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Sample records for hydrated fluid phase

  1. Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Daniel O.; Walsh, Michael M.

    2003-01-01

    A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

  2. Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Daniel O.; Walsh, Michael M.

    1999-01-01

    A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel in order to mix its respective portion of liquid water with the corresponding portion of the stream. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

  3. New insight into probe-location dependent polarity and hydration at lipid/water interfaces: comparison between gel- and fluid-phases of lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Singh, Moirangthem Kiran; Shweta, Him; Khan, Mohammad Firoz; Sen, Sobhan

    2016-09-21

    Environment polarity and hydration at lipid/water interfaces play important roles in membrane biology, which are investigated here using a new homologous series of 4-aminophthalimide-based fluorescent molecules (4AP-Cn; n = 2-10, 12) having different lipophilicities (octanol/water partition coefficient - log P). We show that 4AP-Cn molecules probe a peculiar stepwise polarity (E) profile at the lipid/water interface of the gel-phase (Lβ') DPPC (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) bilayer at room temperature, which was not anticipated in earlier studies. However, the same molecules probe only a subtle but continuous polarity change at the interface of water and the fluid-phase (Lα) DOPC (1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) bilayer at room temperature. Fluorescence quenching experiments indicate that solutes with different log P values adsorb at different depths across DPPC/water and DOPC/water interfaces, which correlate with the polarity profiles observed at the interfaces. Molecular dynamics simulations performed on eight probe-lipid systems (four in each of the DPPC and DOPC bilayers - a total run of 2.6 μs) support experimental results, providing further information on the relative position and angle distributions as well as hydration of probes at the interfaces. Simulation results indicate that besides positions, probe orientations also play an important role in defining the local dielectric environment by controlling the probes' exposure to water at the interfaces especially of the gel-phase DPPC bilayer. The results suggest that 4AP-Cn probes are well suited for studying solvation properties at lipid/water interfaces of gel- and fluid-phases simultaneously.

  4. Structure of Fully Hydrated Fluid Phase DMPC and DLPC Lipid Bilayers Using X-Ray Scattering from Oriented Multilamellar Arrays and from Unilamellar Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Kučerka, Norbert; Liu, Yufeng; Chu, Nanjun; Petrache, Horia I.; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie; Nagle, John F.

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative structures of the fully hydrated fluid phases of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dilauroylphosphatidylcholine (DLPC) were obtained at 30°C. Data for the relative form factors F(qz) for DMPC were obtained using a combination of four methods. 1), Volumetric data provided F(0). 2), Diffuse x-ray scattering from oriented stacks of bilayers provided relative form factors |F(qz)| for high qz, 0.22 < qz < 0.8 Å−1. 3), X-ray scattering from extruded unilamellar vesicles with diameter 600 Å provided |F(qz)| for low qz, 0.1 < qz < 0.3 Å−1. 4), Previous measurements using a liquid crystallographic x-ray method provided |F(2πh/D)| for h = 1 and 2 for a range of nearly fully hydrated D-spacings. The data from method 4 overlap and validate the new unilamellar vesicles data for DMPC, so method 4 is not required for DLPC or future studies. We used hybrid electron density models to obtain structural results from these form factors. Comparison of the model electron density profiles with that of gel phase DMPC provides areas per lipid A, 60.6 ± 0.5 Å2 for DMPC and 63.2 ± 0.5 Å2 for DLPC. Constraints on the model provided by volume measurements and component volumes obtained from simulations put the electron density profiles ρ(z) and the corresponding form factors F(qz) on absolute scales. Various thicknesses, such as the hydrophobic thickness and the steric thickness, are obtained and compared to literature values. PMID:15665131

  5. Method for controlling clathrate hydrates in fluid systems

    DOEpatents

    Sloan, Jr., Earle D.

    1995-01-01

    Discussed is a process for preventing clathrate hydrate masses from impeding the flow of fluid in a fluid system. An additive is contacted with clathrate hydrate masses in the system to prevent those clathrate hydrate masses from impeding fluid flow. The process is particularly useful in the natural gas and petroleum production, transportation and processing industry where gas hydrate formation can cause serious problems. Additives preferably contain one or more five member and/or six member cyclic chemical groupings. Additives include poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) and hydroxyethylcellulose, either in combination or alone.

  6. Hydration states of AFm cement phases

    SciTech Connect

    Baquerizo, Luis G.; Matschei, Thomas; Scrivener, Karen L.; Saeidpour, Mahsa; Wadsö, Lars

    2015-07-15

    The AFm phase, one of the main products formed during the hydration of Portland and calcium aluminate cement based systems, belongs to the layered double hydrate (LDH) family having positively charged layers and water plus charge-balancing anions in the interlayer. It is known that these phases present different hydration states (i.e. varying water content) depending on the relative humidity (RH), temperature and anion type, which might be linked to volume changes (swelling and shrinkage). Unfortunately the stability conditions of these phases are insufficiently reported. This paper presents novel experimental results on the different hydration states of the most important AFm phases: monocarboaluminate, hemicarboaluminate, strätlingite, hydroxy-AFm and monosulfoaluminate, and the thermodynamic properties associated with changes in their water content during absorption/desorption. This data opens the possibility to model the response of cementitious systems during drying and wetting and to engineer systems more resistant to harsh external conditions.

  7. Fe-containing phases in hydrated cements

    SciTech Connect

    Dilnesa, B.Z.; Wieland, E.; Lothenbach, B.; Dähn, R.; Scrivener, K.L.

    2014-04-01

    In this study synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been applied, an element specific technique which allows Fe-containing phases to be identified in the complex mineral mixture of hydrated cements. Several Fe species contributed to the overall Fe K-edge spectra recorded on the cement samples. In the early stage of cement hydration ferrite was the dominant Fe-containing mineral. Ferrihydrite was detected during the first hours of the hydration process. After 1 day the formation of Al- and Fe-siliceous hydrogarnet was observed, while the amount of ferrihydrite decreased. The latter finding agrees with thermodynamic modeling, which predicts the formation of Fe-siliceous hydrogarnet in Portland cement systems. The presence of Al- and Fe-containing siliceous hydrogarnet was further substantiated in the residue of hydrated cement by performing a selective dissolution procedure. - Highlights: • Fe bound to ferrihydrite at early age hydration • Fe found to be stable in siliceous hydrogarnet at longer term age hydration • Fe-containing AFt and AFm phases are less stable than siliceous hydrogarnet. • The study demonstrates EXAFS used to identify amorphous or poorly crystalline phases.

  8. Method for controlling clathrate hydrates in fluid systems

    DOEpatents

    Sloan, E.D. Jr.

    1995-07-11

    Discussed is a process for preventing clathrate hydrate masses from impeding the flow of fluid in a fluid system. An additive is contacted with clathrate hydrate masses in the system to prevent those clathrate hydrate masses from impeding fluid flow. The process is particularly useful in the natural gas and petroleum production, transportation and processing industry where gas hydrate formation can cause serious problems. Additives preferably contain one or more five member, six member and/or seven member cyclic chemical groupings. Additives include poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) and hydroxyethylcellulose, either in combination or alone. Additives can also contain multiple cyclic chemical groupings having different size rings. One such additive is sold under the name Gaffix VC-713.

  9. Method for controlling clathrate hydrates in fluid systems

    DOEpatents

    Sloan, Jr., Earle D.

    1995-01-01

    Discussed is a process for preventing clathrate hydrate masses from impeding the flow of fluid in a fluid system. An additive is contacted with clathrate hydrate masses in the system to prevent those clathrate hydrate masses from impeding fluid flow. The process is particularly useful in the natural gas and petroleum production, transportation and processing industry where gas hydrate formation can cause serious problems. Additives preferably contain one or more five member, six member and/or seven member cyclic chemical groupings. Additives include poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) and hydroxyethylcellulose, either in combination or alone. Additives can also contain multiple cyclic chemical groupings having different size rings. One such additive is sold under the name Gaffix VC-713.

  10. Hydrated metal ions in the gas phase.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Martin K

    2007-01-01

    Studying metal ion solvation, especially hydration, in the gas phase has developed into a field that is dominated by a tight interaction between experiment and theory. Since the studied species carry charge, mass spectrometry is an indispensable tool in all experiments. Whereas gas-phase coordination chemistry and reactions of bare metal ions are reasonably well understood, systems containing a larger number of solvent molecules are still difficult to understand. This review focuses on the rich chemistry of hydrated metal ions in the gas phase, covering coordination chemistry, charge separation in multiply charged systems, as well as intracluster and ion-molecule reactions. Key ideas of metal ion solvation in the gas phase are illustrated with rare-gas solvated metal ions.

  11. Gas phase hydration of organic ions.

    PubMed

    Momoh, Paul O; El-Shall, M Samy

    2008-08-28

    In this work, we study the hydration phenomenon on a molecular level in the gas phase where a selected number of water molecules can interact with the organic ion of interest. The stepwise binding energies (DeltaH degrees (n-1,n)) of 1-7 water molecules to the phenyl acetylene cation are determined by equilibrium measurements using an ion mobility drift cell. The stepwise hydration energies DeltaH degrees (n-1,n) are nearly constant at 39.7 +/- 6.3 kJ mol(-1) from n = 1 to 7. The entropy change is larger in the n = 7 step, suggesting cyclic or cage-like water structures. No water addition is observed on the ionized phenyl acetylene trimer consistent with cyclization of the trimer ion to form triphenyl benzene cations C(24)H(18) (+) which are expected to interact weakly with the water molecules due to steric interactions and the delocalization of the charge on the large organic ion. The work demonstrates that hydration studies of organic ions can provide structural information on the organic ions.

  12. Fatigue and fluid hydration status in multiple sclerosis: A hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Cincotta, Molly C; Engelhard, Matthew M; Stankey, Makela; Goldman, Myla D

    2016-01-01

    Background Fatigue is a prevalent and functionally disabling symptom for individuals living with multiple sclerosis (MS) which is poorly understood and multifactorial in etiology. Bladder dysfunction is another common MS symptom which limits social engagement and quality of life. To manage bladder issues, individuals with MS tend to limit their fluid intake, which may contribute to a low-hydration (LoH) state and fatigue. Objective To evaluate the relationship between patient-reported MS fatigue, bladder dysfunction, and hydration status. Methods We performed a prospective cross-sectional study in 50 women with MS. Participants submitted a random urine sample and completed several fatigue-related surveys. Using a urine specific gravity (USG) threshold of 1.015, we classified MS subjects into two groups: high-hydration (HiH) and LoH states. Results LoH status was more common in MS subjects with bladder dysfunction. Statistically significant differences in self-reported Fatigue Performance Scale were observed between HiH and LoH subjects (p = 0.022). USG was significantly correlated with fatigue as measured by the MS Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) score (r = 0.328, p = 0.020). Conclusion Hydration status correlates with self-reported fatigue, with lower fatigue scores found in those with HiH status (USG < 1.015). PMID:27542703

  13. Additives and method for controlling clathrate hydrates in fluid systems

    DOEpatents

    Sloan, Jr., Earle Dendy; Christiansen, Richard Lee; Lederhos, Joseph P.; Long, Jin Ping; Panchalingam, Vaithilingam; Du, Yahe; Sum, Amadeu Kun Wan

    1997-01-01

    Discussed is a process for preventing clathrate hydrate masses from detrimentally impeding the possible flow of a fluid susceptible to clathrate hydrate formation. The process is particularly useful in the natural gas and petroleum production, transportation and processing industry where gas hydrate formation can cause serious problems. Additives preferably contain one or more five member, six member and/or seven member cyclic chemical groupings. Additives include polymers having lactam rings. Additives can also contain polyelectrolytes that are believed to improve conformance of polymer additives through steric hinderance and/or charge repulsion. Also, polymers having an amide on which a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 group is attached to the nitrogen and/or the carbonyl carbon of the amide may be used alone, or in combination with ring-containing polymers for enhanced effectiveness. Polymers having at least some repeating units representative of polymerizing at least one of an oxazoline, an N-substituted acrylamide and an N-vinyl alkyl amide are preferred.

  14. Additives and method for controlling clathrate hydrates in fluid systems

    DOEpatents

    Sloan, E.D. Jr.; Christiansen, R.L.; Lederhos, J.P.; Long, J.P.; Panchalingam, V.; Du, Y.; Sum, A.K.W.

    1997-06-17

    Discussed is a process for preventing clathrate hydrate masses from detrimentally impeding the possible flow of a fluid susceptible to clathrate hydrate formation. The process is particularly useful in the natural gas and petroleum production, transportation and processing industry where gas hydrate formation can cause serious problems. Additives preferably contain one or more five member, six member and/or seven member cyclic chemical groupings. Additives include polymers having lactam rings. Additives can also contain polyelectrolytes that are believed to improve conformance of polymer additives through steric hindrance and/or charge repulsion. Also, polymers having an amide on which a C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} group is attached to the nitrogen and/or the carbonyl carbon of the amide may be used alone, or in combination with ring-containing polymers for enhanced effectiveness. Polymers having at least some repeating units representative of polymerizing at least one of an oxazoline, an N-substituted acrylamide and an N-vinyl alkyl amide are preferred.

  15. Cage occupancy and structural changes during hydrate formation from initial stages to resulting hydrate phase.

    PubMed

    Schicks, Judith M; Luzi-Helbing, Manja

    2013-11-01

    Hydrate formation processes and kinetics are still not sufficiently understood on a molecular level based on experimental data. In particular, the cavity formation and occupancy during the initial formation and growth processes of mixed gas hydrates are rarely investigated. In this study, we present the results of our time-depending Raman spectroscopic measurements during the formation of hydrates from ice and gases or gas mixtures such as CH4, CH4-CO2, CH4-H2S, CH4-C3H8, CH4-iso-C4H10, and CH4-neo-C5H12 at constant pressure and temperature conditions and constant composition of the feed gas phase. All investigated systems in this study show the incorporation of CH4 into the 5(12) cavities as first step in the initial stages of hydrate formation. Furthermore, the results imply that the initial hydrate phases differ from the resulting hydrate phase having reached a steady state regarding the occupancy and ratio of the small and large cavities of the hydrate.

  16. Gas hydrate formation rates from dissolved-phase methane in porous laboratory specimens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waite, William F.; Spangenberg, E.K.

    2013-01-01

    Marine sands highly saturated with gas hydrates are potential energy resources, likely forming from methane dissolved in pore water. Laboratory fabrication of gas hydrate-bearing sands formed from dissolved-phase methane usually requires 1–2 months to attain the high hydrate saturations characteristic of naturally occurring energy resource targets. A series of gas hydrate formation tests, in which methane-supersaturated water circulates through 100, 240, and 200,000 cm3 vessels containing glass beads or unconsolidated sand, show that the rate-limiting step is dissolving gaseous-phase methane into the circulating water to form methane-supersaturated fluid. This implies that laboratory and natural hydrate formation rates are primarily limited by methane availability. Developing effective techniques for dissolving gaseous methane into water will increase formation rates above our observed (1 ± 0.5) × 10−7 mol of methane consumed for hydrate formation per minute per cubic centimeter of pore space, which corresponds to a hydrate saturation increase of 2 ± 1% per day, regardless of specimen size.

  17. Hydration of Gas-Phase Ions Formed by Electrospray Ionization

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Cruz, Sandra E.; Klassen, John S.; Williams, Evan R.

    2005-01-01

    The hydration of gas-phase ions produced by electrospray ionization was investigated. Evidence that the hydrated ions are formed by two mechanisms is presented. First, solvent condensation during the expansion inside the electrospray source clearly occurs. Second, some solvent evaporation from more extensively solvated ions or droplets is apparent. To the extent that these highly solvated ions have solution-phase structures, then the final isolated gas-phase structure of the ion will be determined by the solvent evaporation process. This process was investigated for hydrated gramicidin S in a Fourier-transform mass spectrometer. Unimolecular dissociation rate constants of isolated gramicidin S ions with between 2 and 14 associated water molecules were measured. These rate constants increased from 16 to 230 s−1 with increasing hydration, with smaller values corresponding to magic numbers. PMID:10497808

  18. Calculation of liquid water-hydrate-methane vapor phase equilibria from molecular simulations.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Lars; Thomsen, Kaj; von Solms, Nicolas; Wierzchowski, Scott; Walsh, Matthew R; Koh, Carolyn A; Sloan, E Dendy; Wu, David T; Sum, Amadeu K

    2010-05-06

    Monte Carlo simulation methods for determining fluid- and crystal-phase chemical potentials are used for the first time to calculate liquid water-methane hydrate-methane vapor phase equilibria from knowledge of atomistic interaction potentials alone. The water and methane molecules are modeled using the TIP4P/ice potential and a united-atom Lennard-Jones potential, respectively. The equilibrium calculation method for this system has three components, (i) thermodynamic integration from a supercritical ideal gas to obtain the fluid-phase chemical potentials, (ii) calculation of the chemical potential of the zero-occupancy hydrate system using thermodynamic integration from an Einstein crystal reference state, and (iii) thermodynamic integration to obtain the water and guest molecules' chemical potentials as a function of the hydrate occupancy. The three-phase equilibrium curve is calculated for pressures ranging from 20 to 500 bar and is shown to follow the Clapeyron behavior, in agreement with experiment; coexistence temperatures differ from the latter by 4-16 K in the pressure range studied. The enthalpy of dissociation extracted from the calculated P-T curve is within 2% of the experimental value at corresponding conditions. While computationally intensive, simulations such as these are essential to map the thermodynamically stable conditions for hydrate systems.

  19. Numerical investigations of the fluid flows at deep oceanic and arctic permafrost-associated gas hydrate deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederick, Jennifer Mary

    , allows us a unique opportunity to study the response of methane hydrate deposits to warming. Gas hydrate stability in the Arctic and the permeability of the shelf sediments to gas migration is thought to be closely linked with relict submarine permafrost. Submarine permafrost extent depends on several environmental factors, such as the shelf lithology, sea level variations, mean annual air temperature, ocean bottom water temperature, geothermal heat flux, groundwater hydrology, and the salinity of the pore water. Effects of submarine groundwater discharge, which introduces fresh terrestrial groundwater off-shore, can freshen deep marine sediments and is an important control on the freezing point depression of ice and methane hydrate. While several thermal modeling studies suggest the permafrost layer should still be largely intact near-shore, many recent field studies have reported elevated methane levels in Arctic coastal waters. The permafrost layer is thought to create an impermeable barrier to fluid and gas flow, however, talik formation (unfrozen regions within otherwise continuous permafrost) below paleo-river channels can create permeable pathways for gas migration from depth. This is the first study of its kind to make predictions of the methane gas flux to the water column from the Arctic shelf sediments using a 2D multi-phase fluid flow model. Model results show that the dissociation of methane hydrate deposits through taliks can supersaturate the overlying water column at present-day relative to equilibrium with the atmosphere when taliks are large (> 1 km width) or hydrate saturation is high within hydrate layers (> 50% pore volume). Supersaturated waters likely drive a net flux of methane into the atmosphere, a potent greenhouse gas. Effects of anthropogenic global warming will certainly increase gas venting rates if ocean bottom water temperatures increase, but likely won't have immediately observable impacts due to the long response times.

  20. Identification of phase boundaries in anhydrate/hydrate systems.

    PubMed

    Krzyzaniak, Joseph F; Williams, Glenn R; Ni, Nina

    2007-05-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy was used to monitor the phase conversion for two solvatomorphs of caffeine, an anhydrous form and a nonstoichiometric hydrate, as a function of time, temperature, and relative humidity. The transformation kinetics between these caffeine forms was determined to increase with temperature. The rate of conversion was also determined to be dependent on the difference between the observed relative humidity and the equilibrium water activity of the anhydrate/hydrate system, that is, phase boundary. Near the phase boundary, minimal conversion between the anhydrous and hydrated forms of caffeine was detected. Using this kinetic data, the phase boundary for these forms was determined to be approximately 67% RH at 10 degrees C, 74.5% RH at 25 degrees C, and 86% RH at 40 degrees C. At each specified temperature, anhydrous caffeine is the thermodynamically stable form below this relative humidity and the hydrate is stable above. The phase boundary data were then fitted using a second order polynomial to determine the stability relationship between anhydrous caffeine and its hydrate at additional temperatures. This approach can be used to rapidly determine the stability relationship for solvatomorphs as well as the relative kinetics of their interconversion. Both of these factors are critical in selecting the development form, designing appropriate stability studies, and developing robust conditions for the preparation and packaging of the API and formulated drug product.

  1. Venting of carbon dioxide-rich fluid and hydrate formation in mid-okinawa trough backarc basin.

    PubMed

    Sakai, H; Gamo, T; Kim, E S; Tsutsumi, M; Tanaka, T; Ishibashi, J; Wakita, H; Yamano, M; Oomori, T

    1990-06-01

    Carbon dioxide-rich fluid bubbles, containing approximately 86 percent CO(2), 3 percent H(2)S, and 11 percent residual gas (CH(4) + H(2)), were observed to emerge from the sea floor at 1335- to 1550-m depth in the JADE hydrothermal field, mid-Okinawa Trough. Upon contact with seawater at 3.8 degrees C, gas hydrate immediately formed on the surface of the bubbles and these hydrates coalesced to form pipes standing on the sediments. Chemical composition and carbon, sulfur, and helium isotopic ratios indicate that the CO(2)-rich fluid was derived from the same magmatic source as dissolved gases in 320 degrees C hydrothermal solution emitted from a nearby black smoker chimney. The CO(2)-rich fluid phase may be separated by subsurface boiling of hydrothermal solutions or by leaching of CO(2)-rich fluid inclusion during posteruption interaction between pore water and volcanogenic sediments.

  2. A Grain-Scale Coupled Model of Multiphase Fluid Flow and Sediment Mechanics: Application to Methane Hydrates in Natural Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juanes, R.; Jain, A. K.

    2008-12-01

    We present a discrete element model for the simulation, at the grain scale, of gas migration in brine- saturated deformable media. We account rigorously for the presence of two fluids in the pore space by incorporating grain forces due to pore fluid pressures, and surface tension between fluids. The coupled model permits investigating an essential process that takes place at the base of the hydrate stability zone: the upward migration of methane in its own free gas phase. We elucidate the way in which gas migration may take place: (1) by capillary invasion in a rigid-like medium; and (2) by initiation and propagation of a fracture. We find that the main factor controlling the mode of gas transport in the sediment is the grain size, and show that coarse-grain sediments favor capillary invasion, whereas fracturing dominates in fine-grain media. The results have important implications for understanding hydrates in natural systems. Our results predict that, in fine sediments, hydrate will likely form in veins that follow a fracture-network pattern, and the hydrate concentration in this type of accumulations will likely be quite low. In coarse sediments, the buoyant methane gas is likely to invade the pore space more uniformly, in a process akin to invasion percolation, and the overall pore occupancy is likely to be much higher than for a fracture-dominated regime. These implications are consistent with field observations of methane hydrates in natural systems.

  3. Hydration and Fluid Replacement Knowledge, Attitudes, Barriers, and Behaviors of NCAA Division 1 American Football Players.

    PubMed

    Judge, Lawrence W; Kumley, Roberta F; Bellar, David M; Pike, Kim L; Pierson, Eric E; Weidner, Thomas; Pearson, David; Friesen, Carol A

    2016-11-01

    Judge, LW, Kumley, RF, Bellar, DM, Pike, KL, Pierson, EE, Weidner, T, Pearson, D, and Friesen, CA. Hydration and fluid replacement knowledge, attitudes, barriers, and behaviors of NCAA Division 1 American football players. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 2972-2978, 2016-Hydration is an important part of athletic performance, and understanding athletes' hydration knowledge, attitudes, barriers, and behaviors is critical for sport practitioners. The aim of this study was to assess National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division 1 (D1) American football players, with regard to hydration and fluid intake before, during, and after exercise, and to apply this assessment to their overall hydration practice. The sample consisted of 100 student-athletes from 2 different NCAA D1 universities, who participated in voluntary summer football conditioning. Participants completed a survey to identify the fluid and hydration knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, demographic data, primary football position, previous nutrition education, and barriers to adequate fluid consumption. The average Hydration Knowledge Score (HKS) for the participants in the present study was 11.8 ± 1.9 (69.4% correct), with scores ranging from 42 to 100% correct. Four key misunderstandings regarding hydration, specifically related to intervals of hydration habits among the study subjects, were revealed. Only 24% of the players reported drinking enough fluids before, during, immediately after, and 2 hours after practice. Generalized linear model analysis predicted the outcome variable HKS (χ = 28.001, p = 0.045), with nutrition education (Wald χ = 8.250, p = 0.041) and position on the football team (χ = 9.361, p = 0.025) being significant predictors. "Backs" (e.g., quarterbacks, running backs, and defensive backs) demonstrated significantly higher hydration knowledge than "Linemen" (p = 0.014). Findings indicated that if changes are not made to increase hydration awareness levels among football teams

  4. Gas Phase Hydration of Methyl Glyoxal to Form the Gemdiol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroll, Jay A.; Axson, Jessica L.; Vaida, Veronica

    2016-06-01

    Methylglyoxal is a known oxidation product of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Earth's atmosphere. While the gas phase chemistry of methylglyoxal is fairly well understood, its modeled concentration and role in the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) continues to be controversial. The gas phase hydration of methylglyoxal to form a gemdiol has not been widely considered for water-restricted environments such as the atmosphere. However, this process may have important consequences for the atmospheric processing of VOCs. We will report on spectroscopic work done in the Vaida laboratory studying the hydration of methylglyoxal and discuss the implications for understanding the atmospheric processing and fate of methylglyoxal and similar molecules.

  5. Order Parameters and Algorithmic Approaches for Detection and Demarcation of Interfaces in Hydrate-Fluid and Ice-Fluid Systems.

    PubMed

    Sæthre, Bjørn Steen; Hoffmann, Alex C; van der Spoel, David

    2014-12-09

    Some aspects of the use of order parameter fields in molecular dynamics simulations to delimit solid phases containing water, namely ice and hydrate, in both hydrophilic and hydrophobic fluids are examined; this includes the influences of rectangular meshes and of filtering on the quality of these parameters. Three order parameters are studied: the mass density, ρ; an angular tetrahedrality measure, Sg (Chau and Hardwick, Mol. Phys. 1998, 93, 511); and the water-dimer dihedral angle, F4 (Rodger et al. Fluid Phase Equilib. 1996, 116, 326). The parameters are studied to find their ability to distinguish between bulk phases, their consistency in different environments, their noise susceptibility, and their ability to demarcate the interface region. Spatial sampling and filtering are covered in detail, and some temporal features are illustrated by using autocorrelation maps. The parameters are employed to determine the position of interfaces as functions of time and, with the capillary wave fluctuation method (Hoyt et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2001, 86, 5530; Math. Comput. Simul. 2010, 80, 1382), to estimate solid-fluid interfacial stiffnesses, with partial success for the hydrophilic/hydrophobic-type interfaces.

  6. Artificial Nutrition (Food) and Hydration (Fluids) at the End of Life

    MedlinePlus

    Artificial Nutrition (Food) and Hydration (Fluids) at the End of Life It is very common for doctors to provide ... or recovering from surgery. This is called “artificial nutrition and hydration” and like all medical treatments, it ...

  7. X-ray computed tomography observations of phase distribution during methane hydrate formation and dissociation process in a sediment sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Taewoong; Lee, Jaehyoung; Lee, Joo Yong; Kim, Se-Joon; Seo, Young-ju

    2016-04-01

    The recovery schemes for natural gas caged in the solid state have not been commercialized. Depressurization has been known as a promising method due to its economic feasibility according to previous lab-scale experiments and simulation studies. However, the results of few field tests showed that the production characteristics of real field differed from that of predicted results. To reliably predict the production performance of real fields, it is necessary to understand quantitative changes of phase distribution and fluid flow in sediments in response to hydrate dissociation by depressurization. In this study, we observed and analyzed the phase distribution and flow behavior during methane hydrate formation and dissociation using X-ray computed tomography which provides high-resolution density distribution. Artificial particles having similar grain size distribution of sandy layers found in real hydrate field were packed into X-ray transparent aluminum vessel. Information on pore distribution within a sediment sample was achieved by comparing CT images between dry condition and fully water-saturated condition. Dynamic changes of phase saturation were observed during gas flooding, through which potential flow pathway was estimated. Hydrate formation and dissociation significantly affected phase distribution and flow pathway. Hydrate distribution was extremely heterogeneous in every tests of hydrate formation repeated with same amount of water. It was inferred that water saturation prior to hydrate formation was not directly correlated to the hydrate distribution. There were definite differences of hydrate dissociation behavior between gas-saturated and water-saturated hydrate-bearing sample. The production of gas and water lasted quite a while even after the production pressure reached the target level of depressurization.

  8. Effects of Fluid Saturation on Gas Recovery from Class-3 Hydrate Accumulations Using Depressurization: Case Study of Yuan-An Ridge Site in Southwestern Offshore Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yi-Jyun; Wu, Cheng-Yueh; Hsieh, Bieng-Zih

    2016-04-01

    Gas hydrates are crystalline compounds in which guest gas molecules are trapped in host lattices of ice crystals. In Taiwan, the significant efforts have recently begun to evaluate the reserves of hydrate because the vast accumulations of gas hydrates had been recognized in southwestern offshore Taiwan. Class-3 type hydrate accumulations are referred to an isolated hydrate layer without an underlying zone of mobile fluids, and the entire hydrate layer may be well within the hydrate stability zone. The depressurization method is a useful dissociation method for gas production from Class-3 hydrate accumulations. The dissociation efficiency is controlled by the responses of hydrate to the propagating pressure disturbance, and the pressure propagation is relating to the amount (or saturation) of the mobile fluid in pore space of the hydrate layer. The purpose of this study is to study the effects of fluid saturation on the gas recovery from a class-3 hydrate accumulation using depressurization method. The case of a class-3 hydrate deposit of Yuan-An Ridge in southwestern offshore Taiwan is studied. The numerical method was used in this study. The reservoir simulator we used to study the dissociation of hydrate and the production of gas was the STARS simulator developed by CMG, which coupled heat transfer, geo-chemical, geo-mechanical, and multiphase fluid flow mechanisms. The study case of Yuan-An Ridge is located in southwestern offshore Taiwan. The hydrate deposit was found by the bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs). The geological structure of the studied hydrate deposit was digitized to build the geological model (grids) of the case. The formation parameters, phase behavior data, rock and fluid properties, and formation's initial conditions were assigned sequentially to grid blocks, and the completion and operation conditions were designed to wellbore blocks to finish the numerical model. The changes of reservoir pressure, temperature, saturation due to the hydrate

  9. Computational phase diagrams of noble gas hydrates under pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Teeratchanan, Pattanasak Hermann, Andreas

    2015-10-21

    We present results from a first-principles study on the stability of noble gas-water compounds in the pressure range 0-100 kbar. Filled-ice structures based on the host water networks ice-I{sub h}, ice-I{sub c}, ice-II, and C{sub 0} interacting with guest species He, Ne, and Ar are investigated, using density functional theory (DFT) with four different exchange-correlation functionals that include dispersion effects to various degrees: the non-local density-based optPBE-van der Waals (vdW) and rPW86-vdW2 functionals, the semi-empirical D2 atom pair correction, and the semi-local PBE functional. In the He-water system, the sequence of stable phases closely matches that seen in the hydrogen hydrates, a guest species of comparable size. In the Ne-water system, we predict a novel hydrate structure based on the C{sub 0} water network to be stable or at least competitive at relatively low pressure. In the Ar-water system, as expected, no filled-ice phases are stable; however, a partially occupied Ar-C{sub 0} hydrate structure is metastable with respect to the constituents. The ability of the different DFT functionals to describe the weak host-guest interactions is analysed and compared to coupled cluster results on gas phase systems.

  10. Computational phase diagrams of noble gas hydrates under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teeratchanan, Pattanasak; Hermann, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    We present results from a first-principles study on the stability of noble gas-water compounds in the pressure range 0-100 kbar. Filled-ice structures based on the host water networks ice-Ih, ice-Ic, ice-II, and C0 interacting with guest species He, Ne, and Ar are investigated, using density functional theory (DFT) with four different exchange-correlation functionals that include dispersion effects to various degrees: the non-local density-based optPBE-van der Waals (vdW) and rPW86-vdW2 functionals, the semi-empirical D2 atom pair correction, and the semi-local PBE functional. In the He-water system, the sequence of stable phases closely matches that seen in the hydrogen hydrates, a guest species of comparable size. In the Ne-water system, we predict a novel hydrate structure based on the C0 water network to be stable or at least competitive at relatively low pressure. In the Ar-water system, as expected, no filled-ice phases are stable; however, a partially occupied Ar-C0 hydrate structure is metastable with respect to the constituents. The ability of the different DFT functionals to describe the weak host-guest interactions is analysed and compared to coupled cluster results on gas phase systems.

  11. CO2-rich fluid inclusions in greenschists, migmatites, granulites, and hydrated granulites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollister, L. S.

    1988-01-01

    Data was discussed from several different terrains in which CO2-rich fluid inclusions occur despite parageneses that predict the presence of H2O-rich fluids. CO2-rich fluid inclusions, some having densities appropriate for peak-metamorphic conditions, were found in greenschists, amphibolites, migmatites, and hydrated granulites. The author suggested that there may be a common process that leads to CO2-rich secondary inclusions in metamorphic rocks.

  12. The inverse hexagonal - inverse ribbon - lamellar gel phase transition sequence in low hydration DOPC:DOPE phospholipid mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, B; Garvey, C J; Cookson, D; Bryant, G

    2009-01-05

    The inverse hexagonal to inverse ribbon phase transition in a mixed phosphatidylcholine-phosphatidylethanolamine system at low hydration is studied using small and wide angle X-ray scattering. It is found that the structural parameters of the inverse hexagonal phase are independent of temperature. By contrast the length of each ribbon of the inverse ribbon phase increases continuously with decreasing temperature over a range of 50 ºC. At low temperatures the inverse ribbon phase is observed to have a transition to a gel lamellar phase, with no intermediate fluid lamellar phase. This phase transition is confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry.

  13. Comparing the mechanical properties of the porcine knee meniscus when hydrated in saline versus synovial fluid.

    PubMed

    Lakes, Emily H; Kline, Courtney L; McFetridge, Peter S; Allen, Kyle D

    2015-12-16

    As research progresses to find a suitable knee meniscus replacement, accurate in vitro testing becomes critical for feasibility and comparison studies of mechanical integrity. Within the knee, the meniscus is bathed in synovial fluid, yet the most common hydration fluid in laboratory testing is phosphate buffered saline (PBS). PBS is a relatively simple salt solution, while synovial fluid is a complex non-Newtonian fluid with multiple lubricating factors. As such, PBS may interact with meniscal tissue differently than synovial fluid, and thus, the hydration fluid may be an important factor in obtaining accurate results during in vitro testing. To evaluate these effects, medial porcine menisci were used to evaluate tissue mechanics in tension (n=11) and compression (n=15). In all tests, two samples from the same meniscus were taken, where one sample was hydrated in PBS and the other was hydrated in synovial fluid. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences between the mean mechanical properties of samples tested in PBS compared to synovial fluid; however, compressive testing revealed the variability between samples was significantly reduced if samples were tested in synovial fluid. For example, the compressive Young׳s Modulus was 12.69±7.49MPa in PBS versus 12.34±4.27MPa in synovial fluid. These results indicate testing meniscal tissue in PBS will largely not affect the mean value of the mechanical properties, but performing compression testing in synovial fluid may provide more consistent results between samples and assist in reducing sample numbers in some experiments.

  14. Study of Mix CO2/CH4 Hydrate Phase Transitions vs the Thickness of Surrounding Water Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvamme, B.; Baig, K.; Kuznetsova, T.

    2014-12-01

    Conversion of reservoir CH4 hydrate into CO2 hydrate is an interesting option offering a win-win combination of energy production with safe long-term storage of CO2 to minimize the CO2 footprint. As described theoretically and verified experimentally, CO2 is capable of inducing and maintaining a solid state exchange process of conversion. This mechanism will be slow since it is kinetically controlled by solid state mass transport through the hydrate. In parallel to this, the injected CO2 will form new hydrate from free water trapped in pores. Heat released by this process will contribute to dissociation of in situ CH4 hydrate and thus provide a second conversion mechanism with its rate controlled by liquid state transport processes. Understanding the kinetics of gas hydrate formation and dissociation is crucial for the development of theoretical models describing gas exchange processes and providing a basis for efficient design of production schemes. In this work, we combine a non-equilibrium description of hydrate and fluid thermodynamics with the phase field theory (PFT) for simulation of phase transition kinetics. The phase field theory approach allows one to minimize the free energy while taking into account the implicit couplings to mass and heat transport as well as hydrodynamics. The hydrodynamic treatment is important to distinguish between situations when gas released in the course of dissociation will dissolve into surrounding water (slow dissociation), and more rapid dissociation creating dispersed gas bubbles that will affect the available dissociation interface and influence heat transport. We studied the conversion of CH4 hydrate into either CO2 hydrate or mixed CO2-CH4 hydrate to investigate the relative impact of the two mechanisms. The efficiency of mechanism based on formation of new CO2 hydrate will depend on the contact area between injected CO2 and liquid water. We have therefore investigated three CH4 hydrate systems surrounded by varying

  15. Fluid flow, methane fluxes, carbonate precipitation and biogeochemical turnover in gas hydrate-bearing sediments at Hydrate Ridge, Cascadia Margin: numerical modeling and mass balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luff, Roger; Wallmann, Klaus

    2003-09-01

    A numerical model was applied to investigate and to quantify biogeochemical processes and methane turnover in gas hydrate-bearing surface sediments from a cold vent site situated at Hydrate Ridge, an accretionary structure located in the Cascadia Margin subduction zone. Steady state simulations were carried out to obtain a comprehensive overview on the activity in these sediments which are covered with bacterial mats and are affected by strong fluid flow from below. The model results underline the dominance of advective fluid flow that forces a large inflow of methane from below (869 μmol cm -2 a -1) inducing high oxidation rates in the surface layers. Anaerobic methane oxidation is the major process, proceeding at a depth-integrated rate of 870 μmol cm -2 a -1. A significant fraction (14%) of bicarbonate produced by anaerobic methane oxidation is removed from the fluids by precipitation of authigenic aragonite and calcite. The total rate of carbonate precipitation (120 μmol cm -2 a -1) allows for the build-up of a massive carbonate layer with a thickness of 1 m over a period of 20,000 years. Aragonite is the major carbonate mineral formed by anaerobic methane oxidation if the flow velocity of methane-charge fluids is high enough (≥10 cm a -1) to maintain super-saturation with respect to this highly soluble carbonate phase. It precipitates much faster within the studied surface sediments than previously observed in abiotic laboratory experiments, suggesting microbial catalysis. The investigated station is characterized by high carbon and oxygen turnover rates (≈1000 μmol cm -2 a -1) that are well beyond the rates observed at other continental slope sites not affected by fluid venting. This underlines the strong impact of fluid venting on the benthic system, even though the flow velocity of 10 cm a -1 derived by the model is relative low compared to fluid flow rates found at other cold vent sites. Non-steady state simulations using measured fluid flow

  16. Direct Visualization of the Hydration Layer on Alumina Nanoparticles with the Fluid Cell STEM in situ

    PubMed Central

    Firlar, Emre; Çınar, Simge; Kashyap, Sanjay; Akinc, Mufit; Prozorov, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    Rheological behavior of aqueous suspensions containing nanometer-sized powders is of relevance to many branches of industry. Unusually high viscosities observed for suspensions of nanoparticles compared to those of micron size powders cannot be explained by current viscosity models. Formation of so-called hydration layer on alumina nanoparticles in water was hypothesized, but never observed experimentally. We report here on the direct visualization of aqueous suspensions of alumina with the fluid cell in situ. We observe the hydration layer formed over the particle aggregates and show that such hydrated aggregates constitute new particle assemblies and affect the flow behavior of the suspensions. We discuss how these hydrated nanoclusters alter the effective solid content and the viscosity of nanostructured suspensions. Our findings elucidate the source of high viscosity observed for nanoparticle suspensions and are of direct relevance to many industrial sectors including materials, food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical among others employing colloidal slurries with nanometer-scale particles. PMID:25996055

  17. Evaluation of phase envelope on natural gas, condensate and gas hydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Promkotra, S.; Kangsadan, T.

    2015-03-01

    The experimentally gas hydrate are generated by condensate and natural gas. Natural gas and condensate samples are collected from a gas processing plant where is situated in the northeastern part of Thailand. Physical properties of the API gravity and density of condensate are presented in the range of 55-60° and 0.71-0.76 g/cm3. The chemical compositions of petroleum-field water are analyzed to evaluate the genesis of gas hydrate by experimental procedure. The hydrochemical compositions of petroleum-field waters are mostly the Na-Cl facies. This condition can estimate how the hydrate forms. Phase envelope of condensate is found only one phase which is liquid phase. The liquid fraction is 100% at 15°C and 101.327 kPa, with the critical pressure and temperature of 2,326 kPa and 611.5 K. However, natural gas can be separated in three phases which are vapor, liquid and solid phase with the pressure and temperature at 100 kPa and 274.2 K. The hydrate curves explicit both hydrate zone and nonhydrate zone. Phase envelope of gas hydrate from the phase diagram indicates the hydrate formation. The experimental results of hydrate form can correlate to the hydrate curve. Besides, the important factor of hydrate formation depends on impurity in the petroleum system.

  18. Fluid Flow Patterns During Production from Gas Hydrates in the Laboratory compared to Field Settings: LARS vs. Mallik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauch, B.; Heeschen, K. U.; Priegnitz, M.; Abendroth, S.; Spangenberg, E.; Thaler, J.; Schicks, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The GFZ's LArge Reservoir Simulator LARS allows for the simulation of the 2008 Mallik gas hydrate production test and the comparison of fluid flow patterns and their driving forces. Do we see the gas flow pattern described for Mallik [Uddin, M. et al., J. Can. Petrol Tech, 50, 70-89, 2011] in a pilot scale test? If so, what are the driving forces? LARS has a network of temperature sensors and an electric resistivity tomography (ERT) enabling a good spatial resolution of gas hydrate occurrences, water and gas distribution, and changes in temperature in the sample. A gas flow meter and a water trap record fluid flow patterns and a backpressure valve has controlled the depressurization equivalent to the three pressure stages (7.0 - 5.0 - 4.2 MPa) applied in the Mallik field test. The environmental temperature (284 K) and confining pressure (13 MPa) have been constant. The depressurization induced immediate endothermic gas hydrate dissociation until re-establishment of the stability conditions by a consequent temperature decrease. Slight gas hydrate dissociation continued at the top and upper lateral border due to the constant heat input from the environment. Here transport pathways were short and permeability higher due to lower gas hydrate saturation. At pressures of 7.0 and 5.0 MPa the LARS tests showed high water flow rates and short irregular spikes of gas production. The gas flow patterns at 4.2 MPa and 3.0MPa resembled those of the Mallik test. In LARS the initial gas surges overlap with times of hydrate instability while water content and lengths of pathways had increased. Water production was at a minimum. A rapidly formed continuous gas phase caused the initial gas surges and only after gas hydrate dissociation decreased to a minimum the single gas bubbles get trapped before slowly coalescing again. In LARS, where pathways were short and no additional water was added, a transport of microbubbles is unlikely to cause a gas surge as suggested for Mallik.

  19. The analysis of magnesium oxide hydration in three-phase reaction system

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Xiaojia; Guo, Lin; Chen, Chen; Liu, Quan; Li, Tie; Zhu, Yimin

    2014-05-01

    In order to investigate the magnesium oxide hydration process in gas–liquid–solid (three-phase) reaction system, magnesium hydroxide was prepared by magnesium oxide hydration in liquid–solid (two-phase) and three-phase reaction systems. A semi-empirical model and the classical shrinking core model were used to fit the experimental data. The fitting result shows that both models describe well the hydration process of three-phase system, while only the semi-empirical model right for the hydration process of two-phase system. The characterization of the hydration product using X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) was performed. The XRD and SEM show hydration process in the two-phase system follows common dissolution/precipitation mechanism. While in the three-phase system, the hydration process undergo MgO dissolution, Mg(OH){sub 2} precipitation, Mg(OH){sub 2} peeling off from MgO particle and leaving behind fresh MgO surface. - Graphical abstract: There was existence of a peeling-off process in the gas–liquid–solid (three-phase) MgO hydration system. - Highlights: • Magnesium oxide hydration in gas–liquid–solid system was investigated. • The experimental data in three-phase system could be fitted well by two models. • The morphology analysis suggested that there was existence of a peel-off process.

  20. Structural Phase Transitions and Water Dynamics in Uranyl Fluoride Hydrates

    DOE PAGES

    Miskowiec, Andrew J.; Kirkegaard, Marie C.; Huq, Ashfia; ...

    2015-11-17

    We report a novel production method for uranium oxy uoride [(UO2)7F14(H2O)7] 4H2O, referred to as structure D. Structure D is produced as a product of hydrating anhydrous uranyl uoride, UO2F2, through the gas phase at ambient temperatures fol- lowed by desiccation by equilibration with a dry environment. We follow the structure of [(UO2)7F14(H2O)7] 4H2O through an intermediate, liquid-like phase, wherein the coordination number of the uranyl ion is reduced to 5 (from 6 in the anhydrous struc- ture), and a water molecule binds as an equatorial ligand to the uranyl ion. Quasielas- tic neutron scattering results compare well with previousmore » measurements of mineral hydrates. The two groups of structurally distinct water molecules in D perform re- stricted motion on a length scale commensurate with the O{H bond (r = 0.92 A). The more tightly bound equatorial ligand waters rotate slower (Dr = 2.2 ps-1) than their hydrogen-bonded partners (Dr = 28.7 ps-1).« less

  1. Structural Phase Transitions and Water Dynamics in Uranyl Fluoride Hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Miskowiec, Andrew J.; Kirkegaard, Marie C.; Huq, Ashfia; Mamontov, Eugene; Herwig, Kenneth W.; Trowbridge, Lee D.; Rondinone, Adam Justin; Anderson, Brian B.

    2015-11-17

    We report a novel production method for uranium oxy uoride [(UO2)7F14(H2O)7] 4H2O, referred to as structure D. Structure D is produced as a product of hydrating anhydrous uranyl uoride, UO2F2, through the gas phase at ambient temperatures fol- lowed by desiccation by equilibration with a dry environment. We follow the structure of [(UO2)7F14(H2O)7] 4H2O through an intermediate, liquid-like phase, wherein the coordination number of the uranyl ion is reduced to 5 (from 6 in the anhydrous struc- ture), and a water molecule binds as an equatorial ligand to the uranyl ion. Quasielas- tic neutron scattering results compare well with previous measurements of mineral hydrates. The two groups of structurally distinct water molecules in D perform re- stricted motion on a length scale commensurate with the O{H bond (r = 0.92 A). The more tightly bound equatorial ligand waters rotate slower (Dr = 2.2 ps-1) than their hydrogen-bonded partners (Dr = 28.7 ps-1).

  2. The impact of fluid advection on gas hydrate stability: Investigations at sites of methane seepage offshore Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crutchley, G. J.; Klaeschen, D.; Planert, L.; Bialas, J.; Berndt, C.; Papenberg, C.; Hensen, C.; Hornbach, M. J.; Krastel, S.; Brueckmann, W.

    2014-09-01

    Fluid flow through marine sediments drives a wide range of processes, from gas hydrate formation and dissociation, to seafloor methane seepage including the development of chemosynthetic ecosystems, and ocean acidification. Here, we present new seismic data that reveal the 3D nature of focused fluid flow beneath two mound structures on the seafloor offshore Costa Rica. These mounds have formed as a result of ongoing seepage of methane-rich fluids. We show the spatial impact of advective heat flow on gas hydrate stability due to the channelled ascent of warm fluids towards the seafloor. The base of gas hydrate stability (BGHS) imaged in the seismic data constrains peak heat flow values to ∼60 mW m and ∼70 mW m beneath two separate seep sites known as Mound 11 and Mound 12, respectively. The initiation of pronounced fluid flow towards these structures was likely controlled by fault networks that acted as efficient pathways for warm fluids ascending from depth. Through the gas hydrate stability zone, fluid flow has been focused through vertical conduits that we suggest developed as migrating fluids generated their own secondary permeability by fracturing strata as they forced their way upwards towards the seafloor. We show that Mound 11 and Mound 12 (about 1 km apart on the seafloor) are sustained by independent fluid flow systems through the hydrate system, and that fluid flow rates across the BGHS are probably similar beneath both mounds. 2D seismic data suggest that these two flow systems might merge at approximately 1 km depth, i.e. much deeper than the BGHS. This study provides a new level of detail and understanding of how channelled, anomalously-high fluid flow towards the seafloor influences gas hydrate stability. Thus, gas hydrate systems have good potential for quantifying the upward flow of subduction system fluids to seafloor seep sites, since the fluids have to interact with and leave their mark on the hydrate system before reaching the seafloor.

  3. Hexosome and hexagonal phases mediated by hydration and polymeric stabilizer.

    PubMed

    Amar-Yuli, Idit; Wachtel, Ellen; Shoshan, Einav Ben; Danino, Dganit; Aserin, Abraham; Garti, Nissim

    2007-03-27

    In this research, we studied the factors that control formation of GMO/tricaprylin/water hexosomes and affect their inner structure. As a stabilizer of the soft particles dispersed in the aqueous phase, we used the hydrophilic nonionic triblock polymer Pluronic 127. We demonstrate how properties of the hexosomes, such as size, structure, and stability, can be tuned by their internal composition, polymer concentration, and processing conditions. The morphology and inner structure of the hexosomes were characterized by small-angle X-ray scattering, cryo-transmission electron microscope, and dynamic light scattering. The physical stability (to creaming, aggregation, and coalescence) of the hexosomes was further examined by the LUMiFuge technique. Two competing processes are presumed to take place during the formation of hexosomes: penetration of water from the continuous phase during dispersion, resulting in enhanced hydration of the head groups, and incorporation of the polymer chains into the hexosome structure while providing a stabilizing surface coating for the dispersed particles. Hydration is an essential stage in lyotropic liquid crystal (LLC) formation. The polymer, on the other hand, dehydrates the lipid heads, thereby introducing disorder into the LLC and reducing the domain size. Yet, a critical minimum polymer concentration is necessary in order to form stable nanosized hexosomes. These competing effects require the attention of those preparing hexosomes. The competition between these two processes can be controlled. At relatively high polymer concentrations (1-1.6 wt % of the total formulation of the soft particles), the hydration process seems to occur more rapidly than polymer adsorption. As a result, smaller and more stable soft particles with high symmetry were formed. On the other hand, when the polymer concentration is fixed at lower levels (<1.0 wt %), the homogenization process encourages only partial polymer adsorption during the dispersion

  4. Pore fluid geochemistry from the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torres, M.E.; Collett, T.S.; Rose, K.K.; Sample, J.C.; Agena, W.F.; Rosenbaum, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    The BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well was drilled and cored from 606.5 to 760.1. m on the North Slope of Alaska, to evaluate the occurrence, distribution and formation of gas hydrate in sediments below the base of the ice-bearing permafrost. Both the dissolved chloride and the isotopic composition of the water co-vary in the gas hydrate-bearing zones, consistent with gas hydrate dissociation during core recovery, and they provide independent indicators to constrain the zone of gas hydrate occurrence. Analyses of chloride and water isotope data indicate that an observed increase in salinity towards the top of the cored section reflects the presence of residual fluids from ion exclusion during ice formation at the base of the permafrost layer. These salinity changes are the main factor controlling major and minor ion distributions in the Mount Elbert Well. The resulting background chloride can be simulated with a one-dimensional diffusion model, and the results suggest that the ion exclusion at the top of the cored section reflects deepening of the permafrost layer following the last glaciation (???100 kyr), consistent with published thermal models. Gas hydrate saturation values estimated from dissolved chloride agree with estimates based on logging data when the gas hydrate occupies more than 20% of the pore space; the correlation is less robust at lower saturation values. The highest gas hydrate concentrations at the Mount Elbert Well are clearly associated with coarse-grained sedimentary sections, as expected from theoretical calculations and field observations in marine and other arctic sediment cores. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Improved evidence for the existence of an intermediate phase during hydration of tricalcium silicate

    SciTech Connect

    Bellmann, Frank; Damidot, Denis; Moeser, Bernd; Skibsted, Jorgen

    2010-06-15

    Tricalcium silicate (Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 5}) with a very small particle size of approximately 50 nm has been prepared and hydrated for a very short time (5 min) by two different modes in a paste experiment, using a water/solid-ratio of 1.20, and by hydration as a suspension employing a water/solid-ratio of 4000. A phase containing uncondensed silicate monomers close to hydrogen atoms (either hydroxyl groups or water molecules) was formed in both experiments. This phase is distinct from anhydrous tricalcium silicate and from the calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) phase, commonly identified as the hydration product of tricalcium silicate. In the paste experiment, approximately 79% of silicon atoms were present in the hydrated phase containing silicate monomers as determined from {sup 29}Sileft brace{sup 1}Hright brace CP/MAS NMR. This result is used to show that the hydrated silicate monomers are part of a separate phase and that they cannot be attributed to a hydroxylated surface of tricalcium silicate after contact with water. The phase containing hydrated silicate monomers is metastable with respect to the C-S-H phase since it transforms into the latter in a half saturated calcium hydroxide solution. These data is used to emphasize that the hydration of tricalcium silicate proceeds in two consecutive steps. In the first reaction, an intermediate phase containing hydrated silicate monomers is formed which is subsequently transformed into C-S-H as the final hydration product in the second step. The introduction of an intermediate phase in calculations of the early hydration of tricalcium silicate can explain the presence of the induction period. It is shown that heterogeneous nucleation on appropriate crystal surfaces is able to reduce the length of the induction period and thus to accelerate the reaction of tricalcium silicate with water.

  6. Elasticity of methane hydrate phases at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beam, Jennifer; Yang, Jing; Liu, Jin; Liu, Chujie; Lin, Jung-Fu

    2016-04-01

    Determination of the full elastic constants (cij) of methane hydrates (MHs) at extreme pressure-temperature environments is essential to our understanding of the elastic, thermodynamic, and mechanical properties of methane in MH reservoirs on Earth and icy satellites in the solar system. Here, we have investigated the elastic properties of singe-crystal cubic MH-sI, hexagonal MH-II, and orthorhombic MH-III phases at high pressures in a diamond anvil cell. Brillouin light scattering measurements, together with complimentary equation of state (pressure-density) results from X-ray diffraction and methane site occupancies in MH from Raman spectroscopy, were used to derive elastic constants of MH-sI, MH-II, and MH-III phases at high pressures. Analysis of the elastic constants for MH-sI and MH-II showed intriguing similarities and differences between the phases' compressional wave velocity anisotropy and shear wave velocity anisotropy. Our results show that these high-pressure MH phases can exhibit distinct elastic, thermodynamic, and mechanical properties at relevant environments of their respective natural reservoirs. These results provide new insight into the determination of how much methane exists in MH reservoirs on Earth and on icy satellites elsewhere in the solar system and put constraints on the pressure and temperature conditions of their environment.

  7. Pressure induced reactions amongst calcium aluminate hydrate phases

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Ju-hyuk; Oh, Jae Eun; Balonis, Magdalena; Glasser, Fredrik P.; Clark, Simon M.; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.

    2011-06-15

    The compressibilities of two AFm phases (straetlingite and calcium hemicarboaluminate hydrate) and hydrogarnet were obtained up to 5 GPa by using synchrotron high-pressure X-ray powder diffraction with a diamond anvil cell. The AFm phases show abrupt volume contraction regardless of the molecular size of the pressure-transmitting media. This volume discontinuity could be associated to a structural transition or to the movement of the weakly bound interlayer water molecules in the AFm structure. The experimental results seem to indicate that the pressure-induced dehydration is the dominant mechanism especially with hygroscopic pressure medium. The Birch-Murnaghan equation of state was used to compute the bulk modulus of the minerals. Due to the discontinuity in the pressure-volume diagram, a two stage bulk modulus of each AFm phase was calculated. The abnormal volume compressibility for the AFm phases caused a significant change to their bulk modulus. The reliability of this experiment is verified by comparing the bulk modulus of hydrogarnet with previous studies.

  8. Fluid and salt supplementation effect on body hydration and electrolyte homeostasis during bed rest and ambulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Kakurin, Vassily J.; Kuznetsov, Nikolai A.; Yarullin, Vladimir L.

    2002-06-01

    Bed rest (BR) induces significant urinary and blood electrolyte changes, but little is known about the effect of fluid and salt supplements (FSS) on catabolism, hydration and electrolytes. The aim was to measure the effect of FSS on catabolism, body hydration and electrolytes during BR. Studies were done during 7 days of a pre-bed rest period and during 30 days of a rigorous bed rest period. Thirty male athletes aged, 24.6±7.6 years were chosen as subjects. They were divided into three groups: unsupplemented ambulatory control subjects (UACS), unsupplemented bed rested subjects (UBRS) and supplemented bed rested subjects (SBRS). The UBRS and SBRS groups were kept under a rigorous bed rest regime for 30 days. The SBRS daily took 30 ml water per kg body weight and 0.1 sodium chloride per kg body weight. Plasma sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) levels, urinary Na, K, Ca and Mg excretion, plasma osmolality, plasma protein level, whole blood hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) level increased significantly ( p≤0.05), while plasma volume (PV), body weight, body fat, peak oxygen uptake, food and fluid intake decreased significantly ( p≤0.05) in the UBRS group when compared with the SBRS and UACS groups. In contrast, plasma and urinary electrolytes, osmolality, protein level, whole blood Hct and Hb level decreased significantly ( p≤0.05), while PV, fluid intake, body weight and peak oxygen uptake increased significantly ( p≤0.05) in the SBRS group when compared with the UBRS group. The measured parameters did not change significantly in the UACS group when compared with their baseline control values. The data indicate that FSS stabilizes electrolytes and body hydration during BR, while BR alone induces significant changes in electrolytes and body hydration. We conclude that FSS may be used to prevent catabolism and normalize body hydration status and electrolyte values during BR.

  9. Phase I (CATTS Theory), Phase II (Milne Point), Phase III (Hydrate Ridge)

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-10-31

    This study introduces a new type of cumulative seismic attribute (CATT) which quantifies gas hydrates resources in Hydrate Ridge offshore Oregon. CATT is base on case-specific transforms that portray hydrated reservoir properties. In this study we used a theoretical rock physics model to correct measured velocity log data.

  10. Hydration Status and Fluid Balance of Elite European Youth Soccer Players during Consecutive Training Sessions

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Saun M.; Sykes, Dave; Gibson, Neil

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the hydration status and fluid balance of elite European youth soccer players during three consecutive training sessions. Fourteen males (age 16.9 ± 0.8 years, height 1.79 ± 0.06 m, body mass (BM) 70.6 ± 5.0 kg) had their hydration status assessed from first morning urine samples (baseline) and pre- and post-training using urine specific gravity (USG) measures, and their fluid balance calculated from pre- to post-training BM change, corrected for fluid intake and urine output. Most participants were hypohydrated upon waking (USG >1.020; 77% on days 1 and 3, and 62% on day 2). There was no significant difference between first morning and pre-training USG (p = 0.11) and no influence of training session (p = 0.34) or time (pre- vs. post-training; p = 0.16) on USG. Significant BM loss occurred in sessions 1-3 (0.69 ± 0.22, 0.42 ± 0.25, and 0.38 ± 0.30 kg respectively, p < 0.05). Mean fluid intake in sessions 1-3 was 425 ± 185, 355 ± 161, and 247 ± 157 ml, respectively (p < 0.05). Participants replaced on average 71.3 ± 64.1% (range 0-363.6%) of fluid losses across the three sessions. Body mass loss, fluid intake, and USG measures showed large inter-individual variation. Elite young European soccer players likely wake and present for training hypohydrated, when a USG threshold of 1.020 is applied. When training in a cool environment with ad libitum access to fluid, replacing ~71% of sweat losses results in minimal hypohydration (<1% BM). Consumption of fluid ad libitum throughout training appears to prevent excessive (≥2% BM) dehydration, as advised by current fluid intake guidelines. Current fluid intake guidelines appear applicable for elite European youth soccer players training in a cool environment. Key Points The paper demonstrates a notable inter-participant variation in first morning, pre- and post-training hydration status and fluid balance of elite young European soccer players. On average, elite young

  11. Hydration Status and Fluid Balance of Elite European Youth Soccer Players during Consecutive Training Sessions.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Saun M; Sykes, Dave; Gibson, Neil

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the hydration status and fluid balance of elite European youth soccer players during three consecutive training sessions. Fourteen males (age 16.9 ± 0.8 years, height 1.79 ± 0.06 m, body mass (BM) 70.6 ± 5.0 kg) had their hydration status assessed from first morning urine samples (baseline) and pre- and post-training using urine specific gravity (USG) measures, and their fluid balance calculated from pre- to post-training BM change, corrected for fluid intake and urine output. Most participants were hypohydrated upon waking (USG >1.020; 77% on days 1 and 3, and 62% on day 2). There was no significant difference between first morning and pre-training USG (p = 0.11) and no influence of training session (p = 0.34) or time (pre- vs. post-training; p = 0.16) on USG. Significant BM loss occurred in sessions 1-3 (0.69 ± 0.22, 0.42 ± 0.25, and 0.38 ± 0.30 kg respectively, p < 0.05). Mean fluid intake in sessions 1-3 was 425 ± 185, 355 ± 161, and 247 ± 157 ml, respectively (p < 0.05). Participants replaced on average 71.3 ± 64.1% (range 0-363.6%) of fluid losses across the three sessions. Body mass loss, fluid intake, and USG measures showed large inter-individual variation. Elite young European soccer players likely wake and present for training hypohydrated, when a USG threshold of 1.020 is applied. When training in a cool environment with ad libitum access to fluid, replacing ~71% of sweat losses results in minimal hypohydration (<1% BM). Consumption of fluid ad libitum throughout training appears to prevent excessive (≥2% BM) dehydration, as advised by current fluid intake guidelines. Current fluid intake guidelines appear applicable for elite European youth soccer players training in a cool environment. Key PointsThe paper demonstrates a notable inter-participant variation in first morning, pre- and post-training hydration status and fluid balance of elite young European soccer players.On average, elite young

  12. Hydration of gas-phase ytterbium ion complexes studied by experiment and theory

    SciTech Connect

    Rutkowski, Philip X; Michelini, Maria C.; Bray, Travis H.; Russo, Nino; Marcalo, Joaquim; Gibson, John K.

    2011-02-11

    Hydration of ytterbium (III) halide/hydroxide ions produced by electrospray ionization was studied in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer and by density functional theory (DFT). Gas-phase YbX{sub 2}{sup +} and YbX(OH){sup +} (X = OH, Cl, Br, or I) were found to coordinate from one to four water molecules, depending on the ion residence time in the trap. From the time dependence of the hydration steps, relative reaction rates were obtained. It was determined that the second hydration was faster than both the first and third hydrations, and the fourth hydration was the slowest; this ordering reflects a combination of insufficient degrees of freedom for cooling the hot monohydrate ion and decreasing binding energies with increasing hydration number. Hydration energetics and hydrate structures were computed using two approaches of DFT. The relativistic scalar ZORA approach was used with the PBE functional and all-electron TZ2P basis sets; the B3LYP functional was used with the Stuttgart relativistic small-core ANO/ECP basis sets. The parallel experimental and computational results illuminate fundamental aspects of hydration of f-element ion complexes. The experimental observations - kinetics and extent of hydration - are discussed in relationship to the computed structures and energetics of the hydrates. The absence of pentahydrates is in accord with the DFT results, which indicate that the lowest energy structures have the fifth water molecule in the second shell.

  13. Phase Transition of a Structure II Cubic Clathrate Hydrate to a Tetragonal Form.

    PubMed

    Takeya, Satoshi; Fujihisa, Hiroshi; Yamawaki, Hiroshi; Gotoh, Yoshito; Ohmura, Ryo; Alavi, Saman; Ripmeester, John A

    2016-08-01

    The crystal structure and phase transition of cubic structure II (sII) binary clathrate hydrates of methane (CH4 ) and propanol are reported from powder X-ray diffraction measurements. The deformation of host water cages at the cubic-tetragonal phase transition of 2-propanol+CH4 hydrate, but not 1-propanol+CH4 hydrate, was observed below about 110 K. It is shown that the deformation of the host water cages of 2-propanol+CH4 hydrate can be explained by the restriction of the motion of 2-propanol within the 5(12) 6(4) host water cages. This result provides a low-temperature structure due to a temperature-induced symmetry-lowering transition of clathrate hydrate. This is the first example of a cubic structure of the common clathrate hydrate families at a fixed composition.

  14. Decreased stability of methane hydrates in marine sediments owing to phase-boundary roughness.

    PubMed

    Wood, W T; Gettrust, J F; Chapman, N R; Spence, G D; Hyndman, R D

    2002-12-12

    Below water depths of about 300 metres, pressure and temperature conditions cause methane to form ice-like crystals of methane hydrate. Marine deposits of methane hydrate are estimated to be large, amassing about 10,000 gigatonnes of carbon, and are thought to be important to global change and seafloor stability, as well as representing a potentially exploitable energy resource. The extent of these deposits can usually be inferred from seismic imaging, in which the base of the methane hydrate stability zone is frequently identifiable as a smooth reflector that runs parallel to the sea floor. Here, using high-resolution seismic sections of seafloor sediments in the Cascadia margin off the coast of Vancouver Island, Canada, we observe lateral variations in the base of the hydrate stability zone, including gas-rich vertical intrusions into the hydrate stability zone. We suggest that these vertical intrusions are associated with upward flow of warmer fluids. Therefore, where seafloor fluid expulsion and methane hydrate deposits coincide, the base of the hydrate stability zone might exhibit significant roughness and increased surface area. Increased area implies that significantly more methane hydrate lies close to being unstable and hence closer to dissociation in the event of a lowering of pressure due to sea-level fall.

  15. Fluid Migration Patterns in Gas Hydrate System of Four-Way-Closure Ridge Offshore Southwestern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liwen; Chi, Wu-Cheng; Lin, Yu-Hsieh; Berndt, Christian; Lin, Saulwood

    2016-04-01

    Four-Way-Closure (4WC) Ridge shows great potential as a hydrate prospect from collected multitude of marine geophysical datasets offshore southwestern Taiwan. The aim of my study is to better understand the fluid migration patterns and the possible source locations of the methane at this site. It is a cold seep site with an elongated NW-SE trending anticlinal ridge, which is formed by fault-related folds in the frontal segment of the lower slope domain of the Taiwan accretionary prism along its convergent boundary. So I detail recognized the regional feature structures of the 4WC Ridge, including the thrust faulting and a seismic chimney beneath the seepage sites. I plan to study the temperature perturbation at the 4WC Ridge to better understand gas hydrate system there. To quantify the amount of temperature perturbation near the fault zone, we need to correct the temperature field data for other geological processes. One important correction we want to make concerns the topographic effects on the shallow crust temperature field. So we used 3D finite element method to quantify how much temperature perturbation can be attributed to the local bathymetry at the 4WC Ridge. This model will give us a temperature field based on pure thermal conduction. Then, we can compare the model temperature field with the temperature field derived from thousands of BSRs from the seismic cube, and interpret any resulting temperature discrepancy. As our previous study, we known several geological processes can cause such a discrepancy, including advective fluid migration. If the fault zone fluid migration hypothesis is correct and gas hydrate system reacts to the deep warm fluids from below it, we expect that the BSR will become shallower near the fluid pathways, and the BSR-based temperature field might be a few degrees Celsius higher than in the 3D thermal conductive temperature field. Otherwise, the two temperature fields should be similar. This study is important for hydrate

  16. Capillary effects on gas hydrate three-phase stability in marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Flemings, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    We study the three-phase (Liquid + Gas + Hydrate) stability of the methane hydrate system in marine sediments by considering the capillary effects on both hydrate and free gas phases. The aqueous CH4 solubilities required for forming hydrate (L+H) and free gas (L+G) in different pore sizes can be met in a three-phase zone. The top of the three-phase zone shifts upward in sediments as the water depth increases and the mean pore size decreases. The thickness of the three-phase zone increases as the pore size distribution widens. The top of the three-phase zone can either overlie the three-phase stability depth at deepwater Blake Ridge or underlie the three-phase stability depth at Hydrate Ridge in shallow water. Our model prediction is compatible with worldwide observations that the bottom-simulating reflector is systematically shifted upward relative to the bulk equilibrium depth as water depth (pressure) is increased. The gas hydrate and free gas saturations of the three-phase zone at Blake Ridge Comparison of the globally compiled BSR temperatures with the three-phase equilibrium curves for the systems of pure CH4 + 3.5 wt.% seawater (solid line) and pure CH4 + 2.0 wt.% seawater (dotted line). The discrepancies between the observed BSR temperature and the calculated three-phase temperature are systematically larger in deep water than in shallow water.

  17. Direct visualization of the hydration layer on alumina nanoparticles with the fluid cell STEM in situ

    DOE PAGES

    Firlar, Emre; Çınar, Simge; Kashyap, Sanjay; ...

    2015-05-21

    Rheological behavior of aqueous suspensions containing nanometer-sized powders is of relevance to many branches of industry. Unusually high viscosities observed for suspensions of nanoparticles compared to those of micron size powders cannot be explained by current viscosity models. Formation of so-called hydration layer on alumina nanoparticles in water was hypothesized, but never observed experimentally. We report here on the direct visualization of aqueous suspensions of alumina with the fluid cell in situ. We observe the hydration layer formed over the particle aggregates and show that such hydrated aggregates constitute new particle assemblies and affect the flow behavior of the suspensions.more » We discuss how these hydrated nanoclusters alter the effective solid content and the viscosity of nanostructured suspensions. As a result, our findings elucidate the source of high viscosity observed for nanoparticle suspensions and are of direct relevance to many industrial sectors including materials, food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical among others employing colloidal slurries with nanometer-scale particles.« less

  18. Effect of organic matter on CO(2) hydrate phase equilibrium in phyllosilicate suspensions.

    PubMed

    Park, Taehyung; Kyung, Daeseung; Lee, Woojin

    2014-06-17

    In this study, we examined various CO2 hydrate phase equilibria under diverse, heterogeneous conditions, to provide basic knowledge for successful ocean CO2 sequestration in offshore marine sediments. We investigated the effect of geochemical factors on CO2 hydrate phase equilibrium. The three-phase (liquid-hydrate-vapor) equilibrium of CO2 hydrate in the presence of (i) organic matter (glycine, glucose, and urea), (ii) phyllosilicates [illite, kaolinite, and Na-montmorillonite (Na-MMT)], and (iii) mixtures of them was measured in the ranges of 274.5-277.0 K and 14-22 bar. Organic matter inhibited the phase equilibrium of CO2 hydrate by association with water molecules. The inhibition effect decreased in the order: urea < glycine < glucose. Illite and kaolinite (unexpandable clays) barely affected the CO2 hydrate phase equilibrium, while Na-MMT (expandable clay) affected the phase equilibrium because of its interlayer cations. The CO2 hydrate equilibrium conditions, in the illite and kaolinite suspensions with organic matter, were very similar to those in the aqueous organic matter solutions. However, the equilibrium condition in the Na-MMT suspension with organic matter changed because of reduction of its inhibition effect by intercalated organic matter associated with cations in the Na-MMT interlayer.

  19. Molecular dynamics simulations of a fully hydrated dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine membrane in liquid-crystalline phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubrzycki, Igor Z.; Xu, Yan; Madrid, Marcela; Tang, Pei

    2000-02-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to investigate the structure of a fully hydrated 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) bilayer in liquid-crystalline (fluid) phase at 30 °C. The bilayer consists of 200 DMPC lipid molecules with nw=27.4 water molecules per lipid. The membrane was built with reference to the coordinates of a previously published 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) membrane patch. A four-step dynamic procedure (110 ps) with Berendsen pressure rescaling (P=0 and 1 bar), applied in all three directions, was used to rapidly prepare the bilayer. This system was then subjected to two separate constant pressure and temperature simulations at 1 bar and 30 °C for ˜380 ps, using the Nosé-Hoover NPT method with periodical boundaries and Berendsen temperature and pressure rescaling method, respectively. The resultant bilayer has an area per lipid of 59.2 Å2 and a head-to-head thickness (DHH) of 36.3 Å. These values are in good agreement with the x-ray diffraction data of 59.7 Å2 and 34.4 Å, respectively, for DMPC at 30 °C with nw of 25.7 [H. I. Petrache, S. Tristram-Nagle, and J. F. Nagle, Chem. Phys. Lipids 95, 83 (1998)]. The fractions of trans and gauche bonds in the hydrocarbon chains, averaged for the last 94 ps of simulation, are 81.7% and 18.3%, respectively, suggesting a fluid phase of the membrane. The electron density profile resembles closely that measured by x-ray diffraction. Water density profile suggests a significant penetration of water molecules into the bilayer head region to as deep as the carbonyl groups, with phosphate groups being strongly hydrated.

