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Sample records for hydraulic design features

  1. Thermal hydraulic design features for the BNCT application. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, T.E.; Vafai, K.

    1993-06-01

    This project report is based on our investigations for thermal design of a heat pipe for removing generated heat resulting from Proton bombardments of a Lithium target for a BNCT application. In our investigation, an integral analysis was employed to investigate the vapor an liquid flow in a flat plate heat pipe heated asymmetrically for removal of the 75 kW generated from the BNCT application. The flat plate heat pipe configuration will be used for removing the heat which is generated as a result of proton bombardment of the lithium target. The working fluid in the heat pipe occurs in two phase namely liquid and vapor. The wick contains all the liquid phase and the vapor phase is mainly in the core region. Heat is applied by an external source at the evaporator section which vaporizes the working fluid in this section. This results in a pressure difference which drives the vapor to the condenser section where condenses and releases latent heat of vaporization to a heat sink in the condense section. Due to the vaporization of liquid in the evaporator, the liquid-vapor interface enters into the wick surface and hence capillary pressure is developed there. This capillary pressure causes the condensed liquid in the condenser to be pumped back to the evaporator again. The results of our investigation have enabled us to correlate such diverse information as; the thickness of the wick, the diameter of the heat pipe, the wetting angle, the capillary radius, the surface tension, the latent heat of evaporation, the permeability and porosity of the chosen wick, the length of the heat pipe, and the viscosity and density of the two phases; with the heat removal capabilities of the heat pipe. Expressions for the pressure and velocity distributions are obtained and discussed in relation to our application to BNCT. The present design clearly shows that it is possible to attain temperatures well below the melting temperature of the lithium in the BNCT application.

  2. Hydraulic fracture design optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Tae-Soo; Advani, S.H.

    1992-01-01

    This research and development investigation, sponsored by US DOE and the oil and gas industry, extends previously developed hydraulic fracture geometry models and applied energy related characteristic time concepts towards the optimal design and control of hydraulic fracture geometries. The primary objective of this program is to develop rational criteria, by examining the associated energy rate components during the hydraulic fracture evolution, for the formulation of stimulation treatment design along with real-time fracture configuration interpretation and control.

  3. Hydraulic fracture design optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Tae-Soo; Advani, S.H.

    1992-06-01

    This research and development investigation, sponsored by US DOE and the oil and gas industry, extends previously developed hydraulic fracture geometry models and applied energy related characteristic time concepts towards the optimal design and control of hydraulic fracture geometries. The primary objective of this program is to develop rational criteria, by examining the associated energy rate components during the hydraulic fracture evolution, for the formulation of stimulation treatment design along with real-time fracture configuration interpretation and control.

  4. Design of hydraulic recuperation unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandourek, Pavel; Habán, Vladimír; Hudec, Martin; Dobšáková, Lenka; Štefan, David

    2016-03-01

    This article deals with design and measurement of hydraulic recuperation unit. Recuperation unit consist of radial turbine and axial pump, which are coupled on the same shaft. Speed of shaft with impellers are 6000 1/min. For economic reasons, is design of recuperation unit performed using commercially manufactured propellers.

  5. Design of hydraulic output Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toscano, W. M.; Harvey, A. C.; Lee, K.

    1983-01-01

    A hydraulic output system for the RE-1000 free piston stirling engine (FPSE) was designed. The hydraulic output system can be readily integrated with the existing hot section of RE-1000 FPSE. The system has two simply supported diaphragms which separate the engine gas from the hydraulic fluid, a dynamic balance mechanism, and a novel, null center band hydraulic pump. The diaphragms are designed to endure more than 10 billion cycles, and to withstand the differential pressure load as high as 14 MPa. The projected thermodynamic performance of the hydraulic output version of RE-1000 FPSE is 1.87 kW at 29/7 percent brake efficiency.

  6. Hydraulic design development of Xiluodu Francis turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. L.; Li, G. Y.; Shi, Q. H.; Wang, Z. N.

    2012-11-01

    Hydraulic optimization design with CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) method, hydraulic optimization measures and model test results in the hydraulic development of Xiluodu hydropower station by DFEM (Dongfang Electric Machinery) of DEC (Dongfang Electric Corporation) of China were analyzed in this paper. The hydraulic development conditions of turbine, selection of design parameter, comparison of geometric parameters and optimization measure of turbine flow components were expatiated. And the measures of improving turbine hydraulic performance and the results of model turbine acceptance experiment were discussed in details.

  7. Hydraulically powered dissimilar teleoperated system controller design

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, J.F.; Kress, R.L.

    1996-04-01

    This paper will address two issues associated with the implementation of a hydraulically powered dissimilar master-slave teleoperated system. These issues are the overall system control architecture and the design of robust hydraulic servo controllers for the position control problem. Finally, a discussion of overall system performance on an actual teleoperated system will be presented.

  8. Issues of a Computer-Aided Design of Hydraulic Jacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averchenkov, V. I.; Averchenkov, A. V.; Kolyakinand, V. V.; Orekhov, O. D.

    2016-04-01

    The article deals with the issues of a computer-aided design of hydraulic equipment, namely hydraulic jacks. Design principles of the hydraulic jack CAD system are described. In addition, the possibilities for the system improvement and expansion are considered.

  9. Digital hydraulic valving system. [design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The design and development are reported of a digital hydraulic valving system that would accept direct digital inputs. Topics include: summary of contractual accomplishments, design and function description, valve parameters and calculations, conclusions, and recommendations. The electrical control circuit operating procedure is outlined in an appendix.

  10. Thermal-Hydraulic Aspects of SCWR Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podowski, Michael Z.

    The Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor (SWCR) is one of the most promising concepts for Generation IV candidate systems [Kataoka et al., 2002; USDOE, 2002; Buongiorno, 2004]. The SCWR has several advantages compared to the existing light water reactor (LWR) systems, including the use of direct cycle combined with single-phase working fluid, high thermal efficiency, and the existing experience with the proven technology used in fossil power plants. A common feature of most Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor (SWCR) designs that have been proposed to date is a highly nonuniform temperature distribution inside the reactor core. This is mainly due to the combined effects of core peaking factors and limits imposed on coolant flow rate. Furthermore, statistical uncertainties in the evaluation of hot spot factors normally contribute to an increase in the range of temperature distribution that must be considered in reactor design. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of analysis on the SCWR in-core temperature distribution, aimed at identifying possible methods of reducing the maximum coolant temperature and improving the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the proposed reactor system.

  11. Escalator design features evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, W. F.; Deshpande, G. K.

    1982-01-01

    Escalators are available with design features such as dual speed (90 and 120 fpm), mat operation and flat steps. These design features were evaluated based on the impact of each on capital and operating costs, traffic flow, and safety. A human factors engineering model was developed to analyze the need for flat steps at various speeds. Mat operation of escalators was found to be cost effective in terms of energy savings. Dual speed operation of escalators with the higher speed used during peak hours allows for efficient operation. A minimum number of flat steps required as a function of escalator speed was developed to ensure safety for the elderly.

  12. Reactive barriers: hydraulic performance and design enhancements.

    PubMed

    Painter, B D M

    2004-01-01

    The remediation of contaminated ground water is a multibillion-dollar global industry. Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) are one of the leading technologies being developed in the search for alternatives to the pump-and-treat method. Improving the hydraulic performance of these PRBs is an important part of maximizing their potential to the industry. Optimization of the hydraulic performance of a PRB can be defined in terms of finding the balance between capture, residence time, and PRB longevity that produces a minimum-cost acceptable design. Three-dimensional particle tracking was used to estimate capture zone and residence time distributions. Volumetric flow analysis was used for estimation of flow distribution across a PRB and in the identification of flow regimes that may affect the permeability or reactivity of portions of the PRB over time. Capture zone measurements extended below the base of partially penetrating PRBs and were measured upgradient from the portion of aquifer influenced by PRB emplacement. Hydraulic performance analysis of standard PRB designs confirmed previously presented research that identified the potential for significant variation in residence time and capture zone. These variations can result in the need to oversize the PRB to ensure that downgradient contaminant concentrations do not exceed imposed standards. The most useful PRB design enhancements for controlling residence time and capture variation were found to be customized downgradient gate faces, velocity equalization walls, deeper emplacement of the funnel than the gate, and careful manipulation of the hydraulic conductivity ratio between the gate and the aquifer.

  13. Hydraulics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Robert L.

    Designed for use in courses where students are expected to become proficient in the area of hydraulics, including diesel engine mechanic programs, this curriculum guide is comprised of fourteen units of instruction. Unit titles include (1) Introduction, (2) Fundamentals of Hydraulics, (3) Reservoirs, (4) Lines, Fittings, and Couplers, (5) Seals,…

  14. Hydraulic design of pervious concrete highway shoulders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grahl, Nathan Andrew

    Stormwater drainage has been a factor in roadway design for years. Now stormwater quantity and quality are also becoming regulated for roadways. As regulations of stormwater management continue to increase so does the need for more viable and effect management practices. The research presented and discussed in this thesis presents the option of using pervious concrete in highway shoulders as a best management practice for stormwater management. Research focused on the hydraulic response of pervious concrete pavements exposed to sheet flowing water. Pervious concrete samples were placed in a hydraulic flume to determine capture discharges, infiltration rates, and by-pass flowrates for a broad range of void contents, across a broad range of pavement cross slopes. The results demonstrate that the capture discharge and infiltration rates are inversely related to the cross slope of the pavement. Results also showed the infiltration rate of the permeable pavement exposed to sheet flowing water, in the model, is significantly lower than the measured infiltration rate. Pervious concrete samples were also tested to determine hydraulic response when exposed to clogging associated with sand used in roadway de-icing. The results of the clogging of the permeable pavements followed similar trends as the unclogged samples, with the only difference being a more significant reduction in infiltration rates at higher applications of sand. Preliminary discussion of a design methodology is included with a design example.

  15. Development of a hydraulic turbine design method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassanos, Ioannis; Anagnostopoulos, John; Papantonis, Dimitris

    2013-10-01

    In this paper a hydraulic turbine parametric design method is presented which is based on the combination of traditional methods and parametric surface modeling techniques. The blade of the turbine runner is described using Bezier surfaces for the definition of the meridional plane as well as the blade angle distribution, and a thickness distribution applied normal to the mean blade surface. In this way, it is possible to define parametrically the whole runner using a relatively small number of design parameters, compared to conventional methods. The above definition is then combined with a commercial CFD software and a stochastic optimization algorithm towards the development of an automated design optimization procedure. The process is demonstrated with the design of a Francis turbine runner.

  16. CFD Aided Design and Production of Hydraulic Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Alper; Cetinturk, Huseyin; Demirel, Gizem; Ayli, Ece; Celebioglu, Kutay; Aradag, Selin; ETU Hydro Research Center Team

    2014-11-01

    Hydraulic turbines are turbo machines which produce electricity from hydraulic energy. Francis type turbines are the most common one in use today. The design of these turbines requires high engineering effort since each turbine is tailor made due to different head and discharge. Therefore each component of the turbine is designed specifically. During the last decades, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has become very useful tool to predict hydraulic machinery performance and save time and money for designers. This paper describes a design methodology to optimize a Francis turbine by integrating theoretical and experimental fundamentals of hydraulic machines and commercial CFD codes. Specific turbines are designed and manufactured with the help of a collaborative CFD/CAD/CAM methodology based on computational fluid dynamics and five-axis machining for hydraulic electric power plants. The details are presented in this study. This study is financially supported by Turkish Ministry of Development.

  17. CFD based draft tube hydraulic design optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNabb, J.; Devals, C.; Kyriacou, S. A.; Murry, N.; Mullins, B. F.

    2014-03-01

    The draft tube design of a hydraulic turbine, particularly in low to medium head applications, plays an important role in determining the efficiency and power characteristics of the overall machine, since an important proportion of the available energy, being in kinetic form leaving the runner, needs to be recovered by the draft tube into static head. For large units, these efficiency and power characteristics can equate to large sums of money when considering the anticipated selling price of the energy produced over the machine's life-cycle. This same draft tube design is also a key factor in determining the overall civil costs of the powerhouse, primarily in excavation and concreting, which can amount to similar orders of magnitude as the price of the energy produced. Therefore, there is a need to find the optimum compromise between these two conflicting requirements. In this paper, an elaborate approach is described for dealing with this optimization problem. First, the draft tube's detailed geometry is defined as a function of a comprehensive set of design parameters (about 20 of which a subset is allowed to vary during the optimization process) and are then used in a non-uniform rational B-spline based geometric modeller to fully define the wetted surfaces geometry. Since the performance of the draft tube is largely governed by 3D viscous effects, such as boundary layer separation from the walls and swirling flow characteristics, which in turn governs the portion of the available kinetic energy which will be converted into pressure, a full 3D meshing and Navier-Stokes analysis is performed for each design. What makes this even more challenging is the fact that the inlet velocity distribution to the draft tube is governed by the runner at each of the various operating conditions that are of interest for the exploitation of the powerhouse. In order to determine these inlet conditions, a combined steady-state runner and an initial draft tube analysis, using a

  18. Hydraulics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Robert L.; Kirby, Klane

    This curriculum guide contains a course in hydraulics to train entry-level workers for automotive mechanics and other fields that utilize hydraulics. The module contains 14 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) introduction to hydraulics; (2) fundamentals of hydraulics; (3) reservoirs; (4) lines, fittings, and couplers; (5)…

  19. Spatial features of hydraulic conductivity in alluvial fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Z.; Zhu, L.; Ke, Y.; Pan, Y.; Gong, H.; Li, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Alluvial fans are highly heterogeneous due to the complicated depositional processes, which make it difficult to characterize the spatial distributions of the hydraulic conductivity and to evaluate the evolution trends. This study develops a methodology to identify the spatial statistical parameters (mean, variance, correlation range) of the hydraulic conductivity by using the hydraulic and geophysical data. The Chaobai River alluvial fan in the Beijing Plain, China, is used as an example to test the developed methodology for depicting the spatial variations of the alluvial fan. Due to the non-stationary property of the hydraulic conductivity distributions in the alluvial fan, a multi-zone parameterization approach is applied to analyze conductivity statistical properties of different hydrofacies and the composite variance of each zone is computed to describe the evolution of the conductivity along the flow direction of the alluvial fan. Results show that conductivity variances of medium-coarse sand and gravel decrease from Zone 1 to Zone 3 along the flow direction, which is consistent with the scales of the sedimentary transport energy. In the upper zone of the alluvial fan sediments were formed by higher-energy flooding, which induces bad sorting and larger conductivity variances in the sediments. The variance of fine sand also decreases from Zone 1 to Zone 3. The variances of the sub-clay and clay increase from the upper zone of the alluvial fan to the lower zone, where multiple layers of the sub-clay and clay formed by different flooding events have quite different conductivity distributions and statistical properties. With a much larger thickness in the lower zone, the vertical variations of conductivity contribute mainly to the relatively increased variance. The result of this study will provide insight for understanding conductivity heterogeneity and a method for characterizing the conductivity spatial distributions in alluvial fans.

  20. Leafminers help us understand leaf hydraulic design.

    PubMed

    Nardini, Andrea; Raimondo, Fabio; Lo Gullo, Maria A; Salleo, Sebastiano

    2010-07-01

    Leaf hydraulics of Aesculus hippocastanum L. were measured over the growing season and during extensive leaf mining by the larvae of an invasive moth (Cameraria ohridella Deschka et Dimic) that specifically destroy the palisade tissue. Leaves showed seasonal changes in hydraulic resistance (R(lamina)) which were related to ontogeny. After leaf expansion was complete, the hydraulic resistance of leaves and the partitioning of resistances between vascular and extra-vascular compartments remained unchanged despite extensive disruption of the palisade by leafminers (up to 50%). This finding suggests that water flow from the petiole to the evaporation sites might not directly involve the palisade cells. The analysis of the temperature dependence of R(lamina) in terms of Q(10) revealed that at least one transmembrane step was involved in water transport outside the leaf vasculature. Anatomical analysis suggested that this symplastic step may be located at the bundle sheath where the apoplast is interrupted by hydrophobic thickening of cell walls. Our findings offer some support to the view of a compartmentalization of leaves into well-organized water pools so that the transpiration stream would involve veins, bundle sheath and spongy parenchyma, while the palisade tissue would be largely by-passed with the possible advantage of protecting cells from short-term fluctuations in water status.

  1. Hydraulics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbrecht, Nancy; And Others

    These instructional materials provide an orientation to hydraulics for use at the postsecondary level. The first of 12 sections presents an introduction to hydraulics, including discussion of principles of liquids, definitions, liquid flow, the two types of hydraulic fluids, pressure gauges, and strainers and filters. The second section identifies…

  2. Hydraulic Design of Stepped Spillways Workshop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stepped chutes and spillways are commonly used for routing discharges during flood events. In addition, stepped chutes are used for overtopping protection of earthen embankments. Stepped spillways provide significant energy dissipation due to its stepped feature; as a result, the stilling basin as...

  3. Conceptual design and cost analysis of hydraulic output unit for 15 kW free-piston Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    A long-life hydraulic converter with unique features was conceptually designed to interface with a specified 15 kW(e) free-piston Stirling engine in a solar thermal dish application. Hydraulic fluid at 34.5 MPa (5000 psi) is produced to drive a conventional hydraulic motor and rotary alternator. Efficiency of the low-maintenance converter design was calculated at 93.5% for a counterbalanced version and 97.0% without the counterbalance feature. If the converter were coupled to a Stirling engine with design parameters more typcial of high-technology Stirling engines, counterbalanced converter efficiency could be increased to 99.6%. Dynamic computer simulation studies were conducted to evaluate performance and system sensitivities. Production costs of the complete Stirling hydraulic/electric power system were evaluated at $6506 which compared with $8746 for an alternative Stirling engine/linear alternator system.

  4. Design of a portable hydraulic ankle-foot orthosis.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Brett C; Nath, Jonathan; Durfee, William K

    2014-01-01

    Small-scale hydraulics is ideal for powered human assistive devices including powered ankle foot orthoses because a large torque can be generated with an actuator that is small and light. A portable hydraulic ankle foot orthosis has been designed and is undergoing preliminary prototyping and engineering bench test evaluation. The device provides 90 Nm of ankle torque and has an operating pressure of 138 bar (2,000 psi). The battery-operated hydraulic power supply weighs about 3 kg and is worn at the waist. The ankle component weighs about 1.2 Kg and connects to the power supply with two hoses. Performance simulation and preliminary bench testing suggests that the device could be useful in certain rehabilitation applications. PMID:25570175

  5. Design of a portable hydraulic ankle-foot orthosis.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Brett C; Nath, Jonathan; Durfee, William K

    2014-01-01

    Small-scale hydraulics is ideal for powered human assistive devices including powered ankle foot orthoses because a large torque can be generated with an actuator that is small and light. A portable hydraulic ankle foot orthosis has been designed and is undergoing preliminary prototyping and engineering bench test evaluation. The device provides 90 Nm of ankle torque and has an operating pressure of 138 bar (2,000 psi). The battery-operated hydraulic power supply weighs about 3 kg and is worn at the waist. The ankle component weighs about 1.2 Kg and connects to the power supply with two hoses. Performance simulation and preliminary bench testing suggests that the device could be useful in certain rehabilitation applications.

  6. Effect of filter designs on hydraulic properties and well efficiency.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Woo

    2014-09-01

    To analyze the effect of filter pack arrangement on the hydraulic properties and the well efficiency of a well design, a step drawdown was conducted in a sand-filled tank model. Prior to the test, a single filter pack (SFP), granule only, and two dual filter packs (DFPs), type A (granule-pebble) and type B (pebble-granule), were designed to surround the well screen. The hydraulic properties and well efficiencies related to the filter packs were evaluated using the Hazen's, Eden-Hazel's, Jacob's, and Labadie-Helweg's methods. The results showed that the hydraulic properties and well efficiency of the DFPs were higher than those of a SFP, and the clogging effect and wellhead loss related to the aquifer material were the lowest owing to the grain size and the arrangement of the filter pack. The hydraulic conductivity of the DFPs types A and B was about 1.41 and 6.43 times that of a SFP, respectively. In addition, the well efficiency of the DFPs types A and B was about 1.38 and 1.60 times that of the SFP, respectively. In this study, hydraulic property and well efficiency changes were observed according to the variety of the filter pack used. The results differed from the predictions of previous studies on the grain-size ratio. Proper pack-aquifer ratios and filter pack arrangements are primary factors in the construction of efficient water wells, as is the grain ratio, intrinsic permeability (k), and hydraulic conductivity (K) between the grains of the filter packs and the grains of the aquifer.

  7. Effect of filter designs on hydraulic properties and well efficiency.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Woo

    2014-09-01

    To analyze the effect of filter pack arrangement on the hydraulic properties and the well efficiency of a well design, a step drawdown was conducted in a sand-filled tank model. Prior to the test, a single filter pack (SFP), granule only, and two dual filter packs (DFPs), type A (granule-pebble) and type B (pebble-granule), were designed to surround the well screen. The hydraulic properties and well efficiencies related to the filter packs were evaluated using the Hazen's, Eden-Hazel's, Jacob's, and Labadie-Helweg's methods. The results showed that the hydraulic properties and well efficiency of the DFPs were higher than those of a SFP, and the clogging effect and wellhead loss related to the aquifer material were the lowest owing to the grain size and the arrangement of the filter pack. The hydraulic conductivity of the DFPs types A and B was about 1.41 and 6.43 times that of a SFP, respectively. In addition, the well efficiency of the DFPs types A and B was about 1.38 and 1.60 times that of the SFP, respectively. In this study, hydraulic property and well efficiency changes were observed according to the variety of the filter pack used. The results differed from the predictions of previous studies on the grain-size ratio. Proper pack-aquifer ratios and filter pack arrangements are primary factors in the construction of efficient water wells, as is the grain ratio, intrinsic permeability (k), and hydraulic conductivity (K) between the grains of the filter packs and the grains of the aquifer. PMID:24571417

  8. Optimization of hydraulic machinery by exploiting previous successful designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyriacou, S. A.; Weissenberger, S.; Grafenberger, P.; Giannakoglou, K. C.

    2010-08-01

    A design-optimization method for hydraulic machinery is proposed. Optimal designs are obtained using the appropriate CFD evaluation software driven by an evolutionary algorithm which is also assisted by artificial neural networks used as surrogate evaluation models or metamodels. As shown in a previous IAHR paper by the same authors, such an optimization method substantially reduces the CPU cost, since the metamodels can discard numerous non-promising candidate solutions generated during the evolution, at almost negligible CPU cost, without evaluating them by means of the costly CFD tool. The present paper extends the optimization method of the previous paper by making it capable to accommodate and exploit pieces of useful information archived during previous relevant successful designs. So, instead of parameterizing the geometry of the hydraulic machine components, which inevitably leads to many design variables, enough to slow down the design procedure, in the proposed method all new designs are expressed as weighted combinations of the archived ones. The archived designs act as the design space bases. The role of the optimization algorithms is to find the set (or sets, for more than one objectives, where the Pareto front of non-dominated solutions is sought) of weight values, corresponding to the hydraulic machine configuration(s) with optimal performance. Since the number of weights is much less that the number of design variables of the conventional shape parameterization, the design space dimension reduces and the CPU cost of the metamodel-assisted evolutionary algorithm is much lower. The design of a Francis runner is used to demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed method.

  9. Results From a Channel Restoration Project: Hydraulic Design Considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karle, K.F.; Densmore, R.V.; ,

    2001-01-01

    Techniques for the hydraulic restoration of placer-mined streams and floodplains were developed in Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska. The two-year study at Glen Creek focused on a design of stream and floodplain geometry using hydraulic capacity and shear stress equations. Slope and sinuosity values were based on regional relationships. Design requirements included a channel capacity for a bankfull discharge and a floodplain capacity for a 1.5- to 100-year discharge. Several bio-engineering techniques using alder and willow, including anchored brush bars, streambank hedge layering, seedlings, and cuttings, were tested to dissipate floodwater energy and encourage sediment deposition until natural revegetation stabilized the new floodplains. Permanently monumented cross-sections installed throughout the project site were surveyed every one to three years. Nine years after the project began, a summer flood caused substantial damage to the channel form, including a change in width/depth ratio, slope, and thalweg location. Many of the alder brush bars were heavily damaged or destroyed, resulting in significant bank erosion. This paper reviews the original hydraulic design process, and describes changes to the channel and floodplain geometry over time, based on nine years of cross-section surveys.

  10. Screening of one-well hydraulic barrier design alternatives.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Hillel; Shoemaker, Christine A; Köngeter, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This study develops a robust method for screening one-well hydraulic barrier design alternatives that can be easily computed without a numerical simulation model. The paper outlines the general method and shows its implementation with hydraulic barriers using a single pumping well. For such barriers, the method is easily computable with spreadsheets and/or charts depicted within the paper and posted online. The method applies the potential flow theory, which leads to using a curvilinear coordinate system for all types of calculations. For contaminant transport calculations, the method applies the boundary layer theory. For calculations of aquifer remediation, the method refers to bulk characteristics of the domain. As an example, the method has been applied to calculate the possible containment of a wide part of the coastal plain aquifer in Israel, which is contaminated by entrapped kerosene (a light nonaqueous phase liquid).

  11. Resolution of thermal-hydraulic safety and licensing issues for the system 80+{sup {trademark}} design

    SciTech Connect

    Carpentino, S.E.; Ritterbusch, S.E.; Schneider, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    The System 80+{sup {trademark}} Standard Design is an evolutionary Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) with a generating capacity of 3931 MWt (1350 MWe). The Final Design Approval (FDA) for this design was issued by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in July 1994. The design certification by the NRC is anticipated by the end of 1995 or early 1996. NRC review of the System 80+ design has involved several new safety issues never before addressed in a regulatory atmosphere. In addition, conformance with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) ALWR Utility Requirements Document (URD) required that the System 80+ plant address nuclear industry concerns with regard to design, construction, operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. A large number of these issues/concerns deals with previously unresolved generic thermal-hydraulic safety issues and severe accident prevention and mitigation. This paper discusses the thermal-hydraulic analyses and evaluations performed for the System 80+ design to resolve safety and licensing issues relevant to both the Nuclear Stream Supply System (NSSS) and containment designs. For the NSSS design, the Safety Depressurization System mitigation capability and resolution of the boron dilution concern are described. Examples of containment design issues dealing with containment shell strength, robustness of the reactor cavity walls and hydrogen mixing under severe accident conditions are also provided. Finally, the overall approach used in the application of NRC`s new (NUREG-1465) radiological source term for System 80+ evaluation is described. The robustness of the System 80+ containment design to withstand severe accident consequences was demonstrated through detailed thermal-hydraulic analyses and evaluations. This advanced design to shown to meet NRC severe accident policy goals and ALWR URD requirements without any special design features and unnecessary costs.

  12. Dynamics and design of a power unit with a hydraulic piston actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misyurin, S. Yu.; Kreinin, G. V.

    2016-07-01

    The problem of the preselection of parameters of a power unit of a mechatronic complex on the basis of the condition for providing a required control energy has been discussed. The design of the unit is based on analysis of its dynamics under the effect of a special-type test conditional control signal. The specific features of the approach used are a reasonably simplified normalized dynamic model of the unit and the formation of basic similarity criteria. Methods of designing a power unit with a hydraulic piston actuator that operates in point-to-point and oscillatory modes have been considered.

  13. Hydraulic manipulator design, analysis, and control at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F.; Love, L.J.; Basher, A.M.H.

    1996-09-01

    To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned to hydraulics as a means of actuation. Hydraulics have always been the actuator of choice when designing heavy-life construction and mining equipment such as bulldozers, backhoes, and tunneling devices. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem) sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. To support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The hydraulics laboratory at ORNL has three different manipulators. First is a 6-Degree-of-Freedom (6-DoF), multi-planer, teleoperated, flexible controls test bed used for the development of waste tank clean-up manipulator controls, thermal studies, system characterization, and manipulator tracking. Finally, is a human amplifier test bed used for the development of an entire new class of teleoperated systems. To compliment the hardware in the hydraulics laboratory, ORNL has developed a hydraulics simulation capability including a custom package to model the hydraulic systems and manipulators for performance studies and control development. This paper outlines the history of hydraulic manipulator developments at ORNL, describes the hydraulics laboratory, discusses the use of the equipment within the laboratory, and presents some of the initial results from experiments and modeling associated with these hydraulic manipulators. Included are some of the results from the development of the human amplifier/de-amplifier concepts, the characterization of the thermal sensitivity of hydraulic systems, and end-point tracking accuracy studies. Experimental and analytical

  14. 46 CFR 128.240 - Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and pressure design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and... Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control—materials and pressure design. (a) Each standard piping component (such as pipe runs, fittings, flanges, and standard valves) for hydraulic or pneumatic power and...

  15. 46 CFR 128.240 - Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and pressure design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and... Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control—materials and pressure design. (a) Each standard piping component (such as pipe runs, fittings, flanges, and standard valves) for hydraulic or pneumatic power and...

  16. Integration of Supportive Design Features and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazaros, Edward J.; Ahmadi, Reza

    2008-01-01

    Integrating supportive design features and technology into the home are excellent ways to plan to make a home "age-friendly." When an immediate need occurs for eliminating barriers in an existing home, supportive design features and technology will most often need to be examined, and some form of implementation will need to take place. While…

  17. Design of a Resistively Heated Thermal Hydraulic Simulator for Nuclear Rocket Reactor Cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Foote, John P.; Ramachandran, Narayanan; Wang, Ten-See; Anghaie, Samim

    2007-01-01

    A preliminary design study is presented for a non-nuclear test facility which uses ohmic heating to replicate the thermal hydraulic characteristics of solid core nuclear reactor fuel element passages. The basis for this testing capability is a recently commissioned nuclear thermal rocket environments simulator, which uses a high-power, multi-gas, wall-stabilized constricted arc-heater to produce high-temperature pressurized hydrogen flows representative of reactor core environments, excepting radiation effects. Initially, the baseline test fixture for this non-nuclear environments simulator was configured for long duration hot hydrogen exposure of small cylindrical material specimens as a low cost means of evaluating material compatibility. It became evident, however, that additional functionality enhancements were needed to permit a critical examination of thermal hydraulic effects in fuel element passages. Thus, a design configuration was conceived whereby a short tubular material specimen, representing a fuel element passage segment, is surrounded by a backside resistive tungsten heater element and mounted within a self-contained module that inserts directly into the baseline test fixture assembly. With this configuration, it becomes possible to create an inward directed radial thermal gradient within the tubular material specimen such that the wall-to-gas heat flux characteristics of a typical fuel element passage are effectively simulated. The results of a preliminary engineering study for this innovative concept are fully summarized, including high-fidelity multi-physics thermal hydraulic simulations and detailed design features.

  18. Thermal hydraulic analysis of the annular flow helium heater design

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, N.C.; Sanders, J.P.

    1982-05-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory has conducted Core Support Performance Test (CSPT) by use of an existing facility, Component Flow Test Loop (CFTL), as part of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) application program. A major objective of the CSPT is to study accelerated corrosion of the core graphite support structure in helium at reactor conditions. Concentration of impurities will be adjusted so that a 6-month test represents the 30-year reactor life. Thermal hydraulic and structural integrity of the graphite specimen, among other things, will be studied at high pressure of 7.24 MPa (1050 psi) and high temperature of 1000/sup 0/C (1832/sup 0/F) in a test vessel. To achieve the required high temperature at the test section, a heater bundle has to be specially designed and properly manufactured. This report presents performance characteristics of the heater that were determined from an analysis based on this design.

  19. A Thermoelastic Hydraulic Fracture Design Tool for Geothermal Reservoir Development

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad Ghassemi

    2003-06-30

    Geothermal energy is recovered by circulating water through heat exchange areas within a hot rock mass. Geothermal reservoir rock masses generally consist of igneous and metamorphic rocks that have low matrix permeability. Therefore, cracks and fractures play a significant role in extraction of geothermal energy by providing the major pathways for fluid flow and heat exchange. Thus, knowledge of conditions leading to formation of fractures and fracture networks is of paramount importance. Furthermore, in the absence of natural fractures or adequate connectivity, artificial fracture are created in the reservoir using hydraulic fracturing. At times, the practice aims to create a number of parallel fractures connecting a pair of wells. Multiple fractures are preferred because of the large size necessary when using only a single fracture. Although the basic idea is rather simple, hydraulic fracturing is a complex process involving interactions of high pressure fluid injections with a stressed hot rock mass, mechanical interaction of induced fractures with existing natural fractures, and the spatial and temporal variations of in-situ stress. As a result it is necessary to develop tools that can be used to study these interactions as an integral part of a comprehensive approach to geothermal reservoir development, particularly enhanced geothermal systems. In response to this need we have set out to develop advanced thermo-mechanical models for design of artificial fractures and rock fracture research in geothermal reservoirs. These models consider the significant hydraulic and thermo-mechanical processes and their interaction with the in-situ stress state. Wellbore failure and fracture initiation is studied using a model that fully couples poro-mechanical and thermo-mechanical effects. The fracture propagation model is based on a complex variable and regular displacement discontinuity formulations. In the complex variable approach the displacement discontinuities are

  20. US EPR Tests Performed to confirm the Mechanical and Hydraulic Design of the Vessel Internals

    SciTech Connect

    Dolleans, Philippe; Chambrin, Jean-Luc; Muller, Thierry

    2006-07-01

    The EPR is an Evolutionary high-Power Reactor which is based on the best French and German experience of the past twenty years in plant design construction and operation. In the present detailed engineering phase of the plant under construction in Finland (Okiluoto 3) or scheduled in France (Flamanville 3), a few actions are still ongoing mainly to complement equipment validation files. Design and validation of the main EPR components were performed within Framatome ANP's engineering teams and its two Technical Centers located in France and Germany, which develop state of the art methods in the field of thermo hydraulic testing. The Reactor Pressure Vessel internals are mainly derived from components already implemented on presently operating plants, but they differ in some features from the design used in French N4 or German Konvoi. The aim of this paper is to present the tests performed to confirm the hydraulic and mechanical design of the EPR vessel internals. - Four different mock-ups are presented to illustrate these tests: - JULIETTE for the reactor pressure vessel lower internals; - ROMEO for the reactor pressure vessel upper internals; - MAGALY for the design of the skeleton-type control rod guide assembly; - HYDRAVIB for the vibratory response of the reactor pressure vessel lowers internals. (authors)

  1. Hydraulic fracturing model featuring initiation beyond the wellbore wall for directional well in coal bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuwei; Jia, Dan; Wang, Meng; Liu, Jia; Fu, Chunkai; Yang, Xinliang; Ai, Chi

    2016-08-01

    In developing internal fracture systems in coal beds, the initiation mechanism differs greatly from that of conventional ones and initiations may be produced beyond the wellbore wall. This paper describes the features of the internal structure of coal beds and RFPA2D simulation is used to attest the possible occurrence of initiation beyond the wellbore wall in coal bed hydraulic fracturing. Using the theory of elasticity and fracture mechanics, we analyse the stress distribution in the vicinal coal rock. Then by taking into consideration the effects of the spatial relationship between coal bed cleats and the wellbore, we establish a model for calculating both tensile and shear initiation pressure that occur along cleats beyond the wellbore wall. The simulation in this paper indicates that for shear initiations that happen along coal cleats, the pressure required to initiate fracture for cleats beyond the wellbore wall is evidently lower than that on the wellbore wall, thus it is easier to initiate shear fractures for cleats beyond the wellbore wall. For tensile failure, the pressure required to initiate tensile fracture for cleats beyond the wellbore wall is obviously higher than that for cleats at the wellbore wall, thus it is easier to initiate tensile fractures for cleats at the wellbore wall. On the one hand, this paper has proved the possible occurrence of initiations beyond the wellbore wall and has changed the current assumption that hydraulic fractures can only occur at the wellbore wall. On the other hand, the established theoretical model provides a new approach to calculating the initiation pressure in hydraulic fracturing.

  2. 46 CFR 128.240 - Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and pressure design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control—materials and pressure design. (a) Each standard piping component... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and pressure design. 128.240 Section 128.240 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  3. 46 CFR 128.240 - Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and pressure design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control—materials and pressure design. (a) Each standard piping component... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and pressure design. 128.240 Section 128.240 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  4. 46 CFR 128.240 - Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and pressure design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control—materials and pressure design. (a) Each standard piping component... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and pressure design. 128.240 Section 128.240 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  5. Inherent design features of the GCFR

    SciTech Connect

    Medwid, W.; Breher, W.; Shenoy, A.; Elliott, R.

    1980-05-01

    This paper discusses several inherent design features of the GCFR that enhance its safety and presents analyses to demonstrate the degree of protection they provide. These features are a subset of a larger group of potential inherent features that form the third line of protection (LOP-3) for the GCFR. The function of LOP-3 is to demonstrate that the inherent response of the reactor system will limit core damage even if active cooling and shutdown systems in LOP-1 and LOP-2 fail. By providing this function with inherent features, which do not depend on active components and are self-controlling, an additional level of protection against common cause failure mechanisms is provided for both protected and unprotected events. The examples of LOP-3 discussed in this paper are natural circulation core cooling to the ultimate atmospheric heat sink and inherent reactor shutdown mechanisms.

  6. Statistical and geostatistical features of streambed hydraulic conductivities in the Platte River, Nebraska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xunhong

    2005-09-01

    This paper presents streambed hydraulic conductivities of the Platte River from south-central to eastern Nebraska. The hydraulic conductivities were determined from river channels using permeameter tests. The vertical hydraulic conductivities ( K v ) from seven test sites along this river in south-central Nebraska belong to one statistical population. Its mean value is 40.2 m/d. However, the vertical hydraulic conductivities along four transects of the Ashland test site in eastern Nebraska have lower mean values, are statistically different from the K v values in south-central Nebraska, and belong to two different populations with mean values of 20.7 and 9.1 m/d, respectively. Finer sediments carried from the Loup River and Elkhorn River watersheds to the eastern reach of the Platte River lowers the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the streambed. Correlation coefficients between water depth and K v values along a test transect indicates a positive correlation a larger K v usually occurs in the part of channel with deeper water. Experimental variograms derived from the vertical hydraulic conductivities for several transects across the channels of the Platte River show periodicity of spatial correlation, which likely result from periodic variation of water depth across the channels. The sandy to gravelly streambed contains very local silt and clay layers; spatially continuous low-permeability streambed was not observed in the river channels. The horizontal hydraulic conductivities were larger than the vertical hydraulic conductivities for the same test locations.

  7. Isotope Production Facility Conceptual Thermal-Hydraulic Design Review and Scoping Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.; Shelton, J.D.

    1998-08-01

    The thermal-hydraulic design of the target for the Isotope Production Facility (IPF) is reviewed. In support of the technical review, scoping calculations are performed. The results of the review and scoping calculations are presented in this report.

  8. A hybrid, neuro-genetic approach to hydraulic fracture treatment design and optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Mohaghegh, S.; Balan, B.; Ameri, S.; McVey, D.S.

    1996-12-31

    This paper summarizes the efforts conducted toward the development of a new and novel methodology for optimal design of hydraulic fracture treatments in a gas storage field. What makes this methodology unique is its capability to provide engineers with a near optimum design of a frac job despite very little (almost none) reservoir data availability. Lack of engineering data for hydraulic fracture design and evaluation had made use of 2D or 3D hydraulic fracture simulators impractical. As a result, prior designs of hydraulic frac jobs had been reduced to guess works and in some cases dependent on engineers with many years of experience on this particular field, who had developed an intuition about this formation and its possible response to different treatments. This was the main cause of several frac job failures every year. On the other hand, in case of relocation of engineers with experience on this particular field the risk of even more frac job failures was imminent.

  9. CAL Packages for Civil Engineering Hydraulics and Structural Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, W. D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes computer assisted learning (CAL) packages written in FORTRAN IV and developed for use in a degree course in civil engineering dealing with hydraulics and structures. All are used in the interactive mode through a terminal with a keyboard and visual display unit. (Author/CMV)

  10. Patient perceptions of stock footwear design features.

    PubMed

    Williams, A E; Nester, C J

    2006-04-01

    Patients with diseases which impact on foot health, for example diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis, are known to have some benefit from prescribed stock footwear with regards to clinical outcomes. Achieving this is not just about getting the footwear designed and fitted to meet the clinical needs, but it also requires that the patient wears the shoes. This means meeting the non-clinical needs or criteria of patients. The aim of this study was to compare perceptions of the same footwear between patients with diabetes and patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with regard to specific design features. Fifty-four patients with RA and 40 patients with diabetes who required prescription footwear were asked to identify issues of importance, and to assess the features of five different pairs of stock footwear using a Likert scale scoring form. There was a difference between the RA and the diabetes groups with regards their overall requirements from the footwear with comfort being a priority in RA and style a priority for diabetes. Both groups rated the same footwear as overall best from the selection, but the scores suggest that there were features with the 'best' shoe which were not acceptable suggesting that even the 'best' shoe was a compromise This possibly indicates that existing footwear ranges do not meet all the patients' requirements. Patients have different perceptions with regard to what is important to them in terms of footwear with regards to the specific features of the footwear and one of the influences appears to be the underlying systemic disease. Patient-based criteria may be an important consideration in the design of the footwear.

  11. Design of a smart material electro-hydraulic actuator with improved frequency bandwidth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, John P.; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2012-04-01

    Smart material electro-hydraulic actuators utilize fluid rectification by one-way valves to convert the small, high-frequency, high-force motions of smart materials such as piezoelectrics and magnetostrictives into useful motions of a hydraulic cylinder. These actuators have potential to replace centralized hydraulic pumps and lines with lightweight, compact, power-by-wire systems. This paper presents the design and testing of an improved actuator system. To increase the frequency bandwidth of operation, a lumped-parameter model is developed and validated based on experimental study of a pump with a performance capacity of 18.4 W. The critical parameters for pump performance are identified and their effect on pump performance assessed. The geometry of the hydraulic manifold that integrates the smart material pump and the output hydraulic cylinder is found to be critical for determining the effective system bandwidth.

  12. The hydraulic separator Multidune: preliminary tests on fluid-dynamic features and plastic separation feasibility.

    PubMed

    De Sena, Giulia; Nardi, Camillo; Cenedese, Antonio; La Marca, Floriana; Massacci, Paolo; Moroni, Monica

    2008-01-01

    Recycling of plastic materials is a rapidly developing discipline because of environmental awareness, the need to conserve materials and energy, and the growing demand to increase the production economy. The main problem in plastics recovery and recycling is related to the variety of plastic wastes, even if selective collection occurs. Therefore, plastic materials can be recycled either as mixtures or as single types, separating the different typologies by their physical (size, specific mass, etc.) and/or chemical properties. However, separation of plastics in single typologies by traditional processes and devices is difficult due to their typical low variability in properties. This paper presents a new research development for recycling industry: the Multidune separator. This is a device constructed from a sequence of parallel semi-cylindrical tubes of transparent plastic welded together in a plane. The lower half is shifted laterally and then fixed relative to the upper half. Flow is then induced in the lateral direction normal to the axis of the tubes, creating a main flow channel and two recirculation zones. This apparatus creates a differential transport of particles of low specific mass, near to 1g/cm3, allowing their separation. The flow field in the Multidune separator is studied via Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV). Eulerian analysis of the data is performed to gather information about the fluid-dynamics features established by different hydraulic heads at the inlet of the Multidune. Preliminary tests on monomaterial samples have been performed, varying several operative parameters to determine the best set of values. Therefore, separation tests have been executed on composite samples, obtaining satisfactory results in terms of plastic separation feasibility.

  13. Design, test and model of a hybrid magnetostrictive hydraulic actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, Anirban; Yoo, Jin-Hyeong; Wereley, Norman M.

    2009-08-01

    The basic operation of hybrid hydraulic actuators involves high frequency bi-directional operation of an active material that is converted to uni-directional motion of hydraulic fluid using valves. A hybrid actuator was developed using magnetostrictive material Terfenol-D as the driving element and hydraulic oil as the working fluid. Two different lengths of Terfenol-D rod, 51 and 102 mm, with the same diameter, 12.7 mm, were used. Tests with no load and with load were carried out to measure the performance for uni-directional motion of the output piston at different pumping frequencies. The maximum no-load flow rates were 24.8 cm3 s-1 and 22.7 cm3 s-1 with the 51 mm and 102 mm long rods respectively, and the peaks were noted around 325 Hz pumping frequency. The blocked force of the actuator was close to 89 N in both cases. A key observation was that, at these high pumping frequencies, the inertial effects of the fluid mass dominate over the viscous effects and the problem becomes unsteady in nature. In this study, we also develop a mathematical model of the hydraulic hybrid actuator in the time domain to show the basic operational principle under varying conditions and to capture phenomena affecting system performance. Governing equations for the pumping piston and output shaft were obtained from force equilibrium considerations, while compressibility of the working fluid was taken into account by incorporating the bulk modulus. Fluid inertia was represented by a lumped parameter approach to the transmission line model, giving rise to strongly coupled ordinary differential equations. The model was then used to calculate the no-load velocities of the actuator at different pumping frequencies and simulation results were compared with experimental data for model validation.

  14. Design of a hydraulic actuator for active control of rotating machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashidi, Majid; Dirusso, Eliseo

    1991-01-01

    A hydraulic actuator is described which consists of a pump, a hydraulic servo-valve, and a thin elastic plate which transduces the generated pressure variations into forces acting on a mass which simulates the bearing of a rotor system. An actuator characteristic number is defined to provide a base for an optimum design of force actuators with combined weight, frequency, and force considerations. This characteristic number may also be used to compare hydraulic and electromagnetic force actuators. In tests, this actuator generated 182.3 Newton force at a frequency of 100 Hz and a displacement amplitude of 5.8 x 10 exp -5 meter.

  15. Application of characteristic time concepts for hydraulic fracture configuration design, control, and optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Advani, S.H.; Lee, T.S. ); Moon, H. )

    1992-10-01

    The analysis of pertinent energy components or affiliated characteristic times for hydraulic stimulation processes serves as an effective tool for fracture configuration designs optimization, and control. This evaluation, in conjunction with parametric sensitivity studies, provides a rational base for quantifying dominant process mechanisms and the roles of specified reservoir properties relative to controllable hydraulic fracture variables for a wide spectrum of treatment scenarios. Results are detailed for the following multi-task effort: (a) Application of characteristic time concept and parametric sensitivity studies for specialized fracture geometries (rectangular, penny-shaped, elliptical) and three-layered elliptic crack models (in situ stress, elastic moduli, and fracture toughness contrasts). (b) Incorporation of leak-off effects for models investigated in (a). (c) Simulation of generalized hydraulic fracture models and investigation of the role of controllable vaxiables and uncontrollable system properties. (d) Development of guidelines for hydraulic fracture design and optimization.

  16. Application of characteristic time concepts for hydraulic fracture configuration design, control, and optimization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Advani, S.H.; Lee, T.S.; Moon, H.

    1992-10-01

    The analysis of pertinent energy components or affiliated characteristic times for hydraulic stimulation processes serves as an effective tool for fracture configuration designs optimization, and control. This evaluation, in conjunction with parametric sensitivity studies, provides a rational base for quantifying dominant process mechanisms and the roles of specified reservoir properties relative to controllable hydraulic fracture variables for a wide spectrum of treatment scenarios. Results are detailed for the following multi-task effort: (a) Application of characteristic time concept and parametric sensitivity studies for specialized fracture geometries (rectangular, penny-shaped, elliptical) and three-layered elliptic crack models (in situ stress, elastic moduli, and fracture toughness contrasts). (b) Incorporation of leak-off effects for models investigated in (a). (c) Simulation of generalized hydraulic fracture models and investigation of the role of controllable vaxiables and uncontrollable system properties. (d) Development of guidelines for hydraulic fracture design and optimization.

  17. FFTF thermal-hydraulic testing results affecting piping and vessel component design in LMFBR's

    SciTech Connect

    Stover, R.L.; Beaver, T.R.; Chang, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility completed four years of pre-operational testing in April 1982. This paper describes thermal-hydraulic testing results from this period which impact piping and vessel component design in LMFBRs. Data discussed are piping flow oscillations, piping thermal stratification and vessel upper plenum stratification. Results from testing verified that plant design limits were met.

  18. The 25 kWe solar thermal Stirling hydraulic engine system: Conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Maurice; Emigh, Grant; Noble, Jack; Riggle, Peter; Sorenson, Torvald

    1988-01-01

    The conceptual design and analysis of a solar thermal free-piston Stirling hydraulic engine system designed to deliver 25 kWe when coupled to a 11 meter test bed concentrator is documented. A manufacturing cost assessment for 10,000 units per year was made. The design meets all program objectives including a 60,000 hr design life, dynamic balancing, fully automated control, more than 33.3 percent overall system efficiency, properly conditioned power, maximum utilization of annualized insolation, and projected production costs. The system incorporates a simple, rugged, reliable pool boiler reflux heat pipe to transfer heat from the solar receiver to the Stirling engine. The free-piston engine produces high pressure hydraulic flow which powers a commercial hydraulic motor that, in turn, drives a commercial rotary induction generator. The Stirling hydraulic engine uses hermetic bellows seals to separate helium working gas from hydraulic fluid which provides hydrodynamic lubrication to all moving parts. Maximum utilization of highly refined, field proven commercial components for electric power generation minimizes development cost and risk.

  19. Final design of a free-piston hydraulic advanced Stirling conversion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, D. A.; Noble, J. E.; Emigh, S. G.; Ross, B. A.; Lehmann, G. A.

    1991-01-01

    Under the US Department of Energy's (DOEs) Solar Thermal Technology Program, Sandia National Laboratories is evaluating heat engines for solar distributed receiver systems. The final design is described of an engineering prototype advanced Stirling conversion system (ASCS) with a free-piston hydraulic engine output capable of delivering about 25 kW of electric power to a utility grid. The free-piston Stirling engine has the potential for a highly reliable engine with long life because it has only a few moving parts, has noncontacting bearings, and can be hermetically sealed. The ASCS is designed to deliver maximum power per year over a range of solar input with a design life of 30 years (60,000 h). The system includes a liquid Nak pool boiler heat transport system and a free-piston Stirling engine with high-pressure hydraulic output, coupled with a bent axis variable displacement hydraulic motor and a rotary induction generator.

  20. Recent Development of the Two-Stroke Engine. II - Design Features. 2; Design Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeman, J.

    1945-01-01

    Completing the first paper dealing with charging methods and arrangements, the present paper discusses the design forms of two-stroke engines. Features which largely influence piston running are: (a) The shape and surface condition of the sliding parts. (b) The cylinder and piston materials. (c) Heat conditions in the piston, and lubrication. There is little essential difference between four-stroke and two-stroke engines with ordinary pistons. In large engines, for example, are always found separately cast or welded frames in which the stresses are taken up by tie rods. Twin piston and timing piston engines often differ from this design. Examples can be found in many engines of German or foreign make. Their methods of operation will be dealt with in the third part of the present paper, which also includes the bibliography. The development of two-stroke engine design is, of course, mainly concerned with such features as are inherently difficult to master; that is, the piston barrel and the design of the gudgeon pin bearing. Designers of four-stroke engines now-a-days experience approximately the same difficulties, since heat stresses have increased to the point of influencing conditions in the piston barrel. Features which notably affect this are: (a) The material. (b) Prevailing heat conditions.

  1. Feed-pump hydraulic performance and design improvement, Phase I: research program design. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W.H.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Fehlau, R.; Thompson, W.E.; Wilson, D.G.

    1982-03-01

    As a result of prior EPRI-sponsored studies, it was concluded that a research program should be designed and implemented to provide an improved basis for the design, procurement, testing, and operation of large feed pumps with increased reliability and stability over the full range of operating conditions. This two-volume report contains a research plan which is based on a review of the present state of the art and which defines the necessary R and D program and estimates the benefits and costs of the program. The recommended research program consists of 30 interrelated tasks. It is designed to perform the needed research; to verify the results; to develop improved components; and to publish computer-aided design methods, pump specification guidelines, and a troubleshooting manual. Most of the technology proposed in the research plan is applicable to nuclear power plants as well as to fossil-fired plants. This volume contains appendixes on pump design, cavitation damage, performance testing, hydraulics, two-phase flow in pumps, flow stability, and rotor dynamics.

  2. Richards Barrier LA Reference Design Feature Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    N.E. Kramer

    1999-11-17

    The Richards Barrier is one of the design features of the repository to be considered for the License Application (LA), Richards was a soil scientist who first described the diversion of moisture between two materials with different hydrologic properties. In this report, a Richards Barrier is a special type of backfill with a fine-grained material (such as sand) overlaying a coarse-grained material (such as gravel). Water that enters an emplacement drift will first encounter the fine-grained material and be transported around the coarse-grained material covering the waste package, thus protecting the waste package from contact with most of the groundwater. The objective of this report is to discuss the benefits and liabilities to the repository by the inclusion of a Richards Barrier type backfill in emplacement drifts. The Richards Barrier can act as a barrier to water flow, can reduce the waste package material dissolution rate, limit mobilization of the radionuclides, and can provide structural protection for the waste package. The scope of this report is to: (1) Analyze the behavior of barrier materials following the intrusion of groundwater for influxes of 1 to 300 mm per year. The report will demonstrate diversion of groundwater intrusions into the barrier over an extended time period when seismic activity and consolidation may cause the potential for liquefaction and settlement of the Richards Barrier. (2) Review the thermal effects of the Richards Barrier on material behavior. (3) Analyze the effect of rockfall on the performance of the Richards Barrier and the depth of the barrier required to protect waste packages under the barrier. (4) Review radiological and heating conditions on placement of multiple layers of the barrier. Subsurface Nuclear Safety personnel will perform calculations to determine the radiation reduction-time relationship and shielding capacity of the barrier. (5) Evaluate the effects of ventilation on cooling of emplacement drifts and

  3. Use of hydraulic models to identify and resolve design isssues in FGD systems

    SciTech Connect

    Strock, T.W.; Gohara, W.F.

    1995-06-01

    The hydraulics within a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber involve several complex two-phase gas/liquid interactions that directly affect the scrubber pressure drop, mist elimination efficiency, and the mass transfer process of SO{sub 2} removal. Current industrial efforts to develop cost effective, high-efficiency wet FGD scrubbers are focusing, in part, on the hydraulics. The development of an experimental approach and test facility for understanding and optimizing wet scrubber flow characteristics has been completed. Hydraulic models simulate full-scale units and allow the designer to view the gas/liquid flow interactions. Modeling procedures for downsizing the wet scrubber for the laboratory have been developed and validated with field data comparisons. A one-eighth scale hydraulic model has been used to study several FGD scrubber design issues. Design changes to reduce capital and operating cost have been developed and tested. Recently, the model was used to design a commercial, uniform flow, high gas velocity absorber for the next generation of FGD systems.

  4. AP600 design certification thermal hydraulics testing and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hochreiter, L.E.; Piplica, E.J.

    1995-09-01

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation, in conjunction with the Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute, have been developing an advanced light water reactor design; the AP600. The AP600 is a 1940 Mwt, 600Mwe unit which is similar to a Westinghouse two-loop Pressurized Water Reactor. The accumulated knowledge on reactor design to reduce the capital costs, construction time, and the operational and maintenance cost of the unit once it begins to generate electrical power. The AP600 design goal is to maintain an overall cost advantage over fossil generated electrical power.

  5. A survey on methods of design features identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowik, C.; Kalinowski, K.; Paprocka, I.; Kempa, W.

