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Sample records for hybrid syneregy drive

  1. Dynamic modeling of lower hybrid current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Ignat, D.W.; Valeo, E.J.; Jardin, S.C.

    1993-10-01

    A computational model of lower hybrid current drive in the presence of an electric field is described and some results are given. Details of geometry, plasma profiles and circuit equations are treated carefully. Two-dimensional velocity space effects are approximated in a one-dimensional Fokker-Planck treatment.

  2. The role of meiotic drive in hybrid male sterility

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Shannon R.; Noor, Mohamed A. F.

    2010-01-01

    Meiotic drive causes the distortion of allelic segregation away from Mendelian expected ratios, often also reducing fecundity and favouring the evolution of drive suppressors. If different species evolve distinct drive-suppressor systems, then hybrid progeny may be sterile as a result of negative interactions of these systems' components. Although the hypothesis that meiotic drive may contribute to hybrid sterility, and thus species formation, fell out of favour early in the 1990s, recent results showing an association between drive and sterility have resurrected this previously controversial idea. Here, we review the different forms of meiotic drive and their possible roles in speciation. We discuss the recent empirical evidence for a link between drive and hybrid male sterility, also suggesting a possible mechanistic explanation for this link in the context of chromatin remodelling. Finally, we revisit the population genetics of drive that allow it to contribute to speciation. PMID:20308102

  3. Development of Traction Drive Motors for the Toyota Hybrid System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiya, Munehiro

    Toyota Motor Corporation developed in 2005 a new hybrid system for a large SUV. This system included the new development of a high-speed traction drive motor achieving a significant increase in power weight ratio. This paper provides an overview of the hybrid system, discusses the characteristics required of a traction drive motor, and presents the technologies employed in the developed motor.

  4. Electric-drive tractability indicator integrated in hybrid electric vehicle tachometer

    DOEpatents

    Tamai, Goro; Zhou, Jing; Weslati, Feisel

    2014-09-02

    An indicator, system and method of indicating electric drive usability in a hybrid electric vehicle. A tachometer is used that includes a display having an all-electric drive portion and a hybrid drive portion. The all-electric drive portion and the hybrid drive portion share a first boundary which indicates a minimum electric drive usability and a beginning of hybrid drive operation of the vehicle. The indicated level of electric drive usability is derived from at least one of a percent battery discharge, a percent maximum torque provided by the electric drive, and a percent electric drive to hybrid drive operating cost for the hybrid electric vehicle.

  5. Mate Choice Drives Evolutionary Stability in a Hybrid Complex

    PubMed Central

    Morgado-Santos, Miguel; Pereira, Henrique Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that assortative mating acts as a driver of speciation by countering hybridization between two populations of the same species (pre-zygotic isolation) or through mate choice among the hybrids (hybrid speciation). In both speciation types, assortative mating promotes speciation over a transient hybridization stage. We studied mate choice in a hybrid vertebrate complex, the allopolyploid fish Squalius alburnoides. This complex is composed by several genomotypes connected by an intricate reproductive dynamics. We developed a model that predicts the hybrid complex can persist when females exhibit particular mate choice patterns. Our model is able to reproduce the diversity of population dynamic outcomes found in nature, namely the dominance of the triploids and the dominance of the tetraploids, depending on female mate choice patterns and frequency of the parental species. Experimental mate choice trials showed that females exhibit the preferences predicted by the model. Thus, despite the known role of assortative mating in driving speciation, our findings suggest that certain mate choice patterns can instead hinder speciation and support the persistence of hybrids over time without speciation or extinction. PMID:26181664

  6. Mobile phone use while driving: a hybrid modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Márquez, Luis; Cantillo, Víctor; Arellana, Julián

    2015-05-01

    The analysis of the effects that mobile phone use produces while driving is a topic of great interest for the scientific community. There is consensus that using a mobile phone while driving increases the risk of exposure to traffic accidents. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the drivers' behavior when they decide whether or not to use a mobile phone while driving. For that, a hybrid modeling approach that integrates a choice model with the latent variable "risk perception" was used. It was found that workers and individuals with the highest education level are more prone to use a mobile phone while driving than others. Also, "risk perception" is higher among individuals who have been previously fined and people who have been in an accident or almost been in an accident. It was also found that the tendency to use mobile phones while driving increases when the traffic speed reduces, but it decreases when the fine increases. Even though the urgency of the phone call is the most important explanatory variable in the choice model, the cost of the fine is an important attribute in order to control mobile phone use while driving.

  7. Performance Analysis of Hybrid Electric Vehicle over Different Driving Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panday, Aishwarya; Bansal, Hari Om

    2017-02-01

    Article aims to find the nature and response of a hybrid vehicle on various standard driving cycles. Road profile parameters play an important role in determining the fuel efficiency. Typical parameters of road profile can be reduced to a useful smaller set using principal component analysis and independent component analysis. Resultant data set obtained after size reduction may result in more appropriate and important parameter cluster. With reduced parameter set fuel economies over various driving cycles, are ranked using TOPSIS and VIKOR multi-criteria decision making methods. The ranking trend is then compared with the fuel economies achieved after driving the vehicle over respective roads. Control strategy responsible for power split is optimized using genetic algorithm. 1RC battery model and modified SOC estimation method are considered for the simulation and improved results compared with the default are obtained.

  8. An advanced pitch change mechanism incorporating a hybrid traction drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, B. M.; Sargisson, D. F.; White, G.; Loewenthal, S. H.

    1984-01-01

    A design of a propeller pitch control mechanism is described that meets the demanding requirements of a high-power, advanced turboprop. In this application, blade twisting moment torque can be comparable to that of the main reduction gearbox output: precise pitch control, reliability and compactness are all at a premium. A key element in the design is a compact, high-ratio hybrid traction drive which offers low torque ripple and high torsional stiffness. The traction drive couples a high speed electric motor/alternator unit to a ball screw that actuates the blade control links. The technical merits of this arrangement and the performance characteristics of the traction drive are discussed. Comparisons are made to the more conventional pitch control mechanisms.

  9. Hybrid modulation driving power technology for pulsed laser fuze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaobin; Zhang, He

    2016-10-01

    According to the requirement of the long range detection of the circumferential detection system of the laser fuze, a hybrid modulated pulsed laser driving power supplying for APD avalanche photodiode is designed. The working principle of the laser circumferential detection system is analyzed, and the APD is selected as the photoelectric detector according to the measurement equation of the circumferential detection system. According to the different kinds of APD requirements for high voltage power supply, the principle of boost converter is analyzed. By using PWM and PFM hybrid modulation type power supply technology, PWM modulation is applied in low rising voltage. When the voltage is required to achieve more than 100V, PFM mode boost is chosen. Simulation of the output voltages which are 85V and 200V of the two modes respectively is made. The PCB circuit board is processed to verify the experiment. The experimental results show that the hybrid modulation pulse laser drive power supply can meet the requirements of all kinds of APD power supply. The circuit board can be used in the detection of laser fuze with different target distance, and has wide application prospect.

  10. Numerical modeling of lower hybrid heating and current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Valeo, E.J.; Eder, D.C.

    1986-03-01

    The generation of currents in toroidal plasma by application of waves in the lower hybrid frequency range involves the interplay of several physical phenomena which include: wave propagation in toroidal geometry, absorption via wave-particle resonances, the quasilinear generation of strongly nonequilibrium electron and ion distribution functions, and the self-consistent evolution of the current density in such a nonequilibrium plasma. We describe a code, LHMOD, which we have developed to treat these aspects of current drive and heating in tokamaks. We present results obtained by applying the code to a computation of current ramp-up and to an investigation of the possible importance of minority hydrogen absorption in a deuterium plasma as the ''density limit'' to current drive is approached.

  11. Penetration of lower hybrid current drive waves in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, W.; Goniche, M.; Peysson, Y.; Decker, J.; Ekedahl, A.; Litaudon, X.

    2013-11-15

    Lower hybrid (LH) ray propagation in toroidal plasma is shown to be controlled by combination of the azimuthal spectrum launched by the antenna, the poloidal variation of the magnetic field, and the scattering of the waves by the drift wave fluctuations. The width of the poloidal and radial radio frequency wave spectrum increases rapidly as the rays penetrate into higher density and scatter from the drift waves. The electron temperature gradient (ETG) spectrum is particularly effective in scattering the LH waves due to its comparable wavelengths and phase velocities. ETG turbulence is also driven by the radial gradient of the electron current profile giving rise to an anomalous viscosity spreading the LH driven plasma currents. The LH wave scattering is derived from a Fokker-Planck equation for the distribution of the ray trajectories with diffusivities derived from the drift wave fluctuations. The condition for chaotic diffusion for the rays is derived. The evolution of the poloidal and radial mode number spectrum of the lower hybrid waves are both on the antenna spectrum and the spectrum of the drift waves. Antennas launching higher poloidal mode number spectra drive off-axis current density profiles producing negative central shear [RS] plasmas with improved thermal confinement from ETG transport. Core plasma current drive requires antennas with low azimuthal mode spectra peaked at m = 0 azimuthal mode numbers.

  12. Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System

    SciTech Connect

    Staunton, R. H.; Ayers, C. W.; Marlino, L. D.; Chiasson, J. N.; Burress, B. A.

    2006-05-01

    The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery- and generator-powered electric motor. Both of these motive-power sources are capable of providing mechanical-drive power for the vehicle. The engine can deliver a peak-power output of 57 kilowatts (kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) while the motor can deliver a peak-power output of 50 kW over the speed range of 1200–1540 rpm. Together, this engine-motor combination has a specified peak-power output of 82 kW at a vehicle speed of 85 kilometers per hour (km/h). In operation, the 2004 Prius exhibits superior fuel economy compared to conventionally powered automobiles. To acquire knowledge and thereby improve understanding of the propulsion technology used in the 2004 Prius, a full range of design characterization studies were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the 2004 Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. These characterization studies included (1) a design review, (2) a packaging and fabrication assessment, (3) bench-top electrical tests, (4) back-electromotive force (emf) and locked rotor tests, (5) loss tests, (6) thermal tests at elevated temperatures, and most recently (7) full-design-range performance testing in a controlled laboratory environment. This final test effectively mapped the electrical and thermal results for motor/inverter operation over the full range of speeds and shaft loads that these assemblies are designed for in the Prius vehicle operations. This testing was undertaken by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) – Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program through its vehicle systems technologies subprogram. The thermal tests at elevated temperatures were conducted late in 2004, and this report does not discuss this testing in detail. The thermal tests explored the derating of the Prius motor design

  13. Path to Efficient Lower Hybrid Current Drive at High Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, S. G.; Bonoli, P. T.; Brunner, D.; Faust, I.; Labombard, B. L.; Parker, R. R.; Shiraiwa, S.; Wallace, G. M.; Wukitch, S.

    2015-11-01

    Recovery of lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) efficiency at high density was demonstrated on Alcator C-Mod by modifying the scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma. RF probe measurements around the C-Mod tokamak indicate that the LH wave amplitude at the high field side wall significantly attenuates with plasma density. This is interpreted as enhanced collisional loss due to the increase in the SOL density and width. By taking advantage of the narrower SOL width by doubling plasma current to 1.1 MA, it is found that the LH wave amplitude maintains its strength, and an effective current drive is extended to above 1x10e20 m-3. An order of magnitude increase in non-thermal Bremsstrahlung emission is consistent with ray-tracing results which take into account the change of SOL profiles with current. In the coming campaign, a further investigation on the role of the SOL plasma is planned by raising plasma current above 1.1 MA. This will be aided with newly developed RF magnetic loop antennas mounted on a radially movable probe head. This system is expected to intercept the LH resonance cone on the first pass, allowing us to measure radial profiles of both the wave amplitude and dominant parallel wavenumber in the SOL for the first time. These data will be compared with the GENRAY ray-tracing code. Work supported by USDoE awards DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  14. Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System

    SciTech Connect

    Staunton, Robert H; Ayers, Curtis William; Chiasson, J. N.; Burress, Timothy A; Marlino, Laura D

    2006-05-01

    The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery- and generator-powered electric motor. Both of these motive-power sources are capable of providing mechanical-drive power for the vehicle. The engine can deliver a peak-power output of 57 kilowatts (kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) while the motor can deliver a peak-power output of 50 kW over the speed range of 1200-1540 rpm. Together, this engine-motor combination has a specified peak-power output of 82 kW at a vehicle speed of 85 kilometers per hour (km/h). In operation, the 2004 Prius exhibits superior fuel economy compared to conventionally powered automobiles. To acquire knowledge and thereby improve understanding of the propulsion technology used in the 2004 Prius, a full range of design characterization studies were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the 2004 Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. These characterization studies included (1) a design review, (2) a packaging and fabrication assessment, (3) bench-top electrical tests, (4) back-electromotive force (emf) and locked rotor tests, (5) loss tests, (6) thermal tests at elevated temperatures, and most recently (7) full-design-range performance testing in a controlled laboratory environment. This final test effectively mapped the electrical and thermal results for motor/inverter operation over the full range of speeds and shaft loads that these assemblies are designed for in the Prius vehicle operations. This testing was undertaken by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program through its vehicle systems technologies subprogram. The thermal tests at elevated temperatures were conducted late in 2004, and this report does not discuss this testing in detail. The thermal tests explored the derating of the Prius motor design if

  15. Hybrid-drive implosion system for ICF targets

    DOEpatents

    Mark, James W.

    1988-01-01

    Hybrid-drive implosion systems (20,40) for ICF targets (10,22,42) are described which permit a significant increase in target gain at fixed total driver energy. The ICF target is compressed in two phases, an initial compression phase and a final peak power phase, with each phase driven by a separate, optimized driver. The targets comprise a hollow spherical ablator (12) surroundingly disposed around fusion fuel (14). The ablator is first compressed to higher density by a laser system (24), or by an ion beam system (44), that in each case is optimized for this initial phase of compression of the target. Then, following compression of the ablator, energy is directly delivered into the compressed ablator by an ion beam driver system (30,48) that is optimized for this second phase of operation of the target. The fusion fuel (14) is driven, at high gain, to conditions wherein fusion reactions occur. This phase separation allows hydrodynamic efficiency and energy deposition uniformity to be individually optimized, thereby securing significant advantages in energy gain. In additional embodiments, the same or separate drivers supply energy for ICF target implosion.

  16. Hybrid-drive implosion system for ICF targets

    DOEpatents

    Mark, James W.

    1988-08-02

    Hybrid-drive implosion systems (20,40) for ICF targets (10,22,42) are described which permit a significant increase in target gain at fixed total driver energy. The ICF target is compressed in two phases, an initial compression phase and a final peak power phase, with each phase driven by a separate, optimized driver. The targets comprise a hollow spherical ablator (12) surroundingly disposed around fusion fuel (14). The ablator is first compressed to higher density by a laser system (24), or by an ion beam system (44), that in each case is optimized for this initial phase of compression of the target. Then, following compression of the ablator, energy is directly delivered into the compressed ablator by an ion beam driver system (30,48) that is optimized for this second phase of operation of the target. The fusion fuel (14) is driven, at high gain, to conditions wherein fusion reactions occur. This phase separation allows hydrodynamic efficiency and energy deposition uniformity to be individually optimized, thereby securing significant advantages in energy gain. In additional embodiments, the same or separate drivers supply energy for ICF target implosion.

  17. Hybrid-drive implosion system for ICF targets

    DOEpatents

    Mark, J.W.K.

    1987-10-14

    Hybrid-drive implosion systems for ICF targets are described which permit a significant increase in target gain at fixed total driver energy. The ICF target is compressed in two phases, an initial compression phase and a final peak power phase, with each phase driven by a separate, optimized driver. The targets comprise a hollow spherical ablator surroundingly disposed around fusion fuel. The ablator is first compressed to higher density by a laser system, or by an ion beam system, that in each case is optimized for this initial phase of compression of the target. Then, following compression of the ablator, energy is directly delivered into the compressed ablator by an ion beam driver system that is optimized for this second phase of operation of the target. The fusion fuel is driven, at high gain, to conditions wherein fusion reactions occur. This phase separation allows hydrodynamic efficiency and energy deposition uniformity to be individually optimized, thereby securing significant advantages in energy gain. In additional embodiments, the same or separate drivers supply energy for ICF target implosion. 3 figs.

  18. Fast electron transport in lower-hybrid current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Kupfer, K.; Bers, A.

    1991-01-01

    We generalize the quasilinear-Fokker-Planck formulation for lower-hybrid current drive to include the wave induced radial transport of fast electrons. Toroidal ray tracing shows that the wave fields in the plasma develop a large poloidal component associated with the upshift in k1l and the filling of the "spectral gap". These fields lead to an enhanced radial E x B drift of resonant electrons. Two types of radial flows are obtained: an outward convective flow driven by the asymmetry in the poloidal wave spectrum, and a diffusive flow proportional to the width of the poloidal spectrum. Simulations of Alcator C and JT60, show that the radial convection velocity has a broad maximum of nearly 1 m/sec and is independent of the amplitude of fields. In both cases, the radial diffusion is found to be highly localized near the magnetic axis. For JT60, the peak of the diffusion profile can be quite large, nearly 1 m2/sec.

  19. Conditions for Lower Hybrid Current Drive in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesario, R.; Amicucci, L.; Cardinali, A.; Castaldo, C.; Ceccuzzi, S.; Napoli, F.; Tuccillo, A. A.; Galli, A.; Schettini, G.

    2012-12-01

    To control the plasma current profile represents one of the most important problems of the research of nuclear fusion energy based on the tokamak concept, as in the plasma column the necessary conditions of stability and confinement should be satisfied. This problem can be solved by using the lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) effect, which was demonstrated to occur also at reactor grade high plasma densities provided that a proper method should be utilised, as assessed on FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade). This method, based on theoretical predictions confirmed by experiment, produces relatively high electron temperature at the plasma periphery and scrape-off layer (SOL), consequently reducing the broadening of the spectrum launched by the antenna produced by parasitic wave physics of the edge, namely parametric instability (PI). The new results presented here show that, for kinetic profiles now foreseen for the SOL of ITER, PI is expected to hugely broaden the antenna spectrum and prevent any penetration in the core of the coupled LH power. However, considering the FTU method and assuming higher electron temperature at the edge (which would be however reasonable for ITER) the PI-produced spectral broadening would be mitigated, and enable the penetration of the coupled LH power in the main plasma. By successful LHCD effect, the control of the plasma current profile at normalised minor radius of about 0.8 would be possible, with much higher efficiency than that obtainable by other tools. A very useful reinforce of bootstrap current effects would be thus possible by LHCD in ITER.

  20. Coupling of α-channeling to |k∥| upshift in lower hybrid current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Ochs, I. E.; Bertelli, N.; Fisch, N. J.

    2014-08-26

    Although lower hybrid waves have been shown to be effective in driving plasma current in present-day tokamaks, they are predicted to strongly interact with the energetic α particles born from fusion reactions in eventual tokamak reactors.

  1. Advances in modeling of lower hybrid current drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peysson, Y.; Decker, J.; Nilsson, E.; Artaud, J.-F.; Ekedahl, A.; Goniche, M.; Hillairet, J.; Ding, B.; Li, M.; Bonoli, P. T.; Shiraiwa, S.; Madi, M.

    2016-04-01

    First principle modeling of the lower hybrid (LH) current drive in tokamak plasmas is a longstanding activity, which is gradually gaining in accuracy thanks to quantitative comparisons with experimental observations. The ability to reproduce simulatenously the plasma current and the non-thermal bremsstrahlung radial profiles in the hard x-ray (HXR) photon energy range represents in this context a significant achievement. Though subject to limitations, ray tracing calculations are commonly used for describing wave propagation in conjunction with Fokker-Planck codes, as it can capture prominent features of the LH wave dynamics in a tokamak plasma-like toroidal refraction. This tool has been validated on several machines when the full absorption of the LH wave requires the transfer of a small fraction of power from the main lobes of the launched power spectrum to a tail at a higher parallel refractive index. Conversely, standard modeling based on toroidal refraction only becomes more challenging when the spectral gap is large, except if other physical mechanisms may dominate to bridge it, like parametric instabilities, as suggested for JET LH discharges (Cesario et al 2004 Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 175002), or fast fluctuations of the launched power spectrum or ‘tail’ LH model, as shown for Tore Supra (Decker et al 2014 Phys. Plasma 21 092504). The applicability of the heuristic ‘tail’ LH model is investigated for a broader range of plasma parameters as compared to the Tore Supra study and with different LH wave characteristics. Discrepancies and agreements between simulations and experiments depending upon the different models used are discussed. The existence of a ‘tail’ in the launched power spectrum significantly improves the agreement between modeling and experiments in plasma conditions for which the spectral gap is large in EAST and Alcator C-Mod tokamaks. For the Alcator C-Mod tokamak, the experimental evolution of the HXR profiles with density suggests

  2. Lower hybrid current drive favoured by electron cyclotron radiofrequency heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesario, R.; Amicucci, L.; Cardinali, A.; Castaldo, C.; Marinucci, M.; Giruzzi, G.; Napoli, F.; Galli, A.; Schettini, G.; Tuccillo, A. A.

    2014-02-01

    The important goal of adding to the bootstrap a fraction of non-inductive plasma current, which would be controlled for obtaining and optimizing steady-state profiles, can be reached by using the Current Drive produced by Lower Hybrid waves (LHCD). FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade) experiments demonstrated, indeed, that LHCD is effective at reactor-graded high plasma density, and the LH spectral broadening is reduced, operating with higher electron temperature in the outer region of plasma column (Te_periphery). This method was obtained following the guidelines of theoretical predictions indicating that the broadening of launched spectrum produced by parametric instability (PI) should be reduced, and the LHCD effect at high density consequently enabled, under higher (Te_periphery). In FTU, the temperature increase in the outer plasma region was obtained by operating with reduced particle recycling, lithized walls and deep gas fuelling by means of fast pellet. Heating plasma periphery with electron cyclotron resonant waves (ECRH) will provide a further tool for achieving steady-state operations. New FTU experimental results are presented here, demonstrating that temperature effect at the plasma periphery, affecting LH penetration, occurs in a range of plasma parameters broader than in previous work. New information is also shown on the modelling assessing frequencies and growth rates of the PI coupled modes responsible of spectral broadening. Finally, we present the design of an experiment scheduled on FTU next campaign, where ECRH power is used to slightly increase the electron temperature in the outer plasma region of a high-density discharge aiming at restoring LHCD. Consequent to model results, by operating with a toroidal magnetic field of 6.3 T, useful for locating the electron cyclotron resonant layer at the periphery of the plasma column (r/a˜0.8, f0=144 GHz), an increase of Te in the outer plasma (from 40 eV to 80 eV at r/a˜0.8) is expected by the JETTO code

  3. Lower hybrid current drive favoured by electron cyclotron radiofrequency heating

    SciTech Connect

    Cesario, R.; Cardinali, A.; Castaldo, C.; Marinucci, M.; Tuccillo, A. A.; Giruzzi, G.; Napoli, F.; Schettini, G.

    2014-02-12

    The important goal of adding to the bootstrap a fraction of non-inductive plasma current, which would be controlled for obtaining and optimizing steady-state profiles, can be reached by using the Current Drive produced by Lower Hybrid waves (LHCD). FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade) experiments demonstrated, indeed, that LHCD is effective at reactor-graded high plasma density, and the LH spectral broadening is reduced, operating with higher electron temperature in the outer region of plasma column (T{sub e-periphery}). This method was obtained following the guidelines of theoretical predictions indicating that the broadening of launched spectrum produced by parametric instability (PI) should be reduced, and the LHCD effect at high density consequently enabled, under higher (T{sub e-periphery}). In FTU, the temperature increase in the outer plasma region was obtained by operating with reduced particle recycling, lithized walls and deep gas fuelling by means of fast pellet. Heating plasma periphery with electron cyclotron resonant waves (ECRH) will provide a further tool for achieving steady-state operations. New FTU experimental results are presented here, demonstrating that temperature effect at the plasma periphery, affecting LH penetration, occurs in a range of plasma parameters broader than in previous work. New information is also shown on the modelling assessing frequencies and growth rates of the PI coupled modes responsible of spectral broadening. Finally, we present the design of an experiment scheduled on FTU next campaign, where ECRH power is used to slightly increase the electron temperature in the outer plasma region of a high-density discharge aiming at restoring LHCD. Consequent to model results, by operating with a toroidal magnetic field of 6.3 T, useful for locating the electron cyclotron resonant layer at the periphery of the plasma column (r/a∼0.8, f{sub 0}=144 GHz), an increase of T{sub e} in the outer plasma (from 40 eV to 80 eV at r/a∼0.8) is

  4. Genome rearrangements and pervasive meiotic drive cause hybrid infertility in fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Zanders, Sarah E; Eickbush, Michael T; Yu, Jonathan S; Kang, Ji-Won; Fowler, Kyle R; Smith, Gerald R; Malik, Harmit Singh

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid sterility is one of the earliest postzygotic isolating mechanisms to evolve between two recently diverged species. Here we identify causes underlying hybrid infertility of two recently diverged fission yeast species Schizosaccharomyces pombe and S. kambucha, which mate to form viable hybrid diploids that efficiently complete meiosis, but generate few viable gametes. We find that chromosomal rearrangements and related recombination defects are major but not sole causes of hybrid infertility. At least three distinct meiotic drive alleles, one on each S. kambucha chromosome, independently contribute to hybrid infertility by causing nonrandom spore death. Two of these driving loci are linked by a chromosomal translocation and thus constitute a novel type of paired meiotic drive complex. Our study reveals how quickly multiple barriers to fertility can arise. In addition, it provides further support for models in which genetic conflicts, such as those caused by meiotic drive alleles, can drive speciation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02630.001 PMID:24963140

  5. Hybrid speciation in angiosperms: parental divergence drives ploidy

    PubMed Central

    Paun, Ovidiu; Forest, Félix; Fay, Michael F.; Chase, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Hybridization and polyploidy are now hypothesized to have regularly stimulated speciation in angiosperms, but individual or combined involvement of these two processes seems to involve significant differences in pathways of formation, establishment and evolutionary consequences of resulting lineages. We evaluate here the classical cytological hypothesis that ploidy in hybrid speciation is governed by the extent of chromosomal rearrangements among parental species. Within a phylogenetic framework, we calculate genetic divergence indices for 50 parental species pairs and use these indices as surrogates for the overall degree of genomic divergence (i.e. as proxy for assessments of dissimilarity of the parental chromosomes). The results confirm that genomic differentiation between progenitor taxa influences the likelihood of diploid (homoploid) versus polyploid hybrid speciation because genetic divergence between parents of polyploids is found to be significantly greater than in the case of homoploid hybrid species. We argue that this asymmetric relationship may be reinforced immediately after hybrid formation, during stabilization and establishment. Underlying mechanisms potentially producing this pattern are discussed. PMID:19220761

  6. Does hybridization drive the transition to asexuality in diploid Boechera?

    PubMed

    Beck, James B; Alexander, Patrick J; Allphin, Loreen; Al-Shehbaz, Ihsan A; Rushworth, Catherine; Bailey, C Donovan; Windham, Michael D

    2012-04-01

    Gametophytic apomixis is a common form of asexual reproduction in plants. Virtually all gametophytic apomicts are polyploids, and some view polyploidy as a prerequisite for the transition to apomixis. However, any causal link between apomixis and polyploidy is complicated by the fact that most apomictic polyploids are allopolyploids, leading some to speculate that hybridization, rather than polyploidy, enables apomixis. Diploid apomixis presents a rare opportunity to isolate the role of hybridization, and a number of diploid apomicts have been documented in the genus Boechera (Brassicaceae). Here, we present the results of a microsatellite study of 1393 morphologically and geographically diverse diploid individuals, evaluating the hypothesis that diploid Boechera apomicts are hybrids. This genus-wide dataset was made possible by the applicability of a core set of microsatellite loci in 69 of the 70 diploid Boechera species and by our ability to successfully genotype herbarium specimens of widely varying ages. With few exceptions, diploid apomicts exhibited markedly high levels of heterozygosity resulting from the combination of disparate genomes. This strongly suggests that most apomictic diploid Boechera lineages are of hybrid origin, and that the genomic consequences of hybridization allow for the transition to gametophytic apomixis in this genus.

  7. Current-drive by lower hybrid waves in the presence of energetic alpha-particles

    SciTech Connect

    Fisch, N.J.; Rax, J.M.

    1991-10-01

    Many experiments have now proved the effectiveness of lower hybrid waves for driving toroidal current in tokamaks. The use of these waves, however, to provide all the current in a reactor is thought to be uncertain because the waves may not penetrate the center of the more energetic reactor plasma, and, if they did, the wave power may be absorbed by alpha particles rather than by electrons. This paper explores the conditions under which lower-hybrid waves might actually drive all the current. 26 refs.

  8. A study on optimization of hybrid drive train using Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Same, Adam; Stipe, Alex; Grossman, David; Park, Jae Wan

    This study investigates the advantages and disadvantages of three hybrid drive train configurations: series, parallel, and "through-the-ground" parallel. Power flow simulations are conducted with the MATLAB/Simulink-based software ADVISOR. These simulations are then applied in an application for the UC Davis SAE Formula Hybrid vehicle. ADVISOR performs simulation calculations for vehicle position using a combined backward/forward method. These simulations are used to study how efficiency and agility are affected by the motor, fuel converter, and hybrid configuration. Three different vehicle models are developed to optimize the drive train of a vehicle for three stages of the SAE Formula Hybrid competition: autocross, endurance, and acceleration. Input cycles are created based on rough estimates of track geometry. The output from these ADVISOR simulations is a series of plots of velocity profile and energy storage State of Charge that provide a good estimate of how the Formula Hybrid vehicle will perform on the given course. The most noticeable discrepancy between the input cycle and the actual velocity profile of the vehicle occurs during deceleration. A weighted ranking system is developed to organize the simulation results and to determine the best drive train configuration for the Formula Hybrid vehicle. Results show that the through-the-ground parallel configuration with front-mounted motors achieves an optimal balance of efficiency, simplicity, and cost. ADVISOR is proven to be a useful tool for vehicle power train design for the SAE Formula Hybrid competition. This vehicle model based on ADVISOR simulation is applicable to various studies concerning performance and efficiency of hybrid drive trains.

  9. Evaluation of the 2007 Toyota Camry Hybrid Synergy Drive System

    SciTech Connect

    Burress, T A; Coomer, C L; Campbell, S L; Seiber, L E; Marlino, L D; Staunton, R H; Cunningham, J P

    2008-04-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and American automotive manufacturers General Motors, Ford, and DaimlerChrysler began a five-year, cost-shared partnership in 1993. Currently, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) research and development is conducted by DOE through its FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program. The mission of the FCVT program is to develop more energy efficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies. Program activities include research, development, demonstration, testing, technology validation, and technology transfer. These activities are aimed at developing technologies that can be domestically produced in a clean and cost-competitive manner. Under the FCVT program, support is provided through a three-phase approach [1] which is intended to: • Identify overall propulsion and vehicle-related needs by analyzing programmatic goals and reviewing industry’s recommendations and requirements, then develop the appropriate technical targets for systems, subsystems, and component research and development activities; • Develop and validate individual subsystems and components, including electric motors, emission control devices, battery systems, power electronics, accessories, and devices to reduce parasitic losses; and • Determine how well the components and subassemblies work together in a vehicle environment or as a complete propulsion system and whether the efficiency and performance targets at the vehicle level have been achieved. The research performed in this area will help remove technical and cost barriers to enable technology for use in such advanced vehicles as hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric, electric, and fuel-cell-powered vehicles.

  10. Lower hybrid current drive in the PLT tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Bernabei, S.; Daughney, C.; Efthimion, P.

    1982-07-01

    Order of magnitude improvements in the level and duration of current driven by lower hybrid waves have been achieved in the PLT tokamak. Steady currents up to 175 kA have been maintained for three seconds and 400 kA for 0.3 sec by the rf power alone. The principal current carrier appears to be a high energy (approx. 100 keV) electron component, concentrated in the central 20 to 40 cm diameter core of the 80 cm PLT discharge.

  11. Evaluation of the 2010 Toyota Prius Hybrid Synergy Drive System

    SciTech Connect

    Burress, Timothy A; Campbell, Steven L; Coomer, Chester; Ayers, Curtis William; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Cunningham, Joseph Philip; Marlino, Laura D; Seiber, Larry Eugene; Lin, Hua-Tay

    2011-03-01

    Subsystems of the 2010 Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) were studied and tested as part of an intensive benchmarking effort carried out to produce detailed information concerning the current state of nondomestic alternative vehicle technologies. Feedback provided by benchmarking efforts is particularly useful to partners of the Vehicle Technologies collaborative research program as it is essential in establishing reasonable yet challenging programmatic goals which facilitate development of competitive technologies. The competitive nature set forth by the Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) not only promotes energy independence and economic stability, it also advocates the advancement of alternative vehicle technologies in an overall global perspective. These technologies greatly facilitate the potential to reduce dependency on depleting natural resources and mitigate harmful impacts of transportation upon the environment.

  12. Evaluation of 2005 Honda Accord Hybrid Electric Drive System

    SciTech Connect

    Staunton, R.H.; Burress, T.A.; Marlino, L.D.

    2006-09-11

    The Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) program officially began in 1993 as a five-year, cost-shared partnership between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and American auto manufacturers: General Motors, Ford, and Daimler Chrysler. Currently, HEV research and development is conducted by DOE through its FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program. The mission of the FCVT program is to develop more energy efficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies. Program activities include research, development, demonstration, testing, technology validation, and technology transfer. These activities are aimed at developing technologies that can be domestically produced in a clean and cost-competitive manner. The vehicle systems technologies subprogram, which is one of four subprograms under the FCVT program, supports the efforts of the FreedomCAR through a three-phase approach [1] intended to: (1) Identify overall propulsion and vehicle-related needs by analyzing programmatic goals and reviewing industry's recommendations and requirements, then develop the appropriate technical targets for systems, subsystems, and component research and development activities; (2) Develop and validate individual subsystems and components, including electric motors, emission control devices, battery systems, power electronics, accessories, and devices to reduce parasitic losses; and (3) Determine how well the components and subassemblies work together in a vehicle environment or as a complete propulsion system and whether the efficiency and performance targets at the vehicle level have been achieved. The research performed under the vehicle systems subprogram will help remove technical and cost barriers to enable technology for use in such advanced vehicles as hybrid electric, plug-in electric, and fuel-cell-powered vehicles.

  13. Optimized calculation of the synergy conditions between electron cyclotron current drive and lower hybrid current drive on EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wei; Bo-Jiang, Ding; Y, Peysson; J, Decker; Miao-Hui, Li; Xin-Jun, Zhang; Xiao-Jie, Wang; Lei, Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The optimized synergy conditions between electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) and lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) with normal parameters of the EAST tokamak are studied by using the C3PO/LUKE code based on the understanding of the synergy mechanisms so as to obtain a higher synergistic current and provide theoretical reference for the synergistic effect in the EAST experiment. The dependences of the synergistic effect on the parameters of two waves (lower hybrid wave (LHW) and electron cyclotron wave (ECW)), including the radial position of the power deposition, the power value of the LH and EC waves, and the parallel refractive indices of the LHW (N∥) are presented and discussed. Project supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Grant Nos. 2011GB102000, 2012GB103000, and 2013GB106001), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11175206 and 11305211), the JSPS-NRF-NSFC A3 Foresight Program in the Field of Plasma Physics (Grant No. 11261140328), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (Grant No. JZ2015HGBZ0472).

  14. Isotopic effect in experiments on lower hybrid current drive in the FT-2 tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Lashkul, S. I. Altukhov, A. B.; Gurchenko, A. D. Gusakov, E. Z.; D’yachenko, V. V.; Esipov, L. A.; Irzak, M. A. Kantor, M. Yu.; Kouprienko, D. V.; Saveliev, A. N.; Stepanov, A. Yu.; Shatalin, S. V.

    2015-12-15

    To analyze factors influencing the limiting value of the plasma density at which lower hybrid (LH) current drive terminates, the isotopic factor (the difference in the LH resonance densities in hydrogen and deuterium plasmas) was used for the first time in experiments carried out at the FT-2 tokamak. It is experimentally found that the efficiency of LH current drive in deuterium plasma is appreciably higher than that in hydrogen plasma. The significant role of the parametric decay of the LH pumping wave, which hampers the use of the LH range of RF waves for current drive at high plasma densities, is confirmed. It is demonstrated that the parameters characterizing LH current drive agree well with the earlier results obtained at large tokamaks.

  15. Particle Confinement Properties of Lower Hybrid Current Drive Plasma on the HL-1 Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Xuru; Yuan, Chengjie; Qian, Shangjie; Ding, Xuantong; Yuan, Bin; Yang, Guang; Diao, Guangyue

    1994-03-01

    The particle confinement property of LHCD (lower hybrid current drive) plasma on the HL-1 tokamak is mainly affected by the line-averaged density of electrons (ne). With ne < 2.0 × 1013 cm-3, the particle confinement time (τp) is improved with the suppression of Hα(Dα) fluctuation at the edge, and tends to increase with the power PLH. The peak of τp appears near the critical density (1.0×1013 cm-3). These results are not influenced by the current drive directions.

  16. Effects of Magnetic Shear on Toroidal Rotation in Tokamak Plasmas with Lower Hybrid Current Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, J. E.; Podpaly, Y. A.; Reinke, M. L.; Mumgaard, R.; Scott, S. D.; Shiraiwa, S.; Wallace, G. M.; Chouli, B.; Fenzi-Bonizec, C.; Nave, M. F. F.; Diamond, P. H.; Gao, C.; Granetz, R. S.; Hughes, J. W.; Parker, R. R.; Bonoli, P. T.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Eriksson, L.-G.; Giroud, C.; Greenwald, M. J.; Hubbard, A. E.; Hutchinson, I. H.; Irby, J. H.; Kirov, K.; Mailloux, J.; Marmar, E. S.; Wolfe, S. M.

    2013-09-01

    Application of lower hybrid (LH) current drive in tokamak plasmas can induce both co- and countercurrent directed changes in toroidal rotation, depending on the core q profile. For discharges with q0<1, rotation increments in the countercurrent direction are observed. If the LH-driven current is sufficient to suppress sawteeth and increase q0 above unity, the core toroidal rotation change is in the cocurrent direction. This change in sign of the rotation increment is consistent with a change in sign of the residual stress (the divergence of which constitutes an intrinsic torque that drives the flow) through its dependence on magnetic shear.

  17. Power Source Status Estimation and Drive Control Method for Autonomous Decentralized Hybrid Train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuya, Takemasa; Ogawa, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Takamitsu; Hasegawa, Hitoshi

    A hybrid control system has two main functions: power sharing and equipment protection. In this paper, we discuss the design, construction and testing of a drive control method for an autonomous decentralized hybrid train with 100-kW-class fuel cells (FC) and 36-kWh lithium-ion batteries (Li-Batt). The main objectives of this study are to identify the operation status of the power sources on the basis of the input voltage of the traction inverter and to estimate the maximum traction power control basis of the power-source status. The proposed control method is useful in preventing overload operation of the onboard power sources in an autonomous decentralized hybrid system that has a flexible main circuit configuration and a few control signal lines. Further, with this method, the initial cost of a hybrid system can be reduced and the retrofit design of the hybrid system can be simplified. The effectiveness of the proposed method is experimentally confirmed by using a real-scale hybrid train system.

  18. Current ramp-up with lower hybrid current drive in EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, B. J.; Li, M. H.; Fisch, N. J.; Qin, H.; Li, J. G.; Wilson, J. R.; Kong, E. H.; Zhang, L.; Wei, W.; Li, Y. C.; Wang, M.; Xu, H. D.; Gong, X. Z.; Shen, B.; Liu, F. K.; Shan, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    More economical fusion reactors might be enabled through the cyclic operation of lower hybrid current drive. The first stage of cyclic operation would be to ramp up the plasma current with lower hybrid waves alone in low-density plasma. Such a current ramp-up was carried out successfully on the EAST tokamak. The plasma current was ramped up with a time-averaged rate of 18 kA/s with lower hybrid (LH) power. The average conversion efficiency Pel/PLH was about 3%. Over a transient phase, faster ramp-up was obtained. These experiments feature a separate measurement of the L/R time at the time of current ramp up.

  19. Hydraulic Hybrid and Conventional Parcel Delivery Vehicles' Measured Laboratory Fuel Economy on Targeted Drive Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Lammert, M. P.; Burton, J.; Sindler, P.; Duran, A.

    2014-10-01

    This research project compares laboratory-measured fuel economy of a medium-duty diesel powered hydraulic hybrid vehicle drivetrain to both a conventional diesel drivetrain and a conventional gasoline drivetrain in a typical commercial parcel delivery application. Vehicles in this study included a model year 2012 Freightliner P100H hybrid compared to a 2012 conventional gasoline P100 and a 2012 conventional diesel parcel delivery van of similar specifications. Drive cycle analysis of 484 days of hybrid parcel delivery van commercial operation from multiple vehicles was used to select three standard laboratory drive cycles as well as to create a custom representative cycle. These four cycles encompass and bracket the range of real world in-use data observed in Baltimore United Parcel Service operations. The NY Composite cycle, the City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle cycle, and the California Air Resources Board Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) cycle as well as a custom Baltimore parcel delivery cycle were tested at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory. Fuel consumption was measured and analyzed for all three vehicles. Vehicle laboratory results are compared on the basis of fuel economy. The hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery van demonstrated 19%-52% better fuel economy than the conventional diesel parcel delivery van and 30%-56% better fuel economy than the conventional gasoline parcel delivery van on cycles other than the highway-oriented HHDDT cycle.

  20. Transcript profiling of the meiotic drive phenotype in testis of Aedes aegypti using suppressive subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dongyoung; Jin, Lizhong; Lobo, Neil F; Severson, David W

    2011-09-01

    The meiotic drive gene in Aedes aegypti is tightly linked with the sex determination locus on chromosome 1, and causes highly male-biased sex ratios. We prepared cDNA libraries from testes from the Ae. aegypti T37 strain (driving) and RED strain (non-driving), and used suppressive subtraction hybridization techniques to enrich for T37 testes-specific transcripts. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were obtained from a total of 2784 randomly selected clones from the subtracted T37 (subT37) library as well as the primary libraries for each strain (pT37 and pRED). Sequence analysis identified a total of 171 unique genes in the subT37 library and 299 unique genes among the three libraries. The majority of genes enriched in the subT37 library were associated with signal transduction, development, reproduction, metabolic process and cell cycle functions. Further, as observed with meiotic drive systems in Drosophila and mouse, a number of these genes were associated with signaling cascades that involve the Ras superfamily of regulatory small GTPases. Differential expression of several of these genes was verified in Ae. aegypti pupal testes using qRT-PCR. This study increases our understanding of testes gene expression enriched in adult males from the meiotic drive strain as well as insights into the basic testes transcriptome in Ae. aegypti.

  1. Simulated Fuel Economy and Emissions Performance during City and Interstate Driving for a Heavy-Duty Hybrid Truck

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, C. Stuart; Gao, Zhiming; Smith, David E.; Laclair, Tim J.; Pihl, Josh A.; Edwards, K. Dean

    2013-04-08

    We compare simulated fuel economy and emissions for both conventional and hybrid class 8 heavy-duty diesel trucks operating over multiple urban and highway driving cycles. Both light and heavy freight loads were considered, and all simulations included full aftertreatment for NOx and particulate emissions controls. The aftertreatment components included a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), urea-selective catalytic NOx reduction (SCR), and a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). Our simulated hybrid powertrain was configured with a pre-transmission parallel drive, with a single electric motor between the clutch and gearbox. A conventional HD truck with equivalent diesel engine and aftertreatment was also simulated for comparison. Our results indicate that hybridization can significantly increase HD fuel economy and improve emissions control in city driving. However, there is less potential hybridization benefit for HD highway driving. A major factor behind the reduced hybridization benefit for highway driving is that there are fewer opportunities to utilize regenerative breaking. Our aftertreatment simulations indicate that opportunities for passive DPF regeneration are much greater for both hybrid and conventional trucks during highway driving due to higher sustained exhaust temperatures. When passive DPF regeneration is extensively utilized, the fuel penalty for particulate control is virtually eliminated, except for the 0.4%-0.9% fuel penalty associated with the slightly higher exhaust backpressure.

  2. Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System Interim Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, C.W.

    2004-11-23

    Laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical performance of the 2004 Toyota Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. As a hybrid vehicle, the 2004 Prius uses both a gasoline-powered internal combustion engine and a battery-powered electric motor as motive power sources. Innovative algorithms for combining these two power sources results in improved fuel efficiency and reduced emissions compared to traditional automobiles. Initial objectives of the laboratory tests were to measure motor and generator back-electromotive force (emf) voltages and determine gearbox-related power losses over a specified range of shaft speeds and lubricating oil temperatures. Follow-on work will involve additional performance testing of the motor, generator, and inverter. Information contained in this interim report summarizes the test results obtained to date, describes preliminary conclusions and findings, and identifies additional areas for further study.

  3. A hybrid-drive nonisobaric-ignition scheme for inertial confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, X. T.; Li, J. W.; Fan, Z. F.; Wang, L. F.; Liu, J.; Lan, K.; Wu, J. F.; Ye, W. H.

    2016-08-01

    A new hybrid-drive (HD) nonisobaric ignition scheme of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is proposed, in which a HD pressure to drive implosion dynamics increases via increasing density rather than temperature in the conventional indirect drive (ID) and direct drive (DD) approaches. In this HD (combination of ID and DD) scheme, an assembled target of a spherical hohlraum and a layered deuterium-tritium capsule inside is used. The ID lasers first drive the shock to perform a spherical symmetry implosion and produce a large-scale corona plasma. Then, the DD lasers, whose critical surface in ID corona plasma is far from the radiation ablation front, drive a supersonic electron thermal wave, which slows down to a high-pressure electron compression wave, like a snowplow, piling up the corona plasma into high density and forming a HD pressurized plateau with a large width. The HD pressure is several times the conventional ID and DD ablation pressure and launches an enhanced precursor shock and a continuous compression wave, which give rise to the HD capsule implosion dynamics in a large implosion velocity. The hydrodynamic instabilities at imploding capsule interfaces are suppressed, and the continuous HD compression wave provides main pdV work large enough to hotspot, resulting in the HD nonisobaric ignition. The ignition condition and target design based on this scheme are given theoretically and by numerical simulations. It shows that the novel scheme can significantly suppress implosion asymmetry and hydrodynamic instabilities of current isobaric hotspot ignition design, and a high-gain ICF is promising.

  4. Coupling of alpha channeling to parallel wavenumber upshift in lower hybrid current drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochs, I. E.; Bertelli, N.; Fisch, N. J.

    2015-08-01

    Although lower hybrid (LH) waves have been shown to be effective in driving plasma current in present-day tokamaks, they are predicted to strongly interact with the energetic α particles born from fusion reactions in eventual tokamak reactors. However, in the presence of the expected steep α particle birth gradient, this interaction can produce wave amplification rather than wave damping. Here, we identify the flexibilities and constraints in achieving this amplification effect through a consideration of symmetries in the channeling interaction, in the wave propagation, and in the tokamak field configuration. Interestingly, for standard LH current drive that supports the poloidal magnetic field, we find that wave amplification through α channeling is fundamentally coupled to the poorly understood | k ∥ | upshift. In so doing, we show that wave launch from the tokamak high-field side is favorable both for α-channeling and for achieving the | k ∥ | upshift.

  5. Stabilization and Destabilization of Sawtooth Oscillations by Lower Hybrid Current Drive in the WT-3 Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iida, Motomi; Maekawa, Takashi; Tanaka, Hitoshi; Ide, Shunsuke; Ogura, Kazuo; Hanada, Kazuaki; Iwamasa, Mikito; Itoh, Takehiko; Terumichi, Yasushi; Tanaka, Shigetoshi

    1988-11-01

    Sawtooth oscillations appearing in Ohmically heated (OH) plasmas are suppressed by the lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) in the WT-3 tokamak (R{=}65 cm, a{=}20 cm, Ip≃100 kA, \\bar{n}e{=}1-2× 1013 cm-3, qa≃4.5, and PLH≳100 kW). After the suppression, sawteeth reappear following m{=}1 oscillations in the LHCD plasmas. The latter sawteeth have a large amplitude and long period (Ts{=}2--5 msec), compared with the former one (Ts{=}0.5--1.5 msec). Furthermore, they do not accompany a precursor and crash very fast.

  6. Evaluation of semiconductor devices for Electric and Hybrid Vehicle (EHV) ac-drive applications, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, F. C.; Chen, D. Y.; Jovanovic, M.; Hopkins, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    The results of evaluation of power semiconductor devices for electric hybrid vehicle ac drive applications are summarized. Three types of power devices are evaluated in the effort: high power bipolar or Darlington transistors, power MOSFETs, and asymmetric silicon control rectifiers (ASCR). The Bipolar transistors, including discrete device and Darlington devices, range from 100 A to 400 A and from 400 V to 900 V. These devices are currently used as key switching elements inverters for ac motor drive applications. Power MOSFETs, on the other hand, are much smaller in current rating. For the 400 V device, the current rating is limited to 25 A. For the main drive of an electric vehicle, device paralleling is normally needed to achieve practical power level. For other electric vehicle (EV) related applications such as battery charger circuit, however, MOSFET is advantageous to other devices because of drive circuit simplicity and high frequency capability. Asymmetrical SCR is basically a SCR device and needs commutation circuit for turn off. However, the device poses several advantages, i.e., low conduction drop and low cost.

  7. Socially optimal electric driving range of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    DOE PAGES

    Kontou, Eleftheria; Yin, Yafeng; Lin, Zhenhong

    2015-07-25

    Our study determines the optimal electric driving range of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) that minimizes the daily cost borne by the society when using this technology. An optimization framework is developed and applied to datasets representing the US market. Results indicate that the optimal range is 16 miles with an average social cost of 3.19 per day when exclusively charging at home, compared to 3.27 per day of driving a conventional vehicle. The optimal range is found to be sensitive to the cost of battery packs and the price of gasoline. Moreover, when workplace charging is available, the optimalmore » electric driving range surprisingly increases from 16 to 22 miles, as larger batteries would allow drivers to better take advantage of the charging opportunities to achieve longer electrified travel distances, yielding social cost savings. If workplace charging is available, the optimal density is to deploy a workplace charger for every 3.66 vehicles. Finally, the diversification of the battery size, i.e., introducing a pair and triple of electric driving ranges to the market, could further decrease the average societal cost per PHEV by 7.45% and 11.5% respectively.« less

  8. Lower hybrid current drive experiments on Alcator C-Mod: Comparison with theory and simulationa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonoli, P. T.; Ko, J.; Parker, R.; Schmidt, A. E.; Wallace, G.; Wright, J. C.; Fiore, C. L.; Hubbard, A. E.; Irby, J.; Marmar, E.; Porkolab, M.; Terry, D.; Wolfe, S. M.; Wukitch, S. J.; Alcator C-Mod Team; Wilson, J. R.; Scott, S.; Valeo, E.; Phillips, C. K.; Harvey, R. W.

    2008-05-01

    Lower hybrid (LH) current drive experiments have been carried out on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak [I. H. Hutchinson et al., Phys. Plasmas 1, 1511 (1994)] using a radio-frequency system at 4.6GHz. Up to 900kW of LH power has been coupled and driven LH currents have been inferred from magnetic measurements by extrapolating to zero loop voltage, yielding an efficiency of neILHR0/PLH≈2.5±0.2×1019(A/W/m2). We have simulated the LH current drive in these discharges using the combined ray tracing/three-dimensional (r,v⊥,v∥) Fokker-Planck code GENRAY-CQL3D (R. W. Harvey and M. McCoy, in Proceedings of the IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Simulation and Modeling of Thermonuclear Plasmas, Montreal, Canada, 1992) and found similar current drive efficiencies. The simulated profiles of current density from CQL3D, including both ohmic plus LH drive have been found to be in good agreement with the measured current density from a motional Stark effect diagnostic. Measurements of nonthermal x-ray emission confirm the presence of a significant fast electron population and the three-dimensional (r,v⊥,v∥) electron distribution function from CQL3D has been used in a synthetic diagnostic code to simulate the measured hard x-ray data.

