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Sample records for hybrid transposition module

  1. A Genome-Wide Survey of Genetic Instability by Transposition in Drosophila Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Vela, Doris; Fontdevila, Antonio; Vieira, Cristina; García Guerreiro, María Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Hybridization between species is a genomic instability factor involved in increasing mutation rate and new chromosomal rearrangements. Evidence of a relationship between interspecific hybridization and transposable element mobilization has been reported in different organisms, but most studies are usually performed with particular TEs and do not discuss the real effect of hybridization on the whole genome. We have therefore studied whole genome instability of Drosophila interspecific hybrids, looking for the presence of new AFLP markers in hybrids. A high percentage (27–90%) of the instability markers detected corresponds to TEs belonging to classes I and II. Moreover, three transposable elements (Osvaldo, Helena and Galileo) representative of different families, showed an overall increase of transposition rate in hybrids compared to parental species. This research confirms the hypothesis that hybridization induces genomic instability by transposition bursts and suggests that genomic stress by transposition could contribute to a relaxation of mechanisms controlling TEs in the Drosophila genome. PMID:24586475

  2. Transpositional activation of mPing in an asymmetric nuclear somatic cell hybrid of rice and Zizania latifolia was accompanied by massive element loss.

    PubMed

    Shan, X H; Ou, X F; Liu, Z L; Dong, Y Z; Lin, X Y; Li, X W; Liu, B

    2009-11-01

    We have reported previously that the most active miniature inverted terminal repeat transposable element (MITE) of rice, mPing, was transpositionally mobilized in several rice recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from an introgressive hybridization between rice and wild rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.). To further study the phenomenon of hybridization-induced mPing activity, we undertook the present study to investigate the element's behavior in a highly asymmetric somatic nuclear hybrid (SH6) of rice and Z. latifolia, which is similar in genomic composition to that of the RILs, though probably contains more introgressed alien chromatins from the donor species than the RILs. We found that mPing, together with its transposase-donor, Pong, underwent rampant transpositional activation in the somatic hybrid (SH6). Because possible effects of protoplast isolation and cell culture can be ruled out, we attribute the transpositional activation of mPing and Pong in SH6 to the process of asymmetric somatic hybridization, namely, one-step introgression of multiple chromatin segments of the donor species Z. latifolia into the recipient rice genome. A salient feature of mPing transposition in the somatic hybrid is that the element's activation was accompanied by massive loss of its original copies, i.e., abortive transpositions, which was not observed in previously reported cases of mPing activity. These data not only corroborated our earlier finding that wide hybridization and introgression may trigger transpositional activation of otherwise quiescent transposable elements, but also suggest that transpositional mobilization of a MITE like mPing can be accompanied by dramatic reduction of its original copy numbers under certain conditions, thus provide novel insights into the dynamics of MITEs in the course of genome evolution. PMID:19711051

  3. Transpositional reactivation of the Dart transposon family in rice lines derived from introgressive hybridization with Zizania latifolia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It is widely recognized that interspecific hybridization may induce "genome shock", and lead to genetic and epigenetic instabilities in the resultant hybrids and/or backcrossed introgressants. A prominent component involved in the genome shock is reactivation of cryptic transposable elements (TEs) in the hybrid genome, which is often associated with alteration in the elements' epigenetic modifications like cytosine DNA methylation. We have previously reported that introgressants derived from hybridization between Oryza sativa (rice) and Zizania latifolia manifested substantial methylation re-patterning and rampant mobilization of two TEs, a copia retrotransposon Tos17 and a MITE mPing. It was not known however whether other types of TEs had also been transpositionally reactivated in these introgressants, their relevance to alteration in cytosine methylation, and their impact on expression of adjacent cellular genes. Results We document in this study that the Dart TE family was transpositionally reactivated followed by stabilization in all three studied introgressants (RZ1, RZ2 and RZ35) derived from introgressive hybridization between rice (cv. Matsumae) and Z. latifolia, while the TEs remained quiescent in the recipient rice genome. Transposon-display (TD) and sequencing verified the element's mobility and mapped the excisions and re-insertions to the rice chromosomes. Methylation-sensitive Southern blotting showed that the Dart TEs were heavily methylated along their entire length, and moderate alteration in cytosine methylation patterns occurred in the introgressants relative to their rice parental line. Real-time qRT-PCR quantification on the relative transcript abundance of six single-copy genes flanking the newly excised or inserted Dart-related TE copies indicated that whereas marked difference in the expression of all four genes in both tissues (leaf and root) were detected between the introgressants and their rice parental line under both normal

  4. Character Decomposition and Transposition Processes in Chinese Compound Words Modulates Attentional Blink

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Hongwen; Gao, Min; Yan, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    The attentional blink (AB) is the phenomenon in which the identification of the second of two targets (T2) is attenuated if it is presented less than 500 ms after the first target (T1). Although the AB is eliminated in canonical word conditions, it remains unclear whether the character order in compound words affects the magnitude of the AB. Morpheme decomposition and transposition of Chinese two-character compound words can provide an effective means to examine AB priming and to assess combinations of the component representations inherent to visual word identification. In the present study, we examined the processing of consecutive targets in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm using Chinese two-character compound words in which the two characters were transposed to form meaningful words or meaningless combinations (reversible, transposed, or canonical words). We found that when two Chinese characters that form a compound word, regardless of their order, are presented in an RSVP sequence, the likelihood of an AB for the second character is greatly reduced or eliminated compared to when the two characters constitute separate words rather than a compound word. Moreover, the order of the report for the two characters is more likely to be reversed when the normal order of the two characters in a compound word is reversed, especially when the interval between the presentation of the two characters is extremely short. These findings are more consistent with the cognitive strategy hypothesis than the resource-limited hypothesis during character decomposition and transposition of Chinese two-character compound words. These results suggest that compound characters are perceived as a unit, rather than two separate words. The data further suggest that readers could easily understand the text with character transpositions in compound words during Chinese reading. PMID:27379003

  5. [Transposition of Great Artery].

    PubMed

    Konuma, Takeshi; Shimpo, Hideto

    2015-07-01

    Transposition of the great artery is one of common congenital cardiac disease resulting cyanosis. Death occurs easily in untreated patients with transposition and intact ventricular septal defect (VSD) in infancy at a few days of age when posterior descending coronary artery (PDA) closed. Since there are 2 parallel circulations, flow from pulmonary to systemic circulation is necessary for systemic oxygenation, and Balloon atrial septostomy or prostaglandin infusion should be performed especially if patient do not have VSD. Although the advent of fetal echocardiography, it is difficult to diagnose the transposition of the great arteries (TGA) as abnormality of great vessels is relatively undistinguishable. The diagnosis of transposition is in itself an indication for surgery, and arterial switch procedure is performed in the case the left ventricle pressure remains more than 2/3 of systemic pressure. Preoperative diagnosis is important as associated anomalies and coronary artery branching patterns are important to decide the operative indication and timing of surgery.

  6. Array Transposition in SSD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, David H.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    One obstacle to running very large two- and three-dimensional codes on the Cray X-MP and Y-MP systems is to efficiently perform array transpositions using SSD storage. This article discusses how such transpositions can be performed by means of algorithms that feature exclusively unit stride, long vector transfers between main memory and SSD, and which only require a single pass through the data (provided sufficient main memory buffers are available).

  7. Array Transposition in SSD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, David H.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1989-01-01

    One obstacle to running very large two- and three-dimensional codes on the Cray X-MP and Y-MP systems is to efficiently perform array transpositions using SSD storage. This article discusses how such transpositions can be performed by means of algorithms that feature exclusively unit stride, long vector transfers between main memory and SSD, and which only require a single pass through the data (provided sufficient main memory buffers are available).

  8. Transposition Musical Chairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yankosky, Bill

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses a classroom activity in which students in a small-sized (n = 4) Abstract Algebra class were able to discover some properties related to permutations and transpositions by physically moving from chair to chair according to suggested guidelines. During the lesson students were able to determine ways to write a permutation as a…

  9. Waveguide-coupled hybrid plasmonic modulator based on graphene.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bao-Hu; Lu, Wei-Bing; Li, Xiao-Bing; Wang, Jian; Liu, Zhen-Guo

    2016-07-20

    In this paper, we propose a low-transmission-loss, high-speed, graphene-based electro-absorption modulator with a hybrid plasmonic waveguide at 1.55 μm. In the proposed device, double-layer graphene is placed on top of the horizontal hybrid plasmonic waveguide to enhance the light-graphene interaction. The adjustment of the in-plane permittivity of the anisotropy graphene causes a significant modulation of the absorption at the operating bandwidth of 0.4 THz, with modulation length of 8.5 μm and modulator footprint of 1.6  μm2. A taper silicon coupler is used for waveguide coupling, and 80% coupling efficiency is achieved. In addition, the modulation potential on a smaller footprint is further shown. PMID:27463912

  10. Magnetically modulated critical current densities of Co/Nb hybrid

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhigang; Wang, Weike; Zhang, Li; Yang, Zhaorong; Tian, Mingliang; Zhang, Yuheng

    2015-01-01

    By tuning morphology and size of magnetic subsystem, ferromagnet-superconductor (F/S) hybrid system provides an effective way to modulate superconductivity due to the interaction between superconducting and magnetic-order parameters at the mesoscopic length scale. In this work, we report on investigations of critical current density in a large-area Co/Nb hybrid via facile colloidal lithography. Here, Co hexagon shell array as a magnetic template build on Nb film to modulate the critical current density. A novel superconducting transition has been observed in I-V curve with two metastable transition states: double-transition and binary-oscillation-transition states. Importantly, such unusual behavior can be adjusted by temperature, magnetic field and contact area of F/S. Such hybrid film has important implications for understanding the role of magnetic subsystem modulating superconductivity, as well as applied to low-energy electronic devices such as superconducting current fault limiters. PMID:26678595

  11. Advanced Structural and Inflatable Hybrid Spacecraft Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, William C. (Inventor); delaFuente, Horacio M. (Inventor); Edeen, Gregg A. (Inventor); Kennedy, Kriss J. (Inventor); Lester, James D. (Inventor); Gupta, Shalini (Inventor); Hess, Linda F. (Inventor); Lin, Chin H. (Inventor); Malecki, Richard H. (Inventor); Raboin, Jasen L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An inflatable module comprising a structural core and an inflatable shell, wherein the inflatable shell is sealingly attached to the structural core. In its launch configuration, the wall thickness of the inflatable shell is collapsed by vacuum. Also in this configuration, the inflatable shell is collapsed and efficiently folded around the structural core. Upon deployment, the wall thickness of the inflatable shell is inflated; whereby the inflatable shell itself, is thereby inflated around the structural core, defining therein a large enclosed volume. A plurality of removable shelves are arranged interior to the structural core in the launch configuration. The structural core also includes at least one longeron that, in conjunction with the shelves, primarily constitute the rigid, strong, and lightweight load-bearing structure of the module during launch. The removable shelves are detachable from their arrangement in the launch configuration so that, when the module is in its deployed configuration and launch loads no longer exist, the shelves can be rearranged to provide a module interior arrangement suitable for human habitation and work. In the preferred embodiment, to provide efficiency in structural load paths and attachments, the shape of the inflatable shell is a cylinder with semi-toroidal ends.

  12. Contamination control in hybrid microelectronic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Himmel, R. P.

    1976-01-01

    Thin and thick film test specimens were utilized to study the effects of silicone and epoxy hybrid microcircuit coatings on 0.025 mm diameter aluminum and gold ultrasonic bonds, and 0.051 diameter gold pulsed-thermocompression bonds. Chip-to-substrate and substrate-to-substrate geometries were included. Because sealed packages were utilized, a test pattern design was incorporated that allowed the determination of bond failures by making resistance measurements external to the package after the various environmental tests. All wire bonds were non-destructively pull tested prior to sealing. Tests included the PIN test, temperature cycling, and high temperature storage.

  13. Ectopic Hydrocele After Testicular Transposition.

    PubMed

    Berli, Jens U; Zelken, Jonathan; Schuyler, Kyle; Naslund, Michael; Rasko, Yvonne

    2016-04-01

    A 55-year-old man was treated for Fournier gangrene in 2004 with radical debridement and bilateral testicular transposition to the medial thighs. Eight years later, bilateral hydroceles formed. After conservative measures failed for treatment of the hydroceles, the condition was treated during desired testicular relocation, and creation of a neoscrotum. In the case presented, bilateral thigh hydroceles may have developed from lymphatic injury during testicular transposition. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of bilateral hydrocele testis in the medial thigh pouches following ectopic testicular transposition.

  14. COSMIC RAY MODULATION BEYOND THE HELIOPAUSE: A HYBRID MODELING APPROACH

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, R. D.; Potgieter, M. S.; Ferreira, S. E. S.; Fichtner, H.; Scherer, K.

    2013-03-01

    Results from a newly developed hybrid cosmic ray (CR) modulation model are presented. In this approach, the transport of CRs is computed by incorporating the plasma flow from a magnetohydrodynamic model for the heliospheric environment, resulting in representative CR transport. The model is applied to the modulation of CRs beyond the heliopause (HP) and we show that (1) CR modulation persists beyond the HP, so it is unlikely that the Voyager spacecraft will measure the pristine local interstellar spectra of galactic CRs when crossing the HP. (2) CR modulation in the outer heliosheath could maintain solar-cycle-related changes. (3) The modulation of CRs in the outer heliosheath is primarily determined by the ratio of perpendicular to parallel diffusion, so that the value of the individual diffusion coefficients cannot be determined uniquely using this approach. (4) CRs can efficiently diffuse between the nose and tail regions of the heliosphere.

  15. Redundancy and Transposition in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarhady, T.

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between redundancy and transposition in scientific texts. Highlights different traditional and discoursal theories of redundancy. Analyzed 20 self-contained scientific texts; results show that most of the sample texts follow similar organization. (Author/VWL)

  16. Hybrid integrated optic modules for real-time signal processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, C. S.

    1984-01-01

    The most recent progress on four relatively new hybrid integrated optic device modules in LiNbO3 waveguides and one in YIG/GGG waveguide that are currently being studied are discussed. The five hybrid modules include a time-integrating acoustooptic correlator, a channel waveguide acoustooptic frequency shifter/modulator, an electrooptic channel waveguide total internal reflection moculator/switch, an electrooptic analog-to-digital converter using a Fabry-Perot modulator array, and a noncollinear magnetooptic modulator using magnetostatic surface waves. All of these devices possess the desirable characteristics of very large bandwidth (GHz or higher), very small substrate size along the optical path (typically 1.5 cm or less), single-mode optical propagation, and low drive power requirement. The devices utilize either acoustooptic, electrooptic or magnetooptic effects in planar or channel waveguides and, therefore, act as efficient interface devices between a light wave and temporal signals. Major areas of application lie in wideband multichannel optical real-time signal processing and communications. Some of the specific applications include spectral analysis and correlation of radio frequency (RF) signals, fiber-optic sensing, optical computing and multiport switching/routing, and analog-to-digital conversion of wide RF signals.

  17. Hybrid-Circuit Module For Dc-To-Dc Power Converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorperian, Vatche; Detwiler, Robert; Karmon, Dan

    1996-01-01

    Power hybrid module is general-purpose power-switching module providing flexibility in design and application. Complete dc-to-dc power converter constructed by adding input/output filters and feedback circuitry to module to suit specific application.

  18. Hybrid silicon-vanadium dioxide electro-optic modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Kevin J.; Markov, Petr; Marvel, Robert E.; Haglund, Richard F.; Weiss, Sharon M.

    2016-03-01

    Small-footprint, low-power devices that can modulate optical signals at THz speeds would transform next-generation onchip photonics. We describe a hybrid silicon-vanadium dioxide (Si-VO2) electro-optic ring resonator modulator as a candidate platform for achieving this performance benchmark. Vanadium dioxide (VO2) is a strongly correlated material exhibiting a semiconductor-to-metal transition (SMT) accompanied by large changes in electrical and optical properties. While VO2 can be switched optically on a sub-picosecond time scale, the ultimate electrical switching speed remains to be determined. In a 5 μm radius Si-VO2 ring resonator, we achieve 1.5 dB modulation in response to a 10 ns square voltage pulse of 2.5 V. In the steady state regime, we report a modulation depth of 10 dB. The larger modulation depth at longer timescales is attributed to a Joule heating contribution. Experimental results, corroborated by FDTD simulations, reveal the relationship between the portion of a VO2 patch undergoing the SMT and the resulting effects on the Si-VO2 device performance. This work indicates that with further reduction of VO2 patch sizes and increase in resonator Q factor, there is promise for the Si-VO2 ring resonator electro-optic modulator as a competitive option for on-chip photonics technology.

  19. DSBCS modulation scheme for hybrid wireless and cable television system.

    PubMed

    Peng, P C; Wang, H Y; Chang, C H; Hu, H L; Yang, W Y; Wu, F K

    2014-01-13

    This work develops and demonstrates a double sideband with optical carrier suppression (DSBCS) modulation scheme for a hybrid wireless and cable television system based on a phase modulator (PM) and a polarization beam splitter (PBS). A carrier suppression ratio greater than 20 dB is achieved between two sidebands. In addition, the values of carrier-to-noise ratio, composite second-order and composite triple beat in various channels after 25 km of transmission are higher than the threshold value, and the power penalty of microwave signal in back-to-back and 25 km transmission perform well. Additionally, the constellation diagram of upstream signal is successfully recovered. Above results demonstrate that the proposed scheme is highly promising for practical applications.

  20. Intrahepatic Transposition of Bile Ducts

    PubMed Central

    Delić, Jasmin; Savković, Admedina; Isaković, Eldar; Marković, Sergije; Bajtarevic, Alma; Denjalić, Amir

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To describe the intrahepatic bile duct transposition (anatomical variation occurring in intrahepatic ducts) and to determine the frequency of this variation. Material and Methods. The researches were performed randomly on 100 livers of adults, both sexes. Main research methods were anatomical macrodissection. As a criterion for determination of variations in some parts of bile tree, we used the classification of Segmentatio hepatis according to Couinaud (1957) according to Terminologia Anatomica, Thieme Stuugart: Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology, 1988. Results. Intrahepatic transposition of bile ducts was found in two cases (2%), out of total examined cases (100): right-left transposition (right segmental bile duct, originating from the segment VIII, joins the left liver duct-ductus hepaticus sinister) and left-right intrahepatic transposition (left segmental bile duct originating from the segment IV ends in right liver duct-ductus hepaticus dexter). Conclusion. Safety and success in liver transplantation to great extent depends on knowledge of anatomy and some common embryological anomalies in bile tree. Variations in bile tree were found in 24–43% of cases, out of which 1–22% are the variations of intrahepatic bile ducts. Therefore, good knowledge on ductal anatomy enables good planning, safe performance of therapeutic and operative procedures, and decreases the risk of intraoperative and postoperative complications. PMID:22550601

  1. Mini acceleration and deceleration driving strategy to increase the operational time of flywheel hybrid module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manaf, Muhammad Zaidan Abdul; Fakeruddin, Shafarul Hafidi; Zakaria, Mohamad Shukri; Saadun, Mohd Noor Asril; Hanafi, Mohd Hafidzal Mohd

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a new driving strategy to increase the operational time of flywheel hybrid module. The flywheel hybrid module contains low cost mechanical parts which installed on the small motorcycle. Based on normal driving cycles characteristics, the Mini-AD driving strategy is develop. It is involved a series of short or mini acceleration cycle and short deceleration cycle on top of the normal driving cycles. The new strategy is simulated for flywheel hybrid module, aimed for acceleration phase only. Simulations show that the new driving strategy can increase the operational time of flywheel hybrid module up to 62.5%.

  2. Full automatic packaging of a hybrid transceiver module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frischkorn, Felix; Miesner, Joern; Glass, Sebastian

    2008-02-01

    System integrators are driven by the demands of hybrid module manufacturers to provide machines with a higher degree of system integration while maintaining full process automation at max. throughput and yield. The full automated packaging process involves Pick&Place of several components like photo diode, laser sub-mount, integrated optical chip and PCB. Whereby some components are placed passively supported by vision inspection and some are aligned actively by closing a control loop on nano-scale precision. The system applies adhesive bonding for fixation of the components. The presentation shows how various assembly steps are combined in one machine concept for assembling and qualifying complex hybrid modules. Therefore modern assembly machines relay to special hardware designs i.e. for trays, chucks, motion concepts and calibration systems as well as for software features as data base interfaces, recipe controlled processes and flexible process editor. However beside hardware and software feasibility also necessary device characterisation is an important feature in assembly machines.

  3. Active space debris removal by a hybrid propulsion module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLuca, L. T.; Bernelli, F.; Maggi, F.; Tadini, P.; Pardini, C.; Anselmo, L.; Grassi, M.; Pavarin, D.; Francesconi, A.; Branz, F.; Chiesa, S.; Viola, N.; Bonnal, C.; Trushlyakov, V.; Belokonov, I.

    2013-10-01

    During the last 40 years, the mass of the artificial objects in orbit increased quite steadily at the rate of about 145 metric tons annually, leading to a total tally of approximately 7000 metric tons. Now, most of the cross-sectional area and mass (97% in LEO) is concentrated in about 4600 intact objects, i.e. abandoned spacecraft and rocket bodies, plus a further 1000 operational spacecraft. Simulations and parametric analyses have shown that the most efficient and effective way to prevent the outbreak of a long-term exponential growth of the catalogued debris population would be to remove enough cross-sectional area and mass from densely populated orbits. In practice, according to the most recent NASA results, the active yearly removal of approximately 0.1% of the abandoned intact objects would be sufficient to stabilize the catalogued debris in low Earth orbit, together with the worldwide adoption of mitigation measures. The candidate targets for removal would have typical masses between 500 and 1000 kg, in the case of spacecraft, and of more than 1000 kg, in the case of rocket upper stages. Current data suggest that optimal active debris removal missions should be carried out in a few critical altitude-inclination bands. This paper deals with the feasibility study of a mission in which the debris is removed by using a hybrid propulsion module as propulsion unit. Specifically, the engine is transferred from a servicing platform to the debris target by a robotic arm so to perform a controlled disposal. Hybrid rocket technology for de-orbiting applications is considered a valuable option due to high specific impulse, intrinsic safety, thrust throttle ability, low environmental impact and reduced operating costs. Typically, in hybrid rockets a gaseous or liquid oxidizer is injected into the combustion chamber along the axial direction to burn a solid fuel. However, the use of tangential injection on a solid grain Pancake Geometry allows for more compact design of

  4. Amplitude modulation of lower hybrid waves for transport control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, G. M.; Baek, S. G.; Faust, I. C.; Golfinopoulos, T.; Labombard, B. L.; Mumgaard, R. T.; Parker, R. R.; Scott, S. D.; Shiraiwa, S.; Terry, J. L.

    2014-10-01

    Steady, high-power lower hybrid (LH) waves have been shown to alter transport characteristics in the edge and pedestal regions of EDA H-modes on Alcator C-Mod. The modifications of the pedestal are particularly striking in high-density H-modes [J. Terry, this conference], perhaps through interaction with the transport-regulating edge Quasi-Coherent Mode (QCM), since it is strongly affected by the injection of LH waves. The transport modification effect is present even at high densities for which LH waves are not accessible to the core plasma and current drive effects are negligible. Experiments have been conducted to determine if modulating LH power near the QCM frequency can enhance the beneficial effects of LH waves on the pedestal and the QCM. A new capability was developed to modulate the net LH wave power at frequencies from 1-200 kHz. The presence and character of edge modes was monitored using gas puff imaging, phase contrast imaging, reflectometry, and magnetic pickup loops. This work supported by USDoE Awards DE-FC02-99ER54512 and DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  5. Methods of Transposition of Nurses between Wards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Shigeji; Masuda, Masakazu

    In this paper, a computer-implemented method for automating the transposition of a hospital’s nursing staff is proposed. The model is applied to the real case example ‘O’ hospital, which performs a transposition of its nursing staff once a year. Results are compared with real data obtained from this hospital’s current manual transposition system. The proposed method not only significantly reduces the time taken to construct the transposition, thereby significantly reducing management labor costs, but also is demonstrated to increase nurses’ levels of satisfaction with the process.

  6. Hybrid Metameterials Enable Fast Electrical Modulation Of Freely Propagating Terahertz Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hou-tong; O' Hara, John F; Taylor, Antoinette J

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate fast electrical modulation of freely propagating THz waves at room temperature using hybrid metamaterial devices. the devices are planar metamaterials fabricated on doped semiconducor epitaxial layers, which form hybrid metamaterial - Schottky diode structures. With an applied ac voltage bias, we show modulation of THz radiation at inferred frequencies over 2 MHz. The modulation speed is limited by the device depletion capacitance which may be reduced for even faster operation.

  7. Hybrid Silicon Nanophotonic Devices: Enhancing Light Emission, Modulation, and Confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Ryan Morrow

    Silicon has become an increasingly important photonic material for communications, information processing, and sensing applications. Silicon is inexpensive compared to compound semiconductors, and it is well suited for confining and guiding light at standard telecommunication wavelengths due to its large refractive index and minimal intrinsic absorption. Furthermore, silicon-based optical devices can be fabricated alongside microelectronics while taking advantage of advanced silicon processing technologies. In order to realize complete chip-based photonic systems, certain critical components must continue to be developed and refined on the silicon platform, including compact light sources, modulators, routers, and sensing elements. However, bulk silicon is not necessarily an ideal material for many active devices because of its meager light emission characteristics, limited refractive index tunability, and fundamental limitations in confining light beyond the diffraction limit. In this thesis, we present three examples of hybrid devices that use different materials to bring additional optical functionality to silicon photonics. First, we analyze high-index-contrast silicon slot waveguides and their integration with light-emitting erbium-doped glass materials. Theoretical and experimental results show significant enhancement of spontaneous emission rates in slot structures. We then demonstrate the integration of vanadium dioxide, a thermochromic phase-change material, with silicon waveguides to form micron-scale absorption modulators. It is shown experimentally that a 2-mum long waveguide-integrated device exhibits broadband modulation of more than 6.5 dB at wavelengths near 1550 nm. Finally, we demonstrate polymer-on-gold dielectric-loaded surface-plasmon waveguides and ring resonators coupled to silicon waveguides with 1.0+/-0.1 dB insertion loss. The plasmonic waveguides are shown to support a single surface mode at telecommunication wavelengths, with strong

  8. Syllable Transposition Effects in Korean Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chang H.; Kwon, Youan; Kim, Kyungil; Rastle, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Research on the impact of letter transpositions in visual word recognition has yielded important clues about the nature of orthographic representations. This study investigated the impact of syllable transpositions on the recognition of Korean multisyllabic words. Results showed that rejection latencies in visual lexical decision for…

  9. Reusable Hybrid Propellant Modules for Outer-Space Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Mankins, John C.

    2005-01-01

    A report summarizes the concept of reusable hybrid propellant modules (HPMs), which would be used in outer space for long-term cryogenic storage of liquefied spacecraft-propellant gases, including for example, oxygen and hydrogen for combustion-based chemical rocket engines and xenon for electric thrusters. The HPM concept would provide the fundamental building block for an efficient, reusable in-space transportation system for both crewed and uncrewed missions. Each HPM would be equipped to implement an advanced zero-boil-off method of managing cryogenic fluids, and would include a fluid-transfer interface comprising standardized fittings that would be compatible with fittings on all supply facilities and on spacecraft to be supplied. The HPM, combined with a chemical or electric orbital transfer spacecraft, would provide an integrated propulsion system. HPMs would supply chemical propellant for time-critical transfers such as crewed missions, and utilize the more efficient electric-propulsion transfer vehicles to transport filled HPMs to the destinations and to return empty HPMs back to near-Earth orbits or other intermediate locations for replenishment and reuse. The HPM prepositioned using electric propulsion would provide the chemical propellant for the crew s return trip in a much more efficient manner than a chemical-only approach. The propellants to fill the HPMs would be delivered from the Earth or other initial supply locations to the intermediate locations by use of automated, compatible spacecraft designed specifically for that purpose. Additionally, multiple HPMs could be aggregated and positioned in orbits and on planets, moons, and asteroids to supply fluids to orbiting and interplanetary spacecraft.

  10. Factors acting on Mos1 transposition efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Sinzelle, Ludivine; Jégot, Gwenhael; Brillet, Benjamin; Rouleux-Bonnin, Florence; Bigot, Yves; Augé-Gouillou, Corinne

    2008-01-01

    Background Mariner-like elements (MLEs) are widespread DNA transposons in animal genomes. Although in vitro transposition reactions require only the transposase, various factors depending on the host, the physico-chemical environment and the transposon sequence can interfere with the MLEs transposition in vivo. Results The transposition of Mos1, first isolated from drosophila mauritiana, depends of both the nucleic acid sequence of the DNA stuffer (in terms of GC content), and its length. We provide the first in vitro experimental demonstration that MITEs of MLE origin, as small as 80 to 120-bp, are able to transpose. Excessive temperature down-regulates Mos1 transposition, yielding excision products unable to re-integrate. Finally, the super-helicity of the DNA transposon donor has a dramatic impact on the transposition efficiency. Conclusion The study highlights how experimental conditions can bias interpretation of mariner excision frequency and quality. In vitro, the auto-integration pathway markedly limits transposition efficiency to new target sites, and this phenomenon may also limit events in the natural host. We propose a model for small transposons transposition that bypasses DNA bending constraints. PMID:19036139

  11. Expression of Drosophila virilis retroelements and role of small RNAs in their intrastrain transposition.

    PubMed

    Rozhkov, Nikolay V; Zelentsova, Elena S; Shostak, Natalia G; Evgen'ev, Michael B

    2011-01-01

    Transposition of two retroelements (Ulysses and Penelope) mobilized in the course of hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila virilis has been investigated by in situ hybridization on polytene chromosomes in two D. virilis strains of different cytotypes routinely used to get dysgenic progeny. The analysis has been repeatedly performed over the last two decades, and has revealed transpositions of Penelope in one of the strains, while, in the other strain, the LTR-containing element Ulysses was found to be transpositionally active. The gypsy retroelement, which has been previously shown to be transpositionally inactive in D. virilis strains, was also included in the analysis. Whole mount is situ hybridization with the ovaries revealed different subcellular distribution of the transposable elements transcripts in the strains studied. Ulysses transpositions occur only in the strain where antisense piRNAs homologous to this TE are virtually absent and the ping-pong amplification loop apparently does not take place. On the other hand small RNAs homologous to Penelope found in the other strain, belong predominantly to the siRNA category (21nt), and consist of sense and antisense species observed in approximately equal proportion. The number of Penelope copies in the latter strain has significantly increased during the last decades, probably because Penelope-derived siRNAs are not maternally inherited, while the low level of Penelope-piRNAs, which are faithfully transmitted from mother to the embryo, is not sufficient to silence this element completely. Therefore, we speculate that intrastrain transposition of the three retroelements studied is controlled predominantly at the post-transcriptional level. PMID:21779346

  12. Expression of Drosophila virilis retroelements and role of small RNAs in their intrastrain transposition.

    PubMed

    Rozhkov, Nikolay V; Zelentsova, Elena S; Shostak, Natalia G; Evgen'ev, Michael B

    2011-01-01

    Transposition of two retroelements (Ulysses and Penelope) mobilized in the course of hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila virilis has been investigated by in situ hybridization on polytene chromosomes in two D. virilis strains of different cytotypes routinely used to get dysgenic progeny. The analysis has been repeatedly performed over the last two decades, and has revealed transpositions of Penelope in one of the strains, while, in the other strain, the LTR-containing element Ulysses was found to be transpositionally active. The gypsy retroelement, which has been previously shown to be transpositionally inactive in D. virilis strains, was also included in the analysis. Whole mount is situ hybridization with the ovaries revealed different subcellular distribution of the transposable elements transcripts in the strains studied. Ulysses transpositions occur only in the strain where antisense piRNAs homologous to this TE are virtually absent and the ping-pong amplification loop apparently does not take place. On the other hand small RNAs homologous to Penelope found in the other strain, belong predominantly to the siRNA category (21nt), and consist of sense and antisense species observed in approximately equal proportion. The number of Penelope copies in the latter strain has significantly increased during the last decades, probably because Penelope-derived siRNAs are not maternally inherited, while the low level of Penelope-piRNAs, which are faithfully transmitted from mother to the embryo, is not sufficient to silence this element completely. Therefore, we speculate that intrastrain transposition of the three retroelements studied is controlled predominantly at the post-transcriptional level.

  13. Facts about Transposition of the Great Arteries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Septal Defect Atrioventricular Septal Defect Coarctation of the Aorta D-Transposition of the Great Arteries Hypoplastic Left ... of the heart—the pulmonary artery and the aorta —are switched in position, or “transposed”. Normally, blood ...

  14. Transposition of the Greater Arteries (TGA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart Disease Diseases of the arteries, valves, and aorta, as well as cardiac rhythm disturbances Aortic Valve ... Transposition of the Great Arteries Coarctation of the Aorta Truncus Arteriosus Single Ventricle Defects Lung, Esophageal, and ...

  15. Transposition of the great arteries.

    PubMed

    Martins, Paula; Castela, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    Transposition of the great arteries (TGA), also referred to as complete transposition, is a congenital cardiac malformation characterised by atrioventricular concordance and ventriculoarterial (VA) discordance. The incidence is estimated at 1 in 3,500-5,000 live births, with a male-to-female ratio 1.5 to 3.2:1. In 50% of cases, the VA discordance is an isolated finding. In 10% of cases, TGA is associated with noncardiac malformations. The association with other cardiac malformations such as ventricular septal defect (VSD) and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction is frequent and dictates timing and clinical presentation, which consists of cyanosis with or without congestive heart failure. The onset and severity depend on anatomical and functional variants that influence the degree of mixing between the two circulations. If no obstructive lesions are present and there is a large VSD, cyanosis may go undetected and only be perceived during episodes of crying or agitation. In these cases, signs of congestive heart failure prevail. The exact aetiology remains unknown. Some associated risk factors (gestational diabetes mellitus, maternal exposure to rodenticides and herbicides, maternal use of antiepileptic drugs) have been postulated. Mutations in growth differentiation factor-1 gene, the thyroid hormone receptor-associated protein-2 gene and the gene encoding the cryptic protein have been shown implicated in discordant VA connections, but they explain only a small minority of TGA cases.The diagnosis is confirmed by echocardiography, which also provides the morphological details required for future surgical management. Prenatal diagnosis by foetal echocardiography is possible and desirable, as it may improve the early neonatal management and reduce morbidity and mortality. Differential diagnosis includes other causes of central neonatal cyanosis. Palliative treatment with prostaglandin E1 and balloon atrial septostomy are usually required soon after birth

  16. [Study of the transcriptional and transpositional activities of the Tirant retrotransposon in Drosophila melanogaster strains mutant for the flamenco locus].

    PubMed

    Nefedova, L N; Urusov, F A; Romanova, N I; Shmel'kova, A O; Kim, A I

    2012-11-01

    Transpositions of the gypsy retrotransposon in the Drosophila melanogaster genome are controlled by the flamenco locus, which is represented as an accumulation of defective copies of transposable elements. In the present work, genetic control by the flamenco locus of the transcriptional and transpositional activities of the Tirant retrotransposon from the gypsy group was studied. Tissue-specific expression of Tirant was detected in the tissues of ovaries in a strain mutant for the flamenco locus. Tirant was found to be transpositionally active in isogenic D. melanogaster strains mutant for the flamenco locus. The sites of two new insertions have been localized by the method of subtractive hybridization. It has been concluded from the results obtained that the flamenco locus is involved in the genetic control of Tirant transpositions. PMID:23297482

  17. Hybrid coexpression link similarity graph clustering for mining biological modules from multiple gene expression datasets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Advances in genomic technologies have enabled the accumulation of vast amount of genomic data, including gene expression data for multiple species under various biological and environmental conditions. Integration of these gene expression datasets is a promising strategy to alleviate the challenges of protein functional annotation and biological module discovery based on a single gene expression data, which suffers from spurious coexpression. Results We propose a joint mining algorithm that constructs a weighted hybrid similarity graph whose nodes are the coexpression links. The weight of an edge between two coexpression links in this hybrid graph is a linear combination of the topological similarities and co-appearance similarities of the corresponding two coexpression links. Clustering the weighted hybrid similarity graph yields recurrent coexpression link clusters (modules). Experimental results on Human gene expression datasets show that the reported modules are functionally homogeneous as evident by their enrichment with biological process GO terms and KEGG pathways. PMID:25221624

  18. A hybrid life-cycle inventory for multi-crystalline silicon PV module manufacturing in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yuan; Chang, Yuan; Masanet, Eric

    2014-11-01

    China is the world’s largest manufacturer of multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic (mc-Si PV) modules, which is a key enabling technology in the global transition to renewable electric power systems. This study presents a hybrid life-cycle inventory (LCI) of Chinese mc-Si PV modules, which fills a critical knowledge gap on the environmental implications of mc-Si PV module manufacturing in China. The hybrid LCI approach combines process-based LCI data for module and poly-silicon manufacturing plants with a 2007 China IO-LCI model for production of raw material and fuel inputs to estimate ‘cradle to gate’ primary energy use, water consumption, and major air pollutant emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxide, and nitrogen oxides). Results suggest that mc-Si PV modules from China may come with higher environmental burdens that one might estimate if one were using LCI results for mc-Si PV modules manufactured elsewhere. These higher burdens can be reasonably explained by the efficiency differences in China’s poly-silicon manufacturing processes, the country’s dependence on highly polluting coal-fired electricity, and the expanded system boundaries associated with the hybrid LCI modeling framework. The results should be useful for establishing more conservative ranges on the potential ‘cradle to gate’ impacts of mc-Si PV module manufacturing for more robust LCAs of PV deployment scenarios.

  19. A Linear hybrid kicker modulator for ETA-II

    SciTech Connect

    Buckles, R.; Davis, B.; Yen, B.

    1997-06-29

    A new type of pulse modulator is being developed at Livermore that will rapidly split a high current electron beam into two halves, enabling each half to proceed along separate pathways. Each modulator will be capable of applying a {+-}10kV, 200A pulse onto a transmission line electrode structure with a rise time less than 10 ns, a pulse repetition frequency greater than 1 MHz, and a maximum pulse duration of 400 ns. The electrode structure, located inside the beam-transport pipe, generates an electromagnetic field that acts on part of the original beam to ``kick`` it in another direction. The true merit of this high-speed modulator will be its flexibility in pulse duration and shape. The electrodynamics involved in altering the beam`s trajectory require the modulator to generate a time-varying pulse that is precisely tailored in amplitude. Consequently, the modulator is driven by an arbitrary waveform generator and must act more as a linear amplifier than as a simple switch. The requirements of high peak power and wide analog bandwidth (about 50 MHz) will be addressed by merging a solid-state driver with an output stage of high-power vacuum tubes. Modulator development and performance data will be presented as will the issues of beam-induced voltage and transit-time isolation that are considered when driving a beam load.

  20. Hybrid metasurface for ultra-broadband terahertz modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Heyes, Jane E.; Withayachumnankul, Withawat; Grady, Nathaniel K.; Chowdhury, Dibakar Roy; Azad, Abul K.; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2014-11-05

    We demonstrate an ultra-broadband free-space terahertz modulator based on a semiconductor-integrated metasurface. The modulator is made of a planar array of metal cut-wires on a silicon-on-sapphire substrate, where the silicon layer functions as photoconductive switches. Without external excitation, the cut-wire array exhibits a Lorentzian resonant response with a transmission passband spanning dc up to the fundamental dipole resonance above 2 THz. Under photoexcitation with 1.55 eV near-infrared light, the silicon regions in the cut-wire gaps become highly conductive, causing a transition of the resonant metasurface to a wire grating with a Drude response. In effect, the low-frequency passband below 2 THz evolves into a stopband for the incident terahertz waves. Experimental validations confirm a bandwidth of at least 100%, spanning 0.5 to 1.5 THz with -10 dB modulation depth. This modulation depth is far superior to -5 dB achievable from a plain silicon-on-sapphire substrate with effectively 25 times higher pumping energy. The proposed concept of ultra-broadband metasurface modulator can be readily extended to electrically controlled terahertz wave modulation.

  1. Hybrid metasurface for ultra-broadband terahertz modulation

    DOE PAGES

    Heyes, Jane E.; Withayachumnankul, Withawat; Grady, Nathaniel K.; Chowdhury, Dibakar Roy; Azad, Abul K.; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2014-11-05

    We demonstrate an ultra-broadband free-space terahertz modulator based on a semiconductor-integrated metasurface. The modulator is made of a planar array of metal cut-wires on a silicon-on-sapphire substrate, where the silicon layer functions as photoconductive switches. Without external excitation, the cut-wire array exhibits a Lorentzian resonant response with a transmission passband spanning dc up to the fundamental dipole resonance above 2 THz. Under photoexcitation with 1.55 eV near-infrared light, the silicon regions in the cut-wire gaps become highly conductive, causing a transition of the resonant metasurface to a wire grating with a Drude response. In effect, the low-frequency passband below 2more » THz evolves into a stopband for the incident terahertz waves. Experimental validations confirm a bandwidth of at least 100%, spanning 0.5 to 1.5 THz with -10 dB modulation depth. This modulation depth is far superior to -5 dB achievable from a plain silicon-on-sapphire substrate with effectively 25 times higher pumping energy. The proposed concept of ultra-broadband metasurface modulator can be readily extended to electrically controlled terahertz wave modulation.« less

  2. A hybrid electro-optic polymer and TiO2 double-slot waveguide modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Feng; Spring, Andrew M.; Maeda, Daisuke; Ozawa, Masa-Aki; Odoi, Keisuke; Otomo, Akira; Aoki, Isao; Yokoyama, Shiyoshi

    2015-02-01

    An electro-optic (EO) modulator using a TiO2 slot hybrid waveguide has been designed and fabricated. Optical mode calculations revealed that the mode was primarily confined within the slots when using a double-slot configuration, thus achieving a high EO activity experimentally. The TiO2 slots also acted as an important barrier to induce an enhanced DC field during the poling of the EO polymer and the driving of the EO modulator. The hybrid phase modulator exhibited a driving voltage (Vπ) of 1.6 V at 1550 nm, which can be further reduced to 0.8 V in a 1 cm-long push-pull Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) structure. The modulator demonstrated a low propagation loss of 5 dB/cm and a relatively high end-fire coupling efficiency.

  3. A hybrid electronically scanned pressure module for cryogenic environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, J. J.; Hopson, P., Jr.; Kruse, N.

    1995-01-01

    Pressure is one of the most important parameters measured when testing models in wind tunnels. For models tested in the cryogenic environment of the National Transonic Facility at NASA Langley Research Center, the technique of utilizing commercially available multichannel pressure modules inside the models is difficult due to the small internal volume of the models and the requirement of keeping the pressure transducer modules within an acceptable temperature range well above the -173 degrees C tunnel temperature. A prototype multichannel pressure transducer module has been designed and fabricated with stable, repeatable sensors and materials optimized for reliable performance in the cryogenic environment. The module has 16 single crystal silicon piezoresistive pressure sensors electrostatically bonded to a metalized Pyrex substrate for sensing the wind tunnel model pressures. An integral temperature sensor mounted on each silicon micromachined pressure sensor senses real-time temperature fluctuations to within 0.1 degrees C to correct for thermally induced non-random sensor drift. The data presented here are from a prototype sensor module tested in the 0.3 M cryogenic tunnel and thermal equilibrium conditions in an environmental chamber which approximates the thermal environment (-173 degrees C to +60 degrees C) of the National Transonic Facility.

  4. Permanent magnet machine with windings having strand transposition

    DOEpatents

    Qu, Ronghai; Jansen, Patrick Lee

    2009-04-21

    This document discusses, among other things, a stator with transposition between the windings or coils. The coils are free from transposition to increase the fill factor of the stator slots. The transposition at the end connections between an inner coil and an outer coil provide transposition to reduce circulating current loss. The increased fill factor reduces further current losses. Such a stator is used in a dual rotor, permanent magnet machine, for example, in a compressor pump, wind turbine gearbox, wind turbine rotor.

  5. Dynamically reconfigurable nanoscale modulators utilizing coupled hybrid plasmonics

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Charles; Helmy, Amr S.

    2015-01-01

    The balance between extinction ratio (ER) and insertion loss (IL) dictates strict trade-off when designing travelling-wave electro-optic modulators. This in turn entails significant compromise in device footprint (L3dB) or energy consumption (E). In this work, we report a nanoscale modulator architecture that alleviates this trade-off while providing dynamic reconfigurability that was previously unattainable. This is achieved with the aide of three mechanisms: (1) Utilization of epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) effect, which maximizes the attainable attenuation that an ultra-thin active material can inflict on an optical mode. (2) Non-resonant coupled-plasmonic structure which supports modes with athermal long-range propagation. (3) Triode-like biasing scheme for flexible manipulation of field symmetry and subsequently waveguide attributes. By electrically inducing indium tin oxide (ITO) to be in a local ENZ state, we show that a Si/ITO/HfO2/Al/HfO2/ITO/Si coupled-plasmonic waveguide can provide amplitude modulation with ER = 4.83 dB/μm, IL = 0.03 dB/μm, L3dB = 622 nm, and E = 14.8 fJ, showing at least an order of magnitude improvement in modulator figure-of-merit and power efficiency compared to other waveguide platforms. Employing different biasing permutations, the same waveguide can then be reconfigured for phase and 4-quadrature-amplitude modulation, with actively device length of only 5.53 μm and 17.78  μm respectively. PMID:26189813

  6. Dynamically reconfigurable nanoscale modulators utilizing coupled hybrid plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Charles; Helmy, Amr S.

    2015-07-01

    The balance between extinction ratio (ER) and insertion loss (IL) dictates strict trade-off when designing travelling-wave electro-optic modulators. This in turn entails significant compromise in device footprint (L3dB) or energy consumption (E). In this work, we report a nanoscale modulator architecture that alleviates this trade-off while providing dynamic reconfigurability that was previously unattainable. This is achieved with the aide of three mechanisms: (1) Utilization of epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) effect, which maximizes the attainable attenuation that an ultra-thin active material can inflict on an optical mode. (2) Non-resonant coupled-plasmonic structure which supports modes with athermal long-range propagation. (3) Triode-like biasing scheme for flexible manipulation of field symmetry and subsequently waveguide attributes. By electrically inducing indium tin oxide (ITO) to be in a local ENZ state, we show that a Si/ITO/HfO2/Al/HfO2/ITO/Si coupled-plasmonic waveguide can provide amplitude modulation with ER = 4.83 dB/μm, IL = 0.03 dB/μm, L3dB = 622 nm, and E = 14.8 fJ, showing at least an order of magnitude improvement in modulator figure-of-merit and power efficiency compared to other waveguide platforms. Employing different biasing permutations, the same waveguide can then be reconfigured for phase and 4-quadrature-amplitude modulation, with actively device length of only 5.53 μm and 17.78  μm respectively.

  7. Dynamically reconfigurable nanoscale modulators utilizing coupled hybrid plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Lin, Charles; Helmy, Amr S

    2015-01-01

    The balance between extinction ratio (ER) and insertion loss (IL) dictates strict trade-off when designing travelling-wave electro-optic modulators. This in turn entails significant compromise in device footprint (L3dB) or energy consumption (E). In this work, we report a nanoscale modulator architecture that alleviates this trade-off while providing dynamic reconfigurability that was previously unattainable. This is achieved with the aide of three mechanisms: (1) Utilization of epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) effect, which maximizes the attainable attenuation that an ultra-thin active material can inflict on an optical mode. (2) Non-resonant coupled-plasmonic structure which supports modes with athermal long-range propagation. (3) Triode-like biasing scheme for flexible manipulation of field symmetry and subsequently waveguide attributes. By electrically inducing indium tin oxide (ITO) to be in a local ENZ state, we show that a Si/ITO/HfO2/Al/HfO2/ITO/Si coupled-plasmonic waveguide can provide amplitude modulation with ER = 4.83 dB/μm, IL = 0.03 dB/μm, L3dB = 622 nm, and E = 14.8 fJ, showing at least an order of magnitude improvement in modulator figure-of-merit and power efficiency compared to other waveguide platforms. Employing different biasing permutations, the same waveguide can then be reconfigured for phase and 4-quadrature-amplitude modulation, with actively device length of only 5.53 μm and 17.78  μm respectively. PMID:26189813

  8. Dynamically reconfigurable nanoscale modulators utilizing coupled hybrid plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Lin, Charles; Helmy, Amr S

    2015-07-20

    The balance between extinction ratio (ER) and insertion loss (IL) dictates strict trade-off when designing travelling-wave electro-optic modulators. This in turn entails significant compromise in device footprint (L3dB) or energy consumption (E). In this work, we report a nanoscale modulator architecture that alleviates this trade-off while providing dynamic reconfigurability that was previously unattainable. This is achieved with the aide of three mechanisms: (1) Utilization of epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) effect, which maximizes the attainable attenuation that an ultra-thin active material can inflict on an optical mode. (2) Non-resonant coupled-plasmonic structure which supports modes with athermal long-range propagation. (3) Triode-like biasing scheme for flexible manipulation of field symmetry and subsequently waveguide attributes. By electrically inducing indium tin oxide (ITO) to be in a local ENZ state, we show that a Si/ITO/HfO2/Al/HfO2/ITO/Si coupled-plasmonic waveguide can provide amplitude modulation with ER = 4.83 dB/μm, IL = 0.03 dB/μm, L3dB = 622 nm, and E = 14.8 fJ, showing at least an order of magnitude improvement in modulator figure-of-merit and power efficiency compared to other waveguide platforms. Employing different biasing permutations, the same waveguide can then be reconfigured for phase and 4-quadrature-amplitude modulation, with actively device length of only 5.53 μm and 17.78  μm respectively.

  9. Bidirectional phase-modulated hybrid cable television/radio-over-fiber lightwave transport systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Yi; Wu, Po-Yi; Lu, Hai-Han; Lin, Ying-Pyng; Gao, Ming-Cian; Wen, Jian-Ying; Chen, Hwan-Wen

    2013-02-15

    A bidirectional phase-modulated hybrid cable television/radio-over-fiber lightwave transport system employing fiber Bragg grating tilt filter as a phase modulation-to-intensity modulation conversion scheme is proposed and demonstrated. Impressive performances of carrier-to-noise ratio, composite second-order, composite triple-beat, and bit-error rate are obtained in our proposed systems over a combination of 40 km single-mode fiber-and 1.43 km photonic crystal fiber transmission.

  10. FusionArc optimization: A hybrid volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Matuszak, Martha M.; McShan, Daniel L.; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Steers, Jennifer M.; Long, Troy; Edwin Romeijn, H.; Fraass, Benedick A.

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To introduce a hybrid volumetric modulated arc therapy/intensity modulated radiation therapy (VMAT/IMRT) optimization strategy called FusionArc that combines the delivery efficiency of single-arc VMAT with the potentially desirable intensity modulation possible with IMRT.Methods: A beamlet-based inverse planning system was enhanced to combine the advantages of VMAT and IMRT into one comprehensive technique. In the hybrid strategy, baseline single-arc VMAT plans are optimized and then the current cost function gradients with respect to the beamlets are used to define a metric for predicting which beam angles would benefit from further intensity modulation. Beams with the highest metric values (called the gradient factor) are converted from VMAT apertures to IMRT fluence, and the optimization proceeds with the mixed variable set until convergence or until additional beams are selected for conversion. One phantom and two clinical cases were used to validate the gradient factor and characterize the FusionArc strategy. Comparisons were made between standard IMRT, single-arc VMAT, and FusionArc plans with one to five IMRT/hybrid beams.Results: The gradient factor was found to be highly predictive of the VMAT angles that would benefit plan quality the most from beam modulation. Over the three cases studied, a FusionArc plan with three converted beams achieved superior dosimetric quality with reductions in final cost ranging from 26.4% to 48.1% compared to single-arc VMAT. Additionally, the three beam FusionArc plans required 22.4%-43.7% fewer MU/Gy than a seven beam IMRT plan. While the FusionArc plans with five converted beams offer larger reductions in final cost-32.9%-55.2% compared to single-arc VMAT-the decrease in MU/Gy compared to IMRT was noticeably smaller at 12.2%-18.5%, when compared to IMRT.Conclusions: A hybrid VMAT/IMRT strategy was implemented to find a high quality compromise between gantry-angle and intensity-based degrees of freedom. This

  11. FusionArc optimization: A hybrid volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning strategy

    PubMed Central

    Matuszak, Martha M.; Steers, Jennifer M.; Long, Troy; McShan, Daniel L.; Fraass, Benedick A.; Edwin Romeijn, H.; Ten Haken, Randall K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To introduce a hybrid volumetric modulated arc therapy/intensity modulated radiation therapy (VMAT/IMRT) optimization strategy called FusionArc that combines the delivery efficiency of single-arc VMAT with the potentially desirable intensity modulation possible with IMRT. Methods: A beamlet-based inverse planning system was enhanced to combine the advantages of VMAT and IMRT into one comprehensive technique. In the hybrid strategy, baseline single-arc VMAT plans are optimized and then the current cost function gradients with respect to the beamlets are used to define a metric for predicting which beam angles would benefit from further intensity modulation. Beams with the highest metric values (called the gradient factor) are converted from VMAT apertures to IMRT fluence, and the optimization proceeds with the mixed variable set until convergence or until additional beams are selected for conversion. One phantom and two clinical cases were used to validate the gradient factor and characterize the FusionArc strategy. Comparisons were made between standard IMRT, single-arc VMAT, and FusionArc plans with one to five IMRT/hybrid beams. Results: The gradient factor was found to be highly predictive of the VMAT angles that would benefit plan quality the most from beam modulation. Over the three cases studied, a FusionArc plan with three converted beams achieved superior dosimetric quality with reductions in final cost ranging from 26.4% to 48.1% compared to single-arc VMAT. Additionally, the three beam FusionArc plans required 22.4%–43.7% fewer MU/Gy than a seven beam IMRT plan. While the FusionArc plans with five converted beams offer larger reductions in final cost—32.9%–55.2% compared to single-arc VMAT—the decrease in MU/Gy compared to IMRT was noticeably smaller at 12.2%–18.5%, when compared to IMRT. Conclusions: A hybrid VMAT/IMRT strategy was implemented to find a high quality compromise between gantry-angle and intensity-based degrees of freedom

  12. FPGA techniques based new hybrid modulation strategies for voltage source inverters.

    PubMed

    Sudha, L U; Baskaran, J; Elankurisil, S A

    2015-01-01

    This paper corroborates three different hybrid modulation strategies suitable for single-phase voltage source inverter. The proposed method is formulated using fundamental switching and carrier based pulse width modulation methods. The main tale of this proposed method is to optimize a specific performance criterion, such as minimization of the total harmonic distortion (THD), lower order harmonics, switching losses, and heat losses. The proposed method is articulated using fundamental switching and carrier based pulse width modulation methods. Thus, the harmonic pollution in the power system will be reduced and the power quality will be augmented with better harmonic profile for a target fundamental output voltage. The proposed modulation strategies are simulated in MATLAB r2010a and implemented in a Xilinx spartan 3E-500 FG 320 FPGA processor. The feasibility of these modulation strategies is authenticated through simulation and experimental results.

  13. FPGA Techniques Based New Hybrid Modulation Strategies for Voltage Source Inverters

    PubMed Central

    Sudha, L. U.; Baskaran, J.; Elankurisil, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper corroborates three different hybrid modulation strategies suitable for single-phase voltage source inverter. The proposed method is formulated using fundamental switching and carrier based pulse width modulation methods. The main tale of this proposed method is to optimize a specific performance criterion, such as minimization of the total harmonic distortion (THD), lower order harmonics, switching losses, and heat losses. The proposed method is articulated using fundamental switching and carrier based pulse width modulation methods. Thus, the harmonic pollution in the power system will be reduced and the power quality will be augmented with better harmonic profile for a target fundamental output voltage. The proposed modulation strategies are simulated in MATLAB r2010a and implemented in a Xilinx spartan 3E-500 FG 320 FPGA processor. The feasibility of these modulation strategies is authenticated through simulation and experimental results. PMID:25821852

  14. Correction of brachymetatarsia with transpositional metatarsal osteotomies.

    PubMed

    Frankel, J P; Fleishman, J H

    1991-01-01

    The authors present a case history that illustrates their surgical procedure to correct congenital hypoplastic metatarsals. The literature is reviewed, and surgical alternatives are discussed. Treatment consisted of transpositional osteotomies performed between the fourth and fifth metatarsals with good results. PMID:2002181

  15. Quantitatively increased somatic transposition of transposable elements in Drosophila strains compromised for RNAi.

    PubMed

    Xie, Weiwu; Donohue, Ryan C; Birchler, James A

    2013-01-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, small RNAs homologous to transposable elements (TEs) are of two types: piRNA (piwi-interacting RNA) with size 23-29nt and siRNA (small interfering RNA) with size 19-22nt. The siRNA pathway is suggested to silence TE activities in somatic tissues based on TE expression profiles, but direct evidence of transposition is lacking. Here we developed an efficient FISH (fluorescence in Situ hybridization) based method for polytene chromosomes from larval salivary glands to reveal new TE insertions. Analysis of the LTR-retrotransposon 297 and the non-LTR retroposon DOC shows that in the argonaut 2 (Ago2) and Dicer 2 (Dcr2) mutant strains, new transposition events are much more frequent than in heterozygous strains or wild type strains. The data demonstrate that the siRNA pathway represses TE transposition in somatic cells. Nevertheless, we found that loss of one functional copy of Ago2 or Dcr2 increases somatic transpositions of the elements at a lower level depending on the genetic background, suggesting a quantitative role for RNAi core components on mutation frequency. PMID:23940807

  16. Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array: Module Characterization Studies Version 2

    SciTech Connect

    Zalavadia, Mital A.; Smith, Leon E.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Mace, Emily K.; Deshmukh, Nikhil S.

    2015-12-01

    The work presented in this report is focused on the characterization and refinement of the HEVA approach, which combines the traditional 186-keV 235U signature with high-energy prompt gamma rays from neutron capture in the detector and surrounding collimator material, to determine the relative enrichment and 235U mass of the cylinder. The design of the HEVA modules (hardware and software) deployed in the current field trial builds on over seven years of study and evolution by PNNL and consists of a ø3''×3'' NaI(Tl) scintillator coupled to an Osprey digital multi-channel analyzer tube base from Canberra. In comparison to previous versions, the new design boosts the high energy prompt gamma-ray signature, provides more flexible and effective collimation, and improves count-rate management via commercially available pulse-processing electronics with a special modification prompted by PNNL.

  17. Dosimetric comparison of hybrid volumetric-modulated arc therapy, volumetric-modulated arc therapy, and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for left-sided early breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jia-Fu; Yeh, Dah-Cherng; Yeh, Hui-Ling; Chang, Chen-Fa; Lin, Jin-Ching

    2015-10-01

    To compare the dosimetric performance of 3 different treatment techniques: hybrid volumetric-modulated arc therapy (hybrid-VMAT), pure-VMAT, and fixed-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (F-IMRT) for whole-breast irradiation of left-sided early breast cancer. The hybrid-VMAT treatment technique and 2 other treatment techniques—pure-VMAT and F-IMRT—were compared retrospectively in 10 patients with left-sided early breast cancer. The treatment plans of these patients were replanned using the same contours based on the original computed tomography (CT) data sets. Dosimetric parameters were calculated to evaluate plan quality. Total monitor units (MUs) and delivery time were also recorded and evaluated. The hybrid-VMAT plan generated the best results in dose coverage of the target and the dose uniformity inside the target (p < 0.0001 for conformal index [CI]; p = 0.0002 for homogeneity index [HI] of planning target volume [PTV]{sub 50.4} {sub Gy} and p < 0.0001 for HI of PTV{sub 62} {sub Gy}). Volumes of ipsilateral lung irradiated to doses of 20 Gy (V{sub 20} {sub Gy}) and 5 Gy (V{sub 5} {sub Gy}) by the hybrid-VMAT plan were significantly less than those of the F-IMRT and the pure-VMAT plans. The volume of ipsilateral lung irradiated to a dose of 5 Gy was significantly less using the hybrid-VMAT plan than that using the F-IMRT or the pure-VMAT plan. The total mean MUs for the hybrid-VMAT plan were significantly less than those for the F-IMRT or the pure-VMAT plan. The mean machine delivery time was 3.23 ± 0.29 minutes for the hybrid-VMAT plans, which is longer than that for the pure-VMAT plans but shorter than that for the F-IMRT plans. The hybrid-VMAT plan is feasible for whole-breast irradiation of left-sided early breast cancer.

  18. Modeling human cancer-related regulatory modules by GA-RNN hybrid algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Jung-Hsien; Chao, Shih-Yi

    2007-01-01

    Background Modeling cancer-related regulatory modules from gene expression profiling of cancer tissues is expected to contribute to our understanding of cancer biology as well as developments of new diagnose and therapies. Several mathematical models have been used to explore the phenomena of transcriptional regulatory mechanisms in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the contemplating on controlling of feed-forward and feedback loops in transcriptional regulatory mechanisms is not resolved adequately in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, nor is in human cancer cells. Results In this study, we introduce a Genetic Algorithm-Recurrent Neural Network (GA-RNN) hybrid method for finding feed-forward regulated genes when given some transcription factors to construct cancer-related regulatory modules in human cancer microarray data. This hybrid approach focuses on the construction of various kinds of regulatory modules, that is, Recurrent Neural Network has the capability of controlling feed-forward and feedback loops in regulatory modules and Genetic Algorithms provide the ability of global searching of common regulated genes. This approach unravels new feed-forward connections in regulatory models by modified multi-layer RNN architectures. We also validate our approach by demonstrating that the connections in our cancer-related regulatory modules have been most identified and verified by previously-published biological documents. Conclusion The major contribution provided by this approach is regarding the chain influences upon a set of genes sequentially. In addition, this inverse modeling correctly identifies known oncogenes and their interaction genes in a purely data-driven way. PMID:17359522

  19. Development of a Hybrid Compressor/Expander Module for Automotive Fuel Cell Applications

    SciTech Connect

    McTaggart, Paul

    2004-12-31

    In this program TIAX LLC conducted the development of an advanced technology compressor/expander for supplying compressed air to Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells in transportation applications. The overall objective of this program was to develop a hybrid compressor/expander module, based on both scroll and high-speed turbomachinery technologies, which will combine the strengths of each technology to create a concept with superior performance at minimal size and cost. The resulting system was expected to have efficiency and pressure delivery capability comparable to that of a scroll-only machine, at significantly reduced system size and weight when compared to scroll-only designs. Based on the results of detailed designs and analyses of the critical system elements, the Hybrid Compressor/Expander Module concept was projected to deliver significant improvements in weight, volume and manufacturing cost relative to previous generation systems.

  20. Rational Design of a Novel AMPA Receptor Modulator through a Hybridization Approach

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors are a family of glutamate ion channels of considerable interest in excitatory neurotransmission and associated disease processes. Here, we demonstrate how exploitation of the available X-ray crystal structure of the receptor ligand binding domain enabled the development of a new class of AMPA receptor positive allosteric modulators (7) through hybridization of known ligands (5 and 6), leading to a novel chemotype with promising pharmacological properties. PMID:25893038

  1. Transpositional reactivation of two LTR retrotransposons in rice-Zizania recombinant inbred lines (RILs).

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Yan; Tian, Qin; Ma, Yi-Qiao; Wu, Ying; Miao, Gao-Jian; Ma, Yan; Cao, Dong-Hui; Wang, Xiao-Li; Lin, Chunjing; Pang, Jingsong; Liu, Bao

    2010-12-01

    Hybridization is prevalent in plants, which plays important roles in genome evolution. Apart from direct transfer and recombinatory generation of genetic variations by hybridization, de novo genetic instabilities can be induced by the process per se. One mechanism by which such de novo genetic variability can be generated by interspecific hybridization is transpositional reactivation of quiescent parental transposable elements (TEs) in the nascent hybrids. We have reported previously that introgressive hybridization between rice (Oryza sativa L.) and Zizania latifolia Griseb had induced rampant mobilization of three TEs, a copia-like LTR retrotransposon Tos17, a MITE mPing and a class II TE belonging to the hAT superfamily, Dart/nDart. In this study, we further found that two additional LTR retrotransposons, a gypsy-like (named RIRE2) and a copia-like (named Copia076), were also transpositionally reactivated in three recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from introgressive hybridization between rice and Z. latifolia. Novel bands of these two retroelements appeared in the RILs relative to their rice parental line (cv. Matsumae) in Southern blot, suggestive of retrotransposition, which was substantiated by transposon display (TD) and locus-specific PCR amplification for insertion sites. Both elements were found to be transcribed but at variable levels in the leaf tissue of the parental line and the RILs, suggesting that transcriptional control was probably not a mechanism for their transpositional activity in the RILs. Expression analysis of four genes adjacent to de novo insertions by Copia076 revealed marked difference in the transcript abundance for each of the genes between the RILs and their rice parental line, but the alterations in expression appeared unrelated with the retroelement insertions. PMID:21166796

  2. Ultra-thin silicon/electro-optic polymer hybrid waveguide modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Feng; Sato, Hiromu; Spring, Andrew M.; Maeda, Daisuke; Ozawa, Masa-aki; Odoi, Keisuke; Aoki, Isao; Otomo, Akira; Yokoyama, Shiyoshi

    2015-09-01

    Ultra-thin silicon and electro-optic (EO) polymer hybrid waveguide modulators have been designed and fabricated. The waveguide consists of a silicon core with a thickness of 30 nm and a width of 2 μm. The cladding is an EO polymer. Optical mode calculation reveals that 55% of the optical field around the silicon extends into the EO polymer in the TE mode. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulator was prepared using common coplanar electrodes. The measured half-wave voltage of the MZI with 7 μm spacing and 1.3 cm long electrodes is 4.6 V at 1550 nm. The evaluated EO coefficient is 70 pm/V, which is comparable to that of the bulk EO polymer film. Using ultra-thin silicon is beneficial in order to reduce the side-wall scattering loss, yielding a propagation loss of 4.0 dB/cm. We also investigated a mode converter which couples light from the hybrid EO waveguide into a strip silicon waveguide. The calculation indicates that the coupling loss between these two devices is small enough to exploit the potential fusion of a hybrid EO polymer modulator together with a silicon micro-photonics device.

  3. Ultra-thin silicon/electro-optic polymer hybrid waveguide modulators

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Feng; Spring, Andrew M.; Sato, Hiromu; Maeda, Daisuke; Ozawa, Masa-aki; Odoi, Keisuke; Aoki, Isao; Otomo, Akira; Yokoyama, Shiyoshi

    2015-09-21

    Ultra-thin silicon and electro-optic (EO) polymer hybrid waveguide modulators have been designed and fabricated. The waveguide consists of a silicon core with a thickness of 30 nm and a width of 2 μm. The cladding is an EO polymer. Optical mode calculation reveals that 55% of the optical field around the silicon extends into the EO polymer in the TE mode. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulator was prepared using common coplanar electrodes. The measured half-wave voltage of the MZI with 7 μm spacing and 1.3 cm long electrodes is 4.6 V at 1550 nm. The evaluated EO coefficient is 70 pm/V, which is comparable to that of the bulk EO polymer film. Using ultra-thin silicon is beneficial in order to reduce the side-wall scattering loss, yielding a propagation loss of 4.0 dB/cm. We also investigated a mode converter which couples light from the hybrid EO waveguide into a strip silicon waveguide. The calculation indicates that the coupling loss between these two devices is small enough to exploit the potential fusion of a hybrid EO polymer modulator together with a silicon micro-photonics device.