  20. Controlled-source electromagnetic and seismic delineation of subseafloor fluid flow structures in a gas hydrate province, offshore Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attias, Eric; Weitemeyer, Karen; Minshull, Tim A.; Best, Angus I.; Sinha, Martin; Jegen-Kulcsar, Marion; Hölz, Sebastian; Berndt, Christian

    2016-08-01

    Deep sea pockmarks underlain by chimney-like or pipe structures that contain methane hydrate are abundant along the Norwegian continental margin. In such hydrate provinces the interaction between hydrate formation and fluid flow has significance for benthic ecosystems and possibly climate change. The Nyegga region, situated on the western Norwegian continental slope, is characterized by an extensive pockmark field known to accommodate substantial methane gas hydrate deposits. The aim of this study is to detect and delineate both the gas hydrate and free gas reservoirs at one of Nyegga's pockmarks. In 2012, a marine controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) survey was performed at a pockmark in this region, where high-resolution 3-D seismic data were previously collected in 2006. 2-D CSEM inversions were computed using the data acquired by ocean bottom electrical field receivers. Our results, derived from unconstrained and seismically constrained CSEM inversions, suggest the presence of two distinctive resistivity anomalies beneath the pockmark: a shallow vertical anomaly at the underlying pipe structure, likely due to gas hydrate accumulation, and a laterally extensive anomaly attributed to a free gas zone below the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. This work contributes to a robust characterization of gas hydrate deposits within subseafloor fluid flow pipe structures.

  1. Phase behavior of patchy spheroidal fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpency, T. N.; Gunton, J. D.; Rickman, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    We employ Gibbs-ensemble Monte Carlo computer simulation to assess the impact of shape anisotropy and particle interaction anisotropy on the phase behavior of a colloidal (or, by extension, protein) fluid comprising patchy ellipsoidal particles, with an emphasis on critical behavior. More specifically, we obtain the fluid-fluid equilibrium phase diagram of hard prolate ellipsoids having Kern-Frenkel surface patches under a variety of conditions and study the critical behavior of these fluids as a function of particle shape parameters. It is found that the dependence of the critical temperature on aspect ratio for particles having the same volume can be described approximately in terms of patch solid angles. In addition, ordering in the fluid that is associated with particle elongation is also found to be an important factor in dictating phase behavior.

  2. Effect of fluid and salt supplementation on body hydration of athletes during prolonged hypokinesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Petrov, Kirill L.; Yarullin, Vladimir L.; Kakurin, Vassily J.; Popov, Vladimir K.; Deogeneov, Viktor A.

    Body hydration decreases significantly during hypokinesia (HK) (diminished movement), but little is known about the effect of fluid and salt supplements (FSS) on body hydration during HK. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of FSS on body hydration during HK. Studies were done during 30 days pre HK period and 364 days HK period. Thirty male athletes aged 24.5±6.6 yr were chosen as subjects. They were equally divided into three groups: unsupplemented ambulatory control subjects (UACS), unsupplemented hypokinetic subjects (UHKS) and supplemented hypokinetic subjects (SHKS). Hypokinetic subjects were limited to an average walking distance of 0.7 km day -1. The SHKS group took daily 30 ml of water/kg body weight and 0.1 g of sodium chloride (NaCl)/kg body weight. Control subjects experienced no changes in their professional training and routine daily activities. Plasma volume (PV), urinary and plasma sodium (Na) and potassium (K), plasma osmolality, plasma protein, whole blood hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct), plasma renin activity (PRA) plasma aldosterone (PA) levels, physical characteristics, food and fluid intakes were measured. Plasma osmolality, plasma protein, urinary and plasma Na and K, whole blood Hct and Hb, PRA and PA levels decreased significantly ( p⩽0.01), while PV and body weight increased significantly ( p⩽0.01) in the SHKS group when compared with the UHKS group and did not change when compared with the UACS group. Plasma osmolality, plasma protein, urinary and plasma Na and K, PRA and PA, whole blood Hb and Hct levels increased significantly ( p⩽0.01), while PV body weight, food and fluid intakes decreased significantly ( p⩽0.01) in UHKS group when compared with the SHKS and UACS groups. The measured parameters did not change in the UACS group when compared with their baseline control values. It was shown that during HK body hydration decreased significantly, while during HK and FSS body hydration increased significantly. It

  3. Prediction of the phase equilibria of methane hydrates using the direct phase coexistence methodology.

    PubMed

    Michalis, Vasileios K; Costandy, Joseph; Tsimpanogiannis, Ioannis N; Stubos, Athanassios K; Economou, Ioannis G

    2015-01-28

    The direct phase coexistence method is used for the determination of the three-phase coexistence line of sI methane hydrates. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are carried out in the isothermal-isobaric ensemble in order to determine the coexistence temperature (T3) at four different pressures, namely, 40, 100, 400, and 600 bar. Methane bubble formation that results in supersaturation of water with methane is generally avoided. The observed stochasticity of the hydrate growth and dissociation processes, which can be misleading in the determination of T3, is treated with long simulations in the range of 1000-4000 ns and a relatively large number of independent runs. Statistical averaging of 25 runs per pressure results in T3 predictions that are found to deviate systematically by approximately 3.5 K from the experimental values. This is in good agreement with the deviation of 3.15 K between the prediction of TIP4P/Ice water force field used and the experimental melting temperature of ice Ih. The current results offer the most consistent and accurate predictions from MD simulation for the determination of T3 of methane hydrates. Methane solubility values are also calculated at the predicted equilibrium conditions and are found in good agreement with continuum-scale models.

  4. Prediction of the phase equilibria of methane hydrates using the direct phase coexistence methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalis, Vasileios K.; Costandy, Joseph; Tsimpanogiannis, Ioannis N.; Stubos, Athanassios K.; Economou, Ioannis G.

    2015-01-01

    The direct phase coexistence method is used for the determination of the three-phase coexistence line of sI methane hydrates. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are carried out in the isothermal-isobaric ensemble in order to determine the coexistence temperature (T3) at four different pressures, namely, 40, 100, 400, and 600 bar. Methane bubble formation that results in supersaturation of water with methane is generally avoided. The observed stochasticity of the hydrate growth and dissociation processes, which can be misleading in the determination of T3, is treated with long simulations in the range of 1000-4000 ns and a relatively large number of independent runs. Statistical averaging of 25 runs per pressure results in T3 predictions that are found to deviate systematically by approximately 3.5 K from the experimental values. This is in good agreement with the deviation of 3.15 K between the prediction of TIP4P/Ice water force field used and the experimental melting temperature of ice Ih. The current results offer the most consistent and accurate predictions from MD simulation for the determination of T3 of methane hydrates. Methane solubility values are also calculated at the predicted equilibrium conditions and are found in good agreement with continuum-scale models.

  5. Prediction of the phase equilibria of methane hydrates using the direct phase coexistence methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Michalis, Vasileios K.; Costandy, Joseph; Economou, Ioannis G.; Tsimpanogiannis, Ioannis N.; Stubos, Athanassios K.

    2015-01-28

    The direct phase coexistence method is used for the determination of the three-phase coexistence line of sI methane hydrates. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are carried out in the isothermal–isobaric ensemble in order to determine the coexistence temperature (T{sub 3}) at four different pressures, namely, 40, 100, 400, and 600 bar. Methane bubble formation that results in supersaturation of water with methane is generally avoided. The observed stochasticity of the hydrate growth and dissociation processes, which can be misleading in the determination of T{sub 3}, is treated with long simulations in the range of 1000–4000 ns and a relatively large number of independent runs. Statistical averaging of 25 runs per pressure results in T{sub 3} predictions that are found to deviate systematically by approximately 3.5 K from the experimental values. This is in good agreement with the deviation of 3.15 K between the prediction of TIP4P/Ice water force field used and the experimental melting temperature of ice Ih. The current results offer the most consistent and accurate predictions from MD simulation for the determination of T{sub 3} of methane hydrates. Methane solubility values are also calculated at the predicted equilibrium conditions and are found in good agreement with continuum-scale models.

  6. Phase equilibria and thermodynamic modeling of ethane and propane hydrates in porous silica gels.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yongwon; Lee, Seungmin; Cha, Inuk; Lee, Ju Dong; Lee, Huen

    2009-04-23

    In the present study, we examined the active role of porous silica gels when used as natural gas storage and transportation media. We adopted the dispersed water in silica gel pores to substantially enhance active surface for contacting and encaging gas molecules. We measured the three-phase hydrate (H)-water-rich liquid (L(W))-vapor (V) equilibria of C(2)H(6) and C(3)H(8) hydrates in 6.0, 15.0, 30.0, and 100.0 nm silica gel pores to investigate the effect of geometrical constraints on gas hydrate phase equilibria. At specified temperatures, the hydrate stability region is shifted to a higher pressure region depending on pore size when compared with those of bulk hydrates. Through application of the Gibbs-Thomson relationship to the experimental data, we determined the values for the C(2)H(6) hydrate-water and C(3)H(8) hydrate-water interfacial tensions to be 39 +/- 2 and 45 +/- 1 mJ/m(2), respectively. By using these values, the calculation values were in good agreement with the experimental ones. The overall results given in this study could also be quite useful in various fields, such as exploitation of natural gas hydrate in marine sediments and sequestration of carbon dioxide into the deep ocean.

  7. Fluid Flow Patterns and 1D Gas Hydrate Saturation Profile in Yuan-An Ridge, Offshore Southwest Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, S.; Chi, W.

    2011-12-01

    Investigation of gas hydrate in the area offshore southwest Taiwan has made good progress over the last decade. The observation suggests that large amount of gas hydrates may exist at this region. However, how the gas hydrates form and dissolve are still not clear. To better understand the mechanism of gas hydrate formation and dissociation, we first derived some basic physical parameters in the region, particularly the fluid flow rates and their patterns in a prospect site called Yuan-An Ridge offshore SW Taiwan. Previously we used geothermal gradient patterns to derive 1D vertical fluid flow models by analyzing the Peclet numbers. And we found active upward fluid flow with rates ranging from 14.3 cm/y to 24.78 cm/y in Yuan-An Ridge. For this study, we modeled the 2D temperature field of Yuan-An Ridge with finite element method in Matlab, which also gives similar upward fluid migration patterns even after topographic effect correction. In the near future, we will study a model of 1D hydrate saturation profile by using a one-dimentional numerical procedure developed by Gaurav Bhatnagar, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Rice University. This simulation delineates the accumulation of gas hydrates in marine sediments due to upward and downward fluxes of methane over time. We will apply the previous results as the input parameters for this generalization simulation of the flux in the hydrate-bearing sediments. The results might lead to better understanding of the distribution of gas hydrate in Yuan-An Ridge, which can be verify by a proposed drilling program in the future.

  8. Thermodynamic calculations in the system CH4-H2O and methane hydrate phase equilibria.

    PubMed

    Circone, Susan; Kirby, Stephen H; Stern, Laura A

    2006-04-27

    Using the Gibbs function of reaction, equilibrium pressure, temperature conditions for the formation of methane clathrate hydrate have been calculated from the thermodynamic properties of phases in the system CH4-H2O. The thermodynamic model accurately reproduces the published phase-equilibria data to within +/-2 K of the observed equilibrium boundaries in the range 0.08-117 MPa and 190-307 K. The model also provides an estimate of the third-law entropy of methane hydrate at 273.15 K, 0.1 MPa of 56.2 J mol(-1) K(-1) for 1/nCH4.H2O, where n is the hydrate number. Agreement between the calculated and published phase-equilibria data is optimized when the hydrate composition is fixed and independent of the pressure and temperature for the conditions modeled.

  9. Thermodynamic calculations in the system CH4-H2O and methane hydrate phase equilibria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Circone, S.; Kirby, S.H.; Stern, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    Using the Gibbs function of reaction, equilibrium pressure, temperature conditions for the formation of methane clathrate hydrate have been calculated from the thermodynamic properties of phases in the system CH4-H 2O. The thermodynamic model accurately reproduces the published phase-equilibria data to within ??2 K of the observed equilibrium boundaries in the range 0.08-117 MPa and 190-307 K. The model also provides an estimate of the third-law entropy of methane hydrate at 273.15 K, 0.1 MPa of 56.2 J mol-1 K-1 for 1/n CH4??H 2O, where n is the hydrate number. Agreement between the calculated and published phase-equilibria data is optimized when the hydrate composition is fixed and independent of the pressure and temperature for the conditions modeled. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  10. Gas-Phase Hydration Thermochemistry of Sodiated and Potassiated Nucleic Acid Bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wincel, Henryk

    2012-09-01

    Hydration reactions of sodiated and potassiated nucleic acid bases (uracil, thymine, cytosine, and adenine) produced by electrospray have been studied in a gas phase using the pulsed ion-beam high-pressure mass spectrometer. The thermochemical properties, ΔH o n , ΔS o n , and ΔG o n , for the hydrated systems were obtained from hydration equilibrium measurement. The structural aspects of the hydrated complexes are discussed in conjunction with available literature data. The correlation between water binding energies in the hydrated complexes and the corresponding metal ion affinities of nucleobases suggests that a significant (if not dominant) amount of the canonical structure of cytosine undergoes tautomerization during electrospray ionization, and the thermochemical values for cationized cytosine probably correspond to a mixture of tautomeric complexes.

  11. Gas-phase hydration thermochemistry of sodiated and potassiated nucleic acid bases.

    PubMed

    Wincel, Henryk

    2012-09-01

    Hydration reactions of sodiated and potassiated nucleic acid bases (uracil, thymine, cytosine, and adenine) produced by electrospray have been studied in a gas phase using the pulsed ion-beam high-pressure mass spectrometer. The thermochemical properties, ΔH(o)(n), ΔS(o)(n), and ΔG(o)(n), for the hydrated systems were obtained from hydration equilibrium measurement. The structural aspects of the hydrated complexes are discussed in conjunction with available literature data. The correlation between water binding energies in the hydrated complexes and the corresponding metal ion affinities of nucleobases suggests that a significant (if not dominant) amount of the canonical structure of cytosine undergoes tautomerization during electrospray ionization, and the thermochemical values for cationized cytosine probably correspond to a mixture of tautomeric complexes.

  12. Anti-Adhesive Behaviors between Solid Hydrate and Liquid Aqueous Phase Induced by Hydrophobic Silica Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Min, Juwon; Baek, Seungjun; Somasundaran, P; Lee, Jae W

    2016-09-20

    This study introduces an "anti-adhesive force" at the interface of solid hydrate and liquid solution phases. The force was induced by the presence of hydrophobic silica nanoparticles or one of the common anti-agglomerants (AAs), sorbitan monolaurate (Span 20), at the interface. The anti-adhesive force, which is defined as the maximum pushing force that does not induce the formation of a capillary bridge between the cyclopentane (CP) hydrate particle and the aqueous solution, was measured using a microbalance. Both hydrophobic silica nanoparticles and Span 20 can inhibit adhesion between the CP hydrate probe and the aqueous phase because silica nanoparticles have an aggregative property at the interface, and Span 20 enables the hydrate surface to be wetted with oil. Adding water-soluble sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) to the nanoparticle system cannot affect the aggregative property or the distribution of silica nanoparticles at the interface and, thus, cannot change the anti-adhesive effect. However, the combined system of Span 20 and SDS dramatically reduces the interfacial tension: emulsion drops were formed at the interface without any energy input and were adsorbed on the CP hydrate surface, which can cause the growth of hydrate particles. Silica nanoparticles have a good anti-adhesive performance with a relatively smaller dosage and are less influenced by the presence of molecular surfactants; consequently, these nanoparticles may have a good potential for hydrate inhibition as AAs.

  13. Identification of the hydrate gel phases present in phosphate-modified calcium aluminate binders

    SciTech Connect

    Chavda, Mehul A.; Bernal, Susan A.; Apperley, David C.; Kinoshita, Hajime; Provis, John L.

    2015-04-15

    The conversion of hexagonal calcium aluminate hydrates to cubic phases in hydrated calcium aluminate cements (CAC) can involve undesirable porosity changes and loss of strength. Modification of CAC by phosphate addition avoids conversion, by altering the nature of the reaction products, yielding a stable amorphous gel instead of the usual crystalline hydrate products. Here, details of the environments of aluminium and phosphorus in this gel were elucidated using solid-state NMR and complementary techniques. Aluminium is identified in both octahedral and tetrahedral coordination states, and phosphorus is present in hydrous environments with varying, but mostly low, degrees of crosslinking. A {sup 31}P/{sup 27}Al rotational echo adiabatic passage double resonance (REAPDOR) experiment showed the existence of aluminium–phosphorus interactions, confirming the formation of a hydrated calcium aluminophosphate gel as a key component of the binding phase. This resolves previous disagreements in the literature regarding the nature of the disordered products forming in this system.

  14. Phase Equilibria of H2SO4, HNO3, and HCl Hydrates and the Composition of Polar Stratospheric Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooldridge, Paul J.; Zhang, Renyi; Molina, Mario J.

    1995-01-01

    Thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria behavior for the hydrates and coexisting pairs of hydrates of common acids which exist in the stratosphere are assembled from new laboratory measurements and standard literature data. The analysis focuses upon solid-vapor and solid-solid-vapor equilibria at temperatures around 200 K and includes new calorimetric and vapor pressure data. Calculated partial pressures versus 1/T slopes for the hydrates and coexisting hydrates agree well with experimental data where available.

  15. Phase equilibria of H2SO4, HNO3, and HCl hydrates and the composition of polar stratospheric clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooldridge, Paul J.; Zhang, Renyi; Molina, Mario J.

    1995-01-01

    Thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria behavior for the hydrates and coexisting pairs of hydrates of common acids which exist in the stratosphere are assembled from new laboratory measurements and standard literature data. The analysis focuses upon solid-vapor and solid-solid-vapor equilibria at temperatures around 200 K and includes new calorimetric and vapor pressure data. Calculated partial pressures versus 1/T slopes for the hydrates and coexisting hydrates agree well with experimental data where available.

  16. The nature of carbon-bearing phases in hydrated interplanetary dust particles. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, L. P.; Thomas, K. L.; Mckay, D. S.

    1994-01-01

    We have been quantitatively measuring C abundances in hydrated interplanetary dust particles for the past few years, but in general, we have had to infer the distribution and nature of the C-bearing materials within these particles because of the complex microtextures of hydrated IDPs. Aside from rare carbonate grains, other C-bearing phases are difficult to distinguish from the fine-grained, poorly crystalline phyllosilicates that comprise the bulk of these particles. We know that carbonates alone cannot account for the high C abundances observed in most hydrated IDPs and that additional C-bearing phases must be present. We have recently applied the technique of electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in the transmission electron microscope (TEM) to identify and form the distribution of C-bearing phases in hydrated IDPs. These preliminary data show that several C-rich hydrated IDPs contain a mixture of two major forms of C, Mg-Fe carbonate and amorphous C. The near-edge structure in the C k-edges from these IDPs shows no evidence for the development of graphite or even poorly graphitized C. We conclude that the 'elemental' C in these IDPs is either very poorly ordered or is exceedingly fine-grained (we refer to this C as 'amorphous C'). The amorphous C is intimately intergrown with the fine-grained phyllosilicates and is evenly distributed within three of the four IDPs analyzed (only G1 contains discrete 'hot spots' of amorphous C). Not all hydrated IDPs contain carbonates.

  17. A combined QXRD/TG method to quantify the phase composition of hydrated Portland cements

    SciTech Connect

    Soin, Alexander V.; Catalan, Lionel J.J.; Kinrade, Stephen D.

    2013-06-15

    A new method is reported for quantifying the mineral phases in hydrated cement pastes that is based on a combination of quantitative X-ray diffractometry (QXRD) and thermogravimetry (TG). It differs from previous methods in that it gives a precise measure of the amorphous phase content without relying on an assumed stoichiometric relationship between the principal hydration products, calcium hydroxide (CH) and calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H). The method was successfully applied to gray and white ordinary Portland cements (GOPC and WOPC, respectively) that were cured for up to 56 days. Phase distributions determined by QXRD/TG closely matched those from gray-level analysis of backscattered scanning electron microscope (BSEM) images, whereas elemental compositions obtained for the amorphous phase by QXRD/TG agreed well with those measured by quantitative energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS)

  18. Role of in situ organic matter degradation and fluid flow in the global gas hydrate distribution: application of general functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinero, E.; Hensen, C.; Marquardt, M.; Haeckel, M.; Wallmann, K. J.

    2010-12-01

    During the last decades several estimates of the global gas hydrate budget have been published. The published results range by several orders of magnitude and thus, the total gas hydrate inventory is still poorly known. In order to elucidate the global gas hydrate amount we applied a recently published transfer function that calculates the amount of gas hydrate produced by in situ generated methane through organic matter degradation (Marquardt et al., accepted). The transfer function was derived from a large set of systematic runs of a numerical diagenetic model (Wallmann et al., 2006) covering a wide range of environmental conditions that are typical for the continental margins. The transfer function only includes two variables: the accumulation rate of particulate organic carbon and the thickness of the gas hydrate stability zone. We tested various approaches to calculate both parameters on the global scale. The global grids used include seafloor bathymetry, TOC input, organic rain rate, bottom water temperature, geothermal gradient estimated from heat flow, sediment thickness, and age of the oceanic crust. The results obtained lead to the conclusion that only minor amounts of gas hydrates (<10 Gt of C) are formed by in situ methane production. An extended function considering fluid flow was developed applying the same transport-reaction model. The resulting global distribution map gives a total inventory of gas hydrate ranging from 400 to 2500 Gt of C. So far, some of our calculations are slightly lower than previously published results (e.g. Archer et al., 2009) and suggest that only <2 % of the global gas hydrate budget forms from an autochthonous source of methane. The results presented here suggest that where gas does not migrate into the gas hydrate stability zone only minor negligible concentrations of gas hydrate accumulate. References: Wallmann, K., Aloisi, G. Haeckel, M., Obzhirov, A., Pavlova, G., Tishchenko, P.: Kinetics of organic matter degradation

  19. The effects of solutes on the freezing properties of and hydration forces in lipid lamellar phases.

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Y H; Pope, J M; Wolfe, J

    1998-01-01

    Quantitative deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance is used to study the freezing behavior of the water in phosphatidylcholine lamellar phases, and the effect upon it of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), sorbitol, sucrose, and trehalose. When sufficient solute is present, an isotropic phase of concentrated aqueous solution may coexist with the lamellar phase at freezing temperatures. We determine the composition of both unfrozen phases as a function of temperature by using the intensity of the calibrated free induction decay signal (FID). The presence of DMSO or sorbitol increases the hydration of the lamellar phase at all freezing temperatures studied, and the size of the increase in hydration is comparable to that expected from their purely osmotic effect. Sucrose and trehalose increase the hydration of the lamellar phase, but, at concentrations of several molal, the increase is less than that which their purely osmotic effect would be expected to produce. A possible explanation is that very high volume fractions of sucrose and trehalose disrupt the water structure and thus reduce the repulsive hydration interaction between membranes. Because of their osmotic effect, all of the solutes studied reduced the intramembrane mechanical stresses produced in lamellar phases by freezing. Sucrose and trehalose at high concentrations produce a greater reduction than do the other solutes. PMID:9545055

  20. Pore-Scale Controls on Permeability, Fluid Flow, and Methane Hydrate Distribution in Fine-Grained Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daigle, Hugh Callahan

    2011-12-01

    Permeability in fine-grained sediments is governed by the surface area exposed to fluid flow and tortuosity of the pore network. I modify an existing technique of computing permeability from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data to extend its applicability beyond reservoir-quality rocks to the fine-grained sediments that comprise the majority of the sedimentary column. This modification involves correcting the NMR data to account for the large surface areas and disparate mineralogies typically exhibited by fine-grained sediments. Through measurements on resedimented samples composed of controlled mineralogies, I show that this modified NMR permeability algorithm accurately predicts permeability over 5 orders of magnitude. This work highlights the importance of pore system surface area and geometry in determining transport properties of porous media. I use these insights to probe the pore-scale controls on methane hydrate distribution and hydraulic fracturing behavior, both of which are controlled by flux and permeability. To do this I employ coupled poromechanical models of hydrate formation in marine sediments. Fracture-hosted methane hydrate deposits are found at many sites worldwide, and I investigate whether pore occlusion and permeability reduction due to hydrate formation can drive port fluid pressures to the point at which the sediments fracture hydraulically. I find that hydraulic fractures may form in systems with high flux and/or low permeability; that low-permeability layers can influence the location of fracture initiation if they are thicker than a critical value that is a function of flux and layer permeability; that capillary-driven depression of the triple point of methane in fine-gained sediments causes hydrate to form preferentially in coarse-grained layers; that the relative fluxes of gas and water in multiphase systems controls hydrate distribution and the location of fracture initiation; and that methane hydrate systems are dynamic systems in

  1. Ammonia clathrate hydrates as new solid phases for Titan, Enceladus, and other planetary systems

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Kyuchul; Kumar, Rajnish; Udachin, Konstantin A.; Alavi, Saman; Ripmeester, John A.

    2012-01-01

    There is interest in the role of ammonia on Saturn’s moons Titan and Enceladus as the presence of water, methane, and ammonia under temperature and pressure conditions of the surface and interior make these moons rich environments for the study of phases formed by these materials. Ammonia is known to form solid hemi-, mono-, and dihydrate crystal phases under conditions consistent with the surface of Titan and Enceladus, but has also been assigned a role as water-ice antifreeze and methane hydrate inhibitor which is thought to contribute to the outgassing of methane clathrate hydrates into these moons’ atmospheres. Here we show, through direct synthesis from solution and vapor deposition experiments under conditions consistent with extraterrestrial planetary atmospheres, that ammonia forms clathrate hydrates and participates synergistically in clathrate hydrate formation in the presence of methane gas at low temperatures. The binary structure II tetrahydrofuran + ammonia, structure I ammonia, and binary structure I ammonia + methane clathrate hydrate phases synthesized have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, molecular dynamics simulation, and Raman spectroscopy methods. PMID:22908239

  2. Hydration energies of deprotonated amino acids from gas phase equilibria measurements.

    PubMed

    Wincel, Henryk

    2008-08-01

    Singly hydrated clusters of deprotonated amino acids were studied using an electrospray high-pressure mass spectrometer equipped with a pulsed ion-beam reaction chamber. Thermochemical data, DeltaH(o), DeltaS(o), and DeltaG(o), for the hydration reaction [AA - H](-) + H(2)O = [AA - H](-).(H(2)O) were obtained from gas-phase equilibria determinations for AA = Gly, Ala, Val, Pro, Phe, Lys, Met, Trp, Gln, Arg, and Asp. The hydration free-energy changes are found to depend significantly on the side-chain substituents. The water binding energy in [AA - H](-).(H(2)O) increases with the gas-phase acidity of AA. The anionic hydrogen bond strengths in [AA - H](-).(H(2)O) are compared with those of the cationic bonds in the corresponding AAH(+).(H(2)O) systems.

  3. Fundamentals and use of potassium/polymer drilling fluids to minimize drilling and completion problems associated with hydratable clays

    SciTech Connect

    Steiger, R.P.

    1982-08-01

    Water sensitive shales cause expensive problems and may defeat the purpose of drilling a well. Clay hydration can produce drilling problems such as wellbore instability, stuck pipe, bottomhole fill, torque, drag, and solids buildup in the drilling fluid. It also can produce completion problems such as formation damage in shaly sands, logging and coring failures, hole washout, and poor cement jobs. Proper application of an inhibitive drilling fluid will reduce drilling costs, rig time, formation damage, and completion costs. The potassium ion, when used at the proper concentration, is a powerful shale inhibitor. It interacts with clays, such as illite or montmorillonite, lowers the hydration energy, and reduces swelling. Relatively simple potassium/polymer drilling fluid systems, which provide excellent rheological and filtration properties, have been formulated at moderate costs. The systems, when properly used, are quite stable and easily maintained.

  4. Pathways through equilibrated states with coexisting phases for gas hydrate formation

    SciTech Connect

    Malolepsza, Edyta; Keyes, Tom

    2015-12-01

    Under ambient conditions, water freezes to either hexagonal ice or a hexagonal/cubic composite ice. The presence of hydrophobic guest molecules introduces a competing pathway: gas hydrate formation, with the guests in clathrate cages. Here, the pathways of the phase transitions are sought as sequences of states with coexisting phases, using a generalized replica exchange algorithm designed to sample them in equilibrium, avoiding nonequilibrium processes. For a dilute solution of methane in water under 200 atm, initializing the simulation with the full set of replicas leads to methane trapped in hexagonal/cubic ice, while gradually adding replicas with decreasing enthalpy produces the initial steps of hydrate growth. Once a small amount of hydrate is formed, water rearranges to form empty cages, eventually transforming the remainder of the system to metastable β ice, a scaffolding for hydrates. It is suggested that configurations with empty cages are reaction intermediates in hydrate formation when more guest molecules are available. Furthermore, free energy profiles show that methane acts as a catalyst reducing the barrier for β ice versus hexagonal/cubic ice formation.

  5. Pathways through equilibrated states with coexisting phases for gas hydrate formation

    DOE PAGES

    Malolepsza, Edyta; Keyes, Tom

    2015-12-01

    Under ambient conditions, water freezes to either hexagonal ice or a hexagonal/cubic composite ice. The presence of hydrophobic guest molecules introduces a competing pathway: gas hydrate formation, with the guests in clathrate cages. Here, the pathways of the phase transitions are sought as sequences of states with coexisting phases, using a generalized replica exchange algorithm designed to sample them in equilibrium, avoiding nonequilibrium processes. For a dilute solution of methane in water under 200 atm, initializing the simulation with the full set of replicas leads to methane trapped in hexagonal/cubic ice, while gradually adding replicas with decreasing enthalpy produces themore » initial steps of hydrate growth. Once a small amount of hydrate is formed, water rearranges to form empty cages, eventually transforming the remainder of the system to metastable β ice, a scaffolding for hydrates. It is suggested that configurations with empty cages are reaction intermediates in hydrate formation when more guest molecules are available. Furthermore, free energy profiles show that methane acts as a catalyst reducing the barrier for β ice versus hexagonal/cubic ice formation.« less

  6. Methane hydrate formation in partially water-saturated Ottawa sand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waite, W.F.; Winters, W.J.; Mason, D.H.

    2004-01-01

    Bulk properties of gas hydrate-bearing sediment strongly depend on whether hydrate forms primarily in the pore fluid, becomes a load-bearing member of the sediment matrix, or cements sediment grains. Our compressional wave speed measurements through partially water-saturated, methane hydrate-bearing Ottawa sands suggest hydrate surrounds and cements sediment grains. The three Ottawa sand packs tested in the Gas Hydrate And Sediment Test Laboratory Instrument (GHASTLI) contain 38(1)% porosity, initially with distilled water saturating 58, 31, and 16% of that pore space, respectively. From the volume of methane gas produced during hydrate dissociation, we calculated the hydrate concentration in the pore space to be 70, 37, and 20% respectively. Based on these hydrate concentrations and our measured compressional wave speeds, we used a rock physics model to differentiate between potential pore-space hydrate distributions. Model results suggest methane hydrate cements unconsolidated sediment when forming in systems containing an abundant gas phase.

  7. Phase behavior of an amphiphilic fluid.

    PubMed

    Schoen, Martin; Giura, Stefano; Klapp, Sabine H L

    2014-01-01

    We invoke mean-field density functional theory (DFT) to investigate the phase behavior of an amphiphilic fluid composed of a hard-sphere core plus a superimposed anisometric Lennard-Jones perturbation. The orientation dependence of the interactions consists of a contribution analogous to the interaction potential between a pair of "spins" in the classical, three-dimensional Heisenberg fluid and another one reminiscent of the interaction between (electric or magnetic) point dipoles. At fixed orientation both contributions are short-range in nature decaying as r-6 (r being the separation between the centers of mass of a pair of amphiphiles). Based upon two mean-field-like approximations for the pair correlation function that differ in the degree of sophistication we derive expressions for the phase boundaries between various isotropic and polar phases that we solve numerically by the Newton-Raphson method. For sufficiently strong coupling between the Heisenberg "spins" both mean-field approximations generate three topologically different and generic types of phase diagrams that are observed in agreement with earlier work [see, for example, Tavares et al., Phys. Rev. E 52, 1915 (1995)]. Whereas the dipolar contribution alone is incapable of stabilizing polar phases on account of its short-range nature it is nevertheless important for details of the phase diagram such as location of the gas-isotropic liquid critical point, triple, and tricritical points. By tuning the dipolar coupling constant suitably one may, in fact, switch between topologically different phase diagrams. Employing also Monte Carlo simulations in the isothermal-isobaric ensemble the general topology of the DFT phase diagrams is confirmed.

  8. Phase behavior of an amphiphilic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen, Martin; Giura, Stefano; Klapp, Sabine H. L.

    2014-01-01

    We invoke mean-field density functional theory (DFT) to investigate the phase behavior of an amphiphilic fluid composed of a hard-sphere core plus a superimposed anisometric Lennard-Jones perturbation. The orientation dependence of the interactions consists of a contribution analogous to the interaction potential between a pair of "spins" in the classical, three-dimensional Heisenberg fluid and another one reminiscent of the interaction between (electric or magnetic) point dipoles. At fixed orientation both contributions are short-range in nature decaying as r-6 (r being the separation between the centers of mass of a pair of amphiphiles). Based upon two mean-field-like approximations for the pair correlation function that differ in the degree of sophistication we derive expressions for the phase boundaries between various isotropic and polar phases that we solve numerically by the Newton-Raphson method. For sufficiently strong coupling between the Heisenberg "spins" both mean-field approximations generate three topologically different and generic types of phase diagrams that are observed in agreement with earlier work [see, for example, Tavares et al., Phys. Rev. E 52, 1915 (1995), 10.1103/PhysRevE.52.1915]. Whereas the dipolar contribution alone is incapable of stabilizing polar phases on account of its short-range nature it is nevertheless important for details of the phase diagram such as location of the gas-isotropic liquid critical point, triple, and tricritical points. By tuning the dipolar coupling constant suitably one may, in fact, switch between topologically different phase diagrams. Employing also Monte Carlo simulations in the isothermal-isobaric ensemble the general topology of the DFT phase diagrams is confirmed.

  9. Water cavities of sH clathrate hydrate stabilized by molecular hydrogen: phase equilibrium measurements.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Ana Rita C; Shariati, Alireza; Rovetto, Laura J; Peters, Cor J

    2008-02-21

    In this experimental phase equilibrium study, we show for the first time that it is possible to stabilize structure sH of hydrogen clathrate hydrate with the help of some selected promoters. It was established that the formation pressures of these systems are significantly higher than that of structure sII of hydrogen clathrate hydrate when tetrahydrofuran (THF) is used as a promoter. Although no experimental evidence is available yet, it is estimated that the hydrogen storage capacity of structure sH can be as high as 1.4 wt % of H2, which is about 40% higher compared to the hydrogen storage capacity in structure sII.

  10. Inhibition of hyaluronan synthesis in rats reduces renal ability to excrete fluid and electrolytes during acute hydration

    PubMed Central

    Stridh, Sara; Palm, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    Background. Hyaluronan (HA) is the dominant glycosaminoglycan in the renomedullary interstitium. Renomedullary HA has been implicated in tubular fluid handling due to its water-attracting properties and the changes occurring in parallel to acute variations in the body hydration status. Methods. HA production was inhibited by 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU in drinking water for 5 days, 1.45 ± 0.07 g/day/kg body weight) in rats prior to hydration. Results. Following hypotonic hydration for 135 min in control animals, diuresis and osmotic excretion increased while sodium excretion and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) remained unchanged. The medullary and cortical HA contents were 7.85 ± 1.29 ng/mg protein and 0.08 ± 0.01 ng/mg protein, respectively. Medullary HA content after 4-MU was 38% of that in controls (2.98 ± 0.95 ng/g protein, p < 0.05), while the low cortical levels were unaffected. Baseline urine flow was not different from that in controls. The diuretic response to hydration was, however, only 51% of that in controls (157 ± 36 versus 306 ± 54 µl/g kidney weight/135 min, p < 0.05) and the osmolar excretion only 47% of that in controls (174 ± 47 versus 374 ± 41 µOsm/g kidney weight/135 min, p < 0.05). Sodium excretion, GFR, and arterial blood pressure were similar to that in control rats and unaltered during hydration. Conclusions. Reduction of renomedullary interstitial HA using 4-MU reduces the ability of the kidney to respond appropriately upon acute hydration. The results strengthen the concept of renomedullary HA as a modulator of tubular fluid handling by changing the physicochemical properties of the interstitial space. PMID:24102146

  11. Calcium silicate hydrates: Solid and liquid phase composition

    SciTech Connect

    Lothenbach, Barbara; Nonat, André

    2015-12-15

    This paper presents a review on the relationship between the composition, the structure and the solution in which calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H) is equilibrated. The silica chain length in C–S–H increases with the silicon concentration and the calcium content in the interlayer space with the calcium concentrations. Sodium and potassium are taken up in the interlayer space, preferentially at low calcium concentrations and thus by low Ca/Si C–S–H. Aluminium uptake in C–S–H increases strongly at higher aluminium concentrations in the solution. At low Ca/Si, aluminium substitutes silica in the bridging position, at Ca/Si > 1 aluminium is bound in TAH. Recently developed thermodynamic models are closely related to the structure of C–S–H and tobermorite, and able to model not only the solubility and the chemical composition of the C–S–H, but also to predict the mean silica chain length and the uptake of aluminium.

  12. Ecological and climatic consequences of phase instability of gas hydrates on the ocean bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanyuk, I.; Dmitrievsky, A.; Akivis, T.; Chaikina, O.

    2009-04-01

    energy and gas that leads to explosion. Methane is the main natural source for power engineering specialists. It is transported by pipelines, and gas hydrate is dangerous in this case too. It can block the gas pipeline system forming the so-called "trombus" of "thermal ice". After that the pipes have to be opened. The mess of this strange ice discovered melts immediately releasing methane and water vapor. The trombus formation can be prevented by the temperature increase or the pressure decrease. Both methods are very uncomfortable under the conditions the pipelines work. The better method is thorough drying up of the gas because gas hydrate obviously cannot be formed without water. Gas hydrates attract attention not only as a fuel and chemical stuff but in relation to a serious anxiety of strong ecological and climatic problems that can occur as a result of methane release to the atmosphere due to both gas hydrate deposits development and minor changes in thermodynamic conditions in the vicinity of a threshold of gas hydrate phase stability. One of the most probable causes is the global warming of the Earth due to the hothouse effect because the specific absorption of the Earth heat radiation by methane (radiation effectivity) is 21 times higher than its absorption by carbonic gas. Analysis of the air trapped by polar ice show that contemporary increase of methane concentration in the atmosphere is unexampled for the last 160 thousands of years. The sources of this increase are not clear. Observer and latent methane bursts during natural gas hydrates decomposition can be considered as a probable source. Amount of methane hided in natural gas hydrates is 3000 times higher its amount in the atmosphere. Release of this hothouse potential would have terrible consequences for the humanity. The warming can cause further gas hydrates decomposition and released methane will cause the following warming. Thus, self-accelerating process can start. The most vulnerable for the

  13. Reentrant Phase Diagram of Network Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, J.; Tavares, J. M.; Teixeira, P. I. C.; Telo da Gama, M. M.; Sciortino, F.

    2011-02-01

    We introduce a microscopic model for particles with dissimilar patches which displays an unconventional “pinched” phase diagram, similar to the one predicted by Tlusty and Safran in the context of dipolar fluids [Science 290, 1328 (2000)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.290.5495.1328]. The model—based on two types of patch interactions, which account, respectively, for chaining and branching of the self-assembled networks—is studied both numerically via Monte Carlo simulations and theoretically via first-order perturbation theory. The dense phase is rich in junctions, while the less-dense phase is rich in chain ends. The model provides a reference system for a deep understanding of the competition between condensation and self-assembly into equilibrium-polymer chains.

  14. A New Approach to Modeling Densities and Equilibria of Ice and Gas Hydrate Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyvoloski, G.; Lucia, A.; Lewis, K. C.

    2011-12-01

    The Gibbs-Helmholtz Constrained (GHC) equation is a new cubic equation of state that was recently derived by Lucia (2010) and Lucia et al. (2011) by constraining the energy parameter in the Soave form of the Redlich-Kwong equation to satisfy the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation. The key attributes of the GHC equation are: 1) It is a multi-scale equation because it uses the internal energy of departure, UD, as a natural bridge between the molecular and bulk phase length scales. 2) It does not require acentric factors, volume translation, regression of parameters to experimental data, binary (kij) interaction parameters, or other forms of empirical correlations. 3) It is a predictive equation of state because it uses a database of values of UD determined from NTP Monte Carlo simulations. 4) It can readily account for differences in molecular size and shape. 5) It has been successfully applied to non-electrolyte mixtures as well as weak and strong aqueous electrolyte mixtures over wide ranges of temperature, pressure and composition to predict liquid density and phase equilibrium with up to four phases. 6) It has been extensively validated with experimental data. 7) The AAD% error between predicted and experimental liquid density is 1% while the AAD% error in phase equilibrium predictions is 2.5%. 8) It has been used successfully within the subsurface flow simulation program FEHM. In this work we describe recent extensions of the multi-scale predictive GHC equation to modeling the phase densities and equilibrium behavior of hexagonal ice and gas hydrates. In particular, we show that radial distribution functions, which can be determined by NTP Monte Carlo simulations, can be used to establish correct standard state fugacities of 1h ice and gas hydrates. From this, it is straightforward to determine both the phase density of ice or gas hydrates as well as any equilibrium involving ice and/or hydrate phases. A number of numerical results for mixtures of N2, O2, CH4, CO2, water

  15. Non-equilibrium Simulation of CO­2-hydrate Phase Transitions from Mixtures of CO2 and N2 Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qorbani Nashaqi, K.

    2015-12-01

    Storage of CO2 in aquifers is one of several options for reducing the emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere. Generally this option requires sealing integrity through layers of clay or shale. Many reservoirs have regions of temperature and pressure inside hydrate formation conditions. Whether hydrate formation can provide long term extra sealing still remains unverified in view of all co-existing phases that affect hydrate stability. Yet another storage option for CO2 is in the form of hydrate through exchange of in situ CH4 hydrate. Injection of CO2 into hydrate filled sediments is challenging due to the partial filling of pores with hydrate which results in low porosity and low permeability. Formation of new hydrate from injected CO2 will enhance these problems, Mixing N2 gas with the CO2 will increase permeability and will reduce driving forces for formation of new hydrate from pore water and injection gas. Hydrate can generally not reach thermodynamic equilibrium due to Gibbs' phase rule and the combined first and second laws of thermodynamics. These thermodynamic constraints on distribution of masses over co-existing phases are dynamically coupled to local mass- and heat-transport. Reservoir simulations are one possible method for investigation of possible scenarios related to injection of CO2 with N2 into aquifers containing CH4 hydrate. In this work we have developed prevoiusly modified RetrasoCodeBrite (RCB) simulator to handle injection of CO2/N2 gas mixtures. Hydrate formation and dissociation were determined by investigating Gibbs free energy differences between hydrate and hydrate formers. Gibbs free energy differences were calculated from changes in chemical potentials, which were obtained using non-equilibrium thermodynamic approach. Further extension of RCB has been implemented in this work through adding on-the-fly thermodynamic calculations. Correspondingly, hydrate phase transitions are calculated directly inside the code as a result of super

  16. Diamond-anvil cell observations of a new methane hydrate phase in the 100-MPa pressure range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming; Sharma, A.; Burruss, R.C.; Hemley, R.J.; Goncharov, A.F.; Stern, L.A.; Kirby, S.H.

    2001-01-01

    A new high-pressure phase of methane hydrate has been identified based on its high optical relief, distinct pressure-temperature phase relations, and Raman spectra. In-situ optical observations were made in a hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell at temperatures between -40?? and 60 ??C and at pressures up to 900 MPa. Two new invariant points were located at -8.7 ??C and 99 MPa for the assemblage consisting of the new phase, structure I methane hydrate, ice Ih, and water, and at 35.3 ??C and 137 MPa for the new phase-structure I methane hydrate-water-methane vapor. Existence of the new phase is critical for understanding the phase relations among the hydrates at low to moderate pressures, and may also have important implications for understanding the hydrogen bonding in H2O and the behavior of water in the planetary bodies, such as Europa, of the outer solar system.

  17. Stable isotopic (O, H) evidence for hydration of the central Colorado Plateau lithospheric mantle by slab-derived fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, E. W.; Barnes, J.; Lassiter, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    The Colorado Plateau is a tectonically stable, relatively undeformed Proterozoic lithospheric province in the North America Cordillera. Although the stability of the Colorado Plateau suggests that it is rheologically strong, evidence from xenoliths show that the lithospheric mantle is extensively hydrated (e.g., presence of hydrous minerals, 'high' water contents in nominally anhydrous minerals), and therefore weakened. In addition, LREE enrichments in clinopyroxene (cpx) imply that the lithospheric mantle has been metasomatized ([1],[2]). Here we analyze mineral separates from spinel and garnet peridotite xenoliths from the Navajo Volcanic Field (NVF), located in the center of the Plateau, for their oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions. These compositions are compared to those of xenoliths at the margins of the Plateau: spinel peridotites from the Grand Canyon Volcanic Field (GCVF) in the west and Zuni-Bandera Volcanic Field (ZBVF) in the east. NVF xenoliths are significantly more hydrous than the xenoliths on the margins of the Colorado Plateau based on modal abundances of hydrous minerals and structural water in olivine (e.g. [3]). All hydrous phases have high δD values (antigorite = -71 to -46‰ (n = 6 xenoliths); chlorite = -49 to -31‰ (n=3); amphibole = -47‰ (n=1)) compared to normal mantle (~-80‰), suggesting the addition of a fluid that is enriched in D compared to typical mantle. δ18O values for the same hydrous minerals range from 6.0 to 6.6‰ (n=6). δ18O values of olivine from NVF spinel peridotites have a narrow range, 5.0 to 5.4‰ (n = 4), near mantle olivine values (~5.2‰). Olivines from spinel peridotites from the GCVF and ZBVF also have mantle-like δ18O values (5.1 to 5.2‰ (n=3) and 5.1 to 5.4‰ (n=7), respectively). However, olivines and orthopyroxenes (opx) from NVF garnet peridotites have a slightly larger range and some record 18O enrichment (olivine = 5.1 to 5.6‰ (n = 3); opx = 5.9‰ (n=1)). The high δ18O values of

  18. Stable Gas Hydrates Beneath a BSR: Implications for Resource Inventories and Shallow Hydrocarbon Fluid Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paganoni, M.; Foschi, M.; Cartwright, J. A.; Van Rensbergen, P.; Shipp, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    Bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs) are the primary indicators of the presence of gas hydrate systems and are generally considered to approximate the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. Here we use a combination of well-log, pressure-core, geochemical and high-resolution 3D seismic data, acquired in deepwater NW Borneo, to report the presence of gas hydrates both above and below a BSR at the top of a thrust-related anticline. This complex gas hydrate system overlies a conventional hydrocarbon reservoir. Hydrates beneath the BSR are interpreted to have a thermogenic origin because they contain significant quantities of C2+ hydrocarbons. The base of the hydrate stability coincides at the top of the anticline with a sudden decrease in resistivity in four adjacent wells. Away from the anticline top, in an environment dominated by mass-transport deposits, geochemical data from cores indicate a significant reduction in C2+ hydrocarbons. This change in gas composition is thought to reflect variations in hydrocarbon migration effectiveness and mechanisms. We demonstrate that, where thermogenic gases are efficiently transported to shallow parts of basins, hydrate stability zones could be much thicker than suggested by the depths of BSRs. This means that the carbon stored in thermogenic hydrate systems may be underestimated.

  19. Phase equilibria for complex fluid mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Prausnitz, J.M.

    1983-04-01

    After defining complex mixtures, attention is given to the canonical procedure used for the thermodynamics of fluid mixtures: first, we establish a suitable, idealized reference system and then we establish a perturbation (or excess function) which corrects the idealized system for real behavior. For complex mixtures containing identified components (e.g. alcohols, ketones, water) discussion is directed at possible techniques for extending to complex mixtures our conventional experience with reference systems and perturbations for simple mixtures. Possible extensions include generalization of the quasi-chemical approximation (local compositions) and superposition of chemical equilibria (association and solvation) on a physical equation of state. For complex mixtures containing unidentified components (e.g. coal-derived fluids), a possible experimental method is suggested for characterization; conventional procedures can then be used to calculate phase equilibria using the concept of pseudocomponents whose properties are given by the characterization data. Finally, as an alternative to the pseudocomponent method, a brief introduction is given to phase-equilibrium calculations using continuous thermodynamics.

  20. Direct visualization of the hydration layer on alumina nanoparticles with the fluid cell STEM in situ

    SciTech Connect

    Firlar, Emre; Çınar, Simge; Kashyap, Sanjay; Akinc, Mufit; Prozorov, Tanya

    2015-05-21

    Rheological behavior of aqueous suspensions containing nanometer-sized powders is of relevance to many branches of industry. Unusually high viscosities observed for suspensions of nanoparticles compared to those of micron size powders cannot be explained by current viscosity models. Formation of so-called hydration layer on alumina nanoparticles in water was hypothesized, but never observed experimentally. We report here on the direct visualization of aqueous suspensions of alumina with the fluid cell in situ. We observe the hydration layer formed over the particle aggregates and show that such hydrated aggregates constitute new particle assemblies and affect the flow behavior of the suspensions. We discuss how these hydrated nanoclusters alter the effective solid content and the viscosity of nanostructured suspensions. As a result, our findings elucidate the source of high viscosity observed for nanoparticle suspensions and are of direct relevance to many industrial sectors including materials, food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical among others employing colloidal slurries with nanometer-scale particles.

  1. Gas hydrates and fluid venting in ultradeep large scale pockmarks at the southwest african margin off Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiess, V.; Kasten, S.; Schneider, R.; Zuehlsdorff, L.; Bohrmann, G.; Sahling, H.; Breitzke, M.; Bialas, J.; Ivanov, M.; Meteor Shipboard Scientific Party, M56.

    2003-04-01

    As a project in the framework of the German gas hydrate inititiave, funded through the Geotechnologien programme of the German Minister of Education and Research (BMBF) and the German Science Foundation (DFG), investigations at the southwest african continental margin off the Congo river were planned to study the occurrence, evolution and properties of gas hydrates and fluid flow in hemipelagic sediments. R/V Meteor Cruise M56, carried out in 2 legs in November and December 2002 from Douala (Cameroon) and Libreville (Gabon) to Capetown (South Africa), combined an extended geophysical survey program, using high and very high resolution multi-channel seismics, digital sediment echosounding, swath sounding, deep tow side scan sonar, deep tow reflection seismics and tomography with ocean bottom instruments with ocean floor video surveying and sediment and water column sampling with gravity corer, tv-guided multicorer and tv grab, CTD and rosette. 3D seismic data reveal the complex nature of fluid upflow zones and gas hydrate occurrences, which produce acoustic blanking and high amplitude reflections, respectively, in the vicinity of sea floor depressions from a few to several tens of meters depth and a few tens to a few hundred meters diameter. Side Scan data reveal high backscatter patches, which are not completely correlated to the morphology, and which also show pronounced lateral variations. This is in agreement with OFOS video surveys, which confirm patchiness of vent indications as clam fields, tube worm occurrences and the distristribution and amount of carbonate precipitates at the sea floor. Furthermore, video tracks confirmed complex small scale tectonics on the inner flanks of the pockmarks, indicating the collapse of the surrounding hemipelagic sediments. Local enhancements of reflector amplitudes seem to indicate the distribution of shallow gas hydrates, allowing the reconstruction of fluid flow and methane supply as well as gas hydrate growth patterns

  2. Molecular simulations and density functional theory calculations of bromine in clathrate hydrate phases

    SciTech Connect

    Dureckova, Hana Woo, Tom K.; Alavi, Saman

    2016-01-28

    Bromine forms a tetragonal clathrate hydrate structure (TS-I) very rarely observed in clathrate hydrates of other guest substances. The detailed structure, energetics, and dynamics of Br{sub 2} and Cl{sub 2} in TS-I and cubic structure I (CS-I) clathrate hydrates are studied in this work using molecular dynamics and quantum chemical calculations. X-ray diffraction studies show that the halogen-water–oxygen distances in the cages of these structures are shorter than the sum of the van der Waals radii of halogen and oxygen atoms. This suggests that the stabilizing effects of halogen bonding or other non-covalent interactions (NCIs) may contribute to the formation of the unique tetragonal bromine hydrate structure. We performed molecular dynamics simulations of Br{sub 2} and Cl{sub 2} clathrate hydrates using our previously developed five-site charge models for the dihalogen molecules [Dureckova et al. Can. J. Chem. 93, 864 (2015)] which reproduce the computed electrostatic potentials of the dihalogens and account for the electropositive σ-hole of the halogen bond donor (the dihalogen). Analysis of the radial distribution functions, enthalpies of encapsulation, velocity and orientation autocorrelation functions, and polar angle distributions are carried out for Br{sub 2} and Cl{sub 2} guests in various cages to contrast the properties of these guests in the TS-I and CS-I phases. Quantum chemical partial geometry optimizations of Br{sub 2} and Cl{sub 2} guests in the hydrate cages using the M06-2X functional give short halogen-water distances compatible with values observed in X-ray diffraction experiments. NCI plots of guest-cage structures are generated to qualitatively show the relative strength of the non-bonding interactions between dihalogens and water molecules. The differences between behaviors of Br{sub 2} and Cl{sub 2} guests in the hydrate cages may explain why bromine forms the unique TS-I phase.

  3. Phase mixing induced by granular fluid pump during mantle strain localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Précigout, Jacques; Prigent, Cécile; Palasse, Laurie; Pochon, Anthony

    2014-05-01

    Mantle viscous strain localization is often attributed to feedbacks between grain boundary sliding (GBS) and phase mixing, as GBS could promote mixing through grain switching, and phase mixing would enhance grain-size-sensitive granular flow through grain boundary pinning. However, although GBS and phase mixing are intimately related, recent data show that GBS alone cannot end-up with randomly mixed phases. Here we show natural observations of an ultramylonitic shear zone from the Ronda peridotite (Spain) where both GBS and phase mixing occur. Microprobe analyses and coupled EDX/EBSD data first document enrichment in pyroxenes and amphibole concomitant with both phase mixing and complete randomization of the olivine fabric in fine-grained layers (5-20 microns) where strain has been localized. Both the fabric randomization and some microstructural observations indicate that these layers mostly deformed by granular flow, i.e., by GBS. Based on petrological pseudo-sections, we also show that phase enrichment does not result from metamorphic reaction, but instead from dissolution-precipitation phenomena. Finally, we document in adjacent areas a change of olivine fabric geometry that highlights syn-tectonic water draining towards fine-grained layers. While olivine fabric switches from E-type (moderately hydrated fabric) to C-type (highly hydrated fabric) towards fine-grained layers, it changes from E-type to D-type (highly hydrated fabric) in coarse-grained bands between E/C-type layers. Altogether, our findings suggest that water converges as a result of GBS-induced creep cavitation and subsequent granular fluid pump in fine-grained layers. We propose that phase mixing originates here from such a creep cavitation through dissolution-precipitation of secondary phases in newly formed cavities, giving rise to a key process for the relationships between GBS and phase mixing, and hence, for the origin of viscous strain localization in the upper mantle.

  4. Effect of poly(ethylene glycol) on phospholipid hydration and polarity of the external phase.

    PubMed

    Arnold, K; Pratsch, L; Gawrisch, K

    1983-02-09

    The hydration properties of phosphatidylcholine (PC)/water dispersions on the addition of poly(ethylene glycol) were studied by means of 2H-NMR. The quadrupole splittings and their temperature dependences correspond to measurements of PC/water dispersions at low water content. It is concluded that the bound water is partly extracted by poly(ethylene glycol) but the binding properties of the water in the inner hydration shell of about five water molecules are not changed. The ability of some phospholipid/water dispersions to undergo phase transitions to nonlamellar structures upon dehydration is discussed. Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and egg phosphatidylcholine do not form nonlamellar structures on addition of purified poly(ethylene glycol), as was demonstrated by means of 31P-NMR. Poly(ethylene glycol) decreases the polarity of the aqueous phase and the partition of hydrophobic molecules between the membrane and the external phase is changed. This was demonstrated using the excimer fluorescence of pyrene in a ghost suspension. It is suggested that the changes in polarity and hydration on the addition of poly(ethylene glycol) can contribute to the alterations in the membrane surface observed under conditions of membrane contact and fusion.

  5. Phase changes of filled ice Ih methane hydrate under low temperature and high pressure.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Takehiko; Hirai, Hisako; Matsuoka, Takahiro; Ohishi, Yasuo; Yagi, Takehiko; Ohtake, Michika; Yamamoto, Yoshitaka; Nakano, Satoshi; Irifune, Tetsuo

    2013-09-14

    Low-temperature and high-pressure experiments were performed with filled ice Ih structure of methane hydrate under 2.0-77.0 GPa and 30-300 K using diamond anvil cells and a helium-refrigeration cryostat. In situ X-ray diffractometry revealed distinct changes in the compressibility of the axial ratios of the host framework with pressure. Raman spectroscopy showed a split in the C-H vibration modes of the guest methane molecules, which was previously explained by the orientational ordering of the guest molecules. The pressure and temperature conditions at the split of the vibration modes agreed well with those of the compressibility change. The results indicate the following: (i) the orientational ordering of the guest methane molecules from an orientationally disordered state occurred at high pressures and low temperatures; and (ii) this guest ordering led to anisotropic contraction in the host framework. Such guest orientational ordering and subsequent anisotropic contraction of the host framework were similar to that reported previously for filled ice Ic hydrogen hydrate. Since phases with different guest-ordering manners were regarded as different phases, existing regions of the guest disordered-phase and the guest ordered-phase were roughly estimated by the X-ray study. In addition, above the pressure of the guest-ordered phase, another high-pressure phase developed in the low-temperature region. The deuterated-water host samples were also examined, and the influence of isotopic effects on guest ordering and phase transformation was observed.

  6. The 10Å phase: a high-pressure expandable sheet silicate stable during subduction of hydrated lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fumagalli, Patrizia; Stixrude, Lars; Poli, Stefano; Snyder, Don

    2001-03-01

    H 2O storage and release in deep subducting lithosphere is controlled by complex reaction suites involving a variety of hydrous phases. As a result of its relatively large thermal stability and intermediate composition, the 10Å phase (Mg 3Si 4O 10(OH) 2· nH 2O) has been regarded as a relevant H 2O reservoir in a wide range of rock compositions and mineral assemblages. High-pressure syntheses of the 10Å phase were carried out at 6.7 GPa and 650°C under fluid-saturated conditions in a Walker-type multi-anvil apparatus, from 5 min to 430 h. X-ray powder diffraction of large platy hexagonal crystals of the 10Å phase (up to 100 μm) were indexed on the basis of a trioctahedral-type structure. Long-term run products (>110 h) reveal sensitivity of the 10Å phase to treatment with acetone leading to the appearance of diffractions at greater d-spacings (10.2-11.6 Å) with respect to the basal peak of the 10Å phase (9.64-10.07 Å). This swelling behavior is strongly related to synthesis run duration. The Raman spectrum of the 10Å phase at frequencies less than 800 cm -1 shows a strong similarity to talc. In the Si-O stretching region (800-1100 cm -1), the 10Å phase exhibits three modes (909, 992 and 1058 cm -1), as compared to two in talc. The bending mode of water (ν 2) is found at 1593 cm -1. In the OH stretching region, peaks at 3593, 3622 and 3668 cm -1 were observed. The acetone treated sample shows a C-H stretching mode at 2923 cm -1 while the double bond CO signal is absent. The swelling behavior of the 10Å phase is interpreted as due to intercalation of acetone with pre-existing interlayer water. The efficiency of this process is dependent on the amount of the interlayer water which in turn depends on run duration. The relation between the response to acetone treatment and run duration is therefore interpreted as a time-dependent hydration of the 10Å phase. The fractions transformed from non-expandable to expandable fractions was fitted to the Avrami

  7. Phase changes of CO2 hydrate under high pressure and low temperature.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Hisako; Komatsu, Kazuki; Honda, Mizuho; Kawamura, Taro; Yamamoto, Yoshitaka; Yagi, Takehiko

    2010-09-28

    High pressure and low temperature experiments with CO(2) hydrate were performed using diamond anvil cells and a helium-refrigeration cryostat in the pressure and temperature range of 0.2-3.0 GPa and 280-80 K, respectively. In situ x-ray diffractometry revealed that the phase boundary between CO(2) hydrate and water+CO(2) extended below the 280 K reported previously, toward a higher pressure and low temperature region. The results also showed the existence of a new high pressure phase above approximately 0.6 GPa and below 1.0 GPa at which the hydrate decomposed to dry ice and ice VI. In addition, in the lower temperature region of structure I, a small and abrupt lattice expansion was observed at approximately 210 K with decreasing temperature under fixed pressures. The expansion was accompanied by a release of water content from the sI structure as ice Ih, which indicates an increased cage occupancy. A similar lattice expansion was also described in another clathrate, SiO(2) clathrate, under high pressure. Such expansion with increasing cage occupancy might be a common manner to stabilize the clathrate structures under high pressure and low temperature.

  8. The infrared spectrum of ammonia hydrate - Explanation for a reported ammonia phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Still, G.; Fink, U.; Ferraro, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    A number of anomalous spectra of solid NH3 deposited from the vapor phase have appeared in the literature. These spectra have been ascribed to a new phase of NH3. In the experiment reported here these anomalous spectra were reproduced by depositing a thin film from a mixture of gaseous NH3 and H2O and annealing this film at a temperature of 162 K. The thin film spectra showed excellent agreement with recent data on NH3.H2O. The anomalous 'NH3' spectra are, therefore, seen to be caused by H2O contamination of solid NH3 with formation of NH3 hydrate.

  9. Determination of the hydrocarbon core structure of fluid dioleoylphosphocholine (DOPC) bilayers by x-ray diffraction using specific bromination of the double-bonds: effect of hydration.

    PubMed Central

    Hristova, K; White, S H

    1998-01-01

    distinct structural change upon completion of the hydration shell. For hydrations of 12-16 waters per lipid, the bromine distribution remains constant at Z(Br) = 7.33 +/- 0.25 A and A(Br) = 5.35 +/- 0.5 A. The absolute-scale structure factors obtained in the experiments provided an opportunity to test the so-called fluid-minus method of structure-factor scaling. We found that the method is quite satisfactory for determining the phases of structure factors, but not their absolute values. PMID:9591668

  10. Determination of the hydrocarbon core structure of fluid dioleoylphosphocholine (DOPC) bilayers by x-ray diffraction using specific bromination of the double-bonds: effect of hydration.

    PubMed

    Hristova, K; White, S H

    1998-05-01

    distinct structural change upon completion of the hydration shell. For hydrations of 12-16 waters per lipid, the bromine distribution remains constant at Z(Br) = 7.33 +/- 0.25 A and A(Br) = 5.35 +/- 0.5 A. The absolute-scale structure factors obtained in the experiments provided an opportunity to test the so-called fluid-minus method of structure-factor scaling. We found that the method is quite satisfactory for determining the phases of structure factors, but not their absolute values.

  11. Phase transitions in fluids and biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipos, Maksim

    In this thesis, I consider systems from two seemingly different fields: fluid dynamics and microbial ecology. In these systems, the unifying features are the existences of global non-equilibrium steady states. I consider generic and statistical models for transitions between these global states, and I relate the model results with experimental data. A theme of this thesis is that these rather simple, minimal models are able to capture a lot of functional detail about complex dynamical systems. In Part I, I consider the transition between laminar and turbulent flow. I find that quantitative and qualitative features of pipe flow experiments, the superexponential lifetime and the splitting of turbulent puffs, and the growth rate of turbulent slugs, can all be explained by a coarse-grained, phenomenological model in the directed percolation universality class. To relate this critical phenomena approach closer to the fluid dynamics, I consider the transition to turbulence in the Burgers equation, a simplified model for Navier-Stokes equations. Via a transformation to a model of directed polymers in a random medium, I find that the transition to Burgers turbulence may also be in the directed percolation universality class. This evidence implies that the turbulent-to-laminar transition is statistical in nature and does not depend on details of the Navier-Stokes equations describing the fluid flow. In Part II, I consider the disparate subject of microbial ecology where the complex interactions within microbial ecosystems produce observable patterns in microbe abundance, diversity and genotype. In order to be able to study these patterns, I develop a bioinformatics pipeline to multiply align and quickly cluster large microbial metagenomics datasets. I also develop a novel metric that quantifies the degree of interactions underlying the assembly of a microbial ecosystem, particularly the transition between neutral (random) and niche (deterministic) assembly. I apply this

  12. Optimization of crystal nucleation close to a metastable fluid-fluid phase transition.

    PubMed

    Wedekind, Jan; Xu, Limei; Buldyrev, Sergey V; Stanley, H Eugene; Reguera, David; Franzese, Giancarlo

    2015-06-22

    The presence of a metastable fluid-fluid critical point is thought to dramatically influence the crystallization pathway, increasing the nucleation rate by many orders of magnitude over the predictions of classical nucleation theory. We use molecular dynamics simulations to study the kinetics of crystallization in the vicinity of this metastable critical point and throughout the metastable fluid-fluid phase diagram. To quantitatively understand how the fluid-fluid phase separation affects the crystal nucleation, we evaluate accurately the kinetics and reconstruct the thermodynamic free-energy landscape of crystal formation. Contrary to expectations, we find no special advantage of the proximity of the metastable critical point on the crystallization rates. However, we find that the ultrafast formation of a dense liquid phase causes the crystallization to accelerate both near the metastable critical point and almost everywhere below the fluid-fluid spinodal line. These results unveil three different scenarios for crystallization that could guide the optimization of the process in experiments.

  13. Prediction of phase equilibrium and hydration free energy of carboxylic acids by Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, Nicolas; Gedik, Ibrahim; Lachet, Véronique; Pigeon, Laurent; Lugo, Rafael

    2013-06-13

    In this work, a new transferable united-atom force field has been developed to predict phase equilibrium and hydration free energy of carboxylic acids. To take advantage of the transferability of the AUA4 force field, all Lennard-Jones parameters of groups involved in the carboxylic acid chemical function are reused from previous parametrizations of this force field. Only a unique set of partial electrostatic charges is proposed to reproduce the experimental gas phase dipole moment, saturated liquid densities and vapor pressures. Phase equilibrium properties of various pure carboxylic acids (acetic acid, propanoic acid, butanoic acid, pentanoic acid, hexanoic acid) and one diacid (1,5-pentanedioic) are studied through Monte Carlo simulations in the Gibbs ensemble. A good accuracy is obtained for pure compound saturated liquid densities and vapor pressures (average deviation of 2% and 6%, respectively), as well as for critical points. The vaporization enthalpy is, however, poorly predicted for short acids, probably due to a limitation of the force field to correctly describe the significant dimerization in the vapor phase. Pressure-composition diagrams for two binary mixtures (acetic acid + n-butane and propanoic acid + pentanoic acid) are also computed with a good accuracy, showing the transferability of the proposed force field to mixtures. Hydration free energies are calculated for three carboxylic acids using thermodynamic integration. A systematic overestimation of around 10 kJ/mol is observed compared to experimental data. This new force field parametrized only on saturated equilibrium properties appears insufficient to reach an acceptable precision for this property, and only relative hydration free energies between two carboxylic acids can be correctly predicted. This highlights the limitation of the transferability feature of force fields to properties not included in the parametrization database.

  14. Phase behavior and bilayer properties of fatty acids: hydrated 1:1 acid-soaps.

    PubMed

    Cistola, D P; Atkinson, D; Hamilton, J A; Small, D M

    1986-05-20

    The physical properties in water of a series of 1:1 acid-soap compounds formed from fatty acids and potassium soaps with saturated (10-18 carbons) and omega-9 monounsaturated (18 carbons) hydrocarbon chains have been studied by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction, and direct and polarized light microscopy. DSC showed three phase transitions corresponding to the melting of crystalline water, the melting of crystalline lipid hydrocarbon chains, and the decomposition of the 1:1 acid-soap compound into its parent fatty acid and soap. Low- and wide-angle X-ray diffraction patterns revealed spacings that corresponded (with increasing hydration) to acid-soap crystals, hexagonal type II liquid crystals, and lamellar liquid crystals. The lamellar phase swelled from bilayer repeat distances of 68 (at 45% H2O) to 303 A (at 90% H2O). Direct and polarized light micrographs demonstrated the formation of myelin figures as well as birefringent optical textures corresponding to hexagonal and lamellar mesophases. Assuming that 1:1 potassium hydrogen dioleate and water were two components, we constructed a temperature-composition phase diagram. Interpretation of the data using the Gibbs phase rule showed that, at greater than 30% water, hydrocarbon chain melting was accompanied by decomposition of the 1:1 acid-soap compound and the system changed from a two-component to a three-component system. Comparison of hydrated 1:1 fatty acid/soap systems with hydrated soap systems suggests that the reduced degree of charge repulsion between polar groups causes half-ionized fatty acids in excess water to form bilayers rather than micelles.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. In-focus electron microscopy of frozen-hydrated biological samples with a Boersch phase plate.

    PubMed

    Barton, B; Rhinow, D; Walter, A; Schröder, R; Benner, G; Majorovits, E; Matijevic, M; Niebel, H; Müller, H; Haider, M; Lacher, M; Schmitz, S; Holik, P; Kühlbrandt, W

    2011-12-01

    We report the implementation of an electrostatic Einzel lens (Boersch) phase plate in a prototype transmission electron microscope dedicated to aberration-corrected cryo-EM. The combination of phase plate, C(s) corrector and Diffraction Magnification Unit (DMU) as a new electron-optical element ensures minimal information loss due to obstruction by the phase plate and enables in-focus phase contrast imaging of large macromolecular assemblies. As no defocussing is necessary and the spherical aberration is corrected, maximal, non-oscillating phase contrast transfer can be achieved up to the information limit of the instrument. A microchip produced by a scalable micro-fabrication process has 10 phase plates, which are positioned in a conjugate, magnified diffraction plane generated by the DMU. Phase plates remained fully functional for weeks or months. The large distance between phase plate and the cryo sample permits the use of an effective anti-contaminator, resulting in ice contamination rates of <0.6 nm/h at the specimen. Maximal in-focus phase contrast was obtained by applying voltages between 80 and 700 mV to the phase plate electrode. The phase plate allows for in-focus imaging of biological objects with a signal-to-noise of 5-10 at a resolution of 2-3 nm, as demonstrated for frozen-hydrated virus particles and purple membrane at liquid-nitrogen temperature.

  16. Thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cortes, D.D.; Martin, A.I.; Yun, T.S.; Francisca, F.M.; Santamarina, J.C.; Ruppel, C.

