Sample records for hydrochoerus hydrochaeris isthmius

  1. Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris)

    PubMed Central

    HAMANO, Takahisa; TERASAWA, Fumio; TACHIKAWA, Yoshiharu; MURAI, Atsuko; MORI, Takashi; EL-DAKHLY, Khaled; SAKAI, Hiroki; YANAI, Tokuma


    ABSTRACT A 4-year and 2-month-old male capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma on the buttocks after chronic recurrent dermatosis. The capybara was euthanized, examined by computed tomography and necropsied; the tumor was examined histologically. Computed tomography showed a dense soft tissue mass with indistinct borders at the buttocks. Histological examination of the tumor revealed islands of invasive squamous epithelial tumor cells with a severe desmoplastic reaction. Based on the pathological findings, the mass was diagnosed as a squamous cell carcinoma. This is the first study to report squamous cell carcinoma in a capybara. PMID:24909968

  2. Acute phase protein response in the capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris).


    Bernal, Luis; Feser, Mariane; Martínez-Subiela, Silvia; García-Martínez, Juan D; Cerón, José J; Tecles, Fernando


    We evaluated the acute phase protein response in capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris). Three animal groups were used: 1) healthy animals (n=30), 2) a group in which experimental inflammation with turpentine was induced (n=6), and 3) a group affected with sarcoptic scabies (n=14) in which 10 animals were treated with ivermectin. Haptoglobin (Hp), acid-soluble glycoprotein (ASG) and albumin were analyzed in all animals. In those treated with turpentine, Hp reached its maximum value at 2 wk with a 2.7-fold increase, whereas ASG increased 1.75-fold and albumin decreased 0.87-fold 1 wk after the induction of inflammation. Capybaras affected with sarcoptic scabies presented increases in Hp and ASG of 4.98- and 3.18-fold, respectively, and a 0.87-fold decrease in albumin, compared with healthy animals. Haptoglobin and ASG can be considered as moderate, positive acute phase proteins in capybaras because they showed less than 10-fold increases after an inflammatory process and reached their peak concentrations 1 wk after the induction of inflammation. Conversely, albumin can be considered a negative acute phase protein in capybaras because it showed a reduction in concentration after inflammatory stimulus. PMID:22102653

  3. Prevalence of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania infantum, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Sarcocystis neurona, and Neospora caninum in Capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, from São Paulo State, Brazil.


    Valadas, Samantha; Gennari, Solange Maria; Yai, Lucia Eiko Oishi; Rosypal, Alexa C; Lindsay, David S


    Little is known about the importance of capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, as reservoirs for parasites of zoonotic or veterinary importance. Sera from 63 capybaras, from 6 counties in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, were examined for antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania infantum, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Sarcocystis neurona, and Neospora caninum using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. Five (8%) of the 63 capybaras had antibodies to T. cruzi epimastigotes. None of the samples from capybara reacted positively with L. infantum promastigotes or with spores of E. cuniculi . Two (3%) of the serum samples were positive for antibodies to S. neurona merozoites, and 2 (3%) of the serum samples were positive for antibodies to N. caninum tachyzoites. A serum sample from 1 capybara was positive for antibodies to both T. cruzi and N. caninum. None of the remaining 62 samples reacted with more than 1 parasite. PMID:20020808


    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) is a large rodent distributed throughout tropical America. Antibodies to Neospora caninum in 213 feral capybaras from 11 counties of the State of São Paulo, Brazil were assessed using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (titer '1:25) and found in 20 (9.4...


    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) is a large rodent used for human consumption in certain areas of South America. In the present study, viable Toxoplasma gondii was isolated for the first time from this host. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed in the sera of 64 capybaras from 6 counties of São...