  4. Class of positive partial transposition states

    SciTech Connect

    Chruscinski, Dariusz; Kossakowski, Andrzej

    2006-08-15

    We construct a class of quantum bipartite d(multiply-in-circle sign)d states which are positive under partial transposition (PPT states). This class is invariant under the maximal commutative subgroup of U(d) and contains as special cases many well-known examples of PPT states. States from our class provide criteria for testing the indecomposability of positive maps. Such maps are crucial for constructing entanglement witnesses.

  5. Retroviral DNA Transposition: Themes and Variations.

    PubMed

    Skala, Anna Marie

    2014-10-01

    Retroviruses and LTR retrotransposons are transposable elements that encapsidate the RNAs that are intermediates in the transposition of DNA copies of their genomes (proviruses), from one cell (or one locus) to another. Mechanistic similarities in DNA transposase enzymes and retroviral/retrotransposon integrases underscore the close evolutionary relationship among these elements. The retroviruses are very ancient infectious agents, presumed to have evolved from Ty3/Gypsy LTR retrotransposons (1), and DNA copies of their sequences can be found embedded in the genomes of most, if not all, members of the tree of life. All retroviruses share a specific gene arrangement and similar replication strategies. However, given their ancestries and occupation of diverse evolutionary niches, it should not be surprising that unique sequences have been acquired in some retroviral genomes and that the details of the mechanism by which their transposition is accomplished can vary. While every step in the retrovirus lifecycle is, in some sense, relevant to transposition, this Chapter focuses mainly on the early phase of retroviral replication, during which viral DNA is synthesized and integrated into its host genome. Some of the initial studies that set the stage for current understanding are highlighted, as well as more recent findings obtained through use of an ever-expanding technological toolbox including genomics, proteomics, and siRNA screening. Persistence in the area of structural biology has provided new insight into conserved mechanisms as well as variations in detail among retroviruses, which can also be instructive.

  6. Retroviral DNA Transposition: Themes and Variations

    PubMed Central

    Skalka, Anna Marie

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Retroviruses and LTR retrotransposons are transposable elements that encapsidate the RNAs that are intermediates in the transposition of DNA copies of their genomes (proviruses), from one cell (or one locus) to another. Mechanistic similarities in DNA transposase enzymes and retroviral/retrotransposon integrases underscore the close evolutionary relationship among these elements. The retroviruses are very ancient infectious agents, presumed to have evolved from Ty3/Gypsy LTR retrotransposons (1), and DNA copies of their sequences can be found embedded in the genomes of most, if not all, members of the tree of life. All retroviruses share a specific gene arrangement and similar replication strategies. However, given their ancestries and occupation of diverse evolutionary niches, it should not be surprising that unique sequences have been acquired in some retroviral genomes and that the details of the mechanism by which their transposition is accomplished can vary. While every step in the retrovirus lifecycle is, in some sense, relevant to transposition, this Chapter focuses mainly on the early phase of retroviral replication, during which viral DNA is synthesized and integrated into its host genome. Some of the initial studies that set the stage for current understanding are highlighted, as well as more recent findings obtained through use of an ever-expanding technological toolbox including genomics, proteomics, and siRNA screening. Persistence in the area of structural biology has provided new insight into conserved mechanisms as well as variations in detail among retroviruses, which can also be instructive. PMID:25844274

  7. Fast XUV 16 × 16 Array Hybrid Module for Plasma Imaging Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseyev, Andrey G.; Belov, Alexandr M.; Zabrodsky, Vladimir V.; Sukhanov, Vladislav L.; Sorokin, Andrey A.; Peterson, Byron J.

    A hybrid matrix array detector is developed for ultra-fast plasma imaging applications with the use of XUV Si photodiodes (SPD diodes) manufactured according to Ioffe Institute original technology. A basic 16 × 16 hybrid module is comprised of eight stacked sub-modules with 2 × 16 linear SPD diode arrays combined with a circuit board with a 32-channel preamplifier and four 8-channel fast multiplexers. Array front size is 31 × 31 mm2 with ˜25 % sensitive area. The module has a “zero-edge” design providing an option of stacking into the larger arrays, if necessary. The data acquisition system (DAS) consists of eight 4-channel synchronous 12-bit ADC modules with 40 MS/s upper sampling rate, thus providing less than 1 μs minimum time for the complete read-out of the array. Each channel has a 64 MB on-board memory limiting the duration of the acquired period to 0.8 sec at the maximum sampling rate. A common TCP/IP Ethernet protocol is used for the data transmission into the main PC operating as a DAS control console, data preview and storage computer.

  8. Linker Flexibility Facilitates Module Exchange in Fungal Hybrid PKS-NRPS Engineering.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Maria Lund; Isbrandt, Thomas; Petersen, Lene Maj; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Hoof, Jakob Blæsbjerg; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2016-01-01

    Polyketide synthases (PKSs) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) each give rise to a vast array of complex bioactive molecules with further complexity added by the existence of natural PKS-NRPS fusions. Rational genetic engineering for the production of natural product derivatives is desirable for the purpose of incorporating new functionalities into pre-existing molecules, or for optimization of known bioactivities. We sought to expand the range of natural product diversity by combining modules of PKS-NRPS hybrids from different hosts, hereby producing novel synthetic natural products. We succeeded in the construction of a functional cross-species chimeric PKS-NRPS expressed in Aspergillus nidulans. Module swapping of the two PKS-NRPS natural hybrids CcsA from Aspergillus clavatus involved in the biosynthesis of cytochalasin E and related Syn2 from rice plant pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae lead to production of novel hybrid products, demonstrating that the rational re-design of these fungal natural product enzymes is feasible. We also report the structure of four novel pseudo pre-cytochalasin intermediates, niduclavin and niduporthin along with the chimeric compounds niduchimaeralin A and B, all indicating that PKS-NRPS activity alone is insufficient for proper assembly of the cytochalasin core structure. Future success in the field of biocombinatorial synthesis of hybrid polyketide-nonribosomal peptides relies on the understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of inter-modular polyketide chain transfer. Therefore, we expressed several PKS-NRPS linker-modified variants. Intriguingly, the linker anatomy is less complex than expected, as these variants displayed great tolerance with regards to content and length, showing a hitherto unreported flexibility in PKS-NRPS hybrids, with great potential for synthetic biology-driven biocombinatorial chemistry. PMID:27551732

  9. Linker Flexibility Facilitates Module Exchange in Fungal Hybrid PKS-NRPS Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Maria Lund; Isbrandt, Thomas; Petersen, Lene Maj; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Hoof, Jakob Blæsbjerg; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2016-01-01

    Polyketide synthases (PKSs) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) each give rise to a vast array of complex bioactive molecules with further complexity added by the existence of natural PKS-NRPS fusions. Rational genetic engineering for the production of natural product derivatives is desirable for the purpose of incorporating new functionalities into pre-existing molecules, or for optimization of known bioactivities. We sought to expand the range of natural product diversity by combining modules of PKS-NRPS hybrids from different hosts, hereby producing novel synthetic natural products. We succeeded in the construction of a functional cross-species chimeric PKS-NRPS expressed in Aspergillus nidulans. Module swapping of the two PKS-NRPS natural hybrids CcsA from Aspergillus clavatus involved in the biosynthesis of cytochalasin E and related Syn2 from rice plant pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae lead to production of novel hybrid products, demonstrating that the rational re-design of these fungal natural product enzymes is feasible. We also report the structure of four novel pseudo pre-cytochalasin intermediates, niduclavin and niduporthin along with the chimeric compounds niduchimaeralin A and B, all indicating that PKS-NRPS activity alone is insufficient for proper assembly of the cytochalasin core structure. Future success in the field of biocombinatorial synthesis of hybrid polyketide-nonribosomal peptides relies on the understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of inter-modular polyketide chain transfer. Therefore, we expressed several PKS-NRPS linker-modified variants. Intriguingly, the linker anatomy is less complex than expected, as these variants displayed great tolerance with regards to content and length, showing a hitherto unreported flexibility in PKS-NRPS hybrids, with great potential for synthetic biology-driven biocombinatorial chemistry. PMID:27551732

  10. Effects of Modulation Techniques (Manchester Code, NRZ or RZ) on the Operation of Hybrid WDM/TDM Passive Optical Networks

    PubMed Central

    Nyachionjeka, Kumbirayi

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the performance and feasibility of a hybrid wavelength division multiplexing/time division multiplexing passive optical network (WDM/TDM PON) system with 128 optical network units (ONUs) is analysed. In this system, triple play services (video, voice and data) are successfully communicated through a distance of up to 28 km. Moreover, we analysed and compared the performance of various modulation formats for different distances in the proposed hybrid WDM/TDM PON. NRZ rectangular emerged as the most appropriate modulation format for triple play transmission in the proposed hybrid PON. PMID:27382633

  11. Broadband silicon optical modulator using a graphene-integrated hybrid plasmonic waveguide.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jin-Soo; Kim, Jin Tae

    2015-09-11

    Graphene is an excellent electronic and photonic material for developing electronic-photonic integrated circuits in Si-based semiconductor devices with ultra wide operational bandwidth. As an extended application, here we propose a broadband silicon optical modulator using a graphene-integrated hybrid plasmonic waveguide, and investigate the optical characteristics numerically at a wavelength of 1.55 μm. The optical device is based on the surface plasmon polariton absorption of graphene. By electrically tuning the graphene's refractive index as low as that of a noble metal, the hybrid plasmonic waveguide supports a strongly confined highly lossy hybrid long-range surface plasmon polariton strip mode, and hence light coupled from an input waveguide experiences significant power attenuation as it propagates along the waveguide. Over the entire C-band from 1.530 to 1.565 μm wavelengths, the on/off extinction ratio is larger than 13.7 dB. This modulator has the potential to play a key role in realizing graphene-Si waveguide-based integrated photonic devices.

  12. Broadband silicon optical modulator using a graphene-integrated hybrid plasmonic waveguide.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jin-Soo; Kim, Jin Tae

    2015-09-11

    Graphene is an excellent electronic and photonic material for developing electronic-photonic integrated circuits in Si-based semiconductor devices with ultra wide operational bandwidth. As an extended application, here we propose a broadband silicon optical modulator using a graphene-integrated hybrid plasmonic waveguide, and investigate the optical characteristics numerically at a wavelength of 1.55 μm. The optical device is based on the surface plasmon polariton absorption of graphene. By electrically tuning the graphene's refractive index as low as that of a noble metal, the hybrid plasmonic waveguide supports a strongly confined highly lossy hybrid long-range surface plasmon polariton strip mode, and hence light coupled from an input waveguide experiences significant power attenuation as it propagates along the waveguide. Over the entire C-band from 1.530 to 1.565 μm wavelengths, the on/off extinction ratio is larger than 13.7 dB. This modulator has the potential to play a key role in realizing graphene-Si waveguide-based integrated photonic devices. PMID:26293975

  13. Low-cost coherent UDWDM-PON by hybrid DBPSK/ASK-2 modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuan; Deng, Zhuanhua; Hu, Rong; li, Cai; Li, Wei; Yuan, Zhilin; Yu, Shaohua

    2016-07-01

    The coherent ultra-dense wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network (UDWDM-PON) has been widely studied recently, in which the envelop detection based coherent reception of on-off keying (OOK) signal has been shown to possess both high receiver sensitivity and tolerance against laser linewidth/chirp. In order to increase the spectral efficiency (SE) to 2 bit/s/Hz, researchers formulated a hybrid DBPSK/ASK-2 modulation using the silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM), where both amplitude and phase modulation are employed. The experimental result shows that the proposed DBPSK/ASK-2 modulation is of better performance than PAM-4 at the same SE of 2 bit/s/Hz. When the low-cost silicon MZM and DFB laser of 4-MHz linewidth are employed, the receiver sensitivity of DBPSK/ASK-2 exceeds that of the PAM-4 by about 5.7 dB. This work can achieve about -46 dBm receiver sensitivity at 2.5 GBaud after transmission over 80-km standard single mode fiber (SSMF). The proposed DBPSK/ASK-2 modulation using low-cost silicon MZM and DFB laser is considered as a practical and reliable method for the future UDWDM-PON at the SE of 2 bit/s/Hz.

  14. Hybrid Simulation of Duty Cycle Influences on Pulse Modulated RF SiH4/Ar Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xifeng; Song, Yuanhong; Zhao, Shuxia; Dai, Zhongling; Wang, Younian

    2016-04-01

    A one-dimensional fluid/Monte-Carlo (MC) hybrid model is developed to describe capacitively coupled SiH4/Ar discharge, in which the lower electrode is applied by a RF source and pulse modulated by a square-wave, to investigate the modulation effects of the pulse duty cycle on the discharge mechanism. An electron Monte Carlo simulation is used to calculate the electron energy distribution as a function of position and time phase. Rate coefficients in chemical reactions can then be obtained and transferred to the fluid model for the calculation of electron temperature and densities of different species, such as electrons, ions, and radicals. The simulation results show that, the electron energy distribution f(ɛ) is modulated evidently within a pulse cycle, with its tail extending to higher energies during the power-on period, while shrinking back promptly in the afterglow period. Thus, the rate coefficients could be controlled during the discharge, resulting in modulation of the species composition on the substrate compared with continuous excitation. Meanwhile, more negative ions, like SiH‑3 and SiH‑2, may escape to the electrodes owing to the collapse of ambipolar electric fields, which is beneficial to films deposition. Pulse modulation is thus expected to provide additional methods to customize the plasma densities and components. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11275038)

  15. Hybrid Simulation of Duty Cycle Influences on Pulse Modulated RF SiH4/Ar Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xifeng; Song, Yuanhong; Zhao, Shuxia; Dai, Zhongling; Wang, Younian

    2016-04-01

    A one-dimensional fluid/Monte-Carlo (MC) hybrid model is developed to describe capacitively coupled SiH4/Ar discharge, in which the lower electrode is applied by a RF source and pulse modulated by a square-wave, to investigate the modulation effects of the pulse duty cycle on the discharge mechanism. An electron Monte Carlo simulation is used to calculate the electron energy distribution as a function of position and time phase. Rate coefficients in chemical reactions can then be obtained and transferred to the fluid model for the calculation of electron temperature and densities of different species, such as electrons, ions, and radicals. The simulation results show that, the electron energy distribution f(ɛ) is modulated evidently within a pulse cycle, with its tail extending to higher energies during the power-on period, while shrinking back promptly in the afterglow period. Thus, the rate coefficients could be controlled during the discharge, resulting in modulation of the species composition on the substrate compared with continuous excitation. Meanwhile, more negative ions, like SiH-3 and SiH-2, may escape to the electrodes owing to the collapse of ambipolar electric fields, which is beneficial to films deposition. Pulse modulation is thus expected to provide additional methods to customize the plasma densities and components. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11275038)

  16. Low power compact hybrid plasmonic double microring electro-optical modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaki, Aya O.; Fouad, Nourhan H.; Zografopoulos, Dimitrios C.; Beccherelli, Romeo; Swillam, Mohamed A.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we present an electro-optical modulator based on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). Our modulator employs a conductor-gap-silicon (CGS) microring resonator on each side of the input waveguide in a pushpull configuration utilizing an embedded electro-optical polymer (EOP). CGS waveguides support hybrid plasmonic modes offering a sound trade-off between mode confinement and propagation loss. The modulator is designed and analyzed using 3D finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations. To have a high quality resonator, the rings are designed to have moderate waveguide propagation losses and a sub-micron radius of R = 805 nm. With an exact capacitance of just 1.06 fF per single microring resonator and applied voltage of 2 V, the exact energy consumption is estimated to be 4.24 fJ/bit. To the best of our knowledge, this figure represents 40% less power consumption in comparison with different modulators structures. The ultra-small capacitance of the proposed modulator and the instantaneous response of the used polymer make our design suitable for high bit rate applications. At the wavelength of -1550 nm-, the insertion loss is 0.34 dB and the extinction ratio is 10.23 dB.

  17. [Transposition of great vessels in Cantrell syndrome].

    PubMed

    Czarnecki, L; Mikołajczak-Mejer, U; Zinka, E

    1993-04-01

    A case is presented of complete transposition of great vessels with atrial and ventricular septum defect and coarctation of the pulmonary artery in Cantrell syndrome. The Cantrell syndrome consists of: congenital heart disease, defect of pericardium, diaphragm, sternum, and anterior abdomen wall. In all cases of Cantrell syndrome described as yet ventricular septum defect was present alone or in combination with other intracardiac defects. The presented case is the first report of congenital abnormality in the from of d-TGA in Cantrell syndrome. PMID:8249420

  18. Magneto-optic transmittance modulation observed in a hybrid graphene-split ring resonator terahertz metasurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanotto, Simone; Lange, Christoph; Maag, Thomas; Pitanti, Alessandro; Miseikis, Vaidotas; Coletti, Camilla; Degl'Innocenti, Riccardo; Baldacci, Lorenzo; Huber, Rupert; Tredicucci, Alessandro

    2015-09-01

    By placing a material in close vicinity of a resonant optical element, its intrinsic optical response can be tuned, possibly to a wide extent. Here, we show that a graphene monolayer, spaced a few tenths of nanometers from a split ring resonator metasurface, exhibits a magneto-optical response which is strongly influenced by the presence of the metasurface itself. This hybrid system holds promises in view of thin optical modulators, polarization rotators, and nonreciprocal devices, in the technologically relevant terahertz spectral range. Moreover, it could be chosen as the playground for investigating the cavity electrodynamics of Dirac fermions in the quantum regime.

  19. Directly modulated and fully tunable hybrid silicon lasers for future generation of coherent colorless ONU.

    PubMed

    de Valicourt, G; Le Liepvre, A; Vacondio, F; Simonneau, C; Lamponi, M; Jany, C; Accard, A; Lelarge, F; Make, D; Poingt, F; Duan, G H; Fedeli, J-M; Messaoudene, S; Bordel, D; Lorcy, L; Antona, J-C; Bigo, S

    2012-12-10

    We propose and demonstrate asymmetric 10 Gbit/s upstream--100 Gbit/s downstream per wavelength colorless WDM/TDM PON using a novel hybrid-silicon chip integrating two tunable lasers. The first laser is directly modulated in burst mode for upstream transmission over up to 25 km of standard single mode fiber and error free transmission over 4 channels across the C-band is demonstrated. The second tunable laser is successfully used as local oscillator in a coherent receiver across the C-band simultaneously operating with the presence of 80 downstream co-channels.

  20. Magneto-optic transmittance modulation observed in a hybrid graphene–split ring resonator terahertz metasurface

    SciTech Connect

    Zanotto, Simone; Pitanti, Alessandro; Lange, Christoph; Maag, Thomas; Huber, Rupert; Miseikis, Vaidotas; Coletti, Camilla; Degl'Innocenti, Riccardo; Baldacci, Lorenzo; Tredicucci, Alessandro

    2015-09-21

    By placing a material in close vicinity of a resonant optical element, its intrinsic optical response can be tuned, possibly to a wide extent. Here, we show that a graphene monolayer, spaced a few tenths of nanometers from a split ring resonator metasurface, exhibits a magneto-optical response which is strongly influenced by the presence of the metasurface itself. This hybrid system holds promises in view of thin optical modulators, polarization rotators, and nonreciprocal devices, in the technologically relevant terahertz spectral range. Moreover, it could be chosen as the playground for investigating the cavity electrodynamics of Dirac fermions in the quantum regime.

  1. Measurement of Fast Electron Transport by Lower Hybrid Modulation Experiments in Alcator C-Mod

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, A. E.; Bonoli, P. T.; Parker, R.; Porkolab, M.; Wallace, G.; Wright, J. C.; Wilson, J. R.; Harvey, R. W.; Smirnov, A. P.

    2009-11-26

    The Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) system on Alcator C-Mod can produce spectra with a wide range of peak parallel refractive index (n{sub parallel}). An experiment in which LH power is square-wave modulated on a time scale much faster than the current relaxation time does not significantly alter the poloidal magnetic field inside the plasma and thus allows for realistic modeling and consistent plasma conditions for different ny spectra. Boxcar binning of hard x-rays during LH power modulation allows for time resolution sufficient to resolve the build-up, steady-state, and slowing-down of fast electrons. A transport model built in Matlab has been used to determine a fast electron pinch velocity for a high-n{sub parallel} case of 1-2 m/s.

  2. Antenna-coupled silicon-organic hybrid integrated photonic crystal modulator for broadband electromagnetic wave detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xingyu; Hosseini, Amir; Subbaraman, Harish; Wang, Shiyi; Zhan, Qiwen; Luo, Jingdong; Jen, Alex K.; Chung, Chi-jui; Yan, Hai; Pan, Zeyu; Nelson, Robert L.; Lee, Charles Y.; Chen, Ray T.

    2015-03-01

    The detection and measurement of electromagnetic fields have attracted significant amounts of attention in recent years. Traditional electronic electromagnetic field sensors use large active conductive probes which perturb the field to be measured and also make the devices bulky. In order to address these problems, integrated photonic electromagnetic field sensors have been developed, in which an optical signal is modulated by an RF signal collected by a miniaturized antenna. In this work, we design, fabricate and characterize a compact, broadband and highly sensitive integrated photonic electromagnetic field sensor based on a silicon-organic hybrid modulator driven by a bowtie antenna. The large electro-optic (EO) coefficient of organic polymer, the slow-light effects in the silicon slot photonic crystal waveguide (PCW), and the broadband field enhancement provided by the bowtie antenna, are all combined to enhance the interaction of microwaves and optical waves, enabling a high EO modulation efficiency and thus a high sensitivity. The modulator is experimentally demonstrated with a record-high effective in-device EO modulation efficiency of r33=1230pm/V. Modulation response up to 40GHz is measured, with a 3-dB bandwidth of 11GHz. The slot PCW has an interaction length of 300μm, and the bowtie antenna has an area smaller than 1cm2. The bowtie antenna in the device is experimentally demonstrated to have a broadband characteristics with a central resonance frequency of 10GHz, as well as a large beam width which enables the detection of electromagnetic waves from a large range of incident angles. The sensor is experimentally demonstrated with a minimum detectable electromagnetic power density of 8.4mW/m2 at 8.4GHz, corresponding to a minimum detectable electric field of 2.5V/m and an ultra-high sensitivity of 0.000027V/m Hz-1/2 ever demonstrated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first silicon-organic hybrid device and also the first PCW device used for the

  3. Photonic ultra-wideband pulse generation, hybrid modulation and dispersion-compensation-free transmission in multi-access communication systems.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kang; Shao, Jing; Sun, Junqiang; Wang, Jian

    2012-01-16

    We propose and demonstrate a scheme for optical ultrawideband (UWB) pulse generation by exploiting a half-carrier-suppressed Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) and a delay-interferometer- and wavelength-division-multiplexer-based, reconfigurable and multi-channel differentiator (DWRMD). Multi-wavelength, polarity- and shape-switchable UWB pulses of monocycle, doublet, triplet, and quadruplet are experimentally generated simply by tuning two bias voltages to modify the carrier-suppression ratio of MZM and the differential order of DWRMD respectively. The pulse position modulation, pulse shape modulation, pulse amplitude modulation and binary phase-shift keying modulation of UWB pulses can also be conveniently realized with the same scheme structure, which indicates that the hybrid modulation of those four formats can be achieved. Consequently, the proposed approach has potential applications in multi-shape, multi-modulation and multi-access UWB-over-fiber communication systems.

  4. Planning Hybrid Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Whole-breast Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Farace, Paolo; Zucca, Sergio; Solla, Ignazio; Fadda, Giuseppina; Durzu, Silvia; Porru, Sergio; Meleddu, Gianfranco; Deidda, Maria Assunta; Possanzini, Marco; Orru, Sivia; Lay, Giancarlo

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To test tangential and not-tangential hybrid intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for whole-breast irradiation. Methods and Materials: Seventy-eight (36 right-, 42 left-) breast patients were randomly selected. Hybrid IMRT was performed by direct aperture optimization. A semiautomated method for planning hybrid IMRT was implemented using Pinnacle scripts. A plan optimization volume (POV), defined as the portion of the planning target volume covered by the open beams, was used as the target objective during inverse planning. Treatment goals were to prescribe a minimum dose of 47.5 Gy to greater than 90% of the POV and to minimize the POV and/or normal tissue receiving a dose greater than 107%. When treatment goals were not achieved by using a 4-field technique (2 conventional open plus 2 IMRT tangents), a 6-field technique was applied, adding 2 non tangential (anterior-oblique) IMRT beams. Results: Using scripts, manual procedures were minimized (choice of optimal beam angle, setting monitor units for open tangentials, and POV definition). Treatment goals were achieved by using the 4-field technique in 61 of 78 (78%) patients. The 6-field technique was applied in the remaining 17 of 78 (22%) patients, allowing for significantly better achievement of goals, at the expense of an increase of low-dose ({approx}5 Gy) distribution in the contralateral tissue, heart, and lungs but with no significant increase of higher doses ({approx}20 Gy) in heart and lungs. The mean monitor unit contribution to IMRT beams was significantly greater (18.7% vs 9.9%) in the group of patients who required 6-field procedure. Conclusions: Because hybrid IMRT can be performed semiautomatically, it can be planned for a large number of patients with little impact on human or departmental resources, promoting it as the standard practice for whole-breast irradiation.

  5. Design and construction of a VHGT-attached WDM-type triplex transceiver module using polymer PLC hybrid integration technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerábek, Vitezslav; Hüttel, Ivan; Prajzler, Václav; Busek, K.; Seliger, P.

    2008-11-01

    We report about design and construction of the bidirectional transceiver TRx module for subscriber part of the passive optical network PON for a fiber to the home FTTH topology. The TRx module consists of a epoxy novolak resin polymer planar lightwave circuit (PLC) hybrid integration technology with volume holographic grating triplex filter VHGT, surface-illuminated photodetectors and spot-size converted Fabry-Pérot laser diode in SMD package. The hybrid PLC has composed from a two parts-polymer optical waveguide including VHGT filter section and a optoelectronic microwave section. The both parts are placed on the composite substrate.

  6. Lateralization Technique and Inferior Alveolar Nerve Transposition

    PubMed Central

    Sanches, Marco Antonio; Ramalho, Gabriel Cardoso; Manzi, Marcello Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Bone resorption of the posterior mandible can result in diminished bone edge and, therefore, the installation of implants in these regions becomes a challenge, especially in the presence of the mandibular canal and its contents, the inferior alveolar nerve. Several treatment alternatives are suggested: the use of short implants, guided bone regeneration, appositional bone grafting, distraction osteogenesis, inclined implants tangential to the mandibular canal, and the lateralization of the inferior alveolar nerve. The aim was to elucidate the success rate of implants in the lateralization technique and in inferior alveolar nerve transposition and to determine the most effective sensory test. We conclude that the success rate is linked to the possibility of installing implants with long bicortical anchor which favors primary stability and biomechanics. PMID:27433360

  7. Endoscopically Assisted Anterior Subcutaneous Transposition of Ulnar Nerve.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2016-06-01

    Ulnar nerve compression at the elbow is the most common neuropathy of the upper extremity. Surgical options include in situ decompression, decompression with anterior transposition of the ulnar nerve, and medial epicondylectomy with or without decompression. With the advancement of endoscopic surgery, techniques of endoscopic in situ decompression of the ulnar nerve and endoscopic anterior transposition of ulnar nerve have been reported. This article describes a technique of endoscopically assisted anterior subcutaneous transposition of ulnar nerve that is composed of an open release and mobilization of the ulnar nerve at and distal to the cubital tunnel and endoscopic release and mobilization of the ulnar nerve proximal to the cubital tunnel. PMID:27656391

  8. Analysis of an electro-optic modulator based on a graphene-silicon hybrid 1D photonic crystal nanobeam cavity.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ting; Qiu, Ciyuan; Wu, Jiayang; Jiang, Xinhong; Liu, Boyu; Yang, Yuxing; Zhou, Huanying; Soref, Richard; Su, Yikai

    2015-09-01

    We propose and numerically study an on-chip graphene-silicon hybrid electro-optic (EO) modulator operating at the telecommunication band, which is implemented by a compact 1D photonic crystal nanobeam (PCN) cavity coupled to a bus waveguide with a graphene sheet on top. Through electrically tuning the Fermi level of the graphene, both the quality factor and the resonance wavelength can be significantly changed, thus the in-plane lightwave can be efficiently modulated. Based on finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation results, the proposed modulator can provide a large free spectral range (FSR) of 125.6 nm, a high modulation speed of 133 GHz, and a large modulation depth of ~12.5 dB in a small modal volume, promising a high performance EO modulator for wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) optical communication systems.

  9. Study of the intensity noise and intensity modulation in a of hybrid soliton pulsed source

    SciTech Connect

    Dogru, Nuran; Oziazisi, M Sadetin

    2005-10-31

    The relative intensity noise (RIN) and small-signal intensity modulation (IM) of a hybrid soliton pulsed source (HSPS) with a linearly chirped Gaussian apodised fibre Bragg grating (FBG) are considered in the electric-field approximation. The HSPS is described by solving the dynamic coupled-mode equations. It is shown that consideration of the carrier density noise in the HSPS in addition to the spontaneous noise is necessary to analyse accurately noise in the mode-locked HSPS. It is also shown that the resonance peak spectral splitting (RPSS) of the IM near the frequency inverse to the round-trip time of light in the external cavity can be eliminated by selecting an appropriate linear chirp rate in the Gaussian apodised FBG. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  10. Keggin-lysine hybrid nanostructures in the shape modulation of gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Subhasis; Ghosh, Tanmay; Satpati, Biswarup; Sanyal, Ambarish; Bala, Tanushree

    2014-03-01

    We show here that L-lysine effectively complexes with phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) and the solution mixture when added to a 10-3 M aqueous solution of HAuCl4 after UV-irradiation for 3 h leads to the slow reduction and consequent formation of gold nanotriangles with a high degree of anisotropy. The same reaction carried out in a 12.5 kDa cutoff dialysis bag where the irradiated PMA-lysine solution was kept inside and stirred in a beaker containing aqueous HAuCl4, did not lead to the formation of gold nanotriangles. This implies that L-lysine plays the role of a shape-modulating agent and hence this study proves an improvement in the understanding of the role of such organic-inorganic hybrid structures in the synthesis and growth of anisotropic nanoparticles.

  11. Investigation of lower hybrid physics through power modulation experiments on Alcator C-Moda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, A.; Bonoli, P. T.; Meneghini, O.; Parker, R. R.; Porkolab, M.; Shiraiwa, S.; Wallace, G.; Wright, J. C.; Harvey, R. W.; Wilson, J. R.

    2011-05-01

    Lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) is an attractive tool for off-axis current profile control in magnetically confined tokamak plasmas and burning plasmas (ITER), because of its high current drive efficiency. The LHCD system on Alcator C-Mod operates at 4.6 GHz, with ~ 1 MW of coupled power, and can produce a wide range of launched parallel refractive index (n||) spectra. A 32 chord, perpendicularly viewing hard x-ray camera has been used to measure the spatial and energy distribution of fast electrons generated by lower hybrid (LH) waves. Square-wave modulation of LH power on a time scale much faster than the current relaxation time does not significantly alter the poloidal magnetic field inside the plasma and thus allows for realistic modeling and consistent plasma conditions for different n|| spectra. Inverted hard x-ray profiles show clear changes in LH-driven fast electron location with differing n||. Boxcar binning of hard x-rays during LH power modulation allows for ~ 1 ms time resolution which is sufficient to resolve the build-up, steady-state, and slowing-down phases of fast electrons. Ray-tracing/Fokker-Planck modeling in combination with a synthetic hard x-ray diagnostic shows quantitative agreement with the x-ray data for high n|| cases. The time histories of hollow x-ray profiles have been used to measure off-axis fast electron transport in the outer half of the plasma, which is found to be small on a slowing down time scale.

  12. Analogue modulation of back-propagating action potentials enables dendritic hybrid signalling

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, János; Szabadics, János

    2016-01-01

    We report that back-propagating action potentials (bAPs) are not simply digital feedback signals in dendrites but also carry analogue information about the overall state of neurons. Analogue information about the somatic membrane potential within a physiological range (from −78 to −64 mV) is retained by bAPs of dentate gyrus granule cells as different repolarization speeds in proximal dendrites and as different peak amplitudes in distal regions. These location-dependent waveform changes are reflected by local calcium influx, leading to proximal enhancement and distal attenuation during somatic hyperpolarization. The functional link between these retention and readout mechanisms of the analogue content of bAPs critically depends on high-voltage-activated, inactivating calcium channels. The hybrid bAP and calcium mechanisms report the phase of physiological somatic voltage fluctuations and modulate long-term synaptic plasticity in distal dendrites. Thus, bAPs are hybrid signals that relay somatic analogue information, which is detected by the dendrites in a location-dependent manner. PMID:27703164

  13. Transposition-mediated DNA re-replication in maize

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianbo; Zuo, Tao; Wang, Dafang; Peterson, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Every DNA segment in a eukaryotic genome normally replicates once and only once per cell cycle to maintain genome stability. We show here that this restriction can be bypassed through alternative transposition, a transposition reaction that utilizes the termini of two separate, nearby transposable elements (TEs). Our results suggest that alternative transposition during S phase can induce re-replication of the TEs and their flanking sequences. The DNA re-replication can spontaneously abort to generate double-strand breaks, which can be repaired to generate Composite Insertions composed of transposon termini flanking segmental duplications of various lengths. These results show how alternative transposition coupled with DNA replication and repair can significantly alter genome structure and may have contributed to rapid genome evolution in maize and possibly other eukaryotes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03724.001 PMID:25406063

  14. The Evolution of Self-Regulated Transposition of Transposable Elements

    PubMed Central

    Charlesworth, B.; Langley, C. H.

    1986-01-01

    This paper examines the conditions under which self-regulated rates of transposition can evolve in populations of transposable elements infecting sexually reproducing hosts. Models of the evolution of both cis-acting regulation (transposition immunity) and trans-acting regulation (transposition repression) are analyzed. The potential selective advantage to regulation is assumed to be derived from the deleterious effects of mutations associated with the insertion of newly replicated elements. It is shown that both types of regulation can easily evolve in hosts with low rates of genetic recombination per generation, such as bacteria or bacterial plasmids. Conditions are much more restrictive in organisms with relatively free recombination. In haploids, the main selective force promoting regulation is the induction of lethal or sterile mutations by transposition; in diploids, a sufficiently high frequency of dominant lethal or sterile mutations associated with transpositions is required. Data from Drosophila and maize suggest that this requirement can sometimes be met. Coupling of regulatory effects across different families of elements would also aid the evolution of regulation. The selective advantages of restricting transposition to the germ line and of excising elements from somatic cells are discussed. PMID:3000868

  15. No-Go Zones for Mariner Transposition

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The property of transposons to randomly insert into target DNA has long been exploited for generalized mutagenesis and forward genetic screens. Newer applications that monitor the relative abundance of each transposon insertion in large libraries of mutants can be used to evaluate the roles in cellular fitness of all genes of an organism, provided that transposition is in fact random across all genes. In a recent article, Kimura and colleagues identified an important exception to the latter assumption [S. Kimura, T. P. Hubbard, B. M. Davis, M. K. Waldor, mBio 7(4):e01351-16, 2016, doi:10.1128/mBio.01351-16]. They provide evidence that the Mariner transposon exhibits locus-specific site preferences in the presence of the histone-like nucleoid structuring protein H-NS. This effect was shown to bias results for important virulence loci in Vibrio cholerae and to result in misidentification of genes involved in growth in vitro. Fortunately, the bulk of this bacterium’s genome was unaffected by this bias, and recognizing the H-NS effect allows filtering to improve the accuracy of the results. PMID:27729512

  16. [Corrected transposition of the great arteries].

    PubMed

    Alva-Espinosa, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Corrected transposition of the great arteries is one of the most fascinating entities in congenital heart disease. The apparent corrected condition is only temporal. Over time, most patients develop systemic heart failure, even in the absence of associated lesions. With current imaging studies, precise visualization is achieved in each case though the treatment strategy remains unresolved. In asymptomatic patients or cases without associated lesions, focalized follow-up to assess systemic ventricular function and the degree of tricuspid valve regurgitation is important. In cases with normal ventricular function and mild tricuspid failure, it seems unreasonable to intervene surgically. In patients with significant associated lesions, surgery is indicated. In the long term, the traditional approach may not help tricuspid regurgitation and systemic ventricular failure. Anatomical correction is the proposed alternative to ease the right ventricle overload and to restore the systemic left ventricular function. However, this is a prolonged operation and not without risks and long-term complications. In this review the clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects are overviewed in the light of the most significant and recent literature.

  17. Driving DNA transposition by lentiviral protein transduction

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yujia; Mikkelsen, Jacob Giehm

    2014-01-01

    Gene vectors derived from DNA transposable elements have become powerful molecular tools in biomedical research and are slowly moving into the clinic as carriers of therapeutic genes. Conventional uses of DNA transposon-based gene vehicles rely on the intracellular production of the transposase protein from transfected nucleic acids. The transposase mediates mobilization of the DNA transposon, which is typically provided in the context of plasmid DNA. In recent work, we established lentiviral protein transduction from Gag precursors as a new strategy for direct delivery of the transposase protein. Inspired by the natural properties of infecting viruses to carry their own enzymes, we loaded lentivirus-derived particles not only with vector genomes carrying the DNA transposon vector but also with hundreds of transposase subunits. Such particles were found to drive efficient transposition of the piggyBac transposable element in a range of different cell types, including primary cells, and offer a new transposase delivery approach that guarantees short-term activity and limits potential cytotoxicity. DNA transposon vectors, originally developed and launched as a non-viral alternative to viral integrating vectors, have truly become viral. Here, we briefly review our findings and speculate on the perspectives and potential advantages of transposase delivery by lentiviral protein transduction. PMID:25057443

  18. Heterogeneous integration technology for hybrid optoelectronic and electronic device and module fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Michael Sungchun

    Various forms of optical computing architectures have promised enhanced processing capabilities well beyond the limits of traditional VLSI technology during the past decade. However, the progress toward realizing this vision has been severely limited by the lack of mature technology to fabricate heterogeneously integrated optoelectronic transceiver arrays (consisting of VLSI electronics with optoelectronic devices) that are necessary to link the functionality of photonic input/output devices with electronic processors. This dissertation describes a research effort that addressed this need by exploring innovative, yet highly manufacturable integration approaches that can be utilized to fabricate hybrid optoelectronic transceivers by integrating thin silicon device layers on bulk electro-optic (e.g. lead lanthanum zirconate titanate- PLZT) and other host substrates. The two integration techniques developed are: (1) B& P (Bond and Processing) technology involving bonding of bulk-quality thin silicon layer to PLZT followed by low temperature NMOS processing and (2) DDB (Direct-Device Bonding) technology, where circuit layer fabricated in SOI-silicon is thinned and bonded directly to a PLZT substrate. Characteristics of electronic circuits and modulators in integrated Si/PLZT SLMs are measured to be comparable to that of reference devices fabricated in bulk silicon and PLZT substrates. The application of the developed integration technology specifically toward fabricating Si/PLZT spatial light modulator is examined in detail. The developed device layer grafting technology based on chemo-mechanical lapping and reactive ion etching processes can be applied to assemble miniature ``mixed technology'' systems consisting of devices fabricated by different manufacturing processes (e.g. CMOS, MEMS, VCSEL and GaAs processes) in a monolithic fashion. The latter half of the thesis details experimental

  19. Design of low-power hybrid digital pulse width modulator with piecewise calibration scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen, Shaowei; Hou, Sijian; Gan, Wubing; Chen, Jingbo; Luo, Ping; Zhang, Bo

    2015-12-01

    A low-power hybrid digital pulse width modulator (DPWM) is proposed in the paper. Owing to the piecewise calibration scheme, the delay time of delay line is locked to target frequency. The delay line consists of two piecewise lines with different control codes. The delay time of each cell in one sub-delay-line is longer than the last significant bit (LSB) of DPWM, while the delay time of each cell in the other sub-delay-line is shorter than LSB. Optimum linearity is realised with minimum standard cells. Simulation results show that the differential nonlinearity and integral nonlinearity are improved from 5.1 to 0.4 and from 5 to 1.3, respectively. The DPWM is fully synthesised and fabricated in a 90-nm CMOS process. The proposed DPWM occupies a silicon area of 0.01 mm2, with 31.5 μw core power consumption. Experimental results are shown to demonstrate the 2-MHz, 10-bit resolution implementation. Pulse width histogram is firstly introduced to characterise the linearity of the DPWM.

  20. Morphing hybrid honeycomb (MOHYCOMB) with in situ Poisson’s ratio modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, Callum J. C.; Neville, Robin M.; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Bond, Ian P.; Potter, Kevin D.

    2016-08-01

    Electrostatic adhesion can be used as a means of reversible attachment. Through application of high voltage (~2 kV) across closely spaced parallel plate electrodes, significant shear stresses (11 kPa) can be generated. The highest levels of electrostatic holding force can be achieved through close contact of connection surfaces; this is facilitated by flexible electrodes which can conform to reduce air gaps. Cellular structures are comprised of thin walled elements, making them ideal host structures for electrostatic adhesive elements. The reversible adhesion provides control of the internal connectivity of the cellular structure, and determines the effective cell geometry. This would offer variable stiffness and control of the effective Poisson’s ratio of the global cellular array. Using copper-polyimide thin film laminates and PVDF thin film dielectrics, double lap shear electrostatic adhesive elements have been introduced to a cellular geometry. By activating different groups of reversible adhesive interfaces, the cellular array can assume four different cell configurations. A maximum stiffness modulation of 450% between the ‘All off’ and ‘All on’ cell morphologies has been demonstrated. This structure is also capable of in situ effective Poisson’s ratio variations, with the ability to switch between values of ‑0.45 and 0.54. Such a structure offers the potential for tuneable vibration absorption (due to its variable stiffness properties), or as a smart honeycomb with controllable curvature and is termed morphing hybrid honeycomb.

  1. Morphing hybrid honeycomb (MOHYCOMB) with in situ Poisson’s ratio modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, Callum J. C.; Neville, Robin M.; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Bond, Ian P.; Potter, Kevin D.

    2016-08-01

    Electrostatic adhesion can be used as a means of reversible attachment. Through application of high voltage (~2 kV) across closely spaced parallel plate electrodes, significant shear stresses (11 kPa) can be generated. The highest levels of electrostatic holding force can be achieved through close contact of connection surfaces; this is facilitated by flexible electrodes which can conform to reduce air gaps. Cellular structures are comprised of thin walled elements, making them ideal host structures for electrostatic adhesive elements. The reversible adhesion provides control of the internal connectivity of the cellular structure, and determines the effective cell geometry. This would offer variable stiffness and control of the effective Poisson’s ratio of the global cellular array. Using copper-polyimide thin film laminates and PVDF thin film dielectrics, double lap shear electrostatic adhesive elements have been introduced to a cellular geometry. By activating different groups of reversible adhesive interfaces, the cellular array can assume four different cell configurations. A maximum stiffness modulation of 450% between the ‘All off’ and ‘All on’ cell morphologies has been demonstrated. This structure is also capable of in situ effective Poisson’s ratio variations, with the ability to switch between values of -0.45 and 0.54. Such a structure offers the potential for tuneable vibration absorption (due to its variable stiffness properties), or as a smart honeycomb with controllable curvature and is termed morphing hybrid honeycomb.

  2. Genomic DNA transposition induced by human PGBD5

    PubMed Central

    Henssen, Anton G; Henaff, Elizabeth; Jiang, Eileen; Eisenberg, Amy R; Carson, Julianne R; Villasante, Camila M; Ray, Mondira; Still, Eric; Burns, Melissa; Gandara, Jorge; Feschotte, Cedric; Mason, Christopher E; Kentsis, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Transposons are mobile genetic elements that are found in nearly all organisms, including humans. Mobilization of DNA transposons by transposase enzymes can cause genomic rearrangements, but our knowledge of human genes derived from transposases is limited. In this study, we find that the protein encoded by human PGBD5, the most evolutionarily conserved transposable element-derived gene in vertebrates, can induce stereotypical cut-and-paste DNA transposition in human cells. Genomic integration activity of PGBD5 requires distinct aspartic acid residues in its transposase domain, and specific DNA sequences containing inverted terminal repeats with similarity to piggyBac transposons. DNA transposition catalyzed by PGBD5 in human cells occurs genome-wide, with precise transposon excision and preference for insertion at TTAA sites. The apparent conservation of DNA transposition activity by PGBD5 suggests that genomic remodeling contributes to its biological function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10565.001 PMID:26406119

  3. Laparoscopic lateral ovarian transposition: a fertility sparing procedure.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, S; Persico, P; Di Puppo, F; Giardina, P; Ferrari, A

    2009-10-01

    This article reports the case of a 30-year-old woman who, in 2003, had diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the left vaginal fornix, associated with sclerosis. After six chemoimmunotherapy cycles the patient underwent a laparoscopic procedure for lateral ovarian transposition to spare ovarian function before radiotherapy. Six months after the transposition the evaluation of ovarian function was performed. The hypothalamic-pituitary-ovary axis was normal. Three years after radiation therapy (2006) the patient spontaneously conceived. Her pregnancy proceeded regularly. She had an uneventful vaginal delivery. Lateral ovarian transposition with tubal anatomy preservation, which is an underused technique, can be successfully used to spare ovarian function in women who undergo pelvic radiotherapy and to let them achieve spontaneous pregnancy.

  4. Intramolecular transposition by a synthetic IS50 (Tn5) derivative

    SciTech Connect

    Tomcsanyi, T.; Phadnis, S.H.; Berg, D.E. ); Berg, C.M. )

    1990-11-01

    We report the formation of deletions and inversions by intramolecular transposition of Tn5-derived mobile elements. The synthetic transposons used contained the IS50 O and I end segments and the transposase gene, a contraselectable gene encoding sucrose sensitivity (sacB), antibiotic resistance genes, and a plasmid replication origin. Both deletions and inversions were associated with loss of a 300-bp segment that is designated the vector because it is outside of the transposon. Deletions were severalfold more frequent than inversions, perhaps reflecting constraints on DNA twisting or abortive transposition. Restriction and DNA sequence analyses showed that both types of rearrangements extended from one transposon end to many different sites in target DNA. In the case of inversions, transposition generated 9-bp direct repeats of target sequences.

  5. Contamination control in hybrid microelectronic modules. Part 3: Specifications for coating material and process controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Himmel, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    Resin systems for coating hybrids prior to hermetic sealing are described. The resin systems are a flexible silicone junction resin system and a flexible cycloaliphatic epoxy resin system. The coatings are intended for application to the hybrid after all the chips have been assembled and wire bonded, but prior to hermetic sealing of the package. The purpose of the coating is to control particulate contamination by immobilizing particles and by passivating the hybrid. Recommended process controls for the purpose of minimizing contamination in hybrid microcircuit packages are given. Emphasis is placed on those critical hybrid processing steps in which contamination is most likely to occur.

  6. Barbara McClintock and the transposition concept.

    PubMed

    Barahona, A

    1997-12-01

    Barbara McClintock was awarded Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1983 for the discovery and characterization of jumping genes or transposons. In 1948 she described for the first time maize controlling elements. She proposed 'transposition' as a mechanism that relates phenotypic characteristics with the presence of unstable genes. This discovery was 'ignored' even though she was recognized as a brilliant cytogeneticist. In this paper I approach the matter of the maize research groups within which McClintock developed all of her work, and the problem of variegation in relation to unstable genes and transposition. PMID:11619571

  7. Barbara McClintock and the transposition concept.

    PubMed

    Barahona, A

    1997-12-01

    Barbara McClintock was awarded Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1983 for the discovery and characterization of jumping genes or transposons. In 1948 she described for the first time maize controlling elements. She proposed 'transposition' as a mechanism that relates phenotypic characteristics with the presence of unstable genes. This discovery was 'ignored' even though she was recognized as a brilliant cytogeneticist. In this paper I approach the matter of the maize research groups within which McClintock developed all of her work, and the problem of variegation in relation to unstable genes and transposition.

  8. Surgery for transposition of great arteries: A historical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Marathe, Supreet P; Talwar, Sachin

    2015-01-01

    The history of surgery for transposition of great arteries (TGA) has paralleled the history of cardiac surgery. In fact, it began before the birth of open heart surgery when the palliative Blalock–Hanlon septectomy was first performed in 1948. The atrial switch, which was an attempt to correct the physiology of transposition, had significant shortcomings. The arterial switch sought to address them. This has emerged as an anatomically as well as physiologically appropriate solution. Today we continue to pursue technical refinements as well as try to expand the indications of the arterial switch. This review traces the various milestones in this perpetual journey. PMID:26085763

  9. Adynamic and dynamic muscle transposition techniques for anal incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Barišić, Goran; Krivokapić, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Gracilis muscle transposition is well established in general surgery and has been the main muscle transposition technique for anal incontinence. Dynamization, through a schedule of continuous electrical stimulation, converts the fatigue-prone muscle fibres to a tonic fatigue-resistant morphology with acceptable results in those cases where there is limited sphincter muscle mass. The differences between gluteoplasty and graciloplasty, as well as the techniques and complications of both procedures, are outlined in this review. Overall, these techniques are rarely carried out in specialized units with experience, as there is a high revision and explantation rate. PMID:24759348

  10. Facts about dextro-Transposition of the Great Arteries (d-TGA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facts about dextro-Transposition of the Great Arteries (d-TGA) Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... What is dextro-Transposition of the Great Arteries (d-TGA)? Dextro-Transposition (pronounced DECKS-tro trans-poh- ...

  11. Magnetotransport across the metal-graphene hybrid interface and its modulation by gate voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing-Jing; Ke, Xiaoxing; van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Meng, Jie; Zhou, Yang-Bo; Liao, Zhi-Min; Yu, Da-Peng

    2015-03-01

    The graphene-metal contact is very important for optimizing the performance of graphene based electronic devices. However, it is difficult to probe the properties of the graphene/metal interface directly via transport measurements in traditional graphene lateral devices, because the dominated transport channel is graphene, not the interface. Here, we employ the Au/graphene/Au vertical and lateral hybrid structure to unveil the metal-graphene interface properties, where the transport is dominated by the charge carriers across the interface. The magnetoresistance (MR) of Au/monolayer graphene/Au and Au/stacked two-layered graphene/Au devices is measured and modulated by gate voltage, demonstrating that the interface is a device. The gate-tunable MR is identified from the graphene lying on the SiO2 substrate and underneath the top metal electrode. Our unique structures couple the in-plane and out-of-plane transport and display linear MR with small amplitude oscillations at low temperatures. Under a magnetic field, the electronic coupling between the graphene edge states and the electrode leads to the appearance of quantum oscillations. Our results not only provide a new pathway to explore the intrinsic transport mechanism at the graphene/metal interface but also open up new vistas of magnetoelectronics.The graphene-metal contact is very important for optimizing the performance of graphene based electronic devices. However, it is difficult to probe the properties of the graphene/metal interface directly via transport measurements in traditional graphene lateral devices, because the dominated transport channel is graphene, not the interface. Here, we employ the Au/graphene/Au vertical and lateral hybrid structure to unveil the metal-graphene interface properties, where the transport is dominated by the charge carriers across the interface. The magnetoresistance (MR) of Au/monolayer graphene/Au and Au/stacked two-layered graphene/Au devices is measured and modulated by

  12. Relational Learning in a Context of Transposition: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazareva, Olga F.

    2012-01-01

    In a typical transposition task, an animal is presented with a single pair of stimuli (for example, S3+S4-, where plus and minus denote reward and nonreward and digits denote stimulus location on a sensory dimension such as size). Subsequently, an animal is presented with a testing pair that contains a previously reinforced or nonreinforced…

  13. The Meleagrid herpesvirus 1 genome is partially resistant to transposition.

    PubMed

    Hall, Robyn N; Meers, Joanne; Mitter, Neena; Fowler, Elizabeth V; Mahony, Timothy J

    2013-06-01

    The propagation of herpesvirus genomes as infectious bacterial artificial chromosomes (iBAC) has enabled the application of highly efficient strategies to investigate gene function across the genome. One of these strategies, transposition, has been used successfully on a number of herpesvirus iBACs to generate libraries of gene disruption mutants. Gene deletion studies aimed at determining the dispensable gene repertoire of the Meleagrid herpesvirus 1 (MeHV-1) genome to enhance the utility of this virus as a vaccine vector have been conducted in this report. A MeHV-1 iBAC was used in combination with the Tn5 and MuA transposition systems in an attempt to generate MeHV-1 gene interruption libraries. However, these studies demonstrated that Tn5 transposition events into the MeHV-1 genome occurred at unexpectedly low frequencies. Furthermore, characterization of genomic locations of the rare Tn5 transposon insertion events indicated a nonrandom distribution within the viral genome, with seven of the 24 insertions occurring within the gene encoding infected cell protein 4. Although insertion events with the MuA system occurred at higher frequency compared with the Tn5 system, fewer insertion events were generated than has previously been reported with this system. The characterization and distribution of these MeHV-1 iBAC transposed mutants is discussed at both the nucleotide and genomic level, and the properties of the MeHV-1 genome that could influence transposition frequency are discussed. PMID:23901750

  14. Method and structure for cache aware transposition via rectangular subsections

    DOEpatents

    Gustavson, Fred Gehrung; Gunnels, John A

    2014-02-04

    A method and structure for transposing a rectangular matrix A in a computer includes subdividing the rectangular matrix A into one or more square submatrices and executing an in-place transposition for each of the square submatrices A.sub.ij.

  15. Broadband energy-efficient optical modulation by hybrid integration of silicon nanophotonics and organic electro-optic polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xingyu; Hosseini, Amir; Subbaraman, Harish; Luo, Jingdong; Jen, Alex K.-Y.; Chung, Chi-jui; Yan, Hai; Pan, Zeyu; Nelson, Robert L.; Chen, Ray T.

    2015-03-01

    Silicon-organic hybrid integrated devices have emerging applications ranging from high-speed optical interconnects to photonic electromagnetic-field sensors. Silicon slot photonic crystal waveguides (PCWs) filled with electro-optic (EO) polymers combine the slow-light effect in PCWs with the high polarizability of EO polymers, which promises the realization of high-performance optical modulators. In this paper, a broadband, power-efficient, low-dispersion, and compact optical modulator based on an EO polymer filled silicon slot PCW is presented. A small voltage-length product of Vπ×L=0.282V×mm is achieved, corresponding to an unprecedented record-high effective in-device EO coefficient (r33) of 1230pm/V. Assisted by a backside gate voltage, the modulation response up to 50GHz is observed, with a 3-dB bandwidth of 15GHz, and the estimated energy consumption is 94.4fJ/bit at 10Gbit/s. Furthermore, lattice-shifted PCWs are utilized to enhance the optical bandwidth by a factor of ~10X over other modulators based on non-band-engineered PCWs and ring-resonators.

  16. Fabrication of a TFF-Attached WDM-Type Triplex Transceiver Module Using Silica PLC Hybrid Integration Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Young-Tak; Park, Yoon-Jung; Park, Sang-Ho; Shin, Jang-Uk; Lee, Chul-Wook; Ko, Hyunsung; Baek, Yongsoon; Park, Chul-Hee; Kwon, Yoon-Koo; Hwang, Wol-Yon; Oh, Kwang-Ryong; Sung, Heekyung

    2006-12-01

    An optical triplex transceiver (TRx) module, which consists of thin-film filter (TFF)-attached wavelength-division multiplexer (WDM) and photodiode (PD) carriers, has been fabricated using a silica planar lightwave circuit (PLC) hybrid integration technology. Two types of TFFs were attached to a diced sidewall of a silica-terraced PLC platform to realize the TFF-attached WDM. The PD carriers with a 45° mirror, on which receiving surface-illuminated PDs were bonded, were assembled with the PLC platform to form receiver (Rx) parts. As the main performances of the packaged TRx module, a very clear transmitter (Tx) eye pattern and minimum Rx sensitivity of -25.7 dBm were obtained under a 1.25-Gb/s Tx Rx operation for digital applications. For an analog Rx application, a module responsivity of about 0.8 A/W was achieved, and a second-order intermodulation distortion value of less than -70 dBc at an optical modulation index of 40% was obtained under a two-tone test of 400 and 450 MHz.

  17. Half-metallicity modulation of hybrid BN-C nanotubes by external electric fields: A first-principles study

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Yunye; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2014-06-21

    On the basis of density functional theory, we systematically investigate the electronic and magnetic properties of hybrid BN-C nanotubes, C{sub x}(BN){sub y} where x + y = 12, with and without an external electric field. The BN-C nanotubes are totally distinct from pristine boron-nitride and carbon nanotubes. The electronic properties of C{sub x}(BN){sub y} change significantly with composition: from the nonmagnetic semiconductors to the half-metals. The half-metallicity is attributed to the competition among the band gap, which is related to the width of C domain, the width of BN domain, and the intrinsic polarization field. Application of the external fields can enhance or counterbalance the polarization fields and change the band gaps. The half-metallicity can be modulated. In BN-rich tubes, such as C{sub 2}(BN){sub 10}, the energy gap can be engineered from 0.50 eV to 0.95 eV and in C{sub 3}(BN){sub 9}, the ground state is converted from the nonmagnetic state into the anti-ferro-magnetic one. In other tubes, the half-metallicity can be enhanced or destroyed by different external fields. The modulation indicates that hybrid BN-C nanotubes can work as the components of the spin-filter devices.

  18. Half-metallicity modulation of hybrid BN-C nanotubes by external electric fields: a first-principles study.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yunye; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2014-06-21

    On the basis of density functional theory, we systematically investigate the electronic and magnetic properties of hybrid BN-C nanotubes, Cx(BN)y where x + y = 12, with and without an external electric field. The BN-C nanotubes are totally distinct from pristine boron-nitride and carbon nanotubes. The electronic properties of Cx(BN)y change significantly with composition: from the nonmagnetic semiconductors to the half-metals. The half-metallicity is attributed to the competition among the band gap, which is related to the width of C domain, the width of BN domain, and the intrinsic polarization field. Application of the external fields can enhance or counterbalance the polarization fields and change the band gaps. The half-metallicity can be modulated. In BN-rich tubes, such as C2(BN)10, the energy gap can be engineered from 0.50 eV to 0.95 eV and in C3(BN)9, the ground state is converted from the nonmagnetic state into the anti-ferro-magnetic one. In other tubes, the half-metallicity can be enhanced or destroyed by different external fields. The modulation indicates that hybrid BN-C nanotubes can work as the components of the spin-filter devices.

  19. Transposition in pigeons: reassessing Spence (1937) with multiple discrimination training.

    PubMed

    Lazareva, Olga F; Wasserman, Edward A; Young, Michael E

    2005-02-01

    We studied transposition in pigeons, using multiple-pair discrimination training. Four birds discriminated two pairs of circles: 1+ 2- and 5+ 6- or 1 - 2 + and 5- 6 + (digits denote circle diameters and plus and minus signs denote reward and nonreward, respectively). Four other birds discriminated four pairs of circles: 1+ 2-, 1+ 3-, 4+ 6-, and 5+ 6- or 1- 2 +, 1- 3 +, 4- 6+, and 5- 6+. Finally, 4 birds discriminated only one pair of circles: 1+ 2-, 1- 2+, 5+ 6-, or 5- 6+. Testing included five new pairs--1/5, 2/3,2/6,3/4, and 4/5--that distinguished absolute from relational accounts of transposition. The pigeons' relational responding rose from one- to two- to four-pair training. The similarity of the testing stimuli to one another also affected relational responding: Transposition increased with highly dissimilar stimuli. Neither Spence's (1937) theory nor existing relational accounts could predict the obtained pattern of relational responding.

  20. Single strand transposition at the host replication fork

    PubMed Central

    Lavatine, Laure; He, Susu; Caumont-Sarcos, Anne; Guynet, Catherine; Marty, Brigitte; Chandler, Mick; Ton-Hoang, Bao

    2016-01-01

    Members of the IS200/IS605 insertion sequence family differ fundamentally from classical IS essentially by their specific single-strand (ss) transposition mechanism, orchestrated by the Y1 transposase, TnpA, a small HuH enzyme which recognizes and processes ss DNA substrates. Transposition occurs by the ‘peel and paste’ pathway composed of two steps: precise excision of the top strand as a circular ss DNA intermediate; and subsequent integration into a specific ssDNA target. Transposition of family members was experimentally shown or suggested by in silico high-throughput analysis to be intimately coupled to the lagging strand template of the replication fork. In this study, we investigated factors involved in replication fork targeting and analysed DNA-binding properties of the transposase which can assist localization of ss DNA substrates on the replication fork. We showed that TnpA interacts with the β sliding clamp, DnaN and recognizes DNA which mimics replication fork structures. We also showed that dsDNA can facilitate TnpA targeting ssDNA substrates. We analysed the effect of Ssb and RecA proteins on TnpA activity in vitro and showed that while RecA does not show a notable effect, Ssb inhibits integration. Finally we discuss the way(s) in which integration may be directed into ssDNA at the replication fork. PMID:27466393

  1. Contamination control in hybrid microelectronic modules. Part 2: Selection and evaluation of coating materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Himmel, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    The selection, test, and evaluation of organic coating materials for contamination control in hybrid circuits is reported. The coatings were evaluated to determine their suitability for use as a conformal coating over the hybrid microcircuit (including chips and wire bonds) inside a hermetically sealed package. Evaluations included ease of coating application and repair and effect on thin film and thick film resistors, beam leads, wire bonds, transistor chips, and capacitor chips. The coatings were also tested for such properties as insulation resistance, voltage breakdown strength, and capability of immobilizing loose particles inside the packages. The selected coatings were found to be electrically, mechanically, and chemically compatible with all components and materials normally used in hybrid microcircuits.

  2. Experimental demonstration of optical data links using a hybrid CAP/QAM modulation scheme.

    PubMed

    Wei, J L; Ingham, J D; Cheng, Q; Cunningham, D G; Penty, R V; White, I H

    2014-03-15

    The first known experimental demonstrations of a 10  Gb/s hybrid CAP-2/QAM-2 and a 20  Gb/s hybrid CAP-4/QAM-4 transmitter/receiver-based optical data link are performed. Successful transmission over 4.3 km of standard single-mode fiber (SMF) is achieved, with a link power penalty ∼0.4  dBo for CAP-2/QAM-2 and ∼1.5  dBo for CAP-4/QAM-4 at BER=10(-9).

  3. Neuroanatomical correlates of musical transposition in adolescents: a longitudinal approach.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Mary Elizabeth; Paus, Tomáš; Zatorre, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Musicians are trained in melodic transposition, the skill of extracting the pitch interval structure (i.e., the frequency ratios between pitches) and moving it into different keys (i.e., different pitch levels). This ability to recognize whether a melody is the same or altered when it is played back in a different key is correlated with both greater neural activation and cortical thickness in bilateral intraparietal sulcus (IPS). Musical training only explains part of this finding, suggesting that the ability to transpose a melody may have innate predispositions. The current study was designed to address this question: are the anatomical correlates of musical transposition already present in non-musician children at 14 years of age? If so, is there any evidence that those traits were already in place at earlier ages? To answer this question, we recruited 47 adolescents (age 14.5 years) from a longitudinal study and tested them on a melodic transposition task. These adolescents had already undergone anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the ages of 10 (Time 1), 11.5 (Time 2), 13 (Time 3) years, as well as at age 14.5 years (Time 4) They were tested on the transposition task during Time-4 visit. During this visit, we found a relationship between cortical thickness in left IPS and performance on the transposed melody task in the girls and not the boys; no such relationship was observed at any of the earlier ages. Given that girls reach more advanced staged of pubertal maturation earlier than boys, it is possible that the relationship between cortical thickness in IPS and skill at melodic transposition only emerges once the brain has reached a certain degree of maturity. This claim is supported by a lack of similar sex differences in the adults: the degree of correlation between cortical thickness and performance on the same transposed melody task did not differ between men and women in a previous study. Taken together, our results suggest that the

  4. Contamination control in hybrid microelectronic modules. Identification of critical process and contaminants, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Himmel, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    Hybrid processes, handling procedures, and materials were examined to identify the critical process steps in which contamination is most likely to occur, to identify the particular contaminants associated with these critical steps, and to propose method for the control of these contaminants.

  5. A hybrid voice/data modulation for the VHF aeronautical channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akos, Dennis M.

    1993-01-01

    A method of improving the spectral efficiency of the existing Very High Frequency (VHF) Amplitude Modulation (AM) voice communication channels is proposed. The technique is to phase modulate the existing voice amplitude modulated carrier with digital data. This allows the transmission of digital information over an existing AM voice channel with no change to the existing AM signal format. There is no modification to the existing AM receiver to demodulate the voice signal and an additional receiver module can be added for processing of the digital data. The existing VHF AM transmitter requires only a slight modification for the addition of the digital data signal. The past work in the area is summarized and presented together with an improved system design and the proposed implementation.

  6. Module-based Hybrid Uncertainty Quantification for Multi-physics Applications: Theory and Software

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, Charles; Chen, Xiao; Iaccarino, Gianluca; Mittal, Akshay

    2013-10-08

    In this project we proposed to develop an innovative uncertainty quantification methodology that captures the best of the two competing approaches in UQ, namely, intrusive and non-intrusive approaches. The idea is to develop the mathematics and the associated computational framework and algorithms to facilitate the use of intrusive or non-intrusive UQ methods in different modules of a multi-physics multi-module simulation model in a way that physics code developers for different modules are shielded (as much as possible) from the chores of accounting for the uncertain ties introduced by the other modules. As the result of our research and development, we have produced a number of publications, conference presentations, and a software product.

  7. A hybrid silicon membrane spatial light modulator for optical information processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pape, D. R.; Hornbeck, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    A new two dimensional, fast, analog, electrically addressable, silicon based membrane spatial light modulator (SLM) was developed for optical information processing applications. Coherent light reflected from the mirror elements is phase modulated producing an optical Fourier transform of an analog signal input to the device. The DMD architecture and operating parameters related to this application are presented. A model is developed that describes the optical Fourier transform properties of the DMD.

  8. All-Optical Modulation of Localized Surface Plasmon Coupling in a Hybrid System Composed of Photo-Switchable Gratings and Au Nanodisk Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan Jun; Zheng, Yue Bing; Liou, Justin; Chiang, I-Kao; Khoo, Iam Choon; Huang, Tony Jun

    2011-01-01

    We conduct a real-time study of all-optical modulation of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) coupling in a hybrid system that integrates a photo-switchable optical grating with a gold nanodisk array. This hybrid system enables us to investigate two important interactions: 1) LSPR-enhanced grating diffraction, and 2) diffraction-mediated LSPR in the Au nanodisk array. The physical mechanism underlying these interactions was analyzed and experimentally confirmed. With its advantages in cost-effective fabrication, easy integration, and all-optical control, the hybrid system described in this work could be valuable in many nanophotonic applications. PMID:21643480

  9. Tissue culture triggers chromosome alterations, amplification, and transposition of repeat sequences in Allium fistulosum.