  9. Socially optimal electric driving range of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Kontou, Eleftheria; Yin, Yafeng; Lin, Zhenhong

    2015-07-25

    Our study determines the optimal electric driving range of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) that minimizes the daily cost borne by the society when using this technology. An optimization framework is developed and applied to datasets representing the US market. Results indicate that the optimal range is 16 miles with an average social cost of 3.19 per day when exclusively charging at home, compared to 3.27 per day of driving a conventional vehicle. The optimal range is found to be sensitive to the cost of battery packs and the price of gasoline. Moreover, when workplace charging is available, the optimal electric driving range surprisingly increases from 16 to 22 miles, as larger batteries would allow drivers to better take advantage of the charging opportunities to achieve longer electrified travel distances, yielding social cost savings. If workplace charging is available, the optimal density is to deploy a workplace charger for every 3.66 vehicles. Finally, the diversification of the battery size, i.e., introducing a pair and triple of electric driving ranges to the market, could further decrease the average societal cost per PHEV by 7.45% and 11.5% respectively.

  10. Synergy effects during current drive by two lower-hybrid waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Youlei; Xiang, Nong; Hu, Ye Min

    2017-03-01

    In recent lower-hybrid current drive experiments on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak, two lower-hybrid waves are launched simultaneously from different locations with different phase velocities to drive the plasma current. To understand the synergy effects of the two LH waves, the analytical expression for the electron velocity distribution is obtained based on Fuchs' model [Fuchs et al., Phys. Fluids 28(12), 3619-3628 (1985)], which is in good agreement with that obtained by solving the quasi-linear equation numerically via the CQL3D code [R. W. Harvey and M. G. McCoy, in Proceedings of IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Advances in Simulation and Modeling of Thermonuclear Plasmas, Montreal, Canada (1992)]. The synergy factor is also obtained analytically. It is found that the existence of two resonant regions may bring more resonant electrons interacting with each wave and the perpendicular dynamics can further enhance the synergy effect by increasing the effective electron temperature, which in turn increases the number of electrons in the resonance with each wave.

  11. Effort of lower hybrid current drive experiments toward to H-mode in EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, B. J.; Li, M. H.; Liu, F. K.; Shan, J. F.; Li, Y. C.; Wang, M.; Liu, L.; Zhao, L. M.; Yang, Y.; Wu, Z. G.; Feng, J. Q.; Hu, H. C.; Jia, H.; Cheng, M.; Zang, Q.; Lyu, B.; Duan, Y. M.; Lin, S. Y.; Wu, J. H.; Hillairet, J.; Ekedahl, A.; Peysson, Y.; Goniche, M.; Tuccillo, A. A.; Cesario, R.; Amicucci, L.; Shen, B.; Gong, X. Z.; Xu, G. S.; Zhao, H. L.; Hu, L. Q.; Li, J. G.; Wan, B. N.; EAST Team

    2017-02-01

    Lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) is an effective tool to achieve high confinement (H-mode) plasma in EAST. To utilize LHCD for accessing H-mode plasma, efforts have been made to improve LHW (lower hybrid wave)-plasma coupling and current drive capability at high density. Improved LHW-plasma coupling by means of local gas puffing and gas puffing from the electron side is routinely used during EAST operation with LHCD. High density experiments suggest that low recycling and high LH frequency are preferred for LHCD experiments at high density, consistent with previous results in other machines. The effect of LHCD on the current profile in EAST demonstrates that it is possible to control the plasma profile by optimizing the LHW spectrum. Repeatable H-mode plasma was obtained by LHCD and the maximum density during H-mode with the combination of 2.45 GHz and 4.6 GHz LH waves was up to 4.5  ×  1019 m-3.

  12. Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electic Drive System Interim Report - Revised

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, C.W.; Hsu, J.S.; Marlino, L.D.; Miller, C.W.; Ott, G.W., Jr.; Oland, C.B.; Burress, T.A.

    2007-07-31

    The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery-powered electric motor. Both of these motive power sources are capable of providing mechanical drive power for the vehicle. The engine can deliver a peak power output of 57 kilowatts (kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) while the motor can deliver a peak power output of 50 kW at 1300 rpm. Together, this engine-motor combination has a specified peak power output of 82 kW at a vehicle speed of 85 kilometers per hour (km/h). In operation, the 2004 Prius exhibits superior fuel economy compared to conventionally powered automobiles. Laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical performance of the 2004 Toyota Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. As a hybrid vehicle, the 2004 Prius uses both a gasoline-powered internal combustion engine and a battery-powered electric motor as motive power sources. Innovative algorithms for combining these two power sources results in improved fuel efficiency and reduced emissions compared to traditional automobiles. Initial objectives of the laboratory tests were to measure motor and generator back-electromotive force (emf) voltages and determine gearbox-related power losses over a specified range of shaft speeds and lubricating oil temperatures. Follow-on work will involve additional performance testing of the motor, generator, and inverter. Information contained in this interim report summarizes the test results obtained to date, describes preliminary conclusions and findings, and identifies additional areas for further study.

  13. Advances in lower hybrid current drive technology on Alcator C-Mod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, G. M.; Shiraiwa, S.; Hillairet, J.; Preynas, M.; Beck, W.; Casey, J. A.; Doody, J.; Faust, I. C.; Fitzgerald, E.; Johnson, D. K.; Kanojia, A. D.; Koert, P.; Lau, C.; Lin, Y.; Leccacorvi, R.; MacGibbon, P.; Meneghini, O.; Murray, R.; Parker, R. R.; Terry, D. R.; Vieira, R.; Wilson, J. R.; Wukitch, S.; Zhou, L.

    2013-07-01

    Lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) is an attractive option for non-inductive tokamak operation due to its high current drive efficiency and ability to drive current off axis. The parameters of the Alcator C-Mod LHCD system (f0 = 4.6 GHz, Bφ ≃ 5.5 T, \\bar{n}_\\rme \\simeq 10^{20}\\,m^{-3} ) are similar to the proposed LHCD system on ITER. This paper will describe improvements in LHCD technology on C-Mod designed to increase single-pass absorption at high \\bar{n}_\\rme , extend pulse length (to >3 s), and increase power delivered to the plasma (to ∼2 MW). Modelling of lower hybrid (LH) wave propagation indicates that the observed loss of LHCD efficiency at higher \\bar{n}_\\rme can be mitigated by enhancing the single pass power absorption through use of an off mid-plane launcher. The four rows of the launcher are located above the mid-plane (with Ip and Bφ both clockwise viewing from the top down) in order to exploit the poloidal upshift of n‖ as rays propagate from the antenna into the plasma. The transmitter protection system (TPS) was redesigned to model the coolant temperature in real time and shut off the klystron beam voltage if the coolant is close to boiling. The TPS upgrade has been installed and operated on C-Mod for pulses up to 4.5 s into dummy loads and 1.0 s into the plasma. A new movable local LH launcher protection limiter was designed to reduce reflection coefficients across a wide range of launcher positions. Finally, a high power waveguide double-stub tuner is under development to provide feedback controlled load matching to reduce power reflected from the antenna under poor coupling conditions.

  14. Hybrid floral scent novelty drives pollinator shift in sexually deceptive orchids

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sexually deceptive orchids of the genus Ophrys attract their pollinators, male insects, on a highly specific basis through the emission of odour blends that mimic the female sex pheromone of the targeted species. In this study, we have investigated a contact site between Ophrys arachnitiformis and O. lupercalis, two sympatric orchid species that are usually reproductively isolated via the exploitation of different pollinator "niches", but occasionally hybridise despite their apparent combination of ethological and mechanical isolation barriers. In particular, we have investigated the extent to which these Ophrys hybrids generate "emergent" combinations (i.e. novel and unpredictable from the parents' phenotypes) of floral traits, and how these phenotypic novelties, particularly the odour blends emitted by the flower, could facilitate the invasion of a novel pollinator "niche" and induce the rapid formation of reproductive isolation, a prerequisite for adaptive evolutionary divergence. Results Our chemical analyses of floral scents show that the Ophrys F1 hybrids investigated here produce more compounds, significantly different ratios (% of odour compounds in the total blend), as well as new compounds in their floral odour compared to their progenitors. When tested for their attractiveness to the pollinator of each parent orchid species, we found that floral scent extracts of the hybrids triggered less inspecting flights and contacts by the male bees with the scented dummy than those of the parental orchid species. However, a series of additional behavioural bioassays revealed that the novel floral scent of the hybrids was significantly more attractive than either of the two parents to a pollinator species not initially involved in the pollination of any of the parent Ophrys species. Conclusions Collectively, our results illustrate that the process of hybridisation can lead to the generation of evolutionary novelties, and that novel combinations of floral

  15. Lower Hybrid Heating and Current Drive on the Alcator C-Mod Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    R. Wilson, R. Parker, M. Bitter, P.T. Bonoli, C. Fiore, R.W. Harvey, K. Hill, A.E. Hubbard, J.W. Hughes, A. Ince-Cushman, C. Kessel, J.S. Ko, O. Meneghini, C.K. Phillips, M. Porkolab, J. Rice, A.E. Schmidt, S. Scott,S. Shiraiwa, E. Valeo, G.Wallace, J.C. Wright and the Alcator C-Mod Team

    2009-11-20

    On the Alcator C-Mod tokamak, lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) is being used to modify the current profile with the aim of obtaining advanced tokamak (AT) performance in plasmas with parameters similar to those that would be required on ITER. To date, power levels in excess of 1 MW at a frequency of 4.6 GHz have been coupled into a variety of plasmas. Experiments have established that LHCD on C-Mod behaves globally as predicted by theory. Bulk current drive efficiencies, n20IlhR/Plh ~ 0.25, inferred from magnetics and MSE are in line with theory. Quantitative comparisons between local measurements, MSE, ECE and hard x-ray bremsstrahlung, and theory/simulation using the GENRAY, TORIC-LH CQL3D and TSC-LSC codes have been performed. These comparisons have demonstrated the off-axis localization of the current drive, its magnitude and location dependence on the launched n|| spectrum, and the use of LHCD during the current ramp to save volt-seconds and delay the peaking of the current profile. Broadening of the x-ray emission profile during ICRF heating indicates that the current drive location can be controlled by the electron temperature, as expected. In addition, an alteration in the plasma toroidal rotation profile during LHCD has been observed with a significant rotation in the counter current direction. Notably, the rotation is accompanied by peaking of the density and temperature profiles on a current diffusion time scale inside of the half radius where the LH absorption is taking place.

  16. Impact of heating and current drive mix on the ITER hybrid scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Citrin, J.; Artaud, J. F.; Garcia, J.; Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Imbeaux, F.

    2010-11-01

    Hybrid scenario performance in ITER is studied with the CRONOS integrated modelling suite, using the GLF23 anomalous transport model for heat transport prediction. GLF23 predicted core confinement is optimized through tailoring the q-profile shape by a careful choice of current drive actuators, affecting the transport due to the predicted dependence of the turbulence level on the absolute q-profile values and magnetic shear. A range of various heating and current drive choices are examined, as are different assumptions on the pedestal height. The optimum q-profile shape is predicted to be one that maximizes the ratio of s/q throughout the bulk of the plasma volume. Optimizing the confinement allows a minimization of the plasma density required in order to achieve a defined target fusion power of 350 MW. A lower density then allows a lower total current (Ip) at the same Greenwald fraction (fG), thus aiding in maintaining q > 1 as desired in a hybrid scenario, and in minimizing the flux consumption. The best performance is achieved with a combination of NBI and ECCD (e.g. 33/37 MW NBI/ECCD for a scenario with a pedestal height of 4 keV). The q-profile shape and plasma confinement properties are shown to be highly sensitive to the positioning of the ECCD deposition. Comparisons with the lower performing cases where some or all of the ECCD power is replaced with LHCD or ICRH are shown (e.g. 33/20/17 MW NBI/ECCD/LHCD or NBI/ECCD/ICRH). The inclusion of LHCD reduces confinement due to deleterious shaping of the q-profile, and the inclusion of ICRH, particularly in a stiff model, does not lead to significantly increased fusion power and furthermore does not contribute to the non-inductive current fraction. For the optimum NBI/ECCD current drive mix, the predictions show that a satisfactory ITER hybrid scenario (Pfus ~ 350 MW, Q >= 5, qmin close to 1) may be achieved with Tped >= 4 keV. In addition, predicted performance sensitivity analysis was carried out for several

  17. Implications of driving patterns on well-to-wheel performance of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    PubMed

    Raykin, Leon; MacLean, Heather L; Roorda, Matthew J

    2012-06-05

    This study examines how driving patterns (distance and conditions) and the electricity generation supply interact to impact well-to-wheel (WTW) energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The WTW performance of a PHEV is compared with that of a similar (nonplug-in) gasoline hybrid electric vehicle and internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV). Driving PHEVs for short distances between recharging generally results in lower WTW total and fossil energy use and GHG emissions per kilometer compared to driving long distances, but the extent of the reductions depends on the electricity supply. For example, the shortest driving pattern in this study with hydroelectricity uses 81% less fossil energy than the longest driving pattern. However, the shortest driving pattern with coal-based electricity uses only 28% less fossil energy. Similar trends are observed in reductions relative to the nonplug-in vehicles. Irrespective of the electricity supply, PHEVs result in greater reductions in WTW energy use and GHG emissions relative to ICEVs for city than highway driving conditions. PHEVs charging from coal facilities only reduce WTW energy use and GHG emissions relative to ICEVs for certain favorable driving conditions. The study results have implications for environmentally beneficial PHEV adoption and usage patterns.

  18. Ion cyclotron and lower hybrid arrays applicable to current drive in fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Bosia, G.; Ragona, R.; Helou, W.; Goniche, M.; Hillaret, J.

    2014-02-12

    This paper presents concepts for Ion Cyclotron and Lower Hybrid Current Drive arrays applicable to fusion reactors and based on periodically loaded line power division. It is shown that, in large arrays, such as the ones proposed for fusion reactor applications, these schemes can offer, in principle, a number of practical advantages, compared with currently adopted ones, such as in-blanket operation at significantly reduced power density, lay out suitable for water cooling, single ended or balanced power feed, simple and load independent impedance matching In addition, a remote and accurate real time measurement of the complex impedance of all array elements as well as detection, location, and measurement of the complex admittance of a single arc occurring anywhere in the structure is possible.

  19. High energy electron deposition within vertical ports, during lower hybrid current drive on Tore Supra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint-Laurent, F.; Martin, G.; Basiuk, V.; Faudot, E.; Grisolia, C.; Heuraux, S.; Lipa, M.

    2005-03-01

    Unexpected hot spots were observed around the edges of vertical ports on Tore-Supra, caused by fast electrons, accelerated by the lower hybrid waves used to drive the current, and trapped in the local ripple wells. Trajectory calculations, with the magnetic fields alone, show that no electrons should reach such locations. However, electrostatic potentials, at a kilovolt level, can induce a toroidal pinch of the trajectories, allowing particle deposition in these normally shadowed areas. Their origin is attributed first to a strong increase of the sheath potential at the port entrance, due to the fast electron flux itself, and second to its reduction within the port, when the sheath width becomes larger than the port width, due to the too low value of the local density. An increase of the capability of the cooling panels within the port, to cope with these additional fluxes, has been implemented.

  20. Prospects for the application of GaN power devices in hybrid electric vehicle drive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ming; Chen, Chingchi; Rajan, Siddharth

    2013-07-01

    GaN, a wide bandgap semiconductor successfully implemented in optical and high-speed electronic devices, has gained momentum in recent years for power electronics applications. Along with rapid progress in material and device processing technologies, high-voltage transistors over 600 V have been reported by a number of teams worldwide. These advances make GaN highly attractive for the growing market of electrified vehicles, which currently employ bipolar silicon devices in the 600-1200 V class for the traction inverter. However, to capture this billion-dollar power market, GaN has to compete with existing IGBT products and deliver higher performance at comparable or lower cost. This paper reviews key achievements made by the GaN semiconductor industry, requirements of the automotive electric drive system and remaining challenges for GaN power devices to fit in the inverter application of hybrid vehicles.

  1. Active-passive hybrid piezoelectric actuators for high-precision hard disk drive servo systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Kwong Wah; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2006-03-01

    Positioning precision is crucial to today's increasingly high-speed, high-capacity, high data density, and miniaturized hard disk drives (HDDs). The demand for higher bandwidth servo systems that can quickly and precisely position the read/write head on a high track density becomes more pressing. Recently, the idea of applying dual-stage actuators to track servo systems has been studied. The push-pull piezoelectric actuated devices have been developed as micro actuators for fine and fast positioning, while the voice coil motor functions as a large but coarse seeking. However, the current dual-stage actuator design uses piezoelectric patches only without passive damping. In this paper, we propose a dual-stage servo system using enhanced active-passive hybrid piezoelectric actuators. The proposed actuators will improve the existing dual-stage actuators for higher precision and shock resistance, due to the incorporation of passive damping in the design. We aim to develop this hybrid servo system not only to increase speed of track seeking but also to improve precision of track following servos in HDDs. New piezoelectrically actuated suspensions with passive damping have been designed and fabricated. In order to evaluate positioning and track following performances for the dual-stage track servo systems, experimental efforts are carried out to implement the synthesized active-passive suspension structure with enhanced piezoelectric actuators using a composite nonlinear feedback controller.

  2. Experimental and modeling uncertainties in the validation of lower hybrid current drive

    DOE PAGES

    Poli, F. M.; Bonoli, P. T.; Chilenski, M.; ...

    2016-07-28

    Our work discusses sources of uncertainty in the validation of lower hybrid wave current drive simulations against experiments, by evolving self-consistently the magnetic equilibrium and the heating and current drive profiles, calculated with a combined toroidal ray tracing code and 3D Fokker–Planck solver. The simulations indicate a complex interplay of elements, where uncertainties in the input plasma parameters, in the models and in the transport solver combine and compensate each other, at times. It is concluded that ray-tracing calculations should include a realistic representation of the density and temperature in the region between the confined plasma and the wall, whichmore » is especially important in regimes where the LH waves are weakly damped and undergo multiple reflections from the plasma boundary. Uncertainties introduced in the processing of diagnostic data as well as uncertainties introduced by model approximations are assessed. We show that, by comparing the evolution of the plasma parameters in self-consistent simulations with available data, inconsistencies can be identified and limitations in the models or in the experimental data assessed.« less

  3. Lower hybrid current drive experiments with different launched wave frequencies in the EAST tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M. H.; Ding, B. J.; Liu, F. K.; Shan, J. F.; Wang, M.; Xu, H. D.; Liu, L.; Hu, H. C.; Zhang, X. J.; Li, Y. C.; Wei, W.; Wu, Z. G.; Ma, W. D.; Yang, Y.; Feng, J. Q.; Jia, H.; Wang, X. J.; Wu, D. J.; Chen, M.; Xu, L.; Wang, J.; Lin, S. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Qian, J. P.; Luo, Z. P.; Zang, Q.; Han, X. F.; Zhao, H. L.; Peysson, Y.; Decker, J.; Ekedahl, A.; Hillairet, J.; Goniche, M.

    2016-10-01

    EAST has been equipped with two high power lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) systems with operating frequencies of 2.45 GHz and 4.6 GHz. Comparative LHCD experiments with the two different frequencies were performed in the same conditions of plasma for the first time. It was found that current drive (CD) efficiency and plasma heating effect are much better for 4.6 GHz LH waves than for the one with 2.45 GHz. High confinement mode (H-mode) discharges with 4.6 GHz LHCD as the sole auxiliary heating source have been obtained in EAST and the confinement is higher with respect to that produced previously by 2.45 GHz. A combination of ray-tracing and Fokker-Planck calculations by using the C3PO/LUKE codes was performed in order to explain the different experimental observations between the two waves. In addition, the frequency spectral broadening of the two LH wave operating frequencies was surveyed by using a radio frequency probe.

  4. Experimental and modeling uncertainties in the validation of lower hybrid current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Poli, F. M.; Bonoli, P. T.; Chilenski, M.; Mumgaard, R.; Shiraiwa, S.; Wallace, G. M.; Andre, R.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Scott, S.; Wilson, J. R.; Harvey, R. W.; Petrov, Yu V.; Reinke, M.; Faust, I.; Granetz, R.; Hughes, J.; Rice, J.

    2016-07-28

    Our work discusses sources of uncertainty in the validation of lower hybrid wave current drive simulations against experiments, by evolving self-consistently the magnetic equilibrium and the heating and current drive profiles, calculated with a combined toroidal ray tracing code and 3D Fokker–Planck solver. The simulations indicate a complex interplay of elements, where uncertainties in the input plasma parameters, in the models and in the transport solver combine and compensate each other, at times. It is concluded that ray-tracing calculations should include a realistic representation of the density and temperature in the region between the confined plasma and the wall, which is especially important in regimes where the LH waves are weakly damped and undergo multiple reflections from the plasma boundary. Uncertainties introduced in the processing of diagnostic data as well as uncertainties introduced by model approximations are assessed. We show that, by comparing the evolution of the plasma parameters in self-consistent simulations with available data, inconsistencies can be identified and limitations in the models or in the experimental data assessed.

  5. Broadband sidebands generated by parametric instability in lower hybrid current drive experiments on EAST

    SciTech Connect

    Amicucci, L. Castaldo, C.; Cesario, R.; Giovannozzi, E.; Tuccillo, A. A.; Ding, B. J.; Li, M. H.

    2015-12-10

    Modern research on nuclear fusion energy, based on the tokamak concept, has strong need of tools for actively driving non-inductive current especially at the periphery of plasma column, where tools available so far have poor efficiency. This is essential for solving one of the most critical problems for thermonuclear reactor, consisting in how to achieve the figure of fusion gain in the context of sufficient stability. The lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) effect has the potential capability of driving current at large radii of reactor plasma with high efficiency [1]. Experiments recently carried out on EAST showed that a strong activity of LH sideband waves (from the RF probe spectra), accompanied by weak core penetration of the coupled LH power, is present when operating at relatively high plasma densities. Previous theoretical results, confirmed by experiments on FTU, showed that the LH sideband phenomenon is produced by parametric instability (PI), which are mitigated by higher plasma edge temperatures. This condition is thus useful for enabling the LH power propagation when operating with profiles having high plasma densities even at the edge. In the present work, we show new PI modeling of EAST plasmas data, obtained in condition of higher plasma edge temperature due to chamber lithisation. The obtained trend of the PI frequencies and growth rates is consistent with data of RF probe spectra, available in different regimes of lithisated and not lithisated vessel. Moreover, these spectra are interpreted as PI effect occurring at the periphery of plasma column, however in the low field side where the LH power is coupled.

  6. Broadband sidebands generated by parametric instability in lower hybrid current drive experiments on EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amicucci, L.; Ding, B. J.; Castaldo, C.; Cesario, R.; Giovannozzi, E.; Li, M. H.; Tuccillo, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Modern research on nuclear fusion energy, based on the tokamak concept, has strong need of tools for actively driving non-inductive current especially at the periphery of plasma column, where tools available so far have poor efficiency. This is essential for solving one of the most critical problems for thermonuclear reactor, consisting in how to achieve the figure of fusion gain in the context of sufficient stability. The lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) effect has the potential capability of driving current at large radii of reactor plasma with high efficiency [1]. Experiments recently carried out on EAST showed that a strong activity of LH sideband waves (from the RF probe spectra), accompanied by weak core penetration of the coupled LH power, is present when operating at relatively high plasma densities. Previous theoretical results, confirmed by experiments on FTU, showed that the LH sideband phenomenon is produced by parametric instability (PI), which are mitigated by higher plasma edge temperatures. This condition is thus useful for enabling the LH power propagation when operating with profiles having high plasma densities even at the edge. In the present work, we show new PI modeling of EAST plasmas data, obtained in condition of higher plasma edge temperature due to chamber lithisation. The obtained trend of the PI frequencies and growth rates is consistent with data of RF probe spectra, available in different regimes of lithisated and not lithisated vessel. Moreover, these spectra are interpreted as PI effect occurring at the periphery of plasma column, however in the low field side where the LH power is coupled.

  7. Comparative urban drive cycle simulations of light-duty hybrid vehicles with gasoline or diesel engines and emissions controls

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C Stuart; Smith, David E

    2013-01-01

    Electric hybridization is a very effective approach for reducing fuel consumption in light-duty vehicles. Lean combustion engines (including diesels) have also been shown to be significantly more fuel efficient than stoichiometric gasoline engines. Ideally, the combination of these two technologies would result in even more fuel efficient vehicles. However, one major barrier to achieving this goal is the implementation of lean-exhaust aftertreatment that can meet increasingly stringent emissions regulations without heavily penalizing fuel efficiency. We summarize results from comparative simulations of hybrid electric vehicles with either stoichiometric gasoline or diesel engines that include state-of-the-art aftertreatment emissions controls for both stoichiometric and lean exhaust. Fuel consumption and emissions for comparable gasoline and diesel light-duty hybrid electric vehicles were compared over a standard urban drive cycle and potential benefits for utilizing diesel hybrids were identified. Technical barriers and opportunities for improving the efficiency of diesel hybrids were identified.

  8. Model development and analysis of a mid-sized hybrid fuel cell/battery vehicle with a representative driving cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Mallouh, Mohammed; Abdelhafez, Eman; Salah, Mohammad; Hamdan, Mohammed; Surgenor, Brian; Youssef, Mohamed

    2014-08-01

    Vehicles powered with internal combustion engines (ICEs) are one of the main pollutant sources in large cities. Most of large cities (e.g. Amman, capital of Jordan) suffer from frequent traffic jams. This leads to frequent stops and starts, and hence, an increase in tailpipe emissions. One way to minimize emissions is to use electric motors in the powertrain configuration. In this study, the performance of a hybrid fuel cell (FC)/battery vehicle is investigated utilizing different worldwide driving cycles. Initially, a model of a mid-sized ICE vehicle is developed and validated against experimental tests. The ICE vehicle validated model is then modified to be driven with only an electric motor powered by a hybrid FC/battery system. The effect of driving pattern, which varies from city to city and from region to region, is investigated. A driving cycle that represents the driving patterns in Amman city is developed based on experimental data and then used to evaluate the performance of both ICE and hybrid FC/battery vehicle configurations. It is found that the performance of the hybrid FC/battery configuration is much better than the ICE version in terms of emissions, fuel economy, efficiency, and speed tracking error.

  9. A Transformerless Hybrid Active Filter Capable of Complying with Harmonic Guidelines for Medium-Voltage Motor Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Ryota; Akagi, Hirofumi

    This paper presents a transformerless hybrid active filter that is integrated into medium-voltage adjustable-speed motor drives for fans, pumps, and compressors without regenerative braking. The authors have designed and constructed a three-phase experimental system rated at 400V and 15kW, which is a downscaled model from a feasible 6.6-kV 1-MW motor drive system. This system consists of the hybrid filter connecting a passive filter tuned to the 7th harmonic filter in series with an active filter that is based on a three-level diode-clamped PWM converter, as well as an adjustable-speed motor drive in which a diode rectifier is used as the front end. The hybrid filter is installed on the ac side of the diode rectifier with no line-frequency transformer. The downscaled system has been exclusively tested so as to confirm the overall compensating performance of the hybrid filter and the filtering performance of a switching-ripple filter for mitigating switching-ripple voltages produced by the active filter. Experimental results verify that the hybrid filter achieves harmonic compensation of the source current in all the operating regions from no-load to the rated-load conditions, and that the switching-ripple filter reduces the switching-ripple voltages as expected.

  10. Modeling, Simulation Design and Control of Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Drives

    SciTech Connect

    Giorgio Rizzoni

    2005-09-30

    Ohio State University (OSU) is uniquely poised to establish such a center, with interdisciplinary emphasis on modeling, simulation, design and control of hybrid-electric drives for a number of reasons, some of which are: (1) The OSU Center for Automotive Research (CAR) already provides an infrastructure for interdisciplinary automotive research and graduate education; the facilities available at OSU-CAR in the area of vehicle and powertrain research are among the best in the country. CAR facilities include 31,000 sq. feet of space, multiple chassis and engine dynamometers, an anechoic chamber, and a high bay area. (2) OSU has in excess of 10 graduate level courses related to automotive systems. A graduate level sequence has already been initiated with GM. In addition, an Automotive Systems Engineering (ASE) program cosponsored by the mechanical and electrical engineering programs, had been formulated earlier at OSU, independent of the GATE program proposal. The main objective of the ASE is to provide multidisciplinary graduate education and training in the field of automotive systems to Masters level students. This graduate program can be easily adapted to fulfill the spirit of the GATE Center of Excellence. (3) A program in Mechatronic Systems Engineering has been in place at OSU since 1994; this program has a strong emphasis on automotive system integration issues, and has emphasized hybrid-electric vehicles as one of its application areas. (4) OSU researchers affiliated with CAR have been directly involved in the development and study of: HEV modeling and simulation; electric drives; transmission design and control; combustion engines; and energy storage systems. These activities have been conducted in collaboration with government and automotive industry sponsors; further, the same researchers have been actively involved in continuing education programs in these areas with the automotive industry. The proposed effort will include: (1) The development of a

  11. Quasi-linear modeling of lower hybrid current drive in ITER and DEMO

    SciTech Connect

    Cardinali, A. Cesario, R.; Panaccione, L.; Santini, F.; Amicucci, L.; Castaldo, C.; Ceccuzzi, S.; Mirizzi, F.; Tuccillo, A. A.

    2015-12-10

    First pass absorption of the Lower Hybrid waves in thermonuclear devices like ITER and DEMO is modeled by coupling the ray tracing equations with the quasi-linear evolution of the electron distribution function in 2D velocity space. As usually assumed, the Lower Hybrid Current Drive is not effective in a plasma of a tokamak fusion reactor, owing to the accessibility condition which, depending on the density, restricts the parallel wavenumber to values greater than n{sub ∥crit} and, at the same time, to the high electron temperature that would enhance the wave absorption and then restricts the RF power deposition to the very periphery of the plasma column (near the separatrix). In this work, by extensively using the “ray{sup star}” code, a parametric study of the propagation and absorption of the LH wave as function of the coupled wave spectrum (as its width, and peak value), has been performed very accurately. Such a careful investigation aims at controlling the power deposition layer possibly in the external half radius of the plasma, thus providing a valuable aid to the solution of how to control the plasma current profile in a toroidal magnetic configuration, and how to help the suppression of MHD mode that can develop in the outer part of the plasma. This analysis is useful not only for exploring the possibility of profile control of a pulsed operation reactor as well as the tearing mode stabilization, but also in order to reconsider the feasibility of steady state regime for DEMO.

  12. Experimental evaluation of hybrid vehicle fuel economy and pollutant emissions over real-world simulation driving cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaras, Georgios; Pistikopoulos, Panayotis; Samaras, Zissis

    2008-06-01

    The reduction of transport-generated CO2 emissions is currently a problem of global interest. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are considered as one promising technological solution for limiting transport-generated greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, the number of HEVs in the market remains limited, but this picture will change in the years to come as HEVs are expected to pave the way for cleaner technologies in transport. In this paper, results are presented regarding fuel economy and pollutant emissions measurements of two hybrid electric production vehicles. The measurements were conducted on a Prius II and a Honda Civic IMA using both the European legislated driving cycle (New European Driving Cycle, NEDC) and real-world simulation driving cycles (Artemis). In addition to the emissions measurements, other vehicle-operating parameters were studied in an effort to better quantify the maximum CO2 reduction potential. Data from real-world operation of a Prius II vehicle were also used in the evaluation. Results indicate that in most cases both vehicles present improved energy efficiency and pollutant emissions compared to conventional cars. The fuel economy benefit of the two HEVs peaked under urban driving conditions where reductions of 60% and 40% were observed, respectively. Over higher speeds the difference in fuel economy was lower, reaching that of conventional diesel at 95 km h-1. The effect of ambient temperature on fuel consumption was also quantified. It is concluded that urban operation benefits the most of hybrid technology, leading to important fuel savings and urban air quality improvement.

  13. Lower Hybrid Current Drive Experiments on Alcator C-Mod: Comparison with Theory and Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonoli, Paul

    2007-11-01

    Recently, lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) experiments have been carried out on Alcator C-Mod using an RF system consisting of 12 klystrons at 4.6 GHz, feeding a 4 x 22 waveguide array. Up to 900 kW of LH power has been coupled in the range1.6 <= n//<= 4), where n// is the parallel refractive index. Driven LH currents have been inferred from magnetic measurements by extrapolating to zero loop voltage, yielding an efficiency of n20ILHR/PLH 0.3 [1]. We have simulated the LH current drive in these discharges using the combined ray tracing / 3D (r, v, v//) Fokker Planck code GENRAY -- CQL3D [2] and found similar current drive efficiencies. Measurements of nonthermal x-ray emission and electron cyclotron emission (ECE) confirm the presence of a significant fast electron population that varies with waveguide phasing and plasma density. Studies are currently underway to investigate the role of fast electron diffusion and full-wave effects such as diffractional broadening in determining the spatial and velocity space structure of the nonthermal electrons. The 3D (r, v, v//) electron distribution function from CQL3D has been used in synthetic diagnostic codes to simulate the measured hard x-ray and ECE emissions. Fast electron diffusion times have been inferred from x-ray data by employing a radial diffusion operator in CQL3D and determining the fast electron diffusivities that are required to reproduce the experimentally observed profiles of hard x-ray emission. Finally, we have been performing full-wave LH field simulations using the massively parallel TORIC --LH solver [3] in order to assess spatial and spectral broadening of the incident wave front that can result from diffraction and wave focusing effects. [1] R. Parker, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 51, 20 (2006). [2] R.W. Harvey and M. McCoy, ``The CQL3D Fokker Planck Code,'' Proc. IAEA Tech. Comm. Meeting on Simulation and Modeling of Thermonuclear Plasmas, Montreal, Canada, 1992. [3] J. C. Wright et al., Nucl. Fusion 45

  14. A Novel Mittag-Leffler Kernel Based Hybrid Fault Diagnosis Method for Wheeled Robot Driving System.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xianfeng; Song, Mumin; Zhou, Fengyu; Chen, Zhumin; Li, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The wheeled robots have been successfully applied in many aspects, such as industrial handling vehicles, and wheeled service robots. To improve the safety and reliability of wheeled robots, this paper presents a novel hybrid fault diagnosis framework based on Mittag-Leffler kernel (ML-kernel) support vector machine (SVM) and Dempster-Shafer (D-S) fusion. Using sensor data sampled under different running conditions, the proposed approach initially establishes multiple principal component analysis (PCA) models for fault feature extraction. The fault feature vectors are then applied to train the probabilistic SVM (PSVM) classifiers that arrive at a preliminary fault diagnosis. To improve the accuracy of preliminary results, a novel ML-kernel based PSVM classifier is proposed in this paper, and the positive definiteness of the ML-kernel is proved as well. The basic probability assignments (BPAs) are defined based on the preliminary fault diagnosis results and their confidence values. Eventually, the final fault diagnosis result is archived by the fusion of the BPAs. Experimental results show that the proposed framework not only is capable of detecting and identifying the faults in the robot driving system, but also has better performance in stability and diagnosis accuracy compared with the traditional methods.

  15. Control of the current density profile with lower hybrid current drive on PBX-M

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, R.E.; Bernabei, S.; Chu, T.K.; Gettelfinger, G.; Greenough, N.; Hatcher, R.; Ignat, D.; Jardin, S.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.; Kozub, T.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B.; Okabayashi, M.; Paul, S.; Sauthoff, N.; Sesnic, S.; Sun, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Tighe, W.; Valeo, E.; von Goeler, S.; Blush, L.; Doerner, R.; Schmitz, L.; Tynan, G.; Dunlap, J.; England, A.; Harris, J.; Hirshman, S.; Isler, R.; Lee, D.; Jones, S.; Kesner, J.; Luckhardt, S.; Paoletti, F.; Levinton, F.; Timini, F.

    1993-07-01

    Lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) is being explored as a means to control the current density profile on PBX-M with the goal of raising the central safety factor q(O) to values of 1.5-2 to facilitate access to a full-volume second stable regime. Initial experiments have been conducted with up to 400 kW of 4.6 GHz LH power in circular and indented plasmas with modest parameters. A tangential-viewing two-dimensional hard x-ray imaging diagnostic has been used to observe the bremsstrahlung emission from the suprathermal electrons generated during LHCD. Hollow hard x-ray images have indicated off-axis localization of the driven current. A serious obstacle to the control of the current density profile with LHCD is the concomitant generation of MHD activity, which can seriously degrade the confinement of suprathermal electrons. By combining neutral beam injection with LHCD, an MHD-free condition has been obtained where q(O) is raised above 1.

  16. High Power Antenna Design for Lower Hybrid Current Drive in MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, M. A.; Goetz, J. A.; Kaufman, M. C.; Oliva, S. P.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Ryan, P. M.

    2003-10-01

    RF current drive has been proposed as a method for reducing the tearing fluctuations that are responsible for anomalous energy transport in the RFP. A system for launching lower hybrid slow waves at 800 MHz and n_||= 7.5 is now in operation at up to 50 kW on MST. The antenna is an enclosed interdigital line using λ/4 resonators with an opening in the cavity through which the wave is coupled to the plasma. It has an untuned VSWR of ˜2, and is instrumented on 5 of its 23 elements to allow measurement of damping length. The antenna design is being optimized for higher power handling. Improvements include larger vacuum feedthroughs, better impedance matching, and RF instrumentation on all resonators. The new antenna will be modeled in Microwave Studio^TM. The goal is a design which can handle ˜250 kW and presents a VSWR of 1.4 or better without external tuning. Full instrumentation will allow more detailed power deposition measurements.

  17. Lower hybrid current drive in FTU high density shear reversed discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuccillo, A. A.; Barbato, E.; Crisanti, F.; Panaccione, L.; Pericoli, V.; Podda, S.; Cirant, S.; Acitelli, L.; Alladio, F.; Amadeo, P.; Angelini, B.; Apicella, M. L.; Apruzzese, G.; Bertocchi, A.; Borra, M.; Bracco, G.; Bruschi, A.; Buceti, G.; Buratti, P.; Cardinali, A.; Centioli, C.; Cesario, R.; Ciattaglia, S.; Ciotti, M.; Cocilovo, V.; De Angelis, R.; De Marco, F.; Esposito, B.; Frigione, D.; Gabellieri, L.; Gatti, G.; Giovannozzi, E.; Gourlan, C.; Granucci, G.; Grolli, M.; Imparato, A.; Kroegler, H.; Leigheb, M.; Lovisetto, L.; Maddaluno, G.; Maffia, G.; Mancuso, A.; Marinucci, M.; Mazzitelli, G.; Micozzi, P.; Mirizzi, F.; Orsitto, P.; Pacella, D.; Panella, M.; Pieroni, L.; Righetti, G. B.; Romanelli, F.; Santini, F.; Simonetto, A.; Sozzi, C.; Sternini, S.; Tudisco, O.; Valente, F.; Vitale, V.; Vlad, G.; Zanza, V.; Zerbini, M.

    1997-04-01

    Results are reported of the 8 GHz Lower Hybrid experiments on FTU after the installation of the new toroidal limiter. A figure of merit of the Current Drive efficiency ηCD≈0.11ṡ1020 A/Wm2 is estimated for plasma density n¯e=1020 m-3 and no appreciable broadening of the launched frequency is detected. In low density experiments sawteeth are stabilised and m=1 activity is present in the plasma. Shear reversed discharges with large reversal radius, rs/a≈0.5, are obtained at higher density, lower temperature, BT=4 T, qa≈5.5, by off-axis LH CD. The reversed configurations exhibit high central temperature coexisting with regular m=2, n=1 relaxations of large amplitude and are maintained up to LH switch off. At higher magnetic field, B=5.2 T, qa≈7, irregular DTM crashes are present during the whole LH pulse. Confinement time of radiofrequency heated discharges (PLH=0.5÷2ṡPOH) exhibits the same behaviour of FTU ohmic discharges following the ITER89-P scaling. Preliminary results of central 140 GHz Electron Cyclotron Resonant Heating (ECRH) during the plasma current ramp-up, aimed at obtaining shear reversed configurations are also reported.

  18. The role of the plasma current in turbulence decrease during lower hybrid current drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antar, G.; Ekedahl, A.; Goniche, M.; Asghar, A.; Žàček, F.

    2017-03-01

    The interaction of radio frequency (RF) waves with edge turbulence has resurfaced after the results obtained on many tokamaks showing that edge turbulence decreases when the ion cyclotron frequency heating (ICRH) is switched on. Using the lower hybrid (LH) waves to drive current into tokamak plasmas, this issue presented contradicting results with some tokamaks (FTU & HT-7) showing a net decrease, similar to the ICRH results, and others (Tore Supra) did not. In this article, these apparent discrepancies among tokamaks and RF wave frequencies are removed. It is found that turbulence large-scale structures in the scrape-off layer decrease at high enough plasma currents (Ip) on the Tore Supra tokamak. We distinguish three regimes: At low Ip's, no modification is detected with statistical properties of turbulence similar to ohmic plasmas even with PLH reaching 4.8 MW. At moderate plasma currents, turbulence properties are modified only at a high LH power. At high plasma currents, turbulent large scales are reduced to values smaller than 1 cm, and this is accompanied by a net decrease in the level of turbulence of about 30% even with a moderate LH power.

  19. Magnetic perturbation effects on boundary plasmas during high power lower hybrid current drive in Tore Supra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, T. E.; Goniche, M.; Grosman, A.; Guilhem, D.; Hess, W.; Vallet, J.-C.

    1992-12-01

    Small time-independent magnetic perturbations (δ br), produced with the Tore Supra ergodic divertor coils, have been used to control thermal loads on plasma facing components, current density profiles, the transport of non-Maxwellian particles, and the confinement properties of thermal plasmas during high power ( PLH≤3.3 MW) lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) discharges. MARFEs with 0.12 ≤ϱ m=π a2 < ne20> Ip-1≤0.22 (i.e., roughly a factor of 3 less than the smallest value of ϱ m previously reported) are obtained during the δ br pulse when PLH>2.0 MW and the edge safety factor is slightly less than 3. These MARFEs generally appear to have the same characteristics as high ϱ m MARFEs and are positionally stable throughout the LHCD+δ br pulse. Steady state conditions in which more than 90% of the total input power is radiated from a 0.15 m wide region near the high-field side wall were obtained.

  20. Plasma heating and current drive by an obliquely propagating upper-hybrid cyclotron beat wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, M. R.; Cairns, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    Excitation of an obliquely propagating upper-hybrid cyclotron beat wave is considered for plasma heating and current drive in tokamaks. The beat wave is excited by the interaction of two intense free-electron laser (FEL) pulses at their difference frequency. The three-wave nonlinear interaction equations in a magnetized plasma are solved numerically in a steady-state two-dimensional (2-D) geometry for this purpose. The 2-D toroidal inhomogeneity effect and the effect of finite spatial width of the pump microwave pulses are taken into account for the beat wave excitation. To illustrate the principle, the microwave tokamak experiment (MTX) [Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 30, 57 (1988)] is considered. It has been found that the fraction of total input power of the pump microwaves deposited in the cyclotron beat wave is lower than the case of a Langmuir type beat wave considered by Amin and Cairns [Nucl. Fusion 30, 327 (1990)]. However, increasing the input powers of the pump microwaves, a substantial amount of input power can be deposited in the excited beat wave. The beat wave eventually transfers this power to the electrons by cyclotron damping. It has also been found that for the same input parameters, right-hand polarized pumps are more efficient than left-hand polarized pump microwaves for beat wave excitation.

  1. Spectral broadening of parametric instability in lower hybrid current drive at a high density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesario, R.; Amicucci, L.; Cardinali, A.; Castaldo, C.; Marinucci, M.; Napoli, F.; Paoletti, F.; De Arcangelis, D.; Ferrari, M.; Galli, A.; Gallo, G.; Pullara, E.; Schettini, G.; Tuccillo, A. A.

    2014-04-01

    The important goal of adding to the bootstrap current a more flexible tool, capable of producing and controlling steady-state profiles with a high fraction of non-inductive plasma current, could be reached using the lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) effect. Experiments performed on FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade) demonstrated that LHCD can occur at reactor-graded high plasma density, provided that the parametric instability (PI)-produced broadening of the spectrum launched by the antenna is reduced under proper operating conditions, capable of producing relatively high temperature in the outer region of plasma column. This condition was produced by operations that reduce particle recycling from the vessel walls, and enhance the gas fuelling in the core by means of fast pellet. New results of FTU experiments are presented documenting that the useful effect of temperature at the periphery, which reduces the LH spectral broadening and enhances the LH-induced hard-x ray emission level, occurs in a broader range of plasma parameters than in previous work. Modelling results show that a further tool for helping LHCD at a high density would be provided by electron cyclotron resonant heating of plasma periphery. New information is provided on the modelling, able determining frequencies, growth rates and LH spectral broadening produced by PI, which allowed assessing the new method for enabling LHCD at high densities. Further robustness is provided to theoretical and experimental fundaments of the method for LHCD at a high density.

  2. Handling performance control for hybrid 8-wheel-drive vehicle and simulation verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Jun; Hu, Jibin

    2016-08-01

    In order to improve handling performance of a hybrid 8-Wheel-Drive vehicle, the handling performance control strategy was proposed. For armoured vehicle, besides handling stability in high speed, the minimum steer radius in low speed is also a key tactical and technical index. Based on that, the proposed handling performance control strategy includes 'Handling Stability' and 'Radius Minimization' control modes. In 'Handling Stability' control mode, 'Neutralsteer Radio' is defined to adjust the steering characteristics to satisfy different demand in different speed range. In 'Radius Minimization' control mode, the independent motors are controlled to provide an additional yaw moment to decrease the minimum steer radius. In order to verify the strategy, a simulation platform was built including engine and continuously variable transmission systems, generator and battery systems, independent motors and controllers systems, vehicle dynamic and tyre mechanical systems. The simulation results show that the handling performance of the vehicle can be enhanced significantly, and the minimum steer radius can be decreased by 20% which is significant improvement compared to the common level of main battle armoured vehicle around the world.

  3. A Novel Mittag-Leffler Kernel Based Hybrid Fault Diagnosis Method for Wheeled Robot Driving System

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xianfeng; Song, Mumin; Zhou, Fengyu; Chen, Zhumin; Li, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The wheeled robots have been successfully applied in many aspects, such as industrial handling vehicles, and wheeled service robots. To improve the safety and reliability of wheeled robots, this paper presents a novel hybrid fault diagnosis framework based on Mittag-Leffler kernel (ML-kernel) support vector machine (SVM) and Dempster-Shafer (D-S) fusion. Using sensor data sampled under different running conditions, the proposed approach initially establishes multiple principal component analysis (PCA) models for fault feature extraction. The fault feature vectors are then applied to train the probabilistic SVM (PSVM) classifiers that arrive at a preliminary fault diagnosis. To improve the accuracy of preliminary results, a novel ML-kernel based PSVM classifier is proposed in this paper, and the positive definiteness of the ML-kernel is proved as well. The basic probability assignments (BPAs) are defined based on the preliminary fault diagnosis results and their confidence values. Eventually, the final fault diagnosis result is archived by the fusion of the BPAs. Experimental results show that the proposed framework not only is capable of detecting and identifying the faults in the robot driving system, but also has better performance in stability and diagnosis accuracy compared with the traditional methods. PMID:26229526

  4. Study of lower hybrid current drive efficiency over a wide range of FTU plasma parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pericoli Ridolfini, V.; Calabrò, G.; Panaccione, L.; FTU Team; ECH Team

    2005-11-01

    The key quantities affecting the efficiency of Lower Hybrid (LH) radiofrequency waves in driving non-inductively the toroidal current in a tokamak have been recognized by means of a linear regression analysis over all the data available for the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade. The parameter space is bounded within the following ranges: line averaged plasma density 0.29\\times 10^{20} \\leq \\bar {n}_{\\rme} \\leq 1.29\\times 10^{20}\\,m^{-3} , central electron temperatures 1.1 <= Te0 <= 7.4 keV, corresponding to volume averaged temperatures 0.27 <= langTerang <= 1.2 keV, plasma current 0.3 <= Ip <= 0.7 MA, magnetic field 4 <= BT0 <= 7.2 T, with a safety factor between 4.7 <= qa <= 10.7, LH power 0.4 <= PLH <= 2.1 MW and LH parallel refraction index 1.32 <= Npar0 <= 2.42. The experimental current drive (CD) efficiency, reduced to the effective ion charge state Zeff = 1, varies for this data set within 0.12 \\leq \\eta ^{\\ast }_CD \\leq 0.34\\,A\\,W^{-1} \\times 10^{20}\\,m^{-2} . A linear regression analysis gives a reliable scaling law for \\eta ^{\\ast }_CD with a correlation coefficient close to 0.9 that points out the importance of the various quantities. The CD efficiency is a significantly increasing function of langTerang and BT, and a decreasing one of qa and PLH, while Npar and \\bar{n}_{\\rme} have limited influence. The physical reasons for the observed trend related to the variation of each parameter are recognized and discussed. The main causes are identified in the modification suffered by the Npar spectrum along the ray trajectory before the power can be absorbed by the electrons and in the interaction with the edge plasma density fluctuations. The analysis also allows putting into evidence the synergy between the LH and electron cyclotron waves, when the latter are absorbed directly on the LH generated suprathermal electron tails and produce the highest values of \\eta ^{\\ast }_CD .

  5. Studies of challenge in lower hybrid current drive capability at high density regime in experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, B. J.; Li, M. H.; Li, Y. C.; Wang, M.; Liu, F. K.; Shan, J. F.; Li, J. G.; Wan, B. N.; Wan

    2017-02-01

    Aiming at a fusion reactor, two issues must be solved for the lower hybrid current drive (LHCD), namely good lower hybrid wave (LHW)-plasma coupling and effective current drive at high density. For this goal, efforts have been made to improve LHW-plasma coupling and current drive capability at high density in experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST). LHW-plasma coupling is improved by means of local gas puffing and gas puffing from the electron side is taken as a routine way for EAST to operate with LHCD. Studies of high density experiments suggest that low recycling and high lower hybrid (LH) frequency are preferred for LHCD experiments at high density, consistent with previous results in other machines. With the combination of 2.45 GHz and 4.6 GHz LH waves, a repeatable high confinement mode plasma with maximum density up to 19~\\text{m}-3$ was obtained by LHCD in EAST. In addition, in the first stage of LHCD cyclic operation, an alternative candidate for more economical fusion reactors has been demonstrated in EAST and further work will be continued.

  6. Grill design for 1000 second lower hybrid current drive system for SST1 tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Bora, D.; Sharma, P. K.; Rao, S. Laxmikanth; Samanta and RF Group, K. K.

    1999-09-20

    In this paper we present detail design considerations for the grill structure designed to be used as the launching structure for the Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) system for 1000 second operation in Steadystate Superconducting Tokamak (SST1). The grill will comprise of 64 active subwaveguides having dimensions of 76mmx7mm, arranged in two rows with two dummy subwaveguides, one each on either side of the row. The grill is designed to radiate a power spectrum of parallel refractive index, centered at 2.25, with 90 deg. phasing. The power flux in each subwaveguide is {approx}3 kW/cm{sup 2} for a rf power of 1 MW coupled to the plasma. To protect the grill from conducted and radiated heat loads, there will be a tile assembly around the perimeter of the grill structure. High heat loads on the protection tiles ({approx}52 W/cm{sup 2}) and the grill (6.8 kW, both radiated and resistive loss), demand careful and constant cooling. Thermal, electromagnetic and mechanical stresses have been analyzed for the grill and the tile assembly using ANSYS software. Analysis for the grill shows that the maximum operating temperature of the grill would be 75 deg. C, giving rise to a thermal stress of 18 MPa. Most critical tiles would be the corner tiles with an operating temperature of 412 deg. C and a thermal stress of 35 MPa, which is 83% of the yield stress of the graphite material. Maximum force developed on the grill due to plasma disruption has been estimated to be about 13 kN. Zr-Cr copper with adequate strength will be used to fabricate the grill structure. Wire-cut technique will be used to fabricate the grill, having an internal surface finish of 1.5 {mu}m.