    2015-11-01

    It is widely accepted that design features are one of the most attractive integration method of most fields of engineering activities such as a design modelling, process planning or production scheduling. One of the most important tasks which are realized in the integration process of design and planning functions is a design translation meant as design data mapping into data which are important from process planning needs point of view, it is manufacturing data. A design geometrical shape translation process can be realized with application one of the following strategies: (i) designing with previously prepared design features library also known as DBF method it is design by feature, (ii) interactive design features recognition IFR, (iii) automatic design features recognition AFR. In case of the DBF method design geometrical shape is created with design features. There are two basic approaches for design modelling in DBF method it is classic in which a part design is modelled from beginning to end with application design features previously stored in a design features data base and hybrid where part is partially created with standard predefined CAD system tools and the rest with suitable design features. Automatic feature recognition consist in an autonomic searching of a product model represented with a specific design representation method in order to find those model features which might be potentially recognized as design features, manufacturing features, etc. This approach needs the searching algorithm to be prepared. The searching algorithm should allow carrying on the whole recognition process without a user supervision. Currently there are lots of AFR methods. These methods need the product model to be represented with B-Rep representation most often, CSG rarely, wireframe very rarely. In the IFR method potential features are being recognized by a user. This process is most often realized by a user who points out those surfaces which seem to belong to a

  6. Numerical Modeling of a Thermal-Hydraulic Loop and Test Section Design for Heat Transfer Studies in Supercritical Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, Daniel

    A numerical tool for the simulation of the thermal dynamics of pipe networks with heat transfer has been developed with the novel capability of modeling supercritical fluids. The tool was developed to support the design and deployment of two thermal-hydraulic loops at Carleton University for the purpose of heat transfer studies in supercritical and near-critical fluids. First, the system was characterized based on its defining features; the characteristic length of the flow path is orders of magnitude larger than the other characteristic lengths that define the system's geometry; the behaviour of the working fluid in the supercritical thermodynamic state. An analysis of the transient thermal behaviour of the model's domains is then performed to determine the accuracy and range of validity of the modeling approach for simulating the transient thermal behaviour of a thermal-hydraulic loop. Preliminary designs of three test section geometries, for the purpose of heat transfer studies, are presented in support of the overall design of the Carleton supercritical thermal-hydraulic loops. A 7-rod-bundle, annular and tubular geometries are developed with support from the new numerical tool. Materials capable of meeting the experimental requirements while operating in supercritical water are determined. The necessary geometries to satisfy the experimental goals are then developed based on the material characteristics and predicted heat transfer behaviour from previous simulation results. An initial safety analysis is performed on the test section designs, where they are evaluated against the ASME Boiler, Pressure Vessel, and Pressure Piping Code standard, required for safe operation and certification.

  7. Development of guidelines for improved hydraulic design of waste stabilisation ponds.

    PubMed

    Shilton, A; Harrison, J

    2003-01-01

    Pond hydraulic behaviour is influenced by the inlet/outlet configuration, baffles and wind, but design information relating to these factors is still very limited. This paper reviews the development of "Guidelines for the Improved Hydraulic Design of Waste Stabilisation Ponds" and summarises some of the key findings and recommendations. This work was based on review of previous research, laboratory experimentation, field studies and mathematical modelling using computational fluid dynamics. The inlet design can have a significant influence on the flow regime in a pond. Poorly considered positioning of the inlet and the outlet can create hydraulic short-circuiting problems. As an example of the nature of the work undertaken in this project, the use of a small horizontal inlet pipe was compared against a vertical inlet design. A practical method of assessing the relative significance of wind versus inlet power input was presented. The application of this analysis may allow engineers to size inlet pipes to help control the flow patterns in ponds for efficient performance. Extensive testing has been undertaken on a wide range of baffle configurations. An example of this research showed how short stub baffles could provide similar improvements to longer "traditional" baffle designs, potentially offering significant savings in construction costs. For traditional baffle designs a minimum of two baffles is recommended. For the pond modelled in this work, it was found that any more than four baffles gave only marginal improvements.

  8. The Process of Designing Task Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Malcolm Bauer, from Education Testing Services, provides his comments on the Focus article in this issue of "Measurement" entitled : "How Task Features Impact Evidence from Assessments Embedded in Simulations and Games" (Russell G. Almond, Yoon Jeon Kim, Gertrudes Velasquez, Valerie J. Shute). Bauer begins his remarks by noting…

  9. A brief history of the interactions between climate and Mexican hydraulic design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platas, Francisco; Osnaya, Santiago; Ocaña, Raymundo; Zarur, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    Weather in Mexico is always extreme, for instance, in some portions of the desert of México the temperature can reach 134° F in the shade. On the other side in the Sierra Tarahumara, which is in the Mexican state of Chihuahua, high altitude produce in this place a cool oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cwb), characterized by mild days (38° F) and cold nights (-9.4° F).Traditionally the equipment and hydraulic infrastructure in this kind of extreme zones has been building for engineers, architects and industrial designers. A brief history is given of the development of hydraulic design, infrastructure works and technical design guidelines from antiquity to XX Century.

  10. HYDRAULIC SERVO

    DOEpatents

    Wiegand, D.E.

    1962-05-01

    A hydraulic servo is designed in which a small pressure difference produced at two orifices by an electrically operated flapper arm in a constantly flowing hydraulic loop is hydraulically amplified by two constant flow pumps, two additional orifices, and three unconnected ball pistons. Two of the pistons are of one size and operate against the additional orifices, and the third piston is of a different size and operates between and against the first two pistons. (AEC)

  11. Rock riprap design for protection of stream channels near highway structures; Volume 1, Hydraulic characteristics of open channels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blodgett, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Volume I discusses the hydraulic and channel properties of streams, based on data from several hundred sites. Streamflow and geomorphic data have been collected and developed to indicate the range in hydraulic factors typical of open channels , to assist design, maintenance, and construction engineers in preparing rock riprap bank protection. Typical channels were found to have maximum-to-mean depth ratio of 1.55 and a ratio of hydraulic radius to mean depth of 0.98, which is independent of width. Most stable channel characteristics for a given discharge are slope, maximum depth, and hydraulic radius. (See also W89-04911) (Author 's abstract)

  12. Hydraulic features of Engineered Log Jams (ELJs) and their influence on salmonid behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, W. D.; Fetter, D.; Somerville, G.; Tullos, D. D.; Palacijo, J.

    2010-12-01

    In an effort to recreate channel complexity and habitat, construction of Engineered Log Jams (ELJs) is increasing, yet questions remain regarding their effectiveness due to lack of observations of hydraulics and fish use around these structures. To address this limitation, we surveyed four different forms of engineered log jams in western Oregon. The structures and near-structure stream environments were surveyed for bathymetry, instrumented with an Acoustic Doppler Stream Profiler (ADCP) to measure velocities, and snorkeled to observe the behavior of salmonids. Further, tensor visualization of stream velocities were constructed to investigate circulation and flow patterns in and around the ELJ structures. We found that more complex structures created a more varied bottom profile, while simpler structures resulted in more simple pools. However, all log jams did increase the diversity of flow patterns, with areas of high and low velocity that appeared to influence fish behavior. Variation in the size of salmonids was related to greater variation in the velocity, and fish behavior (feeding, aggression) was observed to vary within the pools. Our results provide preliminary evidence of the influence of engineered structures on the diversity and versatility of fish habitat.

  13. Design of Intelligent Hydraulic Excavator Control System Based on PID Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Jiao, Shengjie; Liao, Xiaoming; Yin, Penglong; Wang, Yulin; Si, Kuimao; Zhang, Yi; Gu, Hairong

    Most of the domestic designed hydraulic excavators adopt the constant power design method and set 85%~90% of engine power as the hydraulic system adoption power, it causes high energy loss due to mismatching of power between the engine and the pump. While the variation of the rotational speed of engine could sense the power shift of the load, it provides a new method to adjust the power matching between engine and pump through engine speed. Based on negative flux hydraulic system, an intelligent hydraulic excavator control system was designed based on rotational speed sensing method to improve energy efficiency. The control system was consisted of engine control module, pump power adjusted module, engine idle module and system fault diagnosis module. Special PLC with CAN bus was used to acquired the sensors and adjusts the pump absorption power according to load variation. Four energy saving control strategies with constant power method were employed to improve the fuel utilization. Three power modes (H, S and L mode) were designed to meet different working status; Auto idle function was employed to save energy through two work status detected pressure switches, 1300rpm was setting as the idle speed according to the engine consumption fuel curve. Transient overload function was designed for deep digging within short time without spending extra fuel. An increasing PID method was employed to realize power matching between engine and pump, the rotational speed's variation was taken as the PID algorithm's input; the current of proportional valve of variable displacement pump was the PID's output. The result indicated that the auto idle could decrease fuel consumption by 33.33% compared to work in maximum speed of H mode, the PID control method could take full use of maximum engine power at each power mode and keep the engine speed at stable range. Application of rotational speed sensing method provides a reliable method to improve the excavator's energy efficiency and

  14. Thermal-hydraulic criteria for the APT tungsten neutron source design

    SciTech Connect

    Pasamehmetoglu, K.

    1998-03-01

    This report presents the thermal-hydraulic design criteria (THDC) developed for the tungsten neutron source (TNS). The THDC are developed for the normal operations, operational transients, and design-basis accidents. The requirements of the safety analyses are incorporated into the design criteria, consistent with the integrated safety management and the safety-by-design philosophy implemented throughout the APT design process. The phenomenology limiting the thermal-hydraulic design and the confidence level requirements for each limit are discussed. The overall philosophy of the uncertainty analyses and the confidence level requirements also are presented. Different sets of criteria are developed for normal operations, operational transients, anticipated accidents, unlikely accidents, extremely unlikely accidents, and accidents during TNS replacement. In general, the philosophy is to use the strictest criteria for the high-frequency events. The criteria is relaxed as the event frequencies become smaller. The THDC must be considered as a guide for the design philosophy and not as a hard limit. When achievable, design margins greater than those required by the THDC must be used. However, if a specific event sequence cannot meet the THDC, expensive design changes are not necessary if the single event sequence results in sufficient margin to safety criteria and does not challenge the plant availability or investment protection considerations.

  15. Effects of radial diffuser hydraulic design on a double-suction centrifugal pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, H. C.; Zhang, Y. X.; Xu, C.; Zhang, J. Y.; Li, Z. L.

    2016-05-01

    In order to study effects of radial diffuser on hydraulic performance of crude oil pump, the steady CFD numerical method is applied and one large double-suction oil pump running in long-distance pipeline is considered. The research focuses on analysing the influence of its diffuser vane profile on hydraulic performance of oil pump. The four different types of cylindrical vane have been designed by in-house codes mainly including double arcs (DA), triple arcs (TA), equiangular spiral line (ES) and linear variable angle spiral line (LVS). During design process diffuser vane angles at inlet and outlet are tentatively given within a certain range and then the wrapping angle of the four types of diffuser vanes can be calculated automatically. Under the given inlet and outlet angles, the linear variable angle spiral line profile has the biggest wrapping angle and profile length which is good to delay channel diffusion but bring more friction hydraulic loss. Finally the vane camber line is thickened at the certain uniform thickness distribution and the 3D diffuser models are generated. The whole flow passage of oil pump with different types of diffusers under various flow rate conditions are numerically simulated based on RNG k-ɛ turbulent model and SIMPLEC algorithm. The numerical results show that different types of diffusers can bring about great difference on the hydraulic performance of oil pump, of which the ES profile diffuser with its proper setting angle shows the best hydraulic performance and its inner flow field is improved obviously. Compared with the head data from model sample, all designed diffusers can make a certain improvement on head characteristic. At the large flow rate conditions the hydraulic efficiency increases obviously and the best efficiency point shift to the large flow rate range. The ES profile diffuser embodies the better advantages on pump performance which can be explained theoretically that the diffuser actually acts as a diffusion

  16. Experiences with the hydraulic design of the high specific speed Francis turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrovsky, J.; Zouhar, J.

    2014-03-01

    The high specific speed Francis turbine is still suitable alternative for refurbishment of older hydro power plants with lower heads and worse cavitation conditions. In the paper the design process of such kind of turbine together with the results comparison of homological model tests performed in hydraulic laboratory of ČKD Blansko Engineering is introduced. The turbine runner was designed using the optimization algorithm and considering the high specific speed hydraulic profile. It means that hydraulic profiles of the spiral case, the distributor and the draft tube were used from a Kaplan turbine. The optimization was done as the automatic cycle and was based on a simplex optimization method as well as on a genetic algorithm. The number of blades is shown as the parameter which changes the resulting specific speed of the turbine between ns=425 to 455 together with the cavitation characteristics. Minimizing of cavitation on the blade surface as well as on the inlet edge of the runner blade was taken into account during the design process. The results of CFD analyses as well as the model tests are mentioned in the paper.

  17. A Bayesian Chance-Constrained Method for Hydraulic Barrier Design Under Model Structure Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitsazan, N.; Pham, H. V.; Tsai, F. T. C.

    2014-12-01

    The groundwater community has widely recognized the model structure uncertainty as the major source of model uncertainty in groundwater modeling. Previous studies in the aquifer remediation design, however, rarely discuss the impact of the model structure uncertainty. This study combines the chance-constrained (CC) programming with the Bayesian model averaging (BMA) as a BMA-CC framework to assess the effect of model structure uncertainty in the remediation design. To investigate the impact of the model structure uncertainty on the remediation design, we compare the BMA-CC method with the traditional CC programming that only considers the model parameter uncertainty. The BMA-CC method is employed to design a hydraulic barrier to protect public supply wells of the Government St. pump station from saltwater intrusion in the "1,500-foot" sand and the "1-700-foot" sand of the Baton Rouge area, southeastern Louisiana. To address the model structure uncertainty, we develop three conceptual groundwater models based on three different hydrostratigraphy structures. The results show that using the traditional CC programming overestimates design reliability. The results also show that at least five additional connector wells are needed to achieve more than 90% design reliability level. The total amount of injected water from connector wells is higher than the total pumpage of the protected public supply wells. While reducing injection rate can be achieved by reducing reliability level, the study finds that the hydraulic barrier design to protect the Government St. pump station is not economically attractive.

  18. Implementing a method of screening one-well hydraulic barrier design alternatives.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Hillel; Shoemaker, Christine A; Köngeter, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    This article provides details of applying the method developed by the authors (Rubin et al. 2008b) for screening one-well hydraulic barrier design alternatives. The present article with its supporting information (manual and electronic spreadsheets with a case history example) provides the reader complete details and examples of solving the set of nonlinear equations developed by Rubin et al. (2008b). It allows proper use of the analytical solutions and also depicting the various charts given by Rubin et al. (2008b). The final outputs of the calculations are the required position and the discharge of the pumping well. If the contaminant source is nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) entrapped within the aquifer, then the method provides an estimate of the aquifer remediation progress (which is a by-product) due to operating the hydraulic barrier.

  19. Bayesian Chance-Constrained Hydraulic Barrier Design under Geological Structure Uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Chitsazan, Nima; Pham, Hai V; Tsai, Frank T-C

    2015-01-01

    The groundwater community has widely recognized geological structure uncertainty as a major source of model structure uncertainty. Previous studies in aquifer remediation design, however, rarely discuss the impact of geological structure uncertainty. This study combines chance-constrained (CC) programming with Bayesian model averaging (BMA) as a BMA-CC framework to assess the impact of geological structure uncertainty in remediation design. To pursue this goal, the BMA-CC method is compared with traditional CC programming that only considers model parameter uncertainty. The BMA-CC method is employed to design a hydraulic barrier to protect public supply wells of the Government St. pump station from salt water intrusion in the "1500-foot" sand and the "1700-foot" sand of the Baton Rouge area, southeastern Louisiana. To address geological structure uncertainty, three groundwater models based on three different hydrostratigraphic architectures are developed. The results show that using traditional CC programming overestimates design reliability. The results also show that at least five additional connector wells are needed to achieve more than 90% design reliability level. The total amount of injected water from the connector wells is higher than the total pumpage of the protected public supply wells. While reducing the injection rate can be achieved by reducing the reliability level, the study finds that the hydraulic barrier design to protect the Government St. pump station may not be economically attractive.

  20. Evolution of the design methodologies for the next generation of RPV Extensive role of the thermal-hydraulics numerical tools

    SciTech Connect

    Goreaud, Nicolas; Nicaise, Norbert; Stoudt, Roger

    2004-07-01

    The thermal-hydraulic design of the first PWR's was mainly based on an experimental approach, with a large series of test on the main equipment (control rod guide tubes, RPV plenums..), to check its performances. Development of CFD-codes and computers now allows for complex simulations of hydraulic phenomena. Provided adequate qualification, these numerical tools are efficient means to determine hydraulics in given design, and to perform sensitivities for optimization of new designs. Experiments always play their role, first for qualification, and for validation at the last stage of the design. The design of the European Pressurized water Reactor (EPR), is based on both hydraulic calculations and experiments, handled in a complementary approach. This paper describes the effort launched by Framatome-ANP on hydraulic calculations for the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) of the EPR reactor. It concerns 3D-calculations of RPV-inlet including cold legs, RPV-downcomer and lower plenum, RPV-upper plenum up to and including hot legs. It covers normal operating conditions, but also accidental conditions as PTS (Pressurized Thermal Shock) in small break loss of coolant accident (SB-LOCA). Those hydraulic studies have provided numerous useful information for the mechanical design of RPV-internals. (authors)

  1. Optimal design of hydraulic head monitoring networks using space-time geostatistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, G. S.; Júnez-Ferreira, H. E.

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for the optimal design of space-time hydraulic head monitoring networks and its application to the Valle de Querétaro aquifer in Mexico. The selection of the space-time monitoring points is done using a static Kalman filter combined with a sequential optimization method. The Kalman filter requires as input a space-time covariance matrix, which is derived from a geostatistical analysis. A sequential optimization method that selects the space-time point that minimizes a function of the variance, in each step, is used. We demonstrate the methodology applying it to the redesign of the hydraulic head monitoring network of the Valle de Querétaro aquifer with the objective of selecting from a set of monitoring positions and times, those that minimize the spatiotemporal redundancy. The database for the geostatistical space-time analysis corresponds to information of 273 wells located within the aquifer for the period 1970-2007. A total of 1,435 hydraulic head data were used to construct the experimental space-time variogram. The results show that from the existing monitoring program that consists of 418 space-time monitoring points, only 178 are not redundant. The implied reduction of monitoring costs was possible because the proposed method is successful in propagating information in space and time.

  2. Design Concept for Garbage Bin with Situation Awareness Feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supattatham, Montri; Papasratorn, Borworn

    Many measures to prevent wide-spread of communicable diseases depends on embedded IT into objects found in public places. This makes it possible to have objects with awareness on surrounding environment, or having situation awareness. This paper presents design concept to add situation awareness features to automatic garbage bin. There are three design levels for including situation awareness features with garbage bin. From awareness goals, required features are identified. Perception, comprehension, and projection are then aligned with the required features, in order to have desired awareness. Automatic garbage bin is implemented using design specification from the proposed design concept. Result from convenience sampling survey reveals that users are satisfied with the implemented garbage bin.

  3. Critical Features of Engineering Design in Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asunda, Paul A.; Hill, Roger B.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find critical features of engineering design that can be incorporated within technology education learning activities, and develop a rubric for assessing these features. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with three professors actively involved in engineering education. Supporting documents such…

  4. Design of a miniature hydraulic compression load frame for microdiffraction tests at the Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, D.; Varma, R.; Krasnicki, S.; Sinha, S.

    1999-10-11

    In support of the x-ray synchrotrons radiation multidiffraction project of Los Alamos National Laboratory at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), we have designed and fabricated a miniature hydraulic compression load frame with 20000 N load capacity for metal specimen tests at the APS. The compact design allows the load frame to sit on the center of a 6-circle goniometer with six degrees of freedom and maximum solid angle accessibility for the incoming x-ray beam and diffraction beam detectors. A set of compact precision stages with submicron resolution has been designed for the load frame positioning to compensate the sample internal elastic and/or plastic deformation during the loading process. The system design, specifications, and test results are presented.

  5. Design of a hydraulic power take-off system for the wave energy device with an inverse pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Da-hai; Li, Wei; Zhao, Hai-tao; Bao, Jing-wei; Lin, Yong-gang

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes a dual-stroke acting hydraulic power take-off (PTO) system employed in the wave energy converter (WEC) with an inverse pendulum. The hydraulic PTO converts slow irregular reciprocating wave motions to relatively smooth, fast rotation of an electrical generator. The design of the hydraulic PTO system and its control are critical to maximize the generated power. A time domain simulation study and the laboratory experiment of the full-scale beach test are presented. The results of the simulation and laboratory experiments including their comparison at full-scale are also presented, which have validated the rationality of the design and the reliability of some key components of the prototype of the WEC with an inverse pendulum with the dual-stroke acting hydraulic PTO system.

  6. The design of an electro-hydraulically controlled, manual transmission for a hybrid electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G.W.; Hoff, C.J.

    1998-07-01

    An electro-hydraulically controlled, manual transmission has been developed for the Department of Energy's FutureCar Challenge. This project which is jointly sponsored by the DOE and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) seeks to modify a production mid-size car to reach 80 mpg, yet still maintain the safety and consumer acceptability of the original vehicle. To meet this challenge, a 1996 Ford Taurus has been modified into a parallel drive, hybrid electric vehicle. The propulsion system of this vehicle is based on a DC electric motor, which is coupled via a belt drive, in parallel, with a 1.9 liter turbo-charged, direct injection diesel engine. Both propulsion units are then coupled to the transmission. The OEM automatic transmission has been replaced with a five-speed, manual transmission, which was adapted from an earlier model year production Taurus SHO vehicle. This transmission is both lighter and more mechanically efficient than the automatic transmission. In order to provide the automatic transmission shifting capabilities expected by the consumer for a vehicle of this size, an electro-hydraulic control unit was designed and built. This unit automatically engages the clutch and shifts gears as required during vehicle operation. Gear selection is controlled by a programmable logic controller (PLC), which utilizes throttle and vehicle speed input signals. Additionally, the driver may select gears using a modified steering-column PRNDL selector. This paper discusses the final design of this system and provides an evaluation of its performance.

  7. Quasi-three dimensional hydraulic design and performance calculation of high specific speed mixed-flow pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, M.; Zhang, Y. X.; Zhang, J. Y.; Hou, H. C.

    2016-05-01

    According to the basic parameters of 211-80 high specific speed mixed-flow pump, based on the quasi-three dimensional flow theory, the hydraulic design of impeller and its matching spaced guide vanes for high specific speed mixed flow pump was completed, in which the iterative calculation of S 1, S 2 stream surfaces was employed to obtain meridional flow fields and the point-by-point integration method was employed to draw blade camber lines. Blades are thickened as well as blade leading edges are smoothed in the conformal mapping surface. Subsequently the internal fields of the whole flow passage of the designed pump were simulated by using RANS equations with RNG k-ε two-equation turbulent model. The results show that, compared with the 211-80 model, the hydraulic efficiency of the designed pump at the optimal flow rate increases 9.1%. The hydraulic efficiency of designed pump in low flow rate condition (78% designed flow rate) increases 6.46%. The hydraulic efficiency in high flow rate areas increases obviously and there is no bad phenomenon of suddenly decrease of hydraulic efficiency in model pump. From the distributions of velocity and pressure fields, it can be seen that the flow in impeller is uniform and the increase of pressure is gentle. There are no obvious impact phenomenon on impeller inlet and obvious wake shedding vortex phenomenon from impeller outlet to guide vanes inlet.

  8. Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility thermal hydraulic analysis for Title II design

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, E.R.

    1994-11-10

    The purpose of this work was to provide the thermal hydraulic analysis for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) Title II design. Temperature distributions throughout the tank structure were calculated for subsequent use in the structural analysis and in the safety evaluation. Calculated temperatures of critical areas were compared to design allowables. Expected operating parameters were calculated for use in the ventilation system design and in the environmental impact documentation. The design requirements were obtained from the MWTF Functional Design Criteria (FDC). The most restrictive temperature limit given in the FDC is the 200 limit for the haunch and dome steel and concrete. The temperature limit for the rest of the primary and secondary tanks and concrete base mat and supporting pad is 250 F. Also, the waste should not be allowed to boil. The tank geometry was taken from ICF Kaiser Engineers Hanford drawing ES-W236A-Z1, Revision 1, included here in Appendix B. Heat removal rates by evaporation from the waste surface were obtained from experimental data. It is concluded that the MWTF tank cooling system will meet the design temperature limits for the design heat load of 700,000 Btu/h, even if cooling flow is lost to the annulus region, and temperatures change very slowly during transients due to the high heat capacity of the tank structure and the waste. Accordingly, transients will not be a significant operational problem from the viewpoint of meeting the specified temperature limits.

  9. Fast SIFT design for real-time visual feature extraction.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Liang-Chi; Chang, Tian-Sheuan; Chen, Jiun-Yen; Chang, Nelson Yen-Chung

    2013-08-01

    Visual feature extraction with scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) is widely used for object recognition. However, its real-time implementation suffers from long latency, heavy computation, and high memory storage because of its frame level computation with iterated Gaussian blur operations. Thus, this paper proposes a layer parallel SIFT (LPSIFT) with integral image, and its parallel hardware design with an on-the-fly feature extraction flow for real-time application needs. Compared with the original SIFT algorithm, the proposed approach reduces the computational amount by 90% and memory usage by 95%. The final implementation uses 580-K gate count with 90-nm CMOS technology, and offers 6000 feature points/frame for VGA images at 30 frames/s and ∼ 2000 feature points/frame for 1920 × 1080 images at 30 frames/s at the clock rate of 100 MHz. PMID:23743775

  10. Structural health monitoring feature design by genetic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Dustin Y.; Todd, Michael D.

    2014-09-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) systems provide real-time damage and performance information for civil, aerospace, and other high-capital or life-safety critical structures. Conventional data processing involves pre-processing and extraction of low-dimensional features from in situ time series measurements. The features are then input to a statistical pattern recognition algorithm to perform the relevant classification or regression task necessary to facilitate decisions by the SHM system. Traditional design of signal processing and feature extraction algorithms can be an expensive and time-consuming process requiring extensive system knowledge and domain expertise. Genetic programming, a heuristic program search method from evolutionary computation, was recently adapted by the authors to perform automated, data-driven design of signal processing and feature extraction algorithms for statistical pattern recognition applications. The proposed method, called Autofead, is particularly suitable to handle the challenges inherent in algorithm design for SHM problems where the manifestation of damage in structural response measurements is often unclear or unknown. Autofead mines a training database of response measurements to discover information-rich features specific to the problem at hand. This study provides experimental validation on three SHM applications including ultrasonic damage detection, bearing damage classification for rotating machinery, and vibration-based structural health monitoring. Performance comparisons with common feature choices for each problem area are provided demonstrating the versatility of Autofead to produce significant algorithm improvements on a wide range of problems.

  11. Design of a Magnetostrictive-Hydraulic Actuator Considering Nonlinear System Dynamics and Fluid-Structure Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, John Philip

    Smart material electro-hydraulic actuators (EHAs) utilize fluid rectification via one-way check valves to amplify the small, high-frequency vibrations of certain smart materials into large motions of a hydraulic cylinder. Although the concept has been demonstrated in previously, the operating frequency of smart material EHA systems has been limited to a small fraction of the available bandwidth of the driver materials. The focus of this work is to characterize and model the mechanical performance of a magnetostrictive EHA considering key system components: rectification valves, smart material driver, and fluid-system components, leading to an improved actuator design relative to prior work. The one-way valves were modeled using 3-D finite element analysis, and their behavior was characterized experimentally by static and dynamic experimental measurement. Taking into account the effect of the fluid and mechanical conditions applied to the valves within the pump, the dynamic response of the valve was quantified and applied to determine rectification bandwidth of different valve configurations. A novel miniature reed valve, designed for a frequency response above 10~kHz, was fabricated and tested within a magnetostrictive EHA. The nonlinear response of the magnetostrictive driver, including saturation and hysteresis effects, was modeled using the Jiles-Atherton approach to calculate the magnetization and the resulting magnetostriction based on the applied field calculated within the rod from Maxwell's equations. The dynamic pressure response of the fluid system components (pumping chamber, hydraulic cylinder, and connecting passages) was measured over a range of input frequencies. For the magnetostrictive EHA tested, the peak performance frequency was found to be limited by the fluid resonances within the system. A lumped-parameter modeling approach was applied to model the overall behavior of a magnetostrictive EHA, incorporating models for the reed valve response

  12. Design of a welltest for determining two-phase hydraulic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Finsterle, S.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the design of a well test to determine two-phase hydraulic properties of a low permeability, low porosity formation. Estimation of gas-related parameters in such formations is difficult using standard pumping tests mainly because of the strong fluctuations in the pressure and flow rate data which are a consequence of gas bubbles evolving in the test interval. Even more important is the fact that the data do not allow distinguishing among alternative conceptual models. The estimated parameters are therefore uncertain, highly correlated, and ambiguous. In this study we examine a test sequence that could be appended to a standard hydraulic testing program. It is shown that performing a series of water and gas injection tests significantly reduces parameter correlations, thus decreasing the estimation error. Moreover, the extended test sequence makes possible the identification of the model that describes relative permeabilities and capillary pressures. This requires, however, that data of high accuracy are collected under controlled test conditions. The purpose of this report is to describe the modeling approach, assumptions and limitations of the procedure, and to provide practical recommendations for future testing.

  13. Innovation in Aerodynamic Design Features of Soviet Missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. Leroy

    2006-01-01

    Wind tunnel investigations of some tactical and strategic missile systems developed by the former Soviet Union have been included in the basic missile research programs of the NACA/NASA. Studies of the Soviet missiles sometimes revealed innovative design features that resulted in unusual or unexpected aerodynamic characteristics. In some cases these characteristics have been such that the measured performance of the missile exceeds what might have been predicted. In other cases some unusual design features have been found that would alleviate what might otherwise have been a serious aerodynamic problem. In some designs, what has appeared to be a lack of refinement has proven to be a matter of expediency. It is a purpose of this paper to describe some examples of unusual design features of some Soviet missiles and to illustrate the effectiveness of the design features on the aerodynamic behavior of the missile. The paper draws on the experience of the author who for over 60 years was involved in the aerodynamic wind tunnel testing of aircraft and missiles with the NACA/NASA.

  14. Spectral feature design in high dimensional multispectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Chih-Chien Thomas; Landgrebe, David A.

    1988-01-01

    The High resolution Imaging Spectrometer (HIRIS) is designed to acquire images simultaneously in 192 spectral bands in the 0.4 to 2.5 micrometers wavelength region. It will make possible the collection of essentially continuous reflectance spectra at a spectral resolution sufficient to extract significantly enhanced amounts of information from return signals as compared to existing systems. The advantages of such high dimensional data come at a cost of increased system and data complexity. For example, since the finer the spectral resolution, the higher the data rate, it becomes impractical to design the sensor to be operated continuously. It is essential to find new ways to preprocess the data which reduce the data rate while at the same time maintaining the information content of the high dimensional signal produced. Four spectral feature design techniques are developed from the Weighted Karhunen-Loeve Transforms: (1) non-overlapping band feature selection algorithm; (2) overlapping band feature selection algorithm; (3) Walsh function approach; and (4) infinite clipped optimal function approach. The infinite clipped optimal function approach is chosen since the features are easiest to find and their classification performance is the best. After the preprocessed data has been received at the ground station, canonical analysis is further used to find the best set of features under the criterion that maximal class separability is achieved. Both 100 dimensional vegetation data and 200 dimensional soil data were used to test the spectral feature design system. It was shown that the infinite clipped versions of the first 16 optimal features had excellent classification performance. The overall probability of correct classification is over 90 percent while providing for a reduced downlink data rate by a factor of 10.

  15. Summary of the hydraulic evaluation of LWBR (LWBR development program)

    SciTech Connect

    Stout, J.W.; Lerner, S.; McWilliams, K.D.; Turner, J.R.

    1981-04-01

    The principal hydraulic performance features of the Light Water Breeder Reactor are summarized in this report. The calculational models and procedures used for prediction of reactor flow and pressure distributions under steady-state and transient operating conditions are described. Likewise, the analysis models for evaluation of the static and dynamic performance characteristics of the hydraulically-balanced and hydraulically-buffered movable-fuel reactivity-control system are outlined. An extensive test program was conducted for qualification of the subject LWBR hydraulic evaluation models. The projected LWBR hydraulic performance is shown to fulfill design objectives and functional requirements.

  16. A human performance evaluation of graphic symbol-design features.

    PubMed

    Samet, M G; Geiselman, R E; Landee, B M

    1982-06-01

    16 subjects learned each of two tactical display symbol sets (conventional symbols and iconic symbols) in turn and were then shown a series of graphic displays containing various symbol configurations. For each display, the subject was asked questions corresponding to different behavioral processes relating to symbol use (identification, search, comparison, pattern recognition). The results indicated that: (a) conventional symbols yielded faster pattern-recognition performance than iconic symbols, and iconic symbols did not yield faster identification than conventional symbols, and (b) the portrayal of additional feature information (through the use of perimeter density or vector projection coding) slowed processing of the core symbol information in four tasks, but certain symbol-design features created less perceptual interference and had greater correspondence with the portrayal of specific tactical concepts than others. The results were discussed in terms of the complexities involved in the selection of symbol design features for use in graphic tactical displays.

  17. 21 CFR 211.42 - Design and construction features.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Design and construction features. 211.42 Section 211.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED..., processing, packing, or holding of a drug product shall be of suitable size, construction and location...

  18. 21 CFR 211.42 - Design and construction features.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Design and construction features. 211.42 Section 211.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED..., processing, packing, or holding of a drug product shall be of suitable size, construction and location...

  19. 21 CFR 211.42 - Design and construction features.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Design and construction features. 211.42 Section 211.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED..., processing, packing, or holding of a drug product shall be of suitable size, construction and location...

  20. 21 CFR 211.42 - Design and construction features.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Design and construction features. 211.42 Section 211.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED..., processing, packing, or holding of a drug product shall be of suitable size, construction and location...

  1. 21 CFR 211.42 - Design and construction features.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Design and construction features. 211.42 Section 211.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED..., processing, packing, or holding of a drug product shall be of suitable size, construction and location...

  2. View of designed landscape features between Buildings No. 8, at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of designed landscape features between Buildings No. 8, at left, and 10. Note staircase to Building No. 32 at rear. Looking north - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  3. View of hillside and designed landscape features between Buildings No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of hillside and designed landscape features between Buildings No. 32, 33, and 19 from left to right. Looking northeast - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  4. View of landscape design feature in Hinkley Square. Note reconstructed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of landscape design feature in Hinkley Square. Note reconstructed Easter Hill Building No. 2 on left and Building No. 3 on right. Looking north - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  5. View of Hinkley Square. Note boulders as landscape design features ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Hinkley Square. Note boulders as landscape design features and reconstructed Easter Hill Building No. 2 on left and Building No. 3 on right. Looking north - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  6. View of designed landscape features between Buildings No. 8 and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of designed landscape features between Buildings No. 8 and 10 at Parking Area No. 8. Note placement of boulders and staircase to Building No. 32 at rear. Looking north - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  7. The design concept of the 6-degree-of-freedom hydraulic shaker at ESTEC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinkman, P. W.; Kretz, D.

    1992-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has decided to extend its test facilities at the European Space and Technology Center (ESTEC) at Noordwijk, The Netherlands, by implementing a 6-degree-of-freedom hydraulic shaker. This shaker will permit vibration testing of large payloads in the frequency range from 0.1 Hz to 100 Hz. Conventional single axis sine and random vibration modes can be applied without the need for a configuration change of the test set-up for vertical and lateral excitations. Transients occurring during launch and/or landing of space vehicles can be accurately simulated in 6-degrees-of-freedom. The performance requirements of the shaker are outlined and the results of the various trade-offs, which are investigated during the initial phase of the design and engineering program are provided. Finally, the resulting baseline concept and the anticipated implementation plan of the new test facility are presented.

  8. Conceptual design and thermal-hydraulic characteristics of natural circulation Boiling Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Kataoka, Y.; Suzuki, H.; Murase, M. ); Horiuchi, T.; Miki, M. )

    1988-08-01

    A natural circulation boiling water reactor (BWR) with a rated capacity of 600 MW (electric) has been conceptually designed for small- and medium-sized light water reactors. The components and systems in the reactor are simplified by eliminating pumped recirculation systems and pumped emergency core cooling systems. Consequently, the volume of the reactor building is -- 50% of that for current BWRs with the same rated capacity; the construction period is also shorter. Its thermal-hydraulic characteristics, critical power ratio (CPR) and flow stability at steady state, decrease in the minimum CPR (..delta..MCPR) at transients, and the two-phase mixture level in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) during accidents are investigated. The two-phase mixture level in the RPV during an accident does not decrease to lower than the top of the core; the core uncovery and heatup of fuel cladding would not occur during any loss-of-coolant accident.

  9. Design, manufacture and evaluation of a hydraulically installed, multi-sampling lysimeter. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Scroppo, J.A.; Scroppo, G.L.; Carty, R.H.; Chaimberg, M.; Timmons, R.D.; O`Donnell, M.

    1992-06-01

    There is a need for a quick, simple, reliable, and inexpensive on-site method for sampling soil pollutants before they reach the groundwater. Vadose zone monitoring is an important aspect of sound groundwater management. In the vadose zone, where water moves via percolation, this water medium possesses the ability to transfer hazardous wastes to the nation`s groundwater system. Obtaining samples of moisture and contaminants from the vadose zone is necessary if potential problems are to be identified before they reach the water table. Accurate determination of spatial distribution, movement, and concentrations of contaminants is essential to the selection of remediation technologies. There is a need for three-dimentional subsurface characterization technologies to identify the location of hazardous plumes and their migration. Current subsurface characterization methods for dispersed contaminants primarily involve a time consuming, expensive process for drilling wells and taking samples. With no major water flow in the vadose zone, conventional monitoring wells will not function as designed. The multi-sampling lysimeter can be readily linked with physical and chemical sensors for on-site screening. The hydraulically-installed suction lysimeter was capable of extracting soil pore liquid samples from unsaturated test soils without the need to predrill a well. Test results verified that the lysimeters installed with a hydraulic or mechanical ram were able to collect soil pore liquid samples in excess of the amount typically required for monitoring and analysis on a daily basis. Modifications to the prototype design eliminated moving parts and the need for inflatable packers. The elimination of the packer system and the use of porous nickel contributed to increased system ruggedness.

  10. Factors that affect the hydraulic performance of raingardens: implications for design and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Virahsawmy, Harry K; Stewardson, Michael J; Vietz, Geoff; Fletcher, Tim D

    2014-01-01

    Raingardens are becoming an increasingly popular technology for urban stormwater treatment. However, their hydraulic performance is known to reduce due to clogging from deposition of fine-grained sediments on the surface. This impacts on their capacity to treat urban runoff. It has been recently hypothesised that plants can help to mitigate the effect of surface clogging on infiltration. A conceptual model is therefore presented to better understand key processes, including those associated with plant cover, which influences surface infiltration mechanisms. Based on this understanding, a field evaluation was carried out to test the hypothesis that plants increase the infiltration rate, and to investigate factors that influence the deposition of fine-grained sediments within raingardens. The results show that infiltration rates around plants are statistically higher than bare areas, irrespective of the degree of surface clogging. This suggests that preferential flow pathways exist around plants. Sediment deposition processes are also influenced by design elements of raingardens such as the inlet configuration. These findings have implications for the design and maintenance of raingardens, in particular the design of the inlet configuration, as well as maintenance of the filter media surface layer and vegetation.

  11. Hierarchical design of an electro-hydraulic actuator based on robust LPV methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Németh, Balázs; Varga, Balázs; Gáspár, Péter

    2015-08-01

    The paper proposes a hierarchical control design of an electro-hydraulic actuator, which is used to improve the roll stability of vehicles. The purpose of the control system is to generate a reference torque, which is required by the vehicle dynamic control. The control-oriented model of the actuator is formulated in two subsystems. The high-level hydromotor is described in a linear form, while the low-level spool valve is a polynomial system. These subsystems require different control strategies. At the high level, a linear parameter-varying control is used to guarantee performance specifications. At the low level, a control Lyapunov-function-based algorithm, which creates discrete control input values of the valve, is proposed. The interaction between the two subsystems is guaranteed by the spool displacement, which is control input at the high level and must be tracked at the low-level control. The spool displacement has physical constraints, which must also be incorporated into the control design. The robust design of the high-level control incorporates the imprecision of the low-level control as an uncertainty of the system.

  12. Factors that affect the hydraulic performance of raingardens: implications for design and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Virahsawmy, Harry K; Stewardson, Michael J; Vietz, Geoff; Fletcher, Tim D

    2014-01-01

    Raingardens are becoming an increasingly popular technology for urban stormwater treatment. However, their hydraulic performance is known to reduce due to clogging from deposition of fine-grained sediments on the surface. This impacts on their capacity to treat urban runoff. It has been recently hypothesised that plants can help to mitigate the effect of surface clogging on infiltration. A conceptual model is therefore presented to better understand key processes, including those associated with plant cover, which influences surface infiltration mechanisms. Based on this understanding, a field evaluation was carried out to test the hypothesis that plants increase the infiltration rate, and to investigate factors that influence the deposition of fine-grained sediments within raingardens. The results show that infiltration rates around plants are statistically higher than bare areas, irrespective of the degree of surface clogging. This suggests that preferential flow pathways exist around plants. Sediment deposition processes are also influenced by design elements of raingardens such as the inlet configuration. These findings have implications for the design and maintenance of raingardens, in particular the design of the inlet configuration, as well as maintenance of the filter media surface layer and vegetation. PMID:24622546

  13. Two-dimensional Hydraulic Flood Modelling Using Floodplain Topographic and Vegetation Features Derived From Airborne Scanning Laser Al Timetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, D. C.; Cobby, D. M.; Horritt, M. S.; Bates, P. D.

    Two dimensional hydraulic models are currently at the forefront of research into river flood inundation prediction. Airborne scanning laser altimetry (LiDAR) is an important new data source that can provide such models with spatially distributed floodplain topography together with vegetation heights for parameterisation of model friction. The paper discusses how LiDAR data can be used to decompose the model's finite element mesh to reflect floodplain vegetation features such as hedges and trees having different frictional properties to their surroundings, and significant floodplain topographic features having high curvatures. It also investigates how vegetation height data can be used to realisethe currently unexploited potential of 2- D flood models to specify a friction factor at each node of the finite element model mesh. This is shown to obviate the need for a model calibration exercise in which free parameters specifying friction in the channel and floodplain are adjusted to achieve best fit between modelled and observed flood extents. A LiDAR range image segmentation system has been developed to separate ground hits from surface object hits on vegetation or buildings. Ground hits can be used to construct a digital elevation model (DEM) of the underlying ground surface, while surface object hits taken in conjunction with nearby ground hits allow object heights to be determined. The system converts the input height image into two output raster images of surface topography and vegetation height at each point. The river channel and model flood domain extent are also determined, as an aid to constructing the model's finite element mesh. The system segments the image on the basis of local height texture into connected regions of short (grasses and crops <1.34m high), intermediate (hedges and shrubs) and tall vegetation (trees >5m high). For each mesh node, an instantaneous friction factor is calculated at each model timestep, given the frictional material in the

  14. Design features and performance of a high speed TDMA demodulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, R. L.

    This paper describes the major design features used in a high-speed, burst-type TDMA demodulator, capable of supporting data rates up to 90MBS. The major features discused are as follows: burst to burst fast settling AGC Loop; a times four (X4) Carrier Recovery scheme with an AFC tracking loop and double filter/multiplier phase cancellation; I.F. half symbol delay/multiply Symbol Timing Recovery; baseband implementation of NYQUIST/matched filtering techniques; and a time-sampled, digital implementation of a COSTAS recovered carrier phasing loop. The actual performance characteristics of the demodulator design operating at 70MHZ I.F. frequency and a data rate of 48MBS are presented.

  15. Feed-pump hydraulic performance and design improvement, Phase I: research program design. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W.H.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Fehlau, R.; Thompson, W.E.; Wilson, D.G.

    1982-03-01

    As a result of prior EPRI-sponsored studies, it was concluded that a research program should be designed and implemented to provide an improved basis for the design, procurement, testing, and operation of large feed pumps with increased reliability and stability over the full range of operating conditions. This two-volume report contains a research plan which is based on a review of the present state of the art and which defines the necessary R and D program and estimates the benefits and costs of the program. The recommended research program consists of 30 interrelated tasks. It is designed to perform the needed research; to verify the results; to develop improved components; and to publish computer-aided design methods, pump specification guidelines, and a troubleshooting manual. Most of the technology proposed in the research plan is applicable to nuclear power plants as well as to fossil-fired plants. This volume discusses the design, performance and failures of feed pumps, and recommendations for research on pump dynamics, design, and specifications.

  16. The design of hydraulic pressure regulators that are stable without the use of sensing line restrictors or frictional dampers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, H.

    1977-01-01

    A direct-acting hydraulic pressure regulator design which incorporates stability margin, response and droop margin is developed. The pressure regulator system does not involve a nonlinear sensing line restrictor (which may degrade transient response) or linear damping (which is sensitive to clearance and viscosity). The direct-acting hydraulic pressure regulator makes use of the technique of lead network stabilization (i.e., the tuned stabilizer concept). An analytically derived circuit pressure regulator is tested to study the stability limit under a parallel capacitive plus resistive load and the stabilizing effect of the tuned stabilizer.

  17. View of designed landscape features between Buildings No. 8 and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of designed landscape features between Buildings No. 8 and 10. Note placement of boulders at rear, staircase in foreground is seen in HABS CA-2783-39. Building No. 10 on left and Building No. 8 on right. Looking south - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  18. Capture-zone design in an aquifer influenced by cyclic fluctuations in hydraulic gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawadzki, Willy; Chorley, Don; Patrick, Guy

    2002-10-01

    Design of a groundwater pumping and treatment system for a wood-treatment facility adjacent to the tidally influenced Fraser River estuary required the development of methodologies to account for cyclic variations in hydraulic gradients. Design of such systems must consider the effects of these cyclic fluctuations on the capture of dissolved-phase contaminants. When the period of the cyclic fluctuation is much less than the travel time of the dissolved contaminant from the source to the discharge point, the hydraulic-gradient variations resulting from these cycles can be ignored. Capture zones are then designed based on the average hydraulic gradient determined using filter techniques on continuous groundwater-level measurements. When the period of cyclic fluctuation in hydraulic gradient is near to or greater than the contaminant travel time, the resulting hydraulic-gradient variations cannot be ignored. In these instances, procedures are developed to account for these fluctuations in the capture-zone design. These include proper characterization of the groundwater regime, assessment of the average travel time and period of the cyclic fluctuations, and numerical techniques which allow accounting for the cyclic fluctuations in the design of the capture zone. Résumé. L'étude d'un système de pompage et de traitement de l'eau souterraine d'une usine de traitement du bois proche de l'estuaire de la rivière Fraser, influencé par les marées, a nécessité la mise au point de méthodologies pour prendre en compte les variations cycliques de gradients hydrauliques. L'étude de tels systèmes doit considérer les effets de ces variations cycliques sur l'extraction des contaminants en phase dissoute. Lorsque la période des variations cycliques est très inférieure au temps de parcours du contaminant dissous entre la source et le point d'émergence, les variations du gradient hydraulique résultant de ces cycles peuvent être ignorées. Les zones d'extraction sont

  19. Experimental design for estimating unknown hydraulic conductivity in an aquifer using a genetic algorithm and reduced order model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushijima, Timothy T.; Yeh, William W.-G.

    2015-12-01

    We develop an experimental design algorithm to select locations for a network of observation wells that provide the maximum robust information about unknown hydraulic conductivity in a confined, anisotropic aquifer. Since the information that a design provides is dependent on an aquifer's hydraulic conductivity, a robust design is one that provides the maximum information in the worst-case scenario. The design can be formulated as a max-min optimization problem. The problem is generally non-convex, non-differentiable, and contains integer variables. We use a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to perform the combinatorial search. We employ proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) to reduce the dimension of the groundwater model, thereby reducing the computational burden posed by employing a GA. The GA algorithm exhaustively searches for the robust design across a set of hydraulic conductivities and finds an approximate design (called the High Frequency Observation Well Design) through a Monte Carlo-type search. The results from a small-scale 1-D test case validate the proposed methodology. We then apply the methodology to a realistically-scaled 2-D test case.

  20. Manual for the thermal and hydraulic design of direct contact spray columns for use in extracting heat from geothermal brines

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, H.R.

    1985-06-01

    This report outlines the current methods being used in the thermal and hydraulic design of spray column type, direct contact heat exchangers. It provides appropriate referenced equations for both preliminary design and detailed performance. The design methods are primarily empirical and are applicable for us in the design of such units for geothermal application and for application with solar ponds. Methods for design, for both preheater and boiler sections of the primary heat exchangers, for direct contact binary powers plants are included. 23 refs., 8 figs.

  1. Ion-mediated enhancement of xylem hydraulic conductivity in four Acer species: relationships with ecological and anatomical features.

    PubMed

    Nardini, Andrea; Dimasi, Federica; Klepsch, Matthias; Jansen, Steven

    2012-12-01

    The 'ionic effect', i.e., changes in xylem hydraulic conductivity (k(xyl)) due to variation of the ionic sap composition in vessels, was studied in four Acer species growing in contrasting environments differing in water availability. Hydraulic measurements of the ionic effect were performed together with measurements on the sap electrical conductivity, leaf water potential and vessel anatomy. The low ionic effect recorded in Acer pseudoplatanus L. and Acer campestre L. (15.8 and 14.7%, respectively), which represented two species from shady and humid habitats, was associated with a low vessel grouping index, high sap electrical conductivity and least negative leaf water potential. Opposite traits were found for Acer monspessulanum L. and Acer platanoides L., which showed an ionic effect of 23.6 and 23.1%, respectively, and represent species adapted to higher irradiance and/or lower water availability. These findings from closely related species provide additional support that the ionic effect could function as a compensation mechanism for embolism-induced loss of k(xyl), either as a result of high evaporative demand or increased risk of hydraulic failure.

  2. Numerical design and optimization of hydraulic resistance and wall shear stress inside pressure-driven microfluidic networks.

    PubMed

    Damiri, Hazem Salim; Bardaweel, Hamzeh Khalid

    2015-11-01

    Microfluidic networks represent the milestone of microfluidic devices. Recent advancements in microfluidic technologies mandate complex designs where both hydraulic resistance and pressure drop across the microfluidic network are minimized, while wall shear stress is precisely mapped throughout the network. In this work, a combination of theoretical and modeling techniques is used to construct a microfluidic network that operates under minimum hydraulic resistance and minimum pressure drop while constraining wall shear stress throughout the network. The results show that in order to minimize the hydraulic resistance and pressure drop throughout the network while maintaining constant wall shear stress throughout the network, geometric and shape conditions related to the compactness and aspect ratio of the parent and daughter branches must be followed. Also, results suggest that while a "local" minimum hydraulic resistance can be achieved for a geometry with an arbitrary aspect ratio, a "global" minimum hydraulic resistance occurs only when the aspect ratio of that geometry is set to unity. Thus, it is concluded that square and equilateral triangular cross-sectional area microfluidic networks have the least resistance compared to all rectangular and isosceles triangular cross-sectional microfluidic networks, respectively. Precise control over wall shear stress through the bifurcations of the microfluidic network is demonstrated in this work. Three multi-generation microfluidic network designs are considered. In these three designs, wall shear stress in the microfluidic network is successfully kept constant, increased in the daughter-branch direction, or decreased in the daughter-branch direction, respectively. For the multi-generation microfluidic network with constant wall shear stress, the design guidelines presented in this work result in identical profiles of wall shear stresses not only within a single generation but also through all the generations of the

  3. Numerical design and optimization of hydraulic resistance and wall shear stress inside pressure-driven microfluidic networks.

    PubMed

    Damiri, Hazem Salim; Bardaweel, Hamzeh Khalid

    2015-11-01

    Microfluidic networks represent the milestone of microfluidic devices. Recent advancements in microfluidic technologies mandate complex designs where both hydraulic resistance and pressure drop across the microfluidic network are minimized, while wall shear stress is precisely mapped throughout the network. In this work, a combination of theoretical and modeling techniques is used to construct a microfluidic network that operates under minimum hydraulic resistance and minimum pressure drop while constraining wall shear stress throughout the network. The results show that in order to minimize the hydraulic resistance and pressure drop throughout the network while maintaining constant wall shear stress throughout the network, geometric and shape conditions related to the compactness and aspect ratio of the parent and daughter branches must be followed. Also, results suggest that while a "local" minimum hydraulic resistance can be achieved for a geometry with an arbitrary aspect ratio, a "global" minimum hydraulic resistance occurs only when the aspect ratio of that geometry is set to unity. Thus, it is concluded that square and equilateral triangular cross-sectional area microfluidic networks have the least resistance compared to all rectangular and isosceles triangular cross-sectional microfluidic networks, respectively. Precise control over wall shear stress through the bifurcations of the microfluidic network is demonstrated in this work. Three multi-generation microfluidic network designs are considered. In these three designs, wall shear stress in the microfluidic network is successfully kept constant, increased in the daughter-branch direction, or decreased in the daughter-branch direction, respectively. For the multi-generation microfluidic network with constant wall shear stress, the design guidelines presented in this work result in identical profiles of wall shear stresses not only within a single generation but also through all the generations of the

  4. An ontology design pattern for surface water features

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sinha, Gaurav; Mark, David; Kolas, Dave; Varanka, Dalia; Romero, Boleslo E.; Feng, Chen-Chieh; Usery, E. Lynn; Liebermann, Joshua; Sorokine, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Surface water is a primary concept of human experience but concepts are captured in cultures and languages in many different ways. Still, many commonalities exist due to the physical basis of many of the properties and categories. An abstract ontology of surface water features based only on those physical properties of landscape features has the best potential for serving as a foundational domain ontology for other more context-dependent ontologies. The Surface Water ontology design pattern was developed both for domain knowledge distillation and to serve as a conceptual building-block for more complex or specialized surface water ontologies. A fundamental distinction is made in this ontology between landscape features that act as containers (e.g., stream channels, basins) and the bodies of water (e.g., rivers, lakes) that occupy those containers. Concave (container) landforms semantics are specified in a Dry module and the semantics of contained bodies of water in a Wet module. The pattern is implemented in OWL, but Description Logic axioms and a detailed explanation is provided in this paper. The OWL ontology will be an important contribution to Semantic Web vocabulary for annotating surface water feature datasets. Also provided is a discussion of why there is a need to complement the pattern with other ontologies, especially the previously developed Surface Network pattern. Finally, the practical value of the pattern in semantic querying of surface water datasets is illustrated through an annotated geospatial dataset and sample queries using the classes of the Surface Water pattern.