  6. The effects of unrelated offspring whistle calls on capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris).


    Dos Santos, E; Tokumaru, R S; Nogueira-Filho, S L G; Nogueira, S S C


    Parent-offspring vocal communication, such as the isolation call, is one of the essential adaptations in mammals that adjust parental responsiveness. Thus, our aim was to test the hypothesis that the function of the capybara infants' whistle is to attract conspecifics. We designed a playback experiment to investigate the reaction of 20 adult capybaras (seven males and 13 females) to pups' whistle calls - recorded from unrelated offspring - or to bird song, as control. The adult capybaras promptly responded to playback of unrelated pup whistles, while ignoring the bird vocalisation. The adult capybaras took, on average, 2.6 ± 2.5 seconds (s) to show a response to the whistles, with no differences between males and females. However, females look longer (17.0 ± 12.9 s) than males (3.0 ± 7.2 s) toward the sound source when playing the pups' whistle playback. The females also tended to approach the playback source, while males showed just a momentary interruption of ongoing behaviour (feeding). Our results suggest that capybara pups' whistles function as the isolation call in this species, but gender influences the intensity of the response. PMID:25627382

  7. Detailed morphological description of Habronema clarki Foster & Chitwood, 1937, a nematode parasite of capybaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) in Brazil.


    Hoppe, Estevam Guilherme Lux; Tebaldi, José Hairton; Ferreira, Daniel Fontana


    The genus Habronema has four valid species, of which only two are properly known. The present study aimed to describe in detail the morphology of Habronema clarki through optical and scanning electron microscopy analyses. Our results showed that the labial morphology of this parasite is closer to H. muscae than to H. microstoma. Even so, the characteristic pseudolabia and the slightly convex border of the dorsal and ventral lips are sufficient to distinguish these nematodes. Additional morphological data are presented, thus contributing to the knowledge on this little known nematode. In addition, this study provides new locality records for this species. PMID:25054508

  8. Characterization of Leptospira santarosai Serogroup Grippotyphosa Serovar Bananal Isolated from Capybara ( Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris ) in Brazil.


    Moreno, Luisa Z; Miraglia, Fabiana; Marvulo, Maria F V; Silva, Jean C R; Paula, Catia D; Costa, Barbara L P; Morais, Zenaide M; Ferreira, Fernando; Neto, José S Ferreira; Dellagostin, Odir A; Hartskeerl, Rudy A; Vasconcellos, Silvio A; Moreno, Andrea M


    Leptospirosis is a widespread zoonosis caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira. Rodents appear to be the most important reservoirs of infection. They contaminate the environment and food and can transmit the pathogen when they are consumed by carnivores. Capybara ( Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris ) are efficient reservoirs of Leptospira, and because they are in close contact with farm animals and are found in semiurban areas, they represent a risk to public health. We isolated five Leptospira strains from capybara kidneys in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, in 2001 and typed them using serologic and molecular techniques. These strains include the Leptospira santarosai serogroup Grippotyphosa serovar Bananal. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis resulted in a unique pattern distinct from the reference strains, and the isolates clustered with greater than 85% similarity. The isolates also presented higher growth rates than other Leptospira serovars, with high minimal inhibitory concentration values for most of the tested antibiotics, with the exception of penicillin and ampicillin. This isolation and characterization of the L. santarosai serogroup Grippotyphosa serovar Bananal from capybara, highlights the importance of wild and sinantropic rodents as carriers of pathogenic leptospires. PMID:27258408

  9. DNA extraction from skins of wild (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris and Pecari tajacu) and domestic (Sus scrofa domestica) species using a novel protocol.


    Ojeda, G N; Amavet, P S; Rueda, E C; Siroski, P A


    Sometimes, commercial products obtained from wild animals are sold as if they were from domestic animals and vice versa. At this point of the productive chain, legal control of possible wildlife products is difficult. Common in the commerce of northern Argentina, skins of two wild species, the carpincho and the collared peccary, look very similar to each other and to those of the domestic pig; it is extremely difficult to differentiate them after they have been tanned. Because there was no an adequate methodology to discriminate between leather of these three species, we developed a new methodology of DNA extraction from skin and leather. This new method involves digesting a leather sample using proteinase K, followed by precipitation of proteins with 5 M NaCl, cleaning with absolute isopropanol and DNA precipitation with 70% ethanol. DNA is hydrated in Tris-EDTA buffer. This protocol provided good-quality DNA suitable for analysis with molecular markers. This new protocol has potential for use in identifying leather products of these species using molecular markers based on RAPDs. PMID:22535403

  10. Observations of sylvatic rabies in Northern Argentina during outbreaks of paralytic cattle rabies transmitted by vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus).