  7. Grill design for 1000 second lower hybrid current drive system for SST1 tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bora, D.; Sharma, P. K.; Rao, S. Laxmikanth; Samanta, K. K.; RF Group

    1999-09-01

    In this paper we present detail design considerations for the grill structure designed to be used as the launching structure for the Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) system for 1000 second operation in Steadystate Superconducting Tokamak (SST1). The grill will comprise of 64 active subwaveguides having dimensions of 76mm×7mm, arranged in two rows with two dummy subwaveguides, one each on either side of the row. The grill is designed to radiate a power spectrum of parallel refractive index, centered at 2.25, with 90° phasing. The power flux in each subwaveguide is ~3 kW/cm2 for a rf power of 1 MW coupled to the plasma. To protect the grill from conducted and radiated heat loads, there will be a tile assembly around the perimeter of the grill structure. High heat loads on the protection tiles (~52 W/cm2) and the grill (6.8 kW, both radiated and resistive loss), demand careful and constant cooling. Thermal, electromagnetic and mechanical stresses have been analyzed for the grill and the tile assembly using ANSYS software. Analysis for the grill shows that the maximum operating temperature of the grill would be 75 °C, giving rise to a thermal stress of 18 MPa. Most critical tiles would be the corner tiles with an operating temperature of 412 °C and a thermal stress of 35 MPa, which is 83% of the yield stress of the graphite material. Maximum force developed on the grill due to plasma disruption has been estimated to be about 13 kN. Zr-Cr copper with adequate strength will be used to fabricate the grill structure. Wire-cut technique will be used to fabricate the grill, having an internal surface finish of 1.5 μm.

  8. Recovery of Barotrauma Injuries Resulting from Exposure to Pile Driving Sound in Two Sizes of Hybrid Striped Bass

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Frazer; Carlson, Thomas J.; Popper, Arthur N.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of loud sounds on fishes, such as those produced during impulsive pile driving, are an increasing concern in the management of aquatic ecosystems. However, very little is known about such effects. Accordingly, a High Intensity Controlled Impedance Fluid Filled wave Tube (HICI-FT) was used to investigate the effects of sounds produced by impulsive pile driving on two size groups of hybrid striped bass (white bass Moronechrysops x striped bass Moronesaxatilis). The larger striped bass (mean size 17.2 g) had more severe injuries, as well as more total injuries, than the smaller fish (mean size 1.3 g). However, fish in each size group recovered from most injuries within 10 days of exposure. A comparison with different species from previously published studies show that current results support the observation that fishes with physoclistous swim bladders are more susceptible to injury from impulsive pile driving than are fishes with physostomous swim bladders. PMID:24040089

  9. Recovery of barotrauma injuries resulting from exposure to pile driving sound in two sizes of hybrid striped bass.

    PubMed

    Casper, Brandon M; Halvorsen, Michele B; Matthews, Frazer; Carlson, Thomas J; Popper, Arthur N

    2013-01-01

    The effects of loud sounds on fishes, such as those produced during impulsive pile driving, are an increasing concern in the management of aquatic ecosystems. However, very little is known about such effects. Accordingly, a High Intensity Controlled Impedance Fluid Filled wave Tube (HICI-FT) was used to investigate the effects of sounds produced by impulsive pile driving on two size groups of hybrid striped bass (white bass Moronechrysops x striped bass Moronesaxatilis). The larger striped bass (mean size 17.2 g) had more severe injuries, as well as more total injuries, than the smaller fish (mean size 1.3 g). However, fish in each size group recovered from most injuries within 10 days of exposure. A comparison with different species from previously published studies show that current results support the observation that fishes with physoclistous swim bladders are more susceptible to injury from impulsive pile driving than are fishes with physostomous swim bladders.

  10. Investigation on driving characteristics of a piezoelectric stick–slip actuator based on resonant/off-resonant hybrid excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Tinghai; Li, Hengyu; He, Meng; Zhao, Hongwei; Lu, Xiaohui; Gao, Haibo

    2017-03-01

    A resonant/off-resonant hybrid excitation of a piezoelectric stick–slip actuator is proposed in this paper. It is accomplished by a resonant sinusoidal friction regulation wave (RSFR-wave) and an off-resonant saw-tooth wave (ORST-wave). The RSFR-wave is applied to the rapid deformation stage of the ORST-wave. In this stage, the first-order longitudinal vibration mode of the stator can be obtained. By this longitudinal vibration mode, the kinetic friction between the slider and frictional rod is obviously decreased utilizing ultrasonic friction reduction. The backward displacement is remarkably restrained. The high velocity, large mass of load and smooth displacement are achieved. The operation principle of hybrid excitation was discussed in detail, and a prototype was simulated, designed, and fabricated. A series of experiments were carried out and the results indicate that the step efficiency under the saw-tooth excitation and resonant/off-resonant hybrid excitation can realize 36.9% and 91.2%, respectively. The output velocity is increased by 147.23% relative to saw-tooth excitation. The minimum input power and the minimum driving voltage are decreased by 89.56% and 58.33%, respectively. Besides, the maximum mass of load capacity is 2.88 times that of saw-tooth excitation. The driving capacity of the actuator is increased by 466.13%.

  11. Hybrid-Electric Passenger Car Carbon Dioxide and Fuel Consumption Benefits Based on Real-World Driving.

    PubMed

    Holmén, Britt A; Sentoff, Karen M

    2015-08-18

    Hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) have lower fuel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions than conventional vehicles (CVs), on average, based on laboratory tests, but there is a paucity of real-world, on-road HEV emissions and performance data needed to assess energy use and emissions associated with real-world driving, including the effects of road grade. This need is especially great as the electrification of the passenger vehicle fleet (from HEVs to PHEVs to BEVs) increases in response to climate and energy concerns. We compared tailpipe CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of an HEV passenger car to a CV of the same make and model during real-world, on-the-road network driving to quantify the in-use benefit of one popular full HEV technology. Using vehicle specific power (VSP) assignments that account for measured road grade, the mean CV/HEV ratios of CO2 tailpipe emissions or fuel consumption defined the corresponding HEV "benefit" factor for each VSP class (1 kW/ton resolution). Averaging over all VSP classes for driving in all seasons, including temperatures from -13 to +35 °C in relatively steep (-13.2 to +11.5% grade), hilly terrain, mean (±SD) CO2 emission benefit factors were 4.5 ± 3.6, 2.5 ± 1.7, and 1.4 ± 0.5 for city, exurban/suburban arterial and highway driving, respectively. Benefit factor magnitude corresponded to the frequency of electric-drive-only (EDO) operation, which was modeled as a logarithmic function of VSP. A combined model explained 95% of the variance in HEV benefit for city, 75% for arterial and 57% for highway driving. Benefit factors consistently exceeded 2 for VSP classes with greater than 50% EDO (i.e., only city and arterial driving). The reported HEV benefits account for real-world road grade that is often neglected in regulatory emissions and fuel economy tests. Fuel use HEV benefit factors were 1.3 and 2 for the regulatory highway (HWFET) and city (FTP) cycles, respectively, 18% and 31% higher than the EPA adjusted

  12. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix B: Design trade-off studies. [various hybrid/electric power train configurations and electrical and mechanical drive-line components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The relative attractiveness of various hybrid/electric power train configurations and electrical and mechanical drive-line components was studied. The initial screening was concerned primarily with total vehicle weight and economic factors and identified the hybrid power train combinations which warranted detailed evaluation over various driving cycles. This was done using a second-by-second vehicle simulation program which permitted the calculations of fuel economy, electricity usage, and emissions as a function of distance traveled in urban and highway driving. Power train arrangement possibilities were examined in terms of their effect on vehicle handling, safety, serviceability, and passenger comfort. A dc electric drive system utilizing a separately excited motor with field control and battery switching was selected for the near term hybrid vehicle. Hybrid vehicle simulations showed that for the first 30 mi (the electric range of the vehicle) in urban driving, the fuel economy was 80 mpg using a gasoline engine and 100 mpg using a diesel engine. In urban driving the hybrid would save about 75% of the fuel used by the conventional vehicle and in combined urban/highway driving the fuel saving is about 50%.

  13. Study of lower hybrid current drive efficiency and its correlation with photon temperatures in the HT-7 tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younis, J.; Wan, B. N.; Lin, S. Y.; Shi, Y. J.; Ding, B. J.; Gong, X.; HT-7 Team

    2009-07-01

    Lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) efficiency is a very important parameter. The experimental current drive efficiency is defined as η = IrfneR/PLH, where Irf is the current driven by the lower hybrid waves (LHWs), ne is the central line-average density, R is the major radius of the plasma and PLH is the injected LH wave power absorbed by the plasma through Landau damping. A study of current drive efficiency of LHWs in the HT-7 tokamak has been carried out in the parameter ranges: ne = (1.2-2.5) × 1019 m-3, Ip = (80-200) kA, Bt = 1.8 T, PLH = (188-532) kW in the limiter configuration. Current drive efficiency is investigated through a simple correlation with photon temperature and normalized intensity of fast electron bremstrahlung emission, which is, in the first approximation, proportional to the averaged velocity and population of the fast electrons. The plasma current scanning experiment shows that CD efficiency increase is due to the increase in both the photon temperature and the population of the fast electrons generated by LHWs. The density scanning experiment shows that as the plasma density is increased, an increment in CD efficiency along with the increase in the population of fast electrons is observed. The slowing down through the collisions with bulk electrons is mainly responsible for the decreased photon temperature during the plasma density scan. These experiments strongly suggest the dominant role of the population of fast electrons generated by LHCD and the generation of the current carried by fast electrons.

  14. Comparison of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Life Across Geographies and Drive-Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.; Warleywine, M.; Wood, E.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2012-06-01

    In a laboratory environment, it is cost prohibitive to run automotive battery aging experiments across a wide range of possible ambient environment, drive cycle and charging scenarios. Since worst-case scenarios drive the conservative sizing of electric-drive vehicle batteries, it is useful to understand how and why those scenarios arise and what design or control actions might be taken to mitigate them. In an effort to explore this problem, this paper applies a semi-empirical life model of the graphite/nickel-cobalt-aluminum lithium-ion chemistry to investigate impacts of geographic environments under storage and simplified cycling conditions. The model is then applied to analyze complex cycling conditions, using battery charge/discharge profiles generated from simulations of PHEV10 and PHEV40 vehicles across 782 single-day driving cycles taken from Texas travel survey data.

  15. Nonsyntenic Genes Drive Highly Dynamic Complementation of Gene Expression in Maize Hybrids[W

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Nick B.; Marcon, Caroline; Schnable, James C.; Yeh, Cheng-Ting; Lanz, Christa; Nettleton, Dan; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Schnable, Patrick S.

    2014-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays) displays an exceptional level of structural genomic diversity, which is likely unique among higher eukaryotes. In this study, we surveyed how the genetic divergence of two maize inbred lines affects the transcriptomic landscape in four different primary root tissues of their F1-hybrid progeny. An extreme instance of complementation was frequently observed: genes that were expressed in only one parent but in both reciprocal hybrids. This single-parent expression (SPE) pattern was detected for 2341 genes with up to 1287 SPE patterns per tissue. As a consequence, the number of active genes in hybrids exceeded that of their parents in each tissue by >400. SPE patterns are highly dynamic, as illustrated by their excessive degree of tissue specificity (80%). The biological significance of this type of complementation is underpinned by the observation that a disproportionally high number of SPE genes (75 to 82%) is nonsyntenic, as opposed to all expressed genes (36%). These genes likely evolved after the last whole-genome duplication and are therefore younger than the syntenic genes. In summary, SPE genes shape the remarkable gene expression plasticity between root tissues and complementation in maize hybrids, resulting in a tissue-specific increase of active genes in F1-hybrids compared with their inbred parents. PMID:25315323

  16. Current profile modification during lower hybrid current drive in the Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification

    SciTech Connect

    Kaita, R.; Bell, R.; Batha, S.H.

    1996-02-01

    Current profile modification with lower hybrid waves has been demonstrated in the Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification tokamak. When the n{parallel} spectrum of the launched waves was varied, local changes in the current profile were observed according to equilibria reconstructed from motional Stark effect polarimetry measurements. Changes in the central safety factor (q) were also determined to be a function of the applied radio frequency (rf) power. These results have been modeled with the Tokamak Simulation Code/Lower Hybrid Simulation Code, which is able to duplicate the general trends seen in the data.

  17. Hybrid drive for motor vehicles with a preponderantly intermittent method of operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreck, H.

    1977-01-01

    A flywheel hybrid propulsion system is compared with a conventional propulsion system in a test vehicle under intermittent operation. An energy balance is presented for the conventional propulsion system. Results so far indicate especially high energy conversion of the gyro component under dynamic operation along with favorable internal combustion engine conditions.

  18. Sex Ratio Meiotic Drive as a Plausible Evolutionary Mechanism for Hybrid Male Sterility

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Linbin; Xiao, Hailian; Tao, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Biological diversity on Earth depends on the multiplication of species or speciation, which is the evolution of reproductive isolation such as hybrid sterility between two new species. An unsolved puzzle is the exact mechanism(s) that causes two genomes to diverge from their common ancestor so that some divergent genes no longer function properly in the hybrids. Here we report genetic analyses of divergent genes controlling male fertility and sex ratio in two very young fruitfly species, Drosophila albomicans and D. nasuta. A majority of the genetic divergence for both traits is mapped to the same regions by quantitative trait loci mappings. With introgressions, six major loci are found to contribute to both traits. This genetic colocalization implicates that genes for hybrid male sterility have evolved primarily for controlling sex ratio. We propose that genetic conflicts over sex ratio may operate as a perpetual dynamo for genome divergence. This particular evolutionary mechanism may largely contribute to the rapid evolution of hybrid male sterility and the disproportionate enrichment of its underlying genes on the X chromosome – two patterns widely observed across animals. PMID:25822261

  19. Development and Demonstration of a Low Cost Hybrid Drive Train for Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Strangas, Elias; Schock, Harold; Zhu, Guoming; Moran, Kevin; Ruckle, Trevor; Foster, Shanelle; Cintron-Rivera, Jorge; Tariq, Abdul; Nino-Baron, Carlos

    2011-04-30

    The DOE sponsored effort is part of a larger effort to quantify the efficiency of hybrid powertrain systems through testing and modeling. The focus of the DOE sponsored activity was the design, development and testing of hardware to evaluate the efficiency of the electrical motors relevant to medium duty vehicles. Medium duty hybrid powertrain motors and generators were designed, fabricated, setup and tested. The motors were a permanent magnet configuration, constructed at Electric Apparatus Corporation in Howell, Michigan. The purpose of this was to identify the potential gains in terms of fuel cost savings that could be realized by implementation of such a configuration. As the electric motors constructed were prototype designs, the scope of the project did not include calculation of the costs of mass production of the subject electrical motors or generator.

  20. Method and system for determining the torque required to launch a vehicle having a hybrid drive-train

    DOEpatents

    Hughes, Douglas A.

    2006-04-04

    A method and system are provided for determining the torque required to launch a vehicle having a hybrid drive-train that includes at least two independently operable prime movers. The method includes the steps of determining the value of at least one control parameter indicative of a vehicle operating condition, determining the torque required to launch the vehicle from the at least one determined control parameter, comparing the torque available from the prime movers to the torque required to launch the vehicle, and controlling operation of the prime movers to launch the vehicle in response to the comparing step. The system of the present invention includes a control unit configured to perform the steps of the method outlined above.

  1. Using insects to drive mobile robots - hybrid robots bridge the gap between biological and artificial systems.

    PubMed

    Ando, Noriyasu; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2017-03-18

    The use of mobile robots is an effective method of validating sensory-motor models of animals in a real environment. The well-identified insect sensory-motor systems have been the major targets for modeling. Furthermore, mobile robots implemented with such insect models attract engineers who aim to avail advantages from organisms. However, directly comparing the robots with real insects is still difficult, even if we successfully model the biological systems, because of the physical differences between them. We developed a hybrid robot to bridge the gap. This hybrid robot is an insect-controlled robot, in which a tethered male silkmoth (Bombyx mori) drives the robot in order to localize an odor source. This robot has the following three advantages: 1) from a biomimetic perspective, the robot enables us to evaluate the potential performance of future insect-mimetic robots; 2) from a biological perspective, the robot enables us to manipulate the closed-loop of an onboard insect for further understanding of its sensory-motor system; and 3) the robot enables comparison with insect models as a reference biological system. In this paper, we review the recent works regarding insect-controlled robots and discuss the significance for both engineering and biology.

  2. Lower hybrid current drive in experiments for transport barriers at high {beta}{sub N} of JET (Joint European Torus)

    SciTech Connect

    Cesario, R. C.; Castaldo, C.; De Angelis, R.; Smeulders, P.; Calabro, G.; Pericoli, V.; Ravera, G.

    2007-09-28

    LHCD has been used in JET experiments aimed at producing internal transport barriers (ITBs) in highly triangular plasmas ({delta}{approx_equal}0.4) at high {beta}{sub N} (up to 3) for steady-state application. The LHCD is a potentially valuable tool for (i) modifying the target q-profile, which can help avoid deleterious MHD modes and favour the formation of ITBs, and (ii) contributing to the non-inductive current drive required to prolong such plasma regimes. The q-profile evolution has been simulated during the current ramp-up phase for such a discharge (B{sub 0} = 2.3 T, I{sub P} = 1.5 MA) where 2 MW of LHCD has been coupled. The JETTO code was used taking measured plasma profiles, and the LHCD profile modeled by the LHstar code. The results are in agreement with MSE measurements and indicate the importance of the elevated electron temperature due to LHCD, as well as the driven current. During main heating with 18 MW of NBI and 3 MW of ICRH the bootstrap current density at the edge also becomes large, consistently with the observed reduction of the local turbulence and of the MHD activity. JETTO modelling suggests that the bootstrap current can reduce the magnetic shear (sh) at large radius, potentially affecting the MHD stability and turbulence behaviour in this region. Keywords: lower hybrid current drive (LHCD), bootstrap current, q (safety factor) and shear (sh) profile evolutions.

  3. The simulation of hard x-ray images obtained during lower hybrid current drive on PBX-M

    SciTech Connect

    Goeler, S. von; Fishman, H.; Ignat, D.

    1994-10-01

    During lower hybrid current drive on PBX-M suprathermal electrons in the 30 to 150 keV range are generated. These electrons emit hard X-ray bremsstrahlung in collisions with plasma ions; the radiation creates images in a hard X-ray pinhole camera. In order to interpret the hard X-ray images, a computer simulation code has been written, the PBXRAY code. It represents an extension of the STEVENS code that calculates the free-free and free-bound radiation for non-Maxwellian relativistic electron tail distributions. The PBXRAY code provides the chord integration in the bean-shaped plasma geometry on PBX-M and integrates over photon energy. The simulations show that the location of the suprathermal electrons can be determined with an accuracy of approximately two centimeters in the plasma. In particular, the authors analyzed discharges whose characteristic ``hollow`` images indicate off-axis LH current drive. A comparison of images taken with different absorber foils reveals that the suprathermal electrons have less than 150 keV parallel energy for the hollow discharges.

  4. Heat flux of fast electrons to the limiter in lower hybrid current drive plasma on WT-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maekawa, T.; Nakamura, M.; Komatsu, T.; Kishino, T.; Kishigami, Y.; Makino, K.; Maehara, T.; Minami, T.; Hanada, K.; Iida, M.; Terumichi, Y.; Tanaka, S.

    1992-10-01

    The heat flux of fast electrons to the local limiter in LHCD plasmas in WT-3 has been investigated by thermal measurement of the limiter. The amount of the heat flux (PFE) is found to be about on third of the net radiofrequency power (Prf) injected into the plasma for various discharge conditions. The results combined with other measurements show that the confinement of fast electrons deteriorates as Prf increases. This direct loss of fast electrons is one of the causes of the degradation of the current drive efficiency. Heat transport of the bulk electrons is also found to increase as Prf increases. Experimental results indicate that a significant part of the remaining RF power (2Prf/3) flows to the bulk electrons. The slowing down power of fast electrons in the energy range above several tens of keV is estimated to be quite small compared with 2Prf/3, suggesting that a significant part of the remaining power flows to the bulk electrons via other channels. A plausible channel is the absorption of RF power via lower energy electrons by an upshift of the parallel refractive index of the injected lower hybrid waves. This seems to be another cause of the degradation of the current drive efficiency

  5. Evaluation of the 2008 Lexus LS 600H Hybrid Synergy Drive System

    SciTech Connect

    Burress, T.A.; Coomer, C.L.; Campbell, S.L.; Wereszczak, A.A.; Cunningham, J.P.; Marlino, L.D.; Seiber, L.E.; Lin, H.T.

    2009-01-15

    Subsystems of the 2008 Lexus 600h hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) were studied and tested as part of an intensive benchmarking effort carried out to produce detailed information concerning the current state of nondomestic alternative vehicle technologies. Feedback provided by benchmarking efforts is particularly useful to partners of the Vehicle Technologies collaborative research program as it is essential in establishing reasonable yet challenging programmatic goals which facilitate development of competitive technologies. The competitive nature set forth by the Vehicle Technologies program not only promotes energy independence and economic stability, it also advocates the advancement of alternative vehicle technologies in an overall global perspective. These technologies greatly facilitate the potential to reduce dependency on depleting natural resources and mitigate harmful impacts of transportation upon the environment.

  6. Lower Hybrid Current Drive and Heating for the National Transport Code Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignat, D. W.; Jardin, S. C.; McCune, D. C.; Valeo, E. J.

    2000-10-01

    The Lower hybrid Simulation Code LSC was originally written as a subroutine to the Toroidal Simulation Code TSC (Jardin, Pomphrey, Kessel, et al) and subsequently ported to a subroutine of TRANSP. Modifications to simplify the use of the LSC both as a callable module, and also independently of larger transport codes, and improve the documentation have been undertaken with the goal of installing LSC in the NTCC library. The physical model, which includes ray tracing from a Brambilla spectrum, 1D Fokker-Planck development of the electron distribution, the Karney-Fisch treatment of the electric field, heuristic diffusion of current and power and wall scattering, has not been changed. The computational approach is to suppress or remove from the control of the user numerical parameters such as step size and number of iterations while changing some code to be extremely stable in varied conditions. Essential graphics are now output as gnuplot commands and data for off-line post processing, but the original outputs to sglib are retained as an option. Examples of output are shown.

  7. A Soft-Switching Inverter for High-Temperature Advanced Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Motor Drives

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Jason; Yu, Wensong; Sun, Pengwei; Leslie, Scott; Prusia, Duane; Arnet, Beat; Smith, Chris; Cogan, Art

    2012-03-31

    The state-of-the-art hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) require the inverter cooling system to have a separate loop to avoid power semiconductor junction over temperatures because the engine coolant temperature of 105°C does not allow for much temperature rise in silicon devices. The proposed work is to develop an advanced soft-switching inverter that will eliminate the device switching loss and cut down the power loss so that the inverter can operate at high-temperature conditions while operating at high switching frequencies with small current ripple in low inductance based permanent magnet motors. The proposed tasks also include high-temperature packaging and thermal modeling and simulation to ensure the packaged module can operate at the desired temperature. The developed module will be integrated with the motor and vehicle controller for dynamometer and in-vehicle testing to prove its superiority. This report will describe the detailed technical design of the soft-switching inverters and their test results. The experiments were conducted both in module level for the module conduction and switching characteristics and in inverter level for its efficiency under inductive and dynamometer load conditions. The performance will be compared with the DOE original specification.

  8. Measured Laboratory and In-Use Fuel Economy Observed over Targeted Drive Cycles for Comparable Hybrid and Conventional Package Delivery Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Lammert, M. P.; Walkowicz, K.; Duran, A.; Sindler, P.

    2012-10-01

    In-use and laboratory-derived fuel economies were analyzed for a medium-duty hybrid electric drivetrain with 'engine off at idle' capability and a conventional drivetrain in a typical commercial package delivery application. Vehicles studied included eleven 2010 Freightliner P100H hybrids in service at a United Parcel Service facility in Minneapolis during the first half of 2010. The hybrids were evaluated for 18 months against eleven 2010 Freightliner P100D diesels at the same facility. Both vehicle groups use the same 2009 Cummins ISB 200-HP engine. In-use fuel economy was evaluated using UPS's fueling and mileage records, periodic ECM image downloads, and J1939 CAN bus recordings during the periods of duty cycle study. Analysis of the in-use fuel economy showed 13%-29% hybrid advantage depending on measurement method, and a delivery route assignment analysis showed 13%-26% hybrid advantage on the less kinetically intense original diesel route assignments and 20%-33% hybrid advantage on the more kinetically intense original hybrid route assignments. Three standardized laboratory drive cycles were selected that encompassed the range of real-world in-use data. The hybrid vehicle demonstrated improvements in ton-mi./gal fuel economy of 39%, 45%, and 21% on the NYC Comp, HTUF Class 4, and CARB HHDDT test cycles, respectively.

  9. PM Motor Parametric Design Analyses for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Drive Application: Interim Report

    SciTech Connect

    Staunton, R.H.

    2004-08-11

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR (Cooperative Automotive Research) and Vehicle Technologies has a strong interest in making rapid progress in permanent magnet (PM) machine development. The program is directing various technology development projects that will advance the technology and lead to request for proposals (RFP) for manufacturer prototypes. This aggressive approach is possible because the technology is clearly within reach and the approach is deemed essential, based on strong market demand, escalating fuel prices, and competitive considerations. In response, this study began parallel development paths that included a literature search/review, development and utilization of multiple parametric models to determine the effects of design parameters, verification of the modeling methodology, development of an interior PM (IPM) machine baseline design, development of alternative machine baseline designs, and cost analyses for several candidate machines. This interim progress report summarizes the results of these activities as of June 2004. This report provides background and summary information for recent machine parametric studies and testing programs that demonstrate both the potential capabilities and technical limitations of brushless PM machines (axial gap and radial gap), the IPM machine, the surface-mount PM machines (interior or exterior rotor), induction machines, and switched reluctance machines. The FreedomCAR program, while acknowledging the progress made by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Delphi, Delco-Remy International, and others in these programs, has redirected efforts toward a ''short path'' to a marketable and competitive PM motor for hybrid electric vehicle traction applications. The program has developed a set of performance targets for the type of traction machine desired. The short-path approach entails a comprehensive design effort focusing on the IPM machine and meeting the performance targets. The selection of the

  10. PM Motor Parametric Design Analyses for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Drive Application

    SciTech Connect

    Staunton, R.H.

    2004-10-11

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR (Cooperative Automotive Research) and Vehicle Technologies office has a strong interest in making rapid progress in permanent magnet (PM) machine development. The DOE FreedomCAR program is directing various technology development projects that will advance the technology and hopefully lead to a near-term request for proposals (RFP) for a to-be-determined level of initial production. This aggressive approach is possible because the technology is clearly within reach and the approach is deemed essential, based on strong market demand, escalating fuel prices, and competitive considerations. In response, this study began parallel development paths that included a literature search/review, development and utilization of multiple parametric models, verification of the modeling methodology, development of an interior PM (IPM) machine baseline design, development of alternative machine baseline designs, and cost analyses for several candidate machines. This report summarizes the results of these activities as of September 2004. This report provides background and summary information for recent machine parametric studies and testing programs that demonstrate both the potential capabilities and technical limitations of brushless PM machines (axial gap and radial gap), the IPM machine, the surface-mount PM machines (interior or exterior rotor), induction machines, and switched-reluctance machines. The FreedomCAR program, while acknowledging the progress made by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Delphi, Delco-Remy International, and others in these programs, has redirected efforts toward a ''short path'' to a marketable and competitive PM motor for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) traction applications. The program has developed a set of performance targets for the type of traction machine desired. The short-path approach entails a comprehensive design effort focusing on the IPM machine and meeting the performance targets

  11. Impact of real world driving pattern and all-electric range on battery sizing and cost of plug-in hybrid electric two-wheeler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amjad, Shaik; Rudramoorthy, R.; Neelakrishnan, S.; Varman, K. Sri Raja; Arjunan, T. V.

    2011-03-01

    This study addresses the impact of an actual drive pattern on the sizing and cost of a battery pack for a plug-in hybrid electric two-wheeler. To estimate the daily average travel distance in fixing the all-electric range of two wheelers, a study conducted in Coimbatore city is presented. A MATLAB simulation model developed for estimating the energy and power requirements in an all-electric strategy using an Indian driving cycle (IDC) and a real-world driving pattern are discussed. The simulation results reveal the impact of the real-world driving pattern on energy consumption and also the influence of all-electric range in sizing the battery pack. To validate the results, a plug-in hybrid electric two-wheeler developed by modifying a standard two-wheeler has been tested on the road with the help of the IDC simulator kit. An annual battery cost comparison shows that nickel-metal-hydride batteries are more economical and suitable for in plug-in hybrid electric two-wheelers.

  12. Stability enhancement and fuel economy of the 4-wheel-drive hybrid electric vehicles by optimal tyre force distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodarzi, Avesta; Mohammadi, Masoud

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, vehicle stability control and fuel economy for a 4-wheel-drive hybrid vehicle are investigated. The integrated controller is designed within three layers. The first layer determines the total yaw moment and total lateral force made by using an optimal controller method to follow the desired dynamic behaviour of a vehicle. The second layer determines optimum tyre force distribution in order to optimise tyre usage and find out how the tyres should share longitudinal and lateral forces to achieve a target vehicle response under the assumption that all four wheels can be independently steered, driven, and braked. In the third layer, the active steering, wheel slip, and electrical motor torque controllers are designed. In the front axle, internal combustion engine (ICE) is coupled to an electric motor (EM). The control strategy has to determine the power distribution between ICE and EM to minimise fuel consumption and allowing the vehicle to be charge sustaining. Finally, simulations performed in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment show that the proposed structure could enhance the vehicle stability and fuel economy in different manoeuvres.

  13. Improved confinement mode induced by a MARFE during lower hybrid current drive in the HT-7 tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asif, M.; Gao, X.; HT-7 Team

    2006-04-01

    Lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) experiments have been carried out to achieve high performance for long pulse operation in the Hefei tokamak-7 (HT-7) superconducting tokamak. Multifaceted asymmetric radiation from the edge (MARFE) phenomena and an improved confinement mode induced by a MARFE are observed in LHCD plasmas when PLH>160 kW and the edge safety factor q(a) is slightly less than 6.5. It is found that an improved confinement mode induced by a MARFE, characterized by Hα line emissions drops and the line-averaged density increase is triggered in the MARFE discharges. The MARFE event occurs at t=1120 ms following the L H transition, and the improved confinement phase exists for about 65 ms from t=1140 ms after the L H transition. The LHCD plasma results basically are typical with MARFEs and it is an improved confinement mode; they are unique in that they appear at very low \\bar {n}_e values in the HT -7 tokamak.

  14. Optimal memory configuration analysis in tri-hybrid solid-state drives with storage class memory and multi-level cell/triple-level cell NAND flash memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Chihiro; Yamada, Tomoaki; Sugiyama, Yusuke; Yamaga, Yusuke; Takeuchi, Ken

    2017-04-01

    This paper analyzes the best mix of memories in a tri-hybrid solid-state drive (SSD) with storage class memory (SCM) and multi-level cell (MLC)/triple-level cell (TLC) NAND flash memory. SCM is fast but its cost is high. Although MLC NAND flash memory is slow, it is more cost effective than SCM. For further cost efficiency, TLC NAND flash memory is denser and less expensive than MLC NAND flash. Performance of tri-hybrid SSD is evaluated in various memory configurations. Moreover, the optimum memory configuration is changed according to the application characteristics. If 10% cost increase is allowed compared to the MLC NAND flash only SSD, SCM/MLC NAND flash hybrid SSD provides the best performance with hot/random workload, whereas SCM/MLC/TLC NAND flash tri-hybrid SSD achieves the best for hot/sequential and cold/random workloads. In addition, it is possible to add long latency but low-cost SCM to the tri-hybrid SSD. As a result, tri-hybrid SSD with slow SCM achieves the best performance.

  15. Subcontract Report: Final Report on Assessment of Motor Technologies for Traction Drives of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (Subcontract #4000080341)

    SciTech Connect

    Fezzler, Raymond

    2011-03-01

    Currently, interior permanent magnet (IPM) motors with rare-earth (RE) magnets are almost universally used for hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs) because of their superior properties, particularly power density. However, there is now a distinct possibility of limited supply or very high cost of RE magnets that could make IPM motors unavailable or too expensive. Because development of electric motors is a critical part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Power Electronics and Motors activity, DOE needs to determine which options should be investigated and what barriers should be addressed. Therefore, in order to provide a basis for deciding which research topics should be pursued, an assessment of various motor technologies was conducted to determine which, if any, is potentially capable of meeting FreedomCAR 2015 and 2020 targets. Highest priority was given to IPM, surface mounted permanent magnet (SPM), induction, and switched reluctance (SR) motors. Also of interest, but with lesser emphasis, were wheel motors, multiple-rotor motors, motors with external excitation, and several others that emerged from the assessment. Cost and power density (from a design perspective, the power density criterion translates to torque density) are emerging as the two most important properties of motors for traction drives in hybrid and EVs, although efficiency and specific power also are very important. The primary approach for this assessment involved interviews with original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), their suppliers, and other technical experts. For each technology, the following issues were discussed: (1) The current state-of-the-art performance and cost; (2) Recent trends in the technology; (3) Inherent characteristics of the motor - which ones limit the ability of the technology to meet the targets and which ones aid in meeting the target; (4) What research and development (R&D) would be needed to meet the targets; and (5) The potential for the technology to

  16. Investigation of runaway electrons in the current ramp-up by a fully non-inductive lower hybrid current drive on the EAST tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, H. W.; Zha, X. J.; Zhong, F. C.; Hu, L. Q.; Zhou, R. J.; EAST Team

    2013-05-01

    The possibility of using a lower hybrid wave (LHW) to ramp up the plasma current (Ip) from a low level to a high enough level required for fusion burn in the EAST (experimental advanced superconducting tokamak) tokamak is examined experimentally. The focus in this paper is on investigating how the relevant plasma parameters evolve during the current ramp-up (CRU) phase driving by a lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) with poloidal field (PF) coil cut-off, especially the behaviors of runaway electrons generated during the CRU phase. It is found that the intensity of runaway electron emission increases first, and then decreases gradually as the discharge goes on under conditions of PF coil cut-off before LHW was launched into plasma, PF coil cut-off at the same time as LHW was launched into plasma, as well as PF coil cut-off after LHW was launched into plasma. The relevant plasma parameters, including Hα line emission (Ha), impurity line emission (UV), soft x-ray emission and electron density n_{\\rm{e}} , increase to a high level. The loop voltage decreases from positive to negative, and then becomes zero because of the cut-off of PF coils. Also, the magnetohydrodynamic activity takes place during the CRU driving by LHCD.

  17. Whistlers, helicons, and lower hybrid waves: The physics of radio frequency wave propagation and absorption for current drive via Landau damping

    SciTech Connect

    Pinsker, R. I.

    2015-09-15

    This introductory-level tutorial article describes the application of plasma waves in the lower hybrid range of frequencies (LHRF) for current drive in tokamaks. Wave damping mechanisms in a nearly collisionless hot magnetized plasma are briefly described, and the connections between the properties of the damping mechanisms and the optimal choices of wave properties (mode, frequency, wavelength) are explored. The two wave modes available for current drive in the LHRF are described and compared. The terms applied to these waves in different applications of plasma physics are elucidated. The character of the ray paths of these waves in the LHRF is illustrated in slab and toroidal geometries. Applications of these ideas to experiments in the DIII-D tokamak are discussed.

  18. Hybrid Pwm Switching Strategy for a Three-Level Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drive with Open-End Windings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, S.; Ramachandrasekhar, K.

    2010-06-01

    A dual two-level inverter fed induction motor with open-end windings is capable of generating a three-level output voltage. Several, sine-triangle and space vector pulse width modulation (PWM) switching strategies are presented for the dual-inverter scheme either using space-vector or carrier-based implementation. In this paper, a hybrid PWM switching strategy for the dual-inverter scheme is proposed employing sine-triangle PWM (SPWM) and space vector PWM (SVPWM) for the individual inverters. SPWM is theoretically analyzed and space vector based implementation of SPWM is presented using a simple offset-time concept. This is exploited to implement the hybrid PWM switching strategy for the dual two-level inverter. The implementation of the hybrid PWM switching strategy proposed in this paper do not require any look-up tables, the switching is totally automatic obviating the time-consuming task of sector identification. The implementation of the hybrid PWM scheme requires only the three instantaneous phase reference voltages corresponding to the reference space vector. The third harmonic component in the voltage appearing across the motor phase windings in the induction motor is significantly reduced (by 50%) with the use of the proposed hybrid PWM scheme as compared to the use of the PWM scheme presented earlier. Also, the percentage weighted total harmonic distortion (%WTHD) of the output voltage is significantly reduced in the entire range of speed of the induction motor driven by the dual-inverter scheme.

  19. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle LiFePO4 battery life implications of thermal management, driving conditions, and regional climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuksel, Tugce; Litster, Shawn; Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian; Michalek, Jeremy J.

    2017-01-01

    Battery degradation strongly depends on temperature, and many plug-in electric vehicle applications employ thermal management strategies to extend battery life. The effectiveness of thermal management depends on the design of the thermal management system as well as the battery chemistry, cell and pack design, vehicle system characteristics, and operating conditions. We model a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle with an air-cooled battery pack composed of cylindrical LiFePO4/graphite cells and simulate the effect of thermal management, driving conditions, regional climate, and vehicle system design on battery life. We estimate that in the absence of thermal management, aggressive driving can cut battery life by two thirds; a blended gas/electric-operation control strategy can quadruple battery life relative to an all-electric control strategy; larger battery packs can extend life by an order of magnitude relative to small packs used for all-electric operation; and batteries last 73-94% longer in mild-weather San Francisco than in hot Phoenix. Air cooling can increase battery life by a factor of 1.5-6, depending on regional climate and driving patterns. End of life criteria has a substantial effect on battery life estimates.

  20. Study of the Advantages of Internal Permanent Magnet Drive Motor with Selectable Windings for Hybrid-Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Otaduy, P.J.; Hsu, J.S.; Adams, D.J.

    2007-11-30

    This report describes research performed on the viability of changing the effectively active number of turns in the stator windings of an internal permanent magnet (IPM) electric motor to strengthen or weaken the magnetic fields in order to optimize the motor's performance at specific operating speeds and loads. Analytical and simulation studies have been complemented with research on switching mechanisms to accomplish the task. The simulation studies conducted examine the power and energy demands on a vehicle following a series of standard driving cycles and the impact on the efficiency and battery size of an electrically propelled vehicle when it uses an IPM motor with turn-switching capabilities. Both full driving cycle electric propulsion and propulsion limited starting from zero to a set speed have been investigated.

  1. The dynamics of short-scale turbulent fluctuations across low-intermediate-high-confinement transition with lower hybrid current drive in the EAST superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, G. M.; Li, Y. D.; Zhang, X. D.; Sun, P. J.; Wu, G. J.; Hu, L. Q.

    2015-02-15

    Two different confinement transition discharges, the low-intermediate-high (L-I-H) and the low-intermediate-low (L-I-L) confinement transitions, respectively, have been obtained by lower hybrid current drive with lithium wall conditioning in the EAST superconducting tokamak. The dynamic features of short-scale turbulent fluctuations in the two discharges are investigated by a tangential CO{sub 2} laser collective scattering system. It is found that the great changes of broadband fluctuations in amplitude and structure characteristics are closely related to the choice of the final transition to H-mode. These results could shed light on the understanding of the L-H transition mechanism.

  2. Lower hybrid current drive and ion cyclotron range of frequencies heating experiments in H-mode plasmas in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokomak

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X. J.; Wan, B. N. Zhao, Y. P.; Ding, B. J.; Xu, G. S.; Gong, X. Z.; Li, J. G.; Lin, Y.; Wukitch, S.; Taylor, G.; Noterdaeme, J. M.; Braun, F.; Magne, R.; Litaudon, X.; Kumazawa, R.; Kasahara, H.

    2014-06-15

    An ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) system with power up to 6.0 MW and a lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) system up to 4 MW have been applied for heating and current drive experiments in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokomak (EAST). Significant progress has been made with ICRF heating and LHCD for realizing the H-mode plasma operation in EAST. During 2010 and 2012 experimental campaigns, ICRF heating experiments were carried out at the fixed frequency of 27MHz, achieving effective ions and electrons heating with the H minority heating (H-MH) mode. The H-MH mode produced good plasma performance, and realized H-mode using ICRF power alone in 2012. In 2010, H-modes were generated and sustained by LHCD alone, where lithium coating and gas puffing near the mouth of the LH launcher were applied to improve the LHCD power coupling and penetration into the core plasmas of H-modes. In 2012, the combination of LHCD and ICRH power extended the H-mode duration up to over 30 s. H-modes with various types of edge localized modes (ELMs) have been achieved with H{sub IPB98}(y, 2) ranging from 0.7 to over unity. A brief overview of LHCD and ICRF Heating experiment and their application in achieving H-mode operation during these two campaigns will be presented.

  3. Driving electrocatalytic activity by interface electronic structure control in a metalloprotein hybrid catalyst for efficient hydrogen evolution.

    PubMed

    Behera, Sushant Kumar; Deb, Pritam; Ghosh, Arghya

    2016-08-17

    The rational design of metalloprotein hybrid structures and precise calculations for understanding the role of the interfacial electronic structure in regulating the HER activity of water splitting sites and their microscopic effect for obtaining robust hydrogen evolution possess great promise for developing highly efficient nano-bio hybrid HER catalysts. Here, we employ high-accuracy linear-scaling density functional theory calculations using a near-complete basis set and a minimal parameter implicit solvent model within the self-consistent calculations, on silver (Ag) ions assimilated on bacteriorhodopsin (bR) at specific binding sites. Geometry optimization indicates the formation of active sites at the interface of the metalloprotein complex and the density of states reflects the metallic nature of the active sites. The reduced value of the canonical orbital gap indicates the state of dynamic nature after Ag ion assimilation on active sites and smooth electron transfer. These incorporated active protein sites are more efficient in electrolytic splitting of water than pristine sites due to their low value of Gibbs free energy for the HER in terms of hydrogen coverages. Volcano plot analysis and the free energy diagram are compared for understanding the hydrogen evolution efficiency. Moreover, the essential role of the interfacial electronic properties in regulating the HER catalytic activity of water splitting sites and enhancing the efficiency is elucidated.

  4. Overview of the Safety Issues Associated with the Compressed Natural Gas Fuel System and Electric Drive System in a Heavy Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.C.

    2002-11-14

    This report evaluates the hazards that are unique to a compressed-natural-gas (CNG)-fueled heavy hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) design compared with a conventional heavy vehicle. The unique design features of the heavy HEV are the CNG fuel system for the internal-combustion engine (ICE) and the electric drive system. This report addresses safety issues with the CNG fuel system and the electric drive system. Vehicles on U. S. highways have been propelled by ICEs for several decades. Heavy-duty vehicles have typically been fueled by diesel fuel, and light-duty vehicles have been fueled by gasoline. The hazards and risks posed by ICE vehicles are well understood and have been generally accepted by the public. The economy, durability, and safety of ICE vehicles have established a standard for other types of vehicles. Heavy-duty (i.e., heavy) HEVs have recently been introduced to U. S. roadways, and the hazards posed by these heavy HEVs can be compared with the hazards posed by ICE vehicles. The benefits of heavy HEV technology are based on their potential for reduced fuel consumption and lower exhaust emissions, while the disadvantages are the higher acquisition cost and the expected higher maintenance costs (i.e., battery packs). The heavy HEV is more suited for an urban drive cycle with stop-and-go driving conditions than for steady expressway speeds. With increasing highway congestion and the resulting increased idle time, the fuel consumption advantage for heavy HEVs (compared with conventional heavy vehicles) is enhanced by the HEVs' ability to shut down. Any increase in fuel cost obviously improves the economics of a heavy HEV. The propulsion system for a heavy HEV is more complex than the propulsion system for a conventional heavy vehicle. The heavy HEV evaluated in this study has in effect two propulsion systems: an ICE fueled by CNG and an electric drive system with additional complexity and failure modes. This additional equipment will result in a less

  5. Population studies of native grass-endophyte symbioses provide clues for the roles of host jumps and hybridization in driving their evolution.

    PubMed

    Craven, K D

    2012-06-01

    Fungal endophytes in the genera Epichloë and Neotyphodium, collectively termed the epichloae, have fascinated biologists for decades. These intriguing fungi, also referred to as 'class 1 or clavicipitaceous endophytes', spend the large majority, or even their entire life cycle, within the tissues of their cool-season grass hosts without eliciting any symptoms of infection. While all epichloae reside within the intercellular spaces of aboveground vegetative grass tissues, the species at the symbiotic extreme are known as Neotyphodium, and the intimacy of their interaction extends to the reproductive (flowering) stage. At this point, fungal filaments (hyphae) nondestructively invade the developing ovaries of their host and are incorporated into perfectly viable, healthy seeds. Thus, these endophytes live solely within the tissues of their host plants and are transmitted maternally from generation to generation. A second life history characteristic of interest is that while all Epichloë and some Neotyphodium species are haploid, a great many of the strictly seed-transmitted Neotyphodium spp. are interspecific hybrids. This phenomenon may be critical for the success of these symbioses over longer spans of evolutionary time and will be discussed in greater detail below. A third characteristic, and one of the primary reasons these grass endophytes have received so much attention over the last three decades, is the strong mutualistic nature these relationships often exhibit. In exchange for photosynthetically derived carbon, the endophytes protect their cool-season grass hosts from grazing herbivores and a variety of abiotic stresses. It has been hypothesized that these three biological phenomena are related (Schardl & Craven 2003), perhaps with the former two driving the third, and it is here that the recent article in Molecular Ecology entitled 'Genetic diversity in epichloid endophytes of Hordelymus europaeus suggests repeated host jumps and interspecific

  6. Identification of a male meiosis-specific gene, Tcte2, which is differentially spliced in species that form sterile hybrids with laboratory mice and deleted in t chromosomes showing meiotic drive.

    PubMed

    Braidotti, G; Barlow, D P

    1997-06-01

    Tcte2 (t complex testes expressed 2) is a male meiosis-specific gene that maps to band 3.3 of mouse chromosome 17. Two distinct male fertility defects, hybrid sterility and transmission ratio distortion, have previously been mapped to this region. Hybrid sterility arises in crosses between different mouse species and the F1 generation males have defects in the first meiotic division and are sterile. Transmission ratio distortion is shown by males heterozygous for the t haplotype form of chromosome 17 and is a type of meiotic drive in which male gametes function unequally at fertilization. The Tcte2 gene expresses a coding mRNA and a number of putative non-ORF transcripts in meiosis I. A deletion of the 5' part of the locus abolishes Tcte2 expression on the t haplotype form of chromosome 17. Additionally, the series of putative non-ORF RNAs at the Tcte2 locus are differentially spliced in species that show hybrid sterility when crossed to laboratory mice. The identification of polymorphisms in t haplotypes and in different mouse species allows alleles of Tcte2 to be proposed as candidates for loci which contribute to both meiotic drive and hybrid sterility phenotypes. While theoretical considerations have previously been used to propose that speciation and meiotic drive involve alleles of the same genes, Tcte2 is the first cloned candidate gene to support this link at a molecular level.

  7. The gravimetric picture of magmatic and hydrothermal sources driving hybrid unrest on Tenerife in 2004/5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prutkin, Ilya; Vajda, Peter; Gottsmann, Jo

    2014-08-01

    We present results from the inversion of gravity changes observed at the central volcanic complex (CVC) of Tenerife, Canary Islands, between May 2004 and July 2005. Marking a period of elevated activity and a reawakening of the volcanic system, the data depict spatial and temporal variations in the sub-surface processes that defined this period of unrest at the Pico Viejo (PV)-Pico Teide (PT) complex, after the last volcanic eruption on Tenerife in 1909. An initial non-linear inversion, based on 3D line segments approximation, yielded three line segments at depths between 1 km a.s.l. and 2 km b.s.l. Our interpretation of the initial inversion results is that the line segments represent apparent composite sources, a superposition of deep and shallow seated sources. We therefore decomposed the gravity changes into shallow and deep parts (fields) using a procedure based on triple harmonic continuation. The shallow and deep fields could then be inverted separately, using the same inversion methodology. The deep field constrains two connected line segments at the depth of about 6 km b.s.l., in the center of the NW seismogenic zone of VT event swarm of the seismic unrest, that we interpret as magma input. The inversion of the shallow field images three weak line segments that are all situated at very shallow, near-surface depths. We interpret the weak segments as hydrothermal sources potentially excited by the deeper magma injection. Our results indicate no significant input into the shallow phonolitic plumbing system of the PV-PT complex, but rather a deeper-seated rejuvenation of the mafic feeder reservoir. The emerging picture from our analysis is that the 2004/5 unrest on Tenerife was of a hybrid nature due to the combination of a deep magma injection (failed eruption?) coupled with fluid migration to shallow depths. The identified causative link between deep and shallow unrest sources indicates the presence of permeable pathways for shallow fluid migration at the

  8. Automatic hybrid electric lumina van

    SciTech Connect

    Ellers, C.W.

    1995-12-31

    A parallel/Series split-drive hybrid system driving a seven passenger Lumina van is described. The series type hybrid uses a heat-engine driven generator to charge the batteries and/or supply power to the electric drive motor. Volvo is now showing the Volvo ECC (Environmental Concept Car) which is one of the best examples of the series hybrid concept.

  9. Fast wave current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Goree, J.; Ono, M.; Colestock, P.; Horton, R.; McNeill, D.; Park, H.

    1985-07-01

    Fast wave current drive is demonstrated in the Princeton ACT-I toroidal device. The fast Alfven wave, in the range of high ion-cyclotron harmonics, produced 40 A of current from 1 kW of rf power coupled into the plasma by fast wave loop antenna. This wave excites a steady current by damping on the energetic tail of the electron distribution function in the same way as lower-hybrid current drive, except that fast wave current drive is appropriate for higher plasma densities.

  10. Noninductive current drive in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Uckan, N.A.

    1985-01-01

    Various current drive mechanisms may be grouped into four classes: (1) injection of energetic particle beams; (2) launching of rf waves; (3) hybrid schemes, which are combinations of various rf schemes (rf plus beams, rf and/or beam plus ohmic heating, etc.); and (4) other schemes, some of which are specific to reactor plasma conditions requiring the presence of alpha particle or intense synchrotron radiation. Particle injection schemes include current drive by neutral beams and relativistic electron beams. The rf schemes include current drive by the lower hybrid (LH) waves, the electron waves, the waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies, etc. Only a few of these approaches, however, have been tested experimentally, with the broadest data base available for LH waves. Included in this report are (1) efficiency criteria for current drive, (2) current drive by neutral beam injection, (3) LH current drive, (4) electron cyclotron current drive, (5) current drive by ion cyclotron waves - minority species heating, and (6) current drive by other schemes (such as hybrids and low frequency waves).

  11. iDriving (Intelligent Driving)

    SciTech Connect

    Malikopoulos, Andreas

    2012-09-17

    iDriving identifies the driving style factors that have a major impact on fuel economy. An optimization framework is used with the aim of optimizing a driving style with respect to these driving factors. A set of polynomial metamodels is constructed to reflect the responses produced in fuel economy by changing the driving factors. The optimization framework is used to develop a real-time feedback system, including visual instructions, to enable drivers to alter their driving styles in responses to actual driving conditions to improve fuel efficiency.

  12. Drugged Driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold ... in the past year. Middle Figure: Driving after marijuana use is more common than driving after alcohol ...

  13. Impaired Driving

    MedlinePlus

    Impaired driving is dangerous. It's the cause of more than half of all car crashes. It means operating a ... texting Having a medical condition which affects your driving For your safety and the safety of others, ...

  14. Pile Driving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Machine-oriented structural engineering firm TERA, Inc. is engaged in a project to evaluate the reliability of offshore pile driving prediction methods to eventually predict the best pile driving technique for each new offshore oil platform. Phase I Pile driving records of 48 offshore platforms including such information as blow counts, soil composition and pertinent construction details were digitized. In Phase II, pile driving records were statistically compared with current methods of prediction. Result was development of modular software, the CRIPS80 Software Design Analyzer System, that companies can use to evaluate other prediction procedures or other data bases.

  15. Research on Hybrid Vehicle Drivetrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhongzhi

    Hybrid cars as a solution to energy saving, emission reduction measures, have received widespread attention. Motor drive system as an important part of the hybrid vehicles as an important object of study. Based on the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain control system for permanent magnet synchronous motor as the object of study. Can be applied to hybrid car compares the characteristics of traction motors, chose permanent magnet synchronous Motors as drive motors for hybrid vehicles. Building applications in hybrid cars in MATLAB/Simulink simulation model of permanent-magnet synchronous motor speed control system and analysis of simulation results.