    2009-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments is necessary for evaluating phase transformation processes that would accompany energy production from gas hydrate deposits and for estimating regional heat flow based on the observed depth to the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. The coexistence of multiple phases (gas hydrate, liquid and gas pore fill, and solid sediment grains) and their complex spatial arrangement hinder the a priori prediction of the thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments. Previous studies have been unable to capture the full parameter space covered by variations in grain size, specific surface, degree of saturation, nature of pore filling material, and effective stress for hydrate-bearing samples. Here we report on systematic measurements of the thermal conductivity of air dry, water- and tetrohydrofuran (THF)-saturated, and THF hydrate-saturated sand and clay samples at vertical effective stress of 0.05 to 1 MPa (corresponding to depths as great as 100 m below seafloor). Results reveal that the bulk thermal conductivity of the samples in every case reflects a complex interplay among particle size, effective stress, porosity, and fluid-versus-hydrate filled pore spaces. The thermal conductivity of THF hydrate-bearing soils increases upon hydrate formation although the thermal conductivities of THF solution and THF hydrate are almost the same. Several mechanisms can contribute to this effect including cryogenic suction during hydrate crystal growth and the ensuing porosity reduction in the surrounding sediment, increased mean effective stress due to hydrate formation under zero lateral strain conditions, and decreased interface thermal impedance as grain-liquid interfaces are transformed into grain-hydrate interfaces. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortes, Douglas D.; Martin, Ana I.; Yun, Tae Sup; Francisca, Franco M.; Santamarina, J. Carlos; Ruppel, Carolyn

    2009-11-01

    A thorough understanding of the thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments is necessary for evaluating phase transformation processes that would accompany energy production from gas hydrate deposits and for estimating regional heat flow based on the observed depth to the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. The coexistence of multiple phases (gas hydrate, liquid and gas pore fill, and solid sediment grains) and their complex spatial arrangement hinder the a priori prediction of the thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments. Previous studies have been unable to capture the full parameter space covered by variations in grain size, specific surface, degree of saturation, nature of pore filling material, and effective stress for hydrate-bearing samples. Here we report on systematic measurements of the thermal conductivity of air dry, water- and tetrohydrofuran (THF)-saturated, and THF hydrate-saturated sand and clay samples at vertical effective stress of 0.05 to 1 MPa (corresponding to depths as great as 100 m below seafloor). Results reveal that the bulk thermal conductivity of the samples in every case reflects a complex interplay among particle size, effective stress, porosity, and fluid-versus-hydrate filled pore spaces. The thermal conductivity of THF hydrate-bearing soils increases upon hydrate formation although the thermal conductivities of THF solution and THF hydrate are almost the same. Several mechanisms can contribute to this effect including cryogenic suction during hydrate crystal growth and the ensuing porosity reduction in the surrounding sediment, increased mean effective stress due to hydrate formation under zero lateral strain conditions, and decreased interface thermal impedance as grain-liquid interfaces are transformed into grain-hydrate interfaces.

  18. Measurement of chain tilt angle in fully hydrated bilayers of gel phase lecithins.

    PubMed Central

    Tristram-Nagle, S; Zhang, R; Suter, R M; Worthington, C R; Sun, W J; Nagle, J F

    1993-01-01

    The tilt angle theta tilt of the hydrocarbon chains has been determined for fully hydrated gel phase of a series of saturated lecithins. Oriented samples were prepared on glass substrates and hydrated with supersaturated water vapor. Evidence for full hydration was the same intensity pattern of the low angle lamellar peaks and the same lamellar repeat D as unoriented multilamellar vesicles. Tilting the sample permitted observation of all the wide angle arcs necessary to verify the theoretical diffraction pattern corresponding to tilting of the chains towards nearest neighbors. The length of the scattering unit corresponds to two hydrocarbon chains, requiring each bilayer to scatter coherently rather than each monolayer. For DPPC, theta tilt was determined to be 32.0 +/- 0.5 degrees at 19 degrees C, slightly larger than previous direct determinations and considerably smaller than the value required by recent gravimetric measurements. This new value allows more accurate determinations of a variety of structural parameters, such as area per lipid molecule, A = 47.2 +/- 0.5 A2, and number of water molecules of hydration, nw = 11.8 +/- 0.7. As the chain length n of the lipids was increased from 16 to 20 carbons, the parameters A and nw remained constant, suggesting that the headgroup packing is at its excluded volume limit for this range. However, theta tilt increased by 3 degrees and the chain area Ac decreased by 0.5 A2. This behavior is explained in terms of a competition between a bulk free energy term and a finite or end effect term. Images FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 PMID:8494973

  19. Desalination utilizing clathrate hydrates (LDRD final report).

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Blake Alexander; Bradshaw, Robert W.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Cygan, Randall Timothy; Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Majzoub, Eric H.

    2008-01-01

    Advances are reported in several aspects of clathrate hydrate desalination fundamentals necessary to develop an economical means to produce municipal quantities of potable water from seawater or brackish feedstock. These aspects include the following, (1) advances in defining the most promising systems design based on new types of hydrate guest molecules, (2) selection of optimal multi-phase reactors and separation arrangements, and, (3) applicability of an inert heat exchange fluid to moderate hydrate growth, control the morphology of the solid hydrate material formed, and facilitate separation of hydrate solids from concentrated brine. The rate of R141b hydrate formation was determined and found to depend only on the degree of supercooling. The rate of R141b hydrate formation in the presence of a heat exchange fluid depended on the degree of supercooling according to the same rate equation as pure R141b with secondary dependence on salinity. Experiments demonstrated that a perfluorocarbon heat exchange fluid assisted separation of R141b hydrates from brine. Preliminary experiments using the guest species, difluoromethane, showed that hydrate formation rates were substantial at temperatures up to at least 12 C and demonstrated partial separation of water from brine. We present a detailed molecular picture of the structure and dynamics of R141b guest molecules within water cages, obtained from ab initio calculations, molecular dynamics simulations, and Raman spectroscopy. Density functional theory calculations were used to provide an energetic and molecular orbital description of R141b stability in both large and small cages in a structure II hydrate. Additionally, the hydrate of an isomer, 1,2-dichloro-1-fluoroethane, does not form at ambient conditions because of extensive overlap of electron density between guest and host. Classical molecular dynamics simulations and laboratory trials support the results for the isomer hydrate. Molecular dynamics simulations

  20. A phylogenetic analysis of microbial communities associated with methane hydrate containing marine fluids and sediments in the Cascadia margin (ODP site 892B).

    PubMed

    Bidle, K A; Kastner, M; Bartlett, D H

    1999-08-01

    Methane hydrates represent an enormous carbon and energy source in many low temperature deep marine sediments. However, little information is available concerning the nature of the microbial communities associated with these structures. Here, we describe a phylogenetic analysis based on ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences obtained from sediment and fluid samples present in a region of gas hydrate formation in shallow sediments within the Cascadia margin in and around Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 892B. Our studies detected diverse sulfur-utilizing microbes, methanogens, methanotrophs, and non-thermophilic members of the kingdom Crenarchaeota. This is the first culture-independent phylogenetic analysis of a gas hydrate habitat.

  1. Entropic description of gas hydrate ice/liquid equilibrium via enhanced sampling of coexisting phases

    DOE PAGES

    Malolepsza, Edyta; Kim, Jaegil; Keyes, Tom

    2015-04-28

    Metastable β ice holds small guest molecules in stable gas hydrates, so its solid/liquid equilibrium is of interest. However, aqueous crystal/liquid transitions are very difficult to simulate. A new MD algorithm generates trajectories in a generalized NPT ensemble and equilibrates states of coexisting phases with a selectable enthalpy. Furthermore, with replicas spanning the range between β ice and liquid water we find the statistical temperature from the enthalpy histograms and characterize the transition by the entropy, introducing a general computational procedure for first-order transitions.

  2. The transport of gold and molybdenum through hydration in aqueous vapor and vapor-like fluids: Application to porphyry Au and Mo deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtig, N. C.; Williams-Jones, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    The hypothesis that vapor is a viable medium for the transport of gold and molybdenum in ore forming magmatic-hydrothermal systems is supported by fluid inclusion data, analyses of volcanic gas condensates and the occurrence of metal-rich incrustations around fumaroles. Experiments have shown that hydration of metal species in water vapor is an essential factor in making such transport possible [1,2,3]. Indeed, hydration has been shown to increase concentrations of Au and Mo in the aqueous vapor phase by several orders of magnitude over those calculated using volatility data. Nevertheless metal concentrations determined experimentally in previous studies are substantially lower than those reported for vapor inclusions in magmatic hydrothermal systems, and are limited to one or two dominant hydrated metal species. To bridge this gap, we performed a series of new experiments extending the density-range to near critical vapor density, and intermediate-density in the case of supercritical fluids. Experiments were carried out in batch-type Ti autoclaves at temperatures between 300 and 500 °C and pressures up to 366 bar in HCl-bearing water vapor. Oxygen fugacity was buffered either by the assemblage MoO2/MoO3 or WO2/WO3 or graphite. Gold and molybdenum concentrations measured in the experimental condensates ranged from 0.9 ppb and 3 ppm in low-density vapor at 300 °C to 4.6 ppm and 481 ppm at 297 bar and 400 °C, respectively. The fugacity of both metals increased exponentially with increasing water fugacity, resulting in an increase in metal solubility between 1 and 3 orders of magnitude from the lowest pressures investigated. Curves representing the experimentally determined relationship between metal fugacity and fH2O were fitted to a step-wise hydration model to extract a set of logarithmic equilibrium constants for P and T extrapolation. We have used the above data to model Au and Mo mobilization in magmatic-hydrothermal vapor plumes. This modeling shows that the

  3. Direct phase coexistence molecular dynamics study of the phase equilibria of the ternary methane-carbon dioxide-water hydrate system.

    PubMed

    Michalis, Vasileios K; Tsimpanogiannis, Ioannis N; Stubos, Athanassios K; Economou, Ioannis G

    2016-09-14

    Molecular dynamics simulation is used to predict the phase equilibrium conditions of a ternary hydrate system. In particular, the direct phase coexistence methodology is implemented for the determination of the three-phase coexistence temperature of the methane-carbon dioxide-water hydrate system at elevated pressures. The TIP4P/ice, TraPPE-UA and OPLS-UA forcefields for water, carbon dioxide and methane respectively are used, in line with our previous studies of the phase equilibria of the corresponding binary hydrate systems. The solubility in the aqueous phase of the guest molecules of the respective binary and ternary systems is examined under hydrate-forming conditions, providing insight into the predictive capability of the methodology as well as the combination of these forcefields to accurately describe the phase behavior of the ternary system. The three-phase coexistence temperature is calculated at 400, 1000 and 2000 bar for two compositions of the methane-carbon dioxide mixture. The predicted values are compared with available calculations with satisfactory agreement. An estimation is also provided for the fraction of the guest molecules in the mixed hydrate phase under the conditions examined.

  4. Concentration selective hydration and phase states of hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Arfin, Najmul; Bohidar, H B

    2012-04-01

    Solution behaviour of hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) is reported in the polymer concentration range spanning over two decades (c=0.002-5% (w/v)). The results conclude the following: (i) dilute solution regime prevailed for c<0.2% (w/v), flexible HEC fibres of typical length ≈ 1 μm and persistence length ≈ 10 nm were found here, (ii) for 0.2phase comprising soluble aggregates of hydrated HEC fibrils were observed with the material exhibiting viscoelastic behaviour and (iii) when 1hydration of HEC fibres in the aforesaid concentration regimes. Cole-Cole plots revealed phase homogeneity and miscibility was limited to concentrations less than ~2% (w/v). For higher polymer concentrations, strong fibre-fibre interactions prevailed and samples became heterogeneous.

  5. The reaction of CF2Cl2 with gas-phase hydrated electrons.

    PubMed

    Lengyel, Jozef; van der Linde, Christian; Fárník, Michal; Beyer, Martin K

    2016-09-14

    The reaction of dichlorodifluoromethane (CF2Cl2) with hydrated electrons (H2O)n(-) (n = 30-86) in the gas phase was studied using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry. The hydrated electron reacts with CF2Cl2, forming (H2O)mCl(-) with a rate constant of (8.6 ± 2.2) × 10(-10) cm(3) s(-1), corresponding to an efficiency of 57 ± 15%. The reaction enthalpy was determined using nanocalorimetry, revealing a strongly exothermic reaction with ΔHr(CF2Cl2, 298 K) = -208 ± 41 kJ mol(-1). The combination of the measured reaction enthalpy with thermochemical data from the condensed phase yields a C-Cl bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE) ΔHC-Cl(CF2Cl2, 298 K) = 355 ± 41 kJ mol(-1) that agrees within error limits with the predicted values from quantum chemical calculations and published BDEs.

  6. Phase behavior and hydrated solid structure in lysophospholipid/long-chain alcohol/water system and effect of cholesterol addition.

    PubMed

    Konno, Yoshikazu; Naito, Noboru; Yoshimura, Akio; Aramaki, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    Phase behavior in lysophospholipid/long-chain alcohol/water system at 80°C was investigated using hexanol and oleyl alcohol as the long-chain alcohol. Similarly to hydrophilic surfactant, a micellar phase in a lysophospholipid/water system transitioned to a lamellar liquid-crystalline phase by the addition of long-chain alcohol. In the oleyl alcohol system the lamellar liquid-crystalline phase was observed in wider region compared to the hexanol system. The effect of cholesterol addition on the phase behavior was also studied. The region of liquid-crystalline phase and (reverse micellar + liquid-crystalline + water) phase shifted towards higher lysophospholipid concentrations. The structure of hydrated solid as well as the transition between lamellar liquid-crystalline phase and hydrated solid was analyzed by X-ray scattering measurement and differential scanning calorimetry measurement. It was revealed that the hydrated solid was α-type crystals with lamellar structure. The hydrated solid (gel)-liquid crystal transition temperature gradually decreased with increasing oleyl alcohol concentration and the decrement was enhanced by the addition of cholesterol.

  7. Surfactant adsorption and interfacial tension investigations on cyclopentane hydrate.

    PubMed

    Aman, Zachary M; Olcott, Kyle; Pfeiffer, Kristopher; Sloan, E Dendy; Sum, Amadeu K; Koh, Carolyn A

    2013-02-26

    Gas hydrates represent an unconventional methane resource and a production/safety risk to traditional oil and gas flowlines. In both systems, hydrate may share interfaces with both aqueous and hydrocarbon fluids. To accurately model macroscopic properties, such as relative permeability in unconventional systems or dispersion viscosity in traditional systems, knowledge of hydrate interfacial properties is required. This work presents hydrate cohesive force results measured on a micromechanical force apparatus, and complementary water-hydrocarbon interfacial tension data. By combining a revised cohesive force model with experimental data, two interfacial properties of cyclopentane hydrate were estimated: hydrate-water and hydrate-cyclopentane interfacial tension values at 0.32 ± 0.05 mN/m and 47 ± 5 mN/m, respectively. These fundamental physiochemical properties have not been estimated or measured for cyclopentane hydrate to date. The addition of surfactants in the cyclopentane phase significantly reduced the cyclopentane hydrate cohesive force; we hypothesize this behavior to be the result of surfactant adsorption on the hydrate-oil interface. Surface excess quantities were estimated for hydrate-oil and water-oil interfaces using four carboxylic and sulfonic acids. The results suggest the density of adsorbed surfactant may be 2× larger for the hydrate-oil interface than the water-oil interface. Additionally, hydrate-oil interfacial tension was observed to begin decreasing from the baseline value at significantly lower surfactant concentrations (1-3 orders of magnitude) than those for the water-oil interfacial tension.

  8. Thermodynamics of aqueous solutes at high temperatures and pressures: Application of the hydration theory and implications for fluid-mediated mass transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulak, M.; Dolejs, D.

    2012-04-01

    Magmatic activity and prograde devolatilization of subducting or underplating lithologies release large quantities of aqueous fluids that act as mass and heat transfer agents in the planetary interiors. Understanding of mineral-melt-fluid interactions is essential for evaluating the effects of fluid-mediated mass transport in subduction zones, collisional orogens as well as in igneous provinces. The thermodynamic properties of aqueous species were frequently described by the Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers equation of state [1] but its utility is limited by inavailability of the solvent dielectric properties at high pressures and temperatures, and by decoupling of species-solvent mechanical and electrostatic interactions that cannot be separated within the Born theory. Systematic description of the hydration process in a Born-Haber cycle leads to the following thermochemical contributions: (i) thermodynamic properties of an unhydrated species, (ii) the pressure-volume work required to create a cavity within the solvent to accommodate the species, described by the scaled particle theory, (iii) entropic contribution related to changes in the solute's and the solvent's kinetic degrees of freedom, and (iv) contribution from the solute-solvent molecular interactions and corresponding rearrangement of the solvent molecules to form the hydration shell. Application of the spatial correlation functions [2, 3] results in apparent Gibbs energy of aqueous species, ΔaGi = a + bT + cTlnT + dP + eTlnρ + fTρlnρ, where athrough f represent constants related to standard thermodynamic properties of aqueous species (ΔfH, S, V, cP) and to solvent volumetric properties at 298.15 K and 1 bar (ρ, α, β etc.). In phase equilibrium calculations, the number of required parameters often reduces to four (c = f = 0) while noting that H2O density as the only solvent-related property is accurately known to extreme temperatures and pressures. The equation of state parameters were calibrated for 30

  9. The Association of Hydration Status with Physical Signs, Symptoms and Survival in Advanced Cancer—The Use of Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Analysis (BIVA) Technology to Evaluate Fluid Volume in Palliative Care: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Mayland, Catriona R.; Mason, Stephen; Cox, Trevor F.; Varro, Andrea; Ellershaw, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Hydration in advanced cancer is a controversial area; however, current hydration assessments methods are poorly developed. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) is an accurate hydration tool; however its application in advanced cancer has not been explored. This study used BIVA to evaluate hydration status in advanced cancer to examine the association of fluid status with symptoms, physical signs, renal biochemical measures and survival. Materials and methods An observational study of 90 adults with advanced cancer receiving care in a UK specialist palliative care inpatient unit was conducted. Hydration status was assessed using BIVA in addition to assessments of symptoms, physical signs, performance status, renal biochemical measures, oral fluid intake and medications. The association of clinical variables with hydration was evaluated using regression analysis. A survival analysis was conducted to examine the influence of hydration status and renal failure. Results The hydration status of participants was normal in 43 (47.8%), 'more hydrated' in 37 (41.1%) and 'less hydrated' in 10 (11.1%). Lower hydration was associated with increased symptom intensity (Beta = -0.29, p = 0.04) and higher scores for physical signs associated with dehydration (Beta = 10.94, p = 0.02). Higher hydration was associated with oedema (Beta = 2.55, p<0.001). Median survival was statistically significantly shorter in 'less hydrated' patients (44 vs. 68 days; p = 0.049) and in pre-renal failure (44 vs. 100 days; p = 0.003). Conclusions In advanced cancer, hydration status was associated with clinical signs and symptoms. Hydration status and pre-renal failure were independent predictors of survival. Further studies can establish the utility of BIVA as a standardised hydration assessment tool and explore its potential research application, in order to inform the clinical management of fluid balance in patients with advanced cancer. PMID:27673684

  10. Phase behaviour and thermoelastic properties of ammonia hydrate and ice polymorphs from 0 - 2 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortes, A. D.; Wood, I. G.; Vocadlo, L.

    2008-12-01

    Ammonia remains amongst the most plausible planetary "antifreeze" agents, and its physical properties in hydrate compounds under the appropriate conditions (roughly 0 - 5 GPa, 100 - 300 K) must be known in order for it to be accommodated in planetary models. The pressure melting curve, and the expected polymorphism of the stoichiometric ammonia hydrates have implications for the internal structure of large icy moons like Titan, leading to phase layering and the possible persistence of deep subsurface oceans, the latter being sites of high astrobiological potential. Aqueous ammonia is also a candidate substance involved in cryomagmatism on Titan, and again the melting behaviour, and densities of liquids and solids, in the ammonia-water system must be known to model properly the partial melting and propagation of magma. We describe the results of a series of powder neutron diffraction experiments over the range 0 - 2.0 GPa, 150 - 280 K which were carried out with the objective of determining the phase behaviour and thermoelastic properties of ammonia dihydrate. In addition to the low-pressure cubic crystalline phase, ADH I, we have identified two closely related monoclinic polymorphs of ammonia dihydrate (ADH IIa and IIb) in the range 0.45 - 0.60 GPa (at 175 K), and have determined that this phase dissociates to a mixture of ammonia monohydrate phase II and ice II when warmed to ~190 K, which in turn melts at a binary eutectic at ~196 K; AMH II has a large (Z = 16) orthorhombic unit cell. Above 0.60 GPa, an orthorhombic polymorph of ammonia dihydrate, which we have referred to previously as ADH IV, persists to pressures > 3 GPa, and appears to be the liquidus phase over this whole pressure range. We have observed this phase co- existing with both ice II and ice VI. Here we describe the most plausible synthesis of the high-pressure phase diagram which explains our observations, and provide measurements of the densities, thermal expansion, bulk moduli, and crystal

  11. Mantle hydration and Cl-rich fluids in the subduction forearc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynard, Bruno

    2016-12-01

    In the forearc region, aqueous fluids are released from the subducting slab at a rate depending on its thermal state. Escaping fluids tend to rise vertically unless they meet permeability barriers such as the deformed plate interface or the Moho of the overriding plate. Channeling of fluids along the plate interface and Moho may result in fluid overpressure in the oceanic crust, precipitation of quartz from fluids, and low Poisson ratio areas associated with tremors. Above the subducting plate, the forearc mantle wedge is the place of intense reactions between dehydration fluids from the subducting slab and ultramafic rocks leading to extensive serpentinization. The plate interface is mechanically decoupled, most likely in relation to serpentinization, thereby isolating the forearc mantle wedge from convection as a cold, potentially serpentinized and buoyant, body. Geophysical studies are unique probes to the interactions between fluids and rocks in the forearc mantle, and experimental constrains on rock properties allow inferring fluid migration and fluid-rock reactions from geophysical data. Seismic velocities reveal a high degree of serpentinization of the forearc mantle in hot subduction zones, and little serpentinization in the coldest subduction zones because the warmer the subduction zone, the higher the amount of water released by dehydration of hydrothermally altered oceanic lithosphere. Interpretation of seismic data from petrophysical constrain is limited by complex effects due to anisotropy that needs to be assessed both in the analysis and interpretation of seismic data. Electrical conductivity increases with increasing fluid content and temperature of the subduction. However, the forearc mantle of Northern Cascadia, the hottest subduction zone where extensive serpentinization was first demonstrated, shows only modest electrical conductivity. Electrical conductivity may vary not only with the thermal state of the subduction zone, but also with time for

  12. Comparative Assessment of Advanced Gay Hydrate Production Methods

    SciTech Connect

    M. D. White; B. P. McGrail; S. K. Wurstner

    2009-06-30

    Displacing natural gas and petroleum with carbon dioxide is a proven technology for producing conventional geologic hydrocarbon reservoirs, and producing additional yields from abandoned or partially produced petroleum reservoirs. Extending this concept to natural gas hydrate production offers the potential to enhance gas hydrate recovery with concomitant permanent geologic sequestration. Numerical simulation was used to assess a suite of carbon dioxide injection techniques for producing gas hydrates from a variety of geologic deposit types. Secondary hydrate formation was found to inhibit contact of the injected CO{sub 2} regardless of injectate phase state, thus diminishing the exchange rate due to pore clogging and hydrate zone bypass of the injected fluids. Additional work is needed to develop methods of artificially introducing high-permeability pathways in gas hydrate zones if injection of CO{sub 2} in either gas, liquid, or micro-emulsion form is to be more effective in enhancing gas hydrate production rates.

  13. Advanced Nanostructures for Two-Phase Fluid and Thermal Transport

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-07

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0183 (YIP 11) Advanced Nanostructures for Two-Phase Fluid and Thermal Transport Evelyn Wang MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY...Advanced Nanostructures for Two-Phase Fluid and Thermal Transport AFOSR Grant FA9550-11-1-0059 Final Report Evelyn N. Wang Associate Professor...heated channel wall. Small fluctuations in the measured heater surface temperature (± 3-8 °C) indicated increased flow stability, and the heat transfer

  14. The impact of transitions between two-fluid and three-fluid phases on fluid configuration and fluid-fluid interfacial area in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Kenneth C.; McDonald, Kieran; Marble, Justin; Russo, Ann E.; Brusseau, Mark L.

    2015-09-01

    Multiphase-fluid distribution and flow is inherent in numerous areas of hydrology. Yet pore-scale characterization of transitions between two and three immiscible fluids is limited. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of such transitions on the pore-scale configuration of organic liquid in a multifluid system comprising natural porous media. Three-dimensional images of an organic liquid (trichloroethene) in two-phase (organic-liquid/water) and three-phase (air/organic-liquid/water) systems were obtained using X-ray microtomography before and after drainage and imbibition. Upon transition from a two-phase to a three-phase system, a significant portion of the organic liquid (intermediate wetting fluid) was observed to exist as lenses and films in contact with air (nonwetting fluid). In these cases, the air was either encased by or contiguous to the organic liquid. The presence of air resulted in an increase in the surface-area-to-volume ratios for the organic-liquid blobs. Upon imbibition, the air was displaced downgradient, and concomitantly, the morphology of the organic-liquid blobs no longer in contact with air reverted to that characteristic of a two-phase distribution (i.e., more spherical blobs and ganglia). This change in morphology resulted in a reduction in the surface-area-to-volume ratio. These results illustrate the impact of transitions between two-phase and three-phase conditions on fluid configuration, and they demonstrate the malleable nature of fluid configuration under dynamic, multiphase-flow conditions. The results have implications for characterizing and modeling pore-scale flow and mass transfer processes.

  15. Transient seafloor venting from methane hydrate dissociation on continental slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darnell, K.; Flemings, P. B.

    2014-12-01

    We present model results of hydrate dynamics that show the development of a gas chimney at three-phase equilibrium where gas flows through the marine hydrate stability zone and vents into the ocean during transient adjustment to imposed warming. Previous studies show venting occurs at the seaward retreating up-dip boundary of the hydrate stability zone during warming, whereas our results are the first to provide a mechanism for temporary gas venting vertically through the hydrate stability zone during warming. Transient behavior records the combined effect of hydrate dissociation from seafloor warming and secondary hydrate formation from gas produced by hydrate dissociation. We perform simulations of seafloor warming with a 1-d, unsteady, multiphase, fluid-flow model of methane hydrate dynamics. We assume an initial hydrate layer 6o meters thick with 10% pore volume saturation with seawater occupying the remaining domain above and below. We apply an instantaneous temperature increase at the seafloor. The temperature increase propagates downward through the deposit and initiates hydrate dissociation at the base of the deposit. Gas sourced from dissociation migrates upward and re-solidifies as hydrate to a maximum saturation set by a three-phase equilibrium salinity constraint. Additional gas migrates further upward to repeat the process. A chimney defined by dissociation at the bottom, secondary hydrate formation at the top, and maintained at three-phase equilibrium on the interior propagates to the seafloor in 10 kyr. Gas and salt then exit the system by venting into the ocean until dissociation stops producing new gas. Elevated salinities then diffuse to background seawater values. A shorter, shoaled hydrate deposit remains after ~100 kyr. This result shows that temporary venting can potentially occur anywhere along the hydrate stability zone during seafloor warming while retaining a hydrate deposit at steady state.

  16. Thermodynamic and kinetic stability of zwitterionic histidine: Effects of gas phase hydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sung-Sik; Kim, Ju-Young; Han, Yuna; Shim, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Sungyul

    2015-09-01

    We present calculations for histidine-(H2O)n (n = 0-6) to examine the effects of micro-hydrating water molecules on the relative stability of the zwitterionic vs. canonical forms of histidine. We calculate the structures and Gibbs free energies of the conformers at wB97XD/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. We find that six water molecules are required to produce the thermodynamically stable histidine zwitterion. By calculating the barriers of canonical ↔ zwitterionic transformation, we predict that both the most stable canonical and zwitterionic forms of histidine-(H2O)6 may be observed in low temperature gas phase environment.

  17. Separation properties of saccharides on a hydrophilic stationary phase having hydration layer formed zwitterionic copolymer.

    PubMed

    Kamichatani, Waka; Inoue, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    A novel water-holding adsorbent bonded with a zwitterionic polymer, diallylamine-maleic acid copolymer, was developed. With this adsorbent, hydrophilic solutes are partitioned by a hydration layer that forms on the zwitterions, as a main separating force. When the adsorbent was used to separate saccharides by normal-phase partition chromatography, the saccharides eluted in the order, mono-, di- and trisaccharide. The elution profile for mono- and di-saccharides was similar but not identical to that on anion exchange columns. This indicated that the adsorbent exhibited a complex retention behavior by the existence of both anion and cation exchange moieties in the functional polymer. Selecting Na(+) as a counter-ion of the maleate moiety enhanced the retention of saccharide. When used in an high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system with gradient elution, the adsorbent enabled the simultaneous analysis of mono-, di- and oligosaccharides.

  18. Cell sorting is analogous to phase ordering in fluids

    PubMed Central

    Beysens, D. A.; Forgacs, G.; Glazier, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    Morphogenetic processes, like sorting or spreading of tissues, characterize early embryonic development. An analogy between viscoelastic fluids and certain properties of embryonic tissues helps interpret these phenomena. The values of tissue-specific surface tensions are consistent with the equilibrium configurations that the Differential Adhesion Hypothesis predicts such tissues reach after sorting and spreading. Here we extend the fluid analogy to cellular kinetics. The same formalism applies to recent experiments on the kinetics of phase ordering in two-phase fluids. Our results provide biologically relevant information on the strength of binding between cell adhesion molecules under near-physiological conditions. PMID:10944216

  19. Clathrate hydrates in nature.

    PubMed

    Hester, Keith C; Brewer, Peter G

    2009-01-01

    Scientific knowledge of natural clathrate hydrates has grown enormously over the past decade, with spectacular new findings of large exposures of complex hydrates on the sea floor, the development of new tools for examining the solid phase in situ, significant progress in modeling natural hydrate systems, and the discovery of exotic hydrates associated with sea floor venting of liquid CO2. Major unresolved questions remain about the role of hydrates in response to climate change today, and correlations between the hydrate reservoir of Earth and the stable isotopic evidence of massive hydrate dissociation in the geologic past. The examination of hydrates as a possible energy resource is proceeding apace for the subpermafrost accumulations in the Arctic, but serious questions remain about the viability of marine hydrates as an economic resource. New and energetic explorations by nations such as India and China are quickly uncovering large hydrate findings on their continental shelves.

  20. Absorption mechanism of DHP107, an oral paclitaxel formulation that forms a hydrated lipidic sponge phase

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yura; Chung, Hye Jin; Hong, Jung Wan; Yun, Cheol-Won; Chung, Hesson

    2017-01-01

    Paclitaxel is a most widely used anticancer drug with low oral bioavailability, thus it is currently administered via intravenous infusion. DHP107 is a lipid-based paclitaxel formulation that can be administered as an oral solution. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of paclitaxel absorption after oral administration of DHP107 in mice and rats by changing the dosing interval, and evaluated the influence of bile excretion. DHP107 was orally administered to mice at various dosing intervals (2, 4, 8, 12, 24 h) to examine how residual DHP107 affected paclitaxel absorption during subsequent administration. Studies with small-angle X-ray diffraction (SAXS) and cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) showed that DHP107 formed a lipidic sponge phase after hydration. The AUC values after the second dose were smaller than those after the first dose, which was correlated to the induction of expression of P-gp and CYP in the livers and small intestines from 2 h to 7 d after the first dose. The smaller AUC value observed after the second dose was also attributed to the intestinal adhesion of residual formulation. The adhered DHP107 may have been removed by ingested food, thus resulting in a higher AUC. In ex vivo and in vivo mucoadhesion studies, the formulation adhered to the villi for up to 24 h, and the amount of DHP107 that adhered was approximately half that of monoolein. The paclitaxel absorption after administration of DHP107 was not affected by bile in the cholecystectomy mice. The dosing interval and food intake affect the oral absorption of paclitaxel from DHP107, which forms a mucoadhesive sponge phase after hydration. Bile excretion does not affect the absorption of paclitaxel from DHP107 in vivo. PMID:27867185

  1. Hydration State and Aqueous Phase Connectivity Shape Microbial Dispersal Rates in Unsaturated Angular Pore Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Or, D.; Ebrahimi, A.

    2014-12-01

    The limited dispersal of self-propelled microorganisms and constrained nutrient transport in unsaturated soils are considered key factors in the promotion and maintenance of soil microbial diversity. Despite the importance of microbial dispersal to biogeochemical and ecological functioning of soil, little is known about how pore spaces and hydration conditions affect dispersal ranges and rates of motile bacteria. To address these questions quantitatively, we developed a novel 3-D pore network model (PNM) composed of triangular bonds connected to cubic (volumeless) bonds to mimic the salient geometrical and physical properties of natural pore spaces. Within this abstracted physical domain we employed individual based models for motile microorganisms that are capable of motion, nutrient consumption, growth and cell division. We focused on dispersal rates through the network as a function of hydration conditions through its impact on aqueous phase fragmentation that suppress nutrient diffusion (hence growth rates) and dispersal rates in good agreement with limited experimental data. Chemotactically-biased mean travel rates of microbial cells across the saturated PNM was ~3 mm/hr and decreased exponentially to 0.45 mm/hr for matric potential of (at dispersal practically ceases and cells are pinned by capillary forces). Individual-based results were upscaled to describe population scale dispersal rates, and PNM predictions considering different microbial cell sizes were in good agreement with experimental results for unsaturated soils. The role of convection for most unsaturated conditions was negligible relative to self-motility highlighting the need to constrain continuum models with respect to cell size and motility to imporve predictions of transport of motile microorganisms. The modeling platform confirms universal predictions based on percolation theory for the onset of aqueous phase fragmentation that limit dispersal and provide niches essential for species

  2. New type of phase transformation in gas hydrate forming system at high pressures. Some experimental and computational investigations of clathrate hydrates formed in the SF6-H2O system.

    PubMed

    Aladko, E Ya; Ancharov, A I; Goryainov, S V; Kurnosov, A V; Larionov, E G; Likhacheva, A Yu; Manakov, A Yu; Potemkin, V A; Sheromov, M A; Teplykh, A E; Voronin, V I; Zhurko, F V

    2006-10-26

    In this work, we present a new, previously unknown type of structure transformation in the high-pressure gas hydrates, which is related to the existence of two different isostructural phases of the sulfur hexafluoride clathrate hydrates. Each of these phases has its own stability field on the phase diagram. The difference between these hydrates consists of partial filling of small D cages by SF(6) molecules in the high-pressure phase; at 900 MPa, about half of small cages are occupied. Our calculations indicate that the increase of population of small cavities is improbable, therefore, at any pressure value, a part of the cavities remains vacant and the packing density is relatively low. This fact allowed us to suppose the existence of the upper pressure limit of hydrate formation in this system; the experimental results obtained confirm this assumption.

  3. Optimization of crystal nucleation close to a metastable fluid-fluid phase transition

    PubMed Central

    Wedekind, Jan; Xu, Limei; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Stanley, H. Eugene; Reguera, David; Franzese, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    The presence of a metastable fluid-fluid critical point is thought to dramatically influence the crystallization pathway, increasing the nucleation rate by many orders of magnitude over the predictions of classical nucleation theory. We use molecular dynamics simulations to study the kinetics of crystallization in the vicinity of this metastable critical point and throughout the metastable fluid-fluid phase diagram. To quantitatively understand how the fluid-fluid phase separation affects the crystal nucleation, we evaluate accurately the kinetics and reconstruct the thermodynamic free-energy landscape of crystal formation. Contrary to expectations, we find no special advantage of the proximity of the metastable critical point on the crystallization rates. However, we find that the ultrafast formation of a dense liquid phase causes the crystallization to accelerate both near the metastable critical point and almost everywhere below the fluid-fluid spinodal line. These results unveil three different scenarios for crystallization that could guide the optimization of the process in experiments PMID:26095898

  4. The transient performance of a two-phase fluid reservoir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chi, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    Thermal control of future large, high power spacecraft will require a two-phase fluid central bus. The two-phase fluid reservoir is a critical component in the two-phase fluid bus. It both controls the saturation temperature and provides a space for volumetric changes. A dynamic reservoir simulation model does not currently exist, but it is needed to expedite efforts and reduce risk. During 1989 an effort was made to develop a simulation model of the transient performance of a two-phase fluid reservoir. As a beginning, a preliminary model was developed. It is based upon component mathematical models in lumped parametric form and build upon five component mathematical models for calculating dynamic responses of two-phase fluid reservoirs, primary feedback elements, controller commands, heater actuators, and reservoir heaters. As much as possible, the model took advantage of the available SINDA'85/FLUINT thermal/fluid integrator. Additional calculation logic and computer subroutines were developed to complete implementation of the model. The model is capable of simulating dynamic response of an equilibrium two-phase fluid reservoir. Modification of the model to include the liquid/vapor nonequilibrium is required for applications of the model to simulate performance of reservoir in which the liquid and vapor phases of the reservoir fluid are not in equilibrium. In addition, the model in its present form, needs to be refined in several respects. More empirical data are needed to guide the model development. The model may then be used to conduct a full parametric study of two-phase fluid reservoirs. More complexities in two-phaes flow regions in laboratory and flight conditions may have to be considered eventually if empirical data cannot be simulated satisfactorily. System with other components arrangement also need to be simulated if optimization is ever to be attained. The present model does, however, preliminarily demonstrates that such analyses are quite possible

  5. Hydration-Induced Phase Separation in Amphiphilic Polymer Matrices and its Influence on Voclosporin Release

    PubMed Central

    Khan, I. John; Murthy, N. Sanjeeva; Kohn, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Voclosporin is a highly potent, new cyclosporine-A derivative that is currently in Phase 3 clinical trials in the USA as a potential treatment for inflammatory diseases of the eye. Voclosporin represents a number of very sparingly soluble drugs that are difficult to administer. We therefore selected it as a model drug that is dispersed within amphiphilic polymer matrices, and investigated the changing morphology of the matrices using neutron and x-ray scattering during voclosporin release and polymer resorption. The hydrophobic segments of the amphiphilic polymer chain are comprised of desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine ethyl ester (DTE) and desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine (DT), and the hydrophilic component is poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). Water uptake in these matrices resulted in the phase separation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains that are a few hundred Angstroms apart. These water-driven morphological changes influenced the release profile of voclosporin and facilitated a burst-free release from the polymer. No such morphological reorganization was observed in poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), which exhibits an extended lag period, followed by a burst-like release of voclosporin when the polymer was degraded. An understanding of the effect of polymer composition on the hydration behavior is central to understanding and controlling the phase behavior and resorption characteristics of the matrix for achieving long-term controlled release of hydrophobic drugs such as voclosporin. PMID:24955746

  6. Hydration-Induced Phase Separation in Amphiphilic Polymer Matrices and its Influence on Voclosporin Release

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, I. John; Murthy, N. Sanjeeva; Kohn, Joachim

    2015-10-30

    Voclosporin is a highly potent, new cyclosporine -- a derivative that is currently in Phase 3 clinical trials in the USA as a potential treatment for inflammatory diseases of the eye. Voclosporin represents a number of very sparingly soluble drugs that are difficult to administer. It was selected as a model drug that is dispersed within amphiphilic polymer matrices, and investigated the changing morphology of the matrices using neutron and x-ray scattering during voclosporin release and polymer resorption. The hydrophobic segments of the amphiphilic polymer chain are comprised of desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine ethyl ester (DTE) and desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine (DT), and the hydrophilic component is poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). Water uptake in these matrices resulted in the phase separation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains that are a few hundred Angstroms apart. These water-driven morphological changes influenced the release profile of voclosporin and facilitated a burst-free release from the polymer. No such morphological reorganization was observed in poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), which exhibits an extended lag period, followed by a burst-like release of voclosporin when the polymer was degraded. An understanding of the effect of polymer composition on the hydration behavior is central to understanding and controlling the phase behavior and resorption characteristics of the matrix for achieving long-term controlled release of hydrophobic drugs such as voclosporin.

  7. The role of intermolecular interactions in the prediction of the phase equilibria of carbon dioxide hydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costandy, Joseph; Michalis, Vasileios K.; Tsimpanogiannis, Ioannis N.; Stubos, Athanassios K.; Economou, Ioannis G.

    2015-09-01

    The direct phase coexistence methodology was used to predict the three-phase equilibrium conditions of carbon dioxide hydrates. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed in the isobaric-isothermal ensemble for the determination of the three-phase coexistence temperature (T3) of the carbon dioxide-water system, at pressures in the range of 200-5000 bar. The relative importance of the water-water and water-guest interactions in the prediction of T3 is investigated. The water-water interactions were modeled through the use of TIP4P/Ice and TIP4P/2005 force fields. The TraPPE force field was used for carbon dioxide, and the water-guest interactions were probed through the modification of the cross-interaction Lennard-Jones energy parameter between the oxygens of the unlike molecules. It was found that when using the classic Lorentz-Berthelot combining rules, both models fail to predict T3 accurately. In order to rectify this problem, the water-guest interaction parameters were optimized, based on the solubility of carbon dioxide in water. In this case, it is shown that the prediction of T3 is limited only by the accuracy of the water model in predicting the melting temperature of ice.

  8. The role of intermolecular interactions in the prediction of the phase equilibria of carbon dioxide hydrates.

    PubMed

    Costandy, Joseph; Michalis, Vasileios K; Tsimpanogiannis, Ioannis N; Stubos, Athanassios K; Economou, Ioannis G

    2015-09-07

    The direct phase coexistence methodology was used to predict the three-phase equilibrium conditions of carbon dioxide hydrates. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed in the isobaric-isothermal ensemble for the determination of the three-phase coexistence temperature (T3) of the carbon dioxide-water system, at pressures in the range of 200-5000 bar. The relative importance of the water-water and water-guest interactions in the prediction of T3 is investigated. The water-water interactions were modeled through the use of TIP4P/Ice and TIP4P/2005 force fields. The TraPPE force field was used for carbon dioxide, and the water-guest interactions were probed through the modification of the cross-interaction Lennard-Jones energy parameter between the oxygens of the unlike molecules. It was found that when using the classic Lorentz-Berthelot combining rules, both models fail to predict T3 accurately. In order to rectify this problem, the water-guest interaction parameters were optimized, based on the solubility of carbon dioxide in water. In this case, it is shown that the prediction of T3 is limited only by the accuracy of the water model in predicting the melting temperature of ice.

  9. Phase behavior of coal fluids: Data for correlation development

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, R.L. Jr.

    1990-02-06

    The effective design and operation of processes for conversion of coal to fluid fuels requires accurate knowledge of the phase behavior of the fluid mixtures encountered in the conversion process. Multiple phases are present in essentially all stages of feed preparation, conversion reactions and product separation; thus, knowledge of the behavior of these multiple phases is important in each step. The overall objective of the author's work is to develop accurate predictive methods for representation of vapor-liquid equilibria in systems encountered in coal conversion processes. 59 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. How Hydrate Saturation Anomalies are Diffusively Constructed and Advectively Smoothed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempel, A. W.; Irizarry, J. T.; VanderBeek, B. P.; Handwerger, A. L.

    2015-12-01

    The physical processes that control the bulk characteristics of hydrate reservoirs are captured reasonably well by long-established model formulations that are rooted in laboratory-verified phase equilibrium parameterizations and field-based estimates of in situ conditions. More detailed assessments of hydrate distribution, especially involving the occurrence of high-saturation hydrate anomalies have been more difficult to obtain. Spatial variations in sediment properties are of central importance for modifying the phase behavior and promoting focussed fluid flow. However, quantitative predictions of hydrate anomaly development cannot be made rigorously without also addressing the changes in phase behavior and mechanical balances that accompany changes in hydrate saturation level. We demonstrate how pore-scale geometrical controls on hydrate phase stability can be parameterized for incorporation in simulations of hydrate anomaly development along dipping coarse-grained layers embedded in a more fine-grained background that is less amenable to fluid transport. Model simulations demonstrate how hydrate anomaly growth along coarse-layer boundaries is promoted by diffusive gas transport from the adjacent fine-grained matrix, while advective transport favors more distributed growth within the coarse-grained material and so effectively limits the difference between saturation peaks and background levels. Further analysis demonstrates how sediment contacts are unloaded once hydrate saturation reaches sufficient levels to form a load-bearing skeleton that can evolve to produce segregated nodules and lenses. Decomposition of such growth forms poses a significant geohazard that is expected to be particularly sensitive to perturbations induced by gas extraction. The figure illustrates the predicted evolution of hydrate saturation Sh in a coarse-grained dipping layer showing how prominent bounding hydrate anomalies (spikes) supplied by diffusive gas transport at early times

  11. A multi-phase, micro-dispersion reactor for the continuous production of methane gas hydrate

    SciTech Connect

    Taboada Serrano, Patricia L; Ulrich, Shannon M; Szymcek, Phillip; McCallum, Scott; Phelps, Tommy Joe; Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Tsouris, Costas

    2009-01-01

    A continuous-jet hydrate reactor originally developed to generate a CO2 hydrate stream has been modified to continuously produce CH4 hydrate. The reactor has been tested in the Seafloor Process Simulator (SPS), a 72-L pressure vessel available at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. During experiments, the reactor was submerged in water inside the SPS and received water from the surrounding through a submersible pump and CH4 externally through a gas booster pump. Thermodynamic conditions in the hydrate stability regime were employed in the experiments. The reactor produced a continuous stream of CH4 hydrate, and based on pressure values and amount of gas injected, the conversion of gas to hydrate was estimated. A conversion of up to 70% was achieved using this reactor.

  12. Methane formation at Costa Rica continental margin—constraints for gas hydrate inventories and cross-décollement fluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensen, Christian; Wallmann, Klaus

    2005-07-01

    We present a numerical model study in order to quantify the effects of organic carbon (POC) degradation and fluid migration on methane and gas hydrate formation at ODP site 1040 (Costa Rica convergent margin). Various model runs show that POC-degradation in upper plate sediments yields a potential for methane hydrate formation between 0.8 and 2.5 vol.% of pore space. However, observed chlorinity anomalies cannot be explained by the amount and the distribution pattern of gas hydrates. Moreover, pore water profiles of ammonia do not match the observations. Setting up a moderate upward flow (0.03 cm yr - 1 ) of methane-enriched, low-chlorinity fluids (induced by dewatering of oceanic plate sediments) leads to a good approximation to measured pore water profiles, thus enabling a precise estimate of POC degradation kinetics. Fluid flow has a strong impact on the location of the upper limit of the modeled gas hydrate occurrence zone (GHOZ) and may increase the total amount of gas hydrate by more than 50%. Our best estimate of the amount of gas hydrate within the GHOZ is on average 1.65 vol.% of pore space, which corresponds to about 2.5 Tg of methane per km trench within the frontal prism of slope sediments. To comply with the fact that subducted pore waters are rich in sulfate and that there is striking evidence for fluid conduits at various depths we performed additional model runs, where we simulated fluid flow by using a Gauss-type rate law, allowing us to define distinct fluid sources. We can demonstrate that combined methane production in the upper plate sediments and sulfate reduction at the top of the down going slab is sufficient to prevent the upward movement of the zone of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) to above the décollement at given upward advection rates. Steep pore water gradients along the plate boundary can be explained by lateral backflow within oceanic plate sediments. On a long term (in the order of at least some 100,000 years), fluid flow

  13. Stationary phases for packed-column supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Poole, Colin F

    2012-08-10

    The properties of silica-based, chemically bonded, packed column stationary phases used in supercritical fluid chromatography are described with a focus on column design and retention mechanisms. Supercritical fluid chromatography has benefited substantially from innovations in column design for liquid chromatography even if the separation conditions employed are generally quite different. The mobile phase composition and column operating conditions play an interactive role in modifying selectivity in supercritical fluid chromatography by altering analyte solubility in the mobile phase and through selective solvation of the stationary phase resulting in a wider range and intensity of intermolecular interactions with the analyte. The solvation parameter model is used to identify the main parameters that affect retention in supercritical fluid chromatography using carbon dioxide-methanol as a mobile phase and as a basis for column characterization to facilitate the identification of stationary phases with different separation characteristics for method development. As a caution it is pointed out that these column characterization methods are possibly a product of both the stationary phase chemistry and the column operating conditions and are suitable for use only when columns of similar design and with similar operating conditions are used.

  14. Gyroid phase of fluids with spherically symmetric competing interactions.

    PubMed

    Edelmann, Markus; Roth, Roland

    2016-06-01

    We study the phase diagram of a fluid with spherically symmetric competing pair interactions that consist of a short-ranged attraction and a longer-ranged repulsion in addition to a hard core. To this end we perform free minimizations of three-dimensional triple periodic structures within the framework of classical density functional theory. We compare our results to those from Landau theory. Our main finding is that the double gyroid phase can exist as a thermodynamically stable phase.

  15. Stability evaluation of hydrate-bearing sediments during thermally-driven hydrate dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, T.; Cho, G.; Santamarina, J.; Kim, H.; Lee, J.

    2009-12-01

    Hydrate-bearing sediments may destabilize spontaneously as part of geological processes, unavoidably during petroleum drilling/production operations, or intentionally as part of gas extraction from the hydrate itself. In all cases, high pore fluid pressure generation is anticipated during hydrate dissociation. This study examined how thermal changes destabilize gas hydrate-bearing sediments. First, an analytical formulation was derived for predicting fluid pressure evolution in hydrate-bearing sediments subjected to thermal stimulation without mass transfer. The formulation captures the self-preservation behavior, calculates the hydrate and free gas quantities during dissociation, considering effective stress-controlled sediment compressibility and gas solubility in aqueous phase. Pore fluid pressure generation is proportional to the initial hydrate fraction and the sediment bulk stiffness; is inversely proportional to the initial gas fraction and gas solubility; and is limited by changes in effective stress that cause the failure of the sediment. Second, the analytical formulation for hydrate dissociation was incorporated as a user-defined function into a verified finite difference code (FLAC2D). The underlying physical processes of hydrate-bearing sediments, including hydrate dissociation, self-preservation, pore pressure evolution, gas dissolution, and sediment volume expansion, were coupled with the thermal conduction, pore fluid flow, and mechanical response of sediments. We conducted the simulations for a duration of 20 years, assuming a constant-temperature wellbore transferred heat to the surrounding hydrate-bearing sediments, resulting in dissociation of methane hydrate in the well vicinity. The model predicted dissociation-induced excess pore fluid pressures which resulted in a large volume expansion and plastic deformation of the sediments. Furthermore, when the critical stress was reached, localized shear failure of the sediment around the borehole was

  16. Thermodynamics of Manganese Oxides at Bulk and Nanoscale: Phase Formation, Transformation, Oxidation-Reduction, and Hydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkner, Nancy R.

    Natural manganese oxides are generally formed in surficial environments that are near ambient temperature and water-rich, and may be exposed to wet-dry cycles and a variety of adsorbate species that influence dramatically their level of hydration. Manganese oxide minerals are often poorly crystalline, nanophase, and hydrous. In the near-surface environment they are involved in processes that are important to life, such as water column oxygen cycling, biomineralization, and transport of minerals/nutrients through soils and water. These processes, often involving transformations among manganese oxide polymorphs, are governed by a complex interplay between thermodynamics and kinetics. Manganese oxides are also used in technology as catalysts, and for other applications. The major goal of this dissertation is to examine the energetics of bulk and nanophase manganese oxide phases as a function of particle size, composition, and surface hydration. Careful synthesis and characterization of manganese oxide phases with different surface areas provided samples for the study of enthalpies of formation by high temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry and of the energetics of water adsorption on their surfaces. These data provide a quantitative picture of phase stability and how it changes at the nanoscale. The surface energy of the hydrous surface of Mn3O4 is 0.96 +/- 0.08 J/m2, of Mn2O3 is 1.29 +/- 0.10 J/m2, and of MnO2 is 1.64 +/- 0.10 J/m2. The surface energy of the anhydrous surface of Mn3O4 is 1.62 +/- 0.08 J/m 2, of Mn2O3 is 1.77 +/- 0.10 J/m 2, and of MnO2 is 2.05 +/- 0.10 J/m2. Supporting preliminary findings (Navrotsky et al., 2010), the spinel phase (Mn3O4) has a lower surface energy (more stabilizing) than bixbyite, while the latter has a smaller surface energy than pyrolusite. These differences significantly change the positions in oxygen fugacity---temperature space of the redox couples Mn3O4-Mn2O 3 and Mn2O3-MnO2 favoring the lower surface enthalpy phase (the

  17. NATURAL GAS HYDRATES STORAGE PROJECT PHASE II. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND ECONOMIC STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    R.E. Rogers

    1999-09-27

    DOE Contract DE-AC26-97FT33203 studied feasibility of utilizing the natural-gas storage property of gas hydrates, so abundantly demonstrated in nature, as an economical industrial process to allow expanded use of the clean-burning fuel in power plants. The laboratory work achieved breakthroughs: (1) Gas hydrates were found to form orders of magnitude faster in an unstirred system with surfactant-water micellar solutions. (2) Hydrate particles were found to self-pack by adsorption on cold metal surfaces from the micellar solutions. (3) Interstitial micellar-water of the packed particles were found to continue forming hydrates. (4) Aluminum surfaces were found to most actively collect the hydrate particles. These laboratory developments were the bases of a conceptual design for a large-scale process where simplification enhances economy. In the design, hydrates form, store, and decompose in the same tank in which gas is pressurized to 550 psi above unstirred micellar solution, chilled by a brine circulating through a bank of aluminum tubing in the tank employing gas-fired refrigeration. Hydrates form on aluminum plates suspended in the chilled micellar solution. A low-grade heat source, such as 110 F water of a power plant, circulates through the tubing bank to release stored gas. The design allows a formation/storage/decomposition cycle in a 24-hour period of 2,254,000 scf of natural gas; the capability of multiple cycles is an advantage of the process. The development costs and the user costs of storing natural gas in a scaled hydrate process were estimated to be competitive with conventional storage means if multiple cycles of hydrate storage were used. If more than 54 cycles/year were used, hydrate development costs per Mscf would be better than development costs of depleted reservoir storage; above 125 cycles/year, hydrate user costs would be lower than user costs of depleted reservoir storage.

  18. Phase behavior of charged colloids at a fluid interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelleher, Colm P.; Guerra, Rodrigo E.; Hollingsworth, Andrew D.; Chaikin, Paul M.

    2017-02-01

    We study the phase behavior of a system of charged colloidal particles that are electrostatically bound to an almost flat interface between two fluids. We show that, despite the fact that our experimental system consists of only 103-104 particles, the phase behavior is consistent with the theory of melting due to Kosterlitz, Thouless, Halperin, Nelson, and Young. Using spatial and temporal correlations of the bond-orientational order parameter, we classify our samples into solid, isotropic fluid, and hexatic phases. We demonstrate that the topological defect structure we observe in each phase corresponds to the predictions of Kosterlitz-Thouless-Halperin-Nelson-Young theory. By measuring the dynamic Lindemann parameter γL(τ ) and the non-Gaussian parameter α2(τ ) of the displacements of the particles relative to their neighbors, we show that each of the phases displays distinctive dynamical behavior.

  19. Fluid-phase endocytosis in yeasts other than Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, N; Puente, P; Leal, F

    1990-05-01

    A FITC-dextran internalization assay with Saccharomyces cerevisiae as positive control was used to determine whether fluid-phase endocytosis is a general characteristic of yeasts. Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Pichia polymorpha, Kluyveromyces phaseolosporus, Yarrowia lipolytica and Candida albicans were clearly positive, whereas results obtained with Debaryomyces marama were inconclusive. In all cases internalized FITC-dextran was found to be localized in the vacuoles and the process was always time- and temperature-dependent. Lower eucaryotes, particularly yeasts, appear to have the ability to incorporate substances from the extracellular medium through fluid-phase endocytosis.

  20. Acyl chain composition and coexisting fluid phases in lipid bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yongwen; Bradley, Miranda; Mitchell, Drake

    2011-10-01

    At room temperature phospholipid bilayers enriched in sphingolipids and cholesterol may form a solid phase as well as two coexisting fluid phases. These are the standard fluid phase, or the liquid-disordered phase, ld, and the liquid-ordered phase, lo, which is commonly associated with lipid rafts. Ternary mixtures of palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphocholine (POPC; 16:0,18:1 PC), sphingomyelin (SPM), and cholesterol (Chol) form coexisting lo, ld and solid phases over a wide range of molar ratios. We are examining the ability of two fluorescent probes to detect these 2 phases: NBD linked to di-16:0 PE which partitions strongly into the lo phase and NBD linked to di-18:1 PE which partitions strongly into the ld phase. We are also examining the effect of the highly polyunsaturated phospholipid stearoyl-docosahexanoyl-phosphocholine (SDPC; 18:0, 22:6 PC) on the ternary phase diagram of POPC/SPM/Chol with particular focus on the functionally important lo/ld coexistence region. We report on the fluorescence lifetime and anisotropy decay dynamics of these two fluorescent probes.

  1. Hydration, phase separation and nonlinear rheology of temperature-sensitive water-soluble polymers.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Fumihiko; Koga, Tsuyoshi; Kaneda, Isamu; Winnik, Françoise M

    2011-07-20

    The collapse of a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) chain upon heating and the phase diagrams of aqueous PNIPAM solutions with a very flat lower critical solution temperature (LCST) phase separation line are theoretically studied on the basis of cooperative dehydration (simultaneous dissociation of bound water molecules in a group of correlated sequence), and compared with the experimental observation of temperature-induced coil-globule transition by light scattering methods. The transition becomes sharper with the cooperativity parameter σ of hydration. The reentrant coil-globule-coil transition and cononsolvency in a mixed solvent of water and methanol are also studied from the viewpoint of competitive hydrogen bonds between polymer-water and polymer-methanol. The downward shift of the cloud-point curves (LCST cononsolvency) with the mol fraction of methanol due to the competition is calculated and compared with the experimental data. Aqueous solutions of hydrophobically modified PNIPAM carrying short alkyl chains at both chain ends (telechelic PNIPAM) are theoretically and experimentally studied. The LCST of these solutions is found to shift downward along the sol-gel transition curve as a result of end-chain association (association-induced phase separation), and separate from the coil-globule transition line. Associated structures in the solution, such as flower micelles, mesoglobules, and higher fractal assembly, are studied by ultra small-angle neutron scattering with theoretical modeling of the scattering function. Dynamic-mechanical modulus, nonlinear stationary viscosity, and stress build-up in start-up shear flows of the associated networks are studied on the basis of the affine and non-affine transient network theory. The molecular conditions for thickening, strain hardening, and stress overshoot are found in terms of the nonlinear amplitude A of the chain tension and the tension-dissociation coupling constant g.

  2. Phase transitions and ordering of confined dipolar fluids.

    PubMed

    Szalai, I; Dietrich, S

    2009-03-01

    We apply a modified mean-field density functional theory to determine the phase behavior of Stockmayer fluids in slit-like pores formed by two walls with identical substrate potentials. Based on the Carnahan-Starling equation of state, a fundamental-measure theory is employed to incorporate the effects of short-ranged hard-sphere-like correlations while the long-ranged contributions to the fluid interaction potential are treated perturbatively. The liquid-vapor, ferromagnetic-liquid-vapor, and ferromagnetic-liquid-isotropic-liquid first-order phase separations are investigated. The local orientational structure of the anisotropic and inhomogeneous ferromagnetic liquid phase is also studied. We discuss how the phase diagrams are shifted and distorted upon varying the pore width.

  3. Oxidation of gas-phase hydrated protonated/deprotonated cysteine: how many water ligands are sufficient to approach solution-phase photooxidation chemistry?

    PubMed

    Liu, Fangwei; Emre, Rifat; Lu, Wenchao; Liu, Jianbo

    2013-12-21

    We present a study on the reactions of singlet oxygen O2[a(1)Δg] with hydrated protonated and deprotonated cysteine (Cys) in the gas phase, including measurements of the effects of collision energy (E(col)) and hydration number on reaction cross sections over a center-of-mass E(col) range from 0.05 to 1.0 eV. The aim is to probe how successive addition of water molecules changes the oxidation chemistry of Cys in the gas phase. Hydrated clusters, generated by electrospray ionization, have structures of HSCH2CH(NH3(+))CO2H(H2O)(1,2) and HSCH2CH(NH2)CO2(-)(H2O)(1,2) for protonated and deprotonated forms, respectively. In contrast to (1)O2 reactions with dehydrated protonated/deprotonated Cys of which hydroperoxide products all decomposed, reactions with hydrated protonated/deprotonated Cys yielded stable hydroperoxide products, analogous to photooxidation reaction of Cys in solution. We investigated the number of water ligands necessary to produce a stable hydroperoxide, and found that a single water molecule suffices--that is, to relax nascent, energized hydroperoxide in the hydrated cluster by elimination of water. Hydrated protonated Cys shows higher reaction efficiency than the hydrated deprotonated one, particularly with the addition of the second water ligand. Reactions of hydrated protonated/deprotonated Cys are suppressed by E(col), becoming negligible at E(col) ≥ 0.5 eV. Density functional theory calculations were used to locate reaction coordinates for these systems. Quasi-classical, direct dynamics trajectory simulations were performed for HSCH2CH(NH3(+))CO2H(H2O) + (1)O2 at the B3LYP/4-31G(d) level of theory. Analysis of trajectories highlights the importance of complex mediation in the early stages of the reaction, and illustrates that water can catalyze proton transfer within the hydrated complex.

  4. Modulated phases of graphene quantum Hall polariton fluids

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrino, Francesco M. D.; Giovannetti, Vittorio; MacDonald, Allan H.; Polini, Marco

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing experimental interest in coupling cavity photons to the cyclotron resonance excitations of electron liquids in high-mobility semiconductor quantum wells or graphene sheets. These media offer unique platforms to carry out fundamental studies of exciton-polariton condensation and cavity quantum electrodynamics in a regime, in which electron–electron interactions are expected to play a pivotal role. Here, focusing on graphene, we present a theoretical study of the impact of electron–electron interactions on a quantum Hall polariton fluid, that is a fluid of magneto-excitons resonantly coupled to cavity photons. We show that electron–electron interactions are responsible for an instability of graphene integer quantum Hall polariton fluids towards a modulated phase. We demonstrate that this phase can be detected by measuring the collective excitation spectra, which is often at a characteristic wave vector of the order of the inverse magnetic length. PMID:27841346

  5. Modulated phases of graphene quantum Hall polariton fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrino, Francesco M. D.; Giovannetti, Vittorio; MacDonald, Allan H.; Polini, Marco

    2016-11-01

    There is a growing experimental interest in coupling cavity photons to the cyclotron resonance excitations of electron liquids in high-mobility semiconductor quantum wells or graphene sheets. These media offer unique platforms to carry out fundamental studies of exciton-polariton condensation and cavity quantum electrodynamics in a regime, in which electron-electron interactions are expected to play a pivotal role. Here, focusing on graphene, we present a theoretical study of the impact of electron-electron interactions on a quantum Hall polariton fluid, that is a fluid of magneto-excitons resonantly coupled to cavity photons. We show that electron-electron interactions are responsible for an instability of graphene integer quantum Hall polariton fluids towards a modulated phase. We demonstrate that this phase can be detected by measuring the collective excitation spectra, which is often at a characteristic wave vector of the order of the inverse magnetic length.

  6. Hydration of gelatin molecules in glycerol-water solvent and phase diagram of gelatin organogels.

    PubMed

    Sanwlani, Shilpa; Kumar, Pradip; Bohidar, H B

    2011-06-09

    We present a systematic investigation of hydration and gelation of the polypeptide gelatin in water-glycerol mixed solvent (glycerol solutions). Raman spectroscopy results indicated enhancement in water structure in glycerol solutions and the depletion of glycerol density close to hydration sheath of the protein molecule. Gelation concentration (c(g)) was observed to decrease from 1.92 to 1.15% (w/v) while the gelation temperature (T(g)) was observed to increase from 31.4 to 40.7 °C with increase in glycerol concentration. Data on hand established the formation of organogels having interconnected networks, and the universal gelation mechanism could be described through an anomalous percolation model. The viscosity of sol diverged as η ∼ (1 - c(g)/c)(-k) as c(g) was approached from below (c < c(g)), while the elastic storage modulus grew as G' ∼ (c/c(g) - 1)(t) (for c > c(g)). It is important to note that values determined for critical exponents k and t were universal; that is, they did not depend on the microscopic details. The measured values were k = 0.38 ± 0.10 and t = 0.92 ± 0.17 whereas the percolation model predicts k = 0.7-1.3 and t = 1.9. Isothermal frequency sweep studies showed power-law dependence of gel storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G'') on oscillation frequency ω given as G'(ω) ∼ ω(n') and G''(ω) ∼ ω(n''), and consistent with percolation model prediction it was found that n' ≈ n'' ≈ δ ≈ 0.73 close to gelation concentration. We propose a unique 3D phase diagram for the gelatin organogels. Circular dichroism data revealed that the gelatin molecules retained their biological activity in these solvents. Thus, it is shown that the thermomechanical properties of these organogels could be systematically tuned and customized as per application requirement.

  7. Ternary phase behaviour and vesicle formation of a sodium N-lauroylsarcosinate hydrate/1-decanol/water system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akter, Nasima; Radiman, Shahidan; Mohamed, Faizal; Rahman, Irman Abdul; Reza, Mohammad Imam Hasan

    2011-08-01

    The phase behaviour of a system composed of amino acid-based surfactant (sodium N-lauroylsarcosinate hydrate), 1-decanol and deionised water was investigated for vesicle formation. Changing the molar ratio of the amphiphiles, two important aggregate structures were observed in the aqueous corner of the phase diagram. Two different sizes of microemulsions were found at two amphiphile-water boundaries. A stable single vesicle lobe was found for 1∶2 molar ratios in 92 wt% water with vesicles approximately 100 nm in size and with high zeta potential value. Structural variation arises due to the reduction of electrostatic repulsions among the ionic headgroups of the surfactants and the hydration forces due to adsorbed water onto monolayer's. The balance of these two forces determines the aggregate structures. Analysis was followed by the molecular geometrical structure. These findings may have implications for the development of drug delivery systems for cancer treatments, as well as cosmetic and food formulations.

  8. Standard state Gibbs energies of hydration of hydrocarbons at elevated temperatures as evaluated from experimental phase equilibria studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plyasunov, Andrey V.; Shock, Everett L.

    2000-08-01

    Experimental results of phase equilibria studies at elevated temperatures for more than twenty hydrocarbon-water systems were uniformly correlated within the framework of the Peng-Robinson-Stryjek-Vera equation of state in combination with simple mixing rules. This treatment allows evaluation of the Gibbs energy of hydration for many alkanes, 1-alkenes, cycloalkanes (derivatives of cyclohexane) and alkylbenzenes up to 623 K at saturated water vapor pressure and up to 573 K at 50 MPa. Results for homologous series show regular changes with increasing carbon number, and confirm the applicability of the group contribution approach to the Gibbs energy of hydration of hydrocarbons at elevated temperatures. The temperature dependence of group contributions to the Gibbs energy of hydration were determined for CH 3, CH 2, and CH in aliphatic hydrocarbons; C=C and H for alkenes; c-CH 2 and c-CH in cycloalkanes; and CH ar and C ar in alkylbenzenes (or aromatic hydrocarbons). Close agreement between calculated and experimental results suggests that this approach provides reasonable estimates of Gibbs energy of hydration for many alkanes, 1-alkenes, alkyl cyclohexanes and alkylbenzenes at temperatures up to 623 K and pressures up to 50 MPa.

  9. Synthesis of polycrystalline methane hydrate, and its phase stability and mechanical properties at elevated pressure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stern, L.A.; Kirby, S.H.; Durham, W.B.

    1997-01-01

    Test specimens of methane hydrate were grown under static conditions by combining cold, pressurized CH4 gas with H2O ice grains, then warming the system to promote the reaction CH4 (g) + 6H2O (s???l) ??? CH4??6H2O. Hydrate formation evidently occurs at the nascent ice/liquid water interface, and complete reaction was achieved by warming the system above 271.5 K and up to 289 K, at 25-30 MPa, for approximately 8 hours. The resulting material is pure methane hydrate with controlled grain size and random texture. Fabrication conditions placed the H2O ice well above its melting temperature before reaction completed, yet samples and run records showed no evidence for bulk melting of the ice grains. Control experiments using Ne, a non-hydrate-forming gas, verified that under otherwise identical conditions, the pressure reduction and latent heat associated with ice melting is easily detectable in our fabrication apparatus. These results suggest that under hydrate-forming conditions, H2O ice can persist metastably at temperatures well above its melting point. Methane hydrate samples were then tested in constant-strain-rate deformation experiments at T= 140-200 K, Pc= 50-100 MPa, and ????= 10-4-10-6 s-1. Measurements in both the brittle and ductile fields showed that methane hydrate has measurably different strength than H2O ice, and work hardens to a higher degree compared to other ices as well as to most metals and ceramics at high homologous temperatures. This work hardening may be related to a changing stoichiometry under pressure during plastic deformation; x-ray analyses showed that methane hydrate undergoes a process of solid-state disproportionation or exsolution during deformation at conditions well within its conventional stability field.

  10. Rayleigh-Taylor instability of viscous fluids with phase change.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byoung Jae; Kim, Kyung Doo

    2016-04-01

    Film boiling on a horizontal surface is a typical example of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. During the film boiling, phase changes take place at the interface, and thus heat and mass transfer must be taken into consideration in the stability analysis. Moreover, since the vapor layer is not quite thick, a viscous flow must be analyzed. Existing studies assumed equal kinematic viscosities of two fluids, and/or considered thin viscous fluids. The purpose of this study is to derive the analytical dispersion relation of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability for more general conditions. The two fluids have different properties. The thickness of the vapor layer is finite, but the liquid layer is thick enough to be nearly semi-infinite in view of perturbation. Initially, the vapor is in equilibrium with the liquid at the interface, and the direction of heat transfer is from the vapor side to the liquid side. In this case, the phase change has a stabilizing effect on the growth rate of the interface. When the vapor layer is thin, there is a coupled effect of the vapor viscosity, phase change, and vapor thickness on the critical wave number. For the other limit of a thick vapor, both the liquid and vapor viscosities influence the critical wave number. Finally, the most unstable wavelength is investigated. When the vapor layer is thin, the most unstable wavelength is not affected by phase change. When the vapor layer is thick, however, it increases with the increasing rate of phase change.

  11. Hydrate Control for Gas Storage Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Savidge

    2008-10-31

    The overall objective of this project was to identify low cost hydrate control options to help mitigate and solve hydrate problems that occur in moderate and high pressure natural gas storage field operations. The study includes data on a number of flow configurations, fluids and control options that are common in natural gas storage field flow lines. The final phase of this work brings together data and experience from the hydrate flow test facility and multiple field and operator sources. It includes a compilation of basic information on operating conditions as well as candidate field separation options. Lastly the work is integrated with the work with the initial work to provide a comprehensive view of gas storage field hydrate control for field operations and storage field personnel.

  12. Supercritical fluid phase separations induced by chemical reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Ree, F.H.; Viecelli, J.A.; van Thiel, M.

    1997-11-01

    Our statistical mechanical studies predict that a chemically reactive system containing species composed of C, H, N, O atoms can exhibit a phase separation into a N{sub 2}-rich and a N{sub 2}-poor phase. The preset work is concerned with the effect of the fluid phase separation upon addition of F atoms in the system. Our study shows that F atoms mainly appear as a constituent of HF in a N{sub 2}-poor fluid phase up to a certain pressure beyond which they occur as CF{sub 4} in a N{sub 2}-rich phase and that the phase separation may be abrupt in thermodynamic sense. The pressure at the phase boundary can occur at about 30 GPa at 3000 K and about 10 GPa to 20 GPa at 1000 K.Some of these ranges maybe accessible by present-day experimental high-pressure techniques. We discuss implications of this study to detonation physics.

  13. Is there a third order phase transition for supercritical fluids?

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Jinglong; Zhang, Pingwen; Wang, Han Site, Luigi Delle

    2014-01-07

    We prove that according to Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations of liquid mixtures of Lennard-Jones (L-J) particles, there is no third order phase transition in the supercritical regime beyond Andrew's critical point. This result is in open contrast with recent theoretical studies and experiments which instead suggest not only its existence but also its universality regarding the chemical nature of the fluid. We argue that our results are solid enough to go beyond the limitations of MD and the generic character of L-J models, thus suggesting a rather smooth liquid-vapor thermodynamic behavior of fluids in supercritical regime.

  14. A nonlinear dynamical 2D coupled mathematical model for phase transitions in methane gas hydrates within permafrost under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duxbury, N. S.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Romanovskii, N. N.; Garagulya, L. S.; Brouchkov, A. V.; Komarov, I. A.; Roman, L. T.; Tipenko, G. S.; Buldovich, S. N.; Maximova, L. N.

