optimization of designed system is performed using DFT method at B3LYP/LanL2DZ level of theory using the Gaussian03. The optimized geometrical parameters obtained by DFT calculations are in good agreement with single crystal XRD data. The vibrational spectral data obtained from FT-IR and Raman spectra are assigned based on the results of the theoretical calculations. The energy and oscillator strength calculated by Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) results complements with the experimental findings. The simulated spectra satisfactorily coincide with the experimental UV-Visible spectrum. The results show good consistent with the experiment and confirm the contribution of metal orbital to the HOMO-LUMO boundary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Two anionic [Cu{sup I}{sub 6}X{sub 7}]{sub n}{sup n-} (X=Br and I) chain-based organic-inorganic hybrid solids with N-substituted benzotriazole ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Xia; Zhai Quanguo; Li Shuni; Xia Rui; Xiang Haijuan; Jiang Yucheng; Hu Mancheng

    2010-05-15

    Solvothermal reactions of the flexible ligand 1,6-Bi(benzotriazole)hexane with CuI and KI or CuBr and KBr in ethanol generate two hybrid compounds, namely, {l_brace}(HETA)[(Cu{sub 6}I{sub 7})(ETA){sub 2}]{r_brace}{sub n}(1) and {l_brace}K(Cu{sub 6}Br{sub 7})(BBTH){r_brace}{sub n}(2) (ETA=N-ethylbenzotriazole, HETA=protonated N-ethylbenzotriazole, BBTH=1,6-bi(benzotriazole)hexane). In 1, two [Cu{sub 3}I{sub 4}] vertex missing cubane-like subunits link each other by sharing one I atom to give a [Cu{sub 6}I{sub 7}] cluster, which further form novel 1D [Cu{sub 6}I{sub 7}]{sub n}{sup n-} anionic chain. Two in-situ generated ETA ligands finished the 4-coordinated environments of copper centers and another one discrete protonated ETA ligand keeps the charge neutrality for 1. In complex 2, bowl-shaped [Cu{sub 5}Br{sub 4}] clusters and rhomboid [Cu{sub 2}Br{sub 2}] dimers link each other to generate a [Cu{sub 6}Br{sub 7}]{sub n}{sup n-} 1D chain. BBTH ligands complete the tetrahedral spheres of Cu(I), and 7-coordinated K atoms further extend the 1D chain motifs to a 2D hybrid layer of 2. The UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrum and luminescence measurements show that compound 1 and 2 both are potential semiconductor and photoluminescence materials. - Graphical abstract: Two unprecedented anionic [Cu{sup I}{sub 6}X{sub 7}]{sub n}{sup n-} (X=Br and I) chain-based organic-inorganic hybrid solids, namely, {l_brace}(HETA)[(Cu{sub 6}I{sub 7})(ETA){sub 2}]{r_brace}{sub n} (1) and {l_brace}K(Cu{sub 6}Br{sub 7})(BBTH){r_brace}{sub n}(2) (ETA=N-ethylbenzotriazole, HETA=protonated N-ethylbenzotriazole, BBTH=1,6-bi(benzotriazole)- hexane) have been synthesized under solvothermal reactions and characterized.

  12. Hybrid 2D-nanomaterials-based electrochemical immunosensing strategies for clinical biomarkers determination.

    PubMed

    Campuzano, S; Pedrero, M; Nikoleli, G-P; Pingarrón, J M; Nikolelis, D P

    2017-03-15

    Owing to the outstanding conductivity and biocompatibility as well as numerous other fascinating properties of two-dimensional (2D)-nanomaterials, 2D-based nanohybrids have shown unparalleled superiorities in the field of electrochemical biosensors. This review highlights latest advances in electrochemical immunosensors for clinical biomarkers based on different hybrid 2D-nanomaterials. Particular attention will be given to hybrid nanostructures involving graphene and other graphene-like 2D-layered nanomaterials (GLNs). Several recent strategies for using such 2D-nanomaterial heterostructures in the development of modern immunosensors, both for tagging or modifying electrode transducers, are summarized and discussed. These hybrid nanocomposites, quite superior than their rival materials, will undoubtedly have an important impact within the near future and not only in clinical areas. Current challenges and future perspectives in this rapidly growing field are also outlined.

  13. Spintronics in hybrid organic/inorganic heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmatiyan, Shayan; McNellis, Erik; Sinova, Jairo

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we present the results of extensive analytical and numerical calculations to investigate spin and charge transport inside organic semiconductors and also at the interface with ferromagnetic metals. Based upon these calculations, we will describe the underlying spin relaxation mechanisms with reference to the spin dependent characteristic parameters e.g. spin relaxation time and spin diffusion length of the organic semiconductors in connection with the ferromagnetic electrodes. ERC-Synergy, Alexander von Humboldt.

  14. Gold-based hybrid nanomaterials for biosensing and molecular diagnostic applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Eun; Choi, Ji Hye; Colas, Marion; Kim, Dong Ha; Lee, Hyukjin

    2016-06-15

    The properties of gold nanomaterials are particularly of interest to many researchers, since they show unique physiochemical properties such as optical adsorption of specific wavelength of light, high electrical conductance with rich surface electrons, and facile surface modification with sulfhydryl groups. These properties have facilitated the use of gold nanomaterials in the development of various hybrid systems for biosensors and molecular diagnostics. Combined with various synthetic materials such as fluorescence dyes, polymers, oligonucleotides, graphene oxides (GO), and quantum dots (QDs), the gold-based hybrid nanomaterials offer multi-functionalities in molecular detection with high specificity and sensitivity. These two aspects result in the increase of detection speed as well as the lower detection limits, having shown that this diagnosis method is more effective than other conventional ones. In this review, we have highlighted various examples of nanomaterials for biosensing and molecular diagnostics. The gold-based hybrid systems are categorized by three distinct detection approaches, in which include (1) optical, such as surface plasmon resonance (SPR), RAMAN, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), (2) fluorescence, such as förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and nanomaterial surface energy transfer (NSET), and (3) electrochemical, such as potentiometic, amperometric, and conductometric. Each example provides the detailed mechanism of molecular detection as well as the supporting experimental result with the limit of detection (LOD). Lastly, future perspective on novel development of gold-based hybrid nanomaterials is discussed as well as their challenges.

  15. Macro-ions collapse leading to hybrid bio-nanomaterials.

    SciTech Connect

    Achyuthan, Komandoor E.