  16. Distracted driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... the road Your hands on the wheel Your mind on driving Distracted driving occurs when something gets in the way of you doing all 3 things. Examples include: Talking on a cell phone Reading or sending text messages Eating and drinking Grooming ( ...

  17. Dementia & Driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... Caregiver Resource Center Family Care Navigator Research Registry Support Groups Caregiver Stories Connections e-Newsletter FCA+(plus) Services ... be like if you could no longer drive. Support groups provide a good venue for both the caregivers ...

  18. Disk Drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A new material known as AlBeMet, developed by Brush Wellman for research applications in the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) program, is now used for high performance disk drives. AlBeMet is a compression of aluminum, beryllium metal matrix composite. It reduces system weight and its high thermal conductivity can effectively remove heat and increase an electrical system's lifetime. The lighter, stiffer AlBeMet (AlBeMet 160) used in the disk drive means heads can be moved faster, improving disk performance.

  19. At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    2016-07-13

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. The vehicles can be divided into three categories: 1) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 2) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and 3) All-electric vehicles (EVs).

  20. At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    2016-07-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. The vehicles can be divided into three categories: 1) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 2) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and 3) All-electric vehicles (EVs).

  1. Fast wave current drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goree, J.; Ono, M.; Colestock, P.; Horton, R.; McNeill, D.; Park, H.

    1985-07-01

    Experiments on the fast wave in the range of high ion cyclotron harmonics in the ACT-1 device show that current drive is possible with the fast wave just as it is for the lower hybrid wave, except that it is suitable for higher plasma densities. A 140° loop antenna launched the high ion cyclotron harmonic fast wave [ω/Ω=O(10)] into a He+ plasma with ne≂4×1012 cm-3 and B=4.5 kG. Probe and magnetic loop diagnostics and FIR laser scattering confirmed the presence of the fast wave, and the Rogowski loop indicated that the circulating plasma current increased by up to 40A with 1 kW of coupled power, which is comparable to lower hybrid current drive in the same device with the same unidirectional fast electron beam used as the target for the rf. A phased antenna array would be used for FWCD in a tokamak without the E-beam.

  2. 0.6-1.0 V operation set/reset voltage (3 V) generator for three-dimensional integrated resistive random access memory and NAND flash hybrid solid-state drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Masahiro; Hachiya, Shogo; Ishii, Tomoya; Ning, Sheyang; Tsurumi, Kota; Takeuchi, Ken

    2016-04-01

    A 0.6-1.0 V, 25.9 mm2 boost converter is proposed to generate resistive random access memory (ReRAM) write (set/reset) voltage for three-dimensional (3D) integrated ReRAM and NAND flash hybrid solid-state drive (SSD). The proposed boost converter uses an integrated area-efficient V BUF generation circuit to obtain short ReRAM sector write time, small circuit size, and small energy consumption simultaneously. In specific, the proposed boost converter reduces ReRAM sector write time by 65% compared with a conventional one-stage boost converter (Conventional 1) which uses 1.0 V operating voltage. On the other hand, by using the same ReRAM sector write time, the proposed boost converter reduces 49% circuit area and 46% energy consumption compared with a conventional two-stage boost converter (Conventional 2). In addition, by using the proposed boost converter, the operating voltage, V DD, can be reduced to 0.6 V. The lowest 159 nJ energy consumption can be obtained when V DD is 0.7 V.

  3. Powertrain system for a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Reed, R.G. Jr.; Boberg, E.S.; Lawrie, R.E.; Castaing, F.J.

    1999-08-31

    A hybrid electric powertrain system is provided including an electric motor/generator drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of a transmission. The electric is utilized for synchronizing the rotation of the drive shaft with the driven shaft during gear shift operations. In addition, a mild hybrid concept is provided which utilizes a smaller electric motor than typical hybrid powertrain systems. Because the electric motor is drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of the transmission, the electric motor/generator is driven at high speed even when the vehicle speed is low so that the electric motor/generator provides more efficient regeneration. 34 figs.

  4. Powertrain system for a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Reed, Jr., Richard G.; Boberg, Evan S.; Lawrie, Robert E.; Castaing, Francois J.

    1999-08-31

    A hybrid electric powertrain system is provided including an electric motor/generator drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of a transmission. The electric is utilized for synchronizing the rotation of the drive shaft with the driven shaft during gear shift operations. In addition, a mild hybrid concept is provided which utilizes a smaller electric motor than typical hybrid powertrain systems. Because the electric motor is drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of the transmission, the electric motor/generator is driven at high speed even when the vehicle speed is low so that the electric motor/generator provides more efficient regeneration.

  5. Systems for hybrid cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitsche, Otmar; Gutmann, Guenter

    Not only sharp competition but also legislation are pushing development of hybrid drive trains. Based on conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, these drive trains offer a wide range of benefits from reduced fuel consumption and emission to multifaceted performance improvements. Hybrid electric drive trains may also facilitate the introduction of fuel cells (FC). The battery is the key component for all hybrid drive trains, as it dominates cost and performance issues. The selection of the right battery technology for the specific automotive application is an important task with an impact on costs of development and use. Safety, power, and high cycle life are a must for all hybrid applications. The greatest pressure to reduce cost is in soft hybrids, where lead-acid embedded in a considerate management presents the cheapest solution, with a considerable improvement in performance needed. From mild to full hybridization, an improvement in specific power makes higher costs more acceptable, provided that the battery's service life is equivalent to the vehicle's lifetime. Today, this is proven for the nickel-metal hydride system. Lithium ion batteries, which make use of a multiple safety concept, and with some development anticipated, provide even better prospects in terms of performance and costs. Also, their scalability permits their application in battery electric vehicles—the basis for better performance and enhanced user acceptance. Development targets for the batteries are discussed with a focus on system aspects such as electrical and thermal management and safety.

  6. Hybrid cars now, fuel cell cars later.

    PubMed

    Demirdöven, Nurettin; Deutch, John

    2004-08-13

    We compare the energy efficiency of hybrid and fuel cell vehicles as well as conventional internal combustion engines. Our analysis indicates that fuel cell vehicles using hydrogen from fossil fuels offer no significant energy efficiency advantage over hybrid vehicles operating in an urban drive cycle. We conclude that priority should be placed on hybrid vehicles by industry and government.

  7. Microwave heating and current drive in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.I.; Cohen, R.H.; Kerbel, G.D.; Logan, B.G.; Matsuda, Y.; McCoy, M.G.; Nevins, W.M.; Rognlien, T.D.; Smith, G.R.; Harvey, R.W.; Kritz, A.H.; Bonoli, P.T.; Porkolab, M.

    1988-08-23

    The use of powerful microwave sources provide unique opportunities for novel and efficient heating and current-drive schemes in the electron-cyclotron and lower-hybrid ranges of frequencies. Free- electron lasers and relativistic klystrons are new sources that have a number of technical advantages over conventional, lower-intensity sources; their use can lead to improved current-drive efficiencies and better penetration into a reactor-grade plasma in specific cases. This paper reports on modeling of absorption and current drive, in intense-pulse and quasilinear regimes, and on analysis of parametric instabilities and self-focusing. 16 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Coaxial Redundant Drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brissette, R.

    1983-01-01

    Harmonic drives allow redundancy and high out put torque in small package. If main drive fails, standby drive takes over and produces torque along same axis as main drive. Uses include power units in robot for internal pipeline inspection, manipulators in deep submersible probes or other applications in which redundancy protects against costly failures.

  9. Hybrid Vehicle Simulation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-17

    Driving Sequence," Federal Register, 35(219): 17288-313 (10 November 1970). 7. "Electric Cars : Where Batteries Stand," Automotive Industry, 185(13): 81-83...Storage Systems, November 1979. 11. Hiroyuko, Imai. "Optimal Acceleration Performance and Storage Battery Voltage of an Electric Automobile Viewed from...ARE:,/35X, 16HNOMINAL VOLTAGE=, F4.0 C,/35X13HBATTERY MASS=,F5.0) C C ENTER HYBRID VARIABLES. FIRST CARD- 1 IF HYBRID,0 IF NOT. NEXT CAR C )IF IHYB=1

  10. Power semiconductor controlled drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Gopal K.

    This book presents power semiconductor controlled drives employing dc motors, induction motors, and synchronous motors. The dynamics of motor and load systems are covered. Open-loop and closed-loop drives are considered, and thyristor, power transistor, and GTO converters are discussed. In-depth coverage is given to ac drives, particularly those fed by voltage and current source inverters and cycloconverters. Full coverage is given to brushless and commutatorless dc drives, including load-commuted synchronous motor drives. Rectifier-controlled dc drives are presented in detail.

  11. Low cost, compact, and high efficiency traction motor for electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Ehsani, Mark

    2002-10-07

    A new motor drive, the switched reluctance motor drive, has been developed for hybrid-electric vehicles. The motor drive has been designed, built and tested in the test bed at a near vehicle scale. It has been shown that the switched reluctance motor drive is more suitable for traction application than any other motor drive.

  12. Ocular disease and driving.

    PubMed

    Wood, Joanne M; Black, Alex A

    2016-09-01

    As the driving population ages, the number of drivers with visual impairment resulting from ocular disease will increase given the age-related prevalence of ocular disease. The increase in visual impairment in the driving population has a number of implications for driving outcomes. This review summarises current research regarding the impact of common ocular diseases on driving ability and safety, with particular focus on cataract, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, hemianopia and diabetic retinopathy. The evidence considered includes self-reported driving outcomes, driving performance (on-road and simulator-based) and various motor vehicle crash indices. Collectively, this review demonstrates that driving ability and safety are negatively affected by ocular disease; however, further research is needed in this area. Older drivers with ocular disease need to be aware of the negative consequences of their ocular condition and in the case where treatment options are available, encouraged to seek these earlier for optimum driving safety and quality of life benefits.

  13. Dementia and driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000028.htm Dementia and driving To use the sharing features on this page, ... their independence is being taken away. Signs That Driving May No Longer be Safe People with signs ...

  14. Safe driving for teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/pubmed/25837240 . Simons-Morton B, Ouimet MC. Parent involvement in novice teen driving: a review of the ... nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16788109 . Simons-Morton B. Parent involvement in novice teen driving: rationale, evidence of effects, ...

  15. Gear bearing drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Brian (Inventor); Mavroidis, Constantinos (Inventor); Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A gear bearing drive provides a compact mechanism that operates as an actuator providing torque and as a joint providing support. The drive includes a gear arrangement integrating an external rotor DC motor within a sun gear. Locking surfaces maintain the components of the drive in alignment and provide support for axial loads and moments. The gear bearing drive has a variety of applications, including as a joint in robotic arms and prosthetic limbs.

  16. Sequential Dependencies in Driving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doshi, Anup; Tran, Cuong; Wilder, Matthew H.; Mozer, Michael C.; Trivedi, Mohan M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of recent experience on current behavior has been studied extensively in simple laboratory tasks. We explore the nature of sequential effects in the more naturalistic setting of automobile driving. Driving is a safety-critical task in which delayed response times may have severe consequences. Using a realistic driving simulator, we find…

  17. Magnetic drive coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Edward L. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    The driving and driven members of a magnetic drive are separated by en enlarged gap to provide clearance for a conduit or other member. Flux pins in the gap maintain the torque transmitting capability of the drive. The spacing between two of the flux pins is increased to provide space for the conduit.

  18. Grieving while Driving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblatt, Paul C.

    2004-01-01

    Secondary analysis of data from 84 people in 2 interview studies shows that some bereaved people grieve actively while driving. The grief can be intense, even years after a death. Grief while driving may erupt spontaneously or be set off by a wide range of reminders. Some bereaved people seem to save their grieving for times when they drive,…

  19. Ants exhibit asymmetric hybridization in a mosaic hybrid zone.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Jessica; Zahnd, Sacha; Athanasiades, Anouk; Türler, Rebecca; Chapuisat, Michel; Brelsford, Alan

    2016-10-01

    Research on hybridization between species provides unparalleled insights into the pre- and postzygotic isolating mechanisms that drive speciation. In social organisms, colony-level incompatibilities may provide additional reproductive barriers not present in solitary species, and hybrid zones offer an opportunity to identify these barriers. Here, we use genotyping-by-sequencing to sequence hundreds of markers in a hybrid zone between two socially polymorphic ant species, Formica selysi and Formica cinerea. We characterize the zone, determine the frequency of hybrid workers, infer whether hybrid queens or males are produced and investigate whether hybridization is influenced by colony social organization. We also compare cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and aggression levels between the two species. The hybrid zone exhibits a mosaic structure. The asymmetric distribution of hybrids skewed towards F. cinerea suggests a pattern of unidirectional nuclear gene flow from F. selysi into F. cinerea. The occurrence of backcrossed individuals indicates that hybrid queens and/or males are fertile, and the presence of the F. cinerea mitochondrial haplotype in 97% of hybrids shows that successful F1 hybrids will generally have F. cinerea mothers and F. selysi fathers. We found no evidence that social organization contributes to speciation, because hybrids occur in both single-queen and multiple-queen colonies. Strongly differentiated cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and heightened interspecific aggression further reveal that species recognition cues are both present and perceived. The discovery of fertile hybrids and asymmetrical gene flow is unusual in ants, and this hybrid zone will therefore provide an ideal system with which to investigate speciation in social insects.

  20. Syncope and Driving.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Juan C; Morillo, Carlos A

    2015-08-01

    The occurrence of syncope while driving has obvious implications for personal and public safety. Neurally mediated syncope is the most common type of syncope in general and, thereby, also while driving. The presence of structural heart disease (reduced ejection fraction, previous myocardial infarction, significant congenital heart disease) potentially leads to high risk and should determine driving restrictions pending clarification of underlying heart disease and etiology of syncope. The clinical approach to syncope evaluation and recommendations for driving should not differ, whether or not the syncopal spell occurred while driving.

  1. Drill drive mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Dressel, Michael O.

    1979-01-01

    A drill drive mechanism is especially adapted to provide both rotational drive and axial feed for a drill of substantial diameter such as may be used for drilling holes for roof bolts in mine shafts. The drill shaft is made with a helical pattern of scroll-like projections on its surface for removal of cuttings. The drill drive mechanism includes a plurality of sprockets carrying two chains of drive links which are arranged to interlock around the drill shaft with each drive link having depressions which mate with the scroll-like projections. As the chain links move upwardly or downwardly the surfaces of the depressions in the links mate with the scroll projections to move the shaft axially. Tangs on the drive links mate with notch surfaces between scroll projections to provide a means for rotating the shaft. Projections on the drive links mate together at the center to hold the drive links tightly around the drill shaft. The entire chain drive mechanism is rotated around the drill shaft axis by means of a hydraulic motor and gear drive to cause rotation of the drill shaft. This gear drive also connects with a differential gearset which is interconnected with a second gear. A second motor is connected to the spider shaft of the differential gearset to produce differential movement (speeds) at the output gears of the differential gearset. This differential in speed is utilized to drive said second gear at a speed different from the speed of said gear drive, this speed differential being utilized to drive said sprockets for axial movement of said drill shaft.

  2. Heating and current drive systems for TPX

    SciTech Connect

    Swain, D.; Goranson, P.; Halle, A. von; Bernabei, S.; Greenough, N.

    1994-05-24

    The heating and current drive (H and CD) system proposed for the TPX tokamak will consist of ion cyclotron, neutral beam, and lower hybrid systems. It will have 17.5 MW of installed H and CD power initially, and can be upgraded to 45 MW. It will be used to explore advanced confinement and fully current-driven plasma regimes with pulse lengths of up to 1,000 s.

  3. Hybrid and Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    2014-05-20

    Hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles use electricity either as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. This new generation of vehicles, often called electric drive vehicles, can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles(PHEVs), and all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to reduce U.S. petroleum use.

  4. Visions of the Future: Hybrid Electric Aircraft Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is investing continually in improving civil aviation. Hybridization of aircraft propulsion is one aspect of a technology suite which will transform future aircraft. In this context, hybrid propulsion is considered a combination of traditional gas turbine propulsion and electric drive enabled propulsion. This technology suite includes elements of propulsion and airframe integration, parallel hybrid shaft power, turbo-electric generation, electric drive systems, component development, materials development and system integration at multiple levels.

  5. Marihuana and driving.

    PubMed

    Moskowitz, H

    1985-08-01

    A review was performed of the marihuana and driving literature, both epidemiological and experimental. It was noted that epidemiological studies face considerable difficulties in obtaining estimates of risks involved for drivers utilizing marihuana due to the rapid decline in blood levels of tetrahydrocannabinol. On the other hand, experimental studies examining the relationship between administered marihuana dose and performance have identified many driving-related areas as exhibiting impairment. Areas impaired include coordination, tracking, perception, vigilance and performance in both driving simulators and on the road. Other behavioral areas of lesser importance for driving also exhibited evidence of impairment by marihuana. Areas for further research are suggested.

  6. Driving Extreme Efficiency to Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbesi, Karina

    2014-03-01

    The rapid development of extremely energy efficient appliances and equipment is essential to curtail catastrophic climate disruption. This will require the on-going development of products that apply all best-practices and that take advantage of the synergies of hybridization and building integration. Beyond that, it requires the development of new disruptive technologies and concepts. To facilitate these goals, in 2011 the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the U.S. Department of Energy launched the Max Tech and Beyond Design Competition for Ultra-Low-Energy-Use Appliances and Equipment. Now in its third year, the competition supports faculty-lead student design teams at U.S. universities to develop and test new technology prototypes. This talk describes what the competition and the Max Tech Program are doing to drive such rapid technology progress and to facilitate the entry to the market of successful Max Tech prototypes. The talk also initiates a discussion of physicists' unique role in driving that technology progress faster and farther. Emerging Technologies, Building Technologies Office, U.S. Department of Energy.

  7. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    DOEpatents

    Treu, C.A. Jr.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes. 7 figs.

  8. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    DOEpatents

    Treu, Jr., Charles A.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes.

  9. Electric vehicles: Driving range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempton, Willett

    2016-09-01

    For uptake of electric vehicles to increase, consumers' driving-range needs must be fulfilled. Analysis of the driving patterns of personal vehicles in the US now shows that today's electric vehicles can meet all travel needs on almost 90% of days from a single overnight charge.

  10. Survey of lower hybrid experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Porkolab, M.

    1983-05-01

    Recent developments in lower hybrid experiments are discussed. While a decade ago there were many small scale experiments which verified the fundamental aspects of wave propagation near and above the lower hybrid frequency, more recently the greatest interest has been in using lower hybrid waves to heat the plasma, and to drive currents in toroidal devices. While in the mid 70's lower hybrid heating experiments in tokamaks were carried out at the 100 to 200 kW level, in recent experiments powers up to 1 MW have been injected in the Alcator C tokamak at MIT. Also, while the earlier lower hybrid experiments concentrated on the ion heating regime (..omega.. approx. = ..omega../sub LH/), in the more recent experiments the electron heating regime (..omega.. greater than or equal to 2..omega../sub LH/) and the current drive regime (..omega.. > 2..omega../sub LH/) has been explored to a greater extent. The reason for this is that bulk ion heating near the mode conversion layer appears to be less reproducible and more difficult to achieve than electron heating (and concommitant collisional bulk ion heating). While the reason for this is not well understood, it is likely that as the wave frequency gets closer to the lower hybrid frequency the shorter wavelength waves may be more effectively absorbed and/or scattered near the plasma surface by nonlinear effects (parametric instabilities, low frequency fluctuations, etc.). Toroidal effects may further enhance such mechanisms.

  11. Driving and dementia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Linda; Molnar, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To provide primary care physicians with an approach to driving safety concerns when older persons present with memory difficulties. Sources of information The approach is based on an accredited memory clinic training program developed by the Centre for Family Medicine Primary Care Collaborative Memory Clinic. Main message One of the most challenging aspects of dementia care is the assessment of driving safety. Drivers with dementia are at higher risk of motor vehicle collisions, yet many drivers with mild dementia might be safely able to continue driving for several years. Because safe driving is dependent on multiple cognitive and functional skills, clinicians should carefully consider many factors when determining if cognitive concerns affect driving safety. Specific findings on corroborated history and office-based cognitive testing might aid in the physician’s decisions to refer for comprehensive on-road driving evaluation and whether to notify transportation authorities in accordance with provincial reporting requirements. Sensitive communication and a person-centred approach are essential. Conclusion Primary care physicians must consider many factors when determining if cognitive concerns might affect driving safety in older drivers. PMID:28115437

  12. Drive System Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F.

    2007-01-01

    An overview of the NASA Glenn Research Center Drive Systems Research will be presented. The primary purpose of this research is to improve performance, reliability, and integrity of aerospace drive systems and space mechanisms. The research is conducted through a combination of in-house, academia, and through contractors. Research is conducted through computer code development and validated through component and system testing. The drive system activity currently has four major thrust areas including: thermal behavior of high speed gearing, health and usage monitoring, advanced components, and space mechanisms.

  13. Vision and Driving

    PubMed Central

    Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    Driving is the primary means of personal travel in many countries and is relies heavily on vision for its successful execution. Research over the past few decades has addressed the role of vision in driver safety (motor vehicle collision involvement) and in driver performance (both on-road and using interactive simulators in the laboratory). Here we critically review what is currently known about the role of various aspects of visual function in driving. We also discuss translational research issues on vision screening for licensure and re-licensure and rehabilitation of visually impaired persons who want to drive. PMID:20580907

  14. The Test Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory shows engineers rehearsing the sol 133 (June 8, 2004) drive into 'Endurance' crater by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. Engineers and scientists have recreated the martian surface and slope the rover will encounter using a combination of bare and thinly sand-coated rocks, simulated martian 'blueberries' and a platform tilted at a 25-degree angle. The results of this test convinced engineers that the rover was capable of driving up and down a straight slope before it attempted the actual drive on Mars.

  15. Hybrid powertrain controller

    DOEpatents

    Jankovic, Miroslava; Powell, Barry Kay

    2000-12-26

    A hybrid powertrain for a vehicle comprising a diesel engine and an electric motor in a parallel arrangement with a multiple ratio transmission located on the torque output side of the diesel engine, final drive gearing connecting drivably the output shaft of transmission to traction wheels of the vehicle, and an electric motor drivably coupled to the final drive gearing. A powertrain controller schedules fuel delivered to the diesel engine and effects a split of the total power available, a portion of the power being delivered by the diesel and the balance of the power being delivered by the motor. A shifting schedule for the multiple ratio transmission makes it possible for establishing a proportional relationship between accelerator pedal movement and torque desired at the wheels. The control strategy for the powertrain maintains drivability of the vehicle that resembles drivability of a conventional spark ignition vehicle engine powertrain while achieving improved fuel efficiency and low exhaust gas emissions.

  16. Hybrid powertrain system

    SciTech Connect

    Grillo, Ricardo C.; O'Neil, Walter K.; Preston, David M.

    2005-09-20

    A hybrid powertrain system is provided that includes a first prime mover having a rotational output, a second prime mover having a rotational output, and a transmission having a main shaft supporting at least two main shaft gears thereon. The transmission includes a first independent countershaft drivingly connected to the first prime mover and including at least one ratio gear supported thereon that meshes with a respective main shaft gear. A second independent countershaft is drivingly connected to the second prime mover and includes at least one ratio gear supported thereon that meshes with a respective main shaft gear. The ratio gears on the first and second countershafts cooperate with the main shaft gears to provide at least one gear ratio between the first and second countershafts and the main shaft. A shift control mechanism selectively engages and disengages the first and second countershafts for rotation with the main shaft.

  17. [Driving and Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Roche, Jean

    2005-09-01

    Although most aged people remain safe drivers, a greater risk for crashes due to medical conditions is observed in the elderly. Impairment of important functions for safe driving such as visuospatial skills, attention, memory and judgement are observed in dementia, particularly in Alzheimer's disease. The accident rate increases from 9.4 accidents per million vehicle kilometers traveled for 80 to 85 year-old drivers, but raises to 163.6 for drivers with moderate AD. Patients and their families should be informed that patients with mild dementia related to Alzheimer's disease (stage 1 on the Clinical Dementia Rating, CDR), have a substantially increased rate of traffic accidents and therefore should not drive. But subjects in the pre-dementia phase (stage 0.5 at the CDR, mild cognitive impairment) also pose significant driving safety problems. In most States of the USA, and many European countries, but not in France, law requires regular investigating of driving performance in the elderly.

  18. [Driving and aging].

    PubMed

    Cantón-Cortés, David; Durán Segura, Mercedes; Castro Ramírez, Cándida

    2010-01-01

    The number of older people who continue to drive is constantly increasing. However, whether older people have more traffic accidents than other age groups is unclear. This age group has certain risk factors due to decreased motor, sensory and cognitive functions and also has greater frailty and vulnerability to injury. However, older drivers are aware of their heightened crash risk and employ certain compensatory actions, avoiding traveling under threatening conditions (dense traffic, bad weather or night driving), traveling by well-known routes and driving carefully. In view of these apparent contradictions, the present study attempts to discern the real crash risk and the driving and crash patterns characteristic of this population, which is continually increasing in industrialized countries.

  19. Control rod drive

    SciTech Connect

    Hawke, Basil C.

    1986-01-01

    A control rod drive uses gravitational forces to insert one or more control rods upwardly into a reactor core from beneath the reactor core under emergency conditions. The preferred control rod drive includes a vertically movable weight and a mechanism operatively associating the weight with the control rod so that downward movement of the weight is translated into upward movement of the control rod. The preferred control rod drive further includes an electric motor for driving the control rods under normal conditions, an electrically actuated clutch which automatically disengages the motor during a power failure and a decelerator for bringing the control rod to a controlled stop when it is inserted under emergency conditions into a reactor core.

  20. Assessment: A Driving Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Steven J.

    1992-01-01

    Asserts that educational assessment drives the curriculum. Thus, assessment is very important in contemplating reform in science education. Assessment should be an integral part of the instructional process, utilizing diagnostic testing, monitoring, and summative evaluations. (PR)

  1. CONTROL ROD DRIVE

    DOEpatents

    Chapellier, R.A.

    1960-05-24

    BS>A drive mechanism was invented for the control rod of a nuclear reactor. Power is provided by an electric motor and an outside source of fluid pressure is utilized in conjunction with the fluid pressure within the reactor to balance the loadings on the motor. The force exerted on the drive mechanism in the direction of scramming the rod is derived from the reactor fluid pressure so that failure of the outside pressure source will cause prompt scramming of the rod.

  2. Common drive unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, R. C.; Fink, R. A.; Moore, E. A.

    1987-01-01

    The Common Drive Unit (CDU) is a high reliability rotary actuator with many versatile applications in mechanism designs. The CDU incorporates a set of redundant motor-brake assemblies driving a single output shaft through differential. Tachometers provide speed information in the AC version. Operation of both motors, as compared to the operation of one motor, will yield the same output torque with twice the output speed.

  3. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Stowell, Jesse; Costin, Daniel

    2006-07-11

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  4. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Jesse, Stowell; Costin, Daniel

    2007-02-27

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  5. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Bywaters, Garrett Lee; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Stowell, Jesse; Costin, Daniel

    2006-09-19

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  6. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Jesse, Stowell; Costin, Daniel

    2006-10-10

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  7. Electric Drive Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    Track-Laying Combat Vehicles , and (3) Parametric Study of Electric Drive Component Technologies. The technology survey results are given in a separate...and projections of future electric drive system improvements relative to combat vehicle applications. Unclassified SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS...273 5.7.2.3.1 DC Homopolar Drum Machine, Design and Performance 5-278 APPENDIX A 19.5 TON AND 40.0 TON VEHICLE SPECIFICATION APPENDIX B ELECTRIC

  8. Self-driving carsickness.

    PubMed

    Diels, Cyriel; Bos, Jelte E

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and productivity. However, we here show that the envisaged scenarios all lead to an increased risk of motion sickness. As such, the benefits this technology is assumed to bring may not be capitalised on, in particular by those already susceptible to motion sickness. This can negatively affect user acceptance and uptake and, in turn, limit the potential socioeconomic benefits that this emerging technology may provide. Following a discussion on the causes of motion sickness in the context of self-driving cars, we present guidelines to steer the design and development of automated vehicle technologies. The aim is to limit or avoid the impact of motion sickness and ultimately promote the uptake of self-driving cars. Attention is also given to less well known consequences of motion sickness, in particular negative aftereffects such as postural instability, and detrimental effects on task performance and how this may impact the use and design of self-driving cars. We conclude that basic perceptual mechanisms need to be considered in the design process whereby self-driving cars cannot simply be thought of as living rooms, offices, or entertainment venues on wheels.

  9. Dementia and driving.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, D; Neubauer, K; Boyle, M; Gerrard, J; Surmon, D; Wilcock, G K

    1992-04-01

    Many European countries test cars, but not their drivers, as they age. There is evidence to suggest that human factors are more important than vehicular factors as causes of motor crashes. The elderly also are involved in more accidents per distance travelled than middle-aged drivers. As the UK relies on self-certification of health by drivers over the age of 70 years, we examined the driving practices of patients with dementia attending a Memory Clinic. Nearly one-fifth of 329 patients with documented dementia continued to drive after the onset of dementia, and impaired driving ability was noted in two-thirds of these. Their families experienced great difficulty in persuading patients to stop driving, and had to invoke outside help in many cases. Neuropsychological tests did not help to identify those who drove badly while activity of daily living scores were related to driving ability. These findings suggest that many patients with dementia drive in an unsafe fashion after the onset of the illness. The present system of self-certification of health by the elderly for driver-licensing purposes needs to be reassessed.

  10. Hydraulic drive system prevents backlash

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acord, J. D.

    1965-01-01

    Hydraulic drive system uses a second drive motor operating at reduced torque. This exerts a relative braking action which eliminates the normal gear train backlash that is intolerable when driving certain heavy loads.

  11. Highway vehicle electric drive in the United States : 2009 status and issues.

    SciTech Connect

    Santini, D. J.; Energy Systems

    2011-02-16

    The status of electric drive technology in the United States as of early 2010 is documented. Rapidly evolving electric drive technologies discussed include hybrid electric vehicles, multiple types of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and battery electric vehicles. Recent trends for hybrids are quantified. Various plug-in vehicles entering the market in the near term are examined. The technical and economic requirements for electric drive to more broadly succeed in a wider range of highway vehicle applications are described, and implications for the most promising new markets are provided. Federal and selected state government policy measures promoting and preparing for electric drive are discussed. Taking these into account, judgment on areas where increased Clean Cities funds might be most productively focused over the next five years are provided. In closing, the request by Clean Cities for opinion on the broad range of research needs providing near-term support to electric drive is fulfilled.

  12. Mental workload and driving

    PubMed Central

    Paxion, Julie; Galy, Edith; Berthelon, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to identify the most representative measures of subjective and objective mental workload in driving, and to understand how the subjective and objective levels of mental workload influence the performance as a function of situation complexity and driving experience, i.e., to verify whether the increase of situation complexity and the lack of experience increase the subjective and physiological levels of mental workload and lead to driving performance impairments. This review will be useful to both researchers designing an experimental study of mental workload and to designers of drivers’ training content. In the first part, we will broach the theoretical approach with two factors of mental workload and performance, i.e., situation complexity and driving experience. Indeed, a low complex situation (e.g., highways), or conversely a high complex situation (e.g., town) can provoke an overload. Additionally, performing the driving tasks implies producing a high effort for novice drivers who have not totally automated the driving activity. In the second part, we will focus on subjective measures of mental workload. A comparison of questionnaires usually used in driving will allow identifying the most appropriate ones as a function of different criteria. Moreover, we will review the empirical studies to verify if the subjective level of mental workload is high in simple and very complex situations, especially for novice drivers compared to the experienced ones. In the third part, we will focus on physiological measures. A comparison of physiological indicators will be realized in order to identify the most correlated to mental workload. An empirical review will also take the effect of situation complexity and experience on these physiological indicators into consideration. Finally, a more nuanced comparison between subjective and physiological measures will be established from the impact on situation complexity and experience. PMID:25520678

  13. Fast wave current drive: Experimental status and reactor prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Ehst, D.A.

    1988-03-01

    The fast wave is one of the two possible wave polarizations which propagate according to the basic theory of cold plasmas. It is distinguished from the other (slow wave) branch by having an electric field vector which is mainly orthogonal to the confining magnetic field of the plasma. The plasma and fast wave qualitatively assume different behavior depending on the frequency range of the launched wave. The high frequency fast wave (HFFW), with a frequency (..omega..2..pi.. )approximately) GHz) much higher than the ion cyclotron frequency (..cap omega../sub i/), suffers electron Landau damping and drives current by supplying parallel momentum to superthermal electrons in a fashion similar to lower hybrid (slow wave) current drive. In the simple theory the HFFW should be superior to the slow wave and can propagate to very high density and temperature without impediment. Experiments, however, have not conclusively shown that HFFW current drive can be achieved at densities above the slow wave current drive limit, possibly due to conversion of the launched fast waves into slow waves by density fluctuations. Alternatively, the low frequency fast wave (LFFW), with frequencies ()approxreverse arrowlt) 100 MHz) only a few times the ion cyclotron frequency, is damped by electron Landau damping and, in a hot plasma ()approxreverse arrowgt) 10 keV), by electron transit time magnetic pumping; current drive is achieved by pushing superthermal electrons, and efficiency is prediocted to be slightly better than for lower hybrid current drive. Most significantly, the slow wave does not propagate in high density plasma when ..omega.. )approximately) ..cap omega../sub i/, so parasitic coupling to the slow wave can be avoided, and no density and temperture limitations are foreseen. Experiments with fast wve current drive invariably find current drive efficiency as good as obtained in lower hybrid experiments at comparable, low temperatures. 45 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  14. Integrated Inverter For Driving Multiple Electric Machines

    DOEpatents

    Su, Gui-Jia [Knoxville, TN; Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN

    2006-04-04

    An electric machine drive (50) has a plurality of inverters (50a, 50b) for controlling respective electric machines (57, 62), which may include a three-phase main traction machine (57) and two-phase accessory machines (62) in a hybrid or electric vehicle. The drive (50) has a common control section (53, 54) for controlling the plurality of inverters (50a, 50b) with only one microelectronic processor (54) for controlling the plurality of inverters (50a, 50b), only one gate driver circuit (53) for controlling conduction of semiconductor switches (S1-S10) in the plurality of inverters (50a, 50b), and also includes a common dc bus (70), a common dc bus filtering capacitor (C1) and a common dc bus voltage sensor (67). The electric machines (57, 62) may be synchronous machines, induction machines, or PM machines and may be operated in a motoring mode or a generating mode.

  15. DEDRICK DRIVE, LOOKING NORTH FROM SOUTH END OF DEDRICK DRIVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DEDRICK DRIVE, LOOKING NORTH FROM SOUTH END OF DEDRICK DRIVE NEAR BUILDING 80 - Pacific Coast Torpedo Station, Keyport Industrial District, Both sides of Second Street, between Dedrick Drive and Liberty Bay and one building west of Dedrick Drive and south of Second Street, Keyport, Kitsap County, WA

  16. Driving Anger and Driving Behavior in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Tracy L.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Rosen, Lee A.; Barkley, Russell A.; Rodricks, Trisha

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study assesses whether anger in the context of driving is associated with the negative driving outcomes experienced by individuals with ADHD. Method: ADHD adults (n = 56) complete measures of driving anger, driving anger expression, angry thoughts behind the wheel, and aggressive, risky, and crash-related behavior. Results are…

  17. Driving anger in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sullman, Mark J M; Stephens, Amanda N; Yong, Michelle

    2014-10-01

    The present study examined the types of situations that cause Malaysian drivers to become angry. The 33-item version of the driver anger scale (Deffenbacher et al., 1994) was used to investigate driver anger amongst a sample of 339 drivers. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the fit of the original six-factor model (discourtesy, traffic obstructions, hostile gestures, slow driving, illegal driving and police presence), after removing one item and allowing three error pairs to covary, was satisfactory. Female drivers reported more anger, than males, caused by traffic obstruction and hostile gestures. Age was also negatively related to five (discourtesy, traffic obstructions, hostile gestures, slow driving and police presence) of the six factors and also to the total DAS score. Furthermore, although they were not directly related to crash involvement, several of the six forms of driving anger were significantly related to the crash-related conditions of: near misses, loss of concentration, having lost control of a vehicle and being ticketed. Overall the pattern of findings made in the present research were broadly similar to those from Western countries, indicating that the DAS is a valid measure of driving anger even among non-European based cultures.

  18. Multilevel converters for large electric drives

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, L.M.; Peng, F.Z.

    1997-11-01

    Traditional two-level high frequency pulse width modulation (PWM) inverters for motor drives have several problems associated with their high frequency switching which produces common-mode voltage and high voltage change (dV/dt) rates to the motor windings. Multilevel inverters solve these problems because their devices can switch at a much lower frequency. Two different multilevel topologies are identified for use as a converter for electric drives, a cascade inverter with separate dc sources and a back-to-back diode clamped converter. The cascade inverter is a natural fit for large automotive all electric drives because of the high VA ratings possible and because it uses several levels of dc voltage sources which would be available from batteries or fuel cells. The back to back diode damped converter is ideal where a source of ac voltage is available such as a hybrid electric vehicle. Simulation and experimental results show the superiority of these two converters over PWM based drives.

  19. Circuit for Driving Piezoelectric Transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, David P.; Chapsky, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts an oscillator circuit for driving a piezoelectric transducer to excite vibrations in a mechanical structure. The circuit was designed and built to satisfy application-specific requirements to drive a selected one of 16 such transducers at a regulated amplitude and frequency chosen to optimize the amount of work performed by the transducer and to compensate for both (1) temporal variations of the resonance frequency and damping time of each transducer and (2) initially unknown differences among the resonance frequencies and damping times of different transducers. In other words, the circuit is designed to adjust itself to optimize the performance of whichever transducer is selected at any given time. The basic design concept may be adaptable to other applications that involve the use of piezoelectric transducers in ultrasonic cleaners and other apparatuses in which high-frequency mechanical drives are utilized. This circuit includes three resistor-capacitor networks that, together with the selected piezoelectric transducer, constitute a band-pass filter having a peak response at a frequency of about 2 kHz, which is approximately the resonance frequency of the piezoelectric transducers. Gain for generating oscillations is provided by a power hybrid operational amplifier (U1). A junction field-effect transistor (Q1) in combination with a resistor (R4) is used as a voltage-variable resistor to control the magnitude of the oscillation. The voltage-variable resistor is part of a feedback control loop: Part of the output of the oscillator is rectified and filtered for use as a slow negative feedback to the gate of Q1 to keep the output amplitude constant. The response of this control loop is much slower than 2 kHz and, therefore, does not introduce significant distortion of the oscillator output, which is a fairly clean sine wave. The positive AC feedback needed to sustain oscillations is derived from sampling the current through the

  20. Development of a KT driving cycle for UMT PHEV powertrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atiq, W. H.; Haezah, M. N.; Norbakyah, J. S.; Salisa, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Driving cycles were identified as one of the core sources that contribute to develop the powertrain for vehicle. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are the future transport for next generation. Compared to conventional internal combustion engine vehicle, hybrid and electric vehicle can improve fuel economy and reduce green house gases. This paper describes a development of Kuala Terengganu driving cycle for Universiti Malaysia Terengganu PHEV. Car speed-time data along the two selected fixed route is obtained by using on-board technique which is Global Positioning System, GPS. The developed driving cycle contains a 1050s speed time series, with a distance of 2.17 km, and an average and a maximum speed of 20.67 km/h and 61.47 km/h, respectively. The results obtained from this analysis are within reasonable range and satisfactory.

  1. Hybrid microdosing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Richter, Stefan; Mehner, Jan; Schubert, Steffen; Doetzel, Wolfram; Gessner, Thomas

    1998-09-01

    Based on an article in print this paper presents a hybrid assembled bi-directional micro dosing system for a water flow range of -40 (mu) l/min to 80 (mu) l/min. The system consists of a silicon micropump/valve chip (9 mm X 9 mm) and a silicon flow sensor (6 mm X 12 mm). The valve/pump can be driven by either a piezoelectric disk or an electrostatic actuator. Both, piezoelectric and electrostatic actuation for the pump/valve, the technology of each component and the hybrid assembling of the whole system are described. Results of transient numerical simulation of the pump and the mass flow sensor are presented and compared with experimental results. Descriptions of two different operational modes of the micro dosing system are given. The new pulse-width modulated control method for the actuator makes controlling the system easier. It allows an open-loop control of the pump rates without changing the driving frequency. All reported micropumps were driven by a square-wave signal which causes a relatively high noise level. In contrast to this, sawtooth and sinusoidal signals generate a smooth and quiet operation because of the small drag force on the fluid ports. Results of different driving methods are presented and compared.

  2. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  3. U.S. DRIVE

    SciTech Connect

    2012-03-16

    U.S. DRIVE, which stands for United States Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle efficiency and Energy sustainability, is an expanded government-industry partnership among the U.S. Department of Energy; USCAR, representing Chrysler Group LLC, Ford Motor Company and General Motors; Tesla Motors; five energy companies – BP America, Chevron Corporation, ConocoPhillips, ExxonMobil Corporation, and Shell Oil Products US; two utilities – Southern California Edison and Michigan-based DTE Energy; and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The U.S. DRIVE mission is to accelerate the development of pre-competitive and innovative technologies to enable a full range of affordable and clean advanced light-duty vehicles, as well as related energy infrastructure.

  4. Ceramic vane drive joint

    DOEpatents

    Smale, Charles H.

    1981-01-01

    A variable geometry gas turbine has an array of ceramic composition vanes positioned by an actuating ring coupled through a plurality of circumferentially spaced turbine vane levers to the outer end of a metallic vane drive shaft at each of the ceramic vanes. Each of the ceramic vanes has an end slot of bow tie configuration including flared end segments and a center slot therebetween. Each of the vane drive shafts has a cross head with ends thereof spaced with respect to the sides of the end slot to define clearance for free expansion of the cross head with respect to the vane and the cross head being configured to uniformly distribute drive loads across bearing surfaces of the vane slot.

  5. Route-Based Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Gonder, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    Today's hybrid electric vehicle controls cannot always provide maximum fuel savings over all drive cycles. Route-based controls could improve HEV fuel efficiency by 2%-4% and help save nearly 6.5 million gallons of fuel annually.

  6. Microlinear piezo drive experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azin, A. V.; Bogdanov, E. P.; Rikkonen, S. V.; Ponomarev, S. V.; Khramtsov, A. M.

    2017-02-01

    The article embraces the experimental description of the micro linear piezo drive intended for the peripheral cord tensioner in the reflecting surface shape regulator system for large-sized transformable spacecraft antenna reflectors. The research target is the experimental investigation of the micro linear piezo drive to determine the stable oscillatory system operating modes which would include improved energy conversion parameters. The following points are briefly presented: test stand construction-design of the peripheral cord tensioner; the determined frequency characteristics and the identified resonant and actual frequencies of an oscillatory system under inertia load. A series of experiments has been conducted for both different preliminary voltages and inertia mass values.

  7. CONTROL ROD DRIVE

    DOEpatents

    Chapellier, R.A.; Rogers, I.

    1961-06-27

    Accurate and controlled drive for the control rod is from an electric motor. A hydraulic arrangement is provided to balance a piston against which a control rod is urged by the application of fluid pressure. The electric motor drive of the control rod for normal operation is made through the aforementioned piston. In the event scramming is required, the fluid pressure urging the control rod against the piston is relieved and an opposite fluid pressure is applied. The lack of mechanical connection between the electric motor and control rod facilitates the scramming operation.

  8. Teachers with Drive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coggins, Celine; Diffenbaugh, P. K.

    2013-01-01

    For students in U.S. classrooms today, the odds of being assigned to an inexperienced teacher are higher than they have ever been because so many teachers, some in the top 20 percent of effectiveness are leaving the classroom in their first five years. Coggins and Diffenbaugh turn to Daniel Pink's work on drive to determine how to motivate…

  9. DrivePy

    SciTech Connect

    King, Ryan; Guo, Yi

    2014-08-30

    DrivePy is physics-based drivetrain model that sizes drivetrain components based on aerodynamic and operational loads for use in a systems engineering model. It also calculates costs based on empirical data collected by NREL's National Wind Technology Center.

  10. Magnetized drive fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Rosensweig, R.E.; Zahn, M.

    1986-04-01

    A process is described for recovering a first fluid from a porous subterranean formation which comprises injecting a displacement fluid in an effective amount to displace the first fluid, injecting a ferrofluid, applying a magnetic field containing a gradient of field intensity within the formation, driving the displacement fluid through the formation with the ferrofluid and recovering first fluid.

  11. Drive-Through Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Margie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how the early childhood field's approach to staff training reflects the drive-through, fast-food culture. Year after year directors send their teachers to workshops to get some quick refresher techniques. The author suggests that rather than focusing professional development on topics, focus on observing…

  12. Flywheel sickle drive mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Guinn, R.K.

    1989-03-21

    A releasable, eccentric drive mechanism is described, comprising: a first shaft extending along a central axis and presenting a generally cylindrical portion; a second shaft extending along a reference axis substantially parallel to the central axis in offset relation to the latter and having a generally cylindrical portion; a drive member having structure defining an opening including a first, generally cylindrical region receiving over one half of the circumference of the first shaft portion and a second, generally cylindrical region receiving over one half of the circumference of the second shaft portion, the second region being in side-by-side relationship to the first region and in open communication with the latter, the first shaft portion and the second shaft portion each including a substantially flat wall section extending in a plane substantially perpendicular to a reference plane passing through the central axis and the reference axis, each of the wall sections being inclined relative to the central axis in complemental, flat engagement with each other; and means coupled to one of the drive member and the second shaft for urging the first shaft in a longitudinal direction generally toward the second shaft in order to bring the wall section of the first shaft into a position of flat, wedging contact with the wall section of the second shaft and in contact with the structure defining the opening in order to securely interconnect the first shaft, the second shaft and the drive member.

  13. Driving While Intoxicated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brick, John

    Alcohol intoxication increases the risk of highway accidents, the relative risk of crash probability increasing as a function of blood alcohol content (BAC). Because alcohol use is more prevalent than use of other drugs, more is known about the relationship between alcohol use and driving. Most states presume a BAC of .10% to be evidence of drunk…

  14. The Drive to Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Diego

    2017-01-01

    At the heart of the educational vocation is a drive to influence, to meaningfully affect the learning and development of others. For adult educators working in higher education, daily activities--from teaching classes to supervising student research to attending faculty meetings to sitting on advisory boards--are full of opportunities to…

  15. CSI: Hard Drive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Acting on information from students who reported seeing a classmate looking at inappropriate material on a school computer, school officials used forensics software to plunge the depths of the PC's hard drive, searching for evidence of improper activity. Images were found in a deleted Internet Explorer cache as well as deleted file space.…

  16. Stellarator hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Furth, H.P.; Ludescher, C.

    1984-08-01

    The present paper briefly reviews the subject of tokamak-stellarator and pinch-stellarator hybrids, and points to two interesting new possibilities: compact-torus-stellarators and mirror-stellarators.

  17. [Driving ability with multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Küst, J; Dettmers, C

    2014-07-01

    Driving is an important issue for young patients, especially for those whose walking capacity is impaired. Driving might support the patient's social and vocational participation. The question as to whether a patient with multiple sclerosis (MS) is restricted in the ability to drive a car depends on neurological and neuropsychological deficits, self-awareness, insight into deficits and ability to compensate for loss of function. Because of the enormous variability of symptoms in MS the question is highly individualized. A practical driving test under supervision of a driving instructor (possibly accompanied by a neuropsychologist) might be helpful in providing both patient and relatives adequate feedback on driving abilities.

  18. Sex Chromosome Drive

    PubMed Central

    Helleu, Quentin; Gérard, Pierre R.; Montchamp-Moreau, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Sex chromosome drivers are selfish elements that subvert Mendel's first law of segregation and therefore are overrepresented among the products of meiosis. The sex-biased progeny produced then fuels an extended genetic conflict between the driver and the rest of the genome. Many examples of sex chromosome drive are known, but the occurrence of this phenomenon is probably largely underestimated because of the difficulty to detect it. Remarkably, nearly all sex chromosome drivers are found in two clades, Rodentia and Diptera. Although very little is known about the molecular and cellular mechanisms of drive, epigenetic processes such as chromatin regulation could be involved in many instances. Yet, its evolutionary consequences are far-reaching, from the evolution of mating systems and sex determination to the emergence of new species. PMID:25524548

  19. [Cannabis affects driving skills].

    PubMed

    Khiabani, Hassan Z; Christophersen, Asbjørg S; Mørland, Jørg

    2007-03-01

    Delta (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the most important psychoactive substance in cannabis, is frequently detected in blood from apprehended drivers suspected for drugged driving. Both experimental and epidemiological studies have demonstrated the negative effects of THC upon cognitive functions and psychomotor skills. These effects could last longer than a measurable concentration of THC in blood. Culpability studies have recently demonstrated an increased risk of becoming responsible in fatal or injurious traffic accidents, even with low blood concentrations of THC. It has also been demonstrated that there is a correlation between the degree of impairment, the drug dose and the THC blood concentration. It is very important to focus on the negative effect of cannabis on fitness to drive in order to prevent injuries and loss of human life and to avoid large economic consequences to the society.

  20. Magnetostrictive direct drive motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naik, Dipak; Dehoff, P. H.

    1990-01-01

    Developing magnetostrictive direct drive research motors to power robot joints is discussed. These type motors are expected to produce extraordinary torque density, to be able to perform microradian incremental steps and to be self-braking and safe with the power off. Several types of motor designs have been attempted using magnetostrictive materials. One of the candidate approaches (the magnetostrictive roller drive) is described. The method in which the design will function is described as is the reason why this approach is inherently superior to the other approaches. Following this, the design will be modelled and its expected performance predicted. This particular candidate design is currently undergoing detailed engineering with prototype construction and testing scheduled for mid 1991.

  1. Advanced Motor Drives Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehsani, M.; Tchamdjou, A.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents an evaluation of advanced motor drive systems as a replacement for the hydrazine fueled APU units. The replacement technology must meet several requirements which are particular to the space applications and the Orbiter in general. Some of these requirements are high efficiency, small size, high power density. In the first part of the study several motors are compared, based on their characteristics and in light of the Orbiter requirements. The best candidate, the brushless DC is chosen because of its particularly good performance with regards to efficiency. Several power electronics drive technologies including the conventional three-phase hard switched and several soft-switched inverters are then presented. In the last part of the study, a soft-switched inverter is analyzed and compared to its conventional hard-switched counterpart. Optimal efficiency is a basic requirement for space applications and the soft-switched technology represents an unavoidable trend for the future.

  2. Driving on the Descartes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, Apollo 16 mission commander, drives the 'Rover', Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) to its final parking place near the end of the third extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Descartes landing site. Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., Lunar Module pilot, took this photograph looking southward. The flank of Stone Mountain can be seen on the horizon at left. The shadow of the Lunar Module 'Orion' is visible in the foreground.

  3. Gear Drive Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Philadelphia Gear Corporation used two COSMIC computer programs; one dealing with shrink fit analysis and the other with rotor dynamics problems in computerized design and test work. The programs were used to verify existing in-house programs to insure design accuracy by checking its company-developed computer methods against procedures developed by other organizations. Its specialty is in custom units for unique applications, such as Coast Guard ice breaking ships, steel mill drives, coal crusher, sewage treatment equipment and electricity.

  4. Variable reluctance drive system

    SciTech Connect

    Lipo, T.A.; Liang, F.

    1995-10-17

    A variable reluctance drive system including a motor and corresponding converter for improved current commutation is described. The motor incorporates a salient pole rotor and a salient pole stator having one or more full pitch windings which operate by mutual inductance to transfer the current from the active short pitch winding following phase alignment. This increases output torque and/or speed and permits a number of simple and economical converter circuits. 17 figs.

  5. Butalbital and driving impairment.

    PubMed

    Yeakel, Jillian K; Logan, Barry K

    2013-07-01

    Butalbital (Fiorinal(®)), used in the treatment of migraines and muscle pain, is the most commonly encountered barbiturate in impaired driving cases. It has central nervous system (CNS) depressant properties, including sedation, drowsiness, and feelings of intoxication, which can contribute to driving impairment. Twenty-six driving under the influence cases are reviewed including results from field sobriety tests and toxicology testing. Blood samples were screened using enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique immunoassay, and the presence of butalbital was confirmed and quantified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, gas chromatography with flame ionization detection, or gas chromatography nitrogen/phosphorus detection. Butalbital concentrations ranged from 1.0 to 30.2 mg/L, with a mean and median of 16.0 mg/L. General impairment indicators in these cases included horizontal and vertical nystagmus, lack of convergence, poor motor coordination, and balance and speech problems, which are common to CNS depressant intoxication, similar to that associated with alcohol. These findings indicate the importance of toxicological testing for butalbital in cases where CNS depressants are indicated.