    Delpietro, H A; Lord, R D; Russo, R G; Gury-Dhomen, F


    During rabies outbreaks in cattle (paralytic rabies) in Argentina associated with the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, rabies was observed in marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus), red brocket deer (Mazama americana), capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), savanna fox (Cerdocyon thous), and great fruit-eating bat (Artibeus lituratus). Rabies could constitute a threat to the survival of marsh deer in places where they live in small groups, and infection of both great fruit-eating bats and savanna fox represent a risk for humans; both species exhibit aggressiveness and fury when infected. PMID:19901391

  11. Life Cycle of Amblyomma romitii (Acari: Ixodidae) Under Laboratory Conditions.


    Landulfo, G A; Luz, H R; Sampaio, J S; Faccini, J L H; Barros-Battesti, D M


    The life cycle of Amblyomma romitii Tonelli-Rondelli, 1939 is reported for the first time, using rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) for larvae and capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) for nymphs and adults, as experimental hosts. Developmental periods of free-living stages were observed in an incubator at 27 ± 1°C, 80 ± 10% relative humidity (RH), and 24-h darkness. The life cycle of A. romitii in the laboratory could be completed in an average period of 216.4 d. The overall sex ratio (M:F) was 1:1.4. The results showed that rabbits are quite suitable as experimental hosts for the larval stages of A. romitii, while capybaras are suitable experimental hosts for nymphs and adults. PMID:26487244

  12. Trypanosoma evansi kDNA minicircle found in the Venezuelan nectar-feeding bat Leptonycteris curasoae (Glossophaginae), supports the hypothesis of multiple origins of that parasite in South America.


    Silva-Iturriza, Adriana; Nassar, Jafet M; García-Rawlins, Ariany M; Rosales, Romel; Mijares, Alfredo


    Trypanosoma evansi is a mammal generalist protozoon which causes negative effects on health and productivity in bovine and equine herds in South America, Europe, Asia and Africa. By molecular methods, we screened the presence of that parasite together with other trypanosome species in 105 bats of 10 species collected in arid zones of northern Venezuela. The first molecular approach was fluorescent fragment length barcoding (FFLB), which relies on amplification of relative small regions of rRNA genes (four loci) and fluorescence detection. By FFLB, 17 samples showed patterns of possible trypanosomatid infections. These samples were used to test presence of trypanosomes by PCR using the following DNA markers: V7-V8 SSU rRNA, gGAPDH and kDNA minicircle regions. Only in one individual of the nectar-feeding bat, Leptonycteris curasoae, we were able to amplify 1000bp of the trypanosome kDNA minicircle. That PCR product was sequenced and the parasite species was determined by NCBI-BLAST and phylogenetic analysis. Both analyses showed that the minicircle sequence corresponds to Trypanosoma evansi. The phylogenetic analysis of the sequence obtained in this study clustered with a T. evansi sequence obtained in a Venezuelan capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, and distant of others two T. evansi sequences obtained in a Colombian capybara and horse. This result supports the hypothesis of multiple origins of T. evansi in South America. PMID:23111094

  13. The role of river drainages in shaping the genetic structure of capybara populations.


    Byrne, María Soledad; Quintana, Rubén Darío; Bolkovic, María Luisa; Cassini, Marcelo H; Túnez, Juan Ignacio