    2012-12-01

    We have developed coupled permafrost - carbon physical and numerical models, where carbon is in the form of methane clathrate hydrate ( CH4*6H2O ) in a porous subsurface environment. The driving force for the subsurface temperature field dynamics is climate variations on the Earth's surface. This is an upper boundary condition for the nonlinear evolutionary system of partial differential equations (PDEs) describing subsurface heat transfer (parabolic PDEs) in a generalized Stefan formulation. The developed numerical model is a valuable computational tool to quantitatively study nonlinear dynamical thermal processes with phase transitions in terrestrial and Martian subsurfaces. Our model is multifrontal and therefore allows one to perform computations for a problem with any number of emerging/vanishing phase transition interfaces (both in methane gas hydrate deposits and in permafrost), since the model treats these fronts implicitly in an enthalpy formulation and in corresponding finite-difference scheme. This model takes into account the pressure (and therefore the depth) dependence of the phase transition temperature for methane clathrate hydrate. We have performed model computations using the thermophysical characteristics (heat capacity, density/porosity, thermal conductivity) for the Siberian subsurface. It can be used as a terrestrial analog for the Martian subsurface (e.g., Duxbury et al., 2001). Also, thermophysical coefficients from laboratory experiments for methane clathrate hydrate were used in our model. In addition, our model takes into account the dependence of subsurface thermophysical characteristics on temperature and spatial coordinates. The results of our computations and their interpretation will be presented. References. N. S. Duxbury, I. A. Zotikov, K. H. Nealson, V. E. Romanovsky, F. D. Carsey (2001). A numerical model for an alternative origin of Lake Vostok and its exobiological implications for Mars, Journal of Geophysical Research

  15. Synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography study on gas hydrate decomposition in a sedimentary matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lei; Falenty, Andrzej; Chaouachi, Marwen; Haberthür, David; Kuhs, Werner F.

    2016-09-01

    In-situ synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography with sub-micrometer voxel size was used to study the decomposition of gas hydrates in a sedimentary matrix. Xenon-hydrate was used instead of methane hydrate to enhance the absorption contrast. The microstructural features of the decomposition process were elucidated indicating that the decomposition starts at the hydrate-gas interface; it does not proceed at the contacts with quartz grains. Melt water accumulates at retreating hydrate surface. The decomposition is not homogeneous and the decomposition rates depend on the distance of the hydrate surface to the gas phase indicating a diffusion-limitation of the gas transport through the water phase. Gas is found to be metastably enriched in the water phase with a concentration decreasing away from the hydrate-water interface. The initial decomposition process facilitates redistribution of fluid phases in the pore space and local reformation of gas hydrates. The observations allow also rationalizing earlier conjectures from experiments with low spatial resolutions and suggest that the hydrate-sediment assemblies remain intact until the hydrate spacers between sediment grains finally collapse; possible effects on mechanical stability and permeability are discussed. The resulting time resolved characteristics of gas hydrate decomposition and the influence of melt water on the reaction rate are of importance for a suggested gas recovery from marine sediments by depressurization.

  16. High-Resolution Scanning Tunneling Microscopy of Fully Hydrated Ripple-Phase Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Woodward IV, J. T.; Zasadzinski, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    A modified freeze-fracture replication technique for use with the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) has provided a quantitative, high-resolution description of the waveform and amplitude of rippled bilayers in the Pβ, phase of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) in excess water. The ripples are uniaxial and asymmetrical, with a temperature-dependent amplitude of 2.4 nm near the chain melting temperature that decreases to zero at the chain crystallization temperature. The wavelength of 11 nm does not change with temperature. The observed ripple shape and the temperature-induced structural changes are not predicted by any current theory. Calibration and reproducibility of the STM/replica technique were tested with replicas of well-characterized bilayers of cadmium arachidate on mica that provide regular 5.5-nm steps. STM images were analyzed using a cross-correlation averaging program to eliminate the effects of noise and the finite size and shapes of the metal grains that make up the replica. The correlation averaging allowed us to develop a composite ripple profile averaged over hundreds of individual ripples measured on different samples with different STM tips. The STM/replica technique avoids many of the previous artifacts of biological STM imaging and can be used to examine a variety of periodic hydrated lipid and protein samples at a lateral resolution of about 1 nm and a vertical resolution of about 0.3 nm. This resolution is superior to conventional and tapping mode AFM of soft biological materials; the technique is substrate-free, and the conductive and chemically uniform replicas make image interpretation simple and direct. ImagesFIGURE 1FIGURE 2FIGURE 3FIGURE 5 PMID:9017222

  17. Rock-fluid interaction and phase properties of fluids in nano- and subnano-pores of shales: Sorption-based studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sanyog

    vapors in organic-rich shale and siltstone samples suggest that hexane vapor measures pores in both clay and in organic matter (OM) while water vapor selectively probes only clay-hosted pores. Thus, OM pores, which are not accessed by water vapor adsorption, are concluded to be hydrophobic. Nitrogen adsorption underestimates porosity in the organic rich shales due to the kinetic-restriction faced by nitrogen in the cryogenic test conditions. The OM pores in the organic-rich shale samples retained their sorption capacity after water-imbibition. On the other hand, illite clay pores lost most of their supercritical CO2 sorption capacity in the presence of water. The diffusion of dissolved CO2 in water and its subsequent sorption in the OM pores suggests that dissolved gases can still be sorbed. As a consequence, rock-fluid interaction in nano- and sub-nanometer sized pores of shales may potentially alter the PVT properties of multi-component hydrocarbon liquids. The deformational and flow properties of confined undersaturated condensates (CUC) or the adsorbed phase of water and hexane in the nano- and sub-nanometer sized pores of various clay minerals were thus characterized and found to have liquid-like properties. However, the cation-hydrating CUC of water had unusual phase properties, as it was found to increase the overall p-wave stiffness of the clay aggregates. The sorption-based methods developed in the thesis for studying the rock-fluid interaction and fluid properties of shales are shown to be theoretically consistent and appear operationally more viable than the existing methods for rock-fluid interaction studies. Therefore, the proposed methods may have wider implications in the rock-physical and reservoir engineering studies of shales.

  18. Ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) thin films on Si substrate with the β phase promoted by hydrated magnesium nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shuting; Yao, Kui; Tay, Francis Eng Hock; Liow, Chung Lee

    2007-11-01

    Solution derived poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) homopolymer thin films on silicon substrates with the addition of hydrated salt [Mg(NO3)2ṡ6H2O] were systematically investigated. β phase dominant ferroelectric PVDF thin films with a remnant polarization of 77 mC/m2 were achieved by optimizing the concentration of Mg(NO3)2ṡ6H2O and the processing condition. Our experimental results and theoretical analysis indicated that the hydrogen bonds between water in the hydrated salt and the PVDF molecules result in the interchain registration of the all-trans conformation, and the hydrated salt acts as the nucleation agent and promotes the crystallization of the β phase. The obtained effective d33 was -14.5 pm/V, tested with a laser scanning vibrometer, without taking into account the substrate clamping effect. The numerical simulation, after considering the elastic constrain of the substrate, determined that the corresponding actual d33 is -30.8 pm/V, which is comparable to that of uniaxially stretched piezoelectric PVDF films.

  19. Methane Recovery from Hydrate-bearing Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    J. Carlos Santamarina; Costas Tsouris

    2011-04-30

    Gas hydrates are crystalline compounds made of gas and water molecules. Methane hydrates are found in marine sediments and permafrost regions; extensive amounts of methane are trapped in the form of hydrates. Methane hydrate can be an energy resource, contribute to global warming, or cause seafloor instability. This study placed emphasis on gas recovery from hydrate bearing sediments and related phenomena. The unique behavior of hydrate-bearing sediments required the development of special research tools, including new numerical algorithms (tube- and pore-network models) and experimental devices (high pressure chambers and micromodels). Therefore, the research methodology combined experimental studies, particle-scale numerical simulations, and macro-scale analyses of coupled processes. Research conducted as part of this project started with hydrate formation in sediment pores and extended to production methods and emergent phenomena. In particular, the scope of the work addressed: (1) hydrate formation and growth in pores, the assessment of formation rate, tensile/adhesive strength and their impact on sediment-scale properties, including volume change during hydrate formation and dissociation; (2) the effect of physical properties such as gas solubility, salinity, pore size, and mixed gas conditions on hydrate formation and dissociation, and it implications such as oscillatory transient hydrate formation, dissolution within the hydrate stability field, initial hydrate lens formation, and phase boundary changes in real field situations; (3) fluid conductivity in relation to pore size distribution and spatial correlation and the emergence of phenomena such as flow focusing; (4) mixed fluid flow, with special emphasis on differences between invading gas and nucleating gas, implications on relative gas conductivity for reservoir simulations, and gas recovery efficiency; (5) identification of advantages and limitations in different gas production strategies with

  20. Phase equilibria and plate-fluid interfacial tensions for associating hard sphere fluids confined in slit pores.

    PubMed

    Fu, Dong; Li, Xiao-Sen

    2006-08-28

    The excess Helmholtz free energy functional for associating hard sphere fluid is formulated by using a modified fundamental measure theory [Y. X. Yu and J. Z. Wu, J. Chem. Phys. 117, 10156 (2002)]. Within the framework of density functional theory, the thermodynamic properties including phase equilibria for both molecules and monomers, equilibrium plate-fluid interfacial tensions and isotherms of excess adsorption, average molecule density, average monomer density, and plate-fluid interfacial tension for four-site associating hard sphere fluids confined in slit pores are investigated. The phase equilibria inside the hard slit pores and attractive slit pores are determined according to the requirement that temperature, chemical potential, and grand potential in coexistence phases should be equal and the plate-fluid interfacial tensions at equilibrium states are predicted consequently. The influences of association energy, fluid-solid interaction, and pore width on phase equilibria and equilibrium plate-fluid interfacial tensions are discussed.

  1. ACTIVATION OF HAGEMAN FACTOR IN SOLID AND FLUID PHASES

    PubMed Central

    Cochrane, C. G.; Revak, S. D.; Wuepper, K. D.

    1973-01-01

    The activation of Hageman factor in solid and fluid phase has been analyzed. Activation of highly purified Hageman factor occurred after it interacted with and became bound to a negatively charged surface. Activation was observed in the absence of enzymes that are inhibitable with diisopropylfluorophosphate, phenyl methyl sulfonyl fluoride and ε-amino-n-caproic acid. The binding of [125I]Hageman factor to the negatively charged surface was markedly inhibited by plasma or purified plasma proteins. Activation of Hageman factor in solution (fluid phase) was obtained with kallikrein, plasmin, and Factor XI (plasma thromboplastin antecedent). Kallikrein was greater than 10 times more active in its ability to activate Hageman factor than plasmin and Factor XI. The data offer a plausible explanation for the finding that highly purified kallikrein promotes clotting of normal plasma. In addition, the combined results of this and previously reported data from this laboratory indicate that the reciprocal activation of Hageman factor by kallikrein in fluid phase is essential for normal rate of activation of the intrinsic-clotting, kinin-forming, and fibrinolytic systems. Activation of Hageman factor was associated with three different structural changes in the molecule: (a) Purified Hageman factor, activated on negatively charged surfaces retained its native mol wt of 80–90,000. Presumably a conformational change accompanied activation. (b) In fluid phase, activation with kallikrein and plasmin did not result in cleavage of large fragments of rabbit Hageman factor, although the activation required hydrolytic capacity of the enzymes. (c) Activation of human Hageman factor with kallikrein or plasmin was associated with cleavage of the molecule to 52,000, 40,000, and 28,000 mol wt fragments. Activation of rabbit Hageman factor with trypsin resulted in cleavage of the molecule into three fragments, each of 30,000 mol wt as noted previously. This major cleavage occurred

  2. TOUGH+Hydrate v1.0 User's Manual: A Code for the Simulation of System Behavior in Hydrate-Bearing Geologic Media

    SciTech Connect

    Moridis, George; Moridis, George J.; Kowalsky, Michael B.; Pruess, Karsten

    2008-03-01

    TOUGH+HYDRATE v1.0 is a new code for the simulation of the behavior of hydrate-bearing geologic systems. By solving the coupled equations of mass and heat balance, TOUGH+HYDRATE can model the non-isothermal gas release, phase behavior and flow of fluids and heat under conditions typical of common natural CH{sub 4}-hydrate deposits (i.e., in the permafrost and in deep ocean sediments) in complex geological media at any scale (from laboratory to reservoir) at which Darcy's law is valid. TOUGH+HYDRATE v1.0 includes both an equilibrium and a kinetic model of hydrate formation and dissociation. The model accounts for heat and up to four mass components, i.e., water, CH{sub 4}, hydrate, and water-soluble inhibitors such as salts or alcohols. These are partitioned among four possible phases (gas phase, liquid phase, ice phase and hydrate phase). Hydrate dissociation or formation, phase changes and the corresponding thermal effects are fully described, as are the effects of inhibitors. The model can describe all possible hydrate dissociation mechanisms, i.e., depressurization, thermal stimulation, salting-out effects and inhibitor-induced effects. TOUGH+HYDRATE is the first member of TOUGH+, the successor to the TOUGH2 [Pruess et al., 1991] family of codes for multi-component, multiphase fluid and heat flow developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is written in standard FORTRAN 95, and can be run on any computational platform (workstation, PC, Macintosh) for which such compilers are available.

  3. Elevating salinity and temperature with hydrate formation at deepwater Gulf of Mexico vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Andrew J.; Flemings, Peter B.; Liu, Xiaoli

    2013-04-01

    We study the Ursa vent in ~1070 meters water depth at lease blocks MC852/853 in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Elevated salinities and temperatures at the vent shift the base of the hydrate stability zone (HSZ) to the seafloor (Paull et al., 2005; Ruppel et al., 2005). We model the coexistence of high salinities, high temperatures, and an uplifted hydrate phase boundary with a one-dimensional, multicomponent, multiphase, fluid- and heat-flow model of hydrate formation. In this model, free gas supplied from depth migrates vertically through a high-permeability conduit to the regional hydrate stability zone (RHSZ). Once reaching the base of the RHSZ, gas combines with water to form hydrate, salt is excluded, and heat is released. Hydrate formation continues until water is too warm and saline for further hydrate formation. This process self generates three-phase (gas, liquid, hydrate) equilibrium through the RHSZ and allows gas to vent from the base of the RHSZ to the seafloor. Once the reaction front breaches the seafloor, a pseudo steady state is reached in which a continuous salt flux diffuses from the seafloor, and further hydrate formation occurs at a rate necessary to replace the diffuse salt loss. This continued hydrate formation has the potential to produce large, steady fluxes of salt and heat from the seafloor. Such gas-hydrate and fluid-flow systems are important because they are especially sensitive to global ocean warming due to the large concentrations of hydrate that exist at three-phase equilibrium near the seafloor. References: Paull, C., Ussler, W., Lorenson, T., Winters, W., Dougherty, J., 2005. Geochemical constraints on the distribution of gas hydrates in the Gulf of Mexico. Geo-Marine Letters 25, 273-280. Ruppel, C., Dickens, G.R., Castellini, D.G., Gilhooly, W., Lizarralde, D., 2005. Heat and salt inhibition of gas hydrate formation in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L04605.

  4. Water-wetting surfaces as hydrate promoters during transport of carbon dioxide with impurities.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Jensen, Bjørnar; Kvamme, Bjørn; Sjøblom, Sara

    2015-05-21

    Water condensing as liquid drops within the fluid bulk has traditionally been the only scenario accepted in the industrial analysis of hydrate risks. We have applied a combination of absolute thermodynamics and molecular dynamics modeling to analyze the five primary routes of hydrate formation in a rusty pipeline carrying dense carbon dioxide with methane, hydrogen sulfide, argon, and nitrogen as additional impurities. We have revised the risk analysis of all possible routes in accordance with the combination of the first and the second laws of thermodynamics to determine the highest permissible content of water. It was found that at concentrations lower than five percent, hydrogen sulfide will only support the formation of carbon dioxide-dominated hydrate from adsorbed water and hydrate formers from carbon dioxide phase rather than formation in the aqueous phase. Our results indicate that hydrogen sulfide leaving carbon dioxide for the aqueous phase will be able to create an additional hydrate phase in the aqueous region adjacent to the first adsorbed water layer. The growth of hydrate from different phases will decrease the induction time by substantially reducing the kinetically limiting mass transport across the hydrate films. Hydrate formation via adsorption of water on rusty walls will play the decisive role in hydrate formation risk, with the initial concentration of hydrogen sulfide being the critical factor. We concluded that the safest way to eliminate hydrate risks is to ensure that the water content of carbon dioxide is low enough to prevent water dropout via the adsorption mechanism.

  5. Geometry-induced phase transition in fluids: capillary prewetting.

    PubMed

    Yatsyshin, Petr; Savva, Nikos; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2013-02-01

    We report a new first-order phase transition preceding capillary condensation and corresponding to the discontinuous formation of a curved liquid meniscus. Using a mean-field microscopic approach based on the density functional theory we compute the complete phase diagram of a prototypical two-dimensional system exhibiting capillary condensation, namely that of a fluid with long-ranged dispersion intermolecular forces which is spatially confined by a substrate forming a semi-infinite rectangular pore exerting long-ranged dispersion forces on the fluid. In the T-μ plane the phase line of the new transition is tangential to the capillary condensation line at the capillary wetting temperature T(cw). The surface phase behavior of the system maps to planar wetting with the phase line of the new transition, termed capillary prewetting, mapping to the planar prewetting line. If capillary condensation is approached isothermally with T>T(cw), the meniscus forms at the capping wall and unbinds continuously, making capillary condensation a second-order phenomenon. We compute the corresponding critical exponent for the divergence of adsorption.

  6. Growth and Morphology of Phase Separating Supercritical Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hegseth, John; Beysens, Daniel; Perrot, Francoise; Nikolayev, Vadim; Garrabos, Yves

    1996-01-01

    The scientific objective is to study the relation between the morphology and the growth kinetics of domains during phase separation. We know from previous experiments performed near the critical point of pure fluids and binary liquids that there are two simple growth laws at late times. The 'fast' growth appears when the volumes of the phases are nearly equal and the droplet pattern is interconnected. In this case the size of the droplets grows linearly in time. The 'slow' growth appears when the pattern of droplets embedded in the majority phase is disconnected. In this case the size of the droplets increases in proportion to time to the power 1/3. The volume fraction of the minority phase is a good candidate to determine this change of behavior. All previous attempts to vary the volume fraction in a single experimental cell have failed because of the extreme experimental difficulties.

  7. Fractionation of Cl/Br during fluid phase separation in magmatic-hydrothermal fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jung Hun; Zajacz, Zoltán

    2016-06-01

    Brine and vapor inclusions were synthesized to study Cl/Br fractionation during magmatic-hydrothermal fluid phase separation at 900 °C and pressures of 90, 120, and 150 MPa in Li/Na/K halide salt-H2O systems. Laser ablation ICP-MS microanalysis of high-density brine inclusions show an elevated Cl/Br ratio compared to the coexisting low-density vapor inclusions. The degree of Cl/Br fractionation between vapor and brine is significantly dependent on the identity of the alkali metal in the system: stronger vapor partitioning of Br occurs in the Li halide-H2O system compared to the systems of K and Na halide-H2O. The effect of the identity of alkali-metals in the system is stronger compared to the effect of vapor-brine density contrast. We infer that competition between alkali-halide and alkali-OH complexes in high-temperature fluids might cause the Cl/Br fractionation, consistent with the observed molar imbalances of alkali metals compared to halides in the analyzed brine inclusions. Our experiments show that the identity of alkali metals controls the degrees of Cl/Br fractionation between the separating aqueous fluid phases at 900 °C, and suggest that a significant variability in the Cl/Br ratios of magmatic fluids can arise in Li-rich systems.

  8. An immersed boundary method for two-phase fluids and gels and the swimming of Caenorhabditis elegans through viscoelastic fluids

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Pilhwa; Wolgemuth, Charles W.

    2016-01-01

    The swimming of microorganisms typically involves the undulation or rotation of thin, filamentary objects in a fluid or other medium. Swimming in Newtonian fluids has been examined extensively, and only recently have investigations into microorganism swimming through non-Newtonian fluids and gels been explored. The equations that govern these more complex media are often nonlinear and require computational algorithms to study moderate to large amplitude motions of the swimmer. Here, we develop an immersed boundary method for handling fluid-structure interactions in a general two-phase medium, where one phase is a Newtonian fluid and the other phase is viscoelastic (e.g., a polymer melt or network). We use this algorithm to investigate the swimming of an undulating, filamentary swimmer in 2D (i.e., a sheet). A novel aspect of our method is that it allows one to specify how forces produced by the swimmer are distributed between the two phases of the fluid. The algorithm is validated by comparing theoretical predictions for small amplitude swimming in gels and viscoelastic fluids. We show how the swimming velocity depends on material parameters of the fluid and the interaction between the fluid and swimmer. In addition, we simulate the swimming of Caenorhabditis elegans in viscoelastic fluids and find good agreement between the swimming speeds and fluid flows in our simulations and previous experimental measurements. These results suggest that our methodology provides an accurate means for exploring the physics of swimming through non-Newtonian fluids and gels. PMID:26858520

  9. TEM and NanoSIMS Study of Hydrated/Anhydrous Phase Mixed IDPs: Cometary or Asteroidal Origin?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, K.; Messenger, S.; Keller, L. P.

    2005-01-01

    Chondritic interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) are subdivided into (1) particles that form highly porous aggregates (chondritic porous "CP" IDPs), and (2) smooth particles ("CS" IDPs). Infrared (IR) spectroscopy has been a valuable tool for non-destructively determining the bulk mineralogy of IDPs. Most IDPs fall within three distinct IR groups: (1) olivine-rich particles, (2) pyroxene-rich particles, and (3) phyllosilicate-rich particles. From the IR studies, IDPs dominated by anhydrous minerals tend to be fine grained (CP), while phyllosilicate-rich IDPs are mostly CS. CP IDPs have been linked to cometary sources based on their compositions, spectral properties, and atmospheric entry velocities. Since no spectral signatures of hydrated minerals have been detected in comets, CS IDPs are thought to derive from primitive asteroids. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies have revealed that the mineralogical distinctions between CP and CS IDPs are not always clear. Previous investigators have reported trace amounts of hydrous minerals in dominantly anhydrous particles. A better understanding of these particles will help to elucidate whether there is a genetic relationship between anhydrous and hydrated IDPs, provide insight into the earliest stages of aqueous alteration of primitive materials, and may help to determine whether comets have experienced any aqueous processing. Here we report a combined TEM and isotopic imaging study of an unusual anhydrous IDP with hydrated phases. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  10. Estimating pore-space gas hydrate saturations from well log acoustic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Myung W.; Waite, William F.

    2008-01-01

    Relating pore-space gas hydrate saturation to sonic velocity data is important for remotely estimating gas hydrate concentration in sediment. In the present study, sonic velocities of gas hydrate–bearing sands are modeled using a three-phase Biot-type theory in which sand, gas hydrate, and pore fluid form three homogeneous, interwoven frameworks. This theory is developed using well log compressional and shear wave velocity data from the Mallik 5L-38 permafrost gas hydrate research well in Canada and applied to well log data from hydrate-bearing sands in the Alaskan permafrost, Gulf of Mexico, and northern Cascadia margin. Velocity-based gas hydrate saturation estimates are in good agreement with Nuclear Magneto Resonance and resistivity log estimates over the complete range of observed gas hydrate saturations.

  11. Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics studies of Pb(ii) micro hydrated gas phase clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León-Pimentel, C. I.; Amaro-Estrada, J. I.; Saint-Martin, H.; Ramírez-Solís, A.

    2017-02-01

    In this work, a theoretical investigation was made to assess the coordination properties of Pb(ii) in [Pb(H2O)n]2+ clusters, with n = 4, 6, 8, 12, and 29, as well as to study proton transfer events, by means of Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ-pp/6-311G level of theory, that were calibrated in comparison with B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ-PP/aug-cc-pVDZ calculations. Hemidirected configurations were found in all cases; the radial distribution functions (RDFs) produced well defined first hydration shells (FHSs) for n = 4,6,8, and 12, that resulted in a coordination number CN = 4, whereas a clear-cut FHS was not found for n = 29 because the RDF did not have a vacant region after the first maximum; however, three water molecules remained directly interacting with the Pb ion for the whole simulation, while six others stayed at average distances shorter than 4 Å but dynamically getting closer and farther, thus producing a CN ranging from 6 to 9, depending on the criterion used to define the first hydration shell. In agreement with experimental data and previous calculations, proton transfer events were observed for n ≤8 but not for n ≥12 . For an event to occur, a water molecule in the second hydration shell had to make a single hydrogen bond with a water molecule in the first hydration shell.

  12. Phase behavior of coal fluids: Data for correlation development

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, R.J. Jr.; Gasem, K.A.M.; Shaver, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    The effective design and operation of processes for conversion of coal to fluid fuels requires accurate knowledge of the phase behavior of the fluid mixtures encountered in the conversion process. The overall objective of the author's work is to develop accurate predictive methods for representation of vapor-liquid equilibria in systems encountered in coal conversion processes. The objectives of the present project include: (1) measurements of binary vapor-liquid phase behavior data for selected solute gases (e.g. CO{sub 2} and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}) in a series of heavy hydrocarbon solvents to permit evaluation of interaction parameters in models for phase behavior, (2) measurements on ternary systems in which high-melting-point solvents are dissolved in more volatile aromatics to provide mixed solvents, (3) evaluation of existing equations-of-state and other models for representation of phase behavior in systems of the type studied experimentally; development of new correlation frameworks as needed, and (4) generalization of the interaction parameters for the solutes studied to a wide spectrum of heavy solvents; presentations of final results in formats useful in the design/optimization of coal liquefaction processes. This quarter, our framework for correlating saturation properties using a scaled-variable-reduced-coordinate'' approach was further developed to provide for generalized vapor pressure predictions. 59 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Coupling fluid-structure interaction with phase-field fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wick, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    In this work, a concept for coupling fluid-structure interaction with brittle fracture in elasticity is proposed. The fluid-structure interaction problem is modeled in terms of the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian technique and couples the isothermal, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with nonlinear elastodynamics using the Saint-Venant Kirchhoff solid model. The brittle fracture model is based on a phase-field approach for cracks in elasticity and pressurized elastic solids. In order to derive a common framework, the phase-field approach is re-formulated in Lagrangian coordinates to combine it with fluid-structure interaction. A crack irreversibility condition, that is mathematically characterized as an inequality constraint in time, is enforced with the help of an augmented Lagrangian iteration. The resulting problem is highly nonlinear and solved with a modified Newton method (e.g., error-oriented) that specifically allows for a temporary increase of the residuals. The proposed framework is substantiated with several numerical tests. In these examples, computational stability in space and time is shown for several goal functionals, which demonstrates reliability of numerical modeling and algorithmic techniques. But also current limitations such as the necessity of using solid damping are addressed.

  14. Study of heat transfer characteristics during dissociation of gas hydrates in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    An experimental technique was developed to measure the rate of formation and dissociation of hydrates in porous media. In the first phase of the work, hydrates of propane and methane were studied. Propane hydrate cores were formed by contacting liquid propane with compacted porous ice cores at 274 K for 24 to 100 hours, whereas the formation of methane hydrates was achieved by contacting ice cores with gaseous methane at about 7000 kPa and 274 K, for 24 to 200 hours. These hydrate cores were dissociated by circulating warm water over the top of the core, under controlled temperatures and pressures. The major findings of these experiments are as follows: 1) the phenomena of dissociation of hydrates to liquid water and gas is similar to nucleate boiling of liquids; 2) the rate of dissociation of hydrates at constant ..delta..T, is directly proportional to the area of hydrates exposed to the warm fluid or the composition of hydrates in the core; and 3) the rate of heat transfer and dissociation increase with increase in pressure and the rate of circulation of the warm fluid. Unified correlations for heat transfer and dissociation rates were successfully obtained for both methane and propane hydrate dissociation. These correlations will be useful to predict the rate of dissociation and gas production in hydrate reservoirs. In the second phase of his work, in order to simulate the conditions of hydrate dissociation in the earth, methane hydrates were formed and dissociated in unconsolidated cores of sand. The results of these experiments have demonstrated that the heat transfer resistance of the media (rock) plays an important role in dissociation of hydrates in earth.

  15. Gas hydrate dissociation in sediments: Pressure-temperature evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Tae-Hyuk; Cho, Gye-Chun; Santamarina, J. Carlos

    2008-03-01

    Hydrate-bearing sediments may destabilize spontaneously as part of geological processes, unavoidably during petroleum drilling/production operations or intentionally as part of gas extraction from the hydrate itself. In all cases, high pore fluid pressure generation is anticipated during hydrate dissociation. A comprehensive formulation is derived for the prediction of fluid pressure evolution in hydrate-bearing sediments subjected to thermal stimulation without mass transfer. The formulation considers pressure- and temperature-dependent volume changes in all phases, effective stress-controlled sediment compressibility, capillarity, and the relative solubilities of fluids. Salient implications are explored through parametric studies. The model properly reproduces experimental data, including the PT evolution along the phase boundary during dissociation and the effect of capillarity. Pore fluid pressure generation is proportional to the initial hydrate fraction and the sediment bulk stiffness; is inversely proportional to the initial gas fraction and gas solubility; and is limited by changes in effective stress that cause the failure of the sediment. When the sediment stiffness is high, the generated pore pressure reflects thermal and pressure changes in water, hydrate, and mineral densities. Comparative analyses for CO2 and CH4 highlight the role of gas solubility in excess pore fluid pressure generation. Dissociation in small pores experiences melting point depression due to changes in water activity, and lower pore fluid pressure generation due to the higher gas pressure in small gas bubbles. Capillarity effects may be disregarded in silts and sands, when hydrates are present in nodules and lenses and when the sediment experiences hydraulic fracture.

  16. Transient thermohydraulic modeling of two-phase fluid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blet, N.; Delalandre, N.; Ayel, V.; Bertin, Y.; Romestant, C.; Platel, V.

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents a transient thermohydraulic modeling, initially developed for a capillary pumped loop in gravitational applications, but also possibly suitable for all kinds of two-phase fluid systems. Using finite volumes method, it is based on Navier-Stokes equations for transcribing fluid mechanical aspects. The main feature of this 1D-model is based on a network representation by analogy with electrical. This paper also proposes a parametric study of a counterflow condenser following the sensitivity to inlet mass flow rate and cold source temperature. The comparison between modeling results and experimental data highlights a good numerical evaluation of temperatures. Furthermore, the model is able to represent a pretty good dynamic evolution of hydraulic variables.

  17. Microgravity fluid management in two-phase thermal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parish, Richard C.

    1987-01-01

    Initial studies have indicated that in comparison to an all liquid single phase system, a two-phase liquid/vapor thermal control system requires significantly lower pumping power, demonstrates more isothermal control characteristics, and allows greater operational flexibility in heat load placement. As a function of JSC's Work Package responsibility for thermal management of space station equipment external to the pressurized modules, prototype development programs were initiated on the Two-Phase Thermal Bus System (TBS) and the Space Erectable Radiator System (SERS). JSC currently has several programs underway to enhance the understanding of two-phase fluid flow characteristics. The objective of one of these programs (sponsored by the Microgravity Science and Applications Division at NASA-Headquarters) is to design, fabricate, and fly a two-phase flow regime mapping experiment in the Shuttle vehicle mid-deck. Another program, sponsored by OAST, involves the testing of a two-phase thermal transport loop aboard the KC-135 reduced gravity aircraft to identify system implications of pressure drop variation as a function of the flow quality and flow regime present in a representative thermal system.

  18. Dynamic Studies of Lung Fluid Clearance with Phase Contrast Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kitchen, Marcus J.; Williams, Ivan; Irvine, Sarah C.; Morgan, Michael J.; Paganin, David M.; Lewis, Rob A.; Pavlov, Konstantin; Hooper, Stuart B.; Wallace, Megan J.; Siu, Karen K. W.; Yagi, Naoto; Uesugi, Kentaro

    2007-01-19

    Clearance of liquid from the airways at birth is a poorly understood process, partly due to the difficulties of observing and measuring the distribution of air within the lung. Imaging dynamic processes within the lung in vivo with high contrast and spatial resolution is therefore a major challenge. However, phase contrast X-ray imaging is able to exploit inhaled air as a contrast agent, rendering the lungs of small animals visible due to the large changes in the refractive index at air/tissue interfaces. In concert with the high spatial resolution afforded by X-ray imaging systems (<100 {mu}m), propagation-based phase contrast imaging is ideal for studying lung development. To this end we have utilized intense, monochromatic synchrotron radiation, together with a fast readout CCD camera, to study fluid clearance from the lungs of rabbit pups at birth. Local rates of fluid clearance have been measured from the dynamic sequences using a single image phase retrieval algorithm.

  19. Elastic-wave velocity in marine sediments with gas hydrates: Effective medium modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helgerud, M.B.; Dvorkin, J.; Nur, A.; Sakai, A.; Collett, T.

    1999-01-01

    We offer a first-principle-based effective medium model for elastic-wave velocity in unconsolidated, high porosity, ocean bottom sediments containing gas hydrate. The dry sediment frame elastic constants depend on porosity, elastic moduli of the solid phase, and effective pressure. Elastic moduli of saturated sediment are calculated from those of the dry frame using Gassmann's equation. To model the effect of gas hydrate on sediment elastic moduli we use two separate assumptions: (a) hydrate modifies the pore fluid elastic properties without affecting the frame; (b) hydrate becomes a component of the solid phase, modifying the elasticity of the frame. The goal of the modeling is to predict the amount of hydrate in sediments from sonic or seismic velocity data. We apply the model to sonic and VSP data from ODP Hole 995 and obtain hydrate concentration estimates from assumption (b) consistent with estimates obtained from resistivity, chlorinity and evolved gas data. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Two-fluid model for two-phase flow

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, M.

    1987-01-01

    The two-fluid model formulation is discussed in detail. The emphasis of the paper is on the three-dimensional formulation and the closure issues. The origin of the interfacial and turbulent transfer terms in the averaged formulation is explained and their original mathematical forms are examined. The interfacial transfer of mass, momentum, and energy is proportional to the interfacial area and driving force. This is not a postulate but a result of the careful examination of the mathematical form of the exact interfacial terms. These two effects are considered separately. Since all the interfacial transfer terms involve the interfacial area concentration, the accurate modeling of the local interfacial area concentration is the first step to be taken for a development of a reliable two-fluid model closure relations. The interfacial momentum interaction has been studied in terms of the standard-drag, lift, virtual mass, and Basset forces. Available analytical and semi-empirical correlations and closure relations are reviewed and existing shortcomings are pointed out. The other major area of importance is the modeling of turbulent transfer in two-phase flow. The two-phase flow turbulence problem is coupled with the phase separation problem even in a steady-state fully developed flow. Thus the two-phase turbulence cannot be understood without understanding the interfacial drag and lift forces accurately. There are some indications that the mixing length type model may not be sufficient to describe the three-dimensional turbulent and flow structures. Although it is a very difficult challenge, the two-phase flow turbulence should be investigated both experimentally and analytically with long time-scale research. 87 refs.

  1. Effect of ammonia on the gas-phase hydration of the common atmospheric ion HSO(4)(-).

    PubMed

    Nadykto, Alexey B; Yu, Fangqun; Herb, Jason

    2008-11-01

    Hydration directly affects the mobility, thermodynamic properties, lifetime and nucleation rates of atmospheric ions. In the present study, the role of ammonia on the formation of hydrogen bonded complexes of the common atmospheric hydrogensulfate (HSO(4) (-)) ion with water has been investigated using the Density Functional Theory (DFT). Our findings rule out the stabilizing effect of ammonia on the formation of negatively charged cluster hydrates and show clearly that the conventional (classical) treatment of ionic clusters as presumably more stable compared to neutrals may not be applicable to pre-nucleation clusters. These considerations lead us to conclude that not only quantitative but also qualitative assessment of the relative thermodynamic stability of atmospheric clusters requires a quantum-chemical treatment.

  2. TOUGH+HYDRATE v1.2 User's Manual: A Code for the Simulation of System Behavior in Hydrate-Bearing Geologic Media

    SciTech Connect

    Moridis, George J.; Kowalsky, Michael B.; Pruess, Karsten

    2012-08-01

    TOUGH+HYDRATE v1.2 is a code for the simulation of the behavior of hydratebearing geologic systems, and represents the second update of the code since its first release [Moridis et al., 2008]. By solving the coupled equations of mass and heat balance, TOUGH+HYDRATE can model the non-isothermal gas release, phase behavior and flow of fluids and heat under conditions typical of common natural CH4-hydrate deposits (i.e., in the permafrost and in deep ocean sediments) in complex geological media at any scale (from laboratory to reservoir) at which Darcy’s law is valid. TOUGH+HYDRATE v1.2 includes both an equilibrium and a kinetic model of hydrate formation and dissociation. The model accounts for heat and up to four mass components, i.e., water, CH4, hydrate, and water-soluble inhibitors such as salts or alcohols. These are partitioned among four possible phases (gas phase, liquid phase, ice phase and hydrate phase). Hydrate dissociation or formation, phase changes and the corresponding thermal effects are fully described, as are the effects of inhibitors. The model can describe all possible hydrate dissociation mechanisms, i.e., depressurization, thermal stimulation, salting-out effects and inhibitor-induced effects. TOUGH+HYDRATE is a member of TOUGH+, the successor to the TOUGH2 [Pruess et al., 1991] family of codes for multi-component, multiphase fluid and heat flow developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is written in standard FORTRAN 95/2003, and can be run on any computational platform (workstation, PC, Macintosh) for which such compilers are available.

  3. Hydrate detection

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, W.P.; Ahlbrandt, T.S.

    1992-06-01

    Project objectives were: (1) to create methods of analyzing gas hydrates in natural sea-floor sediments, using available data, (2) to make estimates of the amount of gas hydrates in marine sediments, (3) to map the distribution of hydrates, (4) to relate concentrations of gas hydrates to natural processes and infer the factors that control hydrate concentration or that result in loss of hydrate from the sea floor. (VC)

  4. Hydrate detection

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, W.P.; Ahlbrandt, T.S.

    1992-01-01

    Project objectives were: (1) to create methods of analyzing gas hydrates in natural sea-floor sediments, using available data, (2) to make estimates of the amount of gas hydrates in marine sediments, (3) to map the distribution of hydrates, (4) to relate concentrations of gas hydrates to natural processes and infer the factors that control hydrate concentration or that result in loss of hydrate from the sea floor. (VC)

  5. An immersed boundary method for two-phase fluids and gels and the swimming of Caenorhabditis elegans through viscoelastic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Pilhwa; Wolgemuth, Charles

    2016-11-01

    While swimming in Newtonian fluids has been examined extensively, only recently have investigations into microorganism swimming through non-Newtonian fluids and gels been explored. The equations that govern these more complex media are often nonlinear and require computational algorithms to study moderate to large amplitude motions of the swimmer. Here we develop an immersed boundary method for handling fluid-structure interactions in a general two-phase medium, where one phase is a Newtonian fluid and the other phase is viscoelastic. We use this algorithm to investigate the swimming of an undulating, filamentary swimmer in 2D. A novel aspect of our method is that it allows one to specify how forces produced by the swimmer are distributed between the two phases of the fluid. The algorithm is validated by comparison to theoretical predictions for small amplitude swimming in gels and viscoelastic fluids. We show how the swimming velocity depends on material parameters of the fluid and the interaction between the fluid and swimmer. In addition, we simulate the swimming of Caenorhabditis elegans in viscoelastic fluids and find good agreement between the swimming speeds and fluid flows in our simulations and previous experimental measurements. NIH R01 GM072004, NIH P50GM094503.

  6. Perioperative Fluid Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Bleier, Joshua I.S.; Aarons, Cary B.

    2013-01-01

    Perioperative fluid management of the colorectal surgical patient has evolved significantly over the last five decades. Older notions espousing aggressive hydration have been shown to be associated with increased complications. Newer data regarding fluid restriction has shown an association with improved outcomes. Management of perioperative fluid administration can be considered in three primary phases: In the preoperative phase, data suggests that avoidance of preoperative bowel preparation and avoidance of undue preoperative dehydration can improve outcomes. Although the type of intraoperative fluid given does not have a significant effect on outcome, data do suggest that a restrictive fluid regimen results in improved outcomes. Finally, in the postoperative phase of fluid management, a fluid-restrictive regimen, coupled with early enteral feeding also seems to result in improved outcomes. PMID:24436675

  7. Architectural remodeling of the tonoplast during fluid-phase endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Etxeberria, Ed; Gonzalez, Pedro; Pozueta-Romero, Javier

    2013-01-01

    During fluid phase endocytosis (FPE) in plant storage cells, the vacuole receives a considerable amount of membrane and fluid contents. If allowed to accumulate over a period of time, the enlarging tonoplast and increase in fluids would invariably disrupt the structural equilibrium of the mature cells. Therefore, a membrane retrieval process must exist that will guarantee membrane homeostasis in light of tonoplast expansion by membrane addition during FPE. We examined the morphological changes to the vacuolar structure during endocytosis in red beet hypocotyl tissue using scanning laser confocal microscopy and immunohistochemistry. The heavily pigmented storage vacuole allowed us to visualize all architectural transformations during treatment. When red beet tissue was incubated in 200 mM sucrose, a portion of the sucrose accumulated entered the cell by means of FPE. The accumulation process was accompanied by the development of vacuole-derived vesicles which transiently counterbalanced the addition of surplus endocytic membrane during rapid rates of endocytosis. Topographic fluorescent confocal micrographs showed an ensuing reduction in the size of the vacuole-derived vesicles and further suggest their reincorporation into the vacuole to maintain vacuolar unity and solute concentration. PMID:23656870

  8. Phase behavior of a binary fluid mixture of quadrupolar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toda, Masatoshi; Kajimoto, Shinji; Toyouchi, Shuichi; Kawakatsu, Toshihiro; Akama, Yohji; Kotani, Motoko; Fukumura, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    We propose a model molecule to investigate microscopic properties of a binary mixture with a closed-loop coexistence region. The molecule is comprised of a Lennard-Jones particle and a uniaxial quadrupole. Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that the high-density binary fluid of the molecules with the quadrupoles of the same magnitude but of the opposite signs can show closed-loop immiscibility. We find that an increase in the magnitude of the quadrupoles causes a shrinkage of the coexistence region. Molecular dynamics simulations also reveal that aggregates with two types of molecules arranged alternatively are formed in the stable one-phase region both above and below the coexistence region. String structures are dominant below the lower critical solution temperature, while branched aggregates are observed above the upper critical solution temperature. We conclude that the anisotropic interaction between the quadrupoles of the opposite signs plays a crucial role in controlling these properties of the phase behavior.

  9. Enantioselective supercritical fluid chromatography using ristocetin A chiral stationary phases.

    PubMed

    Svensson, L A; Owens, P K

    2000-06-01

    Racemic mixtures of five acidic drugs have been successfully separated by supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) using macrocyclic antibiotic chiral stationary phases (CSPs). A ristocetin A CSP has been prepared 'in-house' and effectively applied in packed capillary SFC to separate the enantiomers of dichlorprop (R(s) = 1.4), ketoprofen (R(s) = 0.9) and warfarin (R(s) = 0.9). The commercial ristocetin A CSP (Chirobiotic R) was subsequently studied in packed column SFC with similar results where the enantiomers of warfarin (R(s) = 2.2), coumachlor (R(s) = 2.5) and thalidomide (R(s) = 0.6) were separated. Interestingly, differences were observed between the two differently immobilised CSPs where the enantiomers of dichlorprop and ketoprofen, which were separated on the 'in-house' CSP, could not be separated on the commercial phase.

  10. Thermochemistry of the Reaction of SF6 with Gas-Phase Hydrated Electrons: A Benchmark for Nanocalorimetry.

    PubMed

    Akhgarnusch, Amou; Höckendorf, Robert F; Beyer, Martin K

    2015-10-01

    The reaction of sulfur hexafluoride with gas-phase hydrated electrons (H2O)n(-), n ≈ 60-130, is investigated at temperatures T = 140-300 K by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry. SF6 reacts with a temperature-independent rate of 3.0 ± 1.0 × 10(-10) cm(3) s(-1) via exclusive formation of the hydrated F(-) anion and the SF5(•) radical, which evaporates from the cluster. Nanocalorimetry yields a reaction enthalpy of ΔHR,298K = 234 ± 24 kJ mol(-1). Combined with literature thermochemical data from bulk aqueous solution, these result in an F5S-F bond dissociation enthalpy of ΔH298K = 455 ± 24 kJ mol(-1), in excellent agreement with all high-level quantum chemical calculations in the literature. A combination with gas-phase literature thermochemistry also yields an experimental value for the electron affinity of SF5(•), EA(SF5(•)) = 4.27 ± 0.25 eV.

  11. Phase segregation in a binary fluid confined inside a nanopore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Saikat; Majumder, Suman; Sutradhar, Sabyasachi; Das, Subir K.; Paul, Raja

    2016-12-01

    Using a hydrodynamics preserving thermostat, we present extensive molecular dynamics simulation results for the kinetics of phase separation in a model binary (A+B) fluid confined inside a cylindrical nanopore with neutral wall. We observe the formation of a striped pattern, where A-rich and B-rich domains appear alternately along the axis of the cylinder. For a wide range of diameters of the cylinders, the growth of the pattern freezes and does not lead to complete phase separation. Prior to freezing, the growth of these stripes passes through two power-law regimes. The early-time regime is related to the Lifshitz-Slyozov diffusive mechanism and the estimated value of the exponent for the later-time regime matches well with that for the inertial hydrodynamic growth in three-dimensional fluid systems. Appropriate arguments have been provided to justify the observations. Furthermore, our results show that the length of the cylinder does not seem to affect the average axial length of the frozen patterns. However, the latter exhibits a linear dependence on the diameter of the cylinder.

  12. Gas Hydrate Nucleation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, R. E.; Zatsepina, O.; Phelps, T. J.

    2003-12-01

    The onset of gas hydrate nucleation is greatly affected by the thermal history of the water that forms its lattice structure. Hydrate formation experiments were performed in a 72 liter pressure vessel by bubbling carbon dioxide through a 1 liter column at hydrate formation pressures (1.4 to 3.7 MPa) and temperatures (275.0 to 278.0 K) to quantify this effect. They show that when even a fraction ( e. g. 20 %) of the water in which hydrate has formed was recently frozen and thawed, the overpressurization for nucleation was reduced by an average of 50 % versus experiments performed in distilled water. In those experiments where a lower overpressure is present when hydrate nucleated, they tended to form on the surface of bubbles, whereas when a higher amount of overpressure was necessary for hydrate to nucleate, they appeared to form abruptly on bubble surfaces as well as from the bulk liquid phase. In approximation of classical nucleation, hydrate formation could be described as occurring by the spontaneous joining together of arising components of the hydrate lattice. In water that was frozen, and kept at a low temperature (< 275 K), molecular simulation models predict the predominance of water molecules organized as penatmeters, a possible subunit of the hydrate lattice. Our results suggest that in nature, initiation of hydrate formation may be strongly influenced by temperature dependant pre-structuring of water molecules prior to their contact with gas.

  13. Efflorescence upon humidification? X-ray microspectroscopic in situ observation of changes in aerosol microstructure and phase state upon hydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöhlker, Christopher; Saturno, Jorge; Krüger, Mira L.; Förster, Jan-David; Weigand, Markus; Wiedemann, Kenia T.; Bechtel, Michael; Artaxo, Paulo; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    2014-05-01

    The phase and mixing state of atmospheric aerosols is a central determinant of their properties and thus their role in atmospheric cycling and climate. Particularly, the hygroscopic response of aerosol particles to relative humidity (RH) variation is a key aspect of their atmospheric life cycle and impacts. Here we applied X-ray microspectroscopy under variable RH conditions to internally mixed aerosol particles from the Amazonian rain forest collected during periods with anthropogenic pollution. Upon hydration, we observed substantial and reproducible changes in particle microstructure, which appear as mainly driven by efflorescence and recrystallization of sulfate salts. Multiple solid and liquid phases were found to coexist, especially in intermediate humidity regimes. We show that X-ray microspectroscopy under variable RH is a valuable technique to analyze the hygroscopic response of individual ambient aerosol particles. Our initial results underline that RH changes can trigger strong particle restructuring, in agreement with previous studies on artificial aerosols.

  14. Carbon dioxide hydrate phase equilibrium and cage occupancy calculations using ab initio intermolecular potentials.

    PubMed

    Velaga, Srinath C; Anderson, Brian J

    2014-01-16

    Gas hydrate deposits are receiving increased attention as potential locations for CO2 sequestration, with CO2 replacing the methane that is recovered as an energy source. In this scenario, it is very important to correctly characterize the cage occupancies of CO2 to correctly assess the sequestration potential as well as the methane recoverability. In order to predict accurate cage occupancies, the guest–host interaction potential must be represented properly. Earlier, these potential parameters were obtained by fitting to experimental equilibrium data and these fitted parameters do not match with those obtained by second virial coefficient or gas viscosity data. Ab initio quantum mechanical calculations provide an independent means to directly obtain accurate intermolecular potentials. A potential energy surface (PES) between H2O and CO2 was computed at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ level and corrected for basis set superposition error (BSSE), an error caused due to the lower basis set, by using the half counterpoise method. Intermolecular potentials were obtained by fitting Exponential-6 and Lennard-Jones 6-12 models to the ab initio PES, correcting for many-body interactions. We denoted this model as the “VAS” model. Reference parameters for structure I carbon dioxide hydrate were calculated using the VAS model (site–site ab initio intermolecular potentials) as Δμ(w)(0) = 1206 ± 2 J/mol and ΔH(w)(0) = 1260 ± 12 J/mol. With these reference parameters and the VAS model, pure CO2 hydrate equilibrium pressure was predicted with an average absolute deviation of less than 3.2% from the experimental data. Predictions of the small cage occupancy ranged from 32 to 51%, and the large cage is more than 98% occupied. The intermolecular potentials were also tested by calculating the pure CO2 density and diffusion of CO2 in water using molecular dynamics simulations.

  15. Structural characterization on the gel to liquid-crystal phase transition of fully hydrated DSPC and DSPE bilayers.

    PubMed

    Qin, Shan-Shan; Yu, Zhi-Wu; Yu, Yang-Xin

    2009-06-11

    The structural properties of fully hydrated distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC) and distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DSPE) bilayers near the main phase transition were investigated using molecular dynamics simulations on the basis of a united-atom model. Although largely similar in their molecular structures, the two lipids were found with different molecular packing modes at temperatures below the phase transition. For DSPC, three packing modes, namely, cross-tilt, partially interdigitated, and "mixed" gel phases, were observed, while, for DSPE, the lipid tails were almost perpendicular to the lipid surface. Above the main transition temperature, both lipid bilayers transformed into a disordered liquid-crystal phase with marked greater area per lipid and gauche % of the acyl chains and smaller bilayer thickness and order parameter, in comparison with the gel phase. The transformation process of liquid-crystal to gel phase was proved to experience the nucleation and growth stages in a hexagonal manner. The electron density profiles of some major components of both lipid bilayers at various temperatures have been calculated, and the results reveal that both lipid bilayers have less interdigitation around the main transition temperature.

  16. Parametric study of the physical properties of hydrate-bearing sand, silt, and clay sediments: 2. Small-strain mechanical properties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, J.Y.; Francisca, F.M.; Santamarina, J.C.; Ruppel, C.

    2010-01-01

    The small-strain mechanical properties (e.g., seismic velocities) of hydrate-bearing sediments measured under laboratory conditions provide reference values for calibration of logging and seismic exploration results acquired in hydrate-bearing formations. Instrumented cells were designed for measuring the compressional (P) and shear (S) velocities of sand, silts, and clay with and without hydrate and subject to vertical effective stresses of 0.01 to 2 MPa. Tetrahydrofuran (THF), which is fully miscible in water, was used as the hydrate former to permit close control over the hydrate saturation Shyd and to produce hydrate from dissolved phase, as methane hydrate forms in most natural marine settings. The results demonstrate that laboratory hydrate formation technique controls the pattern of P and S velocity changes with increasing Shyd and that the small-strain properties of hydrate-bearing sediments are governed by effective stress, δ'v and sediment specific surface. The S velocity increases with hydrate saturation owing to an increase in skeletal shear stiffness, particularly when hydrate saturation exceeds Shyd≈ 0.4. At very high hydrate saturations, the small strain shear stiffness is determined by the presence of hydrates and becomes insensitive to changes in effective stress. The P velocity increases with hydrate saturation due to the increases in both the shear modulus of the skeleton and the bulk modulus of pore-filling phases during fluid-to-hydrate conversion. Small-strain Poisson's ratio varies from 0.5 in soft sediments lacking hydrates to 0.25 in stiff sediments (i.e., subject to high vertical effective stress or having high Shyd). At Shyd ≥ 0.5, hydrate hinders expansion and the loss of sediment stiffness during reduction of vertical effective stress, meaning that hydrate-rich natural sediments obtained through pressure coring should retain their in situ fabric for some time after core retrieval if the cores are maintained within the hydrate

  17. The impact of increased sedimentation rates associated with the decay of the Fennoscandian ice-sheet on gas hydrate stability and focused fluid flow at the Nyegga pockmark field, offshore mid-Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karstens, Jens; Haflidason, Haflidi; Becker, Lukas; Petter Sejrup, Hans; Berndt, Christian; Planke, Sverre; Dahlgreen, Torbjørn

    2016-04-01

    Climatic changes since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) have affected the stability of gas hydrate systems on glaciated margins by sea-level changes, bottom water temperature changes, isostatic uplift or subsidence and variability in sedimentation rates. While subsidence and sea-level rise stabilize gas hydrate deposits, bottom water temperature warming, uplift and enhanced sedimentation have the opposite effect. The response of gas hydrate systems to post-glaciation warming is therefore a complex phenomenon and highly depends on the timing and magnitude of each of these processes. While the impact of bottom water warming on the dissociation of gas hydrates have been addressed in numerous studies, the potential of methane release due to basal gas hydrate dissociation during periods of warming has received less attention. Here, we present results from numerical simulations which show that rapid sedimentation associated with the decay of the Fennoscandian ice-sheet was capable of causing significant basal gas hydrate dissociation. The modeling is constrained by a high-resolution three-dimensional sedimentation rate reconstruction of the Nyegga pockmark field, offshore mid-Norway, obtained by integrating chrono-stratigraphic information derived from sediments cores and a seismo-stratigraphic framework. The model run covers the period between 28,000 and 15,000 calendar years before present and predict that the maximum sedimentation rate-related gas hydrate dissociation coincides temporally and spatially with enhanced focused fluid flow activity in the study area. Basal gas hydrate dissociation due to rapid sedimentation may have occurred as well in other glaciated continental margins after the LGM and may have caused the release of significant amounts of methane to the hydrosphere and atmosphere. The major post glaciation deposition centers are the location of some of the largest known submarine slide complexes. The release of free gas due to basal gas hydrate

  18. Hydrate morphology: Physical properties of sands with patchy hydrate saturation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dai, S.; Santamarina, J.C.; Waite, William F.; Kneafsey, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    The physical properties of gas hydrate-bearing sediments depend on the volume fraction and spatial distribution of the hydrate phase. The host sediment grain size and the state of effective stress determine the hydrate morphology in sediments; this information can be used to significantly constrain estimates of the physical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments, including the coarse-grained sands subjected to high effective stress that are of interest as potential energy resources. Reported data and physical analyses suggest hydrate-bearing sands contain a heterogeneous, patchy hydrate distribution, whereby zones with 100% pore-space hydrate saturation are embedded in hydrate-free sand. Accounting for patchy rather than homogeneous hydrate distribution yields more tightly constrained estimates of physical properties in hydrate-bearing sands and captures observed physical-property dependencies on hydrate saturation. For example, numerical modeling results of sands with patchy saturation agree with experimental observation, showing a transition in stiffness starting near the series bound at low hydrate saturations but moving toward the parallel bound at high hydrate saturations. The hydrate-patch size itself impacts the physical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments; for example, at constant hydrate saturation, we find that conductivity (electrical, hydraulic and thermal) increases as the number of hydrate-saturated patches increases. This increase reflects the larger number of conductive flow paths that exist in specimens with many small hydrate-saturated patches in comparison to specimens in which a few large hydrate saturated patches can block flow over a significant cross-section of the specimen.

  19. Gas Hydrate and Pore Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinivella, Umberta; Giustiniani, Michela

    2014-05-01

    Many efforts have been devoted to quantify excess pore pressures related to gas hydrate dissociation in marine sediments below the BSR using several approaches. Dissociation of gas hydrates in proximity of the BSR, in response to a change in the physical environment (i.e., temperature and/or pressure regime), can liberate excess gas incrising the local pore fluid pressure in the sediment, so decreasing the effective normal stress. So, gas hydrate dissociation may lead to excess pore pressure resulting in sediment deformation or failure, such as submarine landslides, sediment slumping, pockmarks and mud volcanoes, soft-sediment deformation and giant hummocks. Moreover, excess pore pressure may be the result of gas hydrate dissociation due to continuous sedimentation, tectonic uplift, sea level fall, heating or inhibitor injection. In order to detect the presence of the overpressure below the BSR, we propose two approachs. The fist approach models the BSR depth versus pore pressure; in fact, if the free gas below the BSR is in overpressure condition, the base of the gas hydrate stability is deeper with respect to the hydrostatic case. This effect causes a discrepancy between seismic and theoretical BSR depths. The second approach models the velocities versus gas hydrate and free gas concentrations and pore pressure, considering the approximation of the Biot theory in case of low frequency, i.e. seismic frequency. Knowing the P and S seismic velocity from seismic data analysis, it is possibile to jointly estimate the gas hydrate and free gas concentrations and the pore pressure regime. Alternatively, if the S-wave velocity is not availbale (due to lack of OBS/OBC data), an AVO analysis can be performed in order to extract information about Poisson ratio. Our modeling suggests that the areas characterized by shallow waters (i.e., areas in which human infrastructures, such as pipelines, are present) are significantly affected by the presence of overpressure condition

  20. Exploitation of subsea gas hydrate reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicki, Georg; Schlüter, Stefan; Hennig, Torsten; Deerberg, Görge

    2016-04-01

    Natural gas hydrates are considered to be a potential energy resource in the future. They occur in permafrost areas as well as in subsea sediments and are stable at high pressure and low temperature conditions. According to estimations the amount of carbon bonded in natural gas hydrates worldwide is two times larger than in all known conventional fossil fuels. Besides technical challenges that have to be overcome climate and safety issues have to be considered before a commercial exploitation of such unconventional reservoirs. The potential of producing natural gas from subsea gas hydrate deposits by various means (e.g. depressurization and/or injection of carbon dioxide) is numerically studied in the frame of the German research project »SUGAR«. The basic mechanisms of gas hydrate formation/dissociation and heat and mass transport in porous media are considered and implemented into a numerical model. The physics of the process leads to strong non-linear couplings between hydraulic fluid flow, hydrate dissociation and formation, hydraulic properties of the sediment, partial pressures and seawater solution of components and the thermal budget of the system described by the heat equation. This paper is intended to provide an overview of the recent development regarding the production of natural gas from subsea gas hydrate reservoirs. It aims at giving a broad insight into natural gas hydrates and covering relevant aspects of the exploitation process. It is focused on the thermodynamic principles and technological approaches for the exploitation. The effects occurring during natural gas production within hydrate filled sediment layers are identified and discussed by means of numerical simulation results. The behaviour of relevant process parameters such as pressure, temperature and phase saturations is described and compared for different strategies. The simulations are complemented by calculations for different safety relevant problems.

  1. High-resolution seismic attribute analysis for the detection of methane hydrate and substrate fluid migration pathways along the central U.S. Atlantic Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluesner, J.; Ruppel, C. D.; Brothers, D. S.; Danforth, W. W.; Edwards, J. H.; Hart, P. E.

    2015-12-01

    High-resolution multi-channel (72 channel) seismic (MCS) reflection profiles and coincident water column methane plume imagery were collected by the USGS on the U.S. mid-Atlantic margin aboard the R/V Endeavor in April 2015. The seismic data are analyzed using advanced attributes to detect and delineate the base of the gas hydrate stability (BGHS) and fluid-migration pathways associated with recently discovered seafloor methane seeps. The sparker was operated at 2.6 kJ, and the amplitude frequency spectrum of the resulting data ranges from ~50-700 Hz, with the dominant frequency centered at 150 Hz. Using a frequency attribute workflow, we calculate and visualize changes in dominant frequency content within the seismic profiles. Laterally-distributed and abrupt high-to-low frequency changes are observed at depth. High frequencies are attenuated below this transition, which commonly mimics the seafloor and gradually shoals towards the seafloor with decreasing water depth. The BGHS depths calculated using gas hydrate stability constraints and geothermal gradients closely coincide with these transitions, which are likely caused by free gas that scatters and attenuates higher frequencies. This approach allows for improved delineation of the BGHS on high-frequency MCS data that lack a reverse-polarity bottom-simulating reflector and on upper slopes where the BGHS is hard to discern. We also apply a neural-network seismic attribute workflow to analyze potential fluid-pathways below methane plumes imaged in the water column. The workflow uses structural steering calculations and multiple weighted attributes in a neural-network algorithm targeted for gas chimney detection. The results highlight probable fluid flow pathways in areas with and without seafloor methane seeps and delineate deep-seated features (e.g., fractures) that supply gas to some of the deepwater (> 1000 m) seep sites.

  2. Two-phase working fluids for the temperature range of 50 to 350 deg, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saaski, E. W.; Hartl, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    Several two phase heat transfer fluids were tested in aluminum and carbon steel reflux capsules for over 25,000 hours at temperatures up to 300 C. Several fluids showed very good stability and would be useful for long duration heat transfer applications over the range 100 to 350 C. Instrumentation for the measurement of surface tension and viscosity were constructed for use with heat transfer fluids over the temperature range 0 to 300 C and with pressures from 0 to 10 atmospheres. The surface tension measuring device constructed requires less than a 1.0 cc sample and displays an accuracy of about 5 percent in preliminary tests, while the viscometer constructed for this program requires a 0.05 cc sample and shows an accuracy of about 5 percent in initial tests.

  3. Particle-fluid two-phase flow modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Mortensen, G.A.; Trapp, J.A. |

    1992-09-01

    This paper describes a numerical scheme and computer program, DISCON, for the calculation of two-phase flows that does not require the use of flow regime maps. This model is intermediate between-thermal instantaneous and the averaged two-fluid model. It solves the Eulerian continuity, momentum, and energy equations for each liquid control volume, and the Lagrangian mass, momentum, energy, and position equations for each bubble. The bubbles are modeled individually using a large representative number of bubbles thus avoiding the numerical diffusion associated with Eulerian models. DISCON has been used to calculate the bubbling of air through a column of water and the subcooled boiling of water in a flow channel. The results of these calculations are presented.

  4. Particle-fluid two-phase flow modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Mortensen, G.A. ); Trapp, J.A. Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID )

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a numerical scheme and computer program, DISCON, for the calculation of two-phase flows that does not require the use of flow regime maps. This model is intermediate between-thermal instantaneous and the averaged two-fluid model. It solves the Eulerian continuity, momentum, and energy equations for each liquid control volume, and the Lagrangian mass, momentum, energy, and position equations for each bubble. The bubbles are modeled individually using a large representative number of bubbles thus avoiding the numerical diffusion associated with Eulerian models. DISCON has been used to calculate the bubbling of air through a column of water and the subcooled boiling of water in a flow channel. The results of these calculations are presented.

  5. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams of aqueous mixtures of Quil A, cholesterol and phospholipid prepared by the lipid-film hydration method.

    PubMed

    Demana, Patrick H; Davies, Nigel M; Vosgerau, Uwe; Rades, Thomas

    2004-02-11

    Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams of the polar lipids Quil A, cholesterol (Chol) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) in aqueous mixtures prepared by the lipid film hydration method (where dried lipid film of phospholipids and cholesterol are hydrated by an aqueous solution of Quil A) were investigated in terms of the types of particulate structures formed therein. Negative staining transmission electron microscopy and polarized light microscopy were used to characterize the colloidal and coarse dispersed particles present in the systems. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were established for lipid mixtures hydrated in water and in Tris buffer (pH 7.4). The effect of equilibration time was also studied with respect to systems hydrated in water where the samples were stored for 2 months at 4 degrees C. Depending on the mass ratio of Quil A, Chol and PC in the systems, various colloidal particles including ISCOM matrices, liposomes, ring-like micelles and worm-like micelles were observed. Other colloidal particles were also observed as minor structures in the presence of these predominant colloids including helices, layered structures and lamellae (hexagonal pattern of ring-like micelles). In terms of the conditions which appeared to promote the formation of ISCOM matrices, the area of the phase diagrams associated with systems containing these structures increased in the order: hydrated in water/short equilibration period<hydrated in buffer/short equilibration period<hydrated in water/prolonged equilibration period. ISCOM matrices appeared to form over time from samples, which initially contained a high concentration of ring-like micelles suggesting that these colloidal structures may be precursors to ISCOM matrix formation. Helices were also frequently found in samples containing ISCOM matrices as a minor colloidal structure. Equilibration time and presence of buffer salts also promoted the formation of liposomes in systems not containing Quil A. These parameters however, did not

  6. [Relation between the lysozyme hydration isotherm and molecule packing in the solid phase].

    PubMed

    Gevorkian, S G; Morozov, V N

    1983-01-01

    A micromethod for measurement of mass changes of glutaraldehyde treated protein crystals is presented. The method is based on analysis of transverse resonance vibration of a cantilevered tungsten micro-needle (1,5 divided by 2 mm long, 30 divided by 40 mkm in diameter) having the specimen stuck on its free sharp end. The method is accurate to within 0.1% for specimens with masses 0.1 divided by 0.01 mg. Absorption isotherms for water uptake by triclinic (P1), monoclinic (P2(1) ) and tetragonal (P4(3)2(1)2) crystals as well as by amorphous films of hen egg-white lysozyme are obtained. Hydration of lysozyme molecule is shown to be highly dependent on molecular packing in the sample both at low and high relative humidities.

  7. Comparison of liquid and supercritical fluid chromatography mobile phases for enantioselective separations on polysaccharide stationary phases.

    PubMed

    Khater, Syame; Lozac'h, Marie-Anne; Adam, Isabelle; Francotte, Eric; West, Caroline

    2016-10-07

    Analysis and production of enantiomerically pure compounds is a major topic of interest when active pharmaceutical ingredients are concerned. Enantioselective chromatography has become a favourite both at the analytical and preparative scales. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) are dominating the scene and are often seen as complementary techniques. Nowadays, for economic and ecologic reasons, SFC may be preferred over normal-phase HPLC (NPLC) as it allows significant reductions in solvent consumption. However, the transfer of NPLC methods to SFC is not always straightforward. In this study, we compare the retention of achiral molecules and separation of enantiomers under supercritical fluid (carbon dioxide with ethanol or isopropanol) and liquid normal-phase (heptane with ethanol or isopropanol) elution modes with polysaccharide stationary phases in order to explore the differences between the retention and enantioseparation properties between the two modes. Chemometric methods (namely quantitative structure-retention relationships and discriminant analysis) are employed to compare the results obtained on a large set of analytes (171 achiral probes and 97 racemates) and gain some understanding on the retention and separation mechanisms. The results indicate that, contrary to popular belief, carbon dioxide - solvent SFC mobile phases are often weaker eluents than liquid mobile phases. It appears that SFC and NPLC elution modes provide different retention mechanisms. While some enantioseparations are unaffected, facilitating the transfer between the two elution modes, other enantioseparations may be drastically different due to different types and strength of interactions contributing to enantioselectivity.

  8. Lennard-Jones fluids in two-dimensional nano-pores. Multi-phase coexistence and fluid structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsyshin, Petr; Savva, Nikos; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2014-03-01

    We present a number of fundamental findings on the wetting behaviour of nano-pores. A popular model for fluid confinement is a one-dimensional (1D) slit pore formed by two parallel planar walls and it exhibits capillary condensation (CC): a first-order phase transition from vapour to capillary-liquid (Kelvin shift). Capping such a pore at one end by a third orthogonal wall forms a prototypical two-dimensional (2D) pore. We show that 2D pores possess a wetting temperature such that below this temperature CC remains of first order, above it becomes a continuous phase transition manifested by a slab of capillary-liquid filling the pore from the capping wall. Continuous CC exhibits hysteresis and can be preceded by a first-order capillary prewetting transition. Additionally, liquid drops can form in the corners of the 2D pore (remnant of 2D wedge prewetting). The three fluid phases, vapour, capillary-liquid slab and corner drops, can coexist at the pore triple point. Our model is based on the statistical mechanics of fluids in the density functional formulation. The fluid-fluid and fluid-substrate interactions are dispersive. We analyze in detail the microscopic fluid structure, isotherms and full phase diagrams. Our findings also suggest novel ways to control wetting of nano-pores. We are grateful to the European Research Council via Advanced Grant No. 247031 for support.

  9. Are seafloor pockmarks on the Chatham Rise, New Zealand, linked to CO2 hydrates? Gas hydrate stability considerations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecher, I. A.; Davy, B. W.; Rose, P. S.; Coffin, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    Vast areas of the Chatham Rise east of New Zealand are covered by seafloor pockmarks. Pockmark occurrence appears to be bathymetrically controlled with a band of smaller pockmarks covering areas between 500 and 700 m and large seafloor depressions beneath 800 m water depth. The current depth of the top of methane gas hydrate stability in the ocean is about 500 m and thus, we had proposed that pockmark formation may be linked to methane gas hydrate dissociation during sealevel lowering. However, while seismic profiles show strong indications of fluid flow, geochemical analyses of piston cores do not show any evidence for current or past methane flux. The discovery of Dawsonite, indicative of significant CO2 flux, in a recent petroleum exploration well, together with other circumstantial evidence, has led us to propose that instead of methane hydrate, CO2 hydrate may be linked to pockmark formation. We here present results from CO2 hydrate stability calculations. Assuming water temperature profiles remain unchanged, we predict the upper limit of pockmark occurrence to coincide with the top of CO2 gas hydrate stability during glacial-stage sealevel lowstands. CO2 hydrates may therefore have dissociated during sealevel lowering leading to gas escape and pockmark formation. In contrast to our previous model linking methane hydrate dissociation to pockmark formation, gas hydrates would dissociate beneath a shallow base of CO2 hydrate stability, rather than on the seafloor following upward "grazing" of the top of methane hydrate stability. Intriguingly, at the water depths of the larger seafloor depressions, the base of gas hydrate stability delineates the phase boundary between CO2 hydrates and super-saturated CO2. We caution that because of the high solubility of CO2, dissociation from hydrate to free gas or super-saturated CO2 would imply high concentrations of CO2 and speculate that pockmark formation may be linked to CO2 hydrate dissolution rather than dissociation

  10. Major occurrences and reservoir concepts of marine clathrate hydrates: implications of field evidence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Booth, J.S.; Winters, W.J.; Dillon, William P.; Clennell, M.B.; Rowe, M.M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is part of the special publication Gas hydrates: relevance to world margin stability and climatic change (eds J.P. Henriet and J. Mienert). Questions concerning clathrate hydrate as an energy resource, as a factor in modifying global climate and as a triggering mechanism for mass movements invite consideration of what factors promote hydrate concentration, and what the quintessential hydrate-rich sediment may be. Gas hydrate field data, although limited, provide a starting point for identifying the environments and processes that lead to more massive concentrations. Gas hydrate zones are up to 30 m thick and the vertical range of occurrence at a site may exceed 200 m. Zones typically occur more than 100m above the phase boundary. Thicker zones are overwhelmingly associated with structural features and tectonism, and often contain sand. It is unclear whether an apparent association between zone thickness and porosity represents a cause-and-effect relationship. The primary control on the thickness of a potential gas hydrate reservoir is the geological setting. Deep water and low geothermal gradients foster thick gas hydrate stability zones (GHSZs). The presence of faults, fractures, etc. can favour migration of gas-rich fluids. Geological processes, such as eustacy or subsidence, may alter the thickness of the GHSZ or affect hydrate concentratiion. Tectonic forces may promote injection of gas into the GHSZ. More porous and permeable sediment, as host sediment properties, increase storage capacity and fluid conductivity, and thus also enhance reservoir potential.