  5. Effect of the method of estimation of soil saturated hydraulic conductivity with regards to the design of stormwater infiltration trenches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paiva coutinho, Artur; Predelus, Dieuseul; Lassabatere, Laurent; Ben Slimene, Erij; Celso Dantas Antonino, Antonio; Winiarski, Thierry; Joaquim da Silva Pereira Cabral, Jaime; Angulo-Jaramillo, Rafael

    2014-05-01

    Best management practices are based on the infiltration of stormwater (e.g. infiltration into basins or trenches) to reduce the risk of flooding of urban areas. Proper estimations of saturated hydraulic conductivity of the vadose zone are required to avoid inappropriate design of infiltration devices. This article aims at assessing (i) the method-dependency of the estimation of soils saturated hydraulic conductivity and (ii) the consequences of such dependency on the design of infiltration trenches. This is illustrated for the specific case of an infiltration trench to be constructed to receive stormwater from a specific parking surface, 250 m2 in area, in Recife (Brazil). Water infiltration experiments were conducted according to the Beerkan Method, i.e. application of a zero water pressure head through a disc source (D=15 cm) and measures of the amount of infiltrated water with time. Saturated hydraulic conductivity estimates are derived from the analysis of these infiltration tests using several different conceptual approaches: one-dimensional models of Horton(1933) and Philip(1957), three-dimensional methods recently developed (Lassabatere et al., 2006, Wu et al., 1999, and Bagarello et al., 2013) and direct 3-dimensional numerical inversion. The estimations for saturated hydraulic conductivity ranged between 65.5 mm/h and 94 mm/h for one-dimensional methods, whereas using three-dimensional methods saturated hydraulic conductivity ranged between 15.6 mm/h and 50 mm/h. These results shows the need for accounting for 3D geometry, and more generally, the physics of water infiltration in soils, if a proper characterization of soil saturated hydraulic conductivity is targeted. In a second step, each estimate of the saturated hydraulic conductivity was used to calculate the stormwater to be stored in the studied trench for several rainfall events of recurrence intervals of 2 to 25 years. The calculation of these volumes showed a great sensitivity with regards to the

  6. Thermal hydraulic design analysis of ternary carbide fueled square-lattice honeycomb nuclear rocket engine

    SciTech Connect

    Furman, Eric M.; Anghaie, Samim

    1999-01-22

    A computational analysis is conducted to determine the optimum thermal-hydraulic design parameters for a square-lattice honeycomb nuclear rocket engine core that will incorporate ternary carbide based uranium fuels. Recent studies at the Innovative Nuclear Space Power and Propulsion Institute (INSPI) have demonstrated the feasibility of processing solid solution, ternary carbide fuels such as (U, Zr, Nb)C, (U, Zr, Ta)C, (U, Zr, Hf)C and (U, Zr, W)C. The square-lattice honeycomb design provides high strength and is amenable to the processing complexities of these ultrahigh temperature fuels. A parametric analysis is conducted to examine how core geometry, fuel thickness and the propellant flow area effect the thermal performance of the nuclear rocket engine. The principal variables include core size (length and diameter) and fuel element dimensions. The optimum core configuration requires a balance between high specific impulse and thrust level performance, and maintaining the temperature and strength limits of the fuel. A nuclear rocket engine simulation code is developed and used to examine the system performance as well as the performance of the main reactor core components. The system simulation code was originally developed for analysis of NERVA-Derivative and Pratt and Whitney XNR-2000 nuclear thermal rockets. The code is modified and adopted to the square-lattice geometry of the new fuel design. Thrust levels ranging from 44,500 to 222,400 N (10,000 to 50,000 lbf) are considered. The average hydrogen exit temperature is kept at 2800 K, which is well below the melting point of these fuels. For a nozzle area ratio of 300 and a thrust chamber pressure of 4.8 Mpa (700 psi), the specific impulse is 930 s. Hydrogen temperature and pressure distributions in the core and the fuel maximum temperatures are calculated.

  7. Thermal Hydraulic Design and Analysis of a Water-Cooled Ceramic Breeder Blanket with Superheated Steam for CFETR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xiaoman; Ma, Xuebin; Jiang, Kecheng; Chen, Lei; Huang, Kai; Liu, Songlin

    2015-09-01

    The water-cooled ceramic breeder blanket (WCCB) is one of the blanket candidates for China fusion engineering test reactor (CFETR). In order to improve power generation efficiency and tritium breeding ratio, WCCB with superheated steam is under development. The thermal-hydraulic design is the key to achieve the purpose of safe heat removal and efficient power generation under normal and partial loading operation conditions. In this paper, the coolant flow scheme was designed and one self-developed analytical program was developed, based on a theoretical heat transfer model and empirical correlations. Employing this program, the design and analysis of related thermal-hydraulic parameters were performed under different fusion power conditions. The results indicated that the superheated steam water-cooled blanket is feasible. supported by the National Special Project for Magnetic Confined Nuclear Fusion Energy of China (Nos. 2013GB108004, 2014GB122000 and 2014GB119000), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207)

  8. Hydraulic performance of biofilter systems for stormwater management: Influences of design and operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Coustumer, Sébastien; Fletcher, Tim D.; Deletic, Ana; Barraud, Sylvie; Lewis, Justin F.

    2009-09-01

    SummaryIn order to evaluate the long-term performance of stormwater biofilters, a study was undertaken to assess their hydraulic conductivity. Despite variability in conductivity (40% being below the recommended range of 50-200 mm/h, 43% within it, and 17% above), treatment performance is unlikely to be affected, as most systems are over-sized such that their detention storage volume compensates for reduced media conductivity. The study broadly reveals two types of systems: some with a high initial conductivity (>200 mm/h) and some with a low initial value (<20 mm/h). Significant reduction in conductivity is evident for biofilters in the former group, although most are shown to maintain an acceptably high conductivity. Those with initially low conductivity do not change greatly over time. Site characteristics such as filter area (relative to catchment area), age and inflow volume were not useful predictors of conductivity, with initial conductivity of the original media being the most powerful explanatory variable. It is clear therefore, that strict attention must be paid to the specification of original filter media, to ensure that it satisfies design requirements.

  9. Thermal-Hydraulic Design of a Fluoride High-Temperature Demonstration Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Carbajo, Juan J; Qualls, A L

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The Fluoride High-Temperature Reactor (FHR) named the Demonstration Reactor (DR) is a novel reactor concept using molten salt coolant and TRIstructural ISOtropic (TRISO) fuel that is being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The objective of the FHR DR is to advance the technology readiness level of FHRs. The FHR DR will demonstrate technologies needed to close remaining gaps to commercial viability. The FHR DR has a thermal power of 100 MWt, very similar to the SmAHTR, another FHR ORNL concept (Refs. 1 and 2) with a power of 125 MWt. The FHR DR is also a small version of the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), with a power of 3400 MWt, cooled by a molten salt and also being developed at ORNL (Ref. 3). The FHR DR combines three existing technologies: (1) high-temperature, low-pressure molten salt coolant, (2) high-temperature coated-particle TRISO fuel, (3) and passive decay heat cooling systems by using Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling Systems (DRACS). This paper presents FHR DR thermal-hydraulic design calculations.

  10. AiResearch QCGAT engine, airplane, and nacelle design features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldenbrand, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The quiet, clean, general aviation turbofan engine and nacelle system was designed and tested. The engine utilized the core of the AiResearch model TFE731-3 engine and incorporated several unique noise- and emissions-reduction features. Components that were successfully adapted to this core include the fan, gearbox, combustor, low-pressure turbine, and associated structure. A highly versatile workhorse nacelle incorporating interchangeable acoustic and hardwall duct liners, showed that large-engine attenuation technology could be applied to small propulsion engines. The application of the mixer compound nozzle demonstrated both performance and noise advantages on the engine. Major performance, emissions, and noise goals were demonstrated.

  11. Space Station services and design features for users

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurzhals, Peter R.; Mckinney, Royce L.

    1987-01-01

    The operational design features and services planned for the NASA Space Station will furnish, in addition to novel opportunities and facilities, lower costs through interface standardization and automation and faster access by means of computer-aided integration and control processes. By furnishing a basis for large-scale space exploitation, the Space Station will possess industrial production and operational services capabilities that may be used by the private sector for commercial ventures; it could also ultimately support lunar and planetary exploration spacecraft assembly and launch facilities.

  12. Design of haptic master featuring small-sized MR brakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gang, Han Gyeol; Choi, Seung-Bok; Sohn, Jung Woo

    2016-04-01

    In this work, a new type of haptic master featuring small-sized MR brake is proposed and its performances are evaluated. The proposed haptic master consists of base frame, stick grip and small-sized four MR brakes for 3-DOF rotational motion and 1-DOF gripper motion. To obtain large braking torque under limited small size of MR brake, dual tapered shape inner magnetic core is proposed and its performance is evaluated via both numerical estimation and experimental test. After design and implementation of control algorithm, it has been demonstrated through experiment that the proposed actuator has good performances on tracking control of desired torques. Then, a new haptic master device is designed and constructed by adopting the proposed MR brakes and light weight frame structures. It is verified that the proposed haptic master device is effective for the real application in the field.

  13. Evaluation of multiple hydraulic models in generating design/near-real time flood inundation extents under various geophysical settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Rajib, M. A.; Jafarzadegan, K.; Merwade, V.

    2015-12-01

    Application of land surface/hydrologic models within an operational flood forecasting system can provide probable time of occurrence and magnitude of streamflow at specific locations along a stream. Creating time-varying spatial extent of flood inundation and depth requires the use of a hydraulic or hydrodynamic model. Models differ in representing river geometry and surface roughness which can lead to different output depending on the particular model being used. The result from a single hydraulic model provides just one possible realization of the flood extent without capturing the uncertainty associated with the input or the model parameters. The objective of this study is to compare multiple hydraulic models toward generating ensemble flood inundation extents. Specifically, relative performances of four hydraulic models, including AutoRoute, HEC-RAS, HEC-RAS 2D, and LISFLOOD are evaluated under different geophysical conditions in several locations across the United States. By using streamflow output from the same hydrologic model (SWAT in this case), hydraulic simulations are conducted for three configurations: (i) hindcasting mode by using past observed weather data at daily time scale in which models are being calibrated against USGS streamflow observations, (ii) validation mode using near real-time weather data at sub-daily time scale, and (iii) design mode with extreme streamflow data having specific return periods. Model generated inundation maps for observed flood events both from hindcasting and validation modes are compared with remotely sensed images, whereas the design mode outcomes are compared with corresponding FEMA generated flood hazard maps. The comparisons presented here will give insights on probable model-specific nature of biases and their relative advantages/disadvantages as components of an operational flood forecasting system.

  14. An Ontology Design Pattern for Surface Water Features

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, Gaurav; Mark, David; Kolas, Dave; Varanka, Dalia; Romero, Boleslo E; Feng, Chen-Chieh; Usery, Lynn; Liebermann, Joshua; Sorokine, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Surface water is a primary concept of human experience but concepts are captured in cultures and languages in many different ways. Still, many commonalities can be found due to the physical basis of many of the properties and categories. An abstract ontology of surface water features based only on those physical properties of landscape features has the best potential for serving as a foundational domain ontology. It can then be used to systematically incor-porate concepts that are specific to a culture, language, or scientific domain. The Surface Water ontology design pattern was developed both for domain knowledge distillation and to serve as a conceptual building-block for more complex surface water ontologies. A fundamental distinction is made in this on-tology between landscape features that act as containers (e.g., stream channels, basins) and the bodies of water (e.g., rivers, lakes) that occupy those containers. Concave (container) landforms semantics are specified in a Dry module and the semantics of contained bodies of water in a Wet module. The pattern is imple-mented in OWL, but Description Logic axioms and a detailed explanation is provided. The OWL ontology will be an important contribution to Semantic Web vocabulary for annotating surface water feature datasets. A discussion about why there is a need to complement the pattern with other ontologies, es-pecially the previously developed Surface Network pattern is also provided. Fi-nally, the practical value of the pattern in semantic querying of surface water datasets is illustrated through a few queries and annotated geospatial datasets.

  15. Strategies for integrating Medicare and Medicaid: design features and incentives.

    PubMed

    Miller, Edward Alan; Weissert, William G

    2003-06-01

    In a typical third-party payer situation--representative of most U.S. health care delivery--the payer is likely to have interests that are at odds with the patient and provider. The separation and overlap between Medicare and Medicaid for individuals eligible for both programs introduces an additional level of complexity: multiple masters over plans, providers, and patients. This creates opportunities for shifting costs and administrative burdens between states and the federal government, providers and governments, and patients and everyone else. Program designers who wish to minimize unwanted consequences must find ways to structure their programs to produce financial incentives that encourage the pursuit of societal goals, including appropriately shared intergovernmental responsibilities and appropriate plan, provider, and patient behavior. Here the authors review nine federal and state initiatives that use varying strategies to integrate Medicare and Medicaid services for vulnerable populations. For each initiative, the authors examine and critique program design features in three areas: (1) eligibility determination, (2) finance and administration, and (3) service delivery. They find a few strengths and many weaknesses in design. Future efforts would be well served by carefully considering the incentive structures designed into these initiatives and working to improve them in the next generation of Medicare-Medicaid integration efforts.

  16. Constant-Pressure Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, C. W.

    1982-01-01

    Constant output pressure in gas-driven hydraulic pump would be assured in new design for gas-to-hydraulic power converter. With a force-multiplying ring attached to gas piston, expanding gas would apply constant force on hydraulic piston even though gas pressure drops. As a result, pressure of hydraulic fluid remains steady, and power output of the pump does not vary.

  17. Ecological Engineering Approaches to Improve Hydraulic Properties of Infiltration Basins Designed for Groundwater Recharge.

    PubMed

    Gette-Bouvarot, Morgane; Volatier, Laurence; Lassabatere, Laurent; Lemoine, Damien; Simon, Laurent; Delolme, Cécile; Mermillod-Blondin, Florian

    2015-08-18

    Infiltration systems are increasingly used in urban areas for groundwater recharge. The reduction of sediment permeability by physical and/or biological processes is a major problem in management of infiltration systems often requiring expensive engineering operations for hydraulic performance maintenance. To reduce these costs and for the sake of sustainable development, we proposed to evaluate the ability of ecological engineering approaches to reduce the biological clogging of infiltration basins. A 36-day field-scale experiment using enclosures was performed to test the influences of abiotic (light reduction by shading) and biotic (introduction of the macrophyte Vallisneria spiralis (L.) or the gastropod Viviparus viviparus (Linnaeus, 1758)) treatments to limit benthic biofilm biomass and to maintain or even increase hydraulic performances. We coupled biological characterization of sediment (algal biomass, bacterial abundance, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, microbial enzymatic activity, photosynthetic activity, and photosystem II efficiency) with hydraulic conductivity measurements to assess the effects of treatments on sediment permeability. The grazer Viviparus viviparus significantly reduced benthic biofilm biomass and enhanced hydraulic conductivity. The other treatments did not produce significant changes in hydraulic conductivity although Vallisneria spiralis affected photosynthetic activity of biofilm. Finally, our results obtained with Viviparus viviparus are promising for the development of ecological engineering solutions to prevent biological fouling in infiltration systems.

  18. Statistical Design Features of the Healthy Communities Study.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Warren J; Sroka, Christopher J; Frongillo, Edward A; Arteaga, S Sonia; Loria, Catherine M; Leifer, Eric S; Wu, Colin O; Patrick, Heather; Fishbein, Howard A; John, Lisa V

    2015-10-01

    The Healthy Communities Study is designed to assess relationships between characteristics of community programs and policies targeting childhood obesity and children's BMI, diet, and physical activity. The study involved a complex data collection protocol implemented over a 2-year period (2013-2015) across a diverse sample of 130 communities, defined as public high school catchment areas. The protocol involved baseline assessment within each community that included in-person or telephone interviews regarding community programs and policies and in-home collection of BMI, nutritional, and physical activity outcomes from a sample of up to 81 children enrolled in kindergarten through eighth grade in public schools. The protocol also involved medical record reviews to establish a longitudinal trajectory of BMI for an estimated 70% of participating children. Staged sampling was used to collect less detailed measures of physical activity and nutrition across the entire sample of children, with a subset assessed using more costly, burdensome, and detailed measures. Data from the Healthy Community Study will be analyzed using both cross-sectional and longitudinal models that account for the complex design and correct for measurement error and bias using a likelihood-based Markov-chain Monte Carlo methodology. This methods paper provides insights into the complex design features of the Healthy Communities Study and may serve as an example for future large-scale studies that assess the relationship between community-based programs and policies and health outcomes of community residents.

  19. Statistical Design Features of the Healthy Communities Study.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Warren J; Sroka, Christopher J; Frongillo, Edward A; Arteaga, S Sonia; Loria, Catherine M; Leifer, Eric S; Wu, Colin O; Patrick, Heather; Fishbein, Howard A; John, Lisa V

    2015-10-01

    The Healthy Communities Study is designed to assess relationships between characteristics of community programs and policies targeting childhood obesity and children's BMI, diet, and physical activity. The study involved a complex data collection protocol implemented over a 2-year period (2013-2015) across a diverse sample of 130 communities, defined as public high school catchment areas. The protocol involved baseline assessment within each community that included in-person or telephone interviews regarding community programs and policies and in-home collection of BMI, nutritional, and physical activity outcomes from a sample of up to 81 children enrolled in kindergarten through eighth grade in public schools. The protocol also involved medical record reviews to establish a longitudinal trajectory of BMI for an estimated 70% of participating children. Staged sampling was used to collect less detailed measures of physical activity and nutrition across the entire sample of children, with a subset assessed using more costly, burdensome, and detailed measures. Data from the Healthy Community Study will be analyzed using both cross-sectional and longitudinal models that account for the complex design and correct for measurement error and bias using a likelihood-based Markov-chain Monte Carlo methodology. This methods paper provides insights into the complex design features of the Healthy Communities Study and may serve as an example for future large-scale studies that assess the relationship between community-based programs and policies and health outcomes of community residents. PMID:26384932

  20. Statistical Design Features of the Healthy Communities Study

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Warren J.; Sroka, Christopher J.; Frongillo, Edward A.; Arteaga, S. Sonia; Loria, Catherine M.; Leifer, Eric S.; Wu, Colin O.; Patrick, Heather; Fishbein, Howard A.; John, Lisa V.

    2015-01-01

    The Healthy Communities Study is designed to assess relationships between characteristics of community programs and policies targeting childhood obesity and children’s BMI, diet, and physical activity. The study involved a complex data collection protocol implemented over a 2-year period (2013–2015) across a diverse sample of up to 125 communities, defined as public high school catchment areas. The protocol involved baseline assessment within each community that included in-person or telephone interviews regarding community programs and policies and in-home collection of BMI, nutritional, and physical activity outcomes from a sample of up to 81 children enrolled in kindergarten through eighth grade in public schools. The protocol also involved medical record reviews to establish a longitudinal trajectory of BMI for an estimated 70% of participating children. Staged sampling was used to collect less detailed measures of physical activity and nutrition across the entire sample of children, with a subset assessed using more costly, burdensome, and detailed measures. Data from the Healthy Community Study will be analyzed using both cross-sectional and longitudinal models that account for the complex design and correct for measurement error and bias using a likelihood-based Markov chain Monte Carlo methodology. This methods paper provides insights into the complex design features of the Healthy Communities Study and may serve as an example for future large-scale studies that assess the relationship between community-based programs and policies and health outcomes of community residents. PMID:26384932

  1. Salient electrical design features of the Magat hydroelectric project

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, R.; Samorio, R.

    1987-06-01

    The Magat River Multipurpose project on the Luzon grid of the National Power Corporation of the Philippines consists of a four unit 450 MVA powerplant placed in service towards end of year 1983 and early 1984, providing an additional installed capacity of 360 MW to the existing generation peak capacity of 2478 MW (1) of the Luzon grid, which is the country's largest grid with an installed capacity of 3906 MW, the other two being those of Visayas and Mindanao with a total installed capacity of 1095 MW. This paper describes the salient features of the electrical design including the main generation and station service single line schemes, the principal equipment parameters and layout, control and protection schemes and grounding system of the power plant.

  2. Design features and performance of a high speed TDMA demodulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, R. L.

    Design features and performance ranges of a new TDMA demodulator are presented. The device includes 500 MHz bandwidth amplifier stages with 15 dB gain, a bandpass filter for band rejection and receiver noise filtering, a pin attenuator, and a diode limiter to minimize the driving force variations and prevent saturation and overload effects. The demodulator is capable of burst-to-burst I.F. leveling, optimal coherent carrier recovery, and symbol clock recovery in 1.5 microsec. Less than 1 dB modem loss in data demodulation is achieved, compared with theoretical values, using Nyquist, matched filtering techniques at the baseband. Finally, the device has a time sampled, digitized COSTAS recovered carrier phasing loop and operates at a data rate of 48 Mbps.

  3. Launch vehicle payload adapter design with vibration isolation features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Gareth R.; Fadick, Cynthia M.; Fram, Bryan J.

    2005-05-01

    Payloads, such as satellites or spacecraft, which are mounted on launch vehicles, are subject to severe vibrations during flight. These vibrations are induced by multiple sources that occur between liftoff and the instant of final separation from the launch vehicle. A direct result of the severe vibrations is that fatigue damage and failure can be incurred by sensitive payload components. For this reason a payload adapter has been designed with special emphasis on its vibration isolation characteristics. The design consists of an annular plate that has top and bottom face sheets separated by radial ribs and close-out rings. These components are manufactured from graphite epoxy composites to ensure a high stiffness to weight ratio. The design is tuned to keep the frequency of the axial mode of vibration of the payload on the flexibility of the adapter to a low value. This is the main strategy adopted for isolating the payload from damaging vibrations in the intermediate to higher frequency range (45Hz-200Hz). A design challenge for this type of adapter is to keep the pitch frequency of the payload above a critical value in order to avoid dynamic interactions with the launch vehicle control system. This high frequency requirement conflicts with the low axial mode frequency requirement and this problem is overcome by innovative tuning of the directional stiffnesses of the composite parts. A second design strategy that is utilized to achieve good isolation characteristics is the use of constrained layer damping. This feature is particularly effective at keeping the responses to a minimum for one of the most important dynamic loading mechanisms. This mechanism consists of the almost-tonal vibratory load associated with the resonant burn condition present in any stage powered by a solid rocket motor. The frequency of such a load typically falls in the 45-75Hz range and this phenomenon drives the low frequency design of the adapter. Detailed finite element analysis is

  4. Hydraulic-fracture design rationale for the recovery of methane from coal seams. Final report, February 1985-September 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, A.H.; Bell, G.J.; Morales, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    Treatment pressures during coal-seam hydraulic-fracture operations usually demonstrate an early, steep pressure rise and overall treatment pressure very high, often exceeding the lithostatic pressure. In addition, the instantaneous shut-in pressures are high following a fracture treatment, while closure pressures are in agreement with measured in-situ stresses. However, there are cases for coal treatments where pressures remain at low levels comparable to other formations. This observed wide range of treatment responses cannot be explained by conventional-modeling approaches. An investigation into the physical causes of the unusual behavior of coal-seam stimulations resulted in the identification of new physical mechanisms for further consideration. Blockages of the fracture by coal chips and plugging of an advancing fracture tip by coal fines carried ahead of or within the fluid-treatment pad are mechanisms that consistently explain all of the observed behavior. Hydraulic-fracture design codes, which included the description of the coal fines accumulation at the fracture periphery, were used to assist in the design of hydraulic-fracture treatments at the Gas Research Institute, Multiple Coal Seam Field Project, at Rock Creek in Alabama.

  5. The design of hydraulic pressure regulators that are stable without the use of sensing line restrictors or frictional dampers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, H.

    1977-01-01

    Parameters controlled in design determine the stability of hydraulic pressure regulators in service. The non-linear sensing line restrictor can provide stability, but degrades the transient response. Linear damping is not always physically realizable and is sensitive to clearance and viscosity. Design relationships are analytically derived through which regulators can be made to be stable without the use of either of these damping means. The analytical distinctions between the parameters derived and those in prior literature are discussed. An analytically derived circuit component that stabilizes an otherwise unstable regulator and its experimental verification is described.

  6. Designing Crane Controls with applied Mechanical and Electrical Safety Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lytle, Bradford P.; Walczak, Thomas A.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The use of overhead traveling bridge cranes in many varied applications is common practice. In particular, the use of cranes in the nuclear, military, commercial, aerospace, and other industries can involve safety critical situations. Considerations for Human Injury or Casualty, Loss of Assets, Endangering the Environment, or Economic Reduction must be addressed. Traditionally, in order to achieve additional safety in these applications, mechanical systems have been augmented with a variety of devices. These devices assure that a mechanical component failure shall reduce the risk of a catastrophic loss of the correct and/or safe load carrying capability. ASME NOG-1-1998, (Rules for Construction of Overhead and Gantry Cranes, Top Running Bridge, and Multiple Girder), provides design standards for cranes in safety critical areas. Over and above the minimum safety requirements of todays design standards, users struggle with obtaining a higher degree of reliability through more precise functional specifications while attempting to provide "smart" safety systems. Electrical control systems also may be equipped with protective devices similar to the mechanical design features. Demands for improvement of the cranes "control system" is often recognized, but difficult to quantify for this traditionally "mechanically" oriented market. Finite details for each operation must be examined and understood. As an example, load drift (or small motions) at close tolerances can be unacceptable (and considered critical). To meet these high functional demands encoders and other devices are independently added to control systems to provide motion and velocity feedback to the control drive. This paper will examine the implementation of Programmable Electronic Systems (PES). PES is a term this paper will use to describe any control system utilizing any programmable electronic device such as Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), or an Adjustable Frequency Drive (AID) 'smart' programmable

  7. A maximum likelihood estimator for bedrock fracture transmissivities and its application to the analysis and design of borehole hydraulic tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Anthony C. F.; Novakowski, Kent S.; Gazor, Saeed

    2006-06-01

    We propose a new method to estimate the transmissivities of bedrock fractures from transmissivities measured in intervals of fixed length along a borehole. We define the scale of a fracture set by the inverse of the density of the Poisson point process assumed to represent their locations along the borehole wall, and we assume a lognormal distribution for their transmissivities. The parameters of the latter distribution are estimated by maximizing the likelihood of a left-censored subset of the data where the degree of censorship depends on the scale of the considered fracture set. We applied the method to sets of interval transmissivities simulated by summing random fracture transmissivities drawn from a specified population. We found the estimated distributions compared well to the transmissivity distributions of similarly scaled subsets of the most transmissive fractures from among the specified population. Estimation accuracy was most sensitive to the variance in the transmissivities of the fracture population. Using the proposed method, we estimated the transmissivities of fractures at increasing scale from hydraulic test data collected at a fixed scale in Smithville, Ontario, Canada. This is an important advancement since the resultant curves of transmissivity parameters versus fracture set scale would only previously have been obtainable from hydraulic tests conducted with increasing test interval length and with degrading equipment precision. Finally, on the basis of the properties of the proposed method, we propose guidelines for the design of fixed interval length hydraulic testing programs that require minimal prior knowledge of the rock.

  8. Design and evaluation of hydraulic baffled-channel PAC contactor for taste and odor removal from drinking water supplies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Il; Bae, Byung-Uk

    2007-05-01

    Based on the concept of hydraulic flocculator, a baffled-channel powdered activated carbon (PAC) contactor, placed before the rapid-mixing basin, was designed and evaluated for removal of taste and odor (T&O) in drinking water. PAC adsorption kinetic tests for raw water samples were conducted for selection of design parameters related to contact time and degree of mixing. Within the tested range of velocity gradient (G) from 18 to 83s(-1), mixing had a relatively minor effect on the adsorption kinetics of the PAC. The hydrodynamic characteristics of the pilot-scale horizontally and vertically baffled-channel PAC contactor were investigated by tracer tests. It was found that the plug flow fractions of vertically baffled-channel PAC contactor (vBPC) were higher than those of the horizontally baffled-channel PAC contactor (hBPC) for the same bend width or bend height. However, the hBPC seems to be more appropriate than the vBPC in terms of construction and maintenance. The geosmin and MIB removal rate increased with the number of baffles, PAC dose and contact time increased regardless of bend width in the pilot-scale hBPC. The pair of full-scale hBPCs at Pohang water treatment plant, having a design capacity of 6.5x10(4)m(3)/d with 20min of hydraulic retention time with a safety factor of 2, was designed based on lab- and pilot-scale experimental results. Under a velocity gradient of 20s(-1), the number of baffles to be installed was calculated to be 20 with a space of about 2m between each baffle, resulting in a hydraulic head loss through the contactor of about 0.056m. The successful application of hBPC for T&O removal from drinking water supplies should provide momentum for developing more effective treatment methods.

  9. SCW Pressure-Channel Nuclear Reactor Some Design Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pioro, Igor L.; Khan, Mosin; Hopps, Victory; Jacobs, Chris; Patkunam, Ruban; Gopaul, Sandeep; Bakan, Kurtulus

    Concepts of nuclear reactors cooled with water at supercritical pressures were studied as early as the 1950s and 1960s in the USA and Russia. After a 30-year break, the idea of developing nuclear reactors cooled with SuperCritical Water (SCW) became attractive again as the ultimate development path for water cooling. The main objectives of using SCW in nuclear reactors are: 1) to increase the thermal efficiency of modern Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) from 30-35% to about 45-48%, and 2) to decrease capital and operational costs and hence decrease electrical energy costs (˜1000 US/kW or even less). SCW NPPs will have much higher operating parameters compared to modern NPPs (pressure about 25 MPa and outlet temperature up to 625°C), and a simplified flow circuit, in which steam generators, steam dryers, steam separators, etc., can be eliminated. Also, higher SCW temperatures allow direct thermo-chemical production of hydrogen at low cost, due to increased reaction rates. Pressure-tube or pressure-channel SCW nuclear reactor concepts are being developed in Canada and Russia for some time. Some design features of the Canadian concept related to fuel channels are discussed in this paper. The main conclusion is that the development of SCW pressure-tube nuclear reactors is feasible and significant benefits can be expected over other thermal-energy systems.

  10. The Design Features of the National Writing Project's New Teacher Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heenan, Barbara; Houghton, Nina

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the key design features of the new teacher support programs that emerged from the National Writing Project (NWP) New Teacher Initiative (NTI). As the New Teacher Initiative unfolded, a number of design features appeared frequently and consistently across the sites. This report explains how these design features of the NTI are…

  11. Design optimization of axial flow hydraulic turbine runner: Part I - an improved Q3D inverse method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Guoyi; Cao, Shuliang; Ishizuka, Masaru; Hayama, Shinji

    2002-06-01

    With the aim of constructing a comprehensive design optimization procedure of axial flow hydraulic turbine, an improved quasi-three-dimensional inverse method has been proposed from the viewpoint of system and a set of rotational flow governing equations as well as a blade geometry design equation has been derived. The computation domain is firstly taken from the inlet of guide vane to the far outlet of runner blade in the inverse method and flows in different regions are solved simultaneously. So the influence of wicket gate parameters on the runner blade design can be considered and the difficulty to define the flow condition at the runner blade inlet is surmounted. As a pre-computation of initial blade design on S2m surface is newly adopted, the iteration of S1 and S2m surfaces has been reduced greatly and the convergence of inverse computation has been improved. The present model has been applied to the inverse computation of a Kaplan turbine runner. Experimental results and the direct flow analysis have proved the validation of inverse computation. Numerical investigations show that a proper enlargement of guide vane distribution diameter is advantageous to improve the performance of axial hydraulic turbine runner. Copyright

  12. Fluid Power/Basic Hydraulics. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanbery, Richard

    This guide is designed to assist industrial vocational instructors in teaching a course on fluid power and basic hydraulics. Covered in the unit on the basics of fluid power and hydraulics are the following topics: the fundamentals of fluid power and hydraulics, basic hydraulic circuits, and servicing a hydraulic jack. The second unit, consisting…

  13. Drop Accidents in the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Addressed by Design Features and or Design Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    SEXTON, R.A.

    2000-01-06

    A variety of drop shear or impact scenarios have been identified for the Canister Storage Building. Some of these are being addressed by new calculations or require no specific action. This document describes five of them which are addressed by design features and/or existing design calculations. For each of the five a position is stated indicating the reason for assurance that the safety functions of the MCO will not be jeopardized by the accident. Following the position is a description of the basis for that position.

  14. Do Particular Design Features Assist People with Aphasia to Comprehend Text? An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Lucy; Read, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Background: Much of the evidence underlying guidelines for producing accessible information for people with aphasia focuses on client preference for particular design features. There is limited evidence regarding the effects of these features on comprehension. Aims: To examine the effects of specific design features on text comprehension. It was…

  15. Thermal hydraulic method for whole core design analysis of an HTGR

    SciTech Connect

    Huning, A. J.; Garimella, S.

    2013-07-01

    A new thermal hydraulic method and initial results are presented for core-wide steady state analysis of prismatic High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTGR). The method allows for the complete solution of temperature and coolant mass flow distribution by solving quasi-steady energy balances for the discretized core. Assembly blocks are discretized into unit cells for which the average temperature of each unit cell is determined. Convective heat removal is coupled to the unit cell energy balances by a 1-D axial flow model. The flow model uses established correlations for friction factor and Nusselt number. Bypass flow is explicitly calculated by using an initial guess for mass flow distribution and determining the exit pressure of each flow channel. The mass flow distribution is updated until a uniform core exit pressure condition is reached. Results are obtained for the MHTGR-350 with emphasis on the change in thermal hydraulic parameters due to various steady state power profiles and bypass gap widths. Steady state temperature distribution and its variations are discussed. (authors)

  16. Design of aquifer remediation systems: (1) describing hydraulic structure and NAPL architecture using tracers.

    PubMed

    Enfield, Carl G; Wood, A Lynn; Espinoza, Felipe P; Brooks, Michael C; Annable, Michael; Rao, P S C

    2005-12-01

    Aquifer heterogeneity (structure) and NAPL distribution (architecture) are described based on tracer data. An inverse modelling approach that estimates the hydraulic structure and NAPL architecture based on a Lagrangian stochastic model where the hydraulic structure is described by one or more populations of lognormally distributed travel times and the NAPL architecture is selected from eight possible assumed distributions. Optimization of the model parameters for each tested realization is based on the minimization of the sum of the square residuals between the log of measured tracer data and model predictions for the same temporal observation. For a given NAPL architecture the error is reduced with each added population. Model selection was based on a fitness which penalized models for increasing complexity. The technique is demonstrated under a range of hydrologic and contaminant settings using data from three small field-scale tracer tests: the first implementation at an LNAPL site using a line-drive flow pattern, the second at a DNAPL site with an inverted five-spot flow pattern, and the third at the same DNAPL site using a vertical circulation flow pattern. The Lagrangian model was capable of accurately duplicating experimentally derived tracer breakthrough curves, with a correlation coefficient of 0.97 or better. Furthermore, the model estimate of the NAPL volume is similar to the estimates based on moment analysis of field data.

  17. Binding the Electronic Book: Design Features for Bibliophiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruecker, Stan; Uszkalo, Kirsten C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a design for the electronic book based on discussions with frequent book readers. We adopted a conceptual framework for this project consisting of a spectrum of possible designs, with the conventional bound book at one difference pole, and the laptop computer at the other; the design activity then consisted of appropriately…

  18. Design and Construction of Experiment for Direct Electron Irradiation of Uranyl Sulfate Solution: Bubble Formation and Thermal Hydraulics Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Chemerisov, Sergey; Gromov, Roman; Makarashvili, Vakho; Heltemes, Thad; Sun, Zaijing; Wardle, Kent E.; Bailey, James; Quigley, Kevin; Stepinski, Dominique; Vandegrift, George

    2014-10-01

    Argonne is assisting SHINE Medical Technologies in developing SHINE, a system for producing fission-product 99Mo using a D/T-accelerator to produce fission in a non-critical target solution of aqueous uranyl sulfate. We have developed an experimental setup for studying thermal-hydraulics and bubble formation in the uranyl sulfate solution to simulate conditions expected in the SHINE target solution during irradiation. A direct electron beam from the linac accelerator will be used to irradiate a 20 L solution (sector of the solution vessel). Because the solution will undergo radiolytic decomposition, we will be able to study bubble formation and dynamics and effects of convection and temperature on bubble behavior. These experiments will serve as a verification/ validation tool for the thermal-hydraulic model. Utilization of the direct electron beam for irradiation allows homogeneous heating of a large solution volume and simplifies observation of the bubble dynamics simultaneously with thermal-hydraulic data collection, which will complement data collected during operation of the miniSHINE experiment. Irradiation will be conducted using a 30-40 MeV electron beam from the high-power linac accelerator. The total electron-beam power will be 20 kW, which will yield a power density on the order of 1 kW/L. The solution volume will be cooled on the front and back surfaces and central tube to mimic the geometry of the proposed SHINE solution vessel. Also, multiple thermocouples will be inserted into the solution vessel to map thermal profiles. The experimental design is now complete, and installation and testing are in progress.

  19. Parameter-dependent vibration-attenuation controller design for electro-hydraulic actuated linear structural systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Falu; Mao, Weijie

    2012-03-01

    The problem of robust active vibration control for a class of electro-hydraulic actuated structural systems with time-delay in the control input channel and parameter uncertainties appearing in all the mass, damping and stiffness matrices is investigated in this paper. First, by introducing a linear varying parameter, the nonlinear system is described as a linear parameter varying (LPV) model. Second, based on this LPV model, an LMI-based condition for the system to be asymptotically stabilized is deduced. By solving these LMIs, a parameter-dependent controller is established for the closedloop system to be stable with a prescribed level of disturbance attenuation. The condition is also extended to the uncertain case. Finally, some numerical simulations demonstrate the satisfying performance of the proposed controller.

  20. Hydraulic Resistance of Vitreous Cutters: The Impact of Blade Design and Cut Rate

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Tommaso; Querzoli, Giorgio; Angelini, Giampiero; Malvasi, Carlo; Rossi, Alessandro; Morini, Mario; Esposito, Graziana; Micera, Alessandra; di Luca, Natale Mario; Ripandelli, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To measure the hydraulic resistance (HR) of vitreous cutters equipped with a Regular guillotine Blade (RB) or double edge blade (DEB) at cut rates comprised between 0 and 12,000 cuts per minute (CPM) and compare it with vitreous fragment size. This was an in vitro experimental study; in vivo HR measure and vitreous sampling. Methods HR, defined as aspiration pressure/flow rate, was measured in balanced salt solution (BSS; Alcon, Fort Worth, TX) (in vitro) and during pars plana vitrectomy of 20 consecutive patients aged 18 to 65, undergoing macular surgery. HR was recorded at increasing cut rates (500–6000 CPM for the RB and 500–12,000 CPM for the DEB; 5 mL/min flow). Vitreous samples were withdrawn and analyzed with Western and collagen type II and IX immunostaining to evaluate protein size. The main outcome measures were hydraulic resistance (mm Hg/ml/min [±SD]) and optic density for Western blot and immunostaining. Results RB and DEB showed identical HR in BSS between 0 and 3000 CPM. Above 3000 CPM, RB HR steadily increased, and was significantly higher than DEB HR. Vitreous HR was also similar for the two blades between 0 and 1500 CPM. Above 1500 CPM, RB offered a significantly higher resistance. Western blot and immunostaining of vitreous samples did not yield a significant difference in size, regardless of blade type and cut rate. Conclusions DEB is more efficient, offering a lower HR than RB over 1500 CPM in human vitreous. There is no viscosity reduction as a function of cut-rate between 1500 and 12,000 CPM, as HR does not vary. Translational Relevance Future vitreous cutters will benefit of a DEB; optimal cut rate needs to be defined, and the simple increase of cut rate does not provide benefits after a certain limit to be assessed. PMID:27441099

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL HYDRAULICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The thermal, chemical, and biological quality of water in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and near coastal areas is inseparable from a consideration of hydraulic engineering principles: therefore, the term environmental hydraulics. In this chapter we discuss the basic principles of w...

  2. 14 CFR 29.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 29.1435 Section 29.1435... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system must be designed as follows: (1) Each element of the hydraulic system...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 23.1435 Section 23.1435... § 23.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system must be designed as follows: (1) Each hydraulic system and its elements must withstand, without yielding, the structural loads expected...

  4. Experimental Design for Estimating Unknown Hydraulic Conductivity in a Confined Aquifer using a Genetic Algorithm and a Reduced Order Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushijima, T.; Yeh, W.

    2013-12-01

    An optimal experimental design algorithm is developed to select locations for a network of observation wells that provides the maximum information about unknown hydraulic conductivity in a confined, anisotropic aquifer. The design employs a maximal information criterion that chooses, among competing designs, the design that maximizes the sum of squared sensitivities while conforming to specified design constraints. Because that the formulated problem is non-convex and contains integer variables (necessitating a combinatorial search), for a realistically-scaled model, the problem may be difficult, if not impossible, to solve through traditional mathematical programming techniques. Genetic Algorithms (GAs) are designed to search out the global optimum; however because a GA requires a large number of calls to a groundwater model, the formulated optimization problem may still be infeasible to solve. To overcome this, Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) is applied to the groundwater model to reduce its dimension. The information matrix in the full model space can then be searched without solving the full model.

  5. Design Features of Pedagogically-Sound Software in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haase, Howard; And Others

    Weaknesses in educational software currently available in the domain of mathematics are discussed. A technique that was used for the design and production of mathematics software aimed at improving problem-solving skills which combines sound pedagogy and innovative programming is presented. To illustrate the design portion of this technique, a…

  6. Stable hydraulic pressure regulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, H.

    1979-01-01

    Neither sensing line restrictors nor frictional dampers are required for stability. Analysis presents method by which stability margin, response, and droop magnitude can be incorporated during design of direct-acting hydraulic pressure regulators.

  7. Optimal design of an electro-hydraulic valve for heavy-duty vehicle clutch actuator with certain constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Fei; Shi, Peng; Karimi, Hamid Reza; Zhang, Hui

    2016-02-01

    The main objective of this paper is to investigate the sensitivity analysis and optimal design of a proportional solenoid valve (PSV) operated pressure reducing valve (PRV) for heavy-duty automatic transmission clutch actuators. The nonlinear electro-hydraulic valve model is developed based on fluid dynamics. In order to implement the sensitivity analysis and optimization for the PRV, the PSV model is validated by comparing the results with data obtained from a real test-bench. The sensitivity of the PSV pressure response with regard to the structural parameters is investigated by using Sobol's method. Finally, simulations and experimental investigations are performed on the optimized prototype and the results reveal that the dynamical characteristics of the valve have been improved in comparison with the original valve.

  8. Thermal Hydraulics Design and Analysis Methodology for a Solid-Core Nuclear Thermal Rocket Engine Thrust Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Canabal, Francisco; Chen, Yen-Sen; Cheng, Gary; Ito, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion is a leading candidate for in-space propulsion for human Mars missions. This chapter describes a thermal hydraulics design and analysis methodology developed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, in support of the nuclear thermal propulsion development effort. The objective of this campaign is to bridge the design methods in the Rover/NERVA era, with a modern computational fluid dynamics and heat transfer methodology, to predict thermal, fluid, and hydrogen environments of a hypothetical solid-core, nuclear thermal engine the Small Engine, designed in the 1960s. The computational methodology is based on an unstructured-grid, pressure-based, all speeds, chemically reacting, computational fluid dynamics and heat transfer platform, while formulations of flow and heat transfer through porous and solid media were implemented to describe those of hydrogen flow channels inside the solid24 core. Design analyses of a single flow element and the entire solid-core thrust chamber of the Small Engine were performed and the results are presented herein

  9. Hydraulic development of high specific-speed pump-turbines by means of an inverse design method, numerical flow-simulation (CFD) and model testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerschberger, P.; Gehrer, A.

    2010-08-01

    In recent years an increased interest in pump-turbines has been recognized in the market. The rapid availability of pumped storage schemes and the benefits to the power system by peak lopping, providing reserve and rapid response for frequency control are becoming of growing advantage. In that context it is requested to develop pump-turbines that reliably stand dynamic operation modes, fast changes of the discharge rate by adjusting the variable diffuser vanes as well as fast changes from pump to turbine operation. Within the present study various flow patterns linked to the operation of a pump-turbine system are discussed. In that context pump and turbine mode are presented separately and different load cases at both operation modes are shown. In order to achieve modern, competitive pump-turbine designs it is further explained which design challenges should be considered during the geometry definition of a pump-turbine impeller. Within the present study a runner-blade profile for a low head pump-turbine has been developed. For the initial hydraulic runner-blade design, an inverse design method has been applied. Within this design procedure, a first blade geometry is generated by imposing the pressure loading-distribution and by means of an inverse 3D potential-flow-solution. The hydraulic behavior of both, pump-mode and turbine-mode is then evaluated by solving the full 3D Navier-Stokes equations in combination with a robust turbulence model. Based on this initial design the blade profile has been further optimized and redesigned considering various hydraulic pump-turbine requirements. Finally, the progress in hydraulic design is demonstrated by model test results which show a significant improvement in hydraulic performance compared to an existing reference design.

  10. Interactive Universal Design Kiosks: Explanations About Social Inclusion Features in Architectural Design.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Marcelo Pinto; Picceli, Angélica Fátima Baldin; Sabino, Paulo Roberto

    2016-01-01

    This paper details a set of self-supporting and illuminated panels that work together but independently in order to emphasize the explanation of building features and activities that are based on Universal Design guidelines. The exhibition is based on two structures that are arranged in semi-circles (A and B). They are integrated to form a carpeted path where the visitor will be gradually exposed to the concepts related to the principles of Universal Design. Following the sequence of three-dimensional objects and swivelling box elements that support the tactile information on the subject, it is expected that visitors become familiar with each of the principles being demonstrated. Operated by a control system consisting of keys with colour signage, textures and high relief, the panel on the control table allows the user to choose information about paired relationships between some of seven principles contained in printed images about the architectural design on the set of panels. The effectiveness of the composition can be verified by the time people remain enough to hear, see and touch the kiosks for all the information, or by successive visits users make to the setting. PMID:27534281

  11. Interactive Universal Design Kiosks: Explanations About Social Inclusion Features in Architectural Design.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Marcelo Pinto; Picceli, Angélica Fátima Baldin; Sabino, Paulo Roberto

    2016-01-01

    This paper details a set of self-supporting and illuminated panels that work together but independently in order to emphasize the explanation of building features and activities that are based on Universal Design guidelines. The exhibition is based on two structures that are arranged in semi-circles (A and B). They are integrated to form a carpeted path where the visitor will be gradually exposed to the concepts related to the principles of Universal Design. Following the sequence of three-dimensional objects and swivelling box elements that support the tactile information on the subject, it is expected that visitors become familiar with each of the principles being demonstrated. Operated by a control system consisting of keys with colour signage, textures and high relief, the panel on the control table allows the user to choose information about paired relationships between some of seven principles contained in printed images about the architectural design on the set of panels. The effectiveness of the composition can be verified by the time people remain enough to hear, see and touch the kiosks for all the information, or by successive visits users make to the setting.

  12. Scaling of Thermal-Hydraulic Experiments for a Space Rankine Cycle and Selection of a Preconceptual Scaled Experiment Design

    SciTech Connect

    Sulfredge, CD

    2006-01-27

    To assist with the development of a space-based Rankine cycle power system using liquid potassium as the working fluid, a study has been conducted on possible scaled experiments with simulant fluids. This report will consider several possible working fluids and describe a scaling methodology to achieve thermal-hydraulic similarity between an actual potassium system and scaled representations of the Rankine cycle boiler or condenser. The most practical scaling approach examined is based on the selection of perfluorohexane (FC-72) as the simulant. Using the scaling methodology, a series of possible solutions have been calculated for the FC-72 boiler and condenser. The possible scaled systems will then be compared and preconceptual specifications and drawings given for the most promising design. The preconceptual design concept will also include integrating the scaled boiler and scaled condenser into a single experimental loop. All the preconceptual system specifications appear practical from a fabrication and experimental standpoint, but further work will be needed to arrive at a final experiment design.

  13. Design-based texture feature fusion using Gabor filters and co-occurrence probabilities.

    PubMed

    Clausi, David A; Deng, Huang

    2005-07-01

    A design-based method to fuse Gabor filter and grey level co-occurrence probability (GLCP) features for improved texture recognition is presented. The fused feature set utilizes both the Gabor filter's capability of accurately capturing lower and mid-frequency texture information and the GLCP's capability in texture information relevant to higher frequency components. Evaluation methods include comparing feature space separability and comparing image segmentation classification rates. The fused feature sets are demonstrated to produce higher feature space separations, as well as higher segmentation accuracies relative to the individual feature sets. Fused feature sets also outperform individual feature sets for noisy images, across different noise magnitudes. The curse of dimensionality is demonstrated not to affect segmentation using the proposed the 48-dimensional fused feature set. Gabor magnitude responses produce higher segmentation accuracies than linearly normalized Gabor magnitude responses. Feature reduction using principal component analysis is acceptable for maintaining the segmentation performance, but feature reduction using the feature contrast method dramatically reduced the segmentation accuracy. Overall, the designed fused feature set is advocated as a means for improving texture segmentation performance.

  14. Design-led choice is a growing feature.

    PubMed

    Towns, Alan

    2014-04-01

    Alongside key elements such as lighting, interior décor, artwork, and good air quality, the quality of furniture in a healthcare setting plays a key role in creating a comfortable, fit-for-purpose, and therapeutic environment for patients, and a good staff working environment. Specifiers of healthcare furniture must, however, balance the need for comfort, aesthetics, and an appropriate 'style', with practical factors such as ease-of-cleaning, durability, robustness, load-bearing capacity, and, where patients are at risk of self-harm, an anti-ligature design. HEJ asked Alan Towns, managing director of Knightsbridge Furniture, for his views on some of the key aspects of furniture selection and specification for healthcare facilities. PMID:24783328

  15. Design-led choice is a growing feature.

    PubMed

    Towns, Alan

    2014-04-01

    Alongside key elements such as lighting, interior décor, artwork, and good air quality, the quality of furniture in a healthcare setting plays a key role in creating a comfortable, fit-for-purpose, and therapeutic environment for patients, and a good staff working environment. Specifiers of healthcare furniture must, however, balance the need for comfort, aesthetics, and an appropriate 'style', with practical factors such as ease-of-cleaning, durability, robustness, load-bearing capacity, and, where patients are at risk of self-harm, an anti-ligature design. HEJ asked Alan Towns, managing director of Knightsbridge Furniture, for his views on some of the key aspects of furniture selection and specification for healthcare facilities.

  16. Exploring design features for enhancing players' challenge in strategy games.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shang Hwa; Wen, Ming-Hui; Wu, Muh-Cherng

    2007-06-01

    This paper examines how to make a player feel more challenged in a strategic computer game. It is hypothesized that information availability and resource advantage affect play difficulty, which in turn affects the challenge experienced. The difficulty of play can be defined in terms of the mental workload that players experience and the physical effort that players exert. Forty-five male college and graduate students participated in a 3 x 3 (information availability x resource advantage) between-subjects factorial design experiment. This experiment measured player mental workload, physical effort, and challenge. The results indicate that information availability affects player mental workload, and resource advantage affects levels of player physical effort, respectively. Moreover, the relationship between mental workload and challenge was found to be an inverted U-shaped curve; in other words, too much or too little mental workload may decrease player challenge. The relationship between physical effort and challenge exhibited similar characteristics.

  17. Pattern representation in feature extraction and classifier design: matrix versus vector.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Chen, Songcan; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Daoqiang

    2008-05-01

    The matrix, as an extended pattern representation to the vector, has proven to be effective in feature extraction. However, the subsequent classifier following the matrix-pattern- oriented feature extraction is generally still based on the vector pattern representation (namely, MatFE + VecCD), where it has been demonstrated that the effectiveness in classification just attributes to the matrix representation in feature extraction. This paper looks at the possibility of applying the matrix pattern representation to both feature extraction and classifier design. To this end, we propose a so-called fully matrixized approach, i.e., the matrix-pattern-oriented feature extraction followed by the matrix-pattern-oriented classifier design (MatFE + MatCD). To more comprehensively validate MatFE + MatCD, we further consider all the possible combinations of feature extraction (FE) and classifier design (CD) on the basis of patterns represented by matrix and vector respectively, i.e., MatFE + MatCD, MatFE + VecCD, just the matrix-pattern-oriented classifier design (MatCD), the vector-pattern-oriented feature extraction followed by the matrix-pattern-oriented classifier design (VecFE + MatCD), the vector-pattern-oriented feature extraction followed by the vector-pattern-oriented classifier design (VecFE + VecCD) and just the vector-pattern-oriented classifier design (VecCD). The experiments on the combinations have shown the following: 1) the designed fully matrixized approach (MatFE + MatCD) has an effective and efficient performance on those patterns with the prior structural knowledge such as images; and 2) the matrix gives us an alternative feasible pattern representation in feature extraction and classifier designs, and meanwhile provides a necessary validation for "ugly duckling" and "no free lunch" theorems.

  18. Hydraulic manipulator research at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F.; Love, L.J.

    1997-03-01

    Recently, task requirements have dictated that manipulator payload capacity increase to accommodate greater payloads, greater manipulator length, and larger environmental interaction forces. General tasks such as waste storage tank cleanup and facility dismantlement and decommissioning require manipulator life capacities in the range of hundreds of pounds rather than tens of pounds. To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned once again to hydraulics as a means of actuation. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem), sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a history of projects that incorporate hydraulics technology, including mobile robots, teleoperated manipulators, and full-scale construction equipment. In addition, to support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators, ORNL has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The purpose of this article is to describe the past hydraulic manipulator developments and current hydraulic manipulator research capabilities at ORNL. Included are example experimental results from ORNL`s flexible/prismatic test stand.

  19. Physics and thermal hydraulics design of a small water cooled reactor fuelled with plutonium in rock-like oxide (ROX) form

    SciTech Connect

    Gaultier, M.; Danguy, G.; Perry, A.; Williams, A.; Brushwood, J.; Thompson, A.; Beeley, P. A.

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the Physics and Thermal Hydraulics areas of a design study for a small water-cooled reactor. The aim was to design a Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR) of maximum power 80 MWt, using a dispersed layout, capable of maximising primary natural circulation flow. The reactor fuel consists of plutonium contained in granular form within a Rock-like Oxide (ROX) pellet structure. (authors)

  20. A Thermal/Hydraulic Safety Assessment of the Blanket Conceptual Design for the Accelerator Production of Tritium Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, L.L.; Lee, S.Y.; Shadday, M.A.; Smith, F.G. III

    1998-09-01

    In support of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project, safety analyses for the blanket system have been performed based on the conceptual design for the Target/Blanket (T/B) Facility. During mitigated event sequences safety engineered features, such as the residual heat removal (RHR) and cavity flood systems, provide sufficient protection for maintaining the structural integrity of the blanket system and its components. During unmitigated (with beam shutdown only) event sequences, passive features such as natural circulation, thermal inertia, and boil-off provide significant time for corrective measures to be taken.

  1. Design of active disturbance rejection controller for the hydraulic APC system of the rolling mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruicheng; Chen, Zhikun

    2011-10-01

    Considering uncertain external disturbance, the model of automatic position control system is established. Then, according to the information of input and output, using extended states observer (ESO), a newer observer is proposed to observe and compensate this integrated disturbance, and a controller is designed based on active disturbance rejection control (ADRC). This controller has very strong robustness not only to external disturbance, but also to unpredictable plant parameter variations.

  2. Laboratory studies for the design and analysis of hydraulic fracture stimulations in tight gas reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Sattler, A.R.; Hudson, P.J.; Raible, C.J.; Gall, B.L.; Maloney, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Laboratory studies were used as an aid in designing stimulation treatments and to assist in the analysis of production results. These analyses were done in conjunction with coastal zone stimulation operations at the Department of Energy's Multiwell Experiment near Rifle, Colorado. A multitreatment stimulation plan was designed for the coastal zone because of apparent damage to the paludal zone formations in prior stimulation operations. The stimulation plan was made to minimize the use of water-based, gelled fluids. Two small stimulations were performed in the same coastal interval: an unpropped nitrogen gas frac and a propped, nitrogen foam frac. Gas production decreased from that of the gas frac after the nitrogen foam stimulation and formation damage was apparent. The laboratory program was used to (1) aid stimulation design; (2) help eliminate several possible causes of damage such as permeability degradation in the matrix rock, a gel block in the sand pack, proppant effects, or imbibition of brine from workover operations; and (3) examine the more probable causes, damage that may be centered around fluid effects in the natural fracture system. A unique explanation is not possible because there are some aspects of these damage mechanisms that cannot be verified in the laboratory. However, comparable damage mechanisms that have been seen in cracked core are described. Also, other postulated forms of fluid damage are discussed, largely in terms of natural fractures in core in combination with other measured core properties. 37 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  3. Final Report - Advanced Hydraulic and Mass Transfer Models for Distillation Column Optimization and Design

    SciTech Connect

    Eldridge, Robert, B.

    2005-10-13

    The project successfully developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based simulation of the hydrodynamics of flow in a commercial structured packing element. This result fulfilled the prime objective of the research program. The simulation utilized commercial CFD code marketed by Fluent Inc. in combination with a novel graphical interface developed by Oak Ridge National Lab. The end product will allow the design of next generation column internals without the need for extensive experimental validation and will expand the fundamental understanding of the vapor-liquid contacting process.

  4. Critical Features of Engineering Design in Technology Education. Research in Engineering and Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asunda, Paul A.; Hill, Roger B.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find critical features of engineering design that can be incorporated within technology education learning activities, and develop a rubric for assessing these features. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with three professors actively involved in engineering education. Supporting documents such…

  5. Design features of the GTD 8000 and GTD 15000 marine gas turbine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanov, Viktor I.