  6. [Automobile driving capacity in dementia].

    PubMed

    Seeger, Rolf

    2015-04-01

    Dementia influences at an early stage the driving aptitude of motor vehicle steering persons. Every year in Switzerland, around 16'000 driving permit holders suffer newly from dementia; therefore the driving aptitude is questioned, especially because of possibly limited executive functions. Individuals with early-stage dementia often may show a dangerous driving stile. However, a mild dementia does not a priori exclude the driving aptitude, and less than half of these drivers can continue driving for another 1 - 3 years. In contrast, there is no further driving aptitude in presence of moderate dementia. In the assessment of driving aptitude, the underlying cause of dementia is always taken into account. Cognitive short tests such as the Mini-Mental Status Exam, Clock Drawing Test and Trail-Making Test are not suitable to make reliable statements about the aptitude to drive, but these tests are very important for the initial diagnosis of dementia in primary care practice and can lead the way for further examination concerning driving aptitude. The legally prescribed regular check-up for motorists aged over 70 years in Switzerland provides an ideal opportunity for early detection of incipient dementia. The practical procedure for the assessment of aptitude to drive in the primary care practice is presented. The physician-guided on-road driving test represents a meaningful, practical and relatively cost-effective tool for the evaluation of driving aptitude in cases of doubt.

  7. Fast wave current drive in DEMO

    SciTech Connect

    Lerche, E.; Van Eestera, D.; Messiaen, A.; Collaboration: EFDA-PPPT Contributors

    2014-02-12

    The ability to non-inductively drive a large fraction of the toroidal plasma current in magnetically confined plasmas is an essential requirement for steady state fusion reactors such as DEMO. Besides neutral beam injection (NBI), electron-cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and lower hybrid wave heating (LH), ion-cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) is a promising candidate to drive current, in particular at the high temperatures expected in fusion plasmas. In this paper, the current drive (CD) efficiencies calculated with coupled ICRF wave / CD numerical codes for the DEMO-1 design case (R{sub 0}=9m, B{sub 0}=6.8T, a{sub p}=2.25m) [1] are presented. It will be shown that although promising CD efficiencies can be obtained in the usual ICRF frequency domain (20-100MHz) by shifting the dominant ion-cyclotron absorption layers to the high-field side, operation at higher frequencies (100-300MHz) has a stronger CD potential, provided the parasitic RF power absorption of the alpha particles can be minimized.

  8. Intelligent, Energy Saving Power Supply and Control System of Hoisting Mine Machine with Compact and Hybrid Drive System / Inteligentne, Energooszczędne Układy Zasilania I Sterowania Górniczych Maszyn Wyciągowych Z Napędem Zintegrowanym Lub Hybrydowym

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymański, Zygmunt

    2015-03-01

    In the paper present's an analysis of suitableness an application of compact and hybrid drive system in hoisting machine. In the paper presented the review of constructional solutions of hoisting machines drive system, driving with AC and DC motor. In the paper presented conception of modern, energy sparing hoisting machine supply system, composed with compact motor, an supplied with transistor or thyristor converter supply system, and intelligent control system composed with multilevel microprocessor controller. In the paper present's also analysis of suitableness application an selected method of artificial intelligent in hoisting machine control system, automation system, and modern diagnostic system. In the paper one limited to analysis of: fuzzy logic method, genetic algorithms method, and modern neural net II and III generation. That method enables realization of complex control algorithms of hosting machine with insurance of energy sparing exploitation conditions, monitoring of exploitation parameters, and prediction diagnostic of hoisting machine technical state, minimization a number of failure states. In the paper present's a conception of control and diagnostic system of the hoisting machine based on fuzzy logic neural set control. In the chapter presented also a selected control algorithms and results of computer simulations realized for particular mathematical models of hoisting machine. Results of theoretical investigation were partly verified in laboratory and industrial experiments. Przedstawiono analizę celowości wprowadzania, napędów zintegrowanych oraz napędów hybrydowych, do układów napędowych maszyn wyciągowych. Zamieszczono przegląd rozwiązań konstrukcyjnych wybranych hybrydowych oraz zintegrowanych napędów maszyn wyciągowych z silnikami DC i AC. Opisano koncepcję nowoczesnego, energooszczędnego układu zasilania górniczych maszyny wyciągowej, złożonego z silnika zintegrowanego, (tranzystorowego

  9. TARDEC Hybrid Electric (HE) Technology Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-05

    System Generator /Motor...ireDifferential Differential Energy Storage System Generator / Motor Inverter Engine Generator/Motor Transmission 3-Phase AC power into Motor Inverter When...Hybrid Electric Drive Propulsion TireTire Tire Energy Storage System Generator Controller 3Ø A/C to HV DC Generator Controller rectifies AC to DC

  10. Drive Diagnostic Filter Wheel Control

    SciTech Connect

    Uhlich, D.

    2007-07-17

    DrD Filter Wheel Control is National Instrument's Labview software that drives a Drive Diagnostic filter wheel. The software can drive the filter wheel between each end limit, detect the positive and negative limit and each home position and post the stepper motot values to an Excel spreadsheet. The software can also be used to cycle the assembly between the end limits.

  11. Drive alignment pays maintenance dividends

    SciTech Connect

    Fedder, R.

    2008-12-15

    Proper alignment of the motor and gear drive on conveying and processing equipment will result in longer bearing and coupling life, along with lower maintenance costs. Selecting an alignment free drive package instead of a traditional foot mounted drive and motor is a major advancement toward these goals. 4 photos.

  12. Offset Compound Gear Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Mark A.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.

    2010-01-01

    The Offset Compound Gear Drive is an in-line, discrete, two-speed device utilizing a special offset compound gear that has both an internal tooth configuration on the input end and external tooth configuration on the output end, thus allowing it to mesh in series, simultaneously, with both a smaller external tooth input gear and a larger internal tooth output gear. This unique geometry and offset axis permits the compound gear to mesh with the smaller diameter input gear and the larger diameter output gear, both of which are on the same central, or primary, centerline. This configuration results in a compact in-line reduction gear set consisting of fewer gears and bearings than a conventional planetary gear train. Switching between the two output ratios is accomplished through a main control clutch and sprag. Power flow to the above is transmitted through concentric power paths. Low-speed operation is accomplished in two meshes. For the purpose of illustrating the low-speed output operation, the following example pitch diameters are given. A 5.0 pitch diameter (PD) input gear to 7.50 PD (internal tooth) intermediate gear (0.667 reduction mesh), and a 7.50 PD (external tooth) intermediate gear to a 10.00 PD output gear (0.750 reduction mesh). Note that it is not required that the intermediate gears on the offset axis be of the same diameter. For this example, the resultant low-speed ratio is 2:1 (output speed = 0.500; product of stage one 0.667 reduction and stage two 0.750 stage reduction). The design is not restricted to the example pitch diameters, or output ratio. From the output gear, power is transmitted through a hollow drive shaft, which, in turn, drives a sprag during which time the main clutch is disengaged.

  13. Hybrid Electric Transit Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    A government, industry, and university cooperative is developing an advanced hybrid electric city transit bus. Goals of this effort include doubling the fuel economy compared to current buses and reducing emissions to one-tenth of current EPA standards. Unique aspects of the vehicle's power system include the use of ultra-capacitors as an energy storage system, and a planned natural gas fueled turbogenerator developed from a small jet engine. Power from both the generator and energy storage system is provided to a variable speed electric motor attached to the rear axle. At over 15000 kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle of its kind ever built using ultra-capacitor energy storage. This paper describes the overall power system architecture, the evolution of the control strategy, and its performance over industry standard drive cycles.

  14. Base drive circuit

    DOEpatents

    Lange, Arnold C.

    1995-01-01

    An improved base drive circuit (10) having a level shifter (24) for providing bistable input signals to a pair of non-linear delays (30, 32). The non-linear delays (30, 32) provide gate control to a corresponding pair of field effect transistors (100, 106) through a corresponding pair of buffer components (88, 94). The non-linear delays (30, 32) provide delayed turn-on for each of the field effect transistors (100, 106) while an associated pair of transistors (72, 80) shunt the non-linear delays (30, 32) during turn-off of the associated field effect transistor (100, 106).

  15. Generative design drives manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, Frank A.

    1989-04-01

    This paper reviews the collaboration that is being forced on Engineering and Manufacturing as they move from the manual translation of Engineering drawings toward automatic decoding of Product Data Definitions (PDDs), a pre-requisite to integrated manufacture. Based on case studies and implementation experience gained over the last decade, it defines the step-by-step evolution of a generative design capability that will drive manufacturing logic. It reviews the changing relationship of Engineering to Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering and the challenge this presents to manufacturing management in its struggle to remain competitive in both domestic and international markets.

  16. Engine valve driving apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Masuda, S.; Uesugi, T.; Oda, H.

    1989-01-03

    An engine valve driving apparatus for an internal combustion engine having a cam driven engine valve is described. It consists of a camshaft rotatable in synchronism with rotation of a crankshaft of an engine and a movable cam member supported by the camshaft for axial movement and prevented from turning relative to the camshaft. The movable cam member can be axially shifted between an operative position wherein the cam member is cooperative with a member of the engine valve so as to cause an operation of the engine valve and an inoperative position wherein the cam member is out of cooperation with the member.

  17. Modular droplet actuator drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, Michael G. (Inventor); Paik, Philip (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A droplet actuator drive including a detection apparatus for sensing a property of a droplet on a droplet actuator; circuitry for controlling the detection apparatus electronically coupled to the detection apparatus; a droplet actuator cartridge connector arranged so that when a droplet actuator cartridge electronically is coupled thereto: the droplet actuator cartridge is aligned with the detection apparatus; and the detection apparatus can sense the property of the droplet on a droplet actuator; circuitry for controlling a droplet actuator coupled to the droplet actuator connector; and the droplet actuator circuitry may be coupled to a processor.

  18. HLH Drive System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-09-01

    M4 1" 4 C. C, 4 10 rYV .104 14144 \\- // S/ / " I 3.025 DPII 36 TEETH 2 n )r lj < ~( NEW ) _ _ _ 7986 RPM Figure 40. Combiner Configuration 6, Reference...based on testing of th le CH- 4 ` -7 •-• ’’• stage p lanet bearing , primarily from fa ilures in the • : , - gram of Reference 19. The test results are...USAAMRDL-TR-77-38 r, . . HLH DRIVE SYSTEM -I Boeing Vertol Company P.O. Box 16858 4 • Philadelphia, Pa. 19142 0 September 1977 4Q Final Report

  19. Base drive circuit

    DOEpatents

    Lange, A.C.

    1995-04-04

    An improved base drive circuit having a level shifter for providing bistable input signals to a pair of non-linear delays. The non-linear delays provide gate control to a corresponding pair of field effect transistors through a corresponding pair of buffer components. The non-linear delays provide delayed turn-on for each of the field effect transistors while an associated pair of transistors shunt the non-linear delays during turn-off of the associated field effect transistor. 2 figures.

  20. Advances in traction drive technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.; Anderson, N. E.; Rohn, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Traction drives are traced from early uses as main transmissions in automobiles at the turn of the century to modern, high-powered traction drives capable of transmitting hundreds of horsepower. Recent advances in technology are described which enable today's traction drive to be a serious candidate for off-highway vehicles and helicopter applications. Improvements in materials, traction fluids, design techniques, power loss and life prediction methods will be highlighted. Performance characteristics of the Nasvytis fixed-ratio drive are given. Promising future drive applications, such as helicopter main transmissions and servo-control positioning mechanisms are also addressed.

  1. Current drive at plasma densities required for thermonuclear reactors.

    PubMed

    Cesario, R; Amicucci, L; Cardinali, A; Castaldo, C; Marinucci, M; Panaccione, L; Santini, F; Tudisco, O; Apicella, M L; Calabrò, G; Cianfarani, C; Frigione, D; Galli, A; Mazzitelli, G; Mazzotta, C; Pericoli, V; Schettini, G; Tuccillo, A A

    2010-08-10

    Progress in thermonuclear fusion energy research based on deuterium plasmas magnetically confined in toroidal tokamak devices requires the development of efficient current drive methods. Previous experiments have shown that plasma current can be driven effectively by externally launched radio frequency power coupled to lower hybrid plasma waves. However, at the high plasma densities required for fusion power plants, the coupled radio frequency power does not penetrate into the plasma core, possibly because of strong wave interactions with the plasma edge. Here we show experiments performed on FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade) based on theoretical predictions that nonlinear interactions diminish when the peripheral plasma electron temperature is high, allowing significant wave penetration at high density. The results show that the coupled radio frequency power can penetrate into high-density plasmas due to weaker plasma edge effects, thus extending the effective range of lower hybrid current drive towards the domain relevant for fusion reactors.

  2. Glaucoma and Driving: On-Road Driving Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Joanne M.; Black, Alex A.; Mallon, Kerry; Thomas, Ravi; Owsley, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To comprehensively investigate the types of driving errors and locations that are most problematic for older drivers with glaucoma compared to those without glaucoma using a standardized on-road assessment. Methods Participants included 75 drivers with glaucoma (mean = 73.2±6.0 years) with mild to moderate field loss (better-eye MD = -1.21 dB; worse-eye MD = -7.75 dB) and 70 age-matched controls without glaucoma (mean = 72.6 ± 5.0 years). On-road driving performance was assessed in a dual-brake vehicle by an occupational therapist using a standardized scoring system which assessed the types of driving errors and the locations where they were made and the number of critical errors that required an instructor intervention. Driving safety was rated on a 10-point scale. Self-reported driving ability and difficulties were recorded using the Driving Habits Questionnaire. Results Drivers with glaucoma were rated as significantly less safe, made more driving errors, and had almost double the rate of critical errors than those without glaucoma. Driving errors involved lane positioning and planning/approach, and were significantly more likely to occur at traffic lights and yield/give-way intersections. There were few between group differences in self-reported driving ability. Conclusions Older drivers with glaucoma with even mild to moderate field loss exhibit impairments in driving ability, particularly during complex driving situations that involve tactical problems with lane-position, planning ahead and observation. These results, together with the fact that these drivers self-report their driving to be relatively good, reinforce the need for evidence-based on-road assessments for evaluating driving fitness. PMID:27472221

  3. Hybrid car promises high performance and low emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1994-07-01

    Swedish engineers have designed a specialized electrical generator, gas turbine, electrical-drive system, and automated vehicle-control system to reduce automotive emissions without compromising energy efficiency. This article describes a four-door sedan, called the Volvo Environmental Concept Car (ECC), that uses its gas turbine for highway driving and to recharge the battery that powers its electrical drive system in the city. In addition to running on either fuel or electricity, the Volvo ECC is a true hybrid-drive vehicle that can shift to turbine or battery power by means of a programmable vehicle-management unit. While the Volvo ECC is not yet commercially available, its design and ongoing testing are providing valuable emissions and performance information for making hybrid-drive cars a reality.

  4. [Car driving and psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Jonas, Carol

    2015-10-01

    Among the specialties involved in the order of 31 August 2010, psychiatry is in Chapter IV alongside addictive behavior and drug use may impair the ability of the driver. As well as for personal vehicles for professional vehicles the incompatibility of health with driving exists when clinical factors can interfere with the skills required of the driver. There would simply absolute incompatibility for psychoses in active phase. In the other phases of psychosis is at the discretion of specialist as for illiteracy or social maladjustment. The role of the authorized psychiatrist is therefore always subjective. This article also makes room for attention-deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADHD), not listed, but the subject of numerous articles in the English literature.

  5. Rotary drive mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Kenderdine, Eugene W.

    1991-01-01

    A rotary drive mechanism includes a rotary solenoid having a stator and multi-poled rotor. A moving member rotates with the rotor and is biased by a biasing device. The biasing device causes a further rotational movement after rotation by the rotary solenoid. Thus, energization of the rotary solenoid moves the member in one direction to one position and biases the biasing device against the member. Subsequently, de-energization of the rotary solenoid causes the biasing device to move the member in the same direction to another position from where the moving member is again movable by energization and de-energization of the rotary solenoid. Preferably, the moving member is a multi-lobed cam having the same number of lobes as the rotor has poles. An anti-overdrive device is also preferably provided for preventing overdrive in the forward direction or a reverse rotation of the moving member and for precisely aligning the moving member.

  6. Magnetostrictive direct drive motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naik, Dipak; Dehoff, P. H.

    1992-01-01

    A new rare earth alloy, Terfenol-D, combines low frequency operation and extremely high energy density with high magnetostriction. Its material properties make it suitable as a drive element for actuators requiring high output torque. The high strains, the high forces and the high controllability of Terfenol alloys provide a powerful and challenging basis for new ways to generate motion in actuators. Two prototypes of motors using Terfenol-D rods were developed at NASA Goddard. The basic principles of operation are provided of the motor along with other relevant details. A conceptual design of a torque limiting safety clutch/brake under development is illustrated. Also, preliminary design drawings of a linear actuator using Terfenol-D is shown.

  7. What Drives Blend Miscibility?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Ronald; Lipson, Jane

    2014-03-01

    With no mixture data available, can one predict phase behavior in polymeric systems based on pure component information only? Due to the very weak entropic drive for large molecules to mix, predicting and understanding miscibility behavior is indeed very difficult. However, while not perfect, some a priori insight is attainable when pure component properties are analyzed within the framework of a theoretical model. A theory provides a platform, allowing one to define quantities and other measures that may not always be directly measurable, but, are physically appealing and insightful none-the-less. Are there properties that can explain for example, why a polymer like polyisobutylene (PIB) exhibits such different phase behavior compared to other polyolefins? Applying our simple lattice-based equation of state, we have recently analyzed a large number of different polymers. In this talk we will present insights from trends and patterns we have observed. Work supported by the National Science Foundation.

  8. QUICK RELEASABLE DRIVE

    DOEpatents

    Dickson, J.J.

    1958-07-01

    A quick releasable mechanical drive system suitable for use in a nuclear reactor is described. A small reversible motor positions a control rod by means of a worm and gear speed reducer, a magnetic torque clutch, and a bell crank. As the control rod is raised to the operating position, a heavy coil spring is compressed. In the event of an emergency indicated by either a''scram'' signal or a power failure, the current to the magnetic clutch is cut off, thereby freeing the coil spring and the bell crank positioner from the motor and speed reduction gearing. The coil spring will immediately act upon the bell crank to cause the insertion of the control rod. This arrangement will allow the slow, accurate positioning of the control rod during reactor operation, while providing an independent force to rapidly insert the rod in the event of an emergency.

  9. Sequenced drive for rotary valves

    DOEpatents

    Mittell, Larry C.

    1981-01-01

    A sequenced drive for rotary valves which provides the benefits of applying rotary and linear motions to the movable sealing element of the valve. The sequenced drive provides a close approximation of linear motion while engaging or disengaging the movable element with the seat minimizing wear and damage due to scrubbing action. The rotary motion of the drive swings the movable element out of the flowpath thus eliminating obstruction to flow through the valve.

  10. Driving anger in Ukraine: Appraisals, not trait driving anger, predict anger intensity while driving.

    PubMed

    Stephens, A N; Hill, T; Sullman, M J M

    2016-03-01

    Trait driving anger is often, but not always, found to predict both the intensity of anger while driving and subsequent crash-related behaviours. However, a number of studies have not found support for a direct relationship between one's tendency to become angry and anger reported while driving, suggesting that other factors may mediate this relationship. The present self-report study investigated whether, in anger provoking driving situations, the appraisals made by drivers influence the relationship between trait and state anger. A sample of 339 drivers from Ukraine completed the 33-item version of the Driver Anger Scale (DAS; Deffenbacher et al., 1994) and eight questions about their most recent experience of driving anger. A structural equation model found that the intensity of anger experienced was predicted by the negative evaluations of the situation, which was in turn predicted by trait driving anger. However, trait driving anger itself did not predict anger intensity; supporting the hypothesis that evaluations of the driving situation mediate the relationship between trait and state anger. Further, the unique structure of the DAS required to fit the data from the Ukrainian sample, may indicate that the anger inducing situations in Ukraine are different to those of a more developed country. Future research is needed to investigate driving anger in Ukraine in a broader sample and also to confirm the role of the appraisal process in the development of driving anger in both developed and undeveloped countries.

  11. The drive-wise project: driving simulator training increases real driving performance in healthy older drivers

    PubMed Central

    Casutt, Gianclaudio; Theill, Nathan; Martin, Mike; Keller, Martin; Jäncke, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Background: Age-related cognitive decline is often associated with unsafe driving behavior. We hypothesized that 10 active training sessions in a driving simulator increase cognitive and on-road driving performance. In addition, driving simulator training should outperform cognitive training. Methods: Ninety-one healthy active drivers (62–87 years) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) a driving simulator training group, (2) an attention training group (vigilance and selective attention), or (3) a control group. The main outcome variables were on-road driving and cognitive performance. Seventy-seven participants (85%) completed the training and were included in the analyses. Training gains were analyzed using a multiple regression analysis with planned orthogonal comparisons. Results: The driving simulator-training group showed an improvement in on-road driving performance compared to the attention-training group. In addition, both training groups increased cognitive performance compared to the control group. Conclusion: Driving simulator training offers the potential to enhance driving skills in older drivers. Compared to the attention training, the simulator training seems to be a more powerful program for increasing older drivers' safety on the road. PMID:24860497

  12. Drive Electric Vermont Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Fred; Roberts, Dave; Francfort, Jim; White, Sera

    2016-03-01

    Currently in the United States, the heavy majority of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) sales have been in highly conducive, selected, metropolitan areas; opposed to more broad distribution across the country. The U.S. Department of Energy’s EV Everywhere Grand Challenge is looking carefully at the barriers and opportunities that exist to enable small and midsize communities to partake in the PEV market and benefit from the economic and environmental advantages of PEVs. In order to gain insight into these challenges and barriers, DOE selected a success story (i.e., Drive Electric Vermont) as the subject of this case study, as the state of Vermont is tied with Detroit, Michigan in having the highest percentage of 2014 (most recent complete data) PEV registrations for cold weather U.S. cities and has seen more than a sixfold increase in charging stations over the last three years. The overall objective of this case study was to use the lessons learned from Drive Electric Vermont to determine what activities are most effective at encouraging acquisitions of PEVs and deployment of charging infrastructure in small to midsize communities, prioritizing and sequencing their implementation, identifying robust means for extrapolation, and applying this understanding to other small to midsize communities across the nation. The Drive Electric Vermont Program was formed in 2012 with a goal of increasing the use of electrified transportation in Vermont through policy development, education and outreach, and infrastructure development. The Drive Electric Vermont Program can be broadly broken into four components: (1) strategic planning/leadership, (2) stakeholder/partnership development, (3) education and outreach, and (4) incentives. The early phases of the program focused heavily on strategic planning, and stakeholder and partnership development, followed by a transition to education and outreach activities, charging infrastructure development, and grant and incentive programs

  13. Techno-economic comparison of series hybrid, plug-in hybrid, fuel cell and regular cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vliet, Oscar P. R.; Kruithof, Thomas; Turkenburg, Wim C.; Faaij, André P. C.

    We examine the competitiveness of series hybrid compared to fuel cell, parallel hybrid, and regular cars. We use public domain data to determine efficiency, fuel consumption, total costs of ownership and greenhouse gas emissions resulting from drivetrain choices. The series hybrid drivetrain can be seen both as an alternative to petrol, diesel and parallel hybrid cars, as well as an intermediate stage towards fully electric or fuel cell cars. We calculate the fuel consumption and costs of four diesel-fuelled series hybrid, four plug-in hybrid and four fuel cell car configurations, and compared these to three reference cars. We find that series hybrid cars may reduce fuel consumption by 34-47%, but cost €5000-12,000 more. Well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced to 89-103 g CO 2 km -1 compared to reference petrol (163 g km -1) and diesel cars (156 g km -1). Series hybrid cars with wheel motors have lower weight and 7-21% lower fuel consumption than those with central electric motors. The fuel cell car remains uncompetitive even if production costs of fuel cells come down by 90%. Plug-in hybrid cars are competitive when driving large distances on electricity, and/or if cost of batteries come down substantially. Well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced to 60-69 g CO 2 km -1.

  14. HybridPlan: A Capacity Planning Technique for Projecting Storage Requirements in Hybrid Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Youngjae; Gupta, Aayush; Urgaonkar, Bhuvan; Piotr, Berman; Sivasubramaniam, Anand

    2014-01-01

    Economic forces, driven by the desire to introduce flash into the high-end storage market without changing existing software-base, have resulted in the emergence of solid-state drives (SSDs), flash packaged in HDD form factors and capable of working with device drivers and I/O buses designed for HDDs. Unlike the use of DRAM for caching or buffering, however, certain idiosyncrasies of NAND Flash-based solid-state drives (SSDs) make their integration into hard disk drive (HDD)-based storage systems nontrivial. Flash memory suffers from limits on its reliability, is an order of magnitude more expensive than the magnetic hard disk drives (HDDs), and can sometimes be as slow as the HDD (due to excessive garbage collection (GC) induced by high intensity of random writes). Given the complementary properties of HDDs and SSDs in terms of cost, performance, and lifetime, the current consensus among several storage experts is to view SSDs not as a replacement for HDD, but rather as a complementary device within the high-performance storage hierarchy. Thus, we design and evaluate such a hybrid storage system with HybridPlan that is an improved capacity planning technique to administrators with the overall goal of operating within cost-budgets. HybridPlan is able to find the most cost-effective hybrid storage configuration with different types of SSDs and HDDs

  15. 26. CAN CONVEYOR DRIVE MECHANISM Empty can conveyor driving mechanism, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. CAN CONVEYOR DRIVE MECHANISM Empty can conveyor driving mechanism, second floor above canning area. The belt has been removed from the conveyor, but sections of can conveyor tracks are visible on the floor. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  16. Driving for All Seasons and Reasons. Book Four. Project Drive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zook, Doris; And Others

    This Project Drive booklet titled Driving for All Seasons and Reasons is one of eight booklets designed for intermediate-level English-as-a-second-language students and low-level adult basic education/basic reading students. The goal of the booklet is to aid the student in developing the oral and sight vocabulary necessary for a basic driver…

  17. VIEW OF BEND IN CEDAR DRIVE WITH 603 CEDAR DRIVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BEND IN CEDAR DRIVE WITH 603 CEDAR DRIVE ON RIGHT. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. 1997 hybrid electric vehicle specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.; Duoba, M.

    1996-10-01

    The US DOE sponsors Advanced Vehicle Technology competitions to help educate the public and advance new vehicle technologies. For several years, DOE has provided financial and technical support for the American Tour de Sol. This event showcases electric and hybrid electric vehicles in a road rally across portions of the northeastern United States. The specifications contained in this technical memorandum apply to vehicles that will be entered in the 1997 American Tour de Sol. However, the specifications were prepared to be general enough for use by other teams and individuals interested in developing hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the specifications is to ensure that the vehicles developed do not present a safety hazard to the teams that build and drive them or to the judges, sponsors, or public who attend the competitions. The specifications are by no means the definitive sources of information on constructing hybrid electric vehicles - as electric and hybrid vehicles technologies advance, so will the standards and practices for their construction. In some cases, the new standards and practices will make portions of these specifications obsolete.

  19. Effect of driving frequency on excitation of turbulence in a kinetic plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Parashar, T. N.; Shay, M. A.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Servidio, S.; Breech, B.

    2011-09-15

    The effect of driving frequency on the efficiency of turbulence generation through magnetic forcing is studied using kinetic hybrid simulations with fully kinetic ions and fluid electrons. The efficiency of driving is quantified by examining the energy input into magnetic field as well as the thermal energy for various driving frequencies. The driving is efficient in exciting turbulence and heating the plasma when the time period of the driving is larger than the nonlinear time of the system. For driving at faster time scales, the energy input is weak and the steady state energy is much lower. The heating of the plasma is correlated with intermittent properties of the magnetic field, which are manifested as non-Gaussian statistics. Implications for turbulence in solar corona are discussed.

  20. The "genetics" of driving behavior: parents' driving style predicts their children's driving style.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Alessandra; Summala, Heikki

    2004-07-01

    It can be hypothesized that children inherit their parents' driving habits both through genetic disposition and model learning. A few studies have shown indeed that parents' and their children's traffic convictions and accidents correlate which, however, may be due to life style and other exposure factors. This study aimed at investigating the relationships between parents' and their children's self-reported driving behavior. The subjects were 174 parent-child pairs who independently completed a questionnaire. Driving behavior-driving style-was evaluated by means of Manchester driver behavior questionnaire (DBQ), while data about driving exposure, life style, accidents, and traffic tickets were also collected. A series of regression models indicated that parents' self-reported driving behavior explains their children's respective self-reported behavior, even when exposure and demographic and life-style factors are controlled.

  1. Drive-By Pharming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamm, Sid; Ramzan, Zulfikar; Jakobsson, Markus

    This paper describes an attack concept termed Drive-by Pharming where an attacker sets up a web page that, when simply viewed by the victim (on a JavaScript-enabled browser), attempts to change the DNS server settings on the victim's home broadband router. As a result, future DNS queries are resolved by a DNS server of the attacker's choice. The attacker can direct the victim's Internet traffic and point the victim to the attacker's own web sites regardless of what domain the victim thinks he is actually going to, potentially leading to the compromise of the victim's credentials. The same attack methodology can be used to make other changes to the router, like replacing its firmware. Routers could then host malicious web pages or engage in click fraud. Since the attack is mounted through viewing a web page, it does not require the attacker to have any physical proximity to the victim nor does it require the explicit download of traditional malicious software. The attack works under the reasonable assumption that the victim has not changed the default management password on their broadband router.

  2. Handbook for Driving Knowledge Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, William T.; McDole, Thomas L.

    Materials intended for driving knowledge test development for use by operational licensing and education agencies are presented. A pool of 1,313 multiple choice test items is included, consisting of sets of specially developed and tested items covering principles of safe driving, legal regulations, and traffic control device knowledge pertinent to…

  3. Bidirectional drive and brake mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swan, Scott A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A space transport vehicle is disclosed as including a body which is arranged to be movably mounted on an elongated guide member disposed in outer space and driven therealong. A drive wheel is mounted on a drive shaft and arranged to be positioned in rolling engagement with the elongated guide carrying the vehicle. A brake member is arranged on the drive shaft for movement into and out of engagement with an adjacent surface of the drive wheel. An actuator is mounted on the body to be manually moved back and forth between spaced positions in an arc of movement. A ratchet-and-pawl mechanism is arranged to operate upon movements of the actuator in one direction between first and second positions for coupling the actuator to the drive wheel to incrementally rotate the wheel in one rotational direction and to operate upon movements of the actuator in the opposite direction for uncoupling the actuator from the wheel. The brake member is threadedly coupled to the drive shaft in order that the brake member will be operated only when the actuator is moved on beyond its first and second positions for shifting the brake member along the drive shaft and into frictional engagement with the adjacent surface on the drive wheel.

  4. Hybrid Gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  5. Quantum gates by periodic driving

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Z. C.; Wang, W.; Yi, X. X.

    2016-01-01

    Topological quantum computation has been extensively studied in the past decades due to its robustness against decoherence. One way to realize the topological quantum computation is by adiabatic evolutions—it requires relatively long time to complete a gate, so the speed of quantum computation slows down. In this work, we present a method to realize single qubit quantum gates by periodic driving. Compared to adiabatic evolution, the single qubit gates can be realized at a fixed time much shorter than that by adiabatic evolution. The driving fields can be sinusoidal or square-well field. With the sinusoidal driving field, we derive an expression for the total operation time in the high-frequency limit, and an exact analytical expression for the evolution operator without any approximations is given for the square well driving. This study suggests that the period driving could provide us with a new direction in regulations of the operation time in topological quantum computation. PMID:26911900

  6. Hybrid electric vehicles in Europe and Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Wyczalek, F.A.

    1996-12-31

    Beginning in 1990, the major automotive passenger vehicle manufacturers once again reexamined the battery powered electric vehicle (EV). This intensive effort to reduce the battery EV to commercial practice focused attention on the key issue of limited vehicle range, resulting from the low energy density and high mass characteristics of batteries, in comparison to liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Consequently, by 1995, vehicle manufacturers turned their attention to hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). This redirection of EV effort is highlighted by the focus on experimental hybrid EV displayed at the 1995 Frankfurt Motor Show and the Tokyo Motor Show in Japan. In Europe the 56th IAA in Frankfurt included twelve or more EV designed for personnel transportation, and among them, two featured hybrid-electric (HEV) systems: the Peugeot turboelectric HEV, and the Opel Ermscher Selectra HEV. In Japan, at the 31st Tokyo Motor Show, among the twenty or more EV on display, seven were hybrid HEV by: Daihatsu, Mitsubishi, Toyota: and, the Suburu, Suzuki, and the Kia KEV4 parallel type HEV. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the key features of these hybrid propulsion systems. Among the conclusions, two issues are evident: one, the focus is on series-type hybrid systems, with the exception of the parallel Suburu and Suzuki HEV, and, two, the major manufacturers are turning to the hybrid concept in their search for solutions to two key EV Issues: limited driving range; and, heating and air conditioning, associated with the low energy density characteristic of batteries.

  7. Capsule Design for Hybrid Shock Ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgaertel, J. A.; Dodd, E. S.; Loomis, E. N.

    2014-10-01

    Hybrid Shock-Ignition (HSI) is an alternate fusion energy concept that combines indirect drive and shock ignition schemes in order to access new regimes in National Ignition Facility (NIF) hohlraum physics. Building off of tetrahedral hohlraum experiments at the OMEGA laser facility, we have preliminary designs for spherical hohlraums that combine symmetrically arranged laser entrance holes for indirect-drive beams (to initially compress the capsule) and holes for direct-drive beams to drive a strong ignitor shock (to further compress and ignite the fuel). A LANL Eulerian hydrodynamic code is being used to find optimal laser drive, hohlraum, and capsule specifications, via criteria such as implosion symmetry, implosion time, and neutron yield. At first, drive will be modeled using a radiation source to mimic the hohlraum drive, and later, ignitor beams will be added. Initial capsule designs will be presented for experiments to develop the HSI platform on the sub-ignition scale OMEGA laser facility in FY15. Supported under the U.S. Department of Energy by the Los Alamos National Security, LLC under Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396. LA-UR-14-25071.

  8. Driving the Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haff, P. K.

    2012-12-01

    Technological modification of the earth's surface (e.g., agriculture, urbanization) is an old story in human history, but what about the future? The future of landscape in an accelerating technological world, beyond a relatively short time horizon, lies hidden behind an impenetrable veil of complexity. Sufficiently complex dynamics generates not only the trajectory of a variable of interest (e.g., vegetation cover) but also the environment in which that variable evolves (e.g., background climate). There is no way to anticipate what variables will define that environment—the dynamics creates its own variables. We are always open to surprise by a change of conditions we thought or assumed were fixed or by the appearance of new phenomena of whose possible existence we had been unaware or thought unlikely. This is especially true under the influence of technology, where novelty is the rule. Lack of direct long-term predictability of landscape change does not, however, mean we cannot say anything about its future. The presence of persistence (finite time scales) in a system means that prediction by a calibrated numerical model should be good for a limited period of time barring bad luck or faulty implementation. Short-term prediction, despite its limitations, provides an option for dealing with the longer-term future. If a computer-controlled car tries to drive itself from New York to Los Angeles, no conceivable (or possible) stand-alone software can be constructed to predict a priori the space-time trajectory of the vehicle. Yet the drive is normally completed easily by most drivers. The trip is successfully completed because each in a series of very short (linear) steps can be "corrected" on the fly by the driver, who takes her cues from the environment to keep the car on the road and headed toward its destination. This metaphor differs in a fundamental way from the usual notion of predicting geomorphic change, because it involves a goal—to reach a desired

  9. Electric vehicle drive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleyard, M.

    1992-01-01

    New legislation in the State of California requires that 2% of vehicles sold there from 1998 will be 'zero-emitting'. This provides a unique market opportunity for developers of electric vehicles but substantial improvements in the technology are probably required if it is to be successfully exploited. There are around a dozen types of battery that are potentially relevant to road vehicles but, at the present, lead/acid and sodium—sulphur come closest to combining acceptable performance, life and cost. To develop an efficient, lightweight electric motor system requires up-to-date techniques of magnetics design, and the latest power-electronic and microprocessor control methods. Brushless machines, coupled with solid-state inverters, offer the most economical solution for mass production, even though their development costs are higher than for direct-current commutator machines. Fitted to a small car, even the highest energy-density batteries will only provide around 200 km average range before recharging. Therefore, some form of supplementary on-board power generation will probably be needed to secure widespread acceptance by the driving public. Engine-driven generators of quite low power can achieve useful increases in urban range but will fail to qualify as 'zero-emitting'. On the other hand, if the same function could be economically performed by a small fuel-cell using hydrogen derived from a methanol reformer, then most of the flexibility provided by conventional vehicles would be retained. The market prospects for electric cars would then be greatly enhanced and their dependence on very advanced battery technology would be reduced.

  10. Hybrid Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Trujillo, David J.; Sridharan, Srikesh; Weinstock, Irvin

    2005-10-15

    HybSim (short for Hybrid Simulator) is a flexible, easy to use screening tool that allows the user to quanti the technical and economic benefits of installing a village hybrid generating system and simulates systems with any combination of —Diesel generator sets —Photovoltaic arrays -Wind Turbines and -Battery energy storage systems Most village systems (or small population sites such as villages, remote military bases, small communities, independent or isolated buildings or centers) depend on diesel generation systems for their source of energy. HybSim allows the user to determine other "sources" of energy that can greatly reduce the dollar to kilo-watt hour ratio. Supported by the DOE, Energy Storage Program, HybSim was initially developed to help analyze the benefits of energy storage systems in Alaskan villages. Soon after its development, other sources of energy were added providing the user with a greater range of analysis opportunities and providing the village with potentially added savings. In addition to village systems, HybSim has generated interest for use from military institutions in energy provisions and USAID for international village analysis.

  11. Linear Back-Drive Differentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waydo, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Linear back-drive differentials have been proposed as alternatives to conventional gear differentials for applications in which there is only limited rotational motion (e.g., oscillation). The finite nature of the rotation makes it possible to optimize a linear back-drive differential in ways that would not be possible for gear differentials or other differentials that are required to be capable of unlimited rotation. As a result, relative to gear differentials, linear back-drive differentials could be more compact and less massive, could contain fewer complex parts, and could be less sensitive to variations in the viscosities of lubricants. Linear back-drive differentials would operate according to established principles of power ball screws and linear-motion drives, but would utilize these principles in an innovative way. One major characteristic of such mechanisms that would be exploited in linear back-drive differentials is the possibility of designing them to drive or back-drive with similar efficiency and energy input: in other words, such a mechanism can be designed so that a rotating screw can drive a nut linearly or the linear motion of the nut can cause the screw to rotate. A linear back-drive differential (see figure) would include two collinear shafts connected to two parts that are intended to engage in limited opposing rotations. The linear back-drive differential would also include a nut that would be free to translate along its axis but not to rotate. The inner surface of the nut would be right-hand threaded at one end and left-hand threaded at the opposite end to engage corresponding right- and left-handed threads on the shafts. A rotation and torque introduced into the system via one shaft would drive the nut in linear motion. The nut, in turn, would back-drive the other shaft, creating a reaction torque. Balls would reduce friction, making it possible for the shaft/nut coupling on each side to operate with 90 percent efficiency.

  12. Status of RF Heating and Current Drive Systems for KSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Young-Soon; Jeong, Jin-Hyun; Park, Seung-Il; Cho, Moo-Hyun; Namkung, Won; Kwak, Jong-Gu; Yoon, Jae-Sung; Bae, Yeong-Duk; Wang, Son-Jong; Kim, Suk-Kwon; Hwang, Chul-Kew; Kim, Sung-Kyu

    2007-11-01

    The heating and current drive systems consisting of neutral beam injection (NBI) and radio frequency (RF) systems will be used for the KSTAR whose construction will be completed by August, 2007. The KSTAR RF heating and current drive systems are composed of ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF), lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) system, and electron cyclotron heating (ECH) system. The KSTAR adopts the ECH-assisted start-up for the flexibility and reliability of the operation regime using 84 GHz, 500 kW gyrotron. For the KSTAR first plasma scheduled at June, 2008, two RF heating systems, 84 GHz ECH and 25-60 MHz ICRF systems, will be used for the pre-ionization to reduce the loop voltage and the wall discharge cleaning, respectively. This paper describes the status of the KSTAR RF heating and current drive systems and the initial test results using dummy load. Also, the upgrade plan of the KSTAR RF heating and current drive systems will be presented as well as the key features and the relevant technological issues for the long pulse operation.

  13. Driving Performance Under Alcohol in Simulated Representative Driving Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Kenntner-Mabiala, Ramona; Kaussner, Yvonne; Jagiellowicz-Kaufmann, Monika; Hoffmann, Sonja; Krüger, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Comparing drug-induced driving impairments with the effects of benchmark blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) is an approved approach to determine the clinical relevance of findings for traffic safety. The present study aimed to collect alcohol calibration data to validate findings of clinical trials that were derived from a representative test course in a dynamic driving simulator. The driving performance of 24 healthy volunteers under placebo and with 0.05% and 0.08% BACs was measured in a double-blind, randomized, crossover design. Trained investigators assessed the subjects’ driving performance and registered their driving errors. Various driving parameters that were recorded during the simulation were also analyzed. Generally, the participants performed worse on the test course (P < 0.05 for the investigators’ assessment) under the influence of alcohol. Consistent with the relevant literature, lane-keeping performance parameters were sensitive to the investigated BACs. There were significant differences between the alcohol and placebo conditions in most of the parameters analyzed. However, the total number of errors was the only parameter discriminating significantly between all three BAC conditions. In conclusion, data show that the present experimental setup is suitable for future psychopharmacological research. Thereby, for each drug to be investigated, we recommend to assess a profile of various parameters that address different levels of driving. On the basis of this performance profile, the total number of driving errors is recommended as the primary endpoint. However, this overall endpoint should be completed by a specifically sensitive parameter that is chosen depending on the effect known to be induced by the tested drug. PMID:25689289

  14. Magnetic compression laser driving circuit

    DOEpatents

    Ball, Don G.; Birx, Dan; Cook, Edward G.

    1993-01-01

    A magnetic compression laser driving circuit is disclosed. The magnetic compression laser driving circuit compresses voltage pulses in the range of 1.5 microseconds at 20 Kilovolts of amplitude to pulses in the range of 40 nanoseconds and 60 Kilovolts of amplitude. The magnetic compression laser driving circuit includes a multi-stage magnetic switch where the last stage includes a switch having at least two turns which has larger saturated inductance with less core material so that the efficiency of the circuit and hence the laser is increased.

  15. Magnetic compression laser driving circuit

    DOEpatents

    Ball, D.G.; Birx, D.; Cook, E.G.

    1993-01-05

    A magnetic compression laser driving circuit is disclosed. The magnetic compression laser driving circuit compresses voltage pulses in the range of 1.5 microseconds at 20 kilovolts of amplitude to pulses in the range of 40 nanoseconds and 60 kilovolts of amplitude. The magnetic compression laser driving circuit includes a multi-stage magnetic switch where the last stage includes a switch having at least two turns which has larger saturated inductance with less core material so that the efficiency of the circuit and hence the laser is increased.

  16. How to maintain chain drives

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J.L. )

    1992-06-18

    Properly selected and maintained chain drives can be expected to give thousands of hours of reliable service. Selection is usually done just once. This paper reports on good maintenance which must be done regularly to keep the drive operating. An effective maintenance program for roller chain should include correct type and adequate amounts of lubrication, replacement of worn chains and sprockets, and elimination of drive interferences. It is important to set u a lubrication and inspection/correction schedule to ensure that all required maintenance is carried out.

  17. Phoning while driving II: a review of driving conditions influence.

    PubMed

    Collet, C; Guillot, A; Petit, C

    2010-05-01

    The first paper examined how the variables related to driving performance were impacted by the management of holding a phone conversation. However, the conditions under which this dual task is carried out are dependent upon a set of factors that may particularly influence the risk of crash. These conditions are defined by several independent variables, classified into five main categories: i) legislation; ii) phone type (hands-free or hand-held); iii) drivers' features regarding age, gender, personal individual profile and driving experience; iv) conversation content (casual or professional) and its context (held with passengers or with a cell (mobile) phone); v) driving conditions (actual or simulated driving, road type, traffic density and weather). These independent variables determine the general conditions. The way in which these factors are combined and interact one with another thus determines the risk that drivers undergo when a cell phone is used while driving. Finally, this review defined the general conditions of driving for which managing a phone conversation is likely to elicit a high risk of car crash or, conversely, may provide a situation of lower risk, with sufficient acceptance to ensure safety.

  18. Nonlinear lower hybrid modeling in tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Napoli, F.; Schettini, G.; Castaldo, C.; Cesario, R.

    2014-02-12

    We present here new results concerning the nonlinear mechanism underlying the observed spectral broadening produced by parametric instabilities occurring at the edge of tokamak plasmas in present day LHCD (lower hybrid current drive) experiments. Low frequency (LF) ion-sound evanescent modes (quasi-modes) are the main parametric decay channel which drives a nonlinear mode coupling of lower hybrid (LH) waves. The spectrum of the LF fluctuations is calculated here considering the beating of the launched LH wave at the radiofrequency (RF) operating line frequency (pump wave) with the noisy background of the RF power generator. This spectrum is calculated in the frame of the kinetic theory, following a perturbative approach. Numerical solutions of the nonlinear LH wave equation show the evolution of the nonlinear mode coupling in condition of a finite depletion of the pump power. The role of the presence of heavy ions in a Deuterium plasma in mitigating the nonlinear effects is analyzed.

  19. Review of the experimental papers at the IAEA conference on noninductive current drive, Culham, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Motley, R.W.

    1983-10-01

    Three types of noninductive current drive experiments have been reported at this conference: (1) neutral beam (2) rf current drive, and (3) relativistic electron beams (REB). If we compare the effort to develop current drive to a horse race, the neutral beam horse was first out of the gates, but it quickly found greener pastures (heating) and has dropped temporarily out of the race. The lower hybrid horse now has a big lead at the first furlong (200 m), but the bulk of the race remains to be run. The fast wave and REB horses have yet to get up speed.

  20. Apparatus for forming drive belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Topits, A., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An apparatus for manufacturing belts, such as seamless belts, is provided, the apparatus has relatively movable rollers that are mounted in an oven. A belt blank, for example, of a thin polyester film, is rotated on the rollers as heat is applied. Four rollers, each mounted on a separate roller assembly, are movable along appropriate tracks while a fifth centrally located roller is stationary. A pair of dc motors are operatively connected to a speed reduction gear assembly to provide a pair of rotating drive shafts that extend into the oven. One rotating shaft drives all of the rollers through a rotational gear assembly while the other drive shaft is capable of positioning the movable rollers through respective rotating threaded shafts. Control devices are provided for controlling the motors while measuring devices are operatively connected to the positional drive shaft to indicate the position of the rollers.

  1. Dangers of Texting While Driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... Privacy Policy Proceedings & Actions Proceedings and Actions Overview Electronic Comment Filing System (ECFS) Commission Documents (EDOCS) Most ... 000 drivers are using cell phones or manipulating electronic devices while driving, a number that has held ...

  2. Driving Speed vs Fuel Efficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vest, Floyd

    1980-01-01

    A mathematical treatment of the relationship between driving speed and fuel efficiency is presented. The material involves applications of exponentials, logarithms, and elementary calculus, and is intended to be enrichment material for secondary and lower college mathematics classes. (MP)

  3. Quantum effects in warp drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finazzi, Stefano

    2013-09-01

    Warp drives are interesting configurations that, at least theoretically, provide a way to travel at superluminal speed. Unfortunately, several issues seem to forbid their realization. First, a huge amount of exotic matter is required to build them. Second, the presence of quantum fields propagating in superluminal warp-drive geometries makes them semiclassically unstable. Indeed, a Hawking-like high-temperature flux of particles is generated inside the warp-drive bubble, which causes an exponential growth of the energy density measured at the front wall of the bubble by freely falling observers. Moreover, superluminal warp drives remain unstable even if the Lorentz symmetry is broken by the introduction of regulating higher order terms in the Lagrangian of the quantum field. If the dispersion relation of the quantum field is subluminal, a black-hole laser phenomenon yields an exponential amplification of the emitted flux. If it is superluminal, infrared effects cause a linear growth of this flux.

  4. Power requirements for current drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boozer, Allen H.

    1988-03-01

    General formulas for the efficiency of current drive in toroidal plasmas are derived using entropy arguments. The highest possible efficiency for current drive in which a high-energy electron tail is formed is shown to be p=Erj, with p and j the power and current densities and Er≊0.09n14 V/m with n14 the electron density in units of 1014/cm.3 The electric field required to maintain the current in a runaway discharge is also shown to equal Er. If the plasma current is carried by near-Maxwellian electrons, waves that have a low phase velocity, compared to the energy of the electrons with which they interact, can drive a current with Ohmic efficiency, p=ηj2. Such waves were first discussed in the context of current drive by Fisch [Rev. Mod. Phys. 59, 175 (1987)].

  5. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    DOEpatents

    Bockelmann, Thomas R.; Hope, Mark E.; Zou, Zhanjiang; Kang, Xiaosong

    2009-02-10

    A battery control system for hybrid vehicle includes a hybrid powertrain battery, a vehicle accessory battery, and a prime mover driven generator adapted to charge the vehicle accessory battery. A detecting arrangement is configured to monitor the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge. A controller is configured to activate the prime mover to drive the generator and recharge the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a first predetermined level, or transfer electrical power from the hybrid powertrain battery to the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a second predetermined level. The invention further includes a method for controlling a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  6. Hybrid options for light-duty vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    An, F., Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.

    1999-07-19

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) offer great promise in improving fuel economy. In this paper, we analyze why, how, and by how much vehicle hybridization can reduce energy consumption and improve fuel economy. Our analysis focuses on efficiency gains associated solely with vehicle hybridization. We do not consider such other measures as vehicle weight reduction or air- and tire-resistance reduction, because such measures would also benefit conventional technology vehicles. The analysis starts with understanding the energy inefficiencies of light-duty vehicles associated with different operation modes in US and Japanese urban and highway driving cycles, with the corresponding energy-saving potentials. The potential for fuel economy gains due to vehicle hybridization can be estimated almost exclusively on the basis of three elements: the reducibility of engine idling operation, the recoverability of braking energy losses, and the capability of improving engine load profiles to gain efficiency associated with specific HEV configurations and control strategies. Specifically, we evaluate the energy efficiencies and fuel economies of a baseline MY97 Corolla-like conventional vehicle (CV), a hypothetical Corolla-based minimal hybrid vehicle (MHV), and a MY98 Prius-like full hybrid vehicle (FHV). We then estimate energy benefits of both MHVs and FHVs over CVs on a performance-equivalent basis. We conclude that the energy benefits of hybridization vary not only with test cycles, but also with performance requirements. The hybrid benefits are greater for ''Corolla (high) performance-equivalent'' vehicles than for ''Prius (low) performance-equivalent'' vehicles. An increasing acceleration requirement would result in larger fuel economy benefits from vehicle hybridization.

  7. Currents generated by lower hybrid waves

    SciTech Connect

    McWilliams, R.; Motley, R.W.

    1981-04-01

    Electron currents can be driven in a linear plasma by the absorption of lower hybrid waves excited primarily in one direction. Current-drive has been demonstrated both for collisional and resonant-electron absorption. The magnitude of the excited currents is compared with the predictions from an electron kinetic equation with a Lorentz collision operator in the regime k/sub parallel to/v/sub te//..omega..<<1.

  8. Hybrid vehicle powertrain system with power take-off driven vehicle accessory

    DOEpatents

    Beaty, Kevin D.; Bockelmann, Thomas R.; Zou, Zhanijang; Hope, Mark E.; Kang, Xiaosong; Carpenter, Jeffrey L.