  11. The dependence of phase change enthalpy on the pore structure and interfacial groups in hydrated salts/silica composites via sol-gel.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuping; Wang, Tao

    2015-06-15

    It was found that the procedures for incorporating hydrated salts into silica, including mixing with sol in an instant (S1 procedure), mixing with sol via drop by drop (S2 procedure) and mixing until the sol forming the gel (S3 procedure), had pronounced effects on the phase change enthalpy of hydrated salts/silica composite via sol-gel process. The discrepancy of phase change enthalpies of the composites with the same content of hydrated salts can be as high as 40 kJ/kg. To unveil the mechanism behind, the pore structure of silica matrix and interfacial functional groups were investigated extensively. It was revealed that different incorporation procedures resulted in distinct pore structure of silica matrix and different intensities of interfacial Si-OH groups. The S3 procedure was beneficial to induce the silica matrix with bigger pore size and fewer Si-OH groups. Consequently, the phase change enthalpy of the hydrated salts/silica composite prepared by this procedure was the highest because of its lower size confinement effects and weaker adsorption by Si-OH groups. This study will provide insight into the preparation of shape-stabilized phase change materials for thermal energy storage applications.

  12. Phase equilibria in fluid mixtures at high pressures: The He-CH4 system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streett, W. B.; Erickson, A. L.; Hill, J. L. E.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental study of phase equilibria in the He-CH4 system was carried out over the temperature range 95 to 290 K and at pressures to 10,000 atm. The experimental results consist of equilibrium phase composition for twenty-eight isotherms in the region of coexistence of two fluid phases, together with the pressure-temperature trace of the three-phase boundary at which a CH4-rich solid phase is in equilibrium with the two fluid phases. The system exhibits a fluid-fluid phase separation which persists to temperatures and pressures beyond the range of this experiment. These results, together with those recently obtained for other binary systems, provide information about the form of phase diagrams for binary gas mixtures in the region of pressure induced phase transitions at high pressures. These findings are relevant to problems of deep atmosphere and interior structures in the outer planets.

  13. Determination of methane concentrations in water in equilibrium with sI methane hydrate in the absence of a vapor phase by in situ Raman spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, W.; Chou, I.-Ming; Burruss, R.C.

    2008-01-01

    Most submarine gas hydrates are located within the two-phase equilibrium region of hydrate and interstitial water with pressures (P) ranging from 8 to 60 MPa and temperatures (T) from 275 to 293 K. However, current measurements of solubilities of methane in equilibrium with hydrate in the absence of a vapor phase are limited below 20 MPa and 283.15 K, and the differences among these data are up to 30%. When these data were extrapolated to other P-T conditions, it leads to large and poorly known uncertainties. In this study, in situ Raman spectroscopy was used to measure methane concentrations in pure water in equilibrium with sI (structure one) methane hydrate, in the absence of a vapor phase, at temperatures from 276.6 to 294.6 (??0.3) K and pressures at 10, 20, 30 and 40 (??0.4%) MPa. The relationship among concentration of methane in water in equilibrium with hydrate, in mole fraction [X(CH4)], the temperature in K, and pressure in MPa was derived as: X(CH4) = exp [11.0464 + 0.023267 P - (4886.0 + 8.0158 P)/T]. Both the standard enthalpy and entropy of hydrate dissolution at the studied T-P conditions increase slightly with increasing pressure, ranging from 41.29 to 43.29 kJ/mol and from 0.1272 to 0.1330 kJ/K ?? mol, respectively. When compared with traditional sampling and analytical methods, the advantages of our method include: (1) the use of in situ Raman signals for methane concentration measurements eliminates possible uncertainty caused by sampling and ex situ analysis, (2) it is simple and efficient, and (3) high-pressure data can be obtained safely. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURAL, MECHANICAL, AND THERMAL PROPERTIES: Gas-Fluid and Fluid-Solid Phase Instability for Restricted Primitive Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Xiao-Song

    2009-08-01

    By considering the fluctuation of grand potential Ω around equilibrium with respect to small one-particle density fluctuations δρα(vec r), the phase instability of restricted primitive model (RPM) of ionic systems is investigated. We use the integral equation theory to calculate the direct correlation functions in the reference hypernetted chain approximation and obtain the spinodal line of RPM. Our analysis explicitly indicates that the gas-fluid phase instability is induced by k = 0 fluctuation mode, while the fluid-solid phase instability is related to k ≠ 0 fluctuation modes. The spinodal line is qualitatively consistent with the result of computer simulations by others.

  15. Lyotropic model membrane structures of hydrated DPPC: DSC and small-angle X-ray scattering studies of phase transitions in the presence of membranotropic agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulavin, L. A.; Soloviov, D. V.; Gordeliy, V. I.; Svechnikova, O. S.; Krasnikova, A. O.; Kasian, N. A.; Vashchenko, O. V.; Lisetski, L. N.

    2015-06-01

    Multibilayer structures of hydrated phospholipids, often considered as model biological membranes, are, from the physical viewpoint, lyotropic liquid crystalline systems undergoing temperature-induced mesomorphic phase transitions. Effects of silver nitrate and urocanic acid on lyotropic phase states of hydrated L-α-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) have been studied by small-angle X-ray scattering and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Both methods show increase of the main phase-transition temperature (Tm) of hydrated DPPC upon introduction of AgNO3 or urocanic acid, decrease of pre-transition temperature (Tp) in the presence of urocanic acid and its increase in the presence of AgNO3. Thus, urocanic acid widened the ripple-phase temperature region. Silver nitrate caused the appearance of an additional high-temperature peak on DSC thermograms, evidencing phase separation in the system. Both agents caused minor effects on DPPC lipid bilayer repeat distance (D) in gel phase, but resulted in noticeable increase of D in the liquid crystal phase with temperature as compared to undoped DPPC structures.

  16. Time-resolved x-ray diffraction and Raman studies of the phase transition mechanisms of methane hydrate

    SciTech Connect

    Hirai, Hisako Kadobayashi, Hirokazu; Hirao, Naohisa; Ohishi, Yasuo; Ohtake, Michika; Yamamoto, Yoshitaka; Nakano, Satoshi

    2015-01-14

    The mechanisms by which methane hydrate transforms from an sI to sH structure and from an sH to filled-ice Ih structure were examined using time-resolved X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy in conjunction with charge-coupled device camera observation under fixed pressure conditions. The XRD data obtained for the sI–sH transition at 0.8 GPa revealed an inverse correlation between sI and sH, suggesting that the sI structure is replaced by sH. Meanwhile, the Raman analysis demonstrated that although the 12-hedra of sI are retained, the 14-hedra are replaced sequentially by additional 12-hedra, modified 12-hedra, and 20-hedra cages of sH. With the sH to filled-ice Ih transition at 1.8 GPa, both the XRD and Raman data showed that this occurs through a sudden collapse of the sH structure and subsequent release of solid and fluid methane that is gradually incorporated into the filled-ice Ih to complete its structure. This therefore represents a typical reconstructive transition mechanism.

  17. COMPARING SIMULATED AND EXPERIMENTAL HYSTERETIC TWO- PHASE TRANSIENT FLUID FLOW PHENOMENA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A hysteretic model for two-phase permeability (k)-saturation (S)-pressure (P) relations is outlined that accounts for effects of nonwetting fluid entrapment. The model can be employed in unsaturated fluid flow computer codes to predict temporal and spatial fluid distributions. Co...

  18. Phase-Controlled Bistability of a Dark Soliton Train in a Polariton Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goblot, V.; Nguyen, H. S.; Carusotto, I.; Galopin, E.; Lemaître, A.; Sagnes, I.; Amo, A.; Bloch, J.

    2016-11-01

    We use a one-dimensional polariton fluid in a semiconductor microcavity to explore the nonlinear dynamics of counterpropagating interacting Bose fluids. The intrinsically driven-dissipative nature of the polariton fluid allows us to use resonant pumping to impose a phase twist across the fluid. When the polariton-polariton interaction energy becomes comparable to the kinetic energy, linear interference fringes transform into a train of solitons. A novel type of bistable behavior controlled by the phase twist across the fluid is experimentally evidenced.

  19. Complex phase behavior of a fluid in slits with semipermeable walls modified with tethered chains.

    PubMed

    Borówko, M; Patrykiejew, A; Rżysko, W; Sokołowski, S; Ilnytskyi, J

    2011-01-28

    We study the phase behavior of a two-component fluid in a pore with the walls modified by tethered chains. The walls are completely permeable for one component of the fluid and completely impenetrable for the second component. The fluid is perfectly mixed in a bulk phase. We have found that depending on the details of the model the fluid undergoes capillary condensation inside the pore and wetting and layering transitions at the outer walls. Moreover, we have found transitions connected with the change of symmetry of the distribution of chains and fluid inside the pore.

  20. Non-aqueous-phase fluids in heterogeneous aquifers -- experimental study

    SciTech Connect

    Illangasekare, T.H.; Yates, D.N.; Armbruster, E.J. III.

    1995-08-01

    Understanding of flow and entrapment of non-aqueous-phase liquids (NAPLs) in aquifers contaminated with organic chemicals is important in the effective design of recovery and remediation schemes. Soil heterogeneities play a significant role in the physical behavior of these chemicals. An experimental facility consisting of a large soil tank (lysimeter) and a dual-gamma spectroscopy system for fluid saturation measurements was developed to simulate and monitor plume migration in water-table aquifers after chemical spills. Experimental techniques and results form a preliminary set of experiments conducted in unsaturated and saturated soils under homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions are presented. the effects of the layered homogeneities were pronounced in modifying the migration pattern and velocity of the plume. Pockets of coarse sand placed across the path of the plume resulted in the soil acting as a light NAPL trap. A fine-sand pocket acted as a barrier. Qualitative and quantitative data generated in the type of experiments presented in this paper can be used to validate multiphase flow models.

  1. Hydrate Formation in Gas-Rich Marine Sediments: A Grain-Scale Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtzman, R.; Juanes, R.

    2009-12-01

    We present a grain-scale model of marine sediment, which couples solid- and multiphase fluid-mechanics together with hydrate kinetics. The model is applied to investigate the spatial distribution of the different methane phases - gas and hydrate - within the hydrate stability zone. Sediment samples are generated from three-dimensional packs of spherical grains, mapping the void space into a pore network by tessellation. Gas invasion into the water-saturated sample is simulated by invasion-percolation, coupled with a discrete element method that resolves the grain mechanics. The coupled model accounts for forces exerted by the fluids, including cohesion associated with gas-brine surface tension. Hydrate growth is represented by a hydrate film along the gas-brine interface, which increases sediment cohesion by cementing the grain contacts. Our model of hydrate growth includes the possible rupture of the hydrate layer, which leads to the creation of new gas-water interface. In previous work, we have shown that fine-grained sediments (FGS) exhibit greater tendency to fracture, whereas capillary invasion is the preferred mode of methane gas transport in coarse-grained sediments (CGS). The gas invasion pattern has profound consequences on the hydrate distribution: a larger area-to-volume ratio of the gas cluster leads to a larger drop in gas pressure inside the growing hydrate shell, causing it to rupture. Repeated cycles of imbibition and hydrate growth accompanied by trapping of gas allow us to determine the distribution of hydrate and gas within the sediment as a function of time. Our pore-scale model suggests that, even when film rupture takes place, the conversion of gas to hydrate is slow. This explains two common field observations: the coexistence of gas and hydrate within the hydrate stability zone in CGS, and the high methane fluxes through fracture conduits in FGS. These results demonstrate the importance of accounting for the strong coupling among multiphase

  2. The Cycle of Hydration and Fluid Release in the Costa Rican Subduction Zone imaged through electromagnetic soundings: Where has all the water gone? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worzewski, T. W.; Jegen, M. D.; Kopp, H.; Brasse, H.; Taylor, W.

    2010-12-01

    Fluids entering the subduction zone play an important role. They determine the onset of melting, weakening and changes in the dynamics and thermal structure of subduction zones and trigger earthquakes when being released from the subducting plate. However, the amount of water carried into the subduction zone and its distribution are not well constrained by existing data and are subject of vigorous current research in SFB574 (Volatiles and Fluids in Subduction Zones: Climate Feedback and Trigger Mechanisms for Natural Disasters). Electromagnetic methods like magnetotellurics have been used widely to recognize fluid release and melt production through enhanced electrical conductivities. Here we present an image of the hydration and dehydration cycle down to 120 km depth in one setting derived by an onshore-offshore transect of magnetotelluric soundings in Costa Rica. An electrically conductive zone in the incoming plate outer rise is associated with sea water penetrating down extensional faults and cracks into the upper mantle possibly causing serpentinization. Along the downward subducting plate distinct conductive anomalies identify fluids from dehydration of sediments, crust and mantle. A conductivity anomaly at a depth of approx. 12 km and at a distance of 65 km from the trench is associated with a first major dehydration reaction of minerally-bound water. This is of importance in the context of mid-slope fluid seeps which are thought to significantly contribute to the recycling of minerally-bound water. The position of the conductivity anomaly correlates with geochemical and seismic evidence stating that mid-slope fluids are originated at >=12 km depth before rising up through deep faults to the seeps. The conductivity anomaly is therefore associated with a fluid accumulation feeding the mid-slope seeps. Another fluid accumulation is revealed by a conductivity anomaly at 20-30 km depth and a distance of approximately 30 km seaward from the volcanic arc. This

  3. Colorado Plateau Uplift Through Deep Crustal Hydration?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butcher, L. A.; Mahan, K. H.; Jones, C. H.; Farmer, G.

    2013-12-01

    The conventional view of plate tectonics restricts deformation to plate boundaries and does not account for regionally elevated topography in continental interiors. Thermal, mechanical or chemical alteration of ancient continental lithosphere is a mechanism sometimes invoked to explain intracratonic uplift in the western U.S. although the timing, extent and effects of this modification are poorly understood. Here we present new petrological and in situ geochronological data for a hydrated deep crustal xenolith from the Colorado Plateau and investigate the effects of deep crustal hydration on topography. Two distinct mineral assemblages recorded in a garnet biotite schist xenolith from the Navajo Volcanic Field, Four Corners region document hydration subsequent to peak metamorphism in the deep crust whereby the primary metamorphic assemblage (Gt + Bt + Ms + Pl + Kfs + Qtz) is variably replaced by a lower-density, hydrated assemblage (Ab + Ph + Cc + Rt). Results from forward petrological modeling constrain hydration at ≥ 20 km (0.65 GPa, 450 °C) prior to exhumation in the ˜20 Ma volcanic host. In situ Th/Pb dating of secondary monazite grains spatially associated with fluid-related plagioclase and allanite breakdown reveals a significant majority of Late Cretaceous dates from 91 to 58 Ma. These dates are interpreted to reflect a finite period of deep crustal hydration, possibly by fluids sourced from a shallowly subducting Farallon slab. Xenolith data additionally supports crustal hydration as a mechanism for producing regionally elevated topography. Fluid-related reactions in the deep crust may lead to a net density decrease as low-density hydrous phases (e.g. Ms + Amp + Cc) replace high-density, anhydrous minerals (e.g. Gt + Fsp + Opx + Cpx) abundant in high-pressure, high-temperature assemblages preserved in Proterozoic North American lithosphere. If these reactions are sufficiently pervasive and widespread, reductions in lower crustal density would provide a

  4. Phase equilibria in fluid mixtures at high pressures - The He-CH4 system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streett, W. B.; Erickson, A. L.; Hill, J. L. E.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental study of phase equilibria in the He-CH4 system has been carried out over the temperature range 95 to 290 K and at pressures to 10,000 atm. The experimental results consist of equilibrium phase composition for twenty-eight isotherms in the region of coexistence of two fluid phases, together with the pressure-temperature trace of the three-phase boundary at which a CH4-rich solid phase is in equilibrium with the two fluid phases. The system exhibits a fluid-fluid phase separation which persists to temperatures and pressures beyond the range of this experiment. These findings are relevant to problems of deep atmosphere and interior structures in the outer planets.-

  5. Fluid Phase Separation (FPS) experiment for flight on a space shuttle Get Away Special (GAS) canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Bruce; Wingo, Dennis; Bower, Mark; Amborski, Robert; Blount, Laura; Daniel, Alan; Hagood, Bob; Handley, James; Hediger, Donald; Jimmerson, Lisa

    1990-01-01

    The separation of fluid phases in microgravity environments is of importance to environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) and materials processing in space. A successful fluid phase separation experiment will demonstrate a proof of concept for the separation technique and add to the knowledge base of material behavior. The phase separation experiment will contain a premixed fluid which will be exposed to a microgravity environment. After the phase separation of the compound has occurred, small samples of each of the species will be taken for analysis on the Earth. By correlating the time of separation and the temperature history of the fluid, it will be possible to characterize the process. The experiment has been integrated into space available on a manifested Get Away Special (GAS) experiment, CONCAP 2, part of the Consortium for Materials Complex Autonomous Payload (CAP) Program, scheduled for STS-42. The design and the production of a fluid phase separation experiment for rapid implementation at low cost is presented.

  6. Transformations in methane hydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming; Sharma, A.; Burruss, R.C.; Shu, J.; Mao, Ho-kwang; Hemley, R.J.; Goncharov, A.F.; Stern, L.A.; Kirby, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    Detailed study of pure methane hydrate in a diamond cell with in situ optical, Raman, and x-ray microprobe techniques reveals two previously unknown structures, structure II and structure H, at high pressures. The structure II methane hydrate at 250 MPa has a cubic unit cell of a = 17.158(2) A?? and volume V = 5051.3(13) A??3; structure H at 600 MPa has a hexagonal unit cell of a = 11.980(2) A??, c = 9.992(3) A??, and V = 1241.9(5) A??3. The compositions of these two investigated phases are still not known. With the effects of pressure and the presence of other gases in the structure, the structure II phase is likely to dominate over the known structure I methane hydrate within deep hydrate-bearing sediments underlying continental margins.

  7. Rapid gas hydrate formation process

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Unione, Alfred J.

    2013-01-15

    The disclosure provides a method and apparatus for forming gas hydrates from a two-phase mixture of water and a hydrate forming gas. The two-phase mixture is created in a mixing zone which may be wholly included within the body of a spray nozzle. The two-phase mixture is subsequently sprayed into a reaction zone, where the reaction zone is under pressure and temperature conditions suitable for formation of the gas hydrate. The reaction zone pressure is less than the mixing zone pressure so that expansion of the hydrate-forming gas in the mixture provides a degree of cooling by the Joule-Thompson effect and provides more intimate mixing between the water and the hydrate-forming gas. The result of the process is the formation of gas hydrates continuously and with a greatly reduced induction time. An apparatus for conduct of the method is further provided.

  8. HYDRATE CORE DRILLING TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Cohen; Thomas E. Williams; Ali G. Kadaster; Bill V. Liddell

    2002-11-01

    The ''Methane Hydrate Production from Alaskan Permafrost'' project is a three-year endeavor being conducted by Maurer Technology Inc. (MTI), Noble, and Anadarko Petroleum, in partnership with the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The project's goal is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition. The project team plans to design and implement a program to safely and economically drill, core and produce gas from arctic hydrates. The current work scope includes drilling and coring one well on Anadarko leases in FY 2003 during the winter drilling season. A specially built on-site core analysis laboratory will be used to determine some of the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. Prior to going to the field, the project team designed and conducted a controlled series of coring tests for simulating coring of hydrate formations. A variety of equipment and procedures were tested and modified to develop a practical solution for this special application. This Topical Report summarizes these coring tests. A special facility was designed and installed at MTI's Drilling Research Center (DRC) in Houston and used to conduct coring tests. Equipment and procedures were tested by cutting cores from frozen mixtures of sand and water supported by casing and designed to simulate hydrate formations. Tests were conducted with chilled drilling fluids. Tests showed that frozen core can be washed out and reduced in size by the action of the drilling fluid. Washing of the core by the drilling fluid caused a reduction in core diameter, making core recovery very difficult (if not impossible). One successful solution was to drill the last 6 inches of core dry (without fluid circulation). These tests demonstrated that it will be difficult to capture core when drilling in permafrost or hydrates without implementing certain safeguards. Among the coring tests was a simulated hydrate formation comprised of coarse, large

  9. Influence of phase connectivity on the relationship among capillary pressure, fluid saturation, and interfacial area in two-fluid-phase porous medium systems

    DOE PAGES

    McClure, James E.; Berrill, Mark A.; Gray, William G.; ...

    2016-09-02

    Here, multiphase flow in porous medium systems is typically modeled using continuum mechanical representations at the macroscale in terms of averaged quantities. These models require closure relations to produce solvable forms. One of these required closure relations is an expression relating fluid pressures, fluid saturations, and, in some cases, the interfacial area between the fluid phases, and the Euler characteristic. An unresolved question is whether the inclusion of these additional morphological and topological measures can lead to a non-hysteretic closure relation compared to the hysteretic forms that are used in traditional models, which typically do not include interfacial areas, ormore » the Euler characteristic. We develop a lattice-Boltzmann (LB) simulation approach to investigate the equilibrium states of a two-fluid-phase porous medium system, which include disconnected now- wetting phase features. The proposed approach is applied to a synthetic medium consisting of 1,964 spheres arranged in a random, non-overlapping, close-packed manner, yielding a total of 42,908 different equilibrium points. This information is evaluated using a generalized additive modeling approach to determine if a unique function from this family exists, which can explain the data. The variance of various model estimates is computed, and we conclude that, except for the limiting behavior close to a single fluid regime, capillary pressure can be expressed as a deterministic and non-hysteretic function of fluid saturation, interfacial area between the fluid phases, and the Euler characteristic. This work is unique in the methods employed, the size of the data set, the resolution in space and time, the true equilibrium nature of the data, the parameterizations investigated, and the broad set of functions examined. The conclusion of essentially non-hysteretic behavior provides support for an evolving class of two-fluid-phase flow in porous medium systems models.« less

  10. Influence of phase connectivity on the relationship among capillary pressure, fluid saturation, and interfacial area in two-fluid-phase porous medium systems

    SciTech Connect

    McClure, James E.; Berrill, Mark A.; Gray, William G.; Miller, Cass T.

    2016-09-02

    Here, multiphase flow in porous medium systems is typically modeled using continuum mechanical representations at the macroscale in terms of averaged quantities. These models require closure relations to produce solvable forms. One of these required closure relations is an expression relating fluid pressures, fluid saturations, and, in some cases, the interfacial area between the fluid phases, and the Euler characteristic. An unresolved question is whether the inclusion of these additional morphological and topological measures can lead to a non-hysteretic closure relation compared to the hysteretic forms that are used in traditional models, which typically do not include interfacial areas, or the Euler characteristic. We develop a lattice-Boltzmann (LB) simulation approach to investigate the equilibrium states of a two-fluid-phase porous medium system, which include disconnected now- wetting phase features. The proposed approach is applied to a synthetic medium consisting of 1,964 spheres arranged in a random, non-overlapping, close-packed manner, yielding a total of 42,908 different equilibrium points. This information is evaluated using a generalized additive modeling approach to determine if a unique function from this family exists, which can explain the data. The variance of various model estimates is computed, and we conclude that, except for the limiting behavior close to a single fluid regime, capillary pressure can be expressed as a deterministic and non-hysteretic function of fluid saturation, interfacial area between the fluid phases, and the Euler characteristic. This work is unique in the methods employed, the size of the data set, the resolution in space and time, the true equilibrium nature of the data, the parameterizations investigated, and the broad set of functions examined. The conclusion of essentially non-hysteretic behavior provides support for an evolving class of two-fluid-phase flow in porous medium systems models.

  11. X-Ray Microspectroscopic Investigations of Remote Aerosol Composition and Changes in Aerosol Microstructure and Phase State upon Hydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreae, M. O.; Artaxo, P.; Bechtel, M.; Förster, J. D.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Krüger, M. L.; Pöhlker, C.; Saturno, J.; Weigand, M.; Wiedemann, K. T.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols play a crucial role in the Earth's climate system and hydrological cycle by scattering and absorbing sunlight and affecting the formation and development of clouds and precipitation. Our research focuses on aerosols in remote regions, in order to characterize the properties and sources of natural aerosol particles and the extent of human perturbations of the aerosol burden. The phase and mixing state of atmospheric aerosols, and particularly their hygroscopic response to relative humidity (RH) variations, is a central determinant of their atmospheric life cycle and impacts. We present an investigation using X-ray microspectroscopy on submicrometer aerosols under variable RH conditions, showing in situ changes in morphology, microstructure, and phase state upon humidity cycling. We applied Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy with Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS) under variable RH conditions to standard aerosols for a validation of the experimental approach and to internally mixed aerosol particles from the Amazonian rain forest collected during periods with anthropogenic pollution. The measurements were conducted at X-ray microscopes at the synchrotron facilities Advanced Light Source (ALS) in Berkeley, USA, and BESSY II in Berlin, Germany. Upon hydration, we observed substantial and reproducible changes in microstructure of the Amazonian particles (internal mixture of secondary organic material, ammoniated sulfate, and soot), which appear as mainly driven by efflorescence and recrystallization of sulfate salts. Multiple solid and liquid phases were found to coexist, especially in intermediate humidity regimes (60-80% RH). This shows that X-ray microspectroscopy under variable RH is a valuable technique to analyze the hygroscopic response of individual ambient aerosol particles. Our initial results underline that RH changes can trigger strong particle restructuring, in agreement with previous studies on

  12. Preliminary Experimental Examination Of Controls On Methane Expulsion During Melting Of Natural Gas Hydrate Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneafsey, T. J.; Flemings, P. B.; Bryant, S. L.; You, K.; Polito, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    Global climate change will cause warming of the oceans and land. This will affect the occurrence, behavior, and location of subseafloor and subterranean methane hydrate deposits. We suggest that in many natural systems local salinity, elevated by hydrate formation or freshened by hydrate dissociation, may control gas transport through the hydrate stability zone. We are performing experiments and modeling the experiments to explore this behavior for different warming scenarios. Initially, we are exploring hydrate association/dissociation in saline systems with constant water mass. We compare experiments run with saline (3.5 wt. %) water vs. distilled water in a sand mixture at an initial water saturation of ~0.5. We increase the pore fluid (methane) pressure to 1050 psig. We then stepwise cool the sample into the hydrate stability field (~3 degrees C), allowing methane gas to enter as hydrate forms. We measure resistivity and the mass of methane consumed. We are currently running these experiments and we predict our results from equilibrium thermodynamics. In the fresh water case, the modeled final hydrate saturation is 63% and all water is consumed. In the saline case, the modeled final hydrate saturation is 47%, the salinity is 12.4 wt. %, and final water saturation is 13%. The fresh water system is water-limited: all the water is converted to hydrate. In the saline system, pore water salinity is elevated and salt is excluded from the hydrate structure during hydrate formation until the salinity drives the system to three phase equilibrium (liquid, gas, hydrate) and no further hydrate forms. In our laboratory we can impose temperature gradients within the column, and we will use this to investigate equilibrium conditions in large samples subjected to temperature gradients and changing temperature. In these tests, we will quantify the hydrate saturation and salinity over our meter-long sample using spatially distributed temperature sensors, spatially distributed

  13. Experimental Study of Gas Hydrate Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fandino, O.; Ruffine, L.

    2011-12-01

    Important quantities of methane and other gases are trapped below the seafloor and in the permafrost by an ice-like solid, called gas hydrates or clathrate hydrates. The latter is formed when water is mixing with different gases at high pressures and low temperatures. Due to a their possible use as a source of energy [1] or the problematic related to flow assurance failure in pipelines [2] the understanding of their processes of formation/destabilisation of these structures becomes a goal for many laboratories research as well as industries. In this work we present an experimental study on the stochastic behaviour of hydrate formation from a bulk phase. The method used here for the experiments was to repeat several time the same hydrate formation procedure and to notice the different from one experiment to another. A variable-volume type high-pressure apparatus with two sapphire windows was used. This device, already presented by Ruffine et al.[3], allows us to perform both kinetics and phase equilibrium measurements. Three initial pressure conditions were considered here, 5.0 MPa, 7.5 MPa and 10.0 MPa. Hydrates have been formed, then allowed to dissociate by stepwise heating. The memory effect has also been investigated after complete dissociation. It turned out that, although the thermodynamics conditions of formation and/or destabilization were reproducible. An attempt to determine the influence of pressure on the nucleation induction time will be discussed. References 1. Sum, A. K.; Koh, C. A.; Sloan, E. D., Clathrate Hydrates: From Laboratory Science to Engineering Practice. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 2009, 48, 7457-7465. 2. Sloan, E. D., A changing hydrate paradigm-from apprehension to avoidance to risk management. Fluid Phase Equilibria 2005, 228, 67-74. 3. Ruffine, L.; Donval, J. P.; Charlou, J. L.; Cremière, A.; Zehnder, B. H., Experimental study of gas hydrate formation and destabilisation using a novel high-pressure apparatus. Marine

  14. Hydration Leads to Efficient Reactions of the Carbonate Radical Anion with Hydrogen Chloride in the Gas Phase.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wai Kit; van der Linde, Christian; Siu, Chi-Kit; Beyer, Martin K

    2017-01-12

    The carbonate radical anion CO3(•-) is a key intermediate in tropospheric anion chemistry. Despite its radical character, only a small number of reactions have been reported in the literature. Here we investigate the gas-phase reactions of CO3(•-) and CO3(•-)(H2O) with HCl under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Bare CO3(•-) forms OHCl(•-) with a rate constant of 4.2 × 10(-12) cm(3) s(-1), which corresponds to an efficiency of only 0.4%. Hydration accelerates the reaction, and ligand exchange of H2O against HCl proceeds with a rate of 2.7 × 10(-10) cm(3) s(-1). Quantum chemical calculations reveal that OHCl(•-) is best described as an OH(•) hydrogen bonded to Cl(-), while the ligand exchange product is Cl(-)(HCO3(•)). Under tropospheric conditions, where CO3(•-)(H2O) is the dominant species, Cl(-)(HCO3(•)) is efficiently formed. These reactions must be included in models of tropospheric anion chemistry.

  15. The effect of acute fluid consumption following exercise-induced fluid loss on hydration status, percent body fat, and minimum wrestling weight in wrestlers.

    PubMed

    Cutrufello, Paul T; Dixon, Curt B

    2014-07-01

    Acute fluid consumption (approximately 1 L) has been shown to reduce urine specific gravity (Usg) among subjects after an overnight fast, yet it is unknown if Usg may be reduced among subjects who have experienced exercise-induced fluid loss. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of acute fluid consumption on Usg, body mass, percent body fat (%BF), and minimum wrestling weight (MWW) following an exercise-induced fluid loss protocol. National Collegiate Athletic Association coaches' perceptions of the weight certification program (WCP) were also evaluated. Twelve men wrestlers (19.8 ± 1.14 years) were tested prepractice (PRE), postpractice (POST), and 1 hour after consuming 1 L of water (PFC). Percent body fat was measured by skinfolds (SF), air displacement plethysmography (ADP), and multifrequency and leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analysis to calculate MWW. Urine specific gravity measurements significantly increased above PRE (1.013 ± 0.006) at the POST (1.019 ± 0.007; p = 0.017) and PFC (1.022 ± 0.008; p = 0.025) assessments; however, POST and PFC were not significantly different (p = 0.978) from one another. The %BF values were similar (p > 0.05) at each assessment point when using SF and ADP. When compared with PRE, MWW significantly reduced at the POST assessment when using SF (67.2 ± 8.4 vs. 65.7 ± 8.2 kg; p < 0.001) and ADP (66.6 ± 9.1 vs. 64.8 ± 9.0 kg; p = 0.001), reflecting the reduction in body mass observed after exercise. Forty-seven National Collegiate Athletic Association coaches completed the questionnaire and 2 central themes emerged: (a) concerns with the 1.5% weight loss plan and (b) wrestlers using strategies in an attempt to circumvent the WCP. Exercise-induced fluid loss followed by acute fluid consumption equal to 1 L was ineffective in reducing Usg.

  16. Working fluid selection for space-based two-phase heat transport systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclinden, Mark O.

    1988-01-01

    The working fluid for externally-mounted, space-based two-phase heat transport systems is considered. A sequence of screening criteria involving freezing and critical point temperatures and latent heat of vaporization and vapor density are applied to a data base of 860 fluids. The thermal performance of the 52 fluids which pass this preliminary screening are then ranked according to their impact on the weight of a reference system. Upon considering other nonthermal criteria (flammability, toxicity, and chemical stability) a final set of 10 preferred fluids is obtained. The effects of variations in system parameters is investigated for these 10 fluids by means of a factorial design.

  17. Establishment of a Cutting Fluid Control System (Phase III)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    Some examples of separation devices are a gravity separator, a centrifuge, a coalescer, a magnetic separator and a hydrocyclone . See Appendix F for a...drawn from the bottom of the tank. Hydrocyclone The operation of a hydrocyclone requires that the cutting fluid initiating from the machine goes...unit where it enters tangentially at the top of the hydrocyclone . As the fluid spirals downward, its velocity increases due to the shape of the cone

  18. Establishment of a Cutting Fluid Control System. Phase II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    grouped into three categories using manufacturer supplied data: heavy duty, medium duty and light duty. Also, each category was 2 subdivided into...Material Force data was collected during metal removal tests using a Honeywell 1858 Visicorder which utilizes light sensitive paper and fiber optics...ADSOL I 35 EU lIE I . . i a. light duty. Also, this table further divides the fluids into the specific types of cutting fluids: emulsions, semi

  19. Investigating the Fate of Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid in Shale Gas Formations Through Two-Phase Numerical Modelling of Fluid Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, R.; Doster, F.; Celia, M. A.; Bandilla, K.

    2015-12-01

    The process of hydraulic fracturing in shale gas formations typically involves the injection of large quantities of water-based fluid (2×107L typical) into the shale formations in order to fracture the rock. A large proportion of the fracturing fluids injected into shale gas wells during hydraulic fracturing does not return out of the well once production begins. The percentage of water returning varies within and between different shale plays, but is generally around 30%. The large proportion of the fluid that does not return raises the possibility that it could migrate out of the target shale formation and potentially toward aquifers and the surface through pathways such as the created hydraulic fractures, faults and adjacent wells. A leading hypothesis for the fate of the remaining fracturing fluid is that it is spontaneously imbibed from the hydraulic fractures into the shale rock matrix due to the low water saturation and very high capillary pressure in the shale. The imbibition hypothesis is assessed using numerical modeling of the two-phase flow of fracturing fluid and gas in the shale during injection. The model incorporates relevant two-phase physical phenomena such as capillarity and relative permeability, including hysteretic behavior in both. Modeling scenarios for fracturing fluid injection were assessed under varying conditions for shale reservoir parameters and spatial heterogeneities in permeability and wettability. The results showed that the unaccounted fracturing fluid may plausibly be imbibed into the shale matrix under certain conditions, and that significant small-scale spatial heterogeneity in the shale permeability likely plays an important role in imbibing the fracturing fluid.

  20. Separation of rare earths from transition metals by liquid-liquid extraction from a molten salt hydrate to an ionic liquid phase.

    PubMed

    Rout, Alok; Binnemans, Koen

    2014-02-28

    The solvent extraction of trivalent rare-earth ions and their separation from divalent transition metal ions using molten salt hydrates as the feed phase and an undiluted fluorine-free ionic liquid as the extracting phase were investigated in detail. The extractant was tricaprylmethylammonium nitrate, [A336][NO3], and the hydrated melt was calcium nitrate tetrahydrate, Ca(NO3)2·4H2O. The extraction behavior of rare-earth ions was studied for solutions of individual elements, as well as for mixtures of rare earths in the hydrated melt. The influence of different extraction parameters was investigated: the initial metal loading in the feed phase, percentage of water in the feed solution, equilibration time, and the type of hydrated melt. The extraction of rare earths from Ca(NO3)2·4H2O was compared with extraction from CaCl2·4H2O by [A336][Cl] (Aliquat 336). The nitrate system was found to be the better one. The extraction and separation of rare earths from the transition metals nickel, cobalt and zinc were also investigated. Remarkably high separation factors of rare-earth ions over transition metal ions were observed for extraction from Ca(NO3)2·4H2O by the [A336][NO3] extracting phase. Furthermore, rare-earth ions could be separated efficiently from transition metal ions, even in melts with very high concentrations of transition metal ions. Rare-earth oxides could be directly dissolved in the Ca(NO3)2·4H2O phase in the presence of small amounts of Al(NO3)3·9H2O or concentrated nitric acid. The efficiency of extraction after dissolving the rare-earth oxides in the hydrated nitrate melt was identical to extraction from solutions with rare-earth nitrates dissolved in the molten phase. The stripping of the rare-earth ions from the loaded ionic liquid phase and the reuse of the recycled ionic liquid were also investigated in detail.

  1. Hydrate formation and growth in pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jong-Won; Santamarina, J. Carlos

    2012-04-01

    Gas hydrates consist of guest gas molecules encaged in water cages. Methane hydrate forms in marine and permafrost sediments. In this study, we use optical, mechanical and electrical measurements to monitor hydrate formation and growth in small pores to better understand the hydrate pore habit in hydrate-bearing sediments. Hydrate formation in capillary tubes exposes the complex and dynamic interactions between nucleation, gas diffusion and gas solubility. The observation of hydrate growth in a droplet between transparent plates shows that the hydrate shell does not grow homogeneously but advances in the form of lobes that invade the water phase; in fact, the hydrate shell must be discontinuous and possibly cracked to justify the relatively fast growth rates observed in these experiments. Volume expansion during hydrate formation causes water to flow out of menisci; expelled water either spreads on the surface of water-wet substrates and forms a thin hydrate sheet, or remains next to menisci when substrates are oil-wet. Hydrate formation is accompanied by ion exclusion, yet, there is an overall increase in electrical resistance during hydrate formation. Hydrate growth may become salt-limited in trapped water conditions; in this case, aqueous brine and gas CH4 may be separated by hydrate and the three-phase system remains stable within the pore space of sediments.

  2. Fluid pathways in subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiegelman, M. W.; van Keken, P. E.; Hacker, B. R.

    2009-12-01

    A large amount of water captured in the oceanic crust and mantle is recycled in subduction zones. Upon compaction and heating most fluids are expelled, but a significant amount of water can be carried in hydrated mineral phases and point defects. While the qualitative role of volatiles and dehydration reactions is well appreciated in the mechanisms for intermediate depth seismicity, mantle wedge melting and arc volcanism, the quantitative details of the metamorphic reactions and the pathways of fluids and melts in the slab are poorly understood. We provide finite element models, combined with thermodynamic and mineralogical constraints, to estimate the water release and migration from the subducting slab to overlying arc. We use models from a selection of warm (e.g., Cascadia), cold (Central Honshu) and intermediate (Nicaragua) subduction zones, using slab geometries constrained from seismological observations. The fluid release is predicted from the breakdown of hydrated phases in sediments, oceanic crust and slab mantle. We use newly developed high resolution models for the flow of these released fluids that take into account permeability and compaction pressures. While the detailed structure depends on the chosen rheology and permeability, we find that for reasonable assumptions of permeability, a significant amount of fluids can travel through the wedge along nearly vertical pathways at rates and paths, consistent with geochronological and geochemical constraints. For models considered to date, we find that the principal source of fluids that feed the wedge come from the hydrated oceanic crust and particularly the hydrated slab mantle. Fluids released from the sediments and shallow crust, tend to travel along high permeability zones in the subducting slab before being released to hydrate the cold corner of subduction zones, suggesting that the cold and hydrated forearc region that is imaged in many subduction zones is maintained by an active hydrological cycle

  3. Constraining the origin of the Messinian gypsum deposits using coupled measurement of δ^{18}O$/δD in gypsum hydration water and salinity of fluid inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Nicholas P.; Gázquez, Fernando; McKenzie, Judith A.; Chapman, Hazel J.; Hodell, David A.

    2016-04-01

    We used oxygen and hydrogen isotopes of gypsum hydration water (GHW) coupled with salinity deduced from ice melting temperatures of primary fluid inclusions in the same samples (in tandem with 87Sr/86Sr, δ34S and other isotopic measurements) to determine the composition of the mother fluids that formed the gypsum deposits of the Messinian Salinity Crisis from shallow and intermediate-depth basins. Using this method, we constrain the origin of the Messinian Primary Lower Gypsum (PLG) of the Sorbas basin (Betic foreland) and both the Upper Gypsum (UG) and the Lower Gypsum of the Sicilian basin. We then compare these results to measurements made on UG recovered from the deep Ionian and Balearic basins drilled during DSDP Leg 42A. The evolution of GHW δ18O/δD vs. salinity is controlled by mixing processes between fresh and seawater, coupled with the degree of evaporation. Evaporation and subsequent precipitation of gypsum from fluids dominated by freshwater will result in a depressed 87Sr/86Sr values and different trajectory in δ18O/δD vs. salinity space compared to fluids dominated by seawater. The slopes of these regression equations help to define the end-members from which the fluid originated. For example, salinity estimates from PLG cycle 6 in the Sorbas basin range from 18 to 51ppt, and after correction for fractionation factors, estimated δ18O and δD values of the mother water are low (-2.6 < δ18O < 2.7‰ ; -16.2 < δD < 15.8‰). The intercepts of the regression equations (i.e. at zero salinity) are within error of the average isotope composition of the modern precipitation and groundwater in this region of SE Spain. This indicates there was a significant contribution of meteoric water during gypsum deposition, while 87Sr/86Sr (0.708942 < 87Sr/86Sr < 0.708971) indicate the ions originated from the dissolution of previously marine evaporites. Gypsum from cycle 2 displays similar mother water values (-2.4 < δ18O < 2.4‰ ; -13.2 < δD < 17.0‰) to

  4. A New n = 4 Layered Ruddlesden-Popper Phase K(2.5)Bi(2.5)Ti4O13 Showing Stoichiometric Hydration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Samuel; Avdeev, Maxim; Liu, Yun; Johnson, Mark R; Ling, Chris D

    2016-02-15

    A new bismuth-containing layered perovskite of the Ruddlesden-Popper type, K(2.5)Bi(2.5)Ti4O13, has been prepared by solid-state synthesis. It has been shown to hydrate to form stoichiometric K(2.5)Bi(2.5)Ti4O13·H2O. Diffraction data show that the structure consists of a quadruple-stacked (n = 4) perovskite layer, with potassium ions occupying the rock salt layer and its next-nearest A site. The hydrated sample was shown to remove the offset between stacked perovskite layers relative to the dehydrated sample. Computational methods show that the hydrated phase consists of intact H2O molecules in a vertical "pillared" arrangement bridging across the interlayer space. Rotations of H2O molecules about the c axis were evident in molecular dynamic calculations, which increased in rotation angle with increasing temperature. In situ diffraction data for the dehydrated phase point to a broad structural phase transition from orthorhombic to tetragonal at ∼600 °C. The relative bismuth-rich composition in the perovskite block results in a higher transition temperature compared to related perovskite structures. Water makes a significant contribution to the dielectric constant, which disappears after dehydration.

  5. Solving the problem of two viscous incompressible fluid media in the case of constant phase saturations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baishemirov, Zharasbek; Tang, Jian-Gang; Imomnazarov, Kholmatzhon; Mamatqulov, Musajon

    2016-12-01

    The solution to equations of two viscous homogeneous incompressible fluid media with the pressure phase equilibrium in the case of a constant phase is obtained. The influence of the physical phase densities, saturation, volume and viscosity of substances constituting a two-phase continuum in the flow velocity and pressure is shown. Also, the solution admitting a limiting transition to the known solution of the problem of a flow of a viscous incompressible single-phase medium is constructed.

  6. Parametric study of the physical properties of hydrate-bearing sand, silt, and clay sediments: 1. Electromagnetic properties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, J.Y.; Santamarina, J.C.; Ruppel, C.

    2010-01-01

    The marked decrease in bulk electrical conductivity of sediments in the presence of gas hydrates has been used to interpret borehole electrical resistivity logs and, to a lesser extent, the results of controlled source electromagnetic surveys to constrain the spatial distribution and predicted concentration of gas hydrate in natural settings. Until now, an exhaustive laboratory data set that could be used to assess the impact of gas hydrate on the electromagnetic properties of different soils (sand, silt, and clay) at different effective stress and with different saturations of hydrate has been lacking. The laboratory results reported here are obtained using a standard geotechnical cell and the hydrate-formed tetrahydrofuran (THF), a liquid that is fully miscible in water and able to produce closely controlled saturations of hydrate from dissolved phase. Both permittivity and electrical conductivity are good indicators of the volume fraction of free water in the sediment, which is in turn dependent on hydrate saturation. Permittivity in the microwave frequency range is particularly predictive of free water content since it is barely affected by ionic concentration, pore structure, and surface conduction. Electrical conductivity (or resistivity) is less reliable for constraining water content or hydrate saturation: In addition to fluid-filled porosity, other factors, such as the ionic concentration of the pore fluid and possibly other conduction effects (e.g., surface conduction in high specific surface soils having low conductivity pore fluid), also influence electrical conductivity.

  7. Exact calculations of phase and membrane equilibria for complex fluids by Monte Carlo simulation. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Panagiotopoulos, A.Z.

    1992-06-08

    Objective is to develop molecular simulation techniques for phase equilibria in complex systems. The Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo method was extended to obtain phase diagrams for highly asymmetric and ionic fluids. The modified Widom test particle technique was developed for chemical potentials of long polymeric molecules, and preliminary calculations of phase behavior of simple model homopolymers were performed.

  8. Exact calculations of phase and membrane equilibria for complex fluids by Monte Carlo simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Panagiotopoulos, A.Z.

    1992-06-08

    Objective is to develop molecular simulation techniques for phase equilibria in complex systems. The Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo method was extended to obtain phase diagrams for highly asymmetric and ionic fluids. The modified Widom test particle technique was developed for chemical potentials of long polymeric molecules, and preliminary calculations of phase behavior of simple model homopolymers were performed.

  9. Phase equilibria, fluid structure, and diffusivity of a discotic liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Cienega-Cacerez, Octavio; Moreno-Razo, José Antonio; Díaz-Herrera, Enrique; Sambriski, Edward John

    2014-05-14

    Molecular Dynamics simulations were performed for the Gay-Berne discotic fluid parameterized by GB(0.345, 0.2, 1.0, 2.0). The volumetric phase diagram exhibits isotropic (IL), nematic (ND), and two columnar phases characterized by radial distribution functions: the transversal fluid structure varies between a hexagonal columnar (CD) phase (at higher temperatures and pressures) and a rectangular columnar (CO) phase (at lower temperatures and pressures). The slab-wise analysis of fluid dynamics suggests the formation of grain-boundary defects in the CO phase. Longitudinal fluid structure is highly periodic with narrow peaks for the CO phase, suggestive of a near-crystalline (yet diffusive) system, but is only short-ranged for the CD phase. The IL phase does not exhibit anisotropic diffusion. Transversal diffusion is more favorable in the ND phase at all times, but only favorable at short times for the columnar phases. In the columnar phases, a crossover occurs where longitudinal diffusion is favored over transversal diffusion at intermediate-to-long timescales. The anomalous diffusivity is pronounced in both columnar phases, with three identifiable contributions: (a) the rattling of discogens within a transient "interdigitation" cage, (b) the hopping of discogens across columns, and (c) the drifting motion of discogens along the orientation of the director.

  10. Stochastic effects on single phase fluid flow in porous media.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, P; Bencsik, M

    2001-01-01

    The flow encoded PEPI technique has been used to measure the fluid velocity distribution and fluid flow of water passing through a phantom comprising randomly distributed 10 mm glass beads. The object of these experiments is to determine the degree of causality between one steady-state flow condition and another. That is to say, knowing the mean fluid velocity and velocity distribution, can one predict what happens at a higher mean fluid velocity? In a second related experiment flow is established at a given mean fluid velocity. The velocity distribution is measured. The flow is then turned off and later re-established. In both kinds of experiment we conclude that the errors in predicting the flow velocity distribution and the errors in re-establishing a given velocity distribution lie well outside the intrinsic thermal noise associated with velocity measurement. It follows, therefore, that the causal approach to prediction of flow velocity distributions in porous media using the Navier-Stokes approach is invalid.

  11. Effects of porosity and mixed convection on MHD two phase fluid flow in an inclined channel.

    PubMed

    Hasnain, Jafar; Abbas, Zaheer; Sajid, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The present study deals with the flow and heat transfer analysis of two immiscible fluids in an inclined channel embedded in a porous medium. The channel is divided in two phases such that a third grade fluid occupies the phase I and a viscous fluid occupies the phase II. Both viscous and third grade fluids are electrically conducting. A constant magnetic field is imposed perpendicular to the channel walls. The mathematical model is developed by using Darcy's and modified Darcy's laws for viscous and third grade fluids respectively. The transformed ordinary differential equations are solved numerically using a shooting method. The obtained results are presented graphically and influence of emerging parameters is discussed in detail.

  12. Effects of Porosity and Mixed Convection on MHD Two Phase Fluid Flow in an Inclined Channel

    PubMed Central

    Hasnain, Jafar; Abbas, Zaheer; Sajid, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The present study deals with the flow and heat transfer analysis of two immiscible fluids in an inclined channel embedded in a porous medium. The channel is divided in two phases such that a third grade fluid occupies the phase I and a viscous fluid occupies the phase II. Both viscous and third grade fluids are electrically conducting. A constant magnetic field is imposed perpendicular to the channel walls. The mathematical model is developed by using Darcy's and modified Darcy's laws for viscous and third grade fluids respectively. The transformed ordinary differential equations are solved numerically using a shooting method. The obtained results are presented graphically and influence of emerging parameters is discussed in detail. PMID:25803360

  13. Electrohydrodynamic method of determining the particle size of the dispersed phase in a magnetic fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Kubasov, A.A.; Shikhmurzaev, Yu.D.

    1988-03-01

    A mathematical model of the process of passing an alternating electric current through a magnetic fluid is proposed. An expression was obtained for the impedance of the part of the circuit containing the cell with the magnetic fluid in the case of high frequencies. It is shown that in the case of low volume concentration of the dispersed phase the conductivity of the magnetic fluid depends on the volume concentration of the dispersed phase and the dimensionless frequency of variation of the potential difference applied to the cell containing the magnetic fluid. A new method of determining the particle size of the dispersed phase in a magnetic fluid, based on electrodynamic behavior, is proposed.

  14. Analytical study on two-phase MHD flow of electrically conducting magnetic fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Okubo, Masaaki; Ishimoto, Jun; Nishiyama, Hideya; Kamiyama, Shinichi

    1994-01-01

    An energy conversion system using magnetic fluids proposed by Resler and Rosensweig was based on the principle that the magnetization of magnetic fluids changes with temperature. However, significant results have not been obtained up to the present. To overcome this limit and to increase the acceleration of fluid flow the authors have contributed a new energy conversion system using two-phase flow produced by heat addition. This idea came from the two-phase liquid-metal MHD power generation system proposed by Petrick and Branover. If temperature sensitive magnetic fluids are used, such a system can produce a larger force than conventional systems because the properties of apparent magnetization change not only by temperature rise but also by gas inclusion. In the present paper, an analytical study is extended to the case of electrically conducting magnetic fluid as a basic study for demonstrating the possibility of application of electrically conducting magnetic fluid to working fluid in a liquid-metal MHD power generation system. Electrically conducting magnetic fluid is usually prepared by dispersing fine iron particles into a liquid metal such as mercury. To prevent a solidification of particles and keep a homogeneous dispersion, a thin film of tin is attached to the particle`s surface. Thus the electrically conducting liquid behaves as fluid itself having magnetization. The equations governing a one-dimensional boiling two-phase duct flow of such an electrically conducting magnetic fluid in a traverse magnetic field are numerically solved. The analytical results of the two-phase flow characteristics of the magnetic fluid are compared with ones of an electrically conducting nonmagnetic fluid.

  15. Are Habitual Hydration Strategies of Female Rugby League Players Sufficient to Maintain Fluid Balance and Blood Sodium Concentration During Training and Match-Play? A Research Note From the Field.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ben; Till, Kevin; King, Roderick; Gray, Michael; OʼHara, John

    2016-03-01

    Limited data exist on the hydration status of female athletes, with no data available on female rugby players. The objective of this study was to investigate the habitual hydration status on arrival, sweat loss, fluid intake, sweat Na loss, and blood [Na+] during field training and match-play in 10 international female rugby league players. Urine osmolality on arrival to match-play (382 ± 302 mOsmol·kg(-1)) and training (667 ± 260 mOsmol·kg(-1)) was indicative of euhydration. Players experienced a body mass loss of 0.50 ± 0.45 and 0.56 ± 0.53% during match-play and training, respectively. During match-play, players consumed 1.21 ± 0.43 kg of fluid and had a sweat loss of 1.54 ± 0.48 kg. During training, players consumed 1.07 ± 0.90 kg of fluid, in comparison with 1.25 ± 0.83 kg of sweat loss. Blood [Na+] was well regulated (Δ-0.7 ± 3.4 and Δ-0.4 ± 2.6 mmol·L(-1)), despite sweat [Na+] of 47.8 ± 5.7 and 47.2 ± 6.3 mmol·L(-1) during match-play and training. The findings of this study show mean blood [Na+] that seems to be well regulated despite losses of Na in sweat and electrolyte-free fluid consumption. For the duration of the study, players did not experience a body mass loss (dehydration >2%) indicative of a reduction in exercise performance, thus habitual hydration strategies seem adequate. Practitioners should evaluate the habitual hydration status of athletes to determine whether interventions above habitual strategies are warranted.

  16. Frequency scaling of seismic attenuation in rocks saturated with two fluid phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Samuel; Quintal, Beatriz; Tisato, Nicola; Holliger, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Seismic wave attenuation is frequency dependent in rocks saturated by two fluid phases and the corresponding scaling behaviour is controlled primarily by the spatial fluid distribution. We experimentally investigate the frequency scaling of seismic attenuation in Berea sandstone saturated with two fluid phases: a liquid phase, water, and a gas phase, air, carbon dioxide or nitrogen. By changing from a heterogeneous distribution of mesoscopic gas patches to a homogeneous distribution of pore scale gas bubbles, we observe a significant steepening of the high-frequency asymptote of the attenuation. A transition from one dominant attenuation mechanism to another, from mesoscopic wave-induced fluid flow to wave-induced gas exsolution dissolution (WIGED), may explain this change in scaling. We observe that the high-frequency asymptote, for a homogenous pore scale gas bubble distribution, scales in accord with WIGED.

  17. Combustion of Methane Hydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roshandell, Melika

    from the experimental component of the research was that hydrates can burn completely, and that they burn most rapidly just after ignition and then burn steadily when some of the water in the dissociated zone is allowed to drain away. Excessive surfactant in the water creates a foam layer around the hydrate that acts as an insulator. The layer prevents sufficient heat flux from reaching the hydrate surface below the foam to release additional methane and the hydrate flame extinguishes. No self-healing or ice-freezing processes were observed in any of the combustion experiments. There is some variability, but a typical hydrate flame is receiving between one and two moles of water vapor from the liquid dissociated zone of the hydrate for each mole of methane it receives from the dissociating solid region. This limits the flame temperature to approximately 1800 K. In the theoretical portion of the study, a physical model using an energy balance from methane combustion was developed to understand the energy transfer between the three phases of gas, liquid and solid during the hydrate burn. Also this study provides an understanding of the different factors impacting the hydrate's continuous burn, such as the amount of water vapor in the flame. The theoretical study revealed how the water layer thickness on the hydrate surface, and its effect on the temperature gradient through the dissociated zone, plays a significant role in the hydrate dissociation rate and methane release rate. Motivated by the above mentioned observation from the theoretical analysis, a 1-D two-phase numerical simulation based on a moving front model for hydrate dissociation from a thermal source was developed. This model was focused on the dynamic growth of the dissociated zone and its effect on the dissociation rate. The model indicated that the rate of hydrate dissociation with a thermal source is a function of the dissociated zone thickness. It shows that in order for a continuous dissociation and

  18. Extraordinary phase separation and segregation in vent fluids from the southern East Pacific Rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Von Damm, Karen L.; Lilley, M.D.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Brockington, M.; Bray, A.M.; O'Grady, K. M.; Olson, E.; Graham, A.; Proskurowski, G.

    2003-01-01

    The discovery of Brandon vent on the southern East Pacific Rise is providing new insights into the controls on midocean ridge hydrothermal vent fluid chemistry. The physical conditions at the time ofsampling (287 bar and 405??C) place the Brandon fluids very close to the critical point of seawater (298 bar and 407??C). This permits in situ study of the effects of near criticalphenomena, which are interpreted to be the primary cause of enhanced transition metal transport in these fluids. Of the five orifices on Brandon sampled, three were venting fluids with less than seawater chlorinity, and two were venting fluids with greater than seawater chlorinity. The liquid phase orifices contain 1.6-1.9 times the chloride content of the vapors. Most other elements, excluding the gases, have this same ratio demonstrating the conservative nature of phase separation and the lack of subsequent water-rock interaction. The vapor and liquid phases vent at the same time from orifices within meters of each other on the Brandon structure. Variations in fluid compositions occur on a time scale of minutes. Our interpretation is that phase separation and segregation must be occurring 'real time' within the sulfide structure itself. Fluids from Brandon therefore provide an unique opportunity to understand in situ phase separation without the overprinting of continued water-rock interaction with the oceanic crust, as well as critical phenomena. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Elevated gas hydrate saturation within silt and silty clay sediments in the Shenhu area, South China Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, X.; Hutchinson, D.R.; Wu, S.; Yang, S.; Guo, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Gas hydrate saturations were estimated using five different methods in silt and silty clay foraminiferous sediments from drill hole SH2 in the South China Sea. Gas hydrate saturations derived from observed pore water chloride values in core samples range from 10 to 45% of the pore space at 190-221 m below seafloor (mbsf). Gas hydrate saturations estimated from resistivity (Rt) using wireline logging results are similar and range from 10 to 40.5% in the pore space. Gas hydrate saturations were also estimated by P wave velocity obtained during wireline logging by using a simplified three-phase equation (STPE) and effective medium theory (EMT) models. Gas hydrate saturations obtained from the STPE velocity model (41.0% maximum) are slightly higher than those calculated with the EMT velocity model (38.5% maximum). Methane analysis from a 69 cm long depressurized core from the hydrate-bearing sediment zone indicates that gas hydrate saturation is about 27.08% of the pore space at 197.5 mbsf. Results from the five methods show similar values and nearly identical trends in gas hydrate saturations above the base of the gas hydrate stability zone at depths of 190 to 221 mbsf. Gas hydrate occurs within units of clayey slit and silt containing abundant calcareous nannofossils and foraminifer, which increase the porosities of the fine-grained sediments and provide space for enhanced gas hydrate formation. In addition, gas chimneys, faults, and fractures identified from three-dimensional (3-D) and high-resolution two-dimensional (2-D) seismic data provide pathways for fluids migrating into the gas hydrate stability zone which transport methane for the formation of gas hydrate. Sedimentation and local canyon migration may contribute to higher gas hydrate saturations near the base of the stability zone. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. SPAR improved structure-fluid dynamic analysis capability, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    An efficient and general method of analyzing a coupled dynamic system of fluid flow and elastic structures is investigated. The improvement of Structural Performance Analysis and Redesign (SPAR) code is summarized. All error codes are documented and the SPAR processor/subroutine cross reference is included.

  1. Phase behavior of self-associating fluids with weaker dispersion interactions between bonded particles.

    PubMed

    Talanquer, V

    2005-04-15

    In this study, we explore the global phase behavior of a simple model for self-associating fluids where association reduces the strength of the dispersion interactions between bonded particles. Recent research shows that this type of behavior likely explains the thermodynamic properties of strongly polar fluids and certain micellar solutions. Based on Wertheim's theory of associating liquids [M. S. Wertheim, J. Stat. Phys. 42, 459 (1986); 42, 477 (1986)], our model takes into account the effect that dissimilar particle interactions have on the equilibrium constant for self-association in the system. We find that weaker interactions between bonded molecules tend to favor the dissociation of chains at any temperature and density. This effect stabilizes a monomeric liquid phase at high densities, enriching the global phase behavior of the system. In particular, for systems in which the energy of mixing between bonded and unbonded species is positive, we find a triple point involving a vapor, a dense phase of chain aggregates, and a monomeric liquid. Phase coexistence between the vapor and the monomeric fluid is always more stable at temperatures above the triple point, but a highly associated fluid may exist as a metastable phase under these conditions. The presence of this metastable phase may explain the characteristic nucleation behavior of the liquid phase in strongly dipolar fluids.

  2. Method and turbine for extracting kinetic energy from a stream of two-phase fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, D. G. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    An axial flow separator turbine is described which includes a number of nozzles for delivering streams of a two-phase fluid along linear paths. A phase separator which responsively separates the vapor and liquid is characterized by concentrically related annuli supported for rotation within the paths. The separator has endless channels for confining the liquid under the influence of centrifugal forces. A vapor turbine fan extracts kinetic energy from the liquid. Angular momentum of both the liquid phase and the vapor phase of the fluid is converted to torque.

  3. Quantitative analysis of ripasudil hydrochloride hydrate and its impurities by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography after precolumn derivatization: Identification of four impurities.

    PubMed

    Hui, Wenkai; Sun, Lili; Zhang, Hui; Zou, Liang; Zou, Qiaogen; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2016-09-01

    We report the development and validation of a stability-indicating reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method with precolumn derivatization for the separation and identification of the impurities of ripasudil hydrochloride hydrate, a novel protein kinase inhibitor. 2,3,4,6-Tetra-O-acetyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl isothiocyanate was chosen as the derivatizing reagent and triethylamine was added as catalyst. 200 μL sample solution (1 mg/mL), 600 μL derivatizing reagent (1 mg/mL), and 200 μL triethylamine solution (1%, v/v) were mixed and reacted at 40°C for 30 min. The separation was achieved on an Inertsil C18 ODS-3 (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column using mobile phases including 10 mmol monopotassium phosphate buffer (pH 3.0) and methanol in gradient mode. The column temperature was adjusted at 25°C and the flow rate at 1 mL/min. The detection was carried out at 220 nm. Different precolumn derivatization conditions as well as the high-performance liquid chromatography conditions were optimized. Ripasudil hydrochloride hydrate and its four impurities were detected and quantitated, among which two new compounds were characterized. The proposed method was validated and proven to be selective, accurate, and precise and suitable for the quantitative analysis of ripasudil hydrochloride hydrate.

  4. Mass-Conserved Phase Field Models for Binary Fluids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    substrate [27], a wide variety of diffusive and diffusion -less solid -state phase transitions [10, 39], dislo- cation modeling in microstructure...has been proven effective in the numerical solution of the incompressible field phase model [32, 33]. Scheme based on a pressure-stabilization method...of the transient solution , the next set of figures (Figures 10-13) portrait the solutions up to nearly quasi-static states. The phase behavior

  5. Observation of low-temperature object by phase-contrast x-ray imaging: Nondestructive imaging of air clathrate hydrates at 233 K

    SciTech Connect

    Takeya, Satoshi; Honda, Kazumasa; Yoneyama, Akio; Hirai, Yasuharu; Okuyama, Junichi; Hondoh, Takeo; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Takeda, Tohoru

    2006-05-15

    A cryochamber and a liquid cell that are designed for nondestructive three dimensional observations and arranged in a two-crystal x-ray interferometer expand the use of phase-contrast x-ray imaging that could only be performed at room temperature in previous studies to a new temperature range of 190 K to room temperature. The methyl acetate in the liquid cell prevents undesirable sample outline contrasts and enables internal observations. Both a nondestructive observation and a highly accurate absolute density of the materials under low-temperature conditions can be obtained with a single measurement using this new technique. A three dimensional x-ray computed tomography (x-ray CT) of the air clathrate hydrate in the hexagonal ice drilled from Dome Fuji in Antarctica is shown, and the density of the air hydrate is estimated to be 0.937(3) g/cm{sup 3} at 233 K.

  6. Molecular theory for the phase equilibria and cluster distribution of associating fluids with small bond angles.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Bennett D; Chapman, Walter G

    2013-08-07

    We develop a new theory for associating fluids with multiple association sites. The theory accounts for small bond angle effects such as steric hindrance, ring formation, and double bonding. The theory is validated against Monte Carlo simulations for the case of a fluid of patchy colloid particles with three patches and is found to be very accurate. Once validated, the theory is applied to study the phase diagram of a fluid composed of three patch colloids. It is found that bond angle has a significant effect on the phase diagram and the very existence of a liquid-vapor transition.

  7. Establishment of a Cutting Fluid Control System (Phase 1)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    cutting fluid at a specific concentration level. 33 TABLE 3 .2-1 RIA Manufacturi Operation SFM N/C Face 422 ing Data Ana lysis Sheet for Turni...resulted in reports of operator problems. The lean concentration is also somewhat inadequate to prevent rusting of machines, fixtures, and occasionally...wheel loading, but prior attempts to use this product at richer concentrations has resulted in reports of operator problems. The lean concentration

  8. Numerical Analysis of Velocity Dispersion in Multi-Phase Fluid-Saturated Porous Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xuehua; Zhong, Wenli; Gao, Gang; Zou, Wen; He, Zhenhua

    2017-03-01

    Seismic waves are subject to velocity dispersion when they propagate in fluid-saturated porous media. In this work, we explore the velocity dispersion behavior of P- and SV-waves in multi-phase fluid-saturated porous reservoirs while taking into account the effects of multi-phase pore fluids on the effective viscosities that control the wave-induced fluid flow. The effective viscosities associated with the hydrocarbon saturation of a synthetic sandstone reservoir saturated with different pore fluid mixtures are calculated using the Refutas model. We then analyze the frequency-dependent velocity, dispersion variation rate and characteristic frequency for different fluid saturation cases by employing Chapman's dynamic equivalent-medium theory. The results demonstrate that the hydrocarbon proportions and types in multi-phase mixed pore fluids significantly affect the magnitude and characteristic frequencies of velocity dispersion features for both the P- and S-waves. The dispersion anomalies of SV-waves are in general larger than those of the P-waves. This indicates that the velocity dispersion anomalies of SV-waves are equally sensitive to fluid saturation as the P-waves and should not be neglected. The velocities at lower frequencies (e.g., 10 and 100 Hz) within the seismic frequency range show a more remarkable decrease with increasing hydrocarbon proportion than those at higher frequency (1000 Hz). The numerical examples help to improve the understanding of the frequency-dependent AVO inversion from seismic reflection data.

  9. Numerical Analysis of Velocity Dispersion in Multi-Phase Fluid-Saturated Porous Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xuehua; Zhong, Wenli; Gao, Gang; Zou, Wen; He, Zhenhua

    2016-12-01

    Seismic waves are subject to velocity dispersion when they propagate in fluid-saturated porous media. In this work, we explore the velocity dispersion behavior of P- and SV-waves in multi-phase fluid-saturated porous reservoirs while taking into account the effects of multi-phase pore fluids on the effective viscosities that control the wave-induced fluid flow. The effective viscosities associated with the hydrocarbon saturation of a synthetic sandstone reservoir saturated with different pore fluid mixtures are calculated using the Refutas model. We then analyze the frequency-dependent velocity, dispersion variation rate and characteristic frequency for different fluid saturation cases by employing Chapman's dynamic equivalent-medium theory. The results demonstrate that the hydrocarbon proportions and types in multi-phase mixed pore fluids significantly affect the magnitude and characteristic frequencies of velocity dispersion features for both the P- and S-waves. The dispersion anomalies of SV-waves are in general larger than those of the P-waves. This indicates that the velocity dispersion anomalies of SV-waves are equally sensitive to fluid saturation as the P-waves and should not be neglected. The velocities at lower frequencies (e.g., 10 and 100 Hz) within the seismic frequency range show a more remarkable decrease with increasing hydrocarbon proportion than those at higher frequency (1000 Hz). The numerical examples help to improve the understanding of the frequency-dependent AVO inversion from seismic reflection data.

  10. Computational study of trimer self-assembly and fluid phase behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, Harold W. Shen, Vincent K.; Mittal, Jeetain

    2015-04-28

    The fluid phase diagram of trimer particles composed of one central attractive bead and two repulsive beads was determined as a function of simple geometric parameters using flat-histogram Monte Carlo methods. A variety of self-assembled structures were obtained including spherical micelle-like clusters, elongated clusters, and densely packed cylinders, depending on both the state conditions and shape of the trimer. Advanced simulation techniques were employed to determine transitions between self-assembled structures and macroscopic phases using thermodynamic and structural definitions. Simple changes in particle geometry yield dramatic changes in phase behavior, ranging from macroscopic fluid phase separation to molecular-scale self-assembly. In special cases, both self-assembled, elongated clusters and bulk fluid phase separation occur simultaneously. Our work suggests that tuning particle shape and interactions can yield superstructures with controlled architecture.

  11. Characterisation of stationary phases in subcritical fluid chromatography with the solvation parameter model. III. Polar stationary phases.

    PubMed

    West, C; Lesellier, E

    2006-03-31

    In this third paper, varied types of polar stationary phases, namely silica gel (SI), cyano (CN)- and amino-propyl (NH2)-bonded silica, propanediol-bonded silica (DIOL), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), were investigated in subcritical fluid mobile phase. This study was performed to provide a greater knowledge of the properties of these phases in SFC, and to allow a more rapid and efficient choice of polar stationary phase in regard of the chemical nature of the solutes to be separated. The effect of the nature of the stationary phase on interactions between solute and stationary phases and between solute and carbon dioxide-modifier mobile phases was studied by the use of a linear solvation energy relationship (LSER), the solvation parameter model. The retention behaviour observed with sub/supercritical fluid with carbon dioxide-methanol is close to the one reported in normal-phase liquid chromatography with hexane. The hydrogen bond acidity and basicity, and the polarity/polarizability favour the solute retention when the molar volume of the solute reduces it. As with non-polar phases, the absence of water in the subcritical fluid allows the solute/stationary phase interactions to play a greater part in the retention behaviour. As expected, the DIOL phase and the bare silica display a similar behaviour towards acidic and basic solutes, when interactions with basic compounds are lower with the NH2 phase. On the CN phase, all interactions (hydrogen bonding, dipole-dipole and charge transfer) have a nearly equivalent weight on the retention. The polymeric phases, PEG and PVA, provide the most accurate models, possibly due to their better surface homogeneity.

  12. Predictive Mechanical Characterization of Macro-Molecular Material Chemistry Structures of Cement Paste at Nano Scale - Two-phase Macro-Molecular Structures of Calcium Silicate Hydrate, Tri-Calcium Silicate, Di-Calcium Silicate and Calcium Hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla Espinosa, Ingrid Marcela

    Concrete is a hierarchical composite material with a random structure over a wide range of length scales. At submicron length scale the main component of concrete is cement paste, formed by the reaction of Portland cement clinkers and water. Cement paste acts as a binding matrix for the other components and is responsible for the strength of concrete. Cement paste microstructure contains voids, hydrated and unhydrated cement phases. The main crystalline phases of unhydrated cement are tri-calcium silicate (C3S) and di-calcium silicate (C2S), and of hydrated cement are calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) and calcium hydroxide (CH). Although efforts have been made to comprehend the chemical and physical nature of cement paste, studies at molecular level have primarily been focused on individual components. Present research focuses on the development of a method to model, at molecular level, and analysis of the two-phase combination of hydrated and unhydrated phases of cement paste as macromolecular systems. Computational molecular modeling could help in understanding the influence of the phase interactions on the material properties, and mechanical performance of cement paste. Present work also strives to create a framework for molecular level models suitable for potential better comparisons with low length scale experimental methods, in which the sizes of the samples involve the mixture of different hydrated and unhydrated crystalline phases of cement paste. Two approaches based on two-phase cement paste macromolecular structures, one involving admixed molecular phases, and the second involving cluster of two molecular phases are investigated. The mechanical properties of two-phase macromolecular systems of cement paste consisting of key hydrated phase CSH and unhydrated phases C3S or C2S, as well as CSH with the second hydrated phase CH were calculated. It was found that these cement paste two-phase macromolecular systems predicted an isotropic material behavior. Also

  13. GH-3PAD - a new numerical solver for multiphase transport in porous media - new insights on gas hydrate and free gas co-existence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burwicz, E.; Rupke, L.; Wallmann, K.