    1992-06-01

    An account is given of the design features and performance of the GTD 8000 and GTD 15000 marine gas turbines, whose simple-cycle thermodynamic efficiencyis of the order of 34-35 percent. A development history is presented for the component design improvements through which such performance levels were achieved. Attention is given to the counterflow combustor, bearings, and high pressure compressor/turbine spool rotor joint assembly features. These powerplants are suitable for hydrofoil and hovercraft applications.

  6. Hydraulic design to optimize the treatment capacity of Multi-Stage Filtration units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushila, C. N.; Ochieng, G. M.; Otieno, F. A. O.; Shitote, S. M.; Sitters, C. W.

    2016-04-01

    Multi-Stage Filtration (MSF) can provide a robust treatment alternative for surface water sources of variable water quality in rural communities at low operation and maintenance costs. MSF is a combination of Slow Sand Filters (SSFs) and Pre-treatment systems. The general objective of this research was to optimize the treatment capacity of MSF. A pilot plant study was undertaken to meet this objective. The pilot plant was monitored for a continuous 98 days from commissioning till the end of the project. Three main stages of MSF namely: The Dynamic Gravel Filter (DGF), Horizontal-flow Roughing Filter (HRF) and SSF were identified, designed and built. The response of the respective MSF units in removal of selected parameters guiding drinking water quality such as microbiological (Faecal and Total coliform), Suspended Solids, Turbidity, PH, Temperature, Iron and Manganese was investigated. The benchmark was the Kenya Bureau (KEBS) and World Health Organization (WHO) Standards for drinking water quality. With respect to microbiological raw water quality improvement, MSF units achieved on average 98% Faecal and 96% Total coliform removal. Results obtained indicate that implementation of MSF in rural communities has the potential to increase access to portable water to the rural populace with a probable consequent decrease in waterborne diseases. With a reduced down time due to illness, more time would be spent in undertaking other economic activities.

  7. 14 CFR 25.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 25.1435 Section 25.1435... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Element design. Each element of the hydraulic system must be designed to: (1) Withstand the proof...

  8. Ambient response of a unique performance-based design building with dynamic response modification features

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, Mehmet; Huang, Moh; Shakal, Antony; Hooper, John; Klemencic, Ron

    2012-01-01

    A 64-story, performance-based design building with reinforced concrete core shear-walls and unique dynamic response modification features (tuned liquid sloshing dampers and buckling-restrained braces) has been instrumented with a monitoring array of 72 channels of accelerometers. Ambient vibration data recorded are analyzed to identify modes and associated frequencies and damping. The low-amplitude dynamic characteristics are considerably different than those computed from design analyses, but serve as a baseline against which to compare with future strong shaking responses. Such studies help to improve our understanding of the effectiveness of the added features to the building and help improve designs in the future.

  9. Using observed postconstruction peak discharges to evaluate a hydrologic and hydraulic design model, Boneyard Creek, Champaign and Urbana, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Over, Thomas M.; Soong, David T.; Holmes, Jr., Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    Boneyard Creek—which drains an urbanized watershed in the cities of Champaign and Urbana, Illinois, including part of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) campus—has historically been prone to flooding. Using the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM), a hydrologic and hydraulic model of Boneyard Creek was developed for the design of the projects making up the first phase of a long-term plan for flood control on Boneyard Creek, and the construction of the projects was completed in May 2003. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Cities of Champaign and Urbana and UIUC, installed and operated stream and rain gages in order to obtain data for evaluation of the design-model simulations. In this study, design-model simulations were evaluated by using observed postconstruction precipitation and peak-discharge data. Between May 2003 and September 2008, five high-flow events on Boneyard Creek satisfied the study criterion. The five events were simulated with the design model by using observed precipitation. The simulations were run with two different values of the parameter controlling the soil moisture at the beginning of the storms and two different ways of spatially distributing the precipitation, making a total of four simulation scenarios. The simulated and observed peak discharges and stages were compared at gaged locations along the Creek. The discharge at one of these locations was deemed to be critical for evaluating the design model. The uncertainty of the measured peak discharge was also estimated at the critical location with a method based on linear regression of the stage and discharge relation, an estimate of the uncertainty of the acoustic Doppler velocity meter measurements, and the uncertainty of the stage measurements. For four of the five events, the simulated peak discharges lie within the 95-percent confidence interval of the observed peak discharges at the critical location; the fifth was just outside the upper end of

  10. Similarity analysis applied to the design of scaled tests of hydraulic mitigation methods for Tank 241-SY-101

    SciTech Connect

    Liljegren, L.M.

    1993-02-01

    The episodic gas releases from Tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101) pose a potential safety hazard. It is thought that gas releases occur because gases are generated and trapped in layers of settled solids located at the bottom of the tank. This document focuses on issues associated with testing of hydraulic mitigation technologies proposed for SY-101. The basic assumption underlying the concept of hydraulic mitigation is that mobilization or maintained suspension of the solids settled in the bottom of the tank wig prevent gas accumulation. Engineering of hydraulic technologies will require testing to determine the operating parameters required to mobilize the solids and to maintain these solids in suspension. Because full scale testing is extremely expensive (even when possible), scaled tests are needed to assess the merit of the proposed technologies and to provide data for numerical or analytical modeling. This research is conducted to support testing and evaluation of proposed hydraulic mitigation concepts only. The work here is oriented towards determining the jet velocities, nozzle sizes, and other operating parameters required to mobilize the settled solids in SY- 101 and maintain them in suspension.

  11. Water Treatment Technology - Hydraulics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on hydraulics provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: head loss in pipes in series, function loss in…

  12. Influence of Hydraulic Design on Stability and on Pressure Pulsations in Francis Turbines at Overload, Part Load and Deep Part Load based on Numerical Simulations and Experimental Model Test Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnoli, M. V.; Maiwald, M.

    2014-03-01

    Francis turbines have been running more and more frequently in part load conditions, in order to satisfy the new market requirements for more dynamic and flexible energy generation, ancillary services and grid regulation. The turbines should be able to be operated for longer durations with flows below the optimum point, going from part load to deep part load and even speed-no-load. These operating conditions are characterised by important unsteady flow phenomena taking place at the draft tube cone and in the runner channels, in the respective cases of part load and deep part load. The current expectations are that new Francis turbines present appropriate hydraulic stability and moderate pressure pulsations at overload, part load, deep part load and speed-no-load with high efficiency levels at normal operating range. This study presents series of investigations performed by Voith Hydro with the objective to improve the hydraulic stability of Francis turbines at overload, part load and deep part load, reduce pressure pulsations and enlarge the know-how about the transient fluid flow through the turbine at these challenging conditions. Model test measurements showed that distinct runner designs were able to influence the pressure pulsation level in the machine. Extensive experimental investigations focused on the runner deflector geometry, on runner features and how they could reduce the pressure oscillation level. The impact of design variants and machine configurations on the vortex rope at the draft tube cone at overload and part load and on the runner channel vortex at deep part load were experimentally observed and evaluated based on the measured pressure pulsation amplitudes. Numerical investigations were employed for improving the understanding of such dynamic fluid flow effects. As example for the design and experimental investigations, model test observations and pressure pulsation curves for Francis machines in mid specific speed range, around nqopt = 50 min

  13. Current and anticipated uses of thermal-hydraulic codes in NFI

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuda, K.; Takayasu, M.

    1997-07-01

    This paper presents the thermal-hydraulic codes currently used in NFI for the LWR fuel development and licensing application including transient and design basis accident analyses of LWR plants. The current status of the codes are described in the context of code capability, modeling feature, and experience of code application related to the fuel development and licensing. Finally, the anticipated use of the future thermal-hydraulic code in NFI is briefly given.

  14. The MeTeOR trial (Meniscal Tear in Osteoarthritis Research): rationale and design features.

    PubMed

    Katz, Jeffrey N; Chaisson, Christine E; Cole, Brian; Guermazi, Ali; Hunter, David J; Jones, Morgan; Levy, Bruce A; Mandl, Lisa A; Martin, Scott; Marx, Robert G; Safran-Norton, Clare; Roemer, Frank W; Skoniecki, Debra; Solomon, Daniel H; Spindler, Kurt P; Wright, John; Wright, Rick W; Losina, Elena

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents the rationale and design features of the MeTeOR Trial (Meniscal Tear in Osteoarthritis Research; Clinical Trials.gov NCT00597012). MeTeOR is an NIH-funded seven-center prospective randomized controlled trial (RCT) designed to establish the efficacy of arthroscopic partial meniscectomy combined with a standardized physical therapy program as compared with a standardized physical therapy program alone in patients with a symptomatic meniscal tear in the setting of mild to moderate knee osteoarthritic change (OA). The design and execution of a trial that compares surgery with a nonoperative treatment strategy presents distinctive challenges. The goal of this paper is to provide the clinical rationale for MeTeOR and to highlight salient design features, with particular attention to those that present clinical and methodologic challenges.

  15. The design and implementation of image query system based on color feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Xu-Dong; Jia, Da-Chun; Li, Lin

    2013-07-01

    ASP.NET technology was used to construct the B/S mode image query system. The theory and technology of database design, color feature extraction from image, index and retrieval in the construction of the image repository were researched. The campus LAN and WAN environment were used to test the system. From the test results, the needs of user queries about related resources were achieved by system architecture design.

  16. Integrated Optical Design Analysis (IODA): New Test Data and Modeling Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jim; Troy, Ed; Patrick, Brian

    2003-01-01

    A general overview of the capabilities of the IODA ("Integrated Optical Design Analysis") exchange of data and modeling results between thermal, structures, optical design, and testing engineering disciplines. This presentation focuses on new features added to the software that allow measured test data to be imported into the IODA environment for post processing or comparisons with pretest model predictions. software is presented. IODA promotes efficient

  17. Joint Feature Extraction and Classifier Design for ECG-Based Biometric Recognition.

    PubMed

    Gutta, Sandeep; Cheng, Qi

    2016-03-01

    Traditional biometric recognition systems often utilize physiological traits such as fingerprint, face, iris, etc. Recent years have seen a growing interest in electrocardiogram (ECG)-based biometric recognition techniques, especially in the field of clinical medicine. In existing ECG-based biometric recognition methods, feature extraction and classifier design are usually performed separately. In this paper, a multitask learning approach is proposed, in which feature extraction and classifier design are carried out simultaneously. Weights are assigned to the features within the kernel of each task. We decompose the matrix consisting of all the feature weights into sparse and low-rank components. The sparse component determines the features that are relevant to identify each individual, and the low-rank component determines the common feature subspace that is relevant to identify all the subjects. A fast optimization algorithm is developed, which requires only the first-order information. The performance of the proposed approach is demonstrated through experiments using the MIT-BIH Normal Sinus Rhythm database.

  18. Joint Feature Extraction and Classifier Design for ECG-Based Biometric Recognition.

    PubMed

    Gutta, Sandeep; Cheng, Qi

    2016-03-01

    Traditional biometric recognition systems often utilize physiological traits such as fingerprint, face, iris, etc. Recent years have seen a growing interest in electrocardiogram (ECG)-based biometric recognition techniques, especially in the field of clinical medicine. In existing ECG-based biometric recognition methods, feature extraction and classifier design are usually performed separately. In this paper, a multitask learning approach is proposed, in which feature extraction and classifier design are carried out simultaneously. Weights are assigned to the features within the kernel of each task. We decompose the matrix consisting of all the feature weights into sparse and low-rank components. The sparse component determines the features that are relevant to identify each individual, and the low-rank component determines the common feature subspace that is relevant to identify all the subjects. A fast optimization algorithm is developed, which requires only the first-order information. The performance of the proposed approach is demonstrated through experiments using the MIT-BIH Normal Sinus Rhythm database. PMID:25680220

  19. 14 CFR 27.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 27.1435 Section 27.1435... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system and its elements must withstand, without yielding, any structural loads...

  20. Gender Differences in Figural Matrices: The Moderating Role of Item Design Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendasy, Martin E.; Sommer, Markus

    2012-01-01

    There is a heated debate on whether observed gender differences in some figural matrices in adults can be attributed to gender differences in inductive reasoning/G[subscript f] or differential item functioning and/or test bias. Based on previous studies we hypothesized that three specific item design features moderate the effect size of the gender…

  1. Experimental Methodology in English Teaching and Learning: Method Features, Validity Issues, and Embedded Experimental Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jang Ho

    2012-01-01

    Experimental methods have played a significant role in the growth of English teaching and learning studies. The paper presented here outlines basic features of experimental design, including the manipulation of independent variables, the role and practicality of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in educational research, and alternative methods…

  2. 78 FR 26810 - Adequacy of Design Features and Functional Capabilities Identified and Described for Withstanding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ...: Anna.Bradford@nrc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On August 2, 2012 (77 FR 46128), the NRC published... as part of the original AIA rulemaking (74 FR 28112, 28143-45; June 12, 2009). ] Inasmuch as the SRP... COMMISSION Adequacy of Design Features and Functional Capabilities Identified and Described for...

  3. Design Features and Technology Uncertainties for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect

    John M. Ryskamp; Phil Hildebrandt; Osamu Baba; Ron Ballinger; Robert Brodsky; Hans-Wolfgang Chi; Dennis Crutchfield; Herb Estrada; Jeane-Claude Garnier; Gerald Gordon; Richard Hobbins; Dan Keuter; Marilyn Kray; Philippe Martin; Steve Melancon; Christian Simon; Henry Stone; Robert Varrin; Werner von Lensa

    2004-06-01

    This report presents the conclusions, observations, and recommendations of the Independent Technology Review Group (ITRG) regarding design features and important technology uncertainties associated with very-high-temperature nuclear system concepts for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The ITRG performed its reviews during the period November 2003 through April 2004.

  4. Neural network classification of autoregressive features from electroencephalogram signals for brain computer interface design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huan, Nai-Jen; Palaniappan, Ramaswamy

    2004-09-01

    In this paper, we have designed a two-state brain-computer interface (BCI) using neural network (NN) classification of autoregressive (AR) features from electroencephalogram (EEG) signals extracted during mental tasks. The main purpose of the study is to use Keirn and Aunon's data to investigate the performance of different mental task combinations and different AR features for BCI design for individual subjects. In the experimental study, EEG signals from five mental tasks were recorded from four subjects. Different combinations of two mental tasks were studied for each subject. Six different feature extraction methods were used to extract the features from the EEG signals: AR coefficients computed with Burg's algorithm, AR coefficients computed with a least-squares (LS) algorithm and adaptive autoregressive (AAR) coefficients computed with a least-mean-square (LMS) algorithm. All the methods used order six applied to 125 data points and these three methods were repeated with the same data but with segmentation into five segments in increments of 25 data points. The multilayer perceptron NN trained by the back-propagation algorithm (MLP-BP) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to classify the computed features into different categories that represent the mental tasks. We compared the classification performances among the six different feature extraction methods. The results showed that sixth-order AR coefficients with the LS algorithm without segmentation gave the best performance (93.10%) using MLP-BP and (97.00%) using LDA. The results also showed that the segmentation and AAR methods are not suitable for this set of EEG signals. We conclude that, for different subjects, the best mental task combinations are different and proper selection of mental tasks and feature extraction methods are essential for the BCI design.

  5. A geostatistical methodology for the optimal design of space-time hydraulic head monitoring networks and its application to the Valle de Querétaro aquifer.

    PubMed

    Júnez-Ferreira, H E; Herrera, G S

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for the optimal design of space-time hydraulic head monitoring networks and its application to the Valle de Querétaro aquifer in Mexico. The selection of the space-time monitoring points is done using a static Kalman filter combined with a sequential optimization method. The Kalman filter requires as input a space-time covariance matrix, which is derived from a geostatistical analysis. A sequential optimization method that selects the space-time point that minimizes a function of the variance, in each step, is used. We demonstrate the methodology applying it to the redesign of the hydraulic head monitoring network of the Valle de Querétaro aquifer with the objective of selecting from a set of monitoring positions and times, those that minimize the spatiotemporal redundancy. The database for the geostatistical space-time analysis corresponds to information of 273 wells located within the aquifer for the period 1970-2007. A total of 1,435 hydraulic head data were used to construct the experimental space-time variogram. The results show that from the existing monitoring program that consists of 418 space-time monitoring points, only 178 are not redundant. The implied reduction of monitoring costs was possible because the proposed method is successful in propagating information in space and time.

  6. 14 CFR 23.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 23.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system must be designed as follows: (1) Each... safe limit above design operating pressure and to prevent excessive pressure resulting from fluid...) The minimum design burst pressure must be 2.5 times the operating pressure. (b) Tests. Each...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 23.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system must be designed as follows: (1) Each... safe limit above design operating pressure and to prevent excessive pressure resulting from fluid...) The minimum design burst pressure must be 2.5 times the operating pressure. (b) Tests. Each...

  8. Multiple approaches to valuation of conservation design and low-impact development features in residential subdivisions.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Troy; Tyndall, John C; Thompson, Janette; Kliebenstein, James; Colletti, Joe P

    2012-08-15

    Residents, developers and civic officials are often faced with difficult decisions about appropriate land uses in and around metropolitan boundaries. Urban expansion brings with it the potential for negative environmental impacts, but there are alternatives, such as conservation subdivision design (CSD) or low-impact development (LID), which offer the possibility of mitigating some of these effects at the development site. Many urban planning jurisdictions across the Midwest do not currently have any examples of these designs and lack information to identify public support or barriers to use of these methods. This is a case study examining consumer value for conservation and low-impact design features in one housing market by using four different valuation techniques to estimate residents' willingness to pay for CSD and LID features in residential subdivisions. A contingent valuation survey of 1804 residents in Ames, IA assessed familiarity with and perceptions of subdivision development and used an ordered value approach to estimate willingness to pay for CSD and LID features. A majority of residents were not familiar with CSD or LID practices. Residents indicated a willingness to pay for most CSD and LID features with the exception of clustered housing. Gender, age, income, familiarity with LID practices, perceptions of attractiveness of features and the perceived effect of CSD and LID features on ease of future home sales were important factors influencing residents' willingness to pay. A hypothetical referendum measured willingness to pay for tax-funded conservation land purchases and estimated that a property tax of around $50 would be the maximum increase that would pass. Twenty-seven survey respondents participated in a subsequent series of experimental real estate negotiations that used an experimental auction mechanism to estimate willingness to pay for CSD and LID features. Participants indicated that clustered housing (with interspersed preserved forest

  9. Multiple approaches to valuation of conservation design and low-impact development features in residential subdivisions.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Troy; Tyndall, John C; Thompson, Janette; Kliebenstein, James; Colletti, Joe P

    2012-08-15

    Residents, developers and civic officials are often faced with difficult decisions about appropriate land uses in and around metropolitan boundaries. Urban expansion brings with it the potential for negative environmental impacts, but there are alternatives, such as conservation subdivision design (CSD) or low-impact development (LID), which offer the possibility of mitigating some of these effects at the development site. Many urban planning jurisdictions across the Midwest do not currently have any examples of these designs and lack information to identify public support or barriers to use of these methods. This is a case study examining consumer value for conservation and low-impact design features in one housing market by using four different valuation techniques to estimate residents' willingness to pay for CSD and LID features in residential subdivisions. A contingent valuation survey of 1804 residents in Ames, IA assessed familiarity with and perceptions of subdivision development and used an ordered value approach to estimate willingness to pay for CSD and LID features. A majority of residents were not familiar with CSD or LID practices. Residents indicated a willingness to pay for most CSD and LID features with the exception of clustered housing. Gender, age, income, familiarity with LID practices, perceptions of attractiveness of features and the perceived effect of CSD and LID features on ease of future home sales were important factors influencing residents' willingness to pay. A hypothetical referendum measured willingness to pay for tax-funded conservation land purchases and estimated that a property tax of around $50 would be the maximum increase that would pass. Twenty-seven survey respondents participated in a subsequent series of experimental real estate negotiations that used an experimental auction mechanism to estimate willingness to pay for CSD and LID features. Participants indicated that clustered housing (with interspersed preserved forest

  10. Advanced Performance Hydraulic Wind Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Bruce, Allan; Lam, Adrienne S.

    2013-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, has developed a novel advanced hydraulic wind energy design, which has up to 23% performance improvement over conventional wind turbine and conventional hydraulic wind energy systems with 5 m/sec winds. It also has significant cost advantages with levelized costs equal to coal (after carbon tax rebate). The design is equally applicable to tidal energy systems and has passed preliminary laboratory proof-of-performance tests, as funded by the Department of Energy.

  11. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT III, AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS--HYDRAULICS (PART I).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO INTRODUCE BASIC HYDRAULIC PRINCIPLES AND PROVIDE AN UNDERSTANDING OF HYDRAULIC TRANSMISSIONS USED IN DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE WHY USE HYDRAULICS, REVIEWING BASIC PHYSICS LAWS IN RELATION TO HYDRAULICS, UNDERSTANDING THE HYDRAULIC SYSTEM, AND DEVELOPING A BASIC HYDRAULIC SYSTEM. THE MODULE…

  12. Design features of the radioactive Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter system

    SciTech Connect

    Holton, L.K. Jr.

    1985-06-01

    During 1983, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), at the request of the Department of Energy (DOE), undertook a program with the principal objective of testing the Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter (LFCM) process in actual radioactive operations. This activity, termed the Radioactive LFCM (RLFCM) Operations is being conducted in existing shielded hot-cell facilities in B-Cell of the 324 Building, 300 Area, located at Hanford, Washington. This report summarizes the design features of the RLFCM system. These features include: a waste preparation and feed system which uses pulse-agitated waste preparation tanks for waste slurry agitation and an air displacement slurry pump for transferring waste slurries to the LFCM; a waste vitrification system (LFCM) - the design features, design approach, and reasoning for the design of the LFCM are described; a canister-handling turntable for positioning canisters underneath the RLFCM discharge port; a gamma source positioning and detection system for monitoring the glass fill level of the product canisters; and a primary off-gas treatment system for removing the majority of the radionuclide contamination from the RLFCM off gas. 8 refs., 48 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Design features and remote maintenance test results for equipment racks designed for reprocessing cell applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schrock, S.L.; Chesser, J.B.; Peishel, F.L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a concept for equipment rack design and cell placement for highly radioactive process cells developed by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This concept takes advantage of the dexterity and mobility of advanced bridge-mounted, force-reflecting servomanipulators to minimize cell size and increase facility availability. Several prototype racks have been fabricated and maintenance demonstrations have been performed on equipment mounted on these racks. The results of these tests are also described in this paper. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Hydraulic hose selection and care

    SciTech Connect

    Paine, W.

    1982-03-01

    The hoses and circuits that transport fluid are the key to virtually all hydraulic systems. With the rapid growth of the application of hydraulics to mining equipment, hose has become a major component of these machines. A typical front-end loader, scraper, dump truck, shearer, or support mechanism uses many feet of hydraulic hose. This hose must be flexible, strong, and abrasion-resistant, to withstand the pressures and temperatures generated within the system. Additionally, the couplings must be easy to install and resist leaking. On any hydraulic hose, it is the type and amount of reinforcement that determines the working pressure of the hose. Low-pressure, medium-pressure, and high pressure are the designations used to identify hydraulic hose.

  15. Emergent features and perceptual objects: re-examining fundamental principles in analogical display design.

    PubMed

    Holt, Jerred; Bennett, Kevin B; Flach, John M

    2015-01-01

    Two sets of design principles for analogical visual displays, based on the concepts of emergent features and perceptual objects, are described. An interpretation of previous empirical findings for three displays (bar graph, polar graphic, alphanumeric) is provided from both perspectives. A fourth display (configural coordinate) was designed using principles of ecological interface design (i.e. direct perception). An experiment was conducted to evaluate performance (accuracy and latency of state identification) with these four displays. Numerous significant effects were obtained and a clear rank ordering of performance emerged (from best to worst): configural coordinate, bar graph, alphanumeric and polar graphic. These findings are consistent with principles of design based on emergent features; they are inconsistent with principles based on perceptual objects. Some limitations of the configural coordinate display are discussed and a redesign is provided. Practitioner Summary: Principles of ecological interface design, which emphasise the quality of very specific mappings between domain, display and observer constraints, are described; these principles are applicable to the design of all analogical graphical displays. PMID:26218496

  16. Emergent features and perceptual objects: re-examining fundamental principles in analogical display design.

    PubMed

    Holt, Jerred; Bennett, Kevin B; Flach, John M

    2015-01-01

    Two sets of design principles for analogical visual displays, based on the concepts of emergent features and perceptual objects, are described. An interpretation of previous empirical findings for three displays (bar graph, polar graphic, alphanumeric) is provided from both perspectives. A fourth display (configural coordinate) was designed using principles of ecological interface design (i.e. direct perception). An experiment was conducted to evaluate performance (accuracy and latency of state identification) with these four displays. Numerous significant effects were obtained and a clear rank ordering of performance emerged (from best to worst): configural coordinate, bar graph, alphanumeric and polar graphic. These findings are consistent with principles of design based on emergent features; they are inconsistent with principles based on perceptual objects. Some limitations of the configural coordinate display are discussed and a redesign is provided. Practitioner Summary: Principles of ecological interface design, which emphasise the quality of very specific mappings between domain, display and observer constraints, are described; these principles are applicable to the design of all analogical graphical displays.

  17. Teledesic Global Wireless Broadband Network: Space Infrastructure Architecture, Design Features and Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, James R.

    1995-01-01

    The Teledesic satellites are a new class of small satellites which demonstrate the important commercial benefits of using technologies developed for other purposes by U.S. National Laboratories. The Teledesic satellite architecture, subsystem design features, and new technologies are described. The new Teledesic satellite manufacturing, integration, and test approaches which use modern high volume production techniques and result in surprisingly low space segment costs are discussed. The constellation control and management features and attendant software architecture features are addressed. After briefly discussing the economic and technological impact on the USA commercial space industries of the space communications revolution and such large constellation projects, the paper concludes with observations on the trend toward future system architectures using networked groups of much smaller satellites.

  18. Design and marketing features influencing choice of e-cigarettes and tobacco in the EU

    PubMed Central

    Vardavas, Constantine I.; Filippidis, Filippos T.

    2016-01-01

    Data were analysed from the 2014 Special Eurobarometer for Tobacco survey. We estimated self-rated importance of various factors in the choice of both tobacco and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among tobacco smokers who had ever used an e-cigarette. Among ever users of tobacco and e-cigarettes (N = 2430), taste (39.4%), price (39.2%) and amount of nicotine (27.3%) were the most commonly cited reasons for choosing their brand of e-cigarettes. Those aged 15–24 were more likely to cite external packaging [adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR = 2.06, 95% CI 1.00–4.23)] and design features (aPR = 1.99, 1.20–3.29) as important. As further legislation is debated and enacted enhanced regulation of price, design and marketing features of e-cigarettes may help to reduce the appeal of e-cigarettes. PMID:27471217

  19. The effects of sign design features on bicycle pictorial symbols for bicycling facility signs.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kyunghui; Rogoff, Aaron; Smith-Jackson, Tonya

    2013-11-01

    The inanimate bicycle symbol has long been used to indicate the animate activity of bicycling facility signs. In contrast, either the inanimate bicycle symbol or the animate bicycle symbol has been used interchangeably for the standard pavement symbols in bike lanes. This has led to confusion among pedestrians and cyclists alike. The purpose of this study was to examine two different designs (inanimate symbol vs. animate symbol) involved in the evaluation of perceived preference and glance legibility, and investigate sign design features on bicycle pictorial symbols. Thirty-five participants compared current bicycle signs (inanimate symbols) to alternative designs (animate symbols) in a controlled laboratory setting. The results indicated that the alternative designs (animate symbols) showed better performance in both preference and glance legibility tests. Conceptual compatibility, familiarity, and perceptual affordances were found to be important factors as well.

  20. Developing a New Dental Implant Design and Comparing its Biomechanical Features with Four Designs

    PubMed Central

    Rismanchian, Mansour; Birang, Reza; Shahmoradi, Mahdi; Talebi, Hassan; Zare, Reza Jabar

    2010-01-01

    Background: As various implant geometries present different biomechanical behaviors, the purpose of this work was to study stress distribution around tapered and cylindrical threaded implant geometries using three-dimensional finite element stress analysis. Methods: Seven implant models were constructed using Computer Assisted Designing system. After digitized models of mandibular section, the crowns were created. They were combined with implant models, which were previously imported into CATIA software. The combined solid model was transferred to ABAQOUS to create a finite element meshed model which was later analyzed regarding the highest maximum and minimum principal stresses of bone. Results: For all models, the highest stresses of cortical bone were located at the crestal cortical bone around the implant. Threaded implants, triangular thread form and taper body form showed a higher peak of tensile and compressive stress than non-threaded implants, square thread form and straight body form, respectively. A taper implant with triangular threads, which is doubled in the cervical portion of the body, had a significantly lower peak of tensile and compressive stress in the cortical bone than straight/taper triangular or square threaded implant forms. Conclusion: For the investigation of bone implant interfacial stress, the non-bonded state should be studied too. Confirmative clinical and biological studies are required in order to benefit from the results of this study. PMID:22013460

  1. Green Infrastructure Design Based on Spatial Conservation Prioritization and Modeling of Biodiversity Features and Ecosystem Services.

    PubMed

    Snäll, Tord; Lehtomäki, Joona; Arponen, Anni; Elith, Jane; Moilanen, Atte

    2016-02-01

    There is high-level political support for the use of green infrastructure (GI) across Europe, to maintain viable populations and to provide ecosystem services (ES). Even though GI is inherently a spatial concept, the modern tools for spatial planning have not been recognized, such as in the recent European Environment Agency (EEA) report. We outline a toolbox of methods useful for GI design that explicitly accounts for biodiversity and ES. Data on species occurrence, habitats, and environmental variables are increasingly available via open-access internet platforms. Such data can be synthesized by statistical species distribution modeling, producing maps of biodiversity features. These, together with maps of ES, can form the basis for GI design. We argue that spatial conservation prioritization (SCP) methods are effective tools for GI design, as the overall SCP goal is cost-effective allocation of conservation efforts. Corridors are currently promoted by the EEA as the means for implementing GI design, but they typically target the needs of only a subset of the regional species pool. SCP methods would help to ensure that GI provides a balanced solution for the requirements of many biodiversity features (e.g., species, habitat types) and ES simultaneously in a cost-effective manner. Such tools are necessary to make GI into an operational concept for combating biodiversity loss and promoting ES. PMID:26395184

  2. Green Infrastructure Design Based on Spatial Conservation Prioritization and Modeling of Biodiversity Features and Ecosystem Services.

    PubMed

    Snäll, Tord; Lehtomäki, Joona; Arponen, Anni; Elith, Jane; Moilanen, Atte

    2016-02-01

    There is high-level political support for the use of green infrastructure (GI) across Europe, to maintain viable populations and to provide ecosystem services (ES). Even though GI is inherently a spatial concept, the modern tools for spatial planning have not been recognized, such as in the recent European Environment Agency (EEA) report. We outline a toolbox of methods useful for GI design that explicitly accounts for biodiversity and ES. Data on species occurrence, habitats, and environmental variables are increasingly available via open-access internet platforms. Such data can be synthesized by statistical species distribution modeling, producing maps of biodiversity features. These, together with maps of ES, can form the basis for GI design. We argue that spatial conservation prioritization (SCP) methods are effective tools for GI design, as the overall SCP goal is cost-effective allocation of conservation efforts. Corridors are currently promoted by the EEA as the means for implementing GI design, but they typically target the needs of only a subset of the regional species pool. SCP methods would help to ensure that GI provides a balanced solution for the requirements of many biodiversity features (e.g., species, habitat types) and ES simultaneously in a cost-effective manner. Such tools are necessary to make GI into an operational concept for combating biodiversity loss and promoting ES.

  3. Green Infrastructure Design Based on Spatial Conservation Prioritization and Modeling of Biodiversity Features and Ecosystem Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snäll, Tord; Lehtomäki, Joona; Arponen, Anni; Elith, Jane; Moilanen, Atte

    2016-02-01

    There is high-level political support for the use of green infrastructure (GI) across Europe, to maintain viable populations and to provide ecosystem services (ES). Even though GI is inherently a spatial concept, the modern tools for spatial planning have not been recognized, such as in the recent European Environment Agency (EEA) report. We outline a toolbox of methods useful for GI design that explicitly accounts for biodiversity and ES. Data on species occurrence, habitats, and environmental variables are increasingly available via open-access internet platforms. Such data can be synthesized by statistical species distribution modeling, producing maps of biodiversity features. These, together with maps of ES, can form the basis for GI design. We argue that spatial conservation prioritization (SCP) methods are effective tools for GI design, as the overall SCP goal is cost-effective allocation of conservation efforts. Corridors are currently promoted by the EEA as the means for implementing GI design, but they typically target the needs of only a subset of the regional species pool. SCP methods would help to ensure that GI provides a balanced solution for the requirements of many biodiversity features (e.g., species, habitat types) and ES simultaneously in a cost-effective manner. Such tools are necessary to make GI into an operational concept for combating biodiversity loss and promoting ES.

  4. Hydraulic wind energy conversion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of this reseach was to design, build and test a hydraulic wind energy system. This design used a three bladed turbine, which drove a hydraulic pump. The energy is transmitted from the pump through a long hose and into a hydraulic motor, where the energy is used. This wind system was built and tested during the winter of 1980-1981. The power train included a five meter, three bladed wind turbine, a 9.8:1 ratio gearbox, a 1.44 cubic inch displacement pump with a small supercharge gear pump attached. The hydraulic fluid was pumped through a 70 ft, 3/4 in. I-D-high pressure flexhose, then through a volume control valve and into a 1.44 cubic inch displacement motor. The fluid was returned through a 7 ft, 1 in. I-D-flexhose.

  5. Housing Stakeholder Preferences for the "Soft" Features of Sustainable and Healthy Housing Design in the UK.

    PubMed

    Prochorskaite, Agne; Couch, Chris; Malys, Naglis; Maliene, Vida

    2016-01-07

    It is widely recognised that the quantity and sustainability of new homes in the UK need to increase. However, it is important that sustainable housing is regarded holistically, and not merely in environmental terms, and incorporates elements that enhance the quality of life, health and well-being of its users. This paper focuses on the "soft" features of sustainable housing, that is, the non-technological components of sustainable housing and neighbourhood design that can impact occupants' health and well-being. Aims of the study are to ascertain the relative level of importance that key housing stakeholders attach to these features and to investigate whether the opinions of housing users and housing providers are aligned with regards to their importance. An online survey was carried out to gauge the level of importance that the key stakeholders, such as housing users, local authorities, housing associations, and developers (n = 235), attach to these features. Results revealed that while suitable indoor space was the feature regarded as most important by all stakeholders, there were also a number of disparities in opinion between housing users and housing providers (and among the different types of providers). This implies a scope for initiatives to achieve a better alignment between housing users and providers.

  6. Housing Stakeholder Preferences for the "Soft" Features of Sustainable and Healthy Housing Design in the UK.

    PubMed

    Prochorskaite, Agne; Couch, Chris; Malys, Naglis; Maliene, Vida

    2016-01-01

    It is widely recognised that the quantity and sustainability of new homes in the UK need to increase. However, it is important that sustainable housing is regarded holistically, and not merely in environmental terms, and incorporates elements that enhance the quality of life, health and well-being of its users. This paper focuses on the "soft" features of sustainable housing, that is, the non-technological components of sustainable housing and neighbourhood design that can impact occupants' health and well-being. Aims of the study are to ascertain the relative level of importance that key housing stakeholders attach to these features and to investigate whether the opinions of housing users and housing providers are aligned with regards to their importance. An online survey was carried out to gauge the level of importance that the key stakeholders, such as housing users, local authorities, housing associations, and developers (n = 235), attach to these features. Results revealed that while suitable indoor space was the feature regarded as most important by all stakeholders, there were also a number of disparities in opinion between housing users and housing providers (and among the different types of providers). This implies a scope for initiatives to achieve a better alignment between housing users and providers. PMID:26751465

  7. Design Features of Drug-Drug Interaction Trials Between Antivirals and Oral Contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Ruben C; Arya, Vikram; Younis, Islam R

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this work was to explore the major design features of drug-drug interaction trials between antiviral medications (AVs) and oral contraceptives (OCs). Information on these trials (n = 27) was collected from approved drug labels and clinical pharmacology reviews conducted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The primary objective of all trials was to evaluate changes in OC exposure following the coadministration of AVs. In addition, an evaluation of potential pharmacodynamic interaction was performed in 10 of these trials. Twenty-two trials were open label with a fixed-sequence design, and 5 trials used a double-blind crossover design. The trials were conducted using one, two, or three 28-day ovulatory cycles in 10, 8, and 9 trials, respectively. Only 1 trial enrolled HIV-infected women. The median number of women in a trial was 20 (range, 12 to 52). Norethindrone/ethinyl estradiol (EE) combination was the most commonly used OC (n = 16, 59%) followed by norgestimate/EE (n = 9, 33%). Labeling recommendations were based on exposure changes in 25 cases and on safety observations in the trial in 2 cases. In conclusion, a wide variety of trial designs was used, and there is no preferred design. The answer to the exposure question can be achieved using multiple designs.

  8. Innovative and Advanced Coupled Neutron Transport and Thermal Hydraulic Method (Tool) for the Design, Analysis and Optimization of VHTR/NGNP Prismatic Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Rahnema, Farzad; Garimeela, Srinivas; Ougouag, Abderrafi; Zhang, Dingkang

    2013-11-29

    This project will develop a 3D, advanced coarse mesh transport method (COMET-Hex) for steady- state and transient analyses in advanced very high-temperature reactors (VHTRs). The project will lead to a coupled neutronics and thermal hydraulic (T/H) core simulation tool with fuel depletion capability. The computational tool will be developed in hexagonal geometry, based solely on transport theory without (spatial) homogenization in complicated 3D geometries. In addition to the hexagonal geometry extension, collaborators will concurrently develop three additional capabilities to increase the code’s versatility as an advanced and robust core simulator for VHTRs. First, the project team will develop and implement a depletion method within the core simulator. Second, the team will develop an elementary (proof-of-concept) 1D time-dependent transport method for efficient transient analyses. The third capability will be a thermal hydraulic method coupled to the neutronics transport module for VHTRs. Current advancements in reactor core design are pushing VHTRs toward greater core and fuel heterogeneity to pursue higher burn-ups, efficiently transmute used fuel, maximize energy production, and improve plant economics and safety. As a result, an accurate and efficient neutron transport, with capabilities to treat heterogeneous burnable poison effects, is highly desirable for predicting VHTR neutronics performance. This research project’s primary objective is to advance the state of the art for reactor analysis.

  9. Iodine atoms: a new molecular feature for the design of potent transthyretin fibrillogenesis inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mairal, Teresa; Nieto, Joan; Pinto, Marta; Almeida, Maria Rosário; Gales, Luis; Ballesteros, Alfredo; Barluenga, José; Pérez, Juan J; Vázquez, Jesús T; Centeno, Nuria B; Saraiva, Maria Joao; Damas, Ana M; Planas, Antoni; Arsequell, Gemma; Valencia, Gregorio

    2009-01-01

    The thyroid hormone and retinol transporter protein known as transthyretin (TTR) is in the origin of one of the 20 or so known amyloid diseases. TTR self assembles as a homotetramer leaving a central hydrophobic channel with two symmetrical binding sites. The aggregation pathway of TTR into amiloid fibrils is not yet well characterized but in vitro binding of thyroid hormones and other small organic molecules to TTR binding channel results in tetramer stabilization which prevents amyloid formation in an extent which is proportional to the binding constant. Up to now, TTR aggregation inhibitors have been designed looking at various structural features of this binding channel others than its ability to host iodine atoms. In the present work, greatly improved inhibitors have been designed and tested by taking into account that thyroid hormones are unique in human biochemistry owing to the presence of multiple iodine atoms in their molecules which are probed to interact with specific halogen binding domains sitting at the TTR binding channel. The new TTR fibrillogenesis inhibitors are based on the diflunisal core structure because diflunisal is a registered salicylate drug with NSAID activity now undergoing clinical trials for TTR amyloid diseases. Biochemical and biophysical evidence confirms that iodine atoms can be an important design feature in the search for candidate drugs for TTR related amyloidosis. PMID:19125186

  10. Iodine Atoms: A New Molecular Feature for the Design of Potent Transthyretin Fibrillogenesis Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Marta; Almeida, Maria Rosário; Gales, Luis; Ballesteros, Alfredo; Barluenga, José; Pérez, Juan J.; Vázquez, Jesús T.; Centeno, Nuria B.; Saraiva, Maria Joao; Damas, Ana M.; Planas, Antoni; Arsequell, Gemma; Valencia, Gregorio

    2009-01-01

    The thyroid hormone and retinol transporter protein known as transthyretin (TTR) is in the origin of one of the 20 or so known amyloid diseases. TTR self assembles as a homotetramer leaving a central hydrophobic channel with two symmetrical binding sites. The aggregation pathway of TTR into amiloid fibrils is not yet well characterized but in vitro binding of thyroid hormones and other small organic molecules to TTR binding channel results in tetramer stabilization which prevents amyloid formation in an extent which is proportional to the binding constant. Up to now, TTR aggregation inhibitors have been designed looking at various structural features of this binding channel others than its ability to host iodine atoms. In the present work, greatly improved inhibitors have been designed and tested by taking into account that thyroid hormones are unique in human biochemistry owing to the presence of multiple iodine atoms in their molecules which are probed to interact with specific halogen binding domains sitting at the TTR binding channel. The new TTR fibrillogenesis inhibitors are based on the diflunisal core structure because diflunisal is a registered salicylate drug with NSAID activity now undergoing clinical trials for TTR amyloid diseases. Biochemical and biophysical evidence confirms that iodine atoms can be an important design feature in the search for candidate drugs for TTR related amyloidosis. PMID:19125186

  11. Hydraulic processes on alluvial fans

    SciTech Connect

    French, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    Alluvial fans are among the most prominent landscape features in the American Southwest and throughout the semi-arid and arid regions of the world. The importance of developing a qualitative and quantitative understanding of the hydraulic processes which formed, and which continue to modify, these features derives from their rapid and significant development over the past four decades. As unplanned urban sprawl moved from valley floors onto alluvial fans, the serious damage incurred from infrequent flow events has dramatically increased. This book presents a discussion of our current and rapidly expanding knowledge of hydraulic processes on alluvial fans. It addresses the subject from a multidisciplinary viewpoint, acquainting the reader with geological principles pertinent to the analysis of hydraulic processes on alluvial fans.

  12. Design features of implants for direct skeletal attachment of limb prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Pitkin, M.

    2013-01-01

    In direct skeletal attachment (DSA) of limb prostheses, a construct is implanted into an amputee’s residuum bone and protrudes out of the residuum’s skin. This technology represents an alternative to traditional suspension of prostheses via various socket systems, with clear indications when the sockets cannot be properly fitted. Contemporary DSA was invented in the 1990s, and several implant systems have been introduced since then. The current review is intended to compare the design features of implants for DSA whose use in humans or in animal studies has been reported in the literature. PMID:23554122

  13. DESIGN SAFETY FEATURES OF THE BNL HIGH-TEMPERATURE COMBUSTION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    GINSBERG,T.; CICCARELLI,G.; BOCCIO,J.

    2000-06-11

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) High-Temperature Combustion Facility (HTCF) was used to perform hydrogen deflagration and detonation experiments at temperatures to 650 K. Safety features that were designed to ensure safe and reliable operation of the experimental program are described. Deflagration and detonation experiments have been conducted using mixtures of hydrogen, air, and steam. Detonation cell size measurements were made as a function of mixture composition and thermodynamic gas conditions. Deflagration-to-detonation transition experiments were also conducted. Results of the experimental program are presented, and implications with respect to hydrogen safety are discussed.

  14. Design Features and Capabilities of the First Materials Science Research Rack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettigrew, P. J.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Cobb, S. D.; Holloway, T.; Kitchens, L.

    2003-01-01

    The First Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) will offer many unique capabilities and design features to facilitate a wide range of materials science investigations. The initial configuration of MSRR-1 will accommodate two independent Experiment Modules (EMS) and provide the capability for simultaneous on-orbit processing. The facility will provide the common subsystems and interfaces required for the operation of experiment hardware and accommodate telescience capabilities. MSRR1 will utilize an International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR) equipped with an Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) for vibration isolation of the facility.

  15. Feature, design intention and constraint preservation for direct modeling of 3D freeform surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Luoting; Kara, Levent Burak; Shimada, Kenji

    2012-06-01

    Direct modeling has recently emerged as a suitable approach for 3D free-form shape modeling in industrial design. It has several advantages over the conventional, parametric modeling techniques, including natural user interactions, as well as the underlying, automatic feature-preserving shape deformation algorithms. However, current direct modeling packages still lack several capabilities critical for product design, such as managing aesthetic design intentions, and enforcing dimensional, geometric constraints. In this paper, we describe a novel 3D surface editing system capable of jointly accommodating aesthetic design intentions expressed in the form of surface painting and color-coded annotations, as well as engineering constraints expressed as dimensions. The proposed system is built upon differential coordinates and constrained least squares, and is intended for conceptual design that involves frequent shape tuning and explorations. We also provide an extensive review of the state-of-the-art direct modeling approaches for 3D mesh-based, freeform surfaces, with an emphasis on the two broad categories of shape deformation algorithms developed in the relevant field of geometric modeling. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. Simulation Analysis of Certain Hydraulic Lifting Appliance under Different Working Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Huang; Genfu, Yuan; Xuehui, Chen

    Being typical of mechanical and electronic hydraulics appliance, hydraulic lifting appliance has many working conditions due to its particularities. Properties of hydraulic system decide high efficiency, security as well as stability under different working conditions. Beginning with simulation analysis on hydraulic system of hydraulic lifting appliance under different working conditions, the essay analyzes a certain hydraulic system through which design references can be offered for optimizing hydraulic system properties via hydraulic system force and changes of torque. And then properties of hydraulic system can be improved and a hydraulic system with stable performance can be obtained.

  17. Design of Unstructured Adaptive (UA) NAS Parallel Benchmark Featuring Irregular, Dynamic Memory Accesses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, Hui-Yu; VanderWijngaart, Rob; Biswas, Rupak; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We describe the design of a new method for the measurement of the performance of modern computer systems when solving scientific problems featuring irregular, dynamic memory accesses. The method involves the solution of a stylized heat transfer problem on an unstructured, adaptive grid. A Spectral Element Method (SEM) with an adaptive, nonconforming mesh is selected to discretize the transport equation. The relatively high order of the SEM lowers the fraction of wall clock time spent on inter-processor communication, which eases the load balancing task and allows us to concentrate on the memory accesses. The benchmark is designed to be three-dimensional. Parallelization and load balance issues of a reference implementation will be described in detail in future reports.

  18. Powertrain System HANT: Hydraulic Pump/Motor

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The development of the new Hydraulic Pump/Motor is the main part of the Powertrain-System HANT. Several Engineering Models of the same design have been tested to prove that the new concept is effective. The important ranges: Maximum pressure and rpm and low power (low pressure, rpm, swashplate angle) were tested successfully. The efficiencies in all areas have already shown the same or better data then those of the best products on the market. The tests have been conducted in Switzerland (maximum power) in 1987 and at the UWM-Madison, Wisconsin (low power efficiency) in 1988. Based on these data and several new useful design features the Engineering Model has been updated. In addition, the reduction of unnecessary safety factor, new materials and mass-production like manufacturing methods, has lead to an significantly improved Prototype Design. The updated version and its expected improved technical data are presented in this report.

  19. Hydraulic hammer drilling technology: Developments and capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Melamed, Y.; Kiselev, A.; Gelfgat, M.; Dreesen, D.; Blacic, J.

    1996-12-31

    Percussion drilling technology was considered many years ago as one of the best approaches for hard rock drilling. Unfortunately the efficiency of most hydraulic hammer (HH) designs was very low (8% maximum), so they were successfully used in shallow boreholes only. Thirty years of research and field drilling experience with HH application in Former Soviet Union (FSU) countries led to the development of a new generation of HH designs with a proven efficiency of 40%. That advance achieved good operational results in hard rock at depths up to 2,000 m and more. The most recent research has shown that there are opportunities to increase HH efficiency up to 70%. This paper presents HH basic design principles and operational features. The advantages of HH technology for coiled-tubing drilling is shown on the basis of test results recently conducted in the US.

  20. Preliminary design features of the RASCAL: A NASA /Army rotorcraft in-flight simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aiken, Edwin W.; Jacobsen, Robert A.; Eshow, Michelle M.; Hindson, William S.; Doane, Douglas H.

    1993-01-01

    Salient design features of a new NASA/Army research rotorcraft - the Rotorcraft-Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) - are described. Using a UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter as a baseline vehicle, the RASCAL will be a flying laboratory capable of supporting the research requirements of major NASA and Army guidance, control, and display research programs. The paper describes the research facility requirements of these programs together with other critical constraints on the design of the research system, including safety-of-flight. Research program schedules demand a phased development approach, wherein specific research capability milestones are met and flight research projects are flown throughout the complete development cycle of the RASCAL. This development approach is summarized, and selected features of the research system are described. The research system includes a full-authority, programmable, fault-tolerant/fail-safe, fly-by-wire flight control system and a real-time obstacle detection and avoidance system which will generate low-altitude guidance commands to the pilot on a wide field-of-view, color helmet-mounted display.

  1. Dynamic impact and pressure analysis of the insensitive munitions container PA103 with modified design features

    SciTech Connect

    Handy, K.D.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents analytical analyses of the insensitive munitions container PA103, with modified design features for a static internal pressure of 500 psi and for a dynamic impact resulting from a 7-ft free fall onto a rigid surface. The modified design features addressed by the analyses were the inclusion of a score pattern on the container cylindrical body and a plastic plate (fuse) sandwiched between metal flanges on the container end. The objectives of both the pressure and impact analyses were to determine if the induced stresses at the score patterns in the cylindrical body of the container were sufficient to induce failure. Analytical responses of the container to the imposed loads were obtained with finite element analysis methodology. The computer codes ABAQUS and VEC/DYNA3D were used to obtain the results. Results of the pressure analysis indicate that failure of the container body would be expected to occur at the score pattern for a static internal pressure of 500 psi. Also, results from three impact orientations for a 7-ft drop indicate that membrane stresses in the vicinity of the score pattern are above critical crack growth stress magnitudes, especially at low ({minus}60{degrees}F) temperatures.

  2. Dynamic impact and pressure analysis of the insensitive munitions container PA103 with modified design features

    SciTech Connect

    Handy, K.D.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents analytical analyses of the insensitive munitions container PA103, with modified design features for a static internal pressure of 500 psi and for a dynamic impact resulting from a 7-ft free fall onto a rigid surface. The modified design features addressed by the analyses were the inclusion of a score pattern on the container cylindrical body and a plastic plate (fuse) sandwiched between metal flanges on the container end. The objectives of both the pressure and impact analyses were to determine if the induced stresses at the score patterns in the cylindrical body of the container were sufficient to induce failure. Analytical responses of the container to the imposed loads were obtained with finite element analysis methodology. The computer codes ABAQUS and VEC/DYNA3D were used to obtain the results. Results of the pressure analysis indicate that failure of the container body would be expected to occur at the score pattern for a static internal pressure of 500 psi. Also, results from three impact orientations for a 7-ft drop indicate that membrane stresses in the vicinity of the score pattern are above critical crack growth stress magnitudes, especially at low ([minus]60[degrees]F) temperatures.

  3. Diffusive Barrier and Getter Under Waste Packages VA Reference Design Feature Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    MacNeil, K.

    1999-05-24

    This technical document evaluates those aspects of the diffusive barrier and getter features which have the potential for enhancing the performance of the Viability Assessment Reference Design and are also directly related to the key attributes for the repository safety strategy of that design. The effects of advection, hydrodynamic dispersion, and diffusion on the radionuclide migration rates through the diffusive barrier were determined through the application of the one-dimensional, advection/dispersion/diffusion equation. The results showed that because advective flow described by the advection-dispersion equation dominates, the diffusive barrier feature alone would not be effective in retarding migration of radiocuclides. However, if the diffusive barrier were combined with one or more features that reduced the potential for advection, then transport of radionuclides would be dominated by diffusion and their migration from the EBS would be impeded. Apatite was chosen as the getter material used for this report. Two getter configurations were developed, Case 1 and Case 2. As in the evaluation of the diffusive barrier, the effects of advection, hydrodynamic dispersion, and diffusion on the migration of radionuclides through the getter are evaluated. However, in addition to these mechanisms, the one-dimensional advection/dispersion/diffusion model is modified to include the effect of sorption on radionuclide migration rates through the sorptive medium (getter). As a result of sorption, the longitudinal dispersion coefficient, and the average linear velocity are effectively reduced by the retardation factor. The retardation factor is a function of the getter material's dry bulk density, sorption coefficient and moisture content. The results of the evaluation showed that a significant delay in breakthrough through the getter can be achieved if the thickness of the getter barrier is increased.

  4. [Design and Preparation of Plant Bionic Materials Based on Optical and Infrared Features Simulation].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiao-jun; Lu, Xu-liang; Pan, Jia-liang; Zhang, Shuan-qin

    2015-07-01

    Due to the life characteristics such as physiological structure and transpiration, plants have unique optical and infrared features. In the optical band, because of the common effects of chlorophyll and water, plant leafs show spectral reflectance characteristics change in 550, 680, 1400 and 1900 nm significantly. In the infrared wave band, driven by transpiration, plants could regulate temperature on their own initiative, which make the infrared characteristics of plants different from artificial materials. So palnt bionic materials were proposed to simulate optical and infrared characteristics of plants. By analyzing formation mechanism of optical and infrared features about green plants, the component design and heat-transfer process of plants bionic materials were studied, above these the heat-transfer control formulation was established. Based on water adsorption/release compound, optical pigments and other man-made materials, plant bionic materials preparation methods were designed which could simulate the optical and infrared features of green plants. By chemical casting methods plant bionic material films were prepared, which use polyvinyl alcohol as film forming and water adsorption/release compound, and use optical pigments like chrome green and macromolecule yellow as colouring materials. The research conclusions achieved by testings figured out: water adsorption/release testing showed that the plant bionic materials with a certain thickness could absorb 1.3 kg water per square meter, which could satisfy the water usage of transpiration simulation one day; the optical and infrared simulated effect tests indicated that the plant bionic materials could preferably simulate the spectral reflective performance of green plants in optical wave band (380-2500 nm, expecially in 1400 and 1900 nm which were water absorption wave band of plants), and also it had similar daily infrared radiation variations with green plants, daily average radiation temperature

  5. [Design and Preparation of Plant Bionic Materials Based on Optical and Infrared Features Simulation].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiao-jun; Lu, Xu-liang; Pan, Jia-liang; Zhang, Shuan-qin

    2015-07-01

    Due to the life characteristics such as physiological structure and transpiration, plants have unique optical and infrared features. In the optical band, because of the common effects of chlorophyll and water, plant leafs show spectral reflectance characteristics change in 550, 680, 1400 and 1900 nm significantly. In the infrared wave band, driven by transpiration, plants could regulate temperature on their own initiative, which make the infrared characteristics of plants different from artificial materials. So palnt bionic materials were proposed to simulate optical and infrared characteristics of plants. By analyzing formation mechanism of optical and infrared features about green plants, the component design and heat-transfer process of plants bionic materials were studied, above these the heat-transfer control formulation was established. Based on water adsorption/release compound, optical pigments and other man-made materials, plant bionic materials preparation methods were designed which could simulate the optical and infrared features of green plants. By chemical casting methods plant bionic material films were prepared, which use polyvinyl alcohol as film forming and water adsorption/release compound, and use optical pigments like chrome green and macromolecule yellow as colouring materials. The research conclusions achieved by testings figured out: water adsorption/release testing showed that the plant bionic materials with a certain thickness could absorb 1.3 kg water per square meter, which could satisfy the water usage of transpiration simulation one day; the optical and infrared simulated effect tests indicated that the plant bionic materials could preferably simulate the spectral reflective performance of green plants in optical wave band (380-2500 nm, expecially in 1400 and 1900 nm which were water absorption wave band of plants), and also it had similar daily infrared radiation variations with green plants, daily average radiation temperature

  6. Design and novel type of a magnetorheological damper featuring piston bypass hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Jung Woo; Oh, Jong-Seok; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2015-03-01

    This work proposes a novel type of magnetorheological (MR) damper configuration from which an excellent ride comfort can be achieved without using a sophisticated controller scheme. The proposed novel MR damper is featured by piston bypass holes to achieve low slope of the damping force in the pre-yield (low-piston-velocity) region and high magnitude of the damping force in the post-yield (high-piston-velocity) region. A mathematical model for the damping force of the proposed MR damper is formulated followed by the investigation on damping characteristics with respect to several geometrical design parameters such as the number of piston bypass hole, the diameter of the hole, the gap size of the orifice, the orifice length, the diameter of the bobbin, and the height of the coil. After selecting the main design parameters from the simulation results, numerical simulations for the damping force characteristics are conducted with eight design parameter sets to evaluate the significant effect on the damping force performance. The proposed MR dampers are then manufactured with the same design parameter sets and the damping force characteristics are experimentally obtained and compared with the analytical simulation results. It is identified from the parametric investigations that the size and the number of the piston bypass hole are very important on damping force characteristics of the proposed MR damper.