    PubMed

    Gernand, Dorota; Golczyk, Hieronim; Rutten, Twan; Ilnicki, Tomasz; Houben, Andreas; Joachimiak, Andrzej J

    2007-05-01

    Structural alterations in nuclei and chromosomes of cells derived from callus culture of Allium fistulosum have been studied with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using 5S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), 45S rDNA, and 375-bp repeat probes. A high frequency of chromosome abnormalities was found to be caused by the loss of telomere-located 375-bp repeats, chromosome fusion, and subsequent breakage-fusion-bridge cycles. Products of chromosome fusions and monocentric and regularly shaped chromosomes showed additional 375-bp repeat and 45S rDNA clusters at unusual sites, suggesting dynamic copy-number changes and transposition of these repeats. Southern hybridization revealed no differences in the 375-bp repeat and 45S rDNA repeat array order or the degree of methylation between DNA isolated from leaves or tissue-culture cells. In addition, protruding, spike-like structures positive for 375-bp repeats were identified on the surface of different-sized nuclei. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed the accumulation of densely packed chromatin within spike-like structures. Because root calyptra cells showed similar structures, it is likely that heterochromatic spike-like structures are a feature of nondividing cells at the onset of programmed cell death. PMID:17612612

  10. Electronic Structure Modulation of Metal–Organic Frameworks for Hybrid Devices

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The study of metal–organic frameworks has largely been motivated by their structural and chemical diversity; however, these materials also possess rich physics, including optical, electronic, and magnetic activity. If these materials are to be employed in devices, it is necessary to develop an understanding of their solid-state behavior. We report an approach to calculate the effect of strain on the band structure of porous frameworks. The origin of the bidirectional absolute deformation potentials can be described from perturbations of the organic and inorganic building blocks. The unified approach allows us to propose several uses for hybrid materials, beyond their traditionally posited applications, including gas sensing, photoelectrochemistry, and as hybrid transistors. PMID:25436990

  11. Contamination Control in Hybrid Microelectronic Modules. Part 1: Identification of Critical Process and Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Himmel, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    Various hybrid processing steps, handling procedures, and materials are examined in an attempt to identify sources of contamination and to propose methods for the control of these contaminants. It is found that package sealing, assembly, and rework are especially susceptible to contamination. Moisture and loose particles are identified as the worst contaminants. The points at which contaminants are most likely to enter the hybrid package are also identified, and both general and specific methods for their detection and control are developed. In general, the most effective controls for contaminants are: clean working areas, visual inspection at each step of the process, and effective cleaning at critical process steps. Specific methods suggested include the detection of loose particles by a precap visual inspection, by preseal and post-seal electrical testing, and by a particle impact noise test. Moisture is best controlled by sealing all packages in a clean, dry, inert atmosphere after a thorough bake-out of all parts.

  12. Mediastinal transposition of the omentum reduces infection severity and pharmacy cost for patients undergoing esophagectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Peng; Cao, Jin-Lin; Li, Qiu-Yuan; Wang, Zhi-Tian; Yang, Yun-Hai; Lv, Wang

    2016-01-01

    Background The greater omentum has been found to be immunologically competent in protecting abdominal organs from inflammation. Anastomotic omentoplasty has been used and proven effective in preventing anastomotic leaks after an esophagectomy. However, pulmonary complications are still a substantial problem after an esophagectomy. This study investigated the benefits of mediastinal transposition of the omentum, a modification of the conventional omental wrapping technique, in controlling overall postoperative intrathoracic complications. Methods From January 2010 to March 2015, 208 consecutive patients receiving an open Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy at our institution were retrospectively reviewed. One hundred twenty-one patients with omentum mediastinal transposition were assigned to the transposition group and 87 patients without omental transposition were placed in the non-transposition group. The patients’ demographics, postoperative short-term outcomes, and in-hospital cost were documented and analyzed. Results Mediastinal transposition of the omentum led to a shorter postoperative hospital stay (14 vs. 16 d, P=0.038) and a lower intrathoracic infection rate (30.6% vs. 48.3%, P=0.009). Intrathoracic infection was milder in the transposition group (P=0.005), though a non-significant was found in overall complications (P=0.071). The multivariate logistic regression analyses identified omentum mediastinal transposition (P=0.007, OR=0.415) as an independent protective factor for postoperative intrathoracic infection. The total in-hospital cost was comparable in both groups (P>0.05), whereas the pharmacy cost was lower in the transposition group than in the non-transposition group (¥21,668 vs. ¥27,012, P=0.010). Conclusions Mediastinal transposition of the omentum decreases the rate and severity of postoperative intrathoracic infection following an open Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy. This result in decreased pharmacy costs, rather than resulting in an increased economic

  13. Using Multimedia Learning Modules in a Hybrid-Online Course in Electricity and Magnetism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadaghiani, Homeyra R.

    2011-01-01

    We have been piloting web-based multimedia learning modules (MLMs), developed by the Physics Education Research Group at the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign (UIUC), as a "prelecture assignment" in several introductory physics courses at California State Polytechnic University at Pomona. In this study, we report the results from a…

  14. Transposition of the carbenicillin-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Katsu, K; Inoue, M; Mitsuhashi, S

    1982-01-01

    We isolated a new transposon Tn2101, from plasmid Rms433 in Enterobacter cloacae. Tn2101 encoded the formation of type IV (carbenicillin-hydrolyzing) beta-lactamase and multiple resistance to streptomycin, sulfanilamide, spectinomycin, and mercury in addition to ampicillin. Tn2101 was transposable between conjugative (or nonconjugative) plasmids and the host chromosome. Transposition occurred independently of the general recombination ability of the host cell. Tn2101 had a molecular size of 9.5 x 10(6) and contained short inverted repeat terminal sequences. Images PMID:6279559

  15. Anomalous Modulation of a Zero-Bias Peak in a Hybrid Nanowire-Superconductor Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finck, A. D. K.; Van Harlingen, D. J.; Mohseni, P. K.; Jung, K.; Li, X.

    2013-03-01

    We report on transport measurements of an InAs nanowire coupled to niobium nitride leads at high magnetic fields. We observe a zero-bias anomaly (ZBA) in the differential conductance of the nanowire for certain ranges of magnetic field and chemical potential. The ZBA can oscillate in width with either the magnetic field or chemical potential; it can even split and re-form. We discuss how our results relate to recent predictions of hybridizing Majorana fermions in semiconducting nanowires, while considering more mundane explanations.

  16. Quantitative security evaluation of optical encryption using hybrid phase- and amplitude-modulated keys.

    PubMed

    Sarkadi, Tamás; Koppa, Pál

    2012-02-20

    In the increasing number of system approaches published in the field of optical encryption, the security level of the system is evaluated by qualitative and empirical methods. To quantify the security of the optical system, we propose to use the equivalent of the key length routinely used in algorithmic encryption. We provide a calculation method of the number of independent keys and deduce the binary key length for optical data encryption. We then investigate and optimize the key length of the combined phase- and amplitude-modulated key encryption in the holographic storage environment, which is one of the promising solutions for the security enhancement of single- and double-random phase-encoding encryption and storage systems. We show that a substantial growth of the key length can be achieved by optimized phase and amplitude modulation compared to phase-only encryption. We also provide experimental confirmation of the model results.

  17. Ag nanocluster/DNA hybrids: functional modules for the detection of nitroaromatic and RDX explosives.

    PubMed

    Enkin, Natalie; Sharon, Etery; Golub, Eyal; Willner, Itamar

    2014-08-13

    Luminescent Ag nanoclusters (NCs) stabilized by nucleic acids are implemented as optical labels for the detection of the explosives picric acid, trinitrotoluene (TNT), and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). The sensing modules consist of two parts, a nucleic acid with the nucleic acid-stabilized Ag NCs and a nucleic acid functionalized with electron-donating units, including L-DOPA, L-tyrosine and 6-hydroxy-L-DOPA, self-assembled on a nucleic acid scaffold. The formation of donor-acceptor complexes between the nitro-substituted explosives, exhibiting electron-acceptor properties, and the electron-donating sites, associated with the sensing modules, concentrates the explosives in close proximity to the Ag NCs. This leads to the electron-transfer quenching of the luminescence of the Ag NCs by the explosive molecule. The quenching of the luminescence of the Ag NCs provides a readout signal for the sensing process. The sensitivities of the analytical platforms are controlled by the electron-donating properties of the donor substituents, and 6-hydroxy-L-DOPA was found to be the most sensitive donor. Picric acid, TNT, and RDX are analyzed with detection limits corresponding to 5.2 × 10(-12) M, 1.0 × 10(-12) M, and 3.0 × 10(-12) M, respectively, using the 6-hydroxy-L-DOPA-modified Ag NCs sensing module.

  18. 80-Channel Multiplexer-Demultiplexer Module for DWDM Communications using Hybrid AWG -- Interleaver Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rablau, Corneliu; Bredthauer, Lance

    2007-10-01

    Aside from the more traditional data, voice and e-mail communications, new bandwidth intensive applications in the larger consumer markets, such as music, digital pictures and movies, have led to an explosive increase in the demand for transmission capacity for optical communications networks. This has resulted in a widespread deployment of Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) as a means of increasing the communications capacity by multiplexing and transmitting signals of different wavelengths (establishing multiple communication channels) through a single strand of fiber. We report on the design, assembly and characterization of a 50-GHz, 80-channel Mux-Demux module for DWDM systems. The module has been assembled from two commercially available 100 GHz, 40-channel Array Waveguide Grating (AWG) modules and a 50-GHz to 100-GHz interleaver. Relevant performance parameters such as insertion loss, channel uniformity, next-channel isolation (crosstalk) and integrated cross-talk are presented and discussed in contrast with the performance of other competing technologies such as Thin-Film-Filter-based Mux-Demux devices.

  19. Hybrid polarization-division-multiplexed quadrature phase-shift keying and multi-pulse pulse position modulation for free space optical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wenxiao; Wu, Pengxia; Liu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    A new hybrid modulation scheme (PDM-QPSK-MPPM) for free space optical (FSO) communication is proposed in this paper, which is based on the combination of polarization-division-multiplexed quadrature phase-shift keying (PDM-QPSK) and multi-pulse pulse position modulation (MPPM). We describe the transmitter and receiver block diagram and the decoding scheme of proposed scheme, and derive the formulary expressions for symbol-error rate (SER) and upper bound of bit-error rate (BER) in Gamma-Gamma turbulence channel. Performance evaluations and comparisons are implemented through detailed analysis. The numerical results indicate that, under turbulence channel with average power constraint, the proposed hybrid PDM-QPSK-MPPM always offer better BER performance and SER performance than ordinary BPSK and MPPM. In addition, the proposed scheme offers higher bandwidth-utilization efficiency than conventional modulation formats.

  20. Surgical repair of lesions associated with corrected transposition. Late results.

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, J; Somerville, J

    1983-01-01

    Between 1970 and 1980 19 patients aged 13 months to 47 years (mean 16 years) had surgical repair of lesions associated with corrected transposition. Four had had previous palliative surgery. Operations were performed for ventricular septal defects in 17 (multiple in two), and in addition 10 had relief of pulmonary stenosis, three had atrial septal defects closed, and three had valve replacement for left atrioventricular valve regurgitation. Two patients had annuloplasty for isolated left atrioventricular valve regurgitation. There was a high operative mortality (37%). Twelve survivors left hospital and were followed up for three to eight years. There is concern about the high incidence of left atrioventricular valve regurgitation and progressive postoperative left sided ventricular dysfunction. Heart block after surgical intervention contributes to this, and careful pacemaker policies are necessary as two late deaths were related to this. Only one patient is asymptomatic and without complications 40 months after operation. These disappointing late results are partly related to the onset of heart block, but it seems that independent systemic ventricular function may deteriorate in some patients. Thus surgical treatment of lesions associated with corrected transposition should be recommended only in those with important symptoms or signs of changing systemic ventricular dysfunction. PMID:6639819

  1. Foldback intercoil DNA and the mechanism of DNA transposition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Dong

    2014-09-01

    Foldback intercoil (FBI) DNA is formed by the folding back at one point of a non-helical parallel track of double-stranded DNA at as sharp as 180° and the intertwining of two double helixes within each other's major groove to form an intercoil with a diameter of 2.2 nm. FBI DNA has been suggested to mediate intra-molecular homologous recombination of a deletion and inversion. Inter-molecular homologous recombination, known as site-specific insertion, on the other hand, is mediated by the direct perpendicular approach of the FBI DNA tip, as the attP site, onto the target DNA, as the attB site. Transposition of DNA transposons involves the pairing of terminal inverted repeats and 5-7-bp tandem target duplication. FBI DNA configuration effectively explains simple as well as replicative transposition, along with the involvement of an enhancer element. The majority of diverse retrotransposable elements that employ a target site duplication mechanism is also suggested to follow the FBI DNA-mediated perpendicular insertion of the paired intercoil ends by non-homologous end-joining, together with gap filling. A genome-wide perspective of transposable elements in light of FBI DNA is discussed.

  2. Storm Transposition- a Tool for Climate Change Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, K. W.; Hayden, N.; Liebl, D.

    2014-12-01

    For much of the world, climate models predict significant increases in the magnitude and frequency of extreme rainfalls. As a result communities are being encouraged to identify and reduce their vulnerability to extreme rainfalls. However, climate model projections of precipitation vary greatly across models. While there exist strategies for accommodating uncertainties in climate model projections, for various reasons seems unlikely that state and local governments will use any of them. For communities that have not experienced extreme storms in recent memory, useful information on their vulnerability can be obtained by hydrologic modeling based on high-resolution rainfall data from one or more extreme storms that have occurred elsewhere in the region. This approach, called storm transposition, was developed in the early 20th century when hydrologic times series were relatively short, and is still used today to estimate Probable Maximum Flood discharges for designing emergency spillways for hazardous dams. We present examples of the use of storm transposition for evaluating extreme rainfall vulnerabilities in Dane County, Wisconsin. Our findings suggest that state and local decision-makers are very receptive to using this approach to anticipate and adapt to impacts from extreme rainfall events.

  3. Interdigital neuroma: intermuscular neuroma transposition compared with resection.

    PubMed

    Colgrove, R C; Huang, E Y; Barth, A H; Greene, M A

    2000-03-01

    This prospective, randomized study compares the treatment of an interdigital neuroma (IDN) by the standard resection operation with a technique in which the IDN is transposed into the inter-muscular space between the adductor hallucis and the interossei muscles after division of the digital nerves distal to the IDN. The resection group contained 22 patients and 22 neuromas and the transposition group contained 22 patients and 23 neuromas. An interviewer, blinded as to the operative technique used, telephoned each patient preoperatively, and at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months, and 36-48 months postoperatively. The interviewer recorded the patient's reported pain level on a numerical rating scale of 0 to 100. In the resection group the average pain level was slightly lower through the first 6 month period, but at the 12 month review the resection group had a slightly higher average pain level . At the 36-48 month survey the resection group again reported a greater average pain level and fewer asymptomatic patients. It was concluded that it is unnecessary to excise the IDN to obtain excellent relief of pain. It was also concluded that transposition of the IDN into an intermuscular position between the adductor hallucis and the interossei muscles produced significantly better long term results than did the standard resection operation.

  4. Foldback intercoil DNA and the mechanism of DNA transposition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Dong

    2014-09-01

    Foldback intercoil (FBI) DNA is formed by the folding back at one point of a non-helical parallel track of double-stranded DNA at as sharp as 180° and the intertwining of two double helixes within each other's major groove to form an intercoil with a diameter of 2.2 nm. FBI DNA has been suggested to mediate intra-molecular homologous recombination of a deletion and inversion. Inter-molecular homologous recombination, known as site-specific insertion, on the other hand, is mediated by the direct perpendicular approach of the FBI DNA tip, as the attP site, onto the target DNA, as the attB site. Transposition of DNA transposons involves the pairing of terminal inverted repeats and 5-7-bp tandem target duplication. FBI DNA configuration effectively explains simple as well as replicative transposition, along with the involvement of an enhancer element. The majority of diverse retrotransposable elements that employ a target site duplication mechanism is also suggested to follow the FBI DNA-mediated perpendicular insertion of the paired intercoil ends by non-homologous end-joining, together with gap filling. A genome-wide perspective of transposable elements in light of FBI DNA is discussed. PMID:25317106

  5. Designing artificial photosynthetic devices using hybrid organic-inorganic modules based on polyoxometalates.

    PubMed

    Symes, Mark D; Cogdell, Richard J; Cronin, Leroy

    2013-08-13

    Artificial photosynthesis aims at capturing solar energy and using it to produce storable fuels. However, while there is reason to be optimistic that such approaches can deliver higher energy conversion efficiencies than natural photosynthetic systems, many serious challenges remain to be addressed. Perhaps chief among these is the issue of device stability. Almost all approaches to artificial photosynthesis employ easily oxidized organic molecules as light harvesters or in catalytic centres, frequently in solution with highly oxidizing species. The 'elephant in the room' in this regard is that oxidation of these organic moieties is likely to occur at least as rapidly as oxidation of water, meaning that current device performance is severely curtailed. Herein, we discuss one possible solution to this problem: using self-assembling organic-polyoxometalate hybrid structures to produce compartments inside which the individual component reactions of photosynthesis can occur without such a high incidence of deleterious side reactions.

  6. Development of high data readout rate pixel module and detector hybridization at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Sergio Zimmermann et al.

    2001-03-20

    This paper describes the baseline design and a variation of the pixel module to handle the data rate required for the BTeV experiment at Fermilab. The present prototype has shown good electrical performance characteristics. Indium bump bonding is proven to be capable of successful fabrication at 50 micron pitch on real detectors. For solder bumps at 50 micron pitch, much better results have been obtained with the fluxless PADS processed detectors. The results are adequate for our needs and our tests have validated it as a viable technology.

  7. Outgassing of lower hybrid antenna modules during high-power long-pulse transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Goniche, M.; Kazarian, F.; Bibet, P.; Maebara, S.; Seki, M.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, T.

    2005-01-01

    During high-power, long-pulse transmission from lower-hybrid-range-of-frequency (LHRF) antennas, the waveguide walls outgas as a result of rf-loss-induced heating. If the resulting pressure rise is too high, power transmission will be adversely affected and additional pumping may be required to maintain the pressure at a low enough value. The outgassing rates of waveguides made of various materials (oxygen-free high-conductivity copper, dispersoid copper, copper-coated carbon fiber composite, copper-coated graphite) were measured during rf injection at high power density (50-200 MW/m{sup 2}) for a duration in the range 100-4700 s. The experiments were performed on a test-bed facility equipped with a 3.7 GHz klystron on multiwaveguide (2 to 18) mock-ups. The effect of the main parameters, namely, the waveguide surface temperature and the initial wall gas loading ('conditioning'), are analyzed in detail. It is concluded that an outgassing rate of 1x10{sup -5} (5x10{sup -5}) Pa m{sup 3} s{sup -1} m{sup -2} at 300 deg. C (400 deg. C) can be considered for most materials. The requirement, in terms of additional pumping, for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor LHRF antenna is finally discussed.

  8. Rocking-chair configuration in ultrathin lithium vanadate-graphene hybrid nanosheets for electrical modulation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haiou; Qin, Xinming; Sun, Xu; Yan, Wensheng; Yang, Jinlong; Xie, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The ability to control electronic property of a material by externally applied voltage is greatly anticipated in modern electronics, and graphene provide potential application foreground for this issue on account of its exotic ambipolar transport property. In this study, we proposed that inorganic-graphene intercalated nanosheet is an effective solution to optimize the transport property of graphene. As an example, lithium vanadate-graphene (LiVO-graphene) alternately intercalated nanosheets were designed and successfully synthesized. Theoretical calculation implied that its rocking chair configuration may provide a new pathway to switch the carrier in graphene layer between p-type and n-type while the position of embedded Li ions is controlled by an external field. Thus, a demo transistor was fabricated with layer-by-layer overlapping of LiVO-graphene nanosheets which proved that this inorganic-graphene structure could be used for electrical modulation in electronic devices.

  9. Hybrid silicon-electro-optic-polymer integrated high-performance optical modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xingyu; Hosseini, Amir; Luo, Jingdong; Jen, Alex K.-Y.; Chen, Ray T.

    2014-03-01

    We design and demonstrate a compact and low-power band-engineered electro-optic (EO) polymer refilled silicon slot photonic crystal waveguide (PCW) modulator. The EO polymer is engineered for large EO activity and nearinfrared transparency. A PCW step coupler is used for optimum coupling to the slow-light mode of the bandengineered PCW. The half-wave switching-voltage is measured to be Vπ=0.97+/-0.02V over optical spectrum range of 8nm, corresponding to the effective in-device r33 of 1190pm/V and Vπ×L of 0.291+/-0.006V×mm in a push-pull configuration. Excluding the slow-light effect, we estimate the EO polymer is poled with an efficiency of 89pm/V in the slot.

  10. Transposition driven genomic heterogeneity in the Drosophila brain*

    PubMed Central

    Perrat, Paola N.; DasGupta, Shamik; Wang, Jie; Theurkauf, William; Weng, Zhiping; Rosbash, Michael; Waddell, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies in mammals have documented neural expression and mobility of retrotransposons and suggested that neural genomes are diverse mosaics. Here we report transposition in memory-relevant neurons in the Drosophila brain. Cell-type specific gene expression profiling revealed transposon expression is more abundant in mushroom body (MB) αβ neurons than in neighboring MB neurons. The PIWI-RNA (piRNA) proteins Aubergine and Argonaute 3, known to suppress transposons in the fly germline, are expressed in the brain and appear less abundant in αβ MB neurons. Loss of piRNA proteins correlates with elevated transposon expression in brain. Lastly, paired-end deep sequencing identified over 200 de novo transposon insertions in αβ neurons, including events into memory-relevant loci. Our observations indicate that genomic heterogeneity is a conserved feature of the brain. PMID:23559253

  11. UV-patternable inorganic-organic hybrid materials tailored for use in electro-optic modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himmelhuber, Roland; DeRose, Christopher C.; Norwood, Robert A.; Peyghambarian, Nasser

    2008-08-01

    Passive sol-gel materials play an important role in the development of electro-optic(EO) polymer-based modulators, because of their variety of available refractive indices. They can be used to form passive waveguide transitions to minimize coupling loss or as cladding layers for the EO polymer. The demands for these two applications are different. For waveguide transitions the most important factor is the optical loss. Cladding layers should have a relatively high conductivity at elevated temperatures to improve poling efficiency. Both demands are addressed in this study. The synthesis of low loss (down to 0.45 dB/cm) sol-gel materials is shown. Slab waveguides as well as ridge waveguides were fabricated and characterized by liquid prism measurements and cut-back loss measurements, respectively. For use in cladding layers surrounding the EO polymer, materials with higher conductivity were developed. The conductivity of the materials was increased, (3•10-9 S/m) through the use of a silane, which allows in situ formation of proton donating functionalities. All developed materials can be used as solvent free resins, which enables classic photolithography as well as patterning by UV-imprinting. The available refractive index range (at 1.55 μm) is from 1.495 to 1.562.

  12. Control of a small robot using a hybrid optical modulating retro-reflector/RF link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, James L.; Ferraro, Mike S.; Rabinovich, William S.; Goetz, Peter G.; Suite, Michele R.; Uecke, Stanley H.

    2014-06-01

    Tele-operated robots used for Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) are ordinarily controlled using a radio frequency (RF) link. Use of RF links on the battlefield presents several challenges including spectrum allocation and jamming effects (both by the enemy and friendly forces). Several solutions have been attempted including electrical or fiber optic umbilicals and spread spectrum radios with varying degrees of success. Modulating Retro-reflector Free Space Optical (MRR-FSO) communications links avoid these effects entirely but are limited to line of sight operation. We have developed a system consisting of an MRR-FSO link with a tracking optical terminal, a conventional RF link and a deployable pod to provide a relay node bridging the FSO link to the operator and the RF link to the robot. The MRRFSO link provides the capability to operate the robot in the presence of jamming while the RF link allows short range non line of sight operation. The operator uses the MRR-FSO link to drive the robot to a position downrange outside the influence of the jammer or other interference. Once the robot is positioned downrange near the area of operation the pod is deployed. This allows the robot to maneuver freely including venturing beyond line of sight using the short range RF link to maintain communications between the vehicle and pod while the FSO link maintains connectivity between the pod and the operator.

  13. Increased Ac excision (iae): Arabidopsis thaliana mutations affecting Ac transposition.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, P; Belzile, F; Page, T; Dean, C

    1997-05-01

    The maize transposable element Ac is highly active in the heterologous hosts tobacco and tomato, but shows very much reduced levels of activity in Arabidopsis. A mutagenesis experiment was undertaken with the aim of identifying Arabidopsis host factors responsible for the observed low levels of Ac activity. Seed from a line carrying a single copy of the Ac element inserted into the streptomycin phosphotransferase (SPT) reporter fusion, and which displayed typically low levels of Ac activity, were mutagenized using gamma rays. Nineteen mutants displaying high levels of somatic Ac activity, as judged by their highly variegated phenotypes, were isolated after screening the M2 generation on streptomycin-containing medium. The mutations fall into two complementation groups, iae1 and iae2, are unlinked to the SPT::Ac locus and segregate in a Mendelian fashion. The iae1 mutation is recessive and the iae2 mutation is semi-dominant. The iae1 and iae2 mutants show 550- and 70-fold increases, respectively, in the average number of Ac excision sectors per cotyledon. The IAE1 locus maps to chromosome 2, whereas the SPT::Ac reporter maps to chromosome 3. A molecular study of Ac activity in the iae1 mutant confirmed the very high levels of Ac excision predicted using the phenotypic assay, but revealed only low levels of Ac re-insertion. Analyses of germinal transposition in the iae1 mutant demonstrated an average germinal excision frequency of 3% and a frequency of independent Ac re-insertions following germinal excision of 22%. The iae mutants represents a possible means of improving the efficiency of Ac/Ds transposon tagging systems in Arabidopsis, and will enable the dissection of host involvement in Ac transposition and the mechanisms employed for controlling transposable element activity.

  14. Ensemble predictions of runoff using hydrograph transpositions to ungauged basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lavenne, Alban; Cudennec, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Regionalisation is one common approach for modelling streamflow in ungauged basins. It is sometimes performed on the basis of ensemble modelling and model averaging through the play of parameters of rainfall-runoff models. We propose an original approach for ensemble modelling by transposing physically based time series rather than model's parameters. We applied the approach on 6 sub-basins of the Blavet river in Brittany (France) with area varying from 5 km² to 316 km². Inside this sample of gauged basins, the water provided by hillslopes to the network at a basin scale, called the net rainfall, is assessed by inverting their simple geomorphology based network transfer function. Those net rainfall time series, estimated at an hourly time step on each gauged basin separately, summarise the hydrological behaviour of their hillslopes without the need of any complex modelling. Moreover, it has the advantage of being relatively scale independent which enables its transposition among basins. Once this net rainfall is transposed to an ungauged basin, it is reconvoluted using its own transfer function in order to estimate the hydrograph therein. We propose to combine several gauged basins to perform ensemble modelling prediction. This ensemble modelling provides an indication of uncertainty. Although it is not a robust estimate of the possible flow range, it informs about the variability of basins behaviour inside the studied region and, as a consequence, the relative confidence in those transpositions of hydrograph. By selecting donor basins according to their similarity to the ungauged one, we aim to improve prediction accuracy, reduce uncertainty and check the best way to define hydrological similarity for the choice of the donor basin. It is demonstrated that spatial proximity provides a relatively robust estimate of the best donor basin, and giving more importance to similar basins does not necessarily lead to higher accuracy in simulations compared to a simple net

  15. Transposition of Great Arteries: New Insights into the Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Unolt, Marta; Putotto, Carolina; Silvestri, Lucia M.; Marino, Dario; Scarabotti, Alessia; Valerio Massaccesi; Caiaro, Angela; Versacci, Paolo; Marino, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Transposition of great arteries (TGA) is one of the most common and severe congenital heart diseases (CHD). It is also one of the most mysterious CHD because it has no precedent in phylogenetic and ontogenetic development, it does not represent an alternative physiological model of blood circulation and its etiology and morphogenesis are still largely unknown. However, recent epidemiologic, experimental, and genetic data suggest new insights into the pathogenesis. TGA is very rarely associated with the most frequent genetic syndromes, such as Turner, Noonan, Williams or Marfan syndromes, and in Down syndrome, it is virtually absent. The only genetic syndrome with a strong relation with TGA is Heterotaxy. In lateralization defects TGA is frequently associated with asplenia syndrome. Moreover, TGA is rather frequent in cases of isolated dextrocardia with situs solitus, showing link with defect of visceral situs. Nowadays, the most reliable method to induce TGA consists in treating pregnant mice with retinoic acid or with retinoic acid inhibitors. Following such treatment not only cases of TGA with d-ventricular loop have been registered, but also some cases of congenitally corrected transposition of great arteries (CCTGA). In another experiment, the embryos of mice treated with retinoic acid in day 6.5 presented Heterotaxy, suggesting a relationship among these morphologically different CHD. In humans, some families, beside TGA cases, present first-degree relatives with CCTGA. This data suggest that monogenic inheritance with a variable phenotypic expression could explain the familial aggregation of TGA and CCTGA. In some of these families we previously found multiple mutations in laterality genes including Nodal and ZIC3, confirming a pathogenetic relation between TGA and Heterotaxy. These overall data suggest to include TGA in the pathogenetic group of laterality defects instead of conotruncal abnormalities due to ectomesenchymal tissue migration. PMID:24400257

  16. Magnetically modulated electroluminescence from hybrid organic/inorganic light-emitting diodes based on electron donor-acceptor exciplex blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Zhiyong; Baniya, Sangita; Zhang, Chuang; Sun, Dali; Vardeny, Z. Valy

    2016-03-01

    We report room temperature magnetically modulated electroluminescence from a hybrid organic/inorganic light-emitting diode (h-OLED), in which an inorganic magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) with large room temperature magnetoresistance is coupled to an N,N,N ',N '-Tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)benzidine (MeO-TPD): tris-[3-(3-pyridyl)mesityl]borane (3TPYMB) [D-A] based OLED that shows thermally activated delayed luminescence. The exciplex-based OLED provides two spin-mixing channels: upper energy channel of polaron pairs and lower energy channel of exciplexes. In operation, the large resistance mismatch between the MTJ and OLED components is suppressed due to the non-linear I-V characteristic of the OLED. This leads to enhanced giant magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) at room temperature. We measured MEL of ~ 75% at ambient conditions. Supported by SAMSUNG Global Research Outreach (GRO) program, and also by the NSF-Material Science & Engineering Center (MRSEC) program at the University of Utah (DMR-1121252).

  17. Field-effect-based multifunctional hybrid sensor module for the determination of both (bio-)chemical and physical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoening, Michael J.; Poghossian, Arshak; Schultze, J. Walter; Lueth, Hans

    2002-02-01

    Sensor systems for multi-parameter detection in fluidics usually combine different sensors, which are designed to detect either a physical or (bio-)chemical parameter. Therefore, such systems include a more complicated fabrication technology and measuring set-up. In this work, an ISFET (ion-sensitive field-effect transistor), which is well known as a (bio-)chemical sensor, is utilized as transducer for the detection of both (bio-)chemical and physical parameters. A multifunctional hybrid module for the determination of two (bio-)chemical parameters (pH, penicillin concentration) and three physical parameters (temperature, flow velocity and flow direction) using only two sensor structures, an ion generator and a reference electrode, is realized and its performance has been investigated. Here, a multifunctionality of the sensor system is achieved by means of different sensor arrangements and/or different operation modes. A Ta2O5-gate ISFET was used as transducer for all sensors. A novel time-of-flight type ISFET-based flow-velocity (flow rate) and flow-direction sensor using in-situ electrochemical generation of chemical tracers is presented. Due to the fast response of the ISFET (usually in the millisecond range), an ISFET-based flow sensor is suitable for the measurement of the flow velocity in a wide range. With regard to practical applications, pH measurements with this ISFET were performed in rain droplets.

  18. Electric field-induced transport modulation in VO2 FETs with high-k oxide/organic parylene-C hybrid gate dielectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Tingting; Kanki, Teruo; Fujiwara, Kohei; Chikanari, Masashi; Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2016-02-01

    We report on the observation of reversible and immediate resistance switching by high-k oxide Ta2O5/organic parylene-C hybrid dielectric-gated VO2 thin films. Resistance change ratios at various temperatures in the insulating regime were demonstrated to occur in the vicinity of phase transition temperature. We also found an asymmetric hole-electron carrier modulation related to the suppression of phase transition temperature. The results in this research provide a possibility for clarifying the origin of metal-insulator transition in VO2 through the electrostatic field-induced transport modulation.

  19. Anatomically corrected malposed great arteries misdiagnosed as transposition of great arteries: Diagnosis on fetal echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vivek; Shah, Sejal

    2016-01-01

    We present a diagnosis of isolated anatomically corrected malposed great arteries on fetal echocardiography at 31 weeks of gestation period. The patient was referred to our institute with a diagnosis of suspected transposition of great arteries. PMID:27625528

  20. A novel case of L-transposition with a right-dominant double aortic arch.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, David J; Glatz, Jenifer; Weinberg, Paul M; Gillespie, Matthew J

    2009-01-01

    We describe a case of congenitally corrected transposition with a double aortic arch. This unique combination of lesions highlights the importance of a complete anatomic assessment prior to referral for surgery. PMID:19664032

  1. Anatomically corrected malposed great arteries misdiagnosed as transposition of great arteries: Diagnosis on fetal echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vivek; Shah, Sejal

    2016-01-01

    We present a diagnosis of isolated anatomically corrected malposed great arteries on fetal echocardiography at 31 weeks of gestation period. The patient was referred to our institute with a diagnosis of suspected transposition of great arteries. PMID:27625528

  2. The Hybrid Propellant Module (HPM): A New Concept for Space Transfer in the Earth's Neighborhood and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mankins, John C.; Mazanek, Daniel D.

    2001-01-01

    The safe, affordable and effective transfer of ever-larger payloads and eventually personnel beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) is a major challenge facing future commercial development and human exploration of space. Without reusable systems, sustained exploration or large scale development beyond LEO appears to be economically non-viable. However, reusable systems must be capable of both good fuel efficiency and "high utilization of capacity", or else economic costs will remain unacceptably high. Various options exist that can provide high fuel efficiency - for example, Solar Electric Propulsion Systems (SEPS) - but only at the cost of low thrust and concomitant long transit times. Chemical propulsion systems offer the potential for high thrust and short transit times - including both cryogenic and non-cryogenic options - but only at the cost of relatively low specific impulse (Isp). Nuclear thermal propulsion systems offer relatively good thrust-to-weight and Isp - but involve public concerns that may be insurmountable for all except the most-critical of public purposes. Fixed infrastructures have been suggested as one approach to solving this challenge; for example, rotating tether approaches. However, these systems tend to suffer from high initial costs or unacceptable operational constraints. A new concept has been identified - the Hybrid Propellant Module (HPM) - that integrates the best features of both chemical and solar electric transportation architectures. The HPM approach appears to hold promise of solving the issues associated with other approaches, opening a new family of capabilities for future space exploration and development of near-Earth space and beyond. This paper provides a summary overview of the challenge of Earth neighborhood transportation and discusses how various systems concepts might be applied to meet the needs of these architectures. The paper describes a new approach, the HPM, and illustrates the application of the concept for a typical

  3. Alternative Transposition Generates New Chimeric Genes and Segmental Duplications at the Maize p1 Locus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dafang; Yu, Chuanhe; Zuo, Tao; Zhang, Jianbo; Weber, David F; Peterson, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    The maize Ac/Ds transposon family was the first transposable element system identified and characterized by Barbara McClintock. Ac/Ds transposons belong to the hAT family of class II DNA transposons. We and others have shown that Ac/Ds elements can undergo a process of alternative transposition in which the Ac/Ds transposase acts on the termini of two separate, nearby transposons. Because these termini are present in different elements, alternative transposition can generate a variety of genome alterations such as inversions, duplications, deletions, and translocations. Moreover, Ac/Ds elements transpose preferentially into genic regions, suggesting that structural changes arising from alternative transposition may potentially generate chimeric genes at the rearrangement breakpoints. Here we identified and characterized 11 independent cases of gene fusion induced by Ac alternative transposition. In each case, a functional chimeric gene was created by fusion of two linked, paralogous genes; moreover, each event was associated with duplication of the ∼70-kb segment located between the two paralogs. An extant gene in the maize B73 genome that contains an internal duplication apparently generated by an alternative transposition event was also identified. Our study demonstrates that alternative transposition-induced duplications may be a source for spontaneous creation of diverse genome structures and novel genes in maize. PMID:26434719

  4. Alternative Transposition Generates New Chimeric Genes and Segmental Duplications at the Maize p1 Locus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dafang; Yu, Chuanhe; Zuo, Tao; Zhang, Jianbo; Weber, David F; Peterson, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    The maize Ac/Ds transposon family was the first transposable element system identified and characterized by Barbara McClintock. Ac/Ds transposons belong to the hAT family of class II DNA transposons. We and others have shown that Ac/Ds elements can undergo a process of alternative transposition in which the Ac/Ds transposase acts on the termini of two separate, nearby transposons. Because these termini are present in different elements, alternative transposition can generate a variety of genome alterations such as inversions, duplications, deletions, and translocations. Moreover, Ac/Ds elements transpose preferentially into genic regions, suggesting that structural changes arising from alternative transposition may potentially generate chimeric genes at the rearrangement breakpoints. Here we identified and characterized 11 independent cases of gene fusion induced by Ac alternative transposition. In each case, a functional chimeric gene was created by fusion of two linked, paralogous genes; moreover, each event was associated with duplication of the ∼70-kb segment located between the two paralogs. An extant gene in the maize B73 genome that contains an internal duplication apparently generated by an alternative transposition event was also identified. Our study demonstrates that alternative transposition-induced duplications may be a source for spontaneous creation of diverse genome structures and novel genes in maize.

  5. Transposition of a rice Mutator-like element in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dongyan; Ferguson, Ann; Jiang, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Mutator-like transposable elements (MULEs) are widespread in plants and are well known for their high transposition activity as well as their ability to duplicate and amplify host gene fragments. Despite their abundance and importance, few active MULEs have been identified. In this study, we demonstrated that a rice (Oryza sativa) MULE, Os3378, is capable of excising and reinserting in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), suggesting that yeast harbors all the host factors for the transposition of MULEs. The transposition activity induced by the wild-type transposase is low but can be altered by modification of the transposase sequence, including deletion, fusion, and substitution. Particularly, fusion of a fluorescent protein to the transposase enhanced the transposition activity, representing another approach to manipulate transposases. Moreover, we identified a critical region in the transposase where the net charge of the amino acids seems to be important for activity. Finally, transposition efficiency is also influenced by the element and its flanking sequences (i.e., small elements are more competent than their large counterparts). Perfect target site duplication is favorable, but not required, for precise excision. In addition to the potential application in functional genomics, this study provides the foundation for further studies of the transposition mechanism of MULEs.

  6. Alternative Transposition Generates New Chimeric Genes and Segmental Duplications at the Maize p1 Locus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dafang; Yu, Chuanhe; Zuo, Tao; Zhang, Jianbo; Weber, David F.; Peterson, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The maize Ac/Ds transposon family was the first transposable element system identified and characterized by Barbara McClintock. Ac/Ds transposons belong to the hAT family of class II DNA transposons. We and others have shown that Ac/Ds elements can undergo a process of alternative transposition in which the Ac/Ds transposase acts on the termini of two separate, nearby transposons. Because these termini are present in different elements, alternative transposition can generate a variety of genome alterations such as inversions, duplications, deletions, and translocations. Moreover, Ac/Ds elements transpose preferentially into genic regions, suggesting that structural changes arising from alternative transposition may potentially generate chimeric genes at the rearrangement breakpoints. Here we identified and characterized 11 independent cases of gene fusion induced by Ac alternative transposition. In each case, a functional chimeric gene was created by fusion of two linked, paralogous genes; moreover, each event was associated with duplication of the ∼70-kb segment located between the two paralogs. An extant gene in the maize B73 genome that contains an internal duplication apparently generated by an alternative transposition event was also identified. Our study demonstrates that alternative transposition-induced duplications may be a source for spontaneous creation of diverse genome structures and novel genes in maize. PMID:26434719

  7. Anconeus muscle transposition for chronic lateral epicondylitis, recurrences, and complications.

    PubMed

    Luchetti, Riccardo; Atzei, Andrea; Brunelli, Francesco; Fairplay, Tracy

    2005-06-01

    The use of the anconeus muscle in the treatment of chronic lateral epicondylitis (CLE), recurrences, and infection is presented. In chronic lateral epicondylitis, a wide degenerative area of epicondyle tendon is not frequently found, but when it occurs, its treatment is quite difficult. Recurrences of CLE and superficial or articular infections of the radiohumeral joint after surgical treatment or cortisone infiltrations are 2 more major conditions in which the use of anconeus muscle transposition demonstrated to be a promising technique. The procedure is widely described based on personal experience of 13 cases, 8 of which were CLE (group 1), and 5 recurrences and infection (group 2). Rotation of this muscle close to the epicondyle makes it possible to cover the epicondyle bone and the exposed radiohumeral joint in all cases. Additional surgical time usually requires only an extra 15 minutes. At the mean follow-up of 74 and 55 months, all the patients of the first group were painless, and the patients of the second group showed a decrease in pain from 9 to 3. Patients of the 2 groups returned to their previous work with a complete recovery of elbow range of motion and grip strength.

  8. Flood Frequency Analyses Using a Modified Stochastic Storm Transposition Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, N. Z.; Kiani, M.

    2015-12-01

    Research shows that areas with similar topography and climatic environment have comparable precipitation occurrences. Reproduction and realization of historical rainfall events provide foundations for frequency analysis and the advancement of meteorological studies. Stochastic Storm Transposition (SST) is a method for such a purpose and enables us to perform hydrologic frequency analyses by transposing observed historical storm events to the sites of interest. However, many previous studies in SST reveal drawbacks from simplified Probability Density Functions (PDFs) without considering restrictions for transposing rainfalls. The goal of this study is to stochastically examine the impacts of extreme events on all locations in a homogeneity zone. Since storms with the same probability of occurrence on homogenous areas do not have the identical hydrologic impacts, the authors utilize detailed precipitation parameters including the probability of occurrence of certain depth and the number of occurrence of extreme events, which are both incorporated into a joint probability function. The new approach can reduce the bias from uniformly transposing storms which erroneously increases the probability of occurrence of storms in areas with higher rainfall depths. This procedure is iterated to simulate storm events for one thousand years as the basis for updating frequency analysis curves such as IDF and FFA. The study area is the Upper Trinity River watershed including the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex with a total area of 6,500 mi2. It is the first time that SST method is examined in such a wide scale with 20 years of radar rainfall data.

  9. Theoretical investigation of ultracompact and athermal Si electro-optic modulator based on Cu-TiO2-Si hybrid plasmonic donut resonator.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shiyang; Lo, G Q; Kwong, D L

    2013-05-20

    An ultracompact silicon electro-optic modulator operating at 1550-nm telecom wavelengths is proposed and analyzed theoretically, which consists of a Cu-TiO(2)-Si hybrid plasmonic donut resonator evanescently coupled with a conventional Si channel waveguide. Owing to a negative thermo-optic coefficient of TiO(2) (~-1.8 × 10(-4) K(-1)), the real part of effective modal index of the curved Cu-TiO(2)-Si hybrid waveguide can be temperature-independent (i.e., athermal) if the TiO(2) interlayer and the beneath Si core have a certain thickness ratio. A voltage applied between the ring-shaped Cu cap and a cylinder metal electrode positioned at the center of the donut,--which makes Ohmic contact to Si, induces a ~1-nm-thick free-electron accumulation layer at the TiO(2)/Si interface. The optical field intensity in this thin accumulation layer is significantly enhanced if the accumulation concentration is sufficiently large (i.e., > ~6 × 10(20) cm(-3)), which in turn modulates both the resonance wavelengths and the extinction ratio of the donut resonator simultaneously. For a modulator with the total footprint inclusive electrodes of ~8.6 μm(2), 50-nm-thick TiO(2), and 160-nm-thick Si core, FDTD simulation predicts that it has an insertion loss of ~2 dB, a modulation depth of ~8 dB at a voltage swing of ~6 V, a speed-of-response of ~35 GHz, and a switching energy of ~0.45 pJ/bit, and it is athermal around room temperature. The modulator's performances can be further improved by optimization of the coupling strength between the bus waveguide and the donut resonator.

  10. Tissue culture-induced transpositional activity of mPing is correlated with cytosine methylation in rice

    PubMed Central

    Ngezahayo, Frédéric; Xu, Chunming; Wang, Hongyan; Jiang, Lily; Pang, Jinsong; Liu, Bao

    2009-01-01

    Background mPing is an endogenous MITE in the rice genome, which is quiescent under normal conditions but can be induced towards mobilization under various stresses. The cellular mechanism responsible for modulating the activity of mPing remains unknown. Cytosine methylation is a major epigenetic modification in most eukaryotes, and the primary function of which is to serve as a genome defense system including taming activity of transposable elements (TEs). Given that tissue-culture is capable of inducing both methylation alteration and mPing transposition in certain rice genotypes, it provides a tractable system to investigate the possible relationship between the two phenomena. Results mPing transposition and cytosine methylation alteration were measured in callus and regenerated plants in three rice (ssp. indica) genotypes, V14, V27 and R09. All three genotypes showed transposition of mPing, though at various frequencies. Cytosine methylation alteration occurred both at the mPing-flanks and at random loci sampled globally in callus and regenerated plants of all three genotypes. However, a sharp difference in the changing patterns was noted between the mPing-flanks and random genomic loci, with a particular type of methylation modification, i.e., CNG hypermethylation, occurred predominantly at the mPing-flanks. Pearson's test on pairwise correlations indicated that mPing activity is positively correlated with specific patterns of methylation alteration at random genomic loci, while the element's immobility is positively correlated with methylation levels of the mPing's 5'-flanks. Bisulfite sequencing of two mPing-containing loci showed that whereas for the immobile locus loss of CG methylation in the 5'-flank was accompanied by an increase in CHG methylation, together with an overall increase in methylation of all three types (CG, CHG and CHH) in the mPing-body region, for the active locus erasure of CG methylation in the 5'-flank was not followed by such a

  11. Fabrication and characterization of a hybrid SOI 1×4 silicon-slot optical modulator array incorporating EO polymers for optical phased-array antenna applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Richard S.; Szep, Attila; Usechak, Nicholas G.; Chen, Antao; Sun, Haishan; Shi, Shouyuan; Abeysinghe, Don; You, Young-Hwan; Dalton, Larry R.

    2012-03-01

    Optical phased arrays are promising candidates for both RF signal processing and optical beam forming and steering. These platforms not only enable accurate electrically controlled beam steering at high frequencies but also have the potential to significantly improve the performance of future free-space optical communications systems. In this work we exploit recent advancements in both nano-scale hybrid silicon-slot waveguides and electro-optic (EO) polymers to demonstrate an integrated optical phased-array antenna. Specifically, we create a hybrid integrated "photonic circuit" that connects an array of optical phase modulators, fed by a common optical signal and a 1x4 splitter, to a compact optical waveguide diffraction array for optical beam steering applications. The fundamental characteristics of the resulting integrated optical beam former, including the optical insertion loss, driving voltage, and phase control from the waveguide aperture are summarized in this letter.

  12. IHF is the limiting host factor in transposition of Pseudomonas putida transposon Tn4652 in stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Ilves, Heili; Hõrak, Rita; Teras, Riho; Kivisaar, Maia

    2004-03-01

    Transpositional activity of mobile elements is not constant. Conditional regulation of host factors involved in transposition may severely change the activity of mobile elements. We have demonstrated previously that transposition of Tn4652 in Pseudomonas putida is a stationary phase-specific event, which requires functional sigma S (Ilves et al., 2001, J Bacteriol 183: 5445-5448). We hypothesized that integration host factor (IHF), the concentration of which is increased in starving P. putida, might contribute to the transposition of Tn4652 as well. Here, we demonstrate that transposition of Tn4652 in stationary phase P. putida is essentially limited by the amount of IHF. No transposition of Tn4652 occurs in a P. putida ihfA-defective strain. Moreover, overexpression of IHF results in significant enhancement of transposition compared with the wild-type strain. This indicates that the amount of IHF is a bottleneck in Tn4652 transposition. Gel mobility shift and DNase I footprinting studies revealed that IHF is necessary for the binding of transposase to both transposon ends. In vitro, transposase can bind to inverted repeats of transposon only after the binding of IHF. The results obtained in this study indicate that, besides sigma S, IHF is another host factor that is implicated in the elevation of transposition in stationary phase. PMID:15009901

  13. Evolution and organization of the fibrinogen locus on chromosome 4: gene duplication accompanied by transposition and inversion.

    PubMed Central

    Kant, J A; Fornace, A J; Saxe, D; Simon, M I; McBride, O W; Crabtree, G R

    1985-01-01

    Human fibrinogen cDNA probes for the alpha-, beta-, and gamma-polypeptide chains have been used to isolate the corresponding genes from human genomic libraries. There is a single copy of each gene. Restriction endonuclease analysis of isolated genomic clones and human genomic DNA indicates that the human alpha-, beta-, and gamma-fibrinogen genes are closely linked in a 50-kilobase region of a single human chromosome: the alpha-gene in the middle flanked by the beta-gene on one side and the gamma-gene on the other. The alpha- and gamma-chain genes are oriented in tandem and transcribed toward the beta-chain gene. The beta-chain gene is transcribed from the opposite DNA strand toward the gamma- and alpha-chain genes. The three genes have been localized to the distal third of the long arm of chromosome 4, bands q23-q32, by in situ hybridization with fibrinogen cDNAs and by examination of DNA from multiple rodent-human somatic cell hybrids. Alternative explanations for the present arrangement of the three fibrinogen genes involve either a three-step mechanism with inversion of the alpha/gamma-region or a two-step mechanism involving remote transposition and inversion. The second more simple mechanism has a precedent in the origin of repeated regions of the fibrinogen and immunoglobulin genes. Images PMID:2986113

  14. Amplified all-optical polarization phase modulator assisted by a local surface plasmon in Au-hybrid CdSe quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Kyhm, Kwangseuk; Je, Koo-Chul; Taylor, Robert A

    2012-08-27

    We propose an amplified all-optical polarization phase modulator assisted by a local surface plasmon in Au-hybrid CdSe quantum dots. When the local surface plasmon of a spherical Au quantum dot is in resonance with the exciton energy level of a CdSe quantum dot, a significant enhancement of the linear and nonlinear refractive index is found in both the real and imaginary terms via the interaction with the dipole field of the local surface plasmon. Given a gating pulse intensity, an elliptical polarization induced by the phase retardation is described in terms of elliptical and rotational angles. In the case that a larger excitation than the bleaching intensity is applied, the signal light can be amplified due to the presence of gain in the CdSe quantum dot. This enables a longer propagation of the signal light relative to the metal loss, resulting in more feasible polarization modulation.

  15. Voltage balancing: Long-term experience with the 250 V supercapacitor module of the hybrid fuel cell vehicle HY-LIGHT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kötz, R.; Sauter, J.-C.; Ruch, P.; Dietrich, P.; Büchi, F. N.; Magne, P. A.; Varenne, P.

    On the occasion of the "Challenge Bibendum" 2004 in Shanghai, the hybrid fuel cell-supercapacitor vehicle HY-LIGHT, a joint project of Conception et Développement Michelin and the Paul Scherrer Institut, was presented to the public. The drive train of this vehicle comprises a 30 kW polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) and a 250 V supercapacitor (SC) module for energy recuperation and boost power during short acceleration and start-up processes. The supercapacitor module was deliberately constructed without continuous voltage balancing units. The performance of the supercapacitor module was monitored over the 2 years of operation particularly with respect to voltage balancing of the large number of SC cells connected in series. During the investigated period of 19 months and about 7000 km driving, the voltage imbalance within the supercapacitor module proved negligible. The maximum deviation between best and worst SC was always below 120 mV and the capacitor with the highest voltage never exceeded the nominal voltage by more than 40 mV.

  16. An experimental distribution of analog and digital information in a hybrid wireless visible light communication system based on acousto-optic modulation and sinusoidal gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez Colín, R.; García Juárez, A.; Zaldívar Huerta, I. E.; Marquina, A. Vera; García Delgado, L. A.; Leal Cruz, A. L.; Gómez Fuentes, R.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we propose a photonic architecture as an alternative tool to distribute point to multipoint analog and digital information over a hybrid wireless visible optical communication system. The experimental set-up is composed of a red laser pointer, an acousto-optic modulator, a sinusoidal grating and a photo-detector array. By using a simple and variable interferometric system, diffraction gratings with different spatial frequencies are generated and recorded on a photoemulsion which is composed of vanilla with dichromate gelatin. Analog video and digital information are first transmitted and recovered over a wireless communication system using a microwave carrier at 4.52 GHz which is generated by distributed feedback lasers operating in the low laser threshold current region. Separately, the recovered video information and digital data are combined with a radio frequency signal of 80 MHz, obtaining a subcarrier of information that is imposed on the optical carrier of the pointer laser using an acousto-optic modulator which is operated with an angle of incident light that satisfies the Bragg condition. The modulated optical carrier is sent to a sinusoidal grating, the diffraction pattern is photo-detected using an array of PIN photo-detectors. The use of sinusoidal gratings with acousto-optic modulators allows that number of channels to be increased when both components are placed in cascade.

  17. Renal transposition during minimally invasive partial nephrectomy: a safe technique for excision of upper pole tumors.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Joshua R; Chang, Peter; Percy, Andrew G; Wagner, Andrew A

    2013-09-01

    Minimally invasive partial nephrectomy (MIPN) for upper pole masses, particularly for those located posteriorly, is challenging because of difficult visualization during tumor resection and renorrhaphy. Complete renal transposition facilitates access to and excision of upper pole renal masses during MIPN. Sixteen patients with upper pole renal masses underwent laparoscopic or robot-assisted partial nephrectomy with renal transposition from October 2009 to March 2012 with a mean follow-up of 22 months. Mean operative time was 242.6 minutes, and mean warm ischemic time was 14.7 minutes. No patient needed an intraoperative or postoperative blood transfusion. Five (31%) patients had a postoperative complication (four Clavien grade I, one Clavien grade II). There were no delayed complications, positive surgical margins, or tumor recurrences. Mean postoperative eGFR change within 3 months was -9.4%. These results show that complete renal transposition can be safely used to facilitate excision of upper pole tumors. PMID:23750561

  18. Dental transposition of canine and lateral incisor and impacted central incisor treatment: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Gebert, Tarcisio Jacinto; Palma, Vinícius Canavarros; Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Volpato, Luiz Evaristo Ricci

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Dental transposition and impaction are disorders related to ectopic eruption or failure in tooth eruption, which can affect child physical, mental and social development and may be difficult to be clinically solved. Methods We describe a case of transposition between the upper left canine and lateral incisor associated with impaction of the central incisor on the same side, in a 12-year-old patient. Conservative treatment involving surgical-orthodontic correction of transposed teeth and traction of the central incisor was conducted. Conclusion The option of correcting transposition and orthodontic traction by means of the segmented arch technique with devices such as cantilever and TMA rectangular wire loops, although a complex alternative, was proved to be esthetically and functionally effective. PMID:24713567

  19. Early treatment of an ectopic premolar to prevent molar-premolar transposition.

    PubMed

    Cannavale, Rosangela; Matarese, Giovanni; Isola, Gaetano; Grassia, Vincenzo; Perillo, Letizia

    2013-04-01

    Orthodontic treatment is planned on an individual, case-by-case basis after thoroughly considering the patient's overall facial and dental characteristics, the expected duration of treatment, costs, patient preferences, and the orthodontist's experience. This article reports the treatment of a patient with a maxillary premolar-molar transposition in the permanent dentition that was successfully managed with orthodontic treatment. A girl, aged 10 years 2 months, came for treatment with an ectopic maxillary left premolar. Radiographic analysis indicated a developing complete transposition of the maxillary left premolar. The patient was treated with extraction of the deciduous molar and surgical exposure and ligation of the premolar. Eruption was properly guided, and the correct order of the 2 teeth was restored in the arch. This challenging treatment approach is described in detail, including the mechanics used to align the ectopic premolar. Early treatment can, in many cases, prevent a molar-premolar transposition.

  20. [Mobile genetic element MDG4 (gypsy) in Drosophila melanogaster. Features of structure and regulation of transposition].

    PubMed

    Kusulidu, L K; Karpova, N N; Razorenova, O V; Glukhov, I A; Kim, A I; Liubomirskaia, N V; Il'in, Iu V

    2001-12-01

    Distribution of two structural functional variants of the MDG4 (gypsy) mobile genetic element was examined in 44 strains of Drosophila melanogaster. The results obtained suggest that less transpositionally active MDG4 variant is more ancient component of the Drosophila genome. Using Southern blotting, five strains characterized by increased copy number of MDG4 with significant prevalence of the active variant over the less active one were selected for further analysis. Genetic analysis of these strains led to the suggestion that some of them carry factors that mobilize MDG4 independently from the cellular flamenco gene known to be responsible for transposition of this element. Other strains probably contained a suppressor of the flam- mutant allele causing active transpositions of the MDG4. Thus, the material for studying poorly examined relationships between the retrovirus and the host cell genome was obtained. PMID:11785284

  1. Transposition of Mandibular Lateral Incisor–Canine (Mn.I2.C) Associated with Hypodontia: A Review and Rare Clinical Case

    PubMed Central

    Athimuthu, Anantharaj; Prasanna, Praveen; Jagadeesh, Ramya B

    2014-01-01

    Transposition is a unique and extreme form of ectopic eruption in which a permanent tooth develops and erupts in the position which is normally occupied by other permanent teeth. Tooth transpositions are rare and they can be complete or incomplete. The aetiology of transposition is still obscure. Various populations have been studied, to determine the prevalence of tooth transpositions. 20% of the transpositions which occur on the maxillary arch involve the canine and the lateral incisor. Although they are rare, transpositions may involve the maxillary lateral and central incisors. Among all transpositions, Mandibular Lateral Incisor-Canine (Mn.I2.C) is the rarest, with a prevalence rate of 0.03%. Although various reports have been published on tooth transpositions, very few have noted the agenesis of teeth, particularly Mn.I2.C and its management. We are reporting a rare clinical case with associated hypodontia. PMID:24959525

  2. Variable transposition of eight maize activator (ac) elements located on the short arm of chromosome 1.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, William F

    2011-09-01

    Eight Activator (Ac) transposable elements mapped to the maize chromosome arm 1S were assessed for Ac transposition rates. For each of the Ac stocks, plants homozygous for the single Ac element and the Ds reporter r1-sc:m3 on chromosome 10 were crossed as females by a homozygous r1-sc:m3 tester color-converted W22 line. The resulting ears produced mostly coarsely spotted kernels and a low frequency of either near-colorless fine-spotted kernels or nonspotted kernels. The relative frequency of these two types of near-colorless kernels differed among the eight Ac stocks. The extent to which increased Ac dosage results in nonspotted kernels may be Ac-specific. Although all of the Ac elements are in near-isogenic inbred W22 lines, they varied to a large extent in their transposition frequency. These differences might possibly result from structural differences among the Ac elements. Because one pair of Ac elements derived from Ac33 on chromosome arm 5S differed about 13-fold in transposition frequency and a second pair of Ac elements derived from Ac12 on chromosome arm 1S differed about 3-fold in transposition frequency, this is not a likely explanation for all eight Ac elements. The data presented here support the notion that the differences in transposition frequency of the eight Ac elements may be a reflection of variability in Ac transcription or accessibility of the transposase to the Ac element, resulting from differences in the chromatin environments wherein the Ac elements are located. This is the first report of variability in transposition rates among different Ac donor lines.

  3. cis and trans factors affecting Mos1 mariner evolution and transposition in vitro, and its potential for functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Tosi, L R; Beverley, S M

    2000-02-01

    Mos1 and other mariner / Tc1 transposons move horizon-tally during evolution, and when transplanted into heterologous species can transpose in organisms ranging from prokaryotes to protozoans and vertebrates. To further develop the Drosophila Mos1 mariner system as a genetic tool and to probe mechanisms affecting the regulation of transposition activity, we developed an in vitro system for Mos1 transposition using purified transposase and selectable Mos1 derivatives. Transposition frequencies of nearly 10(-3)/target DNA molecule were obtained, and insertions occurred at TA dinucleotides with little other sequence specificity. Mos1 elements containing only the 28 bp terminal inverted repeats were inactive in vitro, while elements containing a few additional internal bases were fully active, establishing the minimal cis -acting requirements for transposition. With increasing transposase the transposition frequency increased to a plateau value, in contrast to the predictions of the protein over-expression inhibition model and to that found recently with a reconstructed Himar1 transposase. This difference between the 'natural' Mos1 and 'reconstructed' Himar1 transposases suggests an evolutionary path for down-regulation of mariner transposition following its introduction into a naïve population. The establishment of the cis and trans requirements for optimal mariner transposition in vitro provides key data for the creation of vectors for in vitro mutagenesis, and will facilitate the development of in vivo systems for mariner transposition. PMID:10637331

  4. Nonextraction treatment of upper canine-premolar transposition in an adult patient.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Shingo; Kuroda, Yasuko

    2005-05-01

    This article reports the successful treatment of a unilateral maxillary canine and first premolar transposition without the extraction of the premolar in an adult patient. A female patient, 21 years and three months of age, had moderate crowding in the upper arch with complete transposition of the canine and first premolar. After distal movement of the upper molars with a lingual arch and headgear appliance, the upper left first premolar and canine were transposed. Thirty-eight months after the placement of preadjusted appliances, the transposed canine and premolar were reordered in the proper positions. The total active treatment period was 49 months. After two years of retention, the occlusion is generally stable.

  5. Hybrid plan verification for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) using the 2D ionization chamber array I'mRT MatriXX--a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Dobler, Barbara; Streck, Natalia; Klein, Elisabeth; Loeschel, Rainer; Haertl, Petra; Koelbl, Oliver

    2010-01-21

    The 2D ionization chamber array I'mRT MatriXX (IBA, Schwarzenbruck, Germany) has been developed for absolute 2D dosimetry and verification of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for perpendicular beam incidence. The aim of this study is to evaluate the applicability of I'mRT MatriXX for oblique beam incidence and hybrid plan verification of IMRT with original gantry angles. For the assessment of angular dependence, open fields with gantry angles in steps of 10 degrees were calculated on a CT scan of I'mRT MatriXX. For hybrid plan verification, 17 clinical IMRT plans and one rotational plan were used. Calculations were performed with pencil beam (PB), collapsed cone (CC) and Monte Carlo (MC) methods, which had been previously validated. Measurements were conducted on an Elekta SynergyS linear accelerator. To assess the potential and limitations of the system, gamma evaluation was performed with different dose tolerances and distances to agreement. Hybrid plan verification passed the gamma test with 4% dose tolerance and 3 mm distance to agreement in all cases, in 82-88% of the cases for tolerances of 3%/3 mm, and in 59-76% of the cases if 3%/2 mm were used. Separate evaluation of the low dose and high dose regions showed that I'mRT MatriXX can be used for hybrid plan verification of IMRT plans within 3% dose tolerance and 3 mm distance to agreement with a relaxed dose tolerance of 4% in the low dose region outside the multileaf collimator (MLC).

  6. Letter-Transposition Effects Are Not Universal: The Impact of Transposing Letters in Hebrew

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velan, Hadas; Frost, Ram

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effects of letter-transposition in Hebrew in three masked-priming experiments. Hebrew, like English has an alphabetic orthography where sequential and contiguous letter strings represent phonemes. However, being a Semitic language it has a non-concatenated morphology that is based on root derivations. Experiment 1 showed that…

  7. Inferring the History of Interchromosomal Gene Transposition in Drosophila Using n-Dimensional Parsimony

    PubMed Central

    Han, Mira V.; Hahn, Matthew W.

    2012-01-01

    Gene transposition puts a new gene copy in a novel genomic environment. Moreover, genes moving between the autosomes and the X chromosome experience change in several evolutionary parameters. Previous studies of gene transposition have not utilized the phylogenetic framework that becomes possible with the availability of whole genomes from multiple species. Here we used parsimonious reconstruction on the genomic distribution of gene families to analyze interchromosomal gene transposition in Drosophila. We identified 782 genes that have moved chromosomes within the phylogeny of 10 Drosophila species, including 87 gene families with multiple independent movements on different branches of the phylogeny. Using this large catalog of transposed genes, we detected accelerated sequence evolution in duplicated genes that transposed when compared to the parental copy at the original locus. We also observed a more refined picture of the biased movement of genes from the X chromosome to the autosomes. The bias of X-to-autosome movement was significantly stronger for RNA-based movements than for DNA-based movements, and among DNA-based movements there was an excess of genes moving onto the X chromosome as well. Genes involved in female-specific functions moved onto the X chromosome while genes with male-specific functions moved off the X. There was a significant overrepresentation of proteins involving chromosomal function among transposed genes, suggesting that genetic conflict between sexes and among chromosomes may be a driving force behind gene transposition in Drosophila. PMID:22095076

  8. Debating trans inclusion in the feminist movement: a trans-positive analysis.

    PubMed

    Green, Eli R

    2006-01-01

    The debate over whether or not to allow, accept, and embrace transpeople as a segment of the feminist movement has been a tumultuous one that remains unresolved. Prominent authors have argued both sides of the dispute. This article analyzes the anti-inclusion feminist viewpoint and offers a trans-positive perspective for moving toward a potential resolution of the debate.

  9. Nasal-skin-fold transposition flap for upper lip reconstruction in a French bulldog.

    PubMed

    Benlloch-Gonzalez, Manuel; Lafarge, Stéphanie; Bouvy, Bernard; Poncet, Cyrill

    2013-10-01

    Upper-lip reconstruction after mast-cell tumor-resection in a French bulldog was achieved by using a transposition flap from the nasal-skin-fold and an oral mucosal flap. The new technique is an alternative for reconstruction of extensive upper-lip defects in brachycephalic dogs and achieves satisfactory functional and cosmetic results.

  10. Transposition of brachiobasilic arteriovenous fistulae: improving the cosmetic effect without compromising patency.

    PubMed

    van Dellen, David; Junejo, Muneer; Khambalia, Hussein; Campbell, Babatunde

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Subjects who undergo haemodialysis are living longer, which necessitates increasingly complex procedures for formation of arteriovenous fistulas. Basilic veins provide valuable additional venous 'real estate' but surgical transposition of vessels is required, which required a cosmetically disfiguring incision. A minimally invasive transposition method provides an excellent aesthetic alternative without compromised outcomes. Methods A retrospective review was made of minimally invasive brachiobasilic fistula transpositions (using two short incisions of <4 cm) between February 2005 and July 2011. Primary endpoints were one-year patency as well as the perioperative and late complications of the procedure. Results Thirty-one patients underwent 32 transposition procedures (eight pre-dialysis cases; 24 haemodialysis patients). All patients were treated with a minimally invasive method. Thirty-one procedures resulted in primary patency, with the single failure refashioned successfully. The only indication for a more invasive approach was intraoperative complications (two haematomas). All other complications presented late and were amenable to intervention (one aneurysm, one peri-anastomotic stricture). Conclusion Formation of arteriovenous fistulae using minimally invasive methods is a novel approach that ensures fistula patency with improved aesthetic outcomes and without significant morbidity. PMID:26688395

  11. Canine transposition following trauma and loss of a central incisor: treatment options.

    PubMed

    Lewis, B; Durning, P; McLaughlin, W; Nicholson, P T

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this article is to make clinicians aware of the possibility of canine transposition following loss of the upper central incisor. Using two case reports it considers the opportunities for rehabilitation of the occlusion, and discusses surgical, orthodontic and restorative considerations. PMID:15784937

  12. An Evaluation of Frequency Transposition for Hearing-Impaired School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jenny; Dann, Marilyn; Brown, P. Margaret

    2009-01-01

    A key objective when fitting hearing aids to children is to maximize the audibility of high frequency speech cues which are critical in the understanding of spoken English. Recent advances in digital signal processing have enabled the development of hearing aids which offer linear frequency transposition as a new way of accessing these important…

  13. Robotic-assisted Laparoscopic Transposition of the Left Renal Vein for Treatment of the Nutcracker Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Jing, Taile; Qin, Jie; Xia, Dan; Wang, Shuo

    2015-12-01

    Nutcracker syndrome is a rare condition of left renal vein entrapment manifesting with hematuria and flank pain. We report a case of nutcracker syndrome, where a robotic-assisted laparoscopic transposition of the left renal vein was performed. To our knowledge, this is the first case of robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery of a nutcracker syndrome.