    2009-10-01

    I used supramolecular self-assembling cyanine and the polyamine spermine binding to Escherichia coli genomic DNA as a model for DNA collapse during high throughput screening. Polyamine binding to DNA converts the normally right handed B-DNA into left handed Z-DNA conformation. Polyamine binding to DNA was inhibited by the supramolecular self-assembling cyanine. Self-assembly of cyanine upon DNA scaffold was likewise competitively inhibited by spermine as signaled by fluorescence quench from DNA-cyanine ensemble. Sequence of DNA exposure to cyanine or spermine was critical in determining the magnitude of fluorescence quench. Methanol potentiated spermine inhibition by >10-fold. The IC{sub 50} for spermine inhibition was 0.35 {+-} 0.03 {micro}M and the association constant Ka was 2.86 x 10{sup -6}M. Reversibility of the DNA-polyamine interactions was evident from quench mitigation at higher concentrations of cyanine. System flexibility was demonstrated by similar spermine interactions with {lambda}DNA. The choices and rationale regarding the polyamine, the cyanine dye as well as the remarkable effects of methanol are discussed in detail. Cyanine might be a safer alternative to the mutagenic toxin ethidium bromide for investigating DNA-drug interactions. The combined actions of polyamines and alcohols mediate DNA collapse producing hybrid bio-nanomaterials with novel signaling properties that might be useful in biosensor applications. Finally, this work will be submitted to Analytical Sciences (Japan) for publication. This journal published our earlier, related work on cyanine supramolecular self-assembly upon a variety of nucleic acid scaffolds.

  16. Current status of gene delivery: spotlight on nanomaterial-polymer hybrids.

    PubMed

    Park, Juhee; Kim, Won Jong

    2012-09-01

    Gene therapy aims to treat human disorders by introducing genetic materials into specific target cells or tissues. Despite the curability for the origIn of diseases by restoring missing functionalities, no technical feasibility of gene therapy has been established due to the lack of safe and efficient gene delivery systems. The emergence of nanotechnology has provided an opportunity to create nanomaterials that are suitable for the biomedical applications. Nanomaterials integrated with cationic polymers offer novel platforms that allow not only easy incorporation of genetic materials through electrostatic interactions but also further modifications to be upgraded to theranostics. In this article, current status of gene delivery utilizing hybrid nanomaterials that are composed of novel nanoplatforms and cationic polymers are highlighted. In particular, different strategies employed for the construction of nanomaterial-polymer hybrids are described.

  17. New insights into organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 nanoparticles. An experimental and theoretical study of doping in Pb2+ sites with Sn2+, Sr2+, Cd2+ and Ca2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navas, Javier; Sánchez-Coronilla, Antonio; Gallardo, Juan Jesús; Cruz Hernández, Norge; Piñero, Jose Carlos; Alcántara, Rodrigo; Fernández-Lorenzo, Concha; de Los Santos, Desireé M.; Aguilar, Teresa; Martín-Calleja, Joaquín

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents the synthesis of the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite, CH3NH3PbI3, doped in the Pb2+ position with Sn2+, Sr2+, Cd2+ and Ca2+. The incorporation of the dopants into the crystalline structure was analysed, observing how the characteristics of the dopant affected properties such as the crystalline phase, emission and optical properties. XRD showed how doping with Sn2+, Sr2+ and Cd2+ did not modify the normal tetragonal phase. When doping with Ca2+, the cubic phase was obtained. Moreover, DR-UV-Vis spectroscopy showed how the band gap decreased with the dopants, the values following the trend Sr2+ < Cd2+ < Ca2+ < CH3NH3PbI3 ~ Sn2+. The biggest decrease was generated by Sr2+, which reduced the CH3NH3PbI3 value by 4.5%. In turn, cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements confirmed the band gap obtained. Periodic-DFT calculations were performed to understand the experimental structures. The DOS analysis confirmed the experimental results obtained using UV-Vis spectroscopy, with the values calculated following the trend Sn2+ ~ Pb2+ > Cd2+ > Sr2+ for the tetragonal structure and Pb2+ > Ca2+ for the cubic phase. The electron localization function (ELF) analysis showed similar electron localizations for undoped and Sn2+-doped tetragonal structures, which were different from those doped with Sr2+ and Cd2+. Furthermore, when Cd2+ was incorporated, the Cd-I interaction was strengthened. For Ca2+ doping, the Ca-I interaction had a greater ionic nature than Cd-I. Finally, an analysis based on the non-covalent interaction (NCI) index is presented to determine the weak-type interactions of the CH3NH3 groups with the dopant and I atoms. To our knowledge, this kind of analysis with these hybrid systems has not been performed previously.This paper presents the synthesis of the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite, CH3NH3PbI3, doped in the Pb2+ position with Sn2+, Sr2+, Cd2+ and Ca2+. The incorporation of the dopants into the crystalline structure was analysed

  18. Hybrid organic-inorganic chlorozincate and a molecular zinc complex involving the in situ formed imidazo[1,5-a]pyridinium cation: serendipitous oxidative cyclization, structures and photophysical properties.

    PubMed

    Buvaylo, Elena A; Kokozay, Vladimir N; Linnik, Rostyslav P; Vassilyeva, Olga Yu; Skelton, Brian W

    2015-08-14

    Two novel compounds, the organic-inorganic hybrid [L](2)[ZnCl(4)] (1) and the coordination complex LZnCl(3) (2), where L is the 2-methyl-3-(pyridin-2-yl)imidazo[1,5-a]pyridinium cation, were prepared using the oxidative condensation-cyclization of 2-pyridinecarbaldehyde and CH(3)NH(2)·HCl in methanol in the presence of Zn(2+) cations. The metal-free interaction of the organic components afforded the salt [L][Cl]·1.5H(2)O (3). The use of methylamine hydrochloride instead of its aqueous solution is believed to be responsible for the cyclocondensation with the formation of L instead of the expected Schiff base ligand. Compounds 1-3 have been obtained as single crystals and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, NMR spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The structure of 1 is described as layers of cations and anions stacked along the c-axis, with the minimum ZnZn distance being 8.435 Å inside a layer. In the crystal lattice of 3, the cations are arranged in stacks propagating along the a-axis; the 1D H-bonding polymer built of chloride ions and water molecules runs parallel to a column of stacked cations. The organic cations in salts 1 and 3 show various patterns of π-π stacking. The discrete molecular structure of 2 shows coordination of a Zn atom to the N(pyridyl) atom, which enables one of the chloride atoms attached to the metal centre to interact with a π-system of the positively charged imidazolium ring. Numerous C-HCl contacts in a 1-3 are seen as space-filling van der Waals interactions of minor importance in determining crystal packing. The (1)H NMR studies suggest that the Zn-N coordination found in the solid-state structure of 2 is not retained in dmso, and 1, 2 and 3 are completely dissociated in solution. The emission spectra of 1 and 2 (λ(max) = 455 and 445 nm, respectively) exhibit red-shifts of fluorescence wavelength when compared to 3 and differ in the shapes and maxima of the emission as well as in relative

  19. Silica- and germania-based dual-ligand sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid sorbents combining superhydrophobicity and π-π interaction. The role of inorganic substrate in sol-gel capillary microextraction.