  7. Assessment of Hydraulic Performance and Biocompatibility of a MagLev Centrifugal Pump System Designed for Pediatric Cardiac or Cardiopulmonary Support

    PubMed Central

    Dasse, Kurt A.; Gellman, Barry; Kameneva, Marina V.; Woolley, Joshua R.; Johnson, Carl A.; Gempp, Thomas; Marks, John D.; Kent, Stella; Koert, Andrew; Richardson, J. Scott; Franklin, Steve; Snyder, Trevor A.; Wearden, Peter; Wagner, William R.; Gilbert, Richard J.; Borovetz, Harvey S.

    2011-01-01

    The treatment of children with life-threatening cardiac and cardiopulmonary failure is a large and underappreciated public health concern. We have previously shown that the CentriMag is a magnetically levitated centrifugal pump system, having the utility for treating adults and large children (1,500 utilized worldwide). We present here the Pedi-VAS, a pump system whose design was modified from the CentriMag to meet the physiological requirements of young pediatric and neonatal patients. The PediVAS is comprised of a single-use centrifugal blood pump, reusable motor, and console, and is suitable for right ventricular assist device (RVAD), left ventricular assist device (LVAD), biventricular assist device (BVAD), or extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (ECMO) applications. It is designed to operate without bearings, seals and valves, and without regions of blood stasis, friction, or wear. The PediVAS pump is compatible with the CentriMag hardware, although the priming volume was reduced from 31 to 14 ml, and the port size reduced from 3/8 to ¼ in. For the expected range of pediatric flow (0.3–3.0 L/min), the PediVAS exhibited superior hydraulic efficiency compared with the CentriMag. The PediVAS was evaluated in 14 pediatric animals for up to 30 days, demonstrating acceptable hydraulic function and hemocompatibility. The current results substantiate the performance and biocompatibility of the PediVAS cardiac assist system and are likely to support initiation of a US clinical trial in the future. PMID:18043164

  8. Three-Dimensional Elastomeric Scaffolds Designed with Cardiac-Mimetic Structural and Mechanical Features

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Rebekah A.; Jean, Aurélie; Park, Hyoungshin; Wu, Patrick B.; Hsiao, James; Engelmayr, George C.; Langer, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Tissue-engineered constructs, at the interface of material science, biology, engineering, and medicine, have the capacity to improve outcomes for cardiac patients by providing living cells and degradable biomaterials that can regenerate the native myocardium. With an ultimate goal of both delivering cells and providing mechanical support to the healing heart, we designed three-dimensional (3D) elastomeric scaffolds with (1) stiffnesses and anisotropy mimicking explanted myocardial specimens as predicted by finite-element (FE) modeling, (2) systematically varied combinations of rectangular pore pattern, pore aspect ratio, and strut width, and (3) structural features approaching tissue scale. Based on predicted mechanical properties, three scaffold designs were selected from eight candidates for fabrication from poly(glycerol sebacate) by micromolding from silicon wafers. Large 20×20 mm scaffolds with high aspect ratio features (5:1 strut height:strut width) were reproducibly cast, cured, and demolded at a relatively high throughput. Empirically measured mechanical properties demonstrated that scaffolds were cardiac mimetic and validated FE model predictions. Two-layered scaffolds providing fully interconnected pore networks were fabricated by layer-by-layer assembly. C2C12 myoblasts cultured on one-layered scaffolds exhibited specific patterns of cell elongation and interconnectivity that appeared to be guided by the scaffold pore pattern. Neonatal rat heart cells cultured on two-layered scaffolds for 1 week were contractile, both spontaneously and in response to electrical stimulation, and expressed sarcomeric α-actinin, a cardiac biomarker. This work not only demonstrated several scaffold designs that promoted functional assembly of rat heart cells, but also provided the foundation for further computational and empirical investigations of 3D elastomeric scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering. PMID:23190320

  9. Biomaterial design for specific cellular interactions: Role of surface functionalization and geometric features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolhar, Poornima

    The areas of drug delivery and tissue engineering have experienced extraordinary growth in recent years with the application of engineering principles and their potential to support and improve the field of medicine. The tremendous progress in nanotechnology and biotechnology has lead to this explosion of research and development in biomedical applications. Biomaterials can now be engineered at a nanoscale and their specific interactions with the biological tissues can be modulated. Various design parameters are being established and researched for design of drug-delivery carriers and scaffolds to be implanted into humans. Nanoparticles made from versatile biomaterial can deliver both small-molecule drugs and various classes of bio-macromolecules, such as proteins and oligonucleotides. Similarly in the field of tissue engineering, current approaches emphasize nanoscale control of cell behavior by mimicking the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) unlike, traditional scaffolds. Drug delivery and tissue engineering are closely connected fields and both of these applications require materials with exceptional physical, chemical, biological, and biomechanical properties to provide superior therapy. In the current study the surface functionalization and the geometric features of the biomaterials has been explored. In particular, a synthetic surface for culture of human embryonic stem cells has been developed, demonstrating the importance of surface functionalization in maintaining the pluripotency of hESCs. In the second study, the geometric features of the drug delivery carriers are investigated and the polymeric nanoneedles mediated cellular permeabilization and direct cytoplasmic delivery is reported. In the third study, the combined effect of surface functionalization and geometric modification of carriers for vascular targeting is enunciated. These studies illustrate how the biomaterials can be designed to achieve various cellular behaviors and control the

  10. Information Presentation Features and Comprehensibility of Hospital Report Cards: Design Analysis and Online Survey Among Users

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Improving the transparency of information about the quality of health care providers is one way to improve health care quality. It is assumed that Internet information steers patients toward better-performing health care providers and will motivate providers to improve quality. However, the effect of public reporting on hospital quality is still small. One of the reasons is that users find it difficult to understand the formats in which information is presented. Objective We analyzed the presentation of risk-adjusted mortality rate (RAMR) for coronary angiography in the 10 most commonly used German public report cards to analyze the impact of information presentation features on their comprehensibility. We wanted to determine which information presentation features were utilized, were preferred by users, led to better comprehension, and had similar effects to those reported in evidence-based recommendations described in the literature. Methods The study consisted of 5 steps: (1) identification of best-practice evidence about the presentation of information on hospital report cards; (2) selection of a single risk-adjusted quality indicator; (3) selection of a sample of designs adopted by German public report cards; (4) identification of the information presentation elements used in public reporting initiatives in Germany; and (5) an online panel completed an online questionnaire that was conducted to determine if respondents were able to identify the hospital with the lowest RAMR and if respondents’ hospital choices were associated with particular information design elements. Results Evidence-based recommendations were made relating to the following information presentation features relevant to report cards: evaluative table with symbols, tables without symbols, bar charts, bar charts without symbols, bar charts with symbols, symbols, evaluative word labels, highlighting, order of providers, high values to indicate good performance, explicit statements

  11. Hydraulic pump

    SciTech Connect

    Polak, P.R.; Jantzen, D.E.

    1984-05-15

    This invention relates to an improved pump jack characterized by a hollow piston rod which telescopes down over the sucker rod to which it is clamped for reciprocating motion. The cylinder, in turn, is fastened in fixed position directly to the upper exposed end of the well casing. As fluid is introduced into the lower end of the cylinder it raises the piston into engagement with a pushrod housed in the upper cylinder head that lifts switch-actuating means associated therewith into a position operative to actuate a switch located adjacent thereto thereby causing the latter to change state and actuate a multi-function solenoid valve so as to cut off fluid flow to the cylinder. As gravity lowers the sucker rod and piston exhausting the hydraulic fluid therebeneath, an adjustable stop engages the pushrod from above so as to return it together with the switch-actuating means associated therewith to their original positions thereby resetting the switch to complete the operating cycle.

  12. Extraction of Airport Features from High Resolution Satellite Imagery for Design and Risk Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Chris; Qiu, You-Liang; Jensen, John R.; Schill, Steven R.; Floyd, Mike

    2001-01-01

    The LPA Group, consisting of 17 offices located throughout the eastern and central United States is an architectural, engineering and planning firm specializing in the development of Airports, Roads and Bridges. The primary focus of this ARC project is concerned with assisting their aviation specialists who work in the areas of Airport Planning, Airfield Design, Landside Design, Terminal Building Planning and design, and various other construction services. The LPA Group wanted to test the utility of high-resolution commercial satellite imagery for the purpose of extracting airport elevation features in the glide path areas surrounding the Columbia Metropolitan Airport. By incorporating remote sensing techniques into their airport planning process, LPA wanted to investigate whether or not it is possible to save time and money while achieving the equivalent accuracy as traditional planning methods. The Affiliate Research Center (ARC) at the University of South Carolina investigated the use of remotely sensed imagery for the extraction of feature elevations in the glide path zone. A stereo pair of IKONOS panchromatic satellite images, which has a spatial resolution of 1 x 1 m, was used to determine elevations of aviation obstructions such as buildings, trees, towers and fence-lines. A validation dataset was provided by the LPA Group to assess the accuracy of the measurements derived from the IKONOS imagery. The initial goal of this project was to test the utility of IKONOS imagery in feature extraction using ERDAS Stereo Analyst. This goal was never achieved due to problems with ERDAS software support of the IKONOS sensor model and the unavailability of imperative sensor model information from Space Imaging. The obstacles encountered in this project pertaining to ERDAS Stereo Analyst and IKONOS imagery will be reviewed in more detail later in this report. As a result of the technical difficulties with Stereo Analyst, ERDAS OrthoBASE was used to derive aviation

  13. Young children's perspectives of ideal physical design features for hospital-built environments.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Veronica; Coad, Jane; Hicks, Paula; Glacken, Michele

    2014-03-01

    Recently, increased recognition has been attributed to the requirement to include the views of child patients in the planning of new health care services so that contemporary buildings can be designed to enhance future experience. This is important, especially since the voices of young children are so often under-represented or represented through adult proxies. The purpose of this article is to share young children's perspectives of what constitutes ideal physical design features for hospital-built environments. Using a participatory art-based approach, data were collected from 55 children (aged five-eight years) across three children's hospitals in Ireland. Emergent findings revealed three broad themes: personal space, physical environment and access. This study is important for nurses, clinicians and environmental designers because it outlines what a supportive child health care environment should constitute. Hospital environments need to be constructed not just to be child friendly, but to also respect children's right to dignity, privacy, family support and self-control. PMID:23423998

  14. Young children's perspectives of ideal physical design features for hospital-built environments.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Veronica; Coad, Jane; Hicks, Paula; Glacken, Michele

    2014-03-01

    Recently, increased recognition has been attributed to the requirement to include the views of child patients in the planning of new health care services so that contemporary buildings can be designed to enhance future experience. This is important, especially since the voices of young children are so often under-represented or represented through adult proxies. The purpose of this article is to share young children's perspectives of what constitutes ideal physical design features for hospital-built environments. Using a participatory art-based approach, data were collected from 55 children (aged five-eight years) across three children's hospitals in Ireland. Emergent findings revealed three broad themes: personal space, physical environment and access. This study is important for nurses, clinicians and environmental designers because it outlines what a supportive child health care environment should constitute. Hospital environments need to be constructed not just to be child friendly, but to also respect children's right to dignity, privacy, family support and self-control.

  15. Scale-dependency of the hydraulic properties of a variably saturated heterogeneous sandy subsoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javaux, M.; Vanclooster, M.

    2006-08-01

    SummaryThe effective hydraulic behaviour of heterogeneous sand was experimentally investigated at two scales under transient flow upper boundary conditions. At the monoliths-scale, one-dimensional inverse modelling was performed from a transient infiltration experiment by implementing in the objective function the outflow and pressure head time series at four depths. Notwithstanding the important heterogeneity of the subsoil, principally due to the presence of discontinuous clay and a stone layer, we observed that the effective behaviour was surprisingly well reproduced. It was also observed that the structural features mainly induced a kind of hysteresis between the saturation and drainage cycles of the outflow time series. Subsequently, 104 Kopecky cores (100 cm 3) were sub-sampled throughout the monolith, mainly in the sandy matrix. The variability of local hydraulic parameters was investigated by optimising the local hydraulic parameters from multi-step outflow experiments and measured retention points. The comparison between 1-D optimised, measured and Kopecky-averaged retention curves showed relatively similar shape near saturation. In contrast to this, important discrepancies existed between averaged local scale hydraulic conductivity and effective hydraulic conductivity close to saturation. Different experimental designs at different scales may explain the observed discrepancies. It is further suggested that the monolith-scale effective hydraulic functions are more representative for wet soil conditions. This case study illustrates the complexity of finding validated scaling relationships for the hydraulic properties of heterogeneous soils at scales larger than the usual small column scale.

  16. Composite hydraulic system

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, W.A.

    1987-03-17

    A composite hydraulic system is described for a work vehicle having an implement hydraulic circuit and a steering hydraulic circuit comprising a first pump which supplies the implement hydraulic circuit primarily, a second pump which supplies the steering hydraulic circuit primarily, a third pump which is operable also as a motor and which transfers hydraulic fluid between the implement and the steering hydraulic circuits, an engine which operates the three pumps simultaneously, and servo system means whereby the third pump under at least one condition of operation operates as a motor to provide regeneration.

  17. NGNP Point Design - Results of the Initial Neutronics and Thermal-Hydraulic Assessments During FY-03, Rev. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Philip E. MacDonald; James W. Sterbentz; Robert L. Sant; P. Bayless; H. D. Gougar; R. L. Moore; A. M. Ougouag; W. K. Terry

    2003-09-01

    This report presents the preliminary preconceptual designs for two possible versions of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), one for a prismatic fuel type helium gas-cooled reactor and one for a pebble bed fuel helium gas reactor. Both designs are to meet three basic requirements: a coolant outlet temperature of 1000 °C, passive safety, and a total power output consistent with that expected for commercial high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. The two efforts are discussed separately below. The analytical results presented in this report are very promising, however, we wish to caution the reader that future, more detailed, design work will be needed to provide final answers to a number of key questions including the allowable power level, the inlet temperature, the power density, the optimum fuel form, and others. The point design work presented in this report provides a starting point for other evaluations, and directions for the detailed design, but not final answers.

  18. Comparing Infants' Use of Featural and Spatiotemporal Information in an Object Individuation Task Using a New Event-Monitoring Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krojgaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Discussions have recently taken place on whether spatiotemporal information is more important than featural information when infants attempt to individuate objects. Hitherto, spatiotemporal and featural information have only been compared directly by using cognitively demanding "event-mapping" designs" (e.g. Xu & Carey, 1996 ), whereas the simpler…

  19. Electric versus hydraulics versus pneumatics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book presents a collection of papers from a conference which considered the advantages and disadvantages of electric, hydraulic and pneumatic drives and actuators. The volume follows on the success of the 1983 conference on electric and hydraulic drives. Topics considered include fork lift trucks - an ideal application for regenerative transmissions; a hybrid-electric power system with hydrostatic transmission; electrics and hydraulics on roadheader machinery; hydraulic, electrical, pneumatic control - which way to go. an electrically-powered servo to drive the two axes of a missile launching platform - pros and cons when compared with the traditional hydraulic solution; the encapsulation of a novel intrinsically safe displacement transducer; mobile cryogenic pumping systems; automation of a wood-turning machine, hydraulic or electric. The choice of a servo motor for a specific application; developments in the design and control of pneumatic linear actuators; compressed air purification for instrumentation in the high technology industries; trends in prime mover choice for powered hand tools; and choosing the drive system for the right application.

  20. Design features of on-line anatomy information resources: a comparison with the Digital Anatomist.

    PubMed

    Kim, S; Brinkley, J F; Rosse, C

    1999-01-01

    In order to update the design of the next generation of the Digital Anatomist, we have surveyed teaching assistants who have used the Digital Anatomist for learning and teaching anatomy as medical students, and have also examined available anatomy web sites with sufficient content to support learning. The majority of web sites function in an atlas mode and provide for the identification of structures. These atlases incorporate a variety of features for interactivity with 2D images, some of which are not available in the Digital Anatomist. The surveys suggest that the greatest need is for on-line access to comprehensive and detailed anatomical information and for the development of knowledge-based methods that allow the direct manipulation of segmented 3D graphical models by the user. The requirement for such interactivity is a comprehensive symbolic model of the physical organization of the body that can support inference.

  1. Design features of on-line anatomy information resources: a comparison with the Digital Anatomist.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S.; Brinkley, J. F.; Rosse, C.

    1999-01-01

    In order to update the design of the next generation of the Digital Anatomist, we have surveyed teaching assistants who have used the Digital Anatomist for learning and teaching anatomy as medical students, and have also examined available anatomy web sites with sufficient content to support learning. The majority of web sites function in an atlas mode and provide for the identification of structures. These atlases incorporate a variety of features for interactivity with 2D images, some of which are not available in the Digital Anatomist. The surveys suggest that the greatest need is for on-line access to comprehensive and detailed anatomical information and for the development of knowledge-based methods that allow the direct manipulation of segmented 3D graphical models by the user. The requirement for such interactivity is a comprehensive symbolic model of the physical organization of the body that can support inference. Images Fig 1 PMID:10566421

  2. 23 CFR 650.111 - Location hydraulic studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Location and Hydraulic Design of Encroachments on Flood Plains § 650... § 650.111 (c) and (d) shall be summarized in environmental review documents prepared pursuant to 23...

  3. 23 CFR 650.111 - Location hydraulic studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Location and Hydraulic Design of Encroachments on Flood Plains § 650... § 650.111 (c) and (d) shall be summarized in environmental review documents prepared pursuant to 23...

  4. 23 CFR 650.111 - Location hydraulic studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Location and Hydraulic Design of Encroachments on Flood Plains § 650... § 650.111 (c) and (d) shall be summarized in environmental review documents prepared pursuant to 23...

  5. PRESTO, the on-line photon energy spectrometer at FERMI: design, features and commissioning results.

    PubMed

    Svetina, Cristian; Cocco, Daniele; Mahne, Nicola; Raimondi, Lorenzo; Ferrari, Eugenio; Zangrando, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of the emission wavelength and the spectral content of the photon radiation is essential information for both machine and experimental physicists at a free-electron laser (FEL) user facility. Knowledge of the photon beam spectral properties is needed during the machine optimization and for performing machine studies (i.e. monitoring the change of the FEL output as a function of the machine parameters). The experimentalists, on the other hand, need to know the photon beam spectral distribution of the source, shot to shot, to discriminate the acquired data. Consequently, the main requirement for the instrument, supposed to obtain this information, is the capability of working on-line and shot-to-shot, with minimal perturbation of the beam delivered to the experimental stations. Starting from the grating fundamental equations, the conceptual design of the FERMI Pulse-Resolved Energy Spectrometer: Transparent and On-line (PRESTO) is presented, explaining the optical design in detail. The performance of PRESTO, in terms of resolving power, efficiency and spectral response, is also discussed. Finally, some useful features beyond the usual measurement of the energy spectrum are reported, as they have been routinely used by both machine and experimental physicists. PMID:26698043

  6. Cigarette design features in low-, middle-, and high-income countries.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Rosalie V; O'Connor, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that country income grouping is correlated with cigarette engineering. Cigarettes (N = 111 brands) were purchased during 2008-2010 from 11 low-, middle-, and high-income countries to assess physical dimensions and an array of cigarette design features. Mean ventilation varied significantly across low- (7.5%), middle- (15.3%), and high-income (26.2%) countries (P ≤ 0.001). Differences across income groups were also seen in cigarette length (P = 0.001), length of the tipping paper (P = 0.01), filter weight (P = 0.017), number of vent rows (P = 0.003), per-cigarette tobacco weight (P = 0.04), and paper porosity (P = 0.008). Stepwise linear regression showed ventilation and tobacco length as major predictors of ISO tar yields in low-income countries (P = 0.909, 0.047), while tipping paper (P < 0.001), filter length (P < 0.001), number of vent rows (P = 0.014), and per-cigarette weight (P = 0.015) were predictors of tar yields in middle-income countries. Ventilation (P < 0.001), number of vent rows (P = 0.009), per-cigarette weight (P < 0.001), and filter diameter (P = 0.004) predicted tar yields in high-income countries. Health officials must be cognizant of cigarette design issues to provide effective regulation of tobacco products.

  7. What design features are used in effective e-health interventions? A review using techniques from Critical Interpretive Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Leanne G; Yardley, Lucy; Powell, John; Michie, Susan

    2012-03-01

    The effectiveness of e-health interventions varies greatly. Despite this, there has been relatively little formal consideration of how differences in the design of an intervention (i.e., how the content is delivered) may explain why some interventions are more effective than others. This review primarily examines the use of the Internet to provide educational and self-management interventions to promote health. The article develops hypotheses about how the design of these interventions may be associated with outcomes. In total, 52 published reports from both a diversity sample and a representative sample were reviewed using techniques from Critical Interpretive Synthesis. Four core interactive design features were identified that may mediate the effects of intervention design on outcomes: Social context and support, contacts with intervention, tailoring, and self-management. A conceptual framework to summarize the design of e-health interventions delivered using the Internet is proposed. The framework provides a guide for systematic research to identify the effects of specific design features on intervention outcomes and to identify the mechanisms underlying any effects. To optimize the design of e-health interventions more work is needed to understand how and why these design features may affect intervention outcomes and to investigate the optimal implementation and dosage of each design feature.

  8. Design Review Report for formal review of safety class features of exhauster system for rotary mode core sampling

    SciTech Connect

    JANICEK, G.P.

    2000-06-08

    Report documenting Formal Design Review conducted on portable exhausters used to support rotary mode core sampling of Hanford underground radioactive waste tanks with focus on Safety Class design features and control requirements for flammable gas environment operation and air discharge permitting compliance.

  9. Thermal hydraulic features of the TMI accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolman, B.

    1985-10-01

    The Three Mile island (TMI)-2 accident resulted in extensive core damage and recent data confirms that the reactor vessel was challenged from molten core materials. A hypothesized TMI accident scenario is presented that consistently explains the TMI data and is also consistent with research findings from independent severe fuel damage experiments. The TMI data will prove useful in confirming our understanding of severe core damage accidents under realistic reactor systems conditions. This understanding will aid in addressing safety and regulatory issues related to severe core damage accidents in light water reactors.

  10. Introduction to Hydraulics. Student's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Univ., Austin. Extension Instruction and Materials Center.

    This manual on hydraulics is one of a series of individualized instructional materials for students. The manual is self-paced, but is designed to be used under the supervision of an instructor. The manual contains 10 assignments, each with all the information needed, a list of objectives that should be met, and exercise questions that can help in…

  11. Evaluating the Operational Features of an Unconventional Dual-Bay U-Turn Design for Intersections

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Yun; Li, Zhibin; Wang, Wei; Chen, Jingxu; Wang, Hao; Li, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Median U-turn intersection treatment (MUTIT) has been considered an alternative measure to reduce congestion and traffic conflict at intersection areas. The MUTIT is sometimes difficult to implement in the field because it requires wide median on arterials for U-turn vehicles. The objective of this study is to introduce an unconventional U-turn treatment (UUT) for intersections which requires less median space but is also effective. The UUT has a dual-bay design with different turning radiuses for small and large vehicles. The VISSIM simulation model was developed to evaluate the operational features of the UUT. The model was calibrated using data collected from intersections in China. The capacity, delay and number of stops were evaluated and compared with the direct-left-turn (DLT) for the same intersections. The results showed that the UUT significantly improved the operations at intersection areas, especially when volume/capacity ratio is small, and ratio of left-turn to through traffic is small. With the UUT, the capacity is increased by 9.81% to 10.38%, vehicle delay is decreased by 18.5% to 40.1%, and number of stops is decreased by 23.19% to 36.62%, when volume/capacity ratio is less than 0.50. The study also found that traffic efficiency could be further improved when the UUT is designed in conjunction with signal control. In the case, the UUT plus signalized control increases the capacity by 25% to 26.02%, decreases vehicle delay by 50.5% to 55.8%, and reduces number of stops by 69.5%, compared with the traditional DLT. PMID:27467127

  12. Evaluating the Operational Features of an Unconventional Dual-Bay U-Turn Design for Intersections.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yun; Li, Zhibin; Wang, Wei; Chen, Jingxu; Wang, Hao; Li, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Median U-turn intersection treatment (MUTIT) has been considered an alternative measure to reduce congestion and traffic conflict at intersection areas. The MUTIT is sometimes difficult to implement in the field because it requires wide median on arterials for U-turn vehicles. The objective of this study is to introduce an unconventional U-turn treatment (UUT) for intersections which requires less median space but is also effective. The UUT has a dual-bay design with different turning radiuses for small and large vehicles. The VISSIM simulation model was developed to evaluate the operational features of the UUT. The model was calibrated using data collected from intersections in China. The capacity, delay and number of stops were evaluated and compared with the direct-left-turn (DLT) for the same intersections. The results showed that the UUT significantly improved the operations at intersection areas, especially when volume/capacity ratio is small, and ratio of left-turn to through traffic is small. With the UUT, the capacity is increased by 9.81% to 10.38%, vehicle delay is decreased by 18.5% to 40.1%, and number of stops is decreased by 23.19% to 36.62%, when volume/capacity ratio is less than 0.50. The study also found that traffic efficiency could be further improved when the UUT is designed in conjunction with signal control. In the case, the UUT plus signalized control increases the capacity by 25% to 26.02%, decreases vehicle delay by 50.5% to 55.8%, and reduces number of stops by 69.5%, compared with the traditional DLT. PMID:27467127

  13. Design and experiments of a novel magneto-rheological damper featuring bifold flow mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyongsol; Chen, Zhaobo; Yu, Dong; Rim, Changhyon

    2016-07-01

    This study presents design and fabrication of a novel magneto-rheological (MR) damper with bifold flow mode gap to improve damping performance. The proposed MR damper is featured by inner flow mode gap connected to the outer flow mode gap through the feedback hole. A mathematical model of the damping force is established for the proposed MR damper and the magnetic circuit has been analyzed with the finite element method, which is used to validate the principle of the proposed MR damper. A conventional MR damper is fabricated with the same dimensions (radius, length) of the piston and is experimentally compared to confirm advantages of the proposed MR damper. The mechanical performance of the proposed MR damper is experimentally investigated and compared with the results by mathematical model and finite element analysis. The research results show that the controllable damping force and equivalent damping of the MR damper with bifold flow mode gap are much larger than those of the conventional MR damper.

  14. UNIQUE FEATURES IN MAGNET DESIGNS FOR R AND D ENERGY RECOVERY LINAC AT BNL.

    SciTech Connect

    MENG,W.; JAIN, A.; GANETIS, G.; KAYRAN, D.; LITVINENKO, V.N.; LONGO, C.; MAHLER, G.; POZDEYEV, E.; TUOZZOLO, J.

    2007-06-25

    In this paper we describe the unique features and analysis techniques used on the magnets for a R&D Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) [1] under construction at the Collider Accelerator Department at BNL. The R&D ERL serves as a test-bed for future BNL ERLs, such as an electron-cooler-ERL at RHIC [2] and a future 20 GeV ERL electron-hadron at eRHIC [3]. Here we present select designs of various dipole and quadruple magnets which are used in Z-bend merging systems [4] and the returning loop, 3-D simulations of the fields in aforementioned magnets, particle tracking analysis, and the magnet's influence on beam parameters. We discuss an unconventional method of setting requirements on the quality of magnetic field and transferring them into measurable parameters as well as into manufacturing tolerances. We compare selected simulation with results of magnetic measurements. A 20 MeV R&D ERL (Fig. 1) is in an advanced phase of construction at the Collider-Accelerator Department at BNL, with commissioning planned for early 2009. In the R&D ERL, an electron beam is generated in a 2 MeV superconducting RF photo-gun, next is accelerated to 20 MeV in a 5 cell SRF linac, subsequently passed through a return loop, then decelerated to 2 MeV in the SRF linac, and finally is sent to a beam dump. The lattice of the R&D ERL is designed with a large degree of flexibility to enable the covering of a vast operational parameter space: from non-achromatic lattices to achromatic with positive, zero and negative R56 parameter. It also allows for large range tunability of Rlz and lattice RS4 parameters (which are important for transverse beam-break-up instability). Further details of the R&D ERL can be found elsewhere in these proceedings [5]. The return loop magnets are of traditional design with the following exceptions: (a) The bending radius of the 60{sup o} dipole magnets is 20 cm, which is rather small. We use 15{sup o} edges on both sides of the dipoles to split very strong focusing evenly

  15. Selective perceptions of hydraulic fracturing.

    PubMed

    Sarge, Melanie A; VanDyke, Matthew S; King, Andy J; White, Shawna R

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF) is a focal topic in discussions about domestic energy production, yet the American public is largely unfamiliar and undecided about the practice. This study sheds light on how individuals may come to understand hydraulic fracturing as this unconventional production technology becomes more prominent in the United States. For the study, a thorough search of HF photographs was performed, and a systematic evaluation of 40 images using an online experimental design involving N = 250 participants was conducted. Key indicators of hydraulic fracturing support and beliefs were identified. Participants showed diversity in their support for the practice, with 47 percent expressing low support, 22 percent high support, and 31 percent undecided. Support for HF was positively associated with beliefs that hydraulic fracturing is primarily an economic issue and negatively associated with beliefs that it is an environmental issue. Level of support was also investigated as a perceptual filter that facilitates biased issue perceptions and affective evaluations of economic benefit and environmental cost frames presented in visual content of hydraulic fracturing. Results suggested an interactive relationship between visual framing and level of support, pointing to a substantial barrier to common understanding about the issue that strategic communicators should consider.

  16. Inherent Limitations of Hydraulic Tomography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohling, G.C.; Butler, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    We offer a cautionary note in response to an increasing level of enthusiasm regarding high-resolution aquifer characterization with hydraulic tomography. We use synthetic examples based on two recent field experiments to demonstrate that a high degree of nonuniqueness remains in estimates of hydraulic parameter fields even when those estimates are based on simultaneous analysis of a number of carefully controlled hydraulic tests. We must, therefore, be careful not to oversell the technique to the community of practicing hydrogeologists, promising a degree of accuracy and resolution that, in many settings, will remain unattainable, regardless of the amount of effort invested in the field investigation. No practically feasible amount of hydraulic tomography data will ever remove the need to regularize or bias the inverse problem in some fashion in order to obtain a unique solution. Thus, along with improving the resolution of hydraulic tomography techniques, we must also strive to couple those techniques with procedures for experimental design and uncertainty assessment and with other more cost-effective field methods, such as geophysical surveying and, in unconsolidated formations, direct-push profiling, in order to develop methods for subsurface characterization with the resolution and accuracy needed for practical field applications. Copyright ?? 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation ?? 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  17. Selective perceptions of hydraulic fracturing.

    PubMed

    Sarge, Melanie A; VanDyke, Matthew S; King, Andy J; White, Shawna R

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF) is a focal topic in discussions about domestic energy production, yet the American public is largely unfamiliar and undecided about the practice. This study sheds light on how individuals may come to understand hydraulic fracturing as this unconventional production technology becomes more prominent in the United States. For the study, a thorough search of HF photographs was performed, and a systematic evaluation of 40 images using an online experimental design involving N = 250 participants was conducted. Key indicators of hydraulic fracturing support and beliefs were identified. Participants showed diversity in their support for the practice, with 47 percent expressing low support, 22 percent high support, and 31 percent undecided. Support for HF was positively associated with beliefs that hydraulic fracturing is primarily an economic issue and negatively associated with beliefs that it is an environmental issue. Level of support was also investigated as a perceptual filter that facilitates biased issue perceptions and affective evaluations of economic benefit and environmental cost frames presented in visual content of hydraulic fracturing. Results suggested an interactive relationship between visual framing and level of support, pointing to a substantial barrier to common understanding about the issue that strategic communicators should consider. PMID:26399946

  18. Toward Design Guidelines for Stream Restoration Structures: Measuring and Modeling Unsteady Turbulent Flows in Natural Streams with Complex Hydraulic Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lightbody, A.; Sotiropoulos, F.; Kang, S.; Diplas, P.

    2009-12-01

    Despite their widespread application to prevent lateral river migration, stabilize banks, and promote aquatic habitat, shallow transverse flow training structures such as rock vanes and stream barbs lack quantitative design guidelines. Due to the lack of fundamental knowledge about the interaction of the flow field with the sediment bed, existing engineering standards are typically based on various subjective criteria or on cross-sectionally-averaged shear stresses rather than local values. Here, we examine the performance and stability of in-stream structures within a field-scale single-threaded sand-bed meandering stream channel in the newly developed Outdoor StreamLab (OSL) at the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL). Before and after the installation of a rock vane along the outer bank of the middle meander bend, high-resolution topography data were obtained for the entire 50-m-long reach at 1-cm spatial scale in the horizontal and sub-millimeter spatial scale in the vertical. In addition, detailed measurements of flow and turbulence were obtained using acoustic Doppler velocimetry at twelve cross-sections focused on the vicinity of the structure. Measurements were repeated at a range of extreme events, including in-bank flows with an approximate flow rate of 44 L/s (1.4 cfs) and bankfull floods with an approximate flow rate of 280 L/s (10 cfs). Under both flow rates, the structure reduced near-bank shear stresses and resulted in both a deeper thalweg and near-bank aggradation. The resulting comprehensive dataset has been used to validate a large eddy simulation carried out by SAFL’s computational fluid dynamics model, the Virtual StreamLab (VSL). This versatile computational framework is able to efficiently simulate 3D unsteady turbulent flows in natural streams with complex in-stream structures and as a result holds promise for the development of much-needed quantitative design guidelines.

  19. 23 CFR 650.111 - Location hydraulic studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 650.111 (c) and (d) shall be summarized in environmental review documents prepared pursuant to 23 CFR... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Location hydraulic studies. 650.111 Section 650.111... BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Location and Hydraulic Design of Encroachments on Flood Plains §...

  20. 7 CFR 2902.10 - Mobile equipment hydraulic fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Comprehensive Procurement Guideline, 40 CFR 247.11. ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mobile equipment hydraulic fluids. 2902.10 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.10 Mobile equipment hydraulic fluids. (a) Definition. Hydraulic...

  1. 14 CFR 33.72 - Hydraulic actuating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydraulic actuating systems. 33.72 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.72 Hydraulic actuating systems. Each hydraulic actuating system must function properly under all conditions in which...

  2. 14 CFR 27.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design.... When proof tested, no part of any system may fail, malfunction, or experience a permanent set....

  3. The Pedagogical, Linguistic, and Content Features of Popular English Language Learning Websites in China: A Framework for Analysis and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettle, Margaret; Yuan, Yifeng; Luke, Allan; Ewing, Robyn; Shen, Huizhong

    2012-01-01

    As increasing numbers of Chinese language learners choose to learn English online, there is a need to investigate popular websites and their language learning designs. This paper reports on the first stage of a study that analyzed the pedagogical, linguistic, and content features of 25 Chinese English Language Learning (ELL) websites ranked…

  4. Designing Online Courses: A Taxonomy to Guide Strategic Use of Features Available in Course Management Systems (CMS) in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koszalka, Tiffany A.; Ganesan, Radha

    2004-01-01

    Course developers can be distracted from applying sound instructional design principles by the amount of flexibility offered through online course development resources (Kidney & Puckett, "Quarterly Review of Distance Education," 4 (2003), 203-212). Distance education course management systems (CMS) provide multiple features that can be easily…

  5. 77 FR 46128 - Proposed Revision 0 to Standard Review Plan Section 19.5: Adequacy of Design Features and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... Functional Capabilities Identified and Described for Withstanding Aircraft Impacts AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR Edition.'' The NRC seeks comments on a new section of the SRP: Section 19.5: ``Adequacy of Design Features and...

  6. Assessment of severe accident prevention and mitigation features: BWR (boiling water reactor), Mark I containment design

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, W.T.; Eltawila, F.; Perkins, K.R.; Fitzpatrick, R.G.; Luckas, W.J.; Lehner, J.R.; Davis, P.

    1988-07-01

    Plant features and operator actions, which have been found to be important in either preventing or mitigating severe accidents in BWRs with Mark I containments (BWR Mark I's) have been identified. These features and actions were developed from insights derived from reviews of in-depth risk assessments performed specifically for the Peach Bottom plant and from assessment of other relevant studies. Accident sequences that dominate the core-damage frequency and those accident sequences that are of potentially high consequence were identified. Vulnerabilities of the BWR Mark I to severe accident containment loads were also identified. In addition, those features of a BWR Mark I, which are important for preventing core damage and are available for mitigating fission-product release to the environment were also identified. This report is issued to provide focus to an analyst examining an individual plant. This report calls attention to plant features and operator actions and provides a list of deterministic attributes for assessing those features and actions found to be helpful in reducing the overall risk for Peach Bottom and other Mark I plants. Thus, the guidance is offered as a resource in examining the subject plant to determine if the same, or similar, plant features and operator actions will be of value in reducing overall plant risk. This report is intended to serve solely as guidance.

  7. Application of systems engineering techniques to component design - Capturing functionality and linking part 'critical to quality' features to requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, C. M.; Moorby, J. S.; Sulley, J. L.

    2012-07-01

    A systems engineering approach - focusing upon functionality - has predominantly been applied in industry to the design of complex systems with many functional interactions, inputs and outputs, eg the design of a decay heat removal system. This paper presents how systems engineering techniques can be applied to component design, i.e. treating the component as a system in its own right, and using functionality as the 'bridge' between the customer requirements and accepted performance. A pressure relief valve is used as an example to present the techniques of: Functional Modelling to establish the functional requirements and Functional Failure Modes and Effects Analysis to establish any emergent functionality to reduce the risk of adverse behaviour. A key aspect of component design is capturing the design intent and establishing the 'Critical to Quality 'features that can critically affect quality and performance. This paper details 'Quality Function Deployment' being applied to a component to capture such features and to establish a clear link to the overarching performance requirements. This approach is particularly useful in ensuring continuity of design understanding throughout the component life cycle, assessing the effects of any proposed changes to the design and the effects of changes in system or customer requirements, or for using the design in a different application. (authors)

  8. The design features of the body of the portable electrocardiograph «ECG-EXPRESS»

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seryakov, V.; Khmelevsky, Yu; Mamontov, G.

    2015-10-01

    The sequence of the industrial product shaping is specified, the main modeling characteristics of the configuration and some of its parts are designated subject to the electrocardiograph design and the technologies used for the production of its body.

  9. Time domain responses of hydraulic bushing with two flow passages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Tan; Dreyer, Jason T.; Singh, Rajendra

    2014-02-01

    Hydraulic bushings are commonly employed in vehicle suspension and body sub-frame systems to control motion, vibration, and structure-borne noise. Since literature on this topic is sparse, a controlled bushing prototype which accommodates a combination of long and short flow passages and flow restriction elements is first designed, constructed and instrumented. Step-up and step-down responses of several typical fluid-filled bushing configurations are measured along with steady harmonic time histories of transmitted force and internal pressures. To analyze the experimental results and gain physical insights into the hydraulic bushing system, lumped system models of bushings with different design features are developed, and analytical expressions of transmitted force and internal pressure responses are derived by using the convolution method. Parametric studies are also conducted to examine the effect of hydraulic element parameters. System parameters are successfully estimated for both harmonic and step responses using theory and measurements, and the dynamic force measurements are analyzed using analytical predictions. Finally, some nonlinearities of the system are also observed, and the fluid resistance of flow passage is found to be the most nonlinear element.

  10. Trends in Culturally Relevant Interface Design Features for Latino Web Site Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachau, Lori L.; Hutchinson, Susan R.

    2012-01-01

    There is a lack of published research on designing Web-based instruction for the adult U.S. Latino population. Instructional designers need guidance on how to design culturally relevant learning environments for this audience, particularly for Latino people from Mexican heritage. The authors used content analysis to investigate the extent to which…

  11. When friendship formation goes down the toilet: design features of shared accommodation influence interpersonal bonds and well-being.

    PubMed

    Easterbrook, Matthew J; Vignoles, Vivian L

    2015-03-01

    Despite its omnipresence, the influence of the built environment on human psychology is not well understood. In a five-wave longitudinal study, we investigated whether physical design features within shared student accommodation predicted the frequency of coincidental meetings between new flatmates, and whether these meetings predicted the strength of their interpersonal bonds and psychological well-being. Multilevel latent growth modelling on responses from 462 new university residents supported our hypotheses: Respondents living in flats with design features that encouraged the use of communal areas--a shared common area and an absence of ensuite toilets--reported unintentionally meeting their flatmates more frequently within their flats. This in turn predicted the initial strength of their interpersonal bonds with their flatmates, which in turn positively predicted their well-being. These effects were maintained throughout the 10-week study. Our findings provide an empirical basis for the development of shared housing designed to foster positive relationships and well-being among residents.

  12. Simulation study to determine the impact of different design features on design efficiency in discrete choice experiments

    PubMed Central

    Vanniyasingam, Thuva; Cunningham, Charles E; Foster, Gary; Thabane, Lehana

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are routinely used to elicit patient preferences to improve health outcomes and healthcare services. While many fractional factorial designs can be created, some are more statistically optimal than others. The objective of this simulation study was to investigate how varying the number of (1) attributes, (2) levels within attributes, (3) alternatives and (4) choice tasks per survey will improve or compromise the statistical efficiency of an experimental design. Design and methods A total of 3204 DCE designs were created to assess how relative design efficiency (d-efficiency) is influenced by varying the number of choice tasks (2–20), alternatives (2–5), attributes (2–20) and attribute levels (2–5) of a design. Choice tasks were created by randomly allocating attribute and attribute level combinations into alternatives. Outcome Relative d-efficiency was used to measure the optimality of each DCE design. Results DCE design complexity influenced statistical efficiency. Across all designs, relative d-efficiency decreased as the number of attributes and attribute levels increased. It increased for designs with more alternatives. Lastly, relative d-efficiency converges as the number of choice tasks increases, where convergence may not be at 100% statistical optimality. Conclusions Achieving 100% d-efficiency is heavily dependent on the number of attributes, attribute levels, choice tasks and alternatives. Further exploration of overlaps and block sizes are needed. This study's results are widely applicable for researchers interested in creating optimal DCE designs to elicit individual preferences on health services, programmes, policies and products. PMID:27436671

  13. Age- and position-related changes in hydraulic versus mechanical dysfunction of xylem: inferring the design criteria for Douglas-fir wood structure.

    PubMed

    Domec, J C; Gartner, B L

    2002-02-01

    We do not know why trees exhibit changes in wood characteristics as a function of cambial age. In part, the answer may lie in the existence of a tradeoff between hydraulic properties and mechanical support. In conifers, longitudinal tracheids represent 92% of the cells comprising the wood and are involved in both water transport and mechanical support. We used three hydraulic parameters to estimate hydraulic safety factors at several vertical and radial locations in the trunk and branches: vulnerability to cavitation; variation in xylem water potential (psi); and xylem relative water content. The hydraulic safety factors for 12 and 88 percent loss of conductivity (S(H12) and S(H88), representing the hydraulic safety factors for the air entry point and full embolism point, respectively) were determined. We also estimated the mechanical safety factor for maximum tree height and for buckling. We estimated the dimensionless hydraulic and mechanical safety factors for six seedlings (4 years old), six saplings (10 years old) and six mature trees (> 110 years old) of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco). Over the natural range of psi, S(H12) decreased linearly from treetop to a minimum of 0.95 at the tree base. Young and mature trees had S(H12) values 1.4 and 1.3 times higher, respectively, at their tips (juvenile wood) than at their bases (mature wood). Modeling analyses indicated that if trees were made entirely of mature wood, S(H12) at the stem base would be only 0.7. The mechanical safety factor was 1.2 times higher for the base of the tree than for the rest of the tree. The minimum mechanical safety factor-1.6 for the critical buckling height and 2.2 for the critical buckling load-occurred at the base of the live crown. Modeling analysis indicated that if trees were made only of mature wood, these values would increase to 1.7 and 2.3, respectively. Hydraulic safety factors had values that were less than half those for mechanical safety factors

  14. Electric-hydraulic car

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.W.; Greene, H.

    1993-07-27

    A propulsion system is described for a vehicle having a chassis and at least one drive wheel, the propulsion system including in combination: a constant speed power source comprising an alternating current electric motor operated at a constant speed corresponding to its optimum performance; a source of energy comprising a storage battery and an inverter connected to the electric motor for operating the electric motor of the constant speed power source; a hydraulic fluid system including a main hydraulic pump coupled with the electric motor of the constant speed power source and driven thereby; at least one hydraulic drive motor coupled with the hydraulic pump for receiving fluid flow therefrom; and means for varying the fluid flow through the main hydraulic pump to vary the speed of operation of the hydraulic drive motor.

  15. One Feature of Adaptive Lesson Study in Thailand: Designing a Learning Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inprasitha, Maitree

    2011-01-01

    In Thailand, the Center for Research in Mathematics Education (CRME) has been implementing Japanese Lesson Study (LS) since 2002. An adaptive feature of this implementation was the incorporation of four phases of the Open Approach as a teaching approach within the three steps of the LS process. Four phases of this open approach are: 1) Posing…

  16. Workshop on Instructional Features and Instructor/Operator Station Design for Training Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricard, G. L., Ed.; And Others

    These 19 papers review current research and development work related to the operation of the instructor's station of training systems, with emphasis on developing functional station specifications applicable to a variety of simulation-based training situations. Topics include (1) instructional features; (2) instructor/operator station research and…

  17. No Middle Ground, but Many Mansions: Design Features of Effective Mixed Mode Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, D. D.

    2007-01-01

    In this account a model of communicative functions is used in an attempt to clarify the nature of mixed mode learning delivery. Formulated in research on communication in written mode, the model can be seen to offer insights into the nature of hypermedia communication, as well as helping to identify some key features of effective mixed mode course…

  18. MultiLIS: A Description of the System Design and Operational Features.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Glen J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes development, hardware requirements, and features of the MultiLIS integrated library software package. A system profile provides pricing information, operational characteristics, and technical specifications. Sidebars discuss MultiLIS integration structure, incremental architecture, and NCR Tower Computers. (4 references) (MES)

  19. Practical issues in imaging hydraulic conductivity through hydraulic tomography.

    PubMed

    Illman, Walter A; Craig, Andrew J; Liu, Xiaoyi

    2008-01-01

    Hydraulic tomography has been developed as an alternative to traditional geostatistical methods to delineate heterogeneity patterns in parameters such as hydraulic conductivity (K) and specific storage (S(s)). During hydraulic tomography surveys, a large number of hydraulic head data are collected from a series of cross-hole tests in the subsurface. These head data are then used to interpret the spatial distribution of K and S(s) using inverse modeling. Here, we use the Sequential Successive Linear Estimator (SSLE) of Yeh and Liu (2000) to interpret synthetic pumping test data created through numerical simulations and real data generated in a laboratory sandbox aquifer to obtain the K tomograms. Here, we define "K tomogram" as an image of K distribution of the subsurface (or the inverse results) obtained via hydraulic tomography. We examine the influence of signal-to-noise ratio and biases on results using inverse modeling of synthetic and real cross-hole pumping test data. To accomplish this, we first show that the pumping rate, which affects the signal-to-noise ratio, and the order of data included into the SSLE algorithm both have large impacts on the quality of the K tomograms. We then examine the role of conditioning on the K tomogram and find that conditioning can improve the quality of the K tomogram, but can also impair it, if the data are of poor quality and conditioning data have a larger support volume than the numerical grid used to conduct the inversion. Overall, these results show that the quality of the K tomogram depends on the design of pumping tests, their conduct, the order in which they are included in the inverse code, and the quality as well as the support volume of additional data that are used in its computation.

  20. Design Features Of K = 100 Cyclotron Magnet For ISOL RIB Production

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jin Ah; Gad, Kh. M. M.; Chai, Jong-Seo

    2011-06-01

    K = 100 Separated Sector Cyclotron was designed in conceptual for the ISOL driver. It has 4 separated sector magnets. Two SF cyclotrons will be used as the injectors for separated sector cyclotron. RF frequency is 70 MHz, 4th harmonics. We have designed sector magnet without trim and harmonic coils. Minimum radius of the magnet is 55 cm and maximum radius is 1.8 m. Designed magnets were calculated and simulated by OPERA 3D (TOSCA) code. Ion beam dynamics calculations have been done using particle studio code to prove the focusing properties of the designed magnets.

  1. Design Models as Emergent Features: An Empirical Study in Communication and Shared Mental Models in Instructional

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botturi, Luca

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an empirical study that investigated the instructional design process of three teams involved in the development of an e-­learning unit. The teams declared they were using the same fast-­prototyping design and development model, and were composed of the same roles (although with a different number of SMEs).…

  2. 23 CFR 650.115 - Design standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Location and Hydraulic Design of Encroachments on Flood Plains § 650.115 Design... metres) in volume or 25 feet (7.6 metres) deep, the hydrologic, hydraulic, and structural design of...

  3. Thermally Actuated Hydraulic Pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack; Ross, Ronald; Chao, Yi

    2008-01-01

    Thermally actuated hydraulic pumps have been proposed for diverse applications in which direct electrical or mechanical actuation is undesirable and the relative slowness of thermal actuation can be tolerated. The proposed pumps would not contain any sliding (wearing) parts in their compressors and, hence, could have long operational lifetimes. The basic principle of a pump according to the proposal is to utilize the thermal expansion and contraction of a wax or other phase-change material in contact with a hydraulic fluid in a rigid chamber. Heating the chamber and its contents from below to above the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to expand significantly, thus causing a substantial increase in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid out of the chamber. Similarly, cooling the chamber and its contents from above to below the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to contract significantly, thus causing a substantial decrease in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid into the chamber. The displacement of the hydraulic fluid could be used to drive a piston. The figure illustrates a simple example of a hydraulic jack driven by a thermally actuated hydraulic pump. The pump chamber would be a cylinder containing encapsulated wax pellets and containing radial fins to facilitate transfer of heat to and from the wax. The plastic encapsulation would serve as an oil/wax barrier and the remaining interior space could be filled with hydraulic oil. A filter would retain the encapsulated wax particles in the pump chamber while allowing the hydraulic oil to flow into and out of the chamber. In one important class of potential applications, thermally actuated hydraulic pumps, exploiting vertical ocean temperature gradients for heating and cooling as needed, would be used to vary hydraulic pressures to control buoyancy in undersea research

  4. The Design and Usage of the New Data Management Features in NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pamidi, P. R.; Brown, W. K.

    1984-01-01

    Two new data management features are installed in the April 1984 release of NASTRAN. These two features are the Rigid Format Data Base and the READFILE capability. The Rigid Format Data Base is stored on external files in card image format and can be easily maintained and expanded by the use of standard text editors. This data base provides the user and the NASTRAN maintenance contractor with an easy means for making changes to a Rigid Format or for generating new Rigid Formats without unnecessary compilations and link editing of NASTRAN. Each Rigid Format entry in the data base contains the Direct Matrix Abstraction Program (DMAP), along with the associated restart, DMAP sequence subset and substructure control flags. The READFILE capability allows an user to reference an external secondary file from the NASTRAN primary input file and to read data from this secondary file. There is no limit to the number of external secondary files that may be referenced and read.

  5. Hydraulic machine with non-uniform cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haluza, M.; Pochylý, F.; Habán, V.

    2012-11-01

    In this article is introduced the sentence of an extension of operational zone of hydraulic machines. The problems of its extending is based on the design of non-uniform cascade. The non-uniform cascade is connected with other factors. The change of own frequency of the runner of a hydraulic machine and pressure pulsations. The suitable construction of non-uniform cascade is introduced on the results of computational simulation and experiment.

  6. Concept design and alternate arrangements of orbiter mid-deck habitability features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Church, R. A.; Ciciora, J. A.; Porter, K. L.; Stevenson, G. E.

    1976-01-01

    The evaluations and recommendations for habitability features in the space shuttle orbiter mid-deck are summarized. The orbiter mission plans, the mid-deck dimensions and baseline arrangements along with crew compliments and typical activities were defined. Female and male anthropometric data based on zero-g operations were also defined. Evaluations of baseline and alternate feasible concepts provided several recommendations which are discussed.

  7. Thermal-hydraulic modeling needs for passive reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.M.

    1997-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has received an application for design certification from the Westinghouse Electric Corporation for an Advanced Light Water Reactor design known as the AP600. As part of the design certification process, the USNRC uses its thermal-hydraulic system analysis codes to independently audit the vendor calculations. The focus of this effort has been the small break LOCA transients that rely upon the passive safety features of the design to depressurize the primary system sufficiently so that gravity driven injection can provide a stable source for long term cooling. Of course, large break LOCAs have also been considered, but as the involved phenomena do not appear to be appreciably different from those of current plants, they were not discussed in this paper. Although the SBLOCA scenario does not appear to threaten core coolability - indeed, heatup is not even expected to occur - there have been concerns as to the performance of the passive safety systems. For example, the passive systems drive flows with small heads, consequently requiring more precision in the analysis compared to active systems methods for passive plants as compared to current plants with active systems. For the analysis of SBLOCAs and operating transients, the USNRC uses the RELAP5 thermal-hydraulic system analysis code. To assure the applicability of RELAP5 to the analysis of these transients for the AP600 design, a four year long program of code development and assessment has been undertaken.

  8. Features of design and development of the optical head of star tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldabekov, M.; Akhmedov, D.; Yelubayev, S.; Ten, V.; Albazarov, B.; Shamro, Alexander; Alipbayev, Kuanysh; Bopeyev, Timur; Sukhenko, A.

    2014-10-01

    The paper presents an approach to the design and development of the optical head of the star tracker and its hood for satellites. The main stages of the optical system design including development of requirements, selection of the optical system by analyzing with help of CAD, hood design with help of simulation, as well as the main stages of its components(lenses) manufacturing and control of quality of manufacturing the optical system are described. Engineering model of the optical head of star tracker which can be used as the basis for the development of the star tracker prototype for use in Kazakhstan's satellites was developed in accordance with the requirements.

  9. Two decades (1993-2012) of adult intensive care unit design: a comparative study of the physical design features of the best practice examples.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Mahbub

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, Critical Care Nursing Quarterly published a study of the physical design features of a set of best practice example adult intensive care units (ICUs). These adult ICUs were awarded between 1993 and 2003 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM), the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses, and the American Institute of Architects/Academy of Architecture for Health for their efforts to promote the critical care unit environment through design. Since 2003, several more adult ICUs were awarded by the same organizations for similar efforts. This study includes these newer ICUs along with those of the previous study to cover a period of 2 decades from 1993 to 2012. Like the 2006 study, this study conducts a systematic content analysis of the materials submitted by the award-winning adult ICUs. On the basis of the analysis, the study compares the 1993-2002 and 2003-2012 adult ICUs in relation to construction type, unit specialty, unit layout, unit size, patient room size and design, support and service area layout, and family space design. The study also compares its findings with the 2010 Guidelines for Design and Construction of Health Care Facilities of the Facility Guidelines Institute and the 2012 Guidelines for Intensive Care Unit Design of the SCCM. The study indicates that the award-winning ICUs of both decades used several design features that were associated with positive outcomes in research studies. The study also indicates that the award-winning ICUs of the second decade used more evidence-based design features than those of the first decades. In most cases, these ICUs exceeded the requirements of the Facility Guidelines Institute Guidelines to meet those of the SCCM Guidelines. Yet, the award-winning ICUs of both decades also used several features that had very little or no supporting research evidence. Since they all were able to create an optimal critical care environment for which they were awarded, having knowledge of the physical

  10. A Single-Vector Force Calibration Method Featuring the Modern Design of Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, P. A.; Morton, M.; Draper, N.; Line, W.