    The capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, is an herbivorous rodent widely distributed throughout most of South American wetlands that lives closely associated with aquatic environments. In this work, we studied the genetic structure of the capybara throughout part of its geographic range in Argentina using a DNA fragment of the mitochondrial control region. Haplotypes obtained were compared with those available for populations from Paraguay and Venezuela. We found 22 haplotypes in 303 individuals. Hierarchical AMOVAs were performed to evaluate the role of river drainages in shaping the genetic structure of capybara populations at the regional and basin scales. In addition, two landscape genetic models, isolation by distance and isolation by resistance, were used to test whether genetic distance was associated with Euclidean distance (i.e. isolation by distance) or river corridor distance (i.e. isolation by resistance) at the basin scale. At the regional scale, the results of the AMOVA grouping populations by mayor river basins showed significant differences between them. At the basin scale, we also found significant differences between sub-basins in Paraguay, together with a significant correlation between genetic and river corridor distance. For Argentina and Venezuela, results were not significant. These results suggest that in Paraguay, the current genetic structure of capybaras is associated with the lack of dispersion corridors through permanent rivers. In contrast, limited structuring in Argentina and Venezuela is likely the result of periodic flooding facilitating dispersion. PMID:26385561

  14. New tick records from the state of Rondônia, western Amazon, Brazil.


    Martins, Thiago F; Venzal, José M; Terassini, Flávio A; Costa, Francisco B; Marcili, Arlei; Camargo, Luis M A; Barros-Battesti, Darci M; Labruna, Marcelo B


    From 2005 to 2012, ticks were collected from different hosts at different localities of the state of Rondônia. The following 16 ixodid tick species were identified: Ixodes fuscipes, Amblyomma auricularium, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma geayi, Amblyomma humerale, Amblyomma latepunctatum, Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma naponense, Amblyomma nodosum, Amblyomma oblongoguttatum, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma romitii, Amblyomma rotundatum, Amblyomma scalpturatum, and Amblyomma varium. From these, A. auricularium, A. dubitatum, and A. geayi are reported for the first time in the state of Rondônia. We provide the following tick-host associations that have not been reported anywhere: A. longirostre on Pteroglossus bitorquatus, A. rotundatum on Hydrodynastes gigas, and A. latepunctatum and A. scalpturatum on Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris. An adult male specimen of A. rotundatum is reported on Boa constrictor, comprising only the fourth male specimen to be recorded for this obligate parthenogenetic tick species. We also report the presence of the argasid species Ornithodoros kohlsi for the first time in Brazil, based on larval specimens collected on bats Molossops (Neoplatymops) mattogrossensis in Monte Negro, Rondônia. The present study increases the Brazilian tick fauna to 65 species, from which 34 species (52 %) are now registered to Rondônia. Such high diversity of ticks in a relatively small state, associated with increasing environmental alteration due to deforestation and human occupation, makes Rondônia a potential source of tick-borne diseases. PMID:23975565

  15. Non-legalized commerce in game meat in the Brazilian Amazon: a case study.


    Baía Jr, Pedro Chaves; Guimarães, Diva Anelie; Le Pendu, Yvonnick


    In tropical forests, wild game meat represents an option or the only protein source for some human populations. This study analyzed the wildlife meat trade destined to human consumption in an open market of the Amazon rainforest, Brazil. Wildlife meat trade was monitored during 2005 through interviews to vendors and consumers in order to evaluate the socioeconomic profile of the sellers, the main species and byproducts sold, their geographical origin, commercial value, frequency of sale and product demand. Data indicated that vendors were financially highly dependant of this activity, getting a monthly income up to US$271.49. During the survey, the amount of wildlife meat on sale added a total of 5 970kg, as follows: 63.2% capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), 34.4% cayman (Melanosuchus niger and/or Caiman crocodilus crocodilus), 1.1% paca (Cuniculus paca); 0.6% armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), 0.5% deer (Mazama americana), 0.2% matamata (Chelus fimbriatus), and 0.1% opossum (Didelphis marsupialis). Most of the commercialized species were not slaughtered locally. The consumption of wildlife meat was admitted by 94% of the interviewed, consisting of 27 ethno-species: 19 mammals, 6 reptiles, and 2 birds. The same percentage of the interviewed (94%) already bought wildlife meat of 18 species: 12 mammals and 6 reptiles. The great amount of wildlife meat traded and the important demand for these products by the local population, point out the necessity to adopt policies for a sustainable management of cinegetic species, guaranteeing the conservation of the environment, the improvement of living standards, and the maintenance of the local culture. PMID:20737856