    2006-09-12

    A hybrid vehicle powertrain system includes a first prime mover, a first prime mover driven power transmission mechanism having a power take-off adapted to drive a vehicle accessory, and a second prime mover. The second prime mover is operable to drive the power transmission mechanism alone or in combination with the first prime mover to provide power to the power take-off through the power transmission mechanism. The invention further includes methods for operating a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  9. Mechanical drive for blood pump

    DOEpatents

    Bifano, N.J.; Pouchot, W.D.

    1975-07-29

    This patent relates to a highly efficient blood pump to be used as a replacement for a ventricle of the human heart to restore people disabled by heart disease. The mechanical drive of the present invention is designed to operate in conjunction with a thermoelectric converter power source. The mechanical drive system essentially converts the output of a rotary power into pulsatile motion so that the power demand from the thermoelectric converter remains essentially constant while the blood pump output is pulsed. (auth)

  10. Direct drive field actuator motors

    DOEpatents

    Grahn, A.R.

    1998-03-10

    A positive-drive field actuator motor is described which includes a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately. 62 figs.

  11. [Vision and car driving ability].

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Helmut

    2011-05-01

    Visual functions relevant for car driving are: Visual acuity, contrast and twilight vision, visual field, ocular motility and alignment and colour vision. Generally accepted and standardized tests are available for visual acuity and visual field. Maximum permissible values have been defined arbitrarily and are hardly supported by studies. European standards have been published comprising also contrast and twilight vision. When examining driving ability progressive and treatable ocular disorders such as cataract and glaucoma have to be considered.

  12. Direct drive field actuator motors

    SciTech Connect

    Grahn, Allen R.

    1998-01-01

    A positive-drive field actuator motor including a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately.

  13. Low backlash direct drive actuator

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, T.C.

    1994-10-25

    A low backlash direct drive actuator is described which comprises a motor such as a stepper motor having at least 200 steps per revolution; a two part hub assembly comprising a drive hub coaxially attached to the shaft of the motor and having a plurality of drive pins; a driven hub having a plurality of bores in one end thereof in alignment with the drive pins in the drive hub and a threaded shaft coaxially mounted in an opposite end of the driven hub; and a housing having a central bore therein into which are fitted the drive hub and driven hub, the housing having a motor mount on one end thereof to which is mounted the stepper motor, and a closed end portion with a threaded opening therein coaxial with the central bore in the housing and receiving therein the threaded shaft attached to the driven hub. Limit switches mounted to the housing cooperate with an enlarged lip on the driven hub to limit the lateral travel of the driven hub in the housing, which also acts to limit the lateral travel of the threaded shaft which functions as a lead screw. 10 figs.

  14. Low backlash direct drive actuator

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, Thomas C.

    1994-01-01

    A low backlash direct drive actuator is described which comprises a motor such as a stepper motor having at least 200 steps per revolution; a two part hub assembly comprising a drive hub coaxially attached to the shaft of the motor and having a plurality of drive pins; a driven hub having a plurality of bores in one end thereof in alignment with the drive pins in the drive hub and a threaded shaft coaxially mounted in an opposite end of the driven hub; and a housing having a central bore therein into which are fitted the drive hub and driven hub, the housing having a motor mount on one end thereof to which is mounted the stepper motor, and a closed end portion with a threaded opening therein coaxial with the central bore in the housing and receiving therein the threaded shaft attached to the driven hub. Limit switches mounted to the housing cooperate with an enlarged lip on the driven hub to limit the lateral travel of the driven hub in the housing, which also acts to limit the lateral travel of the threaded shaft which functions as a lead screw.

  15. Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Wei-Kan

    1995-04-01

    Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings (HSMB's) utilize high temperature superconductors (HTS's) together with permanent magnets to form a frictionless interface between relatively rotating parts. They are low mass, stable, and do not incur expenditure of energy during normal operation. There is no direct physical contact between rotor and stator, and hence there is no wear and tear. However, just as any other applications of HTS's, it requires a very cold temperature to function. Whereas this might be perceived as a disadvantage on earth, it is of no great concern in space or on the moon. To astronomers, the moon is an excellent site for an observatory, but the cold and dusty vacuum environment on the moon precludes the use of mechanical bearings on the telescope mounts. Furthermore, drive mechanisms with very fine steps, and hence bearings with extremely low friction are needed to track a star from the moon, because the moon rotates very slowly. All aspects considered, the HSMB is about the only candidate that fits in naturally. Here, we present a design for one such bearing, capable of supporting a telescope that weighs about 3 lbs on Earth.

  16. Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Wei-Kan

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings (HSMB's) utilize high temperature superconductors (HTS's) together with permanent magnets to form a frictionless interface between relatively rotating parts. They are low mass, stable, and do not incur expenditure of energy during normal operation. There is no direct physical contact between rotor and stator, and hence there is no wear and tear. However, just as any other applications of HTS's, it requires a very cold temperature to function. Whereas this might be perceived as a disadvantage on earth, it is of no great concern in space or on the moon. To astronomers, the moon is an excellent site for an observatory, but the cold and dusty vacuum environment on the moon precludes the use of mechanical bearings on the telescope mounts. Furthermore, drive mechanisms with very fine steps, and hence bearings with extremely low friction are needed to track a star from the moon, because the moon rotates very slowly. All aspects considered, the HSMB is about the only candidate that fits in naturally. Here, we present a design for one such bearing, capable of supporting a telescope that weighs about 3 lbs on Earth.

  17. Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, W.

    1995-04-01

    Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings (HSMB`s) utilize high temperature superconductors (HTS`s) together with permanent magnets to form a frictionless interface between relatively rotating parts. They are low mass, stable, and do not incur expenditure of energy during normal operation. There is no direct physical contact between rotor and stator, and hence there is no wear and tear. However, just as any other applications of HTS`s, it requires a very cold temperature to function. Whereas this might be perceived as a disadvantage on earth, it is of no great concern in space or on the moon. To astronomers, the moon is an excellent site for an observatory, but the cold and dusty vacuum environment on the moon precludes the use of mechanical bearings on the telescope mounts. Furthermore, drive mechanisms with very fine steps, and hence bearings with extremely low friction are needed to track a star from the moon, because the moon rotates very slowly. All aspects considered, the HSMB is about the only candidate that fits in naturally. Here, the authors present a design for one such bearing, capable of supporting a telescope that weighs about 3 lbs on Earth.

  18. Efficient Driving of Piezoelectric Transducers Using a Biaxial Driving Technique.

    PubMed

    Pichardo, Samuel; Silva, Rafael R C; Rubel, Oleg; Curiel, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Efficient driving of piezoelectric materials is desirable when operating transducers for biomedical applications such as high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) or ultrasound imaging. More efficient operation reduces the electric power required to produce the desired bioeffect or contrast. Our preliminary work [Cole et al. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. 2014;26(13):135901.] suggested that driving transducers by applying orthogonal electric fields can significantly reduce the coercivity that opposes ferroelectric switching. We present here the experimental validation of this biaxial driving technique using piezoelectric ceramics typically used in HIFU. A set of narrow-band transducers was fabricated with two sets of electrodes placed in an orthogonal configuration (following the propagation and the lateral mode). The geometry of the ceramic was chosen to have a resonance frequency similar for the propagation and the lateral mode. The average (± s.d.) resonance frequency of the samples was 465.1 (± 1.5) kHz. Experiments were conducted in which each pair of electrodes was driven independently and measurements of effective acoustic power were obtained using the radiation force method. The efficiency (acoustic/electric power) of the biaxial driving method was compared to the results obtained when driving the ceramic using electrodes placed only in the pole direction. Our results indicate that the biaxial method increases efficiency from 50% to 125% relative to the using a single electric field.

  19. Efficient Driving of Piezoelectric Transducers Using a Biaxial Driving Technique

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Efficient driving of piezoelectric materials is desirable when operating transducers for biomedical applications such as high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) or ultrasound imaging. More efficient operation reduces the electric power required to produce the desired bioeffect or contrast. Our preliminary work [Cole et al. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. 2014;26(13):135901.] suggested that driving transducers by applying orthogonal electric fields can significantly reduce the coercivity that opposes ferroelectric switching. We present here the experimental validation of this biaxial driving technique using piezoelectric ceramics typically used in HIFU. A set of narrow-band transducers was fabricated with two sets of electrodes placed in an orthogonal configuration (following the propagation and the lateral mode). The geometry of the ceramic was chosen to have a resonance frequency similar for the propagation and the lateral mode. The average (± s.d.) resonance frequency of the samples was 465.1 (± 1.5) kHz. Experiments were conducted in which each pair of electrodes was driven independently and measurements of effective acoustic power were obtained using the radiation force method. The efficiency (acoustic/electric power) of the biaxial driving method was compared to the results obtained when driving the ceramic using electrodes placed only in the pole direction. Our results indicate that the biaxial method increases efficiency from 50% to 125% relative to the using a single electric field. PMID:26418550

  20. Lossless hybridization between photovoltaic and thermoelectric devices.

    PubMed

    Park, Kwang-Tae; Shin, Sun-Mi; Tazebay, Abdullah S; Um, Han-Don; Jung, Jin-Young; Jee, Sang-Won; Oh, Min-Wook; Park, Su-Dong; Yoo, Bongyoung; Yu, Choongho; Lee, Jung-Ho

    2013-01-01

    The optimal hybridization of photovoltaic (PV) and thermoelectric (TE) devices has long been considered ideal for the efficient harnessing solar energy. Our hybrid approach uses full spectrum solar energy via lossless coupling between PV and TE devices while collecting waste energy from thermalization and transmission losses from PV devices. Achieving lossless coupling makes the power output from the hybrid device equal to the sum of the maximum power outputs produced separately from individual PV and TE devices. TE devices need to have low internal resistances enough to convey photo-generated currents without sacrificing the PV fill factor. Concomitantly, a large number of p-n legs are preferred to drive a high Seebeck voltage in TE. Our simple method of attaching a TE device to a PV device has greatly improved the conversion efficiency and power output of the PV device (~30% at a 15°C temperature gradient across a TE device).

  1. Lossless hybridization between photovoltaic and thermoelectric devices

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kwang-Tae; Shin, Sun-Mi; Tazebay, Abdullah S.; Um, Han-Don; Jung, Jin-Young; Jee, Sang-Won; Oh, Min-Wook; Park, Su-Dong; Yoo, Bongyoung; Yu, Choongho; Lee, Jung-Ho

    2013-01-01

    The optimal hybridization of photovoltaic (PV) and thermoelectric (TE) devices has long been considered ideal for the efficient harnessing solar energy. Our hybrid approach uses full spectrum solar energy via lossless coupling between PV and TE devices while collecting waste energy from thermalization and transmission losses from PV devices. Achieving lossless coupling makes the power output from the hybrid device equal to the sum of the maximum power outputs produced separately from individual PV and TE devices. TE devices need to have low internal resistances enough to convey photo-generated currents without sacrificing the PV fill factor. Concomitantly, a large number of p-n legs are preferred to drive a high Seebeck voltage in TE. Our simple method of attaching a TE device to a PV device has greatly improved the conversion efficiency and power output of the PV device (~30% at a 15°C temperature gradient across a TE device). PMID:23820973

  2. Hybrid-free Josephson Parametric Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frattini, N. E.; Narla, A.; Sliwa, K. M.; Shankar, S.; Hatridge, M.; Devoret, M. H.

    A necessary component for any quantum computation architecture is the ability to perform efficient quantum operations. In the microwave regime of superconducting qubits, these quantum-limited operations can be realized with a non-degenerate Josephson junction based three-wave mixer, the Josephson Parametric Converter (JPC). Currently, the quantum signal of interest must pass through a lossy 180 degree hybrid to be presented as a differential drive to the JPC. This hybrid therefore places a limit on the quantum efficiency of the system and also increases the device footprint. We present a new design for the JPC eliminating the need for any external hybrid. We also show that this design has nominally identical performance to the conventional JPC. Work supported by ARO, AFOSR and YINQE.

  3. Scenario analysis of hybrid class 3-7 heavy vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    An, F.; Stodolsky, F.; Vyas, A.; Cuenca, R.; Eberhardt, J. J.

    1999-12-23

    The effects of hybridization on heavy-duty vehicles are not well understood. Heavy vehicles represent a broader range of applications than light-duty vehicles, resulting in a wide variety of chassis and engine combinations, as well as diverse driving conditions. Thus, the strategies, incremental costs, and energy/emission benefits associated with hybridizing heavy vehicles could differ significantly from those for passenger cars. Using a modal energy and emissions model, they quantify the potential energy savings of hybridizing commercial Class 3-7 heavy vehicles, analyze hybrid configuration scenarios, and estimate the associated investment cost and payback time. From the analysis, they conclude that (1) hybridization can significantly reduce energy consumption of Class 3-7 heavy vehicles under urban driving conditions; (2) the grid-independent, conventional vehicle (CV)-like hybrid is more cost-effective than the grid-dependent, electric vehicle (EV)-like hybrid, and the parallel configuration is more cost-effective than the series configuration; (3) for CV-like hybridization, the on-board engine can be significantly downsized, with a gasoline or diesel engine used for SUVs perhaps being a good candidate for an on-board engine; (4) over the long term, the incremental cost of a CV-like, parallel-configured Class 3-4 hybrid heavy vehicle is about %5,800 in the year 2005 and $3,000 in 2020, while for a Class 6-7 truck, it is about $7,100 in 2005 and $3,300 in 2020; and (5) investment payback time, which depends on the specific type and application of the vehicle, averages about 6 years under urban driving conditions in 2005 and 2--3 years in 2020.

  4. Driving performance and driver discomfort in an elevated and standard driving position during a driving simulation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jordan; Mansfield, Neil; Gyi, Diane; Pagett, Mark; Bateman, Bob

    2015-07-01

    The primary purposes of a vehicle driver's seat, is to allow them to complete the driving task comfortably and safely. Within each class of vehicle (e.g. passenger, commercial, industrial, agricultural), there is an expected driving position to which a vehicle cabin is designed. This paper reports a study that compares two driving positions, in relation to Light Commercial Vehicles (LCVs), in terms of driver performance and driver discomfort. In the 'elevated' driving position, the seat is higher than usually used in road vehicles; this is compared to a standard driving position replicating the layout for a commercially available vehicle. It is shown that for a sample of 12 drivers, the elevated position did not, in general, show more discomfort than the standard position over a 60 min driving simulation, although discomfort increased with duration. There were no adverse effects shown for emergency stop reaction time or for driver headway for the elevated posture compared to the standard posture. The only body part that showed greater discomfort for the elevated posture compared to the standard posture was the right ankle. A second experiment confirmed that for 12 subjects, a higher pedal stiffness eliminated the ankle discomfort problem.

  5. Relationships between driving simulator performance and driving test results.

    PubMed

    de Winter, J C F; de Groot, S; Mulder, M; Wieringa, P A; Dankelman, J; Mulder, J A

    2009-02-01

    This article is considered relevant because: 1) car driving is an everyday and safety-critical task; 2) simulators are used to an increasing extent for driver training (related topics: training, virtual reality, human-machine interaction); 3) the article addresses relationships between performance in the simulator and driving test results--a relevant topic for those involved in driver training and the virtual reality industries; 4) this article provides new insights about individual differences in young drivers' behaviour. Simulators are being used to an increasing extent for driver training, allowing for the possibility of collecting objective data on driver proficiency under standardised conditions. However, relatively little is known about how learner drivers' simulator measures relate to on-road driving. This study proposes a theoretical framework that quantifies driver proficiency in terms of speed of task execution, violations and errors. This study investigated the relationships between these three measures of learner drivers' (n=804) proficiency during initial simulation-based training and the result of the driving test on the road, occurring an average of 6 months later. A higher chance of passing the driving test the first time was associated with making fewer steering errors on the simulator and could be predicted in regression analysis with a correlation of 0.18. Additionally, in accordance with the theoretical framework, a shorter duration of on-road training corresponded with faster task execution, fewer violations and fewer steering errors (predictive correlation 0.45). It is recommended that researchers conduct more large-scale studies into the reliability and validity of simulator measures and on-road driving tests.

  6. Hybrid mimics and hybrid vigor in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Greaves, Ian K; Groszmann, Michael; Wu, Li Min; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Peacock, W James

    2015-09-01

    F1 hybrids can outperform their parents in yield and vegetative biomass, features of hybrid vigor that form the basis of the hybrid seed industry. The yield advantage of the F1 is lost in the F2 and subsequent generations. In Arabidopsis, from F2 plants that have a F1-like phenotype, we have by recurrent selection produced pure breeding F5/F6 lines, hybrid mimics, in which the characteristics of the F1 hybrid are stabilized. These hybrid mimic lines, like the F1 hybrid, have larger leaves than the parent plant, and the leaves have increased photosynthetic cell numbers, and in some lines, increased size of cells, suggesting an increased supply of photosynthate. A comparison of the differentially expressed genes in the F1 hybrid with those of eight hybrid mimic lines identified metabolic pathways altered in both; these pathways include down-regulation of defense response pathways and altered abiotic response pathways. F6 hybrid mimic lines are mostly homozygous at each locus in the genome and yet retain the large F1-like phenotype. Many alleles in the F6 plants, when they are homozygous, have expression levels different to the level in the parent. We consider this altered expression to be a consequence of transregulation of genes from one parent by genes from the other parent. Transregulation could also arise from epigenetic modifications in the F1. The pure breeding hybrid mimics have been valuable in probing the mechanisms of hybrid vigor and may also prove to be useful hybrid vigor equivalents in agriculture.

  7. Variable-frequency synchronous motor drives for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Chalmers, B.J.; Musaba, L.; Gosden, D.F.

    1996-07-01

    The performance capability envelope of a variable-frequency, permanent-magnet synchronous motor drive with field weakening is dependent upon the product of maximum current and direct-axis inductance. To obtain a performance characteristic suitable for a typical electric vehicle drive, in which short-term increase of current is applied, it is necessary to design an optimum value of direct-axis inductance. The paper presents an analysis of a hybrid motor design which uses a two-part rotor construction comprising a surface-magnet part and an axially laminated reluctance part. This arrangement combines the properties of all other types of synchronous motor and offers a greater choice of design variables. It is shown that the desired form of performance may be achieved when the high-inductance axis of the reluctance part is arranged to lead the magnet axis by 90{degree} (elec.).

  8. Variable-frequency synchronous motor drives for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Chalmers, B.J.; Musaba, L.; Gosden, D.F.

    1995-12-31

    The performance capability envelope of a variable-frequency, permanent-magnet synchronous motor drive with field weakening is dependent upon the product of maximum current and direct-axis inductance. To obtain a performance characteristic suitable for a typical electric vehicle drive, in which short-term increase of current is applied, it is necessary to design an optimum value of direct-axis inductance. The paper presents an analysis of a hybrid motor design which uses a two-part rotor construction comprising a surface-magnet part and an axially-laminated reluctance part. This arrangement combines the properties of all other types of synchronous motor and offers a greater choice of design variables. It is shown that the desired form of performance may be achieved when the high-inductance axis of the reluctance part is arranged to lead the magnet axis by 90{degree} (elec.).

  9. Households' Stories of Their Encounters with a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caperello, Nicolette D.; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    2012-01-01

    One way to progress toward greenhouse gas reductions is for people to drive plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Households in this study participated in a 4- to 6-week PHEV driving trial. A narrative of each household's encounter with the PHEV was constructed by the researchers from multiple in-home interviews, questionnaires completed by…

  10. A hybrid air conditioner driven by a hybrid solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Alili, Ali

    The objective of this thesis is to search for an efficient way of utilizing solar energy in air conditioning applications. The current solar Air Conditioners (A/C)s suffer from low Coefficient of Performance (COP) and performance degradation in hot and humid climates. By investigating the possible ways of utilizing solar energy in air conditioning applications, the bottlenecks in these approaches were identified. That resulted in proposing a novel system whose subsystem synergy led to a COP higher than unity. The proposed system was found to maintain indoor comfort at a higher COP compared to the most common solar A/Cs, especially under very hot and humid climate conditions. The novelty of the proposed A/C is to use a concentrating photovoltaic/thermal collector, which outputs thermal and electrical energy simultaneously, to drive a hybrid A/C. The performance of the hybrid A/C, which consists of a desiccant wheel, an enthalpy wheel, and a vapor compression cycle (VCC), was investigated experimentally. This work also explored the use of a new type of desiccant material, which can be regenerated with a low temperature heat source. The experimental results showed that the hybrid A/C is more effective than the standalone VCC in maintaining the indoor conditions within the comfort zone. Using the experimental data, the COP of the hybrid A/C driven by a hybrid solar collector was found to be at least double that of the current solar A/Cs. The innovative integration of its subsystems allows each subsystem to do what it can do best. That leads to lower energy consumption which helps reduce the peak electrical loads on electric utilities and reduces the consumer operating cost since less energy is purchased during the on peak periods and less solar collector area is needed. In order for the proposed A/C to become a real alternative to conventional systems, its performance and total cost were optimized using the experimentally validated model. The results showed that for an

  11. Drive: Theory and Construct Validation

    PubMed Central

    Petrides, K. V.

    2016-01-01

    This article explicates the theory of drive and describes the development and validation of two measures. A representative set of drive facets was derived from an extensive corpus of human attributes (Study 1). Operationalised using an International Personality Item Pool version (the Drive:IPIP), a three-factor model was extracted from the facets in two samples and confirmed on a third sample (Study 2). The multi-item IPIP measure showed congruence with a short form, based on single-item ratings of the facets, and both demonstrated cross-informant reliability. Evidence also supported the measures’ convergent, discriminant, concurrent, and incremental validity (Study 3). Based on very promising findings, the authors hope to initiate a stream of research in what is argued to be a rather neglected niche of individual differences and non-cognitive assessment. PMID:27409773

  12. MULTIPLE DIFFERENTIAL ROTARY MECHANICAL DRIVE

    DOEpatents

    Smits, R.G.

    1964-01-28

    This patent relates to a mechanism suitable for such applications as driving two spaced-apart spools which carry a roll film strip under conditions where the film movement must be rapidly started, stopped, and reversed while maintaining a constant tension on the film. The basic drive is provided by a variable speed, reversible rnotor coupled to both spools through a first differential mechanism and driving both spools in the same direction. A second motor, providing a constant torque, is connected to the two spools through a second differential mechanism and is coupled to impart torque to one spool in a first direction anid to the other spool in the reverse direction thus applying a constant tension to the film passing over the two spools irrespective of the speed or direction of rotation thereof. (AEC)

  13. Multi-propeller drive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belenger, Robert V.

    1995-05-01

    A multipropeller drive system having a single input shaft for connection to an engine system, a differential gear assembly for dividing the driving force from the input drive shaft between a pair of output shafts, and a pair of laterally spaced propellers driven by the output shafts of the differential gear assembly is disclosed. The differential gear assembly operates in a manner wherein one output shaft, if required, is permitted to revolve at a different rate than the other output shaft. A pair of brake mechanisms acting on the output shafts of the differential gear assembly enable an operator to control the rotational speed of the respective propellers without modifying the engine speed or transmission settings.

  14. Development of test procedures for hybrid/electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, A. F.

    1992-07-01

    This report is concerned with the development of procedures for testing of hybrid/electric vehicles to determine their energy consumption and emissions characteristics. Special emphasis is given to hybrid vehicles, which can be operated above some minimum battery state-of-charge in an all-electric mode for all types of driving (city and highway). When the all-electric range of these vehicles is exceeded, the vehicles are operated in the hybrid mode, in which an engine/generator is turned on to generate electricity on-board the vehicle. Key issues in testing hybrid vehicles are identified and discussed. These issues include the test cycles to be used, the instrumentation required, the effect of battery state-of-charge and control strategy in the hybrid mode on the need for repeated test cycles, and the data to be collected and how that data from repeated cycles is interpreted to determine the vehicle energy consumption and emissions characteristics.

  15. Development of test procedures for hybrid/electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, A. F.

    1992-07-01

    The development of procedures for testing of hybrid/electric vehicles to determine their energy consumption and emissions characteristics is addressed. Special emphasis is given to hybrid vehicles, which can be operated above some minimum battery state-of-charge in an all-electric mode for all types of driving (city and highway). When the all-electric range of these vehicles is exceeded, the vehicles are operated in the hybrid mode, in which an engine/generator is turned on to generate electricity on-board the vehicle. Key issues in testing hybrid vehicles are identified and discussed. These issues include the test cycles to be used, the instrumentation required, the effect of battery state-of-charge and control strategy in the hybrid mode on the need for repeated test cycles, and the data to be collected and how that data from repeated cycles is interpreted to determine the vehicle energy consumption and emissions characteristics.

  16. Energy Conversion and Storage Requirements for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Among various options for reducing greenhouse gases in future large commercial aircraft, hybrid electric option holds significant promise. In the hybrid electric aircraft concept, gas turbine engine is used in combination with an energy storage system to drive the fan that propels the aircraft, with gas turbine engine being used for certain segments of the flight cycle and energy storage system being used for other segments. The paper will provide an overview of various energy conversion and storage options for hybrid electric aircraft. Such options may include fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, multifunctional structures with energy storage capability, thermoelectric, thermionic or a combination of any of these options. The energy conversion and storage requirements for hybrid electric aircraft will be presented. The role of materials in energy conversion and storage systems for hybrid electric aircraft will be discussed.

  17. Future hard disk drive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Roger

    2009-03-01

    This paper briefly reviews the evolution of today's hard disk drive with the additional intention of orienting the reader to the overall mechanical and electrical architecture. The modern hard disk drive is a miracle of storage capacity and function together with remarkable economy of design. This paper presents a personal view of future customer requirements and the anticipated design evolution of the components. There are critical decisions and great challenges ahead for the key technologies of heads, media, head-disk interface, mechanics, and electronics.

  18. Radiation-Hardened Solid-State Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, Douglas J.

    2010-01-01

    A method is provided for a radiationhardened (rad-hard) solid-state drive for space mission memory applications by combining rad-hard and commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) non-volatile memories (NVMs) into a hybrid architecture. The architecture is controlled by a rad-hard ASIC (application specific integrated circuit) or a FPGA (field programmable gate array). Specific error handling and data management protocols are developed for use in a rad-hard environment. The rad-hard memories are smaller in overall memory density, but are used to control and manage radiation-induced errors in the main, and much larger density, non-rad-hard COTS memory devices. Small amounts of rad-hard memory are used as error buffers and temporary caches for radiation-induced errors in the large COTS memories. The rad-hard ASIC/FPGA implements a variety of error-handling protocols to manage these radiation-induced errors. The large COTS memory is triplicated for protection, and CRC-based counters are calculated for sub-areas in each COTS NVM array. These counters are stored in the rad-hard non-volatile memory. Through monitoring, rewriting, regeneration, triplication, and long-term storage, radiation-induced errors in the large NV memory are managed. The rad-hard ASIC/FPGA also interfaces with the external computer buses.

  19. 32 CFR 634.43 - Driving records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Records and the Traffic Point System § 634.43 Driving... intoxicating liquor (0.08% or greater on DOD installations; violation of civil law off post). C. Driving a... the same as the date of civil conviction, or the date that State or host-nation driving privileges...

  20. 32 CFR 634.43 - Driving records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Driving records. 634.43 Section 634.43 National... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Records and the Traffic Point System § 634.43 Driving... suspension or revocation actions. Table 5-1 of Part 634 Suspension/Revocation of Driving Privileges...

  1. 32 CFR 634.43 - Driving records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Driving records. 634.43 Section 634.43 National... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Records and the Traffic Point System § 634.43 Driving... suspension or revocation actions. Table 5-1 of Part 634 Suspension/Revocation of Driving Privileges...

  2. 32 CFR 634.43 - Driving records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Driving records. 634.43 Section 634.43 National... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Records and the Traffic Point System § 634.43 Driving... suspension or revocation actions. Table 5-1 of Part 634 Suspension/Revocation of Driving Privileges...

  3. 32 CFR 634.43 - Driving records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Driving records. 634.43 Section 634.43 National... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Records and the Traffic Point System § 634.43 Driving... suspension or revocation actions. Table 5-1 of Part 634 Suspension/Revocation of Driving Privileges...

  4. Driving and Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the research literature on driving and age-related macular degeneration, which is motivated by the link between driving and the quality of life of older adults and their increased collision rate. It addresses the risk of crashes, driving performance, driving difficulty, self-regulation, and interventions to enhance, safety,…

  5. Basic principles of variable speed drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1973-01-01

    An understanding of the principles which govern variable speed drive operation is discussed for successful drive application. The fundamental factors of torque, speed ratio, and power as they relate to drive selection are discussed. The basic types of variable speed drives, their operating characteristics and their applications are also presented.

  6. Electronic 4-wheel drive control device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayato, S.; Takanori, S.; Shigeru, H.; Tatsunori, S.

    1984-01-01

    The internal rotation torque generated during operation of a 4-wheel drive vehicle is reduced using a control device whose clutch is attached to one part of the rear-wheel drive shaft. One torque sensor senses the drive torque associated with the rear wheel drive shaft. A second sensor senses the drive torque associated with the front wheel drive shaft. Revolution count sensors sense the revolutions of each drive shaft. By means of a microcomputer, the engagement of the clutch is changed to insure that the ratio of the torque sensors remains constant.

  7. Roller/Gear Drives For Robotic Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, William J.; Shipitalo, William

    1995-01-01

    Pitch/yaw roller/gear drive and wrist-roll roller/gear drive designed to incorporate several features desirable in robotic-joint actuators. Includes zero backlash, high efficiency, smooth motion (little ripple in torque and in speed ratio), and high degree of back-drivability. Pitch/yaw drive is novel two-axis drive containing combination of gears, rollers, and springs acting together eliminating backlash and cogging. Wrist-roll drive more-conventional single-axis drive offering advantages like those of pitch/yaw drive.

  8. Drive reconfiguration mechanism for tracked robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Willis, W. David

    2000-01-01

    Drive reconfiguration apparatus for changing the configuration of a drive unit with respect to a vehicle body may comprise a guide system associated with the vehicle body and the drive unit which allows the drive unit to rotate about a center of rotation that is located at about a point where the drive unit contacts the surface being traversed. An actuator mounted to the vehicle body and connected to the drive unit rotates the drive unit about the center of rotation between a first position and a second position.

  9. A Drive for Fuel Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Career and technical education is already ahead of the curve, since automotive technology, electrical technology and electronics students across the nation have been actively engaged in learning about hybrid, electric and even solar-powered cars. Students in the Environmental Technologies Club at Central High School in Phoenix, Arizona, have built…

  10. Virtual Rewards for Driving Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Josh

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide from automobiles is a major contributor to global climate change. In "Virtual Rewards for Driving Green," Josh Pritchard proposes a computer application that will enable fuel-efficient drivers to earn "green" dollars with which to buy digital merchandise on the Web. Can getting items that exist only in cyberspace actually change a…

  11. Test-Driving Their Passions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Noah

    2007-01-01

    This article describes how the Watson fellowships give recipients an opportunity to test-drive their passions and see if they could lead to a career path. Over the last 40 years, the Thomas J. Watson Foundation has awarded $29 million in fellowships to seniors graduating from 50 mostly top-tier colleges with fewer than 3,000 students. In 2007, 50…

  12. Driving and working with syncope.

    PubMed

    Barbic, Franca; Casazza, Giovanni; Zamunér, Antonio Roberto; Costantino, Giorgio; Orlandi, Mauro; Dipaola, Franca; Capitanio, Chiara; Achenza, Sara; Sheldon, Robert; Furlan, Raffaello

    2014-09-01

    Syncope is usually addressed in the Emergency Department (ED) by the doctor in charge of the clinical picture, i.e. the patient's risk is stratified, a diagnostic work-up is done and a prognosis is set. Patients are ultimately admitted to hospital or discharged. However, other aspects related to syncope may deeply affect their daily lives. These include how and when to return to work and to driving, the feelings about a recent loss of consciousness, and the potential relapse of syncope. This is particularly significant if the work setting is intrinsically hazardous. These patients need adequate clinical and psychological support. For patients with syncope, two main parameters should be considered regarding returning to work and to driving. The first is to evaluate the risk of syncope recurrence and the second is to consider the expected harm if syncope does indeed occur during these activities. In the present paper we detail the problem of driving (including professional driving) and work after syncope. We propose a new quantitative model that will guide the physician in stratifying the risk for patients who have had a previous syncope event. The new model considers the syncope recurrence risk, the job task duration, and features that facilitate a syncope during work. On the basis of these variables, the global risk index for a worker is calculated. Following appropriate validation, this method might help ED and occupational physicians in their decision-making process with the goal of safely readmitting syncope patients to the workplace.

  13. Hydromechanical transmission with hydrodynamic drive

    DOEpatents

    Orshansky, Jr., deceased, Elias; Weseloh, William E.

    1979-01-01

    This transmission has a first planetary gear assembly having first input means connected to an input shaft, first output means, and first reaction means, and a second planetary gear assembly having second input means connected to the first input means, second output means, and second reaction means connected directly to the first reaction means by a reaction shaft. First clutch means, when engaged, connect the first output means to an output shaft in a high driving range. A hydrodynamic drive is used; for example, a torque converter, which may or may not have a stationary case, has a pump connected to the second output means, a stator grounded by an overrunning clutch to the case, and a turbine connected to an output member, and may be used in a starting phase. Alternatively, a fluid coupling or other type of hydrodynamic drive may be used. Second clutch means, when engaged, for connecting the output member to the output shaft in a low driving range. A variable-displacement hydraulic unit is mechanically connected to the input shaft, and a fixed-displacement hydraulic unit is mechanically connected to the reaction shaft. The hydraulic units are hydraulically connected together so that when one operates as a pump the other acts as a motor, and vice versa. Both clutch means are connected to the output shaft through a forward-reverse shift arrangement. It is possible to lock out the torque converter after the starting phase is over.

  14. Promising Electric Aircraft Drive Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    An overview of electric aircraft propulsion technology performance thresholds for key power system components is presented. A weight comparison of electric drive systems with equivalent total delivered energy is made to help identify component performance requirements, and promising research and development opportunities.

  15. Torque-Splitting Gear Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kish, J.

    1991-01-01

    Geared drive train transmits torque from input shaft in equal parts along two paths in parallel, then combines torques in single output shaft. Scheme reduces load on teeth of meshing gears while furnishing redundancy to protect against failures. Such splitting and recombination of torques common in design of turbine engines.

  16. Mechanical planetary compensating drive system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeiger, R. J.; Gerdts, J. C., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Drive enables two concentric output shafts to be controlled independently or rotated as a unit. Possible uses are pointing and tracking devices, rotary camera shutters with variable light control, gimbal systems with yaw and pitch movement, spectrometer mirror scanning devices, etc.

  17. Anomalous-viscosity current drive

    DOEpatents

    Stix, T.H.; Ono, M.

    1986-04-25

    The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for maintaining a steady-state current for magnetically confining the plasma in a toroidal magnetic confinement device using anomalous viscosity current drive. A second aspect of this invention relates to an apparatus and method for the start-up of a magnetically confined toroidal plasma.

  18. Differential adaptation drives ecological speciation in campions (Silene): evidence from a multi-site transplant experiment.

    PubMed

    Favre, Adrien; Widmer, Alex; Karrenberg, Sophie

    2017-02-01

    In order to investigate the role of differential adaptation for the evolution of reproductive barriers, we conducted a multi-site transplant experiment with the dioecious sister species Silene dioica and S. latifolia and their hybrids. Crosses within species as well as reciprocal first-generation (F1 ) and second-generation (F2 ) interspecific hybrids were transplanted into six sites, three within each species' habitat. Survival and flowering were recorded over 4 yr. At all transplant sites, the local species outperformed the foreign species, reciprocal F1 hybrids performed intermediately and F2 hybrids underperformed in comparison to F1 hybrids (hybrid breakdown). Females generally had slightly higher cumulative fitness than males in both within- and between-species crosses and we thus found little evidence for Haldane's rule acting on field performance. The strength of selection against F1 and F2 hybrids as well as hybrid breakdown increased with increasing strength of habitat adaptation (i.e. the relative fitness difference between the local and the foreign species) across sites. Our results suggest that differential habitat adaptation led to ecologically dependent post-zygotic reproductive barriers and drives divergence and speciation in this Silene system.

  19. Cannabis Effects on Driving Skills

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Rebecca L.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cannabis is the most prevalent illicit drug identified in impaired drivers. The effects of cannabis on driving continue to be debated, making prosecution and legislation difficult. Historically, delays in sample collection, evaluating the inactive Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC, and polydrug use have complicated epidemiologic evaluations of driver impairment after cannabis use. CONTENT We review and evaluate the current literature on cannabis’ effects on driving, highlighting the epidemiologic and experimental data. Epidemiologic data show that the risk of involvement in a motor vehicle accident (MVA) increases approximately 2-fold after cannabis smoking. The adjusted risk of driver culpability also increases substantially, particularly with increased blood THC concentrations. Studies that have used urine as the biological matrix have not shown an association between cannabis and crash risk. Experimental data show that drivers attempt to compensate by driving more slowly after smoking cannabis, but control deteriorates with increasing task complexity. Cannabis smoking increases lane weaving and impaired cognitive function. Critical-tracking tests, reaction times, divided-attention tasks, and lane-position variability all show cannabis-induced impairment. Despite purported tolerance in frequent smokers, complex tasks still show impairment. Combining cannabis with alcohol enhances impairment, especially lane weaving. SUMMARY Differences in study designs frequently account for inconsistencies in results between studies. Participant-selection bias and confounding factors attenuate ostensible cannabis effects, but the association with MVA often retains significance. Evidence suggests recent smoking and/or blood THC concentrations 2–5 ng/mL are associated with substantial driving impairment, particularly in occasional smokers. Future cannabis-and-driving research should emphasize challenging tasks, such as divided attention

  20. An investigation on the fuel savings potential of hybrid hydraulic refuse collection vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, Frank A. Bosse, Thomas; Sawodny, Oliver

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Driving cycle acquisition in a refuse collection vehicle. • Vehicle modeling and validation for numerical simulations based on the measured driving cycle. • Fuel consumption analysis for a conventional diesel vehicle and a hybrid hydraulic vehicle. - Abstract: Refuse trucks play an important role in the waste collection process. Due to their typical driving cycle, these vehicles are characterized by large fuel consumption, which strongly affects the overall waste disposal costs. Hybrid hydraulic refuse vehicles offer an interesting alternative to conventional diesel trucks, because they are able to recuperate, store and reuse braking energy. However, the expected fuel savings can vary strongly depending on the driving cycle and the operational mode. Therefore, in order to assess the possible fuel savings, a typical driving cycle was measured in a conventional vehicle run by the waste authority of the City of Stuttgart, and a dynamical model of the considered vehicle was built up. Based on the measured driving cycle and the vehicle model including the hybrid powertrain components, simulations for both the conventional and the hybrid vehicle were performed. Fuel consumption results that indicate savings of about 20% are presented and analyzed in order to evaluate the benefit of hybrid hydraulic vehicles used for refuse collection.

  1. Hybrid rocket propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzman, Allen L.

    1993-01-01

    Topics addressed are: (1) comparison of the theoretical impulses; (2) comparison of the density-specific impulses; (3) general propulsion system features comparison; (4) hybrid systems, booster applications; and (5) hybrid systems, upper stage propulsion applications.

  2. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The introgression of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals 40,000 YBP after a half-million years of separation, may have led to the best example of a hybrid swarm on earth. Modern trade and transportation in support of the human hybrids has continued to introduce additional species, genotyp...

  3. Influence of collisions on parametric instabilities induced by lower hybrid waves in tokamak plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaldo, C.; Di Siena, A.; Fedele, R.; Napoli, F.; Amicucci, L.; Cesario, R.; Schettini, G.

    2016-01-01

    Parametric instabilities induced at the plasma edge by lower hybrid wave power externally coupled to tokamak plasmas have, via broadening of the antenna spectrum, strong influence on the power deposition and current drive in the core. For modeling the parametric instabilities at the tokamak plasma edge in lower hybrid current drive experiments, the effect of the collisions has been neglected so far. In the present work, a specific collisional parametric dispersion relation, useful to analyze these nonlinear phenomena near the lower hybrid antenna mouth, is derived for the first time, based on a kinetic model. Numerical solutions show that in such cold plasma regions the collisions prevent the onset of the parametric instabilities. This result is important for present lower hybrid current drive experiments, as well as in fusion reactor scenarios.

  4. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    DOEpatents

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  5. Hybrid armature projectile

    DOEpatents

    Hawke, Ronald S.; Asay, James R.; Hall, Clint A.; Konrad, Carl H.; Sauve, Gerald L.; Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Susoeff, Allan R.

    1993-01-01

    A projectile for a railgun that uses a hybrid armature and provides a seed block around part of the outer surface of the projectile to seed the hybrid plasma brush. In addition, the hybrid armature is continuously vaporized to replenish plasma in a plasma armature to provide a tandem armature and provides a unique ridge and groove to reduce plasama blowby.

  6. Intraply Hybrid Composite Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    Several theoretical approaches combined in program. Intraply hybrid composites investigated theoretically and experimentally at Lewis Research Center. Theories developed during investigations and corroborated by attendant experiments used to develop computer program identified as INHYD (Intraply Hybrid Composite Design). INHYD includes several composites micromechanics theories, intraply hybrid composite theories, and integrated hygrothermomechanical theory. Equations from theories used by program as appropriate for user's specific applications.

  7. Hybrid armature projectile

    DOEpatents

    Hawke, R.S.; Asay, J.R.; Hall, C.A.; Konrad, C.H.; Sauve, G.L.; Shahinpoor, M.; Susoeff, A.R.

    1993-03-02

    A projectile for a railgun that uses a hybrid armature and provides a seed block around part of the outer surface of the projectile to seed the hybrid plasma brush. In addition, the hybrid armature is continuously vaporized to replenish plasma in a plasma armature to provide a tandem armature and provides a unique ridge and groove to reduce plasma blowby.

  8. Hybrid quantum information processing

    SciTech Connect

    Furusawa, Akira

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  9. Homoploid hybrid expectations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Homoploid hybrid speciation occurs when a stable, fertile, and reproductively isolated lineage results from hybridization between two distinct species without a change in ploidy level. Reproductive isolation between a homoploid hybrid species and its parents is generally attained via chromosomal re...

  10. Stability and skill in driving.

    PubMed

    Treffner, Paul; Barrett, Rod; Petersen, Andrew

    2002-12-01

    Two experiments addressed the relation between postural stability, perceptual sensitivity, and stability of driving performance. A vehicle was fitted with differential GPS for measuring position and speed, position sensors for measuring brake and accelerator depression, force transducers for measuring door, console and footrest bracing forces, and an accelerometer for measuring the 3D accelerations of the vehicle. In Experiment 1, we investigated whether the initiation of deceleration and the control of braking might be due to sensitivity to the perceptual variable tau, which specifies time-to-contact (TTC), and in particular, whether its first derivative, tau-dot, is used to maintain a constant deceleration profile. Using both untrained experienced drivers (EDs) and trained driving instructors from the Holden Performance Driving Centre (HPDC), results confirmed that, regardless of skill level, tau-dot was maintained at a value close to 0.5 and, as predicted by Lee [Perception 5 (1976) 437], braking was initiated when TTC approximately 5 s. In Experiment 2, we wished to quantify the purported differences in driving behaviour between EDs and HPDC instructors during a variety of everyday manoeuvres. Results indicated that instructors utilised a different cornering trajectory, a different emergency braking strategy, and were able to perform a high-speed swerve and recovery task more effectively than the EDs. In general, the instructors applied greater bracing forces using the door and console compared with EDs. The instructors also applied greater footrest forces during emergency braking than did the EDs. The greater use of bracing by instructor drivers to resist g-forces represents a strategy of active stabilisation that enhances both postural stability, as well as overall stability and consistency of driving performance. Results are discussed with regard to the dynamics of perceptual-motor coordination, and how increased stability might improve sensitivity to

  11. FC vehicle hybridisation: an affordable solution for an energy-efficient FC powered drive train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pede, G.; Iacobazzi, A.; Passerini, S.; Bobbio, A.; Botto, G.

    Fuel cells (FCs) have potential as clean and efficient energy sources for automotive applications without sacrifice in performance or driving range. However, the complete FC system must operate as efficiently as possible over the range of driving conditions that may be encountered while maintaining a low cost. To achieve this target, a storage unit can be introduced in the FC system to reduce the size of the fuel cell that is the most expensive component. This "hybrid" concept would not only reduce the drive train total cost but it also allow the recover of the braking energy and the operation at the voltage-current point of maximum efficiency for the FC system. Pro-and-cons of the "full-power" versus the "hybrid" configuration are shown in this work. The "Hybridisation rate" or "Hybridisation degree", a parameter expressed by the relationship between two installed powers, the generation power and the traction power, is also introduced and it is demonstrated that for each category of hybrid vehicles there is an optimal value of hybridisation degree. The storage systems considered are based on high power batteries or ultra capacitors (UCs) or a combination of them. A preliminary design of a sport utility vehicle (SUV) using a combined storage system and a FC energy source (called Triple Hybrid), is proposed. Finally, the experience of the Italian industry in this field is also reviewed.

  12. Among High School Seniors, Driving After Marijuana Use Surpasses Drunk Driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drunk Driving Among High School Seniors, Driving After Marijuana Use Surpasses Drunk Driving Email Facebook Twitter July ... in a vehicle whose driver had been using marijuana or another illicit drug, or had drunk 5 ...

  13. Quantum technologies with hybrid systems

    PubMed Central

    Kurizki, Gershon; Bertet, Patrice; Kubo, Yuimaru; Mølmer, Klaus; Petrosyan, David; Rabl, Peter; Schmiedmayer, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    An extensively pursued current direction of research in physics aims at the development of practical technologies that exploit the effects of quantum mechanics. As part of this ongoing effort, devices for quantum information processing, secure communication, and high-precision sensing are being implemented with diverse systems, ranging from photons, atoms, and spins to mesoscopic superconducting and nanomechanical structures. Their physical properties make some of these systems better suited than others for specific tasks; thus, photons are well suited for transmitting quantum information, weakly interacting spins can serve as long-lived quantum memories, and superconducting elements can rapidly process information encoded in their quantum states. A central goal of the envisaged quantum technologies is to develop devices that can simultaneously perform several of these tasks, namely, reliably store, process, and transmit quantum information. Hybrid quantum systems composed of different physical components with complementary functionalities may provide precisely such multitasking capabilities. This article reviews some of the driving theoretical ideas and first experimental realizations of hybrid quantum systems and the opportunities and challenges they present and offers a glance at the near- and long-term perspectives of this fascinating and rapidly expanding field. PMID:25737558

  14. Quantum technologies with hybrid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurizki, Gershon; Bertet, Patrice; Kubo, Yuimaru; Mølmer, Klaus; Petrosyan, David; Rabl, Peter; Schmiedmayer, Jörg

    2015-03-01

    An extensively pursued current direction of research in physics aims at the development of practical technologies that exploit the effects of quantum mechanics. As part of this ongoing effort, devices for quantum information processing, secure communication, and high-precision sensing are being implemented with diverse systems, ranging from photons, atoms, and spins to mesoscopic superconducting and nanomechanical structures. Their physical properties make some of these systems better suited than others for specific tasks; thus, photons are well suited for transmitting quantum information, weakly interacting spins can serve as long-lived quantum memories, and superconducting elements can rapidly process information encoded in their quantum states. A central goal of the envisaged quantum technologies is to develop devices that can simultaneously perform several of these tasks, namely, reliably store, process, and transmit quantum information. Hybrid quantum systems composed of different physical components with complementary functionalities may provide precisely such multitasking capabilities. This article reviews some of the driving theoretical ideas and first experimental realizations of hybrid quantum systems and the opportunities and challenges they present and offers a glance at the near- and long-term perspectives of this fascinating and rapidly expanding field.

  15. Quantum technologies with hybrid systems.

    PubMed

    Kurizki, Gershon; Bertet, Patrice; Kubo, Yuimaru; Mølmer, Klaus; Petrosyan, David; Rabl, Peter; Schmiedmayer, Jörg

    2015-03-31

    An extensively pursued current direction of research in physics aims at the development of practical technologies that exploit the effects of quantum mechanics. As part of this ongoing effort, devices for quantum information processing, secure communication, and high-precision sensing are being implemented with diverse systems, ranging from photons, atoms, and spins to mesoscopic superconducting and nanomechanical structures. Their physical properties make some of these systems better suited than others for specific tasks; thus, photons are well suited for transmitting quantum information, weakly interacting spins can serve as long-lived quantum memories, and superconducting elements can rapidly process information encoded in their quantum states. A central goal of the envisaged quantum technologies is to develop devices that can simultaneously perform several of these tasks, namely, reliably store, process, and transmit quantum information. Hybrid quantum systems composed of different physical components with complementary functionalities may provide precisely such multitasking capabilities. This article reviews some of the driving theoretical ideas and first experimental realizations of hybrid quantum systems and the opportunities and challenges they present and offers a glance at the near- and long-term perspectives of this fascinating and rapidly expanding field.

  16. Sensory drive in cichlid speciation.

    PubMed

    Maan, Martine E; Hofker, Kees D; van Alphen, Jacques J M; Seehausen, Ole

    2006-06-01

    The role of selection in speciation is a central yet poorly understood problem in evolutionary biology. The rapid radiations of extremely colorful cichlid fish in African lakes have fueled the hypothesis that sexual selection can drive species divergence without geographical isolation. Here we present experimental evidence for a mechanism by which sexual selection becomes divergent: in two sibling species from Lake Victoria, female mating preferences for red and blue male nuptial coloration coincide with their context-independent sensitivities to red and blue light, which in turn correspond to a difference in ambient light in the natural habitat of the species. These results suggest that natural selection on visual performance, favoring different visual properties in different spectral environments, may lead to divergent sexual selection on male nuptial coloration. This interplay of ecological and sexual selection along a light gradient may provide a mechanism of rapid speciation through divergent sensory drive.

  17. Electric Drive Study. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-21

    necessary and identify by block number) FIELD j GROUP SUB-GROUP IElectric Drives, Motors, Homopolar Motors, Induction Motof’s, I-u I ’Propulsion Systems...E-I APPENDIX F. VEHICLE AND PROPULSION SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS ..... .F-I APPENDIX G. HOMOPOLAR MACHINE DESCRIPTION ..... ............ G-1 APPENDIX H...System (19.5 Ton) ............... .. 62 5-22. Homopolar (DC) System (19.5 Ton).... . .. . 64 5-23. HF Induction AC System (19.5 Ton) (Split Power’Pack

  18. Integrated Testing, Simulation and Analysis of Electric Drive Options for Medium-Duty Parcel Delivery Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ramroth, L. A.; Gonder, J.; Brooker, A.

    2012-09-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory verified diesel-conventional and diesel-hybrid parcel delivery vehicle models to evaluate petroleum reduction and cost implications of plug-in hybrid gasoline and diesel variants. These variants are run on a field-data-derived design matrix to analyze the effects of drive cycle, distance, battery replacements, battery capacity, and motor power on fuel consumption and lifetime cost. Two cost scenarios using fuel prices corresponding to forecasted highs for 2011 and 2030 and battery costs per kilowatt-hour representing current and long-term targets compare plug-in hybrid lifetime costs with diesel conventional lifetime costs. Under a future cost scenario of $100/kWh battery energy and $5/gal fuel, plug-in hybrids are cost effective. Assuming a current cost of $700/kWh and $3/gal fuel, they rarely recoup the additional motor and battery cost. The results highlight the importance of understanding the application's drive cycle, daily driving distance, and kinetic intensity. For instances in the current-cost scenario where the additional plug-in hybrid cost is regained in fuel savings, the combination of kinetic intensity and daily distance travelled does not coincide with the usage patterns observed in the field data. If the usage patterns were adjusted, the hybrids could become cost effective.

  19. Electric vehicle drive train components

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, F.

    1994-12-31

    Power Control Systems has developed a family of electric vehicle drive systems that range from 65 horsepower through 300 horse power. These propulsion systems support vehicle applications ranging from light cars and pickups to buses and trucks weighing as much as 40,000 lbs (18,400 kg). These robust systems are designed specifically for automotive applications including safety, electromagnetic emissions, and environment ruggedness. Dolphin Drive Systems are very flexible. Their inverter controllers are programmable and can be provided as stand alone components matched to customer specified motors. A selection of pre-calibrated systems including motor and inverter/controller can be provided. Accessory tools are also available for customer self programming. Dolphin Drive Systems provide precision control of AC induction motors providing excellent torque-speed performance usually eliminating the need for multistage transmissions. In addition, they are very efficient over a wide speed/torque range. This provides for excellent power management over a variety of continuous speed and stop and go applications.