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes a new concept in force balance calibration. An overview of the state-of-the-art in force balance calibration is provided with emphasis on both the load application system and the experimental design philosophy. Limitations of current systems are detailed in the areas of data quality and productivity. A unique calibration loading system integrated with formal experimental design techniques has been developed and designated as the Single-Vector Balance Calibration System (SVS). This new concept addresses the limitations of current systems. The development of a quadratic and cubic calibration design is presented. Results from experimental testing are compared and contrasted with conventional calibration systems. Analyses of data are provided that demonstrate the feasibility of this concept and provide new insights into balance calibration.

  11. Frontiers of Hydraulic Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazmann, Raphael G.

    It is an impossible task for one person to review the proceedings of a major conference that consists of 141 different papers (including 26 one-page summaries of poster sessions). The papers are arranged into 35 technical sessions including Cohesive and Non-Cohesive Sediment Dynamics, Cold Regions Hydraulics, Computational Hydraulics, Groundwater Quality Modeling, Mixing Processes in Stratified Environments, Probablistic Approach to Hydraulics, and Surface Water Hydrology. The subject matter of many of the papers was familiar to the writer, specifically those concerned with groundwater and the hydrology, and hydraulics, of surface water. In addition, such topics as coastal dynamics, mixing processes in stratified environments, cohesive sediment dynamics (?), sediment resuspension and transport, and the hydraulic effects of ice cover are all to found in this volume. The writer refrains from comment on these papers except to say that although some of the papers were comprehensible, his experience is not basis enough for evaluation.

  12. Downhole hydraulic seismic generator

    DOEpatents

    Gregory, Danny L.; Hardee, Harry C.; Smallwood, David O.

    1992-01-01

    A downhole hydraulic seismic generator system for transmitting energy wave vibrations into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system contains an elongated, unitary housing operably connected to a well head aboveground by support and electrical cabling, and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a hydraulic oscillator containing a double-actuating piston whose movement is controlled by an electro-servovalve regulating a high pressure hydraulic fluid flow into and out of upper and lower chambers surrounding the piston. The spent hydraulic fluid from the hydraulic oscillator is stored and pumped back into the system to provide high pressure fluid for conducting another run at the same, or a different location within the borehole.

  13. Mid-sized omnidirectional robot with hydraulic drive and steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Carl G.; Perry, Trent; Cook, Douglas; Maxfield, Russell; Davidson, Morgan E.

    2003-09-01

    Through funding from the US Army-Tank-Automotive and Armaments Command's (TACOM) Intelligent Mobility Program, Utah State University's (USU) Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems (CSOIS) has developed the T-series of omni-directional robots based on the USU omni-directional vehicle (ODV) technology. The ODV provides independent computer control of steering and drive in a single wheel assembly. By putting multiple omni-directional (OD) wheels on a chassis, a vehicle is capable of uncoupled translational and rotational motion. Previous robots in the series, the T1, T2, T3, ODIS, ODIS-T, and ODIS-S have all used OD wheels based on electric motors. The T4 weighs approximately 1400 lbs and features a 4-wheel drive wheel configuration. Each wheel assembly consists of a hydraulic drive motor and a hydraulic steering motor. A gasoline engine is used to power both the hydraulic and electrical systems. The paper presents an overview of the mechanical design of the vehicle as well as potential uses of this technology in fielded systems.

  14. Conceptual design features of the Kalimer-600 sodium cooled fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, Dohee; Kim, Yeong-Il; Kim, Seong-O; Lee, Jae-Han; Lee, Yong-Bum; Jeong, Hae-Yong

    2007-07-01

    An advanced sodium cooled fast reactor concept, KALIMER-600, has been developed by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute to satisfy the Gen-IV technology goals of sustainability, safety and reliability, economics and proliferation resistance. The concept enables an efficient utilization of uranium resources and a reduction of the radioactive waste. The core design has been developed with a strong emphasis on a proliferation resistance by adopting a single enrichment fuel without blanket assemblies. In addition, a passive residual heat removal system, shortened intermediate heat-transport system piping and seismic isolation have been realized in the reactor system design as enhancements to its safety and economics. The inherent safety characteristics of the KALIMER-600 design were verified through a safety analysis of its bounding events. The results for various unprotected events imply that the KALIMER-600 design can accommodate all the analyzed ATWS events. This self-regulation capability of the power without a scram is mainly attributed to the inherent reactivity feedback mechanisms implemented in the metal fuel core design and completely passive decay heat removal system. (authors)

  15. LVP modeling and dynamic characteristics prediction of a hydraulic power unit in deep-sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xue-peng; Ye, Min; Deng, Bin; Zhang, Cui-hong; Yu, Zu-ying

    2013-03-01

    A hydraulic power unit (HPU) is the driving "heart" of deep-sea working equipment. It is critical to predict its dynamic performances in deep-water before being immerged in the seawater, while the experimental tests by simulating deep-sea environment have many disadvantages, such as expensive cost, long test cycles, and difficult to achieve low-temperature simulation, which is only used as a supplementary means for confirmatory experiment. This paper proposes a novel theoretical approach based on the linear varying parameters (LVP) modeling to foresee the dynamic performances of the driving unit. Firstly, based on the varying environment features, dynamic expressions of the compressibility and viscosity of hydraulic oil are derived to reveal the fluid performances changing. Secondly, models of hydraulic system and electrical system are accomplished respectively through studying the control process and energy transfer, and then LVP models of the pressure and flow rate control is obtained through the electro-hydraulic models integration. Thirdly, dynamic characteristics of HPU are obtained by the model simulating within bounded closed sets of varying parameters. Finally, the developed HPU is tested in a deep-sea imitating hull, and the experimental results are well consistent with the theoretical analysis outcomes, which clearly declare that the LVP modeling is a rational way to foresee dynamic performances of HPU. The research approach and model analysis results can be applied to the predictions of working properties and product designs for other deep-sea hydraulic pump.

  16. Design Features Of Microfluidic Reactor For [18F]FDG Radiopharmaceutical Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, J. H.; Lee, B. N.; Nam, K. R.; Attla, G. A.; Lee, K. C.; Cjai, J. S.

    2011-06-01

    Microfluidic reactor exhibits advantages for radiopharmaceutical synthesis. Microfluidic chips can reduce the time for radiosynthesis using tiny quantities of chemical compounds. It also has a good heat transfer, performance and provides an integrated system including synthesis, separation, and purification. These advantages make FDG production. So we have designed a microreactor chip which included the whole chemical processing; water evaporation, solvent exchange, radiofluorination and so on. It was designed by using a commercial 3D CAD modeling program CATIA V5, heat transfer performance was analyzed by ANSYS, and CFX was used for analyzing fluid performance. This paper described the design of FDG synthesis system on a microchip, the relevant locations of its parts, both heat and fluid performance efficiency analysis.

  17. An insight into the features of the OAO-C thermal design.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fine, H.; Quadrini, J.; Ollendorf, S.

    1973-01-01

    The Orbiting Astronomical Observatory (OAO)-C was successfully launched into a 400-nautical mile circular orbit on Aug. 21, 1972. For this spacecraft, a unique sensitivity approach to the thermal design was developed which resulted in a predictable design - the merits of which should be considered for application on future spacecraft. The OAO-C is also serving as a test bed for the evaluation of thermal control hardware. To provide flight data for space program applications, experiments for a new coating and four different heat pipe designs are on this spacecraft. The data derived from OAO-C will be extremely valuable for such future programs as the Large Space Telescope (LST) and the Earth Observation Satellite (EOS).

  18. Impact of several reactor features on TF coil design for TPSS

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.R.

    1986-01-10

    Limits of acceptable radiation levels relative to winding pack current densities in the toroidal field (TF) coils is given for relevant reactor designs. Force cooled conductors are stipulated in this study. The maximum field which can be supported while maintaining adequate stability and the ability to protect the coils in the event of a quench to end of the machine life is reported to be 6T. TF configuration, winding pack design, heat removal, stability, copper fraction and effect of damage, limiting current, and protection are discussed. 12 refs., 2 tabs. (WRF)

  19. Use of Online Assessment Tools by Instructional Designers-by-Assignment: Necessary Features and Functionalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halloran, Jo-Ann

    2013-01-01

    Government entities set criteria for institutions that have teacher educator programs to use online assessment tools to show continuous ongoing evaluation, and use data from the tools to guide the improvement of courses. The purpose of this qualitative, multi-case study was to discover how Instructional Designers-by-Assignment (IDBA) are using…

  20. Design Features of a Friendly Software Environment for Novice Programmers. Technical Report No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenstadt, Marc

    This paper describes the results of a 6-year period of design, implementation, testing, and iterative redesign of a programming language, user aids, and curriculum materials for use by psychology students learning how to write simple computer programs. The SOLO language, which was the resulting product, is primarily a simple, database…

  1. Experimental design applied to the formulation of lipsticks with particular features.

    PubMed

    Zanotti, F; Masiello, S; Bader, S; Guarneri, M; Vojnovic, D

    1998-08-01

    In our work a non-classical experimental design was applied to obtain lipsticks endowed with particular characteristics. Our aim was to formulate lipsticks that leave a brilliant and shiny colour application and have a transparent look. The emollient substances and the waxes (consistency factors) were identified as the main variables of the system. A two phase experimental strategy was thought out: the optimal quantities of consistency factors were selected using a Doehlert experimental matrix, whereas the correct mixtures of emollients were determined using a Scheffé simplex-centroid design. These two design were combined and a set of 49 experiments was obtained. The experiments carried out allowed the definition of a zone of two phases in which the objectives were attained: the correct types and appropriate quantities of emollients and waxes were determined. To find a possible correlation between some mixtures and the lipsticks' sensorial behaviour, differential scanning calorimetry was used. These results, in addition to those obtained using the experimental design allowed us to select the best lipstick formula. (c) Rapid Science Ltd. 1998. PMID:18505505

  2. How to Personalize Learning in K-12 Schools: Five Essential Design Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Dabae

    2014-01-01

    Personalized learning (PL) is spotlighted as a way to transform K-12 educational systems. PL customizes learning pace, instructional methods, and learning content to individual students. As much as PL sounds promising and complex, little guidance is available to educators and policymakers about how to effectively design PL. Five essential features…

  3. Experimental design applied to the formulation of lipsticks with particular features.

    PubMed

    Zanotti, F; Masiello, S; Bader, S; Guarneri, M; Vojnovic, D

    1998-08-01

    In our work a non-classical experimental design was applied to obtain lipsticks endowed with particular characteristics. Our aim was to formulate lipsticks that leave a brilliant and shiny colour application and have a transparent look. The emollient substances and the waxes (consistency factors) were identified as the main variables of the system. A two phase experimental strategy was thought out: the optimal quantities of consistency factors were selected using a Doehlert experimental matrix, whereas the correct mixtures of emollients were determined using a Scheffé simplex-centroid design. These two design were combined and a set of 49 experiments was obtained. The experiments carried out allowed the definition of a zone of two phases in which the objectives were attained: the correct types and appropriate quantities of emollients and waxes were determined. To find a possible correlation between some mixtures and the lipsticks' sensorial behaviour, differential scanning calorimetry was used. These results, in addition to those obtained using the experimental design allowed us to select the best lipstick formula. (c) Rapid Science Ltd. 1998.

  4. Design and Application of Latent Olefin Metathesis Catalysts Featuring S-Chelating Alkylidene Ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szadkowska, Anna; Grela, Karol

    This review article is devoted to recent advances in the design and application of so-called “dormant” or “latent” ruthenium olefin metathesis catalysts bearing S-chelating alkylidene ligands. Selected ruthenium complexes containing S-donor ligands, which possess controllable initiation behaviour are presented. Applications of these complexes in olefin metathesis are described.

  5. Design features and operational characteristics of the Langley pilot transonic cryogenic tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    A fan-driven transonic cryogenic tunnel was designed, and its purging, cooldown, and warmup times were determined satisfactory. Cooling with liquid nitrogen is at the power levels required for transonic testing. Good temperature distributions are obtained by using a simple nitrogen injection system.

  6. Designing a robust feature extraction method based on optimum allocation and principal component analysis for epileptic EEG signal classification.

    PubMed

    Siuly, Siuly; Li, Yan

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to design a robust feature extraction method for the classification of multiclass EEG signals to determine valuable features from original epileptic EEG data and to discover an efficient classifier for the features. An optimum allocation based principal component analysis method named as OA_PCA is developed for the feature extraction from epileptic EEG data. As EEG data from different channels are correlated and huge in number, the optimum allocation (OA) scheme is used to discover the most favorable representatives with minimal variability from a large number of EEG data. The principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to construct uncorrelated components and also to reduce the dimensionality of the OA samples for an enhanced recognition. In order to choose a suitable classifier for the OA_PCA feature set, four popular classifiers: least square support vector machine (LS-SVM), naive bayes classifier (NB), k-nearest neighbor algorithm (KNN), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) are applied and tested. Furthermore, our approaches are also compared with some recent research work. The experimental results show that the LS-SVM_1v1 approach yields 100% of the overall classification accuracy (OCA), improving up to 7.10% over the existing algorithms for the epileptic EEG data. The major finding of this research is that the LS-SVM with the 1v1 system is the best technique for the OA_PCA features in the epileptic EEG signal classification that outperforms all the recent reported existing methods in the literature.

  7. 7 CFR 2902.28 - Stationary equipment hydraulic fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... designation can be found in the Comprehensive Procurement Guideline, 40 CFR 247.11. EPA provides recovered... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stationary equipment hydraulic fluids. 2902.28... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.28 Stationary equipment hydraulic fluids. (a) Definition....

  8. Parametric identification of a servo-hydraulic actuator for real-time hybrid simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Yili; Ou, Ge; Maghareh, Amin; Dyke, Shirley J.

    2014-10-01

    In a typical Real-time Hybrid Simulation (RTHS) setup, servo-hydraulic actuators serve as interfaces between the computational and physical substructures. Time delay introduced by actuator dynamics and complex interaction between the actuators and the specimen has detrimental effects on the stability and accuracy of RTHS. Therefore, a good understanding of servo-hydraulic actuator dynamics is a prerequisite for controller design and computational simulation of RTHS. This paper presents an easy-to-use parametric identification procedure for RTHS users to obtain re-useable actuator parameters for a range of payloads. The critical parameters in a linearized servo-hydraulic actuator model are optimally obtained from genetic algorithms (GA) based on experimental data collected from various specimen mass/stiffness combinations loaded to the target actuator. The actuator parameters demonstrate convincing convergence trend in GA. A key feature of this parametric modeling procedure is its re-usability under different testing scenarios, including different specimen mechanical properties and actuator inner-loop control gains. The models match well with experimental results. The benefit of the proposed parametric identification procedure has been demonstrated by (1) designing an H∞ controller with the identified system parameters that significantly improves RTHS performance; and (2) establishing an analysis and computational simulation of a servo-hydraulic system that help researchers interpret system instability and improve design of experiments.

  9. Design features of a low-disturbance supersonic wind tunnel for transition research at low supersonic Mach numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Stephen W. D.; Laub, James A.; King, Lyndell S.; Reda, Daniel C.

    1992-01-01

    A unique, low-disturbance supersonic wind tunnel is being developed at NASA-Ames to support supersonic laminar flow control research at cruise Mach numbers of the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). The distinctive design features of this new quiet tunnel are a low-disturbance settling chamber, laminar boundary layers along the nozzle/test section walls, and steady supersonic diffuser flow. This paper discusses these important aspects of our quiet tunnel design and the studies necessary to support this design. Experimental results from an 1/8th-scale pilot supersonic wind tunnel are presented and discussed in association with theoretical predictions. Natural laminar flow on the test section walls is demonstrated and both settling chamber and supersonic diffuser performance is examined. The full-scale wind tunnel should be commissioned by the end of 1993.

  10. Housing Stakeholder Preferences for the “Soft” Features of Sustainable and Healthy Housing Design in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Prochorskaite, Agne; Couch, Chris; Malys, Naglis; Maliene, Vida

    2016-01-01

    It is widely recognised that the quantity and sustainability of new homes in the UK need to increase. However, it is important that sustainable housing is regarded holistically, and not merely in environmental terms, and incorporates elements that enhance the quality of life, health and well-being of its users. This paper focuses on the “soft” features of sustainable housing, that is, the non-technological components of sustainable housing and neighbourhood design that can impact occupants’ health and well-being. Aims of the study are to ascertain the relative level of importance that key housing stakeholders attach to these features and to investigate whether the opinions of housing users and housing providers are aligned with regards to their importance. An online survey was carried out to gauge the level of importance that the key stakeholders, such as housing users, local authorities, housing associations, and developers (n = 235), attach to these features. Results revealed that while suitable indoor space was the feature regarded as most important by all stakeholders, there were also a number of disparities in opinion between housing users and housing providers (and among the different types of providers). This implies a scope for initiatives to achieve a better alignment between housing users and providers. PMID:26751465

  11. Design Features and Initial RF Performance of a Gradient Hardened 17 GHz TW Linac Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Haimson, J.; Mecklenburg, B.

    2009-01-22

    To avoid surface erosion damage and to assist in studying RF breakdown thresholds in 17 GHz TW linac structures, a gradient hardened structure has been fabricated with high temperature brazed and machined stainless steel surfaces located in the peak E-field region of the beam apertures and the peak H-field regions of the input coupler cavity. The microwave design parameters and physical dimensions of this 22 cavity, 120 degree phase advance structure were chosen to allow the high gradient performance to be compared against a similar design all-copper structure that has been tested in a dual ring, power recirculating amplifier system. The final design parameters of the gradient hardened structure are discussed; the influence of stainless steel RF losses on the power buildup of the resonant ring and on the structure gradient distribution are described; waveforms are shown of the unique ability of the power amplifier to rapidly quench RF breakdown discharges in the linac structure by automatically sensing and redirecting the RF source power to a matched load; and preliminary test results during high power RF processing of the gradient hardened linac structure are presented.

  12. Experimental and design experience with passive safety features of liquid metal reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Lucoff, D.M.; Waltar, A.E.; Sackett, J.I.; Salvatores, M.; Aizawa, K.

    1992-10-01

    Liquid metal cooled reactors (LMRs) have already been demonstrated to be robust machines. Many reactor designers now believe that it is possible to include in this technology sufficient passive safety that LMRs would be able to survive loss of flow, loss of heat sink, and transient overpower events, even if the plant protective system fails completely and do so without damage to the core. Early whole-core testing in Rapsodie, EBR-II. and FFTF indicate such designs may be possible. The operational safety testing program in EBR-II is demonstrating benign response of the reactor to a full range of controls failures. But additional testing is needed if transient core structural response under major accident conditions is to be properly understood. The proposed international Phase IIB passive safety tests in FFTF, being designed with a particular emphasis on providing, data to understand core bowing extremes, and further tests planned in EBR-II with processed IFR fuel should provide a substantial and unique database for validating the computer codes being used to simulate postulated accident conditions.

  13. Experimental and design experience with passive safety features of liquid metal reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Lucoff, D.M.; Waltar, A.E. ); Sackett, J.I. ); Aizawa, K. )

    1992-07-01

    Liquid metal cooled reactors (LMRs) have already been demonstrated to be robust machines. Many reactor designers now believe that it is possible to include in this technology sufficient passive safety that LMRs would be able to survive loss of flow, loss of heat sink, and transient overpower events, even if the plant protective system fails completely--and do so without damage to the core. Early whole-core testing in Rapsodie, EBR-II, and FFTF indicate such designs may be possible. The operational safety testing program in EBR-II is demonstrating benign response of the reactor to a full range on controls failures. But additional testing is needed if transient core structural response under major accident conditions is to be properly understood. The proposed international Phase IIB passive safety tests in FFTF, being designed with a particular emphasis on providing data to understand core bowing extremes, and further tests planned in EBR-II with processed IFR fuel should provide a substantial and unique database for validating the computer codes being used to simulate postulated accident conditions.

  14. Electric versus hydraulic drives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This volume records the proceedings of a conference organised by the Engineering Manufacturing Industries Division of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Topics considered include high performance position control - a review of the current state of developments; hydrostatic drives - present and future; electric drives - present and future trends; electrical and hydraulic drives for heavy industrial robots; the development of an electro-mechanical tilt system for the advanced passenger train; industrial hydraulic ring mains - effective or efficient. the comparison of performance of servo feed-drive systems; overhead crane drives; the future of d.c. servodrives; the choice of actuator for military systems; linear electro-hydraulic actuators; and actuation for industrial robots.

  15. Analysis of mobile phone design features affecting radiofrequency power absorbed in a human head phantom.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Sven; Kelsh, Michael A; Kuster, Niels; Sheppard, Asher R; Shum, Mona

    2013-09-01

    The US FCC mandates the testing of all mobile phones to demonstrate compliance with the rule requiring that the peak spatial SAR does not exceed the limit of 1.6 W/kg averaged over any 1 g of tissue. These test data, measured in phantoms with mobile phones operating at maximum antenna input power, permitted us to evaluate the variation in SARs across mobile phone design factors such as shape and antenna design, communication technology, and test date (over a 7-year period). Descriptive statistical summaries calculated for 850 MHz and 1900 MHz phones and ANOVA were used to evaluate the influence of the foregoing factors on SARs. Service technology accounted for the greatest variability in compliance test SARs that ranged from AMPS (highest) to CDMA, iDEN, TDMA, and GSM (lowest). However, the dominant factor for SARs during use is the time-averaged antenna input power, which may be much less than the maximum power used in testing. This factor is largely defined by the communication system; e.g., the GSM phone average output can be higher than CDMA by a factor of 100. Phone shape, antenna type, and orientation of a phone were found to be significant but only on the order of up to a factor of 2 (3 dB). The SAR in the tilt position was significantly smaller than for touch. The side of the head did not affect SAR levels significantly. Among the remaining factors, external antennae produced greater SARs than internal ones, and brick and clamshell phones produced greater SARs than slide phones. Assuming phone design and usage patterns do not change significantly over time, we have developed a normalization procedure and formula that permits reliable prediction of the relative SAR between various communication systems. This approach can be applied to improve exposure assessment in epidemiological research.

  16. Hsp60, a novel target for antitumor therapy: structure-function features and prospective drugs design.

    PubMed

    Pace, Andrea; Barone, Giampaolo; Lauria, Antonino; Martorana, Annamaria; Piccionello, Antonio Palumbo; Pierro, Paola; Terenzi, Alessio; Almerico, Anna Maria; Buscemi, Silvestre; Campanella, Claudia; Angileri, Francesca; Carini, Francesco; Zummo, Giovanni; de Macario, Everly Conway; Cappello, Francesco; Macario, Alberto J L

    2013-01-01

    Heat shock protein 60 kDa (Hsp60) is a chaperone classically believed to be involved in assisting the correct folding of other mitochondrial proteins. Hsp60 also plays a role in cytoprotection against cell stressors, displaying for example, antiapoptotic potential. Despite the plethora of studies devoted to the mechanism of Hsp60's function, especially in prokaryotes, fundamental issues still remain unexplored, including the definition of its role in cancer. Key questions still unanswered pertain to the differences in structure-function features that might exist between the well-studied prokaryotic GroEL and the largely unexplored eukaryotic Hsp60 proteins. In this article we discuss these differences in sequence, structure, and roles of Hsp60, focusing on the human ortholog with the view of devising compounds to block its ability to favour tumor-cell growth and survival. Compounds currently known to directly or indirectly affect Hsp60 functions, such as protein folding, HIF-1α accumulation, or Hsp60-induced cell proliferation, are discussed along with strategies that might prove effective for developing Hsp60-targeting drugs for anticancer therapy.

  17. Application of Fraunhofer diffraction theory to feature-specific detector design.

    PubMed

    Hardy, J A; Wheeless, L L

    1977-07-01

    Light scatter from epithelial cells in a slit-scan flow system is modeled using the Fraunhofer condition of scalar diffraction theory. Power spectra are calculated for successive positions of model cells in the line focus of a laser beam with a Fourier transform computer program. Using the calculated power spectra, detector configurations are designed to detect specific cell structures of interest. Detector configurations are tested in a static slit-scan scatter apparatus. Data indicating the ability to detect boundaries and cell orientation are discussed.

  18. Design features of excimer lasers for safe operation in industry and medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvi, Z. M.

    The built-in safety aspects of high-energy excimer lasers designed for use in the aerospace industry are discussed as well as those of low-energy excimer lasers applied in surgery and medicine. High-energy lasers require isolated enclosed facilities such as a properly shielded remote room having a variety of interlocks. Moreover, excimers require the use of dangerous gas mixtures, a preionization subsystem, and a Raman cell for frequency down-shifting. The use of a shielded cone or a collimator would reduce the ionizing radiation exposure within the nominal hazard zone region surrounding the laser head.

  19. Design and experimental evaluation of a tactile display featuring magnetorheological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Young-Min; Oh, Jong-Seok; Kim, Jin-Kuy; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2014-07-01

    This paper proposes a novel type of tactile display utilizing magnetorheological (Mr) fluid which can be applied to a robotic system in minimally invasive surgery to provide a surgeon with tactile information on remote biological tissues or organs. As a first step, an actuation mechanism for tactile function is devised utilizing the Mr fluid with a pin array mechanism. Based on the force responses of a human body, the tactile display is appropriately designed and a magnetic analysis is carried out to determine the design parameters using the finite element method. After evaluating the field-dependent force characteristics of the manufactured tactile display, a feed-forward control algorithm based on fuzzy logic is formulated to obtain the desired palpation force. Control performance is demonstrated via palpation force evaluation and psychophysical evaluation. In the results, the actual repulsive forces agreed well with the desired forces and the averaged relative error was less than 1.3%. In addition, the volunteers successfully recognized tactility with a favorable rating value of 3.36 on a five-point scale.

  20. Design and Performance Evaluation of a Linear Ion Trap Mass Analyzer Featuring Half Round Rod Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoxu; Zhang, Xiaohua; Yao, Rujiao; He, Yang; Zhu, Yongyong; Qian, Jie

    2015-05-01

    A novel linear ion trap mass analyzer featuring half round rod electrodes (HreLIT) has been built. It is mainly composed of two pairs of stainless steel electrodes which have a cross-section of half round rod and a pair of end electrodes. The HreLIT has a simple structure and so it could be assembled by hand with relatively high mechanical accuracy. The external dimension of HreLIT is 50 mm × 29.5 mm × 28 mm (length × width × height) and its internal volume is about 3.8 cm3. A home-made HreLIT mass spectrometer with three-stage vacuum system was built and the performance of HreLIT was characterized using reserpine solution and PPG standard solution. When the scan rate was 254 u/s, mass peak with FWHM of 0.14 u was achieved for ions with m/z 609, which corresponds to a mass resolution of 4350. The HreLIT was also operated at a low q value of 0.28 to extend its mass range. The experiment result showed a mass range of over 2800 u and the amplitude of radio frequency (rf) signal was only 1560 V (0-p). Three-stage tandem mass spectrometry was successfully performed in the HreLIT, and the collision-induced dissociation (CID) efficiencies of MS2 (CID of ions with m/z 609) and MS3 (CID of ions with m/z 448) were 78% and 59%, respectively.

  1. Hydraulic Actuator System for Rotor Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulbrich, Heinz; Althaus, Josef

    1991-01-01

    In the last ten years, several different types of actuators were developed and fabricated for active control of rotors. A special hydraulic actuator system capable of generating high forces to rotating shafts via conventional bearings is addressed. The actively controlled hydraulic force actuator features an electrohydraulic servo valve which can produce amplitudes and forces at high frequencies necessary for influencing rotor vibrations. The mathematical description will be given in detail. The experimental results verify the theoretical model. Simulations already indicate the usefulness of this compact device for application to a real rotor system.

  2. Design and operating features of the high-level waste vitrification system for the West Valley demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Siemens, D.H.; Beary, M.M.; Barnes, S.M.; Berger, D.N.; Brouns, R.A.; Chapman, C.C.; Jones, R.M.; Peters, R.D.; Peterson, M.E.

    1986-03-01

    A liquid-fed joule-heated ceramic melter system is the reference process for immobilization of the high-level liquid waste in the US and several foreign countries. This system has been under development for over ten years at Pacific Northwest Laboratory and other national laboratories operated for the US Department of Energy. Pacific Northwest Laboratory contributed to this research through its Nuclear Waste Treatment Program and used applicable data to design and test melters and related systems using remote handling of simulated radioactive wastes. This report describes the equipment designed in support of the high-level waste vitrification program at West Valley, New York. Pacific Northwest Laboratory worked closely with West Valley Nuclear Services Company to design a liquid-fed ceramic melter, a liquid waste preparation and feed tank and pump, an off-gas treatment scrubber, and an enclosed turntable for positioning the waste canisters. Details of these designs are presented including the rationale for the design features and the alternatives considered.

  3. Special features of the CLUSTER antenna and radial booms design, development and verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gianfiglio, G.; Yorck, M.; Luhmann, H. J.

    1995-01-01

    CLUSTER is a scientific space mission to in-situ investigate the Earth's plasma environment by means of four identical spin-stabilized spacecraft. Each spacecraft is provided with a set of four rigid booms: two Antenna Booms and two Radial Booms. This paper presents a summary of the boom development and verification phases addressing the key aspects of the Radial Boom design. In particular, it concentrates on the difficulties encountered in fulfilling simultaneously the requirements of minimum torque ratio and maximum allowed shock loads at boom latching for this two degree of freedom boom. The paper also provides an overview of the analysis campaign and testing program performed to achieve sufficient confidence in the boom performance and operation.

  4. Design features of the solenoid magnets for the central cell of the MFTF-B

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlwend, J.W.; Tatro, R.E.; Ring, D.S.

    1981-10-23

    The 14 superconducting solenoid magnets which form the central cell of the MFTF-B are being designed and fabricated by General Dynamics for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Each solenoid coil has a mean diameter of five meters and contains 600 turns of a proven conductor type. Structural loading resulting from credible fault events, cooldown and warmup requirements, and manufacturing processes consistent with other MFTF-B magnets have been considered in the selection of 304 LN as the structural material for the magnet. The solenoid magnets are connected by 24 intercoil beams and 20 solid struts which resist the longitudinal seismic and electromagnetic attractive forces and by 24 hanger/side supports which react magnet dead weight and seismic loads. A modular arrangement of two solenoid coils within a vacuum vessel segment allow for sequential checkout and installation.

  5. Control issues for a hydraulically powered dissimilar teleoperated system

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, J.F.; Kress, R.L.

    1995-12-31

    This paper will address two issues associated with the implementation of a hydraulically powered dissimilar master-slave teleoperated system. These issues are the overall system control architecture and the design of robust hydraulic servo controllers for the position control problem. Finally, a discussion of overall system performance on an actual teleoperated system will be presented. (Schilling`s Titan II hydraulic manipulators are the slave manipulators and the master manipulators are from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory-developed Advanced Servo Manipulator.)

  6. Portable Hydraulic Powerpack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, L. A.; Henry, R. L.; Fedor, O. H.; Owens, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    Rechargeable hydraulic powerpack functions as lightweight, compact source of mechanical energy. Self-contained hydraulic powerpack derives energy from solid chemical charge. Combustion of charge initiated by small hammer, and revolving feeder replaces charges expended. Combustion gases cool during expansion in turbine and not too hot for release to atmosphere. Unit has applications driving wheelchairs and operating drills, winches, and other equipment in remote areas. Also replaces electric motors and internal-combustion engines as source of power in explosive atmospheres.

  7. Hydraulic motor for cars

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, D.C.

    1986-09-02

    A hydraulic motor for a car is described comprising, in combination, an automotive vehicle engine for travel self-propulsion, including a block, a plurality of cylinders in the block, a piston slidable in each cylinder, a crankshaft in the block, a piston rod connected between the crankshaft and each of the pistons, a power take-off gear on the crankshaft for the travel self-propulsion, and the engine including a hydraulic means for driving the pistons in the cylinders.

  8. Design features of the A-cell and transition coils of MFTF-B

    SciTech Connect

    Tatro, R.E.; Wohlwend, J.W.; Ring, D.S.

    1981-10-23

    The MFTF-B transition coil and A-cell magnet designs use variations of the copper-stabilized NbTi conductor developed by LLNL for the MFTF Yin-Yang magnets. This conductor will be wound on the one inch thick (12.7 mm) stainless steel coil forms using a two-axis winding machine similar to the existing LLNL Yin-Yang winding machine. After winding, covers will be placed over the coil and welded to the coil form to form a helium-tight jacket around the conductor. These jacketed coils are then enclosed in thick structural cases that react the large Lorentz forces on the magnets. The space between the coil jacket and case will be filled by a stainless steel bladder that will be injected with urethane. The injection bladder will provide cooling passages during cooldown as well as transmitting the Lorentz forces between the jacket and the case. The large self-equilibrating lobe-spreading forces on the magnets (29.10/sup 6/ lb, 127.0 MN) for the A-cell are reacted primarily through the thick 304 LN case into the external superstructure. The net Lorentz forces and the inertial forces on the magnet are reacted through support systems into the LLNL vacuum vessel structure.

  9. The histological features of microwave coagulation therapy: an assessment of a new applicator design

    PubMed Central

    Swift, Benjamin; Strickland, Andrew; West, Kevin; Clegg, Peter; Cronin, Nigel; Lloyd, David

    2003-01-01

    Microwave ablation of tumours within the liver may become an adjunct or alternative to resection in patients with primary or secondary cancers. This technique combines the benefits of a large, localized coagulative effect with a single insertion of the applicator, in a significantly shorter time than comparable treatments. A new range of microwave applicators were developed and tested in animal models and both ex-vivo and in-vivo specimens of human liver at resection. At laparotomy, the applicator tip was inserted into normal liver parenchyma and tumours, with each specimen subjected to irradiation for 180 s or more and at varying power outputs. On sectioning an area of spherical blanching was observed around the applicator cavity. Microscopically a zone of coagulative necrosis was seen adjacent to the site of probe insertion. Damage to blood vessels and bile ducts occurred distal to the probe cavity suggesting the passage of heated fluid, a finding that was diminished by temporary occlusion of the hepatic vasculature (a Pringle manoeuvre). Ultra-structural damage was confirmed within the burn zone and selected liver enzymes were shown to be functioning beyond this region. We suggest this indicates the surrounding liver parenchyma is functioning normally and therefore the volume of microwave-induced damage is controllable. We are confident that the new applicator design will allow the effective treatment of larger tumours in a safe and controlled manner with a single application of energy. PMID:12694484

  10. The Menu of Features that Define Primary MicroRNAs and Enable De Novo Design of MicroRNA Genes.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wenwen; Bartel, David P

    2015-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs processed from stem-loop regions of primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs), with the choice of stem loops for initial processing largely determining what becomes a miRNA. To identify sequence and structural features influencing this choice, we determined cleavage efficiencies of >50,000 variants of three human pri-miRNAs, focusing on the regions intractable to previous high-throughput analyses. Our analyses revealed a mismatched motif in the basal stem region, a preference for maintaining or improving base pairing throughout the remainder of the stem, and a narrow stem-length preference of 35 ± 1 base pairs. Incorporating these features with previously identified features, including three primary-sequence motifs, yielded a unifying model defining mammalian pri-miRNAs in which motifs help orient processing and increase efficiency, with the presence of more motifs compensating for structural defects. This model enables generation of artificial pri-miRNAs, designed de novo, without reference to any natural sequence yet processed more efficiently than natural pri-miRNAs. PMID:26412306

  11. Thermal enhancement cartridge heater modified tritium hydride bed development, Part 2 - Experimental validation of key conceptual design features

    SciTech Connect

    Heroux, K.J.; Morgan, G.A.

    2015-03-15

    The Thermal Enhancement Cartridge Heater Modified (TECH Mod) tritium hydride bed is an interim replacement for the first generation (Gen1) process hydride beds currently in service in the Savannah River Site (SRS) Tritium Facilities. 3 new features are implemented in the TECH Mod hydride bed prototype: internal electric cartridge heaters, porous divider plates, and copper foam discs. These modifications will enhance bed performance and reduce costs by improving bed activation and installation processes, in-bed accountability measurements, end-of-life bed removal, and He-3 recovery. A full-scale hydride bed test station was constructed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in order to evaluate the performance of the prototype TECH Mod hydride bed. Controlled hydrogen (H{sub 2}) absorption/ desorption experiments were conducted to validate that the conceptual design changes have no adverse effects on the gas transfer kinetics or H{sub 2} storage/release properties compared to those of the Gen1 bed. Inert gas expansions before, during, and after H{sub 2} flow tests were used to monitor changes in gas transfer rates with repeated hydriding/de-hydriding of the hydride material. The gas flow rates significantly decreased after initial hydriding of the material; however, minimal changes were observed after repeated cycling. The data presented herein confirm that the TECH Mod hydride bed would be a suitable replacement for the Gen1 bed with the added enhancements expected from the advanced design features. (authors)

  12. Development of Design Technology on Thermal-Hydraulic Performance in Tight-Lattice Rod Bundles: II - Rod Bowing Effect on Boiling Transition under Transient Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Tamai, Hidesada; Kureta, Masatoshi; Ohnuki, Akira; Akimoto, Hajime

    A thermal-hydraulic feasibility project for an Innovative Water Reactor for Flexible fuel cycle (FLWR) has been performed since 2002. In this R&D project, large-scale thermal-hydraulic tests, several model experiments and development of advanced numerical analysis codes have been carried out. In this paper, we describe the critical power characteristics in a 37-rod tight-lattice bundle with rod bowing under transient states. It is observed that transient Boiling Transition (BT) always occurs axially at exit elevation of upper high-heat-flux region and transversely in the central area of the bundle, which is same as that under steady state. For the postulated power increase and flow decrease cases that may be possibly met in a normal operation of the FLWR, it is confirmed that no BT occurs when Initial Critical Power Ratio (ICPR) is 1.3. Moreover, when the transients are run under severer ICPR that causes BT, the transient critical powers are generally same as the steady ones. The experiments are analyzed with a modified TRAC-BFI code, where Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) newest critical power correlation is implemented for the BT judgement. The code shows good prediction for the occurrence or the non occurrence of the BT and predicts the BT starting time conservatively. Traditional quasi-steady state prediction of the transient BT is confirmed being applicable for the postulated abnormal transient processes in the tight-lattice bundle with rod bowing.

  13. A field assessment of high resolution aquifer characterization: Coupling of hydraulic travel time and hydraulic attenuation tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauchler, R.; Hu, R.; Dietrich, P.; Sauter, M.

    2009-12-01

    ports) and the receivers (observation ports), isolated with double packer systems, were varied between tests. It was possible to reconstruct the hydraulic properties of a three dimensional area of 5 m × 5 m × 2 m by applying the hydraulic travel time and attenuation inversion technique to the 400 transient pressure response curves. In a final step the hydraulic tomographic results were used to validate seismic velocity tomograms. The validation of the velocity tomograms by means of the hydraulic tomograms enabled us to identify the spatial position of the main hydraulic features within the reconstructed velocity distribution. The results have shown that the coupling of the developed hydraulic tomographic approach with high resolution geophysical methods is a promising approach to provide a problem adapted scale and accuracy for the prediction of contaminant transport.

  14. Hydraulic Extractor For Electronic Connectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Larry D.

    1994-01-01

    Tool separates multipin electrical connectors in electronic equipment. Based on use of hydraulic pressure to apply balanced forces to connector and gently pull it free without damage. Easily assembled from readily available parts. Includes actuator syringe, two extractor syringes of disposable plastic 5-mL type, several pieces of flexible plastic tubing, and adjustable mounting components that brace tool in desired spacing configuration to suit connector extracted. Tubes and syringes filled with suitable fluid. Designed specifically for use on "D"-type connectors, also adapted for use wherever linear extraction motion used.

  15. Optimization of hydraulic turbine diffuser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moravec, Prokop; Hliník, Juraj; Rudolf, Pavel

    2016-03-01

    Hydraulic turbine diffuser recovers pressure energy from residual kinetic energy on turbine runner outlet. Efficiency of this process is especially important for high specific speed turbines, where almost 50% of available head is utilized within diffuser. Magnitude of the coefficient of pressure recovery can be significantly influenced by designing its proper shape. Present paper focuses on mathematical shape optimization method coupled with CFD. First method is based on direct search Nelder-Mead algorithm, while the second method employs adjoint solver and morphing. Results obtained with both methods are discussed and their advantages/disadvantages summarized.

  16. Applying Switched Reluctance Motor to Oil Hydraulic Pump Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamai, Hiroyuki; Sawada, Yuzo; Ohyama, Kazunobu

    Hydraulic pump units are widely used to operate hydraulic actuators. In a typical machine shop, conventional constant speed hydraulic pump units consume more than 20% of the total electric power necessary to operate CNC machine tools. Most of that energy are wasted to run the axial piston pump at idle. This paper describes a variable speed hydraulic pump unit using a switched reluctance motor (SRM), which saves energy drastically. SRM was selected as the most suitable motor for this application. Design and control strategy of this motor are described. Application examples to machine tools shows the effectiveness of the new hybrid pump system in saving energy and in reducing acoustic noise.

  17. Derivation of site-specific relationships between hydraulic parameters and p-wave velocities based on hydraulic and seismic tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Brauchler, R.; Doetsch, J.; Dietrich, P.; Sauter, M.

    2012-01-10

    In this study, hydraulic and seismic tomographic measurements were used to derive a site-specific relationship between the geophysical parameter p-wave velocity and the hydraulic parameters, diffusivity and specific storage. Our field study includes diffusivity tomograms derived from hydraulic travel time tomography, specific storage tomograms, derived from hydraulic attenuation tomography, and p-wave velocity tomograms, derived from seismic tomography. The tomographic inversion was performed in all three cases with the SIRT (Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique) algorithm, using a ray tracing technique with curved trajectories. The experimental set-up was designed such that the p-wave velocity tomogram overlaps the hydraulic tomograms by half. The experiments were performed at a wellcharacterized sand and gravel aquifer, located in the Leine River valley near Göttingen, Germany. Access to the shallow subsurface was provided by direct-push technology. The high spatial resolution of hydraulic and seismic tomography was exploited to derive representative site-specific relationships between the hydraulic and geophysical parameters, based on the area where geophysical and hydraulic tests were performed. The transformation of the p-wave velocities into hydraulic properties was undertaken using a k-means cluster analysis. Results demonstrate that the combination of hydraulic and geophysical tomographic data is a promising approach to improve hydrogeophysical site characterization.

  18. Optimal design of high damping force engine mount featuring MR valve structure with both annular and radial flow paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Q. H.; Choi, S. B.; Lee, Y. S.; Han, M. S.

    2013-11-01

    This paper focuses on the optimal design of a compact and high damping force engine mount featuring magnetorheological fluid (MRF). In the mount, a MR valve structure with both annular and radial flows is employed to generate a high damping force. First, the configuration and working principle of the proposed MR mount is introduced. The MRF flows in the mount are then analyzed and the governing equations of the MR mount are derived based on the Bingham plastic behavior of the MRF. An optimal design of the MR mount is then performed to find the optimal structure of the MR valve to generate a maximum damping force with certain design constraints. In addition, the gap size of MRF ducts is empirically chosen considering the ‘lockup’ problem of the mount at high frequency. Performance of the optimized MR mount is then evaluated based on finite element analysis and discussions on performance results of the optimized MR mount are given. The effectiveness of the proposed MR engine mount is demonstrated via computer simulation by presenting damping force and power consumption.

  19. The Identification, Implementation, and Evaluation of Critical User Interface Design Features of Computer-Assisted Instruction Programs in Mathematics for Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, You-Jin; Woo, Honguk

    2010-01-01

    Critical user interface design features of computer-assisted instruction programs in mathematics for students with learning disabilities and corresponding implementation guidelines were identified in this study. Based on the identified features and guidelines, a multimedia computer-assisted instruction program, "Math Explorer", which delivers…

  20. Structurally-modified subphthalocyanines: molecular design towards realization of expected properties from the electronic structure and structural features of subphthalocyanine.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Soji; Kobayashi, Nagao

    2014-07-01

    This feature article summarizes recent contributions of the authors in the synthesis of structurally-modified subphthalocyanines. The structural modification covers (1) modification of the conjugated system of subphthalocyanines to create novel conjugated systems comprising three pyrroles or pyrrole-like subunits, (2) core-modification by expansion of the inner pyrrolic five-membered ring to larger six- and seven-membered ring units, and (3) exterior-modification by annulation of functional units to subphthalocyanines. These modifications in the structure of subphthalocyanines have been performed with the aim of demonstrating unique properties originating from the bowl-shaped C3v-symmetric structure as well as the electronic structure delineated by the 14π-electron conjugated system on the curved molecular surface. The possible structural modifications surveyed in this feature article and their concomitant properties will provide important future guidelines to the design of subphthalocyanine-based functional molecules, considering the fact that subphthalocyanines have recently been attracting considerable attention as potential candidates in the field of optoelectronics and molecular electronics. PMID:24710280

  1. A novel non-linear recursive filter design for extracting high rate pulse features in nuclear medicine imaging and spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sajedi, Salar; Kamal Asl, Alireza; Ay, Mohammad R; Farahani, Mohammad H; Rahmim, Arman

    2013-06-01

    Applications in imaging and spectroscopy rely on pulse processing methods for appropriate data generation. Often, the particular method utilized does not highly impact data quality, whereas in some scenarios, such as in the presence of high count rates or high frequency pulses, this issue merits extra consideration. In the present study, a new approach for pulse processing in nuclear medicine imaging and spectroscopy is introduced and evaluated. The new non-linear recursive filter (NLRF) performs nonlinear processing of the input signal and extracts the main pulse characteristics, having the powerful ability to recover pulses that would ordinarily result in pulse pile-up. The filter design defines sampling frequencies lower than the Nyquist frequency. In the literature, for systems involving NaI(Tl) detectors and photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), with a signal bandwidth considered as 15 MHz, the sampling frequency should be at least 30 MHz (the Nyquist rate), whereas in the present work, a sampling rate of 3.3 MHz was shown to yield very promising results. This was obtained by exploiting the known shape feature instead of utilizing a general sampling algorithm. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed filter enhances count rates in spectroscopy. With this filter, the system behaves almost identically as a general pulse detection system with a dead time considerably reduced to the new sampling time (300 ns). Furthermore, because of its unique feature for determining exact event times, the method could prove very useful in time-of-flight PET imaging.

  2. HYDRAULIC SERVO CONTROL MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Hussey, R.B.; Gottsche, M.J. Jr.

    1963-09-17

    A hydraulic servo control mechanism of compact construction and low fluid requirements is described. The mechanism consists of a main hydraulic piston, comprising the drive output, which is connected mechanically for feedback purposes to a servo control piston. A control sleeve having control slots for the system encloses the servo piston, which acts to cover or uncover the slots as a means of controlling the operation of the system. This operation permits only a small amount of fluid to regulate the operation of the mechanism, which, as a result, is compact and relatively light. This mechanism is particuiarly adaptable to the drive and control of control rods in nuclear reactors. (auth)

  3. Hydraulics of wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, Thad G.

    1955-01-01

    Although the subject of this lecture is supposed to be concerned primarily with the hydraulics of wells, Professor Weers has asked that I also discuss the effects tat geological formations have on the quantity and quality of water available to wells. I will discuss the geology of Colorado in relation to the availability and quality of water with particular reference to the most productive aquifers or water-bearing formations in the State. I will then discuss the hydraulics of wells with the aim of emphasizing the differences between water-table and artesian conditions.

  4. KJRR-FAI Hydraulic Flow Testing Input Package

    SciTech Connect

    N.E. Woolstenhulme; R.B. Nielson; D.B. Chapman

    2013-12-01

    The INL, in cooperation with the KAERI via Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA), undertook an effort in the latter half of calendar year 2013 to produce a conceptual design for the KJRR-FAI campaign. The outcomes of this effort are documented in further detail elsewhere [5]. The KJRR-FAI was designed to be cooled by the ATR’s Primary Coolant System (PCS) with no provision for in-pile measurement or control of the hydraulic conditions in the irradiation assembly. The irradiation assembly was designed to achieve the target hydraulic conditions via engineered hydraulic losses in a throttling orifice at the outlet of the irradiation vehicle.

  5. Microfluidic parallel circuit for measurement of hydraulic resistance.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sungyoung; Lee, Myung Gwon; Park, Je-Kyun

    2010-01-01

    We present a microfluidic parallel circuit that directly compares the test channel of an unknown hydraulic resistance with the reference channel with a known resistance, thereby measuring the unknown resistance without any measurement setup, such as standard pressure gauges. Many of microfluidic applications require the precise transport of fluid along a channel network with complex patterns. Therefore, it is important to accurately characterize and measure the hydraulic resistance of each channel segment, and determines whether the device principle works well. However, there is no fluidic device that includes features, such as the ability to diagnose microfluidic problems by measuring the hydraulic resistance of a microfluidic component in microscales. To address the above need, we demonstrate a simple strategy to measure an unknown hydraulic resistance, by characterizing the hydraulic resistance of microchannels with different widths and defining an equivalent linear channel of a microchannel with repeated patterns of a sudden contraction and expansion.

  6. Nonelastomeric Rod Seals for Advanced Hydraulic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hady, W. F.; Waterman, A. W.

    1976-01-01

    Advanced high temperature hydraulic system rod sealing requirements can be met by using seals made of nonelastomeric (plastic) materials in applications where elastomers do not have adequate life. Exploratory seal designs were optimized for advanced applications using machinable polyimide materials. These seals demonstrated equivalent flight hour lives of 12,500 at 350 F and 9,875 at 400 F in advanced hydraulic system simulation. Successful operation was also attained under simulated space shuttle applications; 96 reentry thermal cycles and 1,438 hours of vacuum storage. Tests of less expensive molded plastic seals indicated a need for improved materials to provide equivalent performance to the machined seals.

  7. Integration in Hydraulics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sworder, Steven C.

    This paper presents an application of integration to the field of hydraulics. An integral relation for the time required to drop the fluid contained in a cylindrical tank from one level to another using a hole in the tank wall is derived. Procedures for constructing the experimental equipment and procedures for determining the coefficient of…

  8. Lock for hydraulic actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    Two clamps hold rod in fixed extension from cylinder even when power is off, converting actuator into stiff structural member. Locked actuator is useful as mechanical support or linkage or as fail-safe device in case of loss of hydraulic pressure. Potential applications include manufacturing processes and specialized handling and holding devices.

  9. Hydraulic assist turbocharger system

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, R.J.

    1992-05-19

    This patent describes a turbocharger system for supplying charge air to a combustion engine. It comprises a pair of turbochargers each having a first turbine and compressor mounted on a common shaft for concurrent rotation, the first turbine being adapted to be rotatably driven by exhaust gases from the combustion engine to rotatably drive the compressor to produce charge air for supply to the engine, the turbocharger further including a second turbine mounted on the shaft, the second turbine comprising an hydraulic turbine for rotatably driving the common shaft to rotatably drive the compressor; pump means for producing a supply of hydraulic fluid under pressure; conduit means for delivering the hydraulic fluid under pressure to the second turbine to rotatably drive the second turbine; electrohydraulic control valve means for regulating passage of the hydraulic fluid through the conduit means to selectively control rotatable driving of the shaft by the second turbine in accordance with engine operating parameters; and a common support frame having the pair of turbochargers and the control valve means and the pump means mounted thereon to define a substantially unitary package adapted for facilitated mounting onto the engine.

  10. Wellness Partners: Design and Evaluation of a Web-Based Physical Activity Diary with Social Gaming Features for Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Jordan-Marsh, Maryalice; Valente, Thomas William

    2013-01-01

    Background The United States is currently in an age of obesity and inactivity despite increasing public awareness and scientific knowledge of detrimental long-term health effects of this lifestyle. Behavior-tracking diaries offer an effective strategy for physical activity adherence and weight management. Furthermore, Web-based physical activity diaries can engage meaningful partners in people’s social networks through fun online gaming interactions and generate motivational mechanisms for effective behavioral change and positive health outcomes. Objective Wellness Partners (WP) is a Web-based intervention in the form of a physical activity diary with social networking and game features. Two versions were designed and developed for the purpose of this study—“Diary” only and “Diary+Game”. The objectives of this study included pilot testing the research process of this intervention design, implementation, evaluation, and exploring the effectiveness of social gaming features on adult participants’ physical activity and anthropometric measures. Methods We conducted a field experiment with randomized crossover design. Assessments occurred at baseline, first follow-up (FU, 5-8 weeks after using one version of WP), and second FU (5-8 weeks of using the other version of WP). In the control condition, participants started with the “Diary” version of WP while in the experimental condition, participants started with the “Diary+Game” version of WP. A total of 54 adults (egos) ages 44-88, and their family and friends (alters) ages 17-69 participated in the study in ego-network groups. Both egos and their alters completed online surveys about their exercise habits. In addition, egos completed anthropometric measurements of BMI, fat percentage, and fat mass by bioimpedance. Results From October 2009 to May 2010, flyers, emails, and Web advertisements yielded 335 volunteers who were screened. Rolling recruitment resulted in enrollment of 142 qualified

  11. Microbial effect on soil hydraulic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furman, Alex; Rosenzweig, Ravid; Volk, Elazar; Rosenkranz, Hella; Iden, Sascha; Durner, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    Although largely ignored, the soil contains large amount of biofilms (attached microbes) that can affect many processes. While biochemical processes are studied, biophysical processes receive only little attention. Biofilms may occupy some of the pore space, and by that affect the soil hydraulic properties. This effect on unsaturated soils, however, was not intensively studied. In this research we directly measure the hydraulic properties, namely the soil's unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function and retention curve, for soils containing real biofilm. To do that we inoculate soil with biofilm-forming bacteria and incubate it with sufficient amounts of nutrient until biofilm is formed. The hydraulic properties of the incubated soil are then measured using several techniques, including multi-step outflow and evaporation method. The longer measurements (evaporation method) are conducted under refrigeration conditions to minimize microbial activity during the experiment. The results show a clear effect of the biofilm, where the biofilm-affected soil (sandy loam in our case) behaves like a much finer soil. This qualitatively makes sense as the biofilm generates an effective pore size distribution that is characterized by smaller pores. However, the effect is much more complex and needs to be studied carefully considering (for example) dual porosity models. We compare our preliminary results with other experiments, including flow-through column experiments and experiments with biofilm analogues. Clearly a better understanding of the way microbial activity alters the hydraulic properties may help designing more efficient bioremediation, irrigation, and other soil-related processes.

  12. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT IX, AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS--HYDRAULIC SYSTEM (PART I).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OIL FLOW WITHIN HYDRAULIC TRANSMISSIONS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE GENERAL DESCRIPTION, HYDRAULIC CIRCUITS, AND BRAKE HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT AND OPERATION. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "LEARNING ABOUT THE ALLISON…

  13. Hydraulic catworks system

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.L.