  16. Ecology, biology and distribution of spotted-fever tick vectors in Brazil.


    Szabó, Matias P J; Pinter, Adriano; Labruna, Marcelo B


    Spotted-fever-caused Rickettsia rickettsii infection is in Brazil the major tick-borne zoonotic disease. Recently, a second and milder human rickettsiosis caused by an agent genetically related to R. parkeri was discovered in the country (Atlantic rainforest strain). Both diseases clearly have an ecological background linked to a few tick species and their environment. Capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and Amblyomma cajennense ticks in urban and rural areas close to water sources are the main and long-known epidemiological feature behind R. rickettsii-caused spotted-fever. Unfortunately, this ecological background seems to be increasing in the country and disease spreading may be foreseen. Metropolitan area of São Paulo, the most populous of the country, is embedded in Atlantic rainforest that harbors another important R. rickettsii vector, the tick Amblyomma aureolatum. Thus, at the city-forest interface, dogs carry infected ticks to human dwellings and human infection occurs. A role for R. rickettsii vectoring to humans of a third tick species, Rhipicephalus sanguineus in Brazil, has not been proven; however, there is circumstantial evidence for that. A R. parkeri-like strain was found in A. ovale ticks from Atlantic rainforest and was shown to be responsible for a milder febrile human disease. Rickettsia-infected A. ovale ticks are known to be spread over large areas along the Atlantic coast of the country, and diagnosis of human infection is increasing with awareness and proper diagnostic tools. In this review, ecological features of the tick species mentioned, and that are important for Rickettsia transmission to humans, are updated and discussed. Specific knowledge gaps in the epidemiology of such diseases are highlighted to guide forthcoming research. PMID:23875178



    de Moura, Charlys Rhands Coelho; das Neves Diniz, Anaemilia; da Silva Moura, Laecio; das Chagas Araújo Sousa, Francisco; Baltazar, Pollyana Irene; Freire, Larisse Danielle; Guerra, Porfírio Candanedo; de Sousa, João Macedo; Giglio, Robson Fortes; Pessoa, Gerson Tavares; de Sá, Renan Paraguassu; Alves, Flávio Ribeiro


    Wild rodents, such as the lowland paca (Cuniculus paca), capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), rock cavy (Kerodon rupestris), guinea pig (Cavia aperea), and black-rumped agouti (Dasyprocta prymnolopha) are intensely hunted throughout Amazonia and at the semiarid regions of northeastern Brazil. To contribute to the preservation of these species, more information about their anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology is needed. The aim of this study was to standardize the vertebral heart scale (VHS) and cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) in clinically normal black-rumped agouti, as well as to compare the results of these two methods, which are commonly used to evaluate the cardiac silhouette in domestic animals. Twelve healthy black-rumped agoutis, divided into two groups (six males and six females), obtained from the Nucleus for Wild Animal Studies and Conservation at the Federal University of Piauí, were radiographed in right and left lateral and dorsoventral projections. The values of the VHS were 8.00±0.31v (the number of thoracic vertebral length spanned by each dimension, starting at T4) for males and 8.11±0.41v for females, and there was no statistical difference between the decubitus (right and left) or between males and females (P>0.05). The CTR mean values obtained were 0.51±0.03 for males, and 0.52±0.02 for females, and there was no statistical difference between the genders (P>0.05). However, there was positive correlation between VHS and CTR (r=0.77 right decubitus and r=0.82 left decubitus). The thoracic and heart diameter had mean values of 6.72±0.61 and 3.48±0.30 cm (males), and for the females, it was 6.61±0.51 and 3.5±0.30 cm, respectively, and there was statistical difference between the genders. The results demonstrated high correlation between the VHS and CTR producing similar results, indicating similar clinical precision for assessing the size of the cardiac silhouette in the black-rumped agoutis. PMID:26056885