  14. Clinical and electrophysiological assessment of inferior alveolar nerve function after lateral nerve transposition.

    PubMed

    Nocini, P F; De Santis, D; Fracasso, E; Zanette, G

    1999-04-01

    Inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) transposition surgery may cause some degree of sensory impairment. Accurate and reproducible tests are mandatory to assess IAN conduction capacity following nerve transposition. In this study subjective (heat, pain and tactile-discriminative tests) and objective (electrophysiological) assessments were performed in 10 patients receiving IAN transposition (bilaterally in 8 cases) in order to evaluate any impairment of the involved nerves one year post-operatively. All patients reported a tingling, well-tolerated sensation in the areas supplied by the mental nerve with no anaesthesia or burning paresthesia. Tactile discrimination was affected the most (all but 1 patient). No action potential was recorded in 4 patients' sides (23.5%); 12 sides showed a decreased nerve conduction velocity (NCV) (70.5%) and 1 side normal NCV values (6%). There was no significant difference in NCV decrease between partial and total transposition sides, if examined separately. Nerve conduction findings were related 2-point discrimination scores, but not to changes in pain and heat sensitivity. These findings show that lateral nerve transposition, though resulting in a high percentage of minor IAN injuries, as determined by electrophysiological testing, provides a viable surgical procedure to allow implant placement in the posterior mandible without causing severe sensory complaints. Considering ethical and forensic implications, patients should be fully informed that a certain degree of nerve injury might be expected to occur from the procedure. Electrophysiological evaluation is a reliable way to assess the degree of IAN dysfunction, especially if combined with a clinical examination. Intraoperative monitoring of IAN conduction might help identify the pathogenetic mechanisms of nerve injury and the surgical steps that are most likely to harm nerve integrity. PMID:10219131

  15. Induction of transpositions of MGE Dm412 by {gamma}-radiation in an isogenic line of Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Zabanov, S.A.; Vasil`eva, L.A.; Ratner, V.A. |

    1995-06-01

    In an isogenic line of Drosophila, transpositions of mobile genetic elements (MGE) Dm412 were induced by {gamma}-radiation at doses of 300, 800, and 1300 R. The rates of induced transpositions were (for each dose, respectively) 3.9 x 10{sup {minus}3}, 1.0 x 10{sup {minus}2}, and 1.87 x 10{sup {minus}2} events per occupied site per haploid genome of the isogenic line per generation. Thus, the transposition rate increased linearly with the radiation dose. The specific rate of {gamma}-radiation-induced transpositions was (1.3 {+-} 0.6) x 10{sup {minus}5} per occupied site per haploid genome of the isogenic line per Roentgen per generation. {gamma}-Radiation-induced hot transposition sites and haplotypes, very similar to those induced by heat shock, were found. It was suggested that the mechanism of induction by {gamma}-radiation involves the heat shock system. Thus, it is more similar to the mechanism of temperature induction than to the direct mutational effect of {gamma}-radiation. Estimates of induced transposition rates per genome for each dose were calculated as 1.1, 3.0, and 5.6 events, respectively, per genome per generation. This level probably corresponds to the subthreshold level of genomes near the {open_quotes}catastrophic border of transpositional losses.{close_quotes} 21 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  16. Selection of hybrids and edible citrus species with a high content in the diosmin functional compound. Modulating effect of plant growth regulators on contents.

    PubMed

    Marín, F R; Del Río, J A

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify species, hybrids, and cultivars of edible Citrus species with high contents of diosmin as a functional compound and also to identify the developmental progress of the fruit in which it reaches maximum levels; these findings would be useful for extraction purposes and for the modulating effect of plant growth regulators on diosmin content to increase the level of this flavone. The results obtained reveal that the highest contents of diosmin are present in immature fruits of certain varieties of citron (Buda's finger) and lemon (Meyer), whereas the contents in the edible parts of the fruits are irrelevant from a pharmacological point of view. Similarly, it is shown that it is possible to increase the content of this flavone using hormonal treatments (6-benzylaminopurine and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) during the early stages of fruit growth.

  17. Experimental study of cross-phase modulation reduction in hybrid systems with co-propagating 100G PM-QPSK and 10G OOK.

    PubMed

    Searcy, Steven; Tibuleac, Sorin

    2013-12-16

    We experimentally investigate various methods for reducing cross-phase modulation in hybrid networks with mixed 100G and 10G traffic. The experimental results over standard single-mode and non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber types demonstrate the effectiveness of several different XPM reduction techniques as well as the interplay between them. Nonlinear transmission performance is quantified using the Nonlinear Threshold metric as a function of key system features, including DCM type, dispersion map, spectral guard bands, and carrier phase estimation window size. Fiber Bragg grating-based DCMs are shown to offer a distinct advantage over fiber-based DCMs under certain conditions, particularly in dispersion-managed systems with very strong XPM. The average walk-off per span is introduced as a simple yet effective metric to compare different methods of XPM mitigation.

  18. Hybrid wide-band, low-phase-noise scheme for Raman lasers in atom interferometry by integrating an acousto-optic modulator and a feedback loop.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Yao, Zhanwei; Li, Runbing; Lu, Sibin; Chen, Xi; Wang, Jin; Zhan, Mingsheng

    2016-02-10

    We report a hybrid scheme for phase-coherent Raman lasers with low phase noise in a wide frequency range. In this scheme, a pair of Raman lasers with a frequency difference of 3.04 GHz is generated by the ±1-order diffracted lights of an acousto-optic modulator (1.52 GHz), where a feedback loop is simultaneously applied for suppressing the phase noise. The beat width of the Raman lasers is narrower than 3 Hz. In the low-frequency range, the phase noise of the Raman lasers is suppressed by 35 dB with the feedback. The phase noise is less than -109  dBc/Hz in the high-frequency range. The sensitivity of an atom gyroscope employing the hybrid Raman lasers can be implicitly improved 10 times. Due to the better high-frequency response, the sensitivity is not limited by the durations of Raman pulses. This work is important for improving the performance of atom-interferometer-based measurements. PMID:26906364

  19. Hybrid Endovascular Repair in Aortic Arch Pathologies: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaohui; Guo, Wei; Liu, Xiaoping; Yin, Tai; Jia, Xin; Xiong, Jiang; Zhang, Hongpeng; Wang, Lijun

    2010-01-01

    The aortic arch presents specific challenges to endovascular repair. Hybrid repair is increasingly evolving as an alternative option for selected patients, and promising initial results have been reported. The aim of this study was to introduce our experiences and evaluate mid-term results of supra aortic transpositions for extended endovascular repair of aortic arch pathologies. From December 2002 to January 2008, 25 patients with thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections involving the aortic arch were treated with hybrid endovascular treatment in our center. Of the 25 cases, 14 were atherosclerotic thoracic aortic aneurysms and 11 were thoracic aortic dissection. The hybrid repair method included total-arch transpositions (15 cases) or hemi-arch transpositions (10 cases), and endovascular procedures. All hybrid endovascular procedures were completed successfully. Three early residual type-I endoleaks and one type-II endoleak were observed. Stroke occurred in three patients (8%) during the in-hospital stage. The perioperative mortality rate was 4%; one patients died post-operatively from catheter related complications. The average follow-up period was 15 ± 5.8 months (range, 1–41 months). The overall crude survival rate at 15 months was 92% (23/25). During follow-up, new late endoleaks and stent-raft related complications were not observed. One case (4%) developed a unilateral lower limb deficit at 17 days and was readmitted to hospital. In conclusion, the results are encouraging for endovascular aortic arch repair in combination with supra-aortic transposition in high risk cases. Aortic endografting offers good mid-term results. Mid-term results of the hybrid approach in elderly patients with aortic arch pathologies are satisfying. PMID:21151464

  20. High-efficiency W-band hybrid integrated photoreceiver module using UTC-PD and pHEMT amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umezawa, T.; Katshima, K.; Kanno, A.; Akahane, K.; Matsumoto, A.; Yamamoto, N.; Kawanishi, T.

    2016-02-01

    A 100-GHz narrowband photoreceiver module integrated with a zero-bias operational uni-traveling-carrier photodiode (UTC-PD) and a GaAs-based pseudomorphic high-electron-mobility transistor (pHEMT) amplifier was fabricated and characterized. Both devices exhibited flat frequency response and outstanding overall performance. The UTC-PD showed a 3-dB bandwidth beyond 110 GHz while the pHEMT amplifier featured low power consumption and a gain of 24 dB over the 85-100 GHz range. A butterfly metal package equipped with a 1.0 mm (W) coaxial connector and a microstrip-coplanar waveguide conversion substrate was designed for low insertion loss and low return loss. The fabricated photoreceiver module demonstrated high conversion gain, a maximum output power of +9.5 dBm at 96 GHz, and DC-power consumption of 0.21 W.

  1. Drosophila Females Undergo Genome Expansion after Interspecific Hybridization.

    PubMed

    Romero-Soriano, Valèria; Burlet, Nelly; Vela, Doris; Fontdevila, Antonio; Vieira, Cristina; García Guerreiro, María Pilar

    2016-03-01

    Genome size (or C-value) can present a wide range of values among eukaryotes. This variation has been attributed to differences in the amplification and deletion of different noncoding repetitive sequences, particularly transposable elements (TEs). TEs can be activated under different stress conditions such as interspecific hybridization events, as described for several species of animals and plants. These massive transposition episodes can lead to considerable genome expansions that could ultimately be involved in hybrid speciation processes. Here, we describe the effects of hybridization and introgression on genome size of Drosophila hybrids. We measured the genome size of two close Drosophila species, Drosophila buzzatii and Drosophila koepferae, their F1 offspring and the offspring from three generations of backcrossed hybrids; where mobilization of up to 28 different TEs was previously detected. We show that hybrid females indeed present a genome expansion, especially in the first backcross, which could likely be explained by transposition events. Hybrid males, which exhibit more variable C-values among individuals of the same generation, do not present an increased genome size. Thus, we demonstrate that the impact of hybridization on genome size can be detected through flow cytometry and is sex-dependent. PMID:26872773

  2. Drosophila Females Undergo Genome Expansion after Interspecific Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Soriano, Valèria; Burlet, Nelly; Vela, Doris; Fontdevila, Antonio; Vieira, Cristina; García Guerreiro, María Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Genome size (or C-value) can present a wide range of values among eukaryotes. This variation has been attributed to differences in the amplification and deletion of different noncoding repetitive sequences, particularly transposable elements (TEs). TEs can be activated under different stress conditions such as interspecific hybridization events, as described for several species of animals and plants. These massive transposition episodes can lead to considerable genome expansions that could ultimately be involved in hybrid speciation processes. Here, we describe the effects of hybridization and introgression on genome size of Drosophila hybrids. We measured the genome size of two close Drosophila species, Drosophila buzzatii and Drosophila koepferae, their F1 offspring and the offspring from three generations of backcrossed hybrids; where mobilization of up to 28 different TEs was previously detected. We show that hybrid females indeed present a genome expansion, especially in the first backcross, which could likely be explained by transposition events. Hybrid males, which exhibit more variable C-values among individuals of the same generation, do not present an increased genome size. Thus, we demonstrate that the impact of hybridization on genome size can be detected through flow cytometry and is sex-dependent. PMID:26872773

  3. New domino transposition/intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction in monocyclic allenols: a general strategy for tricyclic compounds.

    PubMed

    Alcaide, Benito; Almendros, Pedro; Aragoncillo, Cristina; Redondo, María C

    2002-07-21

    A novel and direct synthetic strategy to prepare fused tricycles has been developed from monocyclic allenols, masked functionalized dienes, which underwent a domino allenol transposition/intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction.

  4. Mandibular fracture as a complication of inferior alveolar nerve transposition and placement of endosseous implants: a case report.

    PubMed

    Karlis, Vasiliki; Bae, Richard D; Glickman, Robert S

    2003-01-01

    Placement of endosseous implants and inferior alveolar nerve transposition is a treatment option for patients with an edentulous posterior mandible with inadequate bone height superior to the inferior alveolar canal. Complications associated with these procedures include infection, prolonged neurosensory disturbances, and/or pathologic fracture. This report presents the surgical management of a patient with a mandible fracture after inferior alveolar nerve transposition with concurrent placement of two endosseous implants. PMID:14560480

  5. Endosseous implant placement in conjunction with inferior alveolar nerve transposition: a report of an unusual complication and surgical management.

    PubMed

    Luna, Anibal H B; Passeri, Luis A; de Moraes, Márcio; Moreira, Roger W F

    2008-01-01

    Inferior alveolar nerve transposition and placement of endosseous implants is one of the treatment options for patients with an edentulous posterior mandible with inadequate bone height superior to the inferior alveolar canal. The possible complications associated with this technique include prolonged neurosensory disturbances, infection, and pathologic fracture. This report presents the surgical management of a patient who sustained a mandibular fracture after inferior alveolar nerve transposition for the placement of 3 endosseous implants. PMID:18416424

  6. Hybrid preconcentrator/focuser module for determinations of explosive marker compounds with a micro-scale gas chromatograph.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Gustavo; Sukaew, Thitiporn; Zellers, Edward T

    2013-03-01

    This article describes the development and characterization of a partially selective preconcentrator/focuser (PCF) module for a field-portable micro-scale gas chromatograph (μGC) designed to rapidly determine trace levels of two vapor-phase markers of the explosive trinitrotoluene (TNT): 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-dinitrobutane (DMNB) and 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT). The PCF module has three primary components. The first is a high-volume sampler, comprising a resistively-heated 6-cm long stainless steel tube packed with tandem beds of the graphitized carbons Carbopack B (C-B, 30 mg) and Carbopack Y (C-Y, 15 mg), which traps the markers but permits more volatile interferences to pass through largely unretained. The second component is a microfocuser (μF), comprising a 4.2×9.8 mm Si chip containing a deep-reactive-ion-etched (DRIE) cavity packed with 2mg of C-B, a Pyrex cap, integrated heaters, and etched fluidic channels. The third component is a commercial polymer-membrane filter used as a pre-trap to remove particles and adsorbed low volatility interferences. Markers captured in the sampler are thermally desorbed and transferred to the μF, and then thermally desorbed/injected from the μF into a downstream separation (micro)column and detected. Scrubbed ambient air is used as carrier gas. The adsorbent capacities, baseline temperatures, sampling and desorption flow rates, and heating profiles were optimized for each PCF module component while minimizing the analysis time. An overall transfer efficiency of 86% was achieved at marker concentrations of ~0.2-2.6 ppb. In the final configuration the PCF module requires just 60s to collect a 1-L sample (3 L/min), focus (40 mL/min), and inject the markers (3 mL/min), producing half-maximum injection peak widths of ~2 and 5 s, and preconcentration factors of 4500 and 1800, for DMNB and 2,4-DNT, respectively. PMID:23357747

  7. Alternative Ac/Ds transposition induces major chromosomal rearrangements in maize.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianbo; Yu, Chuanhe; Pulletikurti, Vinay; Lamb, Jonathan; Danilova, Tatiana; Weber, David F; Birchler, James; Peterson, Thomas

    2009-03-15

    Barbara McClintock reported that the Ac/Ds transposable element system can generate major chromosomal rearrangements (MCRs), but the underlying mechanism has not been determined. Here, we identified a series of chromosome rearrangements derived from maize lines containing pairs of closely linked Ac transposable element termini. Molecular and cytogenetic analyses showed that the MCRs in these lines comprised 17 reciprocal translocations and two large inversions. The breakpoints of all 19 MCRs are delineated by Ac termini and characteristic 8-base-pair target site duplications, indicating that the MCRs were generated by precise transposition reactions involving the Ac termini of two closely linked elements. This alternative transposition mechanism may have contributed to chromosome evolution and may also occur during V(D)J recombination resulting in oncogenic translocations. PMID:19299561

  8. Pig transgenesis by piggyBac transposition in combination with somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhenfang; Xu, Zhiqian; Zou, Xian; Zeng, Fang; Shi, Junsong; Liu, Dewu; Urschitz, Johann; Moisyadi, Stefan; Li, Zicong

    2013-12-01

    The production of animals by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is inefficient, with approximately 2% of micromanipulated oocytes going to term and resulting in live births. However, it is the most commonly used method for the generation of cloned transgenic livestock as it facilitates the attainment of transgenic animals once the nuclear donor cells are stably transfected and more importantly as alternatives methods of transgenesis in farm animals have proven even less efficient. Here we describe piggyBac-mediated transposition of a transgene into porcine primary cells and use of these genetically modified cells as nuclear donors for the generation of transgenic pigs by SCNT. Gene transfer by piggyBac transposition serves to provide an alternative approach for the transfection of nuclear donor cells used in SCNT.

  9. Orthotopic heart transplantation in patients with transposition of the great arteries.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Guijosa, Christian; Ginel, Antonino; Montiel, José; Brosa, Vicens; Mirabet, Sonia; Bayés-Genis, Antonio; Padró, José M

    2009-02-01

    Thanks to progress in cardiac surgery and cardiology, pediatric patients with complex congenital heart conditions who would previously have died are now reaching adulthood. Patients with transposition of the great arteries who have undergone atrial repair can present during follow-up with progression towards heart failure as a result of progressive systemic right ventricular failure. In this situation, heart transplantation is a possible therapeutic option. Anatomic abnormalities and the presence of intraatrial conduits ensure that transplantation must involve a number of technical modifications. Here, we present our experience during 1992-2004 with heart transplantations in four patients with transposition of the great arteries and atrial repair. There was no operative mortality. During follow-up (mean period, 75 months), there was one death due to chronic rejection. The other patients remain in New York Heart Association class I, with normally functioning grafts.

  10. Analysis of the Superconducting Cable Transposition in Low Resistance CICC Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, You-hua

    2000-08-01

    In an integrated structure low resistance CICC joint, current is conducted by outer cable strands coming into touch with the conductive Cu sole. So it is an important condition for satisfying joint performance that each strand of the cable inside the joint is able to come to the outermost by transposition. This paper presents analysis, calculation and figures for the strand transposition. According to the twist procedures of the superconducting cable, the author computed the actual pitch of each stage cable, consecutively computed the projection of each stage cable on the axis of the cable (z axis) and the corresponding twist angle as the z coordinate changes, which is then drawn by AutoCAD. From the results shown in the figures, the minimal cable length, which enables each strand to transpose almost equally to the outermost of the cable in such a length, can be determined as the optimal joint length.

  11. Alternative Ac/Ds transposition induces major chromosomal rearrangements in maize.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianbo; Yu, Chuanhe; Pulletikurti, Vinay; Lamb, Jonathan; Danilova, Tatiana; Weber, David F; Birchler, James; Peterson, Thomas

    2009-03-15

    Barbara McClintock reported that the Ac/Ds transposable element system can generate major chromosomal rearrangements (MCRs), but the underlying mechanism has not been determined. Here, we identified a series of chromosome rearrangements derived from maize lines containing pairs of closely linked Ac transposable element termini. Molecular and cytogenetic analyses showed that the MCRs in these lines comprised 17 reciprocal translocations and two large inversions. The breakpoints of all 19 MCRs are delineated by Ac termini and characteristic 8-base-pair target site duplications, indicating that the MCRs were generated by precise transposition reactions involving the Ac termini of two closely linked elements. This alternative transposition mechanism may have contributed to chromosome evolution and may also occur during V(D)J recombination resulting in oncogenic translocations.

  12. TAL effectors mediate high-efficiency transposition of the piggyBac transposon in silkworm Bombyx mori L.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lupeng; You, Zhengying; Qian, Qiujie; Zhang, Yuyu; Che, Jiaqian; Song, Jia; Zhong, Boxiong

    2015-11-26

    The piggyBac (PB) transposon is one of the most useful transposable elements, and has been successfully used for genetic manipulation in more than a dozen species. However, the efficiency of PB-mediated transposition is still insufficient for many purposes. Here, we present a strategy to enhance transposition efficiency using a fusion of transcription activator-like effector (TALE) and the PB transposase (PBase). The results demonstrate that the TALE-PBase fusion protein which is engineered in this study can produce a significantly improved stable transposition efficiency of up to 63.9%, which is at least 7 times higher than the current transposition efficiency in silkworm. Moreover, the average number of transgene-positive individuals increased up to 5.7-fold, with each positive brood containing an average of 18.1 transgenic silkworms. Finally, we demonstrate that TALE-PBase fusion-mediated PB transposition presents a new insertional preference compared with original insertional preference. This method shows a great potential and value for insertional therapy of many genetic diseases. In conclusion, this new and powerful transposition technology will efficiently promote genetic manipulation studies in both invertebrates and vertebrates.

  13. Purification and characterization of TnsC, a Tn7 transposition protein that binds ATP and DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Gamas, P; Craig, N L

    1992-01-01

    The bacterial transposon Tn7 encodes five transposition genes tnsABCDE. We report a simple and rapid procedure for the purification of TnsC protein. We show that purified TnsC is active in and required for Tn7 transposition in a cell-free recombination system. This finding demonstrates that TnsC participates directly in Tn7 transposition and explains the requirement for tnsC function in Tn7 transposition. We have found that TnsC binds adenine nucleotides and is thus a likely site of action of the essential ATP cofactor in Tn7 transposition. We also report that TnsC binds non-specifically to DNA in the presence of ATP or the generally non-hydrolyzable analogues AMP-PNP and ATP-gamma-S, and that TnsC displays little affinity for DNA in the presence of ADP. We speculate that TnsC plays a central role in the selection of target DNA during Tn7 transposition. Images PMID:1317955

  14. Regiochemical control in the metal-catalyzed transposition of allylic silyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Eric C; Lee, Daesung

    2006-06-28

    A novel mode of regiochemical control over the allylic [1,3]-transposition of silyloxy groups catalyzed by Re2O7 has been developed. This strategy relies on a cis-oriented vinyl boronate, generated from the Alder-ene reaction of homoallylic silyl ethers and alkynyl boronates, to trap out the allylic hydroxyl group. The resulting cyclic boronic acids are excellent partners for cross-coupling reactions. High chirality transfer is observed for the rearrangement of enantioenriched allylic silyl ethers.

  15. Improving the accuracy of flood forecasting with transpositions of ensemble NWP rainfall fields considering orographic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wansik; Nakakita, Eiichi; Kim, Sunmin; Yamaguchi, Kosei

    2016-08-01

    The use of meteorological ensembles to produce sets of hydrological predictions increased the capability to issue flood warnings. However, space scale of the hydrological domain is still much finer than meteorological model, and NWP models have challenges with displacement. The main objective of this study to enhance the transposition method proposed in Yu et al. (2014) and to suggest the post-processing ensemble flood forecasting method for the real-time updating and the accuracy improvement of flood forecasts that considers the separation of the orographic rainfall and the correction of misplaced rain distributions using additional ensemble information through the transposition of rain distributions. In the first step of the proposed method, ensemble forecast rainfalls from a numerical weather prediction (NWP) model are separated into orographic and non-orographic rainfall fields using atmospheric variables and the extraction of topographic effect. Then the non-orographic rainfall fields are examined by the transposition scheme to produce additional ensemble information and new ensemble NWP rainfall fields are calculated by recombining the transposition results of non-orographic rain fields with separated orographic rainfall fields for a generation of place-corrected ensemble information. Then, the additional ensemble information is applied into a hydrologic model for post-flood forecasting with a 6-h interval. The newly proposed method has a clear advantage to improve the accuracy of mean value of ensemble flood forecasting. Our study is carried out and verified using the largest flood event by typhoon 'Talas' of 2011 over the two catchments, which are Futatsuno (356.1 km2) and Nanairo (182.1 km2) dam catchments of Shingu river basin (2360 km2), which is located in the Kii peninsula, Japan.

  16. Intraoperative monitoring of torsion to prevent vertical deviations during augmented vertical rectus transposition surgery

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Jonathan M.; Hatt, Sarah R.; Leske, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Total transposition of the superior and inferior rectus muscle laterally, with augmentation sutures, may be complicated by induction of an undesirable vertical deviation. Induced vertical misalignment may be associated with changes in torsion. We have developed a simple method to monitor intraoperative torsion that may reduce the incidence of vertical deviations. Methods We reviewed consecutive cases of total abducens palsy or esotropic Duane syndrome treated with augmented lateral transposition of the superior and inferior rectus muscles, where the 12 o’clock and 6 o’clock intraoperative positions were initially marked with a dot at the limbus using a surgical pen. The location of the marks was monitored during tying of the augmentation sutures; changes in torsion were monitored intraoperatively. Results Records of 9 cases of augmented vertical rectus transposition were reviewed. Based on intraoperative assessment of torsion by observing the position of the preplaced limbal dots, the inferior rectus augmentation suture was tied less tightly than the superior rectus suture, leaving a gap of 1–3 mm between the inferior and lateral rectus muscles in 8 of 9 cases. The augmentation suture was totally removed in 1 case. Following these intraoperative adjustments, there was no induced intraoperative torsion, whereas further tightening of the inferior suture induced extorsion. Six weeks postoperatively, 8 of 9 patients did not experience a symptomatic vertical deviation. Conclusions When performing augmented transposition procedures, intraoperative monitoring of torsion may reduce the incidence of inadvertent vertical deviations and torsion. This technique may also be useful in other cases where correction or avoidance of torsion is needed. PMID:22525168

  17. Aortic valve-sparing in aortic dissection with transposition of great arteries.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rajiv; Cohen, Brent; Peters, Paul; Shah, Pallav

    2013-04-01

    Patients with transposition of the great arteries have good survival after surgery, but some have complications ranging from heart failure to valve dysfunction. A 42-year-old woman who underwent surgical correction in childhood, presented with aortic dissection and had a valve-sparing root operation, but died immediately postoperatively. Both aortic dissection and valve-sparing root operations in this setting have not been described before. This case highlights facts to consider in the treatment of this presentation. PMID:24532622

  18. Transposition/Fusion: A Clinician’s Dilemma and Challenge - 12 Months Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Dhaded, Sunil; Hegde, Prashant; Patil, Roopa; Dhaded, Neha

    2015-01-01

    Fusion or syndontia is a sequele of the union of two normal and separated tooth buds. Transposition refers to the interchange in the position of two permanent teeth within the same quadrant in the oral cavity. The simultaneous incidence of both these entities is a rare concurrence and warrants endodontic and surgical soft tissue correction. The following manuscript describes a case report of this rare combination and its multidisciplinary management for functional and esthetic correction PMID:26668493

  19. Systematic Identification of Balanced Transposition Polymorphisms in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Faddah, Dina A.; Ganko, Eric W.; McCoach, Caroline; Pickrell, Joseph K.; Hanlon, Sean E.; Mann, Frederick G.; Mieczkowska, Joanna O.; Jones, Corbin D.; Lieb, Jason D.; Vision, Todd J.

    2009-01-01

    High-throughput techniques for detecting DNA polymorphisms generally do not identify changes in which the genomic position of a sequence, but not its copy number, varies among individuals. To explore such balanced structural polymorphisms, we used array-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) to conduct a genome-wide screen for single-copy genomic segments that occupy different genomic positions in the standard laboratory strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S90) and a polymorphic wild isolate (Y101) through analysis of six tetrads from a cross of these two strains. Paired-end high-throughput sequencing of Y101 validated four of the predicted rearrangements. The transposed segments contained one to four annotated genes each, yet crosses between S90 and Y101 yielded mostly viable tetrads. The longest segment comprised 13.5 kb near the telomere of chromosome XV in the S288C reference strain and Southern blotting confirmed its predicted location on chromosome IX in Y101. Interestingly, inter-locus crossover events between copies of this segment occurred at a detectable rate. The presence of low-copy repetitive sequences at the junctions of this segment suggests that it may have arisen through ectopic recombination. Our methodology and findings provide a starting point for exploring the origins, phenotypic consequences, and evolutionary fate of this largely unexplored form of genomic polymorphism. PMID:19503594

  20. Transposase interaction with the β sliding clamp: effects on insertion sequence proliferation and transposition rate

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Maldonado, Héctor; Gómez, Manuel J.; Moreno-Paz, Mercedes; San Martín-Úriz, Patxi; Amils, Ricardo; Parro, Víctor; López de Saro, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    Insertion sequences (ISs) are ubiquitous and abundant mobile genetic elements in prokaryotic genomes. ISs often encode only one protein, the transposase, which catalyzes their transposition. Recent studies have shown that transposases of many different IS families interact with the β sliding clamp, a DNA replication factor of the host. However, it was unclear to what extent this interaction limits or favors the ability of ISs to colonize a chromosome from a phylogenetically-distant organism, or if the strength of this interaction affects the transposition rate. Here we describe the proliferation of a member of the IS1634 family in Acidiphilium over ~600 generations of cultured growth. We demonstrate that the purified transposase binds to the β sliding clamp of Acidiphilium, Leptospirillum and E. coli. Further, we also demonstrate that the Acidiphilium IS1634 transposase binds to the archaeal sliding clamp (PCNA) from Methanosarcina, and that the transposase encoded by Methanosarcina IS1634 binds to Acidiphilium β. Finally, we demonstrate that increasing the strength of the interaction between β and transposase results in a higher transposition rate in vivo. Our results suggest that the interaction could determine the potential of ISs to be mobilized in bacterial populations and also their ability to proliferate within chromosomes. PMID:26306550

  1. Nonsurgical endodontic retreatment of fused teeth with transposition: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Noites, Rita Brandão; Martins, Miguel André Duarte; Paulo, Manuel Pedro da Fonseca

    2016-01-01

    Tooth transposition is a disorder in which a permanent tooth develops and erupts in the normal position of another permanent tooth. Fusion and gemination are developmental disturbances presenting as the union of teeth. This article reports the nonsurgical retreatment of a very rare case of fused teeth with transposition. A patient was referred for endodontic treatment of her maxillary left first molar in the position of the first premolar, which was adjacent to it on the distobuccal side. Orthopantomography and periapical radiography showed two crowns sharing the same root, with a root canal treatment and an associated periapical lesion. Tooth fusion with transposition of a maxillary molar and a premolar was diagnosed. Nonsurgical endodontic retreatment was performed. At four yr follow-up, the tooth was asymptomatic and the radiolucency around the apical region had decreased, showing the success of our intervention. The diagnosis and treatment of fused teeth require special attention. The canal system should be carefully explored to obtain a full understanding of the anatomy, allowing it to be fully cleaned and obturated. Thermoplastic techniques were useful in obtaining hermetic obturation. A correct anatomical evaluation improves the set of treatment options under consideration, leading to a higher likelihood of esthetically and functionally successful treatment. PMID:27200284

  2. The Retrograde Transposition of the Remnant Earlobe in Patients With Low-Set Microtia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lin; Hu, Jin-Tian; Zhou, Xu; Li, Zhi-Bin; Zhang, Yong-Biao; Cao, Yi-Lin; Zhang, Qing-Guo; Liu, Tun

    2015-10-01

    During auricle reconstruction, lobular transposition has become a routine technique applied by most of surgeons. But to some low-set remnant ears, it is difficult to manipulate the conventional lobule transposition method in clinical application. In this article, the authors introduce a method to retrogradely transpose the remnant ear with the the ratio of length:width of the lobular flap being 4-5:1. The lobule transposition could be applied during the first stage of Nagata method or the third stage using expansion method. The authors take the superior part of the remnant ear as the pedicle and make the incision at the middle and inferior parts of the remnant ear to form the lobular flap. Then the inferior lobule is rotated posteriorly and superiorly to cover the rear end of the framework and to form the inferior part of helical rim. The results of the reconstructed auricles are satisfactory with aesthetic natural earlobes and the location of the reconstructed ear is symmetric to the contralateral ear. The authors believe that to the 2% to 5% patients with low-set microtia, this is a good way to make use of remnant ear for the purpose of a real earlobe. PMID:26468806

  3. Insertion Sequence IS26 Reorganizes Plasmids in Clinically Isolated Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria by Replicative Transposition

    PubMed Central

    He, Susu; Hickman, Alison Burgess; Varani, Alessandro M.; Siguier, Patricia; Chandler, Michael; Dekker, John P.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), which are resistant to most or all known antibiotics, constitute a global threat to public health. Transposable elements are often associated with antibiotic resistance determinants, suggesting a role in the emergence of resistance. One insertion sequence, IS26, is frequently associated with resistance determinants, but its role remains unclear. We have analyzed the genomic contexts of 70 IS26 copies in several clinical and surveillance CPE isolates from the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center. We used target site duplications and their patterns as guides and found that a large fraction of plasmid reorganizations result from IS26 replicative transpositions, including replicon fusions, DNA inversions, and deletions. Replicative transposition could also be inferred for transposon Tn4401, which harbors the carbapenemase blaKPC gene. Thus, replicative transposition is important in the ongoing reorganization of plasmids carrying multidrug-resistant determinants, an observation that carries substantial clinical and epidemiological implications for understanding how such extreme drug resistance phenotypes evolve. PMID:26060276

  4. A Segmental Deletion Series Generated by Sister-Chromatid Transposition of Ac Transposable Elements in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianbo; Peterson, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Certain configurations of maize Ac/Ds transposon termini can undergo alternative transposition reactions leading to chromosome breakage and various types of stable chromosome rearrangements. Here, we show that a particular allele of the maize p1 gene containing an intact Ac element and a nearby terminally deleted Ac element (fAc) can undergo sister-chromatid transposition (SCT) reactions that generate large flanking deletions. Among 35 deletions characterized, all begin at the Ac termini in the p1 gene and extend to various flanking sites proximal to p1. The deletions range in size from the smallest of 12,567 bp to the largest of >4.6 cM; >80% of the deletions removed the p2 gene, a paralog of p1 located ∼60 kb from p1 in the p1-vv allele and its derivatives. Sequencing of representative cases shows that the deletions have precise junctions between the transposon termini and the flanking genomic sequences. These results show that SCT events can efficiently generate interstitial deletions that are useful for in vivo dissection of local genome regions and for the rapid correlation of genetic and physical maps. Finally, we discuss evidence suggesting that deletions induced by alternative transposition reactions can occur at other genomic loci, indicating that this mechanism may have had a significant impact on genome evolution. PMID:15965263

  5. Chooramani technique: A novel method of omental transposition in traumatic spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Chooramani, Gopal S.; Singh, Girish Kumar; Srivastava, Rajeshwar Nath; Jaiswal, Pramod Kumar; Srivastava, Chhitij

    2013-01-01

    Background: Spinal cord injury often results in significant catastrophic disability. Placement of the intact omentum upon a recently traumatized spinal cord was found to be effective. It represents a very suitable organ for revascularization of the ischemic nervous tissue, due to its abundance in blood and lymph vessels and its capability to adhere to the surface of the lesion, with capillary overgrowing in 4-6 h. The traditional method of omentum transposition is a hectic and time-consuming two-stage procedure in which position is changed twice. The major disadvantage of this two-staged procedure is that it takes longer operative time, and there is high risk of infection due to change of position with an open wound. So there is a need for modifications so that the procedure can be made easier and complications can be avoided. Objective: To avoid the complications and to make the procedure easier, a single-staged procedure called ‘chooramani technique’ for omental transposition in spinal cord injury is proposed. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 16 patients of post-traumatic thoraco-lumbar spinal cord injury with paraplegia. Results: Complications like wound infection, incisional hernia, and CSF leak were avoided. Operative time reduced to approximately half. Conclusion: This modification of technique is relatively easy and can be adopted for patients undergoing omental transposition for spinal cord injury. PMID:24551001

  6. Nonsurgical endodontic retreatment of fused teeth with transposition: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Miguel Agostinho Beco Pinto; Noites, Rita Brandão; Martins, Miguel André Duarte; Paulo, Manuel Pedro da Fonseca

    2016-05-01

    Tooth transposition is a disorder in which a permanent tooth develops and erupts in the normal position of another permanent tooth. Fusion and gemination are developmental disturbances presenting as the union of teeth. This article reports the nonsurgical retreatment of a very rare case of fused teeth with transposition. A patient was referred for endodontic treatment of her maxillary left first molar in the position of the first premolar, which was adjacent to it on the distobuccal side. Orthopantomography and periapical radiography showed two crowns sharing the same root, with a root canal treatment and an associated periapical lesion. Tooth fusion with transposition of a maxillary molar and a premolar was diagnosed. Nonsurgical endodontic retreatment was performed. At four yr follow-up, the tooth was asymptomatic and the radiolucency around the apical region had decreased, showing the success of our intervention. The diagnosis and treatment of fused teeth require special attention. The canal system should be carefully explored to obtain a full understanding of the anatomy, allowing it to be fully cleaned and obturated. Thermoplastic techniques were useful in obtaining hermetic obturation. A correct anatomical evaluation improves the set of treatment options under consideration, leading to a higher likelihood of esthetically and functionally successful treatment. PMID:27200284

  7. DNA transposition by protein transduction of the piggyBac transposase from lentiviral Gag precursors

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yujia; Bak, Rasmus O.; Krogh, Louise Bechmann; Staunstrup, Nicklas H.; Moldt, Brian; Corydon, Thomas J.; Schrøder, Lisbeth Dahl; Mikkelsen, Jacob Giehm

    2014-01-01

    DNA transposon-based vectors have emerged as gene vehicles with a wide biomedical and therapeutic potential. So far, genomic insertion of such vectors has relied on the co-delivery of genetic material encoding the gene-inserting transposase protein, raising concerns related to persistent expression, insertional mutagenesis and cytotoxicity. This report describes potent DNA transposition achieved by direct delivery of transposase protein. By adapting integrase-deficient lentiviral particles (LPs) as carriers of the hyperactive piggyBac transposase protein (hyPBase), we demonstrate rates of DNA transposition that are comparable with the efficiency of a conventional plasmid-based strategy. Embedded in the Gag polypeptide, hyPBase is robustly incorporated into LPs and liberated from the viral proteins by the viral protease during particle maturation. We demonstrate lentiviral co-delivery of the transposase protein and vector RNA carrying the transposon sequence, allowing robust DNA transposition in a variety of cell types. Importantly, this novel delivery method facilitates a balanced cellular uptake of hyPBase, as shown by confocal microscopy, and allows high-efficiency production of clones harboring a single transposon insertion. Our findings establish engineered LPs as a new tool for transposase delivery. We believe that protein transduction methods will increase applicability and safety of DNA transposon-based vector technologies. PMID:24270790

  8. Laparoscopic ovarian transposition prior to pelvic irradiation in a young female patient with advanced rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kihara, Kyoichi; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Ohshiro, Taihei; Fujita, Shin

    2015-12-01

    In the report, we describe the first case of laparoscopic ovarian transposition prior to pelvic radio-chemo therapy in a young female patient with advanced rectal cancer in Japan. A 14-year-old female visited a hospital because of consistent diarrhea and melena. Colonoscopy examination showed a bulky tumor of the rectum, which was diagnosed as moderately to poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. The diagnosis was cT3N2aM1a (due to lymph node in pelvic side wall), cStage IVA. In an attempt to improve local control and sphincter preservation, neoadjuvant concurrent radio-chemo therapy was planned. Considering that pelvic irradiation particularly in young female might cause ovarian failure, laparoscopic ovarian transposition was carried out prior to pelvic irradiation. Sequentially the patient underwent low anterior resection of the rectum and lymphadenectomy including pelvic side wall. The menstruation was maintained with delay for 6 months after adjuvant chemotherapy. There is no evidence of cancer recurrence at 3 years after the surgery.In premenopausal patients with rectal cancer undergoing pelvic irradiation, laparoscopic ovarian transposition is one of the choices to prevent ovarian failure. PMID:26943437

  9. Intense Transpositional Activity of Insertion Sequences in an Ancient Obligate Endosymbiont

    PubMed Central

    Pichon, Samuel; Ling, Alison; Pérez, Philippe; Delaunay, Carine; Vavre, Fabrice; Bouchon, Didier; Grève, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The streamlined genomes of ancient obligate endosymbionts generally lack transposable elements, such as insertion sequences (IS). Yet, the genome of Wolbachia, one of the most abundant bacterial endosymbionts on Earth, is littered with IS. Such a paradox raises the question as to why there are so many ISs in the genome of this ancient endosymbiont. To address this question, we investigated IS transpositional activity in the unculturable Wolbachia by tracking the evolutionary dynamics and history of ISWpi1 elements. We show that 1) ISWpi1 is widespread in Wolbachia, being present in at least 55% of the 40 sampled strains, 2) ISWpi1 copies exhibit virtually identical nucleotide sequences both within and among Wolbachia genomes and possess an intact transposase gene, 3) individual ISWpi1 copies are differentially inserted among Wolbachia genomes, and 4) ISWpi1 occurs at variable copy numbers among Wolbachia genomes. Collectively, our results provide compelling evidence for intense ISWpi1 transpositional activity and frequent ISWpi1 horizontal transmission among strains during recent Wolbachia evolution. Thus, the genomes of ancient obligate endosymbionts can carry high loads of functional and transpositionally active transposable elements. Our results also indicate that Wolbachia genomes have experienced multiple and temporally distinct ISWpi1 invasions during their evolutionary history. Such recurrent exposition to new IS invasions may explain, at least partly, the unusually high density of transposable elements found in the genomes of Wolbachia endosymbionts. PMID:18562339

  10. Strategic modulation of the photonic properties of conjugated organometallic Pt-Ir polymers exhibiting hybrid CT-excited states.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ahmed M; Zysman-Colman, Eli; Harvey, Pierre D

    2015-04-01

    Polymer 6, ([trans-Pt(PBu3 )2 (C≡C)2 ]-[Ir(dFMeppy)2 (N^N)](PF6 ))n , (([Pt]-[Ir](PF6 ))n ; N^N = 5,5'-disubstituted-2,2'-bipyridyl; dFMeppy = 2-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-5-methylpyridine) is prepared along with model compounds. These complexes are investigated by absorption and emission spectroscopy and their photophysical and electrochemical properties are measured and compared with their corresponding non fluorinated complexes. Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT computations corroborate the nature of the excited state as being a hybrid between the metal-to-ligand charge transfer ((1,3) MLCT) for the trans-Pt(PBu3 )2 (C≡CAr)2 unit, [Pt] and the metal-to-ligand/ligand-to-ligand' charge transfer ((1,3) ML'CT/LL'CT) for [Ir] with L = dFMeppy. Overall, the fluorination of the phenylpyridine group expectedly does not change the nature of the excited state but desirably induces a small blue shift of the absorption and emission bands along a slight decrease in emission quantum yields and lifetimes.

  11. Reprogramming of the human intestinal epigenome by surgical tissue transposition

    PubMed Central

    Lay, Fides D.; Triche, Timothy J.; Tsai, Yvonne C.; Su, Sheng-Fang; Martin, Sue Ellen; Daneshmand, Siamak; Skinner, Eila C.; Liang, Gangning; Chihara, Yoshitomo; Jones, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular cues play critical roles in the establishment of the epigenome during development and may also contribute to epigenetic perturbations found in disease states. The direct role of the local tissue environment on the post-development human epigenome, however, remains unclear due to limitations in studies of human subjects. Here, we use an isogenic human ileal neobladder surgical model and compare global DNA methylation levels of intestinal epithelial cells pre- and post-neobladder construction using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Our study is the first to quantify the effect of environmental cues on the human epigenome and show that the local tissue environment directly modulates DNA methylation patterns in normal differentiated cells in vivo. In the neobladder, the intestinal epithelial cells lose their tissue-specific epigenetic landscape in a time-dependent manner following the tissue’s exposure to a bladder environment. We find that de novo methylation of many intestine-specific enhancers occurs at the rate of 0.41% per month (P < 0.01, Pearson = 0.71), while demethylation of primarily non-intestine-specific transcribed regions occurs at the rate of −0.37% per month (P < 0.01, Pearson = −0.57). The dynamic resetting of the DNA methylome in the neobladder not only implicates local environmental cues in the shaping and maintenance of the epigenome but also illustrates an unexpected cross-talk between the epigenome and the cellular environment. PMID:24515120

  12. Novel alkylphospholipid-DTC hybrids as promising agents against endocrine related cancers acting via modulation of Akt-pathway.

    PubMed

    Jangir, Santosh; Bala, Veenu; Lal, Nand; Kumar, Lalit; Sarswat, Amit; Kumar, Amit; Hamidullah; Saini, Karan S; Sharma, Vikas; Verma, Vikas; Maikhuri, Jagdamba P; Konwar, Rituraj; Gupta, Gopal; Sharma, Vishnu L

    2014-10-01

    A new series of 2-(alkoxy(hydroxy)phosphoryloxy)ethyl dialkylcarbodithioate derivatives was synthesized and evaluated against endocrine related cancers, acting via modulation of Akt-pathway. Eighteen compounds were active at 7.24-100 μM against MDA-MB-231 or MCF-7 cell lines of breast cancer. Three compounds (14, 18 and 22) were active against MCF-7 cells at IC50 significantly better than miltefosine and most of the compounds were less toxic towards non-cancer cell lines, HEK-293. On the other hand, twelve compounds exhibited cell growth inhibiting activity against prostate cancer cell lines, either PC-3 or DU-145 at 14.69-95.20 μM. While nine of these were active against both cell lines. The most promising compounds 14 and 18 were about two and five fold more active than miltefosine against DU-145 and MCF-7 cell lines respectively and significantly down regulated phospho-Akt. Possibly anti-cancer and pro-apoptotic activity was mostly due to blockade of Akt-pathway.

  13. Hybrid and Etch-Less Electrooptic Waveguide Modulator Based on Photo-Bleaching and Strain Induced Optical Waveguide Technique in Polymer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Richard; Kang, Byeong-Mo; Jeong, Woon-Jo; Jung, Yang-June; Park, Hyuk-Reol; Kim, Chang-Dae; So, Soon-Youl; Lee, Jin; Park, Gye-Choon; Park, Yongjun

    2016-02-01

    A hybrid and etchless electrooptic (EO) polymer waveguide modulator based on both a photo-bleaching-induced optical waveguide (PBOW) and a strain-induced optical waveguide (SIOW) is described. The SIOW is defined by a metal strip line stressor deposited on top of the upper cladding that introduces the refractive index change within the core region. The PBOW technique is used to form an optical waveguide which is based on a photo-bleaching process, known as a photo-oxidation that is an irreversible decomposition of EO material, resulting in a permanent decrease in index of refraction. It is shown that this proposed fabrication idea combining two etchless techniques can be applicable to a wide range of polymer photonic integrated circuits. Preliminary results obtained from fabricated devices reveal that their half-wave voltage are ranging from 8 V to 10 V, their extinction ratio exhibits more than 15 dB, and the fiber-to-waveguide-to-lens loss is estimated to be ~9.5 dB for TM polarization at 1.55/m wavelength in the active interaction of ~1.5 cm long.

  14. On-chip integratable all-optical quantizer using strong cross-phase modulation in a silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguide

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Zhe; Yuan, Jinhui; Zhang, Xianting; Sang, Xinzhu; Wang, Kuiru; Wu, Qiang; Yan, Binbin; Li, Feng; Zhou, Xian; Zhong, Kangping; Zhou, Guiyao; Yu, Chongxiu; Farrell, Gerald; Lu, Chao; Yaw Tam, Hwa; Wai, P. K. A.

    2016-01-01

    High performance all-optical quantizer based on silicon waveguide is believed to have significant applications in photonic integratable optical communication links, optical interconnection networks, and real-time signal processing systems. In this paper, we propose an integratable all-optical quantizer for on-chip and low power consumption all-optical analog-to-digital converters. The quantization is realized by the strong cross-phase modulation and interference in a silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) slot waveguide based Mach-Zehnder interferometer. By carefully designing the dimension of the SOH waveguide, large nonlinear coefficients up to 16,000 and 18,069 W−1/m for the pump and probe signals can be obtained respectively, along with a low pulse walk-off parameter of 66.7 fs/mm, and all-normal dispersion in the wavelength regime considered. Simulation results show that the phase shift of the probe signal can reach 8π at a low pump pulse peak power of 206 mW and propagation length of 5 mm such that a 4-bit all-optical quantizer can be realized. The corresponding signal-to-noise ratio is 23.42 dB and effective number of bit is 3.89-bit. PMID:26777054

  15. 2.3-MW Medium-Voltage, Three-Level Wind Energy Inverter Applying a Unique Bus Structure and 4.5-kV Si/SiC Hybrid Isolated Power Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Erdman, W.; Keller, J.; Grider, D.; VanBrunt, E.

    2014-11-01

    A high-efficiency, 2.3-MW, medium-voltage, three-level inverter utilizing 4.5-kV Si/SiC (silicon carbide) hybrid modules for wind energy applications is discussed. The inverter addresses recent trends in siting the inverter within the base of multimegawatt turbine towers. A simplified split, three-layer laminated bus structure that maintains low parasitic inductances is introduced along with a low-voltage, high-current test method for determining these inductances. Feed-thru bushings, edge fill methods, and other design features of the laminated bus structure provide voltage isolation that is consistent with the 10.4-kV module isolation levels. Inverter efficiency improvement is a result of the (essential) elimination of the reverse recovery charge present in 4.5-kV Si PIN diodes, which can produce a significant reduction in diode turn-off losses as well as insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) turn-on losses. The hybrid modules are supplied in industry-standard 140 mm x 130 mm and 190 mm x 130 mm packages to demonstrate direct module substitution into existing inverter designs. A focus on laminated bus/capacitor-bank/module subassembly level switching performance is presented.

  16. Gain-of-Function Mutations in Tnsc, an Atp-Dependent Transposition Protein That Activates the Bacterial Transposon Tn7

    PubMed Central

    Stellwagen, A. E.; Craig, N. L.

    1997-01-01

    The bacterial transposon Tn7 encodes five genes whose protein products are used in different combinations to direct transposition to different types of target sites. TnsABC+D directs transposition to a specific site in the Escherichia coli chromosome called attTn7, whereas TnsABC+E directs transposition to non-attTn7 sites. These transposition reactions can also recognize and avoid ``immune'' targets that already contain a copy of Tn7. TnsD and TnsE are required to activate TnsABC as well as to select a target site; no transposition occurs with wild-type TnsABC alone. Here, we describe the isolation of TnsC gain-of-function mutants that activate the TnsA+B transposase in the absence of TnsD or TnsE. Some of these TnsC mutants enable the TnsABC machinery to execute transposition without sacrificing its ability to discriminate between different types of targets. Other TnsC mutants appear to constitutively activate the TnsABC machinery so that it bypasses target signals. We also present experiments that suggest that target selection occurs early in the Tn7 transposition pathway in vivo: favorable attTn7 targets appear to promote the excision of Tn7 from the chromosome, whereas immune targets do not allow transposon excision to occur. This work supports the view that TnsC plays a central role in the evaluation and utilization of target DNAs. PMID:9055068

  17. Radionuclide angiographic evaluation of right and left ventricular function during exercise after repair of transposition of the great arteries. Comparison with normal subjects and patients with congenitally corrected transposition

    SciTech Connect

    Parrish, M.D.; Graham, T.P. Jr.; Bender, H.W.; Jones, J.P.; Patton, J.; Partain, C.L.

    1983-01-01

    We assessed the incidence, clinical significance and etiology of ventricular dysfunction after intraatrial repair of d-transposition of the great arteries in 11 patients, mean age 9 +/- 3 years, who had had Mustard operations. We compared the results to 15 patients who were considered to have normal ventricular function, two patients who had Rastelli operations and five patients with congenitally corrected transposition. Gated equilibrium radionuclide angiography with supine exercise stress testing was used to assess these children. We found no significant difference between our patient groups in exercise capacity, heart rate, or blood pressure response to exercise. However, we found a high incidence of right ventricular dysfunction in the patient groups, manifested by an abnormal right ventricular ejection fraction response to dysfunction in the patient groups, manifested by an abnormal right ventricular ejection fraction response to exercise in six of 11 patients with a Mustard repair, both patients with a Rastelli repair and all five with congenitally corrected transposition. In addition, the left ventricular response to exercise was abnormal in 10 of 11 patients who had undergone a Mustard repair, both patients with a Rastelli repair, and two of five patients with congenitally corrected transposition. We conclude that biventricular dysfunction is frequently present after intraatrial repair of d-transposition of the great arteries. Despite this dysfunction, no significant decrease in exercise tolerance is found in childhood.

  18. Transcription from fusion promoters generated during transposition of transposon Tn4652 is positively affected by integration host factor in Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Teras, R; Hõrak, R; Kivisaar, M

    2000-02-01

    We have previously shown that both ends of the Tn3 family transposon Tn4652 contain integration host factor (IHF) binding sites and that IHF positively regulates expression of the Tn4652 transposase gene tnpA in Pseudomonas putida (R. Hõrak, and M. Kivisaar, J. Bacteriol. 180:2822-2829, 1998). Tn4652 can activate silent genes by creating fusion promoters during the transposition. The promoters are created as fusions between the -35 hexamer provided by the terminal inverted repeats of Tn4652 and the -10 hexamers in the target DNA. Two fusion promoters, PRA1 and PLA1, that contain sequences of the right and left termini of Tn4652, respectively, were chosen for the study of mechanisms of transcription activation. Gel mobility shift analysis using crude extracts from P. putida cells allowed us to detect specific binding of P. putida IHF to the ends of the transposon Tn4652. We found that the rate of transcription from the fusion promoter PRA1 is enhanced by IHF. Notably, the positive effect of IHF on transcription from the promoter PRA1 appeared only when cells of P. putida reached the stationary growth phase. We speculate that the intracellular concentration of IHF might be critical for the in vivo effect of IHF on transcription from the fusion promoters in P. putida. In the case of PLA1, the mechanism of transcription modulation by IHF is different than that observed for PRA1. Our results demonstrate that transcription of neighboring genes from outwardly directed promoters at the ends of a mobile DNA element could be influenced by the same factors that control transposition of the element. PMID:10633090

  19. Role of Ovarian Transposition Based on the Dosimetric Effects of Craniospinal Irradiation on the Ovaries: A Case Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, James D.; Hitchen, Christine; Vlachaki, Maria T.

    2007-10-01

    In this study, we present a case of laparoscopic ovarian transposition to preserve ovarian function in an adult female patient treated with craniospinal irradiation for standard risk medulloblastoma. The prescribed dose to the craniospinal axis was 2340 cGy at 180 cGy per fraction and was delivered with 6-MV photons. Before ovarian transposition, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pelvis was obtained for localization of the ovaries and was registered with the planning computed tomography (CT) scan. Surgical clips allowed for CT localization of the ovaries after transposition. As a result of ovarian transposition, mean and maximum radiation doses decreased from 983 to 68 cGy and 1624 to 84 cGy for the left ovary and from 166 to 87 cGy and 723 to 103 cGy for the right ovary, respectively. Review of the literature indicates that such radiation doses are below the threshold that causes ovarian dysfunction and infertility. We conclude that ovarian localization with an MRI of the pelvis can be offered to females undergoing craniospinal irradiation. Transposition of the ovaries provides an option to preserve ovarian function in cases where the ovaries would otherwise be included within the radiation field.

  20. Distribution of Unlinked Transpositions of a Ds Element from a T-DNA Locus on Tomato Chromosome 4

    PubMed Central

    Briza, J.; Carroll, B. J.; Klimyuk, V. I.; Thomas, C. M.; Jones, D. A.; Jones, JDG.

    1995-01-01

    In maize, receptor sites for unlinked transpositions of Activator (Ac) elements are not distributed randomly. To test whether the same is true in tomato, the receptor sites for a Dissociation (Ds) element derived from Ac, were mapped for 26 transpositions unlinked to a donor T-DNA locus on chromosome 4. Four independent transposed Dss mapped to sites on chromosome 4 genetically unlinked to the donor T-DNA, consistent with a preference for transposition to unlinked sites on the same chromosome as opposed to sites on other chromosomes. There was little preference among the nondonor chromosomes, except perhaps for chromosome 2, which carried seven transposed Dss, but these could not be proven to be independent. However, these data, when combined with those from other studies in tomato examining the distribution of transposed Acs or Dss among nondonor chromosomes, suggest there may be absolute preferences for transposition irrespective of the chromosomal location of the donor site. If true, transposition to nondonor chromosomes in tomato would differ from that in maize, where the preference seems to be determined by the spatial arrangement of chromosomes in the interphase nucleus. The tomato lines carrying Ds elements at known locations are available for targeted transposon tagging experiments. PMID:8536985

  1. Hybrid organic/inorganic band-edge modulation of p-Si(111) photoelectrodes: effects of R, metal oxide, and Pt on H2 generation.

    PubMed

    Seo, Junhyeok; Kim, Hark Jin; Pekarek, Ryan T; Rose, Michael J

    2015-03-11

    The efficient generation of dihydrogen on molecularly modified p-Si(111) has remained a challenge due to the low barrier heights observed on such surfaces. The band-edge and barrier height challenge is a primary obstruction to progress in the area of integration of molecular H2 electrocatalysts with silicon photoelectrodes. In this work, we demonstrate that an optimal combination of organic passivating agent and inorganic metal oxide leads to H2 evolution at photovoltages positive of RHE. Modulation of the passivating R group [CH3 → Ph → Naph → Anth → Ph(OMe)2] improves both the band-edge position and ΔV (Vonset - VJmax). Subsequent atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al2O3 or TiO2 along with ALD-Pt deposition results in to our knowledge the first example of a positive H2 operating potential on molecularly modified Si(111). Mott-Schottky analyses reveal that the flat-band potential of the stable Ph(OMe)2 surface approaches that of the native (but unstable) hydride-terminated surface. The series resistance is diminished by the methoxy functional groups on the phenyl unit, due to its chemical and electronic connectivity with the TiO2 layer. Overall, judicious choice of the R group in conjunction with TiO2|Pt effects H2 generation on p-Si(111) photoelectrodes (Voc = 207 ± 5.2 mV; Jsc = -21.7 mA/cm(2); ff = 0.22; ηH2 = 0.99%). These results provide a viable hybrid strategy toward the operation of catalysts on molecularly modified p-Si(111).

  2. Anatomical variants of transposition of the main vessels and their relationship with the content of chemical elements in heart ventricles.

    PubMed

    Kliver, E E; Okuneva, G N; Levicheva, E N; Nepomnyashchikh, L M; Loginova, I Yu; Volkov, A M; Lushnikova, E L; Trunova, V A; Zvereva, V V

    2008-05-01

    Cardiometrical characteristics of anatomical variants of the main vessels transposition are determined by different functional load of heart compartments and are associated with metabolic processes of different intensity, which is confirmed by the content of chemical elements in the right- and left-ventricular myocardium. It was shown that the content of chemicals was virtually the same in both cardiac ventricles in case of main vessels transposition and isolated atrial septal defect. Positive correlations between the degree of left-ventricular hypertrophy and content of S, K, Fe, and Sr in it and a negative correlation between this hypertrophy and Cu content were revealed. Transposition of the main vessels and defects of atrial and ventricular septa were associated with different levels of chemical elements in both ventricles, particularly of Zn, Mn, Fe, and Ca.

  3. Repetitive transpositions of mitochondrial DNA sequences to the nucleus during the radiation of horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus, Chiroptera).

    PubMed

    Shi, Huizhen; Dong, Ji; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi; Mao, Xiuguang

    2016-05-01

    Transposition of mitochondrial DNA into the nucleus, which gives rise to nuclear mitochondrial DNAs (NUMTs), has been well documented in eukaryotes. However, very few studies have assessed the frequency of these transpositions during the evolutionary history of a specific taxonomic group. Here we used the horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus) as a case study to determine the frequency and relative timing of nuclear transfers of mitochondrial control region sequences. For this, phylogenetic and coalescent analyzes were performed on NUMTs and authentic mtDNA sequences generated from eight horseshoe bat species. Our results suggest at least three independent transpositions, including two ancient and one more recent, during the evolutionary history of Rhinolophus. The two ancient transpositions are represented by the NUMT-1 and -2 clades, with each clade consisting of NUMTs from almost all studied species but originating from different portions of the mtDNA genome. Furthermore, estimates of the most recent common ancestor for each clade corresponded to the time of the initial diversification of this genus. The recent transposition is represented by NUMT-3, which was discovered only in a specific subgroup of Rhinolophus and exhibited a close relationship to its mitochondrial counterpart. Our similarity searches of mtDNA in the R. ferrumequinum genome confirmed the presence of NUMT-1 and NUMT-2 clade sequences and, for the first time, assessed the extent of NUMTs in a bat genome. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report on the frequency of transpositions of mtDNA occurring before the common ancestry of a genus. PMID:26809101

  4. Repetitive transpositions of mitochondrial DNA sequences to the nucleus during the radiation of horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus, Chiroptera).

    PubMed

    Shi, Huizhen; Dong, Ji; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi; Mao, Xiuguang

    2016-05-01

    Transposition of mitochondrial DNA into the nucleus, which gives rise to nuclear mitochondrial DNAs (NUMTs), has been well documented in eukaryotes. However, very few studies have assessed the frequency of these transpositions during the evolutionary history of a specific taxonomic group. Here we used the horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus) as a case study to determine the frequency and relative timing of nuclear transfers of mitochondrial control region sequences. For this, phylogenetic and coalescent analyzes were performed on NUMTs and authentic mtDNA sequences generated from eight horseshoe bat species. Our results suggest at least three independent transpositions, including two ancient and one more recent, during the evolutionary history of Rhinolophus. The two ancient transpositions are represented by the NUMT-1 and -2 clades, with each clade consisting of NUMTs from almost all studied species but originating from different portions of the mtDNA genome. Furthermore, estimates of the most recent common ancestor for each clade corresponded to the time of the initial diversification of this genus. The recent transposition is represented by NUMT-3, which was discovered only in a specific subgroup of Rhinolophus and exhibited a close relationship to its mitochondrial counterpart. Our similarity searches of mtDNA in the R. ferrumequinum genome confirmed the presence of NUMT-1 and NUMT-2 clade sequences and, for the first time, assessed the extent of NUMTs in a bat genome. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report on the frequency of transpositions of mtDNA occurring before the common ancestry of a genus.

  5. Virion-associated cofactor high-mobility group DNA-binding protein-1 facilitates transposition from the herpes simplex virus/Sleeping Beauty amplicon vector platform.

    PubMed

    de Silva, Suresh; Lotta, Louis T; Burris, Clark A; Bowers, William J

    2010-11-01

    The development of the integration-competent, herpes simplex virus/Sleeping Beauty (HSV/SB) amplicon vector platform has created a means to efficiently and stably deliver therapeutic transcription units (termed "transgenons") to neurons within the mammalian brain. Furthermore, an investigation into the transposition capacity of the HSV/SB vector system revealed that the amplicon genome provides an optimal substrate for the transposition of transgenons at least 12 kb in length [de Silva, S., Mastrangelo, M.A., Lotta, L.T., Jr., Burris, C.A., Federoff, H.J., and Bowers, W.J. ( 2010 ). Gene Ther. 17, 424-431]. These results prompted an investigation into the factors that may contribute toward efficient transposition from the HSV/SB amplicon. One of the cellular cofactors known to play a key role during SB-mediated transposition is the high-mobility group DNA-binding protein-1 (HMGB1). Our present investigation into the role of HMGB1 during amplicon-based transposition revealed that transposition is not strictly dependent on the presence of cellular HMGB1, contrary to what had been previously demonstrated with plasmid-based SB transposition. We have shown for the first time that during amplicon preparation, biologically active HMGB1 derived from the packaging cell line is copackaged into amplicon vector particles. As a result, HSV/SB amplicon virions arrive prearmed with HMGB1 protein at levels sufficient for facilitating SB-mediated transposition in the transduced mammalian cell. PMID:20568967

  6. A case of congenitally protected d-transposition of the great arteries in a very low-birth-weight infant.

    PubMed

    Woodson, K E; Sable, C A; Berger, J T; Slack, M C; Wernovsky, G; Spray, T L

    2003-01-01

    An arterial switch is the corrective procedure of choice for d-transposition of the great arteries but may be associated with increased morbidity and mortality when performed in low-birth-weight infants. Conversely, delaying surgery often leads to left ventricular "deconditioning" as pulmonary arteriolar resistance decreases. We present an infant with a birth weight of 940 g with d-transposition of the great arteries with an intact ventricular septum whose bilateral pulmonary artery branch stenosis allowed for maintenance of near systemic left ventricular pressure, thereby protecting against deconditioning. This case also represents the smallest reported patient to undergo a successful balloon atrial septostomy. PMID:12399905

  7. Multiple independent transpositions of mitochondrial DNA control region sequences to the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Sorenson, M D; Fleischer, R C

    1996-12-24

    Transpositions of mtDNA sequences to the nuclear genome have been documented in a wide variety of individual taxa, but little is known about their taxonomic frequency or patterns of variation. We provide evidence of nuclear sequences homologous to the mtDNA control region in seven species of diving ducks (tribe Aythyini). Phylogenetic analysis places each nuclear sequence as a close relative of the mtDNA haplotypes of the specie(s) in which it occurs, indicating that they derive from six independent transposition events, all occurring within the last approximately 1.5 million years. Relative-rate tests and comparison of intraspecific variation in nuclear and mtDNA sequences confirm the expectation of a greatly reduced rate of evolution in the nuclear copies. By representing mtDNA haplotypes from ancestral populations, nuclear insertions may be valuable in some phylogenetic analyses, but they also confound the accurate determination of mtDNA sequences. In particular, our data suggest that the presumably nonfunctional but more slowly evolving nuclear sequences often will not be identifiable by changes incompatible with function and may be preferentially amplified by PCR primers based on mtDNA sequences from related taxa. PMID:8986794

  8. Zinc-Induced Transposition of Insertion Sequence Elements Contributes to Increased Adaptability of Cupriavidus metallidurans

    PubMed Central

    Vandecraen, Joachim; Monsieurs, Pieter; Mergeay, Max; Leys, Natalie; Aertsen, Abram; Van Houdt, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria can respond to adverse environments by increasing their genomic variability and subsequently facilitating adaptive evolution. To demonstrate this, the contribution of Insertion Sequence (IS) elements to the genetic adaptation of Cupriavidus metallidurans AE126 to toxic zinc concentrations was determined. This derivative of type strain CH34, devoid of its main zinc resistance determinant, is still able to increase its zinc resistance level. Specifically, upon plating on medium supplemented with a toxic zinc concentration, resistant variants arose in which a compromised cnrYX regulatory locus caused derepression of CnrH sigma factor activity and concomitant induction of the corresponding RND-driven cnrCBA efflux system. Late-occurring zinc resistant variants likely arose in response to the selective conditions, as they were enriched in cnrYX disruptions caused by specific IS elements whose transposase expression was found to be zinc-responsive. Interestingly, deletion of cnrH, and consequently the CnrH-dependent adaptation potential, still enabled adaptation by transposition of IS elements (ISRme5 and IS1086) that provided outward-directed promoters driving cnrCBAT transcription. Finally, adaptation to zinc by IS reshuffling can also enhance the adaptation to subsequent environmental challenges. Thus, transposition of IS elements can be induced by stress conditions and play a multifaceted, pivotal role in the adaptation to these and subsequent stress conditions. PMID:27047473

  9. Anesthetic considerations in a child with unrepaired D-transposition of great arteries undergoing noncardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Pooja; Khare, Arvind; Jain, Neena; Verma, Priya; Mathur, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    D-transposition of great arteries (D-TGA) is the most common cyanotic congenital heart disease diagnosed at birth. There is ventriculoarterial discordance leading to parallel circulation. The postnatal survival depends on intercirculatory mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood at various levels through atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect or patent ductus arteriosus. The anesthesiologist must have an understanding of concepts of shunting and other long-term consequences of transposition of great arteries (TGA) in order to tailor the anesthetic technique to optimize the hemodynamic variables and oxygenation in the perioperative period. The preoperative evaluation includes echocardiography to delineate the type of TGA, associated lesions and extent and direction of shunts. Oxygen saturation is influenced by the ratio of pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) to systemic vascular resistance. Thus, care should be taken to avoid an increase in PVR which can lead to decreased pulmonary blood flow leading to hypoxia. We report a case of an 8-year-old child with unrepaired D-TGA, who presented to us for craniotomy for drainage of brain abscess.