    2013-12-01

    Gas Hydrate-3 Phase Advanced Dynamics (GH-3PAD) code has been developed to study the geophysical and biochemical processes associated with gas hydrate as well as free methane gas formation and dissolution in marine sediments. Biochemical processes influencing in-situ organic carbon decay and, therefore, gas hydrate formation, such as Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane (AOM), sulfate reduction, and methanogenesis have been considered. The new model assumes a Lagrangian reference frame that is attached to the deposited sedimentary layers, which compact according to their individual lithological properties. Differential motion of the pore fluids and free gas is modeled as Darcy flow. Gas hydrate and free gas formation is either controlled by 1) instant gas hydrate crystallization assuming local thermodynamical equilibrium or by a 2) kinetically controlled rate of gas hydrate growth. The thermal evolution is computed from an energy equation that includes contributions from all phases present in the model (sediment grains, saline pore fluids, gas hydrate, and free gas). A first application of the GH-3PAD model has been the Blake Ridge Site, offshore South Carolina. Here seismic and well data points to the out-of-equilibrium co-existence of gas hydrate and free gas. It has been reported that these two distinct phases appear within sediment column with a gaseous phase tending to migrate upwards throughout the Gas Hydrate Stability Zone (GHSZ) until it reaches the seafloor despite relatively low gas hydrate content (4 - 7 vol. % after Paull et al., 1996). With the GH-3PAD model we quantify the complex transport- reaction processes that control three phase (gas hydrate, free gas, and dissolved CH4) out-of-equilibrium state. References: Paull C. K., Matsumoto R., Wallace P. J., 1996. 9. Site 997, Shipboard Scientific Party. Proceeding of the Ocean Drilling Program, Initial Reports, Vol. 164.

  14. Site Selection for DOE/JIP Gas Hydrate Drilling in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.R.; Shelander, D.; Dai, J.; McConnell, D.; Shedd, W.; Frye, M.; Ruppel, C.; Boswell, R.; Jones, E.; Collett, T.S.; Rose, K.; Dugan, B.; Wood, W.; Latham, T.

    2008-07-01

    In the late spring of 2008, the Chevron-led Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project (JIP) expects to conduct an exploratory drilling and logging campaign to better understand gas hydrate-bearing sands in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico. The JIP Site Selection team selected three areas to test alternative geological models and geophysical interpretations supporting the existence of potential high gas hydrate saturations in reservoir-quality sands. The three sites are near existing drill holes which provide geological and geophysical constraints in Alaminos Canyon (AC) lease block 818, Green Canyon (GC) 955, and Walker Ridge (WR) 313. At the AC818 site, gas hydrate is interpreted to occur within the Oligocene Frio volcaniclastic sand at the crest of a fold that is shallow enough to be in the hydrate stability zone. Drilling at GC955 will sample a faulted, buried Pleistocene channel-levee system in an area characterized by seafloor fluid expulsion features, structural closure associated with uplifted salt, and abundant seismic evidence for upward migration of fluids and gas into the sand-rich parts of the sedimentary section. Drilling at WR313 targets ponded sheet sands and associated channel/levee deposits within a minibasin, making this a non-structural play. The potential for gas hydrate occurrence at WR313 is supported by shingled phase reversals consistent with the transition from gas-charged sand to overlying gas-hydrate saturated sand. Drilling locations have been selected at each site to 1) test geological methods and models used to infer the occurrence of gas hydrate in sand reservoirs in different settings in the northern Gulf of Mexico; 2) calibrate geophysical models used to detect gas hydrate sands, map reservoir thicknesses, and estimate the degree of gas hydrate saturation; and 3) delineate potential locations for subsequent JIP drilling and coring operations that will collect samples for comprehensive physical property, geochemical and other

  15. Phase equilibrium data for development of correlations for coal fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, R.L. Jr.; Gasem, K.A.M.; Darwish, N.A.; Raff, A.M.

    1991-02-01

    The overall objective of the authors' work is to develop accurate predictive methods for representations of vapor-liquid equilibria in systems encountered in coal-conversion processes. The objectives pursued in the present project include: (1) Measurements of binary vapor-liquid phase behavior data for selected solute gases (e.g., C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, CH{sub 4}) in a series of paraffinic, naphthenic, and aromatic hydrocarbon solvents to permit evaluations of interaction parameters in models for phase behavior. Solubilities of the gases in the liquid phase have been determined. (2) Evaluation of existing equations of state and other models for representations of phase behavior in systems of the type studied experimentally; development of new correlation frameworks as needed. (3) Generalization of the interaction parameters for the solutes studied to a wide spectrum of heavy solvents; presentation of final results in formats useful in the design/optimization of coal liquefaction processes.

  16. Critical phenomena experiments in space. [for fluid phase-equilibrium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sengers, J. V.; Moldover, M. R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper analyzes several types of critical phenomena in fluids, shows how they are affected by the presence of gravity, and describes how experiments conducted in an orbiting laboratory under low gravity conditions could extend the range of measurements needed to study critical phenomena. Future experiments are proposed. One would be a careful measurement of the dielectric constant in a low gravity environment. Two basic problems that can benefit especially from space experiments are the specific heat near the critical point and the shear viscosity at the gas-liquid critical point.

  17. Characterization of five chemistries and three particle sizes of stationary phases used in supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Khater, S; West, C; Lesellier, E

    2013-12-06

    Sub-2-microns particles employed as supporting phases are known to favor column efficiency. Recently a set of columns based on sub-2-microns particles for use with supercritical fluid mobile phases have been introduced by Waters. Five different stationary phase chemistries are available: BEH silica, BEHEthyl-pyridine, X Select CSH Fluorophenyl, HSS C18 SB and BEH Shield RP18. This paper describes the characterization of 15 stationary phases, the five different chemistries, and three particle sizes, 1.7 (or 1.8), 3.5 and 5 microns, with the same carbon dioxide–methanol mobile phase and a set of more than a hundred compounds. The interactions established in the 15 different chromatographic systems used in supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) are assessed with linear solvation energy relationships (LSERs).The results show the good complementarity of the five column chemistries, and their comparative location inside a classification map containing today around 70 different commercial phases. Among the five different chemistries, the HSS C18 SB phase displays a rather unusual behavior in regards of classical C18 phases, as it displays significant hydrogen–bonding interactions. Besides, it appears, as expected, that the BEH Ethyl–pyridine phase has weak interactions with basic compounds. The effect of particle size was studied because smaller particles induce increased inlet and internal pressure. For compressible fluids,this pressure change modifies the fluid density, i.e. the apparent void volume and the eluting strength.These changes could modify the retention and the selectivity of compounds in the case of method trans-fer, by using different particle sizes, from 5 down to 1.7 m. A hierarchical cluster analysis shows that stationary phase clusters were based on the phase chemistry rather than on the particle size, meaning that method transfer from 5 to 1.7 microns can be achieved in the subcritical domain i.e. by using a weakly compressible fluid.

  18. Development of a Numerical Simulator for Analyzing the Geomechanical Performance of Hydrate-Bearing Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Rutqvist, J.; Moridis, G.J.

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, we describe the development and application of a numerical simulator that analyzes the geomechanical performance of hydrate-bearing sediments, which may become an important future energy supply. The simulator is developed by coupling a robust numerical simulator of coupled fluid flow, hydrate thermodynamics, and phase behavior in geologic media (TOUGH+HYDRATE) with an established geomechanical code (FLAC3D). We demonstrate the current simulator capabilities and applicability for two examples of geomechanical responses of hydrate bearing sediments during production-induced hydrate dissociation. In these applications, the coupled geomechanical behavior within hydrate-bearing seducements are considered through a Mohr-Coulomb constitutive model, corrected for changes in pore-filling hydrate and ice content, based on laboratory data. The results demonstrate how depressurization-based gas production from oceanic hydrate deposits may lead to severe geomechanical problems unless care is taken in designing the production scheme. We conclude that the coupled simulator can be used to design production strategies for optimizing production, while avoiding damaging geomechanical problems.

  19. Structure of the calcium pyrophosphate monohydrate phase (Ca2P2O7·H2O): towards understanding the dehydration process in calcium pyrophosphate hydrates.

    PubMed

    Gras, Pierre; Ratel-Ramond, Nicolas; Teychéné, Sébastien; Rey, Christian; Elkaim, Erik; Biscans, Béatrice; Sarda, Stéphanie; Combes, Christèle

    2014-09-01

    Calcium pyrophosphate hydrate (CPP, Ca(2)P(2)O(7) · nH2O) and calcium orthophosphate compounds (including apatite, octacalcium phosphate etc.) are among the most prevalent pathological calcifications in joints. Even though only two dihydrated forms of CPP (CPPD) have been detected in vivo (monoclinic and triclinic CPPD), investigations of other hydrated forms such as tetrahydrated or amorphous CPP are relevant to a further understanding of the physicochemistry of those phases of biological interest. The synthesis of single crystals of calcium pyrophosphate monohydrate (CPPM; Ca(2)P(2)O(7) · H2O) by diffusion in silica gel at ambient temperature and the structural analysis of this phase are reported in this paper. Complementarily, data from synchrotron X-ray diffraction on a CPPM powder sample have been fitted to the crystal parameters. Finally, the relationship between the resolved structure for the CPPM phase and the structure of the tetrahydrated calcium pyrophosphate β phase (CPPT-β) is discussed.

  20. A model for wave propagation in a porous solid saturated by a three-phase fluid.

    PubMed

    Santos, Juan E; Savioli, Gabriela B

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a model to describe the propagation of waves in a poroelastic medium saturated by a three-phase viscous, compressible fluid. Two capillary relations between the three fluid phases are included in the model by introducing Lagrange multipliers in the principle of virtual complementary work. This approach generalizes that of Biot for single-phase fluids and allows to determine the strain energy density, identify the generalized strains and stresses, and derive the constitutive relations of the system. The kinetic and dissipative energy density functions are obtained assuming that the relative flow within the pore space is of laminar type and obeys Darcy's law for three-phase flow in porous media. After deriving the equations of motion, a plane wave analysis predicts the existence of four compressional waves, denoted as type I, II, III, and IV waves, and one shear wave. Numerical examples showing the behavior of all waves as function of saturation and frequency are presented.

  1. Online quantitative phase imaging of vascular endothelial cells under fluid shear stress utilizing digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odenthal-Schnittler, Maria; Schnittler, Hans Joachim; Kemper, Björn

    2016-03-01

    We have explored the utilization of quantitative phase imaging with digital holographic microscopy (DHM) as a novel tool for quantifying the dynamics of morphologic parameters (morphodynamics) of confluent endothelial cell layers under fluid shear stress conditions. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to fluid shear stress in a transparent cone/plate flow device (BioTech-Flow-System) and imaged with a modular setup for quantitative DHM phase imaging for up to 48 h. The resulting series of quantitative phase image sequences were analyzed for the average surface roughness of the cell layers and cell alignment. Our results demonstrate that quantitative phase imaging is a powerful and reliable tool to quantify the dynamics of morphological adaptation of endothelial cells to fluid shear stress.

  2. Vapour-liquid phase diagram for an ionic fluid in a random porous medium.

    PubMed

    Holovko, M F; Patsahan, O; Patsahan, T

    2016-10-19

    We study the vapour-liquid phase behaviour of an ionic fluid confined in a random porous matrix formed by uncharged hard sphere particles. The ionic fluid is modelled as an equimolar binary mixture of oppositely charged equisized hard spheres, the so-called restricted primitive model (RPM). Considering the matrix-fluid system as a partly-quenched model, we develop a theoretical approach which combines the method of collective variables with the extension of the scaled-particle theory (SPT) for a hard-sphere fluid confined in a disordered hard-sphere matrix. The approach allows us to formulate the perturbation theory using the SPT for the description of the thermodynamics of the reference system. The phase diagrams of the RPM in matrices of different porosities and for different size ratios of matrix and fluid particles are calculated in the random-phase approximation and also when the effects of higher-order correlations between ions are taken into account. Both approximations correctly reproduce the basic effects of porous media on the vapour-liquid phase diagram, i.e. with a decrease of porosity the critical point shifts towards lower fluid densities and lower temperatures and the coexistence region gets narrower. For the fixed matrix porosity, both the critical temperature and the critical density increase with an increase of size of matrix particles and tend to the critical values of the bulk RPM.

  3. Vapour-liquid phase diagram for an ionic fluid in a random porous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holovko, M. F.; Patsahan, O.; Patsahan, T.

    2016-10-01

    We study the vapour-liquid phase behaviour of an ionic fluid confined in a random porous matrix formed by uncharged hard sphere particles. The ionic fluid is modelled as an equimolar binary mixture of oppositely charged equisized hard spheres, the so-called restricted primitive model (RPM). Considering the matrix-fluid system as a partly-quenched model, we develop a theoretical approach which combines the method of collective variables with the extension of the scaled-particle theory (SPT) for a hard-sphere fluid confined in a disordered hard-sphere matrix. The approach allows us to formulate the perturbation theory using the SPT for the description of the thermodynamics of the reference system. The phase diagrams of the RPM in matrices of different porosities and for different size ratios of matrix and fluid particles are calculated in the random-phase approximation and also when the effects of higher-order correlations between ions are taken into account. Both approximations correctly reproduce the basic effects of porous media on the vapour-liquid phase diagram, i.e. with a decrease of porosity the critical point shifts towards lower fluid densities and lower temperatures and the coexistence region gets narrower. For the fixed matrix porosity, both the critical temperature and the critical density increase with an increase of size of matrix particles and tend to the critical values of the bulk RPM.

  4. Acoustic velocities of two-phase mixtures of cryogenic fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griggs, E. I.; Winter, E. R. F.; Schoenhals, R. J.; Hendricks, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    Calculated values of the acoustic velocity are presented for single-component and two-component, two-phase mixtures. Three different analytic models were employed. For purposes of comparison, all three models were used in making acoustic-velocity calculations for single-component, equivalent bubbly two-phase mixtures (with insoluble gas) of oxygen and helium and hydrogen and helium. In all cases the results are shown graphically so that the effects of variation in quality or void fraction, temperature and pressure are illustrated.

  5. Phase portrait methods for verifying fluid dynamic simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, H.B.

    1989-01-01

    As computing resources become more powerful and accessible, engineers more frequently face the difficult and challenging engineering problem of accurately simulating nonlinear dynamic phenomena. Although mathematical models are usually available, in the form of initial value problems for differential equations, the behavior of the solutions of nonlinear models is often poorly understood. A notable example is fluid dynamics: while the Navier-Stokes equations are believed to correctly describe turbulent flow, no exact mathematical solution of these equations in the turbulent regime is known. Differential equations can of course be solved numerically, but how are we to assess numerical solutions of complex phenomena without some understanding of the mathematical problem and its solutions to guide us

  6. MOLECULAR SIMULATION OF PHASE EQUILIBRIA FOR COMPLEX FLUIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Athanassios Z. Panagiotopoulos

    2009-09-09

    The general area of this project was the development and application of novel molecular simulation methods for prediction of thermodynamic and structural properties of complex polymeric, surfactant and ionic fluids. Over this project period, we have made considerable progress in developing novel algorithms to meet the computational challenges presented by the strong or long-range interactions in these systems and have generated data for well-defined mod-els that can be used to test theories and compare to experimental data. Overall, 42 archival papers and many invited and contributed presentations and lectures have been based on work supported by this project. 6 PhD, 1 M.S. and 2 postdoctoral students have been associated with this work, as listed in the body of the report.

  7. Tension induced phase transitions in biomimetic fluid membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Marc; Vlahovska, Petia

    2012-11-01

    Membranes in eukaryotic cells are mixtures of hundreds of lipid species. The lipid diversity enables membranes to phase separate and form domains, called rafts, which play a critical role in cell functions such as signaling and trafficking. The phase transitions underlying raft formation have been extensively studied as a function of temperature and composition. However, the third dimension of the phase diagram, i.e., the tension (2D pressure), is still unexplored because membrane tension is difficult to control and quantify. To overcome this challenge, we develop two approaches, capillary micromechanics and electrodeformation, in which the tension is regulated by the area dilation accompanying deformation of a vesicle (a closed membrane). The first technique consists of forcing an initially quasi-spherical vesicle through a tapered glass microcapillary, while the second method utilizes uniform electric fields to deform the vesicle into an ellipsoid. Domains are visualized using a fluorescent dye, which preferentially partitions in one of the phases. The experimental results suggest that the miscibility temperature (at which domains form in an initially homogeneous membrane) increases with applied tension. Domain motions and coarsening are also investigated.

  8. Application of Phase Shifted, Laser Feedback Interferometry to Fluid Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ovryn, Ben; Eppell, Steven J.; Andrews, James H.; Khaydarov, John

    1996-01-01

    We have combined the principles of phase-shifting interferometry (PSI) and laser-feedback interferometry (LFI) to produce a new instrument that can measure both optical path length (OPL) changes and discern sample reflectivity variations. In LFI, coherent feedback of the incident light either reflected directly from a surface or reflected after transmission through a region of interest will modulate the output intensity of the laser. LFI can yield a high signal-to-noise ratio even for low reflectivity samples. By combining PSI and LFI, we have produced a robust instrument, based upon a HeNe laser, with high dynamic range that can be used to measure either static (dc) or oscillatory changes along the optical path. As with other forms of interferometry, large changes in OPL require phase unwrapping. Conversely, small phase changes are limited by the fraction of a fringe that can be measured. We introduce the phase shifts with an electro-optic modulator (EOM) and use either the Carre or Hariharan algorithms to determine the phase and visibility. We have determined the accuracy and precision of our technique by measuring both the bending of a cantilevered piezoelectric bimorph and linear ramps to the EOM. Using PSI, sub-nanometer displacements can be measured. We have combined our interferometer with a commercial microscope and scanning piezoelectric stage and have measured the variation in OPL and visibility for drops of PDMS (silicone oil) on coated single crystal silicon. Our measurement of the static contact angle agrees with the value of 68 deg stated in the literature.

  9. Hydration for recreational sport and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Kenefick, Robert W; Cheuvront, Samuel N

    2012-11-01

    This review presents recommendations for fluid needs and hydration assessment for recreational activity. Fluid needs are based on sweat losses, dependent on intensity and duration of the activity, and will vary among individuals. Prolonged aerobic activity is adversely influenced by dehydration, and heat exposure will magnify this effect. Fluid needs predicted for running 5-42 km at recreational paces show that fluid losses are <2% body mass; thus, aggressive fluid replacement may not be necessary. Competitive paces result in greater fluid losses and greater fluid needs. Fluid needs for recreational activity may be low; however, carbohydrate consumption (sport drinks, gels, bars) can benefit high-intensity (≤ 1 h) and less-intense, long-duration activity (≥ 1 h). Spot measures of urine color or urine-specific gravity to assess hydration status have limitations. First morning urine concentration and body mass with gross thirst perception can be simple ways to assess hydration status.

  10. The simplest model for non-congruent fluid-fluid phase transition in Coulomb system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroev, N. E.; Iosilevskiy, I. L.

    2015-11-01

    The simplest model for non-congruent phase transition of gas-liquid type was developed in frames of modified model with no associations of a binary ionic mixture (BIM) on a homogeneous compressible ideal background (or non-ideal) electron gas /BIM(˜)/. The analytical approximation for equation of state equation of state of Potekhin and Chabrier of fully ionized electron-ionic plasma was used for description of the ion-ion correlations (Coulomb non-ideality) in combination with “linear mixture” (LM) approximation. Phase equilibrium for the charged species was calculated according to the Gibbs-Guggenheim conditions. The presently considered BIM(˜) model allows to calculate full set of parameters for phase boundaries of non-congruent variant of phase equilibrium and to study all features for this non-congruent phase transition realization in Coulomb system in comparison with the simpler (standard) forced-congruent evaporation mode. In particular, in BIM(˜) there were reproduced two-dimensional remarkable (“banana-like”) structure of two-phase region P — T diagram and the characteristic non-monotonic shape of caloric phase enthalpy-temperature diagram, similar to the non-congruent evaporation of reactive plasma products in high-temperature heating with the uranium-oxygen system. The parameters of critical points (CP) line were calculated on the entire range of proportions of ions 0 < X < 1, including two reference values, when CP coincides with a point of extreme temperature and extreme pressure, XT and Xp. Finally, it is clearly demonstrated the low-temperature property of non-congruent gas-liquid transition — “distillation”, which is weak in chemically reactive plasmas.

  11. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics model for phase separating fluid mixtures. I. General equations.

    PubMed

    Thieulot, Cedric; Janssen, L P B M; Español, Pep

    2005-07-01

    We present a thermodynamically consistent discrete fluid particle model for the simulation of a recently proposed set of hydrodynamic equations for a phase separating van der Waals fluid mixture [P. Español and C.A.P. Thieulot, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 9109 (2003)]. The discrete model is formulated by following a discretization procedure given by the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method within the thermodynamically consistent general equation for the nonequilibrium reversible-irreversible coupling (GENERIC) framework. Each fluid particle carries information on the mass, momentum, energy, and the mass fraction of the different components. The discrete model allows one to simulate nonisothermal dynamic evolution of phase separating fluids with surface tension effects while respecting the first and second laws of thermodynamics exactly.

  12. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics model for phase separating fluid mixtures. I. General equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieulot, Cedric; Janssen, L. P. B. M.; Español, Pep

    2005-07-01

    We present a thermodynamically consistent discrete fluid particle model for the simulation of a recently proposed set of hydrodynamic equations for a phase separating van der Waals fluid mixture [P. Español and C.A.P. Thieulot, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 9109 (2003)]. The discrete model is formulated by following a discretization procedure given by the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method within the thermodynamically consistent general equation for the nonequilibrium reversible-irreversible coupling (GENERIC) framework. Each fluid particle carries information on the mass, momentum, energy, and the mass fraction of the different components. The discrete model allows one to simulate nonisothermal dynamic evolution of phase separating fluids with surface tension effects while respecting the first and second laws of thermodynamics exactly.

  13. Exploring the role of decoherence in condensed-phase nonadiabatic dynamics: a comparison of different mixed quantum/classical simulation algorithms for the excited hydrated electron.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Ross E; Bedard-Hearn, Michael J; Schwartz, Benjamin J

    2006-10-12

    Mixed quantum/classical (MQC) molecular dynamics simulation has become the method of choice for simulating the dynamics of quantum mechanical objects that interact with condensed-phase systems. There are many MQC algorithms available, however, and in cases where nonadiabatic coupling is important, different algorithms may lead to different results. Thus, it has been difficult to reach definitive conclusions about relaxation dynamics using nonadiabatic MQC methods because one is never certain whether any given algorithm includes enough of the necessary physics. In this paper, we explore the physics underlying different nonadiabatic MQC algorithms by comparing and contrasting the excited-state relaxation dynamics of the prototypical condensed-phase MQC system, the hydrated electron, calculated using different algorithms, including: fewest-switches surface hopping, stationary-phase surface hopping, and mean-field dynamics with surface hopping. We also describe in detail how a new nonadiabatic algorithm, mean-field dynamics with stochastic decoherence (MF-SD), is to be implemented for condensed-phase problems, and we apply MF-SD to the excited-state relaxation of the hydrated electron. Our discussion emphasizes the different ways quantum decoherence is treated in each algorithm and the resulting implications for hydrated-electron relaxation dynamics. We find that for three MQC methods that use Tully's fewest-switches criterion to determine surface hopping probabilities, the excited-state lifetime of the electron is the same. Moreover, the nonequilibrium solvent response function of the excited hydrated electron is the same with all of the nonadiabatic MQC algorithms discussed here, so that all of the algorithms would produce similar agreement with experiment. Despite the identical solvent response predicted by each MQC algorithm, we find that MF-SD allows much more mixing of multiple basis states into the quantum wave function than do other methods. This leads to an

  14. Evolution of oxidation dynamics of histidine: non-reactivity in the gas phase, peroxides in hydrated clusters, and pH dependence in solution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fangwei; Lu, Wenchao; Fang, Yigang; Liu, Jianbo

    2014-10-28

    Oxidation of histidine by (1)O2 is an important process associated with oxidative damage to proteins during aging, diseases and photodynamic therapy of tumors and jaundice, and photochemical transformations of biological species in the troposphere. However, the oxidation mechanisms and products of histidine differ dramatically in these related environments which range from the gas phase through aerosols to aqueous solution. Herein we report a parallel gas- and solution-phase study on the (1)O2 oxidation of histidine, aimed at evaluating the evolution of histidine oxidation pathways in different media and at different ionization states. We first investigated the oxidation of protonated and deprotonated histidine ions and the same systems hydrated with explicit water molecules in the gas phase, using guided-ion-beam-scattering mass spectrometry. Reaction coordinates and potential energy surfaces for these systems were established on the basis of density functional theory calculations, Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus modeling and direct dynamics simulations. Subsequently we tracked the oxidation process of histidine in aqueous solution under different pH conditions, using on-line UV-Vis spectroscopy and electrospray mass spectrometry monitoring systems. The results show that two different routes contribute to the oxidation of histidine depending on its ionization states. In each mechanism hydration is essential to suppressing the otherwise predominant dissociation of reaction intermediates back to reactants. The oxidation of deprotonated histidine in the gas phase involves the formation of 2,4-endoperoxide and 2-hydroperoxide of imidazole. These intermediates evolve to hydrated imidazolone in solution, and the latter either undergoes ring-closure to 6α-hydoxy-2-oxo-octahydro-pyrrolo[2,3-d]imidazole-5-carboxylate or cross-links with another histidine to form a dimeric product. In contrast, the oxidation of protonated histidine is mediated by 2,5-endoperoxide and 5

  15. On the abnormal "forced hydration" behavior of P(MEA-co-OEGA) aqueous solutions during phase transition from infrared spectroscopic insights.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lei; Wu, Peiyi

    2016-06-21

    Turbidity, DLS and FTIR measurements in combination with the perturbation correlation moving window (PCMW) technique and 2D correlation spectroscopy (2Dcos) analysis have been utilized to investigate the LCST-type transition of a oligo ethylene glycol acrylate-based copolymer (POEGA) in aqueous solutions in this work. As demonstrated in turbidity and DLS curves, the macroscopic phase separation was sharp and slightly concentration dependent. Moreover, individual chemical groups along polymer chains also display abrupt changes in temperature-variable IR spectra. However, according to conventional IR analysis, the C-H groups present obvious dehydration, whereas C[double bond, length as m-dash]O and C-O-C groups exhibit anomalous "forced hydration" during the steep phase transition. From these analyses together with the PCMW and 2Dcos results, it has been confirmed that the hydrophobic interaction among polymer chains drove the chain collapse and dominated the phase transition. In addition, the unexpected enhanced hydration behavior of C[double bond, length as m-dash]O and C-O-C groups was induced by forced hydrogen bonding between polar groups along polymer chains and entrapped water molecules in the aggregates, which originated from the special chemical structure of POEGA.

  16. High pressure induced phase transition and superdiffusion in anomalous fluid confined in flexible nanopores

    SciTech Connect

    Bordin, José Rafael; Krott, Leandro B. Barbosa, Marcia C.

    2014-10-14

    The behavior of a confined spherical symmetric anomalous fluid under high external pressure was studied with Molecular Dynamics simulations. The fluid is modeled by a core-softened potential with two characteristic length scales, which in bulk reproduces the dynamical, thermodynamical, and structural anomalous behavior observed for water and other anomalous fluids. Our findings show that this system has a superdiffusion regime for sufficient high pressure and low temperature. As well, our results indicate that this superdiffusive regime is strongly related with the fluid structural properties and the superdiffusion to diffusion transition is a first order phase transition. We show how the simulation time and statistics are important to obtain the correct dynamical behavior of the confined fluid. Our results are discussed on the basis of the two length scales.

  17. Polarization-phase tomography of biological fluids polycrystalline structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubolazov, A. V.; Vanchuliak, O. Ya.; Garazdiuk, M.; Sidor, M. I.; Motrich, A. V.; Kostiuk, S. V.

    2013-12-01

    Our research is aimed at designing an experimental method of Fourier's laser polarization phasometry of the layers of human effusion for an express diagnostics during surgery and a differentiation of the degree of severity (acute - gangrenous) appendectomy by means of statistical, correlation and fractal analysis of the coherent scattered field. A model of generalized optical anisotropy of polycrystal networks of albumin and globulin of the effusion of appendicitis has been suggested and the method of Fourier's phasometry of linear (a phase shift between the orthogonal components of the laser wave amplitude) and circular (the angle of rotation of the polarization plane) birefringence with a spatial-frequency selection of the coordinate distributions for the differentiation of acute and gangrenous conditions have been analytically substantiated. Comparative studies of the efficacy of the methods of direct mapping of phase distributions and Fourier's phasometry of a laser radiation field transformed by the dendritic and spherolitic networks of albumin and globulin of the layers of effusion of appendicitis on the basis of complex statistical, correlation and fractal analysis of the structure of phase maps.

  18. Two-Phase Working Fluids for the Temperature Range 50 to 350 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saaski, E. W.; Owzarski, P. C.

    1977-01-01

    The decomposition and corrosion of two-phase heat transfer liquids and metal envelopes have been investigated on the basis of molecular bond strengths and chemical thermodynamics. Potentially stable heat transfer fluids for the temperature range 100 C to 350 C have been identified, and reflux heat pipes tests initiated with 10 fluids and carbon steel and aluminum envelopes to experimentally establish corrosion behavior and noncondensable gas generation rates.

  19. Purification method development for chiral separation in supercritical fluid chromatography with the solubilities in supercritical fluid chromatographic mobile phases.

    PubMed

    Gahm, Kyung H; Tan, Helming; Liu, Jodi; Barnhart, Wesley; Eschelbach, John; Notari, Steve; Thomas, Samuel; Semin, David; Cheetham, Janet

    2008-04-14

    A comprehensive approach was applied to develop a chiral purification method for an analyte that was found to be unusually difficult to scale-up in supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). This was performed by studying major factors such as the solubility of an analyte in SFC mobile phases, impurity profiles, and cycle time. For this case study, the solubility in SFC mobile phase was measured by a packed column technique, coupled with a novel trapping mechanism to enhance measurement precision in SFC conditions. The solubility studies in SFC mobile phases suggested a couple of possible SFC mobile phases, in which the analyte would potentially be most soluble. The SFC methods were developed to purify a sample containing 15% of an impurity, after considering impurity profiles and cycle times of several potential methods in addition to SFC mobile phase solubility. An equal volume mixture of acetonitrile and ethanol was chosen for the final purification method, since this mixture demonstrated the relatively high SFC solubility among all solvent combinations with enhanced resolution between the analyte and the impurity as well as the shortest run time. The solubility of the compound was also determined in various organic solvents using a high throughput solubility screening system to better understand relative change of solubility from neat solution to SFC mobile phases.

  20. Effect of the surface charge distribution on the fluid phase behavior of charged colloids and proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, Marco A.; Shen, Vincent K.

    2016-10-01

    A generic but simple model is presented to evaluate the effect of the heterogeneous surface charge distribution of proteins and zwitterionic nanoparticles on their thermodynamic phase behavior. By considering surface charges as continuous "patches," the rich set of surface patterns that is embedded in proteins and charged patchy particles can readily be described. This model is used to study the fluid phase separation of charged particles where the screening length is of the same order of magnitude as the particle size. In particular, two types of charged particles are studied: dipolar fluids and protein-like fluids. The former represents the simplest case of zwitterionic particles, whose charge distribution can be described by their dipole moment. The latter system corresponds to molecules/particles with complex surface charge arrangements such as those found in biomolecules. The results for both systems suggest a relation between the critical region, the strength of the interparticle interactions, and the arrangement of charged patches, where the critical temperature is strongly correlated to the magnitude of the dipole moment. Additionally, competition between attractive and repulsive charge-charge interactions seems to be related to the formation of fluctuating clusters in the dilute phase of dipolar fluids, as well as to the broadening of the binodal curve in protein-like fluids. Finally, a variety of self-assembled architectures are detected for dipolar fluids upon small changes to the charge distribution, providing the groundwork for studying the self-assembly of charged patchy particles.

  1. Beyond Darcy's law: The role of phase topology and ganglion dynamics for two-fluid flow.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Ryan T; McClure, James E; Berrill, Mark A; Rücker, Maja; Schlüter, Steffen; Berg, Steffen

    2016-10-01

    In multiphase flow in porous media the consistent pore to Darcy scale description of two-fluid flow processes has been a long-standing challenge. Immiscible displacement processes occur at the scale of individual pores. However, the larger scale behavior is described by phenomenological relationships such as relative permeability, which typically uses only fluid saturation as a state variable. As a consequence pore scale properties such as contact angle cannot be directly related to Darcy scale flow parameters. Advanced imaging and computational technologies are closing the gap between the pore and Darcy scale, supporting the development of new theory. We utilize fast x-ray microtomography to observe pore-scale two-fluid configurations during immiscible flow and initialize lattice Boltzmann simulations that demonstrate that the mobilization of disconnected nonwetting phase clusters can account for a significant fraction of the total flux. We show that fluid topology can undergo substantial changes during flow at constant saturation, which is one of the underlying causes of hysteretic behavior. Traditional assumptions about fluid configurations are therefore an oversimplification. Our results suggest that the role of fluid connectivity cannot be ignored for multiphase flow. On the Darcy scale, fluid topology and phase connectivity are accounted for by interfacial area and Euler characteristic as parameters that are missing from our current models.

  2. Numerical schemes for anomalous diffusion of single-phase fluids in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awotunde, Abeeb A.; Ghanam, Ryad A.; Al-Homidan, Suliman S.; Tatar, Nasser-eddine

    2016-10-01

    Simulation of fluid flow in porous media is an indispensable part of oil and gas reservoir management. Accurate prediction of reservoir performance and profitability of investment rely on our ability to model the flow behavior of reservoir fluids. Over the years, numerical reservoir simulation models have been based mainly on solutions to the normal diffusion of fluids in the porous reservoir. Recently, however, it has been documented that fluid flow in porous media does not always follow strictly the normal diffusion process. Small deviations from normal diffusion, called anomalous diffusion, have been reported in some experimental studies. Such deviations can be caused by different factors such as the viscous state of the fluid, the fractal nature of the porous media and the pressure pulse in the system. In this work, we present explicit and implicit numerical solutions to the anomalous diffusion of single-phase fluids in heterogeneous reservoirs. An analytical solution is used to validate the numerical solution to the simple homogeneous case. The conventional wellbore flow model is modified to account for anomalous behavior. Example applications are used to show the behavior of wellbore and wellblock pressures during the single-phase anomalous flow of fluids in the reservoirs considered.

  3. Beyond Darcy's law: The role of phase topology and ganglion dynamics for two-fluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Ryan T.; McClure, James E.; Berrill, Mark A.; Rücker, Maja; Schlüter, Steffen; Berg, Steffen

    2016-10-01

    In multiphase flow in porous media the consistent pore to Darcy scale description of two-fluid flow processes has been a long-standing challenge. Immiscible displacement processes occur at the scale of individual pores. However, the larger scale behavior is described by phenomenological relationships such as relative permeability, which typically uses only fluid saturation as a state variable. As a consequence pore scale properties such as contact angle cannot be directly related to Darcy scale flow parameters. Advanced imaging and computational technologies are closing the gap between the pore and Darcy scale, supporting the development of new theory. We utilize fast x-ray microtomography to observe pore-scale two-fluid configurations during immiscible flow and initialize lattice Boltzmann simulations that demonstrate that the mobilization of disconnected nonwetting phase clusters can account for a significant fraction of the total flux. We show that fluid topology can undergo substantial changes during flow at constant saturation, which is one of the underlying causes of hysteretic behavior. Traditional assumptions about fluid configurations are therefore an oversimplification. Our results suggest that the role of fluid connectivity cannot be ignored for multiphase flow. On the Darcy scale, fluid topology and phase connectivity are accounted for by interfacial area and Euler characteristic as parameters that are missing from our current models.

  4. Measurement of average density and relative volumes in a dispersed two-phase fluid

    DOEpatents

    Sreepada, Sastry R.; Rippel, Robert R.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus and a method are disclosed for measuring the average density and relative volumes in an essentially transparent, dispersed two-phase fluid. A laser beam with a diameter no greater than 1% of the diameter of the bubbles, droplets, or particles of the dispersed phase is directed onto a diffraction grating. A single-order component of the diffracted beam is directed through the two-phase fluid and its refraction is measured. Preferably, the refracted beam exiting the fluid is incident upon a optical filter with linearly varing optical density and the intensity of the filtered beam is measured. The invention can be combined with other laser-based measurement systems, e.g., laser doppler anemometry.

  5. Measurement of average density and relative volumes in a dispersed two-phase fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Sreepada, S.R.; Rippel, R.R.

    1990-12-19

    An apparatus and a method are disclosed for measuring the average density and relative volumes in an essentially transparent, dispersed two-phase fluid. A laser beam with a diameter no greater than 1% of the diameter of the bubbles, droplets, or particles of the dispersed phase is directed onto a diffraction grating. A single-order component of the diffracted beam is directed through the two-phase fluid and its refraction is measured. Preferably, the refracted beam exiting the fluid is incident upon a optical filter with linearly varying optical density and the intensity of the filtered beam is measured. The invention can be combined with other laser-based measurement systems, e.g., laser doppler anemometry.

  6. Natural solutal convection in magnetic fluids: First-order phase transition aspect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Aleksey S.

    2016-10-01

    Concentration stratification of magnetic fluids under the action of external magnetic field can disturb mechanical equilibrium in the system and cause intensive solutal convection. The current paper is devoted to the study of free solutal convection in magnetic fluids undergoing first-order phase transition. Simulation of solutal convection in OpenFOAM package makes it possible to compare numeric results with physical experiment observations. The numeric simulation of convective hydrodynamic flows was carried out in the framework of several theories of first-order phase transition in ferrocolloids. The numerical results are compared with experimental observations in order to choose the theory which predicts most accurately the concentration stratification in magnetic fluids undergoing magneto-controllable first-order phase transition.

  7. Effect of Ammonia on the Gas-Phase Hydration of the Common Atmospheric Ion HSO4−

    PubMed Central

    Nadykto, Alexey B.; Yu, Fangqun; Herb, Jason

    2008-01-01

    Hydration directly affects the mobility, thermodynamic properties, lifetime and nucleation rates of atmospheric ions. In the present study, the role of ammonia on the formation of hydrogen bonded complexes of the common atmospheric hydrogensulfate (HSO4−) ion with water has been investigated using the Density Functional Theory (DFT). Our findings rule out the stabilizing effect of ammonia on the formation of negatively charged cluster hydrates and show clearly that the conventional (classical) treatment of ionic clusters as presumably more stable compared to neutrals may not be applicable to pre-nucleation clusters. These considerations lead us to conclude that not only quantitative but also qualitative assessment of the relative thermodynamic stability of atmospheric clusters requires a quantum-chemical treatment. PMID:19330067

  8. Rapid variations in fluid chemistry constrain hydrothermal phase separation at the Main Endeavour Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, Brooke; Lilley, Marvin; Butterfield, David; Olson, Eric; Larson, Benjamin