    1981-03-03

    A hydraulic catworks system is described for use on a well drilling rig for making up and breaking out a drill string which includes a hydraulic makeup piston and cylinder assembly for actuating a makeup line connected to the makeup tongs, and a breakout piston and cylinder assembly connected to a breakout line for actuating the breakout tongs. A makeup hydraulic control valve controls hydraulic fluid to first and second lines connected to the makeup assembly with the first line connected for extending the makeup line and the second line connected for retracting the makeup line. A breakout hydraulic control valve controls fluid to third and fourth lines with the third line connected for extending the breakout line and the fourth line connected for retracting the breakout line. Manual air control means are provided for selectively actuating the makeup and breakout control valves. A variable pressure control is connected to the second line for controlling the makeup torque. Preferably, the makeup and breakout assemblies are vertically connected to the legs of the drilling rig and rollers are positioned horizontally with the makeup and breakout tongs and connected to the breakout and makeup lines. Preferably, a sheave is connected to the makeup assembly and the makeup line passes over the sheave with its free end fixedly secured. A re-generative system is provided on the makeup assembly for increasing the speed of the makeup line extension. Preferably the makeup and breakout cylinders are of the same cross-sectional area with the stroke of the breakout cylinder being less than the stroke of the makeup cylinder.

  14. Performances of a balanced hydraulic motor with planetary gear train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hongying; Luo, Changjie; Wang, Huimin

    2012-07-01

    The current research of a balanced hydraulic motor focuses on the characteristics of the motor with three planet gears. References of a balanced hydraulic motor with more than three planet gears are hardly found. In order to study the characteristics of a balanced hydraulic motor with planetary gear train that includes more than three planet gears, on the basis of analysis of the structure and working principle of a balanced hydraulic motor with planetary gear train, formulas are deduced for calculating the hydraulic motor's primary performance indexes such as displacement, unit volume displacement, flowrate fluctuation ratio, etc. Influences of the gears' tooth number on displacement and flowrate characteristics are analyzed. In order to guarantee the reliability of sealing capability, the necessary conditions that tooth number of the sun gear and the planet gears should satisfy are discussed. Selecting large unit volume displacement and small displacement fluctuation ratio as designing objectives, a balanced hydraulic motor with three planet gears and a common gear motor are designed under the conditions of same displacement, tooth addendum coefficien and clearance coefficient. By comparing the unit volume displacement and fluctuation ratio of the two motors, it can be seen that the balanced hydraulic motor with planetary gear train has the advantages of smaller fluctuation ratio and larger unit volume displacement. The results provide theoretical basis for choosing gear tooth-number of this kind of hydraulic motor.

  15. Community perceptions of health insurance and their preferred design features: implications for the design of universal health coverage reforms in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health insurance is currently being considered as a mechanism for promoting progress to universal health coverage (UHC) in many African countries. The concept of health insurance is relatively new in Africa, it is hardly well understood and remains unclear how it will function in countries where the majority of the population work outside the formal sector. Kenya has been considering introducing a national health insurance scheme (NHIS) since 2004. Progress has been slow, but commitment to achieve UHC through a NHIS remains. This study contributes to this process by exploring communities’ understanding and perceptions of health insurance and their preferred designs features. Communities are the major beneficiaries of UHC reforms. Kenyans should understand the implications of health financing reforms and their preferred design features considered to ensure acceptability and sustainability. Methods Data presented in this paper are part of a study that explored feasibility of health insurance in Kenya. Data collection methods included a cross-sectional household survey (n = 594 households) and focus group discussions (n = 16). Results About half of the household survey respondents had at least one member in a health insurance scheme. There was high awareness of health insurance schemes but limited knowledge of how health insurance functions as well as understanding of key concepts related to income and risk cross-subsidization. Wide dissatisfaction with the public health system was reported. However, the government was the most preferred and trusted agency for collecting revenue as part of a NHIS. People preferred a comprehensive benefit package that included inpatient and outpatient care with no co-payments. Affordability of premiums, timing of contributions and the extent to which population needs would be met under a contributory scheme were major issues of concern for a NHIS design. Possibilities of funding health care through tax instead of

  16. Integrating Valve-Inspired Design Features Into Poly(ethylene glycol) Hydrogel Scaffolds For Heart Valve Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xing; Xu, Bin; Puperi, Daniel S.; Yonezawa, Aline L.; Wu, Yan; Tseng, Hubert; Cuchiara, Maude L.; West, Jennifer L.; Grande-Allen, K. Jane

    2015-01-01

    The development of advanced scaffolds that recapitulate the anisotropic mechanical behavior and biological functions of the extracellular matrix in leaflets would be transformative for heart valve tissue engineering. In this study, anisotropic mechanical properties were established in poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels by crosslinking stripes of 3.4 kDa PEG diacrylate (PEGDA) within 20 kDa PEGDA base hydrogels using a photolithographic patterning method. Varying the stripe width and spacing resulted in a tensile elastic modulus parallel to the stripes that was 4.1 to 6.8 times greater than that in the perpendicular direction, comparable to the degree of anisotropy between the circumferential and radial orientations in native valve leaflets. Biomimetic PEG-peptide hydrogels were prepared by tethering the cell-adhesive peptide RGDS and incorporating the collagenase-degradable peptide PQ (GGGPQG↓IWGQGK) into the polymer network. The specific amounts of RGDS and PEG-PQ within the resulting hydrogels influenced the elongation, de novo extracellular matrix deposition and hydrogel degradation behavior of encapsulated valvular interstitial cells (VICs). In addition, the morphology and activation of VICs grown atop PEG hydrogels could be modulated by controlling the concentration or micro-patterning profile of PEG-RGDS. These results are promising for the fabrication of PEG-based hydrogels using anatomically and biologically inspired scaffold design features for heart valve tissue engineering. PMID:25433168

  17. The hydraulic windmill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browing, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    An hydraulic windmill is described. It pumps pressurized oil from rotor shaft level to the ground where a motor generator produces electricity. Alternatively, the useful output may be heat. Rotor speed is governed by a flow valve. Over pressure, the result of high wind velocity, rotates the tail to move the rotor blades out-of-the-wind. Loss of oil pressure causes a brake to close as well as to swing the tail to its maximum distance from the rotor plane.

  18. The hydraulic windmill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browing, J. A.

    1981-05-01

    An hydraulic windmill is described. It pumps pressurized oil from rotor shaft level to the ground where a motor generator produces electricity. Alternatively, the useful output may be heat. Rotor speed is governed by a flow valve. Over pressure, the result of high wind velocity, rotates the tail to move the rotor blades out-of-the-wind. Loss of oil pressure causes a brake to close as well as to swing the tail to its maximum distance from the rotor plane.

  19. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  20. Hydraulic well pump

    SciTech Connect

    Dollison, W.W.

    1987-09-08

    This patent describes a system for operating a sucker rod string connected with a well pump comprising: a double-acting fluid cylinder having opposing power ends; means for connecting the cylinder with the sucker rod string for raising and lowering the string to operate the pump; hydraulic pump means for supplying pressurized fluid alternately to the cylinder ends including a direction control movable between extend and retract conditions to extend and retract the cylinder; drive means for shifting the direction control; control means for operating the drive means responsive to the extend and retract movements of the cylinder; and means for applying a fluid counterbalancing force into the cylinder for offsetting the combined weights of the sucker rod string. A production fluid column in a well bore above the pump, and movable surface equipment supported on the cylinder include an accumulator connected with the hydraulic pump means and the direction control for supercharging the intake of the pump during the extend movement of the cylinder and for applying an opposing hydraulic force to the cylinder during the retract movement.

  1. Hydraulic well pump

    SciTech Connect

    Dollison, W.W.

    1986-02-25

    This patent describes a system for operating a sucker rod string connected with a well pump. This pump consists of: a double-acting fluid cylinder having opposing power ends; means for connecting the cylinder with the sucker rod string for raising and lowering the string to operate the pump; means for supplying pressurized fluid alternately to the cylinder ends including a direction control movable between extend and retract conditions to extend and retract the cylinder; drive means for shifting the direction control; control means for operating the drive means responsive to the extend and retract movements of the cylinder; including limit valves positioned to simulate the hydraulic cylinder extend and retract stroke end locations, the limit valves being movably mounted for changing the location of each limit valve and the distance between the limit valves for selectively adjusting the length of the strokes of the hydraulic cylinder and the end limit of the extend and retract strokes of the cylinder. A cam operator is for opening and closing each of the limit valves at the end locations and means connecting the cam operator means with the hydraulic cylinder. Cable is reeved over the movable and fixed sheave means and secured along the second end thereof at a fixed location; and means for applying a fluid counterbalancing force into the cylinder for offsetting the combined weights of the sucker rods string, a production fluid column in a well core above the pump, and movable surface equipment supported on the cylinder.

  2. [Effect of water depths on hydraulic performance of pond wetlands].

    PubMed

    Guo, Chang-Qiang; Dong, Bin; Liu, Jun-Jie; Liu, Chun-Guo; Feng, Da-Peng; Liu, Fang-Ping

    2014-11-01

    Pond wetlands have been widely used in the treatment of drainage water from paddy fields. However, wetland hydraulic performance and purification effects are affected by many factors, such as water depth, flow rate, aspect ratio and vegetation distribution, and the better understanding of these factors would be helpful to improve the quality of wetland design, operation and management. This paper analyzed the effect of three different water depths (20, 40 and 60 cm) on the hydraulic performance of pond wetland through the dye tracer experiments with Rhodamine WT. The hydraulic indices, i. e., effective volume ratio, nominal serial complete mixing tanks (N), hydraulic efficiency (λ), were selected for analysis through the hydraulic residence time distribution (RTD) curve. The results showed that the effective volume rate rose from 0.421 to 0.844 and the hydraulic efficiency from 0.281 to 0.604 when the water depth declined from 60 cm to 20 cm. This indicated that the wetland hydraulic performance improved as the water depth decreased. In addition, the hydraulic performance of the first half of the wetland was significantly better than that of the second half. The flow regime of the first half approached complete mixing because of the mixing index (N) approaching 1 and its effective volume rate was above 0.9 when the water depth was relatively low (20 and 40 cm). The normalized RTD curves demonstrated a good agreement between moment analysis parameters and hydraulic parameters, and a great consistency between the hydraulic parameters and moment index which was not affected by tail truncation error. The experimental study concluded that a lower water depth was favorable to improve the hydraulic performance of pond wetlands.

  3. [Effect of water depths on hydraulic performance of pond wetlands].

    PubMed

    Guo, Chang-Qiang; Dong, Bin; Liu, Jun-Jie; Liu, Chun-Guo; Feng, Da-Peng; Liu, Fang-Ping

    2014-11-01

    Pond wetlands have been widely used in the treatment of drainage water from paddy fields. However, wetland hydraulic performance and purification effects are affected by many factors, such as water depth, flow rate, aspect ratio and vegetation distribution, and the better understanding of these factors would be helpful to improve the quality of wetland design, operation and management. This paper analyzed the effect of three different water depths (20, 40 and 60 cm) on the hydraulic performance of pond wetland through the dye tracer experiments with Rhodamine WT. The hydraulic indices, i. e., effective volume ratio, nominal serial complete mixing tanks (N), hydraulic efficiency (λ), were selected for analysis through the hydraulic residence time distribution (RTD) curve. The results showed that the effective volume rate rose from 0.421 to 0.844 and the hydraulic efficiency from 0.281 to 0.604 when the water depth declined from 60 cm to 20 cm. This indicated that the wetland hydraulic performance improved as the water depth decreased. In addition, the hydraulic performance of the first half of the wetland was significantly better than that of the second half. The flow regime of the first half approached complete mixing because of the mixing index (N) approaching 1 and its effective volume rate was above 0.9 when the water depth was relatively low (20 and 40 cm). The normalized RTD curves demonstrated a good agreement between moment analysis parameters and hydraulic parameters, and a great consistency between the hydraulic parameters and moment index which was not affected by tail truncation error. The experimental study concluded that a lower water depth was favorable to improve the hydraulic performance of pond wetlands. PMID:25898628

  4. Testing Map Features Designed to Convey the Uncertainty of Cancer Risk: Insights Gained From Assessing Judgments of Information Adequacy and Communication Goals

    PubMed Central

    Severtson, Dolores J.

    2015-01-01

    Barriers to communicating the uncertainty of environmental health risks include preferences for certain information and low numeracy. Map features designed to communicate the magnitude and uncertainty of estimated cancer risk from air pollution were tested among 826 participants to assess how map features influenced judgments of adequacy and the intended communication goals. An uncertain versus certain visual feature was judged as less adequate but met both communication goals and addressed numeracy barriers. Expressing relative risk using words communicated uncertainty and addressed numeracy barriers but was judged as highly inadequate. Risk communication and visual cognition concepts were applied to explain findings. PMID:26412960

  5. Optical filter for highlighting spectral features part I: design and development of the filter for discrimination of human skin with and without an application of cosmetic foundation.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Ken; Nakamura, Mutsuko; Matsumoto, Masayuki; Tanno, Osamu; Nakauchi, Shigeki

    2011-03-28

    Light reflected from an object's surface contains much information about its physical and chemical properties. Changes in the physical properties of an object are barely detectable in spectra. Conventional trichromatic systems, on the other hand, cannot detect most spectral features because spectral information is compressively represented as trichromatic signals forming a three-dimensional subspace. We propose a method for designing a filter that optically modulates a camera's spectral sensitivity to find an alternative subspace highlighting an object's spectral features more effectively than the original trichromatic space. We designed and developed a filter that detects cosmetic foundations on human face. Results confirmed that the filter can visualize and nondestructively inspect the foundation distribution.

  6. Vehicle hydraulic cooling fan system

    SciTech Connect

    Nilson, C.A.

    1993-06-08

    A hydraulic cooling system for vehicles having an internal combustion engine cooled by a radiator and a coolant is described, comprising, in combination, a shroud adapted to be mounted adjacent the radiator having a wall forming an air passage and defining a first port disposed adjacent the radiator and a second port spaced from the first port, a fan located within the second port, a hydraulic fan motor operatively connected to the fan, a hydraulic pump operatively connected to the engine for producing a pressurized hydraulic fluid flow, a hydraulic circuit interconnecting the pump to the fan motor, the circuit including a control valve, a hydraulic fluid reservoir and a heat exchanger, the heat exchanger being mounted within the shroud air passage.

  7. Research of performance prediction to energy on hydraulic turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, H.; Li, R. N.; Li, Q. F.; Han, W.; Su, Q. M.

    2012-11-01

    Refer to the low specific speed Francis turbine blade design principle and double-suction pump structure. Then, design a horizontal double-channel hydraulic turbine Francis. Through adding different guide vane airfoil and and no guide vane airfoil on the hydraulic conductivity components to predict hydraulic turbine energy and using Fluent software to numerical simulation that the operating conditions and point. The results show that the blade pressure surface and suction surface pressure is low when the hydraulic turbine installation is added standard positive curvature of the guide vane and modified positive curvature of guide vane. Therefore, the efficiency of energy recovery is low. However, the pressure of negative curvature guide vane and symmetric guide vane added on hydraulic turbine installations is larger than that of the former ones, and it is conducive to working of runner. With the decreasing of guide vane opening, increasing of inlet angle, flow state gets significantly worse. Then, others obvious phenomena are that the reflux and horizontal flow appeared in blade pressure surface. At the same time, the vortex was formed in Leaf Road, leading to the loss of energy. Through analyzing the distribution of pressure, velocity, flow lines of over-current flow in the the back hydraulic conductivity components in above programs we can known that the hydraulic turbine installation added guide vane is more reasonable than without guide vanes, it is conducive to improve efficiency of energy conversion.

  8. Computational open-channel hydraulics for movable-bed problems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lai, Chintu; ,

    1990-01-01

    As a major branch of computational hydraulics, notable advances have been made in numerical modeling of unsteady open-channel flow since the beginning of the computer age. According to the broader definition and scope of 'computational hydraulics,' the basic concepts and technology of modeling unsteady open-channel flow have been systematically studied previously. As a natural extension, computational open-channel hydraulics for movable-bed problems are addressed in this paper. The introduction of the multimode method of characteristics (MMOC) has made the modeling of this class of unsteady flows both practical and effective. New modeling techniques are developed, thereby shedding light on several aspects of computational hydraulics. Some special features of movable-bed channel-flow simulation are discussed here in the same order as given by the author in the fixed-bed case.

  9. Aircraft hydraulic systems. Third edition

    SciTech Connect

    Neese, W.A.

    1991-12-31

    The first nine chapters concern hydraulic components including: tubing, hoses, fittings, seals, pumps, valves, cylinders, and motors. General hydraulic system considerations are included in chapters five and nine, while pneumatic systems are covered in chapter ten. Chapters eleven through fifteen are devoted to aircraft-specific systems such as: landing gear, flight controls, brakes, etc. The material is rounded out with excerpts from the Canadair Challenger 601 training guide to illustrate the use of hydraulic systems in a specific aircraft application.

  10. Hydraulic power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, T.

    1980-01-08

    A hydraulic power plant has a reservoir with a dam wall, a water turbine connected to a generator, a penstock extending from the reservoir to the water turbine and passing over the dam wall without passing through the dam wall to supply water from the reservoir to the turbine, and a vacuum pump adapted to fill at least a portion of the penstock with water by a siphon effect and being connected at a substantially uppermost portion of the penstock which is located on the top of the dam wall.

  11. Hydraulic mining method

    DOEpatents

    Huffman, Lester H.; Knoke, Gerald S.

    1985-08-20

    A method of hydraulically mining an underground pitched mineral vein comprising drilling a vertical borehole through the earth's lithosphere into the vein and drilling a slant borehole along the footwall of the vein to intersect the vertical borehole. Material is removed from the mineral vein by directing a high pressure water jet thereagainst. The resulting slurry of mineral fragments and water flows along the slant borehole into the lower end of the vertical borehole from where it is pumped upwardly through the vertical borehole to the surface.

  12. New parameters influencing hydraulic runner lifetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabourin, M.; Thibault, D.; Bouffard, D. A.; Lévesque, M.

    2010-08-01

    Traditionally, hydraulic runner mechanical design is based on calculation of static stresses. Today, validation of hydraulic runner design in terms of reliability requires taking into account the fatigue effect of dynamics loads. A damage tolerant approach based on fracture mechanics is the method chosen by Alstom and Hydro-Québec to study fatigue damage in runners. This requires a careful examination of all factors influencing material fatigue behavior. Such material behavior depends mainly on the chemical composition, microstructure and thermal history of the component, and on the resulting residual stresses. Measurement of fracture mechanics properties of various steels have demonstrated that runner lifetime can be significantly altered by differences in the manufacturing process, although remaining in accordance with agreed practices and standards such as ASTM. Carbon content and heat treatment are suspected to influence fatigue lifetime. This will have to be investigated by continuing the current research.

  13. Effect of Inquiry-Based Computer Simulation Modeling on Pre-Service Teachers' Understanding of Homeostasis and Their Perceptions of Design Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabalengula, Vivien; Fateen, Rasheta; Mumba, Frackson; Ochs, Laura Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of an inquiry-based computer simulation modeling (ICoSM) instructional approach on pre-service science teachers' understanding of homeostasis and its related concepts, and their perceived design features of the ICoSM and simulation that enhanced their conceptual understanding of these concepts. Fifty pre-service…

  14. The Effects of State Policy Design Features on Take-Up and Crowd-Out Rates for the Sate Children's Health Insurance Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansak, Cynthia; Raphael, Steven

    2007-01-01

    We evaluate the effects of state policy design features on SCHIP take-up rates and on the degree to which SCHIP benefits crowd out private benefits. The results indicate overall program take-up rates of approximately 10 percent. However, there is considerable heterogeneity across states, suggesting a potential role of inter-state variation in…

  15. Influence of Rock Fabric on Hydraulic Fracture Propagation: Laboratory Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanchits, S. A.; Desroches, J.; Burghardt, J.; Surdi, A.; Whitney, N.

    2014-12-01

    Massive hydraulic fracturing is required for commercial gas production from unconventional reservoirs. These reservoirs are often highly fractured and heterogeneous, which may cause significant fracture complexity and also arrest propagation of hydraulic fractures, leading to production decrease. One of the goals of our study was to investigate the influence of rock fabric features on near-wellbore fracture geometry and complexity. We performed a series of laboratory tests on Niobrara outcrop shale blocks with dimensions of 30 x 30 x 36 inches in a true-triaxial loading frame. Acoustic Emission (AE) technique was applied to monitor hydraulic fracture initiation and dynamics of fracture propagation. After the tests, the shape of the created hydraulic fracture was mapped by goniometry technique. To estimate fracture aperture, particles of different sizes were injected with fracturing fluid. In all tests, AE analysis indicated hydraulic fracture initiation prior to breakdown or the maximum of wellbore pressure. In most tests, AE analysis revealed asymmetrical hydraulic fracture shapes. Post-test analysis demonstrated good correspondence of AE results with the actual 3D shape of the fracture surface map. AE analysis confirmed that in some of these tests, the hydraulic fracture approached one face of the block before the maximum wellbore pressure had been reached. We have found that in such cases the propagation of hydraulic fracture in the opposite direction was arrested by the presence of mineralized interfaces. Mapping the distribution of injected particles confirmed the creation of a narrow-width aperture in the vicinity of pre-existing interfaces, restricting fracture conductivity. Based on the results of our study, we concluded that the presence of planes of weakness, such as mineralized natural fractures, can result in the arrest of hydraulic fracture propagation, or in poor fracture geometries with limited aperture, that in turn could lead to high net pressure

  16. Hydraulic well pumping apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, C.P.

    1987-03-03

    This patent describes a hydraulic powered well pumping apparatus for operation of a sucker rod well pump in a well borehole, the apparatus comprising: (a) an elongate polished rod having upper and lower ends, the rod being aligned above and adapted to connect to a string of sucker rods in a well borehole therebelow; (b) an adjustably positioned sleeve means aligned above and enclosing a portion of the polished rod and having a shorter length than the polished rod to enable the polished rod to extend above the sleeve means and below the sleeve means for connection to the string of sucker rods in the well borehole; (c) an axially hollow upstanding cylinder slideably receiving the sleeve means therethrough and enclosing a piston therein, the piston being: (1) moved on admitting hydraulic oil to the cylinder, and (2) joined to the sleeve means for moving the sleeve means and thereby moving the polished rod; (d) means for mounting the upstanding cylinder directly aligned with and above a casing at the top of a well adapted to have a sucker rod string positioned therein; (e) means for adjusting the stroke length imparted to the sucker rod string between minimum and maximum stroke lengths; and (f) means for adjusting the location of the sleeve means relative to the polished rod to vary the relative length of polished rod below the sleeve means and wherein a portion of the polished rod extends above the sleeve means dependent on the relative respective portions thereof.

  17. 110. TUBING FOR HYDRAULIC FLUID AT BACK OF HYDRAULIC CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. TUBING FOR HYDRAULIC FLUID AT BACK OF HYDRAULIC CONTROL PANEL IN UMBILICAL MAST PUMP ROOM (109), LSB (BLDG. 770) ACCUMULATOR FOR MAST RETRACTION ON LEFT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  18. 128. TUBING FOR HYDRAULIC FLUID AT BACK OF HYDRAULIC CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    128. TUBING FOR HYDRAULIC FLUID AT BACK OF HYDRAULIC CONTROL PANEL IN UMBILICAL MAST PUMP ROOM (209), LSB (BLDG. 751). PUMP ON RIGHT; ACCUMULATOR FOR MAST RETRACTION ON LEFT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  19. Hydraulics. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual on hydraulics is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids for training in the servicing of agricultural and industrial machinery. Focus is on oil hydraulics. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and laymen. The twelve chapters focus…

  20. Tractor Hydraulics. A Teaching Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Vocational Instructional Materials, Athens, GA.

    The manual was developed to help provide a better understanding of how and why hydraulic principles serve the purposes of weight reduction, increase of physical effort, and more precise control to machines of all types. The four components that are necessary to have a workable hydraulic system--a reservoir, a pump, a valve, and a motor (cylinder)…

  1. Overview of microseismic monitoring of hydraulic fracturing for unconventional oil and gas plays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemeta, J. E.

    2011-12-01

    The exponential growth of unconventional resources for oil and gas production has been driven by the use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. These drilling and completion methods increase the contact area of the low permeability and porosity hydrocarbon bearing formations and allow for economic production in what was previously considered uncommercial rock. These new resource plays have sparked an enormous interest in microseismic monitoring of hydraulic fracture treatments. As a hydraulic fracture is pumped, microseismic events are emitted in a volume of rock surrounding the stimulated fracture. The goal of the monitoring is to identify and locate the microseismic events to a high degree of precision and to map the position of the induced hydraulic fracture in time and space. The microseismic events are very small, typically having a moment-magnitude range of -4 to 0. The microseismic data are collected using a variety of seismic array designs and instrumentation, including borehole, shallow borehole, near-surface and surface arrays, using either of three-component clamped 15 Hz borehole sondes to simple vertical 10 Hz geophones for surface monitoring. The collection and processing of these data is currently under rapid technical development. Each monitoring method has technical challenges which include accurate velocity modeling, correct seismic phase identification and signal to noise issues. The microseismic locations are used to guide hydrocarbon exploration and production companies in crucial reservoir development decisions such as the direction to drill the horizontal well bores and the appropriate inter-well spacing between horizontal wells to optimally drain the resource. The fracture mapping is also used to guide fracture and reservoir engineers in designing and calibrating the fluid volumes and types, injection rates and pressures for the hydraulic fracture treatments. The microseismic data can be located and mapped in near real-time during

  2. Containment wells to form hydraulic barriers along site boundaries.

    PubMed

    Vo, D; Ramamurthy, A S; Qu, J; Zhao, X P

    2008-12-15

    In the field, aquifer remediation methods include pump and treat procedures based on hydraulic control systems. They are used to reduce the level of residual contamination present in the soil and soil pores of aquifers. Often, physical barriers are erected along the boundaries of the target (aquifer) site to reduce the leakage of the released soil contaminant to the surrounding regions. Physical barriers are expensive to build and dismantle. Alternatively, based on simple hydraulic principles, containment wells or image wells injecting clear water can be designed and built to provide hydraulic barriers along the contaminated site boundaries. For brevity, only one pattern of containment well system that is very effective is presented in detail. The study briefly reports about the method of erecting a hydraulic barrier around a contaminated region based on the simple hydraulic principle of images. During the clean-up period, hydraulic barriers can considerably reduce the leakage of the released contaminant from the target site to surrounding pristine regions. Containment wells facilitate the formation of hydraulic barriers. Hence, they control the movement of contaminants away from the site that is being remedied. However, these wells come into play, only when the pumping operation for cleaning up the site is active. After operation, they can be filled with soil to permit the natural ground water movement. They can also be used as monitoring wells.

  3. Hydraulically actuated well shifting tool

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, B.A.

    1992-10-20

    This patent describes a hydraulically actuated shifting tool for actuating a sliding member in a well tool. It comprises: a housing having a hydraulic fluid bore therein; shifting dog means positioned on the housing for movement away and toward the housing; locking dog means positioned on the housing for movement away and toward the body; shifting dog hydraulic actuating means in fluid communication with the bore for causing engagement of the shifting dogs with the sliding member; locking dog hydraulic actuating means in communication with the bore for causing engagement of the locking dogs with the locking means; and hydraulic shifting means in communication with the bore for causing relative movement between the shifting dog means and the locking dog means for shifting the sliding sleeve.

  4. Piezoelectric-hydraulic pump based band brake actuation system for automotive transmission control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gi-Woo; Wang, K. W.

    2007-04-01

    The actuation system of friction elements (such as band brakes) is essential for high quality operations in modern automotive automatic transmissions (in short, ATs). The current band brake actuation system consists of several hydraulic components, including the oil pump, the regulating valve and the control valves. In general, it has been recognized that the current AT band brake actuation system has many limitations. For example, the oil pump and valve body are relatively heavy and complex. Also, the oil pumps induce inherently large drag torque, which affects fuel economy. This research is to overcome these problems of the current system by exploring the utilization of a hybrid type piezo-hydraulic pump device for AT band brake control. This new actuating system integrates a piezo-hydraulic pump to the input of the band brake. Compared with the current systems, this new actuator features much simpler structure, smaller size, and lower weight. This paper describes the development, design and fabrication of the new stand-alone prototype actuator for AT band brake control. An analytical model is developed and validated using experimental data. Performance tests on the hardware and system simulations utilizing the validated model are performed to characterize the new prototype actuator. It is predicted that with increasing of accumulator pressure and driving frequency, the proposed prototype actuating system will satisfy the band brake requirement for AT shift control.

  5. Percolation Theory and Modern Hydraulic Fracturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, J. Q.; Turcotte, D. L.; Rundle, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    During the past few years, we have been developing a percolation model for fracking. This model provides a powerful tool for understanding the growth and properties of the complex fracture networks generated during a modern high volume hydraulic fracture stimulations of tight shale reservoirs. The model can also be used to understand the interaction between the growing fracture network and natural reservoir features such as joint sets and faults. Additionally, the model produces a power-law distribution of bursts which can easily be compared to observed microseismicity.

  6. Hydraulic Fracturing and the Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayatollahy Tafti, T.; Aminzadeh, F.; Jafarpour, B.; de Barros, F.

    2013-12-01

    In this presentation, we highlight two key environmental concerns of hydraulic fracturing (HF), namely induced seismicity and groundwater contamination (GC). We examine the induced seismicity (IS) associated with different subsurface fluid injection and production (SFIP) operations and the key operational parameters of SFIP impacting it. In addition we review the key potential sources for possible water contamination. Both in the case of IS and GC we propose modeling and data analysis methods to quantify the risk factors to be used for monitoring and risk reduction. SFIP include presents a risk in hydraulic fracturing, waste water injection, enhanced oil recovery as well as geothermal energy operations. Although a recent report (NRC 2012) documents that HF is not responsible for most of the induced seismicities, we primarily focus on HF here. We look into vaious operational parameters such as volume and rate of water injection, the direction of the well versus the natural fracture network, the depth of the target and the local stress field and fault system, as well as other geological features. The latter would determine the potential for triggering tectonic related events by small induced seismicity events. We provide the building blocks for IS risk assessment and monitoring. The system we propose will involve adequate layers of complexity based on mapped seismic attributes as well as results from ANN and probabilistic predictive modeling workflows. This leads to a set of guidelines which further defines 'safe operating conditions' and 'safe operating zones' which will be a valuable reference for future SFIP operations. We also illustrate how HF can lead to groundwater aquifer contamination. The source of aquifer contamination can be the hydrocarbon gas or the chemicals used in the injected liquid in the formation. We explore possible pathways of contamination within and discuss the likelihood of contamination from each source. Many of the chemical compounds used

  7. A 6-DOF vibration isolation system for hydraulic hybrid vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, The; Elahinia, Mohammad; Olson, Walter W.; Fontaine, Paul

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents the results of vibration isolation analysis for the pump/motor component of hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs). The HHVs are designed to combine gasoline/diesel engine and hydraulic power in order to improve the fuel efficiency and reduce the pollution. Electric hybrid technology is being applied to passenger cars with small and medium engines to improve the fuel economy. However, for heavy duty vehicles such as large SUVs, trucks, and buses, which require more power, the hydraulic hybridization is a more efficient choice. In function, the hydraulic hybrid subsystem improves the fuel efficiency of the vehicle by recovering some of the energy that is otherwise wasted in friction brakes. Since the operation of the main component of HHVs involves with rotating parts and moving fluid, noise and vibration are an issue that affects both passengers (ride comfort) as well as surrounding people (drive-by noise). This study looks into the possibility of reducing the transmitted noise and vibration from the hydraulic subsystem to the vehicle's chassis by using magnetorheological (MR) fluid mounts. To this end, the hydraulic subsystem is modeled as a six degree of freedom (6-DOF) rigid body. A 6-DOF isolation system, consisting of five mounts connected to the pump/motor at five different locations, is modeled and simulated. The mounts are designed by combining regular elastomer components with MR fluids. In the simulation, the real loading and working conditions of the hydraulic subsystem are considered and the effects of both shock and vibration are analyzed. The transmissibility of the isolation system is monitored in a wide range of frequencies. The geometry of the isolation system is considered in order to sustain the weight of the hydraulic system without affecting the design of the chassis and the effectiveness of the vibration isolating ability. The simulation results shows reduction in the transmitted vibration force for different working cycles of

  8. Amazon flood wave hydraulics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigg, Mark A.; Wilson, Matthew D.; Bates, Paul D.; Horritt, Matthew S.; Alsdorf, Douglas E.; Forsberg, Bruce R.; Vega, Maria C.

    2009-07-01

    SummaryA bathymetric survey of 575 km of the central Amazon River and one of its tributaries, the Purus, are combined with gauged data to characterise the Amazon flood wave, and for hydraulic modelling of the main channel for the period June 1995-March 1997 with the LISFLOOD-FP and HEC-RAS hydraulic models. Our investigations show that the Amazon flood wave is subcritical and diffusive in character and, due to shallow bed slopes, backwater conditions control significant reach lengths and are present for low and high water states. Comparison of the different models shows that it is necessary to include at least the diffusion term in any model, and the RMSE error in predicted water elevation at all cross sections introduced by ignoring the acceleration and advection terms is of the order of 0.02-0.03 m. The use of a wide rectangular channel approximation introduces an error of 0.10-0.15 m on the predicted water levels. Reducing the bathymetry to a simple bed slope and with mean cross section only, introduces an error in the order of 0.5 m. These results show that when compared to the mean annual amplitude of the Amazon flood wave of 11-12 m, water levels are relatively insensitive to the bathymetry of the channel model. The implication for remote sensing studies of the central Amazon channel, such as those proposed with the Surface Water and Ocean Topography mission (SWOT), is that even relatively crude assumptions regarding the channel bathymetry will be valid in order to derive discharge from water surface slope of the main channel, as long as the mean channel area is approximately correct.

  9. Understanding the Ways in Which Design Features of Educational Websites Impact upon Student Learning Outcomes in Blended Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kember, David; McNaught, Carmel; Chong, Fanny C. Y.; Lam, Paul; Cheng, K. F.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness, in terms of the attainment of relevant learning outcomes, of the types of learning promoted by educational features commonly incorporated in course management systems. Twenty-one courses with significant use of the Internet, but with face-to-face teaching as the predominant instructional mode, were…

  10. Personalized Integrated Educational System (PIES) for the Learner-Centered Information-Age Paradigm of Education: A Study to Improve the Design of the Functions and Features of PIES

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutta, Pratima

    2013-01-01

    The Personalized Integrated Educational System (PIES) design theory is a design recommendation regarding the function and features of Learning Managements Systems (LMS) that can support the information-age learner-centered paradigm of education. The purpose of this study was to improve the proposed functions and features of the PIES design theory…

  11. Numerical simulation of thermal-hydraulic generators running in a single regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chioreanu, Nicolae; Mitran, Tudor; Rus, Alexandru; Beles, Horia

    2014-06-01

    The paper presents the basis for the design of thermal-hydraulic generators running in a single regime. The thermal-hydraulic generators in a single regime running represent an absolute novelty worldwide (a pioneer invention). Based on the methodology concerning this subject, the design calculus for an experimental model was developed.

  12. Geosiphon(TM) Ground Water Remediation System Hydraulics

    SciTech Connect

    Phifer, M.A.

    2002-04-30

    Two, pilot-scale, GeoSiphon(TM) systems have been installed and tested for the treatment of contaminated ground water at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These systems consisted of an in situ treatment cell located in an area of higher hydraulic head and a siphon connecting the cell to a surface stream at a lower hydraulic head. The siphon induced contaminated ground water flow through a permeable treatment media in the cells and transported the treated water to the discharge points in a surface stream. The hydraulic head available to drive the systems is divided between the head losses associated with the treatment cell and siphon. Six different treatment cell configurations and seven different siphon configurations have been hydraulically evaluated in association with both pilot-scale systems. The results provide valuable guidelines for the design of GeoSiphon systems.

  13. Herb Hydraulics: Inter- and Intraspecific Variation in Three Ranunculus Species.

    PubMed

    Nolf, Markus; Rosani, Andrea; Ganthaler, Andrea; Beikircher, Barbara; Mayr, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    The requirements of the water transport system of small herbaceous species differ considerably from those of woody species. Despite their ecological importance for many biomes, knowledge regarding herb hydraulics remains very limited. We compared key hydraulic features (vulnerability to drought-induced hydraulic decline, pressure-volume relations, onset of cellular damage, in situ variation of water potential, and stomatal conductance) of three Ranunculus species differing in their soil humidity preferences and ecological amplitude. All species were very vulnerable to water stress (50% reduction in whole-leaf hydraulic conductance [kleaf] at -0.2 to -0.8 MPa). In species with narrow ecological amplitude, the drought-exposed Ranunculus bulbosus was less vulnerable to desiccation (analyzed via loss of kleaf and turgor loss point) than the humid-habitat Ranunculus lanuginosus Accordingly, water stress-exposed plants from the broad-amplitude Ranunculus acris revealed tendencies toward lower vulnerability to water stress (e.g. osmotic potential at full turgor, cell damage, and stomatal closure) than conspecific plants from the humid site. We show that small herbs can adjust to their habitat conditions on interspecific and intraspecific levels in various hydraulic parameters. The coordination of hydraulic thresholds (50% and 88% loss of kleaf, turgor loss point, and minimum in situ water potential) enabled the study species to avoid hydraulic failure and damage to living cells. Reversible recovery of hydraulic conductance, desiccation-tolerant seeds, or rhizomes may allow them to prioritize toward a more efficient but vulnerable water transport system while avoiding the severe effects that water stress poses on woody species. PMID:26896395

  14. Hydraulic conductivity of compacted zeolites.

    PubMed

    Oren, A Hakan; Ozdamar, Tuğçe

    2013-06-01

    Hydraulic conductivities of compacted zeolites were investigated as a function of compaction water content and zeolite particle size. Initially, the compaction characteristics of zeolites were determined. The compaction test results showed that maximum dry unit weight (γ(dmax)) of fine zeolite was greater than that of granular zeolites. The γ(dmax) of compacted zeolites was between 1.01 and 1.17 Mg m(-3) and optimum water content (w(opt)) was between 38% and 53%. Regardless of zeolite particle size, compacted zeolites had low γ(dmax) and high w(opt) when compared with compacted natural soils. Then, hydraulic conductivity tests were run on compacted zeolites. The hydraulic conductivity values were within the range of 2.0 × 10(-3) cm s(-1) to 1.1 × 10(-7) cm s(-1). Hydraulic conductivity of all compacted zeolites decreased almost 50 times as the water content increased. It is noteworthy that hydraulic conductivity of compacted zeolite was strongly dependent on the zeolite particle size. The hydraulic conductivity decreased almost three orders of magnitude up to 39% fine content; then, it remained almost unchanged beyond 39%. Only one report was found in the literature on the hydraulic conductivity of compacted zeolite, which is in agreement with the findings of this study.

  15. Stem and leaf hydraulic properties are finely coordinated in three tropical rain forest tree species.

    PubMed

    Nolf, Markus; Creek, Danielle; Duursma, Remko; Holtum, Joseph; Mayr, Stefan; Choat, Brendan

    2015-12-01

    Coordination of stem and leaf hydraulic traits allows terrestrial plants to maintain safe water status under limited water supply. Tropical rain forests, one of the world's most productive biomes, are vulnerable to drought and potentially threatened by increased aridity due to global climate change. However, the relationship of stem and leaf traits within the plant hydraulic continuum remains understudied, particularly in tropical species. We studied within-plant hydraulic coordination between stems and leaves in three tropical lowland rain forest tree species by analyses of hydraulic vulnerability [hydraulic methods and ultrasonic emission (UE) analysis], pressure-volume relations and in situ pre-dawn and midday water potentials (Ψ). We found finely coordinated stem and leaf hydraulic features, with a strategy of sacrificing leaves in favour of stems. Fifty percent of hydraulic conductivity (P50 ) was lost at -2.1 to -3.1 MPa in stems and at -1.7 to -2.2 MPa in leaves. UE analysis corresponded to hydraulic measurements. Safety margins (leaf P50 - stem P50 ) were very narrow at -0.4 to -1.4 MPa. Pressure-volume analysis and in situ Ψ indicated safe water status in stems but risk of hydraulic failure in leaves. Our study shows that stem and leaf hydraulics were finely tuned to avoid embolism formation in the xylem.

  16. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOEpatents

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.

    2000-01-01

    A compact high pressure hydraulic pump having no moving mechanical parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force. The electrokinetic pump, which can generate hydraulic pressures greater than 2500 psi, can be employed to compress a fluid, either liquid or gas, and manipulate fluid flow. The pump is particularly useful for capillary-base systems. By combining the electrokinetic pump with a housing having chambers separated by a flexible member, fluid flow, including high pressure fluids, is controlled by the application of an electric potential, that can vary with time.

  17. Hydraulic Performance of a Multistage Array of Advanced Centrifugal Contactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges, M.E.

    2001-05-29

    The hydraulic characteristics of an advanced design centrifugal contactor array have been determined at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). The advanced design utilizes couette mixing (Taylor vortices) in the annulus between the rotating and stationary bowls. Excellent phase separation over a wide range of flow conditions was obtained. Interfaces within an entire eight-stage array were controlled with a single weir air pressure.

  18. Hydraulic mechanism to limit torsional loads between the IUS and space transportation system orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, James R.

    1986-01-01

    The Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) is a two-stage booster used by NASA and the Defense Department to insert payloads into geosynchronous orbit from low-Earth orbit. The hydraulic mechanism discussed here was designed to perform a specific dynamic and static interface function within the Space Transportation System's Orbiter. Requirements, configuration, and application of the hydraulic mechanism with emphasis on performance and methods of achieving zero external hydraulic leakage are discussed. The hydraulic load-leveler mechanism meets the established design requirements for operation in a low-Earth orbit. Considerable testing was conducted to demonstrate system performance and verification that external leakage had been reduced to zero. Following each flight use of an ASE, all hydraulic mechanism components are carefully inspected for leakage. The ASE, including the hydraulic mechanism, has performed without any anomalies during all IUS flights.

  19. Hydraulic valve lifter

    SciTech Connect

    Kodama, H.; Ono, T.

    1986-11-25

    This patent describes a hydraulic valve lifter mounted in a rocker arm of a valve train assembly of internal combustion engines, the lifter comprising: a cylinder having a cylindrical surface formed in the rocker arm; a plunger reciprocally mounted in the cylinder in sliding contact with the cylindrical surface; a seat member securely pressed in the cylinder above the plunger. The seat member defines a reservoir chamber and a pressure chamber in the cylinder and having an outer circumferential portion extending in contact with the cylindrical surface in a direction of the plunger; a stopper means formed at an end surface of the outer circumferential portion of the seat member for restricting an axial movement of the plunger in a direction of the seat member; and at least one relief means formed in the cylindrical surface above the stopper means for a finishing machining process of the cylinder whereby each recess means is completely covered by the outer circumferential portion of the seat member. In this way, the cylindrical surface encircles the plunger and is formed by an uninterrupted smooth sliding surface along the entire length of movement of the plunger.

  20. Downhole hydraulic actuated pump

    SciTech Connect

    Roeder, G.K.

    1988-09-06

    This patent describes a downhole hydraulically actuated pump assembly of the type having a main housing within which an engine and pump is enclosed; a connecting rod, an engine piston, a pump plunger, means by which the engine and connecting rod reciprocate the pump plunger and thereby produces fluid; the main housing has a lower end having a formation fluid inlet; and upper end having a power fluid inlet; and, a produced fluid outlet; the plunger divides one marginal end of the housing into upper and lower production chambers; the lower end of the connecting rod is hollow and extends through the plunger into fluid communication with the formation fluid inlet to provide a source of formation fluid for the upper and lower production chambers; a traveling value assembly contained within the plunger and arranged to transfer formation fluid from the hollow rod, through the plunger, and into the upper and lower production chambers, respectively, as the plunger upstrokes and downstrokes; produced fluid valve means by which fluid flows from the upper and lower production chambers and through the produced fluid outlet.

  1. Hydraulic stud tensioning aids pump performance

    SciTech Connect

    Marchand, G.J.

    1986-03-31

    This article considers the use of hydraulic stud tensioners on mud pump fluid ends. It contains tensioner testing and application. A typical problem involving a fluid end stud is presented to illustrate the use of hydraulic tensioning. Hydraulic stud tensioners give optimum preload reliability over traditional torque tensioning methods. Accurately controlling preload increases stud fatigue life and minimizes maintenance. At one time it was acceptable just to get fluid end connections tight by means of slogging wrenches, impact wrenches, or two of your biggest men on a 10-ft cheater pipe. If the connection did not leak during hydrotest, it was accepted and put into operation. Users of mud pumps are faced with fluid ends that may ''breathe'' excessively due to improper stud preload. Today's equipment is smaller in size and larger in horsepower than ever before, using large retaining studs requiring torques of 3,000 ft-lb and up. In present compact designs, many bolted connections have become virtually inaccessible using traditional tightening procedures. No longer will large wrenches, cheater pipes, and sledge hammers clear surrounding equipment.

  2. Field measurements in unwadeable natural hydraulic jumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valle, B.; Pasternack, G.

    2003-04-01

    Recent research in fluvial geomorphology has emphasized the development and application of digital terrain models to better understand process-form relations. However, field measurements in mountain channels have largely been restricted to low velocity or ephemeral flow conditions. To address this problem, a new high-resolution mechanical surveying system was developed at UC Davis and used to measure the 3D bed and water surface topographies of an unwadeable plunging hydraulic jump in the Cache Creek basin, CA. Labeled as the River Truss, the system is capable of making high-resolution form and process measurements over a 30 to 115 m2 area. Bed and water surface DTMs were derived from the field data using AutoCAD. River Truss precision was assessed by DTM differencing the hydraulic jump bed surface topography with a DTM developed from tacheometric survey at low base flows. Bed surface DTMs indicate significant spatial complexity of the underlying bed step in the supercritical flow region and significant downstream bed scour. Water surface DTMs indicate 3D complexity of the plunging flow surface and divergence from 1D free-fall theory. Further study will emphasize the development and deployment of process-based instrumentation such that the complex turbulent air-water flow dynamics associated with natural hydraulic jumps may be better understood. Also, a second generation River Truss that has a larger coverage area and automated data collection has been designed and is now being built.

  3. Hydraulic drive system prevents backlash

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acord, J. D.

    1965-01-01

    Hydraulic drive system uses a second drive motor operating at reduced torque. This exerts a relative braking action which eliminates the normal gear train backlash that is intolerable when driving certain heavy loads.

  4. Design Features for Linguistically-Mediated Meaning Construction: The Relative Roles of the Linguistic and Conceptual Systems in Subserving the Ideational Function of Language

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Vyvyan

    2016-01-01

    Recent research in language and cognitive science proposes that the linguistic system evolved to provide an “executive” control system on the evolutionarily more ancient conceptual system (e.g., Barsalou et al., 2008; Evans, 2009, 2015a,b; Bergen, 2012). In short, the claim is that embodied representations in the linguistic system interface with non-linguistic representations in the conceptual system, facilitating rich meanings, or simulations, enabling linguistically mediated communication. In this paper I build on these proposals by examining the nature of what I identify as design features for this control system. In particular, I address how the ideational function of language—our ability to deploy linguistic symbols to convey meanings of great complexity—is facilitated. The central proposal of this paper is as follows. The linguistic system of any given language user, of any given linguistic system—spoken or signed—facilitates access to knowledge representation—concepts—in the conceptual system, which subserves this ideational function. In the most general terms, the human meaning-making capacity is underpinned by two distinct, although tightly coupled representational systems: the conceptual system and the linguistic system. Each system contributes to meaning construction in qualitatively distinct ways. This leads to the first design feature: given that the two systems are representational—they are populated by semantic representations—the nature and function of the representations are qualitatively different. This proposed design feature I term the bifurcation in semantic representation. After all, it stands to reason that if a linguistic system has a different function, vis-à-vis the conceptual system, which is of far greater evolutionary antiquity, then the semantic representations will be complementary, and as such, qualitatively different, reflecting the functional distinctions of the two systems, in collectively giving rise to

  5. Design Features for Linguistically-Mediated Meaning Construction: The Relative Roles of the Linguistic and Conceptual Systems in Subserving the Ideational Function of Language.

    PubMed

    Evans, Vyvyan

    2016-01-01

    Recent research in language and cognitive science proposes that the linguistic system evolved to provide an "executive" control system on the evolutionarily more ancient conceptual system (e.g., Barsalou et al., 2008; Evans, 2009, 2015a,b; Bergen, 2012). In short, the claim is that embodied representations in the linguistic system interface with non-linguistic representations in the conceptual system, facilitating rich meanings, or simulations, enabling linguistically mediated communication. In this paper I build on these proposals by examining the nature of what I identify as design features for this control system. In particular, I address how the ideational function of language-our ability to deploy linguistic symbols to convey meanings of great complexity-is facilitated. The central proposal of this paper is as follows. The linguistic system of any given language user, of any given linguistic system-spoken or signed-facilitates access to knowledge representation-concepts-in the conceptual system, which subserves this ideational function. In the most general terms, the human meaning-making capacity is underpinned by two distinct, although tightly coupled representational systems: the conceptual system and the linguistic system. Each system contributes to meaning construction in qualitatively distinct ways. This leads to the first design feature: given that the two systems are representational-they are populated by semantic representations-the nature and function of the representations are qualitatively different. This proposed design feature I term the bifurcation in semantic representation. After all, it stands to reason that if a linguistic system has a different function, vis-à-vis the conceptual system, which is of far greater evolutionary antiquity, then the semantic representations will be complementary, and as such, qualitatively different, reflecting the functional distinctions of the two systems, in collectively giving rise to meaning. I consider the

  6. Design Features for Linguistically-Mediated Meaning Construction: The Relative Roles of the Linguistic and Conceptual Systems in Subserving the Ideational Function of Language.

    PubMed

    Evans, Vyvyan

    2016-01-01

    Recent research in language and cognitive science proposes that the linguistic system evolved to provide an "executive" control system on the evolutionarily more ancient conceptual system (e.g., Barsalou et al., 2008; Evans, 2009, 2015a,b; Bergen, 2012). In short, the claim is that embodied representations in the linguistic system interface with non-linguistic representations in the conceptual system, facilitating rich meanings, or simulations, enabling linguistically mediated communication. In this paper I build on these proposals by examining the nature of what I identify as design features for this control system. In particular, I address how the ideational function of language-our ability to deploy linguistic symbols to convey meanings of great complexity-is facilitated. The central proposal of this paper is as follows. The linguistic system of any given language user, of any given linguistic system-spoken or signed-facilitates access to knowledge representation-concepts-in the conceptual system, which subserves this ideational function. In the most general terms, the human meaning-making capacity is underpinned by two distinct, although tightly coupled representational systems: the conceptual system and the linguistic system. Each system contributes to meaning construction in qualitatively distinct ways. This leads to the first design feature: given that the two systems are representational-they are populated by semantic representations-the nature and function of the representations are qualitatively different. This proposed design feature I term the bifurcation in semantic representation. After all, it stands to reason that if a linguistic system has a different function, vis-à-vis the conceptual system, which is of far greater evolutionary antiquity, then the semantic representations will be complementary, and as such, qualitatively different, reflecting the functional distinctions of the two systems, in collectively giving rise to meaning. I consider the

  7. Design of the typical altered mineral spectral feature database system on the area of oil and gas migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xing; Chen, Xiaomei; Li, Qianqian; Ni, Guoqiang

    2011-11-01

    According to the abnormal spectrum produced by Oil micro-leakage in China's Gobi and sparse vegetated region, six types of spectrum data, which were used as the reference spectrum, were established for the database of exploring oil and gas. The USGS and JPL spectrum data, the spectrum data of alteration mineral in the gas field, the carbonation and clay mineral spectrum data and the hyperspectral spectrum data were contained in the database. The spectral characteristic information was extracted and integrated into the database. A series of interfaces were provided to users to allow the users to add their own spectrum features of the oil and gas areas, which will enhance the scalability of the feature database. The typical altered mineral spectrums produced by oil micro-leakage in China's Gobi and sparse vegetated regions were comprehensively covered in the database, which will enrich China's spectral library and is with the guidance of the oil and gas exploration by aerospace and aviation hyperspectral remote sensing.

  8. Monitoring hydraulic fracturing with seismic emission volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, F.; Tang, Y.; Chen, H.; TAO, K.; Levander, A.

    2014-12-01

    Recent developments in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing have made it possible to access the reservoirs that are not available for massive production in the past. Hydraulic fracturing is designed to enhance rock permeability and reservoir drainage through the creation of fracture networks. Microseismic monitoring has been proven to be an effective and valuable technology to image hydraulic fracture geometry. Based on data acquisition, seismic monitoring techniques have been divided into two categories: downhole and surface monitoring. Surface monitoring is challenging because of the extremely low signal-to-noise ratio of the raw data. We applied the techniques used in earthquake seismology and developed an integrated monitoring system for mapping hydraulic fractures. The system consists of 20 to 30 state-of-the-art broadband seismographs, which are generally about hundreds times more sensible than regular geophones. We have conducted two experiments in two basins with very different geology and formation mechanism in China. In each case, we observed clear microseismic events, which may correspond to the induced seismicity directly associated with fracturing and the triggered ones at pre-existing faults. However, the magnitude of these events is generally larger than magnitude -1, approximately one to two magnitudes larger than those detected by downhole instruments. Spectrum-frequency analysis of the continuous surface recordings indicated high seismic energy associated with injection stages. The seismic energy can be back-projected to a volume that surrounds each injection stage. Imaging seismic emission volume (SEV) appears to be an effective way to map the stimulated reservior volume, as well as natural fractures.

  9. Production Hydraulic Packer Field Test

    SciTech Connect

    Schneller, Tricia; Salas, Jose

    2000-06-30

    In October 1999, the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center and Halliburton Energy Services cooperated on a field test of Halliburton's new Production Hydraulic Packer technology on Well 46-TPX-10 at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 near Casper, WY. Performance of the packer was evaluated in set and unset operations. The packer's ability to seal the annulus between the casing and tubing was hydraulically tested and the results were recorded.

  10. 46 CFR 28.405 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.405 Section 28.405 Shipping... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.405 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic system... than four times the system maximum operating pressure. (c) Each hydraulic system must be equipped...

  11. 46 CFR 28.880 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.880 Section 28.880 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.880 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic system must be... times the system's maximum operating pressure. (c) Each hydraulic system must be equipped with at...

  12. 46 CFR 28.405 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... than four times the system maximum operating pressure. (c) Each hydraulic system must be equipped with... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.405 Section 28.405 Shipping... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.405 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic...

  13. 46 CFR 28.405 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... than four times the system maximum operating pressure. (c) Each hydraulic system must be equipped with... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.405 Section 28.405 Shipping... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.405 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic...

  14. 46 CFR 28.405 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... than four times the system maximum operating pressure. (c) Each hydraulic system must be equipped with... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.405 Section 28.405 Shipping... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.405 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic...

  15. 14 CFR 23.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... addition to hydraulic loads. (2) A means to indicate the pressure in each hydraulic system which supplies... maximum operating pressure of that system. (c) Accumulators. A hydraulic accumulator or reservoir may be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 23.1435 Section...

  16. 14 CFR 23.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... addition to hydraulic loads. (2) A means to indicate the pressure in each hydraulic system which supplies... maximum operating pressure of that system. (c) Accumulators. A hydraulic accumulator or reservoir may be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 23.1435 Section...

  17. 46 CFR 28.405 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... than four times the system maximum operating pressure. (c) Each hydraulic system must be equipped with... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.405 Section 28.405 Shipping... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.405 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic...

  18. TEMPEST. Transient 3-D Thermal-Hydraulic

    SciTech Connect

    Eyler, L.L.

    1992-01-31

    TEMPEST is a transient, three-dimensional, hydrothermal program that is designed to analyze a range of coupled fluid dynamic and heat transfer systems of particular interest to the Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) thermal-hydraulic design community. The full three-dimensional, time-dependent equations of motion, continuity, and heat transport are solved for either laminar or turbulent fluid flow, including heat diffusion and generation in both solid and liquid materials. The equations governing mass, momentum, and energy conservation for incompressible flows and small density variations (Boussinesq approximation) are solved using finite-difference techniques. Analyses may be conducted in either cylindrical or Cartesian coordinate systems. Turbulence is treated using a two-equation model. Two auxiliary plotting programs, SEQUEL and MANPLOT, for use with TEMPEST output are included. SEQUEL may be operated in batch or interactive mode; it generates data required for vector plots, contour plots of scalar quantities, line plots, grid and boundary plots, and time-history plots. MANPLOT reads the SEQUEL-generated data and creates the hardcopy plots. TEMPEST can be a valuable hydrothermal design analysis tool in areas outside the intended FBR thermal-hydraulic design community.