    PubMed

    Seyyal, Emre; Malik, Abdul

    2017-04-29

    Principles of sol-gel chemistry were utilized to create silica- and germania-based dual-ligand surface-bonded sol-gel coatings providing enhanced performance in capillary microextraction (CME) through a combination of ligand superhydrophobicity and π-π interaction. These organic-inorganic hybrid coatings were prepared using sol-gel precursors with bonded perfluorododecyl (PF-C12) and phenethyl (PhE) ligands. Here, the ability of the PF-C12 ligand to provide enhanced hydrophobic interaction was advantageously combined with π-π interaction capability of the PhE moiety to attain the desired sorbent performance in CME. The effect of the inorganic sorbent component on microextraction performance of was explored by comparing microextraction characteristics of silica- and germania-based sol-gel sorbents. The germania-based dual-ligand sol-gel sorbent demonstrated superior CME performance compared to its silica-based counterpart. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the created silica- and germania-based dual-ligand sol-gel sorbents suggested higher carbon loading on the germania-based sorbent. This might be indicative of more effective condensation of the organic ligand-bearing sol-gel-active chemical species to the germania-based sol-gel network (than to its silica-based counterpart) evolving in the sol solution. The type and concentration of the organic ligands were varied in the sol-gel sorbents to fine-tune extraction selectivity toward different classes of analytes. Specific extraction (SE) values were used for an objective comparison of the prepared sol-gel CME sorbents. The sorbents with higher content of PF-C12 showed remarkable affinity for aliphatic hydrocarbons. Compared to their single-ligand sol-gel counterparts, the dual-ligand sol-gel coatings demonstrated significantly superior CME performance in the extraction of alkylbenzenes, providing up to ∼65.0% higher SE values. The prepared sol-gel CME coatings provided low ng L(-1) limit of detections (LOD

  20. Effects of asperities and organic-inorganic interactions on the strength of nacre-mimetic composites.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoonjoo; Kim, Bo-Yeon; Shin, Dong-Geun; Kim, Soo-Ryong; Kwon, Woo-Teck; Kim, Younghee

    2017-02-01

    Nacre is a natural organic-inorganic hybrid composite, whose hierarchical structure has a complex influence on its high strength. Many structural features have been discovered, which influence the mechanical properties of nacre, and the authors have a particular interest in the role of the asperities and organic-inorganic interactions. In this study, a composite was prepared which mimics the asperity structure using clay minerals. Organic-inorganic bonding was induced with silane treatment. Both factors increased the yield strength of the composites; however, different deformation behavior was exhibited. It was found that asperities improved the strength of the composite, and that composition influences the stiffness of the composite. The organic-inorganic interaction between the resin and the other components of the composite reduced the deformation of the composite and consequently improved strength. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Nanomaterials for Therapeutic and Diagnostic Imaging Applications

    PubMed Central

    Vivero-Escoto, Juan L.; Huang, Yu-Tzu

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology offers outstanding potential for future biomedical applications. In particular, due to their unique characteristics, hybrid nanomaterials have recently been investigated as promising platforms for imaging and therapeutic applications. This class of nanoparticles can not only retain valuable features of both inorganic and organic moieties, but also provides the ability to systematically modify the properties of the hybrid material through the combination of functional elements. Moreover, the conjugation of targeting moieties on the surface of these nanomaterials gives them specific targeted imaging and therapeutic properties. In this review, we summarize the recent reports in the synthesis of hybrid nanomaterials and their applications in biomedical areas. Their applications as imaging and therapeutic agents in vivo will be highlighted. PMID:21747714

  2. Inorganic-organic hybrid nanomaterials for therapeutic and diagnostic imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Vivero-Escoto, Juan L; Huang, Yu-Tzu

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology offers outstanding potential for future biomedical applications. In particular, due to their unique characteristics, hybrid nanomaterials have recently been investigated as promising platforms for imaging and therapeutic applications. This class of nanoparticles can not only retain valuable features of both inorganic and organic moieties, but also provides the ability to systematically modify the properties of the hybrid material through the combination of functional elements. Moreover, the conjugation of targeting moieties on the surface of these nanomaterials gives them specific targeted imaging and therapeutic properties. In this review, we summarize the recent reports in the synthesis of hybrid nanomaterials and their applications in biomedical areas. Their applications as imaging and therapeutic agents in vivo will be highlighted.

  3. Design and synthesis of novel polyglycerol hybrid nanomaterials for potential applications in drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Zarrabi, Ali; Adeli, Mohsen; Vossoughi, Manouchehr; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali

    2011-03-10

    The synthesis of a new drug delivery system based on hybrid nanomaterials containing a β-CD core and hyperbranched PG is described. Conjugating PG branches onto β-CD not only increases its water solubility but also affects its host/guest properties deeply. It can form molecular inclusion complexes with small hydrophobic guest molecules such as ferrocene or FITC with reasonable release. In addition, the achievable payloads are significantly higher as for carriers such as hyperbranched PGs. Short-term in vitro cytotoxicity and hemocompatibility tests on L929 cell lines show that the hybrid nanomaterial is highly biocompatible. Due to their outstanding properties, β-CD-g-PG hybrid nanomaterials are introduced as promising materials for nanomedicine, e.g., for drug delivery issues.

  4. Organic-Inorganic Composites Toward Biomaterial Application.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Toshiki; Sugawara-Narutaki, Ayae; Ohtsuki, Chikara

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive ceramics are known to exhibit specific biological affinities and are able to show direct integration with surrounding bone when implanted in bony defects. However, their inadequate mechanical properties, such as low fracture toughness and high Young's modulus in comparison to natural bone, limit their clinical application. Bone is a kind of organic-inorganic composite where apatite nanocrystals are precipitated onto collagen fibre networks. Thus, one way to address these problems is to mimic the natural composition of bone by using bioactive ceramics via material designs based on organic-inorganic composites. In this chapter, the current research on the development of the various organic-inorganic composites designed for biomaterial applications has been reviewed. Various compounds such as calcium phosphate, calcium sulphate and calcium carbonate can be used for the inorganic phases to design composites with the desired mechanical and biological properties of bone. Not only classical mechanical mixing but also coating of the inorganic phase in aqueous conditions is available for the fabrication of such composites. Organic modifications using various polymers enable the control of the crystalline structure of the calcium carbonate in the composites. These approaches on the fabrication of organic-inorganic composites provide important options for biomedical materials with novel functions. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Nanomaterial-Assisted Signal Enhancement of Hybridization for DNA Biosensors: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinhuai; Liu, Jinyun; Yang, Liangbao; Chen, Xing; Zhang, Meiyun; Meng, Fanli; Luo, Tao; Li, Minqiang