    2017-02-01

    Previous work at the Main Endeavour Field (MEF) has shown that chloride concentration in high-temperature vent fluids has not exceeded 510 mmol/kg (94% of seawater), which is consistent with brine condensation and loss at depth, followed by upward flow of a vapor phase toward the seafloor. Magmatic and seismic events have been shown to affect fluid temperature and composition and these effects help narrow the possibilities for sub-surface processes. However, chloride-temperature data alone are insufficient to determine details of phase separation in the upflow zone. Here we use variation in chloride and gas content in a set of fluid samples collected over several days from one sulfide chimney structure in the MEF to constrain processes of mixing and phase separation. The combination of gas (primarily magmatic CO2 and seawater-derived Ar) and chloride data, indicate that neither variation in the amount of brine lost, nor mixing of the vapor phase produced at depth with variable quantities of (i) brine or (ii) altered gas rich seawater that has not undergone phase separation, can explain the co-variation of gas and chloride content. The gas-chloride data require additional phase separation of the ascending vapor-like fluid. Mixing and gas partitioning calculations show that near-critical temperature and pressure conditions can produce the fluid compositions observed at Sully vent as a vapor-liquid conjugate pair or as vapor-liquid pair with some remixing, and that the gas partition coefficients implied agree with theoretically predicted values.Plain Language SummaryWhen the chemistry of <span class="hlt">fluids</span> from deep sea hot springs changes over a short time span, it allows us to narrow down the conditions and processes that created those <span class="hlt">fluids</span>. This gives us a better idea what is happening under the seafloor where the water is interacting with hot rocks and minerals, boiling, and taking on the character it will have when it emerges at</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21428011','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21428011"><span>[<span class="hlt">Hydration</span> in clinical practice].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maristany, Cleofé Pérez-Portabella; Segurola Gurruchaga, Hegoi</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Water is an essential foundation for life, having both a regulatory and structural function. The former results from active and passive participation in all metabolic reactions, and its role in conserving and maintaining body temperature. Structurally speaking it is the major contributer to tissue mass, accounting for 60% of the basis of blood plasma, intracellular and intersticial <span class="hlt">fluid</span>. Water is also part of the primary structures of life such as genetic material or proteins. Therefore, it is necessary that the nurse makes an early assessment of patients water needs to detect if there are signs of electrolyte imbalance. Dehydration can be a very serious problem, especially in children and the elderly. Dehydrations treatment with oral rehydration solution decreases the risk of developing <span class="hlt">hydration</span> disorders, but even so, it is recommended to follow preventive measures to reduce the incidence and severity of dehydration. The key to having a proper <span class="hlt">hydration</span> is prevention. Artificial nutrition encompasses the need for precise calculation of water needs in enteral nutrition as parenteral, so the nurse should be part of this process and use the tools for calculating the patient's requirements. All this helps to ensure an optimal nutritional status in patients at risk. Ethical dilemmas are becoming increasingly common in clinical practice. On the subject of artificial nutrition and <span class="hlt">hydration</span>, there isn't yet any unanimous agreement regarding <span class="hlt">hydration</span> as a basic care. It is necessary to take decisions in consensus with the health team, always thinking of the best interests of the patient.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26073359','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26073359"><span>Stability and Vibrations of Guest Molecules in the Type II Clathrate <span class="hlt">Hydrate</span>: A First-Principles Study of Solid <span class="hlt">Phase</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cao, Xiaoxiao; Su, Yan; Zhao, Jijun</p> <p>2015-07-09</p> <p>Natural gas mixtures are inclusion compounds composed of major light hydrocarbon gaseous molecules (CH4, C2H6, C3H6, and C3H8). Previous ab initio calculations were mainly limited by the cluster models. For the first time, we report first-principles calculations on the stability and vibrational properties of the gas molecules inside the crystalline lattice of type II clathrate. In accordance with our calculations, the larger the size of guest molecule, the more stable the clathrate <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> for small-sized alkane guest molecules (CnHm, n ≤ 3, m ≤ 8). The interaction energy per guest molecule gradually increases as the number of guest molecules increase for both sII pure and sII mixed <span class="hlt">hydrates</span>. In addition, the vibrational frequencies of guest molecules trapped in sII <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> are also simulated. The C-C stretching frequency shows a blue shift as the amount of guest molecules increase. Our theoretical results prove to be valuable insight for identifying the types of guest molecules from experimental spectroscopic data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5083M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5083M"><span>A two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> solid/<span class="hlt">fluid</span> model for dense granular flows including dilatancy effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mangeney, Anne; Bouchut, Francois; Fernandez-Nieto, Enrique; Koné, El-Hadj; Narbona-Reina, Gladys</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Describing grain/<span class="hlt">fluid</span> interaction in debris flows models is still an open and challenging issue with key impact on hazard assessment [{Iverson et al.}, 2010]. We present here a two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> two-thin-layer model for fluidized debris flows that takes into account dilatancy effects. It describes the velocity of both the solid and the <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phases</span>, the compression/dilatation of the granular media and its interaction with the pore <span class="hlt">fluid</span> pressure [{Bouchut et al.}, 2016]. The model is derived from a 3D two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> model proposed by {Jackson} [2000] based on the 4 equations of mass and momentum conservation within the two <span class="hlt">phases</span>. This system has 5 unknowns: the solid and <span class="hlt">fluid</span> velocities, the solid and <span class="hlt">fluid</span> pressures and the solid volume fraction. As a result, an additional equation inside the mixture is necessary to close the system. Surprisingly, this issue is inadequately accounted for in the models that have been developed on the basis of Jackson's work [{Bouchut et al.}, 2015]. In particular, {Pitman and Le} [2005] replaced this closure simply by imposing an extra boundary condition at the surface of the flow. When making a shallow expansion, this condition can be considered as a closure condition. However, the corresponding model cannot account for a dissipative energy balance. We propose here an approach to correctly deal with the thermodynamics of Jackson's model by closing the mixture equations by a weak compressibility relation following {Roux and Radjai} [1998]. This relation implies that the occurrence of dilation or contraction of the granular material in the model depends on whether the solid volume fraction is respectively higher or lower than a critical value. When dilation occurs, the <span class="hlt">fluid</span> is sucked into the granular material, the pore pressure decreases and the friction force on the granular <span class="hlt">phase</span> increases. On the contrary, in the case of contraction, the <span class="hlt">fluid</span> is expelled from the mixture, the pore pressure increases and the friction force diminishes. To</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DFD.M3003A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DFD.M3003A"><span>Migration of rigid particles in two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> shear flow of viscoelastic <span class="hlt">fluids</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anderson, Patrick; Jaensson, Nick; Hulsen, Martien</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>In the Stokes regime, non-Brownian, rigid particles in a shear flow will not migrate across streamlines if the <span class="hlt">fluid</span> is Newtonian. In viscoelastic <span class="hlt">fluids</span>, however, particles will migrate across streamlines away from areas of higher elastic stresses, e.g. towards the outer cylinder in a wide-gap Couette flow. This migration is believed to be due to a difference in normal stresses. We simulate the two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> case where this difference in normal stresses is not due to the flow field, but rather due to the properties of the <span class="hlt">fluids</span>. We apply the diffuse-interface model for the interface between the two <span class="hlt">fluids</span>, which can naturally handle a changing topology of the interface, e.g. during particle adsorption. Furthermore, the diffuse-interface model includes an accurate description of surface tension and can be used for a moving contact line. A sharp interface is assumed between the particles and the <span class="hlt">fluids</span>. Initially, a particle is placed close to an interface of two <span class="hlt">fluids</span> with different viscoelastic properties in a shear flow. We show that based on the properties of the <span class="hlt">fluids</span> and the interfacial tension, four regimes can be defined: 1) migration away from the interface, 2) halted migration towards the interface, 3) adsorption of the particle at the interface and 4) penetration of the particle into the other <span class="hlt">fluid</span>. This research forms part of the research programme of the Dutch Polymer Institute (DPI), Project #746.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800018902','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800018902"><span>Conceptual design of two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">fluid</span> mechanics and heat transfer facility for spacelab</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>North, B. F.; Hill, M. E.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Five specific experiments were analyzed to provide definition of experiments designed to evaluate two <span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">fluid</span> behavior in low gravity. The conceptual design represents a <span class="hlt">fluid</span> mechanics and heat transfer facility for a double rack in Spacelab. The five experiments are two <span class="hlt">phase</span> flow patterns and pressure drop, flow boiling, liquid reorientation, and interface bubble dynamics. Hardware was sized, instrumentation and data recording requirements defined, and the five experiments were installed as an integrated experimental package. Applicable available hardware was selected in the experiment design and total experiment program costs were defined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030005553&hterms=Benzene&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DBenzene','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030005553&hterms=Benzene&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DBenzene"><span><span class="hlt">Phase</span>-Shifting Liquid Crystal Interferometers for Microgravity <span class="hlt">Fluid</span> Physics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Griffin, DeVon W.; Marshall, Keneth L.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The initial focus of this project was to eliminate both of these problems in the Liquid Crystal Point-Diffraction Interferometer (LCPDI). Progress toward that goal will be described, along with the demonstration of a <span class="hlt">phase</span> shifting Liquid Crystal Shearing Interferometer (LCSI) that was developed as part of this work. The latest LCPDI, other than a lens to focus the light from a test section onto a diffracting microsphere within the interferometer and a collimated laser for illumination, the pink region contained within the glass plates on the rod-mounted platform is the complete interferometer. The total width is approximately 1.5 inches with 0.25 inches on each side for bonding the electrical leads. It is 1 inch high and there are only four diffracting microspheres within the interferometer. As a result, it is very easy to align, achieving the first goal. The liquid crystal electro-optical response time is a function of layer thickness, with thinner devices switching faster due to a reduction in long-range viscoelastic forces between the LC molecules. The LCPDI has a liquid crystal layer thickness of 10 microns, which is controlled by plastic or glass microspheres embedded in epoxy 'pads' at the corners of the device. The diffracting spheres are composed of polystyrene/divinyl benzene polymer with an initial diameter of 15 microns. The spheres deform slightly when the interferometer is assembled to conform to the spacing produced by the microsphere-filled epoxy spacer pads. While the speed of this interferometer has not yet been tested, previous LCPDIs fabricated at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics switched at a rate of approximately 3.3 Hz, a factor of 10 slower than desired. We anticipate better performance when the speed of these interferometers is tested since they are approximately three times thinner. <span class="hlt">Phase</span> shifting in these devices is a function of the AC voltage level applied to the liquid crystal. As the voltage increases, the dye in the liquid crystal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3924E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3924E"><span>Coupled measurement of δ18O/δD in gypsum <span class="hlt">hydration</span> water and salinity of <span class="hlt">fluid</span> inclusions in gypsum: A novel tool for reconstructing parent water chemistry and depositional environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Evans, Nick; Gázquez, Fernando; Turchyn, Alexandra; Chapman, Hazel; Hodell, David</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The measurement of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in gypsum <span class="hlt">hydration</span> water (CaSO4•2H2O) is a powerful tool to determine the isotopic composition of the parent <span class="hlt">fluid</span> from which gypsum precipitated. To be useful, however, the <span class="hlt">hydration</span> water must retain its original isotope signal and not have undergone postdepositional exchange. We developed a novel method to ascertain whether <span class="hlt">hydration</span> waters have secondarily exchanged by coupling oxygen and hydrogen isotopes of gypsum <span class="hlt">hydration</span> water with the salinities of <span class="hlt">fluid</span> inclusions. Salinity is obtained through microthermometric analysis of the same gypsum crystals measured for <span class="hlt">hydration</span> water by freezing the sample and then measuring the melting point of the <span class="hlt">fluid</span> inclusions. We apply the method to Messinian gypsum deposits of Cycle 6 within the Yesares Member, Río de Aguas section, Sorbas Basin (SE Spain). After correction of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes of gypsum <span class="hlt">hydration</span> water for fractionation factors, the estimated range of the mother water is -1.8o to 2.8o for δ18O and -12.5o to 16.3o for δD. In the same samples, estimated salinity of primary <span class="hlt">fluid</span> inclusions range from 18 to 51ppt. Salinity is highly correlated with δ18O and δD, yielding an r2 of 0.88 and 0.87, respectively. The intercepts of the regression equations (i.e., at zero salinity) define the isotope composition of the freshwater endmember, and average -4.4±1.3o for δ18O and -28.9±8.7o for δD. These values are within error of the average isotope composition of precipitation and groundwater data from the local region of Almería today (-4.3o and -22.2o for δ18O and δD, respectively). This agreement provides strong evidence that the gypsum <span class="hlt">hydration</span> water has retained its isotope composition and has not undergone postdepositional exchange. Furthermore, the isotope and salinity values indicate a significant contribution of meteoric water during gypsum deposition. This observation contrasts with sulfur and oxygen isotopes in sulfate (21.9 > δ34S</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26727217','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26727217"><span>Impact of the Condensed-<span class="hlt">Phase</span> Environment on the Translation-Rotation Eigenstates and Spectra of a Hydrogen Molecule in Clathrate <span class="hlt">Hydrates</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Powers, Anna; Marsalek, Ondrej; Xu, Minzhong; Ulivi, Lorenzo; Colognesi, Daniele; Tuckerman, Mark E; Bačić, Zlatko</p> <p>2016-01-21</p> <p>We systematically investigate the manifestations of the condensed-<span class="hlt">phase</span> environment of the structure II clathrate <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> in the translation-rotation (TR) dynamics and the inelastic neutron scattering (INS) spectra of an H2 molecule confined in the small dodecahedral cage of the <span class="hlt">hydrate</span>. The aim is to elucidate the extent to which these properties are affected by the clathrate water molecules beyond the confining cage and the proton disorder of the water framework. For this purpose, quantum calculations of the TR eigenstates and INS spectra are performed for H2 inside spherical clathrate domains of gradually increasing radius and the number of water molecules ranging from 20 for the isolated small cage to more than 1800. For each domain size, several hundred distinct hydrogen-bonding topologies are constructed in order to simulate the effects of the proton disorder. Our study reveals that the clathrate-induced splittings of the j = 1 rotational level and the translational fundamental of the guest H2 are influenced by the condensed-<span class="hlt">phase</span> environment to a dramatically different degree, the former very strongly and the latter only weakly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhCS.501a2014D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhCS.501a2014D"><span>Single and two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> flow <span class="hlt">fluid</span> dynamics in parallel helical coils</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>De Salve, M.; Orio, M.; Panella, B.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>The design of helical coiled steam generators requires the knowledge of the single and two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">fluid</span> dynamics. The present work reports the results of an experimental campaign on single-<span class="hlt">phase</span> and two <span class="hlt">phase</span> pressure drops and void fraction in three parallel helicoidal pipes, in which the total water flow rate is splitted by means of a branch. With this test configuration the distribution of the water flow rate in the helicoidal pipes and the phenomena of the instability of the two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> flow have been experimentally investigated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4306777','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4306777"><span>Pre-Practice <span class="hlt">Hydration</span> Status and the Effects of <span class="hlt">Hydration</span> Regimen on Collegiate Division III Male Athletes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Magal, Meir; Cain, Rebekah J.; Long, Josh C.; Thomas, Kathleen S.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Pre-practice euhydration is key in the prevention of heat related injuries. The pre-practice <span class="hlt">hydration</span> status of male National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)-Division III athletes and the effects of a direct <span class="hlt">hydration</span> regimen have yet to be investigated therefore; the aim of the study was 1) to analyze the pre-practice <span class="hlt">hydration</span> status of current NCAA-DIII male athletes and 2) assess the impact of a directed intervention on pre-practice <span class="hlt">hydration</span> status. The study was divided into baseline, pre and post intervention <span class="hlt">phases</span>. For baseline, <span class="hlt">hydration</span> status through urine specific gravity (USG) and anthropometric indices were measured prior to morning practice. Following baseline, pre-intervention commenced and participants were assigned to either control (CON) or experimental (EXP) groups. The CON and EXP group participants were instructed to maintain normal <span class="hlt">hydration</span> and diet schedules and record <span class="hlt">fluid</span> intake for seven days leading to post-intervention. The EXP group participants were asked to consume an additional 23.9 fl oz (~ 750 ml) per day for one week (7 days) leading to post-intervention. After 7 days the same measures were taken. At baseline, the majority of the participants were hypohydrated. Following the intervention, the EXP group participants consumed significantly more <span class="hlt">fluids</span> than the participants in the CON group (3277.91 ± 1360. 23 ml vs 1931.54 ± 881.81 ml; p < 0.05). A-two-way repeated measure ANOVA revealed a non-significant time or treatment effect for USG or body mass but did demonstrate a significant USG interaction. In addition, an independent t-test examining absolute changes in USG demonstrated a significant difference between groups in which the EXP group improved <span class="hlt">hydration</span> status and the CON group did not (-0.02 ± 0.006 vs 0.001 ± 0.005 ml; p < 0.05). In addition, there was no significant (p >0.05) difference in the regression slopes or intercepts between the CON and EXP groups when expressed as daily <span class="hlt">fluid</span> intake per kg body</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DFD.G7005Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DFD.G7005Z"><span>Advection Scheme for <span class="hlt">Phase</span>-changing Porous Media Flow of <span class="hlt">Fluids</span> with Large Density Ratio</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Duan; Padrino, Juan</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Many flows in a porous media involve <span class="hlt">phase</span> changes between <span class="hlt">fluids</span> with a large density ratio. For instance, in the water-steam <span class="hlt">phase</span> change the density ratio is about 1000. These <span class="hlt">phase</span> changes can be results of physical changes, or chemical reactions, such as fuel combustion in a porous media. Based on the mass conservation, the velocity ratio between the <span class="hlt">fluids</span> is of the same order of the density ratio. As the result the controlling Courant number for the time step in a numerical simulation is determined by the high velocity and low density <span class="hlt">phase</span>, leading to small time steps. In this work we introduce a numerical approximation to increase the time step by taking advantage of the large density ratio. We provide analytical error estimation for this approximate numerical scheme. Numerical examples show that using this approximation about 40-fold speedup can be achieved at the cost of a few percent error. Work partially supported by LDRD project of LANL.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....2761C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....2761C"><span>Gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> quantification through effective medium theories-A comparison</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chand, S.; Minshull, T. A.; Gei, D.; Carcione, J. M.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>The presence of gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> in oceanic sediments is normally identified by a Bottom Simulating Reflector (BSR), the reflection event with reversed polarity subparallel to the seafloor. The presence or absence of BSR and its relative amplitude were mainly used in studies for quantifying the amount of gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> present in the oceanic sediments. Recent studies have shown that the BSR is not a necessary criterion for the presence of gas <span class="hlt">hydrates</span>; rather its presence depends on the type of sediments and in situ conditions. Also the presence of a BSR does not guarantee <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> in sediment pore space above the gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> stability zone (GHSZ). It is found that the presence of gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> in oceanic sediments alters the acoustic properties of the composite medium. In this context several theories have been developed to predict the properties of sediments, and thereby quantifying the amount of gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> present as the deviation from the predicted parameters of the sediments without gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span>. We compared four major theories. The first theory follows a method of weighted averaging of different equations to fit the observed data. The second method uses an initial model at critical porosity, and predicts the properties at other porosities using theories of composite medium at higher and lower porosities, and laws governing <span class="hlt">fluid</span> flow. The third theory follows a similar approach but uses a different method to approximate the effect of <span class="hlt">fluid</span> flow and attenuation. The fourth method uses the theory of self-consistent approximation (SCA) and differential effective medium (DEM) defining the connectivity and coexistence of different <span class="hlt">phases</span>. In this study we have made a comparison of all these theories using standard values for physical constants, for various ranges of variables including clay content, <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> saturation and porosity. The comparison shows that the prediction will be only consistent if we include V_p and V_s for prediction, as V_s predicted by each model is</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026209','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026209"><span>Ductile flow of methane <span class="hlt">hydrate</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Durham, W.B.; Stern, L.A.; Kirby, S.H.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Compressional creep tests (i.e., constant applied stress) conducted on pure, polycrystalline methane <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> over the temperature range 260-287 K and confining pressures of 50-100 MPa show this material to be extraordinarily strong compared to other icy compounds. The contrast with hexagonal water ice, sometimes used as a proxy for gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> properties, is impressive: over the thermal range where both are solid, methane <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> is as much as 40 times stronger than ice at a given strain rate. The specific mechanical response of naturally occurring methane <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> in sediments to environmental changes is expected to be dependent on the distribution of the <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span> within the formation - whether arranged structurally between and (or) cementing sediments grains versus passively in pore space within a sediment framework. If <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> is in the former mode, the very high strength of methane <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> implies a significantly greater strain-energy release upon decomposition and subsequent failure of <span class="hlt">hydrate</span>-cemented formations than previously expected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EPJA...52..240N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EPJA...52..240N"><span>Phenomena at the QCD <span class="hlt">phase</span> transition in nonequilibrium chiral <span class="hlt">fluid</span> dynamics (Nχ FD)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nahrgang, Marlene; Herold, Christoph</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Heavy-ion collisions performed in the beam energy range accessible by the NICA collider facility are expected to produce systems of extreme net-baryon densities and can thus reach yet unexplored regions of the QCD <span class="hlt">phase</span> diagram. Here, one expects the <span class="hlt">phase</span> transition between the plasma of deconfined quarks and gluons and the hadronic matter to be of first order. A discovery of the first-order <span class="hlt">phase</span> transition would as well prove the existence of the QCD critical point, a landmark in the <span class="hlt">phase</span> diagram. In order to understand possible signals of the first-order <span class="hlt">phase</span> transition in heavy-ion collision experiments it is very important to develop dynamical models of the <span class="hlt">phase</span> transition. Here, we discuss the opportunities of studying dynamical effects at the QCD first-order <span class="hlt">phase</span> transition within our model of nonequilibrium chiral <span class="hlt">fluid</span> dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20039392','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20039392"><span>Liquid-liquid miscibility gaps and <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> formation in drug-water binary systems: pressure-temperature <span class="hlt">phase</span> diagram of lidocaine and pressure-temperature-composition <span class="hlt">phase</span> diagram of the lidocaine-water system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ceolin, René; Barrio, Maria; Tamarit, Josep-Lluis; Veglio, Nestor; Perrin, Marc-Antoine; Espeau, Philippe</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>The pressure-temperature (P-T) melting curve of lidocaine was determined (dP/dT = 3.56 MPa K(-1)), and the lidocaine-water system was investigated as a function of temperature and pressure. The lidocaine-water system exhibits a monotectic equilibrium at 321 K (ordinary pressure) whose temperature increases as the pressure increases until the two liquids become miscible. A <span class="hlt">hydrate</span>, unstable at ordinary pressure, was shown to form, on increasing the pressure, from about 70 MPa at low temperatures (200-300 K). The thermodynamic conditions of its stability were inferred from the location of the three-<span class="hlt">phase</span> equilibria involving the <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> in the lidocaine-water pressure-temperature-mole fraction (P-T-x) diagram.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5616386','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5616386"><span>Assessment of impact of advanced energy transmission <span class="hlt">fluids</span> on district heating and cooling systems (<span class="hlt">Phase</span> 1)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kasza, K.E.; Chen, M.M.</p> <p>1987-09-01</p> <p>Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Buildings and Community Systems, has embarked upon a comprehensive, long-range program to develop high-performance advanced energy transmission <span class="hlt">fluids</span> for use in district heating and cooling (DHC) systems. ANL has the lead technical role in this DOE program. These advanced <span class="hlt">fluids</span> will substantially reduce flow frictional losses and enhance energy transfer. In system enhancement scoping studies conducted by ANL, the <span class="hlt">fluids</span> yielded potentially significant upfront capital equipment cost reductions by allowing the use of smaller pipes, pumps, heat exchangers, and storage tanks as well as reductions in operational costs. This report presents the first-<span class="hlt">phase</span> results of assessment of impact of the advanced <span class="hlt">fluids</span> on DHC systems. Future reports will focus on assessment of impact on hardware performance, capital eqiupment, and operation costs. 9 refs., 30 figs., 2 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/iris2/chemicalLanding.cfm?substance_nmbr=304','SCIGOV-IRIS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/iris2/chemicalLanding.cfm?substance_nmbr=304"><span>Chloral <span class="hlt">hydrate</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/iris">Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>EPA / 635 / R - 00 / 006 TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF CHLORAL <span class="hlt">HYDRATE</span> ( CAS No . 302 - 17 - 0 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) August 2000 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been reviewed in accordance w</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26273972','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26273972"><span><span class="hlt">Phase</span> Behavior and Percolation Properties of the Patchy Colloidal <span class="hlt">Fluids</span> in the Random Porous Media.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kalyuzhnyi, Y V; Holovko, M; Patsahan, T; Cummings, P T</p> <p>2014-12-18</p> <p>The lack of a simple analytical description of the hard-sphere <span class="hlt">fluid</span> in a matrix with hard-core obstacles is limiting progress in the development of thermodynamic perturbation theories for the <span class="hlt">fluid</span> in random porous media. We propose a simple and highly accurate analytical scheme, which allows us to calculate thermodynamic and percolation properties of a network-forming <span class="hlt">fluid</span> confined in the random porous media, represented by the hard-sphere <span class="hlt">fluid</span> and overlapping hard-sphere matrices, respectively. Our scheme is based on the combination of scaled-particle theory, Wertheim's thermodynamic perturbation theory for associating <span class="hlt">fluids</span> and extension of the Flory-Stockmayer theory for percolation. The liquid-gas <span class="hlt">phase</span> diagram and percolation threshold line for several versions of the patchy colloidal <span class="hlt">fluid</span> model confined in a random porous media are calculated and discussed. The method presented enables calculation of the thermodynamic and percolation properties of a large variety of polymerizing and network-forming <span class="hlt">fluids</span> confined in random porous media.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EJPh...34..475D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EJPh...34..475D"><span>Exploring fluctuations and <span class="hlt">phase</span> equilibria in <span class="hlt">fluid</span> mixtures via Monte Carlo simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Denton, Alan R.; Schmidt, Michael P.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Monte Carlo simulation provides a powerful tool for understanding and exploring thermodynamic <span class="hlt">phase</span> equilibria in many-particle interacting systems. Among the most physically intuitive simulation methods is Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo (GEMC), which allows direct computation of <span class="hlt">phase</span> coexistence curves of model <span class="hlt">fluids</span> by assigning each <span class="hlt">phase</span> to its own simulation cell. When one or both of the <span class="hlt">phases</span> can be modelled virtually via an analytic free energy function (Mehta and Kofke 1993 Mol. Phys. 79 39), the GEMC method takes on new pedagogical significance as an efficient means of analysing fluctuations and illuminating the statistical foundation of <span class="hlt">phase</span> behaviour in finite systems. Here we extend this virtual GEMC method to binary <span class="hlt">fluid</span> mixtures and demonstrate its implementation and instructional value with two applications: (1) a lattice model of simple mixtures and polymer blends and (2) a free-volume model of a complex mixture of colloids and polymers. We present algorithms for performing Monte Carlo trial moves in the virtual Gibbs ensemble, validate the method by computing <span class="hlt">fluid</span> demixing <span class="hlt">phase</span> diagrams, and analyse the dependence of fluctuations on system size. Our open-source simulation programs, coded in the platform-independent Java language, are suitable for use in classroom, tutorial, or computational laboratory settings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/871940','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/871940"><span>Device and method for measuring multi-<span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">fluid</span> flow and density of <span class="hlt">fluid</span> in a conduit having a gradual bend</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Ortiz, Marcos German; Boucher, Timothy J.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>A system for measuring <span class="hlt">fluid</span> flow in a conduit having a gradual bend or arc, and a straight section. The system includes pressure transducers, one or more disposed in the conduit on the outside of the arc, and one disposed in the conduit in a straight section thereof. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of <span class="hlt">fluid</span> in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate <span class="hlt">fluid</span> flow rate in the conduit. For multi-<span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">fluid</span>, the density of the <span class="hlt">fluid</span> is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the <span class="hlt">fluid</span> pressure measurements, to calculate <span class="hlt">fluid</span> flow.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/675796','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/675796"><span>Device and method for measuring multi-<span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">fluid</span> flow and density of <span class="hlt">fluid</span> in a conduit having a gradual bend</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Ortiz, M.G.; Boucher, T.J.</p> <p>1998-10-27</p> <p>A system is described for measuring <span class="hlt">fluid</span> flow in a conduit having a gradual bend or arc, and a straight section. The system includes pressure transducers, one or more disposed in the conduit on the outside of the arc, and one disposed in the conduit in a straight section thereof. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of <span class="hlt">fluid</span> in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate <span class="hlt">fluid</span> flow rate in the conduit. For multi-<span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">fluid</span>, the density of the <span class="hlt">fluid</span> is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the <span class="hlt">fluid</span> pressure measurements, to calculate <span class="hlt">fluid</span> flow. 1 fig.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1185840','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1185840"><span>Nanoscopic dynamics of phospholipid in unilamellar vesicles: Effect of gel to <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span> transition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sharma, V. K.; Mamontov, E.; Anunciado, D. B.; O’Neill, H.; Urban, V.</p> <p>2015-03-04</p> <p>Dynamics of phospholipids in unilamellar vesicles (ULV) is of interest in biology, medical, and food sciences since these molecules are widely used as biocompatible agents and a mimic of cell membrane systems. We have investigated the nanoscopic dynamics of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) phospholipid in ULV as a function of temperature using elastic and quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS). The dependence of the signal on the scattering momentum transfer, which is a critical advantage of neutron scattering techniques, allows the detailed analysis of the lipid motions that cannot be carried out by other means. In agreement with a differential scanning calorimetry measurement, a sharp rise in the elastic scattering intensity below ca. 296 K indicates a <span class="hlt">phase</span> transition from the high-temperature <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span> to the low-temperature solid gel <span class="hlt">phase</span>. The microscopic lipid dynamics exhibits qualitative differences between the solid gel <span class="hlt">phase</span> (in a measurement at 280 K) and the <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span> (in a measurement at a physiological temperature of 310 K). The data analysis invariably shows the presence of two distinct motions: the whole lipid molecule motion within a monolayer, or lateral diffusion, and the relatively faster internal motion of the DMPC molecule. The lateral diffusion of the whole lipid molecule is found to be Fickian in character, whereas the internal lipid motions are of localized character, consistent with the structure of the vesicles. The lateral motion slows down by an order of magnitude in the solid gel <span class="hlt">phase</span>, whereas for the internal motion not only the time scale, but also the character of the motion changes upon the <span class="hlt">phase</span> transition. In the solid gel <span class="hlt">phase</span>, the lipids are more ordered and undergo uniaxial rotational motion. However, in the <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span>, the hydrogen atoms of the lipid tails undergo confined translation diffusion rather than uniaxial rotational diffusion. The localized translational diffusion of the hydrogen atoms of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25738532','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25738532"><span>Nanoscopic dynamics of phospholipid in unilamellar vesicles: effect of gel to <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span> transition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sharma, V K; Mamontov, E; Anunciado, D B; O'Neill, H; Urban, V</p> <p>2015-03-26</p> <p>The dynamics of phospholipids in unilamellar vesicles (ULVs) is of interest in biology, medical, and food sciences, since these molecules are widely used as biocompatible agents and a mimic of cell membrane systems. We have investigated the nanoscopic dynamics of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) phospholipid in ULVs as a function of temperature using elastic and quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS). The dependence of the signal on the scattering momentum transfer, which is a critical advantage of neutron scattering techniques, allows the detailed analysis of the lipid motions that cannot be carried out by other means. In agreement with a differential scanning calorimetry measurement, a sharp rise in the elastic scattering intensity below ca. 296 K indicates a <span class="hlt">phase</span> transition from the high-temperature <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span> to the low-temperature solid gel <span class="hlt">phase</span>. The microscopic lipid dynamics exhibits qualitative differences between the solid gel <span class="hlt">phase</span> (in a measurement at 280 K) and the <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span> (in a measurement at a physiological temperature of 310 K). The analysis of the data demonstrates the presence of two types of distinct motions: the entire lipid molecule motion within a monolayer, also known as lateral diffusion, and the relatively faster internal motion of the DMPC molecule. The lateral diffusion of the entire lipid molecule is Fickian in character, whereas the internal lipid motions are of localized character, which is consistent with the structure of the vesicles. The lateral motion slows down by an order of magnitude in the solid gel <span class="hlt">phase</span>, whereas for the internal motion not only the time scale but also the character of the motion changes upon the <span class="hlt">phase</span> transition. In the solid gel <span class="hlt">phase</span>, the lipids are more ordered and undergo uniaxial rotational motion. However, in the <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span>, the hydrogen atoms of the lipid tails undergo confined translation diffusion rather than uniaxial rotational diffusion. The translational, but spatially</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1185840-nanoscopic-dynamics-phospholipid-unilamellar-vesicles-effect-gel-fluid-phase-transition','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1185840-nanoscopic-dynamics-phospholipid-unilamellar-vesicles-effect-gel-fluid-phase-transition"><span>Nanoscopic dynamics of phospholipid in unilamellar vesicles: Effect of gel to <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span> transition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Sharma, V. K.; Mamontov, E.; Anunciado, D. B.; ...</p> <p>2015-03-04</p> <p>Dynamics of phospholipids in unilamellar vesicles (ULV) is of interest in biology, medical, and food sciences since these molecules are widely used as biocompatible agents and a mimic of cell membrane systems. We have investigated the nanoscopic dynamics of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) phospholipid in ULV as a function of temperature using elastic and quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS). The dependence of the signal on the scattering momentum transfer, which is a critical advantage of neutron scattering techniques, allows the detailed analysis of the lipid motions that cannot be carried out by other means. In agreement with a differential scanning calorimetry measurement, amore » sharp rise in the elastic scattering intensity below ca. 296 K indicates a <span class="hlt">phase</span> transition from the high-temperature <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span> to the low-temperature solid gel <span class="hlt">phase</span>. The microscopic lipid dynamics exhibits qualitative differences between the solid gel <span class="hlt">phase</span> (in a measurement at 280 K) and the <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span> (in a measurement at a physiological temperature of 310 K). The data analysis invariably shows the presence of two distinct motions: the whole lipid molecule motion within a monolayer, or lateral diffusion, and the relatively faster internal motion of the DMPC molecule. The lateral diffusion of the whole lipid molecule is found to be Fickian in character, whereas the internal lipid motions are of localized character, consistent with the structure of the vesicles. The lateral motion slows down by an order of magnitude in the solid gel <span class="hlt">phase</span>, whereas for the internal motion not only the time scale, but also the character of the motion changes upon the <span class="hlt">phase</span> transition. In the solid gel <span class="hlt">phase</span>, the lipids are more ordered and undergo uniaxial rotational motion. However, in the <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span>, the hydrogen atoms of the lipid tails undergo confined translation diffusion rather than uniaxial rotational diffusion. The localized translational diffusion of the hydrogen</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4898768','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4898768"><span>Ultrasound Microbubble Treatment Enhances Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis and <span class="hlt">Fluid-Phase</span> Uptake through Distinct Mechanisms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fekri, Farnaz; Delos Santos, Ralph Christian; Karshafian, Raffi</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Drug delivery to tumors is limited by several factors, including drug permeability of the target cell plasma membrane. Ultrasound in combination with microbubbles (USMB) is a promising strategy to overcome these limitations. USMB treatment elicits enhanced cellular uptake of materials such as drugs, in part as a result of sheer stress and formation of transient membrane pores. Pores formed upon USMB treatment are rapidly resealed, suggesting that other processes such as enhanced endocytosis may contribute to the enhanced material uptake by cells upon USMB treatment. How USMB regulates endocytic processes remains incompletely understood. Cells constitutively utilize several distinct mechanisms of endocytosis, including clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) for the internalization of receptor-bound macromolecules such as Transferrin Receptor (TfR), and distinct mechanism(s) that mediate the majority of <span class="hlt">fluid-phase</span> endocytosis. Tracking the abundance of TfR on the cell surface and the internalization of its ligand transferrin revealed that USMB acutely enhances the rate of CME. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy experiments revealed that USMB treatment altered the assembly of clathrin-coated pits, the basic structural units of CME. In addition, the rate of <span class="hlt">fluid-phase</span> endocytosis was enhanced, but with delayed onset upon USMB treatment relative to the enhancement of CME, suggesting that the two processes are distinctly regulated by USMB. Indeed, vacuolin-1 or desipramine treatment prevented the enhancement of CME but not of <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span> endocytosis upon USMB, suggesting that lysosome exocytosis and acid sphingomyelinase, respectively, are required for the regulation of CME but not <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span> endocytosis upon USMB treatment. These results indicate that USMB enhances both CME and <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span> endocytosis through distinct signaling mechanisms, and suggest that strategies for potentiating the enhancement of endocytosis upon USMB treatment may improve targeted</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1303258','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1303258"><span>Implicitly solving <span class="hlt">phase</span> appearance and disappearance problems using two-<span class="hlt">fluid</span> six-equation model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zou, Ling; Zhao, Haihua; Zhang, Hongbin</p> <p>2016-01-25</p> <p><span class="hlt">Phase</span> appearance and disappearance issue presents serious numerical challenges in two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> flow simulations using the two-<span class="hlt">fluid</span> six-equation model. Numerical challenges arise from the singular equation system when one <span class="hlt">phase</span> is absent, as well as from the discontinuity in the solution space when one <span class="hlt">phase</span> appears or disappears. In this work, a high-resolution spatial discretization scheme on staggered grids and fully implicit methods were applied for the simulation of two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> flow problems using the two-<span class="hlt">fluid</span> six-equation model. A Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) method was used to solve the discretized nonlinear problem. An improved numerical treatment was proposed and proved to be effective to handle the numerical challenges. The treatment scheme is conceptually simple, easy to implement, and does not require explicit truncations on solutions, which is essential to conserve mass and energy. Various types of <span class="hlt">phase</span> appearance and disappearance problems relevant to thermal-hydraulics analysis have been investigated, including a sedimentation problem, an oscillating manometer problem, a non-condensable gas injection problem, a single-<span class="hlt">phase</span> flow with heat addition problem and a subcooled flow boiling problem. Successful simulations of these problems demonstrate the capability and robustness of the proposed numerical methods and numerical treatments. As a result, volume fraction of the absent <span class="hlt">phase</span> can be calculated effectively as zero.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1303258-implicitly-solving-phase-appearance-disappearance-problems-using-two-fluid-six-equation-model','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1303258-implicitly-solving-phase-appearance-disappearance-problems-using-two-fluid-six-equation-model"><span>Implicitly solving <span class="hlt">phase</span> appearance and disappearance problems using two-<span class="hlt">fluid</span> six-equation model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Zou, Ling; Zhao, Haihua; Zhang, Hongbin</p> <p>2016-01-25</p> <p><span class="hlt">Phase</span> appearance and disappearance issue presents serious numerical challenges in two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> flow simulations using the two-<span class="hlt">fluid</span> six-equation model. Numerical challenges arise from the singular equation system when one <span class="hlt">phase</span> is absent, as well as from the discontinuity in the solution space when one <span class="hlt">phase</span> appears or disappears. In this work, a high-resolution spatial discretization scheme on staggered grids and fully implicit methods were applied for the simulation of two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> flow problems using the two-<span class="hlt">fluid</span> six-equation model. A Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) method was used to solve the discretized nonlinear problem. An improved numerical treatment was proposed and proved to be effectivemore » to handle the numerical challenges. The treatment scheme is conceptually simple, easy to implement, and does not require explicit truncations on solutions, which is essential to conserve mass and energy. Various types of <span class="hlt">phase</span> appearance and disappearance problems relevant to thermal-hydraulics analysis have been investigated, including a sedimentation problem, an oscillating manometer problem, a non-condensable gas injection problem, a single-<span class="hlt">phase</span> flow with heat addition problem and a subcooled flow boiling problem. Successful simulations of these problems demonstrate the capability and robustness of the proposed numerical methods and numerical treatments. As a result, volume fraction of the absent <span class="hlt">phase</span> can be calculated effectively as zero.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhBio...9a0301K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhBio...9a0301K"><span>A <span class="hlt">fluid</span> biopsy as investigating technology for the <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span> of solid tumors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuhn, Peter; Bethel, Kelly</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>, which has shown predictive utility in several cancer types—the blurry outlines of things to come began to coalesce. The field of CTC research is in its adolescence; enumeration and characterization research effort is methodologically varied, vigorously individuated and rich in innovation. The high definition CTC (HD-CTC) assay described herein and applied to several currently relevant research questions about cancer spread represents a new measure of an internal biologic process that will hopefully lead to great advancements in cancer medicine. First, the paper entitled '<span class="hlt">Fluid</span> biopsy in patients with metastatic prostate, pancreatic and breast cancers' by Marrinucci et al, represents the initial technical and clinical validation of an enrichment-free assay and demonstrates our ability to identify significant numbers of HD-CTCs in a majority of patients with prostate, breast and pancreatic cancers. It demonstrates very high rates of detection (>50%) in breast, prostate and pancreatic cancer patients with no CTCs found in normal control subjects. The assay detects significantly higher numbers of CTCs than the FDA-approved Cellsearch® assay and shows the presence of clusters of CTCs in many patients. The nature of the clusters is further evaluated in 'Characterization of circulating tumor cell aggregates identified in patients with epithelial tumors' by Cho et al, wherein CTC aggregates are identified in 43% of 86 patient samples. The fraction of CTC aggregation was investigated in blood draws from 24 breast, 14 non-small cell lung (NSCLC), 18 pancreatic, 15 prostate stage IV cancer patients and 15 normal blood donors (NBD). Cells contained in CTC aggregates had less area and length, on average, than single CTCs. The nuclear to cytoplasmic (N/C) ratio between single CTCs and CTC aggregates was similar. To assist with translating into patients the substantial cell biology work done using cell line cells instead of human tumor tissue, the paper entitled 'Cytometric</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRE..118....1H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRE..118....1H"><span>Acid sulfate alteration of fluorapatite, basaltic glass and olivine by hydrothermal vapors and <span class="hlt">fluids</span>: Implications for fumarolic activity and secondary phosphate <span class="hlt">phases</span> in sulfate-rich Paso Robles soil at Gusev Crater, Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hausrath, E. M.; Golden, D. C.; Morris, R. V.; Agresti, D. G.; Ming, D. W.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Phosphate-rich rocks and a nearby phosphate-rich soil, Paso Robles, were analyzed in Gusev Crater, Mars, by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit and interpreted to be highly altered, possibly by hydrothermal or fumarolic alteration of primary, phosphate-rich material. To test mineral <span class="hlt">phases</span> resulting from such alteration, we performed hydrothermal acid-vapor and acid-<span class="hlt">fluid</span> experiments on olivine (Ol), fluorapatite (Ap), and basaltic glass (Gl) as single <span class="hlt">phases</span> and a mixture of <span class="hlt">phases</span>. Minerals formed include Ca-, Al-, Fe- and Mg-sulfates with different <span class="hlt">hydration</span> states (anhydrite, bassanite, gypsum; alunogen; hexahydrite, and pentahydrite). Phosphate-bearing minerals formed included monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCP) (acid-vapor and acid-<span class="hlt">fluid</span> alteration of fluorapatite only) and ferrian giniite (acid-<span class="hlt">fluid</span> alteration of the Ol + Gl + Ap mixture). MCP is likely present in Paso Robles if primary Ca-phosphate minerals reacted with sulfuric acid with little transport of phosphate. Under <span class="hlt">fluid</span>:rock ratios allowing transport of phosphate, a ferric phosphate <span class="hlt">phase</span> such as ferrian giniite might form instead. Mössbauer measurements of ferrian giniite-bearing alteration products and synthetic ferrian giniite are consistent with Spirit's Mössbauer measurements of the ferric-bearing <span class="hlt">phase</span> in Paso Robes soil, but are also consistent with ferric sulfate <span class="hlt">phases</span> in the low-P soil Arad_Samra. Therefore, Mössbauer data alone do not constrain the <span class="hlt">fluid</span>:rock ratio. However, the excess iron (hematite) in Paso Robles soil, which implies aqueous transport, combined with our laboratory experiments, suggest acid-sulfate alteration in a hydrothermal (fumarolic) environment at <span class="hlt">fluid</span>:rock ratios sufficient to allow dissolution, transport, and precipitation of secondary chemical components including a ferric phosphate such as ferrian giniite.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ArRMA.224....1F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ArRMA.224....1F"><span><span class="hlt">Phase</span>-Field and Korteweg-Type Models for the Time-Dependent Flow of Compressible Two-<span class="hlt">Phase</span> <span class="hlt">Fluids</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Freistühler, Heinrich; Kotschote, Matthias</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Various versions of the Navier-Stokes-Allen-Cahn (NSAC), the Navier-Stokes-Cahn-Hilliard (NSCH), and the Navier-Stokes-Korteweg (NSK) equations have been used in the literature to model the dynamics of two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">fluids</span>. One main purpose of this paper consists in (re-)deriving NSAC, NSCH and NSK from first principles, in the spirit of rational mechanics, for <span class="hlt">fluids</span> of very general constitutive laws. For NSAC, this deduction confirms and extends a proposal of Blesgen. Regarding NSCH, it continues work of Lowengrub and Truskinovsky and provides the apparently first justified formulation in the non-isothermal case. For NSK, it yields a most natural correction to the formulation by Dunn and Serrin. The paper uniformly recovers as examples various classes of <span class="hlt">fluids</span>, distinguished according to whether none, one, or both of the <span class="hlt">phases</span> are compressible, and according to the nature of their co-existence. The latter is captured not only by the mixing energy, but also by a `mixing rule'—a constitutive law that characterizes the type of the mixing. A second main purpose of the paper is to communicate the apparently new observation that in the case of two immiscible incompressible <span class="hlt">phases</span> of different temperature-independent specific volumes, NSAC reduces literally to NSK. This finding may be considered as an independent justification of NSK. An analogous fact is shown for NSCH, which under the same assumption reduces to a new non-local version of NSK.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020061','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020061"><span>Well log evaluation of gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> saturations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Collett, T.S.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The amount of gas sequestered in gas <span class="hlt">hydrates</span> is probably enormous, but estimates are highly speculative due to the lack of previous quantitative studies. Gas volumes that may be attributed to a gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> accumulation within a given geologic setting are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters; one of which, gas-<span class="hlt">hydrate</span> saturation, can be assessed with data obtained from downhole well logging devices. The primary objective of this study was to develop quantitative well-log evaluation techniques which will permit the calculation of gas-<span class="hlt">hydrate</span> saturations in gas-<span class="hlt">hydrate</span>-bearing sedimentary units. The "standard" and "quick look" Archie relations (resistivity log data) yielded accurate gas-<span class="hlt">hydrate</span> and free-gas saturations within all of the gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> accumulations assessed in the field verification <span class="hlt">phase</span> of the study. Compressional wave acoustic log data have been used along with the Timur, modified Wood, and the Lee weighted average acoustic equations to calculate accurate gas-<span class="hlt">hydrate</span> saturations in all of the gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> accumulations assessed in this study. The well log derived gas-<span class="hlt">hydrate</span> saturations calculated in the field verification <span class="hlt">phase</span> of this study, which range from as low as 2% to as high as 97%, confirm that gas <span class="hlt">hydrates</span> represent a potentially important source of natural gas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRB..11511103D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRB..11511103D"><span>Origin and evolution of fracture-hosted methane <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> deposits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Daigle, Hugh; Dugan, Brandon</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>Fracture-hosted methane <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> deposits exist at many sites worldwide. These sites often have <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> present as vein and fracture fill, as well as disseminated through the pore space. We estimate that thousands to millions of years are required to form fracture systems by hydraulic fracturing driven by occlusion of the pore system by <span class="hlt">hydrate</span>. This time scale is a function of rates of <span class="hlt">fluid</span> flow and permeability loss. Low-permeability layers in a sedimentary column can reduce this time if the permeability contrast with respect to the surrounding sediments is of order 10 or greater. Additionally, we find that tensile fracturing produced by <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> heave around <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> lenses is a viable fracture mechanism over all but the lowermost part of the <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> stability zone. With our coupled <span class="hlt">fluid</span> flow-<span class="hlt">hydrate</span> formation model we assess fracture formation at four well-studied <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> provinces: Blake Ridge offshore South Carolina, <span class="hlt">Hydrate</span> Ridge offshore Oregon, Keathley Canyon Block 151 offshore Louisiana, and the Krishna-Godavari Basin offshore India. We conclude that hydraulic fracturing due to pore pressure buildup is reasonable only at <span class="hlt">Hydrate</span> Ridge and the Krishna-Godavari Basin owing to sediment age constraints, and that <span class="hlt">hydrate</span>-filled fractures observed at Blake Ridge and Keathley Canyon Block 151 are formed either by <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> heave or in preexisting fractures. Our findings offer new insight into the processes and time scales associated with fracture-hosted <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> deposits, which help further our understanding of <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> systems.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.745c2133F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.745c2133F"><span><span class="hlt">Phase</span> change dispersion, potentially a new class of heat transfer <span class="hlt">fluids</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fischer, L. J.; von Arx, S.; Wechsler, U.; Züst, S.; Worlitschek, J.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The authors present values and an application of a <span class="hlt">phase</span> change dispersion, where the dispersed <span class="hlt">phase</span> change material within water changes from solid to liquid while absorbing heat and changes from liquid to solid while releasing heat at constant temperature. The <span class="hlt">phase</span> change enthalpy increases the “apparent specific heat capacity” significantly in comparison to water. As the heat transfer takes place at constant temperature, the heat transfer <span class="hlt">fluid</span> itself remains at constant temperature while absorbing heat. Isothermal heating and cooling of devices with a liquid is feasible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19980000080&hterms=la&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dla','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19980000080&hterms=la&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dla"><span>Direct numerical simulations of <span class="hlt">fluid</span> flow, heat transfer and <span class="hlt">phase</span> changes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Juric, D.; Tryggvason, G.; Han, J.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Direct numerical simulations of <span class="hlt">fluid</span> flow, heat transfer, and <span class="hlt">phase</span> changes are presented. The simulations are made possible by a recently developed finite difference/front tracking method based on the one-field formulation of the governing equations where a single set of conservation equations is written for all the <span class="hlt">phases</span> involved. The conservation equations are solved on a fixed rectangular grid, but the <span class="hlt">phase</span> boundaries are kept sharp by tracking them explicitly by a moving grid of lower dimension. The method is discussed and applications to boiling heat transfer and the solidification of drops colliding with a wall are shown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/863551','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/863551"><span>Device for measuring the <span class="hlt">fluid</span> density of a two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> mixture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Cole, Jack H.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>A device for measuring the <span class="hlt">fluid</span> density of a two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> mixture flowing through a tubular member. A rotor assembly is rotatively supported within the tubular member so that it can also move axially within the tubular member. The rotor assembly is balanced against a pair of springs which exert an axial force in the opposite direction upon the rotor assembly. As a two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> mixture flows through the tubular member it contacts the rotor assembly causing it to rotate about its axis. The rotor assembly is forced against and partially compresses the springs. Means are provided to measure the rotational speed of the rotor assembly and the linear displacement of the rotor assembly. From these measurements the <span class="hlt">fluid</span> density of the two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> mixture is calculated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/256946','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/256946"><span><span class="hlt">Hydrate</span> problems in pipelines: A study from Norwegian continental waters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lysne, D.; Larsen, R.; Lund, A.; Thomsen, A.K.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>This study was undertaken by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate and SINTEF to identify <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> problems occurring in pipelines on the Norwegian continental shelf. A brief review of <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> dissociation theory is given. Three major techniques for <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> removal are discussed, as well as hazards related to <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> plug removal. Questionnaire answers from 15 companies operating in Norwegian waters show three specific occurrences of <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> plugs in the North Sea. Problems from other geographical areas are also discussed. <span class="hlt">Hydrate</span> problems are reported for a wide variety of pipe lengths, diameters, profiles, insulations characteristics and <span class="hlt">fluids</span>. Most problems occur during normal operation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3809323','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3809323"><span>A Computational Study of Systemic <span class="hlt">Hydration</span> in Vocal Fold Collision</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bhattacharya, Pinaki; Siegmund, Thomas</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Mechanical stresses develop within vocal fold (VF) soft tissues, due to phonation-associated vibration and collision. These stresses in turn affect the <span class="hlt">hydration</span> of VF tissue and thus influence voice health. In this paper, high-fidelty numerical computations are described taking into account fully three-dimensional geometry, realistic tissue and air properties, and high-amplitude vibration and collision. A segregated solver approach is employed, using sophisticated commercial solvers for both the VF tissue and glottal airflow domains. The tissue viscoelastic properties were derived from a biphasic formulation. Two cases were considered, whereby the tissue viscoelastic properties corresponded to two different volume fractions of the <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span> of the VF tissue. For each case, hydrostatic stresses occurring as a result of vibration and collision were investigated. Assuming the VF tissue to be poroelastic, interstitial <span class="hlt">fluid</span> movement within VF tissue was estimated from the hydrostatic stress gradient. Computed measures of overall VF dynamics (peak air-flow velocity, magnitude of VF deformation, frequency of vibration and contact pressure) were well within the range of experimentally observed values. The VF motion leading to mechanical stresses within the VFs and their effect on the interstitial <span class="hlt">fluid</span> flux is detailed. It is found that average deformation and vibration of VFs tends to increase the state of <span class="hlt">hydration</span> of the VF tissue whereas VF collision works to reduce <span class="hlt">hydration</span>. PMID:23531170</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23531170','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23531170"><span>A computational study of systemic <span class="hlt">hydration</span> in vocal fold collision.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bhattacharya, Pinaki; Siegmund, Thomas</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Mechanical stresses develop within vocal fold (VF) soft tissues due to phonation-associated vibration and collision. These stresses in turn affect the <span class="hlt">hydration</span> of VF tissue and thus influence voice health. In this paper, high-fidelity numerical computations are described, taking into account fully 3D geometry, realistic tissue and air properties, and high-amplitude vibration and collision. A segregated solver approach is employed, using sophisticated commercial solvers for both the VF tissue and glottal airflow domains. The tissue viscoelastic properties were derived from a biphasic formulation. Two cases were considered, whereby the tissue viscoelastic properties corresponded to two different volume fractions of the <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span> of the VF tissue. For each case, hydrostatic stresses occurring as a result of vibration and collision were investigated. Assuming the VF tissue to be poroelastic, interstitial <span class="hlt">fluid</span> movement within VF tissue was estimated from the hydrostatic stress gradient. Computed measures of overall VF dynamics (peak airflow velocity, magnitude of VF deformation, frequency of vibration and contact pressure) were well within the range of experimentally observed values. The VF motion leading to mechanical stresses within the VFs and their effect on the interstitial <span class="hlt">fluid</span> flux is detailed. It is found that average deformation and vibration of VFs tend to increase the state of <span class="hlt">hydration</span> of the VF tissue, whereas VF collision works to reduce <span class="hlt">hydration</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/573237','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/573237"><span>Bacterial migration and motion in a <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span> and near a solid surface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Frymier, P.D. Jr.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>An understanding of the migration and motion of bacteria in a <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span> and near solid surfaces is necessary to characterize processes such as the bioremediation of hazardous waste, the pathogenesis of infection, industrial biofouling and wastewater treatment, among others. This study addresses three questions concerning the prediction of the distribution of a population of bacteria in a <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span> and the motion of bacteria near a solid surface: Under what conditions does a one-dimensional phenomenological model for the density of a population of chemotactic bacteria yield an adequate representation of the migration of bacteria subject to a one-dimensional attractant gradient? How are the values of transport coefficients obtained from experimental data affected by the use of the one-dimensional phenomenological model and also by the use of different descriptions of bacterial swimming behavior in a mathematically rigorous balance equation? How is the characteristic motion of bacteria swimming in a <span class="hlt">fluid</span> affected by the presence of a solid <span class="hlt">phase</span>? A computer simulation that rigorously models the movement of a large population of individual chemotactic bacteria in three dimensions is developed to test the validity of a one-dimensional phenomenological model for bacterial migration in a <span class="hlt">fluid</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22415615','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22415615"><span>Effects of confinement on anomalies and <span class="hlt">phase</span> transitions of core-softened <span class="hlt">fluids</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Krott, Leandro B. Barbosa, Marcia C.; Bordin, José Rafael</p> <p>2015-04-07</p> <p>We use molecular dynamics simulations to study how the confinement affects the dynamic, thermodynamic, and structural properties of a confined anomalous <span class="hlt">fluid</span>. The <span class="hlt">fluid</span> is modeled using an effective pair potential derived from the ST4 atomistic model for water. This system exhibits density, structural, and dynamical anomalies, and the vapor-liquid and liquid-liquid critical points similar to the quantities observed in bulk water. The confinement is modeled both by smooth and structured walls. The temperatures of extreme density and diffusion for the confined <span class="hlt">fluid</span> show a shift to lower values while the pressures move to higher amounts for both smooth and structured confinements. In the case of smooth walls, the critical points and the limit between <span class="hlt">fluid</span> and amorphous <span class="hlt">phases</span> show a non-monotonic change in the temperatures and pressures when the nanopore size is increase. In the case of structured walls, the pressures and temperatures of the critical points varies monotonically with the pore size. Our results are explained on basis of the competition between the different length scales of the <span class="hlt">fluid</span> and the wall-<span class="hlt">fluid</span> interaction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70157170','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70157170"><span>Well log characterization of natural gas <span class="hlt">hydrates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Myung W.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In the last 25 years we have seen significant advancements in the use of downhole well logging tools to acquire detailed information on the occurrence of gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> in nature: From an early start of using wireline electrical resistivity and acoustic logs to identify gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> occurrences in wells drilled in Arctic permafrost environments to today where wireline and advanced logging-while-drilling tools are routinely used to examine the petrophysical nature of gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> reservoirs and the distribution and concentration of gas <span class="hlt">hydrates</span> within various complex reservoir systems. The most established and well known use of downhole log data in gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> research is the use of electrical resistivity and acoustic velocity data (both compressional- and shear-wave data) to make estimates of gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> content (i.e., reservoir saturations) in various sediment types and geologic settings. New downhole logging tools designed to make directionally oriented acoustic and propagation resistivity log measurements have provided the data needed to analyze the acoustic and electrical anisotropic properties of both highly inter-bedded and fracture dominated gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> reservoirs. Advancements in nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) logging and wireline formation testing have also allowed for the characterization of gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> at the pore scale. Integrated NMR and formation testing studies from northern Canada and Alaska have yielded valuable insight into how gas <span class="hlt">hydrates</span> are physically distributed in sediments and the occurrence and nature of pore <span class="hlt">fluids</span> (i.e., free-water along with clay and capillary bound water) in gas-<span class="hlt">hydrate</span>-bearing reservoirs. Information on the distribution of gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> at the pore scale has provided invaluable insight on the mechanisms controlling the formation and occurrence of gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> in nature along with data on gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> reservoir properties (i.e., permeabilities) needed to accurately predict gas production rates for various gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015E%26ES...27a2053S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015E%26ES...27a2053S"><span>The research of sapropels as the drilling <span class="hlt">fluids</span> in dispersed <span class="hlt">phase</span> (Lake Kirek)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sagitov, R. R.; Minaev, K. M.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>This research describes the application of Kirek Lake sapropel as a drilling <span class="hlt">fluid</span> in dispersed <span class="hlt">phase</span> which could replace traditionally used clay powders in drilling <span class="hlt">fluids</span>. Sapropel is century-old bed silt of freshwater lakes of more than 12 000 years, i.e. Holocene. It consists of natural organic and inorganic substances and chemically is a complex multicomponent biogenic genesis system. Humic complexes and wulfonic acids, polysaccharides, carbonic and protein polymers comprise sapropel suspension texture. This article introduces formulations and laboratory research of sapropel suspensions and thermal activation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvC..93c4336G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvC..93c4336G"><span><span class="hlt">Phase</span> diagram of the two-<span class="hlt">fluid</span> Lipkin model: A "butterfly" catastrophe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>García-Ramos, J. E.; Pérez-Fernández, P.; Arias, J. M.; Freire, E.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Background: In the past few decades quantum <span class="hlt">phase</span> transitions have been of great interest in nuclear physics. In this context, two-<span class="hlt">fluid</span> algebraic models are ideal systems to study how the concept of quantum <span class="hlt">phase</span> transition evolves when moving into more complex systems, but the number of publications along this line has been scarce up to now. Purpose: We intend to determine the <span class="hlt">phase</span> diagram of a two-<span class="hlt">fluid</span> Lipkin model that resembles the nuclear proton-neutron interacting boson model Hamiltonian using both numerical results and analytic tools, i.e., catastrophe theory, and compare the mean-field results with exact diagonalizations for large systems. Method: The mean-field energy surface of a consistent-Q -like two-<span class="hlt">fluid</span> Lipkin Hamiltonian is studied and compared with exact results coming from a direct diagonalization. The mean-field results are analyzed using the framework of catastrophe theory. Results: The <span class="hlt">phase</span> diagram of the model is obtained and the order of the different <span class="hlt">phase</span>-transition lines and surfaces is determined using a catastrophe theory analysis. Conclusions: There are two first-order surfaces in the <span class="hlt">phase</span> diagram, one separating the spherical and the deformed shapes, while the other separates two different deformed <span class="hlt">phases</span>. A second-order line, where the later surfaces merge, is found. This line finishes in a transition point with a divergence in the second-order derivative of the energy that corresponds to a tricritical point in the language of the Ginzburg-Landau theory for <span class="hlt">phase</span> transitions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6320237','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6320237"><span>Olefin <span class="hlt">hydration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Butt, M.H.D.; Waller, F.J.</p> <p>1993-08-03</p> <p>An improved process for the <span class="hlt">hydration</span> of olefins to alcohols is described wherein the improvement comprises contacting said olefins with the catalytic composition comprising a perfluorinated ion-exchange polymer containing sulfonic acid groups supported on an inert carrier wherein said carrier comprises calcined shot coke with a mean pore diameter of about 1,000 Angstroms in the presence of water at a temperature of from about 180 C to about 250 C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5232769','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5232769"><span>Handbook of gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> properties and occurrence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kuustraa, V.A.; Hammershaimb, E.C.</p> <p>1983-12-01</p> <p>This handbook provides data on the resource potential of naturally occurring <span class="hlt">hydrates</span>, the properties that are needed to evaluate their recovery, and their production potential. The first two chapters give data on the naturally occurring <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> potential by reviewing published resource estimates and the known and inferred occurrences. The third and fourth chapters review the physical and thermodynamic properties of <span class="hlt">hydrates</span>, respectively. The thermodynamic properties of <span class="hlt">hydrates</span> that are discussed include dissociation energies and a simplified method to calculate them; <span class="hlt">phase</span> diagrams for simple and multi-component gases; the thermal conductivity; and the kinetics of <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> dissociation. The final chapter evaluates the net energy balance of recovering <span class="hlt">hydrates</span> and shows that a substantial positive energy balance can theoretically be achieved. The Appendices of the Handbook summarize physical and thermodynamic properties of gases, liquids and solids that can be used in designing and evaluating recovery processes of <span class="hlt">hydrates</span>. 158 references, 67 figures, 47 tables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhFl...25i2103D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhFl...25i2103D"><span>On the transition between two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> and single-<span class="hlt">phase</span> interface dynamics in multicomponent <span class="hlt">fluids</span> at supercritical pressures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dahms, Rainer N.; Oefelein, Joseph C.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>A theory that explains the operating pressures where liquid injection processes transition from exhibiting classical two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> spray atomization phenomena to single-<span class="hlt">phase</span> diffusion-dominated mixing is presented. Imaging from a variety of experiments have long shown that under certain conditions, typically when the pressure of the working <span class="hlt">fluid</span> exceeds the thermodynamic critical pressure of the liquid <span class="hlt">phase</span>, the presence of discrete two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> flow processes become diminished. Instead, the classical gas-liquid interface is replaced by diffusion-dominated mixing. When and how this transition occurs, however, is not well understood. Modern theory still lacks a physically based model to quantify this transition and the precise mechanisms that lead to it. In this paper, we derive a new model that explains how the transition occurs in multicomponent <span class="hlt">fluids</span> and present a detailed analysis to quantify it. The model applies a detailed property evaluation scheme based on a modified 32-term Benedict-Webb-Rubin equation of state that accounts for the relevant real-<span class="hlt">fluid</span> thermodynamic and transport properties of the multicomponent system. This framework is combined with Linear Gradient Theory, which describes the detailed molecular structure of the vapor-liquid interface region. Our analysis reveals that the two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> interface breaks down not necessarily due to vanishing surface tension forces, but due to thickened interfaces at high subcritical temperatures coupled with an inherent reduction of the mean free molecular path. At a certain point, the combination of reduced surface tension, the thicker interface, and reduced mean free molecular path enter the continuum length scale regime. When this occurs, inter-molecular forces approach that of the multicomponent continuum where transport processes dominate across the interfacial region. This leads to a continuous <span class="hlt">phase</span> transition from compressed liquid to supercritical mixture states. Based on this theory, a regime diagram for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JChPh.124e4503H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JChPh.124e4503H"><span>Pair-correlation functions and <span class="hlt">phase</span> separation in a two-component point Yukawa <span class="hlt">fluid</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hopkins, P.; Archer, A. J.; Evans, R.</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>We investigate the structure of a binary mixture of particles interacting via purely repulsive point Yukawa pair potentials with a common inverse screening length λ. Using the hypernetted chain closure to the Ornstein-Zernike equations, we find that for a system with "ideal" (Berthelot mixing rule) pair-potential parameters for the interaction between unlike species, the asymptotic decay of the total correlation functions crosses over from monotonic to damped oscillatory on increasing the <span class="hlt">fluid</span> total density at fixed composition. This gives rise to a Kirkwood line in the <span class="hlt">phase</span> diagram. We also consider a "nonideal" system, in which the Berthelot mixing rule is multiplied by a factor (1+δ). For any δ >0 the system exhibits <span class="hlt">fluid-fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span> separation and remarkably the ultimate decay of the correlation functions is now monotonic for all (mixture) state points. Only in the limit of vanishing concentration of either species does one find oscillatory decay extending to r =∞. In the nonideal case the simple random-<span class="hlt">phase</span> approximation provides a good description of the <span class="hlt">phase</span> separation and the accompanying Lifshitz line.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/418984','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/418984"><span>Measurement techniques for local and global <span class="hlt">fluid</span> dynamic quantities in two and three <span class="hlt">phase</span> systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kumar, S.; Dudukovic, M.P.; Toseland, B.A.</p> <p>1996-03-01</p> <p>This report presents a critical review of the methods available for assessing the <span class="hlt">fluid</span> dynamic parameters in large industrial two and three <span class="hlt">phase</span> bubble column and slurry bubble column reactors operated at high pressure and temperature. The physical principles behind various methods are explained, and the basic design of the instrumentation needed to implement each measurement principle is discussed. <span class="hlt">Fluid</span> dynamic properties of interest are: gas, liquid and solids holdup and their axial and radial distribution as well as the velocity distribution of the two (bubble column) or three <span class="hlt">phases</span> (slurry bubble column). This information on operating pilot plant and plant reactors is essential to verify the computational <span class="hlt">fluid</span> dynamic codes as well as scale-up rules used in reactor design. Without such information extensive and costly scale-up to large reactors that exploit syngas chemistries, and other reactors in production of fuels and chemicals, cannot be avoided. In this report, available measurement techniques for evaluation of global and local <span class="hlt">phase</span> holdups, instantaneous and average <span class="hlt">phase</span> velocities and for the determination of bubble sizes in gas-liquid and gas-liquid-solid systems are reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of various techniques are discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on identifying methods that can be employed on large scale, thick wall, high pressure and high temperature reactors used in the manufacture of fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas and its derivatives.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DFDM22010T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DFDM22010T"><span>Suppression of turbulent energy cascade due to <span class="hlt">phase</span> separation in homogenous binary mixture <span class="hlt">fluid</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Takagi, Youhei; Okamoto, Sachiya</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>When a multi-component <span class="hlt">fluid</span> mixture becomes themophysically unstable state by quenching from well-melting condition, <span class="hlt">phase</span> separation due to spinodal decomposition occurs, and a self-organized structure is formed. During <span class="hlt">phase</span> separation, free energy is consumed for the structure formation. In our previous report, the <span class="hlt">phase</span> separation in homogenous turbulence was numerically simulated and the coarsening process of <span class="hlt">phase</span> separation was discussed. In this study, we extended our numerical model to a high Schmidt number <span class="hlt">fluid</span> corresponding to actual polymer solution. The governing equations were continuity, Navier-Stokes, and Chan-Hiliard equations as same as our previous report. The flow filed was an isotropic homogenous turbulence, and the dimensionless parameters in the Chan-Hilliard equation were estimated based on the thermophysical condition of binary mixture. From the numerical results, it was found that turbulent energy cascade was drastically suppressed in the inertial subrange by <span class="hlt">phase</span> separation for the high Schmidt number flow. By using the identification of turbulent and <span class="hlt">phase</span> separation structure, we discussed the relation between total energy balance and the structures formation processes. This study is financially supported by the Grand-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B) (No. T26820045) from the Ministry of Education, Cul-ture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V21A4740H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V21A4740H"><span>Geochemistry of Multicomponent <span class="hlt">Fluid</span> <span class="hlt">Phases</span> in the Krafla High-Enthalpy Geothermal System, NE Iceland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hermanska, M.; Stefansson, A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Many active volcanic systems are associated with high-enthalpy geothermal systems. For systems characterized by shallow magmatic intrusions, liquid water often predominates at depth with two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">fluids</span>, vapor and liquid water, occurring at shallower depth due to depressurization boiling. Close to the intrusion, superheated or supercritical vapor may also occur. The Krafla high-enthalpy geothermal system provides an ideal opportunity to study such volcanic geothermal systems. Over forty wells have been drilled into the system with <span class="hlt">fluid</span> discharge temperatures of <200°C to ~450°C and enthalpy between <900 and >3200 kJ/kg. In this study, geochemical modelling of multicomponent <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phases</span> associated with shallow magmatic intrusions were conducted across variable temperature, pressure and enthalpy conditions and the results compared with the <span class="hlt">fluid</span> geochemistry of the Krafla system. Within the reservoir at geothermal temperatures (250-300°C) liquid water predominates. Under these conditions, the concentrations of most major elements are controlled by equilibrium with secondary minerals. Geochemical modelling and observations at Krafla support these findings. Around the magma intrusions believed to be at shallow depth at Krafla, superheated vapor is formed. Such <span class="hlt">fluid</span> was discharged by the IDDP-1 well at 450°C and 140 bar. According to the geochemical modelling, superheated vapor is produced upon heat addition by the intrusion to the surrounding geothermal water resulting in boiling to dryness, precipitation of non-volatiles (Si, Fe, Mg, Al, SO4, Na, K, Ca) whereas volatiles (CO2, H2S, Cl, F, B) are unaffected. By mass, quartz is the predominant secondary mineral around the intrusions. The chemical composition of the modelled and observed superheated vapor compared well. Upon ascent and depressurization of the liquid geothermal water and the superheated vapor various processes may occur, including superheated vapor condensation, mixing and depressurization boiling</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.H22E..11R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.H22E..11R"><span>Constraining the Hydrogeology of Marine Gas <span class="hlt">Hydrate</span> Areas in the Gulf of Mexico Using High-Resolution Geophysical Methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ruppel, C.; Brooks, J.; O'Brien, T.; Lizarralde, D.; Nimblett, J.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>Previous work in our group has demonstrated that <span class="hlt">fluid</span> (water + aqueous <span class="hlt">phase</span> gas), gas, and energy fluxes largely control the dynamics of marine gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> provinces. In the Gulf of Mexico, stratigraphic and structural complexities impart a high degree of spatial and temporal variability to these flux regimes and to the resulting concentration and distribution of gas <span class="hlt">hydrates</span>. While this complexity poses a challenge to understanding the hydrogeology of gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> zones in the Gulf, the juxtaposition of low and high flux regions and of diffuse and focused flux zones provides an important opportunity to study a range of <span class="hlt">hydrate</span>-related environments at a compressed spatial scale. An additional advantage in this setting is related to elevated thermal gradients and high advective transport rates, which lead to the formation and long-term stability of gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> at the seafloor or in the uppermost meters of sediment in some locations. Gulf of Mexico gas <span class="hlt">hydrates</span> are therefore sometimes highly accessible to geophysical methods that yield information about the shallowest part of the sedimentary column. In this study, we apply high-resolution geophysical methods to image <span class="hlt">fluid</span> conduits, describe the thermal state of the gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> reservoir, constrain advective <span class="hlt">fluid</span> flux rates, and map lateral variability in flow regimes in 3 regions targeted for possible future gas <span class="hlt">hydrates</span> drilling in the Gulf of Mexico: Mississippi Canyon, Bush Hill (GC 185), and Garden Banks 425. Using limited Chirp seismic data, we determine the location of stratigraphic and structural features that focus <span class="hlt">fluid</span> flow or trap <span class="hlt">fluids</span> and gas, processes that both contribute to increased concentrations of gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> under many circumstances. In a relatively novel application of traditional marine heat flow methods, we also report the results of high-resolution surveys that exploit the inherent accuracy of the instrumentation to map lateral changes in thermal regimes on multiple spatial scales as one</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMNG23A1381C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMNG23A1381C"><span><span class="hlt">Fluid</span> flow and damage in two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> media: theory and application to carbon sequestration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cai, Z.; Bercovici, D.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Carbon sequestration is a leading mitigation approach to reduce CO2 levels caused by fossil fuel consumption. The most stable sequestration strategy is geological sequestration, which injects CO2 into reservoir of mafic and ultramafic rocks underground to form stable carbonates. One challenge for this strategy would be the saturated mineral-<span class="hlt">fluid</span> contact surfaces during reactions. Hydrofracturing might be the best mechanism or opening up new surfaces and increasing permeability to enhance <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span> uptake and reactions. We investigate the basic physics of compaction with damage theory proposed by Bercovici et. al.[2001a, JGR] and present preliminary results of both steady-state and time-dependent transport when <span class="hlt">fluid</span> migrates through porous medium. This work provides a framework for understanding the percolating <span class="hlt">fluid</span> migration with a pore-generating damage front. The propagation velocity of porosity waves in two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> media is strongly dependent on damage, which can theoretically transform dispersive waves into rapidly propagating shock waves and effectively creates new contact surfaces. Further development and expansion with necessary physical conditions, forcings and chemical reactions would help examine the viability of CO2 injection into subterranean formations.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMEP41D..04M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMEP41D..04M"><span>A Two-<span class="hlt">Phase</span> Solid/<span class="hlt">Fluid</span> Model for Dense Granular Flows Including Dilatancy Effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mangeney, A.; Bouchut, F.; Fernández-Nieto, E. D.; Narbona-Reina, G.; Kone, E. H.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>We propose a thin layer depth-averaged two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> model to describe solid-<span class="hlt">fluid</span> mixtures such as debris flows. It describes the velocity of the two <span class="hlt">phases</span>, the compression/dilatation of the granular media and its interaction with the pore <span class="hlt">fluid</span> pressure, that itself modifies the friction within the granular <span class="hlt">phase</span> (Iverson et al., 2010). The model is derived from a 3D two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> model proposed by Jackson (2000) based on the 4 equations of mass and momentum conservation within the two <span class="hlt">phases</span>. This system has 5 unknowns: the solid and <span class="hlt">fluid</span> velocities, the solid and <span class="hlt">fluid</span> pressures and the solid volume fraction. As a result, an additional equation inside the mixture is necessary to close the system. Surprisingly, this issue is inadequately accounted for in the models that have been developed on the basis of Jackson's work (Bouchut et al., 2014). In particular, Pitman and Le replaced this closure simply by imposing an extra boundary condition at the surface of the flow. When making a shallow expansion, this condition can be considered as a closure condition. However, the corresponding model cannot account for a dissipative energy balance. We propose here an approach to correctly deal with the thermodynamics of Jackson's equations. We close the mixture equations by a weak compressibility relation involving a critical density, or equivalently a critical pressure. Moreover, we relax one boundary condition, making it possible for the <span class="hlt">fluid</span> to escape the granular media when compression of the granular mass occurs. Furthermore, we introduce second order terms in the equations making it possible to describe the evolution of the pore <span class="hlt">fluid</span> pressure in response to the compression/dilatation of the granular mass without prescribing an extra ad-hoc equation for the pore pressure. We prove that the energy balance associated with this Jackson closure is dissipative, as well as its thin layer associated model. We present several numerical tests for the 1D case that are compared to the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714629M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714629M"><span>A Two-<span class="hlt">Phase</span> Solid/<span class="hlt">Fluid</span> Model for Dense Granular Flows Including Dilatancy Effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mangeney, Anne; Bouchut, Francois; Fernandez-Nieto, Enrique; Narbona-Reina, Gladys</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>We propose a thin layer depth-averaged two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> model to describe solid-<span class="hlt">fluid</span> mixtures such as debris flows. It describes the velocity of the two <span class="hlt">phases</span>, the compression/dilatation of the granular media and its interaction with the pore <span class="hlt">fluid</span> pressure, that itself modifies the friction within the granular <span class="hlt">phase</span> (Iverson et al., 2010). The model is derived from a 3D two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> model proposed by Jackson (2000) based on the 4 equations of mass and momentum conservation within the two <span class="hlt">phases</span>. This system has 5 unknowns: the solid and <span class="hlt">fluid</span> velocities, the solid and <span class="hlt">fluid</span> pressures and the solid volume fraction. As a result, an additional equation inside the mixture is necessary to close the system. Surprisingly, this issue is inadequately accounted for in the models that have been developed on the basis of Jackson's work (Bouchut et al., 2014). In particular, Pitman and Le replaced this closure simply by imposing an extra boundary condition at the surface of the flow. When making a shallow expansion, this condition can be considered as a closure condition. However, the corresponding model cannot account for a dissipative energy balance. We propose here an approach to correctly deal with the thermodynamics of Jackson's equations. We close the mixture equations by a weak compressibility relation involving a critical density, or equivalently a critical pressure. Moreover, we relax one boundary condition, making it possible for the <span class="hlt">fluid</span> to escape the granular media when compression of the granular mass occurs. Furthermore, we introduce second order terms in the equations making it possible to describe the evolution of the pore <span class="hlt">fluid</span> pressure in response to the compression/dilatation of the granular mass without prescribing an extra ad-hoc equation for the pore pressure. We prove that the energy balance associated with this Jackson closure is dissipative, as well as its thin layer associated model. We present several numerical tests for the 1D case that are compared to the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030066277','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030066277"><span>Performance of WPA Conductivity Sensor during Two-<span class="hlt">Phase</span> <span class="hlt">Fluid</span> Flow in Microgravity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Carter, Layne; O'Connor, Edward W.; Snowdon, Doug</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The Conductivity Sensor designed for use in the Node 3 Water Processor Assembly (WPA) was based on the existing Space Shuttle application for the fuel cell water system. However, engineering analysis has determined that this sensor design is potentially sensitive to two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">fluid</span> flow (gadliquid) in microgravity. The source for this sensitivity is the fact that gas bubbles will become lodged between the sensor probe and the wall of the housing without the aid of buoyancy in l-g. Once gas becomes lodged in the housing, the measured conductivity will be offset based on the volume of occluded gas. A development conductivity sensor was flown on the NASA Microgravity Plan to measure the offset, which was determined to range between 0 and 50%. Based on these findings, a development program was initiated at the sensor s manufacturer to develop a sensor design fully compatible with two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">fluid</span> flow in microgravity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6355865','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6355865"><span>Exact calculations of <span class="hlt">phase</span> and membrane equilibria for complex <span class="hlt">fluids</span> by Monte Carlo simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Panagiotopoulos, A.Z.</p> <p>1990-08-28</p> <p>The general objective of this project is the investigation of <span class="hlt">phase</span> equilibria for complex <span class="hlt">fluids</span> using a novel methodology, Monte Carlo simulation in the Gibbs ensemble. The methodology enables the direct determination of the properties of two coexisting <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phases</span> (e.g. a liquid at equilibrium with its vapor) from a single computer experiment, and is applicable to multicomponent systems with arbitrary equilibrium constraints imposed. The specific goals of this work are to adapt the Gibbs technique to (a) highly asymmetric mixtures with large differences in size and potential energies of interaction (b) chain molecules and (c) ionic systems. Significant progress has been made in all three areas. In this paper, we will briefly describe the progress made in each area, using the same numbering scheme for the tasks as in the original proposal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030066212','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030066212"><span>A Generalized Multi-<span class="hlt">Phase</span> Framework for Modeling Cavitation in Cryogenic <span class="hlt">Fluids</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dorney, Dan (Technical Monitor); Hosangadi, Ashvin; Ahuja, Vineet</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>A generalized multi-<span class="hlt">phase</span> formulation for cavitation in <span class="hlt">fluids</span> operating at temperatures elevated relative to their critical temperatures is presented. The thermal effects and the accompanying property variations due to <span class="hlt">phase</span> change are modeled rigorously. Thermal equilibrium is assumed and <span class="hlt">fluid</span> thermodynamic properties are specified along the saturation line using the NIST-12 databank. Fundamental changes in the physical characteristics of the cavity when thermal effects become pronounced are identified; the cavity becomes more porous, the interface less distinct, and has increased entrainment when temperature variations are present. Quantitative estimates of temperature and pressure depressions in both liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen were computed and compared with experimental data of Hord for hydrofoils. Excellent estimates of the leading edge temperature and pressure depression were obtained while the comparisons in the cavity closure region were reasonable. Liquid nitrogen cavities were consistently found to be in thermal equilibrium while liquid hydrogen cavities exhibited small, but distinct, non-equilibrium effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMOS22B..05R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMOS22B..05R"><span>Preferential accumulation of gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> in the Andaman accretionary wedge and relationship to anomalous porosity preservation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rose, K.; Torres, M. E.; Johnson, J. E.; Hong, W.; Giosan, L.; Solomon, E. A.; Kastner, M.; Cawthern, T.; Long, P.; Schaef, T.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In the marine environment, sediments in the gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> stability zone often correspond to slope and basin settings. These settings are dominantly composed of fine-grained silt and clay lithofacies with typically low vertical permeability, and pore <span class="hlt">fluids</span> frequently under-saturated with respect to methane. As a result, the pressure-temperature conditions requisite for a GHSZ to be present occur widely worldwide across marine settings, however, the distribution of gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> in these settings is neither ubiquitous nor uniform. This study uses sediment core and borehole related data recovered by drilling at Site 17 in the Andaman Sea during the Indian National Gas <span class="hlt">Hydrate</span> Program Expedition 1 in 2006, to investigate reservoir-scale controls on gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> distribution. In particular, this study finds that conditions beyond reservoir pressure, temperature, salinity, and gas concentration, appear to influence the concentration of gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> in host sediments. Using field-generated datasets along with newly acquired sedimentology, physical property, imaging and geochemical data with mineral saturation and ion activity products of key mineral <span class="hlt">phases</span> such as amorphous silica and calcite, we document the presence and nature of secondary precipitates that contributed to anomalous porosity preservation at Site 17 in the Andaman Sea. This study demonstrates the importance of grain-scale subsurface heterogeneities in controlling the occurrence and distribution of concentrated gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> accumulations in marine sediments, and document the importance that increased permeability and enhanced porosity play in supporting gas concentrations sufficient to support gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> formation. This illustrates the complex balance and lithology-driven controls on <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> accumulations of higher concentrations and offers insights into what may control the occurrence and distribution of gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> in other sedimentary settings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020173','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020173"><span>Well log evaluation of gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> saturations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Collett, Timothy S.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The amount of gas sequestered in gas <span class="hlt">hydrates</span> is probably enormous, but estimates are highly speculative due to the lack of previous quantitative studies. Gas volumes that may be attributed to a gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> accumulation within a given geologic setting are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters; one of which, gas-<span class="hlt">hydrate</span> saturation, can be assessed with data obtained from downhole well logging devices. The primary objective of this study was to develop quantitative well-log evaluation techniques which will permit the calculation of gas-<span class="hlt">hydrate</span> saturations in gas-<span class="hlt">hydrate</span>-bearing sedimentary units. The `standard' and `quick look' Archie relations (resistivity log data) yielded accurate gas-<span class="hlt">hydrate</span> and free-gas saturations within all of the gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> accumulations assessed in the field verification <span class="hlt">phase</span> of the study. Compressional wave acoustic log data have been used along with the Timur, modified Wood, and the Lee weighted average acoustic equations to calculate accurate gas-<span class="hlt">hydrate</span> saturations in this study. The well log derived gas-<span class="hlt">hydrate</span> saturations calculated in the field verification <span class="hlt">phase</span> of this study, which range from as low as 2% to as high as 97%, confirm that gas <span class="hlt">hydrates</span> represent a potentially important source of natural gas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H54F..05V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H54F..05V"><span>Numerical Modeling on Two <span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">Fluid</span> flow in a Coupled Fracture-Skin-Matrix System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Valsala Kumari, R.; G, S. K.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Multiphase flow modeling studies below the ground surface is very essential for designing suitable remediation strategies for contaminated aquifers and for the development of petroleum and geothermal reservoirs. Presence of fractured bedrock beneath the ground surface will make multiphase flow process more complex due to its highly heterogeneous nature. A major challenge in modeling flow within a fractured rock is to capture the interaction between the high permeability fracture and the low permeability rock-matrix. In some instances, weathering and mineral depositions will lead to formation of an additional layer named fracture-skin at the fracture-matrix interface. Porosity and permeability of fracture-skin may significantly vary from the adjacent rock matrix and this variation will result in different flow and transport behavior within the fracture-skin. In the present study, an attempt has been made to model simultaneous flow of two immiscible <span class="hlt">phases</span> (water and LNAPL) in a saturated coupled fracture-skin-matrix system. A fully-implicit finite difference model has been developed to simulate the variation of pressure and saturation of <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phases</span> along the fracture and within the rock-matrix. Sensitivity studies have been done to analyze the effect of change of various fracture-skin parameters such as porosity, diffusion coefficient and thickness on pressure and saturation distribution of both wetting and non-wetting <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phases</span>. It can be concluded from the study that the presence of fracture-skin is significantly affecting the <span class="hlt">fluid</span> flow at the fracture-matrix interface and it can also be seen from the study that the flow behavior of both <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phases</span> is sensitive to fracture-skin parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27319169','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27319169"><span>[Separation of enantiomers by supercritical <span class="hlt">fluid</span> chromatography on polysaccharide derivative-based chiral stationary <span class="hlt">phases</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Dongyan; Wu, Xi; Hao, Fangli; Yang, Yang; Chen, Xiaoming</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Eleven kinds of chiral compounds have been well separated within 10 min on polysaccharide derivative-based chiral stationary <span class="hlt">phases</span> named Chiralpak IA, IB, IC, ID, IE and IF by supercritical <span class="hlt">fluid</span> chromatography (SFC). The chiral recognition of these chiral compounds has demonstrated good complementary enantioselectivities of the six chiral columns, which were proved to be useful for chiral SFC. Both the elution time and enantioselectivies could be significantly affected by the modifier types and their concentrations, such as methanol, ethanol and isopropanol, which should be optimized during the experiments. In addition, the solvent versatility of the immobilized chiral stationary <span class="hlt">phase</span> on the optimization of the chiral separation was helpful.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20537237','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20537237"><span>Dual-wavelength Raman spectroscopy approach for studying <span class="hlt">fluid-phase</span> equilibria using a single laser.