  18. Epidemiological surveillance of capybaras and ticks on warning area for Brazilian spotted fever

    PubMed Central

    Brites-Neto, José; Brasil, Jardel; Roncato Duarte, Keila Maria


    Aim: The vulnerability of tropical developing countries to the emerging disease constitutes a critical phenomenon in which the invasion of wild niches by human hosts, contributes to expansion of zoonotic diseases, such as the Brazilian spotted fever (BSF). This study performed a diagnosis of species occurrence of their hosts (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and vectors (Amblyomma sculptum and Amblyomma dubitatum) on the warning area for this reemerging disease in Brazil. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in a warning area for BSF in the city of Americana, São Paulo state. The occurrence of capybaras was registered by use of binoculars and GPS equipment and 24 acarological researches were performed through 180 CO2 traps. Samples of adult ticks were dissected for salivary glands removal, DNA extraction, and evaluation by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) being tested by initial gltA-PCR, ompA-PCR, and Rickettsia bellii-specific PCR, with the positive samples subjected to sequencing. Results: Eleven clusters of capybaras (total of 71 individuals), were observed along the riparian of Ribeirão Quilombo and 7,114 specimens of A. sculptum and 7,198 specimens of A. dubitatum were collected in this same area. About 568 samples of adult ticks were dissected for salivary glands removal, DNA extraction and evaluation by gltA-PCR, with results of 1.94% (11/568) of positive samples. Results for the initial gltA-PCR indicated none positive sample to Rickettsia species into A. sculptum and 11 positive samples to A. dubitatum. These samples were negative to the ompA-PCR and positive to the Rickettsia bellii-specific PCR protocol and subjected to DNA sequencing, whose result indicated 100% similarity to Rickettsia bellii. The distribution of tick species A. sculptum and A. dubitatum was configured regarding to the biotic potential of the riparian areas, measuring the risks for BSF in peri-urban areas of Americana. Conclusion: These results confirmed a status of

  19. Report on ticks collected in the Southeast and Mid-West regions of Brazil: analyzing the potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens to man.


    Figueiredo, L T; Badra, S J; Pereira, L E; Szabó, M P


    Specimens of ticks were collected in 1993, 1996, 1997, and 1998, mostly from wild and domestic animals in the Southeast and Mid-West regions of Brazil. Nine species of Amblyommidae were identified: Anocentor nitens, Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma fulvum, Amblyomma striatum, Amblyomma rotundatum, Boophilus microplus, Boophilus annulatus, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The potential of these tick species as transmitters of pathogens to man was analyzed. A Flaviviridade Flavivirus was isolated from Amblyomma cajennense specimens collected from a sick capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris). Amblyomma cajennense is the main transmitter of Rickettsia rickettsii (=R. rickettsi), the causative agent of spotted fever in Brazil. Wild mammals, mainly capybaras and deer, infested by ticks and living in close contact with cattle, horses and dogs, offer the risk of transmission of wild zoonosis to these domestic animals and to man. PMID:10881097



    Juan-Sallés, Carles; Martínez, Liliana Sofía; Rosas-Rosas, Arely G; Parás, Alberto; Martínez, Osvaldo; Hernández, Alejandra; Garner, Michael M