    2009-01-01

    Detection of DNA sequences has received broad attention due to its potential applications in a variety of fields. As sensitivity of DNA biosensors is determined by signal variation of hybridization events, the signal enhancement is of great significance for improving the sensitivity in DNA detection, which still remains a great challenge. Nanomaterials, which possess some unique chemical and physical properties caused by nanoscale effects, provide a new opportunity for developing novel nanomaterial-based signal-enhancers for DNA biosensors. In this review, recent progress concerning this field, including some newly-developed signal enhancement approaches using quantum-dots, carbon nanotubes and their composites reported by our group and other researchers are comprehensively summarized. Reports on signal enhancement of DNA biosensors by non-nanomaterials, such as enzymes and polymer reagents, are also reviewed for comparison. Furthermore, the prospects for developing DNA biosensors using nanomaterials as signal-enhancers in future are also indicated. PMID:22399999

  6. Recent NMR developments applied to organic-inorganic materials.

    PubMed

    Bonhomme, Christian; Gervais, Christel; Laurencin, Danielle

    2014-02-01

    In this contribution, the latest developments in solid state NMR are presented in the field of organic-inorganic (O/I) materials (or hybrid materials). Such materials involve mineral and organic (including polymeric and biological) components, and can exhibit complex O/I interfaces. Hybrids are currently a major topic of research in nanoscience, and solid state NMR is obviously a pertinent spectroscopic tool of investigation. Its versatility allows the detailed description of the structure and texture of such complex materials. The article is divided in two main parts: in the first one, recent NMR methodological/instrumental developments are presented in connection with hybrid materials. In the second part, an exhaustive overview of the major classes of O/I materials and their NMR characterization is presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Hybrid nanostructures of metal/two-dimensional nanomaterials for plasmon-enhanced applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuanhua; Zhu, Jinmeng; Wei, Bingqing

    2016-06-07

    Hybrid nanostructures composed of graphene or other two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials and plasmonic metal components have been extensively studied. The unusual properties of 2D materials are associated with their atomically thin thickness and 2D morphology, and many impressive structures enable the metal nanomaterials to establish various interesting hybrid nanostructures with outstanding plasmonic properties. In addition, the hybrid nanostructures display unique optical characteristics that are derived from the close conjunction of plasmonic optical effects and the unique physicochemical properties of 2D materials. More importantly, the hybrid nanostructures show several plasmonic electrical effects including an improved photogeneration rate, efficient carrier transfer, and a plasmon-induced "hot carrier", playing a significant role in enhancing device performance. They have been widely studied for plasmon-enhanced optical signals, photocatalysis, photodetectors (PDs), and solar cells. In this review, the developments in the field of metal/2D hybrid nanostructures are comprehensively described. Preparation of hybrid nanostructures is first presented according to the 2D material type, as well as the metal nanomaterial morphology. The plasmonic properties and the enabled applications of the hybrid nanostructures are then described. Lastly, possible future research in this promising field is discussed.

  8. AFRL Nanotechnology Initiative: Hybrid Nanomaterials in Photonic Crystal Cavities for Multi-Spectral Infrared Detector Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-31

    INITIATIVE) HYBRID NANOMATERIALS IN PHOTONIC CRYSTAL CAVITIES FOR MULTI -SPECTRAL INFRARED DETECTOR ARRAYS 5b. GRANT NUMBER F A9550-06-1-0482 5c...IR) photodetector using hybrid nanornaterials in photonic crystal (PC) cavities for enhanced absorption at selected wavelengths. The simultaneous...infrared photodetection, quantum dots, photonic crystal cavities, matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  9. Shape-controlled synthesis of hybrid nanomaterials via three-dimensional hydrodynamic focusing.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mengqian; Yang, Shikuan; Ho, Yi-Ping; Grigsby, Christopher L; Leong, Kam W; Huang, Tony Jun

    2014-10-28

    Shape-controlled synthesis of nanomaterials through a simple, continuous, and low-cost method is essential to nanomaterials research toward practical applications. Hydrodynamic focusing, with its advantages of simplicity, low-cost, and precise control over reaction conditions, has been used for nanomaterial synthesis. While most studies have focused on improving the uniformity and size control, few have addressed the potential of tuning the shape of the synthesized nanomaterials. Here we demonstrate a facile method to synthesize hybrid materials by three-dimensional hydrodynamic focusing (3D-HF). While keeping the flow rates of the reagents constant and changing only the flow rate of the buffer solution, the molar ratio of two reactants (i.e., tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) and HAuCl4) within the reaction zone varies. The synthesized TTF-Au hybrid materials possess very different and predictable morphologies. The reaction conditions at different buffer flow rates are studied through computational simulation, and the formation mechanisms of different structures are discussed. This simple one-step method to achieve continuous shape-tunable synthesis highlights the potential of 3D-HF in nanomaterials research.

  10. Theory of hydrogen migration in organic-inorganic halide perovskites.

    PubMed

    Egger, David A; Kronik, Leeor; Rappe, Andrew M

    2015-10-12

    Solar cells based on organic-inorganic halide perovskites have recently been proven to be remarkably efficient. However, they exhibit hysteresis in their current-voltage curves, and their stability in the presence of water is problematic. Both issues are possibly related to a diffusion of defects in the perovskite material. By using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory, we study the properties of an important defect in hybrid perovskites-interstitial hydrogen. We show that differently charged defects occupy different crystal sites, which may allow for ionization-enhanced defect migration following the Bourgoin-Corbett mechanism. Our analysis highlights the structural flexibility of organic-inorganic perovskites: successive iodide displacements, combined with hydrogen bonding, enable proton diffusion with low migration barriers. These findings indicate that hydrogen defects can be mobile and thus highly relevant for the performance of perovskite solar cells. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  11. Electrostatic Assembly of Nanomaterials for Hybrid Electrodes and Supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, Paula

    2015-03-01

    Electrostatic assembly methods have been used to generate a range of new materials systems of interest for electrochemical energy and storage applications. Over the past several years, it has been demonstrated that carbon nanotubes, metals, metal oxides, polymeric nanomaterials, and biotemplated materials systems can be incorporated into ultrathin films to generate supercapacitors and battery electrodes that illustrate significant energy density and power. The unique ability to control the incorporation of such a broad range of materials at the nanometer length scale allows tailoring of the final properties of these unique composite systems, as well as the capability of creating complex micron-scale to nanoporous morphologies based on the scale of the nanomaterial that is absorbed within the structure, or the conditions of self-assembly. Recently we have expanded these capabilities to achieve new electrodes that are templated atop electrospun polmer fiber scaffolds, in which the polymer can be selectively removed to achieve highly porous materials. Spray-layer-by-layer and filtration methods of functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes and polyaniline nanofibers enable the generation of electrode systems with unusually high surface. Incorporation of psuedocapacitive nanoparticles can enhance capacitive properties, and other catalytic or metallic nanoparticles can be implemented to enhance electrochemical or catalytic function.