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kiefer, Johannes</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>A novel Raman spectroscopy setup for the investigation of multiphase <span class="hlt">fluid</span> mixtures is proposed. The total output of a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser is separated into a strong 532 nm beam for generating Raman signals in the vapor <span class="hlt">phase</span> and the weak residual of the fundamental 1064 nm radiation to be utilized as laser source for Raman scattering in the liquid <span class="hlt">phase</span>. This approach will provide sufficient signal intensity from the gas (despite low density) for determination of mixture composition and at the same time it facilitates recording high-resolution spectra from the liquid in order to allow studying molecular physics phenomena together with concentration measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1093729','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1093729"><span>Volumetric Properties and <span class="hlt">Fluid</span> <span class="hlt">Phase</span> Equilibria of CO2 + H2O</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Capobianco, Ryan; Gruszkiewicz, Miroslaw {Mirek} S; Wesolowski, David J; Cole, David R; Bodnar, Robert</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The need for accurate modeling of <span class="hlt">fluid</span>-mineral processes over wide ranges of temperature, pressure and composition highlighted considerable uncertainties of available property data and equations of state, even for the CO2 + H2O binary system. In particular, the solubility, activity, and ionic dissociation equilibrium data for the CO2-rich <span class="hlt">phase</span>, which are essential for understanding dissolution/precipitation, <span class="hlt">fluid</span>-matrix reactions, and solute transport, are uncertain or missing. In this paper we report the results of a new experimental study of volumetric and <span class="hlt">phase</span> equilibrium properties of CO2 + H2O, to be followed by measurements for bulk and confined multicomponent <span class="hlt">fluid</span> mixtures. Mixture densities were measured by vibrating tube densimetry (VTD) over the entire composition range at T = 200 and 250 C and P = 20, 40, 60, and 80 MPa. Initial analysis of the mutual solubilities, determined from volumetric data, shows good agreement with earlier results for the aqueous <span class="hlt">phase</span>, but finds that the data of Takenouchi and Kennedy (1964) significantly overestimated the solubility of water in supercritical CO2 (by a factor of more than two at 200 C). Resolving this well-known discrepancy will have a direct impact on the accuracy of predictive modeling of CO2 injection in geothermal reservoirs and geological carbon sequestration through improved equations of state, needed for calibration of predictive molecular-scale models and large-scale reactive transport simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920002865','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920002865"><span>Analysis of minerals containing dissolved traces of the <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span> components water and carbon dioxide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Freund, Friedemann</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Substantial progress has been made towards a better understanding of the dissolution of common gas/<span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span> components, notably H2O and CO2, in minerals. It has been shown that the dissolution mechanisms are significantly more complex than currently believed. By judiciously combining various solid state analytical techniques, convincing evidence was obtained that traces of dissolved gas/<span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span> components undergo, at least in part, a redox conversion by which they split into reduced H2 and and reduced C on one hand and oxidized oxygen, O(-), on the other. Analysis for 2 and C as well as for any organic molecules which may form during the process of co-segregation are still impeded by the omnipresent danger of extraneous contamination. However, the presence of O(-), an unusual oxidized form of oxygen, has been proven beyond a reasonable doubt. The presence of O(-) testifies to the fact that a redox reaction must have taken place in the solid state involving the dissolved traces of gas/<span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span> components. Detailed information on the techniques used and the results obtained are given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997EOSTr..78Q.330S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997EOSTr..78Q.330S"><span><span class="hlt">Hydrate</span> habitat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Showstack, Randy</p> <p></p> <p>Whoever said there is nothing new under the sun did not delve deeply enough to the bottom of the ocean. There in the Gulf of Mexico, about 150 miles south of New Orleans, scientists have just discovered what could be a new species of centipede—like worms living on or within gas hydrates— mounds of methane ice— rising from the ocean floor.Scientists have previously recognized an association between some bacteria and these <span class="hlt">hydrates</span>. However, this is the first discovery of a higher life form there.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770006147','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770006147"><span>Spacelab experiment definition study on <span class="hlt">phase</span> transition and critical phenomena in <span class="hlt">fluids</span>: Interim report on experimental justification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Moldover, M. R.; Hocken, M. R.; Gammon, R. W.; Sengers, J. V.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Pure <span class="hlt">fluids</span> and <span class="hlt">fluid</span> mixtures near critical points are identified and are related to the progress of several disciplines. Consideration is given to thermodynamic properties, transport properties, and the complex nonlinear phenomena which occur when <span class="hlt">fluids</span> undergo <span class="hlt">phase</span> transitions in the critical region. The distinction is made between practical limits which may be extended by advances in technology and intrinsic ones which arise from the modification of <span class="hlt">fluid</span> properties by the earth's gravitational field. The kinds of experiments near critical points which could best exploit the low gravity environment of an orbiting laboratory are identified. These include studies of the index of refraction, constant volume specific heat, and <span class="hlt">phase</span> separation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DFDG11010G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DFDG11010G"><span>Volume-Of-<span class="hlt">Fluid</span> Simulation for Predicting Two-<span class="hlt">Phase</span> Cooling in a Microchannel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gorle, Catherine; Parida, Pritish; Houshmand, Farzad; Asheghi, Mehdi; Goodson, Kenneth</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> flow in microfluidic geometries has applications of increasing interest for next generation electronic and optoelectronic systems, telecommunications devices, and vehicle electronics. While there has been progress on comprehensive simulation of two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> flows in compact geometries, validation of the results in different flow regimes should be considered to determine the predictive capabilities. In the present study we use the volume-of-<span class="hlt">fluid</span> method to model the flow through a single micro channel with cross section 100 × 100 μm and length 10 mm. The channel inlet mass flux and the heat flux at the lower wall result in a subcooled boiling regime in the first 2.5 mm of the channel and a saturated flow regime further downstream. A conservation equation for the vapor volume fraction, and a single set of momentum and energy equations with volume-averaged <span class="hlt">fluid</span> properties are solved. A reduced-physics <span class="hlt">phase</span> change model represents the evaporation of the liquid and the corresponding heat loss, and the surface tension is accounted for by a source term in the momentum equation. The <span class="hlt">phase</span> change model used requires the definition of a time relaxation parameter, which can significantly affect the solution since it determines the rate of evaporation. The results are compared to experimental data available from literature, focusing on the capability of the reduced-physics <span class="hlt">phase</span> change model to predict the correct flow pattern, temperature profile and pressure drop.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25683640','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25683640"><span>Coating properties of a novel water stationary <span class="hlt">phase</span> in capillary supercritical <span class="hlt">fluid</span> chromatography.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Murakami, Jillian N; Thurbide, Kevin B</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>The coating properties of a novel water stationary <span class="hlt">phase</span> used in capillary supercritical <span class="hlt">fluid</span> chromatography were investigated. The findings confirm that increasing the length or internal diameter of the type 316 stainless-steel column used provides a linear increase in the volume of stationary <span class="hlt">phase</span> present. Under normal operating conditions, results indicate that about 4.9 ± 0.5 μL/m of water <span class="hlt">phase</span> is deposited uniformly inside of a typical 250 μm internal diameter 316 stainless-steel column, which translates to an area coverage of about 6.3 ± 0.5 nL/mm(2) regardless of dimension. Efforts to increase the stationary <span class="hlt">phase</span> volume present showed that etching the stainless-steel capillary wall using hydrofluoric acid was very effective for this. For instance, after five etching cycles, this volume doubled inside of both the type 304 and the type 316 stainless-steel columns examined. This in turn doubled analyte retention, while maintaining good peak shape and column efficiency. Overall, 316 stainless-steel columns were more resistant to etching than 304 stainless-steel columns. Results indicate that this approach could be useful to employ as a means of controlling the volume of water stationary <span class="hlt">phase</span> that can be established inside of the stainless-steel columns used with this supercritical <span class="hlt">fluid</span> chromatography technique.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995IJT....16..185F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995IJT....16..185F"><span>Hyperbaric reservoir <span class="hlt">fluids</span>: High-pressure <span class="hlt">phase</span> behavior of asymmetric methane + n-alkane systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Flöten, E.; de Loos, Th. W.; de Swaan Arons, J.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, experimental three-<span class="hlt">phase</span> equilibrium (solid n-alkane + liquid + vapor) data for binary methane + n-alkane systems are presented. For the binary system methane + tetracosane, the three-<span class="hlt">phase</span> curve was determined based on two <span class="hlt">phase</span> equilibrium measurements in a composition range from x c24 = 0.0027 to x c24 = 1.0. The second critical endpoint of this system was found at p = (1114.7 ± 0.5) M Pa. T = (322.6 ± 0.25) K, and a mole fraction of tetracosane in the critical fluidphase of x c24 = 0.0415 ± 0.0015. The second critical endpoint occurs where solid tetracosane is in equilibrium with a critical <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span> ( S c24 + L = V). For the binary systems of methane with the n-alkanes tetradecane, triacontane, tetracontane, and pentacontane, only the coordinates of the second critical endpoints were measured. The second critical endpoint temperature is found close to the atmospheric melting point temperature of the n-alkane. The pressures at the second critical endpoints do not exceed 200 MPa. Based on these experimental data and data from the literature, correlations for the pressure. temperature, and <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span> composition at the second critical endpoint of binary methane + n-alkane systems with n-alkanes between octane and pentacontane were developed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6158663','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6158663"><span>Predicting <span class="hlt">phase</span> behavior of mixtures of reservoir <span class="hlt">fluids</span> with carbon dioxide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Grigg, R.B.; Lingane, P.J.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The use of an equation of state to predict <span class="hlt">phase</span> behavior during carbon dioxide flooding is well established. The characterization of the C/sub 7/ fraction and the selection of interaction parameters are the most important variables. Single-contact <span class="hlt">phase</span> behavior is presented for mixtures of Ford Geraldine (Delaware), Maljamar (Grayburg), West Sussex (Shannon), and Reservoir D reservoir <span class="hlt">fluids</span>, and of a synthetic oil with carbon dioxide. The <span class="hlt">phase</span> behavior of these mixtures can be reproduced using 3 to 5 pseudo components and common interaction parameters. The critical properties of the pseudo components are calculated from detailed oil characterizations. Because the parameters are not further adjusted, this approach reduces the empiricism in fitting <span class="hlt">phase</span> data and may result in a more accurate representation of the system as the composition of the oil changes during the approach to miscibility. 21 references.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70120690','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70120690"><span>Observations related to tetrahydrofuran and methane <span class="hlt">hydrates</span> for laboratory studies of <span class="hlt">hydrate</span>-bearing sediments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lee, J.Y.; Yun, T.S.; Santamarina, J.C.; Ruppel, C.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The interaction among water molecules, guest gas molecules, salts, and mineral particles determines the nucleation and growth behavior of gas <span class="hlt">hydrates</span> in natural sediments. <span class="hlt">Hydrate</span> of tetrahydrofuran (THF) has long been used for laboratory studies of gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span>-bearing sediments to provide close control on <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> concentrations and to overcome the long formation history of methane <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> from aqueous <span class="hlt">phase</span> methane in sediments. Yet differences in the polarizability of THF (polar molecule) compared to methane (nonpolar molecule) raise questions about the suitability of THF as a proxy for methane in the study of <span class="hlt">hydrate</span>-bearing sediments. From existing data and simple macroscale experiments, we show that despite its polar nature, THF's large molecular size results in low permittivity, prevents it from dissolving precipitated salts, and hinders the solvation of ions on dry mineral surfaces. In addition, the interfacial tension between water and THF <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> is similar to that between water and methane <span class="hlt">hydrate</span>. The processes that researchers choose for forming <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> in sediments in laboratory settings (e.g., from gas, liquid, or ice) and the pore-scale distribution of the <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> that is produced by each of these processes likely have a more pronounced effect on the measured macroscale properties of <span class="hlt">hydrate</span>-bearing sediments than do differences between THF and methane <span class="hlt">hydrates</span> themselves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H23B1244G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H23B1244G"><span>Laboratory experiment on poroelastic behavior of Berea sandstone under two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">fluid</span> flow condition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goto, H.; Aichi, M.; Tokunaga, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Ogawa, T.; Aoki, T.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Coupled two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">fluid</span> flow and deformation of Berea sandstone was discussed through laboratory experiments and numerical simulation. In the experiment, a triaxial compression apparatus with flow pipes to pass <span class="hlt">fluids</span> through a rock sample was used. The experimental procedures were as follows. Firstly, external stresses close to hydrostatic condition were applied to a water saturated cylindrical Berea sandstone sample. Then, compressed air was infiltrated from the bottom of the sample. During the experiment, both axial and circumferential strains at half the height of the sample and volumetric discharge of water at the outlet were measured. Both strains showed sudden extensions after a few seconds, and monotonically extended thereafter. The volumetric discharge of water showed that air breakthrough occurred in around 100 seconds after the commencement of the air injection. Numerical simulations based on thermodynamically consistent constitutive equations were conducted in order to quantitatively analyze the experimental results. In a simulation in which the material was assumed to be homogeneous isotropic, the axial strain at half the height of the sample and the volumetric discharge of water at the outlet were reproduced well by using reasonable parameters, while that was not the case with the circumferential strain at half the height of the sample. On the other hand, in a simulation in which anisotropy of the material was introduced, all experimental data were reproduced well by using reasonable parameters. This result is reasonable because Berea sandstone is well known to be anisotropic under such Terzaghi effective stress condition as used in our experiment, i.e., 3.0 MPa (Hart and Wang, 1999; Hart, 2000). Our results indicate that the theory of poroelasticity for two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">fluid</span> system can explain the strain behavior of porous media for two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">fluid</span> flow observed in laboratory experiments.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H41C1322D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H41C1322D"><span>Simulations of Carbon Dioxide Storage and Methane Production from Guest Molecule Exchange of <span class="hlt">Hydrates</span> Using Reactive Transport Modeling and Gibbs Energy Minimization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Darnell, K.; Flemings, P. B.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We investigate guest molecule exchange of <span class="hlt">hydrates</span> as a method for simultaneous carbon dioxide storage and methane production. We simulate N2/CO2 binary gas mixture injection into marine and terrestrial methane <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> bearing sediments. Different compositions of the injected gas can lead to four possible outcomes: 1) Injected gas flows downstream past methane <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> and does not alter the methane <span class="hlt">hydrate</span>, 2) Injected gas causes complete dissociation of methane <span class="hlt">hydrate</span>, which creates a gas mixture of methane and injected gas that flows downstream, 3) Injected gas causes complete dissociation of methane <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> with flow of methane gas downstream and all injected gas replaces methane in the <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> cage, 4) Injected gas causes partial dissociation of methane <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> with some replacement of methane in the <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> cage and downstream flow of a methane and injected gas mixture. We focus on how composition of injected gas affects the outcome of the injection process, and then determine the optimal injection mixture of N2/CO2 for carbon dioxide storage and methane production. Our simulations combine dynamic flash calculations using the Gibbs energy minimization of Ballard and Sloan (2004) with 1-d reactive transport modeling. This work provides insight into the efficiency of the guest molecule exchange process in methane <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> systems. Our results can be directly incorporated into simulations of more complex geometries and field settings such as the Ignik Sikumi Gas <span class="hlt">Hydrate</span> Field Trial. ReferencesBallard, A. L., and Sloan, E. D. (2004). The next generation of <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> prediction: Part III. Gibbs energy minimization formalism. <span class="hlt">Fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span> equilibria, 218(1), 15-31.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910008809','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910008809"><span><span class="hlt">Fluid</span> <span class="hlt">Phase</span> Separation (FPS) experiment for flight on the shuttle in a Get Away Special (GAS) canister: Design and fabrication</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The separation of <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phases</span> in microgravity environments is of importance to environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) and materials processing in space. A successful <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span> separation experiment will demonstrate a proof of concept for the separation technique and add to the knowledge base of material behavior. The <span class="hlt">phase</span> separation experiment will contain a premixed <span class="hlt">fluid</span> that will be exposed to a microgravity environment. After the <span class="hlt">phase</span> separation of the compound has occurred, small samples of each of the species will be taken for analysis on Earth. By correlating the time of separation and the temperature history of the <span class="hlt">fluid</span>, it will be possible to characterize the process. The <span class="hlt">phase</span> separation experiment is totally self-contained, with three levels of containment on all <span class="hlt">fluids</span>, and provides all necessary electrical power and control. The controller regulates the temperature of the <span class="hlt">fluid</span> and controls data logging and sampling. An astronaut-activated switch will initiate the experiment and an unmaskable interrupt is provided for shutdown. The experiment has been integrated into space available on a manifested Get Away Special (GAS) experiment, CONCAP 2, part of the Consortium for Materials Complex Autonomous Payload (CAP) Program, scheduled for STS 42 in April 1991. Presented here are the design and the production of a <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span> separation experiment for rapid implementation at low cost.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GGG....16.1711C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GGG....16.1711C"><span>Microstructural evolution of gas <span class="hlt">hydrates</span> in sedimentary matrices observed with synchrotron X-ray computed tomographic microscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chaouachi, Marwen; Falenty, Andrzej; Sell, Kathleen; Enzmann, Frieder; Kersten, Michael; Haberthür, David; Kuhs, Werner F.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The formation process of gas <span class="hlt">hydrates</span> in sedimentary matrices is of crucial importance for the physical and transport properties of the resulting aggregates. This process has never been observed in situ at submicron resolution. Here we report on synchrotron-based microtomographic studies by which the nucleation and growth processes of gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> were observed at 276 K in various sedimentary matrices such as natural quartz (with and without admixtures of montmorillonite type clay) or glass beads with different surface properties, at varying water saturation. Both juvenile water and metastably gas-enriched water obtained from gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> decomposition was used. Xenon gas was employed to enhance the density contrast between gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> and the <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phases</span> involved. The nucleation sites can be easily identified and the various growth patterns are clearly established. In sediments under-saturated with juvenile water, nucleation starts at the water-gas interface resulting in an initially several micrometer thick gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> film; further growth proceeds to form isometric single crystals of 10-20 µm size. The growth of gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> from gas-enriched water follows a different pattern, via the nucleation in the bulk of liquid producing polyhedral single crystals. A striking feature in both cases is the systematic appearance of a <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span> film of up to several micron thickness between gas <span class="hlt">hydrates</span> and the surface of the quartz grains. These microstructural findings are relevant for future efforts of quantitative rock physics modeling of gas <span class="hlt">hydrates</span> in sedimentary matrices and explain the anomalous attenuation of seismic/sonic waves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhDT........76B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhDT........76B"><span>Molecular modeling the microstructure and <span class="hlt">phase</span> behavior of bulk and inhomogeneous complex <span class="hlt">fluids</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bymaster, Adam</p> <p></p> <p>Accurate prediction of the thermodynamics and microstructure of complex <span class="hlt">fluids</span> is contingent upon a model's ability to capture the molecular architecture and the specific intermolecular and intramolecular interactions that govern <span class="hlt">fluid</span> behavior. This dissertation makes key contributions to improving the understanding and molecular modeling of complex bulk and inhomogeneous <span class="hlt">fluids</span>, with an emphasis on associating and macromolecular molecules (water, hydrocarbons, polymers, surfactants, and colloids). Such developments apply broadly to fields ranging from biology and medicine, to high performance soft materials and energy. In the bulk, the perturbed-chain statistical associating <span class="hlt">fluid</span> theory (PC-SAFT), an equation of state based on Wertheim's thermodynamic perturbation theory (TPT1), is extended to include a crossover correction that significantly improves the predicted <span class="hlt">phase</span> behavior in the critical region. In addition, PC-SAFT is used to investigate the vapor-liquid equilibrium of sour gas mixtures, to improve the understanding of mercaptan/sulfide removal via gas treating. For inhomogeneous <span class="hlt">fluids</span>, a density functional theory (DFT) based on TPT1 is extended to problems that exhibit radially symmetric inhomogeneities. First, the influence of model solutes on the structure and interfacial properties of water are investigated. The DFT successfully describes the hydrophobic phenomena on microscopic and macroscopic length scales, capturing structural changes as a function of solute size and temperature. The DFT is used to investigate the structure and effective forces in nonadsorbing polymer-colloid mixtures. A comprehensive study is conducted characterizing the role of polymer concentration and particle/polymer size ratio on the structure, polymer induced depletion forces, and tendency towards colloidal aggregation. The inhomogeneous form of the association functional is used, for the first time, to extend the DFT to associating polymer systems, applicable to any</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JChPh.139r4902S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JChPh.139r4902S"><span><span class="hlt">Phase</span> behavior of the modified-Yukawa <span class="hlt">fluid</span> and its sticky limit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schöll-Paschinger, Elisabeth; Valadez-Pérez, Néstor E.; Benavides, Ana L.; Castañeda-Priego, Ramón</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Simple model systems with short-range attractive potentials have turned out to play a crucial role in determining theoretically the <span class="hlt">phase</span> behavior of proteins or colloids. However, as pointed out by D. Gazzillo [J. Chem. Phys. 134, 124504 (2011)], one of these widely used model potentials, namely, the attractive hard-core Yukawa potential, shows an unphysical behavior when one approaches its sticky limit, since the second virial coefficient is diverging. However, it is exactly this second virial coefficient that is typically used to depict the experimental <span class="hlt">phase</span> diagram for a large variety of complex <span class="hlt">fluids</span> and that, in addition, plays an important role in the Noro-Frenkel scaling law [J. Chem. Phys. 113, 2941 (2000)], which is thus not applicable to the Yukawa <span class="hlt">fluid</span>. To overcome this deficiency of the attractive Yukawa potential, D. Gazzillo has proposed the so-called modified hard-core attractive Yukawa <span class="hlt">fluid</span>, which allows one to correctly obtain the second and third virial coefficients of adhesive hard-spheres starting from a system with an attractive logarithmic Yukawa-like interaction. In this work we present liquid-vapor coexistence curves for this system and investigate its behavior close to the sticky limit. Results have been obtained with the self-consistent Ornstein-Zernike approximation (SCOZA) for values of the reduced inverse screening length parameter up to 18. The accuracy of SCOZA has been assessed by comparison with Monte Carlo simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/992491','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/992491"><span>Microtomography and pore-scale modeling of two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">Fluid</span> Distribution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Silin, D.; Tomutsa, L.; Benson, S.; Patzek, T.</p> <p>2010-10-19</p> <p>Synchrotron-based X-ray microtomography (micro CT) at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) line 8.3.2 at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory produces three-dimensional micron-scale-resolution digital images of the pore space of the reservoir rock along with the spacial distribution of the <span class="hlt">fluids</span>. Pore-scale visualization of carbon dioxide flooding experiments performed at a reservoir pressure demonstrates that the injected gas fills some pores and pore clusters, and entirely bypasses the others. Using 3D digital images of the pore space as input data, the method of maximal inscribed spheres (MIS) predicts two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">fluid</span> distribution in capillary equilibrium. Verification against the tomography images shows a good agreement between the computed <span class="hlt">fluid</span> distribution in the pores and the experimental data. The model-predicted capillary pressure curves and tomography-based porosimetry distributions compared favorably with the mercury injection data. Thus, micro CT in combination with modeling based on the MIS is a viable approach to study the pore-scale mechanisms of CO{sub 2} injection into an aquifer, as well as more general multi-<span class="hlt">phase</span> flows.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21694270','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21694270"><span>Flow regime classification in air-magnetic <span class="hlt">fluid</span> two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> flow.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kuwahara, T; De Vuyst, F; Yamaguchi, H</p> <p>2008-05-21</p> <p>A new experimental/numerical technique of classification of flow regimes (flow patterns) in air-magnetic <span class="hlt">fluid</span> two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> flow is proposed in the present paper. The proposed technique utilizes the electromagnetic induction to obtain time-series signals of the electromotive force, allowing us to make a non-contact measurement. Firstly, an experiment is carried out to obtain the time-series signals in a vertical upward air-magnetic <span class="hlt">fluid</span> two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> flow. The signals obtained are first treated using two kinds of wavelet transforms. The data sets treated are then used as input vectors for an artificial neural network (ANN) with supervised training. In the present study, flow regimes are classified into bubbly, slug, churn and annular flows, which are generally the main flow regimes. To validate the flow regimes, a visualization experiment is also performed with a glycerin solution that has roughly the same physical properties, i.e., kinetic viscosity and surface tension, as a magnetic <span class="hlt">fluid</span> used in the present study. The flow regimes from the visualization are used as targets in an ANN and also used in the estimation of the accuracy of the present method. As a result, ANNs using radial basis functions are shown to be the most appropriate for the present classification of flow regimes, leading to small classification errors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JPCM...20t4141K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JPCM...20t4141K"><span>Flow regime classification in air magnetic <span class="hlt">fluid</span> two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuwahara, T.; DeVuyst, F.; Yamaguchi, H.</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>A new experimental/numerical technique of classification of flow regimes (flow patterns) in air-magnetic <span class="hlt">fluid</span> two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> flow is proposed in the present paper. The proposed technique utilizes the electromagnetic induction to obtain time-series signals of the electromotive force, allowing us to make a non-contact measurement. Firstly, an experiment is carried out to obtain the time-series signals in a vertical upward air-magnetic <span class="hlt">fluid</span> two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> flow. The signals obtained are first treated using two kinds of wavelet transforms. The data sets treated are then used as input vectors for an artificial neural network (ANN) with supervised training. In the present study, flow regimes are classified into bubbly, slug, churn and annular flows, which are generally the main flow regimes. To validate the flow regimes, a visualization experiment is also performed with a glycerin solution that has roughly the same physical properties, i.e., kinetic viscosity and surface tension, as a magnetic <span class="hlt">fluid</span> used in the present study. The flow regimes from the visualization are used as targets in an ANN and also used in the estimation of the accuracy of the present method. As a result, ANNs using radial basis functions are shown to be the most appropriate for the present classification of flow regimes, leading to small classification errors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V24D..08I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V24D..08I"><span>Evidence of a Pre-eruptive <span class="hlt">Fluid</span> <span class="hlt">Phase</span> for the Millennium Eruption, Paektu Volcano, North Korea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Iacovino, K.; Sisson, T. W.; Lowenstern, J. B.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>We present initial results of a study of comenditic to trachytic melt inclusions from the Millennium Eruption (ME) of Paektu volcano (AD 946; VEI≥7; 25 km3 DRE). Paektu volcano (aka Changbaishan) is a remote and poorly studied intraplate stratovolcano whose 37 km2 caldera is bisected by the political border between North Korea and China, limiting studies of its proximal deposits. ME magmas are predominantly phenocryst-poor (≤3 vol%) comendites plus a volumetrically minor late-stage, more phenocryst-rich (10-20 vol%) trachyte. Sizeable (100-500 µm diameter) glassy but bubble-bearing melt inclusions are widespread in anorthoclase and hedenbergite phenocrysts, as well as in rarer quartz and fayalite phenocrysts. Comparing the relative enrichments of incompatible volatile and non-volatile elements in melt inclusions along a liquid line of descent shows decreasing volatile/Zr ratios suggesting the partitioning of volatiles into a <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span>. This suggests that current gas-yield estimates (Horn & Schminke, 2000) for the ME, based on the petrologic method (difference in volatiles between melt inclusions and matrix glass), could be severe underestimates. Establishing the composition and quantity of a pre-eruptive <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span> is the primary goal of this study and has implications for eruption triggering and for modeling the climatic effects of one of the largest eruptions in the last 10,000 years. Including results from Horne and Schminke (2000), melt inclusions from within a single pumice fall unit show a wide range in dissolved volatile contents and magma chemistries. Concentrations of H2O are moderate (2-3.5 wt% via FTIR), with Cl and F ranging from 500-4600 ppm and 1100-4700 ppm (via EPMA). CO2 is below the detection limit of 2 ppm (FTIR with N2 purge) in bubble-bearing melt inclusions, but is detectable (≤56 ppm) in melt inclusions homogenized at 100 MPa and 850-900 °C for ~30 min (conditions also leading to reduction of dissolved H2O to 0.6-2 wt</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950018041','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950018041"><span>Thermohydrodynamic analysis of cryogenic liquid turbulent flow <span class="hlt">fluid</span> film bearings, <span class="hlt">phase</span> 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sanandres, Luis</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Phase</span> 2 (1994) Annual Progress Report presents two major report sections describing the thermal analysis of tilting- and flexure-pad hybrid bearings, and the unsteady flow and transient response of a point mass rotor supported on <span class="hlt">fluid</span> film bearings. A literature review on the subject of two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> flow in <span class="hlt">fluid</span> film bearings and part of the proposed work for 1995 are also included. The programs delivered at the end of 1994 are named hydroflext and hydrotran. Both codes are fully compatible with the hydrosealt (1993) program. The new programs retain the same calculating options of hydrosealt plus the added bearing geometries, and unsteady flow and transient forced response. Refer to the hydroflext & hydrotran User's Manual and Tutorial for basic information on the analysis and instructions to run the programs. The Examples Handbook contains the test bearing cases along with comparisons with experimental data or published analytical values. The following major tasks were completed in 1994 (<span class="hlt">Phase</span> 2): (1) extension of the thermohydrodynamic analysis and development of computer program hydroflext to model various bearing geometries, namely, tilting-pad hydrodynamic journal bearings, flexure-pad cylindrical bearings (hydrostatic and hydrodynamic), and cylindrical pad bearings with a simple elastic matrix (ideal foil bearings); (2) improved thermal model including radial heat transfer through the bearing stator; (3) calculation of the unsteady bulk-flow field in <span class="hlt">fluid</span> film bearings and the transient response of a point mass rotor supported on bearings; and (4) a literature review on the subject of two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> flows and homogeneous-mixture flows in thin-film geometries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6795943','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6795943"><span>Potential geologic hazards of Arctic gas <span class="hlt">hydrates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Collett, T.S. )</p> <p>1990-05-01</p> <p>Sediments of the Arctic region may contain enormous quantities of natural gas in the form of gas <span class="hlt">hydrates</span>, which are crystalline substances composed of water and mostly methane gas. These ice-like substances are generally found in two distinct environments: (1) offshore in sediments of outer continental margins and (2) nearshore and onshore in areas associated with the occurrence of permafrost. Recently, US, Canadian, and Soviet researchers have described numerous drilling and production problems attributed to the presence of gas <span class="hlt">hydrates</span>, including uncontrolled gas releases during drilling, collapsed casings, and gas leakage to the surface. When the drill bit penetrates a gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span>, the drilling mud, unless cooled significantly by the operator, will become highly gasified as the <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> decomposes. The <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> adjacent to the well bore will continue to decompose and gasify the drilling mud as long as drilling and/or production introduces heat into the <span class="hlt">hydrate</span>-bearing interval. The production of hot <span class="hlt">fluids</span> from depth through the permafrost and gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span>-bearing intervals adversely raises formation temperatures, thus decomposing the gas <span class="hlt">hydrates</span>. If the disassociated, free gas is trapped behind the casing, reservoir pressures may substantially increase and cause the casing to collapse. In several wells in northern Alaska, the disassociated free gas has leaked to the surface outside the conductor casing. An additional drilling hazard associated with gas <span class="hlt">hydrates</span> results from the sealing attributes of <span class="hlt">hydrates</span>, which may trap large volumes of over pressured free gas at shallow depths. Even though documented problems attributed to the presence of gas <span class="hlt">hydrates</span> have been relatively few, it is likely that as exploration and development activity moves farther offshore into deeper water (>300 m) and to higher latitudes in the Arctic, the frequency of gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span>-related problems will increase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1023743','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1023743"><span>Nematic spin <span class="hlt">fluid</span> in the tetragonal <span class="hlt">phase</span> of BaFe{<_2}As{<_2}.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Harriger, L. W.; Luo, H. Q.; Liu, M. S.; Frost, C.; Hu, J. P.; Norman, M. R.; Dai, P.</p> <p>2011-08-24</p> <p>We use inelastic neutron scattering to study spin waves below and above T{sub N} in iron-arsenide BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}. In the low-temperature orthorhombic <span class="hlt">phase</span>, we find highly anisotropic spin waves with a large damping along the antiferromagnetic a-axis direction. On warming the system to the paramagnetic tetragonal <span class="hlt">phase</span>, the low-energy spin waves evolve into quasi-elastic excitations, while the anisotropic spin excitations near the zone boundary persist. These results strongly suggest the presence of a spin nematic <span class="hlt">fluid</span> in the tetragonal <span class="hlt">phase</span> of BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}, which may cause the electronic and orbital anisotropy observed in these materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15267668','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15267668"><span>New approach to the first-order <span class="hlt">phase</span> transition of Lennard-Jones <span class="hlt">fluids</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Muguruma, Chizuru; Okamoto, Yuko; Mikami, Masuhiro</p> <p>2004-04-22</p> <p>The multicanonical Monte Carlo method is applied to a bulk Lennard-Jones <span class="hlt">fluid</span> system to investigate the liquid-solid <span class="hlt">phase</span> transition. We take the example of a system of 108 argon particles. The multicanonical weight factor we determined turned out to be reliable for the energy range between -7.0 and -4.0 kJ/mol, which corresponds to the temperature range between 60 and 250 K. The expectation values of the thermodynamic quantities obtained from the multicanonical production run by the reweighting techniques exhibit the characteristics of first-order <span class="hlt">phase</span> transitions between liquid and solid states around 150 K. The present study reveals that the multicanonical algorithm is particularly suitable for analyzing the transition state of the first-order <span class="hlt">phase</span> transition in detail.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010004371','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010004371"><span>Numerical Modeling of Three-Dimensional <span class="hlt">Fluid</span> Flow with <span class="hlt">Phase</span> Change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Esmaeeli, Asghar; Arpaci, Vedat</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>We present a numerical method to compute <span class="hlt">phase</span> change dynamics of three-dimensional deformable bubbles. The full Navier-Stokes and energy equations are solved for both <span class="hlt">phases</span> by a front tracking/finite difference technique. The <span class="hlt">fluid</span> boundary is explicitly tracked by discrete points that are connected by triangular elements to form a front that is used to keep the stratification of material properties sharp and to calculate the interfacial source terms. Two simulations are presented to show robustness of the method in handling complex <span class="hlt">phase</span> boundaries. In the first case, growth of a vapor bubble in zero gravity is studied where large volume increase of the bubble is managed by adaptively increasing the front resolution. In the second case, growth of a bubble under high gravity is studied where indentation at the rear of the bubble results in a region of large curvature which challenges the front tracking in three dimensions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19916612','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19916612"><span>Solid-liquid <span class="hlt">phase</span> equilibria of the Gaussian core model <span class="hlt">fluid</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mausbach, Peter; Ahmed, Alauddin; Sadus, Richard J</p> <p>2009-11-14</p> <p>The solid-liquid <span class="hlt">phase</span> equilibria of the Gaussian core model are determined using the GWTS [J. Ge, G.-W. Wu, B. D. Todd, and R. J. Sadus, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 11017 (2003)] algorithm, which combines equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. This is the first reported use of the GWTS algorithm for a <span class="hlt">fluid</span> system displaying a reentrant melting scenario. Using the GWTS algorithm, the <span class="hlt">phase</span> envelope of the Gaussian core model can be calculated more precisely than previously possible. The results for the low-density and the high-density (reentrant melting) sides of the solid state are in good agreement with those obtained by Monte Carlo simulations in conjunction with calculations of the solid free energies. The common point on the Gaussian core envelope, where equal-density solid and liquid <span class="hlt">phases</span> are in coexistence, could be determined with high precision.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920061913&hterms=moon+phases&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dmoon%2Bphases','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920061913&hterms=moon+phases&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dmoon%2Bphases"><span>Two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> flow characterization for <span class="hlt">fluid</span> components and variable gravity conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dzenitis, John M.; Miller, Kathryn M.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>This paper describes a program initiated by the NASA Johnson Space Center to investigate vapor-liquid flow regimes and pressure drops in pipe components and variable gravity conditions. This program supports the Space Station Freedom External Active Thermal Control System design and future space missions, including the Space Exploration Initiative activities. The objectives for this program include studying two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> flow behavior in <span class="hlt">fluid</span> components (smooth pipes, bellows lines, quick-disconnect fittings), expanding the two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> database for zero-g conditions, developing a database for low-g conditions (for example, Moon-g, Mars-g), and validating models for two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> flow analyses. Zero-g and low-g data will be gathered using a Freon-12 flow loop during four test series on the KC-135 aircraft beginning in August 1991.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/570469','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/570469"><span>Device and method for measuring multi-<span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">fluid</span> flow in a conduit having an abrupt gradual bend</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Ortiz, M.G.</p> <p>1998-02-10</p> <p>A system is described for measuring <span class="hlt">fluid</span> flow in a conduit having an abrupt bend. The system includes pressure transducers, one disposed in the conduit at the inside of the bend and one or more disposed in the conduit at the outside of the bend but spaced a distance therefrom. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of <span class="hlt">fluid</span> in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate <span class="hlt">fluid</span> flow rate in the conduit. For multi-<span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">fluid</span>, the density of the <span class="hlt">fluid</span> is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the <span class="hlt">fluid</span> pressure measurements, to calculate <span class="hlt">fluid</span> flow. 1 fig.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12585473','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12585473"><span>Probing the vapor-liquid <span class="hlt">phase</span> behaviors of near-critical and supercritical <span class="hlt">fluids</span> using a shear mode piezoelectric sensor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oag, Robert M; King, Peter J; Mellor, Christopher J; George, Michael W; Ke, Jie; Poliakoff, Martyn</p> <p>2003-02-01</p> <p>With the rapidly expanding industrial and research applications of near-critical and supercritical technology there is a pressing need for a simple and inexpensive sensor that may be used to determine the <span class="hlt">phase</span> coexistence regions of <span class="hlt">fluid</span> mixtures and to establish whether a <span class="hlt">fluid</span> system is below, at, or above, a critical point. Mechanically vibrating AT-cut quartz plates may be used to determine the product of the <span class="hlt">fluid</span> density and viscosity of a <span class="hlt">fluid</span> in which it is immersed, through measurement of the impedance minimum of the electrical equivalent circuit or of the corresponding frequency. The density-viscosity product changes abruptly between <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phases</span> and rapidly along the isotherm corresponding to the critical temperature, enabling such a plate to act as a sensor of these <span class="hlt">fluid</span> features. We consider the limitations and linearity of such a sensor and its behavior when a liquid-gas meniscus crosses its surface. We demonstrate for the first time the effective use of an AT-cut quartz sensor in mapping the <span class="hlt">phase</span> behavior of <span class="hlt">fluids</span>, using measurements made on carbon dioxide and ethane for calibration and then investigating an ethane-carbon dioxide mixture. The advantages of this experimental approach are that (i) piezoelectric sensors are available for operation up to 1,000 degrees C and at extremely high pressures and (ii) the measurement of the density-viscosity product of supercritical <span class="hlt">fluids</span> is inherently simpler than traditional techniques for determining <span class="hlt">phase</span> behavior.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22308418','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22308418"><span>Comparison of twin-<span class="hlt">fluid</span> atomizers using a <span class="hlt">phase</span> Doppler analyser</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zaremba, Matouš E-mail: y145527@stud.fme.vutbr.cz E-mail: jicha@fme.vutbr.cz; Malý, Milan E-mail: y145527@stud.fme.vutbr.cz E-mail: jicha@fme.vutbr.cz; Jedelský, Jan E-mail: y145527@stud.fme.vutbr.cz E-mail: jicha@fme.vutbr.cz; Jícha, Miroslav E-mail: y145527@stud.fme.vutbr.cz E-mail: jicha@fme.vutbr.cz</p> <p>2014-08-06</p> <p>The quality of atomization is crucial in combustion processes, especially in cases of highly viscous fuels. Twin-<span class="hlt">fluid</span> atomizers have been developed for atomizing heavy and waste fuels and they have undergone significant development in the last decades. Nevertheless, in order to design an atomizer for a given industrial application, a comparison of different atomizers at similar operating conditions is required. This paper focuses on the description and comparison of two internally mixed twin-<span class="hlt">fluid</span> atomizers at the same operating regime. The Y-jet and the Inverse-effervescent atomizers were examined. The <span class="hlt">phase</span>-Doppler analyzer was used to measure the velocity and size of droplets in a radial profile in the spray. Data were sorted out into classes with respect to the droplet size and the motion analysis was done for both atomizers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810377W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810377W"><span><span class="hlt">Fluid</span> migration in the subduction zone: a coupled <span class="hlt">fluid</span> flow approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Hongliang; Huismans, Ritske; Rondenay, Stéphane</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Subduction zone are the main entry point of water into earth's mantle and play an important role in the global water cycle. The progressive release of water by metamorphic dehydration induce important physical-chemical process in the subduction zone, such as hydrous melting, <span class="hlt">hydration</span> and weakening of the mantle wedge, creation of pore <span class="hlt">fluid</span> pressures that may weaken the subduction interface and induce earthquakes. Most previous studies on the role of <span class="hlt">fluids</span> in subduction zones assume vertical migration or migration according to the dynamic pressure in the solid matrix without considering the pore <span class="hlt">fluid</span> pressure effect on the deformation of the solid matrix. Here we investigate this interaction by explicitly modeling two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> coupled poro-plastic flow during subduction. In this approach, the <span class="hlt">fluid</span> migrates by compaction and decompaction of the solid matrix and affects the subduction dynamics through pore <span class="hlt">fluid</span> pressure dependent frictional-plastic yield. Our preliminary results indicate that: 1) the rate of <span class="hlt">fluid</span> migration depends strongly on the permeability and the bulk viscosity of the solid matrix, 2) <span class="hlt">fluid</span> transfer occurs preferentially along the slab and then propagates into the mantle wedge by viscous compaction driven <span class="hlt">fluid</span> flow, 3) <span class="hlt">fluid</span> transport from the surface to depth is a prerequisite for producing high <span class="hlt">fluid</span> pore pressures and associated <span class="hlt">hydration</span> induced weakening of the subduction zone interface.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/968966','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/968966"><span>Complex admixtures of clathrate <span class="hlt">hydrates</span> in a water desalination method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Simmons, Blake A.; Bradshaw, Robert W.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Anderson, David W.</p> <p>2009-07-14</p> <p>Disclosed is a method that achieves water desalination by utilizing and optimizing clathrate <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> phenomena. Clathrate <span class="hlt">hydrates</span> are crystalline compounds of gas and water that desalinate water by excluding salt molecules during crystallization. Contacting a <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> forming gaseous species with water will spontaneously form <span class="hlt">hydrates</span> at specific temperatures and pressures through the extraction of water molecules from the bulk <span class="hlt">phase</span> followed by crystallite nucleation. Subsequent dissociation of pure <span class="hlt">hydrates</span> yields fresh water and, if operated correctly, allows the <span class="hlt">hydrate</span>-forming gas to be efficiently recycled into the process stream.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.8482Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.8482Y"><span>Study of Formation Mechanisms of Gas <span class="hlt">Hydrate</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Jia-Sheng; Wu, Cheng-Yueh; Hsieh, Bieng-Zih</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Gas <span class="hlt">hydrates</span>, which had been found in subsurface geological environments of deep-sea sediments and permafrost regions, are solid crystalline compounds of gas molecules and water. The estimated energy resources of <span class="hlt">hydrates</span> are at least twice of that of the conventional fossil fuel in the world. Gas <span class="hlt">hydrates</span> have a great opportunity to become a dominating future energy. In the past years, many laboratory experiments had been conducted to study chemical and thermodynamic characteristics of gas <span class="hlt">hydrates</span> in order to investigate the formation and dissociation mechanisms of <span class="hlt">hydrates</span>. However, it is difficult to observe the formation and dissociation of <span class="hlt">hydrates</span> in a porous media from a physical experiment directly. The purpose of this study was to model the dynamic formation mechanisms of gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> in porous media by reservoir simulation. Two models were designed for this study: 1) a closed-system static model with separated gas and water zones; this model was a <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> equilibrium model to investigate the behavior of the formation of <span class="hlt">hydrates</span> near the initial gas-water contact; and 2) an open-system dynamic model with a continuous bottom-up gas flow; this model simulated the behavior of gas migration and studied the formation of <span class="hlt">hydrates</span> from flowed gas and static formation water in porous media. A <span class="hlt">phase</span> behavior module was developed in this study for reservoir simulator to model the pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) behavior of <span class="hlt">hydrates</span>. The thermodynamic equilibriums and chemical reactions were coupled with the <span class="hlt">phase</span> behavior module to have functions modelling the formation and dissociation of <span class="hlt">hydrates</span> from/to water and gas. The simulation models used in this study were validated from the code-comparison project proposed by the NETL. According to the modelling results of the closed-system static model, we found that predominated location for the formation of <span class="hlt">hydrates</span> was below the gas-water contact (or at the top of water zone). The maximum <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> saturation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..GECOR1008C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..GECOR1008C"><span>Simulation of plasma discharge in liquids: A detailed two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">fluid</span> approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Charchi Aghdam, Ali; Farouk, Tanvir; Reacting Systems; Advanced Energy Research Laboratory Team</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Plasma discharge in liquids has gained great attention recently due to its applications in biomedical engineering, fuel processing, and water treatment and so on. Despite the tremendous interest, a comprehensive understanding of the underlying physics still remains limited. In the current work, an attempt is made to present a mathematical multi-physics model to describe the discharge of plasma in liquids. An in-house modeling platform is developed for simulating plasma formation in multiphase <span class="hlt">fluids</span>. The model resolves a detailed two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">fluid</span> including viscous effects, surface tension, gravitational forces and electrical body force. All the governing equations are solved for gas and liquid <span class="hlt">phases</span>. Electric field and charged species equations along with the plasma reaction kinetics are solved to get the charge distribution in the different <span class="hlt">phases</span> as well as at the gas-liquid interface to obtain the electric body force acting at the interface. By coupling the above sub-models, a comprehensive multi-physics model for plasma discharge in liquids is constructed which is able to capture several physical aspects of the phenomena especially the role of the bubble, its motion and distortion on plasma characteristics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21428663','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21428663"><span><span class="hlt">Phase</span> transitions of two-dimensional dipolar <span class="hlt">fluids</span> in external fields.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schmidle, Heiko; Klapp, Sabine H L</p> <p>2011-03-21</p> <p>In this work, we study condensation <span class="hlt">phase</span> transitions of two-dimensional Stockmayer <span class="hlt">fluids</span> under additional external fields using Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations in the grand-canonical ensemble. We employ two recently developed methods to determine <span class="hlt">phase</span> transitions in <span class="hlt">fluids</span>, namely Wang-Landau (WL) MC simulations and successive-umbrella (SU) sampling. Considering first systems in zero field (and dipolar coupling strengths μ(2)∕εσ(3) ≤ 6), we demonstrate that the two techniques yield essentially consistent results but display pronounced differences in terms of efficiency. Indeed, comparing the computation times for these systems on a qualitative level, the SU sampling turns out to be significantly faster. In the presence of homogeneous external fields, however, the SU method becomes plagued by pronounced sampling difficulties, yielding the calculation of coexistence lines essentially impossible. Employing the WL scheme, on the other hand, we find <span class="hlt">phase</span> coexistence even for strongly field-aligned systems. The corresponding critical temperatures are significantly shifted relative to the zero-field case.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JGR...100.5931H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JGR...100.5931H"><span>Intergranular solid-<span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span> transformations under stress: The effect of surface forces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heidug, Wolfgang K.</p> <p>1995-04-01</p> <p>Existing work on mineral solubility in <span class="hlt">fluid</span>-infiltrated and stressed rock has remained limited in that it has neglected surface forces. These forces are appreciable only when the <span class="hlt">fluid</span> exists as a thin film, as in the grain-to-grain contact zone and in microcracks. Indeed, when the film thickness is of the order of 10(exp -9) m or so, the strength of the forces can be comparable to overburden stress at several kilometers depth. In this contribution we develop the thermodynamics of the <span class="hlt">phase</span> reaction between nonhydrostatically stressed grains and an intervening water layer by using the concept of the disjoining pressure to account for surface forces acting in the grain-to-grain contact zone. Using a thermodynamic extremum principle, we find an extended version of Gibb's classical condition for the equilibrium of a stressed solid in contact with its solution <span class="hlt">phase</span>. We then employ nonequilibrium thermodynamics to formulate kinetic equations describing <span class="hlt">phase</span> boundary migration and intergranular mass transfer. It is demonstrated that surface forces weaken the efficacy with which diffusion removes dissolved material from the grain-to-grain contact zone and enhance the tendency of intergranular pressure solution to flatten initially rough surfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JChPh.134k4903S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JChPh.134k4903S"><span><span class="hlt">Phase</span> transitions of two-dimensional dipolar <span class="hlt">fluids</span> in external fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schmidle, Heiko; Klapp, Sabine H. L.</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>In this work, we study condensation <span class="hlt">phase</span> transitions of two-dimensional Stockmayer <span class="hlt">fluids</span> under additional external fields using Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations in the grand-canonical ensemble. We employ two recently developed methods to determine <span class="hlt">phase</span> transitions in <span class="hlt">fluids</span>, namely Wang-Landau (WL) MC simulations and successive-umbrella (SU) sampling. Considering first systems in zero field (and dipolar coupling strengths μ2/ɛσ3 ⩽ 6), we demonstrate that the two techniques yield essentially consistent results but display pronounced differences in terms of efficiency. Indeed, comparing the computation times for these systems on a qualitative level, the SU sampling turns out to be significantly faster. In the presence of homogeneous external fields, however, the SU method becomes plagued by pronounced sampling difficulties, yielding the calculation of coexistence lines essentially impossible. Employing the WL scheme, on the other hand, we find <span class="hlt">phase</span> coexistence even for strongly field-aligned systems. The corresponding critical temperatures are significantly shifted relative to the zero-field case.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Litho.262....1C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Litho.262....1C"><span>Mass transfer and trace element redistribution during <span class="hlt">hydration</span> of granulites in the Bergen Arcs, Norway</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Centrella, Stephen; Austrheim, Håkon; Putnis, Andrew</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The Bergen Arcs, located on the western coast of Norway, are characterized by Precambrian granulite facies rocks partially <span class="hlt">hydrated</span> at amphibolite and eclogite facies conditions. At Hilland Radöy, granulite displays sharp <span class="hlt">hydration</span> fronts across which the granulite facies assemblage composed of garnet (55%) and clinopyroxene (45%) is replaced by an amphibolite facies mineralogy defined by chlorite, epidote, and amphibole. The replacement of both <span class="hlt">phases</span> is pseudomorphic and the overall reaction is isovolumetric. In the present study, LA ICPMS has been used to determine the trace element redistribution during the <span class="hlt">hydration</span>. Although the bulk concentrations of the trace elements do not change, the LILE, HFSE, and REE losses and gains in replacing the garnet are qualitatively balanced by the opposite gains and losses associated with the replacement of clinopyroxene. From the REE compositions of the parent granulite and the product amphibolite, measured in μg/cm3, we conclude that the mass of rock lost to the <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span> during the <span class="hlt">hydration</span> is approximately 20%. This suggests a mechanism for coupling between the local stress generated by <span class="hlt">hydration</span> reactions and mass transfer, dependent on the spatial scale over which the system is open.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/653369','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/653369"><span>Authigenic carbonates from the Cascadia subduction zone and their relations to gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> stability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bohrmann, G.; Greinert, J.; Suess, E.; Torres, M.</p> <p>1998-07-01</p> <p>Authigenic carbonates are intercalated with massive gas <span class="hlt">hydrates</span> in sediments of the Cascadia margin. The deposits were recovered from the uppermost 50 cm of sediments on the southern summit of the <span class="hlt">Hydrate</span> Ridge during the RV Sonne cruise SO110. Two carbonate lithologies that differ in chemistry, mineralogy, and fabric make up these deposits. Microcrystalline high-magnesium calcite (14 to 19 mol% MgCO{sub 3}) and aragonite are present in both semiconsolidated sediments and carbonate-cemented clasts. Aragonite occurs also as a pure <span class="hlt">phase</span> without sediment impurities. It is formed by precipitation in cavities as botryoidal and isopachous aggregates within pure white, massive gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span>. Variations in oxygen isotope values of the carbonates reflect the mineralogical composition and define two end members: a Mg-calcite with {delta}{sup 18}O = 4.86% PDB and an aragonite with {delta}{sup 18}O = 3.68% PDB. On the basis of the ambient bottom-water temperature and accepted equations for oxygen isotope fractionation, the authors show that the aragonite <span class="hlt">phase</span> formed in equilibrium with its pore-water environment, and that the Mg-calcite appears to have precipitated from pore <span class="hlt">fluids</span> enriched in {sup 18}O. Oxygen isotope enrichment probably originates from <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> water released during gas-<span class="hlt">hydrate</span> destabilization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22239586','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22239586"><span>Prominin-2 expression increases protrusions, decreases caveolae and inhibits Cdc42 dependent <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span> endocytosis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Singh, Raman Deep Schroeder, Andreas S.; Scheffer, Luana; Holicky, Eileen L.; Wheatley, Christine L.; Marks, David L. Pagano, Richard E.</p> <p>2013-05-10</p> <p>Highlights: •Prominin-2 expression induced protrusions that co-localized with lipid raft markers. •Prominin-2 expression decreased caveolae, caveolar endocytosis and increased pCav1. •Prominin-2 expression inhibited <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span> endocytosis by inactivation of Cdc42. •These endocytic effects can be reversed by adding exogenous cholesterol. •Caveolin1 knockdown restored <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span> endocytosis in Prominin2 expressing cells. -- Abstract: Background: Membrane protrusions play important roles in biological processes such as cell adhesion, wound healing, migration, and sensing of the external environment. Cell protrusions are a subtype of membrane microdomains composed of cholesterol and sphingolipids, and can be disrupted by cholesterol depletion. Prominins are pentaspan membrane proteins that bind cholesterol and localize to plasma membrane (PM) protrusions. Prominin-1 is of great interest as a marker for stem and cancer cells, while Prominin-2 (Prom2) is reportedly restricted to epithelial cells. Aim: To characterize the effects of Prom-2 expression on PM microdomain organization. Methods: Prom2-fluorescent protein was transfected in human skin fibroblasts (HSF) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells for PM raft and endocytic studies. Caveolae at PM were visualized using transmission electron microscopy. Cdc42 activation was measured and caveolin-1 knockdown was performed using siRNAs. Results: Prom2 expression in HSF and CHO cells caused extensive Prom2-positive protrusions that co-localized with lipid raft markers. Prom2 expression significantly decreased caveolae at the PM, reduced caveolar endocytosis and increased caveolin-1 phosphorylation. Prom2 expression also inhibited Cdc42-dependent <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span> endocytosis via decreased Cdc42 activation. Effects on endocytosis were reversed by addition of cholesterol. Knockdown of caveolin-1 by siRNA restored Cdc42 dependent <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span> endocytosis in Prom2-expressing cells. Conclusions: Prom2 protrusions primarily</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11290131','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11290131"><span>Ferromagnetic <span class="hlt">phase</span> transition in a Heisenberg <span class="hlt">fluid</span>: Monte Carlo simulations and Fisher corrections to scaling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mryglod, I M; Omelyan, I P; Folk, R</p> <p>2001-04-02</p> <p>The magnetic <span class="hlt">phase</span> transition in a Heisenberg <span class="hlt">fluid</span> is studied by means of the finite size scaling technique. We find that even for larger systems, considered in an ensemble with fixed density, the critical exponents show deviations from the expected lattice values similar to those obtained previously. This puzzle is clarified by proving the importance of the leading correction to the scaling that appears due to Fisher renormalization with the critical exponent equal to the absolute value of the specific heat exponent alpha. The appearance of such new corretions to scaling is a general feature of systems with constraints.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/107752','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/107752"><span>Parametric numerical investigaion of natural convection in a heat-generating <span class="hlt">fluid</span> with <span class="hlt">phase</span> transitions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Aksenova, A.E.; Chudanov, V.V.; Strizhov, V.F.; Vabishchevich, P.N.</p> <p>1995-09-01</p> <p>Unsteady natural convection of a heat-generating <span class="hlt">fluid</span> with <span class="hlt">phase</span> transitions in the enclosures of a square section with isothermal rigid walls is investigated numerically for a wide range of dimensionless parameters. The quasisteady state solutions of conjugate heat and mass transfer problem are compared with available experimental results. Correlation relations for heat flux distributions at the domain boundaries depending on Rayleigh and Ostrogradskii numbers are obtained. It is shown that generally heat transfer is governed both by natural circulation and crust formation phenomena. Results of this paper may be used for analysis of experiments with prototypic core materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT........37L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT........37L"><span>Using <span class="hlt">Hydrated</span> Salt <span class="hlt">Phase</span> Change Materials for Residential Air Conditioning Peak Demand Reduction and Energy Conservation in Coastal and Transitional Climates in the State of California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Kyoung Ok</p> <p></p> <p>The recent rapid economic and population growth in the State of California have led to a significant increase in air conditioning use, especially in areas of the State with coastal and transitional climates. This fact makes that the electric peak demand be dominated by air conditioning use of residential buildings in the summer time. This extra peak demand caused by the use of air conditioning equipment lasts only a few days out of the year. As a result, unavoidable power outages have occurred when electric supply could not keep up with such electric demand. This thesis proposed a possible solution to this problem by using building thermal mass via <span class="hlt">phase</span> change materials to reduce peak air conditioning demand loads. This proposed solution was tested via a new wall called <span class="hlt">Phase</span> Change Frame Wall (PCFW). The PCFW is a typical residential frame wall in which <span class="hlt">Phase</span> Change Materials (PCMs) were integrated to add thermal mass. The thermal performance of the PCFWs was first evaluated, experimentally, in two test houses, built for this purpose, located in Lawrence, KS and then via computer simulations of residential buildings located in coastal and transitional climates in California. In this thesis, a <span class="hlt">hydrated</span> salt PCM was used, which was added in concentrations of 10% and 20% by weight of the interior sheathing of the walls. Based on the experimental results, under Lawrence, KS weather, the PCFWs at 10% and 20% of PCM concentrations reduced the peak heat transfer rates by 27.0% and 27.3%, on average, of all four walls, respectively. Simulated results using California climate data indicated that PCFWs would reduce peak heat transfer rates by 8% and 19% at 10% PCM concentration and 12.2% and 27% at 20% PCM concentration for the coastal and transitional climates, respectively. Furthermore, the PCFWs, at 10% PCM concentration, would reduce the space cooling load and the annual energy consumption by 10.4% and 7.2%, on average in both climates, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3368141','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3368141"><span>Lipid Bilayers in the Gel <span class="hlt">Phase</span> Become Saturated by Triton X-100 at Lower Surfactant Concentrations Than Those in the <span class="hlt">Fluid</span> <span class="hlt">Phase</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ahyayauch, Hasna; Collado, M. Isabel; Alonso, Alicia; Goñi, Felix M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>It has been repeatedly observed that lipid bilayers in the gel <span class="hlt">phase</span> are solubilized by lower concentrations of Triton X-100, at least within certain temperature ranges, or other nonionic detergents than bilayers in the <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span>. In a previous study, we showed that detergent partition coefficients into the lipid bilayer were the same for the gel and the <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phases</span>. In this contribution, turbidity, calorimetry, and 31P-NMR concur in showing that bilayers in the gel state (at least down to 13–20°C below the gel-<span class="hlt">fluid</span> transition temperature) become saturated with detergent at lower detergent concentrations than those in the <span class="hlt">fluid</span> state, irrespective of temperature. The different saturation may explain the observed differences in solubilization. PMID:22713566</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1313939','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1313939"><span>A Well-Posed Two <span class="hlt">Phase</span> Flow Model and its Numerical Solutions for Reactor Thermal-<span class="hlt">Fluids</span> Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kadioglu, Samet Y.; Berry, Ray; Martineau, Richard</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>A 7-equation two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> flow model and its numerical implementation is presented for reactor thermal-<span class="hlt">fluids</span> applications. The equation system is well-posed and treats both <span class="hlt">phases</span> as compressible flows. The numerical discretization of the equation system is based on the finite element formalism. The numerical algorithm is implemented in the next generation RELAP-7 code (Idaho National Laboratory (INL)’s thermal-<span class="hlt">fluids</span> code) built on top of an other INL’s product, the massively parallel multi-implicit multi-physics object oriented code environment (MOOSE). Some preliminary thermal-<span class="hlt">fluids</span> computations are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810195C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810195C"><span>Estimating the composition of <span class="hlt">hydrates</span> from a 3D seismic dataset near Penghu Canyon on Chinese passive margin offshore Taiwan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chi, Wu-Cheng</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>A bottom-simulating reflector (BSR), representing the base of the gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> stability zone, can be used to estimate geothermal gradients under seafloor. However, to derive temperature estimates at the BSR, the correct <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> composition is needed to calculate the <span class="hlt">phase</span> boundary. Here we applied the method by Minshull and Keddie to constrain the <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> composition and the pore <span class="hlt">fluid</span> salinity. We used a 3D seismic dataset offshore SW Taiwan to test the method. Different from previous studies, we have considered the effects of 3D topographic effects using finite element modelling and also depth-dependent thermal conductivity. Using a pore water salinity of 2% at the BSR depth as found from the nearby core samples, we successfully used 99% methane and 1% ethane gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span> boundary to derive a sub-bottom depth vs. temperature plot which is consistent with the seafloor temperature from in-situ measurements. The results are also consistent with geochemical analyses of the pore <span class="hlt">fluids</span>. The derived regional geothermal gradient is 40.1oC/km, which is similar to 40oC/km used in the 3D finite element modelling used in this study. This study is among the first documented successful use of Minshull and Keddie's method to constrain seafloor gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> composition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009CoTPh..51..287L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009CoTPh..51..287L"><span>Characterization of <span class="hlt">Phase</span> Transition in Heisenberg <span class="hlt">Fluids</span> from Density Functional Theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Liang-Sheng; Li, Li; Chen, Xiao-Song</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">phase</span> transition of Heisenberg <span class="hlt">fluid</span> has been investigated with the density functional theory in mean-field approximation (MF). The matrix of the second derivatives of the grand canonical potential Ω with respect to the particle density fluctuations and the magnetization fluctuations has been investigated and diagonalized. The smallest eigenvalue being 0 signalizes the <span class="hlt">phase</span> instability and the related eigenvector characterizes this <span class="hlt">phase</span> transition. We find a Curie line where the order parameter is pure magnetization and a spinodal where the order parameter is a mixture of particle density and magnetization. Along the spinodal, the character of <span class="hlt">phase</span> instability changes continuously from predominant condensation to predominant ferromagnetic <span class="hlt">phase</span> transition with the decrease of total density. The spinodal meets the Curie line at the critical endpoint with the reduced density ρ* = ρσ3 = 0.224 and the reduced temperature T* = kT/in = 1.87 (σ is the diameter of Heisenberg hard sphere and in is the coupling constant).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26627777','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26627777"><span>A parametric analysis of waves propagating in a porous solid saturated by a three-<span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">fluid</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Santos, Juan E; Savioli, Gabriela B</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>This paper presents an analysis of a model for the propagation of waves in a poroelastic solid saturated by a three-<span class="hlt">phase</span> viscous, compressible <span class="hlt">fluid</span>. The constitutive relations and the equations of motion are stated first. Then a plane wave analysis determines the <span class="hlt">phase</span> velocities and attenuation coefficients of the four compressional waves and one shear wave that propagate in this type of medium. A procedure to compute the elastic constants in the constitutive relations is defined next. Assuming the knowledge of the shear modulus of the dry matrix, the other elastic constants in the stress-strain relations are determined by employing ideal gedanken experiments generalizing those of Biot's theory for single-<span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">fluids</span>. These experiments yield expressions for the elastic constants in terms of the properties of the individual solid and <span class="hlt">fluids</span> <span class="hlt">phases</span>. Finally the <span class="hlt">phase</span> velocities and attenuation coefficients of all waves are computed for a sample of Berea sandstone saturated by oil, gas, and water.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/94470','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/94470"><span>Basic study on an energy conversion system using gas-liquid two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> flows of magnetic <span class="hlt">fluid</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Okubo, Masaaki; Ishimoto, Jun; Kamiyama, Schinichi.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>The mechanism of the pressure rise in a gas-liquid two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> pipe flow of magnetic <span class="hlt">fluid</span> under a nonuniform magnetic field is investigated in detail both theoretically and experimentally. First, governing equations of one-dimensional gas-liquid two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> magnetic <span class="hlt">fluid</span> flow are presented and numerically solved. Next, the pressure distribution in a nonuniform magnetic wild region is measured in the cases of two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> flow, single-<span class="hlt">phase</span> flow and the stationary state using a new experimental apparatus for the flow system. From the numerical measurement results, the magnitude of the pressure components which contribute to the total driving force is accurately estimated. These results on the pressure distribution will contribute to the development of the new energy conversion system using a gas-liquid two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> magnetic <span class="hlt">fluid</span> flow.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMGC14A..05M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMGC14A..05M"><span>Compound Natural Gas <span class="hlt">Hydrate</span>: A Natural System for Separation of <span class="hlt">Hydrate</span>-Forming Gases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Max, M. D.; Osegovic, J. P.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Natural processes that separate materials from a mixture may exert a major influence on the development of the atmospheres and surfaces of planets, moons, and other planetary bodies. Natural distillation and gravity separation, amongst others, are well known means of differentiating materials through liquid-gas partitioning. One of the least known attributes of clathrate (gas) <span class="hlt">hydrates</span> is their potential effect on the evolution of planetary system oceans and atmospheres. Gas <span class="hlt">hydrates</span> separate gases from mixtures of gases by concentrating preferred <span class="hlt">hydrate</span>-forming materials (HFM) guests within the water-molecule cage structure of crystalline <span class="hlt">hydrate</span>. Different HFMs have very different fields of stability. When multiple <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> formers are present, a preference series based on their selective uptake exists. Compound <span class="hlt">hydrate</span>, which is formed from two or more species of HFM, extract preferred HFM from a mixture in very different proportions to their relative percentages of the original mixture. These compound <span class="hlt">hydrates</span> can have different formation and dissociation conditions depending on the evolution of the environment. That is, the <span class="hlt">phase</span> boundary of the compound <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> that is required for dissociation lies along a lower pressure - higher temperature course. Compound <span class="hlt">hydrates</span> respond to variations in temperature, pressure, and HFM composition. On Earth, the primary naturally occurring <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> of interest to global climate modeling is methane <span class="hlt">hydrate</span>. Oceanic <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> on Earth is the largest store of carbon in the biosphere that is immediately reactive to environmental change, and is capable of releasing large amounts of methane into the atmosphere over a short geological time span. <span class="hlt">Hydrate</span> formation is essentially metastable and is very sensitive to environmental change and to gas flux. Where natural variations in temperature and pressure varies so that <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> will form and dissociate in some cyclical manner, such as in oceans where sea level is capable of rising and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1330575','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1330575"><span>Water adsorption isotherms and <span class="hlt">hydration</span> forces for lysolipids and diacyl phospholipids.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Marsh, D.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The repulsive forces in a wide range of diacyl and monoacyl phospholipid systems have been obtained from the adsorption isotherms for water. From the exponential dependence of the repulsive pressure on the water content, information has been deduced regarding the <span class="hlt">hydration</span> force. For diacyl phosphatidylcholines the strength of the <span class="hlt">hydration</span> force and its characteristic decay length are in good agreement with values previously obtained by x-ray diffraction methods. For natural and synthetic diacyl phosphatidylcholines in the <span class="hlt">fluid</span> lamellar <span class="hlt">phase</span>, the <span class="hlt">hydration</span> force extrapolated to zero layer separation (Po) is in the range 4-5.10(8) N.m-2 and the decay length is approximately 0.3 nm. The results for dimyristoyl, dipalmitoyl, and distearoyl phosphatidylcholines in the gel <span class="hlt">phase</span> are very similar with Po approximately 2.5.10(8) N.m-2 and decay length of approximately 0.2 nm. Egg monomethyl phosphatidylethanolamine is less strongly <span class="hlt">hydrated</span>: Po = 2.3.10(9) N.m-2, with a decay length of 0.3 nm. Egg phosphatidylethanolamine and bovine phosphatidylserine <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> even more weakly with Po approximately 1.3.10(8) N.m-2 and decay length of approximately 0.15 nm. Mixtures with cholesterol or phosphatidylcholine increase both Po and the decay length for phosphatidylethanolamine to values closer to those for phosphatidylcholine. The repulsive forces deduced for egg lysophosphatidylcholine at 40 degrees C display a biphasic water dependence, with the low water <span class="hlt">phase</span> being similar to lamellar egg phosphatidylcholine, and the <span class="hlt">phase</span> at higher water content having a smaller value of Po = 2.10(8) N.m-2 but a longer decay length of approximately 0.45 nm, corresponding to a nonlamellar configuration. Bovine lysophosphatidylserine similarly yields values of PO = 1.2.108 N.m-2 and an effective decay length of 0.64 nm. The <span class="hlt">hydration</span> behavior of the various diacyl phospholipids has been interpreted in terms of the mean-field molecular force theory of lipid <span class="hlt">hydration</span>, and values deduced for</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20627353','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20627353"><span>CFD simulation of gas and non-Newtonian <span class="hlt">fluid</span> two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> flow in anaerobic digesters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wu, Binxin</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>This paper presents an Eulerian multiphase flow model that characterizes gas mixing in anaerobic digesters. In the model development, liquid manure is assumed to be water or a non-Newtonian <span class="hlt">fluid</span> that is dependent on total solids (TS) concentration. To establish the appropriate models for different TS levels, twelve turbulence models are evaluated by comparing the frictional pressure drops of gas and non-Newtonian <span class="hlt">fluid</span> two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> flow in a horizontal pipe obtained from computational <span class="hlt">fluid</span> dynamics (CFD) with those from a correlation analysis. The commercial CFD software, Fluent12.0, is employed to simulate the multiphase flow in the digesters. The simulation results in a small-sized digester are validated against the experimental data from literature. Comparison of two gas mixing designs in a medium-sized digester demonstrates that mixing intensity is insensitive to the TS in confined gas mixing, whereas there are significant decreases with increases of TS in unconfined gas mixing. Moreover, comparison of three mixing methods indicates that gas mixing is more efficient than mixing by pumped circulation while it is less efficient than mechanical mixing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/750387','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/750387"><span>Liquid <span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">fluid</span> dynamic (methanol) run in the LaPorte alternative fuels development unit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bharat L. Bhatt</p> <p>1997-05-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">fluid</span> dynamic study was successfully completed in a bubble column at DOE's Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) in LaPorte, Texas. Significant <span class="hlt">fluid</span> dynamic information was gathered at pilot scale during three weeks of Liquid <span class="hlt">Phase</span> Methanol (LPMEOJP) operations in June 1995. In addition to the usual nuclear density and temperature measurements, unique differential pressure data were collected using Sandia's high-speed data acquisition system to gain insight on flow regime characteristics and bubble size distribution. Statistical analysis of the fluctuations in the pressure data suggests that the column was being operated in the churn turbulent regime at most of the velocities considered. Dynamic gas disengagement experiments showed a different behavior than seen in low-pressure, cold-flow work. Operation with a superficial gas velocity of 1.2 ft/sec was achieved during this run, with stable <span class="hlt">fluid</span> dynamics and catalyst performance. Improvements included for catalyst activation in the design of the Clean Coal III LPMEOH{trademark} plant at Kingsport, Tennessee, were also confirmed. In addition, an alternate catalyst was demonstrated for LPMEOH{trademark}.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989STIN...8926184S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989STIN...8926184S"><span>Workshop on Two-<span class="hlt">Phase</span> <span class="hlt">Fluid</span> Behavior in a Space Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Swanson, Theodore D.; Juhasz, Al; Long, W. Russ; Ottenstein, Laura</p> <p></p> <p>The Workshop was successful in achieving its main objective of identifying a large number of technical issues relating to the design of two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> systems for space applications. The principal concern expressed was the need for verified analytical tools that will allow an engineer to confidently design a system to a known degree of accuracy. New and improved materials, for such applications as thermal storage and as heat transfer <span class="hlt">fluids</span>, were also identified as major needs. In addition to these research efforts, a number of specific hardware needs were identified which will require development. These include heat pumps, low weight radiators, advanced heat pipes, stability enhancement devices, high heat flux evaporators, and liquid/vapor separators. Also identified was the need for a centralized source of reliable, up-to-date information on two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> flow in a space environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H43L..04M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H43L..04M"><span>Connecting Pore Scale Dynamics to Macroscopic Models for Two-<span class="hlt">Fluid</span> <span class="hlt">Phase</span> Flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McClure, J. E.; Dye, A. L.; Miller, C. T.; Gray, W. G.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Imaging technologies such as computed micro-tomography (CMT) provide high resolution three-dimensional images of real porous medium systems that reveal the true geometric structure of <span class="hlt">fluid</span> and solid <span class="hlt">phases</span>. Simulation and analysis tools are essential to extract knowledge from this raw data, and can be applied in tandem to provide information that is otherwise inaccessible. Guidance from multi-scale averaging theory is used to develop a multi-scale analysis framework to determine <span class="hlt">phase</span> connectivity and extract interfacial areas, curvatures, common line length, contact angle and the velocities of the interface and common curve. The approach is applied to analyze pore-scale dynamics based on a multiphase lattice Boltzmann method. Dense sets of simulations are performed to evaluate the equilibrium relationship between capillary pressure, saturation and interfacial area for several experimentally imaged porous media. The approach is also used study the evolution of macroscopic quantities under dynamic conditions, which is compared to the equilibrium data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26651704','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26651704"><span>Molecular dynamics study of <span class="hlt">phase</span> separation in <span class="hlt">fluids</span> with chemical reactions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Krishnan, Raishma; Puri, Sanjay</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>We present results from the first d=3 molecular dynamics (MD) study of <span class="hlt">phase</span>-separating <span class="hlt">fluid</span> mixtures (AB) with simple chemical reactions (A⇌B). We focus on the case where the rates of forward and backward reactions are equal. The chemical reactions compete with segregation, and the coarsening system settles into a steady-state mesoscale morphology. However, hydrodynamic effects destroy the lamellar morphology which characterizes the diffusive case. This has important consequences for the <span class="hlt">phase</span>-separating structure, which we study in detail. In particular, the equilibrium length scale (ℓ(eq)) in the steady state suggests a power-law dependence on the reaction rate ε:ℓ(eq)∼ε(-θ) with θ≃1.0.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890016813','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890016813"><span>Workshop on Two-<span class="hlt">Phase</span> <span class="hlt">Fluid</span> Behavior in a Space Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Swanson, Theodore D. (Editor); Juhasz, AL (Editor); Long, W. Russ (Editor); Ottenstein, Laura (Editor)</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The Workshop was successful in achieving its main objective of identifying a large number of technical issues relating to the design of two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> systems for space applications. The principal concern expressed was the need for verified analytical tools that will allow an engineer to confidently design a system to a known degree of accuracy. New and improved materials, for such applications as thermal storage and as heat transfer <span class="hlt">fluids</span>, were also identified as major needs. In addition to these research efforts, a number of specific hardware needs were identified which will require development. These include heat pumps, low weight radiators, advanced heat pipes, stability enhancement devices, high heat flux evaporators, and liquid/vapor separators. Also identified was the need for a centralized source of reliable, up-to-date information on two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> flow in a space environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhDT.........3V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhDT.........3V"><span>Experimental investigation of gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> formation, plugging and transportability in partially dispersed and water continuous systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vijayamohan, Prithvi</p> <p></p> <p>As oil/gas subsea fields mature, the amount of water produced increases significantly due to the production methods employed to enhance the recovery of oil. This is true especially in the case of oil reservoirs. This increase in the water hold up increases the risk of <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> plug formation in the pipelines, thereby resulting in higher inhibition cost strategies. A major industry concern is to reduce the severe safety risks associated with <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> plug formation, and significantly extending subsea tieback distances by providing a cost effective flow assurance management/safety tool for mature fields. Developing fundamental understanding of the key mechanistic steps towards <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> plug formation for different multiphase flow conditions is a key challenge to the flow assurance community. Such understanding can ultimately provide new insight and <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> management guidelines to diminish the safety risks due to <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> formation and accumulation in deepwater flowlines and facilities. The transportability of <span class="hlt">hydrates</span> in pipelines is a function of the operating parameters, such as temperature, pressure, <span class="hlt">fluid</span> mixture velocity, liquid loading, and <span class="hlt">fluid</span> system characteristics. Specifically, the <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> formation rate and plugging onset characteristics can be significantly different for water continuous, oil continuous, and partially dispersed systems. The latter is defined as a system containing oil/gas/water, where the water is present both as a free <span class="hlt">phase</span> and partially dispersed in the oil <span class="hlt">phase</span> (i.e., entrained water in the oil). Since <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> formation from oil dispersed in water systems and partially dispersed water systems is an area which is poorly understood, this thesis aims to address some key questions in these systems. Selected experiments have been performed at the University of Tulsa flowloop to study the <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> formation and plugging characteristics for the partially dispersed water/oil/gas systems as well as systems where the oil is completely dispersed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFMOS51B0845H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFMOS51B0845H"><span>Nucleation and Growth of Gas <span class="hlt">Hydrate</span> in Natural Seawater</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Holman, S. A.; Osegovic, J. P.; Young, J. C.; Max, M. D.; Ames, A. L.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>Large-scale nucleation of gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> takes place when <span class="hlt">hydrate</span>-forming gas and seawater are brought together under suitable pressure-temperature conditions or where dissolved <span class="hlt">hydrate</span>-forming gas in saturated or near-saturated seawater is chilled or brought to higher pressures. Profuse formation of <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> shells on gas bubbles and nucleation of at least five different forms of gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> have been achieved in fresh natural seawater. Growth of masses of solid gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> takes place when <span class="hlt">hydrate</span>-forming gas reactant dissolved in seawater is brought into the vicinity of the <span class="hlt">hydrate</span>. The gas concentration of the enriched water in the vicinity of <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> is higher than the <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> equilibrium gas concentration. <span class="hlt">Hydrate</span> growth under these conditions is accelerated due to the chemical potential difference between the enriched water and the <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> crystals, which induces mass flux of dissolved <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> forming gas into new <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> crystals. As long as water enriched in the <span class="hlt">hydrate</span>-forming gas is circulated into the vicinity of the <span class="hlt">hydrate</span>, growth proceeds into the water space. Experimental approaches for growth of examples of solid masses of <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> are presented. Results of these experiments provide an insight into the growth of gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> under natural conditions where interstitial water in marine sediments is captured by burial from open seawater, and where solid gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> forms on the seafloor. By using fresh natural seawater, which is a chemically and materially complex <span class="hlt">fluid</span>, our experiments in pressurized, refrigerated reactors should closely track the growth history of solid <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> in the natural environment. In our model for <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> growth in sediments, nearly complete pore fill by diagenetic <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> can best be accomplished by nucleation of <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> at a point source within the pore water or at a particular point on sediment particulate, with growth outward into the water space that is refreshed with ground water having high concentrations of <span class="hlt">hydrate</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21489548','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21489548"><span>Determination of uranium(VI) sorbed species in calcium silicate <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> <span class="hlt">phases</span>: a laser-induced luminescence spectroscopy and batch sorption study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tits, Jan; Geipel, Gerhard; Macé, Nathalie; Eilzer, Manuela; Wieland, Erich</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>Batch sorption experiments and time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy investigations were carried out to study the U(VI) speciation in calcium silicate <span class="hlt">hydrates</span> for varying chemical conditions representing both fresh and altered cementitious environments. U(VI) uptake was found to be fast and sorption distribution ratios (R(d) values) were very high indicating strong uptake by the C-S-H <span class="hlt">phases</span>. In addition a strong dependence of pH and solid composition (Ca:Si mol ratio) was observed. U(VI) luminescence spectroscopy investigations showed that the U(VI) solid speciation continuously changed over a period up to 6 months in contrast to the fast sorption kinetics observed in the batch sorption studies. Decay profile analysis combined with factor analysis of series of spectra of U(VI)-C-S-H suspensions, recorded with increasing delay times, revealed the presence of four luminescent U(VI) species in C-S-H suspensions, in agreement with the batch sorption data. Along with the aqueous UO(2)(OH)(4)(2-) species and a Ca-uranate precipitate, two different sorbed species were identified which are either bound to silanol groups on the surface or incorporated in the interlayer of the C-S-H structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....4197C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....4197C"><span>Gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> concentration estimated from P- and S-wave velocities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carcione, J. M.; Gei, D.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>We estimate the concentration of gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> at the Mallik 2L-38 research site, Mackenzie Delta, Canada, using P- and S-wave velocities obtained from well logging and vertical seismic profiles (VSP). The theoretical velocities are obtained from a poro-viscoelastic model based on a Biot-type approach. It considers the existence of two solids (grains and gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span>) and a <span class="hlt">fluid</span> mixture and is based on the assumption that <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> fills the pore space and shows interconnection. The moduli of the matrix formed by gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> are obtained from the percolation model described by Leclaire et al., (1994). An empirical mixing law introduced by Brie et al., (1995) provides the effective bulk modulus of the <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span>, giving Wood's modulus at low frequency and Voigt's modulus at high frequencies. The dry-rock moduli are estimated from the VSP profile where the rock is assumed to be fully saturated with water, and the quality factors are obtained from the velocity dispersion observed between the sonic and VSP velocities. Attenuation is described by using a constant-Q model for the dry rock moduli. The amount of dissipation is estimated from the difference between the seismic velocities and the sonic-log velocities. We estimate the amount of gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> by fitting the sonic-log and seismic velocities to the theoretical velocities, using the concentration of gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> as fitting parameter. We obtain <span class="hlt">hydrate</span> concentrations up to 75 %, average values of 43 and 47 % from the VSP P- and S-wave velocities, respectively, and 47 and 42 % from the sonic-log P- and S-wave velocities, respectively. These averages are computed from 897 to 1110 m, excluding the zones where there is no gas <span class="hlt">hydrate</span>. We found that modeling attenuation is important to obtain reliable results. largeReferences} begin{description} Brie, A., Pampuri, F., Marsala A.F., Meazza O., 1995, Shear Sonic Interpretation in Gas-Bearing Sands, SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 1995. Carcione, J</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JPCRD..35..929B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JPCRD..35..929B"><span>Reference Equations of State for the Thermodynamic Properties of <span class="hlt">Fluid</span> <span class="hlt">Phase</span> n-Butane and Isobutane</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bücker, D.; Wagner, W.</p> <p>2006-06-01</p> <p>New formulations for the thermodynamic properties of <span class="hlt">fluid</span> <span class="hlt">phase</span> n-butane and isobutane in the form of fundamental equations explicit in the Helmholtz energy are presented. The functional form of the correlation equations for the residual parts was developed simultaneously for both substances considering data for the thermodynamic properties of ethane, propane, n-butane, and isobutane. Each contains 25 coefficients which were fitted to selected data for the thermal and caloric properties of the respective <span class="hlt">fluid</span> both in the single-<span class="hlt">phase</span> region and on the vapor-liquid <span class="hlt">phase</span> boundary. This work provides information on the available experimental data for the thermodynamic properties of n- and isobutane, and presents all details of the new formulations. The new equations of state describe the pρT surfaces with uncertainties in density of 0.02% (coverage factor k=2 corresponding to a confidence level of about 95%) from the melting line up to temperatures of 340 K and pressures of 12 MPa. The available reliable data sets in other regions are represented within their experimental uncertainties. The primary data, to which the equation for n-butane was fitted, cover the <span class="hlt">fluid</span> region from the melting line to temperatures of 575 K and pressures of 69 MPa. The equation for isobutane was fitted to primary data that cover the <span class="hlt">fluid</span> region from the melting line to temperatures of 575 K and pressures of 35 MPa. Beyond the range described by experimental data, the equations yield reasonable extrapolation behavior up to very high temperatures and pressures. In addition to the equations of state, independent equations for the vapor pressures, the saturated-liquid and saturated-vapor densities, and the melting pressures are given. Tables of thermodynamic properties calculated from the new formulations are listed in Appendix 2. Additionally, a preliminary equation of state for propane is presented that was developed in the course of the simultaneous optimization. This equation has the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090020507','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090020507"><span>Optical Measurement of Mass Flow of a Two-<span class="hlt">Phase</span> <span class="hlt">Fluid</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wiley, John; Pedersen, Kevin; Koman, Valentin; Gregory, Don</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>An optoelectronic system utilizes wavelength-dependent scattering of light for measuring the density and mass flow of a two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">fluid</span> in a pipe. The apparatus was invented for original use in measuring the mass flow of a two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> cryogenic <span class="hlt">fluid</span> (e.g., liquid hydrogen containing bubbles of hydrogen gas), but underlying principles of operation can readily be adapted to non-cryogenic two-<span class="hlt">phase</span> <span class="hlt">fluids</span>. The system (see figure) includes a laser module, which contains two or more laser diodes, each operating at a different wavelength. The laser module also contains beam splitters that combine the beams at the various wavelengths so as to produce two output beams, each containing all of the wavelengths. One of the multiwavelength output beams is sent, via a multimode fiberoptic cable, to a transmitting optical coupler. The other multiwavelength output beam is sent, via another multimode fiber-optic cable, to a reference detector module, wherein fiber-optic splitters split the light into several multiwavelength beams, each going to a photodiode having a spectral response that is known and that differs from the spectral responses of the other photodiodes. The outputs of these photodiodes are digitized and fed to a processor, which executes an algorithm that utilizes the known spectral responses to convert the photodiode outputs to obtain reference laser-power levels for the various wavelengths. The transmitting optical coupler is mounted in (and sealed to) a hole in the pipe and is oriented at a slant with respect to the axis of the pipe. The transmitting optical coupler contains a collimating lens and a cylindrical lens that form the light emerging from the end of the fiber-optic cable into a fan-shaped beam in a meridional plane of the pipe. Receiving optical couplers similar to the transmitting optical couplers are mounted in the same meridional plane at various longitudinal positions on the opposite side of the pipe, approximately facing the transmitting optical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21294022','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21294022"><span>Effect of <span class="hlt">hydration</span> on the structure of caveolae membranes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Caracciolo, Giulio; Sciubba, Fabio; Caminiti, Ruggero</p> <p>2009-04-13</p> <p>In situ energy dispersive x-ray diffraction was used to investigate the effect of <span class="hlt">hydration</span> on the structure of caveolae membranes. The structure of caveolae membrane was found to be strongly dependent on <span class="hlt">hydration</span>. At low <span class="hlt">hydration</span> two lamellar <span class="hlt">phases</span> with distinct repeat spacings were found to coexist with segregated cholesterol crystallites. Upon <span class="hlt">hydration</span>, the lamellar <span class="hlt">phases</span> did swell, while diffraction peak of cholesterol crystals disappeared suggesting that cholesterol molecules redistributed homogeneously within the caveolae membrane. At full <span class="hlt">hydration</span>, unbinding of caveolae membrane occurred. Upon dehydration the system returned to the bound state, demonstrating that the unbinding transition is fully reversible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1239104','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1239104"><span>A Two-length Scale Turbulence Model for Single-<span class="hlt">phase</span> Multi-<span class="hlt">fluid</span> Mixing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schwarzkopf, J. D.; Livescu, D.; Baltzer, J. R.; Gore, R. A.; Ristorcelli, J. R.</p> <p>2015-09-08</p> <p>A two-length scale, second moment turbulence model (Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes, RANS) is proposed to capture a wide variety of single-<span class="hlt">phase</span> flows, spanning from incompressible flows with single <span class="hlt">fluids</span> and mixtures of different density <span class="hlt">fluids</span> (variable density flows) to flows over shock waves. The two-length scale model was developed to address an inconsistency present in the single-length scale models, e.g. the inability to match both variable density homogeneous Rayleigh-Taylor turbulence and Rayleigh-Taylor induced turbulence, as well as the inability to match both homogeneous shear and free shear flows. The two-length scale model focuses on separating the decay and transport length scales, as the two physical processes are generally different in inhomogeneous turbulence. This allows reasonable comparisons with statistics and spreading rates over such a wide range of turbulent flows using a common set of model coefficients. The specific canonical flows considered for calibrating the model include homogeneous shear, single-<span class="hlt">phase</span> incompressible shear driven turbulence, variable density homogeneous Rayleigh-Taylor turbulence, Rayleigh-Taylor induced turbulence, and shocked isotropic turbulence. The second moment model shows to compare reasonably well with direct numerical simulations (DNS), experiments, and theory in most cases. The model was then applied to variable density shear layer and shock tube data and shows to be in reasonable agreement with DNS and experiments. Additionally, the importance of using DNS to calibrate and assess RANS type turbulence models is highlighted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JPhD...42c5407F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JPhD...42c5407F"><span>Preparation of nanoencapsulated <span class="hlt">phase</span> change material as latent functionally thermal <span class="hlt">fluid</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fang, Yutang; Kuang, Shengyan; Gao, Xuenong; Zhang, Zhengguo</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>Nanoencapsulated <span class="hlt">phase</span> change material with polystyrene as the shell and n-octadecane as the core was synthesized using the ultrasonic technique and miniemulsion in situ polymerization. The influences of polymerization factors, including initiator, chain transfer agent (CTA), surfactant, n-octadecane/styrene ratio and hydrophilic co-monomer, on the morphology and thermophysical properties of nanocapsules were systematically investigated. The optimized polymerization conditions were 0.5 wt% of initiator (2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile), 0.4 wt% of CTA (n-dodecyl mercaptan), 2% of composite surfactants which were composed of sodium dodecyl sulfate and poly-(ethylene glycol) monooctylphenyl ether by 1 : 1 in weight ratio, 1 wt% of hydrophilic co-monomer butyl acrylate or 3 wt% of methyl methacrylate and 1 : 1 n-octadecane to styrene in weight ratio. Under these conditions, the z-average size of prepared nanocapsules was 124 nm and the <span class="hlt">phase</span> change enthalpy was 124.4 kJ kg-1. The heat capacity was as high as 11.61 kJ kg-1 K-1 at the latex concentration of 20.6 wt%. Thermal stability and viscosity testing show that this <span class="hlt">fluid</span> had excellent resistance to thermal shock (after 100 cycles, no liquid Oct was observed during heating) and low viscosity (only 3.61 mPa s at the latex concentration of 20.6 wt%), which seems to be promising as a latent functionally thermal <span class="hlt">fluid</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DFD.H1003C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DFD.H1003C"><span>Entropic Lattice Boltzmann Methods for <span class="hlt">Fluid</span> Mechanics: Thermal, Multi-<span class="hlt">phase</span> and Turbulence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chikatamarla, Shyam; Boesch, F.; Frapolli, N.; Mazloomi, A.; Karlin, I.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>With its roots in statistical mechanics and kinetic theory, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is a paradigm-changing innovation, offering for the first time an intrinsically parallel CFD algorithm. Over the past two decades, LBM has achieved numerous results in the field of CFD and is now in a position to challenge state-of-the art CFD techniques. Major restyling of LBM resulted in an unconditionally stable entropic LBM which restored Second Law (Boltzmann H theorem) in the LBM kinetics and thus enabled affordable direct simulations of <span class="hlt">fluid</span> turbulence. In this talk, we shall review recent advances in ELBM as a practical, modeling-free tool for simulation of complex flow phenomenon. We shall present recent simulations of <span class="hlt">fluid</span> turbulence including turbulent channel flow, flow past a circular cylinder, creation and dynamics of vortex tubes, and flow past a surface mounted cube. Apart from its achievements in turbulent flow simulations, ELBM has also presented us the opportunity to extend lattice Boltzmann method to higher order lattices which shall be employed for turbulent, multi-<span class="hlt">phase</span> and thermal flow simulations. A new class of entropy functions are proposed to handle non-ideal equation of stat