  10. Factors influencing survival after balloon atrial septostomy for complete transposition of great arteries.

    PubMed Central

    Leanage, R; Agnetti, A; Graham, G; Taylor, J; Macartney, F J

    1981-01-01

    Despite balloon atrial septostomy within the first days of life, some patients with complete transposition of the great arteries die before reaching elective definitive surgery in the second six months of life. To discover why, we analysed the fate of 144 patients who had balloon atrial septostomy after 1966, using a modified logrank survival test with multivariate capability. Patients were withdrawn "alive" on reaching definitive surgery. The following largely independent factors were associated with a statistically significant excess mortality: pulmonary hypertension, the presence and size of a ventricular septal defect of persistent ductus arteriosus, relative anaemia, absence of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, low arterial oxygen saturation, aortic stenosis and coarctation, and balloon atrial septostomy between 1 week and 1 month of life. Those of the above factors which can be determined at balloon atrial septostomy or at routine cardiac catheterisation at 3 months of age were then introduced into discriminant function analysis on survival to 6 months. Hence the probability of any individual patient dying in the first six months was calculated, allowing for these factors. This prediction was correct in 76 per cent of the patients studied. By offering earlier definitive correction to patients thus identified as being at high risk of premature death, it should prove possible to reduce overall mortality in transposition of the great arteries. PMID:7236462

  11. Mechanical circulatory support in patients with heart failure secondary to transposition of the great arteries.

    PubMed

    Joyce, David L; Crow, Sheri S; John, Ranjit; St Louis, James D; Braunlin, Elizabeth A; Pyles, Lee A; Kofflin, Paula; Joyce, Lyle D

    2010-11-01

    Advances in palliation of congenital heart disease have resulted in improved survival to adulthood. Many of these patients ultimately develop end-stage heart failure requiring left ventricular assist device implantation (LVAD). However, morphologic differences in the systemic ventricle of these patients require careful attention to cannula placement. We report on the evolution of our surgical technique for implanting LVADs in 3 patients with transposition of the great arteries and congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries. Applying standard LV cannulation techniques to the systemic ventricle led us too anteriorly in our first patient, creating obstruction by the moderator band. Subsequent use of epicardial and transesophageal echocardiography allowed for intraoperative localization of the intracardiac muscular structures to identify the optimal cannulation site. The acute angle of the inflow cannula on the DeBakey LVAD (MicroMed Technology, Houston, TX) required flipping the device 180°. The HeartMate II device (Thoratec, Pleasanton, CA) could be shifted towards the midline. One patient underwent successful transplant and 2 are home waiting for a donor organ. We conclude from our experience that LVAD surgery can be safely performed in patients with congenital heart disease when implanted under echocardiographic guidance. PMID:20620085

  12. Are all Semitic languages immune to letter transpositions? The case of Maltese.

    PubMed

    Perea, Manuel; Gatt, Albert; Moret-Tatay, Carmen; Fabri, Ray

    2012-10-01

    Recent research using the rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm with English sentences that included words with letter transpositions (e.g., jugde) has shown that participants can readily reproduce the correctly spelled sentences with little cost; in contrast, there is a dramatic reading cost with root-derived Hebrew words (Velan & Frost, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 14:913-918, 2007, Cognition 118:141-156, 2011). This divergence could be due to (1) the processing of root-derived words in Semitic languages or (2) the peculiarities of the transitional probabilities in root-derived Hebrew words. Unlike Hebrew, Maltese is a Semitic language that does not omit vowel information in print and whose morphology also has a significant non-Semitic (mostly Romance) morphology. Here, we employed the same RSVP technique used by Velan and Frost (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 14:913-918, 2007, Cognition 118:141-156, 2011), this time with Maltese (and English) sentences. The results showed that Maltese-English bilinguals were able to reproduce the Maltese words-regardless of whether they were misspelled (involving the transposition of two letters from the consonantal root) or not, with no reading cost-just as in English. The apparent divergences between the RSVP data with Hebrew versus Maltese sentences are likely due to the combination of the characteristics of the Hebrew orthographic system with the Semitic morphology. PMID:22669840

  13. Successful term pregnancy after Mustard operation for transposition of the great arteries.

    PubMed

    Rousseil, M P; Irion, O; Béguin, F; Jaques, O; Adamec, R; Lerch, R; Friedli, B; Rifat, K

    1995-03-01

    Transposition of the great arteries is a complex cardiac malformation with poor prognosis without surgical correction. Since the introduction of surgical procedures such as the intra-auricular reorientation of the venous return (Mustard procedure), an increasing number of patients may reach adulthood and experience pregnancy. Because long-term complications after the Mustard operation include systemic heart failure, arrhythmias, venous return stenosis and pulmonary edema, hemodynamic changes during pregnancy and delivery may potentially engender life-threatening complications in these patients. We report the case of a 24-year-old primigravida who underwent a Mustard procedure at the age of 2 years for transposition of the great vessels, and who carried out a full-term pregnancy. The pregnancy was uneventful until the 34th week, when the woman developed signs of moderate right ventricular failure and frequent episodes of accelerated junctional rhythm. Digitalisation improved symptoms and elicited return to normal sinus rhythm. The patient delivered at term by elective cesarean section, under close hemodynamic monitoring. PMID:7781853

  14. The transposition frequency of Tag1 elements is increased in transgenic Arabidopsis lines.

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, A M; Lister, C; Crawford, N; Dean, C

    1998-01-01

    Tag1 was identified as a highly active endogenous transposable element in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana Landsberg erecta plants carrying the maize transposable element Activator (Ac). Here, we describe experiments designed to determine the basis for the high activity of Tag1. The frequency of transposition of Tag1 elements was compared in lines containing or lacking Ac transposase to assess the effect of Ac transposase on Tag1 activity. Three populations of nontransgenic plants, including nontransformed regenerants, were also analyzed. The high level of activity of Tag1 did not correlate with the presence or absence of Ac transposase but was significantly higher in transgenic lines. This result was maintained through at least six generations after transformation. These data suggest that Tag1 transposition is stimulated by processes that occur during the Agrobacterium transformation and that thereafter remain active. Two Tag1 elements are tightly linked in the Landsberg erecta genome and map to the lower arm of chromosome 1. Tag1 elements were found in only a few A. thaliana ecotypes but were present in four other Arabidopsis species. PMID:9501115

  15. Comparison of hemihypoglossal-facial nerve transposition with a cross-facial nerve graft and muscle transplant for the rehabilitation of facial paralysis using the facial clima method.

    PubMed

    Hontanilla, Bernardo; Vila, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    To compare quantitatively the results obtained after hemihypoglossal nerve transposition and microvascular gracilis transfer associated with a cross facial nerve graft (CFNG) for reanimation of a paralysed face, 66 patients underwent hemihypoglossal transposition (n = 25) or microvascular gracilis transfer and CFNG (n = 41). The commissural displacement (CD) and commissural contraction velocity (CCV) in the two groups were compared using the system known as Facial clima. There was no inter-group variability between the groups (p > 0.10) in either variable. However, intra-group variability was detected between the affected and healthy side in the transposition group (p = 0.036 and p = 0.017, respectively). The transfer group had greater symmetry in displacement of the commissure (CD) and commissural contraction velocity (CCV) than the transposition group and patients were more satisfied. However, the transposition group had correct symmetry at rest but more asymmetry of CCV and CD when smiling.

  16. Expression of the Retrotransposon Helena Reveals a Complex Pattern of TE Deregulation in Drosophila Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Soriano, Valèria; Garcia Guerreiro, Maria Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs), repeated mobile sequences, are ubiquitous in the eukaryotic kingdom. Their mobilizing capacity confers on them a high mutagenic potential, which must be strongly regulated to guarantee genome stability. In the Drosophila germline, a small RNA-mediated silencing system, the piRNA (Piwi-interacting RNA) pathway, is the main responsible TE regulating mechanism, but some stressful conditions can destabilize it. For instance, during interspecific hybridization, genomic stress caused by the shock of two different genomes can lead, in both animals and plants, to higher transposition rates. A recent study in D. buzatii—D. koepferae hybrids detected mobilization of 28 TEs, yet little is known about the molecular mechanisms explaining this transposition release. We have characterized one of the mobilized TEs, the retrotransposon Helena, and used quantitative expression to assess whether its high transposition rates in hybrids are preceded by increased expression. We have also localized Helena expression in the gonads to see if cellular expression patterns have changed in the hybrids. To give more insight into changes in TE regulation in hybrids, we analysed Helena-specific piRNA populations of hybrids and parental species. Helena expression is not globally altered in somatic tissues, but male and female gonads have different patterns of deregulation. In testes, Helena is repressed in F1, increasing then its expression up to parental values. This is linked with a mislocation of Helena transcripts along with an increase of their specific piRNA levels. Ovaries have additive levels of Helena expression, but the ping-pong cycle efficiency seems to be reduced in F1 hybrids. This could be at the origin of new Helena insertions in hybrids, which would be transmitted to F1 hybrid female progeny. PMID:26812285

  17. Qualitative and Quantitative Assays of Transposition and Homologous Recombination of the Retrotransposon Tf1 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Sangesland, Maya; Atwood-Moore, Angela; Rai, Sudhir K; Levin, Henry L

    2016-01-01

    Transposition and homologous recombination assays are valuable genetic tools to measure the production and integration of cDNA from the long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon Tf1 in the fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe). Here we describe two genetic assays, one that measures the transposition activity of Tf1 by monitoring the mobility of a drug resistance marked Tf1 element expressed from a multi-copy plasmid and another assay that measures homologous recombination between Tf1 cDNA and the expression plasmid. While the transposition assay measures insertion of full-length Tf1 cDNA mediated by the transposon integrase, the homologous recombination assay measures levels of cDNA present in the nucleus and is independent of integrase activity. Combined, these assays can be used to systematically screen large collections of strains to identify mutations that specifically inhibit the integration step in the retroelement life cycle. Such mutations can be identified because they reduce transposition activity but nevertheless have wild-type frequencies of homologous recombination. Qualitative assays of yeast patches on agar plates detect large defects in integration and recombination, while the quantitative approach provides a precise method of determining integration and recombination frequencies.

  18. Inferior Alveolar Nerve Lateralization and Transposition for Dental Implant Placement. Part I: a Systematic Review of Surgical Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Juodzbalys, Gintaras

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The purpose of this first part of a two-part series was to review the literature concerning the indications, contraindications, advantages, disadvantages and surgical techniques of the lateralization and transposition of the inferior alveolar nerve, followed by the placement of an implant in an edentulous atrophic posterior mandible. Material and Methods A comprehensive review of the current literature was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines by accessing the NCBI PubMed and PMC database, academic sites and books. The articles were searched from January 1997 to July 2014 and comprised English-language articles that included adult patients between 18 and 80 years old with minimal residual bone above the mandibular canal who had undergone inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) repositioning with a minimum 6 months of follow-up. Results A total of 16 studies were included in this review. Nine were related to IAN transposition, 4 to IAN lateralization and 3 to both transposition and lateralization. Implant treatment results and complications were presented. Conclusions Inferior alveolar nerve lateralization and transposition in combination with the installation of dental implants is sometimes the only possible procedure to help patients to obtain a fixed prosthesis, in edentulous atrophic posterior mandibles. With careful pre-operative surgical and prosthetic planning, imaging, and extremely precise surgical technique, this procedure can be successfully used for implant placement in edentulous posterior mandibular segments. PMID:25937873

  19. [Congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries in patient with atrial septal defect and acute inferior segment myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Tosun, Veysel; Korucuk, Necmettin; Karakaş, Mustafa Mustafa; Güntekin, Ünal

    2016-09-01

    Congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries is a rare abnormality accounting for approximately 1% of clinically apparent congenital heart disease. Age at time of diagnosis and survival rate vary and depend on associated anomalies, including pulmonary stenosis, ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect, atrioventricular block, and atrioventricular valve regurgitation. Reported cases of corrected transposition of the great arteries with single coronary ostium anomaly and atrial septal defect are very rare. Described in the present report is the case of a 55-year-old male who presented with acute inferior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and coincidental single coronary ostium arising from the right sinus of Valsalva, as observed on coronary angiography. Successful balloon angioplasty and stenting of the circumflex artery were performed. Echocardiography demonstrated the corrected transposition of the great arteries with negative contrast enhancement between the atrial chambers. The patient was discharged with medical therapy on the eighth postoperative day. To our knowledge, the present is the first report to describe corrected transposition of the great arteries, atrial septal defect, single coronary ostium, and acute myocardial infarction as comorbidities. PMID:27665336

  20. Impaired Development of Left Anterior Heart Field by Ectopic Retinoic Acid Causes Transposition of the Great Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Narematsu, Mayu; Kamimura, Tatsuya; Yamagishi, Toshiyuki; Fukui, Mitsuru; Nakajima, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    Background Transposition of the great arteries is one of the most commonly diagnosed conotruncal heart defects at birth, but its etiology is largely unknown. The anterior heart field (AHF) that resides in the anterior pharyngeal arches contributes to conotruncal development, during which heart progenitors that originated from the left and right AHF migrate to form distinct conotruncal regions. The aim of this study is to identify abnormal AHF development that causes the morphology of transposition of the great arteries. Methods and Results We placed a retinoic acid–soaked bead on the left or the right or on both sides of the AHF of stage 12 to 14 chick embryos and examined the conotruncal heart defect at stage 34. Transposition of the great arteries was diagnosed at high incidence in embryos for which a retinoic acid–soaked bead had been placed in the left AHF at stage 12. Fluorescent dye tracing showed that AHF exposed to retinoic acid failed to contribute to conotruncus development. FGF8 and Isl1 expression were downregulated in retinoic acid–exposed AHF, and differentiation and expansion of cardiomyocytes were suppressed in cultured AHF in medium supplemented with retinoic acid. Conclusions The left AHF at the early looped heart stage, corresponding to Carnegie stages 10 to 11 (28 to 29 days after fertilization) in human embryos, is the region of the impediment that causes the morphology of transposition of the great arteries. PMID:25929268

  1. One-stage neonatal corrective repair for d-transposition of the great arteries and complete atrio-ventricular canal.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Hernandez, Victor; Marx, Gerald R; del Nido, Pedro J

    2007-01-01

    Association of d-transposition of the great arteries and complete atrio-ventricular canal constitutes an uncommon and complex cardiac anomaly usually associated with poor prognosis. We report our experience on one-stage neonatal repair for d-transposition of the great arteries and complete atrio-ventricular canal. Between August 1997 and 2005, four patients (two males and two females) underwent anatomical correction for d-transposition of the great arteries and complete atrio-ventricular canal using an arterial switch procedure and two-patch repair. Mean age and weight at operation were 20 days (range from 3 to 28 days) and 3.2kg (range from 2.7 to 3.5kg), respectively. None of the patients received preoperative palliative procedure. Associated lesions were left outflow tract obstruction in three patients and multiple muscular ventricular septal defects in two patients. All four patients survived the operation. There was one in-hospitality death due to fungal sepsis. One patient required late re-operation for left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and left atrio-ventricular valve regurgitation. For a mean follow-up of 67 months (range from 51 to 90 months) all patients are asymptomatic and with no residual defects. Corrective repair of d-transposition of the great arteries and complete atrio-ventricular canal can be successfully achieved in this very challenging population during the neonatal period. PMID:17110123

  2. Analysis of sequences transposed by complementation of two classes of transposition-deficient mutants of Tn3.

    PubMed Central

    Gill, R; Heffron, F; Dougan, G; Falkow, S

    1978-01-01

    The Tn1 and Tn3 elements are closely related transposons which carry the structural gene for ampicillin resistance. Two classes of deletion mutants of the plasmid pMB8::Tn3 (RSF1050) are unable to transpose ampicillin resistance but can be complemented in trans by a coresident Tn1 or Tn3 element. The analysis of the sequences transposed upon complementation of one class of mutants (type I) showed that the mutant element had undergone bona fide transposition. Complementation of the type II mutants led to the transposition of a sequence analogous to bacteriophage mu-promoted integration of non-mu DNA. The transposed sequence consisted of two Tn3 elements which flanked a single copy of the pMB8 portion of the RSF1050 genome. Complementation data indicated that the type II mutants are defective in at least one trans-acting function which must be supplied for transposition to occur. The nature of sequence transposed from the type II mutant is the consequence of a defective cis-acting function (or site). In addition, the type II mutants were defective in a trans-acting function which regulated the frequency of transposition. Images PMID:361721

  3. Expanding the Limits of Posterior Aortic Translocation: Biventricular Correction of Complex Transposition With Complete Atrioventricular Septal Defect and Heterotaxy.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Junya; Bierbach, Benjamin; Hraska, Viktor

    2016-02-01

    This case report describes successful repair of d-transposition of the great arteries with severe left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and complete atrioventricular septal defect associated with heterotaxy by the use of posterior aortic translocation combined with repair of the atrioventricular septal defect and systemic venous anomalies. PMID:26777936

  4. Review: surgery for transposition of the great arteries in the first year of life.

    PubMed Central

    Zavanella, C; Subramanian, S

    1978-01-01

    Elective intracardiac repair by the Mustard operation is recommented in patients with transposition of the great arteries and intact ventricular septum in the first year of life (Fig. 1). In patients with associated ventricular septal defect in the first three months of life, early banding followed by early debanding before the first year of life is recommended. When the left ventricular outflow tract obstruction is discrete at valvular or subvalvular level, Mustard operation, closure of the ventricular septal defect and direct relief of out-flow obstruction is acceptable, but in patients with an unfavorable left ventricular outflow tract anatomy, a preliminary shunt followed by a Rastelli operation after the age of four years will probably result in a greater salvage. The utilization of surface induced profound hypothermia and circulatory arrest allows for more precise and rapid surgery and is shown to be a definite advantage in the very young infant. PMID:75716

  5. Grasping the experience of the other from an interview: Self-transposition in use

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a part of the interview process that is never usually reported. Listening to what people say is the key to increasing our knowledge of human existences. Procuring knowledge about human experience is much more challenging. Although good sources on how to prepare and conduct an interview exist, the process of the interviewer's perception of the interviewee's message and meaning is less examined. Beyond the role of eliciting the data, the researcher endeavours to reproduce the interviewee's narration and not the voice of the researcher. By illustrating the process during the interview, further transparency and thereby validity may be achieved. To exemplify this, the perception of the interviewer is explored, and here Heidegger's work on self-transposition has proved to be helpful. PMID:23972102

  6. Maxi-circles, glycosomes, gene transposition, expression sites, transsplicing, transferrin receptors and base J.

    PubMed

    Borst, Piet

    2016-01-01

    This is a personal story of the author of his research on trypanosomatids, covering a period of 1970-2015. Some of the highlights include the discovery of new aspects of kDNA, the mini-circle heterogeneity and the maxi-circle; the glycosome; the discovery of gene transposition as a major mechanism for antigenic variation; trans-splicing as an essential step in the synthesis of all trypanosome mRNAs; Pulsed Field Gradient gels to size-fractionate chromosome-sized DNA molecules of protozoa; the sequence of trypanosome telomeres and their growth and contraction; the first ABC-transporter of trypanosomatids, LtpgpA; the variable transferrin receptor of T. brucei and its role in Fe uptake; and base J, its structure, biosynthesis and function.

  7. Anterior transposition of the ulnar nerve using a non-compressing fasciodermal sling.

    PubMed

    Eaton, R G; Crowe, J F; Parkes, J C

    1980-07-01

    Sixteen elbows of fourteen patients were analyzed five to sixty months after treatment for ulnar neuritis or neuropathy by anterior transposition of the ulnar nerve using a non-compressing fasciodermal sling to maintain the anterior position. This procedure creates a septum in the mid-lateral plane that lies posterior to the transposed nerve at the level of the medial epicondyle. Unlike previous procedures, no structure other than subcutaneous fat is located superficial to the nerve. Seven patients were baseball pitchers who had experienced transient but severe ulnarnerve paresthesias during the act of throwing. Of the sixteen extremities only one, the limb of a severely diabetic patient with bilateral ulnar neuropathy, was not relieved of preoperative complaints. There were no complications. The procedure is simple, postoperative immobilization is needed for only a brief period, and rehabilitation is rapid.

  8. Transposition of Great Arteries with Intramural Coronary Artery: Experience with a Modified Surgical Technique

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Amit; Jain, Anil; Hinduja, Manish; Wadhawa, Vivek; Patel, Ramesh; Vaidhya, Nikunj; Rodricks, Dayesh; Patel, Hardik

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Transposition of the great arteries is a common congenital heart disease. Arterial switch is the gold standard operation for this complex heart disease. Arterial switch operation in the presence of intramural coronary artery is surgically the most demanding even for the most experienced hands. We are presenting our experience with a modified technique for intramural coronary arteries in arterial switch operation. Methods: This prospective study involves 450 patients undergoing arterial switch operation at our institute from April 2006 to December 2013 (7.6 years). Eighteen patients underwent arterial switch operation with intramural coronary artery. The coronary patterns and technique used are detailed in the text. Results: The overall mortality found in the subgroup of 18 patients having intramural coronary artery was 16% (n=3). Our first patient had an accidental injury to the left coronary artery and died in the operating room. A seven-day old newborn died from intractable ventricular arrhythmia fifteen hours after surgery. Another patient who had multiple ventricular septal defects with type B arch interruption died from residual apical ventricular septal defect and sepsis on the eleventh postoperative day. The remainder of the patients are doing well, showing a median follow-up duration of 1235.34±815.26 days (range 369 - 2730). Conclusion: Transposition of the great arteries with intramural coronary artery is demanding in a subset of patients undergoing arterial switch operation. We believe our technique of coronary button dissection in the presence of intramural coronary arteries using coronary shunt is simple and can be a good addition to the surgeons' armamentarium. PMID:27074270

  9. CRISPR regulation of intraspecies diversification by limiting IS transposition and intercellular recombination.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takayasu; Nozawa, Takashi; Aikawa, Chihiro; Amano, Atsuo; Maruyama, Fumito; Nakagawa, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) and genetic rearrangement are considered as major driving forces of bacterial diversification. Previous comparative genome analysis of Porphyromonas gingivalis, a pathogen related to periodontitis, implied such an important relationship. As a counterpart system to MGEs, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) in bacteria may be useful for genetic typing. We found that CRISPR typing could be a reasonable alternative to conventional methods for characterizing phylogenetic relationships among 60 highly diverse P. gingivalis isolates. Examination of genetic recombination along with multilocus sequence typing suggests the importance of such events between different isolates. MGEs appear to be strategically located at the breakpoint gaps of complicated genome rearrangements. Of these MGEs, insertion sequences (ISs) were found most frequently. CRISPR analysis identified 2,150 spacers that were clustered into 1,187 unique ones. Most of these spacers exhibited no significant nucleotide similarity to known sequences (97.6%: 1,158/1,187). Surprisingly, CRISPR spacers exhibiting high nucleotide similarity to regions of P. gingivalis genomes including ISs were predominant. The proportion of such spacers to all the unique spacers (1.6%: 19/1,187) was the highest among previous studies, suggesting novel functions for these CRISPRs. These results indicate that P. gingivalis is a bacterium with high intraspecies diversity caused by frequent insertion sequence (IS) transposition, whereas both the introduction of foreign DNA, primarily from other P. gingivalis cells, and IS transposition are limited by CRISPR interference. It is suggested that P. gingivalis CRISPRs could be an important source for understanding the role of CRISPRs in the development of bacterial diversity.

  10. Tn7 transposition in vitro proceeds through an excised transposon intermediate generated by staggered breaks in DNA.

    PubMed

    Bainton, R; Gamas, P; Craig, N L

    1991-05-31

    We have developed a cell-free system in which the bacterial transposon Tn7 inserts at high frequency into its preferred target site in the Escherichia coli chromosome, attTn7; Tn7 transposition in vitro requires ATP and Tn7-encoded proteins. Tn7 transposes via a cut and paste mechanism in which the element is excised from the donor DNA by staggered double-strand breaks and then inserted into attTn7 by the joining of 3' transposon ends to 5' target ends. Neither recombination intermediates nor products are observed in the absence of any protein component or DNA substrate. Thus, we suggest that Tn7 transposition occurs in a nucleoprotein complex containing several proteins and the substrate DNAs and that recognition of attTn7 within this complex provokes strand cleavages at the Tn7 ends.

  11. Modulation of F1 hybrid stature without altering parent plants through trans-activated expression of a mutated rice GAI homologue.

    PubMed

    Su, Ning; Sullivan, James A; Deng, Xing Wang

    2005-03-01

    Hybrid breeding, by taking advantage of heterosis, brings about many superior properties to the F1 progeny. However, some properties, such as increased plant height, are not desirable for agronomic purposes. To specifically counter the height increase associated with hybrid progeny, we employed an Arabidopsis model and tested a trans-activation system for specifically expressing a mutated GAI gene only in the F1 hybrid plants to reduce plant stature. A transcriptional activator, the Gal4 DNA-binding domain fused to the acidic activation domain of herpes simplex virus VP16 protein, driven by a maize ubiquitin promoter, was introduced in one parental line. A rice GAI homologue with an N-terminal deletion of the DELLA domain, driven by a promoter that is responsive to the transcriptional activator, was transferred into another parental line. After genetic crossing, trans-activation of the GAI mutant gene resulted in a dwarf phenotype. Over 50 pair-wise crosses between the parental lines were performed, and analyses suggested that the percentage of F1 progeny exhibiting dwarfism ranged from about 25% to 100%. Furthermore, the dwarfism trait introduced in F1 progeny did not seem to affect total seed yield. Our result suggests the feasibility of manipulating F1 hybrid progeny traits without affecting parent plants or the agronomic property of the progeny.

  12. Brief communication: Additional cases of maxillary canine-first premolar transposition in several prehistoric skeletal assemblages from the Santa Barbara Channel Islands of California.

    PubMed

    Sholts, Sabrina B; Clement, Anna F; Wärmländer, Sebastian K T S

    2010-09-01

    This article identifies and discusses seven new cases of complete maxillary canine-premolar transposition in ancient populations from the Santa Barbara Channel region of California. A high frequency of this tooth transposition has been previously documented within a single prehistoric cemetery on one of the Channel Islands. A total of 966 crania representing 30 local sites and about 7,000 years of human occupation were examined, revealing an abnormally high prevalence of this transposition trait among islanders during the Early period of southern California prehistory ( approximately 5500-600 B.C.). One of the affected crania is from a cemetery more than 7,000-years-old and constitutes the earliest case of tooth transposition in humans so far reported. The results are consistent with findings by other studies that have indicated inbreeding among the early Channel Islands groups. Together with the normal transposition rates among mainland populations, the decreasing prevalence of maxillary canine-first premolar transposition among island populations across the Holocene suggests that inbreeding on the northern Channel Islands had all but ceased by the end of the first millennium B.C., most likely as a result of increased cross-channel migration and interaction.

  13. Transvenous cardiac resynchronization therapy in complex congenital heart diseases: dextrocardia with transposition of the great arteries after Mustard operation.

    PubMed

    Zartner, Peter A; Wiebe, Walter; Volkmer, Marius; Thomas, Daniel; Schneider, Martin

    2009-04-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy revealed first promising results in patients with a congenital heart disease and a systemic right ventricle. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging showed accessibility of the coronary sinus in an 18-year-old male patient with mirror dextrocardia, d-transposition of the great arteries and ventricular septal defect (VSD) after Mustard operation and VSD patch closure. In literatures, transvenous lead placement is discussed in this anatomical setting, with opposed position of the ventricular leads and reliable lead characteristics.

  14. Recanalisation of the closed ductus arteriosus in a critically ill infant with transposition of the great arteries.

    PubMed

    Soo, Kok W; Leong, Ming C; Khalid, Faizah

    2016-02-01

    We describe the case of an infant who was a late presenter of transposition of the great arteries where we proceeded with ductal stenting to improve oxygenation and left ventricle training. Stenting improved the infant's saturation while keeping the left ventricle well trained for 4 months after the procedure. This report demonstrates that intermediate-term left ventricle training can be achieved via ductal stenting.

  15. Hemi-metatarsal transposition: the use of autogenous bone grafting to treat brachymetatarsia--a unique approach.

    PubMed

    Beaupied, J P; Carrozza, L P; Brynes, M F; Morreale, P F

    1991-01-01

    Many surgical procedures have been developed for relieving symptoms and improving cosmesis for brachymetatarsia. The etiology, clinical consequences, various surgical alternatives, and a unique case report are discussed. Surgical correction, demonstrating the use of autogenous bone grafts in hemimetatarsal transpositions, was performed. The authors believe that this procedure is unique and efficient. It reestablishes the metatarsal parabola, restores function, relieves symptoms, and provides an excellent cosmetic result. PMID:1770206

  16. Congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries in an 83-year-old asymptomatic patient: description and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Placci, Angelo; Lovato, Luigi; Bonvicini, Marco

    2014-01-01

    We describe the case of an 83-year-old asymptomatic man followed in our centre. Transoesophageal echocardiography disclosed congenitally corrected transposition of great arteries (CCTGA) with no associated anomalies and only mild aortic regurgitation. Cardiac MR confirmed the diagnosis and revealed preserved systemic ventricle systolic function with a normal perfusional pathway. This report is a demonstration that CCTGA without associated anomalies can reach older life in an asymptomatic condition. This is the oldest asymptomatic living patient with CCTGA ever described. PMID:25336547

  17. Counterselection and co-delivery of transposon and transposase functions for Sleeping Beauty-mediated transposition in cultured mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Converse, Andrea D; Belur, Lalitha R; Gori, Jennifer L; Liu, Geyi; Amaya, Felipe; Aguilar-Cordova, Estuardo; Hackett, Perry B; McIvor, R Scott

    2004-12-01

    Sleeping Beauty (SB) is a gene-insertion system reconstructed from transposon sequences found in teleost fish and is capable of mediating the transposition of DNA sequences from transfected plasmids into the chromosomes of vertebrate cell populations. The SB system consists of a transposon, made up of a gene of interest flanked by transposon inverted repeats, and a source of transposase. Here we carried out a series of studies to further characterize SB-mediated transposition as a tool for gene transfer to chromosomes and ultimately for human gene therapy. Transfection of mouse 3T3 cells, HeLa cells, and human A549 lung carcinoma cells with a transposon containing the neomycin phosphotransferase (NEO) gene resulted in a several-fold increase in drug-resistant colony formation when co-transfected with a plasmid expressing the SB transposase. A transposon containing a methotrexate-resistant dihydrofolate reductase gene was also found to confer an increased frequency of methotrexate-resistant colony formation when co-transfected with SB transposase-encoding plasmid. A plasmid containing a herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene as well as a transposon containing a NEO gene was used for counterselection against random recombinants (NEO+TK+) in medium containing G418 plus ganciclovir. Effective counterselection required a recovery period of 5 days after transfection before shifting into medium containing ganciclovir to allow time for transiently expressed thymidine kinase activity to subside in cells not stably transfected. Southern analysis of clonal isolates indicated a shift from random recombination events toward transposition events when clones were isolated in medium containing ganciclovir as well as G418. We found that including both transposon and transposase functions on the same plasmid substantially increased the stable gene transfer frequency in Huh7 human hepatoma cells. The results from these experiments contribute technical and conceptual insight into

  18. Hybrid Chirped Pulse Amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Jovanovic, I; Barty, C P J

    2002-05-07

    We present a novel chirped pulse amplification method which combines optical parametric amplification and laser amplification. We have demonstrated this hybrid CPA concept with a combination of beta-barium borate and Ti:sapphire. High-efficiency, multi-terawatt compatible amplification is achieved without gain narrowing and without electro-optic modulators using a simple commercial pump laser.

  19. A Nucleolus-Predominant piggyBac Transposase, NP-mPB, Mediates Elevated Transposition Efficiency in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Amy T.; Fan, Hsiang-Hsuan; Lee, Tung-Lung; Huang, Yung-Hsin; Yang, Tsung-Lin; Su, I-Chang; Yu, I-Shing; Lin, Shu-Wha; Chien, Chung-Liang; Ho, Hong-Nerng; Chen, You-Tzung

    2014-01-01

    PiggyBac is a prevalent transposon system used to deliver transgenes and functionally explore the mammalian untouched genomic territory. The important features of piggyBac transposon are the relatively low insertion site preference and the ability of seamless removal from genome, which allow its potential uses in functional genomics and regenerative medicine. Efforts to increase its transposition efficiency in mammals were made through engineering the corresponding transposase (PBase) codon usage to enhance its expression level and through screening for mutant PBase variants with increased enzyme activity. To improve the safety for its potential use in regenerative medicine applications, site-specific transposition was achieved by using engineered zinc finger- and Gal4-fused PBases. An excision-prone PBase variant has also been successfully developed. Here we describe the construction of a nucleolus-predominant PBase, NP-mPB, by adding a nucleolus-predominant (NP) signal peptide from HIV-1 TAT protein to a mammalian codon-optimized PBase (mPB). Although there is a predominant fraction of the NP-mPB-tGFP fusion proteins concentrated in the nucleoli, an insertion site preference toward nucleolar organizer regions is not detected. Instead a 3–4 fold increase in piggyBac transposition efficiency is reproducibly observed in mouse and human cells. PMID:24586748

  20. A nucleolus-predominant piggyBac transposase, NP-mPB, mediates elevated transposition efficiency in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jin-Bon; Chou, Fu-Ju; Ku, Amy T; Fan, Hsiang-Hsuan; Lee, Tung-Lung; Huang, Yung-Hsin; Yang, Tsung-Lin; Su, I-Chang; Yu, I-Shing; Lin, Shu-Wha; Chien, Chung-Liang; Ho, Hong-Nerng; Chen, You-Tzung

    2014-01-01

    PiggyBac is a prevalent transposon system used to deliver transgenes and functionally explore the mammalian untouched genomic territory. The important features of piggyBac transposon are the relatively low insertion site preference and the ability of seamless removal from genome, which allow its potential uses in functional genomics and regenerative medicine. Efforts to increase its transposition efficiency in mammals were made through engineering the corresponding transposase (PBase) codon usage to enhance its expression level and through screening for mutant PBase variants with increased enzyme activity. To improve the safety for its potential use in regenerative medicine applications, site-specific transposition was achieved by using engineered zinc finger- and Gal4-fused PBases. An excision-prone PBase variant has also been successfully developed. Here we describe the construction of a nucleolus-predominant PBase, NP-mPB, by adding a nucleolus-predominant (NP) signal peptide from HIV-1 TAT protein to a mammalian codon-optimized PBase (mPB). Although there is a predominant fraction of the NP-mPB-tGFP fusion proteins concentrated in the nucleoli, an insertion site preference toward nucleolar organizer regions is not detected. Instead a 3-4 fold increase in piggyBac transposition efficiency is reproducibly observed in mouse and human cells.

  1. Morphological and molecular characterization of new Drosophila cell lines established from a strain permissive for gypsy transposition.

    PubMed

    Chalvet, F; Debec, A; Marcaillou, C; Rougeau, C; Bucheton, A

    1998-01-01

    The gypsy element of Drosophila melanogaster is the first retrovirus identified in invertebrates. Its transposition is controlled by a host gene called flamenco (flam): restrictive alleles of this gene maintain the retrovirus in a repressed state while permissive alleles allow high levels of transposition. To develop a cell system to study the gypsy element, we established four independent cell lines derived from the Drosophila strain SS, which contains a permissive allele of flamenco, and which is devoid of transposing copies of gypsy. The ultrastructural analysis of three SS cell lines revealed some remarkable characteristics, such as many nuclear virus-like particles, cytoplasmic dense particles, and massive cisternae filled with a fibrous material of unknown origin. Gypsy intragenomic distribution has been compared between the three cell lines and the original SS fly strain, and revealed in two of the cell lines an increase in copy number of a restriction fragment usually present in active gypsy elements. This multiplication seems to have occurred during the passage to the cell culture. Availability of SS cell lines should assist studies of gypsy transposition and infectivity and might be useful to produce high amounts of gypsy viral particles. These new lines already allowed us to show that the Envelope-like products of gypsy can be expressed as membrane proteins. PMID:9870529

  2. DNA sequence analysis of five genes; tnsA, B, C, D and E, required for Tn7 transposition.

    PubMed Central

    Flores, C; Qadri, M I; Lichtenstein, C

    1990-01-01

    A region of DNA sequence of the bacterial transposon Tn7, which is required for transposition, has been determined. This DNA sequence completes an 8351 base pair (bp) region containing five long open reading frames (ORF's) that correspond to the genetically defined genes, tnsA, B, C, D and E, required for Tn7 transposition. All of the ORF's are oriented in the same direction, ie. inward from the element's right end. The genes are in a very compact arrangement with the presumed initiation codons never more than two bases beyond the preceding termination codon. Domains with similarity to the helix-turn-helix genre of Cro-like, sequence specific DNA binding sites occur within the deduced amino acid (a.a.) sequence of the TnsA, TnsB, TnsD and TnsE proteins. Translation of the tnsC ORF reveals strong homology to a consensus sequence for nucleotide binding sites as well as a region of similarity to a transcriptional activator (MalT). No striking a.a. sequence similarity to other DNA recombinases is observed. The possible roles of these proteins in Tn7 transposition is discussed in light of the analysis presented. PMID:2156235

  3. Masseteric-facial nerve transposition for reanimation of the smile in incomplete facial paralysis.

    PubMed

    Hontanilla, Bernardo; Marre, Diego

    2015-12-01

    Incomplete facial paralysis occurs in about a third of patients with Bell's palsy. Although their faces are symmetrical at rest, when they smile they have varying degrees of disfigurement. Currently, cross-face nerve grafting is one of the most useful techniques for reanimation. Transfer of the masseteric nerve, although widely used for complete paralysis, has not to our knowledge been reported for incomplete palsy. Between December 2008 and November 2013, we reanimated the faces of 9 patients (2 men and 7 women) with incomplete unilateral facial paralysis with transposition of the masseteric nerve. Sex, age at operation, cause of paralysis, duration of denervation, recipient nerves used, and duration of follow-up were recorded. Commissural excursion, velocity, and patients' satisfaction were evaluated with the FACIAL CLIMA and a questionnaire, respectively. The mean (SD) age at operation was 39 (±6) years and the duration of denervation was 29 (±19) months. There were no complications that required further intervention. Duration of follow-up ranged from 6-26 months. FACIAL CLIMA showed improvement in both commissural excursion and velocity of more than two thirds in 6 patients, more than one half in 2 patients and less than one half in one. Qualitative evaluation showed a slight or pronounced improvement in 7/9 patients. The masseteric nerve is a reliable alternative for reanimation of the smile in patients with incomplete facial paralysis. Its main advantages include its consistent anatomy, a one-stage operation, and low morbidity at the donor site. PMID:26143295

  4. Acute myocardial infarction with isolated congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries

    PubMed Central

    Altman, J. Ryan; Gantt, D. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Congenital cardiac abnormalities diagnosed at the time of acute coronary syndrome are rare. A 43-year-old man presented to the emergency department complaining of recurring, severe chest pain. Subsequent emergent coronary angiography demonstrated unusual coronary anatomy: 1) one small caliber bifurcating vessel originating from the right sinus of Valsalva; 2) one very large vessel arising from the posterior sinus; and 3) no coronary artery from the normal left sinus of Valsalva. The large vessel from the posterior sinus was totally occluded in its midportion and was treated with intravascular ultrasound-guided percutaneous coronary intervention. Further diagnostic workup, including two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiogram and computed tomographic coronary angiography, demonstrated isolated corrected transposition of the great arteries with a dilated systemic ventricle and systolic dysfunction with an ejection fraction of 30%. The patient's clinical course was complicated by recurrent nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, treated with medical therapy and a dual-chamber implantable cardioverter defibrillator. This case is an example of a common clinical presentation with a very uncommon congenital heart disorder. Similar cases may become more frequent as the number of adult congenital heart patients increases in the population. PMID:27034557

  5. Mariner transposition and transformation of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Coates, C J; Jasinskiene, N; Miyashiro, L; James, A A

    1998-03-31

    The mariner transposable element is capable of interplasmid transposition in the embryonic soma of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. To determine if this demonstrated mobility could be utilized to genetically transform the mosquito, a modified mariner element marked with a wild-type allele of the Drosophila melanogaster cinnabar gene was microinjected into embryos of a kynurenine hydroxylase-deficient, white-eyed recipient strain. Three of 69 fertile male founders resulting from the microinjected embryos produced families with colored-eyed progeny individuals, a transformation rate of 4%. The transgene-mediated complementation of eye color was observed to segregate in a Mendelian manner, although one insertion segregates with the recessive allele (female-determining) of the sex-determining locus, and a separate insertion is homozygous lethal. Molecular analysis of selected transformed families demonstrated that a single complete copy of the construct had integrated independently in each case and that it had done so in a transposase-mediated manner. The availability of a mariner transformation system greatly enhances our ability to study and manipulate this important vector species. PMID:9520438

  6. Genetic instability in Drosophila melanogaster: evidence for regulation, excision and transposition at the white locus.

    PubMed

    Rasmuson, B; Montell, I; Rasmuson, A; Svahlin, H; Westerberg, B M

    1980-01-01

    An unstable long tandem duplication which includes the white locus twice, marked with wsp in the left and w17g in the right locus, when kept in males has been found to produce red-eyed sons which have lost the long duplication and with it the wsp and w17g mutants. Such exceptions were produced also when w17g had been exchanged for wa. Stocks originating from these exceptions are unstable, producing: 1) zeste males, also unstable, 2) w- deletions, stable, 3) transpositions of the white locus to sites in other chromosomes. The instability is interpreted as the effect of an IS element, within or adjacent to the white locus, which is supposed to retain a duplication of the proximal zeste interacting part of this locus. According to the orientation of the IS element the duplicated part can be active or inactive, giving a zeste or red eye phenotype. The frequency of exceptional offspring after X-ray treatment of the red and zeste unstable stocks have been compared to stable stocks with corresponding genotypes. PMID:6247608

  7. An atypical AAA+ ATPase assembly controls efficient transposition through DNA remodeling and transposase recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Palomo, Ernesto; Berger, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Transposons are ubiquitous genetic elements that drive genome rearrangements, evolution, and the spread of infectious disease and drug-resistance. Many transposons, such as Mu, Tn7 and IS21, require regulatory AAA+ ATPases for function. We use x-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy to show that the ATPase subunit of IS21, IstB, assembles into a clamshell-shaped decamer that sandwiches DNA between two helical pentamers of ATP-associated AAA+ domains, sharply bending the duplex into a 180° U-turn. Biochemical studies corroborate key features of the structure, and further show that the IS21 transposase, IstA, recognizes the IstB•DNA complex and promotes its disassembly by stimulating ATP hydrolysis. Collectively, these studies reveal a distinct manner of higher-order assembly and client engagement by a AAA+ ATPase and suggest a mechanistic model where IstB binding and subsequent DNA bending primes a selected insertion site for efficient transposition. PMID:26276634

  8. Complete mouth rehabilitation after transposition osteotomy based on intraoral scanning: an experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Güth, Jan-Frederik; Edelhoff, Daniel; Ihloff, Hela; Mast, Gerson

    2014-08-01

    This article describes the surgical and prosthodontic treatment of a patient with severe dysgnathia combined with amelogenesis imperfecta. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first treatment report to describe the application of intraoral scanning for a complete mouth reconstruction. After transposition osteotomy, the treatment included the simultaneous fabrication of antagonistic computer-aided design/computer-aided manufactured (CAD/CAM) long-term interim restorations for the maxilla and mandible and the establishment of a new centric relation position and adequate vertical dimension of occlusion. Particularly in complex situations, the major advantages of intraoral scanning can be identified as an extended magnification of the 3-dimensional digital data to control the preparation and impression at the dental office. However, the presented treatment revealed some deficiencies in the digital work flow that must be rectified. In combination with high-performance polymers, the CAD/CAM technology offers a wide range of new treatment options and simplifies the fabrication of long-term interim restorations. Although in the present treatment the esthetic and functional requirements of the patient were met, no published studies of this procedure have been based on intraoral scanning, and the approach has to be considered experimental.

  9. nanos gene control DNA mediates developmentally regulated transposition in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Adelman, Zach N; Jasinskiene, Nijole; Onal, Sedef; Juhn, Jennifer; Ashikyan, Aurora; Salampessy, Michael; MacCauley, Todd; James, Anthony A

    2007-06-12

    Transposable elements (TEs) are proposed as a basis for developing drive systems to spread pathogen resistance genes through vector mosquito populations. The use of transcriptional and translational control DNA elements from genes expressed specifically in the insect germ line to mediate transposition offers possibilities for mitigating some of the concerns about transgene behavior in the target vector species and eliminating effects on nontarget organisms. Here, we describe the successful use of the promoter and untranslated regions from the nanos (nos) orthologous gene of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, to control sex- and tissue-specific expression of exogenously derived mariner MosI transposase-encoding DNA. Transgenic mosquitoes expressed transposase mRNA in abundance near or equal to the endogenous nos transcript and exclusively in the female germ cells. In addition, MosI mRNA was deposited in developing oocytes and localized and maintained at the posterior pole during early embryonic development. Importantly, four of five transgenic lines examined were capable of mobilizing a second MosI transgene into the mosquito genome, indicating that functional transposase was being produced. Thus, the nos control sequences show promise as part of a TE-based gene drive system.

  10. Efficient mammalian germline transgenesis by cis-enhanced Sleeping Beauty transposition.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Daniel F; Geurts, Aron M; Garbe, John R; Park, Chang-Won; Rangel-Filho, Artur; O'Grady, Scott M; Jacob, Howard J; Steer, Clifford J; Largaespada, David A; Fahrenkrug, Scott C

    2011-02-01

    Heightened interest in relevant models for human disease increases the need for improved methods for germline transgenesis. We describe a significant improvement in the creation of transgenic laboratory mice and rats by chemical modification of Sleeping Beauty transposons. Germline transgenesis in mice and rats was significantly enhanced by in vitro cytosine-phosphodiester-guanine methylation of transposons prior to injection. Heritability of transgene alleles was also greater from founder mice generated with methylated versus non-methylated transposon. The artificial methylation was reprogrammed in the early embryo, leading to founders that express the transgenes. We also noted differences in transgene insertion number and structure (single-insert versus concatemer) based on the influence of methylation and plasmid conformation (linear versus supercoiled), with supercoiled substrate resulting in efficient transpositional transgenesis (TnT) with near elimination of concatemer insertion. Combined, these substrate modifications resulted in increases in both the frequency of transgenic founders and the number of transgenes per founder, significantly elevating the number of potential transgenic lines. Given its simplicity, versatility and high efficiency, TnT with enhanced Sleeping Beauty components represents a compelling non-viral approach to modifying the mammalian germline. PMID:20352328

  11. Repair of vascular ring with resection of kommerell diverticulum and transposition of aberrant left subclavian artery.

    PubMed

    Samas, John; Manetta, Frank; Meyer, David B

    2013-12-01

    A 32-year-old female presented with dysphagia. Radiographic studies revealed external compression of esophagus by a vascular ring. The anatomy was a right-sided aortic arch with aberrant retroesophageal left subclavian artery, emanating from a large Kommerell diverticulum (KD). Traditional repair with ligamentum division and adhesiolysis leaves a large KD still adjacent to the esophagus with the potential for persistent or recurrent symptoms. The objective of this study was the modification of operative technique to minimize the potential for persistent or recurrent symptoms. The operative repair included resection of KD with transposition of the left subclavian artery into the left carotid artery, in addition to the division of the ligamentum arteriosum and mobilization of the esophagus. The patient's dysphagia resolved and postoperative barium studies showed no residual compression. There were no significant perioperative complications. Resection of KD is a potential adjunct to traditional repair of vascular rings and might offer better long-term palliation by minimizing residual vascular compression of the esophagus.

  12. Repair of Vascular Ring with Resection of Kommerell Diverticulum and Transposition of Aberrant Left Subclavian Artery

    PubMed Central

    Samas, John; Manetta, Frank; Meyer, David B.

    2013-01-01

    A 32-year-old female presented with dysphagia. Radiographic studies revealed external compression of esophagus by a vascular ring. The anatomy was a right-sided aortic arch with aberrant retroesophageal left subclavian artery, emanating from a large Kommerell diverticulum (KD). Traditional repair with ligamentum division and adhesiolysis leaves a large KD still adjacent to the esophagus with the potential for persistent or recurrent symptoms. The objective of this study was the modification of operative technique to minimize the potential for persistent or recurrent symptoms. The operative repair included resection of KD with transposition of the left subclavian artery into the left carotid artery, in addition to the division of the ligamentum arteriosum and mobilization of the esophagus. The patient's dysphagia resolved and postoperative barium studies showed no residual compression. There were no significant perioperative complications. Resection of KD is a potential adjunct to traditional repair of vascular rings and might offer better long-term palliation by minimizing residual vascular compression of the esophagus. PMID:24436620

  13. Controlling DNA degradation from a distance: a new role for the Mu transposition enhancer.

    PubMed

    Choi, Wonyoung; Saha, Rudra P; Jang, Sooin; Harshey, Rasika M

    2014-11-01

    Phage Mu is unique among transposable elements in employing a transposition enhancer. The enhancer DNA segment is the site where the transposase MuA binds and makes bridging interactions with the two Mu ends, interwrapping the ends with the enhancer in a complex topology essential for assembling a catalytically active transpososome. The enhancer is also the site at which regulatory proteins control divergent transcription of genes that determine the phage lysis-lysogeny decision. Here we report a third function for the enhancer - that of regulating degradation of extraneous DNA attached to both ends of infecting Mu. This DNA is protected from nucleases by a phage protein until Mu integrates into the host chromosome, after which it is rapidly degraded. We find that leftward transcription at the enhancer, expected to disrupt its topology within the transpososome, blocks degradation of this DNA. Disruption of the enhancer would lead to the loss or dislocation of two non-catalytic MuA subunits positioned in the transpososome by the enhancer. We provide several lines of support for this inference, and conclude that these subunits are important for activating degradation of the flanking DNA. This work also reveals a role for enhancer topology in phage development.

  14. Masseteric-facial nerve transposition for reanimation of the smile in incomplete facial paralysis.

    PubMed

    Hontanilla, Bernardo; Marre, Diego

    2015-12-01

    Incomplete facial paralysis occurs in about a third of patients with Bell's palsy. Although their faces are symmetrical at rest, when they smile they have varying degrees of disfigurement. Currently, cross-face nerve grafting is one of the most useful techniques for reanimation. Transfer of the masseteric nerve, although widely used for complete paralysis, has not to our knowledge been reported for incomplete palsy. Between December 2008 and November 2013, we reanimated the faces of 9 patients (2 men and 7 women) with incomplete unilateral facial paralysis with transposition of the masseteric nerve. Sex, age at operation, cause of paralysis, duration of denervation, recipient nerves used, and duration of follow-up were recorded. Commissural excursion, velocity, and patients' satisfaction were evaluated with the FACIAL CLIMA and a questionnaire, respectively. The mean (SD) age at operation was 39 (±6) years and the duration of denervation was 29 (±19) months. There were no complications that required further intervention. Duration of follow-up ranged from 6-26 months. FACIAL CLIMA showed improvement in both commissural excursion and velocity of more than two thirds in 6 patients, more than one half in 2 patients and less than one half in one. Qualitative evaluation showed a slight or pronounced improvement in 7/9 patients. The masseteric nerve is a reliable alternative for reanimation of the smile in patients with incomplete facial paralysis. Its main advantages include its consistent anatomy, a one-stage operation, and low morbidity at the donor site.

  15. Metabolic alterations and neurodevelopmental outcome of infants with transposition of the great arteries.

    PubMed

    Park, I Sook; Yoon, S Young; Min, J Yeon; Kim, Y Hwue; Ko, J Kok; Kim, K Soo; Seo, D Man; Lee, J Hee

    2006-01-01

    Abnormal neurodevelopment has been reported for infants who were born with transposition of the great arteries (TGA) and underwent arterial switch operation (ASO). This study evaluates the cerebral metabolism of TGA infants at birth and before ASO and neurodevelopment 1 year after ASO. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) was performed on 16 full-term TGA brains before ASO within 3-6 days after birth. The brain metabolite ratios of [NAA/Cr], [Cho/Cr], and [mI/Cr] evaluated measured. Ten infants were evaluated at 1 year using the Bayley Scales of Infants Development II (BSED II). Cerebral metabolism of infants with TGA was altered in parietal white matter (PWM) and occipital gray matter (OGM) at birth before ASO. One year after ASO, [Cho/Cr] in PWM remained altered, but all metabolic ratios in OGM were normal. The results of BSID II at 1 year showed delayed mental and psychomotor development. This delayed neurodevelopmental outcome may reflect consequences of the altered cerebral metabolism in PWM measured by 1H-MRS. It is speculated that the abnormal hemodynamics due to TGA in utero may be responsible for the impaired cerebral metabolism and the subsequent neurodevelopmental deficit.

  16. Power Budget Analysis of Colorless Hybrid WDM/TDM-PON Scheme Using Downstream DPSK and Re-modulated Upstream OOK Data Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Yousaf; Afridi, Muhammad Idrees; Khan, Ahmed Mudassir; Rehman, Waheed Ur; Khan, Jahanzeb

    2014-09-01

    Hybrid wavelength-division multiplexed/time-division multiplexed passive optical access networks (WDM/TDM-PONs) combine the advance features of both WDM and TDM PONs to provide a cost-effective access network solution. We demonstrate and analyze the transmission performances and power budget issues of a colorless hybrid WDM/TDM-PON scheme. A 10-Gb/s downstream differential phase shift keying (DPSK) and remodulated upstream on/off keying (OOK) data signals are transmitted over 25 km standard single mode fiber. Simulation results show error free transmission having adequate power margins in both downstream and upstream transmission, which prove the applicability of the proposed scheme to future passive optical access networks. The power budget confines both the PON splitting ratio and the distance between the Optical Line Terminal (OLT) and Optical Network Unit (ONU).

  17. Ultrasound-modulated bioluminescence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bal, Guillaume; Schotland, John C.

    2014-03-01

    We propose a method to reconstruct the density of a luminescent source in a highly scattering medium from ultrasound-modulated optical measurements. Our approach is based on the solution to a hybrid inverse source problem for the diffusion equation.

  18. Sudden cardiac death in adults with congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries

    PubMed Central

    McCombe, A; Touma, F; Jackson, D; Canniffe, C; Choudhary, P; Pressley, L; Tanous, D; Robinson, Peter J; Celermajer, D

    2016-01-01

    Background Congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (ccTGA) is a rare congenital heart disease. There have been only few reports of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in patients with ccTGA and reasonable ventricular function. Methods A retrospective review of the medical records of all patients attending our adult congenital heart centre, with known ccTGA. Results From a database of over 3500 adult patients with congenital heart disease, we identified 39 (∼1%) with ccTGA and ‘two-ventricle’ circulations. 65% were male. The mean age at diagnosis was 12.4±11.4 years and the mean age at last time of review was 34.3±11.3 years. 24 patients (56%) had a history of surgical intervention. 8 (19%) had had pacemaker implantation and 2 had had a defibrillator implanted for non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT). In 544 years of patient follow-up, there had been five cases of SCD in our population; 1 death per 109 patient-years. Two of these patients had had previously documented supraventricular or NSVT. However, they were all classified as New York Heart Association (NYHA) class I or II, and systemic (right) ventricular function had been recorded as normal, mildly or mildly–moderately impaired, at most recent follow-up. Conclusions Our experience suggests the need for improved risk stratification and/or surveillance for malignant arrhythmia in adults with ccTGA, even in those with reasonable functional class on ventricular function. PMID:27493760

  19. The RNAPII-CTD Maintains Genome Integrity through Inhibition of Retrotransposon Gene Expression and Transposition

    PubMed Central

    Aristizabal, Maria J.; Negri, Gian Luca; Kobor, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) contains a unique C-terminal domain that is composed of heptapeptide repeats and which plays important regulatory roles during gene expression. RNAPII is responsible for the transcription of most protein-coding genes, a subset of non-coding genes, and retrotransposons. Retrotransposon transcription is the first step in their multiplication cycle, given that the RNA intermediate is required for the synthesis of cDNA, the material that is ultimately incorporated into a new genomic location. Retrotransposition can have grave consequences to genome integrity, as integration events can change the gene expression landscape or lead to alteration or loss of genetic information. Given that RNAPII transcribes retrotransposons, we sought to investigate if the RNAPII-CTD played a role in the regulation of retrotransposon gene expression. Importantly, we found that the RNAPII-CTD functioned to maintaining genome integrity through inhibition of retrotransposon gene expression, as reducing CTD length significantly increased expression and transposition rates of Ty1 elements. Mechanistically, the increased Ty1 mRNA levels in the rpb1-CTD11 mutant were partly due to Cdk8-dependent alterations to the RNAPII-CTD phosphorylation status. In addition, Cdk8 alone contributed to Ty1 gene expression regulation by altering the occupancy of the gene-specific transcription factor Ste12. Loss of STE12 and TEC1 suppressed growth phenotypes of the RNAPII-CTD truncation mutant. Collectively, our results implicate Ste12 and Tec1 as general and important contributors to the Cdk8, RNAPII-CTD regulatory circuitry as it relates to the maintenance of genome integrity. PMID:26496706

  20. Functional microRNAs and target sites are created by lineage-specific transposition

    PubMed Central

    Spengler, Ryan M.; Oakley, Clayton K.; Davidson, Beverly L.

    2014-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) account for nearly one-half of the sequence content in the human genome, and de novo germline transposition into regulatory or coding sequences of protein-coding genes can cause heritable disorders. TEs are prevalent in and around protein-coding genes, providing an opportunity to impart regulation. Computational studies reveal that microRNA (miRNA) genes and miRNA target sites reside within TE sequences, but there is little experimental evidence supporting a role for TEs in the birth of miRNAs, or as platform for gene regulation by miRNAs. In this work, we validate miRNAs and target sites derived from TE families prevalent in the human genome, including the ancient long interspersed nuclear element 2 (LINE2/L2), mammalian-wide interspersed repeat (MIR) retrotransposons and the primate-specific Alu family. We show that genes with 3′ untranslated region (3′ UTR) MIR elements are enriched for let-7 targets and that these sites are conserved and responsive to let-7 expression. We also demonstrate that 3′ UTR-embedded Alus are a source of miR-24 and miR-122 target sites and that a subset of active genomic Alus provide for de novo target site creation. Finally, we report that although the creation of miRNA genes by Alu elements is relatively uncommon relative to their overall genomic abundance, Alu-derived miR-1285-1 is efficiently processed from its genomic locus and regulates genes with target sites contained within homologous elements. Taken together, our data provide additional evidence for TEs as a source for miRNAs and miRNA target sites, with instances of conservation through the course of mammalian evolution. PMID:24234653

  1. Functional microRNAs and target sites are created by lineage-specific transposition.

    PubMed

    Spengler, Ryan M; Oakley, Clayton K; Davidson, Beverly L

    2014-04-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) account for nearly one-half of the sequence content in the human genome, and de novo germline transposition into regulatory or coding sequences of protein-coding genes can cause heritable disorders. TEs are prevalent in and around protein-coding genes, providing an opportunity to impart regulation. Computational studies reveal that microRNA (miRNA) genes and miRNA target sites reside within TE sequences, but there is little experimental evidence supporting a role for TEs in the birth of miRNAs, or as platform for gene regulation by miRNAs. In this work, we validate miRNAs and target sites derived from TE families prevalent in the human genome, including the ancient long interspersed nuclear element 2 (LINE2/L2), mammalian-wide interspersed repeat (MIR) retrotransposons and the primate-specific Alu family. We show that genes with 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) MIR elements are enriched for let-7 targets and that these sites are conserved and responsive to let-7 expression. We also demonstrate that 3' UTR-embedded Alus are a source of miR-24 and miR-122 target sites and that a subset of active genomic Alus provide for de novo target site creation. Finally, we report that although the creation of miRNA genes by Alu elements is relatively uncommon relative to their overall genomic abundance, Alu-derived miR-1285-1 is efficiently processed from its genomic locus and regulates genes with target sites contained within homologous elements. Taken together, our data provide additional evidence for TEs as a source for miRNAs and miRNA target sites, with instances of conservation through the course of mammalian evolution.

  2. Transposition of the gene encoding a TEM-12 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase.

    PubMed Central

    Heritage, J; Hawkey, P M; Todd, N; Lewis, I J

    1992-01-01

    An isolate of Klebsiella oxytoca from the blood culture of a child with leukemia was found to produce two beta-lactamases, at least one of which conferred resistance to ceftazidime. Genes encoding both enzymes were located on a single self-transmissible 100-kb plasmid, pOZ201. This plasmid was introduced into Escherichia coli UB5201 (pACYC184), and the gene encoding one beta-lactamase was transposed onto plasmid pACYC184 by exploiting a gene dosage effect. The transposable gene was found to encode a TEM-12 enzyme as determined by nucleotide sequencing. This gene was subsequently transposed onto plasmid pUB307. The transposable element encoding the TEM-12 enzyme has been designated Tn841. Both plasmids pACYC184::Tn841 and pUB307::Tn841 were shown to encode a beta-lactamase with the same isoelectric point and substrate profile as the TEM-12 beta-lactamase. Transposon Tn841, at approximately 7 kb, is larger than TnA (4.8 kb) and transposes at a lower frequency. Although it produced a resolvase which can complement the resolvase of Tn3, its transposase function was not able to complement the transposition of a TnA element which lacked transposase. The occurrence of a gene encoding an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase on a transposable element in a clinically significant bacterium is potentially a cause for concern for the spread of resistance to the extended-spectrum cephalosporins. PMID:1329636

  3. Immediate Genetic and Epigenetic Changes in F1 Hybrids Parented by Species with Divergent Genomes in the Rice Genus (Oryza)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shuai; Wang, Jie; Jiang, Tingting; Cao, Shuai; Josiah, Samuel Manthi; Pang, Jinsong; Lin, Xiuyun; Liu, Bao

    2015-01-01

    Background Inter-specific hybridization occurs frequently in higher plants, and represents a driving force of evolution and speciation. Inter-specific hybridization often induces genetic and epigenetic instabilities in the resultant homoploid hybrids or allopolyploids, a phenomenon known as genome shock. Although genetic and epigenetic consequences of hybridizations between rice subspecies (e.g., japonica and indica) and closely related species sharing the same AA genome have been extensively investigated, those of inter-specific hybridizations between more remote species with different genomes in the rice genus, Oryza, remain largely unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the immediate chromosomal and molecular genetic/epigenetic instability of three triploid F1 hybrids produced by inter-specific crossing between species with divergent genomes of Oryza by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and molecular marker analysis. Transcriptional and transpositional activity of several transposable elements (TEs) and methylation stability of their flanking regions were also assessed. We made the following principle findings: (i) all three triploid hybrids are stable in both chromosome number and gross structure; (ii) stochastic changes in both DNA sequence and methylation occurred in individual plants of all three triploid hybrids, but in general methylation changes occurred at lower frequencies than genetic changes; (iii) alteration in DNA methylation occurred to a greater extent in genomic loci flanking potentially active TEs than in randomly sampled loci; (iv) transcriptional activation of several TEs commonly occurred in all three hybrids but transpositional events were detected in a genetic context-dependent manner. Conclusions/Significance Artificially constructed inter-specific hybrids of remotely related species with divergent genomes in genus Oryza are chromosomally stable but show immediate and highly stochastic genetic and epigenetic

  4. SU-E-P-06: A Novel Hybrid Planning Approach to Allow More Patients Benefited by the Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, S; Liao, L; Li, Y; Wang, X; Sahoo, N; Liao, Z; Grosshans, D; Frank, S; Li, H; Zhu, X; Chang, J; Zhang, X; Gillin, M; Hojo, Y; Sun, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: We report a hybrid scattering and scanning beam delivery approach, termed as (HimpsPT), which demonstrated that majority IMPT delivery can be potentially replaced with hybrid IMPT and PSPT delivery with similar or better plan quality. Methods: Three representative clinical cases, including head and neck (HN), skull base chordoma (CNS) and lung cancer, treated in MDACC Proton Therapy Center with IMPT were retrospectively redesigned using HimpsPT. The PSPT plans are designed with the same prescriptions as those of IMPT plans. The whole treatment can be delivered by either alternating or sequential PSPT and IMPT delivery. The dosimetric data and dose distributions of HimpsPT plans are compared with those of IMPT plans. We also performed a worst-case robust analysis for all plans. Results: The target coverages for all cases are comparable. For the HN case, the mean dose of esophagus larynx, left parotid and right submandibular, oral cavity V20, the max dose of cord is 18.0, 36.1, 23.6, 47.2, 0.1, 31.7 Gy in HimpsPT plan, and 25.5, 33.8, 24.9, 49.1, 0.2, 33.8 Gy in IMPT plan. For the lung case, the lung V5, V20, V30, mean lung dose, heart V40, esophagus V70, cord maximum dose are 50.5%, 37.0%, 31.7%, 21.3 Gy, 7.2%, 4.9%, 35.5 Gy in HimpsPT plan, and 55.4%, 36.7%, 30.1%, 21.3 Gy, 7.7%, 8.4%, 36.8Gy in IMPT plans. For the CNS case, brainstem maximum dose is 50.5 Gy in HimpsPT plan and 55.4 Gy in IMPT plan due to sharp penumbra offered by the aperture of the PSPT plan in HimpsPT technique. Conclusion: For majority disease sites, the dosimetric advantage of IMPT technique can be achieved by the hybrid PSPT and IMPT technique, which enables the centers equipped with both scattering and scanning beam facilities to treat more patients which can be benefited by the scanning beam.

  5. Acupuncture Points of the Horse’s Distal Thoracic Limb: A Neuroanatomic Approach to the Transposition of Traditional Points

    PubMed Central

    Lancaster, Lisa S.; Bowker, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary: Anatomy of the equine foot is not precisely analogous to anatomy of the human hand and foot. Thus acupuncture points transposed from human acupuncture maps may not be functionally similar in the equine digit. Veterinarians strive to select points based on what is currently known about the anatomy and physiology of the equine foot, despite the lack of research evidence to use as guidance. This paper discusses the anatomy and physiology of the horse’s foot and presents a neuroanatomically based modification of some traditional point locations including several newly proposed points. The paper also presents neuroanatomically based clinical suggestions for laminitis treatment. Abstract: Veterinary acupuncture charts were developed based on the concept of transpositional points whereby human acupuncture maps were adapted to animal anatomy. Transpositional acupuncture points have traditionally been placed in specific locations around the horse’s coronet and distal limb believed to be the closest approximation to the human distal limb points. Because the horse has a single digit and lacks several structures analogous to the human hand and foot, precisely transposing all of the human digital points is not anatomically possible. To date there is no published research on the effect of acupuncture treatment of the equine distal limb points. This paper presents a modified approach to equine distal limb point selection based on what is known from research on other species about the neuroanatomic method of acupuncture. A rationale is presented for modification of traditional equine ting points as well as additional points around the hoof and distal limb that do not appear in the standard textbooks of equine acupuncture. The anatomy and physiology of the equine foot likely to be affected by acupuncture are briefly reviewed. Modified neuroanatomic points are proposed that may be more accurate as transpositional points. As an example of clinical application, a

  6. The wing of the enhancer-binding domain of Mu phage transposase is flexible and is essential for efficient transposition.