  12. Engineering Synergy: Energy and Mass Transport in Hybrid Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eun Seon; Coates, Nelson E; Forster, Jason D; Ruminski, Anne M; Russ, Boris; Sahu, Ayaskanta; Su, Norman C; Yang, Fan; Urban, Jeffrey J

    2015-10-14

    An emerging class of materials that are hybrid in nature is propelling a technological revolution in energy, touching many fundamental aspects of energy-generation, storage, and conservation. Hybrid materials combine classical inorganic and organic components to yield materials that manifest new functionalities unattainable in traditional composites or other related multicomponent materials, which have additive function only. This Research News article highlights the exciting materials design innovations that hybrid materials enable, with an eye toward energy-relevant applications involving charge, heat, and mass transport. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Nanoscale investigation of organic - inorganic halide perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacovich, S.; Divitini, G.; Vrućinić, M.; Sadhanala, A.; Friend, R. H.; Sirringhaus, H.; Deschler, F.; Ducati, C.

    2015-10-01

    Over the last few years organic - inorganic halide perovskite-based solar cells have exhibited a rapid evolution, reaching certified power conversion efficiencies now surpassing 20%. Nevertheless the understanding of the optical and electronic properties of such systems on the nanoscale is still an open problem. In this work we investigate two model perovskite systems (based on iodine - CH3NH3PbI3 and bromine - CH3NH3PbBr3), analysing the local elemental composition and crystallinity and identifying chemical inhomogeneities.

  14. Charge transfer at organic-inorganic interfaces—Indoline layers on semiconductor substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyenburg, I.; Falgenhauer, J.; Rosemann, N. W.; Chatterjee, S.; Schlettwein, D.; Heimbrodt, W.

    2016-12-01

    We studied the electron transfer from excitons in adsorbed indoline dye layers across the organic-inorganic interface. The hybrids consist of indoline derivatives on the one hand and different inorganic substrates (TiO2, ZnO, SiO2(0001), fused silica) on the other. We reveal the electron transfer times from excitons in dye layers to the organic-inorganic interface by analyzing the photoluminescence transients of the dye layers after femtosecond excitation and applying kinetic model calculations. A correlation between the transfer times and four parameters have been found: (i) the number of anchoring groups, (ii) the distance between the dye and the organic-inorganic interface, which was varied by the alkyl-chain lengths between the carboxylate anchoring group and the dye, (iii) the thickness of the adsorbed dye layer, and (iv) the level alignment between the excited dye ( π* -level) and the conduction band minimum of the inorganic semiconductor.

  15. Organic-inorganic macroion coacervate complexation.

    PubMed

    Jing, Benxin; Qiu, Jie; Zhu, Yingxi

    2017-07-19

    Coacervate complexes that are liquid-liquid separated complex materials are often formed by stoichiometrically mixing oppositely charged polyelectrolytes in salted aqueous solution. Entropy-driven ion pairing, resulting from the release of counterions near polyelectrolytes, has been identified as the primary driving force for coacervate formation between oppositely charged polyelectrolytes, including proteins and DNA, in aqueous solution. In this work we have examined the complexation between net neutral zwitterionic poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (PSBMA) and inorganic polyoxometalate (POM) polyanions in LiCl aqueous solutions. Biphasic liquid-like coacervate complexes can be formed over a much broader range of POM-to-PSBMA molar ratio and LiCl concentration than that for conventional polyelectrolyte coacervate complexation. Composition analysis of the dried supernatant and dense coacervate has confirmed that both PSBMA and POM macroions are primarily present in the dense coacervate as the macroion-rich phase in contrast to the presence of LiCl solely in the supernatant as the macroion-poor phase. The increase of net charge negativity of PSBMA and supernatant conductivity suggests stronger binding of PSBMA with POM anions than monovalent Cl(-), resulting in the release of bound Cl(-) anions to the aqueous solution for the formation of PSBMA-POM coacervates in LiCl solution. All experimental evidence has demonstrated the generality of ion-pairing induced coacervate complexation with net neutral zwitterionic polymers and multivalent inorganic nanomaterials. The complexation between organic and inorganic macroions could give insights into many supramolecular assembly processes in nature and also lead to a new paradigm in developing hybrid macroionic materials for emerging applications from green catalysis to nanomedicine.

  16. Nano Metal-Organic Framework-Derived Inorganic Hybrid Nanomaterials: Synthetic Strategies and Applications.

    PubMed

    Mai, Hien Duy; Rafiq, Khezina; Yoo, Hyojong

    2016-11-11

    Nano- (or micro-scale) metal-organic frameworks (NMOFs), also known as coordination polymer particles (CPPs), have received much attention because of their structural diversities and tunable properties. Besides the direct use, NMOFs can be alternatively used as sacrificial templates/precursors for the preparation of a wide range of hybrid inorganic nanomaterials in straightforward and controllable manners. Distinct advantages of using NMOF templates are correlated to their structural and functional tailorability at molecular levels that is rarely acquired in any other conventional template/precursor. In addition, NMOF-derived inorganic nanomaterials with distinct chemical and physical properties are inferred to dramatically expand the scope of their utilization in many fields. In this review, we aim to provide readers with a comprehensive summary of recent progress in terms of synthetic approaches for the production of diverse inorganic hybrid nanostructures from as-synthesized NMOFs and their promising applications.

  17. Giant photostriction in organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yang; You, Lu; Wang, Shiwei; Ku, Zhiliang; Fan, Hongjin; Schmidt, Daniel; Rusydi, Andrivo; Chang, Lei; Wang, Le; Ren, Peng; Chen, Liufang; Yuan, Guoliang; Chen, Lang; Wang, Junling

    2016-04-01

    Among the many materials investigated for next-generation photovoltaic cells, organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites have demonstrated great potential thanks to their high power conversion efficiency and solution processability. Within a short period of about 5 years, the efficiency of solar cells based on these materials has increased dramatically from 3.8 to over 20%. Despite the tremendous progress in device performance, much less is known about the underlying photophysics involving charge-orbital-lattice interactions and the role of the organic molecules in this hybrid material remains poorly understood. Here, we report a giant photostrictive response, that is, light-induced lattice change, of >1,200 p.p.m. in methylammonium lead iodide, which could be the key to understand its superior optical properties. The strong photon-lattice coupling also opens up the possibility of employing these materials in wireless opto-mechanical devices.