  20. Close Look at Hybrid Vehicle Loyalty and Ownership

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Ho-Ling; Chin, Shih-Miao; Wilson, Daniel W; Oliveira Neto, Francisco Moraes; Taylor, Rob D

    2013-01-01

    In a news release dated April 9, 2012, Polk stated that only 35% of hybrid owners bought a hybrid again when they returned to market in 2011. These findings were based on an internal study conducted by Polk. The study also indicated that if repurchase behavior among the high volume audience of Toyota Prius owners wasn t factored in; hybrid loyalty would drop to under 25%. This news release has generated a lot of interest and concern by the automobile industry as well as consumers, since it was published, and caused many to think about the idea of hybrid loyalty as well as factors that influence consumers. Most reactions to the 35% hybrid loyalty dealt with concerns of the viability of hybrid technology as part of the solution to address transportation energy challenges. This paper attempts to shed more light on Polk s hybrid loyalty study as well as explore several information sources concerning hybrid loyalty status. Specifically, major factors that might impact the selection and acquisition of hybrid vehicles are addressed. This includes investigating the associations between hybrid market shares and influencing factors like fuel price and hybrid incentives, as well as the availability of hybrid models and other highly fuel efficient vehicle options. This effort is not in-depth study, but rather a short study to see if Polk s claim could be validated. This study reveals that Polk s claim was rather misleading because its definition of loyalty was very narrow. This paper also suggests that Polk s analysis failed to account for some very important factors, raising the question of whether it is fair to compare a vehicle drive train option (which hybrids are) with a vehicle brand in terms of loyalty and also raises the question of whether hybrid loyalty is even a valid point to consider. This report maintains that Polk s study does not prove that hybrid owners were dissatisfied with their vehicles, which was a common theme among reporting news agencies when Polk

  1. 30 CFR 77.406 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mechanical Equipment § 77.406 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless the machines are provided with mechanical shifters. (b) Belt dressing shall not be applied while belts are...

  2. 30 CFR 77.406 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mechanical Equipment § 77.406 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless the machines are provided with mechanical shifters. (b) Belt dressing shall not be applied while belts are...

  3. Modeling anger and aggressive driving behavior in a dynamic choice-latent variable model.

    PubMed

    Danaf, Mazen; Abou-Zeid, Maya; Kaysi, Isam

    2015-02-01

    This paper develops a hybrid choice-latent variable model combined with a Hidden Markov model in order to analyze the causes of aggressive driving and forecast its manifestations accordingly. The model is grounded in the state-trait anger theory; it treats trait driving anger as a latent variable that is expressed as a function of individual characteristics, or as an agent effect, and state anger as a dynamic latent variable that evolves over time and affects driving behavior, and that is expressed as a function of trait anger, frustrating events, and contextual variables (e.g., geometric roadway features, flow conditions, etc.). This model may be used in order to test measures aimed at reducing aggressive driving behavior and improving road safety, and can be incorporated into micro-simulation packages to represent aggressive driving. The paper also presents an application of this model to data obtained from a driving simulator experiment performed at the American University of Beirut. The results derived from this application indicate that state anger at a specific time period is significantly affected by the occurrence of frustrating events, trait anger, and the anger experienced at the previous time period. The proposed model exhibited a better goodness of fit compared to a similar simple joint model where driving behavior and decisions are expressed as a function of the experienced events explicitly and not the dynamic latent variable.

  4. Drive Cycle Analysis, Measurement of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of a PHEV School Bus: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Barnitt, R.; Gonder, J.

    2011-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) collected and analyzed real-world school bus drive cycle data and selected similar standard drive cycles for testing on a chassis dynamometer. NREL tested a first-generation plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) school bus equipped with a 6.4L engine and an Enova PHEV drive system comprising a 25-kW/80 kW (continuous/peak) motor and a 370-volt lithium ion battery pack. A Bluebird 7.2L conventional school bus was also tested. Both vehicles were tested over three different drive cycles to capture a range of driving activity. PHEV fuel savings in charge-depleting (CD) mode ranged from slightly more than 30% to a little over 50%. However, the larger fuel savings lasted over a shorter driving distance, as the fully charged PHEV school bus would initially operate in CD mode for some distance, then in a transitional mode, and finally in a charge-sustaining (CS) mode for continued driving. The test results indicate that a PHEV school bus can achieve significant fuel savings during CD operation relative to a conventional bus. In CS mode, the tested bus showed small fuel savings and somewhat higher nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions than the baseline comparison bus.

  5. Hydraulic Hybrid Parcel Delivery Truck Deployment, Testing & Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Gallo, Jean-Baptiste

    2014-03-07

    Although hydraulic hybrid systems have shown promise over the last few years, commercial deployment of these systems has primarily been limited to Class 8 refuse trucks. In 2005, the Hybrid Truck Users Forum initiated the Parcel Delivery Working Group including the largest parcel delivery fleets in North America. The goal of the working group was to evaluate and accelerate commercialization of hydraulic hybrid technology for parcel delivery vehicles. FedEx Ground, Purolator and United Parcel Service (UPS) took delivery of the world’s first commercially available hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery trucks in early 2012. The vehicle chassis includes a Parker Hannifin hydraulic hybrid drive system, integrated and assembled by Freightliner Custom Chassis Corp., with a body installed by Morgan Olson. With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, CALSTART and its project partners assessed the performance, reliability, maintainability and fleet acceptance of three pre-production Class 6 hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery vehicles using information and data from in-use data collection and on-road testing. This document reports on the deployment of these vehicles operated by FedEx Ground, Purolator and UPS. The results presented provide a comprehensive overview of the performance of commercial hydraulic hybrid vehicles in parcel delivery applications. This project also informs fleets and manufacturers on the overall performance of hydraulic hybrid vehicles, provides insights on how the technology can be both improved and more effectively used. The key findings and recommendations of this project fall into four major categories: -Performance, -Fleet deployment, -Maintenance, -Business case. Hydraulic hybrid technology is relatively new to the market, as commercial vehicles have been introduced only in the past few years in refuse and parcel delivery applications. Successful demonstration could pave the way for additional purchases of hydraulic hybrid vehicles throughout the

  6. Commercial viability of hybrid vehicles : best household use and cross national considerations.

    SciTech Connect

    Santini, D. J.; Vyas, A. D.

    1999-07-16

    Japanese automakers have introduced hybrid passenger cars in Japan and will soon do so in the US. In this paper, we report how we used early computer simulation model results to compare the commercial viability of a hypothetical near-term (next decade) hybrid mid-size passenger car configuration under varying fuel price and driving patterns. The fuel prices and driving patterns evaluated are designed to span likely values for major OECD nations. Two types of models are used. One allows the ''design'' of a hybrid to a specified set of performance requirements and the prediction of fuel economy under a number of possible driving patterns (called driving cycles). Another provides an estimate of the incremental cost of the hybrid in comparison to a comparably performing conventional vehicle. In this paper, the models are applied to predict the NPV cost of conventional gasoline-fueled vehicles vs. parallel hybrid vehicles. The parallel hybrids are assumed to (1) be produced at high volume, (2) use nickel metal hydride battery packs, and (3) have high-strength steel bodies. The conventional vehicle also is assumed to have a high-strength steel body. The simulated vehicles are held constant in many respects, including 0-60 time, engine type, aerodynamic drag coefficient, tire rolling resistance, and frontal area. The hybrids analyzed use the minimum size battery pack and motor to meet specified 0-60 times. A key characteristic affecting commercial viability is noted and quantified: that hybrids achieve the most pronounced fuel economy increase (best use) in slow, average-speed, stop-and-go driving, but when households consistently drive these vehicles under these conditions, they tend to travel fewer miles than average vehicles. We find that hours driven is a more valuable measure than miles. Estimates are developed concerning hours of use of household vehicles versus driving cycle, and the pattern of minimum NPV incremental cost (or benefit) of selecting the hybrid over

  7. 30 CFR 75.1727 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drive belts. 75.1727 Section 75.1727 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1727 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not...

  8. 25 CFR 11.445 - Driving violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Driving violations. 11.445 Section 11.445 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.445 Driving violations. (a) A person who shall operate any vehicle in a manner dangerous to the public safety is guilty of reckless driving, a petty misdemeanor,...

  9. 25 CFR 11.445 - Driving violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Driving violations. 11.445 Section 11.445 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.445 Driving violations. (a) A person who shall operate any vehicle in a manner dangerous to the public safety is guilty of reckless driving, a petty misdemeanor,...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1727 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drive belts. 75.1727 Section 75.1727 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1727 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1727 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drive belts. 75.1727 Section 75.1727 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1727 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not...

  12. 30 CFR 77.406 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drive belts. 77.406 Section 77.406 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... Mechanical Equipment § 77.406 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless...

  13. 30 CFR 77.406 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drive belts. 77.406 Section 77.406 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... Mechanical Equipment § 77.406 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless...

  14. 30 CFR 77.406 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drive belts. 77.406 Section 77.406 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... Mechanical Equipment § 77.406 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless...

  15. 25 CFR 11.445 - Driving violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Driving violations. 11.445 Section 11.445 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.445 Driving violations. (a) A person who shall operate any vehicle in a manner dangerous to the public safety is guilty of reckless driving, a petty misdemeanor,...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1727 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drive belts. 75.1727 Section 75.1727 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1727 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not...

  17. 25 CFR 11.445 - Driving violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Driving violations. 11.445 Section 11.445 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.445 Driving violations. (a) A person who shall operate any vehicle in a manner dangerous to the public safety is guilty of reckless driving, a petty misdemeanor,...

  18. 25 CFR 11.445 - Driving violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Driving violations. 11.445 Section 11.445 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.445 Driving violations. (a) A person who shall operate any vehicle in a manner dangerous to the public safety is guilty of reckless driving, a petty misdemeanor,...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1727 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drive belts. 75.1727 Section 75.1727 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1727 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not...

  20. Driving When You Have Parkinson's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Driving When You Have Parkinson’s Disease DRIVEWELL You have been a safe driver for years. For you, driving means freedom and control. As you get older, ... it can interfere with your daily activities, including driving safely. Early symptoms vary from person to person, ...

  1. Measuring the Propensity to Drink and Drive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertelli, Anthony M.; Richardson, Lilliard E., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Laws such as 0.08 blood alcohol content, open container, and license revocation provide a policy framework for reducing drinking and driving. Drinking and driving behavior is difficult to assess; unlike property and violent crimes, where incidence statistics can approximate behavior, most drink-driving trips go undetected. The authors develop a…

  2. Baseline tests of the Kordesh hybrid passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soltis, R. F.; Bozek, J. M.; Denington, R. J.; Dustin, M. O.

    1978-01-01

    Performance test results are presented for a four-passenger Austin A40 sedan that was converted to a heat-engine-alternator-and battery-powered hybrid. It is propelled by a conventional, gasoline-fueled, heat-engine-driven alternator and a traction pack powering a series-wound, 10 hp direct-current electric drive motor. The 16 hp gasoline engine drives the 7 kilowatt alternator, which provides electrical power to the drive motor or to the 96 volt traction battery through a rectifier. The propulsion battery consists of eight 12 volt batteries connected in series. The electric motor is coupled to a four-speed standard transmission, which drives the rear wheels. Power to the motor is controlled by a three-step foot throttle, which actuates relays that control armature current and field excitation. Conventional hydraulic brakes are used.

  3. CORSICA modelling of ITER hybrid operation scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. H.; Bulmer, R. H.; Campbell, D. J.; Casper, T. A.; LoDestro, L. L.; Meyer, W. H.; Pearlstein, L. D.; Snipes, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    The hybrid operating mode observed in several tokamaks is characterized by further enhancement over the high plasma confinement (H-mode) associated with reduced magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) instabilities linked to a stationary flat safety factor (q ) profile in the core region. The proposed ITER hybrid operation is currently aiming at operating for a long burn duration (>1000 s) with a moderate fusion power multiplication factor, Q , of at least 5. This paper presents candidate ITER hybrid operation scenarios developed using a free-boundary transport modelling code, CORSICA, taking all relevant physics and engineering constraints into account. The ITER hybrid operation scenarios have been developed by tailoring the 15 MA baseline ITER inductive H-mode scenario. Accessible operation conditions for ITER hybrid operation and achievable range of plasma parameters have been investigated considering uncertainties on the plasma confinement and transport. ITER operation capability for avoiding the poloidal field coil current, field and force limits has been examined by applying different current ramp rates, flat-top plasma currents and densities, and pre-magnetization of the poloidal field coils. Various combinations of heating and current drive (H&CD) schemes have been applied to study several physics issues, such as the plasma current density profile tailoring, enhancement of the plasma energy confinement and fusion power generation. A parameterized edge pedestal model based on EPED1 added to the CORSICA code has been applied to hybrid operation scenarios. Finally, fully self-consistent free-boundary transport simulations have been performed to provide information on the poloidal field coil voltage demands and to study the controllability with the ITER controllers. Extended from Proc. 24th Int. Conf. on Fusion Energy (San Diego, 2012) IT/P1-13.

  4. Hybrid Electric Propulsion Technologies for Commercial Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Cheryl; Jansen, Ralph; Jankovsky, Amy

    2016-01-01

    NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate has set strategic research thrusts to address the major drivers of aviation such as growth in demand for high-speed mobility, addressing global climate and capitalizing in the convergence of technological advances. Transitioning aviation to low carbon propulsion is one of the key strategic research thrust and drives the search for alternative and greener propulsion system for advanced aircraft configurations. This work requires multidisciplinary skills coming from multiple entities. The Hybrid Gas-Electric Subproject in the Advanced Air Transportation Project is energizing the transport class landscape by accepting the technical challenge of identifying and validating a transport class aircraft with net benefit from hybrid propulsion. This highly integrated aircraft of the future will only happen if airframe expertise from NASA Langley, modeling and simulation expertise from NASA Ames, propulsion expertise from NASA Glenn, and the flight research capabilities from NASA Armstrong are brought together to leverage the rich capabilities of U.S. Industry and Academia.

  5. Fluid cooled vehicle drive module

    DOEpatents

    Beihoff, Bruce C.; Radosevich, Lawrence D.; Meyer, Andreas A.; Gollhardt, Neil; Kannenberg, Daniel G.

    2005-11-15

    An electric vehicle drive includes a support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. The support, in conjunction with other packaging features may form a shield from both external EM/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  6. Driving trajectories in chaotic scattering.

    PubMed

    Macau, Elbert E N; Caldas, Iberê L

    2002-02-01

    In this work we introduce a general approach for targeting in chaotic scattering that can be used to find a transfer trajectory between any two points located inside the scattering region. We show that this method can be used in association with a control of chaos strategy to drive around and keep a particle inside the scattering region. As an illustration of how powerful this approach is, we use it in a case of practical interest in celestial mechanics in which it is desired to control the evolution of two satellites that evolve around a large central body.

  7. Computer-Aided Remote Driving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    1994-01-01

    System for remote control of robotic land vehicle requires only small radio-communication bandwidth. Twin video cameras on vehicle create stereoscopic images. Operator views cross-polarized images on two cathode-ray tubes through correspondingly polarized spectacles. By use of cursor on frozen image, remote operator designates path. Vehicle proceeds to follow path, by use of limited degree of autonomous control to cope with unexpected conditions. System concept, called "computer-aided remote driving" (CARD), potentially useful in exploration of other planets, military surveillance, firefighting, and clean-up of hazardous materials.

  8. Efficient alternatives for electric drives

    SciTech Connect

    Comnes, G.A.; Barnes, R.W.

    1987-11-01

    This analysis of industrial electric motors describes the current motor stock, its energy use and operating characteristics, and innovations that could change current use patterns. It provides calculations characterizing the economic attractiveness of several existing and potential options. One attractive option given particular attention is the adjustable-speed drive which can replace throttles or valves for many pumping operations. A major conclusion is that, throughout industry, options that are both energy-saving and economically attractive appear to penetrate markets more slowly than would be socially optimal. The final section examines characteristics of industry that may contribute to slow market penetration. 29 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs.

  9. Hybrid electric vehicle power management system

    SciTech Connect

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2015-08-25

    Level voltage levels/states of charge are maintained among a plurality of high voltage DC electrical storage devices/traction battery packs that are arrayed in series to support operation of a hybrid electric vehicle drive train. Each high voltage DC electrical storage device supports a high voltage power bus, to which at least one controllable load is connected, and at least a first lower voltage level electrical distribution system. The rate of power transfer from the high voltage DC electrical storage devices to the at least first lower voltage electrical distribution system is controlled by DC-DC converters.

  10. Engine starter and accessory drive system

    SciTech Connect

    Stockton, T.R.

    1986-10-07

    An engine starter and accessory drive system is described which consists of: an accessory drive means; a planetary gearset having a sun gear driveably connected to the accessory drive means, a ring gear, a carrier and planet pinions rotatably mounted on the carrier, fixed to the engine crankshaft, meshing with the sun gear and with the ring gear; means for holding the ring gear against rotation; and a starter motor and first clutch means for providing a one-way driving connection between the motor and the accessory drive means.

  11. Voight variable speed drive. [for windpowered generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkin, J.

    1973-01-01

    The variable speed drive transmission is mounted within the gondola and connected with the wind turbine blades and the hub. This unit is designed for the production of ac power. The turbine turns by means of the variable speed drive and a set of synchronous three phase generators. This motion is controlled automatically by two wind rosettes in such a way that the wind turbine always opposes the wind direction. The Voight variable speed drive is a mechanical variable positive drive gear transmission. It has an unlimited power and torque transmission, a constant ratio with high degree of accuracy, a speed variation over a wide range, and a nonslip drive.

  12. 32 CFR 634.14 - Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of intoxicated driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of intoxicated driving. 634.14 Section 634.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.14 Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of...

  13. 32 CFR 634.14 - Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of intoxicated driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of intoxicated driving. 634.14 Section 634.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.14 Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of...

  14. 32 CFR 634.14 - Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of intoxicated driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of intoxicated driving. 634.14 Section 634.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.14 Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of...

  15. 32 CFR 634.14 - Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of intoxicated driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of intoxicated driving. 634.14 Section 634.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.14 Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of...

  16. 32 CFR 634.14 - Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of intoxicated driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of intoxicated driving. 634.14 Section 634.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.14 Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of...

  17. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  18. Requirements for Hybrid Cosimulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-16

    hybrid cosimulation version of the Functional Mockup Interface ( FMI ) standard. A cosimulation standard de nes interfaces that enable diverse simulation...This hybrid mixture is not well supported by existing cosimulation standards, and speci cally not by FMI 2.0, for reasons that are explained in this...cosimulation standards, and specifically provides guidance for development of a hybrid cosimulation version of the Functional Mockup Interface ( FMI ) standard

  19. Asymmetric relationship between driving and safety skills.

    PubMed

    Sümer, Nebi; Ozkan, Türker; Lajunen, Timo

    2006-07-01

    We hypothesized that the combination of self reported high ratings of driving skills and low ratings of safety skills creates a serious risk for road accident involvement. This study was aimed at investigating the asymmetric interplay between driving and safety skills among Turkish drivers (N=785) using the Driving Skills Inventory [Lajunen, T., Summala, H., 1995. Driver experience, personality, and skill and safety motive dimensions in drivers' self-assessments. Pers. Indiv. Differ. 19, 307-318]. The assumed asymmetric interactions were tested on a number of outcome variables representing risky driving using moderated regression analyses. The results revealed that driving skills moderated the effects of safety skills on six out of the eight outcome variables including the number of accidents, tickets, overtaking tendencies, speed on motorways, and aggressive driving style. Results suggested that high levels of safety skills buffer the negative effect of overconfidence resulting from exaggerated ratings of self-reported driving skills.

  20. Four-wheel drive car

    SciTech Connect

    Ashikawa, N.

    1986-03-25

    A drive train in a four-wheel drive vehicle is described having an engine mounted on one end with a crankshaft oriented transverse to the direction of vehicle travel which consists of: a transmission having an output gear driven by the crankshaft and rotatable around an axis parallel to the axis of the crankshaft; a reduction gear operatively engaged with the output gear; a first differential gear having a gear and being concentrically engaged with the reduction gear to transmit the output of the reduction gear in a divided manner; a second differential gear transmitting power from one output of the differential gear to left and right wheels of the one end of the vehicle; a transmission gear meshing with the gear of the first differential gear for transmitting power from another output of the first differential gear in a direction generally perpendicular to the crankshaft through a propeller shaft to the other end of the vehicle, opposite the one end; a third differential gear receiving power from the propeller shaft for transmitting power to left and right wheels on the other end; and wherein a mesh portion where the transmission gear meshes with the gear of the first differential gear is closer to the crankshaft axis of engine than is the axis of the reduction gear.

  1. Managing hybrid marketing systems.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, R T; Moran, U

    1990-01-01

    As competition increases and costs become critical, companies that once went to market only one way are adding new channels and using new methods - creating hybrid marketing systems. These hybrid marketing systems hold the promise of greater coverage and reduced costs. But they are also hard to manage; they inevitably raise questions of conflict and control: conflict because marketing units compete for customers; control because new indirect channels are less subject to management authority. Hard as they are to manage, however, hybrid marketing systems promise to become the dominant design, replacing the "purebred" channel strategy in all kinds of businesses. The trick to managing the hybrid is to analyze tasks and channels within and across a marketing system. A map - the hybrid grid - can help managers make sense of their hybrid system. What the chart reveals is that channels are not the basic building blocks of a marketing system; marketing tasks are. The hybrid grid forces managers to consider various combinations of channels and tasks that will optimize both cost and coverage. Managing conflict is also an important element of a successful hybrid system. Managers should first acknowledge the inevitability of conflict. Then they should move to bound it by creating guidelines that spell out which customers to serve through which methods. Finally, a marketing and sales productivity (MSP) system, consisting of a central marketing database, can act as the central nervous system of a hybrid marketing system, helping managers create customized channels and service for specific customer segments.

  2. Driving While Impaired (DWI) Intervention Service Provider Orientations: The Scales of the DWI Therapeutic Educator Inventory (DTEI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMuro, Scott; Wanberg, Kenneth; Anderson, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    The therapeutic educator who provides services to driving while impaired (DWI) offenders is a unique professional hybrid, combining education and therapeutic service delivery. In an effort to understand and address this service provider, a 69-item DWI Therapeutic Educator Inventory (DTEI) was constructed. Using principal components and common…

  3. High-power batteries for use in hybrid vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellner, Christian; Newman, John

    The idea of hybrid vehicles is not a recent development; as early as the 1960s, several have companies attempted to develop bipolar lead/acid batteries for hybrid-electric vehicles [J.L. Arias, J.J. Rowlett, E.D. Drake, Journal of Power Sources, 40 (1993) 63-73.]. Hybrid vehicles have the potential to increase fuel economy by using a primary engine operating at a constant power to supply average power requirements and a surge power unit for peak power demands and to recover braking energy. To date, no detailed system optimization analysis has been performed for hybrid vehicles. This study combines a simplified version of the lithium-ion battery model developed by Doyle [C.M. Doyle, Design and simulation of lithium rechargeable batteries, Dissertation, Fall, 1995.] with a vehicle model that determines battery-power requirements for a given driving cycle. Batteries are designed for either the highest vehicle mileage or minimal acceptable battery dimensions. Hybrid vehicles have the potential to more than double mileage as compared to conventional vehicles, and have a limited electric vehicle range. The battery goals of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) are investigated and often found to be differing with actual requirements. Specifically, PNGV overstates power and especially energy requirements for load-leveling devices and calls for unnecessary demands on the development of alternate technologies. The role of the driving cycle was investigated and found to be relatively unimportant as long as it contains several essential features. The important parameters in the driving cycle are the time of discharge and the maximum current (or power) level. This study suggests that a combination of both a vehicle model and a battery model is required to determine the complex interaction between hybrid-vehicle weight and battery power.

  4. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Szalanski, Allen L; Gaskin, John F.; Young, Nicholas E.; West, Amanda; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Tripodi, Amber

    2014-01-01

    Science has shown that the introgression or hybridization of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals up to 40,000 YBP may have led to the swarm of modern humans on earth. However, there is little doubt that modern trade and transportation in support of the humans has continued to introduce additional species, genotypes, and hybrids to every country on the globe. We assessed the utility of species distributions modeling of genotypes to assess the risk of current and future invaders. We evaluated 93 locations of the genus Tamarix for which genetic data were available. Maxent models of habitat suitability showed that the hybrid, T. ramosissima x T. chinensis, was slightly greater than the parent taxa (AUCs > 0.83). General linear models of Africanized honey bees, a hybrid cross of Tanzanian Apis mellifera scutellata and a variety of European honey bee including A. m. ligustica, showed that the Africanized bees (AUC = 0.81) may be displacing European honey bees (AUC > 0.76) over large areas of the southwestern U.S. More important, Maxent modeling of sub-populations (A1 and A26 mitotypes based on mDNA) could be accurately modeled (AUC > 0.9), and they responded differently to environmental drivers. This suggests that rapid evolutionary change may be underway in the Africanized bees, allowing the bees to spread into new areas and extending their total range. Protecting native species and ecosystems may benefit from risk maps of harmful invasive species, hybrids, and genotypes.

  5. Exploring Fuel-Saving Potential of Long-Haul Truck Hybridization

    DOE PAGES

    Gao, Zhiming; LaClair, Tim J.; Smith, David E.; ...

    2015-10-01

    We report our comparisons on the simulated fuel economy for parallel, series, and dual-mode hybrid electric long-haul trucks, in addition to a conventional powertrain configuration, powered by a commercial 2010-compliant 15-L diesel engine over a freeway-dominated heavy-duty truck driving cycle. The driving cycle was obtained by measurement during normal driving conditions. The results indicated that both parallel and dual-mode hybrid powertrains were capable of improving fuel economy by 7% to 8%. But there was no significant fuel economy benefit for the series hybrid truck because of internal inefficiencies in energy exchange. When reduced aerodynamic drag and tire rolling resistance weremore » combined with hybridization, there was a synergistic fuel economy benefit for appropriate hybrids that increased the fuel economy benefit to more than 15%. Long-haul hybrid trucks with reduced aerodynamic drag and rolling resistance offered lower peak engine loads, better kinetic energy recovery, and reduced average engine power demand. Therefore, it is expected that hybridization with load reduction technologies offers important potential fuel energy savings for future long-haul trucks.« less

  6. Exploring Fuel-Saving Potential of Long-Haul Truck Hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming; LaClair, Tim J.; Smith, David E.; Daw, C. Stuart

    2015-10-01

    We report our comparisons on the simulated fuel economy for parallel, series, and dual-mode hybrid electric long-haul trucks, in addition to a conventional powertrain configuration, powered by a commercial 2010-compliant 15-L diesel engine over a freeway-dominated heavy-duty truck driving cycle. The driving cycle was obtained by measurement during normal driving conditions. The results indicated that both parallel and dual-mode hybrid powertrains were capable of improving fuel economy by 7% to 8%. But there was no significant fuel economy benefit for the series hybrid truck because of internal inefficiencies in energy exchange. When reduced aerodynamic drag and tire rolling resistance were combined with hybridization, there was a synergistic fuel economy benefit for appropriate hybrids that increased the fuel economy benefit to more than 15%. Long-haul hybrid trucks with reduced aerodynamic drag and rolling resistance offered lower peak engine loads, better kinetic energy recovery, and reduced average engine power demand. Therefore, it is expected that hybridization with load reduction technologies offers important potential fuel energy savings for future long-haul trucks.

  7. Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management - Combining Fluid Loops in Electric Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Rugh, J. P.

    2013-07-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles have increased vehicle thermal management complexity, using separate coolant loop for advanced power electronics and electric motors. Additional thermal components result in higher costs. Multiple cooling loops lead to reduced range due to increased weight. Energy is required to meet thermal requirements. This presentation for the 2013 Annual Merit Review discusses integrated vehicle thermal management by combining fluid loops in electric drive vehicles.

  8. Integrated Modelling of Iter Hybrid Scenarios with Eccd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giruzzi, G.; Artaud, J. F.; Basiuk, V.; Garcia, J.; Imbeaux, F.; Schneider, M.

    2009-04-01

    ITER hybrid scenarios may require off-axis current drive in order to keep the safety factor above 1. In this type of applications, alignment of the current sources and self-consistency of current and temperature profiles are critical issues, which can only be addressed by integrated modelling. To this end, the CRONOS suite of codes has been applied to the simulation of these scenarios. Results of simulations of ITER hybrid scenarios assisted by ECCD, using the ITER equatorial launcher, for both co- and counter-ECCD, are presented.

  9. Optimizing digital 8mm drive performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schadegg, Gerry

    1993-01-01

    The experience of attaching over 350,000 digital 8mm drives to 85-plus system platforms has uncovered many factors which can reduce cartridge capacity or drive throughput, reduce reliability, affect cartridge archivability and actually shorten drive life. Some are unique to an installation. Others result from how the system is set up to talk to the drive. Many stem from how applications use the drive, the work load that's present, the kind of media used and, very important, the kind of cleaning program in place. Digital 8mm drives record data at densities that rival those of disk technology. Even with technology this advanced, they are extremely robust and, given proper usage, care and media, should reward the user with a long productive life. The 8mm drive will give its best performance using high-quality 'data grade' media. Even though it costs more, good 'data grade' media can sustain the reliability and rigorous needs of a data storage environment and, with proper care, give users an archival life of 30 years or more. Various factors, taken individually, may not necessarily produce performance or reliability problems. Taken in combination, their effects can compound, resulting in rapid reductions in a drive's serviceable life, cartridge capacity, or drive performance. The key to managing media is determining the importance one places upon their recorded data and, subsequently, setting media usage guidelines that can deliver data reliability. Various options one can implement to optimize digital 8mm drive performance are explored.

  10. Driving, brain injury and assistive technology.

    PubMed

    Lane, Amy K; Benoit, Dana

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with brain injury often present with cognitive, physical and emotional impairments which impact their ability to resume independence in activities of daily living. Of those activities, the resumption of driving privileges is cited as one of the greatest concerns by survivors of brain injury. The integration of driving fundamentals within the hierarchical model proposed by Keskinen represents the complexity of skills and behaviors necessary for driving. This paper provides a brief review of specific considerations concerning the driver with TBI and highlights current vehicle technology which has been developed by the automotive industry and by manufacturers of adaptive driving equipment that may facilitate the driving task. Adaptive equipment technology allows for compensation of a variety of operational deficits, whereas technological advances within the automotive industry provide drivers with improved safety and information systems. However, research has not yet supported the use of such intelligent transportation systems or advanced driving systems for drivers with brain injury. Although technologies are intended to improve the safety of drivers within the general population, the potential of negative consequences for drivers with brain injury must be considered. Ultimately, a comprehensive driving evaluation and training by a driving rehabilitation specialist is recommended for individuals with brain injury. An understanding of the potential impact of TBI on driving-related skills and knowledge of current adaptive equipment and technology is imperative to determine whether return-to-driving is a realistic and achievable goal for the individual with TBI.

  11. Driving and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Lara; Evans, Ben Lewis; Koerts, Janneke; de Waard, Dick; Brookhuis, Karel; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Thome, Johannes; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver

    2017-02-01

    Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suffer from various impairments of cognitive, emotional and social functioning, which can have considerable consequences for many areas of daily living. One of those areas is driving a vehicle. Driving is an important activity of everyday life and requires an efficient interplay between multiple cognitive, perceptual, and motor skills. In the present study, a selective review of the literature on driving-related difficulties associated with ADHD is performed, seeking to answer whether individuals with ADHD show increased levels of unsafe driving behaviours, which cognitive (dys)functions of individuals with ADHD are related to driving difficulty, and whether pharmacological treatment significantly improves the driving behaviour of individuals with ADHD. The available research provides convincing evidence that individuals with ADHD have different and more adverse driving outcomes than individuals without the condition. However, it appears that not all individuals with ADHD are affected uniformly. Despite various cognitive functions being related with driving difficulties, these functions do not appear helpful in detecting high risk drivers with ADHD, nor in predicting driving outcomes in individuals with ADHD, since impairments in these functions are defining criteria for the diagnoses of ADHD (e.g., inattention and impulsivity). Pharmacological treatment of ADHD, in particular stimulant drug treatment, appears to be beneficial to the driving difficulties experienced by individuals with ADHD. However, additional research is needed, in particular further studies that address the numerous methodological weaknesses of many of the previous studies.

  12. Current Drive in Recombining Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    P.F. Schmit and N.J. Fisch

    2012-05-15

    The Langevin equations describing the average collisional dynamics of suprathermal particles in nonstationary plasma remarkably admit an exact analytical solution in the case of recombining plasma. The current density produced by arbitrary particle fluxes is derived including the effect of charge recombination. Since recombination has the effect of lowering the charge density of the plasma, thus reducing the charged particle collisional frequencies, the evolution of the current density can be modified substantially compared to plasma with fixed charge density. The current drive efficiency is derived and optimized for discrete and continuous pulses of current, leading to the discovery of a nonzero "residual" current density that persists indefinitely under certain conditions, a feature not present in stationary plasmas.

  13. Subduction Drive of Plate Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, W. B.

    2003-12-01

    Don Anderson emphasizes that plate tectonics is self-organizing and is driven by subduction, which rights the density inversion generated as oceanic lithosphere forms by cooling of asthenosphere from the top. The following synthesis owes much to many discussions with him. Hinge rollback is the key to kinematics, and, like the rest of actual plate behavior, is incompatible with bottom-up convection drive. Subduction hinges (which are under, not in front of, thin leading parts of arcs and overriding plates) roll back into subducting plates. The Pacific shrinks because bounding hinges roll back into it. Colliding arcs, increasing arc curvatures, back-arc spreading, and advance of small arcs into large plates also require rollback. Forearcs of overriding plates commonly bear basins which preclude shortening of thin plate fronts throughout periods recorded by basin strata (100 Ma for Cretaceous and Paleogene California). This requires subequal rates of advance and rollback, and control of both by subduction. Convergence rate is equal to rates of rollback and advance in many systems but is greater in others. Plate-related circulation probably is closed above 650 km. Despite the popularity of concepts of plumes from, and subduction into, lower mantle, there is no convincing evidence for, and much evidence against, penetration of the 650 in either direction. That barrier not only has a crossing-inhibiting negative Clapeyron slope but also is a compositional boundary between fractionated (not "primitive"), sluggish lower mantle and fertile, mobile upper mantle. Slabs sink more steeply than they dip. Slabs older than about 60 Ma when their subduction began sink to, and lie down on and depress, the 650-km discontinuity, and are overpassed, whereas younger slabs become neutrally buoyant in mid-upper mantle, into which they are mixed as they too are overpassed. Broadside-sinking old slabs push all upper mantle, from base of oceanic lithosphere down to the 650, back under

  14. The New Information Hybrid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitan, Karen B.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the creation and existence of "hybrid" organizations, i.e., nonprofit companies sponsored by the government to provide extensive research and development services. Possibilities for hybrids are brought about by government intervention in the information marketplace to produce social benefits. (SW)

  15. Intelligent approach for parallel HEV control strategy based on driving cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montazeri-Gh, M.; Asadi, M.

    2011-02-01

    This article describes a methodological approach for the intelligent control of parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) by the inclusion of the concept of driving cycles. In this approach, a fuzzy logic controller is designed to manage the internal combustion engine to work in the vicinity of its optimal condition instantaneously. In addition, based on the definition of microtrip, several driving patterns are classified that represent the congested to highway traffic conditions. The driving cycle and traffic conditions are then incorporated in an optimisation process to tune the fuzzy membership function parameters. In this study, the optimisation process is formulated to minimise the HEV fuel consumption (FC) and emissions as well as the satisfaction of the driving performance constraints. Finally, optimisation results are provided for three different driving cycles including ECE-EUDC, FTP and TEH-CAR. TEH-CAR is a driving cycle that is developed based on the experimental data collected from the real traffic condition in the city of Tehran. The results from the computer simulation show the effectiveness of the approach and reduction in FC and emissions while ensuring that the vehicle performance is not sacrificed.

  16. Driving Task: How Older Drivers' On-Road Driving Performance Relates to Abilities, Perceptions, and Restrictions.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Sjaan; Charlton, Judith L; Langford, Jim; Di Stefano, Marilyn; MacDonald, Wendy; Vlahodimitrakou, Zafiroula; Mazer, Barbara L; Gelinas, Isabelle; Vrkljan, Brenda; Eliasz, Kinga; Myers, Anita; Tuokko, Holly A; Marshall, Shawn C

    2016-06-01

    This study examined a cohort of 227 older drivers and investigated the relationship between performance on the electronic Driver Observation Schedule (eDOS) driving task and: (1) driver characteristics; (2) functional abilities; (3) perceptions of driving comfort and abilities; and (4) self-reported driving restrictions. Participants (male: 70%; age: M = 81.53 years, SD = 3.37 years) completed a series of functional ability measures and scales on perceived driving comfort, abilities, and driving restrictions from the Year 2 Candrive/Ozcandrive assessment protocol, along with an eDOS driving task. Observations of participants' driving behaviours during the driving task were recorded for intersection negotiation, lane-changing, merging, low-speed maneuvers, and maneuver-free driving. eDOS driving task scores were high (M = 94.74; SD = 5.70) and significantly related to participants' perceived driving abilities, reported frequency of driving in challenging situations, and number of driving restrictions. Future analyses will explore potential changes in driving task scores over time.

  17. Personal and situational influences on drink driving and sober driving among a cohort of young adults

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, L; Begg, D; Langley, J

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To compare personal and situational influences on incidents involving drink driving with those involving sober driving. Methods: Information on a range of road safety practices was sought in face to face interviews conducted with 969 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study cohort at age 26 years. A total of 750 study members reported an incident that involved the opportunity to consume alcohol and also travel by motor vehicle. Of these, 87 were classified as "drink drive incidents" and 663 as "sober drive incidents". Results: Study members who were male, of lower socioeconomic status, had no school qualifications, or were dependent on alcohol or marijuana at age 21 were significantly more likely to report a drink drive incident at age 26. Compared with the sober drive incidents, the drink drive incidents were more commonly associated with driving alone, drinking at bars, and no advanced planning. For drink drive incidents the amount of alcohol consumed was influenced by the conviviality of the occasion, whereas for sober drive incidents it was the need to drive. One quarter of those reporting drink drive incidents stated they had used marijuana and/or LSD at the event at which they drank. Conclusions: Drink drive and sober drive incidents differed, particularly with regard to decisions made before the event. Prevention efforts could usefully be targeted toward these decisions. PMID:12120828

  18. Hybrid baryons in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, Jozef J.; Edwards, Robert G.

    2012-03-21

    In this study, we present the first comprehensive study of hybrid baryons using lattice QCD methods. Using a large basis of composite QCD interpolating fields we extract an extensive spectrum of baryon states and isolate those of hybrid character using their relatively large overlap onto operators which sample gluonic excitations. We consider the spectrum of Nucleon and Delta states at several quark masses finding a set of positive parity hybrid baryons with quantum numbers $N_{1/2^+},\\,N_{1/2^+},\\,N_{3/2^+},\\, N_{3/2^+},\\,N_{5/2^+},\\,$ and $\\Delta_{1/2^+},\\, \\Delta_{3/2^+}$ at an energy scale above the first band of `conventional' excited positive parity baryons. This pattern of states is compatible with a color octet gluonic excitation having $J^{P}=1^{+}$ as previously reported in the hybrid meson sector and with a comparable energy scale for the excitation, suggesting a common bound-state construction for hybrid mesons and baryons.

  19. Hybrid reactors. [Fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-09-09

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of /sup 233/U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m/sup -2/, and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid.

  20. Hybrid propulsion technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Technology was identified which will enable application of hybrid propulsion to manned and unmanned space launch vehicles. Two design concepts are proposed. The first is a hybrid propulsion system using the classical method of regression (classical hybrid) resulting from the flow of oxidizer across a fuel grain surface. The second system uses a self-sustaining gas generator (gas generator hybrid) to produce a fuel rich exhaust that was mixed with oxidizer in a separate combustor. Both systems offer cost and reliability improvement over the existing solid rocket booster and proposed liquid boosters. The designs were evaluated using life cycle cost and reliability. The program consisted of: (1) identification and evaluation of candidate oxidizers and fuels; (2) preliminary evaluation of booster design concepts; (3) preparation of a detailed point design including life cycle costs and reliability analyses; (4) identification of those hybrid specific technologies needing improvement; and (5) preperation of a technology acquisition plan and large scale demonstration plan.

  1. The hybrid BCI.

    PubMed

    Pfurtscheller, Gert; Allison, Brendan Z; Brunner, Clemens; Bauernfeind, Gunther; Solis-Escalante, Teodoro; Scherer, Reinhold; Zander, Thorsten O; Mueller-Putz, Gernot; Neuper, Christa; Birbaumer, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, everybody knows what a hybrid car is. A hybrid car normally has two engines to enhance energy efficiency and reduce CO2 output. Similarly, a hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI) is composed of two BCIs, or at least one BCI and another system. A hybrid BCI, like any BCI, must fulfill the following four criteria: (i) the device must rely on signals recorded directly from the brain; (ii) there must be at least one recordable brain signal that the user can intentionally modulate to effect goal-directed behaviour; (iii) real time processing; and (iv) the user must obtain feedback. This paper introduces hybrid BCIs that have already been published or are in development. We also introduce concepts for future work. We describe BCIs that classify two EEG patterns: one is the event-related (de)synchronisation (ERD, ERS) of sensorimotor rhythms, and the other is the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP). Hybrid BCIs can either process their inputs simultaneously, or operate two systems sequentially, where the first system can act as a "brain switch". For example, we describe a hybrid BCI that simultaneously combines ERD and SSVEP BCIs. We also describe a sequential hybrid BCI, in which subjects could use a brain switch to control an SSVEP-based hand orthosis. Subjects who used this hybrid BCI exhibited about half the false positives encountered while using the SSVEP BCI alone. A brain switch can also rely on hemodynamic changes measured through near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Hybrid BCIs can also use one brain signal and a different type of input. This additional input can be an electrophysiological signal such as the heart rate, or a signal from an external device such as an eye tracking system.

  2. Application of traction drives as servo mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.; Rohn, D. A.; Steinetz, B. M.

    1985-01-01

    The suitability of traction drives for a wide class of aerospace control mechanisms is examined. Potential applications include antenna or solar array drive positioners, robotic joints, control moment gyro (CMG) actuators and propeller pitch change mechanisms. In these and similar applications the zero backlash, high torsional stiffness, low hysteresis and torque ripple characteristics of traction drives are of particular interest, as is the ability to run without liquid lubrication in certain cases. Wear and fatigue considerations for wet and dry operation are examined along with the tribological performance of several promising self lubricating polymers for traction contracts. The speed regulation capabilities of variable ratio traction drives are reviewed. A torsional stiffness analysis described suggests that traction contacts are relatively stiff compared to gears and are significantly stiffer than the other structural elements in the prototype CMG traction drive analyzed. Discussion is also given of an advanced turboprop propeller pitch change mechanism that incorporates a traction drive.

  3. Parkinson's disease and issues related to driving.

    PubMed

    Uitti, Ryan J

    2009-12-01

    Driving a motor vehicle represents an important activity associated with personal independence and freedom. Being told that one can no longer drive is itself associated with loss of independence, depression, low self-esteem and reduced activities [1,2]. Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), therefore, understandably wish to continue to be able to maintain their ability to drive automobiles, motorcycles, airplanes, and boats, etc. The ability to determine if and when a PD patient is no longer fit to drive a motor vehicle is important for maintaining safety for the PD patient and the public. There are numerous requirements for being able to drive a motor vehicle safely. When any of these capacities deteriorate, the ability to drive safely may be lost. This review will concentrate upon common issues that would be peculiar to patients with PD.

  4. Electric vehicle drive train with contactor protection

    DOEpatents

    Konrad, C.E.; Benson, R.A.

    1994-11-29

    A drive train for an electric vehicle includes a traction battery, a power drive circuit, a main contactor for connecting and disconnecting the traction battery and the power drive circuit, a voltage detector across contacts of the main contactor, and a controller for controlling the main contactor to prevent movement of its contacts to the closed position when the voltage across the contacts exceeds a predetermined threshold, to thereby protect the contacts of the contactor. The power drive circuit includes an electric traction motor and a DC-to-AC inverter with a capacitive input filter. The controller also inhibits the power drive circuit from driving the motor and thereby discharging the input capacitor if the contacts are inadvertently opened during motoring. A precharging contactor is controlled to charge the input filter capacitor prior to closing the main contactor to further protect the contacts of the main contactor. 3 figures.

  5. Electric vehicle drive train with contactor protection

    DOEpatents

    Konrad, Charles E.; Benson, Ralph A.

    1994-01-01

    A drive train for an electric vehicle includes a traction battery, a power drive circuit, a main contactor for connecting and disconnecting the traction battery and the power drive circuit, a voltage detector across contacts of the main contactor, and a controller for controlling the main contactor to prevent movement of its contacts to the closed position when the voltage across the contacts exceeds a predetermined threshold, to thereby protect the contacts of the contactor. The power drive circuit includes an electric traction motor and a DC-to-AC inverter with a capacitive input filter. The controller also inhibits the power drive circuit from driving the motor and thereby discharging the input capacitor if the contacts are inadvertently opened during motoring. A precharging contactor is controlled to charge the input filter capacitor prior to closing the main contactor to further protect the contacts of the main contactor.

  6. The driving force for Π-bond localization and bond alternation in trisannelated benzenes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xuhui; Chen, Zhenhua; Wu, Wei

    2017-01-25

    To investigate the factors that may cause bond length alternation and π-bond localization in annelated benzenes, ab initio valence bond calculations were performed. The results reveal that the bond length alternation of annelated benzene is determined by the strain-induced hybridization change from the partially optimized geometries, in which the central benzene ring is constrained to a regular hexagon, to the equilibrium geometries rather than the previously recognized re-hybridization effect that the carbon atoms in the central ring are deviated from sp(2) hybridization. Meanwhile, the π-π interaction also provides a sort of driving force, which facilitates bond length alternation, which in turn magnifies π-bond localization. A subsequent potential energy curve study shows that σ-strain and π-π interactions have different mechanisms for the effect.

  7. An Inverter Packaging Scheme for an Integrated Segmented Traction Drive System

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Gui-Jia; Tang, Lixin; Ayers, Curtis William; Wiles, Randy H

    2013-01-01

    The standard voltage source inverter (VSI), widely used in electric vehicle/hybrid electric vehicle (EV/HEV) traction drives, requires a bulky dc bus capacitor to absorb the large switching ripple currents and prevent them from shortening the battery s life. The dc bus capacitor presents a significant barrier to meeting inverter cost, volume, and weight requirements for mass production of affordable EVs/HEVs. The large ripple currents become even more problematic for the film capacitors (the capacitor technology of choice for EVs/HEVs) in high temperature environments as their ripple current handling capability decreases rapidly with rising temperatures. It is shown in previous work that segmenting the VSI based traction drive system can significantly decrease the ripple currents and thus the size of the dc bus capacitor. This paper presents an integrated packaging scheme to reduce the system cost of a segmented traction drive.

  8. Fuel economy of hybrid fuel cell vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, R.; Wang, X.; Rousseau, A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2004-01-01

    The potential improvement in fuel economy of a mid-size fuel-cell vehicle by combining it with an energy storage system has been assessed. An energy management strategy is developed and used to operate the direct hydrogen, pressurized fuel-cell system in a load-following mode and the energy storage system in a charge-sustaining mode. The strategy places highest priority on maintaining the energy storage system in a state where it can supply unanticipated boost power when the fuel-cell system alone cannot meet the power demand. It is found that downsizing a fuel-cell system decreases its efficiency on a drive cycle which is compensated by partial regenerative capture of braking energy. On a highway cycle with limited braking energy the increase in fuel economy with hybridization is small but on the stop-and-go urban cycle the fuel economy can improve by 27%. On the combined highway and urban drive cycles the fuel economy of the fuel-cell vehicle is estimated to increase by up to 15% by hybridizing it with an energy storage system.

  9. Life Analysis of Multiroller Planetary Traction Drive

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    Nasvytis eUltirollcr Traction Drive. The analysis was based on the Lundberg- Palmgren method for rolling- element bearing life prediction. Life...a steel rail. There are dozens bearing life. The effect of stress, stressed volume, of traction drive designs, distinguished by the and depth to the...clene¶,t bearing materials, lubrication and traction drive concept. Cleaner steels (vacuum design were considered as well as the potentially induction

  10. Optimal Sector Sampling for Drive Triage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    known files, which we call target data, that could help identify a drive holding evidence such as child pornography or malware. Triage is needed to sift...we call target data, that could help identify a drive holding evidence such as child pornography or malware. Triage is needed to sift through drives...situations where the user is looking for known data.1 One example is a law enforcement officer searching for evidence of child pornography from a large num

  11. A new driving circuit for IGBT devices

    SciTech Connect

    Licitra, C.; Musumeci, S.; Raciti, A.; Galluzzo, A.U.; Letor, R.; Melito, M.

    1995-05-01

    IGBT devices are increasingly used in power electronic equipment due to their high power handling capability. This paper deals with the problems that concern the turn-on, turn-off, and short-circuit of these devices. An optimal new driving circuit is proposed which gives excellent device output performances. Experimental oscillogram traces of transient condition tests are given, which demonstrate the advantages of using the new driving circuit. The suitability of the driving circuit for integration is analyzed.

  12. Get the message: distracted driving and teens.

    PubMed

    Adeola, Ruth; Gibbons, Mallory

    2013-01-01

    Distracted driving is a growing problem in the United States. With the integration of wireless devices into everyday life, cell phone use behind the wheel is a distraction requiring increasing concern. Teen drivers are most susceptible to the dangers of distracted driving as made evident in the overrepresentation of teens in distraction-related motor vehicle crashes. This article describes the causes, consequences, and statistics related to distracted driving in teenagers and an injury prevention program for teenagers.

  13. Driving Retirement in Older Adults with Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Croston, Jami; Meuser, Thomas M.; Berg-Weger, Marla; Grant, Elizabeth A.; Carr, David B.

    2010-01-01

    In order to characterize the driving and mobility status of older adults with dementia, a questionnaire was mailed to 527 informants; 119 were returned. The majority of patients were diagnosed with Dementia of the Alzheimer’s Type. Only 28% were actively driving at the time of survey. Informants rated 53% of current or recently retired drivers as potentially unsafe. Few informants reported using community/educational resources. Individuals with progressive dementia retire from driving for differing reasons, many subsequent to family recognition of impaired driving performance. Opportunities for education and supportive assistance exist but are underutilized. PMID:20161565

  14. Women drive better if not stereotyped.

    PubMed

    Moè, Angelica; Cadinu, Mara; Maass, Anne

    2015-12-01

    A commonly held stereotype is that women are poor drivers. This stereotype is recognized and endorsed by women and girls very early on, long before taking their driving licence, nevertheless they are less involved in accidents and drive safer and less fast than men. In line with the stereotype threat theory, the present study tests the hypothesis that making the driving stereotype salient will lead women to underperform in a driving simulation task. In Experiment 1women in the stereotype threat condition were told that the aim of the study was to detect gender differences in driving whereas in a control condition no study aim was provided. In Experiment 2, two conditions were compared: stereotype threat (same instructions as in Experiment 1), and stereotype boost (the alleged goal was to compare driving ability of young vs. old people). As predicted, the results of both experiments showed that women under stereotype threat, as compared to either control or stereotype boost participants, doubled the number of mistakes. Nevertheless, they overall expected/self-reported to drive/have driven poorly. Importantly, their level of expectation was a significant predictor of their actual driving performance only in the stereotype threat condition. Implications of these effects of stereotype threat on women's driving performance and self-assessment are discussed.