    PubMed

    Clubb, R T; Mizuuchi, M; Huth, J R; Omichinski, J G; Savilahti, H; Mizuuchi, K; Clore, G M; Gronenborn, A M

    1996-02-01

    A tetramer of the Mu transposase (MuA) pairs the recombination sites, cleaves the donor DNA, and joins these ends to a target DNA by strand transfer. Juxtaposition of the recombination sites is accomplished by the assembly of a stable synaptic complex of MuA protein and Mu DNA. This initial critical step is facilitated by the transient binding of the N-terminal domain of MuA to an enhancer DNA element within the Mu genome (called the internal activation sequence, IAS). Recently we solved the three-dimensional solution structure of the enhancer-binding domain of Mu phage transposase (residues 1-76, MuA76) and proposed a model for its interaction with the IAS element. Site-directed mutagenesis coupled with an in vitro transposition assay has been used to assess the validity of the model. We have identified five residues on the surface of MuA that are crucial for stable synaptic complex formation but dispensable for subsequent events in transposition. These mutations are located in the loop (wing) structure and recognition helix of the MuA76 domain of the transposase and do not seriously perturb the structure of the domain. Furthermore, in order to understand the dynamic behavior of the MuA76 domain prior to stable synaptic complex formation, we have measured heteronuclear 15N relaxation rates for the unbound MuA76 domain. In the DNA free state the backbone atoms of the helix-turn-helix motif are generally immobilized whereas the residues in the wing are highly flexible on the pico- to nanosecond time scale. Together these studies define the surface of MuA required for enhancement of transposition in vitro and suggest that a flexible loop in the MuA protein required for DNA recognition may become structurally ordered only upon DNA binding. PMID:8577730

  7. Mandibular fracture after endosseous implant placement in conjunction with inferior alveolar nerve transposition: a patient treatment report.

    PubMed

    Kan, J Y; Lozada, J L; Boyne, P J; Goodacre, C J; Rungcharassaeng, K

    1997-01-01

    A patient with a severely atrophic right posterior mandible had three endosseous implants placed in conjunction with transposition of the inferior alveolar nerve. Three weeks following implant placement surgery, the patient experienced a spontaneous fracture of the mandible involving the two anterior implants. The two implants were removed, and the fracture was treated with open reduction and fixation with titanium mesh. The fracture healed, and the posterior implant integrated. This report suggests that the buccolingual and superior-inferior position of the mandibular canal can increase the possibility of mandibular fracture by increasing the size of the buccal cortical plate that is removed to expose the nerve during surgery. PMID:9337027

  8. Prenatal Diagnosis and Postnatal Follow-up of congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries and recurrent supraventricular tachycardia

    PubMed Central

    Kibar, AE; Hallioglu, O; Erdem, S; Celik, I

    2013-01-01

    The prenatal sonographic diagnosis of congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (ccTGA), a rare form of congenital heart disease is very difficult. A24-year-old woman was referred to our center at 28 weeks’ gestationbecause of suspected fetal cardiac anomalies. We report a case of ccTGA with supraventricular tachycardia, ventricular septal defect, pulmonary valve stenosis, tricuspid valvar displacement and moderate tricuspid regurgitation during her pregnancy. The combined presence of SVT and ccTGA are occasionally present in the literature. PMID:23720695

  9. [Dynamic rehabilitation in facial paralysis with the surgical flap and temporalis muscle transposition without muscle lengthening: review and case report].

    PubMed

    Shipkov, Kh; Anastasov, Iu

    2005-01-01

    There are various surgical procedures for the reanimation of patients with long-standing facial paralysis. Temporalis muscle transfer is reliable for the reanimation of long-standing facial paralysis often employed when facial nerve reinnervation. It can be used as well for the immediate treatment of complete facial paralysis (more than 1 year) because temporalis muscle transposition does not interfere with neuronal regeneration. During the last few years the techniques employing the tendon of the temporalis muscle for the rehabilitation of the oral commissure gain increasing importance. The authors analyse the different options for reanimation after facial paralysis and report on a case of facial reanimation via temporalis muscle transfer.

  10. Orthodontic management of bilateral maxillary canine-first premolar transposition and bilateral agenesis of maxillary lateral incisors: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Elena Di; Giuseppe, Biagio Di; Tepedino, Michele; Chimenti, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Maxillary canine-first premolar transposition (Mx.C.P1) is an uncommon dental positional anomaly that may create many orthodontic problems from both esthetic and functional points of view. OBJECTIVE: In this report we show the orthodontic management of a case of Mx.C.P1 associated with bilateral maxillary lateral incisor agenesis and unilateral mandibular second premolar agenesis METHODS: The patient was treated with a multibracket appliance and the extraction of the lower premolar. RESULTS: treatment was completed without the need for any prosthetic replacement. PMID:25992994

  11. Increase in IS256 transposition in invasive vancomycin heteroresistant Staphylococcus aureus isolate belonging to ST100 and its derived VISA mutants.

    PubMed

    Di Gregorio, Sabrina; Fernandez, Silvina; Perazzi, Beatriz; Bello, Natalia; Famiglietti, Angela; Mollerach, Marta

    2016-09-01

    In Staphylococcus aureus, transposition of IS256 has been described to play an important role in biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance. This study describes the molecular characterization of two clinical heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA) isolates recovered from the same patient (before and after antibiotic treatment) and two VISA derivatives obtained by serial passages in the presence of vancomycin. Our results showed that antibiotic treatment (in vivo and in vitro) could enhance IS256 transposition, being responsible for the eventual loss of agr function. As far as we know this is the first study that reports the increase of IS256 transposition in isogenic strains after antibiotic treatment in a clinical setting.

  12. Structure-Based Design and Biological Evaluation of Triphenyl Scaffold-Based Hybrid Compounds as Hydrolytically Stable Modulators of a LuxR-Type Quorum Sensing Receptor

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Many common bacterial pathogens utilize quorum sensing to coordinate group behaviors and initiate virulence at high cell densities. The use of small molecules to block quorum sensing provides a means of abrogating pathogenic phenotypes, but many known quorum sensing modulators have limitations, including hydrolytic instability and displaying non-monotonic dose curves (indicative of additional targets and/or modes of action). To address these issues, we undertook a structure-based scaffold-hopping approach to develop new chemical modulators of the LasR quorum sensing receptor in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We combined components from a triphenyl derivative known to strongly agonize LasR with chemical moieties known for LasR antagonism and generated potent LasR antagonists that are hydrolytically stable across a range of pH values. Additionally, many of these antagonists do not exhibit non-monotonic dose effects, delivering probes that inhibit LasR across a wider range of assay conditions relative to known lactone-based ligands. PMID:26807436

  13. Hydrograph transposition to ungauged basin accounting for spatio-temporal rainfall variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lavenne, Alban; Cudennec, Christophe

    2013-04-01

    the exercise, within each pair of basins, one is considered as "gauged" and the other one as "ungauged". Different spatial configurations of pairs of basins are compared. Results demonstrates the benefit of a well defined transfer function, as well as the importance of considering rainfall variability. Finally, through the assessment of transposition efficiency, this framework is presented as an original way to describe and understand hydrological similarities in catchment behavior.

  14. Analysis of a large cluster of nonessential genes deleted from a vaccinia virus terminal transposition mutant.

    PubMed

    Kotwal, G J; Moss, B

    1988-12-01

    The principal objectives of this study were to analyze the structure and coding potential of a long segment of DNA missing from a previously isolated (B. Moss, E. Winters, and J. A. Cooper (1981) J. Virol. 40, 387-395) attenuated variant of vaccinia virus strain WR and to examine the precise changes in the genome accompanying the deletion. The sequences of a 14.5-kbp region located at the left end of the standard vaccinia virus genome, extending from within the inverted terminal repetition (ITR) of the HindIII C fragment to the end of the HindIII N fragment, and of a 3-kbp segment from a corresponding region of the variant genome were determined. A comparison of these sequences revealed that the variant contained a deletion of 12 kbp and an insertion of 2.1 kbp. The origin of the inserted DNA was traced to the HindIII B region by using oligonucleotide probes indicating that a transposition of unique DNA located adjacent to the right ITR had occurred. Structural analysis indicated no extensive homologies, nucleotide substitutions, additions, or deletions at the boundaries of the transposed DNA. Examination of the right end of the variant genome indicated that a copy of the transposed DNA was still present and, therefore, the length of the ITR had been increased by 2.1 kbp. The variant genome could have formed by a mechanism that resulted in the replacement of a 22-kbp left-terminal fragment with a 12-kbp right-terminal fragment. The DNA missing from the variant and contained within the standard vaccinia virus WR genome contains 17 contiguous open reading frames (ORFs), all of which are directed leftward and apparently not required for replication in cultured cells. One deleted ORF has a 60% sequence similarity to another gene encoding a 42,000-Da protein present within the ITR suggesting that duplications have previously occurred during the evolution of vaccinia virus. Another deleted ORF has a 39% sequence similarity to a complement 4b binding protein. The

  15. The role of rosiglitazone treatment in the modulation of islet hormones and hormone-like peptides: a combined in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Sukriye; Bolkent, Sema; Sundler, Frank

    2008-12-01

    Rosiglitazone, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist, is an insulin sensitizing agent in peripheral tissues. This study investigated islet hormones and hormone-like peptides expression patterns in rosiglitazone treated streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats by using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization methods. Animals were divided into four groups. I. Group: Intact control rats. II. Group: Rosiglitazone-treated controls. III. Group: STZ-diabetic rats. IV. Group: Rosiglitazone-treated diabetic animals. Rosiglitazone was given for 7 days at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight. In the STZ-diabetic group, there were significant differences in islet hormones and hormone like peptides cell numbers compared to rosiglitazone control group and intact control group. There were significant differences in cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) cell numbers between rosiglitazone control group and rosiglitazone + STZ-diabetic group. We detected a significant decrease in glucagon mRNA signals in rosiglitazone-treated control group compared to intact controls. We found a statistically significant difference in islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) mRNA signals between the STZ-diabetic group and the rosiglitazone + STZ-diabetic group. Besides, we also demonstrated co-localization of peptides by using double and triple histochemistry. In conclusion, our results show that short-term rosiglitazone treatment had a preservative effect to some extent on the expression of islet hormones and hormone-like peptides to maintain the islet function.

  16. Sustained release of hepatocyte growth factor by cationic self-assembling peptide/heparin hybrid hydrogel improves β-cell survival and function through modulating inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuyun; Zhang, Lanlan; Cheng, Jingqiu; Lu, Yanrong; Liu, Jingping

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory response is a major cause of grafts dysfunction in islet transplantation. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) had shown anti-inflammatory activity in multiple diseases. In this study, we aim to deliver HGF by self-assembling peptide/heparin (SAP/Hep) hybrid gel to protect β-cell from inflammatory injury. The morphological and slow release properties of SAPs were analyzed. Rat INS-1 β-cell line was treated with tumor necrosis factor α in vitro and transplanted into rat kidney capsule in vivo, and the viability, apoptosis, function, and inflammation of β-cells were evaluated. Cationic KLD1R and KLD2R self-assembled to nanofiber hydrogel, which showed higher binding affinity for Hep and HGF because of electrostatic interaction. Slow release of HGF from cationic SAP/Hep gel is a two-step mechanism involving binding affinity with Hep and molecular diffusion. In vitro and in vivo results showed that HGF-loaded KLD2R/Hep gel promoted β-cell survival and insulin secretion, and inhibited cell apoptosis, cytokine release, T-cell infiltration, and activation of NFκB/p38 MAPK pathways in β-cells. This study suggested that SAP/Hep gel is a promising carrier for local delivery of bioactive proteins in islet transplantation. PMID:27729786

  17. High-frequency intracellular transposition of a defective mammalian provirus detected by an in situ colorimetric assay.

    PubMed Central

    Tchenio, T; Heidmann, T

    1992-01-01

    We devised an indicator gene for retrotransposition, nlsLacZRT, which contains the Escherichia coli lacZ gene fused to a nuclear location signal (nlsLacZ), engineered in such a way that the gene is expressed only if the structure in which it has been inserted transposes itself through an RNA intermediate. A cloned murine leukemia retrovirus with an ecotropic host range (Moloney murine leukemia virus), rendered defective by a large deletion encompassing the three viral gag, pol, and env open reading frames, was marked with this indicator gene and introduced by transfection into heterologous feline cells. No beta-galactosidase activity could be detected among the clonal cell population, unless the defective provirus was complemented in trans by the gag-pol gene products. Under these conditions, cell variants which disclosed an easily detectable nuclear blue coloration upon in situ 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside staining were observed. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting of the beta-galactosidase-positive cells, followed by Southern blot analysis, demonstrated an unambiguous correlation between nlsLacZRT activation and retrotransposition of the marked provirus. Transposition occurs at a high frequency (up to 10(-4) events per cell per generation), which is dependent on the level of expression of the gag-pol gene and is concomitant with the release of noninfectious retroviruslike particles which are the hallmarks, but not the intermediates, of the intracellular transposition process. Images PMID:1371167

  18. Interaction of the Tn7-encoded transposition protein TnsB with the ends of the transposon.

    PubMed Central

    Arciszewska, L K; Craig, N L

    1991-01-01

    We have used several high resolution methods to examine the interaction of TnsB, a transposition protein encoded by the bacterial transposon Tn7, with its binding sites at the ends of the transposon. These binding sites lie within the DNA segments that are directly involved in transposition. We show that the binding of TnsB to DNA can promote DNA bending, suggesting that the interaction of TnsB with the ends may result in formation of a highly organized protein-DNA complex. We also identify likely positions of close contact between of TnsB and its binding sites. Analysis of the interaction of TnsB with intact Tn7 ends reveals TnsB occupies its binding sites in a particular order, the sites immediately adjacent to the transposon termini being occupied only after other inner sites are bound. Such ordered occupancy suggests that the various binding sites have differing apparent affinities for TnsB. Images PMID:1656385

  19. Medial transposition of split lateral rectus augmented with fixation sutures in cases of complete third nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Rohit; Sharma, Medha; Singh, Digvijay; Dhiman, Rebika; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-05-01

    Surgical management of complete third nerve paralysis is a challenge. While several techniques have been described over the years, they result in less than satisfactory outcomes with residual deviations in primary gaze or postoperative drifts. One of the described techniques for management of oculomotor palsy has been medial transposition of the lateral rectus muscle which provides a good surgical alternative but often can result in undercorrection. We describe a modification of the existing technique of medial transposition of the split lateral rectus by force augmentation through the use of equatorial fixation sutures resulting in an improved outcome in primary gaze alignment. The modified technique involves splitting of the lateral rectus into two halves followed by transposing the superior half from below the superior oblique and superior rectus and inferior half from below the inferior oblique and inferior rectus to attach them at the superior and inferior edge of the medial rectus insertion, respectively. This is followed by placing non-absorbable sutures to fix each split belly of the transposed muscles to the sclera at the equator adjacent to the medial rectus such that the split muscles lie nearly parallel to the medial rectus till the equator before reflecting away. These sutures augment the force of the transposed muscles by redirecting the force vectors in the direction of action of the medial rectus. Satisfactory postoperative primary gaze alignment was achieved in three cases of complete third nerve paralysis.

  20. Infraorbital nerve transpositioning into orbital floor: a modified technique to minimize nerve injury following zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures

    PubMed Central

    Kotrashetti, Sharadindu Mahadevappa; Kale, Tejraj Pundalik; Bhandage, Supriya

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Transpositioning of the inferior alveolar nerve to prevent injury in lower jaw has been advocated for orthognathic, pre-prosthetic and for implant placement procedures. However, the concept of infra-orbital nerve repositioning in cases of mid-face fractures remains unexplored. The infraorbital nerve may be involved in trauma to the zygomatic complex which often results in sensory disturbance of the area innervated by it. Ten patients with infraorbital nerve entrapment were treated in similar way at our maxillofacial surgery centre. Materials and Methods In this article we are reporting three cases of zygomatico-maxillary complex fracture in which intra-operative repositioning of infra-orbital nerve into the orbital floor was done. This was done to release the nerve from fractured segments and to reduce the postoperative neural complications, to gain better access to fracture site and ease in plate fixation. This procedure also decompresses the nerve which releases it off the soft tissue entrapment caused due to trauma and the organized clot at the fractured site. Results There was no evidence of sensory disturbance during their three month follow-up in any of the patient. Conclusion Infraorbital nerve transposition is very effective in preventing paresthesia in patients which fracture line involving the infraorbital nerve. PMID:25922818

  1. Heterogeneous constrictional deformation in a ductile shear zone resulting from the transposition of a lineation-parallel fold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xypolias, P.; Chatzaras, V.; Beane, R.; Papadopoulou, S.

    2013-07-01

    We use new (micro-)structural, petrofabric, strain and vorticity data to analyze the deformation path in a mesoscopic quartz mylonite zone. The mylonite zone resulted from the complete transposition of a stretching lineation-parallel isoclinal fold. Symmetric cleft-girdle quartz c-axis fabrics were recorded in the middle domain, which occupies the inner limbs of the precursor isoclinal fold, while asymmetric cleft- and crossed-girdle fabrics were observed in the upper and lower domains that represent the outer limbs. Constrictional strain, with increasing k values towards the middle domain, is inferred from petrofabric and 3D strain data. Oblique grain shape fabrics yield vorticity estimates of 0.72-0.90 in the zone. However, in the middle domain, pure shear dominated deformation is suggested by orthorhombic crystallographic fabrics. Strain rate is constant throughout the zone; a strain decrease towards the zone center implies that deformation ceased earlier in the middle domain. The data indicates that fold transposition and subsequent mylonitization started as pure-shear-dominated constrictional deformation and progressively changed to simple-shear-dominated, plane strain. During this flow path the asymmetric quartz c-axis fabrics likely developed by depopulation of cleft-girdle maxima rather than from the synthetic rotation of fabric maxima itself.

  2. Cubital compressive neuropathy in the elbow: in situ neurolysis versus anterior transposition – comparative study☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Marco; Aido, Ricardo; Trigueiros, Miguel; Lemos, Rui; Silva, César

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the results from two of the most commonly used surgical techniques: in situ decompression and subcutaneous transposition. The processes of patients treated surgically in a public university hospital between January 2004 and December 2011 were reviewed. Cases of proximal compression of the nerve, angular deformity of the elbow and systemic diseases associated with non-compressive neuropathy were excluded. Methods Ninety-seven cases were included (96 patients). According to the modified McGowan score, 14.4% of the patients presented grade Ia, 27.8% grade II, 26.8% grade IIb and 30.9% grade III. In situ neurolysis of the cubital was performed in 64 cases and subcutaneous anterior transposition in 33. Results According to the modified Wilson and Knout score, the results were excellent in 49.5%, good in 18.6%, only satisfactory in 17.5% and poor in 14.4%. In comparing the two techniques, we observed similar numbers of excellent and good results. Grades IIb and III were associated with more results that were less satisfactory or poor, independent of the surgical technique. Conclusion Both techniques were shown to be efficient and safe for treating cubital tunnel syndrome. PMID:26229876

  3. Radionuclide measurement of right ventricular function in atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect and complete transposition of the great arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.J.; Shubao, C.; Clarke, S.E.; Fogelman, I.; Maisey, M.N.; Tynan, M.

    1986-05-01

    Right ventricular (RV) function was assessed in 80 patients with congenital heart disease by first-pass and gated equilibrium radionuclide angiography. In 30 patients with a ventricular septal defect (VSD) the mean RV ejection fraction (+/- standard deviation) was 64 +/- 7%. In 30 patients with a secundum atrial septal defect it was 61 +/- 9% and in 20 patients with surgically corrected complete transposition of the great arteries it was 49 +/- 13%. These values are in close agreement with values established with cineangiography for similar groups of patients. The mean ejection fraction in the group with transposition of the great arteries was significantly less than in the group with VSD (p less than 0.001). Phase analysis of the equilibrium studies showed that there was delayed RV contraction in many patients in the absence of conduction abnormalities. This delay was significantly greater in patients with atrial septal defect than in those with VSD (p less than 0.05). There was a strong correlation between size of left-to-right shunt and phase delay in patients with VSD (r = -0.72). Thus, first-pass gated radionuclide angiography provides a valid measurement of RV ejection fraction, and delayed RV contraction on phase analysis may be a sensitive index of early RV dysfunction.

  4. ModuleOrganizer: detecting modules in families of transposable elements

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Most known eukaryotic genomes contain mobile copied elements called transposable elements. In some species, these elements account for the majority of the genome sequence. They have been subject to many mutations and other genomic events (copies, deletions, captures) during transposition. The identification of these transformations remains a difficult issue. The study of families of transposable elements is generally founded on a multiple alignment of their sequences, a critical step that is adapted to transposons containing mostly localized nucleotide mutations. Many transposons that have lost their protein-coding capacity have undergone more complex rearrangements, needing the development of more complex methods in order to characterize the architecture of sequence variations. Results In this study, we introduce the concept of a transposable element module, a flexible motif present in at least two sequences of a family of transposable elements and built on a succession of maximal repeats. The paper proposes an assembly method working on a set of exact maximal repeats of a set of sequences to create such modules. It results in a graphical view of sequences segmented into modules, a representation that allows a flexible analysis of the transformations that have occurred between them. We have chosen as a demonstration data set in depth analysis of the transposable element Foldback in Drosophila melanogaster. Comparison with multiple alignment methods shows that our method is more sensitive for highly variable sequences. The study of this family and the two other families AtREP21 and SIDER2 reveals new copies of very different sizes and various combinations of modules which show the potential of our method. Conclusions ModuleOrganizer is available on the Genouest bioinformatics center at http://moduleorganizer.genouest.org PMID:20860790

  5. Natural repressors of P-induced hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster: a model for repressor evolution.

    PubMed

    Corish, P; Black, D M; Featherston, D W; Merriam, J; Dover, G A

    1996-04-01

    Type I repressors control P element transposition and comprise full length elements and elements with small 3' deletions in the final exon. Using a sensitive assay for measuring the strength of repression of P element transposition in somatic and germline tissues, we have isolated and characterized a naturally occurring type I repressor element from a Q population of Drosophila melanogaster. We demonstrate that the almost complete repression of transposition in this population is a mixture of KP elements with intermediate levels of repression, and the strong contribution of a single 2.6 kb P element deletion derivative, which we call SR (Strong Repressor). A deletion in the final intron of SR allows for the constitutive production of a putative 75 kDa repressor protein in germline tissues in addition to the production of the 66 kDa repressor in the soma, which would result in a biparental mode of inheritance of repression. Based on the four observed classes of natural Q populations, we propose a model in which populations containing SR-like elements, capable of producing strong type I repressor constitutively, have a selective advantage over populations which rely either on maternally transmitted P cytotype or on KP-induced weak levels of repression. Such populations may subsequently spread and constitute an evolutionary stable strategy for the repression of hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:8801184

  6. Natural repressors of P-induced hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster: a model for repressor evolution.

    PubMed

    Corish, P; Black, D M; Featherston, D W; Merriam, J; Dover, G A

    1996-04-01

    Type I repressors control P element transposition and comprise full length elements and elements with small 3' deletions in the final exon. Using a sensitive assay for measuring the strength of repression of P element transposition in somatic and germline tissues, we have isolated and characterized a naturally occurring type I repressor element from a Q population of Drosophila melanogaster. We demonstrate that the almost complete repression of transposition in this population is a mixture of KP elements with intermediate levels of repression, and the strong contribution of a single 2.6 kb P element deletion derivative, which we call SR (Strong Repressor). A deletion in the final intron of SR allows for the constitutive production of a putative 75 kDa repressor protein in germline tissues in addition to the production of the 66 kDa repressor in the soma, which would result in a biparental mode of inheritance of repression. Based on the four observed classes of natural Q populations, we propose a model in which populations containing SR-like elements, capable of producing strong type I repressor constitutively, have a selective advantage over populations which rely either on maternally transmitted P cytotype or on KP-induced weak levels of repression. Such populations may subsequently spread and constitute an evolutionary stable strategy for the repression of hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster.

  7. Thermal management optimization of an air-cooled Li-ion battery module using pin-fin heat sinks for hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadian, Shahabeddin K.; Zhang, Yuwen

    2015-01-01

    Three dimensional transient thermal analysis of an air-cooled module that contains prismatic Li-ion cells next to a special kind of aluminum pin fin heat sink whose heights of pin fins increase linearly through the width of the channel in air flow direction was studied for thermal management of Lithium-ion battery pack. The effects of pin fins arrangements, discharge rates, inlet air flow velocities, and inlet air temperatures on the battery were investigated. The results showed that despite of heat sinks with uniform pin fin heights that increase the standard deviation of the temperature field, using this kind of pin fin heat sink compare to the heat sink without pin fins not only decreases the bulk temperature inside the battery, but also decreases the standard deviation of the temperature field inside the battery as well. Increasing the inlet air temperature leads to decreasing the standard deviation of the temperature field while increases the maximum temperature of the battery. Furthermore, increasing the inlet air velocity first increases the standard deviation of the temperature field till reaches to the maximum point, and after that decreases. Also, increasing the inlet air velocity leads to decrease in the maximum temperature of the battery.

  8. Flare Hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczak, M.; Dubieniecki, P.

    2015-12-01

    On the basis of the Solar Maximum Mission observations, Švestka ( Solar Phys. 121, 399, 1989) introduced a new class of flares, the so-called flare hybrids. When they start, they look like typical compact flares (phase 1), but later on, they look like flares with arcades of magnetic loops (phase 2). We summarize the characteristic features of flare hybrids in soft and hard X-rays as well as in the extreme ultraviolet; these features allow us to distinguish flare hybrids from other flares. In this article, additional energy release or long plasma cooling timescales are suggested as possible causes of phase 2. We estimate the frequency of flare hybrids, and study the magnetic configurations favorable for flare hybrid occurrence. Flare hybrids appear to be quite frequent, and the difference between the lengths of magnetic loops in the two interacting loop systems seem to be a crucial parameter for determining their characteristics.

  9. Isolated congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries with dextroversion discovered incidentally in a patient with cocaine-induced acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Anumeha; Bose, Rahul; Yoon, Anthony D.

    2016-01-01

    Complex cardiac congenital anomalies can occasionally be found in adult patients who have no knowledge of their condition. Here we present the case of a 27-year-old man with cocaine-induced acute myocardial infarction in whom an isolated congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries with dextroversion was discovered incidentally. PMID:27034558

  10. Executive Function and Theory of Mind in School-Aged Children after Neonatal Corrective Cardiac Surgery for Transposition of the Great Arteries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon, Johanna; Bonnet, Damien; Courtin, Cyril; Concordet, Susan; Plumet, Marie-Helene; Angeard, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Cardiac malformations resulting in cyanosis, such as transposition of the great arteries (TGA), have been associated with neurodevelopmental dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to assess, for the first time, theory of mind (ToM), which is a key component of social cognition and executive functions in school-aged children with TGA.…

  11. Endodontic treatment of a maxillary lateral incisor presenting dens invaginatus and transposition to the region of the canine--case report.

    PubMed

    Pécora, J D; Saquy, P C; de Souza, J E; Sousa Neto, M D

    1991-01-01

    Endodontic treatment was performed in a maxillary lateral incisor presenting two different types of anomalies: dens invaginatus and transposition to the region of the canine. The two transposed teeth were subsequently restored with light-cured composite, bringing dental esthetics to normal in a single session.

  12. Functional dissection of the cis-acting sequences of the Arabidopsis transposable element Tag1 reveals dissimilar subterminal sequence and minimal spacing requirements for transposition.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, D; Mack, A; Wang, R; Galli, M; Belk, J; Ketpura, N I; Crawford, N M

    2001-01-01

    The Arabidopsis transposon Tag1 has an unusual subterminal structure containing four sets of dissimilar repeats: one set near the 5' end and three near the 3' end. To determine sequence requirements for efficient and regulated transposition, deletion derivatives of Tag1 were tested in Arabidopsis plants. These tests showed that a 98-bp 5' fragment containing the 22-bp inverted repeat and four copies of the AAACCX (X = C, A, G) 5' subterminal repeat is sufficient for transposition while a 52-bp 5' fragment containing only one copy of the subterminal repeat is not. At the 3' end, a 109-bp fragment containing four copies of the most 3' repeat TGACCC, but not a 55-bp fragment, which has no copies of the subterminal repeats, is sufficient for transposition. The 5' and 3' end fragments are not functionally interchangeable and require an internal spacer DNA of minimal length between 238 and 325 bp to be active. Elements with these minimal requirements show transposition rates and developmental control of excision that are comparable to the autonomous Tag1 element. Last, a DNA-binding activity that interacts with the 3' 109-bp fragment but not the 5' 98-bp fragment of Tag1 was found in nuclear extracts of Arabidopsis plants devoid of Tag1. PMID:11156999

  13. E mu/S mu transposition into Myc is sometimes a precursor for T(12;15) translocation in mouse B cells.

    PubMed

    Kovalchuk, Alexander L; Kim, Joong Su; Janz, Siegfried

    2003-05-01

    Misguided immunoglobulin (Ig) class switch recombination (CSR) has been implicated in the origin of Myc-activating chromosomal translocations, T(12;15), in BALB/c mouse plasmacytomas (PCTs). CSR has also been involved in the progression of T(12;15); for example, the approximation of Myc to the 3'-C alpha enhancer. This study provides evidence for an additional mechanism by which aberrant CSR may facilitate T(12;15): transposition of Ig heavy-chain (IgH) sequences to Myc. Five IgH transposons containing the intronic heavy-chain enhancer, E mu, and a truncated switch mu region, S mu, were found in the first intron of Myc in lymph node cells of IL-6 transgenic BALB/c mice. In two cases E mu/S mu transposition primed Myc to get involved in apparent trans-chromosomal CSR to C gamma 1, presumably leading to T(12;15). Translocations preceded by E mu/S mu transposition can sometimes be distinguished from de novo translocations by molecular fingerprints in translocation breakpoint regions (Ig switch region [S] inversions and unusual gene orders in composite S regions). The presence of such fingerprints in some PCTs suggests that the tumors sometimes evolve from transposition-bearing precursors. We propose that E mu/S mu transposition to Myc may facilitate plasmacytomagenesis by sensitizing Myc to undergo T(12;15) translocation. T(12;15), in turn, juxtaposes Myc to the 3'-C alpha enhancer, which appears to be required for deregulating Myc in a manner that is conducive to PCT development.

  14. Transcription of AAT•ATT Triplet Repeats in Escherichia coli Is Silenced by H-NS and IS1E Transposition

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xuefeng; Liao, Lingni; Yang, Li; Li, Hongquan

    2010-01-01

    Background The trinucleotide repeats AAT•ATT are simple DNA sequences that potentially form different types of non-B DNA secondary structures and cause genomic instabilities in vivo. Methodology and Principal Findings The molecular mechanism underlying the maintenance of a 24-triplet AAT•ATT repeat was examined in E.coli by cloning the repeats into the EcoRI site in plasmid pUC18 and into the attB site on the E.coli genome. Either the AAT or the ATT strand acted as lagging strand template in a replication fork. Propagations of the repeats in either orientation on plasmids did not affect colony morphology when triplet repeat transcription using the lacZ promoter was repressed either by supplementing LacIQ in trans or by adding glucose into the medium. In contrast, transparent colonies were formed by inducing transcription of the repeats, suggesting that transcription of AAT•ATT repeats was toxic to cell growth. Meanwhile, significant IS1E transposition events were observed both into the triplet repeats region proximal to the promoter side, the promoter region of the lacZ gene, and into the AAT•ATT region itself. Transposition reversed the transparent colony phenotype back into healthy, convex colonies. In contrast, transcription of an 8-triplet AAT•ATT repeat in either orientation on plasmids did not produce significant changes in cell morphology and did not promote IS1E transposition events. We further found that a role of IS1E transposition into plasmids was to inhibit transcription through the repeats, which was influenced by the presence of the H-NS protein, but not of its paralogue StpA. Conclusions and Significance Our findings thus suggest that the longer AAT•ATT triplet repeats in E.coli become vulnerable after transcription. H-NS and its facilitated IS1E transposition can silence long triplet repeats transcription and preserve cell growth and survival. PMID:21151567

  15. Deletions, duplications and transpositions of the COR segment that encompasses the structural gene of yeast iso-1-cytochrome c

    SciTech Connect

    Stiles, J.I.; Friedman, L.R.; Sherman, F.

    1980-01-01

    It has been recently found that a specific chromosomal segment, in certain but not all laboratory strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is deleted and transposed at high frequencies. This segment, denoted COR, encompasses the three closely linked loci CYC1, OSM1 and RAD7 which control iso-1-cytochrome c, osmotic sensitivity and UV-sensitivity, respectively. Two types of apparently normal laboratory strains of yeast designated COR1 and COR2, were uncovered after the examination of the frequencies and types of mutations causing either deficiencies or overproduction of iso-1-cytochrome c; in contrast to COR1 strains which give predominantly point mutations causing deficiencies of iso-1-cytochrome c, COR2 strains give rise to deletions and transpositions of the COR segment. We have undertaken a systematic investigation of the physical structure and genetic properties of the COR region and of the aberrations arising in COR2 strains.

  16. The challenge of staphylococcal pacemaker endocarditis in a patient with transposition of the great arteries endocarditis in congenital heart disease

    SciTech Connect

    Ch'ng, Julie; Chan, William; Lee, Paul; Joshi, Subodh; Grigg, Leanne E.; Ajani, Andrew E

    2003-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of septicaemia and infective endocarditis. The overall incidence of staphylococcal bacteraemia is increasing, contributing to 16% of all hospital-acquired bacteraemias. The use of cardiac pacemakers has revolutionized the management of rhythm disturbances, yet this has also resulted in a group of patients at risk of pacemaker lead endocarditis and seeding in the range of 1% to 7%. We describe a 26-year-old man with transposition of the great arteries who had a pacemaker implanted and presented with S. aureus septicaemia 2 years postpacemaker implantation and went on to develop pacemaker lead endocarditis. This report illustrates the risk of endocarditis in the population with congenital heart disease and an intracardiac device.

  17. Bias in plant gene content following different sorts of duplication: tandem, whole-genome, segmental, or by transposition.

    PubMed

    Freeling, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Each mode of gene duplication (tandem, tetraploid, segmental, transpositional) retains genes in a biased manner. A reciprocal relationship exists between plant genes retained postpaleotetraploidy versus genes retained after an ancient tandem duplication. Among the models (C, neofunctionalization, balanced gene drive) and ideas that might explain this relationship, only balanced gene drive predicts reciprocity. The gene balance hypothesis explains that more "connected" genes--by protein-protein interactions in a heteromer, for example--are less likely to be retained as a tandem or transposed duplicate and are more likely to be retained postpaleotetraploidy; otherwise, selectively negative dosage effects are created. Biased duplicate retention is an instant and neutral by-product, a spandrel, of purifying selection. Balanced gene drive expanded plant gene families, including those encoding proteasomal proteins, protein kinases, motors, and transcription factors, with each paleotetraploidy, which could explain trends involving complexity. Balanced gene drive is a saltation mechanism in the mutationist tradition.

  18. A P Element Chimera Containing Captured Genomic Sequences Was Recovered at the Vestigial Locus in Drosophila following Targeted Transposition

    PubMed Central

    Heslip, T. R.; Williams, J. A.; Bell, J. B.; Hodgetts, R. B.

    1992-01-01

    A P element carrying the Dopa decarboxylase gene, P[Ddc], was targeted into vg(21), a cryptic P element induced mutant allele of the vestigial (vg) locus. The resulting allele, vg(28w), contained the expected P[Ddc] plus an additional 9.5 kb of DNA, captured from elsewhere on chromosome II. Reversion of the vg(28w) mutant allele demonstrated that the entire insert can excise but cannot reinsert at an appreciable frequency. We explain the targeted transposition as the repair of a double stranded gap, created by the excision of the P element at vg(21), and suggest that the formation of chimeric elements may be an important component of P element dependent genomic instability. PMID:1325388

  19. Gene transfer and transposition mutagenesis in Streptomyces roseosporus: mapping of insertions that influence daptomycin or pigment production.

    PubMed

    McHenney, M A; Baltz, R H

    1996-09-01

    Streptomyces reseosporus, the producer of the cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic daptomycin, was shown to be a suitable host for molecular genetic manipulation. S. roseosporus does not appear to express significant restriction barriers based upon bacteriophage plaque formation studies. Plasmid DNA can be introduced into S. roseosporus by bacteriophage-FP43-mediated transduction and by conjugation from Escherichia coli. The streptomycete transposons Tn5096 and Tn5099, derived from IS493, transpose in S. roseosporus, and Tn5099-induced transposition mutants altered in the production of daptomycin, red pigment or black pigment were identified, and mapped to Dral and Asnl fragments. Three auxotrophic mutations (argB1, ade-1 and metB1) were identified among 100 individual Tn5096 insertions. Alignment and physical mapping of several Tn5099 insertions in Dral-E and Asnl-B fragments was facilitated by the presence of Dral and Asnl cleavage sites in Tn5099.

  20. The use of a CircuLite micro-pump for congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Steven; Rega, Filip; Burkhoff, Daniel; Meyns, Bart

    2012-10-01

    We report a case of a 49-year old male with a congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (ccTGA) implanted with a left atrial to right subclavian artery ventricular assist device (CircuLite) because of the failure of the anatomic right (systemic) ventricle. Additionally, elevated pulmonary pressures and peripheral vascular resistance (7.4 Wood units) prevented him from being put on the transplant list. The implant, performed off-pump through a right minithoracotomy, was uncomplicated and there were no adverse events. Within 1 month of the implant, there was a marked improvement in exercise tolerance and decreases in pulmonary pressures and resistance, so that the patient was able to return to work and became eligible for transplant listing. As of the time of writing, the patient has been supported for 10 months and is awaiting a heart transplant.

  1. A critical evaluation of secondary cancer risk models applied to Monte Carlo dose distributions of 2-dimensional, 3-dimensional conformal and hybrid intensity-modulated radiation therapy for breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joosten, A.; Bochud, F.; Moeckli, R.

    2014-08-01

    The comparison of radiotherapy techniques regarding secondary cancer risk has yielded contradictory results possibly stemming from the many different approaches used to estimate risk. The purpose of this study was to make a comprehensive evaluation of different available risk models applied to detailed whole-body dose distributions computed by Monte Carlo for various breast radiotherapy techniques including conventional open tangents, 3D conformal wedged tangents and hybrid intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). First, organ-specific linear risk models developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VII committee were applied to mean doses for remote organs only and all solid organs. Then, different general non-linear risk models were applied to the whole body dose distribution. Finally, organ-specific non-linear risk models for the lung and breast were used to assess the secondary cancer risk for these two specific organs. A total of 32 different calculated absolute risks resulted in a broad range of values (between 0.1% and 48.5%) underlying the large uncertainties in absolute risk calculation. The ratio of risk between two techniques has often been proposed as a more robust assessment of risk than the absolute risk. We found that the ratio of risk between two techniques could also vary substantially considering the different approaches to risk estimation. Sometimes the ratio of risk between two techniques would range between values smaller and larger than one, which then translates into inconsistent results on the potential higher risk of one technique compared to another. We found however that the hybrid IMRT technique resulted in a systematic reduction of risk compared to the other techniques investigated even though the magnitude of this reduction varied substantially with the different approaches investigated. Based on the epidemiological data available, a reasonable

  2. A critical evaluation of secondary cancer risk models applied to Monte Carlo dose distributions of 2-dimensional, 3-dimensional conformal and hybrid intensity-modulated radiation therapy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Joosten, A; Bochud, F; Moeckli, R

    2014-08-21

    The comparison of radiotherapy techniques regarding secondary cancer risk has yielded contradictory results possibly stemming from the many different approaches used to estimate risk. The purpose of this study was to make a comprehensive evaluation of different available risk models applied to detailed whole-body dose distributions computed by Monte Carlo for various breast radiotherapy techniques including conventional open tangents, 3D conformal wedged tangents and hybrid intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). First, organ-specific linear risk models developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VII committee were applied to mean doses for remote organs only and all solid organs. Then, different general non-linear risk models were applied to the whole body dose distribution. Finally, organ-specific non-linear risk models for the lung and breast were used to assess the secondary cancer risk for these two specific organs. A total of 32 different calculated absolute risks resulted in a broad range of values (between 0.1% and 48.5%) underlying the large uncertainties in absolute risk calculation. The ratio of risk between two techniques has often been proposed as a more robust assessment of risk than the absolute risk. We found that the ratio of risk between two techniques could also vary substantially considering the different approaches to risk estimation. Sometimes the ratio of risk between two techniques would range between values smaller and larger than one, which then translates into inconsistent results on the potential higher risk of one technique compared to another. We found however that the hybrid IMRT technique resulted in a systematic reduction of risk compared to the other techniques investigated even though the magnitude of this reduction varied substantially with the different approaches investigated. Based on the epidemiological data available, a reasonable

  3. The N-terminal zinc finger domain of Tgf2 transposase contributes to DNA binding and to transposition activity

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xia-Yun; Hou, Fei; Shen, Xiao-Dan; Du, Xue-Di; Xu, Hai-Li; Zou, Shu-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Active Hobo/Activator/Tam3 (hAT) transposable elements are rarely found in vertebrates. Previously, goldfish Tgf2 was found to be an autonomously active vertebrate transposon that is efficient at gene-transfer in teleost fish. However, little is known about Tgf2 functional domains required for transposition. To explore this, we first predicted in silico a zinc finger domain in the N-terminus of full length Tgf2 transposase (L-Tgf2TPase). Two truncated recombinant Tgf2 transposases with deletions in the N-terminal zinc finger domain, S1- and S2-Tgf2TPase, were expressed in bacteria from goldfish cDNAs. Both truncated Tgf2TPases lost their DNA-binding ability in vitro, specifically at the ends of Tgf2 transposon than native L-Tgf2TPase. Consequently, S1- and S2-Tgf2TPases mediated gene transfer in the zebrafish genome in vivo at a significantly (p < 0.01) lower efficiency (21%–25%), in comparison with L-Tgf2TPase (56% efficiency). Compared to L-Tgf2TPase, truncated Tgf2TPases catalyzed imprecise excisions with partial deletion of TE ends and/or plasmid backbone insertion/deletion. The gene integration into the zebrafish genome mediated by truncated Tgf2TPases was imperfect, creating incomplete 8-bp target site duplications at the insertion sites. These results indicate that the zinc finger domain in Tgf2 transposase is involved in binding to Tgf2 terminal sequences, and loss of those domains has effects on TE transposition. PMID:27251101

  4. The N-terminal zinc finger domain of Tgf2 transposase contributes to DNA binding and to transposition activity.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xia-Yun; Hou, Fei; Shen, Xiao-Dan; Du, Xue-Di; Xu, Hai-Li; Zou, Shu-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Active Hobo/Activator/Tam3 (hAT) transposable elements are rarely found in vertebrates. Previously, goldfish Tgf2 was found to be an autonomously active vertebrate transposon that is efficient at gene-transfer in teleost fish. However, little is known about Tgf2 functional domains required for transposition. To explore this, we first predicted in silico a zinc finger domain in the N-terminus of full length Tgf2 transposase (L-Tgf2TPase). Two truncated recombinant Tgf2 transposases with deletions in the N-terminal zinc finger domain, S1- and S2-Tgf2TPase, were expressed in bacteria from goldfish cDNAs. Both truncated Tgf2TPases lost their DNA-binding ability in vitro, specifically at the ends of Tgf2 transposon than native L-Tgf2TPase. Consequently, S1- and S2-Tgf2TPases mediated gene transfer in the zebrafish genome in vivo at a significantly (p < 0.01) lower efficiency (21%-25%), in comparison with L-Tgf2TPase (56% efficiency). Compared to L-Tgf2TPase, truncated Tgf2TPases catalyzed imprecise excisions with partial deletion of TE ends and/or plasmid backbone insertion/deletion. The gene integration into the zebrafish genome mediated by truncated Tgf2TPases was imperfect, creating incomplete 8-bp target site duplications at the insertion sites. These results indicate that the zinc finger domain in Tgf2 transposase is involved in binding to Tgf2 terminal sequences, and loss of those domains has effects on TE transposition. PMID:27251101

  5. In Vitro Synthesis, Delivery, and Bioavailability of Exogenous mRNA in Gene Transfer Mediated by PiggyBac Transposition.

    PubMed

    Bire, Solenne; Ishac, Nicole; Rouleux-Bonnin, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, nonviral gene transfer is currently of great importance for introducing exogenous genes into genomes and for ensuring that transgene expression is suitable for therapeutic and bioproduction purposes. The piggyBac transposon-based system is particularly interesting since it is easy to engineer and has a large cargo capacity, up to 100 kb. In its setup, the system requires only the piggyBac transposase protein and the transgene delineated by the two piggyBac-specific inverted terminal repeats. Usually the source of transposase is carried by a DNA plasmid. However, the principal drawback of this method is the lasting presence of the transposase, due to episomal persistence or possible integration of the transposase gene vector into the cell's genome. This can lead to genotoxic effects such as multiple genomic integration events and remobilization of the transposon vector once it has been integrated. One alternative to improve the safety of the system is to deliver the transposase as in vitro-synthesized messenger RNA in order to define a very narrow expression window during which a one-shot transposition process would occur. Issues that can be encountered when working on mRNA cell transfer are related to the quality of the synthetic mRNA, the system used to introduce mRNA into the cells and the bioavailability of the mRNA molecules. Here we describe a method to produce mRNA, verify its quality, determine which transfecting reagents can be used and how this mRNA is available to promote the transposition process in HeLa cells. Additionally, we illustrate this method in stromal mesenchymal cell lines in order to support hematopoiesis. PMID:27236801

  6. Printed hybrid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karioja, Pentti; Mäkinen, Jukka-Tapani; Keränen, Kimmo; Aikio, Janne; Alajoki, Teemu; Jaakola, Tuomo; Koponen, Matti; Keränen, Antti; Heikkinen, Mikko; Tuomikoski, Markus; Suhonen, Riikka; Hakalahti, Leena; Kopola, Pälvi; Hast, Jukka; Liedert, Ralf; Hiltunen, Jussi; Masuda, Noriyuki; Kemppainen, Antti; Rönkä, Kari; Korhonen, Raimo

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents research activities carried out at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland in the field of hybrid integration of optics, electronics and mechanics. Main focus area in our research is the manufacturing of electronic modules and product structures with printed electronics, film-over-molding and polymer sheet lamination technologies and the goal is in the next generation of smart systems utilizing monolithic polymer packages. The combination of manufacturing technologies such as roll-to-roll -printing, injection molding and traditional component assembly is called Printed Hybrid Systems (PHS). Several demonstrator structures have been made, which show the potential of polymer packaging technology. One demonstrator example is a laminated structure with embedded LED chips. Element thickness is only 0.3mm and the flexible stack of foils can be bent in two directions after assembly process and was shaped curved using heat and pressure. The combination of printed flexible circuit boards and injection molding has also been demonstrated with several functional modules. The demonstrators illustrate the potential of origami electronics, which can be cut and folded to 3D shapes. It shows that several manufacturing process steps can be eliminated by Printed Hybrid Systems technology. The main benefits of this combination are small size, ruggedness and conformality. The devices are ideally suited for medical applications as the sensitive electronic components are well protected inside the plastic and the structures can be cleaned easily due to the fact that they have no joints or seams that can accumulate dirt or bacteria.

  7. Hybrid mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, C. A.; Swanson, E. S.

    2015-05-01

    A review of the theoretical and experimental status of hybrid hadrons is presented. The states π1(1400) , π1(1600) , and π1(2015) are thoroughly reviewed, along with experimental results from GAMS, VES, Obelix, COMPASS, KEK, CLEO, Crystal Barrel, CLAS, and BNL. Theoretical lattice results on the gluelump spectrum, adiabatic potentials, heavy and light hybrids, and transition matrix elements are discussed. These are compared with bag, string, flux tube, and constituent gluon models. Strong and electromagnetic decay models are described and compared to lattice gauge theory results. We conclude that while good evidence for the existence of a light isovector exotic meson exists, its confirmation as a hybrid meson awaits discovery of its iso-partners. We also conclude that lattice gauge theory rules out a number of hybrid models and provides a reference to judge the success of others.

  8. Hybrid SCR

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, T.; Zammit, K.

    1996-01-01

    Hybrid selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems consist of either a combination of SCR techniques (i.e. in-dust SCR combined with air heater SCR) or selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) in combination with SCR. These Hybrid SCR systems can offer substantial benefits in reduced cost and enhanced performance; however, their applicability is very unit specific. This paper presents the results of a study to document the current experience and develop a tool by which utilities can determine the applicability of Hybrid SCR to meet their NO{sub x} reduction goals, a guideline for selecting the best configuration, and a reference for developing the design parameters necessary to implement the technology. Hybrid SCR systems have been installed and demonstrated on utility boilers. The systems have included in-duct SCR combined with air heater SCR and SNCR combined with SCR as includes a review of the results of these demonstrations as well as comments on the applicability of those results for other utility systems. Finally this document provides a reference for the development of design parameters for the implementation of Hybrid SCR. There are a number of technical and commercial considerations which must be resolved prior to designing or procuring a Hybrid SCR system. The boiler operating, temperature and emissions data necessary for the final design are presented along with the process design variables which must be specified. Procurement suggestions are included to assist the user in addressing some of the more pertinent commercial issues.

  9. Electric hybrid module based specialty car design

    SciTech Connect

    Bohan, K.R.

    1995-12-31

    The vast majority of automobiles made in the United states today are manufactured by one of three major auto manufacturers. It is intrinsic in their nature to act conservatively. The big three`s large production runs represents a huge amount of capitalization. The amount of capital being invested is the real driving factor behind the conservative nature of these companies. In the computer industries we have seen a significant number of small start up companies as the driving force behind technological change. If a large company does not do it, a small venture capital company will certainly fill the vacuum. Unfortunately, the existing auto industry does not have a strong startup company presence. Even into the 1920`s, the specialty car or custom coach work manufactures represented a lively part of the auto economy. It was not until the coming of the great depression that the small specialty car manufacture was virtually eliminated. Today we see the beginnings of a comeback of the specialty car manufacturer in the kit car industry of today.

  10. The effects of heat induction and the siRNA biogenesis pathway on the transgenerational transposition of ONSEN, a copia-like retrotransposon in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Wataru; Kobayashi, Akie; Kato, Atsushi; Ito, Hidetaka

    2012-05-01

    Environmental stress influences genetic and epigenetic regulation in plant genomes. We previously reported that heat stress activated a copia-like retrotransposon named ONSEN. To investigate the heat sensitivity and transgenerational activation of ONSEN, we analyzed the stress response by temperature shift and multiple heat stress treatments. ONSEN was activated at 37°C, and the newly inserted ONSEN was transcriptionally active and mobile to the next generation subjected to heat stress, indicating that the regulation of ONSEN is independent of positional effects on the chromosome. Reciprocal crosses with activated ONSEN revealed that the transgenerational transposition was inherited from both sexes, indicating that the transposition is suppressed independently of gametophytic regulation. We showed previously that ONSEN was transposed in mutants deficient in small interfering RNA (siRNA) biogenesis, including nrpd2 and rdr2, but not dcl3. To define the functional redundancy of Dicer-like (DCL) proteins in Arabidopsis, we analyzed ONSEN activation in mutants deficient in DCL proteins, including dcl2, dcl3 and dcl4. ONSEN was nearly immobile in a single Dicer mutant; however, some transgenerational transpositions were observed in dcl2/dcl3/dcl4 triple mutants subjected to heat stress. This indicated that the Dicer family is redundant for ONSEN transposition. To examine the activation of ONSEN in undifferentiated cells, ONSEN transcripts and synthesized DNA were analyzed in heat-stressed callus tissue. In contrast to vegetative tissue, high accumulation of the transcripts and amplified DNA copies of ONSEN were detected in callus. This result indicated that ONSEN activation is controlled by cell-specific regulatory mechanisms.

  11. A TALE of Transposition: Tn3-Like Transposons Play a Major Role in the Spread of Pathogenicity Determinants of Xanthomonas citri and Other Xanthomonads

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Rafael Marini; de Oliveira, Amanda Carolina P.; Moreira, Leandro M.; Belasque, José; Gourbeyre, Edith; Siguier, Patricia; Ferro, Maria Inês T.; Ferro, Jesus A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Members of the genus Xanthomonas are among the most important phytopathogens. A key feature of Xanthomonas pathogenesis is the translocation of type III secretion system (T3SS) effector proteins (T3SEs) into the plant target cells via a T3SS. Several T3SEs and a murein lytic transglycosylase gene (mlt, required for citrus canker symptoms) are found associated with three transposition-related genes in Xanthomonas citri plasmid pXAC64. These are flanked by short inverted repeats (IRs). The region was identified as a transposon, TnXax1, with typical Tn3 family features, including a transposase and two recombination genes. Two 14-bp palindromic sequences within a 193-bp potential resolution site occur between the recombination genes. Additional derivatives carrying different T3SEs and other passenger genes occur in different Xanthomonas species. The T3SEs include transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs). Certain TALEs are flanked by the same IRs as found in TnXax1 to form mobile insertion cassettes (MICs), suggesting that they may be transmitted horizontally. A significant number of MICs carrying other passenger genes (including a number of TALE genes) were also identified, flanked by the same TnXax1 IRs and delimited by 5-bp target site duplications. We conclude that a large fraction of T3SEs, including individual TALEs and potential pathogenicity determinants, have spread by transposition and that TnXax1, which exhibits all of the essential characteristics of a functional transposon, may be involved in driving MIC transposition. We also propose that TALE genes may diversify by fork slippage during the replicative Tn3 family transposition. These mechanisms may play a crucial role in the emergence of Xanthomonas pathogenicity. PMID:25691597

  12. Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension in a Neonate With Transposition of Great Arteries and Intact Ventricular Septum: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Mohsen; Kirshbom, Paul M; Kopf, Gary S; Steele, Margaret M; Sullivan, Jill M

    2015-07-01

    Transposition of the great arteries (TGA) with intact ventricular septum (IVS) has very favorable short- and long-term surgical outcome. Although rare, when associated with persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPH), it exhibits significant mortality risk and management challenges. We report the case of a neonate with TGA with IVS and PPH who underwent successful early surgical repair with emphasis on clinical management and review of the literature.

  13. Waveform Sampler CAMAC Module

    SciTech Connect

    Freytag, D.R.; Haller, G.M.; Kang, H.; Wang, J.

    1985-09-01

    A Waveform Sampler Module (WSM) for the measurement of signal shapes coming from the multi-hit drift chambers of the SLAC SLC detector is described. The module uses a high speed, high resolution analog storage device (AMU) developed in collaboration between SLAC and Stanford University. The AMU devices together with high speed TTL clocking circuitry are packaged in a hybrid which is also suitable for mounting on the detector. The module is in CAMAC format and provides eight signal channels, each recording signal amplitude versus time in 512 cells at a sampling rate of up to 360 MHz. Data are digitized by a 12-bit ADC with a 1 ..mu..s conversion time and stored in an on-board memory accessible through CAMAC.

  14. Hybrid chirped-pulse amplification.

    PubMed

    Jovanovic, Igor; Ebbers, Christopher A; Barty, C P J

    2002-09-15

    Conversion efficiency in optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification is limited by spatiotemporal characteristics of the pump pulse. We have demonstrated a novel hybrid chirped-pulse amplification scheme that uses a single pump pulse and combines optical parametric amplification and laser amplification to achieve high gain, high conversion efficiency, and high prepulse contrast without utilization of electro-optic modulators. We achieved an overall conversion efficiency of 37% from the hybrid amplification system at a center wavelength of 820nm. Generation of multiterawatt pulses is possible by use of this simple method and commercial Q -switched pump lasers.

  15. Summary of Clinical Experience of Modified Double Root Translocation in the Management of Complete Transposition of Great Arteries With Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Xu, Jing; Zhou, Zhiming; Wang, Ke; Chen, Jianchao; Chen, Hongling; Wen, Meng; Liang, Qiaoru

    2016-07-27

    To summarize the therapeutic effects of modified double root translocation (MDRT) in the management of congenital heart disease-transposition of great arteries (TGA) with ventricular septum defect (VSD) and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO). From May 2013 to March 2015, we treated 6 patients (4 males, 2 females, aged from 1 year and 8 months old to 5 years old) with complete transposition of great arteries with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, SaO2 54 ± 7.3%; the outflow velocity of the left ventricular or pulmonary valve measured by Doppler was 4.46 ± 0.15 m/s, and the Nakata index was 217 ± 32 cm(2)/m(2). We carried out a double root translocation operation on these 6 patients.One patient developed low cardiac output syndrome 4 hours after the operation. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was performed, but the patient died of multiple organ failure. The other 5 patients all recovered and were discharged from the hospital. During the 3-month to 2-year follow-up period, these 5 patients all demonstrated NYHA Class I or NYHA Class II LVEF (65 ± 2.7) %; 4 had mild pulmonary regurgitation, 1 moderate pulmonary regurgitation; 3 no aortic regurgitation, and 2 micro aortic regurgitation, SaO2 99 ± 0.4%.Modified double root translocation is an effective treatment method in the management of complete transposition of great arteries with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction.

  16. Rapid and efficient introduction of a foreign gene into bacterial artificial chromosome-cloned varicella vaccine by Tn7-mediated site-specific transposition

    SciTech Connect

    Somboonthum, Pranee; Koshizuka, Tetsuo; Okamoto, Shigefumi; Matsuura, Masaaki; Gomi, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Michiaki; Yamanishi, Koichi; Mori, Yasuko

    2010-06-20

    Using a rapid and reliable system based on Tn7-mediated site-specific transposition, we have successfully constructed a recombinant Oka varicella vaccine (vOka) expressing the mumps virus (MuV) fusion protein (F). The backbone of the vector was our previously reported vOka-BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) genome. We inserted the transposon Tn7 attachment sequence, LacZ{alpha}-mini-attTn7, into the region between ORF12 and ORF13 to generate a vOka-BAC-Tn genome. The MuV-F expressing cassette was transposed into the vOka-BAC genome at the mini-attTn7 transposition site. MuV-F protein was expressed in recombinant virus, rvOka-F infected cells. In addition, the MuV-F protein was cleaved in the rvOka-F infected cells as in MuV-infected cells. The growth of rvOka-F was similar to that of the original recombinant vOka without the F gene. Thus, we show that Tn7-mediated transposition is an efficient method for introducing a foreign gene expression cassette into the vOka-BAC genome as a live virus vector.

  17. Directed Synthesis of a Segmental Chromosomal Transposition: An Approach to the Study of Chromosomes Lethal to the Gametophyte Generation of Maize

    PubMed Central

    Birchler, J. A.; Levin, D. M.

    1991-01-01

    Because of the haploid nature of the gametophyte generation of plants, most mutations that are lethal or detrimental to the gametophytes cannot be recovered. Our laboratory is currently developing several techniques to overcome this situation. In this paper, a procedure is described to generate directed segmental chromosomal transpositions. The method involves recovery of recombinants between reciprocal translocation overlaps such that one region of the genome is inserted into a nonhomologous chromosome in a predetermined and directed manner. This duplicated segment then could serve to cover deficiencies or mutations, lethal to the gametophytes, in the region from whence it originated. The manipulation of segmental chromosomal transpositions for analyzing mutants lethal or detrimental to the gametophyte generation is discussed. The procedure to generate transpositions, the translocations between normal A and supernumerary B chromosomes that generate deficiencies in the male gametes, the r-X1 chromosome that generates deficiencies in the female gametes and other techniques available in maize form a system to analyze gametophyte lethal mutations. PMID:2016056

  18. Characterization of Growth and Reproduction Performance, Transgene Integration, Expression, and Transmission Patterns in Transgenic Pigs Produced by piggyBac Transposition-Mediated Gene Transfer.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fang; Li, Zicong; Cai, Gengyuan; Gao, Wenchao; Jiang, Gelong; Liu, Dewu; Urschitz, Johann; Moisyadi, Stefan; Wu, Zhenfang

    2016-10-01

    Previously we successfully produced a group of EGFP-expressing founder transgenic pigs by a newly developed efficient and simple pig transgenesis method based on cytoplasmic injection of piggyBac plasmids. In this study, we investigated the growth and reproduction performance and characterized the transgene insertion, transmission, and expression patterns in transgenic pigs generated by piggyBac transposition. Results showed that transgene has no injurious effect on the growth and reproduction of transgenic pigs. Multiple copies of monogenic EGFP transgene were inserted at noncoding sequences of host genome, and passed from founder transgenic pigs to their transgenic offspring in segregation or linkage manner. The EGFP transgene was ubiquitously expressed in transgenic pigs, and its expression intensity was associated with transgene copy number but not related to its promoter DNA methylation level. To the best of our knowledge, this is first study that fully described the growth and reproduction performance, transgene insertion, expression, and transmission profiles in transgenic pigs produced by piggyBac system. It not only demonstrates that piggyBac transposition-mediated gene transfer is an effective and favorable approach for pig transgenesis, but also provides scientific information for understanding the transgene insertion, expression and transmission patterns in transgenic animals produced by piggyBac transposition. PMID:27565868

  19. Hybrid Solar GHP Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Yavuzturk, Cy; Chiasson, Andrew; Shonder, John

    2012-12-11

    This project provides an easy-to-use, menu-driven, software tool for designing hybrid solar-geothermal heat pump systems (GHP) for both heating- and cooling-dominated buildings. No such design tool currently exists. In heating-dominated buildings, the design approach takes advantage of glazed solar collectors to effectively balance the annual thermal loads on the ground with renewable solar energy. In cooling-dominated climates, the design approach takes advantage of relatively low-cost, unglazed solar collectors as the heat rejecting component. The primary benefit of hybrid GHPs is the reduced initial cost of the ground heat exchanger (GHX). Furthermore, solar thermal collectors can be used to balance the ground loads over the annual cycle, thus making the GHX fully sustainable; in heating-dominated buildings, the hybrid energy source (i.e., solar) is renewable, in contrast to a typical fossil fuel boiler or electric resistance as the hybrid component; in cooling-dominated buildings, use of unglazed solar collectors as a heat rejecter allows for passive heat rejection, in contrast to a cooling tower that consumes a significant amount of energy to operate, and hybrid GHPs can expand the market by allowing reduced GHX footprint in both heating- and cooling-dominated climates. The design tool allows for the straight-forward design of innovative GHP systems that currently pose a significant design challenge. The project lays the foundations for proper and reliable design of hybrid GHP systems, overcoming a series of difficult and cumbersome steps without the use of a system simulation approach, and without an automated optimization scheme. As new technologies and design concepts emerge, sophisticated design tools and methodologies must accompany them and be made usable for practitioners. Lack of reliable design tools results in reluctance of practitioners to implement more complex systems. A menu-driven software tool for the design of hybrid solar GHP systems is

  20. Hybrid Solar GHP Simulator

    2012-12-11

    This project provides an easy-to-use, menu-driven, software tool for designing hybrid solar-geothermal heat pump systems (GHP) for both heating- and cooling-dominated buildings. No such design tool currently exists. In heating-dominated buildings, the design approach takes advantage of glazed solar collectors to effectively balance the annual thermal loads on the ground with renewable solar energy. In cooling-dominated climates, the design approach takes advantage of relatively low-cost, unglazed solar collectors as the heat rejecting component. The primarymore » benefit of hybrid GHPs is the reduced initial cost of the ground heat exchanger (GHX). Furthermore, solar thermal collectors can be used to balance the ground loads over the annual cycle, thus making the GHX fully sustainable; in heating-dominated buildings, the hybrid energy source (i.e., solar) is renewable, in contrast to a typical fossil fuel boiler or electric resistance as the hybrid component; in cooling-dominated buildings, use of unglazed solar collectors as a heat rejecter allows for passive heat rejection, in contrast to a cooling tower that consumes a significant amount of energy to operate, and hybrid GHPs can expand the market by allowing reduced GHX footprint in both heating- and cooling-dominated climates. The design tool allows for the straight-forward design of innovative GHP systems that currently pose a significant design challenge. The project lays the foundations for proper and reliable design of hybrid GHP systems, overcoming a series of difficult and cumbersome steps without the use of a system simulation approach, and without an automated optimization scheme. As new technologies and design concepts emerge, sophisticated design tools and methodologies must accompany them and be made usable for practitioners. Lack of reliable design tools results in reluctance of practitioners to implement more complex systems. A menu-driven software tool for the design of hybrid solar GHP systems

  1. Transposition and Intermingling of Galphai2 and Galphao afferences into single vomeronasal glomeruli in the Madagascan lesser Tenrec Echinops telfairi.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Rodrigo; Villalón, Aldo; Künzle, Heinz; Mpodozis, Jorge

    2009-11-24

    The vomeronasal system (VNS) mediates pheromonal communication in mammals. From the vomeronasal organ, two populations of sensory neurons, expressing either Galphai2 or Galphao proteins, send projections that end in glomeruli distributed either at the rostral or caudal half of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), respectively. Neurons at the AOB contact glomeruli of a single subpopulation. The dichotomic segregation of AOB glomeruli has been described in opossums, rodents and rabbits, while Primates and Laurasiatheres present the Galphai2-pathway only, or none at all (such as apes, some bats and aquatic species). We studied the AOB of the Madagascan lesser tenrec Echinops telfairi (Afrotheria: Afrosoricida) and found that Galphai2 and Galphao proteins are expressed in rostral and caudal glomeruli, respectively. However, the segregation of vomeronasal glomeruli at the AOB is not exclusive, as both pathways contained some glomeruli transposed into the adjoining subdomain. Moreover, some glomeruli seem to contain intermingled afferences from both pathways. Both the transposition and heterogeneity of vomeronasal afferences are features, to our knowledge, never reported before. The organization of AOB glomeruli suggests that synaptic integration might occur at the glomerular layer. Whether intrinsic AOB neurons may make synaptic contact with axon terminals of both subpopulations is an interesting possibility that would expand our understanding about the integration of vomeronasal pathways.

  2. A conditional piggyBac transposition system for genetic screening in mice identifies oncogenic networks in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Rad, Roland; Rad, Lena; Wang, Wei; Strong, Alexander; Ponstingl, Hannes; Bronner, Iraad F; Mayho, Matthew; Steiger, Katja; Weber, Julia; Hieber, Maren; Veltkamp, Christian; Eser, Stefan; Geumann, Ulf; Öllinger, Rupert; Zukowska, Magdalena; Barenboim, Maxim; Maresch, Roman; Cadiñanos, Juan; Friedrich, Mathias; Varela, Ignacio; Constantino-Casas, Fernando; Sarver, Aaron; Ten Hoeve, Jelle; Prosser, Haydn; Seidler, Barbara; Bauer, Judith; Heikenwälder, Mathias; Metzakopian, Emmanouil; Krug, Anne; Ehmer, Ursula; Schneider, Günter; Knösel, Thomas; Rümmele, Petra; Aust, Daniela; Grützmann, Robert; Pilarsky, Christian; Ning, Zemin; Wessels, Lodewyk; Schmid, Roland M; Quail, Michael A; Vassiliou, George; Esposito, Irene; Liu, Pentao; Saur, Dieter; Bradley, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Here we describe a conditional piggyBac transposition system in mice and report the discovery of large sets of new cancer genes through a pancreatic insertional mutagenesis screen. We identify Foxp1 as an oncogenic transcription factor that drives pancreatic cancer invasion and spread in a mouse model and correlates with lymph node metastasis in human patients with pancreatic cancer. The propensity of piggyBac for open chromatin also enabled genome-wide screening for cancer-relevant noncoding DNA, which pinpointed a Cdkn2a cis-regulatory region. Histologically, we observed different tumor subentities and discovered associated genetic events, including Fign insertions in hepatoid pancreatic cancer. Our studies demonstrate the power of genetic screening to discover cancer drivers that are difficult to identify by other approaches to cancer genome analysis, such as downstream targets of commonly mutated human cancer genes. These piggyBac resources are universally applicable in any tissue context and provide unique experimental access to the genetic complexity of cancer.