  18. Synthesis, crystal structures and characterization of two novel organic-inorganic hybrid compounds (C5NH6)6Bi4Br18 and [C(NH2)3]3BiI6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S. G.; Chen, L.; Xiang, Y.

    2017-02-01

    Two novel organic-inorganic compounds (C5NH6)6Bi4Br18 (1) and [C(NH2)3]3BiI6 (2) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, measured by DSC and single-crystal X-ray diffraction at room temperature. The crystal structure of (1) crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/m, with a = 17.12 (3), b = 15.3939 (1), c = 13.412 (2) Å, β = 123.702 (7)°, V = 3042.2 (8) Å3 and Z = 2. The crystal structure consists of discrete quad-core [Bi4Br18]6- anions and [C5NH6]+ cations. 2 crystallizes in triclinic space group P-1, with the following unit cell parameters: a = 9.3435 (2), b = 15.583 (4), c = 17.200 (4) Å, α = 86.383 (1), β = 75.689 (1), γ = 89.918 (6)°, V = 2421.5 (10) Å3 and Z = 4. The crystal lattice is composed of discrete [BiI6]3- anions surrounded by [C(NH2)3]+ cations. The DSC experiment of 1 clearly displays that a phase transition occurred at 124.7 K, while 2 undergoes a phase transition at 192.5 K.

  19. Hybrid carbon nanomaterials for electrochemical detection of biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurila, Tomi

    2015-09-01

    Electrochemical detection of different biomolecules in vivo is a promising path towards in situ monitoring of human body and its functions. However, there are several major obstacles, such as sensitivity, selectivity and biocompatiblity, which must be tackled in order to achieve reliably and safely operating sensor devices. Here we show that by utilizing hybrid carbon materials as electrodes to detect two types of neurotransmitters, dopamine and glutamate, several advantages over commonly used electrode materials can be achieved. In particular, we will demonstrate here that it is possible to combine the properties of different carbon allotropes to obtain hybrid materials with greatly improved electrochemical performance. Three following examples of the approach are given: (i) diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin film electrodes with different layer thicknesses, (ii) multi-walled carbon nanotubes grown directly on top of DLC and (iii) carbon nanofibres synthesized on top of DLC thin films. Detailed structural and electrochemical characterization is carried out to rationalize the reasons behind the observed behvior. In addition, results from the atomistic simulations are utilized to obtain more information about the properties of the amorphous carbon thin films.

  20. Programmable SERS active substrates for chemical and biosensing applications using amorphous/crystalline hybrid silicon nanomaterial

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Jeffery Alexander; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan; Tan, Bo

    2016-01-01

    We present the creation of a unique nanostructured amorphous/crystalline hybrid silicon material that exhibits surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity. This nanomaterial is an interconnected network of amorphous/crystalline nanospheroids which form a nanoweb structure; to our knowledge this material has not been previously observed nor has it been applied for use as a SERS sensing material. This material is formed using a femtosecond synthesis technique which facilitates a laser plume ion condensation formation mechanism. By fine-tuning the laser plume temperature and ion interaction mechanisms within the plume, we are able to precisely program the relative proportion of crystalline Si to amorphous Si content in the nanospheroids as well as the size distribution of individual nanospheroids and the size of Raman hotspot nanogaps. With the use of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) and Crystal Violet (CV) chemical dyes, we have been able to observe a maximum enhancement factor of 5.38 × 106 and 3.72 × 106 respectively, for the hybrid nanomaterial compared to a bulk Si wafer substrate. With the creation of a silicon-based nanomaterial capable of SERS detection of analytes, this work demonstrates a redefinition of the role of nanostructured Si from an inactive to SERS active role in nano-Raman sensing applications. PMID:26785682

  1. Programmable SERS active substrates for chemical and biosensing applications using amorphous/crystalline hybrid silicon nanomaterial.

    PubMed

    Powell, Jeffery Alexander; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan; Tan, Bo

    2016-01-20

    We present the creation of a unique nanostructured amorphous/crystalline hybrid silicon material that exhibits surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity. This nanomaterial is an interconnected network of amorphous/crystalline nanospheroids which form a nanoweb structure; to our knowledge this material has not been previously observed nor has it been applied for use as a SERS sensing material. This material is formed using a femtosecond synthesis technique which facilitates a laser plume ion condensation formation mechanism. By fine-tuning the laser plume temperature and ion interaction mechanisms within the plume, we are able to precisely program the relative proportion of crystalline Si to amorphous Si content in the nanospheroids as well as the size distribution of individual nanospheroids and the size of Raman hotspot nanogaps. With the use of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) and Crystal Violet (CV) chemical dyes, we have been able to observe a maximum enhancement factor of 5.38 × 10(6) and 3.72 × 10(6) respectively, for the hybrid nanomaterial compared to a bulk Si wafer substrate. With the creation of a silicon-based nanomaterial capable of SERS detection of analytes, this work demonstrates a redefinition of the role of nanostructured Si from an inactive to SERS active role in nano-Raman sensing applications.

  2. Programmable SERS active substrates for chemical and biosensing applications using amorphous/crystalline hybrid silicon nanomaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Jeffery Alexander; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan; Tan, Bo

    2016-01-01

    We present the creation of a unique nanostructured amorphous/crystalline hybrid silicon material that exhibits surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity. This nanomaterial is an interconnected network of amorphous/crystalline nanospheroids which form a nanoweb structure; to our knowledge this material has not been previously observed nor has it been applied for use as a SERS sensing material. This material is formed using a femtosecond synthesis technique which facilitates a laser plume ion condensation formation mechanism. By fine-tuning the laser plume temperature and ion interaction mechanisms within the plume, we are able to precisely program the relative proportion of crystalline Si to amorphous Si content in the nanospheroids as well as the size distribution of individual nanospheroids and the size of Raman hotspot nanogaps. With the use of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) and Crystal Violet (CV) chemical dyes, we have been able to observe a maximum enhancement factor of 5.38 × 106 and 3.72 × 106 respectively, for the hybrid nanomaterial compared to a bulk Si wafer substrate. With the creation of a silicon-based nanomaterial capable of SERS detection of analytes, this work demonstrates a redefinition of the role of nanostructured Si from an inactive to SERS active role in nano-Raman sensing applications.