  19. Identifying Effective Design Features of Technology-Infused Inquiry Learning Modules: A Two-Year Study of Students' Inquiry Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Ying-Shao; Fang, Su-Chi; Zhang, Wen-Xin; Hsin-Kai, Wu; Wu, Pai-Hsing; Hwang, Fu-Kwun

    2016-01-01

    The two-year study aimed to explore how students' development of different inquiry abilities actually benefited from the design of technology-infused learning modules. Three learning modules on the topics of seasons, environmental issues and air pollution were developed to facilitate students' inquiry abilities: questioning, planning, analyzing,…

  20. Bug or Feature: The Role of "Gamestar Mechanic's" Material Dialog on the Metacognitive Game Design Strategies of Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Games, Alex

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the language and literacy practices of middle-school children as they worked toward constructing their own computer games using "Gamestar Mechanic," a game intended to teach them key ways of thinking and communicating germane to the discourse of game designers. It examines the changes that took place in what previous work…

  1. Design and Control of a Ship Motion Simulation Platform from an Energy Efficiency Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Lind, Randall F; Jansen, John F; Love, Lonnie J; Lloyd, Peter D; Rowe, John C; Pin, Francois G

    2009-01-01

    Most hydraulic servo systems are designed with little consideration for energy efficiency. Pumps are selected based upon required peak power demands, valves are chosen primarily for their rated flow, actuators for the maximum force. However, the design of a hydraulic servo system has great potential in terms of energy efficiency that has, for the most part, been ignored. This paper describes the design and control of a large-scale ship motion simulation platform that was designed and built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the Office of Naval Research. The primary reasons to incorporate energy-efficiency features into the design are cost and size reduction. A preliminary survey of proposed designs based on traditional motion simulation platform configurations (Stuart Platforms) required hydraulic power supplies approaching 1.22 MW. This manuscript describes the combined design and control effort that led to a system with the same performance requirements, however requiring a primary power supply that was less than 112 kW. The objective of this paper is to illustrate alternative design and control approaches that can significantly reduce the power requirements of hydraulic systems and improve the overall energy-efficiency of large-scale hydraulically actuated systems.

  2. The numerical simulation based on CFD of hydraulic turbine pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, X. H.; Kong, F. Y.; Liu, Y. Y.; Zhao, R. J.; Hu, Q. L.

    2016-05-01

    As the functions of hydraulic turbine pump including self-adjusting and compensation with each other, it is far-reaching to analyze its internal flow by the numerical simulation based on CFD, mainly including the pressure field and the velocity field in hydraulic turbine and pump.The three-dimensional models of hydraulic turbine pump are made by Pro/Engineer software;the internal flow fields in hydraulic turbine and pump are simulated numerically by CFX ANSYS software. According to the results of the numerical simulation in design condition, the pressure field and the velocity field in hydraulic turbine and pump are analyzed respectively .The findings show that the static pressure decreases systematically and the pressure gradient is obvious in flow area of hydraulic turbine; the static pressure increases gradually in pump. The flow trace is regular in suction chamber and flume without spiral trace. However, there are irregular traces in the turbine runner channels which contrary to that in flow area of impeller. Most of traces in the flow area of draft tube are spiral.

  3. Tier II Interventions within the Framework of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Essential Features for Design, Implementation, and Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Cynthia M; Borgmeier, Chris

    2010-01-01

    To meet the complex social behavioral and academic needs of all students, schools benefit from having available multiple evidence-based interventions of varying intensity. School-wide positive behavior support provides a framework within which a continuum of evidence-based interventions can be implemented in a school. This framework includes three levels or tiers of intervention; Tier I (primary or universal), Tier II (secondary or targeted), and Tier III (tertiary or individualized) supports. In this paper we review the logic behind school-wide positive behavior support and then focus on Tier II interventions, as this level of support has received the least attention in the literature. We delineate the key features of Tier II interventions as implemented within school-wide positive behavior support, provide guidelines for matching Tier II interventions to school and student needs, and describe how schools plan for implementation and maintenance of selected interventions. PMID:22479670

  4. Hydraulic shock absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T.

    1987-03-03

    This patent describes a hydraulic shock absorber including a piston reciprocating in a cylinder, a piston upper chamber and a piston lower chamber which are oil-tightly separated by the piston, piston ports formed through the piston in a circle for communicating the piston upper chamber with the piston lower chamber, and return ports formed outside of the piston ports in a circle for communicating the piston upper chamber with the piston lower chamber. It also includes a sheet ring-like non-return valve provided above the piston and fitted to a piston rod, valve holes formed through the non-return valve in opposed relation with the piston ports. A ring-like non-return valve stopper fixed to the piston rod on an upper side of the non-return valve with a small spaced defined between the non-return valve and the non-return valve stopper, and a spring is interposed between the non-return valve and the non-return valve stopper for normally urging the non-return valve to an upper surface of the piston. Movement of the piston to the piston upper chamber allows oil to flow from the piston upper chamber through the piston ports to the piston lower chamber, while the return ports are closed by the non-return valve to generate a vibration damping force by resistance upon pass of the oil through the piston parts. The improvement described here comprises a groove formed in an upper surface of the piston facing the non-return valve and aligned with the valve holes, the groove being in the circle where the piston ports lie and being in communication with the piston ports.

  5. Estimating Hydraulic Conductivities in a Fractured Shale Formation from Pressure Pulse Testing and 3d Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courbet, C.; DICK, P.; Lefevre, M.; Wittebroodt, C.; Matray, J.; Barnichon, J.

    2013-12-01

    In the framework of its research on the deep disposal of radioactive waste in shale formations, the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has developed a large array of in situ programs concerning the confining properties of shales in their underground research laboratory at Tournemire (SW France). One of its aims is to evaluate the occurrence and processes controlling radionuclide migration through the host rock, from the disposal system to the biosphere. Past research programs carried out at Tournemire covered mechanical, hydro-mechanical and physico-chemical properties of the Tournemire shale as well as water chemistry and long-term behaviour of the host rock. Studies show that fluid circulations in the undisturbed matrix are very slow (hydraulic conductivity of 10-14 to 10-15 m.s-1). However, recent work related to the occurrence of small scale fractures and clay-rich fault gouges indicate that fluid circulations may have been significantly modified in the vicinity of such features. To assess the transport properties associated with such faults, IRSN designed a series of in situ and laboratory experiments to evaluate the contribution of both diffusive and advective process on water and solute flux through a clay-rich fault zone (fault core and damaged zone) and in an undisturbed shale formation. As part of these studies, Modular Mini-Packer System (MMPS) hydraulic testing was conducted in multiple boreholes to characterize hydraulic conductivities within the formation. Pressure data collected during the hydraulic tests were analyzed using the nSIGHTS (n-dimensional Statistical Inverse Graphical Hydraulic Test Simulator) code to estimate hydraulic conductivity and formation pressures of the tested intervals. Preliminary results indicate hydraulic conductivities of 5.10-12 m.s-1 in the fault core and damaged zone and 10-14 m.s-1 in the adjacent undisturbed shale. Furthermore, when compared with neutron porosity data from borehole

  6. Remote hydraulic ocean instrument trigger: DIRECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, M.

    1993-05-01

    A robust, reliable, inexpensive, easily operated, remote acting, deep ocean triggering system called DIRECTS (depth-indexed remote-equipment-commanding trigger system) is designed to initiate and power the operation of generic instrumentation at specific depths in the sea. The triggers, hydraulically actuated, are accurate within a few meters of depth and provide important post-retrieval confirmation of depth at the time of operation. The majority of research and commercial endeavors in the sea depend on the ability to accuratesly initiate subsea activities at specifically determined depths. Chemical, physical, and biological oceanographic sampling, commercial fishing, and offshore petroleum resource assessment are among operations requiring depth-accurate triggering capabilities.

  7. Hydraulic Tomography: Continuity and Discontinuity of High-K and Low-K Zones.

    PubMed

    Hochstetler, David L; Barrash, Warren; Leven, Carsten; Cardiff, Michael; Chidichimo, Francesco; Kitanidis, Peter K

    2016-03-01

    Hydraulic tomography is an emerging field and modeling method that provides a continuous hydraulic conductivity (K) distribution for an investigated region. Characterization approaches that rely on interpolation between one-dimensional (1D) profiles have limited ability to accurately identify high-K channels, juxtapositions of lenses with high K contrast, and breaches in layers or channels between such profiles. However, locating these features is especially important for groundwater flow and transport modeling, and for design and operation of in situ remediation in complex hydrogeologic environments. We use transient hydraulic tomography to estimate 3D K in a volume of 15-m diameter by 20-m saturated thickness in a highly heterogeneous unconfined alluvial (clay to sand-and-gravel) aquifer with a K range of approximately seven orders of magnitude at an active industrial site in Assemini, Sardinia, Italy. A modified Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was used for geostatistical inversion to deal with the nonlinear nature of the highly heterogeneous system. The imaging results are validated with pumping tests not used in the tomographic inversion. These tests were conducted from three of five clusters of continuous multichannel tubing (CMTs) installed for observation in the tomographic testing. Locations of high-K continuity and discontinuity, juxtaposition of very high-K and very low-K lenses, and low-K "plugs" are evident in regions of the investigated volume where they likely would not have been identified with interpolation from 1D profiles at the positions of the pumping well and five CMT clusters. Quality assessment methods identified a suspect high-K feature between the tested volume and a lateral boundary of the model. PMID:26096272

  8. Hydraulic Tomography: Continuity and Discontinuity of High-K and Low-K Zones.

    PubMed

    Hochstetler, David L; Barrash, Warren; Leven, Carsten; Cardiff, Michael; Chidichimo, Francesco; Kitanidis, Peter K

    2016-03-01

    Hydraulic tomography is an emerging field and modeling method that provides a continuous hydraulic conductivity (K) distribution for an investigated region. Characterization approaches that rely on interpolation between one-dimensional (1D) profiles have limited ability to accurately identify high-K channels, juxtapositions of lenses with high K contrast, and breaches in layers or channels between such profiles. However, locating these features is especially important for groundwater flow and transport modeling, and for design and operation of in situ remediation in complex hydrogeologic environments. We use transient hydraulic tomography to estimate 3D K in a volume of 15-m diameter by 20-m saturated thickness in a highly heterogeneous unconfined alluvial (clay to sand-and-gravel) aquifer with a K range of approximately seven orders of magnitude at an active industrial site in Assemini, Sardinia, Italy. A modified Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was used for geostatistical inversion to deal with the nonlinear nature of the highly heterogeneous system. The imaging results are validated with pumping tests not used in the tomographic inversion. These tests were conducted from three of five clusters of continuous multichannel tubing (CMTs) installed for observation in the tomographic testing. Locations of high-K continuity and discontinuity, juxtaposition of very high-K and very low-K lenses, and low-K "plugs" are evident in regions of the investigated volume where they likely would not have been identified with interpolation from 1D profiles at the positions of the pumping well and five CMT clusters. Quality assessment methods identified a suspect high-K feature between the tested volume and a lateral boundary of the model.

  9. Hydraulic integration and shrub growth form linked across continental aridity gradients

    PubMed Central

    Schenk, H. Jochen; Espino, Susana; Goedhart, Christine M.; Nordenstahl, Marisa; Cabrera, Hugo I. Martinez; Jones, Cynthia S.

    2008-01-01

    Both engineered hydraulic systems and plant hydraulic systems are protected against failure by resistance, reparability, and redundancy. A basic rule of reliability engineering is that the level of independent redundancy should increase with increasing risk of fatal system failure. Here we show that hydraulic systems of plants function as predicted by this engineering rule. Hydraulic systems of shrubs sampled along two transcontinental aridity gradients changed with increasing aridity from highly integrated to independently redundant modular designs. Shrubs in humid environments tend to be hydraulically integrated, with single, round basal stems, whereas dryland shrubs typically have modular hydraulic systems and multiple, segmented basal stems. Modularity is achieved anatomically at the vessel-network scale or developmentally at the whole-plant scale through asymmetric secondary growth, which results in a semiclonal or clonal shrub growth form that appears to be ubiquitous in global deserts. PMID:18678893

  10. Multivariate distributions of soil hydraulic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Wei; Pachepsky, Yakov; Huisman, Johan Alexander; Martinez, Gonzalo; Bogena, Heye; Vereecken, Harry

    2014-05-01

    on pedotransfer relationships not only within a given textural class but also on pedotransfer relationships within other textural classes since the pedotransfer relationships are developed across the database containing data for several textural classes. Therefore, joint multivariate parameter distributions for a specific class may not be sufficiently accurate. Currently PTF may give the best prediction of the parameter itself, but they are not designed to estimate correlations between parameters. Covariance matrices for soil hydraulic parameters present an additional type of pedotransfer information that needs to be acquired and used whenever random sets of those parameters are to be generated.

  11. Hydraulic Apparatus for Mechanical Testing of Nuts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkel, Todd J.; Dean, Richard J.; Hacker, Scott C.; Harrington, Douglas W.; Salazar, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The figure depicts an apparatus for mechanical testing of nuts. In the original application for which the apparatus was developed, the nuts are of a frangible type designed for use with pyrotechnic devices in spacecraft applications in which there are requirements for rapid, one-time separations of structures that are bolted together. The apparatus can also be used to test nonfrangible nuts engaged without pyrotechnic devices. This apparatus was developed to replace prior testing systems that were extremely heavy and immobile and characterized by long setup times (of the order of an hour for each nut to be tested). This apparatus is mobile, and the setup for each test can now be completed in about five minutes. The apparatus can load a nut under test with a static axial force of as much as 6.8 x 10(exp 5) lb (3.0 MN) and a static moment of as much as 8.5 x 10(exp 4) lb in. (9.6 x 10(exp 3) N(raised dot)m) for a predetermined amount of time. In the case of a test of a frangible nut, the pyrotechnic devices can be exploded to break the nut while the load is applied, in which case the breakage of the nut relieves the load. The apparatus can be operated remotely for safety during an explosive test. The load-generating portion of the apparatus is driven by low-pressure compressed air; the remainder of the apparatus is driven by 110-Vac electricity. From its source, the compressed air is fed to the apparatus through a regulator and a manually operated valve. The regulated compressed air is fed to a pneumatically driven hydraulic pump, which pressurizes oil in a hydraulic cylinder, thereby causing a load to be applied via a hydraulic nut (not to be confused with the nut under test). During operation, the hydraulic pressure is correlated with the applied axial load, which is verified by use of a load cell. Prior to operation, one end of a test stud (which could be an ordinary threaded rod or bolt) is installed in the hydraulic nut. The other end of the test stud passes

  12. A decade of adult intensive care unit design: a study of the physical design features of the best-practice examples.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Mahbub

    2006-01-01

    This article reports a study of the physical design characteristics of a set of adult intensive care units (ICUs), built between 1993 and 2003. These ICUs were recognized as the best-practice examples by the Society of Critical Care Medicine, the American Association of Critical Care Nurses, and the American Institute of Architects. This study is based on a systematic analysis of the materials found on these ICUs in the booklet and videos jointly published by the above organizations in 2005. The study finds that most of these examples of best-practice adult ICUs have the following negative characteristics: (1) they are built as renovation projects with more health and safety hazards during construction; (2) most of them are mixed-service units with more safety and staffing problems; (3) the overall layout and the layout of staff work areas in these ICUs do not have any common design solutions for improved patient and staff outcomes; and (4) in these ICUs, family space is often located outside the unit, and family access to the patient room is restricted, even though family presence at the bedside may be important for improved patient outcomes. Some of these negative characteristics are offset by the following positive characteristics in most ICUs: (1) they have only private patient rooms for improved patient care, safety, privacy, and comfort; (2) most patient beds are freestanding for easy access to patients from all sides; (3) they have handwashing sinks and waste disposal facilities in the patient room for improved safety; and (4) most patient rooms have natural light to help patients with circadian rhythms. The article discusses, in detail, the implications of its findings, and the role of the ICU design community in a very complicated design context. PMID:17063097

  13. Current and anticipated uses of thermal hydraulic codes in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyung-Doo; Chang, Won-Pyo

    1997-07-01

    In Korea, the current uses of thermal hydraulic codes are categorized into 3 areas. The first application is in designing both nuclear fuel and NSSS. The codes have usually been introduced based on the technology transfer programs agreed between KAERI and the foreign vendors. Another area is in the supporting of the plant operations and licensing by the utility. The third category is research purposes. In this area assessments and some applications to the safety issue resolutions are major activities using the best estimate thermal hydraulic codes such as RELAP5/MOD3 and CATHARE2. Recently KEPCO plans to couple thermal hydraulic codes with a neutronics code for the design of the evolutionary type reactor by 2004. KAERI also plans to develop its own best estimate thermal hydraulic code, however, application range is different from KEPCO developing code. Considering these activities, it is anticipated that use of the best estimate hydraulic analysis code developed in Korea may be possible in the area of safety evaluation within 10 years.

  14. Effects of charge design features on parameters of acoustic and seismic waves and cratering, for SMR chemical surface explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitterman, Y.

    2012-04-01

    A series of experimental on-surface shots was designed and conducted by the Geophysical Institute of Israel at Sayarim Military Range (SMR) in Negev desert, including two large calibration explosions: about 82 tons of strong IMI explosives in August 2009, and about 100 tons of ANFO explosives in January 2011. It was a collaborative effort between Israel, CTBTO, USA and several European countries, with the main goal to provide fully controlled ground truth (GT0) infrasound sources in different weather/wind conditions, for calibration of IMS infrasound stations in Europe, Middle East and Asia. Strong boosters and the upward charge detonation scheme were applied to provide a reduced energy release to the ground and an enlarged energy radiation to the atmosphere, producing enhanced infrasound signals, for better observation at far-regional stations. The following observations and results indicate on the required explosives energy partition for this charge design: 1) crater size and local seismic (duration) magnitudes were found smaller than expected for these large surface explosions; 2) small test shots of the same charge (1 ton) conducted at SMR with different detonation directions showed clearly lower seismic amplitudes/energy and smaller crater size for the upward detonation; 3) many infrasound stations at local and regional distances showed higher than expected peak amplitudes, even after application of a wind-correction procedure. For the large-scale explosions, high-pressure gauges were deployed at 100-600 m to record air-blast properties, evaluate the efficiency of the charge design and energy generation, and provide a reliable estimation of the charge yield. Empirical relations for air-blast parameters - peak pressure, impulse and the Secondary Shock (SS) time delay - depending on distance, were developed and analyzed. The parameters, scaled by the cubic root of estimated TNT equivalent charges, were found consistent for all analyzed explosions, except of SS

  15. Use of MHC II structural features in the design of vaccines for organ-specific autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Moustakas, Antonis K; Papadopoulos, George K

    2009-01-01

    The Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II locus is the primary genetic linkage to autoimmune diseases. Susceptibility to each such disease is linked to different alleles, with a few alleles showing also dominant protection. The design of vaccines for autoimmune diseases is a long sought-after goal. As knowledge about the pathogenesis of these diseases has increased, the tools for such an approach have of necessity been refined. We review below the structural essence of MHC II-linked autoimmune diseases which centers on the binding of antigenic peptides to the disease-linked MHC II proteins, and the consequent activation of cognate TCRs from pathogenic CD4+ T cells. The state of affairs in two organ-specific autoimmune diseases, type 1 diabetes, celiac disease are covered, including attempts to treat these via antigen-specific MHC II-guided measures. We offer a couple of testable suggestions as to how this approach could be improved.

  16. Final Plan to Study the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing on Drinking Water Resources

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall purpose of this study is to elucidate the relationship, if any, between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water resources. More specifically, the study has been designed to assess the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources and to identif...

  17. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT X, AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS--HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS (PART II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE A SUMMARY OF MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES FOR AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) CHECKING THE HYDRAULIC SYSTEM, (2) SERVICING THE HYDRAULIC SYSTEM, (3) EXAMINING THE RANGE CONTROL VALVE, (4) EXAMINING THE LOCK-UP AND FLOW VALVE, (5) EXAMINING THE MAIN REGULATOR…

  18. Applying hydraulic transient analysis: The Grizzly Hydro Project

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, T.H.; Stutsman, R.D. )

    1992-04-01

    No matter the size of the hydro plant, if it has a long waterway and will operate in peaking mode, the project designer needs to address the issue of hydraulic transients-known as water hammer-early in the design. This article describes the application of transient analysis to the design of a 20-MW hydro plant in California. In this case, a Howell Bunger valve was used as a pressure regulating valve to control transient pressures and speed rise.

  19. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOEpatents

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.; Arnold, Don W.; Hencken, Kenneth R.; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Neyer, David W.

    2003-06-03

    An electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic pump for manipulating fluids in capillary-based system. The pump uses electro-osmotic flow to provide a high pressure hydraulic system, having no moving mechanical parts, for pumping and/or compressing fluids, for providing valve means and means for opening and closing valves, for controlling fluid flow rate, and manipulating fluid flow generally and in capillary-based systems (microsystems), in particular. The compact nature of the inventive high pressure hydraulic pump provides the ability to construct a micro-scale or capillary-based HPLC system that fulfills the desire for small sample quantity, low solvent consumption, improved efficiency, the ability to run samples in parallel, and field portability. Control of pressure and solvent flow rate is achieved by controlling the voltage applied to an electrokinetic pump.

  20. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOEpatents

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.; Arnold, Don W.; Hencken, Kenneth R.; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Neyer, David W.

    2001-01-01

    An electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic pump for manipulating fluids in capillary-based systems. The pump uses electro-osmotic flow to provide a high pressure hydraulic system, having no moving mechanical parts, for pumping and/or compressing fluids, for providing valve means and means for opening and closing valves, for controlling fluid flow rate, and manipulating fluid flow generally and in capillary-based systems (Microsystems), in particular. The compact nature of the inventive high pressure hydraulic pump provides the ability to construct a micro-scale or capillary-based HPLC system that fulfills the desire for small sample quantity, low solvent consumption, improved efficiency, the ability to run samples in parallel, and field portability. Control of pressure and solvent flow rate is achieved by controlling the voltage applied to an electrokinetic pump.

  1. Complex Fluids and Hydraulic Fracturing.

    PubMed

    Barbati, Alexander C; Desroches, Jean; Robisson, Agathe; McKinley, Gareth H

    2016-06-01

    Nearly 70 years old, hydraulic fracturing is a core technique for stimulating hydrocarbon production in a majority of oil and gas reservoirs. Complex fluids are implemented in nearly every step of the fracturing process, most significantly to generate and sustain fractures and transport and distribute proppant particles during and following fluid injection. An extremely wide range of complex fluids are used: naturally occurring polysaccharide and synthetic polymer solutions, aqueous physical and chemical gels, organic gels, micellar surfactant solutions, emulsions, and foams. These fluids are loaded over a wide range of concentrations with particles of varying sizes and aspect ratios and are subjected to extreme mechanical and environmental conditions. We describe the settings of hydraulic fracturing (framed by geology), fracturing mechanics and physics, and the critical role that non-Newtonian fluid dynamics and complex fluids play in the hydraulic fracturing process. PMID:27070765

  2. Wellhead with hydraulic pump actuator

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, H.D.; Brown, M.A.; Rohling, L.J.

    1984-07-31

    A wellhead assembly especially suited for oil wells has a wide working pressure range and employs three components which fit together to seal the well casing, hold the tubing against high wellhead pressures, and provide a connection to the tubing through which the sucker rods are operated. The primary casing seal is formed by the mating contact of metal surfaces that are not subject to deterioration. The actuator for the subsurface pump is a vertically disposed hydraulic cylinder unit aligned with the sucker rods and forming the uppermost section of an elongated cylindrical housing, which also has a lowermost section on the wellhead that provides the outlets for the fluid pumped from the well, and an intermediate, control section that contains a spool valve for controlling the hydraulic actuator. The spool is shifted by the piston and rod of the hydraulic actuator at the upper and lower limits of their stroke to thereby reciprocate the sucker rods and operate the subsurface pump.

  3. Hydraulic oil well pumping apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    McDuffie, T.F.

    1983-09-27

    The preferred embodiment is directed to an oil well pumping apparatus incorporating a walking beam having a horsehead at one end which connects to the sucker rods in the oil well. The opposite end of the walking beam is supported on a fixed pivot. A hydraulic and pneumatic combination unit connects from a supporting platform to a central point on the beam to raise and lower the beam. The improved apparatus utilizes air pressure to balance the static load on the apparatus and dynamically strokes the sucker rod string by imparting a reciprocating motion through hydraulic power applied at a specified rate to raise and lower the walking beam. A pump and motor system for a closed hydraulic loop is included. Alternate preferred embodiments are disclosed. In one form, a lubricating system is incorporated. First and second alternate forms of pickoff apparatus which powers the pneumatically balanced pumping apparatus is also included.

  4. Method for directional hydraulic fracturing

    DOEpatents

    Swanson, David E.; Daly, Daniel W.

    1994-01-01

    A method for directional hydraulic fracturing using borehole seals to confine pressurized fluid in planar permeable regions, comprising: placing a sealant in the hole of a structure selected from geologic or cemented formations to fill the space between a permeable planar component and the geologic or cemented formation in the vicinity of the permeable planar component; making a hydraulic connection between the permeable planar component and a pump; permitting the sealant to cure and thereby provide both mechanical and hydraulic confinement to the permeable planar component; and pumping a fluid from the pump into the permeable planar component to internally pressurize the permeable planar component to initiate a fracture in the formation, the fracture being disposed in the same orientation as the permeable planar component.

  5. Complex Fluids and Hydraulic Fracturing.

    PubMed

    Barbati, Alexander C; Desroches, Jean; Robisson, Agathe; McKinley, Gareth H

    2016-06-01

    Nearly 70 years old, hydraulic fracturing is a core technique for stimulating hydrocarbon production in a majority of oil and gas reservoirs. Complex fluids are implemented in nearly every step of the fracturing process, most significantly to generate and sustain fractures and transport and distribute proppant particles during and following fluid injection. An extremely wide range of complex fluids are used: naturally occurring polysaccharide and synthetic polymer solutions, aqueous physical and chemical gels, organic gels, micellar surfactant solutions, emulsions, and foams. These fluids are loaded over a wide range of concentrations with particles of varying sizes and aspect ratios and are subjected to extreme mechanical and environmental conditions. We describe the settings of hydraulic fracturing (framed by geology), fracturing mechanics and physics, and the critical role that non-Newtonian fluid dynamics and complex fluids play in the hydraulic fracturing process.

  6. Current Experience in Testing Mitochondrial Nutrients in Disorders Featuring Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction: Rational Design of Chemoprevention Trials

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, Giovanni; Aiello Talamanca, Annarita; Castello, Giuseppe; Cordero, Mario D.; d’Ischia, Marco; Gadaleta, Maria Nicola; Pallardó, Federico V.; Petrović, Sandra; Tiano, Luca; Zatterale, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    An extensive number of pathologies are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction (MDF) and oxidative stress (OS). Thus, mitochondrial cofactors termed “mitochondrial nutrients” (MN), such as α-lipoic acid (ALA), Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), and l-carnitine (CARN) (or its derivatives) have been tested in a number of clinical trials, and this review is focused on the use of MN-based clinical trials. The papers reporting on MN-based clinical trials were retrieved in MedLine up to July 2014, and evaluated for the following endpoints: (a) treated diseases; (b) dosages, number of enrolled patients and duration of treatment; (c) trial success for each MN or MN combinations as reported by authors. The reports satisfying the above endpoints included total numbers of trials and frequencies of randomized, controlled studies, i.e., 81 trials testing ALA, 107 reports testing CoQ10, and 74 reports testing CARN, while only 7 reports were retrieved testing double MN associations, while no report was found testing a triple MN combination. A total of 28 reports tested MN associations with “classical” antioxidants, such as antioxidant nutrients or drugs. Combinations of MN showed better outcomes than individual MN, suggesting forthcoming clinical studies. The criteria in study design and monitoring MN-based clinical trials are discussed. PMID:25380523

  7. FOREWORD: 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yulin; Wang, Zhengwei; Liu, Shuhong; Yuan, Shouqi; Luo, Xingqi; Wang, Fujun

    2012-11-01

    was molded into a polytechnic institute focusing on engineering in the nationwide restructuring of universities and colleges undertaken in 1952. At present, the university has 14 schools and 56 departments with faculties in science, engineering, humanities, law, medicine, history, philosophy, economics, management, education and art. The University now has over 25 900 students, including 13 100 undergraduates and 12 800 graduate students. As one of China's most renowned universities, Tsinghua has become an important institution for fostering talents and scientific research. The International Association of Hydro-Environment Engineering and Research (IAHR) particularly promotes the advancement and exchange of knowledge through working groups, specialty symposia, congresses, and publications on water resources, river and coastal hydraulics, risk analysis, energy, environment, disaster prevention, and industrial processes. The IAHR Committee on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems deals with the advancement of technology associated with the understanding of steady and unsteady flow characteristics in hydraulic machinery and conduit systems connected to the machinery. The technology elements include the fluid behaviour within machine components, hydro-elastic behaviour of machine components, cavitation and two phase flow in turbines and pumps, hydraulic machine and plant control systems, the use of hydraulic machines to improve water quality, and even considerations to improve fish survival in their passage through hydro plants. The main emphases of the IAHR Committee on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems are to stimulate research and understanding of the technologies associated with hydraulic machinery and to promote interaction between the machine designers, machine users, the academic community, and the community as a whole. Hydraulic machinery is both cost effective and environmentally friendly. The goals of the IAHR Committee on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems are to improve

  8. FOREWORD: 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yulin; Wang, Zhengwei; Liu, Shuhong; Yuan, Shouqi; Luo, Xingqi; Wang, Fujun

    2012-11-01

    was molded into a polytechnic institute focusing on engineering in the nationwide restructuring of universities and colleges undertaken in 1952. At present, the university has 14 schools and 56 departments with faculties in science, engineering, humanities, law, medicine, history, philosophy, economics, management, education and art. The University now has over 25 900 students, including 13 100 undergraduates and 12 800 graduate students. As one of China's most renowned universities, Tsinghua has become an important institution for fostering talents and scientific research. The International Association of Hydro-Environment Engineering and Research (IAHR) particularly promotes the advancement and exchange of knowledge through working groups, specialty symposia, congresses, and publications on water resources, river and coastal hydraulics, risk analysis, energy, environment, disaster prevention, and industrial processes. The IAHR Committee on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems deals with the advancement of technology associated with the understanding of steady and unsteady flow characteristics in hydraulic machinery and conduit systems connected to the machinery. The technology elements include the fluid behaviour within machine components, hydro-elastic behaviour of machine components, cavitation and two phase flow in turbines and pumps, hydraulic machine and plant control systems, the use of hydraulic machines to improve water quality, and even considerations to improve fish survival in their passage through hydro plants. The main emphases of the IAHR Committee on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems are to stimulate research and understanding of the technologies associated with hydraulic machinery and to promote interaction between the machine designers, machine users, the academic community, and the community as a whole. Hydraulic machinery is both cost effective and environmentally friendly. The goals of the IAHR Committee on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems are to improve

  9. Micromechanical Aspects of Hydraulic Fracturing Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo-torres, S. A.; Behraftar, S.; Scheuermann, A.; Li, L.; Williams, D.

    2014-12-01

    A micromechanical model is developed to simulate the hydraulic fracturing process. The model comprises two key components. Firstly, the solid matrix, assumed as a rock mass with pre-fabricated cracks, is represented by an array of bonded particles simulated by the Discrete Element Model (DEM)[1]. The interaction is ruled by the spheropolyhedra method, which was introduced by the authors previously and has been shown to realistically represent many of the features found in fracturing and communition processes. The second component is the fluid, which is modelled by the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM). It was recently coupled with the spheropolyhedra by the authors and validated. An advantage of this coupled LBM-DEM model is the control of many of the parameters of the fracturing fluid, such as its viscosity and the injection rate. To the best of the authors' knowledge this is the first application of such a coupled scheme for studying hydraulic fracturing[2]. In this first implementation, results are presented for a two-dimensional situation. Fig. 1 shows one snapshot of the LBM-DEM coupled simulation for the hydraulic fracturing where the elements with broken bonds can be identified and the fracture geometry quantified. The simulation involves a variation of the underground stress, particularly the difference between the two principal components of the stress tensor, to explore the effect on the fracture path. A second study focuses on the fluid viscosity to examine the effect of the time scales of different injection plans on the fracture geometry. The developed tool and the presented results have important implications for future studies of the hydraulic fracturing process and technology. references 1. Galindo-Torres, S.A., et al., Breaking processes in three-dimensional bonded granular materials with general shapes. Computer Physics Communications, 2012. 183(2): p. 266-277. 2. Galindo-Torres, S.A., A coupled Discrete Element Lattice Boltzmann Method for the

  10. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, P.H.; Rakestraw, D.J.

    2000-01-11

    A compact high pressure hydraulic system having no moving parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force and for manipulating fluids. Electro-osmotic flow is used to provide a valve and means to compress a fluid or gas in a capillary-based system. By electro-osmotically moving an electrolyte between a first position opening communication between a fluid inlet and outlet and a second position closing communication between the fluid inlet and outlet the system can be configured as a valve. The system can also be used to generate forces as large as 2500 psi that can be used to compress a fluid, either a liquid or a gas.

  11. Electokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOEpatents

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.

    2000-01-01

    A compact high pressure hydraulic system having no moving parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force and for manipulating fluids. Electro-osmotic flow is used to provide a valve and means to compress a fluid or gas in a capillary-based system. By electro-osmotically moving an electrolyte between a first position opening communication between a fluid inlet and outlet and a second position closing communication between the fluid inlet and outlet the system can be configured as a valve. The system can also be used to generate forces as large as 2500 psi that can be used to compress a fluid, either a liquid or a gas.

  12. Lead users’ ideas on core features to support physical activity in rheumatoid arthritis: a first step in the development of an internet service using participatory design

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the growing evidence of the benefits of physical activity (PA) in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the majority is not physically active enough. An innovative strategy is to engage lead users in the development of PA interventions provided over the internet. The aim was to explore lead users’ ideas and prioritization of core features in a future internet service targeting adoption and maintenance of healthy PA in people with RA. Methods Six focus group interviews were performed with a purposively selected sample of 26 individuals with RA. Data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis and quantification of participants’ prioritization of most important content. Results Six categories were identified as core features for a future internet service: up-to-date and evidence-based information and instructions, self-regulation tools, social interaction, personalized set-up, attractive design and content, and access to the internet service. The categories represented four themes, or core aspects, important to consider in the design of the future service: (1) content, (2) customized options, (3) user interface and (4) access and implementation. Conclusions This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first study involving people with RA in the development of an internet service to support the adoption and maintenance of PA. Participants helped identifying core features and aspects important to consider and further explore during the next phase of development. We hypothesize that involvement of lead users will make transfer from theory to service more adequate and user-friendly and therefore will be an effective mean to facilitate PA behavior change. PMID:24655757

  13. 14 CFR 33.72 - Hydraulic actuating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hydraulic actuating systems. 33.72 Section 33.72 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.72...

  14. Mechanical and hydraulic snubbers for nuclear applications, September 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-09-28

    This standard covers the material, design, analysis, application, fabrication, testing, examination, quality assurance, certification, delivery, installation and inservice inspection of safety-related hydraulic and mechanical shock suppressors (snubbers) for nuclear reactors. These devices permit thermal expansion motion of components during normal plant service, but provide restraint to dynamic loads.

  15. 14 CFR 33.72 - Hydraulic actuating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hydraulic actuating systems. 33.72 Section 33.72 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.72...

  16. 14 CFR 33.72 - Hydraulic actuating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hydraulic actuating systems. 33.72 Section 33.72 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.72...

  17. 14 CFR 33.72 - Hydraulic actuating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hydraulic actuating systems. 33.72 Section 33.72 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.72...

  18. Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Design Selection (LADS) Phase 1 Analysis of Surface Modification Consisting of Addition of Alluvium (Feature 23a)

    SciTech Connect

    N. Erb

    1999-06-11

    The objective of this report is to document the analysis that was conducted to evaluate the effect of a potential change to the TSPA-VA base case design that could improve long-term repository performance. The design feature evaluated in this report is a modification of the topographic surface of Yucca Mountain. The modification consists of covering the land surface immediately above the repository foot-print with a thick layer of unconsolidated material utilizing rip-rap and plants to mitigate erosion. This surface modification is designated as Feature 23a or simply abbreviated as F23a. The fundamental aim of F23a is to reduce the net infiltration into the unsaturated zone by enhancing the potential for evapotranspiratiration at the surface; such a change would, in turn, reduce the seepage flux and the rate of radionuclide releases from the repository. Field and modeling studies of water movement in the unsaturated zone have indicated that shallow infiltration at the surface is almost negligible in locations where the bedrock is covered by a sufficiently thick soil layer. In addition to providing storage for meteoric water, a thick soil layer would slow the downward movement of soil moisture to such an extent that evaporation and transpiration could easily transfer most of the soil-water back to the atmosphere. Generic requirements for the effectiveness of this design feature are two-fold. First, the soil layer above the repository foot-print must be thick enough to provide sufficient storage of meteoric water (from episodic precipitation events) and accommodate plant roots. Second, the added soil layer must be engineered so as to mitigate thinning by erosional processes and have sufficient thickness to accommodate the roots of common desert plants. Under these two conditions, it is reasonable to expect that modification would be effective for a significant time period and the net infiltration and deep percolation flux would be reduced by orders of magnitude lower

  19. Borehole Heat Exchanger Systems: Hydraulic Conductivity and Frost-Resistance of Backfill Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbergen, Hauke; Sass, Ingo

    2016-04-01

    Ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems are economic solutions for both, domestic heating energy supply, as well as underground thermal energy storage (UTES). Over the past decades the technology developed to complex, advanced and highly efficient systems. For an efficient operation of the most common type of UTES, borehole heat exchanger (BHE) systems, it is necessary to design the system for a wide range of carrier fluid temperatures. During heat extraction, a cooled carrier fluid is heated up by geothermal energy. This collected thermal energy is energetically used by the heat pump. Thereby the carrier fluid temperature must have a lower temperature than the surrounding underground in order to collect heat energy. The steeper the thermal gradient, the more energy is transferred to the carrier fluid. The heat injection case works vice versa. For fast and sufficient heat extraction, even over long periods of heating (winter), it might become necessary to run the BHE with fluid temperatures below 0°C. As the heat pump runs periodically, a cyclic freezing of the pore water and corresponding ice-lens growth in the nearfield of the BHE pipes becomes possible. These so called freeze-thaw-cycles (FTC) are a critical state for the backfill material, as the sealing effect eventually decreases. From a hydrogeological point of view the vertical sealing of the BHE needs to be secured at any time (e.g. VDI 4640-2, Draft 2015). The vertical hydraulic conductivity of the BHE is influenced not only by the permeability of the grouting material itself, but by the contact area between BHE pipes and grout. In order to assess the sealing capacity of grouting materials a laboratory testing procedure was developed that measures the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the system BHE pipe and grout. The key features of the procedure are: • assessment of the systeḿs hydraulic conductivity • assessment of the systeḿs hydraulic conductivity after simulation of freeze-thaw-cycle

  20. Measuring hydraulic fracture width behind casing using radioactive proppant

    SciTech Connect

    Reis, J.S.; Fisher, K.; Holcomb, D.

    1996-09-01

    Knowing the width of hydraulic fracture behind casing can be useful in evaluating both reservoir performance and fracture design methods. This paper presents a method to obtain the widths of hydraulic fractures behind casing using radioactive, isotope-traced proppants. A tool-specific relationship between the gamma ray flux detected in a wellbore and the fracture width was developed using Monte Carlo simulation of gamma ray transport around a wellbore. This method provides fracture width estimates with a vertical resolution of about one foot. The method has been successfully used in the field and compares favorably with other methods for evaluating fracture widths.

  1. Trouble-free hydraulic valve package for crane winches

    SciTech Connect

    DeLamatyr, G.

    1983-12-01

    Baker Marine Corporation has been producing hydraulically powered pedestal type cranes for the offshore industry for approximately three years. The original hydraulic system cranes was of the open loop type with multiple gear pumps driven by a single diesel engine. One pump in the stack serviced the main and auxiliary hook winches, while another worked the boom winch, and a third pump sent oil to the crane swing motor. For reasons of economy and simplicity, it was decided that this scheme would be kept as part of the new design.

  2. Pros and cons of hydraulic drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of using hydraulic drilling are discussed. The low maintenance, energy efficiency, drilling speeds, and operating costs are the main advantages of the hydraulic drills. The economics and maintenance of air drills are also compared.

  3. CRITICALITY CURVES FOR PLUTONIUM HYDRAULIC FLUID MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect

    WITTEKIND WD

    2007-10-03

    This Calculation Note performs and documents MCNP criticality calculations for plutonium (100% {sup 239}Pu) hydraulic fluid mixtures. Spherical geometry was used for these generalized criticality safety calculations and three geometries of neutron reflection are: {sm_bullet}bare, {sm_bullet}1 inch of hydraulic fluid, or {sm_bullet}12 inches of hydraulic fluid. This document shows the critical volume and critical mass for various concentrations of plutonium in hydraulic fluid. Between 1 and 2 gallons of hydraulic fluid were discovered in the bottom of HA-23S. This HA-23S hydraulic fluid was reported by engineering to be Fyrquel 220. The hydraulic fluid in GLovebox HA-23S is Fyrquel 220 which contains phosphorus. Critical spherical geometry in air is calculated with 0 in., 1 in., or 12 inches hydraulic fluid reflection.

  4. Removing freon gas from hydraulic fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, B. B.; Mitchell, S. M.; State, T. S.

    1981-01-01

    Dissolved freon gas is removed from hydraulic fluid by raising temperature to 150 F and bubbling dry nitrogen gas through it, even while fluid circulates through hydraulic system. Procedure reduces parts corrosion, sludge formation, and contamination.

  5. The Design and Development of Online Course Materials: Some Features and Recommendations (El diseño y desarrollo de materiales para cursos en línea: algunos rasgos y recomendaciones)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuesta, Liliana

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses various features in the design and implementation of online course materials. The author provides a critical review of some instructional design patterns and expands on the alignment among instruction, motivation and learners' performances as part of a curriculum design process. In this context, the author emphasizes…

  6. Manual or hydraulic gearshifting apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, H.; Kojima, Y.

    1986-04-08

    A vehicle transmission control apparatus is described which consists of: a plurality of shift members for operating a vehicle transmission; a lever adapted for linear movement into a plurality of positions, one each of the lever being operatively coupled to a different one of the shift members in each of the positions; the lever being further adapted for pivotal movement in response to which the one end of the lever actuates the operatively coupled shift member; a select actuator means comprising a select hydraulic cylinder and a select piston retained thereby, the select piston being coupled to the lever and hydraulically controlled to produce the linear movement thereof; a shift actuator means comprising a shift hydraulic cylinder and a shift piston retained thereby, the shift piston being coupled to the lever and hydraulically controlled to produce the pivotal movement thereof; a casing means retaining the lever, the select actuator means, and the shift actuator means; and a control member comprising a portion within the casing means and coupled to the lever and a manually accessible portion always disposed outside the casing means and having means adapted for manual actuation to produce either the linear or the pivotal movement of the lever.

  7. Introduction to Hydraulics. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Univ., Austin. Extension Instruction and Materials Center.

    This instructor's guide on hydraulics is part of a series of individualized instructional materials. The guide is provided to help the instructor make certain that each student gets the most benefit possible from both the student's manual and what he/she does on the job. Notes for the instructor contain suggestions on how the student should use…

  8. Hydraulic Properties of Unsaturated Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many agrophysical applications require knowledge of the hydraulic properties of unsaturated soils. These properties reflect the ability of a soil to retain or transmit water and its dissolved constituents. The objective of this work was to develop an entry for the Encyclopedia of Agrophysics that w...

  9. Thermal-Hydraulic-Analysis Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, J. T.

    1993-01-01

    ELM computer program is simple computational tool for modeling steady-state thermal hydraulics of flows of propellants through fuel-element-coolant channels in nuclear thermal rockets. Evaluates various heat-transfer-coefficient and friction-factor correlations available for turbulent pipe flow with addition of heat. Comparisons possible within one program. Machine-independent program written in FORTRAN 77.

  10. Flow Distribution in Hydraulic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, S. N.

    1983-01-01

    General Flow Distribution Program analyzes pressure drops and flow distribution in closed and open hydraulic systems. Analyzes system on basis of incompressible flow though system may contain either compressible or incompressible fluid. Program solves fixed or variable flow problems for series, parallel, or series/parallel systems.

  11. Tree Hydraulics: How Sap Rises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Trees transport water from roots to crown--a height that can exceed 100 m. The physics of tree hydraulics can be conveyed with simple fluid dynamics based upon the Hagen-Poiseuille equation and Murray's law. Here the conduit structure is modelled as conical pipes and as branching pipes. The force required to lift sap is generated mostly by…

  12. Application study of magnetic fluid seal in hydraulic turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Z. Y.; Zhang, W.

    2012-11-01

    The waterpower resources of our country are abundant, and the hydroelectric power is developed, but at present the main shaft sealing device of hydraulic turbine is easy to wear and tear and the leakage is great. The magnetic fluid seal has the advantages of no contact, no wear, self-healing, long life and so on. In this paper, the magnetic fluid seal would be used in the main shaft of hydraulic turbine, the sealing structure was built the model, meshed the geometry, applied loads and solved by using MULTIPHYSICS in ANSYS software, the influence of the various sealing structural parameters such as tooth width, height, slot width, sealing gap on the sealing property were analyzed, the magnetic fluid sealing device suitable for large-diameter shaft and sealing water was designed, the sealing problem of the hydraulic turbine main shaft was solved effectively which will bring huge economic benefits.

  13. VIPRE-01: A thermal-hydraulic code for reactor cores:

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, C.W.; Cuta, J.M.

    1988-03-01

    VIPRE (Versatile Internals and Component Program for Reactors;EPRI) has been developed for nuclear power utility thermal-hydraulic analysis applications. It is designed to help evaluate nuclear reactor core safety limits including minimum departure from nucleate boiling ratio (NDNBR), critical power ratio (CPR), fuel and clad temperatures, and coolant state in normal operation and assumed accident conditions. This volume discusses general and specific considerations in using VIPRE as a thermal-hydraulic analysis tool. Volume 1: Mathematical Modeling, explains the major thermal-hydraulic models and supporting mathematial correlations in detail. Volume 2: Users's Manual, describes the input requirements of the codes in the VIPRE code package. Volume 3: Programmer's Manual, explains the code structure and computer interface. Experimence in running VIPRE is documented in Volume 4: Applications. 25 refs., 31 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Transport efficiency and dynamics of hydraulic fracture networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachau, Till; Bons, Paul; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique

    2015-08-01

    Intermittent fluid pulses in the Earth's crust can explain a variety of geological phenomena, for instance the occurrence of hydraulic breccia. Fluid transport in the crust is usually modeled as continuous darcian flow, ignoring that sufficient fluid overpressure can cause hydraulic fractures as fluid pathways with very dynamic behavior. Resulting hydraulic fracture networks are largely self-organized: opening and healing of hydraulic fractures depends on local fluid pressure, which is, in turn, largely controlled by the fracture network. We develop a crustal-scale 2D computer model designed to simulate this process. To focus on the dynamics of the process we chose a setup as simple as possible. Control factors are constant overpressure at a basal fluid source and a constant 'viscous' parameter controlling fracture-healing. Our results indicate that at large healing rates hydraulic fractures are mobile, transporting fluid in intermittent pulses to the surface and displaying a 1/fα behavior. Low healing rates result in stable networks and constant flow. The efficiency of the fluid transport is independent from the closure dynamics of veins or fractures. More important than preexisting fracture networks is the distribution of fluid pressure. A key requirement for dynamic fracture networks is the presence of a fluid pressure gradient.

  15. Comparisons of the dynamic characteristics of magnetorheological and hydraulic dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Oyadiji, S. O.

    2015-04-01

    A magnetorheological (MR) damper can adapt its dynamic performance to the vibration environment by controlling the current applied. Compared to other types of dampers, the MR damper has a wider range of dynamic characteristics. Two different dampers: hydraulic, and MR dampers were tested under forced sinusoidal excitations of low to high frequencies. Also, different currents were applied on the MR damper to investigate its performance under varying electromagnetic fields. The results reveal that the two dampers have nonlinear dynamic characteristics and that characteristics of the hydraulic damper are different from those of the MR damper. The hydraulic damper provides slight nonlinear damping force whereas the MR damper shows a strong nonlinear property. In addition, the hydraulic damper is designed to provide an asymmetric damping force of rebound and compression whereas the MR damper provides a symmetric damping force. In the experiments conducted, the excitation frequency was varied from 3 Hz to 11 Hz and the amplitude from 2.5 mm to 12 mm. For the hydraulic damper, the lowest compression damping force only increases by about 0.54 kN while the rebound force increases by about 1.9 kN. In contrast, the variations of compression and rebound forces of the MR damper are 1.9 and 2.0 kN, respectively. Furthermore, the damping force of the MR damper increases as the current increases from 0 to 0.75 A.

  16. Investigation of hydraulic transmission noise sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klop, Richard J.

    Advanced hydrostatic transmissions and hydraulic hybrids show potential in new market segments such as commercial vehicles and passenger cars. Such new applications regard low noise generation as a high priority, thus, demanding new quiet hydrostatic transmission designs. In this thesis, the aim is to investigate noise sources of hydrostatic transmissions to discover strategies for designing compact and quiet solutions. A model has been developed to capture the interaction of a pump and motor working in a hydrostatic transmission and to predict overall noise sources. This model allows a designer to compare noise sources for various configurations and to design compact and inherently quiet solutions. The model describes dynamics of the system by coupling lumped parameter pump and motor models with a one-dimensional unsteady compressible transmission line model. The model has been verified with dynamic pressure measurements in the line over a wide operating range for several system structures. Simulation studies were performed illustrating sensitivities of several design variables and the potential of the model to design transmissions with minimal noise sources. A semi-anechoic chamber has been designed and constructed suitable for sound intensity measurements that can be used to derive sound power. Measurements proved the potential to reduce audible noise by predicting and reducing both noise sources. Sound power measurements were conducted on a series hybrid transmission test bench to validate the model and compare predicted noise sources with sound power.

  17. Dynamics of an Array of Hydraulic Jumps in an Active Submarine Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorrell, R. M.; Peakall, J.; Sumner, E. J.; Parsons, D. R.; Darby, S. E.; Wynn, R. B.; Ozsoy, E.; Tezcan, D.

    2014-12-01

    Hydraulic jumps, or bores, are formed when a flow rapidly thickens and slows down, passing from a Froude number defined super to subcritical state. Such transitional behaviour occurs as a flow responds to changes in bed slope or channel geometry. Hydraulic jumps are thought to be ubiquitous features formed in submarine channelized flows, as well as in river channels. Here, for the first time, we present integrated velocity and density measurements across an array of hydraulic jumps. The velocity data were collected using an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP)), and the density data were collected using a Conductivity, Temperature Depth (CTD) probe. The hydraulic jumps were generated by scour features, in a channelized, density stratified flow exiting the Bosphorus Strait onto the continental shelf region in South West Black Sea. It is observed that with stratification of the flow the dilute upper layer completely bypasses any forcing arising from the changing bed slope, whilst the denser lower layer responds by generating an internal hydraulic jump. Such flow behaviour is distinct to that observed in open-channel systems, where flows are rarely sufficiently stratified to generate internal hydraulic jumps. This direct field evidence supports previous experimental and theoretical analysis of hydraulic jumps in stratified shear flow. However, the field data raise several fundamental physical questions relating to the mechanics of internal hydraulic jumps. Firstly, it is observed that surface rollers, resulting in upstream flow velocity, are consistently found hundreds of metres before the slope break initiating the hydraulic jump. Secondly it is observed that the Froude criticality of the upper dilute layer is inversely related to that of the lower layer. Thirdly, it is noted that with a bypassing upper flow layer, sediment transport dynamics of coarse versus fine grained sediment past the slope break will be

  18. Hydraulic characterization of " Furcraea andina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera-Velasquez, M. F.; Fallico, C.; Molinari, A.; Santillan, P.; Salazar, M.

    2012-04-01

    The present level of pollution, increasingly involving groundwaters, constitutes a serious risk for environment and human health. Therefore the remediation of saturated and unsaturated soils, removing pollutant materials through innovative and economic bio-remediation techniques is more frequently required. Recent studies on natural fiber development have shown the effectiveness of these fibers for removal of some heavy metals, due to the lignin content in the natural fibers which plays an important role in the adsorption of metal cations (Lee et al., 2004; Troisi et al., 2008; C. Fallico, 2010). In the context of remediation techniques for unsaturated and/or saturated zone, an experimental approach for the hydraulic characterization of the "Furcraea andina" (i.e., Cabuya Blanca) fiber was carried out. This fiber is native to Andean regions and grows easily in wild or cultivated form in the valleys and hillsides of Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Fibers of "Furcraea andina" were characterized by experimental tests to determine their hydraulic conductivity or permeability and porosity in order to use this medium for bioremediation of contaminated aquifer exploiting the physical, chemical and microbial capacity of natural fiber in heavy metal adsorption. To evaluate empirically the hydraulic conductivity, laboratory tests were carried out at constant head specifically on the fibers manually extracted. For these tests we used a flow cell (used as permeameter), containing the "Furcraea andina" fibers to be characterized, suitably connected by a tygon pipe to a Marriott's bottle, which had a plastic tube that allow the adjustment of the hydraulic head for different tests to a constant value. By this experiment it was also possible to identify relationships that enable the estimation of permeability as a function of density, i.e. of the compaction degree of the fibers. Our study was carried out for three values of hydraulic head (H), namely 10, 18, and 25 cm and for each

  19. ARCADIA{sup R} - A New Generation of Coupled Neutronics / Core Thermal- Hydraulics Code System at AREVA NP

    SciTech Connect

    Curca-Tivig, Florin; Merk, Stephan; Pautz, Andreas; Thareau, Sebastien

    2007-07-01

    Anticipating future needs of our customers and willing to concentrate synergies and competences existing in the company for the benefit of our customers, AREVA NP decided in 2002 to develop the next generation of coupled neutronics/ core thermal-hydraulic (TH) code systems for fuel assembly and core design calculations for both, PWR and BWR applications. The global CONVERGENCE project was born: after a feasibility study of one year (2002) and a conceptual phase of another year (2003), development was started at the beginning of 2004. The present paper introduces the CONVERGENCE project, presents the main feature of the new code system ARCADIA{sup R} and concludes on customer benefits. ARCADIA{sup R} is designed to meet AREVA NP market and customers' requirements worldwide. Besides state-of-the-art physical modeling, numerical performance and industrial functionality, the ARCADIA{sup R} system is featuring state-of-the-art software engineering. The new code system will bring a series of benefits for our customers: e.g. improved accuracy for heterogeneous cores (MOX/ UOX, Gd...), better description of nuclide chains, and access to local neutronics/ thermal-hydraulics and possibly thermal-mechanical information (3D pin by pin full core modeling). ARCADIA is a registered trademark of AREVA NP. (authors)

  20. Merging hydraulics with biology

    SciTech Connect

    Thorncraft, Garry; Baumgartner, Lee J.; Boys, Craig A.; Brown, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    Research staff are now working with developers in Lao PDR and Australia to ensure design criteria is optimised at time of construction. Research is presently underway on a suite of Mekong and Murray-Darling species to identify critical tolerances of shear and pressure. Work in the USA is also being expanded to lamprey and white sturgeon in an effort to increase the understanding beyond salmon species. Researchers and developers are hopeful of constructing the first fish-friendly hydro plants within the next two years. Pending favourable outcomes, the expansion of this technology to other sites and river systems is the ultimate development outcome.