  3. Maternal-infant interaction and autonomic function in healthy infants and infants with transposition of the great arteries.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Tondi M; Ferree, Allison

    2014-12-01

    The quality of maternal-infant interaction is a critical factor in the development of infants' autonomic function and social engagement skills. In this secondary data analysis, relationships among infant and maternal affect and behavior and quality of dyadic interaction, as measured by the Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment, and infant autonomic function, as measured by heart rate variability, were examined during feeding at 2 weeks and 2 months of age in 16 healthy infants and in 15 infants with transposition of the great arteries (TGA). Contrary to previous research, at 2 weeks infant age, mothers of infants with TGA had significantly higher scores in affect and behavior than did mothers of healthy infants. The affect and behavior and quality of dyadic interaction of infants with TGA also did not differ from that of healthy infants. Although infants' social engagement skills did not differ by health condition (TGA or healthy), these skills did differ by parasympathetic nervous system function: infants better able to suppress vagal activity with challenge had more positive and less dysregulated affect and behavior, regardless of health status. These findings suggest that maternal-infant interactions for some cardiac disease subgroups may not differ from healthy dyads. Additional research is required to identify both healthy and ill infants with delayed autonomic maturation and to develop and test interventions to enhance critical interactive functions.

  4. Assessment of Fecundity and Germ Line Transmission in Two Transgenic Pig Lines Produced by Sleeping Beauty Transposition

    PubMed Central

    Garrels, Wiebke; Holler, Stephanie; Cleve, Nicole; Niemann, Heiner; Ivics, Zoltan; Kues, Wilfried A.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, we described a simplified injection method for producing transgenic pigs using a non-autonomous Sleeping Beauty transposon system. The founder animals showed ubiquitous expression of the Venus fluorophore in almost all cell types. To assess, whether expression of the reporter fluorophore affects animal welfare or fecundity, we analyzed reproductive parameters of two founder boars, germ line transmission, and organ and cell specific transgene expression in animals of the F1 and F2 generation. Molecular analysis of ejaculated sperm cells suggested three monomeric integrations of the Venus transposon in both founders. To test germ line transmission of the three monomeric transposon integrations, wild-type sows were artificially inseminated. The offspring were nursed to sexual maturity and hemizygous lines were established. A clear segregation of the monomeric transposons following the Mendelian rules was observed in the F1 and F2 offspring. Apparently, almost all somatic cells, as well as oocytes and spermatozoa, expressed the Venus fluorophore at cell-type specific levels. No detrimental effects of Venus expression on animal health or fecundity were found. Importantly, all hemizygous lines expressed the fluorophore in comparable levels, and no case of transgene silencing or variegated expression was found after germ line transmission, suggesting that the insertions occurred at transcriptionally permissive loci. The results show that Sleeping Beauty transposase-catalyzed transposition is a promising approach for stable genetic modification of the pig genome. PMID:24705079

  5. Excision and transposition of two Ds transposons from the bronze mutable 4 derivative 6856 allele of Zea mays L.

    PubMed

    Dowe, M F; Roman, G W; Klein, A S

    1990-05-01

    The regulatory mutation bronze mutable 4 Derivative 6856 (bz-m4 D6856) contains a complex 6.7 kb Dissociation (Ds) element tagged with a duplication of low copy bz 3' flanking sequences (Klein et al. 1988). This creates a unique opportunity to study the transposition of a single member of the repetitive family of Ds elements. Eighteen full purple revertants (Bz' alleles) of bz-m4 were characterized enzymatically and by genomic mapping. For 17 of the Bz' alleles, reversion to a wild-type phenotype was caused by excision of the 6.7 kb Ds transposon. Nine of these Bz' alleles retained the transposon somewhere in their genome. In this study we show that like Ac (Schwartz 1989; Dooner and Belachew 1989), the 6.7 kb Ds element can transpose within a short physical distance, both proximal and distal to its original position. Additional bz sequences have been mapped immediately distal to the mutant locus in bz-m4 D6856; genetic evidence suggests these are flanked by two additional Ds elements. The remaining Bz' revertant, Bz':107, arose from excision of a more complex 13 kb Ds element. PMID:2166229

  6. Mechanism responsible for D-transposition of the great arteries: Is this part of the spectrum of right isomerism?

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Yuji

    2016-09-01

    D-transposition of the great arteries (TGA) is one of the most common conotruncal heart defects at birth and is characterized by a discordant ventriculoarterial connection with a concordant atrioventricular connection. The morphological etiology of TGA is an inverted or arrested rotation of the heart outflow tract (OFT, conotruncus), by which the aorta is transposed in the right ventral direction to the pulmonary trunk. The rotational defect of the OFT is thought to be attributed to hypoplasia of the subpulmonic conus, which originates from the left anterior heart field (AHF) residing in the mesodermal core of the first and second pharyngeal arches. AHF, especially on the left, at the early looped heart stage (corresponding to Carnegie stage 10-11 in the human embryo) is one of the regions responsible for the impediment that causes TGA morphology. In human or experimentally produced right isomerism, malposition of the great arteries including D-TGA is frequently associated. Mutations in genes involving left-right (L-R) asymmetry, such as NODAL, ACTRIIB and downstream target FOXH1, have been found in patients with right isomerism as well as in isolated TGA. The downstream pathways of Nodal-Foxh1 play a critical role not only in L-R determination in the lateral plate mesoderm but also in myocardial specification and differentiation in the AHF, suggesting that TGA is a phenotype in heterotaxia as well as the primary developmental defect of the AHF.

  7. Wound Dehiscence after Wisdom Tooth Removal in Mandibular Mesioangular Class IB Impactions: Triangular Transposition Flap versus Envelope Flap

    PubMed Central

    Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh; Ilkhani, Sina

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Wound dehiscence after lower third molar surgery extends the postoperative treatment period and may cause long-standing pain. The aim of this study was to compare wound dehiscence after removal of wisdom teeth in the most prevalent mandibular impaction (mesioangular class IB) by two different soft tissue flap designs. Materials and methods. Partially-erupted mandibular third molars with mesioangular class IB impaction (Pell and Gregory classification) were selected. Split mouth technique was used to compare the two flap designs (envelope vs. triangular transposition flap—TTF). The patients were recalled one week and a month later and rechecked for dehiscence, infection, and dry socket formation. Results. There were no cases of infection in either group. However, three cases of dry socket in the envelope group and four in the TTF group were recorded. In the envelope group, dehiscence occurred in 43% of cases during the first week, with 67% of cases being a large dehiscence (diameters of more than 5 mm). Extra appointments (those requested by the patient exclusively related to the problem of the hole distal to the second molar) were scheduled in 10% of cases in the envelope group. In the TTF group, dehiscence occurred during the first week for the same impaction in 19% of cases with large dehiscence cases occurring in 65% of cases and extra appointment rate at 4.1%. Conclusion. According to theresults in the evaluated operation, TTF may prevent postoperative wound dehiscence more probably than the envelope flap. PMID:26697150

  8. Mechanism responsible for D-transposition of the great arteries: Is this part of the spectrum of right isomerism?

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Yuji

    2016-09-01

    D-transposition of the great arteries (TGA) is one of the most common conotruncal heart defects at birth and is characterized by a discordant ventriculoarterial connection with a concordant atrioventricular connection. The morphological etiology of TGA is an inverted or arrested rotation of the heart outflow tract (OFT, conotruncus), by which the aorta is transposed in the right ventral direction to the pulmonary trunk. The rotational defect of the OFT is thought to be attributed to hypoplasia of the subpulmonic conus, which originates from the left anterior heart field (AHF) residing in the mesodermal core of the first and second pharyngeal arches. AHF, especially on the left, at the early looped heart stage (corresponding to Carnegie stage 10-11 in the human embryo) is one of the regions responsible for the impediment that causes TGA morphology. In human or experimentally produced right isomerism, malposition of the great arteries including D-TGA is frequently associated. Mutations in genes involving left-right (L-R) asymmetry, such as NODAL, ACTRIIB and downstream target FOXH1, have been found in patients with right isomerism as well as in isolated TGA. The downstream pathways of Nodal-Foxh1 play a critical role not only in L-R determination in the lateral plate mesoderm but also in myocardial specification and differentiation in the AHF, suggesting that TGA is a phenotype in heterotaxia as well as the primary developmental defect of the AHF. PMID:27329052

  9. Model surgery technique for Le Fort I osteotomy--alteration in occlusal plane associated with upward transposition of posterior maxilla.

    PubMed

    Yosano, Akira; Yamamoto, Masae; Shouno, Takahiro; Shiiki, Sayaka; Hamase, Maki; Kasahara, Kiyohiro; Takaki, Takashi; Takano, Nobuo; Uchiyama, Takeshi; Shibahara, Takahiko

    2005-08-01

    It is difficult to translate analytical values into accurate model surgery by traditional methods, especially when moving the posterior maxilla. This is because cephalometric radiographic analysis generated information on movement of the posterior nasal spine (PNS) can not be recreated in model surgery. Therefore, we propose a method that accurately reflects such analysis and simulation of movement using Quick Ceph 2000 (Orthodontic Processing Corporation, USA). This will allow the enrichment of model surgery prior to actual surgery in cases where upward movement of the posterior maxilla is involved. All patients who participated in this study had skeletal mandibular prognathism characterized by a small occlusal plane angle in respect to the S-N plane. Cephalometric radiographs were taken and analyzed with the Quick Ceph 2000. Pre- and post-surgical evaluations were performed using Sassouni arc analysis and Ricketts analysis. Prior to transposition, we then prepared an anterior occlusal bite record on a model mounted on an articulator. This bite was then used as a reference when the molar parts were to be transposed upwards. The use of a occlusal bite permitted an accurate translation of the preoperative computer simulation into model surgery, thus facilitating favorable surgical results.

  10. New Approaches to Rainfall and Flood Frequency Analysis Using High Resolution Radar Rainfall Fields and Stochastic Storm Transposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, D. B.; Smith, J. A.; Villarini, G.; Baeck, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    Conventional techniques for rainfall and flood frequency analysis in small watersheds involve a variety of assumptions regarding the spatial and temporal structure of extreme rainfall systems as well as how resulting runoff moves through the drainage network. These techniques were developed at a time when observational and computational resources were limited. They continue to be used in practice though their validity has not been fully examined. New observational and computational resources such as high-resolution radar rainfall estimates and distributed hydrologic models allow us to examine these assumptions and to develop alternative methods for estimating flood risk. We have developed a high-resolution (1 square km, 15-minute resolution) radar rainfall dataset for the 2001-2010 period using the Hydro-NEXRAD processing system, which has been bias corrected using a dense network of 71 rain gages in the Charlotte metropolitan area. The accuracy of the bias-corrected radar rainfall estimates compare favorably with rain gage measurements. The radar rainfall dataset is used in a stochastic storm transposition framework to estimate the frequency of extreme rainfall for urban watersheds ranging the point/radar pixel scale up to 240 square km, and can be combined with the Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) model to estimate flood frequency analysis. The results of these frequency analyses can be compared against the results of conventional methods such as the NOAA Atlas 14 precipitation frequency estimates and peak discharge estimates prepared by FEMA and the North Carolina state government.

  11. SoRT2: a tool for sorting genomes and reconstructing phylogenetic trees by reversals, generalized transpositions and translocations.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yen-Lin; Huang, Chen-Cheng; Tang, Chuan Yi; Lu, Chin Lung

    2010-07-01

    SoRT(2) is a web server that allows the user to perform genome rearrangement analysis involving reversals, generalized transpositions and translocations (including fusions and fissions), and infer phylogenetic trees of genomes being considered based on their pairwise genome rearrangement distances. It takes as input two or more linear/circular multi-chromosomal gene (or synteny block) orders in FASTA-like format. When the input is two genomes, SoRT(2) will quickly calculate their rearrangement distance, as well as a corresponding optimal scenario by highlighting the genes involved in each rearrangement operation. In the case of multiple genomes, SoRT(2) will also construct phylogenetic trees of these genomes based on a matrix of their pairwise rearrangement distances using distance-based approaches, such as neighbor-joining (NJ), unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) and Fitch-Margoliash (FM) methods. In addition, if the function of computing jackknife support values is selected, SoRT(2) will further perform the jackknife analysis to evaluate statistical reliability of the constructed NJ, UPGMA and FM trees. SoRT(2) is available online at http://bioalgorithm.life.nctu.edu.tw/SORT2/.

  12. Wound Dehiscence after Wisdom Tooth Removal in Mandibular Mesioangular Class IB Impactions: Triangular Transposition Flap versus Envelope Flap.

    PubMed

    Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh; Ilkhani, Sina

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Wound dehiscence after lower third molar surgery extends the postoperative treatment period and may cause long-standing pain. The aim of this study was to compare wound dehiscence after removal of wisdom teeth in the most prevalent mandibular impaction (mesioangular class IB) by two different soft tissue flap designs. Materials and methods. Partially-erupted mandibular third molars with mesioangular class IB impaction (Pell and Gregory classification) were selected. Split mouth technique was used to compare the two flap designs (envelope vs. triangular transposition flap-TTF). The patients were recalled one week and a month later and rechecked for dehiscence, infection, and dry socket formation. Results. There were no cases of infection in either group. However, three cases of dry socket in the envelope group and four in the TTF group were recorded. In the envelope group, dehiscence occurred in 43% of cases during the first week, with 67% of cases being a large dehiscence (diameters of more than 5 mm). Extra appointments (those requested by the patient exclusively related to the problem of the hole distal to the second molar) were scheduled in 10% of cases in the envelope group. In the TTF group, dehiscence occurred during the first week for the same impaction in 19% of cases with large dehiscence cases occurring in 65% of cases and extra appointment rate at 4.1%. Conclusion. According to theresults in the evaluated operation, TTF may prevent postoperative wound dehiscence more probably than the envelope flap.

  13. NASF transposition network: A computing network for unscrambling p-ordered vectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, R. S.

    1979-01-01

    The viewpoints of design, programming, and application of the transportation network (TN) is presented. The TN is a programmable combinational logic network that connects 521 memory modules to 512 processors. The unscrambling of p-ordered vectors to 1-ordered vectors in one cycle is described. The TN design is based upon the concept of cyclic groups from abstract algebra and primitive roots and indices from number theory. The programming of the TN is very simple, requiring only 20 bits: 10 bits for offset control and 10 bits for barrel switch shift control. This simple control is executed by the control unit (CU), not the processors. Any memory access by a processor must be coordinated with the CU and wait for all other processors to come to a synchronization point. These wait and synchronization events can be a degradation in performance to a computation. The TN application is for multidimensional data manipulation, matrix processing, and data sorting, and can also perform a perfect shuffle. Unlike other more complicated and powerful permutation networks, the TN cannot, if possible at all, unscramble non-p-ordered vectors in one cycle.

  14. Hybrid spread spectrum radio system

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Stephen F.; Dress, William B.

    2010-02-02

    Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method includes modulating a signal by utilizing a subset of bits from a pseudo-random code generator to control an amplification circuit that provides a gain to the signal. Another method includes: modulating a signal by utilizing a subset of bits from a pseudo-random code generator to control a fast hopping frequency synthesizer; and fast frequency hopping the signal with the fast hopping frequency synthesizer, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time.

  15. Cardiovascular response to exercise training in the systemic right ventricle of adults with transposition of the great arteries

    PubMed Central

    Shafer, K M; Janssen, L; Carrick-Ranson, G; Rahmani, S; Palmer, D; Fujimoto, N; Livingston, S; Matulevicius, S A; Forbess, L W; Brickner, B; Levine, B D

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to assess the haemodynamic effects of exercise training in transposition of the great arteries (TGA) patients with systemic right ventricles (SRVs). TGA patients have limited exercise tolerance and early mortality due to systemic (right) ventricular failure. Whether exercise training enhances or injures the SRV is unclear. Fourteen asymptomatic patients (34 ± 10 years) with TGA and SRV were enrolled in a 12 week exercise training programme (moderate and high-intensity workouts). Controls were matched on age, gender, BMI and physical activity. Exercise testing pre- and post- training included: (a) submaximal and peak; (b) prolonged (60 min) submaximal endurance and (c) high-intensity intervals. Oxygen uptake (; Douglas bag technique), cardiac output (, foreign-gas rebreathing), ventricular function (echocardiography and cardiac MRI) and serum biomarkers were assessed. TGA patients had lower peak , , and stroke volume (SV), a blunted / slope, and diminished SV response to exercise (SV increase from rest: TGA = 15.2%, controls = 68.9%, P < 0.001) compared with controls. After training, TGA patients increased peak by 6 ± 8.5%, similar to controls (interaction P = 0.24). The magnitude of SV reserve on initial testing correlated with training response (r = 0.58, P = 0.047), though overall, no change in peak was observed. High-sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT) and N-terminal prohormone of brain naturetic peptide (NT pro-BNP) were low and did not change with acute exercise or after training. Our data show that TGA patients with SRVs in this study safely participated in exercise training and improved peak . Neither prolonged submaximal exercise, nor high-intensity intervals, nor short-term exercise training seem to injure the systemic right ventricle. Key Points Patients with transposition of the great arteries (TGA) and systemic right ventricles have premature congestive heart failure; there is also a growing concern that athletes who perform

  16. The periodic table model of the gender transpositions: Part II. Limerent and lusty sexual attractions and the nature of bisexuality.

    PubMed

    Weinrich, J D

    1988-01-01

    I propose a theory that puts the notion of two sexual attractions into a precise, testable form, and then I mesh it with the periodic table model of the gender transpositions described previously (Pillard & Weinrich, 1987). I define a limerent sexual attraction, active in eroticizing the physical and personality characteristics of a particular Limerent Object, and a lusty sexual attraction, active in producing erotic arousal when encountering a new Lusty Object. Three hypotheses then account for much of what we know about sexual orientation: (a) Limerence and lustiness are experienced by both men and women-but there is an average difference in the ease with which each can be elicited in a particular sex. Limerence is experienced by most women in our culture as an autonomously arising desire, whereas lustiness, when it occurs, is experienced mostly as a reaction to particular stimuli. Lustiness is experienced by most men in our culture as an autonomously arising desire, whereas limerence, when it occurs, is experienced mostly in reaction to particular stimuli. (b) In some people the limerent attraction can be indifferent (or nearly so) to the sex or gender of the Limerent Object. (c) The lusty attraction is rarely indifferent to the sex or gender of the Lusty Object. Individuals may vary in their readiness to respond to the two kinds of attraction. Some of this variability can be understood in the light of the periodic table model described previously, and some of it can be understood in the light of cultural conditioning and socialization. The result is a theory that deduces many of the major facts about sexual orientation from only a small number of hypotheses.

  17. Contribution of the distal small intestine to metabolic improvement after bariatric/metabolic surgery: Lessons from ileal transposition surgery.

    PubMed

    Oh, Tae Jung; Ahn, Chang Ho; Cho, Young Min

    2016-04-01

    Roux-en Y gastric bypass is a highly effective bariatric/metabolic surgical procedure that can induce robust weight loss and even remission of type 2 diabetes. One of the characteristic consequences of Roux-en Y gastric bypass is the expedited nutrient delivery to the distal small intestine, where L-cells are abundant and bile acid reabsorption occurs. To examine the role of the distal small intestine in isolation from other components of Roux-en Y gastric bypass, the ileal transposition (IT) surgery has been used in various rat models. IT relocates the distal ileal segment to the upper jejunum distal to the ligament of Treitz without any other alterations in the gastrointestinal anatomy. Therefore, IT exposes the distal ileal tissue to ingested nutrients after a meal faster than the normal condition. Although there is some inconsistency in the effect of IT according to different types of rat models and different types of surgical protocols, IT typically improved glucose tolerance, increased insulin sensitivity and induced weight loss, and the findings were more prominent in obese diabetic rats. Suggested mechanisms for the metabolic improvements after IT include increased L-cell secretion (e.g., glucagon-like peptides and peptide YY), altered bile acid metabolism, altered host-microbial interaction, attenuated metabolic endotoxemia and many others. Based on the effect of IT, we can conclude that the contribution of the distal small intestine to the metabolic benefits of bariatric/metabolic surgery is quite considerable. By unveiling the mechanism of action of IT, we might revolutionize the treatment for obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  18. Mini-temporalis transposition: a less invasive procedure of smile restoration for long-standing incomplete facial paralysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Yang, Xianxian; Wang, Wei; Li, Qingfeng

    2015-03-01

    Facial paralysis is a common craniofacial deformity that is responsible for significant psychological and functional impairment. Free muscle transfer in 2 stages and latissimus dorsi transfer in one stage may be the most effective surgical procedure for achieving a symmetrical spontaneous smile for a patient with complete facial paralysis. However, these 2 procedures are unsuitable for many incomplete patients. The authors introduce a less invasive procedure, termed mini-temporalis transposition that is able to achieve a symmetrical spontaneous smile in incomplete patients. Through a zigzag incision into the temporal region, the middle third of the temporalis is transferred and elongated with the palmaris longus tendon or combined with the deep temporal fascia. The strips are anchored to key points at the modiolus and the middle of the ipsilateral orbicularis oris muscle through a small intraoral incision and subcutaneous tunnel. The key points are marked during preoperative smile analysis. This procedure was applied to 15 patients with long-standing incomplete facial paralysis. All patients obtained improvements in smile symmetry after the operation, and patients' satisfaction was high. In addition, no damage to residual facial nerve functions or development of procedure-induced complications (such as a facial contour defect, lip eversion or puckering, or skin tethering) was observed in any of the patients. Nevertheless, slight temporal hollowing was observed in 4 patients, and mild bulkiness over the zygomatic arch was a common observation. In summary, the mini-temporalis transfer technique is a safe and effective method of smile restoration for long-standing incomplete facial paralysis.

  19. Hemodynamic consequences of a restrictive ductus arteriosus and foramen ovale in fetal transposition of the great arteries.

    PubMed

    Talemal, L; Donofrio, M T

    2016-09-16

    D-transposition of the great arteries (D-TGA) is the most commonly diagnosed cyanotic congenital heart disease presenting in the neonatal period. The survival after an arterial switch operation, with freedom from adverse cardiovascular events, has been reported to be as high as 93% at 25 years. However, despite excellent surgical outcomes, there continues to be significant preoperative morbidity and potential mortality due to compromise in the delivery room from foramen ovale closure requiring urgent balloon atrial septostomy for stabilization in the first minutes of life. The prenatal diagnosis of D-TGA using fetal echocardiography has aided in the perinatal management and delivery planning of these infants, lowering preoperative morbidity and mortality and preventing delivery room compromise. Fetuses with D-TGA have more highly oxygenated blood supplying the pulmonary arteries and ductus arteriosus which likely results in ductal constriction and increased pulmonary blood flow. This may be the cause of foramen ovale restriction or closure in-utero, which then increases the risk for postnatal compromise at delivery. Theories regarding the cause of the abnormal pulmonary vasculature that may be seen in D-TGA, including aorto-pulmonary collateral formation, have been proposed but to our knowledge, observation of the ultrasound findings throughout mid and late gestation describing the progression of the abnormal fetal physiology have not been previously described. We present a case of D-TGA in which serial assessment using fetal echocardiography enabled observation of the in-utero progression of disease, predicting postnatal compromise and facilitating the planning of life-saving specialized delivery room care and intervention. PMID:27589547

  20. Hybrid microelectronic technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, P.

    Various areas of hybrid microelectronic technology are discussed. The topics addressed include: basic thick film processing, thick film pastes and substrates, add-on components and attachment methods, thin film processing, and design of thick film hybrid circuits. Also considered are: packaging hybrid circuits, automating the production of hybrid circuits, application of hybrid techniques, customer's view of hybrid technology, and quality control and assurance in hybrid circuit production.

  1. Module Configuration

    DOEpatents

    Oweis, Salah; D'Ussel, Louis; Chagnon, Guy; Zuhowski, Michael; Sack, Tim; Laucournet, Gaullume; Jackson, Edward J.

    2002-06-04

    A stand alone battery module including: (a) a mechanical configuration; (b) a thermal management configuration; (c) an electrical connection configuration; and (d) an electronics configuration. Such a module is fully interchangeable in a battery pack assembly, mechanically, from the thermal management point of view, and electrically. With the same hardware, the module can accommodate different cell sizes and, therefore, can easily have different capacities. The module structure is designed to accommodate the electronics monitoring, protection, and printed wiring assembly boards (PWAs), as well as to allow airflow through the module. A plurality of modules may easily be connected together to form a battery pack. The parts of the module are designed to facilitate their manufacture and assembly.

  2. Parabolic dish module experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-03-01

    A development test model of the 8-meter Solar Brayton Parabolic Dish Module has been designed, fabricated, and tested. The test model consists of five major subsystems: Sanders ceramic honeycomb solar receiver; LaJet LEC460 solar concentrator; AiRsearch SABC MKIIIA engine, Abacus 8 kW ac inverter; and a Sanders designed and built system controller. Goals of the tests were to integrate subsystem components into a working module, demonstrate the concept, and generate 5 kWe (hybrid) and 4.7 kWe (solar only) input. All subsystem integration goals were successfully achieved, but system performance efficiency was lower than expected. Contributing causes of the lower performance efficiencies have been identified. Modifications needed to restore performance to the required levels and improve the system life cycle cost have been addressed and are the subject of this final report.

  3. Stable local oscillator module.

    SciTech Connect

    Brocato, Robert Wesley

    2007-11-01

    This report gives a description of the development of a Stable Local Oscillator (StaLO) multi-chip module (MCM). It is a follow-on report to SAND2006-6414, Stable Local Oscillator Microcircuit. The StaLO accepts a 100MHz input signal and produces output signals at 1.2, 3.3, and 3.6 GHz. The circuit is built as a multi-chip module (MCM), since it makes use of integrated circuit technologies in silicon and lithium niobate as well as discrete passive components. This report describes the development of an MCM-based version of the complete StaLO, fabricated on an alumina thick film hybrid substrate.

  4. Evaluation of Right Ventricular Myocardial Mechanics using Velocity Vector Imaging of Cardiac MRI Cine Images in Transposition of the Great Arteries Following Atrial and Arterial Switch Operations

    PubMed Central

    Thattaliyath, Bijoy D.; Forsha, Daniel E.; Stewart, Chad; Barker, Piers C.A.; Campbell, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to determine right and left ventricle deformation parameters in patients with transposition of the great arteries who had undergone atrial or arterial switch procedures. Setting Patients with transposition are born with a systemic right ventricle. Historically, the atrial switch operation, in which the right ventricle remains the systemic ventricle, was performed. These patients have increased rates of morbidity and mortality. We used cardiac MRI with Velocity Vector Imaging analysis to characterize and compare ventricular myocardial deformation in patients who had an atrial switch or arterial switch operation. Design Patients with a history of these procedures, who had a clinically ordered cardiac MRI were included in the study. Consecutive 20 patients (75% males, 28.7±1.8 years) who underwent atrial switch operation and 20 patients (60% males, 17.7±1.9 years) who underwent arterial switch operation were included in the study. Four chamber and short-axis cine images were used to determine longitudinal and circumferential strain and strain rate using Vector Velocity Imaging software. Results Compared to the arterial switch group, the atrial switch group had decreased right ventricular ejection fraction and increased end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes; and no difference in left ventricular ejection fraction and volumes. The atrial switch group had decreased longitudinal and circumferential strain and strain rate. When compared to normal controls multiple strain parameters in the atrial switch group were reduced. Conclusions Myocardial deformation analysis of transposition patients reveals a reduction of right ventricular function and decreased longitudinal and circumferential strain parameters in patients with an atrial switch operation compared to those with arterial switch operation. A better understanding of the mechanisms of RV failure in TGA may lead to improved therapies and adaptation. PMID:25655213

  5. Excision Efficiency Is Not Strongly Coupled to Transgenic Rate: Cell Type-Dependent Transposition Efficiency of Sleeping Beauty and piggyBac DNA Transposons

    PubMed Central

    Kolacsek, Orsolya; Erdei, Zsuzsa; Apáti, Ágota; Sándor, Sára; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Ivics, Zoltán; Sarkadi, Balázs

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Sleeping Beauty (SB) and piggyBac (PB) DNA transposons represent an emerging new gene delivery technology, potentially suitable for human gene therapy applications. Previous studies pointed to important differences between these transposon systems, depending on the cell types examined and the methodologies applied. However, efficiencies cannot always be compared because of differences in applications. In addition, “overproduction inhibition,” a phenomenon believed to be a characteristic of DNA transposons, can remarkably reduce the overall transgenic rate, emphasizing the importance of transposase dose applied. Therefore, because of lack of comprehensive analysis, researchers are forced to optimize the technology for their own “in-house” platforms. In this study, we investigated the transposition of several SB (SB11, SB32, SB100X) and PB (mPB and hyPB) variants in various cell types at three levels: comparing the excision efficiency of the reaction by real-time PCR, testing the overall transgenic rate by detecting cells with stable integrations, and determining the average copy number when using different transposon systems and conditions. We concluded that high excision activity is not always followed by a higher transgenic rate, as exemplified by the hyperactive transposases, indicating that the excision and the integration steps of transposition are not strongly coupled as previously thought. In general, all levels of transposition show remarkable differences depending on the transposase used and cell lines examined, being the least efficient in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). In spite of the comparably low activity in those special cell types, the hyperactive SB100X and hyPB systems could be used in hESCs with similar transgenic efficiency and with reasonably low (2–3) transgene copy numbers, indicating their potential applicability for gene therapy purposes in the future. PMID:25045962

  6. Pulmonary Interstitial Glycogenosis: A Reversible Underlying Condition Associated With D-Transposition of the Great Arteries and Severe Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-de-Toledo, Joan; González-Peris, Sebastià; Gran, Ferran; Gregoraci, Angela; Ferreres, Joan Carles; Ruiz, Cèsar W; Balcells, Joan; Abella, Raul F

    2015-07-01

    Transposition of the great arteries with intact ventricular septum and persistent pulmonary hypertension (TGA-IVS PPHN) is a rare association with a poor prognosis. We report the case of a term newborn with TGA-IVS PPHN successfully managed with perioperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and aggressive pulmonary vasodilation therapy that underwent successful arterial switch procedure. A lung biopsy obtained during the surgical procedure showed pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis, a reversible condition. Concerns over left ventricle deconditioning after ECMO could be minimized with appropriate management and monitoring of the ductus arteriosus and appropriate timing of surgery.

  7. Hybrid E-Learning Acceptance Model: Learner Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Hassan M. Selim

    2010-01-01

    E-learning tools and technologies have been used to supplement conventional courses in higher education institutions creating a "hybrid" e-learning module that aims to enhance the learning experiences of students. Few studies have addressed the acceptance of hybrid e-learning by learners and the factors affecting the learners'…

  8. Integration Profile and Safety of an Adenovirus Hybrid-Vector Utilizing Hyperactive Sleeping Beauty Transposase for Somatic Integration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenli; Muck-Hausl, Martin; Wang, Jichang; Sun, Chuanbo; Gebbing, Maren; Miskey, Csaba; Ivics, Zoltan; Izsvak, Zsuzsanna; Ehrhardt, Anja

    2013-01-01

    We recently developed adenovirus/transposase hybrid-vectors utilizing the previously described hyperactive Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposase HSB5 for somatic integration and we could show stabilized transgene expression in mice and a canine model for hemophilia B. However, the safety profile of these hybrid-vectors with respect to vector dose and genotoxicity remains to be investigated. Herein, we evaluated this hybrid-vector system in C57Bl/6 mice with escalating vector dose settings. We found that in all mice which received the hyperactive SB transposase, transgene expression levels were stabilized in a dose-dependent manner and that the highest vector dose was accompanied by fatalities in mice. To analyze potential genotoxic side-effects due to somatic integration into host chromosomes, we performed a genome-wide integration site analysis using linker-mediated PCR (LM-PCR) and linear amplification-mediated PCR (LAM-PCR). Analysis of genomic DNA samples obtained from HSB5 treated female and male mice revealed a total of 1327 unique transposition events. Overall the chromosomal distribution pattern was close-to-random and we observed a random integration profile with respect to integration into gene and non-gene areas. Notably, when using the LM-PCR protocol, 27 extra-chromosomal integration events were identified, most likely caused by transposon excision and subsequent transposition into the delivered adenoviral vector genome. In total, this study provides a careful evaluation of the safety profile of adenovirus/Sleeping Beauty transposase hybrid-vectors. The obtained information will be useful when designing future preclinical studies utilizing hybrid-vectors in small and large animal models. PMID:24124483

  9. A recent transposition of river involving Paraná and São Francisco basins: effects on the genetic variability and structure of the neotropical fish Parauchenipterus galeatus (Siluriformes, Auchenipteridae).

    PubMed

    Lui, Roberto Laridondo; Blanco, Daniel Rodrigues; Margarido, Vladimir Pavan; Kuhn, Gustavo Campos E Silva; Gomes, Vivian Nunes; Prioli, Alberto José; Moreira-Filho, Orlando

    2012-10-01

    This study analyzed sequences of the control region of mitochondrial DNA (D-loop) in three populations of Parauchenipterus galeatus from the basins of the Paraná, São Francisco, and Piumhi rivers, of which the last river being a region that suffered transposition river. A fragment of 850 base pairs was obtained with a total of 65 polymorphic sites. The data discuss aspects related to the genetic distance between the populations through the phylogenetic reconstruction methods (neighbor-joining, maximum-likelihood, and Bayesian analysis). Moreover, the data suggest that the Piumhi River population (transposition region) has recently gone through a significant bottleneck effect, which must be directly related to the anthropic action that occurred in this region, since the drainage the old existing swamp was necessary for the construction of the transposition channel potentially leading this population in to the current lack of genetic diversity. PMID:22803711

  10. A recent transposition of river involving Paraná and São Francisco basins: effects on the genetic variability and structure of the neotropical fish Parauchenipterus galeatus (Siluriformes, Auchenipteridae).

    PubMed

    Lui, Roberto Laridondo; Blanco, Daniel Rodrigues; Margarido, Vladimir Pavan; Kuhn, Gustavo Campos E Silva; Gomes, Vivian Nunes; Prioli, Alberto José; Moreira-Filho, Orlando

    2012-10-01

    This study analyzed sequences of the control region of mitochondrial DNA (D-loop) in three populations of Parauchenipterus galeatus from the basins of the Paraná, São Francisco, and Piumhi rivers, of which the last river being a region that suffered transposition river. A fragment of 850 base pairs was obtained with a total of 65 polymorphic sites. The data discuss aspects related to the genetic distance between the populations through the phylogenetic reconstruction methods (neighbor-joining, maximum-likelihood, and Bayesian analysis). Moreover, the data suggest that the Piumhi River population (transposition region) has recently gone through a significant bottleneck effect, which must be directly related to the anthropic action that occurred in this region, since the drainage the old existing swamp was necessary for the construction of the transposition channel potentially leading this population in to the current lack of genetic diversity.

  11. Hybrid Gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  12. Electrically heated particulate filter regeneration methods and systems for hybrid vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.

    2010-10-12

    A control system for controlling regeneration of a particulate filter for a hybrid vehicle is provided. The system generally includes a regeneration module that controls current to the particulate filter to initiate regeneration. An engine control module controls operation of an engine of the hybrid vehicle based on the control of the current to the particulate filter.

  13. Change of Gene Structure and Function by Non-Homologous End-Joining, Homologous Recombination, and Transposition of DNA

    PubMed Central

    Goettel, Wolfgang; Messing, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    An important objective in genome research is to relate genome structure to gene function. Sequence comparisons among orthologous and paralogous genes and their allelic variants can reveal sequences of functional significance. Here, we describe a 379-kb region on chromosome 1 of maize that enables us to reconstruct chromosome breakage, transposition, non-homologous end-joining, and homologous recombination events. Such a high-density composition of various mechanisms in a small chromosomal interval exemplifies the evolution of gene regulation and allelic diversity in general. It also illustrates the evolutionary pace of changes in plants, where many of the above mechanisms are of somatic origin. In contrast to animals, somatic alterations can easily be transmitted through meiosis because the germline in plants is contiguous to somatic tissue, permitting the recovery of such chromosomal rearrangements. The analyzed region contains the P1-wr allele, a variant of the genetically well-defined p1 gene, which encodes a Myb-like transcriptional activator in maize. The P1-wr allele consists of eleven nearly perfect P1-wr 12-kb repeats that are arranged in a tandem head-to-tail array. Although a technical challenge to sequence such a structure by shotgun sequencing, we overcame this problem by subcloning each repeat and ordering them based on nucleotide variations. These polymorphisms were also critical for recombination and expression analysis in presence and absence of the trans-acting epigenetic factor Ufo1. Interestingly, chimeras of the p1 and p2 genes, p2/p1 and p1/p2, are framing the P1-wr cluster. Reconstruction of sequence amplification steps at the p locus showed the evolution from a single Myb-homolog to the multi-gene P1-wr cluster. It also demonstrates how non-homologous end-joining can create novel gene fusions. Comparisons to orthologous regions in sorghum and rice also indicate a greater instability of the maize genome, probably due to diploidization

  14. Change of gene structure and function by non-homologous end-joining, homologous recombination, and transposition of DNA.

    PubMed

    Goettel, Wolfgang; Messing, Joachim

    2009-06-01

    An important objective in genome research is to relate genome structure to gene function. Sequence comparisons among orthologous and paralogous genes and their allelic variants can reveal sequences of functional significance. Here, we describe a 379-kb region on chromosome 1 of maize that enables us to reconstruct chromosome breakage, transposition, non-homologous end-joining, and homologous recombination events. Such a high-density composition of various mechanisms in a small chromosomal interval exemplifies the evolution of gene regulation and allelic diversity in general. It also illustrates the evolutionary pace of changes in plants, where many of the above mechanisms are of somatic origin. In contrast to animals, somatic alterations can easily be transmitted through meiosis because the germline in plants is contiguous to somatic tissue, permitting the recovery of such chromosomal rearrangements. The analyzed region contains the P1-wr allele, a variant of the genetically well-defined p1 gene, which encodes a Myb-like transcriptional activator in maize. The P1-wr allele consists of eleven nearly perfect P1-wr 12-kb repeats that are arranged in a tandem head-to-tail array. Although a technical challenge to sequence such a structure by shotgun sequencing, we overcame this problem by subcloning each repeat and ordering them based on nucleotide variations. These polymorphisms were also critical for recombination and expression analysis in presence and absence of the trans-acting epigenetic factor Ufo1. Interestingly, chimeras of the p1 and p2 genes, p2/p1 and p1/p2, are framing the P1-wr cluster. Reconstruction of sequence amplification steps at the p locus showed the evolution from a single Myb-homolog to the multi-gene P1-wr cluster. It also demonstrates how non-homologous end-joining can create novel gene fusions. Comparisons to orthologous regions in sorghum and rice also indicate a greater instability of the maize genome, probably due to diploidization

  15. Hybrid Simulator

    2005-10-15

    HybSim (short for Hybrid Simulator) is a flexible, easy to use screening tool that allows the user to quanti the technical and economic benefits of installing a village hybrid generating system and simulates systems with any combination of —Diesel generator sets —Photovoltaic arrays -Wind Turbines and -Battery energy storage systems Most village systems (or small population sites such as villages, remote military bases, small communities, independent or isolated buildings or centers) depend on diesel generationmore » systems for their source of energy. HybSim allows the user to determine other "sources" of energy that can greatly reduce the dollar to kilo-watt hour ratio. Supported by the DOE, Energy Storage Program, HybSim was initially developed to help analyze the benefits of energy storage systems in Alaskan villages. Soon after its development, other sources of energy were added providing the user with a greater range of analysis opportunities and providing the village with potentially added savings. In addition to village systems, HybSim has generated interest for use from military institutions in energy provisions and USAID for international village analysis.« less

  16. The use of veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for perinatal support of an infant with d-transposition of the great arteries, intact atrial and ventricular septa, and flow-restricted ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kevin J; Lacey, Stephanie R; Schrum, Stefanie F; Freid, Eugene B; Collins, Steve V; Bouchard, Amy R; Burns, Scott E; Poulos, Nicholas D; Walsh, Danielle S; Ingyinn, Ma; Ettedgui, Jose A; Ceithaml, Eric L; Jerabek, Charles F; Herald, Tammy S; Castillo, Ramon A; Trogolo, Frank; Bleiweis, Mark S; Hudak, Mark L

    2014-05-15

    Prenatal assessment of a fetus with D-transposition of the great arteries demonstrated an absence of mixing between systemic and pulmonary circulations, and predicted lethal postnatal hypoxemia. A multidisciplinary meeting evaluated therapeutic options. After cesarean delivery, veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was instituted in preparation for open atrial septectomy. The infant subsequently underwent an arterial switch procedure. Prenatal delineation of pulmonary and systemic circulations in the fetus with D-transposition of the great arteries influences postnatal management. Multidisciplinary planning enhanced the perinatal outcome.

  17. A cis-encoded sRNA, Hfq and mRNA secondary structure act independently to suppress IS200 transposition

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Michael J.; Trussler, Ryan S.; Haniford, David B.

    2015-01-01

    IS200 is found throughout Enterobacteriaceae and transposes at a notoriously low frequency. In addition to the transposase protein (TnpA), IS200 encodes an uncharacterized Hfq-binding sRNA that is encoded opposite to the tnpA 5'UTR. In the current work we asked if this sRNA represses tnpA expression. We show here that the IS200 sRNA (named art200 for antisense regulator of transposase IS200) basepairs with tnpA to inhibit translation initiation. Unexpectedly, art200-tnpA pairing is limited to 40 bp, despite 90 nt of perfect complementarity. Additionally, we show that Hfq and RNA secondary structure in the tnpA 5'UTR each repress tnpA expression in an art200-independent manner. Finally, we show that disrupting translational control of tnpA expression leads to increased IS200 transposition in E. coli. The current work provides new mechanistic insight into why IS200 transposition is so strongly suppressed. The possibility of art200 acting in trans to regulate a yet-unidentified target is discussed as well as potential applications of the IS200 system for designing novel riboregulators. PMID:26044710

  18. Asymmetric distribution of the pulmonary blood flow between the right and left lungs in d-transposition of the great arteries.

    PubMed

    Muster, A J; Paul, M H; Van Grondelle, A; Conway, J J

    1976-09-01

    Pulmonary angiograms, radionuclide lung images and chest roentgenograms were evaluated regarding the incidence, magnitude and natural evolution of maldistribution of the pulmonary blood flow between the lungs in 63 patients with dextrotransposition of the great arteries. Approximately half of these patients had some degree of greater perfusion of the right relative to the left lung. A significant correlation was demonstrated between the incidence of this maldistribution of blood flow and the angulation between the main and the right pulmonary arteries. For any given angulation between these vessels, additional pulmonary stenosis increased the incidence of disparity in perfusion. Our observations suggest the following developmental mechanisms: The maldistribution in flow results from the abnormal rightward inclination of the main pulmonary artery in the transposition malformation which straightens the flow axis from the main to the right pulmonary artery. Under these circumstances the momentum of the blood in the main pulmonary artery carries the blood preferentially into the right pulmonary artery. This momentum is increased when there is stenosis of the left ventricular outflow tract. Consequent differences in the mechanical properties of the two pulmonary vascular beds can increase this maldistribution. The disparity in perfusion between the lungs is not present in newborns with d-transposition, appears to be progressive in severity and in time may result in almost complete cessation of effective perfusion of the left lung. The effect of the Mustard operation on this abnormality of flow is discussed. PMID:961610

  19. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass with ileal transposition – an alternative surgical treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus and gastroesophageal reflux

    PubMed Central

    Duzkoylu, Yigit; Deniz, Mehmet Mehdi; Boz, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Currently, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is considered as a gastrointestinal disease. Numerous studies have demonstrated that bariatric operations ameliorate T2DM significantly. The laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (L-RYGB) is considered as the gold standard procedure. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and impact of L-RYGB with ileal transposition (or interposition) on diabetes resolution in a patient who has not benefited from any medical therapy, with its additional effect on the amelioration of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The patient was a 38-year-old diabetic woman with uncontrolled blood glucose despite medical treatment, with additional gastroesophageal reflux disease. Following the procedure, her biochemical parameters and reflux symptoms improved significantly within 10 months. We think that L-RYGB with ileal transposition may be easily employed to gain a maximum effect in diabetics with adverse prognosis. This technique may be an alternative in the treatment of type 2 diabetic patients with gastroesophageal reflux. PMID:26649100

  20. Gypsy transposition correlates with the production of a retroviral envelope-like protein under the tissue-specific control of the Drosophila flamenco gene.

    PubMed

    Pélisson, A; Song, S U; Prud'homme, N; Smith, P A; Bucheton, A; Corces, V G

    1994-09-15

    Gypsy displays striking similarities to vertebrate retroviruses, including the presence of a yet uncharacterized additional open reading frame (ORF3) and the recent evidence for infectivity. It is mobilized with high frequency in the germline of the progeny of females homozygous for the flamenco permissive mutation. We report the characterization of a gypsy subgenomic ORF3 RNA encoding typical retroviral envelope proteins. In females, env expression is strongly repressed by one copy of the non-permissive allele of flamenco. A less dramatic reduction in the accumulation of other transcripts and retrotranscripts is also observed. These effects correlate well with the inhibition of gypsy transposition in the progeny of these females, and are therefore likely to be responsible for this phenomenon. The effects of flamenco on gypsy expression are apparently restricted to the somatic follicle cells that surround the maternal germline. Moreover, permissive follicle cells display a typically polarized distribution of gypsy RNAs and envelope proteins, both being mainly accumulated at the apical pole, close to the oocyte. We propose a model suggesting that gypsy germinal transposition might occur only in individuals that have maternally inherited enveloped gypsy particles due to infection of the maternal germline by the soma. PMID:7925283

  1. Transposition des gros vaisseaux associée aux communications interventriculaire et interauriculaire: à propos d'un cas et revue de la littérature

    PubMed Central

    Mutombo, Augustin Mulangu; Mukuku, Olivier; Lubala, Toni Kasole; Kabuya, Maguy Sangaji; Ilunga, Paul Makinko; Bugeme, Marcellin; Luboya, Oscar Numbi

    2013-01-01

    Nous rapportons une observation d'un nourrisson de 5 mois présentant une transposition des gros vaisseaux associée aux communications interventriculaire et interauriculaire. Il est né à terme sans aucun facteur de risque retrouvé dans les antécédents maternels. Le diagnostic est posé, grâce à une échocardiographie, à 5 mois après sa naissance lors de la survenue d'une cyanose et d'un malaise anoxique. Une prise en charge symptomatique a permis de stabiliser l’état du patient mais suite à l'absence d'un traitement chirurgical, il est décédé à domicile 3 semaines après sa sortie de l'hôpital. Dans les pays en développement, le diagnostic de la transposition des gros vaisseaux est souvent fait en période postnatale et son pronostic reste fatal par manque des centres médico-chirurgicaux spécialisés. PMID:24009800

  2. Thermally Stabilized Transmit/Receive Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, James; DelCastillo, Linda; Miller, Jennifer; Birur, Gaj

    2011-01-01

    RF-hybrid technologies enable smaller packaging and mass reduction in radar instruments, especially for subsystems with dense electronics, such as electronically steered arrays. We are designing thermally stabilized RF-hybrid T/R modules using new materials for improved thermal performance of electronics. We are combining advanced substrate and housing materials with a thermal reservoir material, and develop new packaging techniques to significantly improve thermal-cycling reliability and performance stability over temperature.

  3. Establishment of quality, reliability and design standards for low, medium, and high power microwave hybrid microcircuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, E. A.

    1973-01-01

    Quality, reliability, and design standards for microwave hybrid microcircuits were established. The MSFC Standard 85M03926 for hybrid microcircuits was reviewed and modifications were generated for use with microwave hybrid microcircuits. The results for reliability tests of microwave thin film capacitors, transistors, and microwave circuits are presented. Twenty-two microwave receivers were tested for 13,500 unit hours. The result of 111,121 module burn-in and operating hours for an integrated solid state transceiver module is reported.

  4. Hybridized tetraquarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, A.; Pilloni, A.; Polosa, A. D.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X , Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules but rather a manifestation of the interplay between the two. While meson molecules need a negative or zero binding energy, its counterpart for h-tetraquarks is required to be positive. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs0 π± channel by the D0 Collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb Collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X , Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X (5568) are also made.

  5. Making hybrids of two-hybrid systems.

    PubMed

    Dagher, M C; Filhol-Cochet, O

    1997-05-01

    Two-hybrid systems are powerful tools to find new partners for a protein of interest. However, exchange of material between two-hybrid users has been handicapped by the various versions of two-hybrid systems available and by the widely accepted idea that they are not compatible. In the present paper we show that, contrary to the dogma, the most often used two-hybrid systems may be combined by either transformation or mating assays. The protocol to be followed in each case is provided. This will greatly increase the prospects of the growing network of interacting proteins, by reconciling the "two-hybrid systems" and the "interaction trap".

  6. Modularity as a source of new morphological variation in the mandible of hybrid mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hybridization is often seen as a process dampening phenotypic differences accumulated between diverging evolutionary units. For a complex trait comprising several relatively independent modules, hybridization may however simply generate new phenotypes, by combining into a new mosaic modules inherited from each parental groups and parts intermediate with respect to the parental groups. We tested this hypothesis by studying mandible size and shape in a set of first and second generation hybrids resulting from inbred wild-derived laboratory strains documenting two subspecies of house mice, Musmusculus domesticus and Musmusculus musculus. Phenotypic variation of the mandible was divided into nested partitions of developmental, evolutionary and functional modules. Results The size and shape of the modules were differently influenced by hybridization. Some modules seemed to be the result of typical additive effects with hybrids intermediate between parents, some displayed a pattern expected in the case of monogenic dominance, whereas in other modules, hybrids were transgressive. The result is interpreted as the production of novel mandible morphologies. Beyond this modularity, modules in functional interaction tended to display significant covariations. Conclusions Modularity emerges as a source of novel morphological variation by its simple potential to combine different parts of the parental phenotypes into a novel offspring mosaic of modules. This effect is partly counterbalanced by bone remodeling insuring an integration of the mosaic mandible into a functional ensemble, adding a non-genetic component to the production of transgressive phenotypes in hybrids. PMID:22873779

  7. The Spectrum of Congenital Heart Disease with Transposition of the Great Arteries from the Cardiac Registry of the University of Padua

    PubMed Central

    Frescura, Carla; Thiene, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    Transposition of the great arteries (TGA) is a cardiac condition in which the arterial trunks arise from the inappropriate ventricle: the aorta from the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk from the left ventricle [discordant ventriculo-arterial (VA) connection]. In complete TGA, the discordant VA connection is associated with situs solitus or inversus and concordant atrioventricular (AV) connection. The hemodynamic consequence of these combined connections is that systemic and pulmonary circulations function in “parallel” rather than in “series”. The presence of situs solitus or inversus associated with both AV and VA discordant connections characterizes a different anatomical complex known as “corrected TGA.” In these hearts, the double discordance at AV and VA levels permits a normal sequence of the blood flow from the right atrium to the pulmonary artery and from the left atrium to the aorta. The systemic and pulmonary circulation in these hearts functions regularly in series, and the blood sequence is “physiologically corrected.” Thus, the term transposition, either complete or corrected, identifies two precise, different anatomical complexes, both characterized by VA discordance. However, among congenital heart disease (CHD), there are other anatomical complexes with discordant VA connection in the setting of isomeric atrial situs (right or left) or of univentricular AV connections (double inlet or absent connections). In these latter conditions, the term “transposition” is still necessary to stress that the great arteries are “transposed” in relation to the ventricular septum (aorta from the right ventricle and pulmonary trunk from the left ventricle) but certainly does not figure out the anatomical complexes named complete or corrected transposition. We reviewed the hearts with discordant VA connection of our Anatomical Collection, consisting of 1,640 specimens with CHD, with the aim to discuss the anatomy and the frequency of the

  8. Optical modulators with 2D layered materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhipei; Martinez, Amos; Wang, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Light modulation is an essential operation in photonics and optoelectronics. With existing and emerging technologies increasingly demanding compact, efficient, fast and broadband optical modulators, high-performance light modulation solutions are becoming indispensable. The recent realization that 2D layered materials could modulate light with superior performance has prompted intense research and significant advances, paving the way for realistic applications. In this Review, we cover the state of the art of optical modulators based on 2D materials, including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus. We discuss recent advances employing hybrid structures, such as 2D heterostructures, plasmonic structures, and silicon and fibre integrated structures. We also take a look at the future perspectives and discuss the potential of yet relatively unexplored mechanisms, such as magneto-optic and acousto-optic modulation.

  9. Hybrid mimics and hybrid vigor in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Greaves, Ian K.; Groszmann, Michael; Wu, Li Min; Dennis, Elizabeth S.; Peacock, W. James

    2015-01-01

    F1 hybrids can outperform their parents in yield and vegetative biomass, features of hybrid vigor that form the basis of the hybrid seed industry. The yield advantage of the F1 is lost in the F2 and subsequent generations. In Arabidopsis, from F2 plants that have a F1-like phenotype, we have by recurrent selection produced pure breeding F5/F6 lines, hybrid mimics, in which the characteristics of the F1 hybrid are stabilized. These hybrid mimic lines, like the F1 hybrid, have larger leaves than the parent plant, and the leaves have increased photosynthetic cell numbers, and in some lines, increased size of cells, suggesting an increased supply of photosynthate. A comparison of the differentially expressed genes in the F1 hybrid with those of eight hybrid mimic lines identified metabolic pathways altered in both; these pathways include down-regulation of defense response pathways and altered abiotic response pathways. F6 hybrid mimic lines are mostly homozygous at each locus in the genome and yet retain the large F1-like phenotype. Many alleles in the F6 plants, when they are homozygous, have expression levels different to the level in the parent. We consider this altered expression to be a consequence of transregulation of genes from one parent by genes from the other parent. Transregulation could also arise from epigenetic modifications in the F1. The pure breeding hybrid mimics have been valuable in probing the mechanisms of hybrid vigor and may also prove to be useful hybrid vigor equivalents in agriculture. PMID:26283378

  10. An IIR median hybrid filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Peter H.; Sartori, Michael A.; Bryden, Timothy M.

    1992-01-01

    A new class of nonlinear filters, the so-called class of multidirectional infinite impulse response median hybrid filters, is presented and analyzed. The input signal is processed twice using a linear shift-invariant infinite impulse response filtering module: once with normal causality and a second time with inverted causality. The final output of the MIMH filter is the median of the two-directional outputs and the original input signal. Thus, the MIMH filter is a concatenation of linear filtering and nonlinear filtering (a median filtering module). Because of this unique scheme, the MIMH filter possesses many desirable properties which are both proven and analyzed (including impulse removal, step preservation, and noise suppression). A comparison to other existing median type filters is also provided.

  11. Quantum photonics hybrid integration platform

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, E.; Floether, F. F.; Ellis, D. J. P.; Meany, T.; Bennett, A. J. Shields, A. J.; Lee, J. P.; Griffiths, J. P.; Jones, G. A. C.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.

    2015-10-26

    Fundamental to integrated photonic quantum computing is an on-chip method for routing and modulating quantum light emission. We demonstrate a hybrid integration platform consisting of arbitrarily designed waveguide circuits and single-photon sources. InAs quantum dots (QD) embedded in GaAs are bonded to a SiON waveguide chip such that the QD emission is coupled to the waveguide mode. The waveguides are SiON core embedded in a SiO{sub 2} cladding. A tuneable Mach Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulates the emission between two output ports and can act as a path-encoded qubit preparation device. The single-photon nature of the emission was verified using the on-chip MZI as a beamsplitter in a Hanbury Brown and Twiss measurement.

  12. Primary Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death in Adults with Transposition of the Great Arteries: A Review of Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Placement

    PubMed Central

    Cedars, Ari M.

    2015-01-01

    Transposition of the great arteries encompasses a set of structural congenital cardiac lesions that has in common ventriculoarterial discordance. Primarily because of advances in medical and surgical care, an increasing number of children born with this anomaly are surviving into adulthood. Depending upon the subtype of lesion or the particular corrective surgery that the patient might have undergone, this group of adult congenital heart disease patients constitutes a relatively new population with unique medical sequelae. Among the more common and difficult to manage are cardiac arrhythmias and other sequelae that can lead to sudden cardiac death. To date, the question of whether implantable cardioverter-defibrillators should be placed in this cohort as a preventive measure to abort sudden death has largely gone unanswered. Therefore, we review the available literature surrounding this issue. PMID:26413012

  13. [Dome shaped osteotomy combined with transposition of the ulnar nerve as a treatment for post-traumatic ulnar valgus in a pediatric patient].

    PubMed

    Pino-Almero, L; Mínguez-Rey, M F; Gomar-Sancho, F

    2015-01-01

    A sequel of supracondylar fractures of distal humerus in children is the angular deformity. It is usually more frequent cubitus varus, but there are reported cases of cubitus valgus. The latter may be the cause of the occurrence of a late ulnar nerve neuropathy, which will require treatment. There is controversy as to whether it is possible to successfully treat both problems at the same surgical procedure. This article describes the case of a girl of 11 years old, who has a cubitus valgus deformity secondary to supracondylar fracture of distal humerus of right elbow at the age of seven years, associated with progressive symptoms of ulnar nerve neuropathy. This patient was treated successfully by a single procedure for corrective dome-shaped supracondilar osteotomy associated with subcutaneous anterior transposition of the ulnar nerve through a posterior approach.

  14. Primary Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death in Adults with Transposition of the Great Arteries: A Review of Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Placement.

    PubMed

    Sodhi, Sandeep S; Cedars, Ari M

    2015-08-01

    Transposition of the great arteries encompasses a set of structural congenital cardiac lesions that has in common ventriculoarterial discordance. Primarily because of advances in medical and surgical care, an increasing number of children born with this anomaly are surviving into adulthood. Depending upon the subtype of lesion or the particular corrective surgery that the patient might have undergone, this group of adult congenital heart disease patients constitutes a relatively new population with unique medical sequelae. Among the more common and difficult to manage are cardiac arrhythmias and other sequelae that can lead to sudden cardiac death. To date, the question of whether implantable cardioverter-defibrillators should be placed in this cohort as a preventive measure to abort sudden death has largely gone unanswered. Therefore, we review the available literature surrounding this issue. PMID:26413012

  15. Coronary Events and Anatomy After Arterial Switch Operation for Transposition of the Great Arteries: Detection by 16-Row Multislice Computed Tomography Angiography in Pediatric Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Oztunc, Funda Baris, Safa; Adaletli, Ibrahim Onol, Nurper Onder Olgun, Deniz Cebi; Guezeltas, Alper Ozyilmaz, Isa Ozdil, Mine; Kurugoglu, Sebuh; Eroglu, Ayse Gueler

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of multislice computed tomographic (MSCT) angiography as a noninvasive method for detecting ostial, proximal, and middle segment coronary stenosis or occlusion and anatomy in patients with transposition of the great arteries who had undergone arterial switch operation (ASO). Sixteen-detector-row MSCT angiography was performed in 16 patients treated with ASO for transposition of the great arteries. The median age was 10.3 years (range, 6.2-16.3 years). Sixteen-detector-row MSCT angiography was performed in 16 patients who had undergone ASO. CT imaging was performed in the craniocaudal direction from 2 cm above the carina up to the heart basis. Noninvasive assessment of coronary artery stenosis and anatomy were investigated by MSCT angiography. Two patients were excluded from the study because of artifacts. Of 14 evaluated patients, 1 patient had ostial stenosis (7.1%). A coronary artery anatomy variant was present in six patients: left main artery (LMA) and right coronary artery (RCA) originating from the right sinus as a single orifice (n = 2); left circumflex artery (LCX) originating from the RCA (n = 1); LMA and RCA, after branching to the LCX, originating separately from the right sinus (n = 1); and LMA (n = 1) and left anterior descending artery (LADA; n = 1) originating directly from the right sinus. Intramural bridging in the LAD (n = 2) was detected. Five patients were normal. In conclusion, MSCT angiography, as a noninvasive, feasible technique for assessing coronary stenosis or occlusion and anatomy, can be used in the follow-up of patients who have undergone ASO.

  16. Persistent institutional difficulties in surgery for transposition of the great arteries in guatemala: analysis with the aristotle basic and comprehensive scores.

    PubMed

    Leon-Wyss, Juan; Lo Rito, Mauro; Barnoya, Joaquin; Castañeda, Aldo R

    2011-07-01

    Background. Neonates with complex congenital cardiac lesions are largely inadequately managed in Guatemala. Methods. Between 1997 and 2009, 79 patients who underwent operations for transposition of the great arteries were identified; 51 (63.3%) had an arterial switch operation (ASO) and 28 (36%) an atrial switch operation (ATSO). The Aristotle Basic Complexity score (ABC score) and the Aristotle Comprehensive Complexity score (ACC score) have been used to aid in the evaluation of quality of care associated with pediatric cardiac surgery by adjusting for operative complexity. Results. In-hospital mortality was 47% for the ASO and 25% for the ATSO group; 36.7% were beyond 1 month of age and many exhibited increased preoperative risk factors. The mean ABC score was 9.75 ± 0.89 and the ACC score was 12.12 ± 2.7, with a mean 2.36-point increase (P < .05). Comparing survivors and nonsurvivors with both scores, significant differences were identified (ABC: P < .04 and ACC: P < .02). Conclusion. During this 13-year period, a low volume of surgery for transposition of the great arteries (TGA) was performed at our institution with a relatively high surgical mortality. Many patients with TGA in Guatemala are either never referred for surgery or referred late. Strategies to improve outcomes for neonates with TGA in Guatemala must include increases in early diagnosis countrywide and prompt referral to our unit. Based on the larger number of neonates with TGA that would be referred to our center, we anticipate that this strategy should substantially improve surgical outcomes and favor overall team-related skills.

  17. Fabrication and optical properties of pyrene-Eu hybrid materials.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan-Xia; Xu, Bo; Ding, Xun-Lei; He, Sheng-Gui

    2013-02-01

    Lanthanide-containing organic-inorganic hybrid materials have drawn much attention in the research of materials with multifunctional and modulated optical properties. Here, large area pyrene-Eu hybrid nanostructures constructed of a large amount of nanowires are successfully fabricated through physical vapor codeposition method at low temperature (77 K). Further optical property characterizations indicate that the pyrene-Eu hybrid nanostructures exhibit enhanced green light emission under blue light excitation compared with other fabricated samples (pyrene nanostructures, Eu nanoparticles, and pyrene/Cu hybrid nanostructures). The results indicate the occurrence of an energy transfer process from the sensitizing pyrene nanostructures to Eu. Pyrene-Eu hybrid nanostructures with unique photoluminescence properties may have promising applications in phosphors, light-emitting device, and UV-vis photo sensor. The results also prove that the physical vapor codeposition method is an effective way for design of organic-inorganic hybrid materials with controllable and tunable optical properties.

  18. Hybrid Extrinsic Silicon Focal Plane Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommerrenig, D. H.; Meinhardt, T.; Lowe, J.

    1981-02-01

    Large-area focal planes require mechanical assembly techniques which must be compatible with optical alignment, minimum deadspace, and cryogenic requirements in order to achieve optimum performance. Hybrid extrinsic silicon has been found particularly suitable for such an application. It will be shown that by choosing a large-area extrinsic silicon detector array which is hybrid-mated to a multiplicity of multiplexers a very cost-effective and high-density focal plane module can be assembled. Other advantages of this approach are inherent optical alignment and excellent performance.

  19. Firefighting Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-01-01

    Aviation Power Supply's mobile firefighting module called Firefly II is mounted on a trailer pulled by a pickup truck. Trailer unit has two three- inch water cannons, and the pickup carries a six inch cannon. Completely self contained, module pumps 3,000 gallons of water a minute from hydrants or open bodies of water. Stream can go as far as 400 feet or can be employed in a high-loft mode to reach the tops of tall refinery towers. Compact Firefly II weighs only 2,500 pounds when fully fueled. Key component is a specially designed two stage pump. Power for the pump is generated by a gas turbine engine. Module also includes an electronic/pump controller, multiple hose connections, up to 1,500 feet of hose and fuel for four hours operation. Firefly trailer can be backed onto specially-built large fireboat.

  20. Firefighting Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-01-01

    Aviation Power Supply's mobile firefighting module called Firefly II is mounted on a trailer pulled by a pickup truck. Trailer unit has two three- inch water cannons, and the pickup carries a six inch cannon. Completely self contained, module pumps 3,000 gallons of water a minute from hydrants or open bodies of water. Stream can go as far as 400 feet or can be employed in a high-loft mode to reach the tops of tall refinery towers. Compact Firefly II weighs only 2,500 pounds when fully fueled. Key component is a specially designed two stage pump. Power for the pump is generated by a gas turbine engine. Module also includes an electronic/pump controller, multiple hose connections, up to 1,500 feet of hose and fuel for four hours operation. Firefly trailer can be backed onto specially-built large fireboat.

  1. Rugged microelectronic module package supports circuitry on heat sink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, A. L.

    1966-01-01

    Rugged module package for thin film hybrid microcircuits incorporated a rigid, thermally conductive support structure, which serves as a heat sink, and a lead wire block in which T-shaped electrical connectors are potted. It protects the circuitry from shock and vibration loads, dissipates internal heat, and simplifies electrical connections between adjacent modules.

  2. Thermionic modules

    DOEpatents

    King, Donald B.; Sadwick, Laurence P.; Wernsman, Bernard R.

    2002-06-18

    Modules of assembled microminiature thermionic converters (MTCs) having high energy-conversion efficiencies and variable operating temperatures manufactured using MEMS manufacturing techniques including chemical vapor deposition. The MTCs incorporate cathode to anode spacing of about 1 micron or less and use cathode and anode materials having work functions ranging from about 1 eV to about 3 eV. The MTCs also exhibit maximum efficiencies of just under 30%, and thousands of the devices and modules can be fabricated at modest costs.

  3. Hybridization and hybrid speciation under global change.

    PubMed

    Vallejo-Marín, Mario; Hiscock, Simon J

    2016-09-01

    Contents 1170 I. 1170 II. 1172 III. 1175 IV. 1180 V. 1183 1184 References 1184 SUMMARY: An unintended consequence of global change is an increase in opportunities for hybridization among previously isolated lineages. Here we illustrate how global change can facilitate the breakdown of reproductive barriers and the formation of hybrids, drawing on the flora of the British Isles for insight. Although global change may ameliorate some of the barriers preventing hybrid establishment, for example by providing new ecological niches for hybrids, it will have limited effects on environment-independent post-zygotic barriers. For example, genic incompatibilities and differences in chromosome numbers and structure within hybrid genomes are unlikely to be affected by global change. We thus speculate that global change will have a larger effect on eroding pre-zygotic barriers (eco-geographical isolation and phenology) than post-zygotic barriers, shifting the relative importance of these two classes of reproductive barriers from what is usually seen in naturally produced hybrids where pre-zygotic barriers are the largest contributors to reproductive isolation. Although the long-term fate of neo-hybrids is still to be determined, the massive impact of global change on the dynamics and distribution of biodiversity generates an unprecedented opportunity to study large numbers of unpredicted, and often replicated, hybridization 'experiments', allowing us to peer into the birth and death of evolutionary lineages. PMID:27214560

  4. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The introgression of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals 40,000 YBP after a half-million years of separation, may have led to the best example of a hybrid swarm on earth. Modern trade and transportation in support of the human hybrids has continued to introduce additional species, genotyp...