  3. Multiple-stage structure transformation of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Qiong; Liu, Henan; Kim, Hui -Seon; Liu, Yucheng; Yang, Mengjin; Yue, Naili; Ren, Gang; Zhu, Kai; Liu, Shengzhong; Park, Nam -Gyu; Zhang, Yong

    2016-09-15

    In this study, by performing spatially resolved Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy with varying excitation wavelength, density, and data acquisition parameters, we achieve a unified understanding towards the spectroscopy signatures of the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite, transforming from the pristine state (CH3NH3PbI3) to the fully degraded state (i.e., PbI2) for samples with varying crystalline domain size from mesoscopic scale (approximately 100 nm) to macroscopic size (centimeters), synthesized by three different techniques. We show that the hybrid perovskite exhibits multiple stages of structure transformation occurring either spontaneously or under light illumination, with exceptionally high sensitivity to the illumination conditions (e.g., power, illumination time, and interruption pattern). We highlight four transformation stages (stages I-IV, with stage I being the pristine state) along either the spontaneous or photoinduced degradation path exhibiting distinctly different Raman spectroscopy features at each stage, and point out that previously reported Raman spectra in the literature reflect highly degraded structures of either stage III or stage IV. Additional characteristic optical features of partially degraded materials under the joint action of spontaneous and photodegradation are also given. This study offers reliable benchmark results for understanding the intrinsic material properties and structure transformation of this unique category of hybrid materials, and the findings are pertinently important to a wide range of potential applications where the hybrid material is expected to function in greatly different environment and light-matter interaction conditions.

  4. Preparation, characterization, and electrochemical performances of graphene/Ni(OH)2 hybrid nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Duanguang; Wang, Fan; Yan, Jing; Gao, Yong; Li, Huaming

    2013-06-01

    Graphene-based hybrid nanomaterials have recently been investigated and proposed as a promising platform for electronic, optoelectronic, and electrochemical devices because of their high-surface area, remarkable chemical stability, and electrical conductivity. In this study, we demonstrated a facile method for the preparation of graphene/Ni(OH)2 hybrid nanomaterials. First, polymer-functionalized graphene oxide (PGO) was prepared by Cu(I)-catalyzed click coupling of alkyne-functionalized graphene oxide with azide-terminated poly(vinylpyrrolidone). Subsequently, Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles were deposited onto graphene nanosheets using PGO as a template. Upon reduction with NaBH4, graphene/Ni(OH)2 hybrid nanostructures were constructed. The as-prepared graphene/Ni(OH)2 hybrid nanosheets were directly immobilized onto the surface of glassy carbon electrode for glucose determination. The as-fabricated nonenzymatic glucose sensor exhibited a wider linearity range from 0.3 to 750 μM with a detection limit of 30 nM ( S/ N = 3).

  5. Biocompatible hybrid nanomaterials involving polymers and hydrogels interfaced with phosphorescent complexes and toxin-free metallic nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marpu, Sreekar B.

    The major topics discussed are all relevant to interfacing brightly phosphorescent and non-luminescent coinage metal complexes of [Ag(I) and Au(I)] with biopolymers and thermoresponsive gels for making hybrid nanomaterials with an explanation on syntheses, characterization and their significance in biomedical fields. Experimental results and ongoing work on determining outreaching consequences of these hybrid nanomaterials for various biomedical applications like cancer therapy, bio-imaging and antibacterial abilities are described. In vitro and in vivo studies have been performed on majority of the discussed hybrid nanomaterials and determined that the cytotoxicity or antibacterial activity are comparatively superior when compared to analogues in literature. Consequential differences are noticed in photoluminescence enhancement from hybrid phosphorescent hydrogels, phosphorescent complex ability to physically crosslink, Au(I) sulfides tendency to form NIR (near-infrared) absorbing AuNPs compared to any similar work in literature. Syntheses of these hybrid nanomaterials has been thoroughly investigated and it is determined that either metallic nanoparticles syntheses or syntheses of phosphorescent hydrogels can be carried in single step without involving any hazardous reducing agents or crosslinkers or stabilizers that are commonly employed during multiple step syntheses protocols for syntheses of similar materials in literature. These astounding results that have been discovered within studies of hybrid nanomaterials are an asset to applications ranging from materials development to health science and will have striking effect on environmental and green chemistry approaches.

  6. Fabrication of organic-inorganic perovskite thin films for planar solar cells via pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Yangang; Zhang, Xiaohang; Gong, Yunhui; Shin, Jongmoon; Wachsman, Eric D.; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Yao, Yangyi; Hsu, Wei-Lun; Dagenais, Mario

    2016-01-15

    We report on fabrication of organic-inorganic perovskite thin films using a hybrid method consisting of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of lead iodide and spin-coating of methylammonium iodide. Smooth and highly crystalline CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} thin films have been fabricated on silicon and glass coated substrates with fluorine doped tin oxide using this PLD-based hybrid method. Planar perovskite solar cells with an inverted structure have been successfully fabricated using the perovskite films. Because of its versatility, the PLD-based hybrid fabrication method not only provides an easy and precise control of the thickness of the perovskite thin films, but also offers a straightforward platform for studying the potential feasibility in using other metal halides and organic salts for formation of the organic-inorganic perovskite structure.

  7. Fabrication of organic-inorganic perovskite thin films for planar solar cells via pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yangang; Yao, Yangyi; Zhang, Xiaohang; Hsu, Wei-Lun; Gong, Yunhui; Shin, Jongmoon; Wachsman, Eric D.; Dagenais, Mario; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    We report on fabrication of organic-inorganic perovskite thin films using a hybrid method consisting of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of lead iodide and spin-coating of methylammonium iodide. Smooth and highly crystalline CH3NH3PbI3 thin films have been fabricated on silicon and glass coated substrates with fluorine doped tin oxide using this PLD-based hybrid method. Planar perovskite solar cells with an inverted structure have been successfully fabricated using the perovskite films. Because of its versatility, the PLD-based hybrid fabrication method not only provides an easy and precise control of the thickness of the perovskite thin films, but also offers a straightforward platform for studying the potential feasibility in using other metal halides and organic salts for formation of the organic-inorganic perovskite structure.