  15. Camshaft driving device for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ebesu, H.

    1988-06-14

    A camshaft driving device for use in a double overhead cam type internal combustion engine having a cylinder block, an upper deck formed at an upper portion of the cylinder block, a cylinder head disposed on the cylinder block, a driving shaft rotatably mounted at a lower portion of the cylinder block, and a pair of camshafts rotatably mounted at an upper portion of the cylinder head, is described comprising: driving force transmitting endless chain members engaging in the reduction gear means for transmitting a driving force from the driving shaft to the pair of camshaft through the reduction gear means. The camshaft driving device further including chain tensioners for tightening the chain, a nozzle means for supplying a lubricating oil to the driving force chain members on the side of the drive shaft and an oil guide wall formed immediately above the sprocket of the transmitting portion of the reduction gear means at a lower end portion of the journal boss and lapping thereover both in the radial direction and in the axial direction of the driving shaft. A mounting boss for mounting the reduction gear means thereon is formed on the upper deck of the cylinder block.

  16. Risky driving and lifestyles in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Bina, Manuela; Graziano, Federica; Bonino, Silvia

    2006-05-01

    Several studies have shown that risky driving is especially prevalent among young drivers and recent research has pointed out that driving in adolescence should be investigated in the more general context of adolescent development. The first aim of this contribution was to analyze involvement in risky driving in a normative sample of 645 Italian adolescents, boys and girls, aged 14-17, through a self-report questionnaire. A second aim was to evaluate the association between risky driving and lifestyle, defined as involvement in other health risk behaviors and leisure activities. The main results showed that many adolescents drove cars and motorcycles without the required driving license and the most frequent offences were speeding and failure to maintain a safe braking distance. Gender and age differences were also investigated. Results concerning the association between risky driving and lifestyle showed that risky driving was not an isolated behavior. Boys who displayed risky driving practices were more likely to adopt a lifestyle characterized by high involvement in antisocial behaviors, tobacco smoking, comfort eating and time spent in non-organized activities with friends. Girls involved in risky driving were more likely to be involved in other risk-taking behaviors, antisocial behaviors and drug use.

  17. Metal band drives in spacecraft mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maus, Daryl

    1993-01-01

    Transmitting and changing the characteristics of force and stroke is a requirement in nearly all mechanisms. Examples include changing linear to rotary motion, providing a 90 deg change in direction, and amplifying stroke or force. Requirements for size, weight, efficiency and reliability create unique problems in spacecraft mechanisms. Flexible metal band and cam drive systems provide powerful solutions to these problems. Band drives, rack and pinion gears, and bell cranks are compared for effectiveness. Band drive issues are discussed including materials, bend radius, fabrication, attachment and reliability. Numerous mechanisms are shown which illustrate practical applications of band drives.

  18. RF heating and current drive experiment on JT-60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1987-09-01

    Recent experimental results of Lower Hybrid and Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (LHRF and ICRF) heating and current drive are presented on JT-60 at JAERI. Three LHRF at 2 GHz and one ICRF at 120 MHz system are installed in JT-60. Each unit has launched 2.1-2.4 MW of RF power into the JT-60, so far. Steady current up to 2 MA for 2.5 sec have been maintained only by LHCD at a density of ne=0.32×1019 m-3 with 3.1 MW. The current drive efficiency defined by ɛCD=ne (1019 m-3)R(m)IRF(MA)/PLH(MW) reach 1.5-3.0 by combination of LHCD and NBI heating. High central electron heating up to 6 keV is demonstrated at the density ne=1.7×10-19 m-3. Current profile control and improvement of energy confinement time via LHCD is observed with and without NBI heating. Optimization of the second harmonic ICRF heating is studied with 2×2 phased loop antenna. In combination heating of ICRF and NBI, remarkable beam acceleration is observed in the plasma core.

  19. Influence of unsteady aerodynamics on driving dynamics of passenger cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huemer, Jakob; Stickel, Thomas; Sagan, Erich; Schwarz, Martin; Wall, Wolfgang A.

    2014-11-01

    Recent approaches towards numerical investigations with computational fluid dynamics methods on unsteady aerodynamic loads of passenger cars identified major differences compared with steady-state aerodynamic excitations. Furthermore, innovative vehicle concepts such as electric-vehicles or hybrid drives further challenge the basic layout of passenger cars. Therefore, the relevance of unsteady aerodynamic loads on cross-wind stability of changing basic vehicle architectures should be analysed. In order to assure and improve handling and ride characteristics at high velocity of the actual range of vehicle layouts, the influence of unsteady excitations on the vehicle response was investigated. For this purpose, a simulation of the vehicle dynamics through multi-body simulation was used. The impact of certain unsteady aerodynamic load characteristics on the vehicle response was quantified and key factors were identified. Through a series of driving simulator tests, the identified differences in the vehicle response were evaluated regarding their significance on the subjective driver perception of cross-wind stability. Relevant criteria for the subjective driver assessment of the vehicle response were identified. As a consequence, a design method for the basic layout of passenger cars and chassis towards unsteady aerodynamic excitations was defined.

  20. Current drive for stability of thermonuclear plasma reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amicucci, L.; Cardinali, A.; Castaldo, C.; Cesario, R.; Galli, A.; Panaccione, L.; Paoletti, F.; Schettini, G.; Spigler, R.; Tuccillo, A.

    2016-01-01

    To produce in a thermonuclear fusion reactor based on the tokamak concept a sufficiently high fusion gain together stability necessary for operations represent a major challenge, which depends on the capability of driving non-inductive current in the hydrogen plasma. This request should be satisfied by radio-frequency (RF) power suitable for producing the lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) effect, recently demonstrated successfully occurring also at reactor-graded high plasma densities. An LHCD-based tool should be in principle capable of tailoring the plasma current density in the outer radial half of plasma column, where other methods are much less effective, in order to ensure operations in the presence of unpredictably changes of the plasma pressure profiles. In the presence of too high electron temperatures even at the periphery of the plasma column, as envisaged in DEMO reactor, the penetration of the coupled RF power into the plasma core was believed for long time problematic and, only recently, numerical modelling results based on standard plasma wave theory, have shown that this problem should be solved by using suitable parameter of the antenna power spectrum. We show here further information on the new understanding of the RF power deposition profile dependence on antenna parameters, which supports the conclusion that current can be actively driven over a broad layer of the outer radial half of plasma column, thus enabling current profile control necessary for the stability of a reactor.

  1. Hybrid Position/Force Control of Robot Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raibert, M. H.; Craig, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    In proposed method for task-oriented control of robot manipulator, position and force error signals for each task degree of freedom are used to calculate appropriate control parameters in task coordinates. Position and force error signals are transformed and summed to create drive signal for each actuator. New hybrid control technique does not require operator to supply complex transform matrices. Control trajectories are easily visualized in terms of task to be performed.

  2. A study on a micro-stepping drive system for space pointing platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shuang; Li, Bao-quan; Zhang, Xin

    2011-08-01

    Along with the continuous development of the research in the space exploration field, the precision rotation control system is widely utilized in a lot of payloads of the satellites. It is stepping motor cooperating with reduction gear wheel to accomplish the precision rotation in some pointing platforms of the camera used in the satellite. By contrast with that, the approach of this paper could precisely control the rotation angle of the stepping motor without using reduction gear wheel. Therefore, the size and the height of the instrument would be reduced base on simplifying the structural design. Moreover, it reduces the cost to some extent. In this paper, it is adopted that the digital signal processor (DSP) controller and bipolar constant current motor drive circuit UC3717 to make a high performance, high subdivision, miniature control system come true, which is used to drive two-phase hybrid stepping motor. The methods are applied by the driver system that sine cosine micro stepping and constant current chopper drive with a fixed chopper period. The driver system also supplies the functions that involve subdivision selection, clockwise rotation or counter clockwise rotation control, and over current or over voltage or under voltage or overload protection, and so on. The description in this paper also includes the total schematic design, the approach to get current table in different subdivision levels, the current control method in hybrid stepping motor, the way to reduce electro- magnetic interference (EMI) of the hybrid stepping motor. And the total schematic design contains the DSP controller, the communication interface of the driver system, the design of power driving circuit, the interface circuit between the electrical sources, the constant current chopper drive circuit for the two-phase hybrid stepping motor. At last, it is verified by some experimental investigations that the control system not only has miniature size, simplified system design

  3. Gasoline-fueled hybrid vs. conventional vehicle emissions and fuel economy.

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.; Bharathan, D.; He, J.; Plotkin, S.; Santini, D.; Vyas, A.

    1999-06-18

    This paper addresses the relative fuel economy and emissions behavior, both measured and modeled, of technically comparable, contemporary hybrid and conventional vehicles fueled by gasoline, in terms of different driving cycles. Criteria pollutants (hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides) are discussed, and the potential emissions benefits of designing hybrids for grid connection are briefly considered. In 1997, Toyota estimated that their grid-independent hybrid vehicle would obtain twice the fuel economy of a comparable conventional vehicle on the Japan 10/15 mode driving cycle. This initial result, as well as the fuel economy level (66 mpg), made its way into the U.S. press. Criteria emissions amounting to one-tenth of Japanese standards were cited, and some have interpreted these results to suggest that the grid-independent hybrid can reduce criteria emissions in the U.S. more sharply than can a conventional gasoline vehicle. This paper shows that the potential of contemporary grid-independent hybrid vehicle technology for reducing emissions and fuel consumption under U.S. driving conditions is less than some have inferred. The importance (and difficulty) of doing test and model assessments with comparable driving cycles, comparable emissions control technology, and comparable performance capabilities is emphasized. Compared with comparable-technology conventional vehicles, grid-independent hybrids appear to have no clear criteria pollutant benefits (or disbenefits). (Such benefits are clearly possible with grid-connectable hybrids operating in zero emissions mode.) However, significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions (i.e., fuel consumption) are possible with hybrid vehicles when they are used to best advantage.

  4. Kinematics and Simulation of a Hybrid Mechanism: MATLAB/SimMechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kütük, M. E.; Halicioglu, R.; Dulger, L. C.

    2015-01-01

    Kinematic analysis and simulation of hybrid drive system are addressed in this study. A seven link mechanism with two degrees of freedom is selected as the configuration of the system. Kinematic analysis is performed by loop closure equations and required inputs of servo motor are given to get desired ram motion scenario. MATLAB/SimMechanics platform is used to model the hybrid driven mechanical system mechanism characteristics. The simulation results are presented herein.

  5. Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System: Thermal Storage Using Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-04

    HEATS Project: UTRC is developing a new climate-control system for EVs that uses a hybrid vapor compression adsorption system with thermal energy storage. The targeted, closed system will use energy during the battery-charging step to recharge the thermal storage, and it will use minimal power to provide cooling or heating to the cabin during a drive cycle. The team will use a unique approach of absorbing a refrigerant on a metal salt, which will create a lightweight, high-energy-density refrigerant. This unique working pair can operate indefinitely as a traditional vapor compression heat pump using electrical energy, if desired. The project will deliver a hot-and-cold battery that provides comfort to the passengers using minimal power, substantially extending the driving range of EVs.

  6. Analysis of cache for streaming tape drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chinnaswamy, V.

    1993-01-01

    A tape subsystem consists of a controller and a tape drive. Tapes are used for backup, data interchange, and software distribution. The backup operation is addressed. During a backup operation, data is read from disk, processed in CPU, and then sent to tape. The processing speeds of a disk subsystem, CPU, and a tape subsystem are likely to be different. A powerful CPU can read data from a fast disk, process it, and supply the data to the tape subsystem at a faster rate than the tape subsystem can handle. On the other hand, a slow disk drive and a slow CPU may not be able to supply data fast enough to keep a tape drive busy all the time. The backup process may supply data to tape drive in bursts. Each burst may be followed by an idle period. Depending on the nature of the file distribution in the disk, the input stream to the tape subsystem may vary significantly during backup. To compensate for these differences and optimize the utilization of a tape subsystem, a cache or buffer is introduced in the tape controller. Most of the tape drives today are streaming tape drives. A streaming tape drive goes into reposition when there is no data from the controller. Once the drive goes into reposition, the controller can receive data, but it cannot supply data to the tape drive until the drive completes its reposition. A controller can also receive data from the host and send data to the tape drive at the same time. The relationship of cache size, host transfer rate, drive transfer rate, reposition, and ramp up times for optimal performance of the tape subsystem are investigated. Formulas developed will also show the advantages of cache watermarks to increase the streaming time of the tape drive, maximum loss due to insufficient cache, tradeoffs between cache and reposition times and the effectiveness of cache on a streaming tape drive due to idle times or interruptions due in host transfers. Several mathematical formulas are developed to predict the performance of the tape

  7. Hybrid matrix fiber composites

    DOEpatents

    Deteresa, Steven J.; Lyon, Richard E.; Groves, Scott E.

    2003-07-15

    Hybrid matrix fiber composites having enhanced compressive performance as well as enhanced stiffness, toughness and durability suitable for compression-critical applications. The methods for producing the fiber composites using matrix hybridization. The hybrid matrix fiber composites include two chemically or physically bonded matrix materials, whereas the first matrix materials are used to impregnate multi-filament fibers formed into ribbons and the second matrix material is placed around and between the fiber ribbons that are impregnated with the first matrix material and both matrix materials are cured and solidified.

  8. Artificial mismatch hybridization

    DOEpatents

    Guo, Zhen; Smith, Lloyd M.

    1998-01-01

    An improved nucleic acid hybridization process is provided which employs a modified oligonucleotide and improves the ability to discriminate a control nucleic acid target from a variant nucleic acid target containing a sequence variation. The modified probe contains at least one artificial mismatch relative to the control nucleic acid target in addition to any mismatch(es) arising from the sequence variation. The invention has direct and advantageous application to numerous existing hybridization methods, including, applications that employ, for example, the Polymerase Chain Reaction, allele-specific nucleic acid sequencing methods, and diagnostic hybridization methods.

  9. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  10. Hybrid Bloch brane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazeia, D.; Lima, Elisama E. M.; Losano, L.

    2017-02-01

    This work reports on models described by two real scalar fields coupled with gravity in the five-dimensional spacetime, with a warped geometry involving one infinite extra dimension. Through a mechanism that smoothly changes a thick brane into a hybrid brane, one investigates the appearance of hybrid branes hosting internal structure, characterized by the splitting on the energy density and the volcano potential, induced by the parameter which controls interactions between the two scalar fields. In particular, we investigate distinct symmetric and asymmetric hybrid brane scenarios.

  11. Empathic concern drives costly altruism

    PubMed Central

    FeldmanHall, Oriel; Dalgleish, Tim; Evans, Davy; Mobbs, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Why do we self-sacrifice to help others in distress? Two competing theories have emerged, one suggesting that prosocial behavior is primarily motivated by feelings of empathic other-oriented concern, the other that we help mainly because we are egoistically focused on reducing our own discomfort. Here we explore the relationship between costly altruism and these two sub-processes of empathy, specifically drawing on the caregiving model to test the theory that trait empathic concern (e.g. general tendency to have sympathy for another) and trait personal distress (e.g. predisposition to experiencing aversive arousal states) may differentially drive altruistic behavior. We find that trait empathic concern – and not trait personal distress – motivates costly altruism, and this relationship is supported by activity in the ventral tegmental area, caudate and subgenual anterior cingulate, key regions for promoting social attachment and caregiving. Together, this data helps identify the behavioral and neural mechanisms motivating costly altruism, while demonstrating that individual differences in empathic concern-related brain responses can predict real prosocial choice. PMID:25462694

  12. Variable frequency drive applications guide

    SciTech Connect

    Laloudakis, D.J.

    1991-10-01

    Traditionally, fans and pumps have been designed to be capable of handling the maximum demand of the system in which they are installed. However, quite often the actual demand can vary and it can be much lower than the original design capacity. These situations have been corrected in the past through additions of outlet dampers to fans or throttling valves to pumps. While these can be effective and simple controls they severely affect the efficiency of the system. Variable frequency (speed) is the most efficient means of capacity control. The most cost effective method of achieving variable speed capacity control is using AC adjustable frequency drives. AC adjustable frequency controls convert any fixed speed AC motor into an adjustable speed device. Adjusting the speed of a motor, by controlling the frequency of the AC power to that motor, reduces its horsepower requirements. According to pump and fan laws, capacity is proportional to speed while horsepower is proportional to the cube of the speed. Therefore, by reducing the speed of an AC motor by 20 percent the horsepower requirement is reduced by nearly 50 percent. Reduced speed through variable frequency control allows for flexibility of meeting changing weather and comfort requirements without operating costly equipment at full capacity.

  13. The Thermodynamics of Drunk Driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Robert Q.

    1997-05-01

    Chemical and instrumental tests for driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) measure the concentration of ethanol in the breath (BrAC), while state DUI laws are described in terms of blood alcohol concentration (BAC). Consequently, accurate and fair conversion from BrAC to BAC is crucial to the judicial process. Theoretical treatment of the water-air-ethanol equilibrium system and the related blood-breath-ethanol system, based on principles from general chemistry and biology, yields an equation relating the ratio of BAC to BrAC to the absolute temperature of the breath, the fraction of water in the blood, and the enthalpy and entropy of vaporization of ethanol from aqueous solution. The model equation predicts an average value for the ratio of 2350+100, not significantly different from reported experimental values. An exponential temperature dependence is predicted and has been confirmed experimentally as well. Biological, chemical, and instrumental variables are described along with their contributions to the overall uncertainty in the value of BrAC/BAC. While the forensic science community uses, and debates, a fixed ratio of 2100, the theoretical model suggests that a value of 1880 should be used to reduce the fraction of false positives to <1%.

  14. Redundant arrays of IDE drives

    SciTech Connect

    D.A. Sanders et al.

    2002-01-02

    The authors report tests of redundant arrays of IDE disk drives for use in offline high energy physics data analysis. Parts costs of total systems using commodity EIDE disks are now at the $4000 per Terabyte level. Disk storage prices have now decreased to the point where they equal the cost per Terabyte of Storage Technology tape silos. The disks, however, offer far better granularity; even small institutions can afford to deploy systems. The tests include reports on software RAID-5 systems running under Linux 2.4 using Promise Ultra 100{trademark} disk controllers. RAID-5 protects data in case of a single disk failure by providing parity bits. Tape backup is not required. Journaling file systems are used to allow rapid recovery from crashes. The data analysis strategy is to encapsulate data and CPU processing power. Analysis for a particular part of a data set takes place on the PC where the data resides. The network is only used to put results together. They explore three methods of moving data between sites; internet transfers, not pluggable IDE disks in FireWire cases, and DVD-R disks.

  15. The Queerness of the Drive.

    PubMed

    de Lauretis, Teresa

    2017-02-16

    The view of sexuality Freud first proposed in the Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality contains a discrepancy between the sexuality perverse and polymorphous described in the first two essays, and the biologically directed, reproductive sexuality of the third essay. According to Jean Laplanche, the theorist of psychoanalysis who is Freud's closest reader and translator, the discrepancy is due to two contradictory opinions Freud apparently held at different moments of his writing: one, that sexuality is exogenous, an effect of seduction by adults; two, that sexuality is endogenous, innate in the human biological organism. This paper focuses on Laplanche's elucidation of two aspects of sexuality present in each adult: an instinctual, hormonally based and ultimately reproductive sexual impulse, which begins at puberty, and the drive-based sexual impulses first theorized by Freud as polymorphous-perverse infantile sexuality, which begin in infancy and continue to be active thoughout the individual's life. Laplanche's rereading of Freud leads to a more complex understanding of sexuality as always deviant, in one way or another and to a greater or lesser degree, from the established social norms. So-called sexual deviance, therefore, is not a problem within the sexual but an issue within the social field.

  16. Control rod drive hydraulic system

    DOEpatents

    Ose, Richard A.

    1992-01-01

    A hydraulic system for a control rod drive (CRD) includes a variable output-pressure CR pump operable in a charging mode for providing pressurized fluid at a charging pressure, and in a normal mode for providing the pressurized fluid at a purge pressure, less than the charging pressure. Charging and purge lines are disposed in parallel flow between the CRD pump and the CRD. A hydraulic control unit is disposed in flow communication in the charging line and includes a scram accumulator. An isolation valve is provided in the charging line between the CRD pump and the scram accumulator. A controller is operatively connected to the CRD pump and the isolation valve and is effective for opening the isolation valve and operating the CRD pump in a charging mode for charging the scram accumulator, and closing the isolation valve and operating the CRD pump in a normal mode for providing to the CRD through the purge line the pressurized fluid at a purge pressure lower than the charging pressure.

  17. Drive for muscularity and drive for thinness: the impact of pro-anorexia websites.

    PubMed

    Juarez, Lilia; Soto, Ernesto; Pritchard, Mary E

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, websites that stress the message of thinness as the ideal and only choice have surfaced on the internet. The possibility that pro-anorexia websites may reinforce restrictive eating and exercise behaviors is an area of concern. In addition, friends may be influencing one another to view these websites, further contributing to drive for thinness in women and drive for muscularity in men. Three hundred male and female undergraduate psychology students responded to questionnaires assessing: internalization of pro-anorexia website content, internalization of general media content, influence of friends to view pro-anorexia websites, peer influence, drive for muscularity, and drive for thinness. Results showed internalization of pro-anorexia website content was positively correlated with drive for thinness in women, and negatively correlated with drive for muscularity in men. Internalization of pro-anorexia website content was found to be related to both drive for thinness in women and drive for muscularity in men.

  18. Towards universal hybrid star formation rate estimators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boquien, M.; Kennicutt, R.; Calzetti, D.; Dale, D.; Galametz, M.; Sauvage, M.; Croxall, K.; Draine, B.; Kirkpatrick, A.; Kumari, N.; Hunt, L.; De Looze, I.; Pellegrini, E.; Relaño, M.; Smith, J.-D.; Tabatabaei, F.

    2016-06-01

    Context. To compute the star formation rate (SFR) of galaxies from the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV), it is essential to take the obscuration by dust into account. To do so, one of the most popular methods consists in combining the UV with the emission from the dust itself in the infrared (IR). Yet, different studies have derived different estimators, showing that no such hybrid estimator is truly universal. Aims: In this paper we aim at understanding and quantifying what physical processes fundamentally drive the variations between different hybrid estimators. In so doing, we aim at deriving new universal UV+IR hybrid estimators to correct the UV for dust attenuation at local and global scales, taking the intrinsic physical properties of galaxies into account. Methods: We use the CIGALE code to model the spatially resolved far-UV to far-IR spectral energy distributions of eight nearby star-forming galaxies drawn from the KINGFISH sample. This allows us to determine their local physical properties, and in particular their UV attenuation, average SFR, average specific SFR (sSFR), and their stellar mass. We then examine how hybrid estimators depend on said properties. Results: We find that hybrid UV+IR estimators strongly depend on the stellar mass surface density (in particular at 70 μm and 100 μm) and on the sSFR (in particular at 24 μm and the total infrared). Consequently, the IR scaling coefficients for UV obscuration can vary by almost an order of magnitude: from 1.55 to 13.45 at 24 μm for instance. This result contrasts with other groups who found relatively constant coefficients with small deviations. We exploit these variations to construct a new class of adaptative hybrid estimators based on observed UV to near-IR colours and near-IR luminosity densities per unit area. We find that they can reliably be extended to entire galaxies. Conclusions: The new estimators provide better estimates of attenuation-corrected UV emission than classical hybrid estimators

  19. Chaotic mixer improves microarray hybridization.

    PubMed

    McQuain, Mark K; Seale, Kevin; Peek, Joel; Fisher, Timothy S; Levy, Shawn; Stremler, Mark A; Haselton, Frederick R

    2004-02-15

    Hybridization is an important aspect of microarray experimental design which influences array signal levels and the repeatability of data within an array and across different arrays. Current methods typically require 24h and use target inefficiently. In these studies, we compare hybridization signals obtained in conventional static hybridization, which depends on diffusional target delivery, with signals obtained in a dynamic hybridization chamber, which employs a fluid mixer based on chaotic advection theory to deliver targets across a conventional glass slide array. Microarrays were printed with a pattern of 102 identical probe spots containing a 65-mer oligonucleotide capture probe. Hybridization of a 725-bp fluorescently labeled target was used to measure average target hybridization levels, local signal-to-noise ratios, and array hybridization uniformity. Dynamic hybridization for 1h with 1 or 10ng of target DNA increased hybridization signal intensities approximately threefold over a 24-h static hybridization. Similarly, a 10- or 60-min dynamic hybridization of 10ng of target DNA increased hybridization signal intensities fourfold over a 24h static hybridization. In time course studies, static hybridization reached a maximum within 8 to 12h using either 1 or 10ng of target. In time course studies using the dynamic hybridization chamber, hybridization using 1ng of target increased to a maximum at 4h and that using 10ng of target did not vary over the time points tested. In comparison to static hybridization, dynamic hybridization reduced the signal-to-noise ratios threefold and reduced spot-to-spot variation twofold. Therefore, we conclude that dynamic hybridization based on a chaotic mixer design improves both the speed of hybridization and the maximum level of hybridization while increasing signal-to-noise ratios and reducing spot-to-spot variation.

  20. High Energy Batteries for Hybrid Buses

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Lu

    2010-12-31

    EnerDel batteries have already been employed successfully for electric vehicle (EV) applications. Compared to EV applications, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) bus applications may be less stressful, but are still quite demanding, especially compared to battery applications for consumer products. This program evaluated EnerDel cell and pack system technologies with three different chemistries using real world HEV-Bus drive cycles recorded in three markets covering cold, hot, and mild climates. Cells were designed, developed, and fabricated using each of the following three chemistries: (1) Lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) - hard carbon (HC); (2) Lithium manganese oxide (LMO) - HC; and (3) LMO - lithium titanium oxide (LTO) cells. For each cell chemistry, battery pack systems integrated with an EnerDel battery management system (BMS) were successfully constructed with the following features: real time current monitoring, cell and pack voltage monitoring, cell and pack temperature monitoring, pack state of charge (SOC) reporting, cell balancing, and over voltage protection. These features are all necessary functions for real-world HEV-Bus applications. Drive cycle test data was collected for each of the three cell chemistries using real world drive profiles under hot, mild, and cold climate conditions representing cities like Houston, Seattle, and Minneapolis, respectively. We successfully tested the battery packs using real-world HEV-Bus drive profiles under these various climate conditions. The NMC-HC and LMO-HC based packs successfully completed the drive cycles, while the LMO-LTO based pack did not finish the preliminary testing for the drive cycles. It was concluded that the LMO-HC chemistry is optimal for the hot or mild climates, while the NMC-HC chemistry is optimal for the cold climate. In summary, the objectives were successfully accomplished at the conclusion of the project. This program provided technical data to DOE and the public for assessing

  1. Gender invariance and correlates of the drive for leanness scale.

    PubMed

    Tod, David; Hall, Gareth; Edwards, Christian

    2012-09-01

    We examined the drive for leanness scale's gender invariance and its relationships with health-related behavior and body image-related drives. Men (N=342) and women (N=309) attending British universities completed the drive for leanness scale, drive for thinness scale, drive for muscularity scale, and a demographic inventory. Support for configural and metric, but not scalar, invariance emerged. Drive for leanness was positively correlated with weight training frequency, supplement use, drive for thinness, and drive for muscularity in both genders. Results provide guidance on comparing drive for leanness scale scores across gender and contribute to a coherent understanding of the drive for leanness and its correlates.

  2. Mental workload when driving in a simulator: effects of age and driving complexity.

    PubMed

    Cantin, Vincent; Lavallière, Martin; Simoneau, Martin; Teasdale, Normand

    2009-07-01

    Driving errors for older drivers may result from a higher momentary mental workload resulting from complex driving situations, such as intersections. The present study examined if the mental workload of young and older active drivers vary with the difficulty of the driving context. We adopted the probe reaction time (RT) technique to measure the workload while driving in a simulator. The technique provided clear instructions about the primary (driving) and secondary (RT) tasks. To avoid structural interference, the secondary task consisted of responding as rapidly as possible with a vocal response ("top") to an auditory stimulus. Participants drove through a continuous 26.4-km scenario including rural and urban sections and probes (stimuli) were given in a baseline static condition and in three different driving contexts embedded into the overall driving scenario. Specifically, stimuli were given randomly when (a) driving on straight roads at a constant speed, (b) approaching intersections for which the driver had to stop the car, and (c) when overtaking a slower vehicle. Unless a driving error was made, drivers did not need any emergency responses. Reaction time was defined as the temporal interval between the auditory stimulus and the onset of the corresponding verbal response detected from the analog signal of a piezo-electric microphone fixed on a headset (ms accuracy). Baseline RTs were similar for both groups. Both groups showed longer RTs when driving and RTs increased as the complexity of the driving contexts increased (driving straights, intersections, overtaking maneuvers). Compared to younger drivers, however, older drivers showed longer RTs for all driving contexts and the most complex driving context (overtaking maneuvers) yielded a disproportionate increase. In conclusion, driving leads to a greater mental workload for the older drivers than for the younger drivers and this effect was exacerbated by the more complex driving context (overtaking

  3. 75 FR 47888 - IntelliDriveSM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... IntelliDrive\\SM\\ be used to support real-time performance-based management of roadways, transit systems...-time or near real-time performance-based management applications or tools be demonstrated? 5. There are... Management Demonstrations; Request for Information \\1\\ IntelliDrive is a service mark of the U.S....

  4. Epilepsy and driving: current status of research.

    PubMed

    L Devlin, Anna; Odell, Morris; L Charlton, Judith; Koppel, Sjaanie

    2012-12-01

    In many parts of the world, licensing guidelines state that drivers with medical conditions such as epilepsy are restricted or prohibited from driving. These guidelines are sometimes subjective and not strongly evidence-based, rendering the task of assessing fitness to drive a complex one. Determining fitness to drive is not only essential for maintaining the safety of individual drivers but has implications for the community at large. It is therefore important to review the current state of knowledge regarding epilepsy and driving in order to aid health professionals required to assess fitness to drive and to guide future research directions. This review outlines the functional impairments related to epilepsy and driving, treatment and management issues, motor vehicle crash risk for drivers with epilepsy, estimates of predicted seizure occurrence and concludes with a discussion of the international licensing guidelines and relevant legal issues. More comprehensive research, including investigation into the effects of antiepileptic medication on driving, could aid in the development of policies and guidelines for assessing fitness to drive.

  5. Dynamics and control of instrumented harmonic drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazerooni, H.; Ellis, S. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Since torque in harmonic drives is transmitted by a pure couple, harmonic drives do not generate radial forces and therefore can be instrumented with torque sensors without interference from radial forces. The installation of torque sensors on the stationary component of harmonic drives (the Flexipline cup in this research work) produce backdrivability needed for robotic and telerobotic compliant maneuvers. Backdrivability of a harmonic drive, when used as torque increaser, means that the output shaft can be rotated via finite amount of torque. A high ratio harmonic drive is non-backdrivable because its output shaft cannot be turned by applying a torque on it. This article first develops the dynamic behavior of a harmonic drive, in particular the non-backdrivability, in terms of a sensitivity transfer function. The instrumentation of the harmonic drive with torque sensor is then described. This leads to a description of the control architecture which allows modulation of the sensitivity transfer function within the limits established by the closed-loop stability. A set of experiments on an active hand controller, powered by a DC motor coupled to an instrumented harmonic drive, is given to exhibit this method's limitations.

  6. 49 CFR 236.778 - Piece, driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Piece, driving. 236.778 Section 236.778 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Piece, driving. A crank secured to a locking shaft by means of which horizontal movement is imparted...

  7. 49 CFR 236.778 - Piece, driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piece, driving. 236.778 Section 236.778 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Piece, driving. A crank secured to a locking shaft by means of which horizontal movement is imparted...

  8. 49 CFR 236.778 - Piece, driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Piece, driving. 236.778 Section 236.778 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Piece, driving. A crank secured to a locking shaft by means of which horizontal movement is imparted...

  9. 77 FR 61048 - Distracted Driving Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Distracted Driving Grant Program AGENCY: National Highway... Transportation (DOT) announced the availability of funding authorized for distracted driving grants on August 24... Progress in the 21st Century Act'' (MAP-21), Public Law 112-141, which created a new distracted...

  10. 49 CFR 236.778 - Piece, driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Piece, driving. 236.778 Section 236.778 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Piece, driving. A crank secured to a locking shaft by means of which horizontal movement is imparted...

  11. 49 CFR 236.778 - Piece, driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Piece, driving. 236.778 Section 236.778 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Piece, driving. A crank secured to a locking shaft by means of which horizontal movement is imparted...

  12. Safety Education in Driving. 2nd Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Intended for driving instruction students, this publication contains instructional materials for safety education. It contains six sections on facts and figures; defensive driving; safety devices; restraints; emergency situations; and other highway users. Each section consists of reading material followed by an activity or activities. A total of…

  13. Older Drivers: How Health Affects Driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... loss of consciousness or a seizure. People with diabetes-related complications should consult their healthcare team for guidance on driving. (Watch the video to learn more about driving with diabetes.) Macular degeneration can distort a person’s central vision ...

  14. A Difficult Journey: Reflections on Driving and Driving Cessation From a Team of Clinical Researchers.

    PubMed

    Liddle, Jacki; Gustafsson, Louise; Mitchell, Geoffrey; Pachana, Nancy A

    2017-02-01

    Recognizing the clinical importance and safety and well-being implications for the population, a multidisciplinary team has been researching older drivers and driving cessation issues for more than 15 years. Using empirical approaches, the team has explored quality of life and participation outcomes related to driving and nondriving for older people and has developed interventions to improve outcomes after driving cessation. The team members represent occupational therapists, medical practitioners, and clinical and neuropsychologists. While building the evidence base for driving- and driving cessation-related clinical practice, the researchers have also had first-hand experiences of interruptions to their own or parents' driving; involvement of older family members in road crashes; and provision of support during family members' driving assessment and cessation. This has led to reflection on their understandings and re-evaluation and refocusing of their perspectives in driving cessation research. This work will share the narratives of the authors and note their developing perspectives and foci within research as well as their clinical practice. Personal reflections have indicated the far-reaching implications for older drivers and family members of involvement in road crashes: the potential for interruptions to driving as a time for support and future planning and the conflicting and difficult roles of family members within the driving cessation process. Overall the lived, personal experience of the authors has reinforced the complex nature of driving and changes to driving status for the driver and their support team and the need for further research and support.

  15. DRIVE Analysis Tool Generates Custom Vehicle Drive Cycles Based on Real-World Data (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-04-01

    This fact sheet from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory describes the Drive-Cycle Rapid Investigation, Visualization, and Evaluation (DRIVE) analysis tool, which uses GPS and controller area network data to characterize vehicle operation and produce custom vehicle drive cycles, analyzing thousands of hours of data in a matter of minutes.

  16. Educational Biofeedback Driving Simulator as a Drink-Driving Prevention Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howat, Peter; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Used experimental driving simulator as basis for strategy to encourage a reduction in drunk driving prevalence using adult male subjects (n=36) who participated in a study group and controls (n=36). Results indicated study group subjects significantly decreased their drunk driving compared to the control group. (ABL)

  17. Young, Drunk, Dangerous and Driving: Underage Drinking and Driving Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Robert; Clontz, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes major, recent research findings concerning illegal alcohol use and intoxicated driving among American youth. Examines what research revealed about the nature of underage drinking and driving; what health, social, and legal ramifications are associated with drinking and driving; and what characteristics and behavioral patterns are found…

  18. DriveWise: An Interdisciplinary Hospital-Based Driving Assessment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Margaret G.; Kapust, Lissa R.; Hollis, Ann M.

    2008-01-01

    Health care professionals working with the elderly have opportunities through research and clinical practice to shape public policy affecting the older driver. This article describes DriveWise, an interdisciplinary hospital-based driving assessment program developed in response to clinical concerns about the driving safety of individuals with…

  19. Hybrid plasmachemical reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lelevkin, V. M. Smirnova, Yu. G.; Tokarev, A. V.

    2015-04-15

    A hybrid plasmachemical reactor on the basis of a dielectric barrier discharge in a transformer is developed. The characteristics of the reactor as functions of the dielectric barrier discharge parameters are determined.

  20. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  1. Hybrid polymer microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, A.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques have been successfully tested for bonding polymeric spheres, typically 0.1 micron in diameter, to spheres with diameter up to 100 microns. Hybrids are being developed as improved packing material for ion-exchange columns, filters, and separators.

  2. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  3. Deep brain stimulation to reduce sexual drive

    PubMed Central

    Fuss, Johannes; Auer, Matthias K.; Biedermann, Sarah V.; Briken, Peer; Hacke, Werner

    2015-01-01

    To date there are few treatment options to reduce high sexual drive or sexual urges in paraphilic patients with a risk for sexual offending. Pharmacological therapy aims to reduce sexual drive by lowering testosterone at the cost of severe side effects. We hypothesize that high sexual drive could also be reduced with deep brain stimulation (DBS) of circuits that generate sexual drive. This approach would help to avoid systemic side effects of antiandrogenic drug therapies. So far the best investigated target to reduce sexual drive is the ventromedial hypothalamus, which was lesioned unilaterally and bilaterally by stereotaxic interventions in paraphilic patients in the 1970s. Here, we discuss DBS as a treatment strategy in patients with severe paraphilic disorders with a serious risk of sexual offending. There are profound ethical and practical issues associated with DBS treatment of paraphilic patients that must be solved before considering such a treatment approach. PMID:26057198

  4. Special Considerations in Distracted Driving with Teens

    PubMed Central

    Durbin, Dennis R; McGehee, Daniel V; Fisher, Donald; McCartt, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Novice teen drivers have long been known to have an increased risk of crashing, as well as increased tendencies toward unsafe and risky driving behaviors. Teens are unique as drivers for several reasons, many of which have implications specifically in the area of distracted driving. This paper reviews several of these features, including the widespread prevalence of mobile device use by teens, their lack of driving experience, the influence of peer passengers as a source of distraction, the role of parents in influencing teens’ attitudes and behaviors relevant to distracted driving and the impact of laws designed to prevent mobile device use by teen drivers. Recommendations for future research include understanding how engagement in a variety of secondary tasks by teen drivers affects their driving performance or crash risk; understanding the respective roles of parents, peers and technology in influencing teen driver behavior; and evaluating the impact of public policy on mitigating teen crash risk related to driver distraction. PMID:24776228

  5. Novel method for driving the ultrasonic motor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeoung woo; Dong, Shuxiang; Laoratanakul, Pitak; Uchino, Kenji; Park, Tae gone

    2002-10-01

    This paper reports a novel driving method for an annular plate-type ultrasonic motor. Instead of the direct current/alternating current (DC/AC) converter type driver using conventional electromagnetic transformer, a compact disc-type piezoelectric transformer is used to obtain high voltage output for driving the ultrasonic motor. The piezoelectric transformer is operated in the radial vibration mode at resonance frequency close to the resonance frequency of the ultrasonic motor. Later, it was found that the piezoelectric transformer could drive the ultrasonic motor, even if their resonance frequencies are not exactly the same by incorporating the matching network in the circuit. The maximum speed of the ultrasonic motor obtained by using this driving method is over 300 rpm. It is believed that the results of this study will have impact on the integration and miniaturization of the ultrasonic motor and its driving circuit.

  6. Constant four wheel drive vehicle transaxle

    SciTech Connect

    Weismann, P.H.; Cameron, D.

    1986-04-15

    A dual differential four-wheel drive assembly is described adapted for a two-wheel drive front transaxle vehicle having an internal combustion engine with a transverse oriented crankshaft for driving the vehicle with front and rear pairs of road wheels, a transmission gear unit for the transaxle including transverse input and output shafts, and right and left laterally extending front axle drive shafts, each drive shaft having front wheel mounting means on its outboard end. The dual differential assembly consists of: housing means having a laterally extending passage therethrough aligned on a transverse axis, the housing means having first and second differential casings for associated first and second bevel gear differentials, the casings supported in laterally spaced alignment for rotation about the transverse axis, each first and second differential casing enclosing inboard and outboard side gears in meshing relation with planetary pinion gears, each casing having opposed inboard and outboard axial extensions thereon.

  7. B Chromosomes - A Matter of Chromosome Drive.

    PubMed

    Houben, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    B chromosomes are supernumerary chromosomes which are often preferentially inherited, deviating from usual Mendelian segregation. The balance between the so-called chromosome drive and the negative effects that the presence of Bs applies on the fitness of their host determines the frequency of Bs in a particular population. Drive is the key for understanding most B chromosomes. Drive occurs in many ways at pre-meiotic, meiotic or post-meiotic divisions, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. The cellular mechanism of drive is reviewed based on the findings obtained for the B chromosomes of rye, maize and other species. How novel analytical tools will expand our ability to uncover the biology of B chromosome drive is discussed.

  8. Adjustable Speed Drive Study, Part 1.

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, Alan K.; Oregon State University. Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering.

    1989-08-01

    Advances in speed control for motors in recent years, notably those in power electronics, have widened the range of application for several adjustable speed drive (ASD) types to include the smaller horsepower sizes. The dc motor drive, formerly in almost universal use for speed control, is being challenged by the high efficiency induction motor/pulse width modulation (PWM) drive; and for special small horsepower size applications, by the permanent magnet motor/PWM inverter drive or by the switched reluctance motor drive. The main characteristics of the several ASD types suitable for small horsepower size applications are discussed, as well as their unwanted side effects: poor power factor, harmonic distortion of the supply, acoustic noise, and electromagnetic interference. A procedure is recommended for determining which, if any, ASD to use. 31 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Adjustable Speed Drive Study, Part 2.

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, Alan K.; Oregon State University. Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering.

    1989-08-01

    Advances in speed control for motors in recent years, notably those in power electronics, have widened the range of application for several adjustable speed drive (ASD) types to include the smaller horsepower sizes. The DC motor drive, formerly in almost universal use for speed control, is being challenged by the high efficiency induction motor/pulse width modulation (PWM) drive; and for special small horsepower size applications, by the permanent magnet motor/PWM inverter drive or by the switched reluctance motor drive. The main characteristics of the several ASD types suitable for small horsepower size applications are discussed, as well as their unwanted side effects: poor power factor, harmonic distortion of the supply, acoustic noise, and electromagnetic interference. A procedure is recommended for determining which, if any, ASD to use.

  10. Development of a paddle drive mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Hidekazu; Honda, Toshio; Ohhashi, Toshiro; Wachi, Shigeo; Kai, Kouji

    The paddle drive system is a key element in a three axis stabilized spacecraft, consisting of paddle drive mechanism (PDM) and paddle drive electronics (PDE). The PDM rotates the solar array paddle and transmits electrical power and signals to spacecraft. The PDE drives and controls the PDM. The investigation and design study were initiated in early 1979. The design goal of the PDM is to handle more than 3kW of electrical power with a ten year life. The hardware development was started in early 1983, as a five year program. This paper presents the results of environmental tests and a thermal vacuum life test for the various PDM elements, such as the slip ring assembly, the stepper motor, the harmonic drive, the ratchet clutch, the spur gears, the bearings and the position indicator.

  11. Bootstrapped tokamak with oscillating field current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Weening, R.H. )

    1993-07-01

    A magnetic helicity conserving mean-field Ohm's law is used to study bootstrapped tokamaks with oscillating field current drive. The Ohm's law leads to the conclusion that the tokamak bootstrap effect can convert the largely alternating current of oscillating field current drive into a direct toroidal plasma current. This plasma current rectification is due to the intrinsically nonlinear nature of the tokamak bootstrap effect, and suggests that it may be possible to maintain the toroidal current of a tokamak reactor by supplementing the bootstrap current with oscillating field current drive. Steady-state tokamak fusion reactors operating with oscillating field current drive could provide an alternative to tokamak reactors operating with external current drive.

  12. DriveID: safety innovation through individuation.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Ben; Teo, Grace; Mouloua, Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    The driving task is highly complex and places considerable perceptual, physical and cognitive demands on the driver. As driving is fundamentally an information processing activity, distracted or impaired drivers have diminished safety margins compared with non- distracted drivers (Hancock and Parasuraman, 1992; TRB 1998 a & b). This competition for sensory and decision making capacities can lead to failures that cost lives. Some groups, teens and elderly drivers for example, have patterns of systematically poor perceptual, physical and cognitive performance while driving. Although there are technologies developed to aid these different drivers, these systems are often misused and underutilized. The DriveID project aims to design and develop a passive, automated face identification system capable of robustly identifying the driver of the vehicle, retrieve a stored profile, and intelligently prescribing specific accident prevention systems and driving environment customizations.

  13. The modern instrumentation used for monitoring and controlling the main parameters of the regenerative electro-mechano-hydraulic drive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristescu, Corneliu; Drumea, Petrin; Krevey, Petrica

    2009-01-01

    In this work is presented the modern instrumentation used for monitoring and controlling the main parameters for one regenerative drive system, used to recovering the kinetic energy of motor vehicles, lost in the braking phase, storing and using this energy in the starting or accelerating phases. Is presented a Romanian technical solution for a regenerative driving system, based on a hybrid solution containing a hydro-mechanic module and an existing thermal motor drive, all conceived as a mechatronics system. In order to monitoring and controlling the evolution of the main parameters, the system contains a series of sensors and transducers that provide the moment, rotation, temperature, flow and pressure values. The main sensors and transducers of the regenerative drive system, their principal features and tehnical conecting solutions are presented in this paper, both with the menaging electronic and informational subsystems.

  14. Inbreeding drives maize centromere evolution.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Kevin L; Xie, Zidian; Wolfgruber, Thomas K; Presting, Gernot G

    2016-02-23

    Functional centromeres, the chromosomal sites of spindle attachment during cell division, are marked epigenetically by the centromere-specific histone H3 variant cenH3 and typically contain long stretches of centromere-specific tandem DNA repeats (∼1.8 Mb in maize). In 23 inbreds of domesticated maize chosen to represent the genetic diversity of maize germplasm, partial or nearly complete loss of the tandem DNA repeat CentC precedes 57 independent cenH3 relocation events that result in neocentromere formation. Chromosomal regions with newly acquired cenH3 are colonized by the centromere-specific retrotransposon CR2 at a rate that would result in centromere-sized CR2 clusters in 20,000-95,000 y. Three lines of evidence indicate that CentC loss is linked to inbreeding, including (i) CEN10 of temperate lineages, presumed to have experienced a genetic bottleneck, contain less CentC than their tropical relatives; (ii) strong selection for centromere-linked genes in domesticated maize reduced diversity at seven of the ten maize centromeres to only one or two postdomestication haplotypes; and (iii) the centromere with the largest number of haplotypes in domesticated maize (CEN7) has the highest CentC levels in nearly all domesticated lines. Rare recombinations introduced one (CEN2) or more (CEN5) alternate CEN haplotypes while retaining a single haplotype at domestication loci linked to these centromeres. Taken together, this evidence strongly suggests that inbreeding, favored by postdomestication selection for centromere-linked genes affecting key domestication or agricultural traits, drives replacement of the tandem centromere repeats in maize and other crop plants. Similar forces may act during speciation in natural systems.

  15. Recombination Drives Vertebrate Genome Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Kiwoong; Ellegren, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Selective and/or neutral processes may govern variation in DNA content and, ultimately, genome size. The observation in several organisms of a negative correlation between recombination rate and intron size could be compatible with a neutral model in which recombination is mutagenic for length changes. We used whole-genome data on small insertions and deletions within transposable elements from chicken and zebra finch to demonstrate clear links between recombination rate and a number of attributes of reduced DNA content. Recombination rate was negatively correlated with the length of introns, transposable elements, and intergenic spacer and with the rate of short insertions. Importantly, it was positively correlated with gene density, the rate of short deletions, the deletion bias, and the net change in sequence length. All these observations point at a pattern of more condensed genome structure in regions of high recombination. Based on the observed rates of small insertions and deletions and assuming that these rates are representative for the whole genome, we estimate that the genome of the most recent common ancestor of birds and lizards has lost nearly 20% of its DNA content up until the present. Expansion of transposable elements can counteract the effect of deletions in an equilibrium mutation model; however, since the activity of transposable elements has been low in the avian lineage, the deletion bias is likely to have had a significant effect on genome size evolution in dinosaurs and birds, contributing to the maintenance of a small genome. We also demonstrate that most of the observed correlations between recombination rate and genome contraction parameters are seen in the human genome, including for segregating indel polymorphisms. Our data are compatible with a neutral model in which recombination drives vertebrate genome size evolution and gives no direct support for a role of natural selection in this process. PMID:22570634

  16. Electric and hybrid vehicle systems assessment seminar: proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-15

    The following twenty papers are included in these proceedings: (1) electric and hybrid vehicle assessment overview, (2) electric and hybrid vehicle systems considerations, (3) advanced vehicle assessment, (4) hybrid vehicle assessment, (5) battery optimization considerations, (6) alkaline battery technology, (7) lead-acid batteries, (8) nickel-iron batteries, (9) zinc-chloride batteries, (10) zinc-bromine batteries, (11) sodium-sulfur batteries, (12) system/battery design interaction for a lithium-method sulfide van battery, (13) iorn-air batteries, (14) aluminium-air cells, (15) fuel cell overview, (16) variable-reluctance motor drives, (17) electric vehicle design, (18) advanced electric vehicle powertrain program, (19) Eaton ac drivetrains, and (20) JET Propulsion Laboratory ac power system. (MOW)

  17. Human hybrid hybridoma

    SciTech Connect

    Tiebout, R.F.; van Boxtel-Oosterhof, F.; Stricker, E.A.M.; Zeijlemaker, W.P.

    1987-11-15

    Hybrid hybridomas are obtained by fusion of two cells, each producing its own antibody. Several authors have reported the construction of murine hybrid hybridomas with the aim to obtain bispecific monoclonal antibodies. The authors have investigated, in a model system, the feasibility of constructing a human hybrid hybridoma. They fused two monoclonal cell lines: an ouabain-sensitive and azaserine/hypoxanthine-resistant Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human cell line that produces an IgG1kappa antibody directed against tetanus toxiod and an azaserine/hypoxanthine-sensitive and ouabain-resistant human-mouse xenohybrid cell line that produces a human IgG1lambda antibody directed against hepatitis-B surface antigen. Hybrid hybridoma cells were selected in culture medium containing azaserine/hypoxanthine and ouabain. The hybrid nature of the secreted antibodies was analyzed by means of two antigen-specific immunoassay. The results show that it is possible, with the combined use of transformation and xenohybridization techniques, to construct human hybrid hybridomas that produce bispecific antibodies. Bispecific antibodies activity was measured by means of two radioimmunoassays.

  18. High performance and current drive experiments in the JAERI Tokamak-60 Upgrade*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondoh, T.

    1994-05-01

    Recent high-fusion-triple-product and current drive experiments in the JAERI Tokamak-60 Upgrade (JT-60U) [Plasma Devices Oper. 1, 43 (1990)] are reported. The fusion triple product of 1.1×1021 m-3 s keV has been achieved in a more improved confinement mode (high-βp H-mode) in which the confinement is improved in the edge region as well as the core region. The most remarkable feature in the improved confinement mode is the multistage formation of transport barriers. The transport barrier was formed in the plasma interior first. After that, the transport barrier was formed in the edge region. For steady-state operation and current profile control, lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) and neutral beam current drive (NBCD) experiments with bootstrap current contribution are also in progress. Full current drive of 3.6 MA has been achieved at a density of 1.1×1019 m-3 with a current drive efficiency of neṡRpṡICD/PLH=2.5×1019 m-2 A W-1 with a 5.7 MW LH wave injection. Current profile control with various LH wave spectra and with NBCD were also demonstrated.

  19. Ion-beam driven lower hybrid waves in a magnetized dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash, Ved; Vijayshri; Sharma, Suresh C.; Gupta, Ruby

    2013-06-15

    An ion beam drives lower hybrid waves to instability in a magnetized dusty plasma via Cerenkov interaction. A dispersion relation and the growth rate of the lower hybrid waves have been derived taking into account the dust charge fluctuations. The frequency and the growth rate of the unstable wave instability increase with relative density of negatively charged dust grains. The lower hybrid modes with phase velocity comparable to the beam velocity possess a large growth rate. Moreover, the growth rate of the instability increases with beam density and scales as the one-third power of the beam density.

  20. Unidirectional spread of secondary sexual plumage traits across an avian hybrid zone.

    PubMed

    Parsons, T J; Olson, S L; Braun, M J

    1993-06-11

    Theory predicts that traits under positive selection can rapidly cross a hybrid zone in spite of a substantial barrier to neutral gene flow between hybridizing taxa. An avian hybrid zone between Manacus candei (white-collared manakin) and M. vitellinus (golden-collared manakin) is reported here that displays an unusual pattern of noncoincident clines. Male secondary sexual traits of M. vitellinus have spread into populations that are genetically and morphometrically like M. candei. These birds have a lek breeding system in which male mating success is highly skewed, suggesting that sexual selection is driving male sexual traits across the zone.