  5. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    DOEpatents

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  6. Hybrid quantum information processing

    SciTech Connect

    Furusawa, Akira

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  7. Hybrid armature projectile

    DOEpatents

    Hawke, R.S.; Asay, J.R.; Hall, C.A.; Konrad, C.H.; Sauve, G.L.; Shahinpoor, M.; Susoeff, A.R.

    1993-03-02

    A projectile for a railgun that uses a hybrid armature and provides a seed block around part of the outer surface of the projectile to seed the hybrid plasma brush. In addition, the hybrid armature is continuously vaporized to replenish plasma in a plasma armature to provide a tandem armature and provides a unique ridge and groove to reduce plasma blowby.

  8. Hybrid armature projectile

    DOEpatents

    Hawke, Ronald S.; Asay, James R.; Hall, Clint A.; Konrad, Carl H.; Sauve, Gerald L.; Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Susoeff, Allan R.

    1993-01-01

    A projectile for a railgun that uses a hybrid armature and provides a seed block around part of the outer surface of the projectile to seed the hybrid plasma brush. In addition, the hybrid armature is continuously vaporized to replenish plasma in a plasma armature to provide a tandem armature and provides a unique ridge and groove to reduce plasama blowby.

  9. Hybrid quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furusawa, Akira

    2014-12-01

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  10. Homoploid hybrid expectations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Homoploid hybrid speciation occurs when a stable, fertile, and reproductively isolated lineage results from hybridization between two distinct species without a change in ploidy level. Reproductive isolation between a homoploid hybrid species and its parents is generally attained via chromosomal re...

  11. Hybrid optical antennas with photonic resistors.

    PubMed

    Butakov, N A; Schuller, J A

    2015-11-16

    Hybrid optical antennas, comprising active materials placed in the gaps of plasmonic split-ring-resonators and nano-dimers, have been the subject of numerous recent investigations. Engineered coupling between the two plasmonic resonators is achieved by modulating the active material, enabling control over the near- and far-field electromagnetic properties. Here, using electromagnetics calculations, we study the evolving optical response of a hybrid metal-semiconductor-metal nanorod antenna as the semiconductor free charge carrier density is continuously varied. In particular, we demonstrate qualitatively new behavior arising from epsilon-near-zero properties in intermediately doped semiconductors. In agreement with optical nano-circuit theory, we show that in the epsilon-near-zero regime such a load acts as an ideal optical resistor with an optimized damping response and strongly suppressed electromagnetic scattering. In periodic arrays, or metasurfaces, we then show how to use these effects to construct high-efficiency nanophotonic intensity modulators for dynamically shaping light.

  12. Hybrid compounds: from simple combinations to nanomachines.

    PubMed

    Müller-Schiffmann, Andreas; Sticht, Heinrich; Korth, Carsten

    2012-02-01

    The combination of two different and independently acting compounds into one covalently linked hybrid compound can convey synergy from the effects of both independently acting moieties to the new composite compound, leading to a pharmacological potency greater than the sum of each individual moiety's potencies. Here, we review a variety of such hybrid compounds, which can consist of various functional parts, molecular recognition or subcellular targeting moieties, or combinations thereof, acting either simultaneously or sequentially. Such moieties within a hybrid compound can consist of a variety of substance classes, including small organic molecules, polypeptides or nucleic acids identified either via rational molecular design or selection from libraries. Precedent for hybrid compounds comes from naturally occurring proteins and small molecules, such as botulinum toxin and bleomycin, which are secreted by micro-organisms. We review the high degree of suitability of hybrid compounds for the treatment of multifactorial diseases by simultaneously hitting several targets along an identified disease pathway. Examples are hybrid compounds against Alzheimer's disease, against the cancer-relevant phosphoinisitide-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and epidermal growth factor signaling cascade, or in antimalarial therapy via simultaneous hitting of different mechanisms of hemozoin formation. Molecular recognition by peptides or aptamers (recognition-specific RNA or peptide sequences) can be combined with the transport of small molecule β-sheet breakers or toxins, or targeting to ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. The vision of molecular nanomachines is currently realized in sequentially acting modular nanotransporters, consisting of four modules including a target, a membrane and nuclear translocation sequence, as well as a drug attachment domain. Through the rational combination of existing drugs and the synergy of their effects, a rapid

  13. Breast Cancer Recognition Using a Novel Hybrid Intelligent Method

    PubMed Central

    Addeh, Jalil; Ebrahimzadeh, Ata

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second largest cause of cancer deaths among women. At the same time, it is also among the most curable cancer types if it can be diagnosed early. This paper presents a novel hybrid intelligent method for recognition of breast cancer tumors. The proposed method includes three main modules: the feature extraction module, the classifier module, and the optimization module. In the feature extraction module, fuzzy features are proposed as the efficient characteristic of the patterns. In the classifier module, because of the promising generalization capability of support vector machines (SVM), a SVM-based classifier is proposed. In support vector machine training, the hyperparameters have very important roles for its recognition accuracy. Therefore, in the optimization module, the bees algorithm (BA) is proposed for selecting appropriate parameters of the classifier. The proposed system is tested on Wisconsin Breast Cancer database and simulation results show that the recommended system has a high accuracy. PMID:23626945

  14. Firefighting Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-01-01

    Firefly II pump module is NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's commercial offshoot of a NASA/US Coast Guard program involving development of a lightweight, helicopter-transportable firefighting module for a quick response in combating shipboard or harbor fires. Operable on land or water, the Amphib One is equipped with 3 water cannons. When all 3 are operating, unit pumps more than 3,000 gallons a minute. Newly developed model used by U.S. Coast Guard can pump 5,000 gallons per minute. It was designed for applications such as firefighting onboard ship fires, emergency dockside water pumping, dewatering ships in danger of sinking, flood control, and emergency water supply at remote locations.

  15. The hydrogen hybrid option

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.

    1993-10-15

    The energy efficiency of various piston engine options for series hybrid automobiles are compared with conventional, battery powered electric, and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell hybrid automobiles. Gasoline, compressed natural gas (CNG), and hydrogen are considered for these hybrids. The engine and fuel comparisons are done on a basis of equal vehicle weight, drag, and rolling resistance. The relative emissions of these various fueled vehicle options are also presented. It is concluded that a highly optimized, hydrogen fueled, piston engine, series electric hybrid automobile will have efficiency comparable to a similar fuel cell hybrid automobile and will have fewer total emissions than the battery powered vehicle, even without a catalyst.

  16. Thermoelectric module

    DOEpatents

    Kortier, William E.; Mueller, John J.; Eggers, Philip E.

    1980-07-08

    A thermoelectric module containing lead telluride as the thermoelectric mrial is encapsulated as tightly as possible in a stainless steel canister to provide minimum void volume in the canister. The lead telluride thermoelectric elements are pressure-contacted to a tungsten hot strap and metallurgically bonded at the cold junction to iron shoes with a barrier layer of tin telluride between the iron shoe and the p-type lead telluride element.

  17. Linear modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A study of frequency division multiplexing (FDM) systems was made for the purpose of determining the system performance that can be obtained with available state of the art components. System performance was evaluated on the basis of past experience, system analysis, and component evaluation. The system study was specifically directed to the area of FDM systems using subcarrier channel frequencies from 4 kHz to 200 kHz and channel information bandwidths of dc to 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 kHz. The evaluation also assumes that the demodulation will be from a tape recorder which produces frequency modulation of + or - 1% on the signal due to the tape recorder wow and flutter. For the modulation system it is assumed that the pilot and carrier channel frequencies are stable to within + or - .005% and that the FM on the channel carriers is negligible. The modulator system was evaluated for the temperature range of -20 degree to +85 degree while the demodulator system was evaluated for operation at room temperature.

  18. Hybridization and extinction.

    PubMed

    Todesco, Marco; Pascual, Mariana A; Owens, Gregory L; Ostevik, Katherine L; Moyers, Brook T; Hübner, Sariel; Heredia, Sylvia M; Hahn, Min A; Caseys, Celine; Bock, Dan G; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2016-08-01

    Hybridization may drive rare taxa to extinction through genetic swamping, where the rare form is replaced by hybrids, or by demographic swamping, where population growth rates are reduced due to the wasteful production of maladaptive hybrids. Conversely, hybridization may rescue the viability of small, inbred populations. Understanding the factors that contribute to destructive versus constructive outcomes of hybridization is key to managing conservation concerns. Here, we survey the literature for studies of hybridization and extinction to identify the ecological, evolutionary, and genetic factors that critically affect extinction risk through hybridization. We find that while extinction risk is highly situation dependent, genetic swamping is much more frequent than demographic swamping. In addition, human involvement is associated with increased risk and high reproductive isolation with reduced risk. Although climate change is predicted to increase the risk of hybridization-induced extinction, we find little empirical support for this prediction. Similarly, theoretical and experimental studies imply that genetic rescue through hybridization may be equally or more probable than demographic swamping, but our literature survey failed to support this claim. We conclude that halting the introduction of hybridization-prone exotics and restoring mature and diverse habitats that are resistant to hybrid establishment should be management priorities. PMID:27468307

  19. Hybrid Inflatable Pressure Vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raboin, Jasen; Valle, Gerard D.; Edeen, Gregg; DeLaFuente, Horacio M.; Schneider, William C.; Spexarth, Gary R.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Pandya, Shalini

    2004-01-01

    Figure 1 shows a prototype of a large pressure vessel under development for eventual use as a habitable module for long spaceflight (e.g., for transporting humans to Mars). The vessel is a hybrid that comprises an inflatable shell attached to a rigid central structural core. The inflatable shell is, itself, a hybrid that comprises (1) a pressure bladder restrained against expansion by (2) a web of straps made from high-strength polymeric fabrics. On Earth, pressure vessels like this could be used, for example, as portable habitats that could be set up quickly in remote locations, portable hyperbaric chambers for treatment of decompression sickness, or flotation devices for offshore platforms. In addition, some aspects of the design of the fabric straps could be adapted to such other items as lifting straps, parachute straps, and automotive safety belts. Figure 2 depicts selected aspects of the design of a vessel of this type with a toroidal configuration. The bladder serves as an impermeable layer to keep air within the pressure vessel and, for this purpose, is sealed to the central structural core. The web includes longitudinal and circumferential straps. To help maintain the proper shape upon inflation after storage, longitudinal and circumferential straps are indexed together at several of their intersections. Because the web is not required to provide a pressure seal and the bladder is not required to sustain structural loads, the bladder and the web can be optimized for their respective functions. Thus, the bladder can be sealed directly to the rigid core without having to include the web in the seal substructure, and the web can be designed for strength. The ends of the longitudinal straps are attached to the ends of the rigid structural core by means of clevises. Each clevis pin is surrounded by a roller, around which a longitudinal strap is wrapped to form a lap seam with itself. The roller is of a large diameter chosen to reduce bending of the fibers in

  20. Coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, Bradly J.; Guenther, David C.

    2008-08-26

    An apparatus and corresponding method for coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging of a target, where an energy source is used to generate a propagating electromagnetic beam, an electromagnetic beam splitting means to split the beam into two or more coherently matched beams of about equal amplitude, and where the spatial and temporal self-coherence between each two or more coherently matched beams is preserved. Two or more differential modulation means are employed to modulate each two or more coherently matched beams with a time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, and amplitude signal. An electromagnetic beam combining means is used to coherently combine said two or more coherently matched beams into a coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more electromagnetic beam controlling means are used for collimating, guiding, or focusing the coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more apertures are used for transmitting and receiving the coherent electromagnetic beam to and from the target. A receiver is used that is capable of square-law detection of the coherent electromagnetic beam. A waveform generator is used that is capable of generation and control of time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, or amplitude modulation waveforms and sequences. A means of synchronizing time varying waveform is used between the energy source and the receiver. Finally, a means of displaying the images created by the interaction of the coherent electromagnetic beam with target is employed.

  1. Main memory unit. [hybrid computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The development of a main memory unit (MMU) for the space ultrareliable module computer (SUMC) model HTC is discussed. The design, fabrication, and test of basic memory modules (BMM) which were to be used in the design and construction of the MMU are described. The BMM was designed from state-of-the-art technologies which included large scale integration devices mounted and interconnected on a substrate to form a functional module to be utilized in the MMU development. A SUMC memory system design study is discussed which addressed itself to the BMM design and analysis to be conducted to determine the most efficient organization of the BMM in order to establish such modularity features as: word length expandability without redesign, high reliability, and fault tolerance. One MMU was designed, fabricated, tested, and delivered which will be electrical and mechanically compatible with the hybrid technology computer (HTC) model of the SUMC family of computers. The MMU will contain a storage capacity of 8196 36 bit words which includes a parity bit for each 8 bit byte of data.

  2. Hybrid lidar radar receiver for underwater imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seetamraju, Madhavi; Gurjar, Rajan; Squillante, Michael; Derderian, Jeffrey P.

    2009-05-01

    In this work, we present research performed to improve the receiver characteristics for underwater imaging applications using the hybrid lidar-radar detection technique. We report the development of the next-generation coherent heterodyne receiver using modulation of the optical receiver's amplifier gain. Significant advantages in the receiver specifications are achieved using a large-area, high gain, low-noise silicon avalanche photodiode (APD) as the photodetector cum frequency mixer-demodulator. We demonstrate that heterodyne detection by gain modulation of APD can be used to increase the signal-to-noise ratio, detection sensitivity and bandwidth for the hybrid receiver system.

  3. Photovoltaic module and module arrays

    DOEpatents

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Lenox, Carl J. S.; Culligan, Matthew; Danning, Matt

    2013-08-27

    A photovoltaic (PV) module including a PV device and a frame, The PV device has a PV laminate defining a perimeter and a major plane. The frame is assembled to and encases the laminate perimeter, and includes leading, trailing, and side frame members, and an arm that forms a support face opposite the laminate. The support face is adapted for placement against a horizontal installation surface, to support and orient the laminate in a non-parallel or tilted arrangement. Upon final assembly, the laminate and the frame combine to define a unitary structure. The frame can orient the laminate at an angle in the range of 3.degree.-7.degree. from horizontal, and can be entirely formed of a polymeric material. Optionally, the arm incorporates integral feature(s) that facilitate interconnection with corresponding features of a second, identically formed PV module.

  4. Photovoltaic module and module arrays

    DOEpatents

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Lenox, Carl J. S.; Culligan, Matthew; Danning, Matt

    2012-07-17

    A photovoltaic (PV) module including a PV device and a frame. The PV device has a PV laminate defining a perimeter and a major plane. The frame is assembled to and encases the laminate perimeter, and includes leading, trailing, and side frame members, and an arm that forms a support face opposite the laminate. The support face is adapted for placement against a horizontal installation surface, to support and orient the laminate in a non-parallel or tilted arrangement. Upon final assembly, the laminate and the frame combine to define a unitary structure. The frame can orient the laminate at an angle in the range of 3.degree.-7.degree. from horizontal, and can be entirely formed of a polymeric material. Optionally, the arm incorporates integral feature(s) that facilitate interconnection with corresponding features of a second, identically formed PV module.

  5. Hybrid Band effects program (Lockheed Martin shared vision CRADA)

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, L. D.

    2012-03-01

    Hybrid Band{trademark} (H-band) is a Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control (LMMFC) designation for a specific RF modulation that causes disruption of select electronic components and circuits. H-Band enables conventional high-power microwave (HPM) effects (with a center frequency of 1 to 2 GHz, for example) using a higher frequency carrier signal. The primary technical objective of this project was to understand the fundamental physics of Hybrid Band{trademark} Radio Frequency effects on electronic systems. The follow-on objective was to develop and validate a Hybrid Band{trademark} effects analysis process.

  6. Manifold electronic structure transition of hybrid silicane-silicene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guihua; Tan, Jie; Liu, Xiangdong; Wang, Xiaopeng; Li, Feng; Zhao, Mingwen

    2014-03-01

    The intriguing electronic and magnetic properties of silicane and hybrid silicane-silicene nanoribbons are investigated by means of first-principles calculations. Both armchair and zigzag silicane nanoribbons are nonmagnetic semiconductors. Meanwhile, the band gap of armchair hybrid silicane-silicene nanoribbons without spin-split, which is mainly determined by the silicene part, can be separated into three different families. The energy gap of the zigzag counterparts depends on the hydrogenation of the zigzag silicon chain at the silicane-silicene interface. Thus, controlling the hydrogenation ratio along the ribbon width can provide a basis for modulating the electronic and magnetic properties of the zigzag hybrid nanoribbons.

  7. Real-time hybrid computer simulation of a small turboshaft engine and control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, C. E.; Wenzel, L. M.

    1984-01-01

    The development of an analytical model of a small turboshaft engine designed for helicopter propulsion systems is described. The model equations were implemented on a hybrid computer system to provide a real time nonlinear simulation of the engine performance over a wide operating range. The real time hybrid simulation of the engine was used to evaluate a microprocessor based digital control module. This digital control module was developed as part of an advanced rotorcraft control program. After tests with the hybrid engine simulation the digital control module was used to control a real engine in an experimental program. A hybrid simulation of the engine's electrical hydromechanical control system was developed. This allowed to vary the fuel flow and torque load inputs to the hybrid engine simulation for simulating transient operation. A steady-state data and the experimental tests are compared. Analytical model equations, analog computer diagrams, and a digital computer flow chart are included.

  8. Genetic Algorithm Optimization of a Cost Competitive Hybrid Rocket Booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Story, George

    2015-01-01

    Performance, reliability and cost have always been drivers in the rocket business. Hybrid rockets have been late entries into the launch business due to substantial early development work on liquid rockets and solid rockets. Slowly the technology readiness level of hybrids has been increasing due to various large scale testing and flight tests of hybrid rockets. One remaining issue is the cost of hybrids versus the existing launch propulsion systems. This paper will review the known state-of-the-art hybrid development work to date and incorporate it into a genetic algorithm to optimize the configuration based on various parameters. A cost module will be incorporated to the code based on the weights of the components. The design will be optimized on meeting the performance requirements at the lowest cost.

  9. Genetic Algorithm Optimization of a Cost Competitive Hybrid Rocket Booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Story, George

    2014-01-01

    Performance, reliability and cost have always been drivers in the rocket business. Hybrid rockets have been late entries into the launch business due to substantial early development work on liquid rockets and later on solid rockets. Slowly the technology readiness level of hybrids has been increasing due to various large scale testing and flight tests of hybrid rockets. A remaining issue is the cost of hybrids vs the existing launch propulsion systems. This paper will review the known state of the art hybrid development work to date and incorporate it into a genetic algorithm to optimize the configuration based on various parameters. A cost module will be incorporated to the code based on the weights of the components. The design will be optimized on meeting the performance requirements at the lowest cost.

  10. Stabilization of concentration fluctuations in mixed membranes by hybrid lipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmieri, Benoit; Safran, Samuel

    2012-02-01

    Finite-size domains have been observed at the surface of cells. These lipids ``rafts'' are stable nanodomains enriched in saturated lipids and cholesterol. While line tension favors macrodomains, one explanation for raft stabilization suggests that the membrane composition is tuned close to a spinodal temperature. From this point of view, rafts are long-lived concentration fluctuations in the mixed phase. We propose a ternary mixture model for the cell membrane that includes hybrid lipids which have one saturated and one unsaturated hydrocarbon chain. Finite amount of hybrid lipids reduces the packing incompatibility at the saturated/unsaturated lipid interface and stabilizes the concentration fluctuations. Hybrid-Hybrid interactions are included in the model and further increase the life-time of the rafts and decrease their length-scales. Moreover, the hybrid has extra orientational degrees of freedom that may lead to modulated phases.

  11. [Integration and intramolecular transposition of the TnBP3 Bordetella pertussis transposon in the Escherichia coli K-12 cells -- mutant for the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system Hpr protein ].

    PubMed

    Sivov, I G; Bol'shakova, T N; Karataev, G I

    2001-07-01

    Integration of a plasmid carrying the TnBP3 transposon of Bordetella pertussis into the chromosome of Escherichia coli and transpositions of the integrated structure within a chromosome in the wild-type and mutant cells ptsH devoid of the major Hpr protein of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system were studied. When transposed to a new chromosome site, the integrated structure was precisely (or almost precisely) excised from the metY gene sequence, which resulted in restoration of the Met+ phenotype. The integration and transposition events were only observed in the E. coli cells carrying the ptsH+ allele. The ptsH mutations inhibited integration and intramolecular transposition, which were restored after phenotypic or genetic suppression of the ptsH mutation. The intensity of the processes studied were suggested to depend on the integrity of a chain that ensures transferring of the phosphoryl residue by proteins of the phosphotransferase system in E. coli K12. The results obtained indicate that the ptsH mutants of E. coli can serve as the optimal host for cloning of fragments carrying repeated sequences of B. pertussis, which may apply to the repeated sequences of other microorganisms.

  12. Vaccine engineering improved by hybrid technology.

    PubMed

    Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2004-08-01

    The term 'vaccination' describes the induction of protective immune responses against infectious diseases, but is also used to define antigen-specific forms of immunotherapy for allergy, cancer and autoimmunity. Successful vaccination requires either immune modulation or the induction of robust specific immunity to several disease-causing antigens. However, natural antigen sources may contain greatly varying amounts of these antigens and some of them may exhibit low immunogenicity. An approach for overcoming the latter problems has been developed for allergy vaccines recently. This approach is based on the genetic engineering of hybrid molecules, consisting of several major disease-eliciting antigens/epitopes. Such hybrid molecules can be built to include the most relevant epitopes of complex antigen sources. Moreover, fusion of different antigens in the form of hybrid molecules strongly increases their immunogenicity. The hybrid approach can also be used for the generation of mosaic antigens with altered immunological properties, which consist of re-shuffled antigen pieces. We exemplify the use of hybrid technology for the generation of new allergy vaccines and discuss its potential applicability for the development of vaccines for infectious diseases, cancer and autoimmunity.

  13. Adolescents with d-Transposition of the Great Arteries Corrected with the Arterial Switch Procedure: Neuropsychological Assessment and Structural Brain Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bellinger, David C.; Wypij, David; Rivkin, Michael J.; DeMaso, David R.; Robertson, Richard L.; Dunbar-Masterson, Carolyn; Rappaport, Leonard A.; Wernovsky, Gil; Jonas, Richard A.; Newburger, Jane W.

    2011-01-01

    Background We report on neuropsychological and structural brain imaging assessments at age 16 years in children with d-transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA) who underwent the arterial switch operation (ASO) as infants. Children were randomly assigned to a vital organ support method, deep hypothermia with either total circulatory arrest or continuous low-flow cardiopulmonary bypass. Methods and Results Of 159 eligible adolescents, 139 (87%) participated. Academic achievement, memory, executive functions, visual-spatial skills, attention, and social cognition were assessed. Few significant treatment group differences were found. The occurrence of seizures in the post-operative period was the medical variable most consistently related to worse outcomes. The scores of both treatment groups tended to be lower than those of the test normative populations, with substantial proportions scoring 1 or more standard deviations below the expected mean. Although the test scores of most adolescents in this trial cohort are in the average range, a substantial proportion has received remedial academic or behavioral services (65%). MRI abnormalities were more frequent in the d-TGA group (33%) than in a referent group (4%). Conclusions Adolescents with d-TGA who have undergone the arterial switch operation are at increased neurodevelopmental risk. These data suggest that children with congenital heart disease may benefit from ongoing surveillance to identify emerging difficulties. Clinical Trial Registration NCT00000470, http://clinicaltrials.gov PMID:21875911

  14. Report on the Conference on Transposition and Genome Engineering 2015 (TGE 2015): advancing cutting-edge genomics technology in the ancient city of Nara.

    PubMed

    Woltjen, Knut; Yamamoto, Takashi; Kokubu, Chikara; Takeda, Junji

    2016-05-01

    From November 17 to 20 in 2015, the Conference on Transposition and Genome Engineering 2015 (TGE 2015) was held at Nara Kasugano International Forum-IRAKA-in Nara, Japan, located at the center of Nara Park. All of the presentations were carried out at Nohgaku hall in Nara Kasugano International Forum-IRAKA. Participation totaled 148 persons (30 international, 118 domestic), who were able to engage in lively scientific discussions over the 4-day period. The guest speaker list consisted of many top-notch international researchers, an achievement for which the conference received praise from the attendees. There were 36 oral presentations including the keynote lecture (22 presentations from guest speakers, complemented with 14 selected from abstract submissions). Additionally, there were 46 poster presentations. The conference uniquely combined research mainly from two different genomics approaches: (i) transposon technology allowing random genomic integration followed by gene discovery-related phenotypes and (ii) genome editing technology with designer nuclease allowing precise modification of a gene-of-interest.

  15. Transposition and Intermingling of Gαi2 and Gαo Afferences into Single Vomeronasal Glomeruli in the Madagascan Lesser Tenrec Echinops telfairi

    PubMed Central

    Suárez, Rodrigo; Villalón, Aldo; Künzle, Heinz; Mpodozis, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    The vomeronasal system (VNS) mediates pheromonal communication in mammals. From the vomeronasal organ, two populations of sensory neurons, expressing either Gαi2 or Gαo proteins, send projections that end in glomeruli distributed either at the rostral or caudal half of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), respectively. Neurons at the AOB contact glomeruli of a single subpopulation. The dichotomic segregation of AOB glomeruli has been described in opossums, rodents and rabbits, while Primates and Laurasiatheres present the Gαi2-pathway only, or none at all (such as apes, some bats and aquatic species). We studied the AOB of the Madagascan lesser tenrec Echinops telfairi (Afrotheria: Afrosoricida) and found that Gαi2 and Gαo proteins are expressed in rostral and caudal glomeruli, respectively. However, the segregation of vomeronasal glomeruli at the AOB is not exclusive, as both pathways contained some glomeruli transposed into the adjoining subdomain. Moreover, some glomeruli seem to contain intermingled afferences from both pathways. Both the transposition and heterogeneity of vomeronasal afferences are features, to our knowledge, never reported before. The organization of AOB glomeruli suggests that synaptic integration might occur at the glomerular layer. Whether intrinsic AOB neurons may make synaptic contact with axon terminals of both subpopulations is an interesting possibility that would expand our understanding about the integration of vomeronasal pathways. PMID:19956694

  16. In vivo transformation of factor-dependent hemopoietic cells: role of intracisternal A-particle transposition for growth factor gene activation.

    PubMed Central

    Dührsen, U; Stahl, J; Gough, N M

    1990-01-01

    Cells of the granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or multi-lineage colony stimulating factor (Multi-CSF) dependent line FDC-P1 undergo leukemic transformation after injection into irradiated DBA/2 mice. About one third of factor-independent FDC-P1 variants isolated from leukemic animals express GM-CSF or Multi-CSF, assessed either by bioassay or by sensitive RNA detection using the polymerase chain reaction. All of the GM-CSF-secreting lines studied had a rearrangement in one allele of the GM-CSF gene, three of four Multi-CSF-secreting lines had Multi-CSF gene rearrangements, while factor-independent lines lacking evidence of growth factor production had no demonstrable CSF gene alterations. All rearrangements were characterized by insertions of novel DNA in the 5'-flanking regions of the CSF genes. The inserted segments of DNA varied in size between 0.35 and 6.5 kb and displayed restriction enzyme cleavage maps reminiscent of intracisternal A-particle (IAP) genomes. This was confirmed in two cases by molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence analysis. In these instances, the insertion consisted of solitary IAP long terminal repeats. The transformation system described provides a model for the study of IAP transpositions and their effects on gene activation. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 9. PMID:2108861

  17. Noninvasive Assessment of Vascular Function in Postoperative Cardiovascular Disease (Coarctation of the Aorta, Tetralogy of Fallot, and Transposition of the Great Arteries).

    PubMed

    Mivelaz, Yvan; Leung, Mande T; Zadorsky, Mary Terri; De Souza, Astrid M; Potts, James E; Sandor, George G S

    2016-08-15

    Using noninvasive techniques, we sought to assess arterial stiffness, impedance, hydraulic power, and efficiency in children with postoperative tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), coarctation of the aorta (COA), and transposition of the great arteries (TGAs). Results were compared with those of healthy peers. Fifty-five children with repaired congenital heart disease (24 TOFs, 20 COAs, and 11 TGAs) were compared with 55 age-matched control subjects (CTRL). Echocardiographic Doppler imaging and carotid artery applanation tonometry were preformed to measure aortic flow, dimensions, and calculate pulse wave velocity, vascular impedance and arterial stiffness indexes, hydraulic power (mean and total), and hydraulic efficiency (HE) which were calculated using standard fluid dynamics equations. All congenital heart disease subgroups had higher pulse wave velocity than CTRL. Only the COA group had higher characteristic impedance. Mean power was higher in TGA than in CTRL and TOF, and total power was higher in TGA than in CTRL and TOF. Hydraulic efficiency was higher in TOF than in COA and TGA. In conclusion, children with TOF, COA, and TGA have stiffer aortas than CTRL. These changes may be related to intrinsic aortic abnormalities, altered integrity of the aorta due to surgical repair, and/or acquired postsurgery. These patients may be at increased long-term cardiovascular risk, and long-term follow-up is important for monitoring and assessment of efforts to reduce risk. PMID:27401272

  18. Design of an MR image processing module on an FPGA chip

    PubMed Central

    Li, Limin; Wyrwicz, Alice M.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the design and implementation of an image processing module on a single-chip Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) for real-time image processing. We also demonstrate that through graphical coding the design work can be greatly simplified. The processing module is based on a 2D FFT core. Our design is distinguished from previously reported designs in two respects. No off-chip hardware resources are required, which increases portability of the core. Direct matrix transposition usually required for execution of 2D FFT is completely avoided using our newly-designed address generation unit, which saves considerable on-chip block RAMs and clock cycles. The image processing module was tested by reconstructing multi-slice MR images from both phantom and animal data. The tests on static data show that the processing module is capable of reconstructing 128 × 128 images at speed of 400 frames/second. The tests on simulated real-time streaming data demonstrate that the module works properly under the timing conditions necessary for MRI experiments. PMID:25909646

  19. Design of an MR image processing module on an FPGA chip.

    PubMed

    Li, Limin; Wyrwicz, Alice M

    2015-06-01

    We describe the design and implementation of an image processing module on a single-chip Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) for real-time image processing. We also demonstrate that through graphical coding the design work can be greatly simplified. The processing module is based on a 2D FFT core. Our design is distinguished from previously reported designs in two respects. No off-chip hardware resources are required, which increases portability of the core. Direct matrix transposition usually required for execution of 2D FFT is completely avoided using our newly-designed address generation unit, which saves considerable on-chip block RAMs and clock cycles. The image processing module was tested by reconstructing multi-slice MR images from both phantom and animal data. The tests on static data show that the processing module is capable of reconstructing 128×128 images at speed of 400 frames/second. The tests on simulated real-time streaming data demonstrate that the module works properly under the timing conditions necessary for MRI experiments.

  20. Design of an MR image processing module on an FPGA chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Limin; Wyrwicz, Alice M.

    2015-06-01

    We describe the design and implementation of an image processing module on a single-chip Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) for real-time image processing. We also demonstrate that through graphical coding the design work can be greatly simplified. The processing module is based on a 2D FFT core. Our design is distinguished from previously reported designs in two respects. No off-chip hardware resources are required, which increases portability of the core. Direct matrix transposition usually required for execution of 2D FFT is completely avoided using our newly-designed address generation unit, which saves considerable on-chip block RAMs and clock cycles. The image processing module was tested by reconstructing multi-slice MR images from both phantom and animal data. The tests on static data show that the processing module is capable of reconstructing 128 × 128 images at speed of 400 frames/second. The tests on simulated real-time streaming data demonstrate that the module works properly under the timing conditions necessary for MRI experiments.

  1. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    DOEpatents

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  2. Saturation of Alfven oscillations in the ring current region due to generation of lower hybrid waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamaiunov, K. V.; Krivorutskii, E. N.; Veriaev, A. A.; Khazanov, G. V.

    1992-04-01

    The possibility of flux generation of lower hybrid oscillations in the ring current region of the earth's magnetosphere is suggested in this paper. The energy level of lower hybrid oscillations can exceed the modulational instability threshold, which leads to the formation of caverns. The consequences of this are qualitatively analyzed. Also, an assumption is made that the flux instability of lower hybrid oscillations may limit the level of Alfven oscillations in the ring current region.

  3. Managing hybrid marketing systems.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, R T; Moran, U

    1990-01-01

    As competition increases and costs become critical, companies that once went to market only one way are adding new channels and using new methods - creating hybrid marketing systems. These hybrid marketing systems hold the promise of greater coverage and reduced costs. But they are also hard to manage; they inevitably raise questions of conflict and control: conflict because marketing units compete for customers; control because new indirect channels are less subject to management authority. Hard as they are to manage, however, hybrid marketing systems promise to become the dominant design, replacing the "purebred" channel strategy in all kinds of businesses. The trick to managing the hybrid is to analyze tasks and channels within and across a marketing system. A map - the hybrid grid - can help managers make sense of their hybrid system. What the chart reveals is that channels are not the basic building blocks of a marketing system; marketing tasks are. The hybrid grid forces managers to consider various combinations of channels and tasks that will optimize both cost and coverage. Managing conflict is also an important element of a successful hybrid system. Managers should first acknowledge the inevitability of conflict. Then they should move to bound it by creating guidelines that spell out which customers to serve through which methods. Finally, a marketing and sales productivity (MSP) system, consisting of a central marketing database, can act as the central nervous system of a hybrid marketing system, helping managers create customized channels and service for specific customer segments.

  4. Hybridization facilitates evolutionary rescue

    PubMed Central

    Stelkens, Rike B; Brockhurst, Michael A; Hurst, Gregory D D; Greig, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    The resilience of populations to rapid environmental degradation is a major concern for biodiversity conservation. When environments deteriorate to lethal levels, species must evolve to adapt to the new conditions to avoid extinction. Here, we test the hypothesis that evolutionary rescue may be enabled by hybridization, because hybridization increases genetic variability. Using experimental evolution, we show that interspecific hybrid populations of Saccharomyces yeast adapt to grow in more highly degraded environments than intraspecific and parental crosses, resulting in survival rates far exceeding those of their ancestors. We conclude that hybridization can increase evolutionary responsiveness and that taxa able to exchange genes with distant relatives may better survive rapid environmental change. PMID:25558281

  5. Efficiently poled electro-optic polymer modulators.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Feng; Yokoyama, Shiyoshi

    2016-08-22

    A titanium dioxide (TiO2) / electro-optic (EO) polymer hybrid waveguide modulator was designed and fabricated. This modulator possessed a significant advantage for realizing high poling efficiency regardless of the EO polymer resistivity. The in-device EO coefficient was measured to be 100 pm/V, which was 32% higher than that of the thin polymer film. As a result, the phase modulator displayed a VπL figure of merit of 3.5 V∙cm at 1550 nm, which can be reduced further in a push-pull Mach-Zehnder interferometer structure. Temporal stability test of the modulator at 85°C indicated only 8% change of Vπ over 500 hours. The propagation loss in the waveguide was measured as ~3 dB/cm. PMID:27557181

  6. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Szalanski, Allen L; Gaskin, John F.; Young, Nicholas E.; West, Amanda; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Tripodi, Amber

    2015-01-01

    Science has shown that the introgression or hybridization of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals up to 40,000 YBP may have led to the swarm of modern humans on earth. However, there is little doubt that modern trade and transportation in support of the humans has continued to introduce additional species, genotypes, and hybrids to every country on the globe. We assessed the utility of species distributions modeling of genotypes to assess the risk of current and future invaders. We evaluated 93 locations of the genus Tamarix for which genetic data were available. Maxent models of habitat suitability showed that the hybrid, T. ramosissima x T. chinensis, was slightly greater than the parent taxa (AUCs > 0.83). General linear models of Africanized honey bees, a hybrid cross of Tanzanian Apis mellifera scutellata and a variety of European honey bee including A. m. ligustica, showed that the Africanized bees (AUC = 0.81) may be displacing European honey bees (AUC > 0.76) over large areas of the southwestern U.S. More important, Maxent modeling of sub-populations (A1 and A26 mitotypes based on mDNA) could be accurately modeled (AUC > 0.9), and they responded differently to environmental drivers. This suggests that rapid evolutionary change may be underway in the Africanized bees, allowing the bees to spread into new areas and extending their total range. Protecting native species and ecosystems may benefit from risk maps of harmful invasive species, hybrids, and genotypes.

  7. Hybrid baryons [alpha].

    SciTech Connect

    Page, P. R.

    2002-01-01

    The authors review the status of hybrid baryons. The only known way to study hybrids rigorously is via excited adiabatic potentials. Hybrids can be modeled by both the bag and flux tube models. The low lying hybrid baryon is N 1/2{sup +} with a mass of 1.5 - 1.8 GeV. Hybrid baryons can be produced in the glue rich processes of diffractive {gamma}N and {pi}N production, {Psi} decays and p{bar p} annihilation. We review the current status of research on three quarks with a gluonic excitation, called a hybrid baryon. The excitation is not an orbital or radial excitation between the quarks. Hybrid baryons have also been reviewed elsewhere. The Mercedes-Benz logl in Figure 1 indicates two possible views of the confining interaction of three quarks, an essential issue in the study of hybrid baryons. In the logo the three points where the Y shape meets the boundary circle should be identified with the three quarks. There are two possibilities fo rthe interaction of the quarks: (1) a pairwise interaction of the quarks represented by the circle, or (2) a Y shaped interaction between the quarks, represented by the Y-shape in the logo.

  8. Hybrid Courses Are Best.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David G.

    2001-01-01

    Describes research that has investigated and compared students in face-to-face classes, Web-based classes, and hybrid courses which combine both methods. Presents a chart that shows comparative advantages of face to face versus virtual classes, and discusses results that show hybrid courses have the highest success rate. (LRW)

  9. Supported PV module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Mascolo, Gianluigi; Taggart, David F.; Botkin, Jonathan D.; Edgett, Christopher S.

    2013-10-15

    A supported PV assembly may include a PV module comprising a PV panel and PV module supports including module supports having a support surface supporting the module, a module registration member engaging the PV module to properly position the PV module on the module support, and a mounting element. In some embodiments the PV module registration members engage only the external surfaces of the PV modules at the corners. In some embodiments the assembly includes a wind deflector with ballast secured to a least one of the PV module supports and the wind deflector. An array of the assemblies can be secured to one another at their corners to prevent horizontal separation of the adjacent corners while permitting the PV modules to flex relative to one another so to permit the array of PV modules to follow a contour of the support surface.

  10. Hybrid reactors. [Fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-09-09

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of /sup 233/U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m/sup -2/, and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid.

  11. Hybrid baryons in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, Jozef J.; Edwards, Robert G.

    2012-03-21

    In this study, we present the first comprehensive study of hybrid baryons using lattice QCD methods. Using a large basis of composite QCD interpolating fields we extract an extensive spectrum of baryon states and isolate those of hybrid character using their relatively large overlap onto operators which sample gluonic excitations. We consider the spectrum of Nucleon and Delta states at several quark masses finding a set of positive parity hybrid baryons with quantum numbers $N_{1/2^+},\\,N_{1/2^+},\\,N_{3/2^+},\\, N_{3/2^+},\\,N_{5/2^+},\\,$ and $\\Delta_{1/2^+},\\, \\Delta_{3/2^+}$ at an energy scale above the first band of `conventional' excited positive parity baryons. This pattern of states is compatible with a color octet gluonic excitation having $J^{P}=1^{+}$ as previously reported in the hybrid meson sector and with a comparable energy scale for the excitation, suggesting a common bound-state construction for hybrid mesons and baryons.

  12. Hybrid propulsion technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Technology was identified which will enable application of hybrid propulsion to manned and unmanned space launch vehicles. Two design concepts are proposed. The first is a hybrid propulsion system using the classical method of regression (classical hybrid) resulting from the flow of oxidizer across a fuel grain surface. The second system uses a self-sustaining gas generator (gas generator hybrid) to produce a fuel rich exhaust that was mixed with oxidizer in a separate combustor. Both systems offer cost and reliability improvement over the existing solid rocket booster and proposed liquid boosters. The designs were evaluated using life cycle cost and reliability. The program consisted of: (1) identification and evaluation of candidate oxidizers and fuels; (2) preliminary evaluation of booster design concepts; (3) preparation of a detailed point design including life cycle costs and reliability analyses; (4) identification of those hybrid specific technologies needing improvement; and (5) preperation of a technology acquisition plan and large scale demonstration plan.

  13. Hybrid rocket performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, Robert A., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A hybrid rocket is a system consisting of a solid fuel grain and a gaseous or liquid oxidizer. Figure 1 shows three popular hybrid propulsion cycles that are under current consideration. NASA MSFC has teamed with industry to test two hybrid propulsion systems that will allow scaling to motors of potential interest for Titan and Atlas systems, as well as encompassing the range of interest for SEI lunar ascent stages and National Launch System Cargo Transfer Vehicle (NLS CTV) and NLS deorbit systems. Hybrid systems also offer advantages as moderate-cost, environmentally acceptable propulsion system. The objective of this work was to recommend a performance prediction methodology for hybrid rocket motors. The scope included completion of: a literature review, a general methodology, and a simplified performance model.

  14. Development of a high density pixel multichip module at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Cardoso, G.

    2001-03-08

    At Fermilab, both pixel detector multichip module and sensor hybridization are being developed for the BTeV experiment. The BTeV pixel detector is based on a design relying on a hybrid approach. With this approach, the readout chip and the sensor array are developed separately and the detector is constructed by flip-chip mating the two together. This method offers maximum flexibility in the development process, choice of fabrication technologies, and the choice of sensor material. This paper presents strategies to handle the required data rate and performance results of the first prototype and detector hybridization.

  15. Genetic and Epigenetic Changes in Somatic Hybrid Introgression Lines Between Wheat and Tall Wheatgrass

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuwei; Li, Fei; Kong, Lina; Sun, Yang; Qin, Lumin; Chen, Suiyun; Cui, Haifeng; Huang, Yinghua; Xia, Guangmin

    2015-01-01

    Broad phenotypic variations were induced in derivatives of an asymmetric somatic hybridization of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) and tall wheatgrass (Thinopyrum ponticum Podp); however, how these variations occurred was unknown. We explored the nature of these variations by cytogenetic assays and DNA profiling techniques to characterize six genetically stable somatic introgression lines. Karyotyping results show the six lines similar to their wheat parent, but GISH analysis identified the presence of a number of short introgressed tall wheatgrass chromatin segments. DNA profiling revealed many genetic and epigenetic differences, including sequences deletions, altered regulation of gene expression, changed patterns of cytosine methylation, and the reactivation of retrotransposons. Phenotypic variations appear to result from altered repetitive sequences combined with the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and/or retrotransposon transposition. The extent of genetic and epigenetic variation due to the maintenance of parent wheat cells in tissue culture was assessed and shown to be considerably lower than had been induced in the introgression lines. Asymmetric somatic hybridization provides appropriate material to explore the nature of the genetic and epigenetic variations induced by genomic shock. PMID:25670745

  16. Genetic and epigenetic changes in somatic hybrid introgression lines between wheat and tall wheatgrass.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuwei; Li, Fei; Kong, Lina; Sun, Yang; Qin, Lumin; Chen, Suiyun; Cui, Haifeng; Huang, Yinghua; Xia, Guangmin

    2015-04-01

    Broad phenotypic variations were induced in derivatives of an asymmetric somatic hybridization of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) and tall wheatgrass (Thinopyrum ponticum Podp); however, how these variations occurred was unknown. We explored the nature of these variations by cytogenetic assays and DNA profiling techniques to characterize six genetically stable somatic introgression lines. Karyotyping results show the six lines similar to their wheat parent, but GISH analysis identified the presence of a number of short introgressed tall wheatgrass chromatin segments. DNA profiling revealed many genetic and epigenetic differences, including sequences deletions, altered regulation of gene expression, changed patterns of cytosine methylation, and the reactivation of retrotransposons. Phenotypic variations appear to result from altered repetitive sequences combined with the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and/or retrotransposon transposition. The extent of genetic and epigenetic variation due to the maintenance of parent wheat cells in tissue culture was assessed and shown to be considerably lower than had been induced in the introgression lines. Asymmetric somatic hybridization provides appropriate material to explore the nature of the genetic and epigenetic variations induced by genomic shock. PMID:25670745

  17. Effects of morphologic left ventricular pressure on right ventricular geometry and tricuspid valve regurgitation in patients with congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries.

    PubMed

    Kral Kollars, Catharine A; Gelehrter, Sarah; Bove, Edward L; Ensing, Gregory

    2010-03-01

    Congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (CCTGA) is associated with tricuspid regurgitation (TR), which has been postulated to arise from the effect of ventricular septal position on the attachments of the tricuspid valve. This study was performed to determine the effect of left ventricular (LV) pressure on right ventricular (RV) and LV geometry and the degree of TR. Serial echocardiograms were reviewed from, 30 patients with CCTGA who underwent pulmonary artery banding to train the morphologic left ventricle (n = 14) or left ventricle-to-pulmonary artery conduit placement and ventricular septal defect closure in conjunction with physiologic repair (n = 16). The degree of TR, the LV/RV pressure ratio, RV and LV sphericity indexes, and tricuspid valve tethering distance and coaptation length were analyzed. After pulmonary artery banding, an increase in LV systolic pressure to > or =2/3 systemic resulted in a decrease in TR from severe to moderate (p = 0.02). The percentage of patients with severe TR decreased from 64% to 18% (p = 0.06). The RV sphericity index decreased (p = 0.05), and the LV sphericity index increased (p = 0.02). After left ventricle-to-pulmonary artery conduit placement, a decrease in LV pressure to < or =1/2 systemic resulted in an increase in TR from none to mild (p = 0.003). In conclusion, these data indicate that LV pressure in patients with CCTGA affects the degree of TR and that septal shift caused by changes in LV and RV pressure is an important mechanism.

  18. Outcomes after corrective surgery for congenital dextro-transposition of the great arteries using the arterial switch technique: a protocol for a scoping systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Forlemu-Kamwa, Doris; Chu, Angela; Thabane, Lehana; Dillenberg, Rejane

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Dextro-transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA) is a life-threatening congenital health defect that requires rapid surgery. The most widely used approach is the arterial switch operation (ASO) developed by Jatene in the 1970s. The first set of children who received this intervention are now adults. The objective of this scoping review of the literature was to document the short-term (less than 1 year), medium-term (1–20 years) and long-term (more than 20 years) outcomes in children who underwent the ASO. Our primary income is survival, but we will explore other secondary surgical, cardiovascular, reproductive and quality-of-life outcomes. Methods and analyses Using a systematic scoping review approach, we will conduct a systematic search of the published literature for experimental and observational studies published on children who received the ASO intervention for classic d-TGA. We will search MEDLINE, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and Literatura Latino Americana em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) from 1973 (date of the first successful ASO) to February 2014. Identified articles will be screened in duplicate and full text for selected articles will be retrieved. Data extraction will be carried out in duplicate. Discrepancies will be resolved by consensus or by consulting a third author. Where possible, proportions will be pooled using the inverse variance method. Our findings will be reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and Meta-analysis Of Observational studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines. Ethics and dissemination The results of this paper will be disseminated as peer-reviewed publications, at conferences and at clinical rounds. Our findings may answer important questions for surgeons who perform the ASO intervention and for clinicians who take care of patients after surgery and throughout their

  19. Herpes Simplex Virus/Sleeping Beauty Vector-Based Embryonic Gene Transfer Using the HSB5 Mutant: Loss of Apparent Transposition Hyperactivity In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    de Silva, Suresh; Mastrangelo, Michael A.; Lotta, Louis T.; Burris, Clark A.; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Ivics, Zoltán

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system has been successfully used as a gene delivery tool in nonviral and viral vector platforms. Since its initial reconstruction, a series of hyperactive mutants of SB have been generated. Questions remain as to whether the enhanced in vitro activities of these SB transposase mutants translate to the in vivo setting, and whether such increased integration efficiencies will ultimately compromise the safety profile of the transposon platform by raising the risk of genomic insertional mutagenesis. Herein, we compared the in vivo impact of a herpes simplex virus (HSV) amplicon-vectored “wild-type” SB transposase (SB10) and a “hyperactive” SB mutant (HSB5), codelivered in utero with the HSVT-βgeo transposable reporter amplicon vector to embryonic day 14.5 C57BL/6 mice. The SB10 and HSB5 transposases do not disparately affect the viability and development of injected mouse embryos. Quantitation of brain-resident βgeo expression on postnatal day 21 revealed that mice receiving HSB5 exhibited only a trending increase in transgene expression compared with the SB10-infused group, an outcome that did not mirror the marked enhancement of HSB5-mediated transposition observed in vitro. These findings indicate that in vivo application of hyperactive SB mutants, although not differentially genotoxic to the developing mouse embryo, does not necessarily provide a significant therapeutic advantage over the employment of a lesser active SB when delivered in the context of the HSV/SB amplicon platform. PMID:20507234

  20. ISEcp1-mediated transposition of blaKPC into the chromosome of a clinical isolate of Acinetobacter baumannii from Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Teresa; Aquino, Edna E.; Martínez, Idalí

    2014-01-01

    Carbapenems are the last-resort antibiotics for the treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli. Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) hydrolyses β-lactam antibiotics including the carbapenems. KPCs have been detected in Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates worldwide associated with transposon Tn4401 commonly located in plasmids. Acinetobacter baumannii has become an important multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen capable of hydrolysing the carbapenem antibiotics. KPC-producing A. baumannii has so far only been reported in Puerto Rico. During a surveillance study, four KPC-producing A. baumannii with identical pulse type were identified in a single institution. The objectives of this study were to characterize the KPC genetic background and the allelic diversity of one of the isolates. Next-generation sequencing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed. Molecular characterization of the isolate demonstrated blaKPC in Tn4401b located in the bacterial chromosome within a 26.5 kb DNA fragment, which included a KQ-like element (18.9 kb) very similar to that described previously in a K. pneumoniae plasmid and a 7.6 kb DNA fragment with 98 % homology to a putative plasmid from Yersinia pestis strain PY-95. Our data suggested that the 26.5 kb DNA fragment harbouring blaKPC was integrated in the chromosome by a transposition event mediated by the transposase of ISEcp1 found in the KQ-like element. MLST showed a novel sequence type, ST250. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the identification of the genetic background of blaKPC in A. baumannii. PMID:25246647

  1. Tc1-like Transposase Thm3 of Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) Can Mediate Gene Transposition in the Genome of Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala)

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiu-Ming; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Sun, Yi-Wen; Jiang, Xia-Yun; Zou, Shu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Tc1-like transposons consist of an inverted repeat sequence flanking a transposase gene that exhibits similarity to the mobile DNA element, Tc1, of the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. They are widely distributed within vertebrate genomes including teleost fish; however, few active Tc1-like transposases have been discovered. In this study, 17 Tc1-like transposon sequences were isolated from 10 freshwater fish species belonging to the families Cyprinidae, Adrianichthyidae, Cichlidae, and Salmonidae. We conducted phylogenetic analyses of these sequences using previously isolated Tc1-like transposases and report that 16 of these elements comprise a new subfamily of Tc1-like transposons. In particular, we show that one transposon, Thm3 from silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix; Cyprinidae), can encode a 335-aa transposase with apparently intact domains, containing three to five copies in its genome. We then coinjected donor plasmids harboring 367 bp of the left end and 230 bp of the right end of the nonautonomous silver carp Thm1 cis-element along with capped Thm3 transposase RNA into the embryos of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala; one- to two-cell embryos). This experiment revealed that the average integration rate could reach 50.6% in adult fish. Within the blunt snout bream genome, the TA dinucleotide direct repeat, which is the signature of Tc1-like family of transposons, was created adjacent to both ends of Thm1 at the integration sites. Our results indicate that the silver carp Thm3 transposase can mediate gene insertion by transposition within the genome of blunt snout bream genome, and that this occurs with a TA position preference. PMID:26438298

  2. Lunar Module Ascent Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Lunar Module 'Spider' ascent stage is photographed from the Command/Service Module on the fifth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. The Lunar Module's descent stage had already been jettisoned.

  3. Hybridization and speciation.

    PubMed

    Abbott, R; Albach, D; Ansell, S; Arntzen, J W; Baird, S J E; Bierne, N; Boughman, J; Brelsford, A; Buerkle, C A; Buggs, R; Butlin, R K; Dieckmann, U; Eroukhmanoff, F; Grill, A; Cahan, S H; Hermansen, J S; Hewitt, G; Hudson, A G; Jiggins, C; Jones, J; Keller, B; Marczewski, T; Mallet, J; Martinez-Rodriguez, P; Möst, M; Mullen, S; Nichols, R; Nolte, A W; Parisod, C; Pfennig, K; Rice, A M; Ritchie, M G; Seifert, B; Smadja, C M; Stelkens, R; Szymura, J M; Väinölä, R; Wolf, J B W; Zinner, D

    2013-02-01

    Hybridization has many and varied impacts on the process of speciation. Hybridization may slow or reverse differentiation by allowing gene flow and recombination. It may accelerate speciation via adaptive introgression or cause near-instantaneous speciation by allopolyploidization. It may have multiple effects at different stages and in different spatial contexts within a single speciation event. We offer a perspective on the context and evolutionary significance of hybridization during speciation, highlighting issues of current interest and debate. In secondary contact zones, it is uncertain if barriers to gene flow will be strengthened or broken down due to recombination and gene flow. Theory and empirical evidence suggest the latter is more likely, except within and around strongly selected genomic regions. Hybridization may contribute to speciation through the formation of new hybrid taxa, whereas introgression of a few loci may promote adaptive divergence and so facilitate speciation. Gene regulatory networks, epigenetic effects and the evolution of selfish genetic material in the genome suggest that the Dobzhansky-Muller model of hybrid incompatibilities requires a broader interpretation. Finally, although the incidence of reinforcement remains uncertain, this and other interactions in areas of sympatry may have knock-on effects on speciation both within and outside regions of hybridization.

  4. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  5. Artificial mismatch hybridization

    DOEpatents

    Guo, Zhen; Smith, Lloyd M.

    1998-01-01

    An improved nucleic acid hybridization process is provided which employs a modified oligonucleotide and improves the ability to discriminate a control nucleic acid target from a variant nucleic acid target containing a sequence variation. The modified probe contains at least one artificial mismatch relative to the control nucleic acid target in addition to any mismatch(es) arising from the sequence variation. The invention has direct and advantageous application to numerous existing hybridization methods, including, applications that employ, for example, the Polymerase Chain Reaction, allele-specific nucleic acid sequencing methods, and diagnostic hybridization methods.

  6. Towers of hybrid mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Semay, Claude; Buisseret, Fabien; Silvestre-Brac, Bernard

    2009-05-01

    A hybrid meson is a quark-antiquark pair in which, contrary to ordinary mesons, the gluon field is in an excited state. In the framework of constituent models, the interaction potential is assumed to be the energy of an excited string. An approximate, but accurate, analytical solution of the Schroedinger equation with such a potential is presented. When applied to hybrid charmonia and bottomonia, towers of states are predicted in which the masses are a linear function of a harmonic oscillator band number for the quark-antiquark pair. Such a formula could be a reliable guide for the experimental detection of heavy hybrid mesons.

  7. Hybrid matrix fiber composites

    DOEpatents

    Deteresa, Steven J.; Lyon, Richard E.; Groves, Scott E.

    2003-07-15

    Hybrid matrix fiber composites having enhanced compressive performance as well as enhanced stiffness, toughness and durability suitable for compression-critical applications. The methods for producing the fiber composites using matrix hybridization. The hybrid matrix fiber composites include two chemically or physically bonded matrix materials, whereas the first matrix materials are used to impregnate multi-filament fibers formed into ribbons and the second matrix material is placed around and between the fiber ribbons that are impregnated with the first matrix material and both matrix materials are cured and solidified.

  8. Elimination of the Yeast Rad6 Ubiquitin Conjugase Enhances Base-Pair Transitions and G.c -> T.a Transversions as Well as Transposition of the Ty Element: Implications for the Control of Spontaneous Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Kang, X.; Yadao, F.; Gietz, R. D.; Kunz, B. A.

    1992-01-01

    The RAD6 gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes an enzyme that conjugates ubiquitin to other proteins. Defects in RAD6 confer a mutator phenotype due, in part, to an increased rate of transposition of the yeast Ty element. To further delineate the role of protein ubiquitination in the control of spontaneous mutagenesis in yeast, we have characterized 202 mutations that arose spontaneously in the SUP4-o gene carried on a centromere vector in a RAD6 deletion strain. The resulting mutational spectrum was compared to that for 354 spontaneous SUP4-o mutations isolated in the isogenic wild-type parent. This comparison revealed that the rad6 mutator enhanced the rate of single base-pair substitution, as well as Ty insertion, but did not affect the rates of the other mutational classes detected. Relative to the wild-type parent, Ty inserted at considerably more SUP4-o positions in the rad6 strain with a significantly smaller fraction detected at a transposition hotspot. These findings suggest that, in addition to the rate of transposition, protein ubiquitination might influence the target site specificity of Ty insertion. The increase in the substitution rate accounted for approximately 90% of the rad6 mutator effect but only the two transitions and the G.C -> T.A transversion were enhanced. Analysis of the distribution of these events within SUP4-o suggested that the site specificity of the substitutions was influenced by DNA sequence context. Transformation of heteroduplex plasmid DNAs into the two strains demonstrated that the rad6 mutator did not reduce the efficiency of correcting mismatches that could give rise to the transitions or transversion nor did it bias restoration of the mismatches to the incorrect base-pairs. These results are discussed in relation to possible mechanisms that might link ubiquitination of proteins to spontaneous mutation rates. PMID:1311695

  9. Hybrid silicon evanescent approach to optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Di; Fang, Alexander W.; Chen, Hui-Wen; Sysak, Matthew N.; Koch, Brian R.; Lively, Erica; Raday, Omri; Kuo, Ying-Hao; Jones, Richard; Bowers, John E.

    2009-06-01

    We discuss the recently developed hybrid silicon evanescent platform (HSEP), and its application as a promising candidate for optical interconnects in silicon. A number of key discrete components and a wafer-scale integration process are reviewed. The motivation behind this work is to realize silicon-based photonic integrated circuits possessing unique advantages of III-V materials and silicon-on-insulator waveguides simultaneously through a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor fabrication process. Electrically pumped hybrid silicon distributed feedback and distributed Bragg reflector lasers with integrated hybrid silicon photodetectors are demonstrated coupled to SOI waveguides, serving as the reliable on-chip single-frequency light sources. For the external signal processing, Mach-Zehnder interferometer modulators are demonstrated, showing a resistance-capacitance-limited, 3 dB electrical bandwidth up to 8 GHz and a modulation efficiency of 1.5 V mm. The successful implementation of quantum well intermixing technique opens up the possibility to realize multiple III-V bandgaps in this platform. Sampled grating DBR devices integrated with electroabsorption modulators (EAM) are fabricated, where the bandgaps in gain, mirror, and EAM regions are 1520, 1440 and 1480 nm, respectively. The high-temperature operation characteristics of the HSEP are studied experimentally and theoretically. An overall characteristic temperature ( T 0) of 51°C, an above threshold characteristic temperature ( T 1) of 100°C, and a thermal impedance ( Z T ) of 41.8°C/W, which agrees with the theoretical prediction of 43.5°C/W, are extracted from the Fabry-Perot devices. Scaling this platform to larger dimensions is demonstrated up to 150 mm wafer diameter. A vertical outgassing channel design is developed to accomplish high-quality III-V epitaxial transfer to silicon in a timely and dimension-independent fashion.

  10. Ballasted photovoltaic module and module arrays

    DOEpatents

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Danning, Matt

    2011-11-29

    A photovoltaic (PV) module assembly including a PV module and a ballast tray. The PV module includes a PV device and a frame. A PV laminate is assembled to the frame, and the frame includes an arm. The ballast tray is adapted for containing ballast and is removably associated with the PV module in a ballasting state where the tray is vertically under the PV laminate and vertically over the arm to impede overt displacement of the PV module. The PV module assembly can be installed to a flat commercial rooftop, with the PV module and the ballast tray both resting upon the rooftop. In some embodiments, the ballasting state includes corresponding surfaces of the arm and the tray being spaced from one another under normal (low or no wind) conditions, such that the frame is not continuously subjected to a weight of the tray.

  11. Hybrid rocket combustion study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strand, L. D.; Ray, R. L.; Cohen, N. S.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this study of 'pure' or 'classic' hybrids are to (1) extend our understanding of the boundary layer combustion process and the critical engineering parameters that define this process, (2) develop an up-to-date hybrid fuel combustion model, and (3) apply the model to correlate the regression rate and scaling properties of potential fuel candidates. Tests were carried out with a hybrid slab window motor, using several diagnostic techniques, over a range of motor pressure and oxidizer mass flux conditions. The results basically confirmed turbulent boundary layer heat and mass transfer as the rate limiting process for hybrid fuel decomposition and combustion. The measured fuel regression rates showed good agreement with the analytical model predictions. The results of model scaling calculations to Shuttle SRM size conditions are presented.

  12. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  13. Diesel hybridization and emissions.

    SciTech Connect

    Pasquier, M.; Monnet, G.

    2004-04-21

    The CTR Vehicle Systems and Fuels team a diesel hybrid powertrain. The goal of this experiment was to investigate and demonstrate the potential of diesel engines for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) in a fuel economy and emissions. The test set-up consisted of a diesel engine coupled to an electric motor driving a Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT). This hybrid drive is connected to a dynamometer and a DC electrical power source creating a vehicle context by combining advanced computer models and emulation techniques. The experiment focuses on the impact of the hybrid control strategy on fuel economy and emissions-in particular, nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM). The same hardware and test procedure were used throughout the entire experiment to assess the impact of different control approaches.

  14. Hybrid plasmachemical reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lelevkin, V. M. Smirnova, Yu. G.; Tokarev, A. V.

    2015-04-15

    A hybrid plasmachemical reactor on the basis of a dielectric barrier discharge in a transformer is developed. The characteristics of the reactor as functions of the dielectric barrier discharge parameters are determined.

  15. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    DOEpatents

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  16. Systems for hybrid cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitsche, Otmar; Gutmann, Guenter

    Not only sharp competition but also legislation are pushing development of hybrid drive trains. Based on conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, these drive trains offer a wide range of benefits from reduced fuel consumption and emission to multifaceted performance improvements. Hybrid electric drive trains may also facilitate the introduction of fuel cells (FC). The battery is the key component for all hybrid drive trains, as it dominates cost and performance issues. The selection of the right battery technology for the specific automotive application is an important task with an impact on costs of development and use. Safety, power, and high cycle life are a must for all hybrid applications. The greatest pressure to reduce cost is in soft hybrids, where lead-acid embedded in a considerate management presents the cheapest solution, with a considerable improvement in performance needed. From mild to full hybridization, an improvement in specific power makes higher costs more acceptable, provided that the battery's service life is equivalent to the vehicle's lifetime. Today, this is proven for the nickel-metal hydride system. Lithium ion batteries, which make use of a multiple safety concept, and with some development anticipated, provide even better prospects in terms of performance and costs. Also, their scalability permits their application in battery electric vehicles—the basis for better performance and enhanced user acceptance. Development targets for the batteries are discussed with a focus on system aspects such as electrical and thermal management and safety.

  17. Human hybrid hybridoma

    SciTech Connect

    Tiebout, R.F.; van Boxtel-Oosterhof, F.; Stricker, E.A.M.; Zeijlemaker, W.P.

    1987-11-15

    Hybrid hybridomas are obtained by fusion of two cells, each producing its own antibody. Several authors have reported the construction of murine hybrid hybridomas with the aim to obtain bispecific monoclonal antibodies. The authors have investigated, in a model system, the feasibility of constructing a human hybrid hybridoma. They fused two monoclonal cell lines: an ouabain-sensitive and azaserine/hypoxanthine-resistant Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human cell line that produces an IgG1kappa antibody directed against tetanus toxiod and an azaserine/hypoxanthine-sensitive and ouabain-resistant human-mouse xenohybrid cell line that produces a human IgG1lambda antibody directed against hepatitis-B surface antigen. Hybrid hybridoma cells were selected in culture medium containing azaserine/hypoxanthine and ouabain. The hybrid nature of the secreted antibodies was analyzed by means of two antigen-specific immunoassay. The results show that it is possible, with the combined use of transformation and xenohybridization techniques, to construct human hybrid hybridomas that produce bispecific antibodies. Bispecific antibodies activity was measured by means of two radioimmunoassays.

  18. Comparative mapping of DNA probes derived from the V{sub k} immunoglobulin gene regions on human and great ape chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, N.; Wienberg, J.; Ermert, K.

    1995-03-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of cosmid clones of human V{sub K} gene regions to human and primate chromosomes contributed to the dating of chromosome reorganizations in evolution. A clone from the K locus at 2p11-p12 (cos 106) hybridized to the assumed homologous chromosome bands in the chimpanzees Pan troglodytes (PTR) and P. paniscus (PPA), the Gorilla gorilla (GGO), and the orangutan Pongo Pygmaeus (PPY). Human and both chimpanzees differed from gorilla and orangutan by the mapping of cos 170, a clone derived from chromosome 2cen-q11.2; the transposition of this orphon to the other side of the centromere can, therefore, be dated after the human/chimpanzee and gorilla divergence. Hybridization to homologous bands was also found with a cosmid clone containing a V{sub K}I orphon located on chromosome 1 (cos 115, main signal at 1q31-q32), although the probe is not fully unique. Also, a clone derived from the orphon V{sub K} region on chromosome 22q11 (cos 121) hybridized to the homologous bands in the great apes. This indicates that the orphons on human chromosomes 1 and 22 had been translocated early in primate evolution. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Dynamic Modulation of DNA Hybridization Using Allosteric DNA Tetrahedral Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Song, Ping; Li, Min; Shen, Juwen; Pei, Hao; Chao, Jie; Su, Shao; Aldalbahi, Ali; Wang, Lihua; Shi, Jiye; Song, Shiping; Wang, Lianhui; Fan, Chunhai; Zuo, Xiaolei

    2016-08-16

    The fixed dynamic range of traditional biosensors limits their utility in several real applications. For example, viral load monitoring requires the dynamic range spans several orders of magnitude; whereas, monitoring of drugs requires extremely narrow dynamic range. To overcome this limitation, here, we devised tunable biosensing interface using allosteric DNA tetrahedral bioprobes to tune the dynamic range of DNA biosensors. Our strategy takes the advantage of the readily and flexible structure design and predictable geometric reconfiguration of DNA nanotechnology. We reconfigured the DNA tetrahedral bioprobes by inserting the effector sequence into the DNA tetrahedron, through which, the binding affinity of DNA tetrahedral bioprobes can be tuned. As a result, the detection limit of DNA biosensors can be programmably regulated. The dynamic range of DNA biosensors can be tuned (narrowed or extended) for up to 100-fold. Using the regulation of binding affinity, we realized the capture and release of biomolecules by tuning the binding behavior of DNA tetrahedral bioprobes. PMID:27435955

  20. Module flammability research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugimura, R. S.; Otth, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    New materials were developed which show promise of fabricating modules that can pass the Underwriter Laboratories Class A burning brand test for fire ratable solar cell modules. It is concluded that fire resistant module design require special high temperature materials and constructions to achieve Class B and Class A ratings. Also, synergisms exist between back surface materials and module configuration.