  8. Excellent fluoride decontamination and antibacterial efficacy of Fe-Ca-Zr hybrid metal oxide nanomaterial.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Ankita; Nair, Manjula; Bhargava, Suresh K; Kumar, Dinesh

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study is to develop an efficient nanomaterial for the removal of fluoride and disinfection of harmful bacteria in order to make water potable according to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines. Hydrous hybrid Fe-Ca-Zr oxide nanoadsorbent presented a marked fluoride adsorption capacity of 250 mg/g at pH 7.0 (±0.1) much greater than other commercially accessible adsorbents for both synthetic and real water samples. The adsorption isotherms, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) fitted reasonably well fine having high coefficient of regression values. The adsorption of fluoride was established well using pseudo-second-order kinetics. The fluoride loaded adsorbent was efficiently regenerated by using an alkali solution. Interestingly, the developed nanomaterial not only showed excellent fluoride removal capacity but also demonstrated good antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli with IC50 (25 μg/mL). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Controllable in situ synthesis of magnetite coated silica-core water-dispersible hybrid nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Qu, Haiou; Tong, Sheng; Song, Kejing; Ma, Hui; Bao, Gang; Pincus, Seth; Zhou, Weilie; O'Connor, Charles

    2013-08-20

    Magnetite nanoparticle coated silica (Fe3O4@SiO2) hybrid nanomaterials hold an important position in the fields of cell imaging and drug delivery. Here we report a large scale synthetic procedure that allows attachment of magnetite nanoparticles onto a silica surface in situ. Many different silica nanomaterials such as Stöber silica nanospheres, mesoporous silica nanoparticles, and hollow silica nanotubes have been coated with a high density layer of water-dispersible magnetite nanoparticles. The size and attachment efficiency of the magnetite nanoparticle can be well tuned by adjusting the precursor concentration and reflux time. The functionalization of Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles with dye molecules and biocompatible polymers impart optical imaging modality and good colloidal stability in either buffer solution or serum. The functionalized materials also exhibited strong potential as negative contrast agents in T2 weighted magnetic resonance imaging.

  10. Controllable In-Situ Synthesis of Magnetite Coated Silica-Core Water-Dispersible Hybrid Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Haiou; Tong, Sheng; Song, Kejing; Ma, Hui; Bao, Gang; Pincus, Seth; Zhou, Weilie; O'Connor, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticle coated silica (Fe3O4@SiO2) hybrid nanomaterials hold an important position in the fields of cell imaging and drug delivery. Here we report a large scale synthetic procedure that allows attachment of magnetite nanoparticles onto a silica surface in-situ. Many different silica nanomaterials such as Stöber silica nanospheres, mesoporous silica nanoparticles, and hollow silica nanotube have been coated with a high density layer of water-dispersible magnetite nanoparticles. The size and attachment efficiency of the magnetite nanoparticle can be well tuned by adjusting the precursor concentration and reflux time. The functionalization of Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles with dye molecules and biocompatible polymers impart optical imaging modality and good colloidal stability in either buffer solution or serum. The functionalized materials also exhibited strong potential as negative contrast agents in T2 weighted magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:23889037

  11. Supramolecular hydrogen-bonding patterns in the organic-inorganic hybrid compound bis(4-amino-5-chloro-2,6-dimethylpyrimidinium) tetrathiocyanatozinc(II)-4-amino-5-chloro-2,6-dimethylpyrimidine-water (1/2/2).

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Ammasai; Zeller, Matthias; Thomas Muthiah, Packianathan

    2016-04-01

    Zinc thiocyanate complexes have been found to be biologically active compounds. Zinc is also an essential element for the normal function of most organisms and is the main constituent in a number of metalloenzyme proteins. Pyrimidine and aminopyrimidine derivatives are biologically very important as they are components of nucleic acids. Thiocyanate ions can bridge metal ions by employing both their N and S atoms for coordination. They can play an important role in assembling different coordination structures and yield an interesting variety of one-, two- and three-dimensional polymeric metal-thiocyanate supramolecular frameworks. The structure of a new zinc thiocyanate-aminopyrimidine organic-inorganic compound, (C6H9ClN3)2[Zn(NCS)4]·2C6H8ClN3·2H2O, is reported. The asymmetric unit consist of half a tetrathiocyanatozinc(II) dianion, an uncoordinated 4-amino-5-chloro-2,6-dimethylpyrimidinium cation, a 4-amino-5-chloro-2,6-dimethylpyrimidine molecule and a water molecule. The Zn(II) atom adopts a distorted tetrahedral coordination geometry and is coordinated by four N atoms from the thiocyanate anions. The Zn(II) atom is located on a special position (twofold axis of symmetry). The pyrimidinium cation and the pyrimidine molecule are not coordinated to the Zn(II) atom, but are hydrogen bonded to the uncoordinated water molecules and the metal-coordinated thiocyanate ligands. The pyrimidine molecules and pyrimidinium cations also form base-pair-like structures with an R2(2)(8) ring motif via N-H...N hydrogen bonds. The crystal structure is further stabilized by intermolecular N-H...O, O-H...S, N-H...S and O-H...N hydrogen bonds, by intramolecular N-H...Cl and C-H...Cl hydrogen bonds, and also by π-π stacking interactions.

  12. Synthesis, crystal structure and high temperature phase transition in the new organic-inorganic hybrid [N(C4H9)4]3Zn2Cl7H2O crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Gzaiel, Malika; Oueslati, Abderrazek; Lhoste, Jérôme; Gargouri, Mohamed; Bulou, Alain

    2015-06-01

    The present paper accounts for the synthesis, crystal structure, differential scanning calorimetry and vibrational spectroscopy of a new compound tri-tetrabutylammonium heptachloro-dizincate (I) grown at room temperature by slow evaporation of aqueous solution. From X-ray diffraction data collected at room temperature, it is concluded that it crystallizes in the monoclinic system (P21/n space group) containing ZnCl42- and ZnCl3H2O1- tetrahedra. The atomic arrangement can be described by an alternation of organic and organic-inorganic layers stacked along the c direction. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in the range 250-450 K disclosed a reversible structural phase transition of order-disorder type at 358 K, prior to the melting at 395 K. The temperature dependence of the Raman spectra of [N(C4H9)4]3Zn2Cl7H2O single crystals was studied in the spectral range 100-3500 cm-1 and for temperatures between 300 and 386 K. The most important changes are observed for the line at 261 cm-1 issued from ν1(ZnCl4). The analysis of the wavenumber, intensity and the line width based on an order-disorder model allowed to obtain information relative to the activation energy and the correlation length. The decrease of the activation energy with increasing temperature has been interpreted in term of a change in the re-orientation motion of the anionic parts. The assumption of cluster fluctuations also allowed the critical exponents to be obtained for the transition δ = 0.011 and the correlation length ξ0 = 598 Å.

  13. Magnetic nanomaterial derived from graphene oxide/layered double hydroxide hybrid for efficient removal of methyl orange from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhe; Ji, Shanshan; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Chao; Ren, Lulu; Tjiu, Weng Weei; Zhang, Zheng; Pan, Jisheng; Liu, Tianxi

    2013-10-15

    Magnetic hybrid nanomaterials composed of reduced graphene oxide, zero-valent nickel, and NiAl-mixed metal oxides (rGO/Ni/MMO) have been synthesized by calcining graphene ox