    Subacute and chronic mountain sickness of humans and the related brisket disease of cattle are characterized by right-sided congestive heart failure in individuals living at high altitudes as a result of sustained hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Adaptations to high altitude and disease resistance vary among species, breeds, and individuals. The authors conducted a retrospective survey of right-sided cardiac hypertrophy associated with pulmonary arterial hypertrophy or arteriosclerosis in zoo mammals housed at Africam Safari (Puebla, México), which is located at 2,100 m above sea level. Seventeen animals with detailed pathology records matched the study criterion. Included were 10 maras (Dolichotis patagonum), 2 cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus oedipus), 2 capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris), and 1 case each of Bennet's wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus), nilgai antelope (Boselaphus tragocamelus), and scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah). All had right-sided cardiac hypertrophy and a variety of arterial lesions restricted to the pulmonary circulation and causing arterial thickening with narrowing of the arterial lumen. Arterial lesions most often consisted of medial hypertrophy or hyperplasia of small and medium-sized pulmonary arteries. All maras also had single or multiple elevated plaques in the pulmonary arterial trunk consisting of fibrosis, accompanied by chondroid metaplasia in some cases. Both antelopes were juvenile and died with right-sided congestive heart failure associated with severe pulmonary arterial lesions. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of cardiac and pulmonary arterial disease in zoo mammals housed at high altitudes. PMID:26667539

  1. Ticks infesting wildlife species in northeastern Brazil with new host and locality records.


    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Siqueira, Daniel B; Rameh-De-Albuquerque, Luciana C; Da Silva E Souza, Denisson; Zanotti, Alexandre P; Ferreira, Débora R A; Martins, Thiago F; De Senna, Michelle B; Wagner, Paulo G C; Da Silva, Marcio A; Marvulo, Maria F V; Labruna, Marcelo B


    From September 2008 to March 2010, 397 ticks (315 larvae, 33 nymphs, 23 females, and 26 males) were collected from captive and free-living wildlife species in northeastern Brazil. Six tick species were identified, including Amblyomma auricularium (Conil) on Tamandua tetradactyla (L.), Amblyomma dubitatum Neumann on Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (L.), Nectomys rattus (Pelzen) and T. tetradactyla, Amblyomma parvum Aragão on T. tetradactyla, Amblyomma rotundatum Koch on Boa constrictor L., Chelonoidis carbonaria (Spix), Kinosternon scorpioides (L.) and Rhinella jimi (Stevaux), Amblyomma oarium Koch on Bradypus variegatus Schinz, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) on Lycalopex vetulus (Lund). Nectomys rattus and T. tetradactyla are new hosts for A. dubitatum. This study extends the known distribution ofA. dubitatum in South America and provides evidence that its geographical range has been underestimated because of the lack of research. Four (A. dubitatum, A. parvum, A. rotundatum, and R. sanguineus) of six tick species identified in this study have previously been found on humans in South America, some of them being potentially involved in the transmission of pathogens of zoonotic concern. PMID:21175080

  2. [Seasonal evaluation of mammal species richness and abundance in the "Mário Viana" municipal reserve, Mato Grosso, Brasil].


    Rocha, Ednaldo Cândido; Silva, Elias; Martins, Sebastião Venâncio; Barreto, Francisco Cândido Cardoso


    We evaluated seasonal species presence and richness, and abundance of medium and large sized mammalian terrestrial fauna in the "Mário Viana" Municipal Biological Reserve, Nova Xavantina, Mato Grosso, Brazil. During 2001, two monthly visits were made to an established transect, 2,820 m in length. Records of 22 mammal species were obtained and individual footprint sequences quantified for seasonal calculation of species richness and relative abundance index (x footprints/km traveled). All 22 species occurred during the rainy season, but only 18 during the dry season. Pseudalopex vetulus (Lund, 1842) (hoary fox), Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758) (tayra), Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771) (cougar) and Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) (capybara) were only registered during the rainy season. The species diversity estimated using the Jackknife procedure in the dry season (19.83, CI = 2.73) was smaller than in the rainy season (25.67, CI = 3.43). Among the 18 species common in the two seasons, only four presented significantly different abundance indexes: Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 (nine-banded armadillo), Euphractus sexcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758) (six-banded armadillo), Dasyprocta azarae Lichtenstein, 1823 (Azara's Agouti) and Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) (tapir). On the other hand, Priodontes maximus (Kerr, 1792) (giant armadillo) and Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758) (ocelot) had identical abundance index over the two seasons. Distribution of species abundance in the sampled area followed the expected pattern for communities in equilibrium, especially in the rainy season, suggesting that the environment still maintains good characteristics for mammal conservation. The present study shows that the reserve, although only 470 ha in size, plays an important role for conservation of mastofauna of the area as a refuge in an environment full of anthropic influence (mainly cattle breeding in exotic pasture). PMID:18491629

  3. Molecular detection of Leishmania spp. in road-killed wild mammals in the Central Western area of the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central


    Background Road-killed wild animals have been classified as sentinels for detecting such zoonotic pathogens as Leishmania spp., offering new opportunities for epidemiological studies of this infection. Methods This study aimed to evaluate the presence of Leishmania spp. and Leishmania chagasi DNA by PCR in tissue samples (lung, liver, spleen, kidney, heart, mesenteric lymph node and adrenal gland) from 70 road-killed wild animals. Results DNA was detected in tissues of one Cavia aperea (Brazilian guinea pig), five Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox), one Dasypus septemcinctus (seven-banded armadillo), two Didelphis albiventris (white-eared opossum), one Hydrochoerus hydrochoeris (capybara), two Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater), one Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon), two Sphiggurus spinosus (porcupine) and one Tamandua tetradactyla (lesser anteater) from different locations in the Central Western part of São Paulo state. The Leishmania chagasi DNA were confirmed in mesenteric lymph node of one Cerdocyon thous. Results indicated common infection in wild animals. Conclusions The approach employed herein proved useful for detecting the environmental occurrence of Leishmania spp. and L. chagasi, as well as determining natural wild reservoirs and contributing to understand the host-parasite interaction. PMID:24963288

  4. Dietary breadth of the animal protein consumed by riverine communities in the Tapajós National Forest, Brazil.


    Fonseca, Raphael Alves; Pezzuti, Juarez Carlos Brito


    In small-scale human settlements, the acquisition of animal protein is strictly related to subsistence activities, and yours dietary habits are determined by the availability and the selectivity permitted by the diversity of these resources. This study analyzed the consumption of animal protein sources in seven traditional riverine communities of the Tapajos National Forest, located in Eastern Brazilian Amazonia, considering fish, game meat and domestic animals. The analysis of animal protein consumption was based on the assumptions of the diet breadth model and the Optimal Foraging Theory. We compared diet breadths between communities and between rainy and dry seasons. The study focused on seven traditional riverside communities, six of them distributed along the right bank of the Tapajos River and one on the right bank of the Cupari River. Data collection was performed in four fields trips, two in the rainy season (May and July) and two in the dry season (September and November) in 2010. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews where the informant mentioned the source of animal protein consumed in the last three meals and which would be consumed at the next meal, if possible. We carried out a total of 470 interviews, where we documented 1 512 meals, and in only 12% of the meals there was no consumption of any animal protein source. The fish was consumed in 60.4% of the meals, being the most important source of animal protein consumed, differing significantly from other protein sources (X2=23.79, df=5, p<0.001). A total of 11 species of wild animals and 46 species of fish were consumed. The choice in the consumption of game meat consisted on Tayassu pecari, Hydrochoerus hidrochaeris and Cuniculus paca, while the preference for fish consumption included Plagioscion spp., Astronotus spp., Cichla spp. and Leporinus spp.. The Simpson index did not vary significantly between the rainy and dry season (N=6, t=1.25, p=0.267) or between communities (N=6, t=-5

  5. Foot-and-mouth disease in the Americas: epidemiology and ecologic changes affecting distribution.


    Saraiva, Victor


    is not clear, but it is accepted that animals are mostly affected as a spinoff during outbreaks in domestic species. Experimentally infected capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochoeris hydrochoeris) showed clinical signs and infected other susceptible species, but their role in the maintenance of infection in nature is so far not clear. PMID:15604472